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Sample records for ingredient review expert

  1. Final report of the Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel amended safety assessment of Calendula officinalis-derived cosmetic ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, F Alan; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W

    2010-01-01

    Calendula officinalis extract, C officinalis flower, C officinalis flower extract, C officinalis flower oil, and C officinalis seed oil are cosmetic ingredients derived from C officinalis. These ingredients may contain minerals, carbohydrates, lipids, phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, coumarins, sterols and steroids, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, triterpenes, tocopherols, quinones, amino acids, and resins. These ingredients were not significantly toxic in single-dose oral studies using animals. The absence of reproductive/developmental toxicity was inferred from repeat-dose studies of coriander oil, with a similar composition. Overall, these ingredients were not genotoxic. They also were not irritating, sensitizing, or photosensitizing in animal or clinical tests but may be mild ocular irritants. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel concluded that these ingredients are safe for use in cosmetics in the practices of use and concentration given in this amended safety assessment.

  2. Final report of the Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel safety assessment of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), methyl methacrylate crosspolymer, and methyl methacrylate/glycol dimethacrylate crosspolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Lillian C; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2011-05-01

    Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and related cosmetic ingredients methyl methacrylate crosspolymer and methyl methacrylate/glycol dimethacrylate crosspolymer are polymers that function as film formers and viscosity-increasing agents in cosmetics. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) determination of safety of PMMA use in several medical devices, which included human and animal safety data, was used as the basis of safety of PMMA and related polymers in cosmetics by the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel.  The PMMA used in cosmetics is substantially the same as in medical devices.  The Panel concluded that these ingredients are safe as cosmetic ingredients in the practices of use and concentrations as described in this safety assessment.

  3. Final report of the cosmetic ingredient review expert panel on the safety assessment of Polyisobutene and Hydrogenated Polyisobutene as used in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    controls. Neither Polyisobutene nor Hydrogenated Polyisobutene were ocular irritants, nor were they dermal irritants or sensitizers. Polyisobutene was not comedogenic in a rabbit ear study. Polyisobutene did not induce transformation in the Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cell transformation assay, but did enhance 3-methylcholanthrene-induced transformation of C3H/10T1/2 cells. In a carcinogenicity study in mice, Polyisobutene was not carcinogenic, nor did it promote the carcinogenicity of 7,12-dimethylbenz(alpha)anthracene. Clinical patch tests uncovered no evidence of dermal irritation and repeat-insult patch tests with a product containing 4% Hydrogenated Polyisobutene or 1.44% Hydrogenated Polyisobutene found no reactions greater than slight erythema. These products also were not phototoxic or photoallergenic. The product containing 4% Hydrogenated Polyisobutene was not an ocular irritant in a clinical test. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel recognized that there are data gaps regarding use and concentration of these ingredients. However, the overall information available on the types of products in which these ingredients are used and at what concentrations indicate a pattern of use, which was considered by the Expert Panel in assessing safety. Although there is an absence of dermal absorption data for Polyisobutene and Hydrogenated Polyisobutene, the available octanol water partition coefficient data and the low solubility in water suggest very slow absorption, so additional data are not needed. Gastrointestinal absorption is also not a major concern due to the low solubility of these chemicals. Although one in vitro study did report that Polyisobutene did promote cellular transformation, a mouse study did not find evidence of tumor promotion. Because lifetime exposure studies using rats and dogs exposed to Polybutene failed to demonstrate any carcinogenic or tumor promotion effect, and a three-generation reproductive/developmental toxicity study produced

  4. Consumer versus expert hazard identification: A mental models study of a functional food ingredient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagemann, Kit; Scholderer, Joachim

    Objectives: The consumer part of the EU project NOFORISK compares laypeople and experts' understanding of benefits and risks associated with the functional food ingredient Phytosterol. The Council of the European Union has recently authorised the marketing of Phytosterol-enriched rye bread...

  5. Microalgae as healthy ingredients for functional food: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, J; Cardoso, C; Bandarra, N M; Afonso, C

    2017-08-01

    Microalgae are very interesting and valuable natural sources of highly valuable bioactive compounds, such as vitamins, essential amino acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, minerals, carotenoids, enzymes and fibre. Due to their potential, microalgae have become some of the most promising and innovative sources of new food and functional products. Moreover, microalgae can be used as functional ingredients to enhance the nutritional value of foods and, thus, to favourably affect human health by improving the well-being and quality of life, but also by curtailing disease and illness risks. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the health benefits associated with the consumption of microalgae, bioactive compounds, functional ingredients, and health foods.

  6. Expert Review of Pedagogical Activities at Therapeutic Recreation Camps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselev, N. N.; Kiseleva, E. V.

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of pedagogical expert reviews at children's therapeutic recreation camps in Novosibirsk Region shows that it is necessary to implement an expert review system that plays a supporting and developmental role. Such a system should allow teams of teachers to submit their work to expert review and to move forward by reflecting on their…

  7. Osteoporosis in Latin America: panel expert review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Clark

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Latin American region is undergoing a demographic and epidemiological transition, which is leading to an increase in chronic and degenerative diseases. Osteoporosis (OP and fragility fractures (FF are emerging as main causes of disease burden with great impact on health institutions. Purpose. This review article provides an updated overview of trends in the epidemiology and economic impact of OP and FF, as well as in diagnosis and available treatments in Latin America, including calcium, vitamin D and prevention programs. Methods. Expert panel. Conclusions. According to this review, there is a lack of epidemiological and economic information in the region. It is desirable to obtain information regarding quality of life in OP and FF as well as to highlight prevention as a tool to reduce FF.

  8. Nuclear Experts Discuss IAEA Operational Safety Reviews

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Senior nuclear experts today offered several recommendations on how the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) can further develop its operational safety review services. The IAEA hosted a technical meeting on the Evaluation of Effectiveness of Operational Safety Review Services and their Future Evolution at the Agency's headquarters in Vienna from 1 to 4 November 2011. Representatives from nuclear regulatory bodies, nuclear utilities, nuclear power plants and technical support organisations from 19 IAEA Member States and the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO) took part in the meeting. It provided a platform for the exchange of information, experience and lessons learned from the operational safety review missions performed during 2008-2011. The meeting also included discussion of expectations for the future evolution of these services. ''This week's meeting demonstrated the response of the IAEA's Member States to the lessons learned from the Fukushima accident. Nations must constantly strive to improve their nuclear safety practices, and the IAEA review services provide an excellent tool to assess their progress,'' said Miroslav Lipar, head of the IAEA's Operational Safety Section. The IAEA's operational safety review services assess the operational safety performance of nuclear power plants by conducting peer reviews using the requirements of IAEA Safety Standards. The longest running safety review service, the Operational Safety Review Team (OSART) programme, was established in 1982 and has provided advice and assistance to Member States in 165 missions to enhance the safety of nuclear power plants during commissioning and operation. Other review services available in the area of operations evaluate operating experience feedback, safe long-term operation and safety culture. The IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety includes actions focused towards strengthening the existing IAEA peer reviews by incorporating lessons learned and improving

  9. Marketing dietary supplements in the United States: A review of the requirements for new dietary ingredients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noonan, Chris; Patrick Noonan, W.

    2006-01-01

    Since the passage of the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act in 1994, the marketplace for dietary supplements has experienced dramatic growth. New products have redefined the entire marketplace, and new ingredients are introduced to consumers at lightning speed. As part of this act, laws were passed to ensure the safety of new dietary ingredients introduced into the United States marketplace. But more than 11 years later, these laws are frequently misunderstood, and more frequently ignored. This article reviews the regulatory landscape of new dietary ingredients and defines the issues manufacturers must contend with to legally market dietary supplements with new dietary ingredients in the U.S

  10. Fungal treated lignocellulosic biomass as ruminant feed ingredient: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kuijk, S J A; Sonnenberg, A S M; Baars, J J P; Hendriks, W H; Cone, J W

    2015-01-01

    In ruminant nutrition, there is an increasing interest for ingredients that do not compete with human nutrition. Ruminants are specialists in digesting carbohydrates in plant cell walls; therefore lignocellulosic biomass has potential in ruminant nutrition. The presence of lignin in biomass, however, limits the effective utilization of cellulose and hemicellulose. Currently, most often chemical and/or physical treatments are used to degrade lignin. White rot fungi are selective lignin degraders and can be a potential alternative to current methods which involve potentially toxic chemicals and expensive equipment. This review provides an overview of research conducted to date on fungal pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for ruminant feeds. White rot fungi colonize lignocellulosic biomass, and during colonization produce enzymes, radicals and other small compounds to breakdown lignin. The mechanisms on how these fungi degrade lignin are not fully understood, but fungal strain, the origin of lignocellulose and culture conditions have a major effect on the process. Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Pleurotus eryngii are the most effective fungi to improve the nutritional value of biomass for ruminant nutrition. However, conclusions on the effectiveness of fungal delignification are difficult to draw due to a lack of standardized culture conditions and information on fungal strains used. Methods of analysis between studies are not uniform for both chemical analysis and in vitro degradation measurements. In vivo studies are limited in number and mostly describing digestibility after mushroom production, when the fungus has degraded cellulose to derive energy for fruit body development. Optimization of fungal pretreatment is required to shorten the process of delignification and make it more selective for lignin. In this respect, future research should focus on optimization of culture conditions and gene expression to obtain a better understanding of the mechanisms

  11. Radiation processing of dry food ingredients - a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, J.

    Radiation decontamination of dry ingredients, herbs and enzyme preparations is a technically feasible, economically viable and safe physical process. The procedure is direct, simple, requires no additives, does not leave residues and is highly efficient. Its dose requirement is moderate. Radiation doses of 3 to 10 kGy proved to be sufficient to reduce the viable cell counts to a satisfactory level. Ionizing radiations do not cause any significant rise in temperature and the flavour, texture or other important technological or sensory properties of most ingredients are not influenced at radiation doses necessary for a satisfactory decontamination. The microflora surviving the cell-count reduction by irradiation is more sensitive to subsequent food processing treatments than the microflora of untreated ingredients. Recontamination can be prevented since the product can be irradiated in its final packaging. Irradiation can be carried out in commercial containers and it results in considerable savings of energy and labour as compared to alternative decontamination techniques. Radiation processing of dry ingredients is an emerging technology in several countries and more-and-more clearances on irradiated foods are issued or expected to be granted in the near future.

  12. Fungal treated lignocellulosic biomass as ruminant feed ingredient: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijk, van S.J.A.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Baars, J.J.P.; Hendriks, W.H.; Cone, J.W.

    2015-01-01

    In ruminant nutrition, there is an increasing interest for ingredients that do not compete with human nutrition. Ruminants are specialists in digesting carbohydrates in plant cell walls; therefore lignocellulosic biomass has potential in ruminant nutrition. The presence of lignin in biomass,

  13. A toxicological and dermatological assessment of alkyl cyclic ketones when used as fragrance ingredients. RIFM Expert Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsito, D; Bickers, D; Bruze, M; Calow, P; Dagli, M L; Fryer, A D; Greim, H; Miyachi, Y; Saurat, J H; Sipes, I G

    2013-12-01

    The alkyl cyclic ketone (ACK) fragrance ingredients are a diverse group of structures with similar metabolic and toxicity profiles. ACK fragrance materials demonstrate low acute toxicity. Upon repeat dose testing, some adverse effects in biochemical and hematological parameters, and slightly increased liver and kidney weights were reported, primarily at high doses, resulting from adaptive effects. Developmental effects occurred only in the presence of maternal toxicity. Assays in bacteria and mammalian cell systems and the mouse micronucleus assay did not demonstrate genotoxicity. ACK fragrance ingredients are considered non-irritating to the skin of humans; results showed few reactions, most of which were equivocal or involved doses greater than those in consumer products. Mild to moderate eye irritation in animal tests was observed with most compounds; however, full recovery was usually observed. Human sensitization studies indicate that ACK fragrance ingredients have a low sensitization potential. Diagnostic patch-tests indicated low sensitizing potential in humans; except for fragrance materials which caused reactions at 1% or 5%. Phototoxicity and photosensitization were not demonstrated in humans, and, with the possible exception of acetyl cedrene, would not be expected. It is concluded that ACK materials do not present a safety concern at current levels of use as fragrance ingredients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A review on the analysis of ingredients with health care effects in health food in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pai-Wen Wu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This review article discusses the analysis of ingredients with health care effects in health food in Taiwan. The top 10 items on the list of registered health food products up to 2014 in Taiwan are described, including monocolin K, ω-3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, β-glucans, inulin, catechins, oligosaccharides, resistant maltodextrin, amino acids, medium chain fatty acids, and polysaccharides. Some analytical methods for the analysis of ingredients with health care effects are announced to the public on the website of health food section of the Taiwan Food and Drug Administration for the application and the postmarket surveillance of health food. Each application of health food should include the appropriate analytical method for the analysis of the ingredient or specific compound that has the health care effect, for the sake of quality assurance. Self-management of each applicant is required for regulation, the reputation of its own, and social responsibility to the consumers.

  15. Ingredients for functional drinks in neurodegenerative diseases: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafrilla, Pilar; Morillas, Juana M; Rubio-Perez, José M; Cantos Villar, Emma

    2009-05-01

    Several studies have indicated that oxidative stress is a major risk factor for the initiation and progression of neurological disorders like Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's (AD). Therefore, reducing oxidative stress appears to be a rational choice for the prevention and reduction in the rate of progression of these neurological disorders. The brain utilizes about 25% of respired oxygen even though it represents only 5% of the body weight. Free radicals are generated during the normal intake of oxygen, during infection, and during normal oxidative metabolism of certain substrates. Although experimental data are consistent in demonstrating the neuroprotective effects of antioxidants in vitro and in animal models, the clinical evidence that antioxidant agents may prevent or slow the course of these diseases is still relatively unsatisfactory, and insufficient to strongly modify clinical practice. In this paper, natural possible substances that could be added to a beverage to prevent or decrease the developing of neurodegenerative diseases are reviewed.

  16. Positive lists of cosmetic ingredients: Analytical methodology for regulatory and safety controls – A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lores, Marta; Llompart, Maria; Alvarez-Rivera, Gerardo; Guerra, Eugenia; Vila, Marlene; Celeiro, Maria; Lamas, J. Pablo; Garcia-Jares, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Cosmetic products placed on the market and their ingredients, must be safe under reasonable conditions of use, in accordance to the current legislation. Therefore, regulated and allowed chemical substances must meet the regulatory criteria to be used as ingredients in cosmetics and personal care products, and adequate analytical methodology is needed to evaluate the degree of compliance. This article reviews the most recent methods (2005–2015) used for the extraction and the analytical determination of the ingredients included in the positive lists of the European Regulation of Cosmetic Products (EC 1223/2009): comprising colorants, preservatives and UV filters. It summarizes the analytical properties of the most relevant analytical methods along with the possibilities of fulfilment of the current regulatory issues. The cosmetic legislation is frequently being updated; consequently, the analytical methodology must be constantly revised and improved to meet safety requirements. The article highlights the most important advances in analytical methodology for cosmetics control, both in relation to the sample pretreatment and extraction and the different instrumental approaches developed to solve this challenge. Cosmetics are complex samples, and most of them require a sample pretreatment before analysis. In the last times, the research conducted covering this aspect, tended to the use of green extraction and microextraction techniques. Analytical methods were generally based on liquid chromatography with UV detection, and gas and liquid chromatographic techniques hyphenated with single or tandem mass spectrometry; but some interesting proposals based on electrophoresis have also been reported, together with some electroanalytical approaches. Regarding the number of ingredients considered for analytical control, single analyte methods have been proposed, although the most useful ones in the real life cosmetic analysis are the multianalyte approaches. - Highlights:

  17. Positive lists of cosmetic ingredients: Analytical methodology for regulatory and safety controls – A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lores, Marta, E-mail: marta.lores@usc.es; Llompart, Maria; Alvarez-Rivera, Gerardo; Guerra, Eugenia; Vila, Marlene; Celeiro, Maria; Lamas, J. Pablo; Garcia-Jares, Carmen

    2016-04-07

    Cosmetic products placed on the market and their ingredients, must be safe under reasonable conditions of use, in accordance to the current legislation. Therefore, regulated and allowed chemical substances must meet the regulatory criteria to be used as ingredients in cosmetics and personal care products, and adequate analytical methodology is needed to evaluate the degree of compliance. This article reviews the most recent methods (2005–2015) used for the extraction and the analytical determination of the ingredients included in the positive lists of the European Regulation of Cosmetic Products (EC 1223/2009): comprising colorants, preservatives and UV filters. It summarizes the analytical properties of the most relevant analytical methods along with the possibilities of fulfilment of the current regulatory issues. The cosmetic legislation is frequently being updated; consequently, the analytical methodology must be constantly revised and improved to meet safety requirements. The article highlights the most important advances in analytical methodology for cosmetics control, both in relation to the sample pretreatment and extraction and the different instrumental approaches developed to solve this challenge. Cosmetics are complex samples, and most of them require a sample pretreatment before analysis. In the last times, the research conducted covering this aspect, tended to the use of green extraction and microextraction techniques. Analytical methods were generally based on liquid chromatography with UV detection, and gas and liquid chromatographic techniques hyphenated with single or tandem mass spectrometry; but some interesting proposals based on electrophoresis have also been reported, together with some electroanalytical approaches. Regarding the number of ingredients considered for analytical control, single analyte methods have been proposed, although the most useful ones in the real life cosmetic analysis are the multianalyte approaches. - Highlights:

  18. Safety Assessment of Panax spp Root-Derived Ingredients as Used in Cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Lillian C; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of 13 Panax spp root-derived ingredients as used in cosmetics. Panax "spp" indicates that multiple species within the genus are used in cosmetics, but not all species within that genus. Four species are being considered in this safety assessment. These ingredients function mostly as skin-conditioning agents-miscellaneous, fragrance ingredients, skin-conditioning agents-humectant, skin-conditioning agents-emollient, and cosmetic astringents. The Panel reviewed available data related to these ingredients and addressed the issue of pulegone, a constituent of these ingredients and other ingredients, such as peppermint oil. The Panel concluded that these Panax spp root-derived ingredients are safe in the practices of use and concentration as given in this safety assessment. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. A Review: Hair Health, Concerns of Shampoo Ingredients and Scalp Nourishing Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chin-Hsien T; Huang, Shu-Hung; Wang, Hui-Min D

    2015-01-01

    Human hair serves a biological purpose of protecting the scalp, as well as physical attractiveness to the perception of beauty. Hair loss, graying of hair, dandruff and other conditions affecting hair conditions can be distressing to patients, as hair condition is often considered important in people's own assessment of physical beauty. Different hair types can benefit from different treatment methods to promote hair health and growth. External factors like exposure to the sun and smoking, dietary factors including malnutrition of essential fatty acids and vitamins, and chemicals applied to the hair and scalp in shampoos and other treatments can all cause damage to existing hair and impair hair growth. Specific chemicals found in many shampoos, including antimicrobial agents, surfactants and preservatives, can all impair different aspects of hair health. In this review, we aim to discuss the main hair issues, such as hair loss, followed by the safety assessments of selected ingredients in shampoo, and possible nourishment for scalp improvement. This review highlights areas of disagreement in the existing literature, and points to new directions for future studies. Key conclusions include the carcinogenic chemicals to avoid, alternatives of such ingredients, and scalp nourishing treatments with micronutrients.

  20. Safety assessment of Vitis vinifera (grape)-derived ingredients as used in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiume, Monice M; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of 24 Vitis vinifera (grape)-derived ingredients and found them safe in the present practices of use and concentration in cosmetics. These ingredients function in cosmetics mostly as skin-conditioning agents, but some function as antioxidants, flavoring agents, and/or colorants. The Panel reviewed the available animal and clinical data to determine the safety of these ingredients. Additionally, some constituents of grapes have been assessed previously for safety as cosmetic ingredients by the Panel, and others are compounds that have been discussed in previous Panel safety assessments. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. An Evidence-Based Review and Survey of Expert Opinion of Reconstruction of Metastatic Spine Tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altaf, Farhaan; Weber, Michael; Dea, Nicolas; Boriani, Stefano; Ames, Christopher; Williams, Richard; Verlaan, Jorrit-Jan; Laufer, Ilya; Fisher, Charles G.

    2016-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN.: Systematic review and consensus expert opinion. OBJECTIVE.: To provide surgeons and other health care professionals with guidelines for surgical reconstruction of metastatic spine disease based on evidence and expert opinion. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: The surgical treatment of

  2. Buprenorphine dosing choices in specific populations: review of expert opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maremmani, Icro; Rolland, Benjamin; Somaini, Lorenzo; Roncero, Carlos; Reimer, Jens; Wright, Nat; Littlewood, Richard; Krajci, Peter; Alho, Hannu; D'Agnone, Oscar; Simon, Nicolas

    2016-09-01

    Treatment of opioid dependence with buprenorphine improves outcomes. Typical dosing ranges for all patients from clinical evidence and as defined in the product information are wide. For specific groups with complex clinical scenarios, there is no clear consensus on dosing choices to achieve best possible outcomes. The doses of buprenorphine used in 6 European countries was reviewed. A review of published evidence supported rapid induction with buprenorphine and the benefits of higher doses but did not identify clearly useful guidance on dosing choices for groups with complex clinical scenarios. An expert group of physicians with experience in addiction care participated in a discussion meeting to share clinical practice experience and develop a consensus on dosing choices. There was general agreement that treatment outcomes can be improved by optimising buprenorphine doses in specific subgroups. Specific groups in whom buprenorphine doses may be too low and who could have better outcomes with optimised dosing were identified on the basis of clinical practice experience. These groups include people with severe addiction, high tolerance to opioids, and psychiatric comorbidities. In these groups it is recommended to review dosing choices to ensure buprenorphine dosing is sufficient.

  3. Development of fish protein powder as an ingredient for food applications: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaviklo, Amir Reza

    2015-02-01

    The increasing awareness that dried fish protein can be applied for food fortification and production of value added/functional foods has encouraged the food industry to examine different methods for developing fish protein ingredient from different raw materials. Fish protein powder (FPP) is a dried and stable fish product, intended for human consumption, in which the protein is more concentrated than in the original fish flesh. Quality and acceptability of FPP depend on several factors. The fat content of the FPP is a critical issue because when it is oxidized a strong and often rancid flavour is produced. Protein content of FPP depends on the raw materials, amount of additives and moisture content, but it contains at least 65 % proteins. FPP is used in the food industry for developing re-structured and ready-to-eat food products. The FPP maintains its properties for 6 months at 5 °C but loses them rapidly at 30 °C. Deterioration of the FPP during storage is prevented by lowering the moisture content of the product and eliminating of oxygen from the package. The FPP can be applied as a functional ingredient for developing formulated ready-to-eat products. This article reviews methods for extracting fish proteins, drying methods, characteristics and applications of FPP and factors affecting FPP quality.

  4. Interactions and incompatibilities of pharmaceutical excipients with active pharmaceutical ingredients: a comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonali S. Bharate

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies of active drug/excipient compatibility represent an important phase in the preformulation stage of the development of all dosage forms. The potential physical and chemical interactions between drugs and excipients can affect the chemical nature, the stability and bioavailability of drugs and, consequently, their therapeutic efficacy and safety. The present review covers the literature reports of interaction and incompatibilities of commonly used pharmaceutical excipients with different active pharmaceutical ingredients in solid dosage forms. Examples of active drug/excipient interactions, such as transacylation, the Maillard browning reaction, acid base reactions and physical changes are discussed for different active pharmaceutical ingredients belonging to different therapeutic categories viz antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, anti-convulsant, antibiotic, bronchodialator, antimalarial, antiemetic, antiamoebic, antipsychotic, antidepressant, anticancer, anticoagulant and sedative/hypnotic drugs and vitamins. Once the solid-state reactions of a pharmaceutical system are understood, the necessary steps can be taken to avoid reactivity and improve the stability of drug substances and products.

  5. Ingredient Functionality in Multilayered Dough-margarine Systems and the Resultant Pastry Products: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooms, Nand; Pareyt, Bram; Brijs, Kristof; Delcour, Jan A

    2016-10-02

    Pastry products are produced from heterogeneous multilayered dough systems. The main ingredients are flour, water, fat and sugar for puff pastry, and the same plus yeast for fermented pastry. Key aspects in pastry production are (i) building laminated dough containing alternating layers of dough and bakery fat and (ii) maintaining this multilayered structure during processing to allow for steam entrapment for proper dough lift during baking. Although most authors agree on the importance of gluten and fat for maintaining the integrity of the different layers, detailed studies on their specific function are lacking. The exact mechanism of steam entrapment during dough lift and the relative contribution of water set free from the fat phase during baking also remain unclear. This review brings together current knowledge on pastry products and the factors determining (intermediate) product quality. Its focus is on flour constituents, fat, water, and (where applicable) yeast during the different production stages of pastry products. Future research needs are addressed as the knowledge on biochemical and physical changes occurring in flour constituents and other ingredients during pastry production and their effect on product quality is currently inadequate.

  6. USING EXPERT OPINION IN HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT: A GUIDELINE REVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunger, Theresa; Schnell-Inderst, Petra; Sahakyan, Narine; Siebert, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    External experts can be consulted at different stages of an HTA. When using vague information sources, it is particularly important to plan, analyze, and report the information processing in a standardized and transparent way. Our objective was to search and analyze recommendations regarding where and how to include expert data in HTA. We performed a systematic database search and screened the Internet pages of seventy-seven HTA organizations for guidelines, recommendations, and methods papers that address the inclusion of experts in HTA. Relevant documents were downloaded, and information was extracted in a standard form. Results were merged in tables and narrative evidence synthesis. From twenty-two HTA organizations, we included forty-two documents that consider the use of expert opinion in HTA. Nearly all documents mention experts in the step of preparation of the evidence report. Six documents address their role for priority setting of topics, fifteen for scoping, twelve for the appraisal of evidence and results, another twelve documents mention experts when considering the dissemination of HTA results. During the assessment step, experts are most often asked to amend the literature search or to provide expertise for special data analyses. Another issue for external experts is to appraise the HTA results and refer them back to a clinical and social context. Little is reported on methods of expert elicitation when their input substitutes study data. Despite existing recommendations on the use of expert opinion in HTA, common standards for elicitation are scarce in HTA guidelines.

  7. Ingredients: where pet food starts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Angele

    2008-08-01

    Every clinician is asked "What should I feed my pet?" Understanding the ingredients in pet food is an important part of making the best recommendation. Pet food can be as simple as one ingredient or as complicated as containing more than 60 ingredients. Pet food and its ingredients are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration and state feed officials. Part of that regulation is the review and definition of ingredients. Existing ingredients change and new ingredients become available so the need for ingredient definitions grows. Ingredients for product formulations are chosen based on their nutrient content, digestibility, palatability, functionality, availability, and cost. As an example, a typical, nutritionally complete dry dog food with 42 ingredients is examined and the ingredients are discussed here. Safe, healthy pet food starts with safe ingredients sourced from well-monitored suppliers. The ultimate goal of both veterinarians and pet food manufacturers is the same--long healthy lives for dogs and cats.

  8. An Accurate and Impartial Expert Assignment Method for Scientific Project Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingliang Yue

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper proposes an expert assignment method for scientific project review that considers both accuracy and impartiality. As impartial and accurate peer review is extremely important to ensure the quality and feasibility of scientific projects, enhanced methods for managing the process are needed. Design/methodology/approach: To ensure both accuracy and impartiality, we design four criteria, the reviewers’ fitness degree, research intensity, academic association, and potential conflict of interest, to express the characteristics of an appropriate peer review expert. We first formalize the expert assignment problem as an optimization problem based on the designed criteria, and then propose a randomized algorithm to solve the expert assignment problem of identifying reviewer adequacy. Findings: Simulation results show that the proposed method is quite accurate and impartial during expert assignment. Research limitations: Although the criteria used in this paper can properly show the characteristics of a good and appropriate peer review expert, more criteria/conditions can be included in the proposed scheme to further enhance accuracy and impartiality of the expert assignment. Practical implications: The proposed method can help project funding agencies (e.g. the National Natural Science Foundation of China find better experts for project peer review. Originality/value: To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first publication that proposes an algorithm that applies an impartial approach to the project review expert assignment process. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  9. Characterization of Dietary Energy in Swine Feed and Feed Ingredients: A Review of Recent Research Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Velayudhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Feed is single most expensive input in commercial pork production representing more than 50% of the total cost of production. The greatest proportion of this cost is associated with the energy component, thus making energy the most important dietary in terms of cost. For efficient pork production, it is imperative that diets are formulated to accurately match dietary energy supply to requirements for maintenance and productive functions. To achieve this goal, it is critical that the energy value of feeds is precisely determined and that the energy system that best meets the energy needs of a pig is used. Therefore, the present review focuses on dietary supply and needs for pigs and the available energy systems for formulating swine diets with particular emphasis on the net energy system. In addition to providing a more accurate estimate of the energy available to the animal in an ingredient and the subsequent diet, diets formulated using the this system are typically lower in crude protein, which leads to additional benefits in terms of reduced nitrogen excretion and consequent environmental pollution. Furthermore, using the net energy system may reduce diet cost as it allows for increased use of feedstuffs containing fibre in place of feedstuffs containing starch. A brief review of the use of distiller dried grains with solubles in swine diets as an energy source is included.

  10. Critical review of expert system validation in transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Expert system validationthat is, testing systems to ascertain whether they achieve acceptable performance levelshas with few exceptions been ad hoc, informal, and of dubious value. Very few efforts have been made in this regard in the transport...

  11. Amended safety assessment of Hypericum perforatum-derived ingredients as used in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Lillian C; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) has issued an amended safety assessment of 7 Hypericum perforatum-derived ingredients as used in cosmetics. A common name for this plant is St John wort. These ingredients function in cosmetics as skin-conditioning agents-miscellaneous and antimicrobial agents. The Panel reviewed relevant animal and human data related to the H perforatum-derived ingredients. Because formulators may use more than 1 botanical ingredient in a formulation, caution was urged to avoid levels of toxicological concern for constituent chemicals and impurities. The Panel concluded that H perforatum-derived ingredients were safe as cosmetic ingredients in the practices of use and concentration as described in this safety assessment. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. A review of methods for the simultaneous detection of illegal ingredients in food supplements

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Michael J; Naughton, Declan P; Deshmukh, Nawed; Burns, D Thorburn

    2016-01-01

    Food supplements are at risk from contamination with illegal ingredients on a global scale. To date, the official food control laboratory system in the UK does not appear to have been particularly active in the analytical control of illegal ingredients in food supplements. From a survey of notifications (2009 to 2016) to the European Union rapid alert system for food and feed (RASFF) food supplements are shown to be adulterated with a complex range of compounds and substances. These include p...

  13. RICIS research review of artificial intelligence and expert systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feagin, Terry

    1988-01-01

    The paper summarizes the research accomplishments of the past year for the artificial intelligence and expert systems areas. Most projects have been underway for only a short time; however, overall progress within the areas has been steady and worthwhile. Several projects have already attained their major objectives.

  14. Expert Anticipatory Skill in Striking Sports: A Review and a Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Sean; Abernethy, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Expert performers in striking sports can hit objects moving at high speed with incredible precision. Exceptionally well developed anticipation skills are necessary to cope with the severe constraints on interception. In this paper, we provide a review of the empirical evidence regarding expert interception in striking sports and propose a…

  15. Treatment of Childhood and Adolescent Obesity: An Integrative Review of Recent Recommendations from Five Expert Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschenbaum, Daniel S.; Gierut, Kristen

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare and contrast 5 sets of expert recommendations about the treatment of childhood and adolescent obesity. Method: We reviewed 5 sets of recent expert recommendations: 2007 health care organizations' four stage model, 2007 Canadian clinical practice guidelines, 2008 Endocrine Society recommendations, 2009 seven step model, and…

  16. Using expert knowledge in landscape ecology [Book review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric J. Gustafson

    2013-01-01

    This volume perfectly illustrates the truism—"we don't know what it is that we don't know." I have been a landscape ecologist for over 20 years, and have even used expert knowledge many times in my own research. Yet I learned something profoundly new in almost every chapter of this collection of primers and case studies focused on the use...

  17. Different contributions of internal reviewers and external experts to labelling decisions on therapeutic indications in new drug reviews in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, M; Kusama, M; Matsuki, N; Ono, S

    2013-12-01

    External experts play an important role in shaping regulatory decisions in the new drug review process in the United States, Europe and Japan. No rigorous study has been performed addressing how and to what extent external experts, in contrast to internal reviewers in the agency, influence the regulatory decisions during new drug reviews. We examined their contributions in Japanese regulatory reviews in contrast to the internal reviewers, focusing on the labelling decision on therapeutic indications. With the data set of 219 new molecular entities (NMEs) approved in Japan from 2000 to 2009, we observed how proposed indications in labelling were modified in a stepwise manner during the review process and conducted multinomial logistic analysis to examine the possible mechanism behind. We found that interim assessment of indications by the internal reviewers was modified substantially by the influence of the external experts in about 20% of the 219 NMEs. Our analysis suggested that internal reviewers provided their opinion mainly based on strict review discipline, whereas external experts added flexibility and reality to their reviews. Our analysis revealed different evaluations between internal reviewers and external experts during regulatory discussions in new drug reviews and how the external panel contributes to changing internal decisions. This study provides a new and quantitative approach to better label setting by emphasizing the contributions of each stakeholder in new drug reviews, which would improve the efficiency, quality and transparency of new drug reviews to enhance public health. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Key Ingredients-Target Groups, Methods and Messages, and Evaluation-of Local-Level, Public Interventions to Counter Stigma and Discrimination: A Lived Experience Informed Selective Narrative Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Laura J; Gordon, Sarah E; Reeves, Racheal A

    2018-04-01

    A proliferation of recent literature provides substantial direction as to the key ingredients-target groups, messages and methods, and evaluation-of local-level, public interventions to counter stigma and discrimination. This paper provides a selective narrative review of that literature from the perspective or standpoint of anti-stigma experts with lived experience of mental distress, the key findings of which have been synthesised and presented in diagrammatic overviews (infographics). These are intended to guide providers in planning, delivering and evaluating lived experience-directed local-level, public interventions to counter stigma and discrimination in accord with current best practice.

  19. Encapsulation of cosmetic active ingredients for topical application--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Francisca; Santos, Lúcia

    2016-02-01

    Microencapsulation is finding increasing applications in cosmetics and personal care markets. This article provides an overall discussion on encapsulation of cosmetically active ingredients and encapsulation techniques for cosmetic and personal care products for topical applications. Some of the challenges are identified and critical aspects and future perspectives are addressed. Many cosmetics and personal care products contain biologically active substances that require encapsulation for increased stability of the active materials. The topical and transdermal delivery of active cosmetic ingredients requires effective, controlled and safe means of reaching the target site within the skin. Preservation of the active ingredients is also essential during formulation, storage and application of the final cosmetic product. Microencapsulation offers an ideal and unique carrier system for cosmetic active ingredients, as it has the potential to respond to all these requirements. The encapsulated agent can be released by several mechanisms, such as mechanical action, heat, diffusion, pH, biodegradation and dissolution. The selection of the encapsulation technique and shell material depends on the final application of the product, considering physical and chemical stability, concentration, required particle size, release mechanism and manufacturing costs.

  20. Anti-tumor promoting potential of selected spice ingredients with antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities: a short review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surh, Young-Joon

    2002-08-01

    A wide variety of phenolic substances derived from spice possess potent antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic activities. Examples are curcumin, a yellow colouring agent, contained in turmeric (Curcuma longa L., Zingiberaceae), [6]-gingerol, a pungent ingredient present in ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberaceae) and capsaicin, a principal pungent principle of hot chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L, Solanaceae). The chemopreventive effects exerted by these phytochemicals are often associated with their antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. Cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) has been recognized as a molecular target of many chemopreventive as well as anti-inflammatory agents. Recent studies have shown that COX-2 is regulated by the eukaryotic transcription factor NF-kappaB. This short review summarizes the molecular mechanisms underlying chemopreventive effects of the aforementioned spice ingredients in terms of their effects on intracellular signaling cascades, particularly those involving NF-kappaB and mitogen-activated protein kinases.

  1. Innovative Ingredients and Emerging Technologies for Controlling Ice Recrystallization, Texture, and Structure Stability in Frozen Dairy Desserts: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukoulis, Christos; Fisk, Ian

    2016-11-17

    Over the past decade, ice cream manufacturers have developed a strong understanding of the functionality of key ingredients and processing, developing effective explanations for the link between structure forming agents, stability mechanisms, and perceived quality. Increasing demand for products perceived as healthier/more natural with minimal processing has identified a number of new tools to improve quality and storage stability of frozen dairy desserts. Ingredients such as dietary fiber, polysaccharides, prebiotics, alternate sweeteners, fat sources rich in unsaturated fatty acids and ice strucsturing proteins (ISP) have been successfully applied as cryoprotective, texturizing, and structuring agents. Emerging minimal processing technologies including hydrostatic pressure processing, ultrasonic or high pressure assisted freezing, low temperature extrusion and enzymatically induced biopolymers crosslinking have been evaluated for their ability to improve colloidal stability, texture and sensory quality. It is therefore timely for a comprehensive review.

  2. Antidotal or protective effects of Curcuma longa (turmeric) and its active ingredient, curcumin, against natural and chemical toxicities: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Azar; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2018-03-01

    Curcuma longa is a rhizomatous perennial herb that belongs to the family Zingiberaceae, native to South Asia and is commonly known as turmeric. It is used as herbal remedy due to the prevalent belief that the plant has medical properties. C. longa possesses different effects such as antioxidant, anti-tumor, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, wound healing, and gastroprotective activities. The recent studies have shown that C. longa and curcumin, its important active ingredient, have protective effects against toxic agents. In this review article, we collected in vitro and animal studies which are related to protective effects of turmeric and its active ingredient against natural and chemical toxic agents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. 77 FR 59238 - Call for Expert Reviewers to the U.S. Government Review of the Working Group I Contribution to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... expert review process, which occurs in parallel with the U.S. government review. More information on the... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8042] Call for Expert Reviewers to the U.S. Government Review... both experts and governments. The Second Order Draft of the Working Group I contribution to the 5th...

  4. Patriotic Education of Youth in Russia: Problems, Opinions, Expert Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Жанна Васильевна Пузанова

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Patriotism is designated as a national idea in Russia; nowadays the questions the relevance of patriotic education of the most reactive of social groups - young people - is especially acute. Round table in the format of focus groups with 20 experts working with young people, among them - professors, teachers, veterans, employees public authorities to work with youth was held on the 27th of May 2016 on the basis of the museum-panorama “Battle of Stalingrad” in Volgograd, with the assistance of the Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia. During the two-hour round table were discussed issues of civil and patriotic education of youth, including the theme - “Ultrapatriotizm-Patriotism-pseudo-patriotism” (ratio of the concepts, their similarities and differences, manifestations in modern Russian society among young people, “Today's youth and moral conflicts” (spiritually-moral development of today's youth, its values, “infantilism - the scourge of modern youth?” (problem of infantilism as a barrier in the way of civic and patriotic education, “Does extremist views attractive for young people?” (the attitude of youth to extremism and terrorism, effective countermeasures of youth involvement in extremist groups.

  5. Wind turbine sound and health effects : an expert panel review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colby, D.; Lipscomb, D.M.; McCunney, R.J.; Seilo, M.T.; Sondergaard, B.

    2009-12-01

    This paper presented the results of a study conducted to review the current literature available on the perceived health effects of wind turbines. The review was conducted by a multidisciplinary panel comprised of audiologists, medical doctors, and acoustical professionals from throughout the world. The document was prepared as a reference point for legislators, regulators and other stakeholders in need of information about wind turbine sounds. A large body of peer-reviewed literature on sound and health effects in general were reviewed in order to assess the plausible biological effects of exposure to wind turbine sound. A review of potential environmental exposures associated with wind turbine operations was conducted. Results of the study indicated that there is no evidence that the sounds emitted by wind turbines have any direct adverse physiological effects, and that the ground-borne vibrations from wind turbines are too weak to be detected or to affect humans. The panel concluded that the sounds from wind turbines can not plausibly have direct adverse health consequences. 126 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs., 5 appendices.

  6. Expert Opinion in SR 97 and the SKI/SSI Joint Review of SR 97

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hora, Stephen

    2002-09-01

    The role of sensitivity and uncertainty analyses for radioactive waste disposal assessments is reviewed. The report covers a description of the these concepts were applied in the authorities' review of the safety report SR 97. With regard to the use of expert knowledge, the most significant weakness of SR 97 is absence of any standards, procedures, and even definitions for expert judgment. This situation needs to be dealt with by SKB in the near future as it denigrates the portions of the study that are well done. In developing expert judgment processes, SSI should ensure that SKB creates procedures that guarantee traceability and transparency. This will become very important as the repository system matures and receives greater public scrutiny. Both in the area of scenario creation and expert judgement, there are processes that have gained international acceptance. It would be in the best interest of SKB, and the public, to adhere these accepted approaches

  7. Expert Opinion in SR 97 and the SKI/SSI Joint Review of SR 97

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hora, Stephen

    2002-09-01

    The role of sensitivity and uncertainty analyses for radioactive waste disposal assessments is reviewed. The report covers a description of the these concepts were applied in the authorities' review of the safety report SR 97. With regard to the use of expert knowledge, the most significant weakness of SR 97 is absence of any standards, procedures, and even definitions for expert judgment. This situation needs to be dealt with by SKB in the near future as it denigrates the portions of the study that are well done. In developing expert judgment processes, SSI should ensure that SKB creates procedures that guarantee traceability and transparency. This will become very important as the repository system matures and receives greater public scrutiny. Both in the area of scenario creation and expert judgement, there are processes that have gained international acceptance. It would be in the best interest of SKB, and the public, to adhere these accepted approaches.

  8. Looking for landmarks: the role of expert review and bibliometric analysis in evaluating scientific publication outputs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Allen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare expert assessment with bibliometric indicators as tools to assess the quality and importance of scientific research papers. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Shortly after their publication in 2005, the quality and importance of a cohort of nearly 700 Wellcome Trust (WT associated research papers were assessed by expert reviewers; each paper was reviewed by two WT expert reviewers. After 3 years, we compared this initial assessment with other measures of paper impact. RESULTS: Shortly after publication, 62 (9% of the 687 research papers were determined to describe at least a 'major addition to knowledge' -6 were thought to be 'landmark' papers. At an aggregate level, after 3 years, there was a strong positive association between expert assessment and impact as measured by number of citations and F1000 rating. However, there were some important exceptions indicating that bibliometric measures may not be sufficient in isolation as measures of research quality and importance, and especially not for assessing single papers or small groups of research publications. CONCLUSION: When attempting to assess the quality and importance of research papers, we found that sole reliance on bibliometric indicators would have led us to miss papers containing important results as judged by expert review. In particular, some papers that were highly rated by experts were not highly cited during the first three years after publication. Tools that link expert peer reviews of research paper quality and importance to more quantitative indicators, such as citation analysis would be valuable additions to the field of research assessment and evaluation.

  9. Cosmetic Ingredients as Emerging Pollutants of Environmental and Health Concern. A Mini-Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Juliano

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cosmetic and personal care products are used in huge quantities throughout the world; as a result of their regular use, they are continuously released into the environment in very large amounts. Many of these products are biologically active and are characterized by persistence and bioaccumulation potential, posing a threat to ecosystem and human health. On the basis of the most recent scientific literature available on this subject, this paper provides an overview of some cosmetic ingredients that are considered environmental emerging pollutants of particular concern such as UV filters, some preservatives (parabens, triclosan, and microplastics.

  10. Recent developments of marine ingredients for food and nutraceutical applications: a review.

    OpenAIRE

    Guérard, Fabienne; Decourcelle, Nicolas; Sabourin, Claire; Floch-Laizet, Corinne; Le Grel, Laurent; Le Floc'H, Pascal; Gourlay, Florence; Le Delezir, Ronan; Jaouen, Pascal; Bourseau, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Remerciements à l'éditeur pour son accord de diffusion. L'article original est aussi accessible sur le site de l'éditeur à l'adresse : http://www.halieutique.org/23201b.html; International audience; In a global context of marine biological resource overexploitation, a better upgrading of fish and shellfish biomass is a challenge for the 21st century. One of the main and promising issues will be the production of marine bio-ingredients using enzymatic hydrolysis. This paper presents the key st...

  11. Diagnosis and management of chronic pruritus: An expert consensus review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murlidhar Rajagopalan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to formulate the best clinical practice in the diagnosis and management of chronic pruritus (CP. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, and the WHO's regional databases, for studies on “Diagnosis and management of chronic pruritus” from January 1, 2014, to July 31, 2015. We included programmatic reports and hand-searched references of published reviews and articles. Two independent reviewers screened articles and extracted data. We screened 87 of 95 studies that contained qualitative data. Avoid: Dry climate, heat, alcohol compress, ice packs, frequent bathing and washing, intake of very hot and spicy food, intake of alcohol, contact with irritant substances, excitement, strain and stress, and allergens. Using: Mild nonalkaline soaps, moisturizers, bathing oils, lukewarm water while bathing, soft cotton clothing and night creams/lotions, relaxation therapy, autogenic training, psychosocial education, educating patients to cope with itching and scratching, and educational programs. Especially use of moisturizers is considered important. In addition, symptomatic treatment options include systemic H1 antihistamines and topical corticosteroids. Symptomatic therapy directed toward the cause (hepatic, renal, atopic, polycythemia, etc.. If refractory or cause is unknown, consider capsaicin, calcineurin inhibitors for localized pruritus and naltrexone, pregabalin, ultraviolet therapy, Cyclosporine for generalized itching. CP is quite frequent finding associated with skin and systemic diseases in the overall population. It is known to significantly affect quality life score of an individual and also adds burden on the health-care cost. A specific recommendation for treatment of CP is difficult as a result of varied and diverse possibility of underlying diseases associated with CP.

  12. Expert Involvement and Adherence to Medical Evidence in Medical Mobile Phone Apps: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhi, Yousif; Bube, Sarah Hjartbro; Rolskov Bojsen, Signe; Skou Thomsen, Ann Sofia; Konge, Lars

    2015-07-27

    Both clinicians and patients use medical mobile phone apps. Anyone can publish medical apps, which leads to contents with variable quality that may have a serious impact on human lives. We herein provide an overview of the prevalence of expert involvement in app development and whether or not app contents adhere to current medical evidence. To systematically review studies evaluating expert involvement or adherence of app content to medical evidence in medical mobile phone apps. We systematically searched 3 databases (PubMed, The Cochrane Library, and EMBASE), and included studies evaluating expert involvement or adherence of app content to medical evidence in medical mobile phone apps. Two authors performed data extraction independently. Qualitative analysis of the included studies was performed. Based on inclusion criteria, 52 studies were included in this review. These studies assessed a total of 6520 apps. Studies dealt with a variety of medical specialties and topics. As much as 28 studies assessed expert involvement, which was found in 9-67% of the assessed apps. Thirty studies (including 6 studies that also assessed expert involvement) assessed adherence of app content to current medical evidence. Thirteen studies found that 10-87% of the assessed apps adhered fully to the compared evidence (published studies, recommendations, and guidelines). Seventeen studies found that none of the assessed apps (n=2237) adhered fully to the compared evidence. Most medical mobile phone apps lack expert involvement and do not adhere to relevant medical evidence.

  13. Expert searching in health librarianship: a literature review to identify international issues and Australian concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasserre, Kaye

    2012-03-01

    The traditional role of health librarians as expert searchers is under challenge. The purpose of this review is to establish health librarians' views, practices and educational processes on expert searching. The search strategy was developed in LISTA and then customised for ten other databases: ALISA, PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, CINAHL, ERIC, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar. The search terms were (expert search* OR expert retriev* OR mediated search* OR information retriev*) AND librar*. The searches, completed in December 2010 and repeated in May 2011, were limited to English language publications from 2000 to 2011 (unless seminal works). Expert searching remains a key role for health librarians, especially for those supporting systematic reviews or employed as clinical librarians answering clinical questions. Although clients tend to be satisfied with searches carried out for them, improvements are required to effectively position the profession. Evidence-based guidelines, adherence to transparent standards, review of entry-level education requirements and a commitment to accredited, rigorous, ongoing professional development will ensure best practice. © 2012 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2012 Health Libraries Group.

  14. Developing and using expert systems and neural networks in medicine: a review on benefits and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhtaheri, Abbas; Sadoughi, Farahnaz; Hashemi Dehaghi, Zahra

    2014-09-01

    Complicacy of clinical decisions justifies utilization of information systems such as artificial intelligence (e.g. expert systems and neural networks) to achieve better decisions, however, application of these systems in the medical domain faces some challenges. We aimed at to review the applications of these systems in the medical domain and discuss about such challenges. Following a brief introduction of expert systems and neural networks by representing few examples, the challenges of these systems in the medical domain are discussed. We found that the applications of expert systems and artificial neural networks have been increased in the medical domain. These systems have shown many advantages such as utilization of experts' knowledge, gaining rare knowledge, more time for assessment of the decision, more consistent decisions, and shorter decision-making process. In spite of all these advantages, there are challenges ahead of developing and using such systems including maintenance, required experts, inputting patients' data into the system, problems for knowledge acquisition, problems in modeling medical knowledge, evaluation and validation of system performance, wrong recommendations and responsibility, limited domains of such systems and necessity of integrating such systems into the routine work flows. We concluded that expert systems and neural networks can be successfully used in medicine; however, there are many concerns and questions to be answered through future studies and discussions.

  15. mHealth in urology : A review of experts' involvement in app development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira-Azevedo, N. (Nuno); Carrasquinho, E. (Eduardo); De Oliveira, E.C. (Eduardo Cardoso); Cavadas, V. (Vitor); Osório, L. (Luís); Fraga, A. (Avelino); Castelo-Branco, M. (Miguel); Roobol, M.J. (Monique J.)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Smartphones are increasingly playing a role in healthcare and previous studies assessing medical applications (apps) have raised concerns about lack of expert involvement and low content accuracy. However, there are no such studies in Urology. We reviewed Urology apps with

  16. Expert panel review of electromagnetic field; Ekspertgruppens gjennomgang av elektromagnetiske felt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    What happens to the body when we are near cell phones, base stations and wireless networks are questions that are much debated in the media. A panel of experts appointed by the Health and transport authorities have reviewed research results, test results and management in this field and concludes that the large number of studies that are considered, not provide evidence that these devices can cause adverse health effects. This information leaflet shows the main conclusions from the review. (eb)

  17. 76 FR 78256 - Request for Nominations of Experts for the Review of Approaches To Derive a Maximum Contaminant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9508-2] Request for Nominations of Experts for the Review of... nominations for technical experts to form an SAB panel to review the agency's approaches for a deriving... actions. As a Federal Advisory Committee, the SAB conducts business in accordance with the Federal...

  18. 75 FR 58383 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office Request for Nominations of Experts for the Review of Great...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... Nominations of Experts for the Review of Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Action Plan AGENCY: Environmental... requesting public nominations for technical experts to form an SAB panel to review the interagency Great... Administrator on the technical basis for EPA actions. As a Federal Advisory Committee, the SAB conducts business...

  19. Towards a consensus definition of maternal sepsis: results of a systematic review and expert consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonet, Mercedes; Nogueira Pileggi, Vicky; Rijken, Marcus J; Coomarasamy, Arri; Lissauer, David; Souza, João Paulo; Gülmezoglu, Ahmet Metin

    2017-05-30

    There is a need for a clear and actionable definition of maternal sepsis, in order to better assess the burden of this condition, trigger timely and effective treatment and allow comparisons across facilities and countries. The objective of this study was to review maternal sepsis definitions and identification criteria and to report on the results of an expert consultation to develop a new international definition of maternal sepsis. All original and review articles and WHO documents, as well as clinical guidelines providing definitions and/or identification criteria of maternal sepsis were included. A multidisciplinary international panel of experts was surveyed through an online consultation in March-April 2016 on their opinion on the existing sepsis definitions, including new definition of sepsis proposed for the adult population (2016 Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock) and importance of different criteria for identification of maternal sepsis. The definition was agreed using an iterative process in an expert face-to-face consensus development meeting convened by WHO and Jhpiego. Standardizing the definition of maternal sepsis and aligning it with the current understanding of sepsis in the adult population was considered a mandatory step to improve the assessment of the burden of maternal sepsis by the expert panel. The literature review and expert consultation resulted in a new WHO consensus definition "Maternal sepsis is a life-threatening condition defined as organ dysfunction resulting from infection during pregnancy, child-birth, post-abortion, or post-partum period". Plans are in progress to validate the new WHO definition of maternal sepsis in a large international population. The operationalization of the new maternal sepsis definition requires generation of a set of practical criteria to identify women with sepsis. These criteria should enable clinicians to focus on the timely initiation of actionable elements of

  20. Implementing peer review at an emergency medicine blog: bridging the gap between educators and clinical experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Brent; Chan, Teresa; Desouza, Natalie; Lin, Michelle

    2015-03-01

    Emergency physicians are leaders in the ''free open-access meducation'' (FOAM) movement. The mandate of FOAM is to create open-access education and knowledge translation resources for trainees and practicing physicians (e.g., blogs, podcasts, and vodcasts). Critics of FOAM have suggested that because such resources can be easily published online without quality control mechanisms, unreviewed FOAM resources may be erroneous or biased. We present a new initiative to incorporate open, expert, peer review into an established academic medical blog. Experts provided either pre- or postpublication reviews that were visible to blog readers. This article outlines the details of this initiative and discusses the potentially transformative impact of this educational innovation.

  1. Expert initial review of Columbia River Basin salmonid management models: Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnthouse, L.W.

    1993-10-01

    Over the past years, several fish passage models have been developed to examine the downstream survival of salmon during their annual migration through the Columbia River reservoir system to below Bonneville Dam. More recently, models have been created to simulate the survival of salmon throughout the entire life cycle. The models are used by various regional agencies and native American tribes to assess impacts of dam operation, harvesting, and predation on salmonid abundance. These models are now also being used to assess extinction probabilities and evaluate restoration alternatives for threatened and endangered salmonid stocks. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) coordinated an initial evaluation of the principal models by a panel of outside, expert reviewers. None of the models were unequivocally endorsed by any reviewer. Significant strengths and weaknesses were noted for each with respect to reasonability of assumptions and equations, adequacy of documentation, adequacy of supporting data, and calibration procedures. Although the models reviewed differ in some important respects, all reflect a common conceptual basis in classical population dynamic theory and a common empirical basis consisting of the available time series of salmonid stock data, hydrographic records, experimental studies of dam passage parameters, and measurements of reservoir mortality. The results of this initial review are not to be construed as a comprehensive scientific peer review of existing Columbia River Basin (CRB) salmon population models and data. The peer review process can be enhanced further by a dynamic exchange regional modelers and scientific panel experts involving interaction and feedback

  2. Neurotoxic effect of active ingredients in sunscreen products, a contemporary review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruszkiewicz, Joanna A; Pinkas, Adi; Ferrer, Beatriz; Peres, Tanara V; Tsatsakis, Aristides; Aschner, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Sunscreen application is the main strategy used to prevent the maladies inflicted by ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Despite the continuously increasing frequency of sunscreen use worldwide, the prevalence of certain sun exposure-related pathologies, mainly malignant melanoma, is also on the rise. In the past century, a variety of protective agents against UV exposure have been developed. Physical filters scatter and reflect UV rays and chemical filters absorb those rays. Alongside the evidence for increasing levels of these agents in the environment, which leads to indirect exposure of wildlife and humans, recent studies suggest a toxicological nature for some of these agents. Reviews on the role of these agents in developmental and endocrine impairments (both pathology and related mechanisms) are based on both animal and human studies, yet information regarding the potential neurotoxicity of these agents is scant. In this review, data regarding the neurotoxicity of several organic filters: octyl methoxycinnamate, benzophenone-3 and -4, 4-methylbenzylidene camphor, 3-benzylidene camphor and octocrylene, and two allowed inorganic filters: zinc oxide and titanium dioxide, is presented and discussed. Taken together, this review advocates revisiting the current safety and regulation of specific sunscreens and investing in alternative UV protection technologies.

  3. Neurotoxic effect of active ingredients in sunscreen products, a contemporary review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna A. Ruszkiewicz

    Full Text Available Sunscreen application is the main strategy used to prevent the maladies inflicted by ultraviolet (UV radiation. Despite the continuously increasing frequency of sunscreen use worldwide, the prevalence of certain sun exposure-related pathologies, mainly malignant melanoma, is also on the rise. In the past century, a variety of protective agents against UV exposure have been developed. Physical filters scatter and reflect UV rays and chemical filters absorb those rays. Alongside the evidence for increasing levels of these agents in the environment, which leads to indirect exposure of wildlife and humans, recent studies suggest a toxicological nature for some of these agents. Reviews on the role of these agents in developmental and endocrine impairments (both pathology and related mechanisms are based on both animal and human studies, yet information regarding the potential neurotoxicity of these agents is scant. In this review, data regarding the neurotoxicity of several organic filters: octyl methoxycinnamate, benzophenone-3 and −4, 4-methylbenzylidene camphor, 3-benzylidene camphor and octocrylene, and two allowed inorganic filters: zinc oxide and titanium dioxide, is presented and discussed. Taken together, this review advocates revisiting the current safety and regulation of specific sunscreens and investing in alternative UV protection technologies. Keywords: Neurotoxicity, Sunscreen, Zinc oxide, Titanium dioxide, Octyl methoxycinnamate, Benzophenone-3, 4-Methylbenzylidene camphor, Octocrylene

  4. 75 FR 7606 - Safety and Efficacy Review for Additional Ingredients in Over-the-Counter Drug Products for Human...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    ... inclusion in an OTC drug monograph under the TEA process on the basis of foreign marketing experience... aquatic environment or active ingredients that naturally occur in the environment and do not alter... the environment. In order to determine whether any of the active ingredients found eligible for...

  5. Gamma sterilization of pharmaceuticals--a review of the irradiation of excipients, active pharmaceutical ingredients, and final drug product formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanain, Fatima; Guenther, Katharina; Mullett, Wayne M; Craven, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Sterilization by gamma irradiation has shown a strong applicability for a wide range of pharmaceutical products. Due to the requirement for terminal sterilization where possible in the pharmaceutical industry, gamma sterilization has proven itself to be an effective method as indicated by its acceptance in the European Pharmacopeia and the United States Pharmacopeia ( ). Some of the advantages of gamma over competitive procedures include high penetration power, isothermal character (small temperature rise), and no residues. It also provides a better assurance of product sterility than aseptic processing, as well as lower validation demands. Gamma irradiation is capable of killing microorganisms by breaking their chemical bonds, producing free radicals that attack the nucleic acid of the microorganism. Sterility by gamma irradiation is achieved mainly by the alteration of nucleic acid and preventing the cellular division. This review focuses on the extensive application of gamma sterilization to a wide range of pharmaceutical components including active pharmaceutical ingredients, excipients, final drug products, and combination drug-medical devices. A summary of the published literature for each class of pharmaceutical compound or product is presented. The irradiation conditions and various quality control characterization methodologies that were used to determine final product quality are included, in addition to a summary of the investigational outcomes. Based on this extensive literature review and in combination with regulatory guidelines and other published best practices, a decision tree for implementation of gamma irradiation for pharmaceutical products is established. This flow chart further facilitates the implementation of gamma irradiation in the pharmaceutical development process. The summary therefore provides a useful reference to the application and versatility of gamma irradiation for pharmaceutical sterilization. Many pharmaceutical products

  6. A review on toxicological properties of thymoquinone a natural broad spectrum ingredient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Nigella sativa is a delicate floral vegetable belonging to Ranunculaceae family. Thymoquinone (TQ is the dominant active component in Nigella sativa seed oil which has a variety of pharmacological properties such as antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. However, TQ is a quinone derivative, which may lead to the generation of reactive oxygen species and resulting intermediate toxicity with various adverse effects in vivo, including acute cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and carcinogenesis. In this review we have mentioned several studies on the toxicity properties of thymoquinone and Nigella sativa. Methods: A literature search was conducted using the Web of Science, PubMed, MEDLINE and Scopus. The search included the following keywords: "thymoquinone", "hydroquinone"," quinone" and "Nigella sativa". Citations within articles were also reviewed to identify the relevant sources. We studied about 170 articles and put aside the articles that were performed on the effect of Nigella sativa and thymoquinone on cancer cell lines. Results:  Since TQ is a quinone derivative, we observed the generation of reactive oxygen species and the toxicity of this substance in some studies. LD50 of Thymoquinone was very higher than Nigella sativa and also LD50 of this substance in oral route was higher than intrapritoneal route of administration. Conclusion: The findings have provided approximate safety information for TQ, which will further help researchers.

  7. Aflatoxin contamination in cereals and legumes to reconsider usage as complementary food ingredients for Ghanaian infants: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Atongbiik Achaglinkame

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cereals and legumes, being the major staples of many African communities, frequently used for complementary foods for infants and young children. However, aflatoxin contamination is a threatening issue in these staples and its negative effects on human health, most especially infants and young children, are very alarming. Thus, this review sought to highlight the risk of aflatoxin contamination in cereals and legumes so as to reconsider their usage in complementary feeding. Factors such as temperature, relative humidity/moisture, soil properties, type and length of storage as well as nutrient composition of the food produce greatly influence fungal growth and aflatoxin production in cereals and legumes. Consumption of such contaminated food ingredients could expose many infants and young children to poor growth and development. Nonetheless, the toxin, though seemingly inevitable, can be minimized if not curbed completely through awareness creation/education, good agricultural practices and proper storage practices. Moreover, consumption of root and tuber crops such as sweetpotato, especially the orange-fleshed sweetpotato, can be a sustainable approach to reduce aflatoxin ingestion in children. Thus, to control the adverse effects of aflatoxin in infants and young children, cereal-legume blends could be substituted with root and tuber-based blends in complementary feeding. Keywords: Cereal-legume blends, Complementary foods, Aflatoxin, Infant health, Roots and tubers

  8. Drugs and herbs given to prevent hepatotoxicity of tuberculosis therapy: systematic review of ingredients and evaluation studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Binghua

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drugs to protect the liver are frequently prescribed in some countries as part of treatment for tuberculosis. The biological rationale is not clear, they are expensive and may do harm. We conducted a systematic review to a describe the ingredients of "liver protection drugs"; and b compare the evidence base for the policy against international standards. Methods We searched international medical databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the specialised register of the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group and Chinese language databases (CNKI, VIP and WanFang to April 2007. Our inclusion criteria were research papers that reported evaluating any liver protection drug or drugs for preventing liver damage in people taking anti-tuberculosis treatment. Two authors independently categorised and extracted data, and appraised the stated methods of evaluating their effectiveness. Results Eighty five research articles met our inclusion criteria, carried out in China (77, India (2, Russia (4, Ukraine (2. These articles evaluated 30 distinct types of liver protection compounds categorised as herbal preparations, manufactured herbal products, combinations of vitamins and other non-herbal substances and manufactured pharmaceutical preparations. Critical appraisal of these articles showed that all were small, poorly conducted studies, measuring intermediate outcomes. Four trials that were described as randomised controlled trials were small, had short follow up, and did not meet international standards. Conclusion There is no reliable evidence to support prescription of drugs or herbs to prevent liver damage in people on tuberculosis treatment.

  9. A Comprehensive and System Review for the Pharmacological Mechanism of Action of Rhein, an Active Anthraquinone Ingredient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Sun

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractRhein is a major medicinal ingredient isolated from several traditional Chinese medicines, including Rheum palmatum L., Aloe barbadensis Miller, Cassia angustifolia Vahl., and Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. Rhein has various pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antioxidant, antifibrosis, hepatoprotective, and nephroprotective activities. Although more than 100 articles in PubMed are involved in the pharmacological mechanism of action of rhein, only a few focus on the relationship of crosstalk among multiple pharmacological mechanisms. The mechanism of rhein involves multiple pathways which contain close interactions. From the overall perspective, the pathways which are related to the targets of rhein, are initiated by the membrane receptor. Then, MAPK and PI3K-AKT parallel signaling pathways are activated, and several downstream pathways are affected, thereby eventually regulating cell cycle and apoptosis. The therapeutic effect of rhein, as a multitarget molecule, is the synergistic and comprehensive result of the involvement of multiple pathways rather than the blocking or activation of a single signaling pathway. We review the pharmacological mechanisms of action of rhein by consulting literature published in the last 100 years in PubMed. We then summarize these pharmacological mechanisms from a comprehensive, interactive, and crosstalk perspective. In general, the molecular mechanism of action of drug must be understood from a systematic and holistic perspective, which can provide a theoretical basis for precise treatment and rational drug use.

  10. A brief history and technical review of the expert system research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Haocheng

    2017-09-01

    The expert system is a computer system that emulates the decision-making ability of a human expert, which aims to solve complex problems by reasoning knowledge. It is an important branch of artificial intelligence. In this paper, firstly, we briefly introduce the development and basic structure of the expert system. Then, from the perspective of the enabling technology, we classify the current expert systems and elaborate four expert systems: The Rule-Based Expert System, the Framework-Based Expert System, the Fuzzy Logic-Based Expert System and the Expert System Based on Neural Network.

  11. Trigger point injections for headache disorders: expert consensus methodology and narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Matthew S; Kuruvilla, Deena; Blumenfeld, Andrew; Charleston, Larry; Sorrell, Michael; Robertson, Carrie E; Grosberg, Brian M; Bender, Steven D; Napchan, Uri; Ashkenazi, Avi

    2014-10-01

    To review the existing literature and describe a standardized methodology by expert consensus for the performance of trigger point injections (TPIs) in the treatment of headache disorders. Despite their widespread use, the efficacy, safety, and methodology of TPIs have not been reviewed specifically for headache disorders by expert consensus. The Peripheral Nerve Blocks and Other Interventional Procedures Special Interest Section of the American Headache Society over a series of meetings reached a consensus for nomenclature, indications, contraindications, precautions, procedural details, outcomes, and adverse effects for the use of TPIs for headache disorders. A subcommittee of the Section also reviewed the literature. Indications for TPIs may include many types of episodic and chronic primary and secondary headache disorders, with the presence of active trigger points (TPs) on physical examination. Contraindications may include infection, a local open skull defect, or an anesthetic allergy, and precautions are necessary in the setting of anticoagulant use, pregnancy, and obesity with unclear anatomical landmarks. The most common muscles selected for TPIs include the trapezius, sternocleidomastoid, and temporalis, with bupivacaine and lidocaine the agents used most frequently. Adverse effects are typically mild with careful patient and procedural selection, though pneumothorax and other serious adverse events have been infrequently reported. When performed in the appropriate setting and with the proper expertise, TPIs seem to have a role in the adjunctive treatment of the most common headache disorders. We hope our effort to characterize the methodology of TPIs by expert opinion in the context of published data motivates the performance of evidence-based and standardized treatment protocols. © 2014 American Headache Society.

  12. What Do We Feed to Food-Production Animals? A Review of Animal Feed Ingredients and Their Potential Impacts on Human Health

    OpenAIRE

    Sapkota, Amy R.; Lefferts, Lisa Y.; McKenzie, Shawn; Walker, Polly

    2007-01-01

    Objective Animal feeding practices in the United States have changed considerably over the past century. As large-scale, concentrated production methods have become the predominant model for animal husbandry, animal feeds have been modified to include ingredients ranging from rendered animals and animal waste to antibiotics and organoarsenicals. In this article we review current U.S. animal feeding practices and etiologic agents that have been detected in animal feed. Evidence that current fe...

  13. mHealth in Urology: A Review of Experts' Involvement in App Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Pereira-Azevedo

    Full Text Available Smartphones are increasingly playing a role in healthcare and previous studies assessing medical applications (apps have raised concerns about lack of expert involvement and low content accuracy. However, there are no such studies in Urology. We reviewed Urology apps with the aim of assessing the level of participation of healthcare professionals (HCP and scientific Urology associations in their development.A systematic search was performed on PubMed, Apple's App Store and Google's Play Store, for Urology apps, available in English. Apps were reviewed by three graders to determine the app's platform, target customer, developer, app type, app category, price and the participation of a HCP or a scientific Urology association in the development.The search yielded 372 apps, of which 150 were specific for Urology. A fifth of all apps had no HCP involvement (20.7% and only a third had been developed with a scientific Urology association (34.7%. The lowest percentage of HCP (13.4% and urological association (1.9% involvement was in apps designed for the general population. Furthermore, there was no contribution from an Urology society in "Electronic Medical Record" nor in "Patient Information" apps. A limitation of the study is that only Android and iOS apps were reviewed.Despite the increasing Mobile Health (mHealth market, this is the first study that demonstrates the lack of expert participation in the design of Urology apps, particularly in apps designed for the general public. Until clear regulation is enforced, the urological community should help regulate app development. Maintaining a register of certified apps or issuing an official scientific seal of approval could improve overall app quality. We propose that urologists become stakeholders in mHealth, shaping future app design and promoting peer-review app validation.

  14. mHealth in Urology: A Review of Experts' Involvement in App Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Azevedo, Nuno; Carrasquinho, Eduardo; Cardoso de Oliveira, Eduardo; Cavadas, Vitor; Osório, Luís; Fraga, Avelino; Castelo-Branco, Miguel; Roobol, Monique J

    2015-01-01

    Smartphones are increasingly playing a role in healthcare and previous studies assessing medical applications (apps) have raised concerns about lack of expert involvement and low content accuracy. However, there are no such studies in Urology. We reviewed Urology apps with the aim of assessing the level of participation of healthcare professionals (HCP) and scientific Urology associations in their development. A systematic search was performed on PubMed, Apple's App Store and Google's Play Store, for Urology apps, available in English. Apps were reviewed by three graders to determine the app's platform, target customer, developer, app type, app category, price and the participation of a HCP or a scientific Urology association in the development. The search yielded 372 apps, of which 150 were specific for Urology. A fifth of all apps had no HCP involvement (20.7%) and only a third had been developed with a scientific Urology association (34.7%). The lowest percentage of HCP (13.4%) and urological association (1.9%) involvement was in apps designed for the general population. Furthermore, there was no contribution from an Urology society in "Electronic Medical Record" nor in "Patient Information" apps. A limitation of the study is that only Android and iOS apps were reviewed. Despite the increasing Mobile Health (mHealth) market, this is the first study that demonstrates the lack of expert participation in the design of Urology apps, particularly in apps designed for the general public. Until clear regulation is enforced, the urological community should help regulate app development. Maintaining a register of certified apps or issuing an official scientific seal of approval could improve overall app quality. We propose that urologists become stakeholders in mHealth, shaping future app design and promoting peer-review app validation.

  15. Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma and Occupational Exposure to Agricultural Pesticide Chemical Groups and Active Ingredients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Schinasi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes results from a systematic review and a series of meta-analyses of nearly three decades worth of epidemiologic research on the relationship between non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL and occupational exposure to agricultural pesticide active ingredients and chemical groups. Estimates of associations of NHL with 21 pesticide chemical groups and 80 active ingredients were extracted from 44 papers, all of which reported results from analyses of studies conducted in high-income countries. Random effects meta-analyses showed that phenoxy herbicides, carbamate insecticides, organophosphorus insecticides and the active ingredient lindane, an organochlorine insecticide, were positively associated with NHL. In a handful of papers, associations between pesticides and NHL subtypes were reported; B cell lymphoma was positively associated with phenoxy herbicides and the organophosphorus herbicide glyphosate. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was positively associated with phenoxy herbicide exposure. Despite compelling evidence that NHL is associated with certain chemicals, this review indicates the need for investigations of a larger variety of pesticides in more geographic areas, especially in low- and middle-income countries, which, despite producing a large portion of the world’s agriculture, were missing in the literature that were reviewed.

  16. International experts conclude IAEA peer review of Iran's safety regulation of Bushehr NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Full text: An international team of nuclear safety experts today completed an IAEA mission to review the effectiveness of Iran's safety regulation of its first nuclear power plant and to identify possible improvements before the plant begins operation. Upon invitation of the Islamic Republic of Iran, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) assembled a team of senior regulators from seven Member States for an Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission. The scope of the mission was limited to the safety regulation of Bushehr nuclear power plant (BNPP-1). The IRRS review took place from 20 February to 2 March at the INRA offices in Tehran and included a technical visit to the BNPP-1 site. The mission was an objective peer review based on IAEA safety standards, and was neither an inspection, nor an audit. Ms. Olena Mykolaichuk, IRRS Team Leader and Head of the State Nuclear Regulatory Committee of Ukraine, commended her INRA counterparts: 'The regulatory work performed on the Bushehr construction and in preparation for commissioning has demonstrated significant progress of INRA as a nuclear regulatory authority,' she said. Philippe Jamet, Director of the IAEA's Nuclear Installation Safety Division, added: 'Through this IRRS mission, both Iran and the international experts contribute to the enhancement of nuclear safety and worldwide experience sharing.' In the course of its review the IRRS team identified the following strengths: - INRA has a dedicated, conscientious staff, demonstrating clear commitments to further improvements. - INRA clearly recognizes the value of peer reviews and international cooperation regarding nuclear safety. - Despite a shortage of staff, INRA demonstrated strong leadership while performing both review and assessment and inspection tasks during the BNPP-1 construction and pre-commissioning. - INRA has developed an excellent computerized documentation control system. Recommendations and suggestions to improve INRA's regulatory

  17. ESCAP Expert Article: borderline personality disorder in adolescence: an expert research review with implications for clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonagy, Peter; Speranza, Mario; Luyten, Patrick; Kaess, Michael; Hessels, Christel; Bohus, Martin

    2015-11-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) has onset in adolescence, but is typically first diagnosed in young adulthood. This paper provides a narrative review of the current evidence on diagnosis, comorbidity, phenomenology and treatment of BPD in adolescence. Instruments available for diagnosis are reviewed and their strengths and limitations discussed. Having confirmed the robustness of the diagnosis and the potential for its reliable clinical assessment, we then explore current understandings of the mechanisms of the disorder and focus on neurobiological underpinnings and research on psychological mechanisms. Findings are accumulating to suggest that adolescent BPD has an underpinning biology that is similar in some ways to adult BPD but differs in some critical features. Evidence for interventions focuses on psychological therapies. Several encouraging research studies suggest that early effective treatment is possible. Treatment development has just begun, and while adolescent-specific interventions are still in the process of evolution, most existing therapies represent adaptations of adult models to this developmental phase. There is also a significant opportunity for prevention, albeit there are few data to date to support such initiatives. This review emphasizes that there can be no justification for failing to make an early diagnosis of this enduring and pervasive problem.

  18. The effectiveness of scoliosis screening programs: methods for systematic review and expert panel recommendations formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Literature on scoliosis screening is vast, however because of the observational nature of available data and methodological flaws, data interpretation is often complex, leading to incomplete and sometimes, somewhat misleading conclusions. The need to propose a set of methods for critical appraisal of the literature about scoliosis screening, a comprehensive summary and rating of the available evidence appeared essential. Methods To address these gaps, the study aims were: i) To propose a framework for the assessment of published studies on scoliosis screening effectiveness; ii) To suggest specific questions to be answered on screening effectiveness instead of trying to reach a global position for or against the programs; iii) To contextualize the knowledge through expert panel consultation and meaningful recommendations. The general methodological approach proceeds through the following steps: Elaboration of the conceptual framework; Formulation of the review questions; Identification of the criteria for the review; Selection of the studies; Critical assessment of the studies; Results synthesis; Formulation and grading of recommendations in response to the questions. This plan follows at best GRADE Group (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) requirements for systematic reviews, assessing quality of evidence and grading the strength of recommendations. Conclusions In this article, the methods developed in support of this work are presented since they may be of some interest for similar reviews in scoliosis and orthopaedic fields. PMID:23883346

  19. A review of expert judgement and treatment of probability in SR 97

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmot, R.D.; Crawford, M.B.

    2000-01-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) recently published its latest performance assessment for deep disposal of spent nuclear fuel, based on the KBS-3 concept. This assessment, SR 97, uses three hypothetical repository sites (known as Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg) to provide a range of geological settings and hydrogeological conditions for the assessment. The long-term performance of these sites is compared for several sets of assumptions relating to canister lifetimes, climate evolution, and patterns of human behaviour. This report is a review of SR 97 conducted by Galson Sciences Ltd on behalf of the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI). The review focussed on the use of expert judgement in the assessment and on the treatment of uncertainty and the use of probability in assessment calculations. The review of SR 97 concluded that SKB had identified many of the judgements made in developing and implementing the assessment and modelling approaches, but that a more formal documentation of the assumptions involved would add to the clarity and transparency of the use of judgements. Similarly, explicit acknowledgement of the basis for making judgements about the treatment of FEPs would improve confidence in the assessment. There are a number of tools that can be useful in justifying the judgements made in an assessment. The review concluded that more use of dialogue with stake holders, peer review and expert elicitation could all be of value in SKB's assessment programme. Recently introduced regulations in Sweden have established an individual risk criterion for the long-term performance of repositories. SKB has previously identified 'pessimistic' and 'reasonable' values for a number of model parameters, and used these in a range of deterministic calculations to calculate dose and to illustrate system performance. To allow for the calculation of risk, SKB introduced probabilistic analyses into the SR 97 assessment by assigning probabilities of 10

  20. Expert systems and the CPI product substitution review: A needs analysis for the US Bureau of Labor Statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrowood, L.F.; Tonn, B.E.

    1992-02-01

    This report presents recommendations relative to the use of expert systems and machine learning techniques by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) to substantially automate product substitution decisions associated with the Consumer Price Index (CPI). Thirteen commercially available, PC-based expert system shells have received in-depth evaluations. Various machine learning techniques were also reviewed. Two recommendations are given: (1) BLS should use the expert system shell LEVEL5 OBJECT and establish a software development methodology for expert systems; and (2) BLS should undertake a small study to evaluate the potential of machine learning techniques to create and maintain the approximately 350 ELI-specific knowledge bases to be used in CPI product substitution review.

  1. Prevention and treatment of complications of selective internal radiation therapy: Expert guidance and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangro, Bruno; Martínez-Urbistondo, Diego; Bester, Lourens; Bilbao, Jose I; Coldwell, Douglas M; Flamen, Patrick; Kennedy, Andrew; Ricke, Jens; Sharma, Ricky A

    2017-09-01

    Selective internal radiation therapy (or radioembolization) by intra-arterial injection of radioactive yttrium-90-loaded microspheres is increasingly used for the treatment of patients with liver metastases or primary liver cancer. The high-dose beta-radiation penetrates an average of only 2.5 mm from the source, thus limiting its effects to the site of delivery. However, the off-target diversion of yttrium-90 microspheres to tissues other than the tumor may lead to complications. The most prominent of these complications include radiation gastritis and gastrointestinal ulcers, cholecystitis, radiation pneumonitis, and radioembolization-induced liver disease, which may occur despite careful pretreatment planning. Thus, selective internal radiation therapy demands an expert multidisciplinary team approach in order to provide comprehensive care for patients. This review provides recommendations to multidisciplinary teams on the optimal medical processes in order to ensure the safe delivery of selective internal radiation therapy. Based on the best available published evidence and expert opinion, we recommend the most appropriate strategies for the prevention, early diagnosis, and management of potential radiation injury to the liver and to other organs. (Hepatology 2017;66:969-982). © 2017 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  2. 77 FR 15753 - Request for Nominations of Experts for a Science Advisory Board Panel To Review EPA's Web-Based...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... Advisory Board Panel To Review EPA's Web-Based Report on the Environment AGENCY: Environmental Protection... nominations of technical experts to form an SAB panel to review the Agency's Web-based Report on the... are requested including: (a) Environmental scientists and engineers with knowledge of the sources...

  3. Accepted standards on how to give a Medical Research Presentation: a systematic review of expert opinion papers

    OpenAIRE

    Blome, Christine; Sondermann, Hanno; Augustin, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Background: This systematic review aimed to extract recommendations from expert opinion articles on how to give a medical research presentation on a scientific conference and to determine whether the experts agree on what makes an effective or poor presentation. Methods: Presentation-related terms were searched within article titles listed in PubMed, restricting the search to English-language articles published from January 1975 to July 2015. Recommendations were extracted from the articles...

  4. [Review of WHO Expert Committee on Leprosy 8th report, --comparison to 7th report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, Shinichi; En, Junichiro; Kitajima, Shiori; Barua, Sumana; Goto, Masamichi

    2014-03-01

    In 2012 the WHO Expert Committee on Leprosy published its 8th report, 14 years after the publication of its 7th report in 1998. This report, the first since the leprosy reduction goal was met in 2000, highlights key points such as improvements in the quality of various services available to patients and the efforts of individuals and societies, in addition to medical progress in diagnosis and treatment. This review will mainly describe the changes made since the 7th report. Some of the main modifications are the deletion of single lesion paucibacillary type, elongated treatment of patients with high bacterial indices, the introduction of promising new drugs, and a shift from reducing the statistical number of patients to a new target for disability prevention.

  5. Health Economics of Dengue: A Systematic Literature Review and Expert Panel's Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Mark E.; Beutels, Philippe; Meltzer, Martin I.; Shepard, Donald S.; Hombach, Joachim; Hutubessy, Raymond; Dessis, Damien; Coudeville, Laurent; Dervaux, Benoit; Wichmann, Ole; Margolis, Harold S.; Kuritsky, Joel N.

    2011-01-01

    Dengue vaccines are currently in development and policymakers need appropriate economic studies to determine their potential financial and public health impact. We searched five databases (PubMed, EMBASE, LILAC, EconLit, and WHOLIS) to identify health economics studies of dengue. Forty-three manuscripts were identified that provided primary data: 32 report economic burden of dengue and nine are comparative economic analyses assessing various interventions. The remaining two were a willingness-to-pay study and a policymaker survey. An expert panel reviewed the existing dengue economic literature and recommended future research to fill information gaps. Although dengue is an important vector-borne disease, the economic literature is relatively sparse and results have often been conflicting because of use of inconsistent assumptions. Health economic research specific to dengue is urgently needed to ensure informed decision making on the various options for controlling and preventing this disease. PMID:21363989

  6. International nuclear safety experts complete IAEA peer review of German regulatory system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Full text: An international expert team has today completed a two-week IAEA review of Germany's nuclear regulatory system. The team identified good practices within the system and gave advice on some areas for further improvement. The IAEA has conveyed the initial findings to German authorities but the final report will be submitted within two months. At the request of the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) assembled a team of 14 experts to conduct an Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission. This is a peer review based on IAEA Standards. It is not an inspection, nor an audit. The scope of the mission was limited to the safety regulation of nuclear power plants. Experts from Canada, the Czech Republic, Finland, France, Japan, the Netherlands, Republic of Korea, Spain, Switzerland, the UK, the US and from the IAEA took part in the mission, which was conducted from 7 to 19 September in Bonn, Stuttgart and Berlin. The main basis for the review was a well-prepared self-assessment made by the Federal Ministry of Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) and the Ministry of Environment of the federal state of Baden-Wuerttemberg (UM BW). 'The team members were impressed by the extensive preparation and dedication of the staff both at BMU and UM BW to excellence in nuclear safety,' said Mike Weightman, IRRS Team Leader and Chief Inspector of the UK nuclear regulatory body, the Nuclear Directorate of the Health and Safety Executive. 'We hope the IRRS mission will facilitate further improvements in the safety regulation of nuclear power in Germany and throughout the world.' 'Germany's invitation to undergo such a detailed review is a clear demonstration of its openness and commitment to continuously improve nuclear safety regulation,' said Philippe Jamet, Director of the IAEA's Nuclear Installation Safety Division. Among the particular strengths of BMU and UM BW associated with their

  7. INGREDIENT BRANDING - A GROWTH OPPORTUNITY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca BUTNARIU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Co-branding is an increasingly used strategy, consisting of marketing products representing two brands or more. Ingredient branding fits in the scope of co-branding, consisting of the inclusion of key attributes of one brand into another brand as ingredients. Ingredient branding is one of the many brand strategies used in marketing to provide differentiation criteria for the customers. In recent years, its importance and incidence have dramatically increased Extant research provides disparate and limited understanding of contexts in which such contracts pay off. Our paper provides an extensive review of literature and research streams in ingredient branding, adding knowledge to theory and help for companies that need to establish and maintain a competitive advantage, by differentiating their offer on the markets they act on, in a globalized economy.

  8. Assessing the Economics of Dengue: Results from a Systematic Review of the Literature and Expert Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constenla, Dagna; Garcia, Cristina; Lefcourt, Noah

    2015-11-01

    The economics of dengue is complex and multifaceted. We performed a systematic review of the literature to provide a critical overview of the issues related to dengue economics research and to form a background with which to address the question of cost. Three literature databases were searched [PubMed, Embase and Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS)], covering a period from 1980 to 2013, to identify papers meeting preset inclusion criteria. Studies were reviewed for methodological quality on the basis of a quality checklist developed for this purpose. An expert survey was designed to identify priority areas in dengue economics research and to identify gaps between the methodology and actual practice. Survey responses were combined with the literature review findings to determine stakeholder priorities in dengue economics research. The review identified over 700 papers. Forty-two of these papers met the selection criteria. The studies that were reviewed presented results from 32 dengue-endemic countries, underscoring the importance of dengue as a global public health problem. Cost analyses were the most common, with 21 papers, followed by nine cost-effectiveness analyses and seven cost-of-illness studies, indicating a relatively strong mix of methodologies. Dengue annual overall costs (in 2010 values) ranged from US$13.5 million (in Nicaragua) to $56 million (in Malaysia), showing cost variations across countries. Little consistency exists in the way costs were estimated and dengue interventions evaluated, making generalizations around costs difficult. The current evidence suggests that dengue costs are substantial because of the cost of hospital care and lost earnings. Further research in this area will broaden our understanding of the true economic impact of dengue.

  9. International Expert Team Concludes IAEA Peer Review of Poland's Regulatory Framework for Nuclear and Radiation Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Full text: International safety experts last week concluded a two-week International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) mission to review the regulatory framework for nuclear and radiation safety in Poland. In its preliminary report, the Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission team found that Poland's nuclear regulator, Panstwowa Agencja Atomistyki (PAA), has a clear commitment to safety, a high level of transparency, competent staff and leadership, and a good recognition of challenges ahead related to Poland's efforts to develop nuclear power. ''Poland's regulatory framework and the work of PAA give high confidence of strong radiation protection for the Polish people. Further, there has been significant progress in the development of Poland's regulatory framework in preparation for the challenge of regulating nuclear power,'' said team leader Robert Lewis, a senior executive in the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The mission was conducted at the request of the Government of Poland from 15-25 April. The team was made up of 11 regulatory experts from Belgium, the Czech Republic, Finland, France, the Republic of Korea, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom and the United States, as well as five IAEA staff members. The IRRS review team was very thorough in its review, and we welcome its advice on how to continue to improve our programmes to protect people and the environment , said Janusz Wlodarski, President of PAA. The team interviewed members of PAA and officials from various ministries, as well as key players in the Polish safety framework. Such IRRS missions are peer reviews based on IAEA Safety Standards, not inspections or audits. Among its main observations the IRRS review team identified the following good practices: Applying the considerable experience of PAA's senior management to regulatory issues; The introduction of changes to Poland's laws and regulations following broad public consultation at an early stage in

  10. Experts Complete IAEA Follow-up Review of Australia's Nuclear Regulatory Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear and radiation safety experts today concluded an eight-day mission to review the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA), the country's nuclear regulator. At the request of the Australian Government, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) assembled a peer-review team of five regulatory experts from as many nations and three IAEA staff members to conduct a follow-up assessment of an Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission conducted in 2007. This follow-up IRRS mission examined ARPANSA's progress in acting upon the recommendations and suggestions made during the 2007 IRRS mission and reviewed the areas of significant regulatory changes since that review. Both reviews covered safety regulatory aspects of all facilities and activities regulated by ARPANSA. IRRS team leader Kaare Ulbak, Chief Advisor of Denmark's National Institute of Radiation Protection, said: ''ARPANSA should be commended for the significant amount of efforts in addressing all the findings identified in the 2007 mission and for inviting this follow-up review.'' The review team found that ARPANSA has made significant progress toward improving its regulatory activities, as most of the findings identified in the 2007 report have been effectively addressed and therefore can be considered closed. Complementing the ARPANSA strengths identified during the 2007 mission, the 2011 IRRS team noted the following strengths: Response to the Tepco Fukushima Dai-ichi accident; High level of in-house technical expertise in radiation safety; Recognition of the need and willingness to re-organize ARPANSA; Timely development of the national sealed source register in good coordination with other relevant organizations; and Creation of the Australian clinical dosimetry service and the national dose reference levels database. The 2011 IRRS team also made recommendations and suggestions to further strengthen ARPANSA's regulatory system, including: Making full

  11. International Nuclear Safety Experts Conclude IAEA Peer Review of Swiss Regulatory Framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Full text: A team of international nuclear safety experts today completed a two-week International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) review of the regulatory framework for nuclear safety in Switzerland. The Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission noted good practices in the Swiss system and also made recommendations for the nation's nuclear regulatory authority, the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI). ''Our team developed a good impression of the independent Swiss regulator - ENSI - and the team considered that ENSI deserves particular credit for its actions to improve Swiss safety capability following this year's nuclear accident in Japan,'' said IRRS Team Leader Jean-Christophe Niel of France. The mission's scope covered the Swiss nuclear regulatory framework for all types of nuclear-related activities regulated by ENSI. The mission was conducted from 20 November to 2 December, mainly at ENSI headquarters in Brugg. The team held extensive discussions with ENSI staff and visited many Swiss nuclear facilities. IRRS missions are peer reviews, not inspections or audits, and are conducted at the request of host nations. For the Swiss review, the IAEA assembled a team of 19 international experts from 14 countries. The experts came from Belgium, Brazil, the Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, the Republic of Korea, Norway, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. ''The findings of the IRRS mission will help us to further improve our work. That is part of our safety culture,'' said ENSI Director General Hans Wanner. ''As Switzerland argued at international nuclear safety meetings this year for a strengthening of the international monitoring of nuclear power, we will take action to fulfil the recommendations.'' The IRRS team highlighted several good practices of the Swiss regulatory system, including the following: ENSI requires Swiss nuclear operators to back-fit their facilities by continuously upgrading

  12. IMG ER: A System for Microbial Genome Annotation Expert Review and Curation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markowitz, Victor M.; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Chen, I-Min A.; Chu, Ken; Kyrpides, Nikos C.

    2009-05-25

    A rapidly increasing number of microbial genomes are sequenced by organizations worldwide and are eventually included into various public genome data resources. The quality of the annotations depends largely on the original dataset providers, with erroneous or incomplete annotations often carried over into the public resources and difficult to correct. We have developed an Expert Review (ER) version of the Integrated Microbial Genomes (IMG) system, with the goal of supporting systematic and efficient revision of microbial genome annotations. IMG ER provides tools for the review and curation of annotations of both new and publicly available microbial genomes within IMG's rich integrated genome framework. New genome datasets are included into IMG ER prior to their public release either with their native annotations or with annotations generated by IMG ER's annotation pipeline. IMG ER tools allow addressing annotation problems detected with IMG's comparative analysis tools, such as genes missed by gene prediction pipelines or genes without an associated function. Over the past year, IMG ER was used for improving the annotations of about 150 microbial genomes.

  13. Safety experts complete second IAEA regulatory review of UK nuclear regulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear safety experts today concluded a 10-day mission to peer-review the UK Nuclear Regulator: Health and Safety Executive (HSE), Nuclear Directorate (ND). At the request of the UK Government, the International Atomic Energy Agency assembled a team of ten high-level regulatory experts from eight nations to conduct the Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission. The mission was the second of three planned IRRS missions for the United Kingdom. The first was held in March 2006 to begin a process to assess the nation's readiness to regulate and license new reactor designs, considered as a result of the Energy Policy review initiated by the British Prime Minister and the Secretary of State for Trade and Industry (DTI) in 2005. The IRRS team leader Mr. William Borchardt, Executive Director of Operations from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, stated, ''The IAEA IRRS serves an important role in both benchmarking against its safety standards and in promoting dialogue between nuclear safety regulators from around the world.'' During the 2nd mission the IRRS the team reviewed HSE/ND progress since the first IRRS mission and recent regulatory developments, the regulation of operating power plants and fuel cycle facilities, the inspection and enforcement programme for nuclear power plants and fuel cycle facilities, and the emergency preparedness and response programme. The IAEA found that HSE/ND has made significant progress toward improving its effectiveness in regulating existing nuclear power plants and in preparing to license new nuclear reactors designs. Many of the findings identified in the 2006 report had been fully addressed and therefore could be considered closed, the others are being addressed in accordance with a comprehensive action plan. IRRS team members visited the Heysham 1 Nuclear Power Plant near Lancaster, the Sellafield site at Cumbria and the Strategic Control Centre at Hutton, and they met senior managers from HSE and a UK

  14. Active ingredients are reported more often for pharmacologic than non-pharmacologic interventions: an illustrative review of reporting practices in titles and abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleary, Nicola; Duncan, Eilidh M; Stewart, Fiona; Francis, Jill J

    2013-05-20

    Key components of healthcare interventions include 'active ingredients' (intervention components that can be specifically linked to effects on outcomes such that, were they omitted, the intervention would be ineffective). These should be reported in titles and abstracts of published reports of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). However, reporting of non-pharmacologic interventions (NPIs), particularly behaviour change interventions (BCIs), is difficult, owing to their complexity. This illustrative review compares how pharmacologic interventions (PIs), NPIs and BCIs are specified in titles and abstracts to clarify how reporting of NPIs and BCIs can be improved. MEDLINE and Embase were searched for RCTs published in the British Medical Journal, The Journal of the American Medical Association, The New England Journal of Medicine, The Lancet and Annals of Behavioral Medicine from 2009 to March 2011. All types of intervention, participant and outcome were included. A random sample of 198 studies (sampled proportionally from included journals) stratified by intervention type (PI/NPI) was taken: 98 evaluated PIs, 96 evaluated NPIs and four evaluated both. Studies were coded for the presence or absence of key components. The frequency data were analyzed using the chi-square test. Active ingredients were named in 88% titles and 95% abstracts of PI reports, and in 51% titles and 71% abstracts of NPI reports, with a significant association between intervention type and reporting of active ingredients in titles (χ2(1) = 28.90; P < 0.001) and abstracts (χ2(1) = 16.94; P < 0.001). Active ingredients were named in BCI reports in 37% titles and 56% abstracts, and in other NPI reports in 66% titles and 86% abstracts. There was also a significant association between intervention type and reporting of active ingredients in titles (χ2(1) = 6.68; P = 0.010) and abstracts (χ2(1) = 8.66; P = 0.003). Reporting practices also differed for such components as the trial setting and

  15. Encapsulation of health-promoting ingredients: applications in foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolve, Roberta; Galgano, Fernanda; Caruso, Marisa Carmela; Tchuenbou-Magaia, Fideline Laure; Condelli, Nicola; Favati, Fabio; Zhang, Zhibing

    2016-12-01

    Many nutritional experts and food scientists are interested in developing functional foods containing bioactive agents and many of these health-promoting ingredients may benefit from nano/micro-encapsulation technology. Encapsulation has been proven useful to improve the physical and the chemical stability of bioactive agents, as well as their bioavailability and efficacy, enabling their incorporation into a wide range of formulations aimed to functional food production. There are several reviews concerning nano/micro-encapsulation techniques, but none are focused on the incorporation of the bioactive agents into food matrices. The aim of this paper was to investigate the development of microencapsulated food, taking into account the different bioactive ingredients, the variety of processes, techniques and coating materials that can be used for this purpose.

  16. IAEA expert review mission completes assessment of fuel cleaning incident at Paks Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The IAEA today completed its expert review mission to investigate the 10 April fuel cleaning incident at the Paks nuclear power plant in Hungary. The mission was requested by the Hungarian Government to provide an independent assessment of the causes and actions taken by the plant and Hungarian authorities. The team was composed of nuclear and radiation experts from the IAEA, Austria, Canada, Finland, Slovakia, the United Kingdom and the United States. In a press conference, team leader Miroslav Lipar highlighted the team's findings in five areas: On management, the team concluded that the Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority and Paks are committed to improving the safety of the plant. They noted that as a result of steam generator decontamination in previous years, deposits became attached to the fuel assemblies. A decision was made to clean the fuel and contract an outside company to develop and operate a fuel cleaning process. The team found that the design and operation of the fuel cleaning tank and system was not accomplished in the manner prescribed by the IAEA Safety Standards. Neither the Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority nor Paks used conservative decision-making in their safety assessments for this unproven fuel cleaning system. The team determined that there was an over-reliance on the contractor that had been selected for the design, management and operation of the fuel cleaning system. Time pressure related to a prescribed fuel outage schedule, combined with confidence generated by previous successful fuel cleaning operations, contributed to a weak assessment of a new design and operation, which involved fuel directly removed from the reactor following a planned shutdown. On regulatory oversight, the IAEA team concluded that the Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority underestimated the safety significance of the proposed designs for the fuel cleaning system, which resulted in a less than rigorous review and assessment than should have been necessary

  17. How well do financial experts perform? A review of empirical research on performance of analysts, day-traders, forecasters, fund managers, investors, and stockbrokers

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Patric

    2004-01-01

    In this manuscript, empirical research on performance of various types of financial experts is reviewed. Financial experts are used as the umbrella term for financial analysts, stockbrokers, money managers, investors, and day-traders etc. The goal of the review is to find out about the abilities of financial experts to produce accurate forecasts, to issue profitable stock recommendations, as well as to make successful investments and trades. On the whole, the reviewed studies show discouragin...

  18. International nuclear safety experts conclude IAEA peer review of China's regulatory system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Full text: An international team of senior experts on nuclear safety regulation today completed a two-week International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) review of the governmental and regulatory framework for nuclear safety in the People's Republic of China. The team identified good practices within the system and gave advice on areas for future improvements. The IAEA has conveyed the team's main conclusions to the Government of the People's Republic of China. The final report will be submitted to China by Autumn 2010. At the request of Chinese authorities, the IAEA assembled a team of 22 experts to conduct an Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission. This mission is a peer review based on the IAEA Safety Standards . It is not an inspection, nor an audit. The experts came from 15 different countries: Australia, Canada, the Czech Republic, Finland, France, Hungary, Japan, Pakistan, the Republic of Korea, Slovenia, South Africa, Sweden, the United Kingdom, Ukraine and the United States. Mike Weightman, the United Kingdom's Head of Nuclear Directorate, HSE and HM Chief Inspector of Nuclear Installations said: ''I was honoured and pleased to lead such a team of senior regulatory experts from around the world, and I was impressed by their commitment, experience and hard work to provide their best advice possible. We had very constructive interactions with the Chinese authority to maximize the beneficial impact of the mission.'' The scope of the mission included the regulation of nuclear and radiation safety of the facilities and activities regulated by the Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP) National Nuclear Safety Administration (NNSA). The mission was conducted from 18 to 30 July, mainly in Beijing. To observe Chinese regulatory activities, the IRRS team visited several nuclear facilities, including a nuclear power plant, a manufacturer of safety components for nuclear power plants, a research reactor, a fuel cycle facility, a waste management facility

  19. Senior expert group for the review of the Agency's programme of activities. Opening remarks by the Director General

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    1998-01-01

    The document reproduces the opening remarks made by the Director General of the IAEA on 23 March 1998 at the first meeting of the Senior Expert Group for the review of the Agency's programme and activities. The Director General explains his considerations in establishing the group, and the major challenges facing the safe use of nuclear energy and technologies

  20. Omalizumab for treating chronic spontaneous urticaria: an expert review on efficacy and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez-Arnau, Ana M

    2017-03-01

    Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is characterized by the recurrence of itchy hives and/or angioedema for greater than six weeks, with no known external trigger. Omalizumab, a humanized, recombinant, monoclonal anti-IgE antibody, is the only approved add-on therapy for H1-antihistamine refractory CSU patients. Areas covered: The objective of this article is to discuss the mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of omalizumab for the treatment of CSU. The review also summarizes efficacy and safety data from proof-of-concept, phase II (X-CUISITE, MYSTIQUE), and pivotal phase III omalizumab studies (ASTERIA I, ASTERIA II, and GLACIAL). Expert opinion: Omalizumab is a clinically effective and safe biological therapy for treating H1-antihistamine refractory CSU patients. It significantly reduces CSU symptoms (hives, itch and angioedema), and improves patient health-related quality of life. While omalizumab is already integral to the treatment of antihistamine refractory CSU, widespread use will depend on legal and economic factors, as well as improvements in the early and accurate diagnosis of CSU patients who would benefit from treatment.

  1. Genetics of Sickle Cell-Associated Cardiovascular Disease: An Expert Review with Lessons Learned in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geard, Amy; Pule, Gift D; Chelo, David; Bitoungui, Valentina Josiane Ngo; Wonkam, Ambroise

    2016-10-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) vastly impacts the African continent and is associated with cardiovascular diseases. Stroke, kidney disease, and pulmonary hypertension are considered as proxies of severity in SCD with several genomic loci implicated in their heritability. The present expert review examined the current data on epidemiology and genetic risk factors of stroke, pulmonary hypertension, and kidney disease associated with SCD, as indexed in PubMed ® and Google Scholar ® . Studies collectively show that stroke and kidney disease each affect ∼10% of SCD patients, with pulmonary hypertension displaying a higher prevalence of 30% among adults with SCD. There is some evidence that these epidemiology figures may be an underestimate in SCD patients living in Africa. A modest number of publications have identified genetic factors involved in pathways regulating inflammation, coagulation, cell adhesion, heme degradation, α-globin and γ-globin production, and others, which contribute to the development risk of targeted cardiovascular phenotypes. However, in most cases, these studies have not been validated across populations. There is therefore an urgent need for large-scale genome-wide association, whole-exome and whole-genome studies, and multiomics research on cardiovascular diseases associated with SCD, particularly in Africa, to allow for proportional investment of global research funding on diseases that greatly impact the African continent. Ultimately, this will cultivate socially responsible research investments and identification of at-risk individuals with improved preventive medicine, which should be a cornerstone of global precision medicine.

  2. International nuclear safety experts conclude IAEA peer review of Canada's regulatory system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Full text: An international team of nuclear safety experts today completed a two-week IAEA review of the regulatory framework and effectiveness of the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC). The team identified good practices within the system and gave advice on some areas for improvement. The IAEA has conveyed initial findings to Canadian authorities; the final report will be submitted by autumn. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) assembled a team of nuclear, radiation, and waste safety experts at the request of the Government of Canada, to conduct an Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission. The mission from 31 May to 12 June was a peer review based on IAEA Standards, not an inspection, nor an audit. The scope of the mission included sources, facilities and activities regulated by the CNSC: the operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs), research reactors and fuel cycle facilities; the refurbishment or licensing of new NPPs; uranium mining; radiation protection and environmental protection programmes; and the implementation of IAEA Code of Conduct on Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources. The 21-member team from 13 IAEA States and from the IAEA itself reviewed CNSC's work in all relevant areas: legislative and governmental responsibilities; responsibilities and functions; organization; activities of the regulatory body, including the authorization process, review and assessment, inspection and enforcement, the development of regulations, as well as guides and its the management system of CNSC. The basis for the review was a well-prepared self-assessment by the CNSC, including an evolution of its strengths and proposed actions to improve its regulatory effectiveness. Mr. Shojiro Matsuura, IRRS Team Leader and President of the Japanese Nuclear Safety Research Association, said the team 'was impressed by the extensive preparation at all CNSC staff levels.' 'We identified a number of good practices and made recommendations and suggestions

  3. What Are Expert Systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Agapeyeff, A.

    1986-01-01

    Intended for potential business users, this paper describes the main characteristics of expert systems; discusses practical use considerations; presents a taxonomy of the systems; and reviews several expert system development projects in business and industry. (MBR)

  4. Nuclear Experts Complete IAEA Follow-up Review of German Regulatory System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear safety experts concluded a seven-day mission to review the German Regulatory System, conducted from 4-10 September in Bonn, Stuttgart and Berlin. At the request of the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany, the International Atomic Energy Agency assembled a peer-review team of six high-level regulatory experts from six nations (Finland, France, the Netherlands, Switzerland, the UK, the US and three IAEA senior staff members) to conduct a follow-up assessment of an Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission conducted in 2008. This follow-up IRRS mission examined the progress in acting upon the recommendations and suggestions made during the 2008 IRRS mission and reviewed the areas of significant regulatory changes since that review at both the Federal Ministry of Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) and the Ministry of Environment of the federal state of Baden-Wurttemberg (UM BW). The first mission reviewed Germany's regulatory framework against IAEA Safety Standards and fostered the exchange of information and experience on safety regulation. This is a peer review based on IAEA Standards. It is not an inspection, nor an audit. The scope of the mission was limited to the safety regulation of nuclear power plants. IRRS team leader, Mr. McCree, of the US Nuclear Safety Commission (USNRC), said, ''This was an important IRRS mission, particularly given the recent Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident and the related insights which underscore the importance of having an independent, credible nuclear safety regulator.'' ''The IRRS team identified several strengths of the German nuclear safety regulators, including the prompt and coordinated incident response activities of BMU and UM BW to the Fukushima accident. Some suggestions were also made to further strengthen nuclear safety regulations concerning the future work of BMU,'' he said. The review team found that important progress has been made toward

  5. Artificial intelligence, expert systems, computer vision, and natural language processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevarter, W. B.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of artificial intelligence (AI), its core ingredients, and its applications is presented. The knowledge representation, logic, problem solving approaches, languages, and computers pertaining to AI are examined, and the state of the art in AI is reviewed. The use of AI in expert systems, computer vision, natural language processing, speech recognition and understanding, speech synthesis, problem solving, and planning is examined. Basic AI topics, including automation, search-oriented problem solving, knowledge representation, and computational logic, are discussed.

  6. How to Choose Appropriate Experts for Peer Review: An Intelligent Recommendation Method in a Big Data Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duanduan Liu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of the internet has led to the accumulation of massive amounts of data, and thus we find ourselves entering the age of big data. Obtaining useful information from these big data is a crucial issue. The aim of this article is to solve the problem of recommending experts to provide peer reviews for universities and other scientific research institutions. Our proposed recommendation method has two stages. An information filtering method is first offered to identify proper experts as a candidate set. Then, an aggregation model with various constraints is suggested to recommend appropriate experts for each applicant. The proposed method has been implemented in an online research community, and the results exhibit that the proposed method is more effective than existing ones.

  7. Application of expert system in library and information science: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatti, A.R.

    1988-09-01

    This study seeks to provide an overview of the current state of development in the application of expert system in technology in the field of library and information science. The study starts briefly looking into the capabilities of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in general and then its relevance to LIS (Library Information System) work. A basic introduction to expert system technology and outgrowth of AI research is given. The major components of a generalized expert system are discussed in some detail, and the ways in which system development can be approached are looked at. The main area of expert system applications in library and information science are discussed, looking at cataloguing, classification, reference work and library management etc. (author)

  8. EURECCA consensus conference highlights about rectal cancer clinical management: The radiation oncologist’s expert review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentini, Vincenzo; Glimelius, Bengt; Haustermans, Karin; Marijnen, Corrie A.M.; Rödel, Claus; Gambacorta, Maria Antonietta; Boelens, Petra G.; Aristei, Cynthia; Velde, Cornelis J.H. van de

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Although rectal and colon cancer management has progressed greatly in the last few decades clinical outcomes still need to be optimized. Furthermore, consensus is required on several issues as some of the main international guidelines provide different recommendations. The European Registration of Cancer Care (EURECCA) drew up documents to standardize management and care in Europe and aid in decision-making. Material and Methods: In the present section the panel of experts reviews and discusses data from the literature on rectal cancer, focusing on recommendations for selecting between short-course radiotherapy (SCRT) and long-course radio-chemotherapy (LCRTCT) as preoperative treatment as well as on the controversies about adjuvant treatment in patients who had received a pre-operative treatment. Results: The starting-point of the present EURECCA document is that adding SCRT or LCRTCT to TME improved loco-regional control but did not increase overall survival in any single trial which, in any case, had improved with the introduction of total mesorectal excision (TME) into clinical practice. Moderate consensus was achieved for cT3 anyNM0 disease. In this frame, agreement was reached on either SCRT followed by immediate surgery or LCRTCT with delayed surgery for mesorectal fascia (MRF) negative tumors at presentation. LCRTCT was recommended for tumor shrinkage in MRF+ at presentations but if patients were not candidates for chemotherapy, SCRT with delayed surgery is an option/alternative. LCRTCT was recommended for cT4 anycNM0. SCRT offers the advantages of less acute toxicity and lower costs, and LCRTCT tumor shrinkage and down-staging, with 13–36% pathological complete response (pCR) rates. To improve the efficacy of preoperative treatment both SCRT and LCRTCT have been, or are being, associated with diverse schedules of chemotherapy and even new targeted therapies but without any definitive evidence of benefit. Nowadays, standard

  9. Lymphedema and employability - Review and results of a survey of Austrian experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Markus; Schoberwalter, Dieter; Cenik, Fadime; Keilani, Mohammad; Crevenna, Richard

    2017-03-01

    Literature about lymphedema and its influence on the ability to work and employability is limited. The aim of the present study was to investigate the opinion of Austrian experts on factors influencing the ability to work and employability in patients suffering from lymphedema. A self-administered questionnaire consisting of 6 questions was sent to 12 Austrian lymphedema experts with 6 different specializations from May to August 2016. These experts were asked about suitable and unsuitable professions, the possible influence of lymphedema on the ability to work and employability as well as about existing and additional measures to improve the return to work. The reply rate was 100% (12 out of 12). All experts agreed that lymphedema can restrict the ability to work and employability. The leading reason for limited ability to work and employability was restricted mobility or function of the affected limb along with time-consuming therapeutic modalities, pain and psychological stress. The most suitable job named was teacher and the most unsuitable job named was cook. As easements for return to work, early rehabilitation, self-management, coping strategies, patient education, employer's goodwill and employer's cooperation were reported. Furthermore, experts stressed the need for an adjustment of the legal framework as well as low-barrier and more therapy offers. Adjusted work demands seem to be of greater importance to support the ability to work and employability than recommendations for specific job profiles alone. Experts suggest an adjustment of the legal framework for affected patients, claiming a right for early rehabilitation as well as for life-long therapy. Even though some clinically useful conclusions may be drawn from this article, further research in the field is warranted.

  10. Characterizing Active Ingredients of eHealth Interventions Targeting Persons With Poorly Controlled Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Using the Behavior Change Techniques Taxonomy: Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Mihiretu M; Liedtke, Tatjana P; Möllers, Tobias; Pischke, Claudia R

    2017-10-12

    The behavior change technique taxonomy v1 (BCTTv1; Michie and colleagues, 2013) is a comprehensive tool to characterize active ingredients of interventions and includes 93 labels that are hierarchically clustered into 16 hierarchical clusters. The aim of this study was to identify the active ingredients in electronic health (eHealth) interventions targeting patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and relevant outcomes. We conducted a scoping review using the BCTTv1. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), studies with or pre-post-test designs, and quasi-experimental studies examining efficacy and effectiveness of eHealth interventions for disease management or the promotion of relevant health behaviors were identified by searching PubMed, Web of Science, and PsycINFO. Reviewers independently screened titles and abstracts for eligibility using predetermined eligibility criteria. Data were extracted following a data extraction sheet. The BCTTv1 was used to characterize active ingredients of the interventions reported in the included studies. Of the 1404 unique records screened, 32 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and reported results on the efficacy and or or effectiveness of interventions. Of the included 32 studies, 18 (56%) were Web-based interventions delivered via personal digital assistant (PDA), tablet, computer, and/or mobile phones; 7 (22%) were telehealth interventions delivered via landline; 6 (19%) made use of text messaging (short service message, SMS); and 1 employed videoconferencing (3%). Of the 16 hierarchical clusters of the BCTTv1, 11 were identified in interventions included in this review. Of the 93 individual behavior change techniques (BCTs), 31 were identified as active ingredients of the interventions. The most common BCTs identified were instruction on how to perform behavior, adding objects to the environment, information about health consequences, self-monitoring of the outcomes and/or and prefers to be

  11. Expert estimation of human error probabilities in nuclear power plant operations: a review of probability assessment and scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stillwell, W.G.; Seaver, D.A.; Schwartz, J.P.

    1982-05-01

    This report reviews probability assessment and psychological scaling techniques that could be used to estimate human error probabilities (HEPs) in nuclear power plant operations. The techniques rely on expert opinion and can be used to estimate HEPs where data do not exist or are inadequate. These techniques have been used in various other contexts and have been shown to produce reasonably accurate probabilities. Some problems do exist, and limitations are discussed. Additional topics covered include methods for combining estimates from multiple experts, the effects of training on probability estimates, and some ideas on structuring the relationship between performance shaping factors and HEPs. Preliminary recommendations are provided along with cautions regarding the costs of implementing the recommendations. Additional research is required before definitive recommendations can be made

  12. New feed ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Jong, de J.

    2017-01-01

    In the framework of sustainability and a circular economy, new ingredients for feed are desired and, to this end, initiatives for implementing such novel ingredients have been started. The initiatives include a range of different sources, of which insects are of particular interest. Within the

  13. Lasers in Melasma: A Review with Consensus Recommendations by Indian Pigmentary Expert Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Rashmi; Aurangabadkar, Sanjeev; Salim, T; Das, Anupam; Shah, Swapnil; Majid, Imran; Singh, Mohan; Ravichandran, G; Godse, Kiran; Arsiwala, Shehnaz; Arya, Latika; Gokhale, Narendra; Sarma, Nilendu; Torsekar, R G; Sonthalia, Sidharth; Somani, V K

    2017-01-01

    Lasers have come up as the newest therapeutic modality in dermatological conditions including melasma. In this article, as a group of experts from Pigmentary Disorders Society in collaboration with South Asian Pigmentary Disorders Forum (SPF), we have tried to discuss the lasers which have been used in melasma and formulate simple consensus guidelines. Following thorough literature search, we have summarised the rationale of using the lasers and the supporting evidences have also been provided. It is clear that laser cannot be the first line treatment for melasma. However, it can be used as an adjuvant therapy in resistant cases, provided the selection of patient and counselling has been done properly. PMID:29263531

  14. Key ingredients for implementing intensive outpatient programs within patient-centered medical homes: A literature review and qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breland, Jessica Y; Asch, Steven M; Slightam, Cindie; Wong, Ava; Zulman, Donna M

    2016-03-01

    Intensive outpatient programs aim to transform care while conserving resources for high-need, high-cost patients, but little is known about factors that influence their implementation within patient-centered medical homes (PCMHs). In this mixed-methods study, we reviewed the literature to identify factors affecting intensive outpatient program implementation, then used semi-structured interviews to determine how these factors influenced the implementation of an intensive outpatient program within the Veterans Affairs' (VA) PCMH. Interviewees included facility leadership and clinical staff who were involved in a pilot Intensive Management Patient Aligned Care Team (ImPACT) intervention for high-need, high-cost VA PCMH patents. We classified implementation factors in the literature review and qualitative analysis using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR). The literature review (n=9 studies) and analyses of interviews (n=15) revealed key implementation factors in three CFIR domains. First, the Inner Setting (i.e., the organizational and PCMH environment), mostly enabled implementation through a culture of innovation, good networks and communication, and positive tension for change. Second, Characteristics of Individuals, including creativity, flexibility, and interpersonal skills, allowed program staff to augment existing PCMH services. Finally, certain Intervention Characteristics (e.g., adaptability) enabled implementation, while others (e.g., complexity) generated implementation barriers. Resources and structural features common to PCMHs can facilitate implementation of intensive outpatient programs, but program success is also dependent on staff creativity and flexibility, and intervention adaptations to meet patient and organizational needs. Established PCMHs likely provide resources and environments that permit accelerated implementation of intensive outpatient programs. V. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Oral contraception and menstrual bleeding during treatment of venous thromboembolism: Expert opinion versus current practice: Combined results of a systematic review, expert panel opinion and an international survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klok, F. A.; Schreiber, K.; Stach, K.; Ageno, W.; Middeldorp, S.; Eichinger, S.; Delluc, A.; Blondon, M.; Ay, C.

    2017-01-01

    The optimal management of oral contraception and menstrual bleeding during treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is largely unknown. We aimed to elicit expert opinion and compare that to current practice as assessed by a world-wide international web-based survey among physicians. 10

  16. Types of Pesticide Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide active ingredients are described by the types of pests they control or how they work. For example, algicides kill algae, biopesticides are derived from natural materials, and insecticides kill insects.

  17. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and US Department of Agriculture Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database Toggle navigation Menu Home About DSID Mission Current ... values can be saved to build a small database or add to an existing database for national, ...

  18. Medical management of melasma: A review with consensus recommendations by Indian pigmentary expert group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Sarkar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Melasma is one of the most common hyperpigmentary disorders found mainly in women and dark-skinned patients. Sunlight, hormones, pregnancy, and genetics remain the most implicated in the causation of melasma. Although rather recalcitrant to treatment, topical agents such as hydroquinone, modified Kligman's Regime, azelaic acid, kojic acid, Vitamin C, and arbutin still remain the mainstay of therapy with sun protection being a cornerstone of therapy. There are several new botanical and non botanical agents and upcoming oral therapies for the future. There is a lack of therapeutic guidelines, more so in the Indian setup. The article discusses available evidence and brings forward a suggested treatment algorithm by experts from Pigmentary Disorders Society (PDS in a collaborative discussion called South Asian Pigmentary Forum (SPF.

  19. The Pathway to a Safe and Effective Spaceflight Medication Formulary: Expert Review Panel Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, V. R.; Bayuse, T. M.; Mulcahy, R. A.; McGuire, R. K. M.; Antonsen, E. L.

    2018-01-01

    Exploration spaceflight poses several challenges to the provision of a comprehensive medication formulary. This formulary must accommodate the size and space limitations of the spacecraft, while addressing individual medication needs and preferences of the crew, consequences of a degrading inventory over time, the inability to resupply used or expired medications, and the need to forecast the best possible medication candidates to treat conditions that may occur. The Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) Element's Pharmacy Project Team has developed a research plan (RP) that is focused on evidence-based models and theories as well as new diagnostic tools, treatments, or preventive measures aimed to ensure an available, safe, and effective pharmacy sufficient to manage potential medical threats during exploration spaceflight. Here, we will discuss the ways in which the ExMC Pharmacy Project Team pursued expert evaluation and guidance, and incorporated acquired insight into an achievable research pathway, reflected in the revised RP.

  20. Expert systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haldy, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    The definitions of the terms 'artificial intelligence' and 'expert systems', the methodology, areas of employment and limits of expert systems are discussed. The operation of an expert system is described, especially the presentation and organization of knowledge as well as interference and control. Methods and tools for expert system development are presented and their application in nuclear energy are briefly addressed. 7 figs., 2 tabs., 6 refs

  1. eTBLAST: a web server to identify expert reviewers, appropriate journals and similar publications

    OpenAIRE

    Errami, Mounir; Wren, Jonathan D.; Hicks, Justin M.; Garner, Harold R.

    2007-01-01

    Authors, editors and reviewers alike use the biomedical literature to identify appropriate journals in which to publish, potential reviewers for papers or grants, and collaborators (or competitors) with similar interests. Traditionally, this process has either relied upon personal expertise and knowledge or upon a somewhat unsystematic and laborious process of manually searching through the literature for trends. To help with these tasks, we report three utilities that parse and summarize the...

  2. Can We Identify the Active Ingredients of Behaviour Change Interventions for Coronary Heart Disease Patients? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Goodwin

    Full Text Available The main behaviour change intervention available for coronary heart disease (CHD patients is cardiac rehabilitation. There is little recognition of what the active ingredients of behavioural interventions for CHD might be. Using a behaviour change technique (BCT framework to code existing interventions may help to identify this. The objectives of this systematic review are to determine the effectiveness of CHD behaviour change interventions and how this may be explained by BCT content and structure.A systematic search of Medline, EMBASE and PsycInfo electronic databases was conducted over a twelve year period (2003-2015 to identify studies which reported on behaviour change interventions for CHD patients. The content of the behaviour change interventions was coded using the Coventry Aberdeen and London-Refined (CALO-RE taxonomy. Meta-regression analyses examined the BCT content as a predictor of mortality. Twenty two papers met the criteria for this review, reporting data on 16,766 participants. The most commonly included BCTs were providing information, and goal setting. There was a small but significant effect of the interventions on smoking (risk ratio (RR = 0.89, 95% CI 0.81-0.97. The interventions did not reduce the risk of CHD events (RR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.68, 1.09, but significantly reduced the risk of mortality (RR = 0.82, 95% CI 0.69, 0.97. Sensitivity analyses did not find that any of the BCT variables predicted mortality and the number of BCTs included in an intervention was not associated with mortality (β = -0.02, 95% CI -0.06-0.03.Behaviour change interventions for CHD patients appear to have a positive impact on a number of outcomes. Using an existing BCT taxonomy to code the interventions helped us to understand which were the most commonly used techniques, providing information and goal setting, but not the active components of these complex interventions.

  3. Can We Identify the Active Ingredients of Behaviour Change Interventions for Coronary Heart Disease Patients? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Laura; Ostuzzi, Giovanni; Khan, Nadia; Hotopf, Matthew H; Moss-Morris, Rona

    2016-01-01

    The main behaviour change intervention available for coronary heart disease (CHD) patients is cardiac rehabilitation. There is little recognition of what the active ingredients of behavioural interventions for CHD might be. Using a behaviour change technique (BCT) framework to code existing interventions may help to identify this. The objectives of this systematic review are to determine the effectiveness of CHD behaviour change interventions and how this may be explained by BCT content and structure. A systematic search of Medline, EMBASE and PsycInfo electronic databases was conducted over a twelve year period (2003-2015) to identify studies which reported on behaviour change interventions for CHD patients. The content of the behaviour change interventions was coded using the Coventry Aberdeen and London-Refined (CALO-RE) taxonomy. Meta-regression analyses examined the BCT content as a predictor of mortality. Twenty two papers met the criteria for this review, reporting data on 16,766 participants. The most commonly included BCTs were providing information, and goal setting. There was a small but significant effect of the interventions on smoking (risk ratio (RR) = 0.89, 95% CI 0.81-0.97). The interventions did not reduce the risk of CHD events (RR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.68, 1.09), but significantly reduced the risk of mortality (RR = 0.82, 95% CI 0.69, 0.97). Sensitivity analyses did not find that any of the BCT variables predicted mortality and the number of BCTs included in an intervention was not associated with mortality (β = -0.02, 95% CI -0.06-0.03). Behaviour change interventions for CHD patients appear to have a positive impact on a number of outcomes. Using an existing BCT taxonomy to code the interventions helped us to understand which were the most commonly used techniques, providing information and goal setting, but not the active components of these complex interventions.

  4. VIPER: a web application for rapid expert review of variant calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöste, Marius; Dugas, Martin

    2018-01-15

    With the rapid development in next-generation sequencing, cost and time requirements for genomic sequencing are decreasing, enabling applications in many areas such as cancer research. Many tools have been developed to analyze genomic variation ranging from single nucleotide variants to whole chromosomal aberrations. As sequencing throughput increases, the number of variants called by such tools also grows. Often employed manual inspection of such calls is thus becoming a time-consuming procedure. We developed the Variant InsPector and Expert Rating tool (VIPER) to speed up this process by integrating the Integrative Genomics Viewer into a web application. Analysts can then quickly iterate through variants, apply filters and make decisions based on the generated images and variant metadata. VIPER was successfully employed in analyses with manual inspection of more than 10,000 calls. VIPER is implemented in Java and Javascript and is freely available at https://github.com/MarWoes/viper. Marius.Woeste@uni-muenster.de. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2018). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  5. Indonesian dengue burden estimates: review of evidence by an expert panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyono, T Y M; Nealon, J; Beucher, S; Prayitno, A; Moureau, A; Nawawi, S; Thabrany, H; Nadjib, M

    2017-08-01

    Routine, passive surveillance systems tend to underestimate the burden of communicable diseases such as dengue. When empirical methods are unavailable, complimentary opinion-based or extrapolative methods have been employed. Here, an expert Delphi panel estimated the proportion of dengue captured by the Indonesian surveillance system, and associated health system parameters. Following presentation of medical and epidemiological data and subsequent discussions, the panel made iterative estimates from which expansion factors (EF), the ratio of total:reported cases, were calculated. Panelists estimated that of all symptomatic Indonesian dengue episodes, 57·8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 46·6-59·8) enter healthcare facilities to seek treatment; 39·3% (95% CI 32·8-42·0) are diagnosed as dengue; and 20·3% (95% CI 16·1-24·3) are subsequently reported in the surveillance system. They estimated most hospitalizations occur in the public sector, while ~55% of ambulatory episodes are seen privately. These estimates gave an overall EF of 5·00; hospitalized EF of 1·66; and ambulatory EF of 34·01 which, when combined with passive surveillance data, equates to an annual average (2006-2015) of 612 005 dengue cases, and 183 297 hospitalizations. These estimates are lower than those published elsewhere, perhaps due to case definitions, local clinical perceptions and treatment-seeking behavior. These findings complement global burden estimates, support health economic analyses, and can be used to inform decision-making.

  6. Accepted standards on how to give a Medical Research Presentation: a systematic review of expert opinion papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blome, Christine; Sondermann, Hanno; Augustin, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Background: This systematic review aimed to extract recommendations from expert opinion articles on how to give a medical research presentation on a scientific conference and to determine whether the experts agree on what makes an effective or poor presentation. Methods: Presentation-related terms were searched within article titles listed in PubMed, restricting the search to English-language articles published from January 1975 to July 2015. Recommendations were extracted from the articles, grouped by content, and analyzed for frequency. Ninety-one articles were included. Among 679 different recommendations, 29 were given in more than 20% of articles each. The five most frequent recommendations were to keep slides simple, adjust the talk to the audience, rehearse, not read the talk from slides or a manuscript, and make eye contact. Results: No article gave advice that was the complete opposite of the 29 most frequent recommendations with the exception of whether a light or dark background should be used for slides. Conclusions: Researchers should comply with these widely accepted standards to be perceived as effective presenters. PMID:28293678

  7. Accepted standards on how to give a Medical Research Presentation: a systematic review of expert opinion papers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blome, Christine

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: This systematic review aimed to extract recommendations from expert opinion articles on how to give a medical research presentation on a scientific conference and to determine whether the experts agree on what makes an effective or poor presentation. Methods: Presentation-related terms were searched within article titles listed in PubMed, restricting the search to English-language articles published from January 1975 to July 2015. Recommendations were extracted from the articles, grouped by content, and analyzed for frequency. Ninety-one articles were included. Among 679 different recommendations, 29 were given in more than 20% of articles each. The five most frequent recommendations were to keep slides simple, adjust the talk to the audience, rehearse, not read the talk from slides or a manuscript, and make eye contact. Results: No article gave advice that was the complete opposite of the 29 most frequent recommendations with the exception of whether a light or dark background should be used for slides. Conclusions: Researchers should comply with these widely accepted standards to be perceived as effective presenters.

  8. Towards a consensus definition of maternal sepsis : results of a systematic review and expert consultation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonet, Mercedes; Nogueira Pileggi, Vicky; Rijken, Marcus J.; Coomarasamy, Arri; Lissauer, David; Souza, João Paulo; Gülmezoglu, Ahmet Metin

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is a need for a clear and actionable definition of maternal sepsis, in order to better assess the burden of this condition, trigger timely and effective treatment and allow comparisons across facilities and countries. The objective of this study was to review maternal sepsis

  9. How Noninvasive Haemoglobin Measurement with Pulse CO-Oximetry Can Change Your Practice: An Expert Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Lindner

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Trauma related haemorrhagic anaemia is rarely diagnosed by physical examination alone but typically includes measurement of blood haemoglobin, one of the most frequently ordered laboratory tests. Recently, noninvasive technologies have been developed that allow haemoglobin to be measured immediately without the need for intravenous access or having to take venous, arterial, or capillary blood. Moreover, with these technologies haemoglobin can be continuously measured in patients with active bleeding, to guide the start and stop of blood transfusions and to detect occult bleeding. Recent studies on the accuracy of the devices showed promising results in terms of accuracy of hemoglobin measurement compared to laboratory determination. The present review gives an overview on the technology itself and reviews the current literature on the subject.

  10. Developing an internationally-applicable service specification for continence care: systematic review, evidence synthesis and expert consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagg, Adrian S; Newman, Diane K; Leichsenring, Kai; van Houten, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Global demographic trends suggest that the incidence of both urinary and faecal incontinence will rise in the coming years, bringing significant health and economic implications for both patients and payers. There is limited organisational evidence to guide payers and providers about service configuration which will deliver efficient guideline-compliant, high-quality patient care. To create, using evidence from a systematic review, qualitative data and expert consensus an internationally applicable service specification for continence care. Evidence was obtained from a systematic and grey literature review of published randomised controlled trials and quasi-experimental studies reporting efficacy of continence service design at the level of the community dwelling patient with either bladder or bowel incontinence, governmental reports and policy frameworks supplemented by data from 47 semi-structured interviews with clinicians, patients, patient-representatives and policy experts from four geographies broadly representative of different healthcare systems. A number of themes related to current and potential future organisation of continence care were identified from the data. A modular service specification with eight core components was created including case detection, initial assessment and treatment, case co-ordination, caregiver support, community-based support, specialist assessment and treatment, use of containment products, and use of technology. Within this framework important key recommendations are: ensure robust referral pathways, shift assessment for case coordination to nurses specializing in continence care, promote self-management and technology, use comprehensive assessment tools and service performance targets based on outcome and operational measures. This study has defined practice gaps in the provision of continence services and described eight core components of a service specification for incontinence that commissioners and payers of health

  11. Developing an internationally-applicable service specification for continence care: systematic review, evidence synthesis and expert consensus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian S Wagg

    Full Text Available Global demographic trends suggest that the incidence of both urinary and faecal incontinence will rise in the coming years, bringing significant health and economic implications for both patients and payers. There is limited organisational evidence to guide payers and providers about service configuration which will deliver efficient guideline-compliant, high-quality patient care.To create, using evidence from a systematic review, qualitative data and expert consensus an internationally applicable service specification for continence care.Evidence was obtained from a systematic and grey literature review of published randomised controlled trials and quasi-experimental studies reporting efficacy of continence service design at the level of the community dwelling patient with either bladder or bowel incontinence, governmental reports and policy frameworks supplemented by data from 47 semi-structured interviews with clinicians, patients, patient-representatives and policy experts from four geographies broadly representative of different healthcare systems.A number of themes related to current and potential future organisation of continence care were identified from the data. A modular service specification with eight core components was created including case detection, initial assessment and treatment, case co-ordination, caregiver support, community-based support, specialist assessment and treatment, use of containment products, and use of technology. Within this framework important key recommendations are: ensure robust referral pathways, shift assessment for case coordination to nurses specializing in continence care, promote self-management and technology, use comprehensive assessment tools and service performance targets based on outcome and operational measures.This study has defined practice gaps in the provision of continence services and described eight core components of a service specification for incontinence that commissioners and

  12. IAEA Expert Team Completes Mission to Review Japan's Nuclear Power Plant Safety Assessment Process, 31 January 2012, Tokyo, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Full text: A team of international nuclear safety experts today completed a review of Japan's two-stage process for assessing nuclear safety at the nation's nuclear power plants. The team began its work on 23 January and delivered a Preliminary Summary Report to Japanese officials today and plans to finish the final report by the end of February. National safety assessments and their peer review by the IAEA are a key component of the IAEA's Action Plan on Nuclear Safety, which was approved by the Agency's 152 Member States following last year's nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. At the request of the Government of Japan, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) organized a 10-person team to review the Japanese Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency's (NISA) approach to the Comprehensive Assessments for the Safety of Existing Power Reactor Facilities and how NISA examines the results submitted by nuclear operators. The IAEA safety review mission consisted of five IAEA and three international nuclear safety experts. To help its review, the team held meetings in Tokyo with officials from NISA, the Japanese Nuclear Energy Safety (JNES) Organization, and the Kansai Electric Power Company (KEPCO), and the team visited the Ohi Nuclear Power Station to see an example of how Japan's Comprehensive Safety Assessment is being implemented by nuclear operators. 'We concluded that NISA's instructions to power plants and its review process for the Comprehensive Safety Assessments are generally consistent with IAEA Safety Standards', said team leader James Lyons, director of the IAEA's Nuclear Installation Safety Division. In its Preliminary Summary Report delivered today, the team highlighted a number of good practices and identified some improvements that would enhance the overall effectiveness of the Comprehensive Safety Assessment process. Good practices identified by the mission team include: Based on NISA instructions and commitments of the

  13. EXPERT SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiana Marin; Mihai Catalin Andrei

    2011-01-01

    In recent decades IT and computer systems have evolved rapidly in economic informatics field. The goal is to create user friendly information systems that respond promptly and accurately to requests. Informatics systems evolved into decision assisted systems, and such systems are converted, based on gained experience, in expert systems for creative problem solving that an organization is facing. Expert systems are aimed at rebuilding human reasoning on the expertise obtained from experts, sto...

  14. Functional ingredients from microalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buono, S.; Langellotti, A.L.; Martello, A.; Rinna, F.; Fogliano, V.

    2014-01-01

    A wide variety of natural sources are under investigation to evaluate their possible use for new functional ingredient formulation. Some records attested the traditional and ancient use of wild harvested microalgae as human food but their cultivation for different purposes started about 40 years

  15. The Health Experts onLine at Portsmouth (HELP system: One-year review of adult and Pediatric Asynchronous Telehealth Consultations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew H Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Health Experts onLine at Portsmouth teleconsultation system is designed to connect health providers in the Navy Medicine East Region to specialists at Naval Medical Center Portsmouth. Methods: A review of the first year of the Health Experts onLine at Portsmouth system was performed. Data on each teleconsultation were extracted from the Health Experts onLine at Portsmouth system database and analyzed. Results: From June 2014 to May 2015 there have been 585 teleconsultations. Providers stationed on 36 ships/submarines and at 28 remote military treatment facilities have utilized the Health Experts onLine at Portsmouth system. Over 280 specialists in 34 different specialties were consulted. The median time to first response from a specialist was 6 h and 8 min, with 75% of all consults being addressed within 24 h. Eighteen medevacs were recommended. Thirty-nine potential medevacs were prevented, and 100 potential civilian network deferrals were prevented, resulting in an estimated savings of over US$580,000. Discussion: Based on the 1-year metrics, Health Experts onLine at Portsmouth has provided improved access and quality of care to service members and their families throughout the Navy Medicine East Region. It has helped avoid over US$580,000 in unnecessary cost burden. Further review at the 2-year time interval will demonstrate the continued growth and effectiveness of the Health Experts onLine at Portsmouth system.

  16. The Health Experts onLine at Portsmouth (HELP) system: One-year review of adult and Pediatric Asynchronous Telehealth Consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Andrew H; Cole, Jacob H; Chin, John C; Mahnke, Chirstopher Becket

    2016-01-01

    The Health Experts onLine at Portsmouth teleconsultation system is designed to connect health providers in the Navy Medicine East Region to specialists at Naval Medical Center Portsmouth. A review of the first year of the Health Experts onLine at Portsmouth system was performed. Data on each teleconsultation were extracted from the Health Experts onLine at Portsmouth system database and analyzed. From June 2014 to May 2015 there have been 585 teleconsultations. Providers stationed on 36 ships/submarines and at 28 remote military treatment facilities have utilized the Health Experts onLine at Portsmouth system. Over 280 specialists in 34 different specialties were consulted. The median time to first response from a specialist was 6 h and 8 min, with 75% of all consults being addressed within 24 h. Eighteen medevacs were recommended. Thirty-nine potential medevacs were prevented, and 100 potential civilian network deferrals were prevented, resulting in an estimated savings of over US$580,000. Based on the 1-year metrics, Health Experts onLine at Portsmouth has provided improved access and quality of care to service members and their families throughout the Navy Medicine East Region. It has helped avoid over US$580,000 in unnecessary cost burden. Further review at the 2-year time interval will demonstrate the continued growth and effectiveness of the Health Experts onLine at Portsmouth system.

  17. Molecular ingredients of heterogeneous catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somorjai, G.A.

    1982-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a review and status report to those in theoretical chemistry of the rapidly developing surface science of heterogeneous catalysis. The art of catalysis is developing into science. This profound change provides one with opportunities not only to understand the molecular ingredients of important catalytic systems but also to develop new and improved catalyst. The participation of theorists to find answers to important questions is sorely needed for the sound development of the field. It is the authors hope that some of the outstanding problems of heterogeneous catalysis that are identified in this paper will be investigated. For this purpose the paper is divided into several sections. The brief Introduction to the methodology and recent results of the surface science of heterogeneous catalysis is followed by a review of the concepts of heterogeneous catalysis. Then, the experimental results that identified the three molecular ingredients of catalysis, structure, carbonaceous deposit and the oxidation state of surface atoms are described. Each section is closed with a summary and a list of problems that require theoretical and experimental scrutiny. Finally attempts to build new catalyst systems and the theoretical and experimental problems that appeared in the course of this research are described

  18. Molecular ingredients of heterogeneous catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somorjai, G.A.

    1982-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a review and status report to those in theoretical chemistry of the rapidly developing surface science of heterogeneous catalysis. The art of catalysis is developing into science. This profound change provides one with opportunities not only to understand the molecular ingredients of important catalytic systems but also to develop new and improved catalyst. The participation of theorists to find answers to important questions is sorely needed for the sound development of the field. It is the authors hope that some of the outstanding problems of heterogeneous catalysis that are identified in this paper will be investigated. For this purpose the paper is divided into several sections. The brief Introduction to the methodology and recent results of the surface science of heterogeneous catalysis is followed by a review of the concepts of heterogeneous catalysis. Then, the experimental results that identified the three molecular ingredients of catalysis, structure, carbonaceous deposit and the oxidation state of surface atoms are described. Each section is closed with a summary and a list of problems that require theoretical and experimental scrutiny. Finally attempts to build new catalyst systems and the theoretical and experimental problems that appeared in the course of this research are described.

  19. International Expert Review of Sr-Can: Safety Assessment Methodology - External review contribution in support of SSI's and SKI's review of SR-Can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagar, Budhi; Egan, Michael; Roehlig, Klaus-Juergen; Chapman, Neil; Wilmot, Roger

    2008-03-01

    In 2006, SKB published a safety assessment (SR-Can) as part of its work to support a licence application for the construction of a final repository for spent nuclear fuel. The purposes of the SR-Can project were stated in the main project report to be: 1. To make a first assessment of the safety of potential KBS-3 repositories at Forsmark and Laxemar to dispose of canisters as specified in the application for the encapsulation plant. 2. To provide feedback to design development, to SKB's research and development (R and D) programme, to further site investigations and to future safety assessments. 3. To foster a dialogue with the authorities that oversee SKB's activities, i.e. the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, SKI, and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, SSI, regarding interpretation of applicable regulations, as a preparation for the SR-Site project. To help inform their review of SKB's proposed approach to development of the longterm safety case, the authorities appointed three international expert review teams to carry out a review of SKB's SR-Can safety assessment report. Comments from one of these teams - the Safety Assessment Methodology (SAM) review team - are presented in this document. The SAM review team's scope of work included an examination of SKB's documentation of the assessment ('Long-term safety for KBS-3 Repositories at Forsmark and Laxemar - a first evaluation' and several supporting reports) and hearings with SKB staff and contractors, held in March 2007. As directed by SKI and SSI, the SAM review team focused on methodological aspects and sought to determine whether SKB's proposed safety assessment methodology is likely to be suitable for use in the future SR-Site and to assess its consistency with the Swedish regulatory framework. No specific evaluation of long-term safety or site acceptability was undertaken by any of the review teams. SKI and SSI's Terms of Reference for the SAM review team requested that consideration be given

  20. Use of expert panels to define the reference standard in diagnostic research: a systematic review of published methods and reporting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loes C M Bertens

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In diagnostic studies, a single and error-free test that can be used as the reference (gold standard often does not exist. One solution is the use of panel diagnosis, i.e., a group of experts who assess the results from multiple tests to reach a final diagnosis in each patient. Although panel diagnosis, also known as consensus or expert diagnosis, is frequently used as the reference standard, guidance on preferred methodology is lacking. The aim of this study is to provide an overview of methods used in panel diagnoses and to provide initial guidance on the use and reporting of panel diagnosis as reference standard. METHODS AND FINDINGS: PubMed was systematically searched for diagnostic studies applying a panel diagnosis as reference standard published up to May 31, 2012. We included diagnostic studies in which the final diagnosis was made by two or more persons based on results from multiple tests. General study characteristics and details of panel methodology were extracted. Eighty-one studies were included, of which most reported on psychiatry (37% and cardiovascular (21% diseases. Data extraction was hampered by incomplete reporting; one or more pieces of critical information about panel reference standard methodology was missing in 83% of studies. In most studies (75%, the panel consisted of three or fewer members. Panel members were blinded to the results of the index test results in 31% of studies. Reproducibility of the decision process was assessed in 17 (21% studies. Reported details on panel constitution, information for diagnosis and methods of decision making varied considerably between studies. CONCLUSIONS: Methods of panel diagnosis varied substantially across studies and many aspects of the procedure were either unclear or not reported. On the basis of our review, we identified areas for improvement and developed a checklist and flow chart for initial guidance for researchers conducting and reporting of studies

  1. Expert System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Thomas Troels; Cattani, Gian Luca

    2016-01-01

    An expert system is a computer system for inferring knowledge from a knowledge base, typically by using a set of inference rules. When the concept of expert systems was introduced at Stanford University in the early 1970s, the knowledge base was an unstructured set of facts. Today the knowledge...... base of expert systems is often given in terms of an ontology, extracted and built from various data sources by employing natural language-processing and statistics. To emphasize such capabilities, the term “expert” is now often replaced by “cognitive,” “knowledge,” “knowledge-based,” or “intelligent......” system. With very few exceptions, general-purpose expert systems have failed to emerge so far. However, expert systems are applied in specialized domains, particularly in healthcare. The increasing availability of large quantities of data to organizations today provides a valuable opportunity...

  2. Expert Systems and Special Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Alan M.; Ferrara, Joseph M.

    1986-01-01

    The article discusses the characteristics of expert systems (computer programs designed to replicate human expertise in a variety of areas), describes recently available expert system development tools, suggests applications within the field of special education, and reviews recent efforts to apply expert systems technology to special education…

  3. Expert Systems - A Natural History

    OpenAIRE

    Shadbolt, N. R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper examines the origins, current state and future prospects for expert systems. The origins are traced from the schism with classic Artificial Intelligence. The characteristics of early expert systems are described and contrasted with more recent developments. A number of influential forces operating on present day systems are reviewed. The future trends in the evolution of expert systems are discussed.

  4. Physiotherapy movement based classification approaches to low back pain: comparison of subgroups through review and developer/expert survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karayannis Nicholas V

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several classification schemes, each with its own philosophy and categorizing method, subgroup low back pain (LBP patients with the intent to guide treatment. Physiotherapy derived schemes usually have a movement impairment focus, but the extent to which other biological, psychological, and social factors of pain are encompassed requires exploration. Furthermore, within the prevailing 'biological' domain, the overlap of subgrouping strategies within the orthopaedic examination remains unexplored. The aim of this study was "to review and clarify through developer/expert survey, the theoretical basis and content of physical movement classification schemes, determine their relative reliability and similarities/differences, and to consider the extent of incorporation of the bio-psycho-social framework within the schemes". Methods A database search for relevant articles related to LBP and subgrouping or classification was conducted. Five dominant movement-based schemes were identified: Mechanical Diagnosis and Treatment (MDT, Treatment Based Classification (TBC, Pathoanatomic Based Classification (PBC, Movement System Impairment Classification (MSI, and O'Sullivan Classification System (OCS schemes. Data were extracted and a survey sent to the classification scheme developers/experts to clarify operational criteria, reliability, decision-making, and converging/diverging elements between schemes. Survey results were integrated into the review and approval obtained for accuracy. Results Considerable diversity exists between schemes in how movement informs subgrouping and in the consideration of broader neurosensory, cognitive, emotional, and behavioural dimensions of LBP. Despite differences in assessment philosophy, a common element lies in their objective to identify a movement pattern related to a pain reduction strategy. Two dominant movement paradigms emerge: (i loading strategies (MDT, TBC, PBC aimed at eliciting a phenomenon

  5. Physiotherapy movement based classification approaches to low back pain: comparison of subgroups through review and developer/expert survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Several classification schemes, each with its own philosophy and categorizing method, subgroup low back pain (LBP) patients with the intent to guide treatment. Physiotherapy derived schemes usually have a movement impairment focus, but the extent to which other biological, psychological, and social factors of pain are encompassed requires exploration. Furthermore, within the prevailing 'biological' domain, the overlap of subgrouping strategies within the orthopaedic examination remains unexplored. The aim of this study was "to review and clarify through developer/expert survey, the theoretical basis and content of physical movement classification schemes, determine their relative reliability and similarities/differences, and to consider the extent of incorporation of the bio-psycho-social framework within the schemes". Methods A database search for relevant articles related to LBP and subgrouping or classification was conducted. Five dominant movement-based schemes were identified: Mechanical Diagnosis and Treatment (MDT), Treatment Based Classification (TBC), Pathoanatomic Based Classification (PBC), Movement System Impairment Classification (MSI), and O'Sullivan Classification System (OCS) schemes. Data were extracted and a survey sent to the classification scheme developers/experts to clarify operational criteria, reliability, decision-making, and converging/diverging elements between schemes. Survey results were integrated into the review and approval obtained for accuracy. Results Considerable diversity exists between schemes in how movement informs subgrouping and in the consideration of broader neurosensory, cognitive, emotional, and behavioural dimensions of LBP. Despite differences in assessment philosophy, a common element lies in their objective to identify a movement pattern related to a pain reduction strategy. Two dominant movement paradigms emerge: (i) loading strategies (MDT, TBC, PBC) aimed at eliciting a phenomenon of centralisation of

  6. International Expert Review of SRCan: Engineered Barrier Issues. External review contribution in support of SKI's and SSI's review of SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, David (Quintessa Limited, Henley-on-Thames (GB)); Bennett, David (TerraSalus Limited, Oakham (GB)); Apted, Mick (Monitor Scientific LLC, Denver, CO (US)); Saellfors, Goeran (Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (SE)); Saario, Timo (VTT Materials and Building (FI)); Segle, Peter (Inspecta, Stockholm (SE))

    2008-03-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has recently submitted a license application for the construction of a spent fuel encapsulation plant. SKB plans to submit a further license application in 2009 for the construction of a repository for the disposal spent nuclear fuel. In connection with the first of these applications, SKB published a safety report, known as SR-Can, which assessed the safety of a spent-fuel repository. The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) (the Authorities) will make formal reviews of the licence applications, and have, therefore, jointly commissioned a team of independent experts to assess and provide comments on SKB's safety reports. The Authorities will consider the views of the independent review team in completing their own reviews. This document presents the comments and findings of the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) review group on SR-Can. The SR-Can safety report includes an examination of EBS design and performance for a range of scenarios, including expected repository evolution and possible variant scenarios, that together address processes and events that might result in the loss of certain repository safety functions. Furthermore, a series of sensitivity analyses is also presented that provides helpful insights into the relative importance of many key parameters and processes related to the EBS. In general, the explanatory text of the SR-Can safety report is clear, and the cited references provide adequate technical justifications for the assumptions, models, and data that are abstracted into the SR-Can safety report. The review group considers, therefore, that SKB's development of SR-Can has been a very valuable exercise, and that SKB should be congratulated on the breadth, depth and general clarity of its research and development and safety assessment programmes. Notwithstanding these successes, the EBS review group has identified a range

  7. Cinnamon: Mystic powers of a minute ingredient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawatra, Pallavi; Rajagopalan, Rathai

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamon, due to its exotic flavor and aroma, is a key ingredient in the kitchen of every household. From the beginning of its use in 2800 BC by our ancestors for various purposes such as anointment, embalming and various ailments, it has instigated the interest of many researchers. Recently many trials have explored the beneficial effects of cinnamon in Parkinsons, diabetes, blood, and brain. After extensive research on PubMed and Google scholar, data were collected regarding its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antilipemic, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, and anticancer effect. This systematic review underlines the surplus health benefits of this clandestine ingredient and the scope of further research in these clinical scenarios. PMID:26109781

  8. Reconceptualizing children's complex discharge with health systems theory: novel integrative review with embedded expert consultation and theory development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Jane; Brenner, Maria; Fox, Patricia; Guerin, Ashleigh

    2014-05-01

    To report a novel review to develop a health systems model of successful transition of children with complex healthcare needs from hospital to home. Children with complex healthcare needs commonly experience an expensive, ineffectual and prolonged nurse-led discharge process. Children gain no benefit from prolonged hospitalization and are exposed to significant harm. Research to enable intervention development and process evaluation across the entire health system is lacking. Novel mixed-method integrative review informed by health systems theory. DATA  CINAHL, PsychInfo, EMBASE, PubMed, citation searching, personal contact. REVIEW  Informed by consultation with experts. English language studies, opinion/discussion papers reporting research, best practice and experiences of children, parents and healthcare professionals and purposively selected policies/guidelines from 2002-December 2012 were abstracted using Framework synthesis, followed by iterative theory development. Seven critical factors derived from thirty-four sources across five health system levels explained successful discharge (new programme theory). All seven factors are required in an integrated care pathway, with a dynamic communication loop to facilitate effective discharge (new programme logic). Current health system responses were frequently static and critical success factors were commonly absent, thereby explaining ineffectual discharge. The novel evidence-based model, which reconceptualizes 'discharge' as a highly complex longitudinal health system intervention, makes a significant contribution to global knowledge to drive practice development. Research is required to develop process and outcome measures at different time points in the discharge process and future trials are needed to determine the effectiveness of integrated health system discharge models. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The suitability of caffeinated drinks for children: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials, observational studies and expert panel guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruxton, C H S

    2014-08-01

    The increased availability of caffeinated drinks raises questions about the level of caffeine that is appropriate for children, as well as the benefits and risks associated with their consumption. Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, this systematic review evaluates evidence from randomised controlled trials investigating the effects of caffeine on cognition, behaviour, mood and exercise performance in children. Observational studies and expert panel guidelines are also discussed. One hundred and nine studies were found, with 11 randomised controlled trials and 13 observational studies meeting the criteria. High caffeine intakes (e.g. >5 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1)) were associated with an increased risk of anxiety and withdrawal symptoms. However, smaller amounts were not linked with such effects and may benefit cognitive function and sports performance based on adult studies. The evidence suggests that children and adolescents should limit daily caffeine consumption to 2.5 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1), equating to one or two cups of tea or one small cup of coffee. Lower contributors of caffeine, such as tea, may be more appropriate for children because they contribute to daily fluid intakes and provide flavonoids. By contrast, caffeinated soft drinks may be less suitable options for children as a result of their acidity, higher caffeine content, presence of added sugar (in some cases) and absence of bioactive compounds. More studies are needed to determine the intakes that represent a risk and whether there may be benefits for alertness and sports performance with moderate intakes of caffeine. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  10. An expert consortium review of the EC-commissioned report "alternative (Non-Animal) methods for cosmetics testing: current status and future prospects - 2010"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartung, Thomas; Blaauboer, Bas J; Bosgra, Sieto

    2011-01-01

    The European cosmetics legislation foresees a review in 2011 and possible postponement of the 2013 marketing ban to enforce the testing ban for systemic and repeated-dose animal tests. For this purpose, a 119-page report commissioned by the European Commission was published recently. Here, a group...... of 17 independent experts from the US, Europe, and Japan was brought together to evaluate the report. The expert panel strongly endorsed the report and its conclusions. A number of important options not considered were identified; these do not, however, affect the overall conclusions regarding...

  11. Experts reviews of the multidisciplinary consensus conference colon and rectal cancer 2012: science, opinions and experiences from the experts of surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Velde, C J H; Boelens, P G; Tanis, P J; Espin, E; Mroczkowski, P; Naredi, P; Pahlman, L; Ortiz, H; Rutten, H J; Breugom, A J; Smith, J J; Wibe, A; Wiggers, T; Valentini, V

    2014-04-01

    The first multidisciplinary consensus conference on colon and rectal cancer was held in December 2012, achieving a majority of consensus for diagnostic and treatment decisions using the Delphi Method. This article will give a critical appraisal of the topics discussed during the meeting and in the consensus document by well-known leaders in surgery that were involved in this multidisciplinary consensus process. Scientific evidence, experience and opinions are collected to support multidisciplinary teams (MDT) with arguments for medical decision-making in diagnosis, staging and treatment strategies for patients with colon or rectal cancer. Surgery is the cornerstone of curative treatment for colon and rectal cancer. Standardizing treatment is an effective instrument to improve outcome of multidisciplinary cancer care for patients with colon and rectal cancer. In this article, a review of the following focuses; Perioperative care, age and colorectal surgery, obstructive colorectal cancer, stenting, surgical anatomical considerations, total mesorectal excision (TME) surgery and training, surgical considerations for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) and local recurrent rectal cancer (LRRC), surgery in stage IV colorectal cancer, definitions of quality of surgery, transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM), laparoscopic colon and rectal surgery, preoperative radiotherapy and chemoradiotherapy, and how about functional outcome after surgery? Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of a multimedia tutorial to educate how to assess the critical view of safety in laparoscopic cholecystectomy using expert review and crowd-sourcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Shanley B; Stefanidis, Dimitrios; Brunt, L Michael; Alseidi, Adnan

    2017-05-01

    We sought to determine the feasibility of developing a multimedia educational tutorial to teach learners to assess the critical view of safety using input from expert surgeons, non-surgeons and crowd-sourcing. We intended to develop a tutorial that would teach learners how to identify the basic anatomy and physiology of the gallbladder, identify the components of the critical view of safety criteria, and understand its significance for performing a safe gallbladder removal. Using rounds of assessment with experts, laypersons and crowd-workers we developed an educational video with improving comprehension after each round of revision. We demonstrate that the development of a multimedia educational tool to educate learners of various backgrounds is feasible using an iterative review process that incorporates the input of experts and crowd sourcing. When planning the development of an educational tutorial, a step-wise approach as described herein should be considered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A Review of the Ingredients Contained in Over the Counter (OTC Cough Syrup Formulations in Kenya. Are They Harmful to Infants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Kigen

    Full Text Available Cough syrups are widely used in the developing world, but safety of their use in infants and children less than two years has not been well documented. Some syrups contain multiple combinations of such drugs as promethazine, diphenhydramine and ephedrine; which are individually now contraindicated in children less than two years. Despite this, the syrups are available as over the counter drugs and may be dispensed to mothers who are unaware of the potentially hazardous effects to their infants. A descriptive cross-sectional study was used to investigate suitability of cough syrups sold within Eldoret municipality for use in children less than two years of age based on their formulations and available literature.Two semi-structured questionnaires were administered to pharmacy attendants and mothers attending sick child clinic at a referral hospital to establish whether cough syrups containing more than one active ingredient of compounds, now contraindicated in children are administered to infants, and awareness of potential serious adverse effects. Data from labeled contents of cough syrups from retail pharmacies was recorded and corroborated with information from literature to determine those deemed to contain the ingredients. The second questionnaire was administered to mothers with children less than two years to ascertain whether they had used the identified syrups. A total of 260 mothers and 55 pharmacy attendants were interviewed.There was widespread use of the syrups in children, including infants, with 192 (74% of the respondents having used identified syrups and over 90% of these on children less than 2 years including those less than three months.146 (76% mothers had administered the syrup at double the recommended dose.The regulatory authorities should make concerted efforts to discourage use of cough syrups containing ingredients that pose adverse events to infants, including campaigns to educate pharmacy workers and mothers.

  14. Expert Witness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    demonstrated that, on the balance of probabilities, a correct diagnosis at that time would not have altered the course of the illness. Quantum. Where it appears likely that the claimant may have a strong case on both breach of duty and causation, MPS may seek the opinion of a quantum expert to assist in determining the size.

  15. Expert Systems: What Is an Expert System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Beverly K.; Main, Linda

    1994-01-01

    Describes expert systems and discusses their use in libraries. Highlights include parts of an expert system; expert system shells; an example of how to build an expert system; a bibliography of 34 sources of information on expert systems in libraries; and a list of 10 expert system shells used in libraries. (Contains five references.) (LRW)

  16. Report of an experts' mission to review the modernization programme of the Kozloduy NPP units 5 and 6 Kozloduy, Bulgaria 26 June - 1 July 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the IAEA Safety Review Mission was to review the safety aspects of the Kozloduy 5/6 modernization programme, and to advise on the completeness and adequacy of the safety improvements proposed. The IAEA draft report ''Ranking of Safety Issues for WWER-1000 Model 320 NPPs'', WWER-SC-104, 1995-05-29 (referred to as the Issue Book in the subsequent text) was the basis for the experts' review. The IAEA NUSS standards and guides, and internationally accepted safety concepts and practices and national standards, complemented by the Russian safety rules in force, were used in the preparation of the issue book. The scope of the review covered the plant design and operational safety aspects as proposed in the modernization programme. The upgrading measures, which are only related to the improvement of plant availability, were not included in the review

  17. A review of traditional and novel treatments for seizures in autism spectrum disorder: Findings from a systematic review and expert panel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Eugene Frye

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that seizures are commonly associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD, the effectiveness of treatments for seizures has not been well studied in individuals with ASD. This manuscript reviews both traditional and novel treatments for seizures associated with ASD. Studies were selected by systematically searching major electronic databases and by a panel of experts that treat ASD individuals. Only a few anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs have undergone carefully controlled trials in ASD, but these trials examined outcomes other than seizures. Several lines of evidence point to valproate, lamotrigine and levetiracetam as the most effective and tolerable AEDs for individuals with ASD. Limited evidence supports the use of traditional non-AED treatments, such as the ketogenic and modified Atkins diet, multiple subpial transections and immunomodulation and neurofeedback treatments. Although specific treatments may be more appropriate for specific genetic and metabolic syndromes associated with ASD and seizures, there are few studies which have documented the effectiveness of treatments for seizures for specific syndromes. Limited evidence supports L-carnitine, multivitamins and N-acetyl-L-cysteine in mitochondrial disease and dysfunction, folinic acid in cerebral folate abnormalities and early treatment with vigabatrin in tuberous sclerosis complex. Finally, there is limited evidence for a number of novel treatments, particularly magnesium with pyridoxine, omega-3 fatty acids, the gluten-free casein-free diet and transcranial magnetic simulation. Zinc and L-carnosine are potential novel treatments supported by basic research but not clinical studies. This review demonstrates the wide variety of treatments used to treat seizures in individuals with ASD as well as the striking lack of clinical trials performed to support the use these treatments. Additional studies concerning these treatments for controlling seizures in individuals with ASD

  18. Personality Traits of Expert Teachers of Students with Behavioural Problems: A Review and Classification of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttner, Svenja; Pijl, Sip Jan; Bijstra, Jan; van den Bosch, Els

    2015-01-01

    Teaching students with behavioural problems is a challenge for many teachers but other teachers are able to bring out the best in these students. Much research has been done to find out what differentiates expert teachers from their less skilled colleagues. Recent evidence points to personality as an underlying core factor influencing teacher…

  19. 75 FR 71701 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Request for Nominations of Experts for the Review of a Draft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... candidates themselves, and background information independently gathered by the SAB Staff Office. Selection... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9230-7] Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Request for... Science Advisory Board (SAB) Staff Office is requesting public nominations for technical experts to form...

  20. What is an expert system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunand, R.; Gondran, M.; Thomas, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    The concepts and the steps to be taken into account for applying expert systems are reviewed. The role of expert systems as a new computer programming concept and the gain in productivity, flexibility and reliability by applying a programming methodology are underlined. The main components of the methodology applied are explained and illustrated. The application of expert systems in the design and operation of the nuclear power plants is presented. The experience acquired and the perspectives in the use of expert systems are discussed [fr

  1. Inactive ingredient Search for Approved Drug Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to 21 CFR 210.3(b)(8), an inactive ingredient is any component of a drug product other than the active ingredient. Only inactive ingredients in the final...

  2. Safety assessment of personal care products/cosmetics and their ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohynek, Gerhard J; Antignac, Eric; Re, Thomas; Toutain, Herve

    2010-03-01

    We attempt to review the safety assessment of personal care products (PCP) and ingredients that are representative and pose complex safety issues. PCP are generally applied to human skin and mainly produce local exposure, although skin penetration or use in the oral cavity, on the face, lips, eyes and mucosa may also produce human systemic exposure. In the EU, US and Japan, the safety of PCP is regulated under cosmetic and/or drug regulations. Oxidative hair dyes contain arylamines, the most chemically reactive ingredients of PCP. Although arylamines have an allergic potential, taking into account the high number of consumers exposed, the incidence and prevalence of hair dye allergy appears to be low and stable. A recent (2001) epidemiology study suggested an association of oxidative hair dye use and increased bladder cancer risk in consumers, although this was not confirmed by subsequent or previous epidemiologic investigations. The results of genetic toxicity, carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity studies suggest that modern hair dyes and their ingredients pose no genotoxic, carcinogenic or reproductive risk. Recent reports suggest that arylamines contained in oxidative hair dyes are N-acetylated in human or mammalian skin resulting in systemic exposure to traces of detoxified, i.e. non-genotoxic, metabolites, whereas human hepatocytes were unable to transform hair dye arylamines to potentially carcinogenic metabolites. An expert panel of the International Agency on Research of Cancer (IARC) concluded that there is no evidence for a causal association of hair dye exposure with an elevated cancer risk in consumers. Ultraviolet filters have important benefits by protecting the consumer against adverse effects of UV radiation; these substances undergo a stringent safety evaluation under current international regulations prior to their marketing. Concerns were also raised about the safety of solid nanoparticles in PCP, mainly TiO(2) and ZnO in sunscreens. However

  3. Safety assessment of personal care products/cosmetics and their ingredients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nohynek, Gerhard J.; Antignac, Eric; Re, Thomas; Toutain, Herve

    2010-01-01

    We attempt to review the safety assessment of personal care products (PCP) and ingredients that are representative and pose complex safety issues. PCP are generally applied to human skin and mainly produce local exposure, although skin penetration or use in the oral cavity, on the face, lips, eyes and mucosa may also produce human systemic exposure. In the EU, US and Japan, the safety of PCP is regulated under cosmetic and/or drug regulations. Oxidative hair dyes contain arylamines, the most chemically reactive ingredients of PCP. Although arylamines have an allergic potential, taking into account the high number of consumers exposed, the incidence and prevalence of hair dye allergy appears to be low and stable. A recent (2001) epidemiology study suggested an association of oxidative hair dye use and increased bladder cancer risk in consumers, although this was not confirmed by subsequent or previous epidemiologic investigations. The results of genetic toxicity, carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity studies suggest that modern hair dyes and their ingredients pose no genotoxic, carcinogenic or reproductive risk. Recent reports suggest that arylamines contained in oxidative hair dyes are N-acetylated in human or mammalian skin resulting in systemic exposure to traces of detoxified, i.e. non-genotoxic, metabolites, whereas human hepatocytes were unable to transform hair dye arylamines to potentially carcinogenic metabolites. An expert panel of the International Agency on Research of Cancer (IARC) concluded that there is no evidence for a causal association of hair dye exposure with an elevated cancer risk in consumers. Ultraviolet filters have important benefits by protecting the consumer against adverse effects of UV radiation; these substances undergo a stringent safety evaluation under current international regulations prior to their marketing. Concerns were also raised about the safety of solid nanoparticles in PCP, mainly TiO 2 and ZnO in sunscreens. However

  4. Skin-Applied Repellent Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Active ingredients in EPA-registered insect repellents include catnip oil, oil of citronella, DEET, IR 3535, picaridin, oil of lemon eucalyptus, and 2-undecanone. Find fact sheets and pesticide regulatory information.

  5. STRING 2008 hold at CERN -- the largest and most important conference on String Theory with the mostly active researchers in the field. The main purpose of the conference is to review the latest developments for experts.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2008-01-01

    STRING 2008 hold at CERN -- the largest and most important conference on String Theory with the mostly active researchers in the field. The main purpose of the conference is to review the latest developments for experts.

  6. Effective Active Ingredients Obtained through Biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Zappelli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The history of cosmetics develops in parallel to the history of man, associated with fishing, hunting, and superstition in the beginning, and later with medicine and pharmacy. Over the ages, together with human progress, cosmetics have changed continuously and nowadays the cosmetic market is global and highly competitive, where terms such as quality, efficacy and safety are essential. Consumers’ demands are extremely sophisticated, and thus scientific research and product development have become vital to meet them. Moreover, consumers are aware about environmental and sustainability issues, and thus not harming the environment represents a key consideration when developing a new cosmetic ingredient. The latest tendencies of cosmetics are based on advanced research into how to interfere with skin cell aging: research includes the use of biotechnology-derived ingredients and the analysis of their effects on the biology of the cells, in terms of gene regulation, protein expression and enzymatic activity measures. In this review, we will provide some examples of cosmetic active ingredients developed through biotechnological systems, whose activity on the skin has been scientifically proved through in vitro and clinical studies.

  7. Expert systems in clinical microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winstanley, Trevor; Courvalin, Patrice

    2011-07-01

    This review aims to discuss expert systems in general and how they may be used in medicine as a whole and clinical microbiology in particular (with the aid of interpretive reading). It considers rule-based systems, pattern-based systems, and data mining and introduces neural nets. A variety of noncommercial systems is described, and the central role played by the EUCAST is stressed. The need for expert rules in the environment of reset EUCAST breakpoints is also questioned. Commercial automated systems with on-board expert systems are considered, with emphasis being placed on the "big three": Vitek 2, BD Phoenix, and MicroScan. By necessity and in places, the review becomes a general review of automated system performances for the detection of specific resistance mechanisms rather than focusing solely on expert systems. Published performance evaluations of each system are drawn together and commented on critically.

  8. An expert consortium review of the EC-commissioned report "alternative (Non-Animal) methods for cosmetics testing: current status and future prospects - 2010".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Thomas; Blaauboer, Bas J; Bosgra, Sieto; Carney, Edward; Coenen, Joachim; Conolly, Rory B; Corsini, Emanuela; Green, Sidney; Faustman, Elaine M; Gaspari, Anthony; Hayashi, Makoto; Wallace Hayes, A; Hengstler, Jan G; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Knudsen, Thomas B; McKim, James M; Pfaller, Walter; Roggen, Erwin L

    2011-01-01

    The European cosmetics legislation foresees a review in 2011 and possible postponement of the 2013 marketing ban to enforce the testing ban for systemic and repeated-dose animal tests. For this purpose, a 119-page report commissioned by the European Commission was published recently. Here, a group of 17 independent experts from the US, Europe, and Japan was brought together to evaluate the report. The expert panel strongly endorsed the report and its conclusions. A number of important options not considered were identified; these do not, however, affect the overall conclusions regarding the current lack of availability of a full replacement, especially for the areas of repeated dose toxicity, carcinogenicity testing, and reproductive toxicity, though a roadmap for change is emerging. However, some of these options may provide adequate data for replacement of some animal studies in the near future pending validation. Various recommendations expand the original report. The reviewers agree with the report that there is greater promise in the short term for the areas of sensitization and toxicokinetics. Additional opportunities lie in more global collaborations and the inclusion of other industry sectors.

  9. Designing an Educational Website to Improve Quality of Supportive Oncology Care for Women with Ovarian Cancer: An Expert Usability Review and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Molly A; Karumur, Raghav Pavan; Vogel, Rachel Isaksson; Petzel, Sue V; Cragg, Julie; Chan, Daniel; Jacko, Julie A; Sainfort, François; Geller, Melissa A

    A broad-based research team developed a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)-compliant educational website for women with ovarian cancer to improve the quality of supportive oncology care. Prior to a randomized clinical trial of the website, initial usability testing was implemented to evaluate the website. The initial review found that 165/247 checklist items had sufficient information to allow for evaluation with the website achieving an overall score of 63%. By category, lowest scores were for the Home Page, Task Orientation, Page Layout & Visual Design, and Help, Feedback & Error Tolerance. Major issues thought to potentially impede actual usage were prioritized in redevelopment and the second usability review, conducted by the same expert, saw an improvement in scores. Incorporating usability concepts from the start of development, fulfilling the positive expectations of end-users and identifying technical and personal factors that optimize use may greatly enhance usage of health websites.

  10. Plutonium - the ultrapoison? An expert's opinion about an expert opinion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoll, W.; Becker, K.

    1989-01-01

    In an expert opinion written by Professor H. Kuni, Marburg, for the North Rhine-Westphalian state government, plutonium is called by far the most dangerous element in the Periodic Table. The Marburg medical expert holds that even improved legal instruments are unable to warrant effective protection of the workers handling this material, in the light of the present standards of industrial safety, because of radiological conditions and measuring problems with plutonium isotopes. In this article by an internationally renowned expert in the field, the ideas expressed in the expert opinion about the toxicity of plutonium, the cause-and-effect relationship in radiation damage by plutonium, and recent findings about the toxicity are subjected to a critical review. On the basis of results of radiation protection and of case studies, the statements in the expert opinion are contrasted with facts which make them appear in a very different light. (orig./RB) [de

  11. Expert Systems and Intelligent Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, H. M.

    1987-01-01

    Explores what an intelligent information retrieval system involves and why expert system techniques might interest system designers. Expert systems research is reviewed with emphasis on components, architecture, and computer interaction, and it is concluded that information retrieval is not an ideal problem domain for expert system application at…

  12. Revisión: Uso de Ingredientes no Cárnicos como Reemplazantes de Grasa en Derivados Cárnicos Use of non-Meat Ingredients as Fat Replacers in Meat Derivatives: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldir Augusto Pacheco Pérez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión de literatura en la que se describen las diferentes alternativas en materia de ingredientes y aditivos no cárnicos que se han venido evaluando como reemplazantes de grasa en el desarrollo de derivados cárnicos bajos en grasa. Estas posibilidades apuntan a buscar respuestas ante las necesidades que se han generado dentro del sector cárnico, en cuanto a la formulación y elaboración de derivados cárnicos saludables, que cumplan con los requerimientos y actuales hábitos alimenticios asociados a las nuevas tendencias de la industria alimentaria. En esta revisión se mencionan estudios realizados acerca del uso de ciertos ingredientes a base de carbohidratos, proteínas y lípidos; al igual que algunas anotaciones sobre los resultados y las conclusiones establecidas por los respectivos autores. La revisión realizada arrojo que dentro de los diferentes ingredientes evaluados, los reemplazantes de grasa a base de carbohidratos, específicamente los hidrocoloides, mostraron las mayores aplicaciones ya que en muchas investigaciones se lograron mantener algunas características funcionales y organolépticas en el producto final similares a las de un producto elaborado con grasa animal. De otro lado, los reemplazantes de grasa a base de lípidos modificados químicamente, mostraron ser una alternativa promisoria; ya que la modificación de sus propiedades físicas y químicas, ayuda a minimizar ciertos aspectos desfavorables que pueden aparecer en el producto final durante el procesamiento, como la producción de ácidos grasos trans.A literature review, where the different alternatives in terms of non-meat ingredients and additives that have been evaluated as fat replacers in the development of low fat meat derivatives, was carried out. These possibilities aim at looking for response to the necessity that have been generated within the meat sector, in the formulation and manufacturing of healthy meat derivatives, that

  13. Image-based medical expert teleconsultation in acute care of injuries. A systematic review of effects on information accuracy, diagnostic validity, clinical outcome, and user satisfaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Hasselberg

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the literature on image-based telemedicine for medical expert consultation in acute care of injuries, considering system, user, and clinical aspects. DESIGN: Systematic review of peer-reviewed journal articles. DATA SOURCES: Searches of five databases and in eligible articles, relevant reviews, and specialized peer-reviewed journals. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Studies were included that covered teleconsultation systems based on image capture and transfer with the objective of seeking medical expertise for the diagnostic and treatment of acute injury care and that presented the evaluation of one or several aspects of the system based on empirical data. Studies of systems not under routine practice or including real-time interactive video conferencing were excluded. METHOD: The procedures used in this review followed the PRISMA Statement. Predefined criteria were used for the assessment of the risk of bias. The DeLone and McLean Information System Success Model was used as a framework to synthesise the results according to system quality, user satisfaction, information quality and net benefits. All data extractions were done by at least two reviewers independently. RESULTS: Out of 331 articles, 24 were found eligible. Diagnostic validity and management outcomes were often studied; fewer studies focused on system quality and user satisfaction. Most systems were evaluated at a feasibility stage or during small-scale pilot testing. Although the results of the evaluations were generally positive, biases in the methodology of evaluation were concerning selection, performance and exclusion. Gold standards and statistical tests were not always used when assessing diagnostic validity and patient management. CONCLUSIONS: Image-based telemedicine systems for injury emergency care tend to support valid diagnosis and influence patient management. The evidence relates to a few clinical fields, and has substantial methodological

  14. Image-based medical expert teleconsultation in acute care of injuries. A systematic review of effects on information accuracy, diagnostic validity, clinical outcome, and user satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselberg, Marie; Beer, Netta; Blom, Lisa; Wallis, Lee A; Laflamme, Lucie

    2014-01-01

    To systematically review the literature on image-based telemedicine for medical expert consultation in acute care of injuries, considering system, user, and clinical aspects. Systematic review of peer-reviewed journal articles. Searches of five databases and in eligible articles, relevant reviews, and specialized peer-reviewed journals. Studies were included that covered teleconsultation systems based on image capture and transfer with the objective of seeking medical expertise for the diagnostic and treatment of acute injury care and that presented the evaluation of one or several aspects of the system based on empirical data. Studies of systems not under routine practice or including real-time interactive video conferencing were excluded. The procedures used in this review followed the PRISMA Statement. Predefined criteria were used for the assessment of the risk of bias. The DeLone and McLean Information System Success Model was used as a framework to synthesise the results according to system quality, user satisfaction, information quality and net benefits. All data extractions were done by at least two reviewers independently. Out of 331 articles, 24 were found eligible. Diagnostic validity and management outcomes were often studied; fewer studies focused on system quality and user satisfaction. Most systems were evaluated at a feasibility stage or during small-scale pilot testing. Although the results of the evaluations were generally positive, biases in the methodology of evaluation were concerning selection, performance and exclusion. Gold standards and statistical tests were not always used when assessing diagnostic validity and patient management. Image-based telemedicine systems for injury emergency care tend to support valid diagnosis and influence patient management. The evidence relates to a few clinical fields, and has substantial methodological shortcomings. As in the case of telemedicine in general, user and system quality aspects are poorly

  15. Lactose in dairy ingredients: Effect on processing and storage stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppertz, Thom; Gazi, Inge

    2016-08-01

    Lactose is the main carbohydrate in the milk of most species. It is present in virtually all dry dairy ingredients, with levels ranging from lactose powders. The presence of lactose has a strong effect on ingredient processing and stability. Lactose can negatively influence powder properties and lead to undesirable effects, such as the stickiness of powder resulting in fouling during drying, or caking and related phenomena during storage. In addition, being a reducing carbohydrate, lactose can also participate in the Maillard reaction with free amino groups of proteins, peptides, and free AA. In this review, the influence of the presence (or absence) of lactose on physiochemical properties of dairy ingredients is reviewed, with particular emphasis on behavior during processing and storage. Particularly important features in this respect are whether lactose is in the (glassy) amorphous phase or in the crystalline phase, which is strongly affected by precrystallization conditions (e.g., in lactose, permeate, and whey powders) and by drying conditions. Furthermore, the moisture content and water activity of the ingredients are important parameters to consider, as they determine both mobility and reactivity, influencing Maillard reactions and concomitant browning, the crystallization of amorphous lactose during storage of dairy ingredients, glass transitions temperatures, and associated stickiness and caking phenomena. For the stickiness and caking, a crucial aspect to take into account is powder particle surface composition in relation to the bulk powder. Lactose is typically underrepresented at the powder surface, as a result of which deviations between observed lactose-induced caking and stickiness temperatures, and determined glass transition temperatures arise. By considering lactose as an integral part of ingredient composition along with all other compositional and environmental properties, lactose behavior in dairy ingredients can be understood, controlled, and

  16. Scratching the surface of tomorrow's diagnostics: the Editor-in-Chief's opinion at the 15th year of Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorincz, Attila; Raison, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Interview with Attila Lorincz by Claire Raison (Commissioning Editor) To mark the beginning of the 15th year of Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics, the journal's Editor-in-Chief shares his expert knowledge on translational diagnostics, his opinion on recent controversies and his predictions for molecular diagnostics in 2015 and beyond. Attila Lorincz received his doctorate from Trinity College, Dublin, Republic of Ireland, and went on to become a research fellow at the University of California, Santa Barbara, CA, USA. During Professor Lorincz's research on human papillomavirus (HPV), he found several important and novel carcinogenic HPV types and pioneered the use of HPV DNA testing for clinical diagnostics. In 1988, Professor Lorincz's team produced the first HPV test to be FDA-approved for patients and in 2003, for general population cervical precancer screening. Now Professor of Molecular Epidemiology at the Centre for Cancer Prevention, Queen Mary University of London, UK, he and his team are furthering translational research into DNA methylation assays for cancer risk prediction.

  17. Expert Systems: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiga, Sadashiv

    1984-01-01

    Discusses: (1) the architecture of expert systems; (2) features that distinguish expert systems from conventional programs; (3) conditions necessary to select a particular application for the development of successful expert systems; (4) issues to be resolved when building expert systems; and (5) limitations. Examples of selected expert systems…

  18. Encapsulation of new active ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    The organic construct consumed as food comes packaged in units that carry the active components, protects the entrapped active materials until delivered to targeted human organ. The packaging and delivery role is mimicked in the microencapsulation tools used to deliver active ingredients in process...

  19. Resources for Educating, Training, and Mentoring Nurses and Unregulated Nursing Care Providers in Palliative Care: A Review and Expert Consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesut, Barbara; Greig, Madeleine

    2018-01-01

    Nurses and nursing care providers provide the most direct care to patients at end of life. Yet, evidence indicates that many feel ill-prepared for the complexity of palliative care. To review the resources required to ensure adequate education, training, and mentorship for nurses and nursing care providers who care for Canadians experiencing life-limiting illness and their families. This is a systematic search and narrative review in the Canadian context. Six previous reviews and 26 primary studies were identified. Studies focusing on regulated nurses indicated that even amid variability in content, delivery methods, and duration, palliative education improves nurses' knowledge, confidence, attitudes, and communication abilities, and decreases nurses' stress. Results from palliative education in undergraduate curriculum were less definitive. However, studies on palliative simulation in undergraduate education suggest that it improves knowledge and confidence. Studies focusing on educating nursing care providers, either alone or in collaboration with regulated nurses, indicated positive outcomes in knowledge, confidence, communication, identification of clients who are dying, abilities to interact with patients and families, and a better understanding of their own contributions to care. Curricular resources in Canada have been developed. However, there is no dedicated and funded capacity-building strategy. Resources exist to support palliative education for nurses and nursing care providers. Furthermore, the evidence suggests good outcomes from this education. However, there is no dedicated strategy for implementing those resources. Furthermore, there is little evidence of the critical role of knowledge translation in preparing nurses and nursing care providers for evidence-informed palliative practice.

  20. Pre-return-to-work medical consultation for low back pain workers. Good practice recommendations based on systematic review and expert consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, A; Rozenberg, S; Fassier, J B; Rousseau, S; Mairiaux, P; Roquelaure, Y

    2015-10-01

    The pre-return-to-work medical consultation during sick leave for low back pain (LBP) aims at assessing the worker's ability to resume working without risk for his/her health, and anticipating any difficulties inherent to returning to work and job retention. This article summarizes the good practices guidelines proposed by the French Society of Occupational Medicine (SFMT) and the French National Health Authority (HAS), and published in October 2013. Good practices guidelines developed by a multidisciplinary and independent task force (24 experts) and peer review committee (50 experts) based on a literature review from 1990 to 2012, according to the HAS methodology. According to the labour regulations, workers can request a medical consultation with their occupational physician at any time. The pre-return-to-work consultation precedes the effective return-to-work and can be requested by the employee regardless of their sick leave duration. It must be scheduled early enough to: (i) deliver reassuring information regarding risks to the lower back and managing LBP; (ii) evaluate prognostic factors of chronicity and prolonged disability in relations to LBP and its physical, social and occupational consequences in order to implement the necessary conditions for returning to work; (iii) support and promote staying at work by taking into account all medical, social and occupational aspects of the situation and ensure proper coordination between the different actors. A better understanding of the pre-return-to-work consultation would improve collaboration and coordination of actions to facilitate resuming work and job retention for patients with LBP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. The SKI SITE-94 Project: An International Peer Review Carried out by an OECD/NEA Team of Experts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagar, Budhi; Devillers, C.; Smith, Paul; Laliuex, P.; Pescatore, C.

    1997-10-01

    The recently completed SITE-94 project is an SKI effort directed at building competence and capacity in the assessment of safety of a spent-fuel geologic repository. Emphasis is given to the assimilation of site-specific data, with its associated uncertainties, into the performance assessment. Specific attention is also given to improving the understanding of mechanisms that might compromise canister integrity. This report represents the common views of an International Review Team (IRT) established by the NEA Secretariat, at the request of SKI, to perform a peer review of SITE-94. The basis for the report is the understanding of SITE-94 and its background obtained by IRT in the course of several months of study of SITE-94 documentation, internal discussions and a meeting with SKI in Stockholm. The report is limited to the main findings of IRT. The intended audience of the report is the staff of SKI and, accordingly, the style of the report is suited to a technical audience familiar with the contents of the SITE-94 project

  2. The hired gun expert witness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, M

    1994-04-01

    This article briefly discusses the role of the expert physician witness at trial and describes what is emerging as the physician professional witness (AKA hired gun). The trial court's powers to evaluate the professionalism and objectivity of an expert witness are examined in light of a recent Western District Missouri Court of Appeals case. This case, while limited to its peculiar set of facts, permitted both a hearing and production of documents of a physician who had been hired to testify. This article reviews the role of the expert physician witness in Missouri litigation in light of recent caselaw outlining discovery procedures to monitor use of professional witnesses. The term "professional witness" does not refer to witnesses who are professionals, but rather to persons who make their entire living witnessing. The Missouri Court of Appeals ruling in State ex rel. Lichtor v. Clark, 845 S.W.2d (Mo.App. W.D. 1992) elucidates the Missouri Courts' authority in sorting out unprofessional physicians who would offer unobjective expert testimony. While this particular article is intended for medical readership and discusses expert physician witnesses, expert witnesses can come from any profession including engineering, accounting, nursing, etc. It might thus be assumed that the Lichtor Court's procedure may be applied to any expert whose objectivity has been put into question.

  3. Report of the expert committee on the review of data on atmospheric fallout arising from British nuclear tests in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The terms of reference of the committee were to review the published scientific literature and other relevant scientific data on the short and long-term effects of fallout arising from British nuclear tests in Australia; to comment on the adequacy of the data available and the collection methodology; to assess the fallout levels arising from each of the tests, the immediate and subsequent hazards from the fallout to the Australian population and individual Australians, including Australian personnel involved and aborigines in South Australia, and the adequacy of the criteria for safe firing of each of the tests. A comparison is made of radiation protection standards adopted during the nuclear test period with current standards. The recommendations include the setting up of a public inquiry to determine how the conduct and consequences of the British nuclear tests affected the health and well-being of Australians

  4. Expert (Peer) Reviews at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP): Making Complex Information and Decision Making Transparent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Leif G.

    2001-01-01

    On the 18th of May 1998, based on the information provided by the United Sates Department of Energy (DOE) in support of the 1996 Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Compliance Certification Application, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency certified the proposed deep geological repository for disposal of long-lived, defense-generated, transuranic radioactive waste at the WIPP site in New Mexico, United States of America, was compliant with all applicable radioactive waste disposal regulations. Seven domestic and one joint international peer reviews commissioned by the DOE were instrumental in making complex scientific and engineering information, as well as the related WIPP decision-making process, both credible and transparent to the majority of affected and interested parties and, ultimately, to the regulator

  5. Hospital organisation, management, and structure for prevention of health-care-associated infection: a systematic review and expert consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingg, Walter; Holmes, Alison; Dettenkofer, Markus; Goetting, Tim; Secci, Federica; Clack, Lauren; Allegranzi, Benedetta; Magiorakos, Anna-Pelagia; Pittet, Didier

    2015-02-01

    Despite control efforts, the burden of health-care-associated infections in Europe is high and leads to around 37,000 deaths each year. We did a systematic review to identify crucial elements for the organisation of effective infection-prevention programmes in hospitals and key components for implementation of monitoring. 92 studies published from 1996 to 2012 were assessed and ten key components identified: organisation of infection control at the hospital level; bed occupancy, staffing, workload, and employment of pool or agency nurses; availability of and ease of access to materials and equipment and optimum ergonomics; appropriate use of guidelines; education and training; auditing; surveillance and feedback; multimodal and multidisciplinary prevention programmes that include behavioural change; engagement of champions; and positive organisational culture. These components comprise manageable and widely applicable ways to reduce health-care-associated infections and improve patients' safety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Adaptive ingredients against food spoilage in Japanese cuisine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsubo, Yohsuke

    2009-12-01

    Billing and Sherman proposed the antimicrobial hypothesis to explain the worldwide spice use pattern. The present study explored whether two antimicrobial ingredients (i.e. spices and vinegar) are used in ways consistent with the antimicrobial hypothesis. Four specific predictions were tested: meat-based recipes would call for more spices/vinegar than vegetable-based recipes; summer recipes would call for more spices/vinegar than winter recipes; recipes in hotter regions would call for more spices/vinegar; and recipes including unheated ingredients would call for more spices/vinegar. Spice/vinegar use patterns were compiled from two types of traditional Japanese cookbooks. Dataset I included recipes provided by elderly Japanese housewives. Dataset II included recipes provided by experts in traditional Japanese foods. The analyses of Dataset I revealed that the vinegar use pattern conformed to the predictions. In contrast, analyses of Dataset II generally supported the predictions in terms of spices, but not vinegar.

  7. A systematic review of missed opportunities for improving tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS control in Sub-saharan Africa: what is still missed by health experts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keugoung, Basile; Fouelifack, Florent Ymele; Fotsing, Richard; Macq, Jean; Meli, Jean; Criel, Bart

    2014-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis are major public health problems. In 2010, 64% of the 34 million of people infected with HIV were reported to be living in sub-Saharan Africa. Only 41% of eligible HIV-positive people had access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Regarding tuberculosis, in 2010, the region had 12% of the world's population but reported 26% of the 8.8 million incident cases and 254000 tuberculosis-related deaths. This paper aims to review missed opportunities for improving HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis prevention and care. We conducted a systematic review in PubMed using the terms 'missed'(Title) AND 'opportunities'(Title). We included systematic review and original research articles done in sub-Saharan Africa on missed opportunities in HIV/AIDS and/or tuberculosis care. Missed opportunities for improving HIV/AIDS and/or tuberculosis care can be classified into five categories: i) patient and community; ii) health professional; iii) health facility; iv) local health system; and v) vertical programme (HIV/AIDS and/or tuberculosis control programmes). None of the reviewed studies identified any missed opportunities related to health system strengthening. Opportunities that are missed hamper tuberculosis and/or HIV/AIDS care in sub-Saharan Africa where health systems remain weak. What is still missing in the analysis of health experts is the acknowledgement that opportunities that are missed to strengthen health systems also undermine tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS prevention and care. Studying why these opportunities are missed will help to understand the rationales behind the missed opportunities, and customize adequate strategies to seize them and for effective diseases control.

  8. Rapid screening for lipid storage disorders using biochemical markers. Expert center data and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorink-Moret, M; Goorden, S M I; van Kuilenburg, A B P; Wijburg, F A; Ghauharali-van der Vlugt, J M M; Beers-Stet, F S; Zoetekouw, A; Kulik, W; Hollak, C E M; Vaz, F M

    2018-02-01

    In patients suspected of a lipid storage disorder (sphingolipidoses, lipidoses), confirmation of the diagnosis relies predominantly on the measurement of specific enzymatic activities and genetic studies. New UPLC-MS/MS methods have been developed to measure lysosphingolipids and oxysterols, which, combined with chitotriosidase activity may represent a rapid first tier screening for lipid storage disorders. A lysosphingolipid panel consisting of lysoglobotriaosylceramide (LysoGb3), lysohexosylceramide (LysoHexCer: both lysoglucosylceramide and lysogalactosylceramide), lysosphingomyelin (LysoSM) and its carboxylated analogue lysosphingomyelin-509 (LysoSM-509) was measured in control subjects and plasma samples of predominantly untreated patients affected with lipid storage disorders (n=74). In addition, the oxysterols cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol and 7-ketocholesterol were measured in a subset of these patients (n=36) as well as chitotriosidase activity (n=43). A systematic review of the literature was performed to assess the usefulness of these biochemical markers. Specific elevations of metabolites, i.e. without overlap between controls and other lipid storage disorders, were found for several lysosomal storage diseases: increased LysoSM levels in acid sphingomyelinase deficiency (Niemann-Pick disease type A/B), LysoGb3 levels in males with classical phenotype Fabry disease and LysoHexCer (i.e. lysoglucosylceramide/lysogalactosylceramide) in Gaucher and Krabbe diseases. While elevated levels of LysoSM-509 and cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol did not discriminate between Niemann Pick disease type C and acid sphingomyelinase deficiency, LysoSM-509/LysoSM ratio was specifically elevated in Niemann-Pick disease type C. In Gaucher disease type I, mild increases in several lysosphingolipids were found including LysoGb3 with levels in the range of non-classical Fabry males and females. Chitotriosidase showed specific elevations in symptomatic Gaucher disease, and was mildly

  9. The Chemistry of Curcumin, the Health Promoting Ingredient in Turmeric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewprashad, Brahmadeo

    2010-01-01

    Case studies pertaining to the health benefits of foods can be particularly effective in engaging students and in teaching core concepts in science (Heidemann and Urquart 2005). This case study focuses on the chemistry of curcumin, the health-promoting ingredient in turmeric. The case was developed to review core concepts in organic chemistry and…

  10. Mechanism of action of cathinone: The active ingredient of Khat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To review the current understanding of the mechanism of action of cathinone, the active ingredient of khat. Data source: Published experimental studies on the nature and action and effect of cathinone on the central nervous system both in animals and humans. Data extraction: Data was taken from work ...

  11. Clinical Practice Update: The Use of Per-Oral Endoscopic Myotomy in Achalasia: Expert Review and Best Practice Advice From the AGA Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahrilas, Peter J; Katzka, David; Richter, Joel E

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this review is to describe a place for per-oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) among the currently available robust treatments for achalasia. The recommendations outlined in this review are based on expert opinion and on relevant publications from PubMed and EMbase. The Clinical Practice Updates Committee of the American Gastroenterological Association proposes the following recommendations: 1) in determining the need for achalasia therapy, patient-specific parameters (Chicago Classification subtype, comorbidities, early vs late disease, primary or secondary causes) should be considered along with published efficacy data; 2) given the complexity of this procedure, POEM should be performed by experienced physicians in high-volume centers because an estimated 20-40 procedures are needed to achieve competence; 3) if the expertise is available, POEM should be considered as primary therapy for type III achalasia; 4) if the expertise is available, POEM should be considered as treatment option comparable with laparoscopic Heller myotomy for any of the achalasia syndromes; and 5) post-POEM patients should be considered high risk to develop reflux esophagitis and advised of the management considerations (potential indefinite proton pump inhibitor therapy and/or surveillance endoscopy) of this before undergoing the procedure. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The good, the bad and the expert: How consumer expertise affects review valence effects on purchase intentions in online product reviews.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, P. E.; Willemsen, L. M.; Sleven, L.; Kerkhof, P.

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to shed more light on the question whether, and under what circumstances, valence affects consumers' intention to buy a product after reading an online review. We hypothesize that receiver expertise could possibly moderate (a) the impact of review valence on consumers' purchase

  13. The Good, the Bad, and the Expert: How Consumer Expertise Affects Review Valence Effects on Purchase Intentions in Online Product Reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, P.E.; Willemsen, L.M.; Sleven, L.; Kerkhof, P.

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to shed more light on the question whether, and under what circumstances, valence affects consumers' intention to buy a product after reading an online review. We hypothesize that receiver expertise could possibly moderate (a) the impact of review valence on consumers' purchase

  14. History matters: The impact of reviews and sales of earlier versions of a product on consumer and expert reviews of new editions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Situmeang, F.B.I.; Leenders, M.A.A.M.; Wijnberg, N.M.

    2013-01-01

    Product reviews are assumed to be based on the observable characteristics of the underlying product. However, in the case of new editions in a product series, the determinants may include signals that originate from the reviews and the sales of editions that precede the focal product edition. Our

  15. Our unrequited love for natural ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdock, George A; Wang, Wendan

    2017-09-01

    Naturally sourced food ingredients have been the beneficiary of legal, regulatory and consumer preference as the result of a widely shared assumption of safety. However, the natural substances consumed in modernity may have little to do with the historically consumed part of the plant or even the plant itself. Further, our initial impression of a safe plant derivative may well be false as the result of the use of different growth conditions or, changes in harvesting and processing conditions that may have brought about a higher level of toxic constituents. Despite the variability of plant constituents, manufacturers' standards are set according to the content of commercially desirable properties, rather than presence of potentially toxic constituents. Why then, after all the potential reservations regarding naturals, is there such an enmity toward synthetic chemicals (including single chemical fermentation products), which have been tested in a systematic manner for potential toxic effects and whose composition is well known as the result of consistent manufacturing techniques and analytical controls? The authors will describe the paradigms used for natural products safety review and compare them with the safety criteria required for an "artificial" food ingredient. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of Ingredients on Cigarette Smoke Composition and Biological Activity: A Literature Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paschke T

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a literature review of published scientific studies of the effects of tobacco product ingredients and various experimental additives on cigarette smoke composition and its biological activity. The format of this work is that of an uncommented reference paper rather than a critical scientific review. Therefore, the mention of an ingredient in this survey does not imply that it is used by the tobacco industry or that it is covered by any existing national regulations. A broad range of scientific papers and patents on tobacco ingredients is included as well as studies on experimental ingredients. This review may provide public health officials as well as scientists in government agencies and in the tobacco industry with a helpful overview of published information on tobacco product ingredients, their transfer into mainstream cigarette smoke, pyrolysis products, and influence on the biological activity of mainstream cigarette smoke.

  17. Speech spectrogram expert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johannsen, J.; Macallister, J.; Michalek, T.; Ross, S.

    1983-01-01

    Various authors have pointed out that humans can become quite adept at deriving phonetic transcriptions from speech spectrograms (as good as 90percent accuracy at the phoneme level). The authors describe an expert system which attempts to simulate this performance. The speech spectrogram expert (spex) is actually a society made up of three experts: a 2-dimensional vision expert, an acoustic-phonetic expert, and a phonetics expert. The visual reasoning expert finds important visual features of the spectrogram. The acoustic-phonetic expert reasons about how visual features relates to phonemes, and about how phonemes change visually in different contexts. The phonetics expert reasons about allowable phoneme sequences and transformations, and deduces an english spelling for phoneme strings. The speech spectrogram expert is highly interactive, allowing users to investigate hypotheses and edit rules. 10 references.

  18. 21 CFR 701.30 - Ingredient names established for cosmetic ingredient labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ingredient names established for cosmetic... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC LABELING Labeling of Specific Ingredients § 701.30 Ingredient names established for cosmetic ingredient labeling. The Commissioner establishes the following...

  19. Dasabuvir (ABT333) for the treatment of chronic HCV genotype I: a new face of cure, an expert review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantry, Parvez S; Pathak, Lakshmikant

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) affects nearly 1.3% of US population and around 2% of people worldwide. It is associated with serious complication of Cirrhosis and Hepatocellular carcinoma leading to significant morbidity and mortality. Until now the only treatment option for this serious disease was interferon based therapy which had poor tolerance and at best SVR (Sustained virological response) in only 50% of cases. With the introduction of other direct - acting antiviral agents the treatment of HCV has been revolutionized with significantly high rates of cure. Among novel Direct acting antivirals are non-nucleoside inhibitor NS5B which is highly effective in treatment of HCV genotype 1 a and 1b including those with compensated cirrhosis achieving high cure rates with SVR more than 97 % in pooled analysis from six different phase 3 trials. This review will discuss the DAA - Dasabuvir, a non - nucleoside NS5B inhibitor, its mechanism of action, efficacy, safety & tolerance, and drug resistance. Dasabuvir is approved by FDA in combination with other DAA agents called as the 3D(Viekira Pak) in various interferon free regimens achieving high cure rates (SVR >95%) with low adverse effects. In Europe, it is approved by European medicines agency for use in combination with Ombitasvir, Paritaprevir, and ritonavir with or without ribavirin. The drug is used in treatment naive as well as previously treated patient with high success rates. It is also approved in patients with compensated cirrhosis, patients with HIV co-infection and liver transplant recipients which were in the past were excluded from treatment with interferon based therapy. Dasabuvir is extensively evaluated in large clinical trials and shown excellent SVR among HCV genotype1 patient population in combination with other oral DAAs, with good safety profile and tolerance. Its drawback is its genotype restriction, need for ribavirin (RBV) for 1a genotype, low resistance barrier and high cost. It is well tolerated

  20. The role of nonfat ingredients on confectionery fat crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Ryan; Rousseau, Dérick

    2017-03-31

    Confections such as chocolate and biscuit fillings are composed of a continuous fat phase that contains dispersed nonfat ingredients such as sugar and cocoa powder. Research on fat crystallization and rheology in confections often extrapolates crystallization and textural properties from bulk to mixed systems while overlooking the important role of composition or particle interactions. For example, in chocolate processing the fat phase aids dispersed phase lubrication and fluidity whereas the dispersed particles assist in fat crystallization by providing many nucleation sites. In confections with a high dispersed phase volume fraction, fat crystallization may be hindered due to reduced triacyglycerol mobility, confinement, and increased tortuosity. This is further complicated in systems with slow crystallizing fats such as palm oil whose crystallization is exceptionally sensitive to composition and processing. This review breaks down the physical chemistry of fat-based confections and discusses the impact of different nonfat ingredients towards fat crystallization and rheology. The behavior of palm oil is further highlighted as it is becoming increasingly popular as a confectionery ingredient. Lastly, ingredient-ingredient interactions and their role in fat crystallization are described along with force spectroscopy as a novel tool to characterize such phenomena. Force spectroscopy utilizes atomic force microscopy to measure intermolecular forces as a function of distance but remains largely unexplored in the area of food science.

  1. Integrating Evidence From Systematic Reviews, Qualitative Research, and Expert Knowledge Using Co-Design Techniques to Develop a Web-Based Intervention for People in the Retirement Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Nicola; Heaven, Ben; Teal, Gemma; Evans, Elizabeth H; Cleland, Claire; Moffatt, Suzanne; Sniehotta, Falko F; White, Martin; Mathers, John C

    2016-01-01

    Background Integrating stakeholder involvement in complex health intervention design maximizes acceptability and potential effectiveness. However, there is little methodological guidance about how to integrate evidence systematically from various sources in this process. Scientific evidence derived from different approaches can be difficult to integrate and the problem is compounded when attempting to include diverse, subjective input from stakeholders. Objective The intent of the study was to describe and appraise a systematic, sequential approach to integrate scientific evidence, expert knowledge and experience, and stakeholder involvement in the co-design and development of a complex health intervention. The development of a Web-based lifestyle intervention for people in retirement is used as an example. Methods Evidence from three systematic reviews, qualitative research findings, and expert knowledge was compiled to produce evidence statements (stage 1). Face validity of these statements was assessed by key stakeholders in a co-design workshop resulting in a set of intervention principles (stage 2). These principles were assessed for face validity in a second workshop, resulting in core intervention concepts and hand-drawn prototypes (stage 3). The outputs from stages 1-3 were translated into a design brief and specification (stage 4), which guided the building of a functioning prototype, Web-based intervention (stage 5). This prototype was de-risked resulting in an optimized functioning prototype (stage 6), which was subject to iterative testing and optimization (stage 7), prior to formal pilot evaluation. Results The evidence statements (stage 1) highlighted the effectiveness of physical activity, dietary and social role interventions in retirement; the idiosyncratic nature of retirement and well-being; the value of using specific behavior change techniques including those derived from the Health Action Process Approach; and the need for signposting to local

  2. Integrating Evidence From Systematic Reviews, Qualitative Research, and Expert Knowledge Using Co-Design Techniques to Develop a Web-Based Intervention for People in the Retirement Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Nicola; Heaven, Ben; Teal, Gemma; Evans, Elizabeth H; Cleland, Claire; Moffatt, Suzanne; Sniehotta, Falko F; White, Martin; Mathers, John C; Moynihan, Paula

    2016-08-03

    Integrating stakeholder involvement in complex health intervention design maximizes acceptability and potential effectiveness. However, there is little methodological guidance about how to integrate evidence systematically from various sources in this process. Scientific evidence derived from different approaches can be difficult to integrate and the problem is compounded when attempting to include diverse, subjective input from stakeholders. The intent of the study was to describe and appraise a systematic, sequential approach to integrate scientific evidence, expert knowledge and experience, and stakeholder involvement in the co-design and development of a complex health intervention. The development of a Web-based lifestyle intervention for people in retirement is used as an example. Evidence from three systematic reviews, qualitative research findings, and expert knowledge was compiled to produce evidence statements (stage 1). Face validity of these statements was assessed by key stakeholders in a co-design workshop resulting in a set of intervention principles (stage 2). These principles were assessed for face validity in a second workshop, resulting in core intervention concepts and hand-drawn prototypes (stage 3). The outputs from stages 1-3 were translated into a design brief and specification (stage 4), which guided the building of a functioning prototype, Web-based intervention (stage 5). This prototype was de-risked resulting in an optimized functioning prototype (stage 6), which was subject to iterative testing and optimization (stage 7), prior to formal pilot evaluation. The evidence statements (stage 1) highlighted the effectiveness of physical activity, dietary and social role interventions in retirement; the idiosyncratic nature of retirement and well-being; the value of using specific behavior change techniques including those derived from the Health Action Process Approach; and the need for signposting to local resources. The intervention

  3. Treating an Established Episode of Delirium in Palliative Care: Expert Opinion and Review of the Current Evidence Base With Recommendations for Future Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, José L.; Davis, Daniel H.J.; Currow, David C.; Meagher, David; Rabheru, Kiran; Wright, David; Bruera, Eduardo; Hartwick, Michael; Gagnon, Pierre R.; Gagnon, Bruno; Breitbart, William; Regnier, Laura; Lawlor, Peter G.

    2014-01-01

    Context Delirium is a highly prevalent complication in patients in palliative care settings, especially in the end-of-life context. Objectives To review the current evidence base for treating episodes of delirium in palliative care settings and propose a framework for future development. Methods We combined multidisciplinary input from delirium researchers and other purposely selected stakeholders at an international delirium study planning meeting. This was supplemented by a literature search of multiple databases and relevant reference lists to identify studies regarding therapeutic interventions for delirium. Results The context of delirium management in palliative care is highly variable. The standard management of a delirium episode includes the investigation of precipitating and aggravating factors followed by symptomatic treatment with drug therapy. However, the intensity of this management depends on illness trajectory and goals of care in addition to the local availability of both investigative modalities and therapeutic interventions. Pharmacologically, haloperidol remains the practice standard by consensus for symptomatic control. Dosing schedules are derived from expert opinion and various clinical practice guidelines as evidence-based data from palliative care settings are limited. The commonly used pharmacologic interventions for delirium in this population warrant evaluation in clinical trials to examine dosing and titration regimens, different routes of administration, and safety and efficacy compared with placebo. Conclusion Delirium treatment is multidimensional and includes the identification of precipitating and aggravating factors. For symptomatic management, haloperidol remains the practice standard. Further high-quality collaborative research investigating the appropriate treatment of this complex syndrome is needed. PMID:24480529

  4. 78 FR 9987 - Call for Expert Reviewers to the U.S. Government Review of the 2013 Supplement to the 2006...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) established the IPCC in 1988. In... the following Web sites: http://www.ipcc.ch/organization/organization_review.shtml#.UEY0LqSe7x8 http://ipcc.ch/organization/organization_procedures.shtml . Following an invitation from the UNFCCC to...

  5. Expert system technology for nondestructive waste assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, G.K.; Determan, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    Nondestructive assay waste characterization data generated for use in the National TRU Program must be of known and demonstrable quality. Each measurement is required to receive an independent technical review by a qualified expert. An expert system prototype has been developed to automate waste NDA data review of a passive/active neutron drum counter system. The expert system is designed to yield a confidence rating regarding measurement validity. Expert system rules are derived from data in a process involving data clustering, fuzzy logic, and genetic algorithms. Expert system performance is assessed against confidence assignments elicited from waste NDA domain experts. Performance levels varied for the active, passive shielded, and passive system assay modes of the drum counter system, ranging from 78% to 94% correct classifications

  6. Expert system technology for nondestructive waste assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, G.K.; Determan, J.C.

    1998-07-01

    Nondestructive assay waste characterization data generated for use in the National TRU Program must be of known and demonstrable quality. Each measurement is required to receive an independent technical review by a qualified expert. An expert system prototype has been developed to automate waste NDA data review of a passive/active neutron drum counter system. The expert system is designed to yield a confidence rating regarding measurement validity. Expert system rules are derived from data in a process involving data clustering, fuzzy logic, and genetic algorithms. Expert system performance is assessed against confidence assignments elicited from waste NDA domain experts. Performance levels varied for the active, passive shielded, and passive system assay modes of the drum counter system, ranging from 78% to 94% correct classifications.

  7. Safety Assessment of Anthemis nobilis-Derived Ingredients as Used in Cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wilbur; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    Anthemis nobilis (Roman chamomile) flower extract, anthemis nobilis flower oil, anthemis nobilis flower powder, and anthemis nobilis flower water are ingredients that function as fragrance ingredients and skin-conditioning agents in cosmetic products. These ingredients are being used at concentrations up to 10% (anthemis nobilis flower water) in cosmetic products. The available data indicate that these 4 ingredients are not irritating or sensitizing. Chemical composition data and the low use concentrations suggest that systemic toxicity would not be likely if percutaneous absorption of constituents were to occur. Formulations may contain more than 1 botanical ingredient; each may contribute to the final concentration of a single component. Manufacturers were cautioned to avoid reaching levels of plant constituents that may cause sensitization or other adverse effects. Industry should continue to use good manufacturing practices to limit impurities in the ingredient before blending into cosmetic formulations. The Expert Panel concluded that these ingredients are safe in the present practices of use and concentration in cosmetics, when formulated to be nonsensitizing.

  8. Evaluating complex interventions in end of life care: the MORECare statement on good practice generated by a synthesis of transparent expert consultations and systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginson, Irene J; Evans, Catherine J; Grande, Gunn; Preston, Nancy; Morgan, Myfanwy; McCrone, Paul; Lewis, Penney; Fayers, Peter; Harding, Richard; Hotopf, Matthew; Murray, Scott A; Benalia, Hamid; Gysels, Marjolein; Farquhar, Morag; Todd, Chris

    2013-04-24

    Despite being a core business of medicine, end of life care (EoLC) is neglected. It is hampered by research that is difficult to conduct with no common standards. We aimed to develop evidence-based guidance on the best methods for the design and conduct of research on EoLC to further knowledge in the field. The Methods Of Researching End of life Care (MORECare) project built on the Medical Research Council guidance on the development and evaluation of complex circumstances. We conducted systematic literature reviews, transparent expert consultations (TEC) involving consensus methods of nominal group and online voting, and stakeholder workshops to identify challenges and best practice in EoLC research, including: participation recruitment, ethics, attrition, integration of mixed methods, complex outcomes and economic evaluation. We synthesised all findings to develop a guidance statement on the best methods to research EoLC. We integrated data from three systematic reviews and five TECs with 133 online responses. We recommend research designs extending beyond randomised trials and encompassing mixed methods. Patients and families value participation in research, and consumer or patient collaboration in developing studies can resolve some ethical concerns. It is ethically desirable to offer patients and families the opportunity to participate in research. Outcome measures should be short, responsive to change and ideally used for both clinical practice and research. Attrition should be anticipated in studies and may affirm inclusion of the relevant population, but careful reporting is necessitated using a new classification. Eventual implementation requires consideration at all stages of the project. The MORECare statement provides 36 best practice solutions for research evaluating services and treatments in EoLC to improve study quality and set the standard for future research. The statement may be used alongside existing statements and provides a first step in

  9. Using health technology assessment to assess the value of new medicines: results of a systematic review and expert consultation across eight European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelis, Aris; Lange, Ansgar; Kanavos, Panos

    2018-01-01

    Although health technology assessment (HTA) systems base their decision making process either on economic evaluations or comparative clinical benefit assessment, a central aim of recent approaches to value measurement, including value based assessment and pricing, points towards the incorporation of supplementary evidence and criteria that capture additional dimensions of value. To study the practices, processes and policies of value-assessment for new medicines across eight European countries and the role of HTA beyond economic evaluation and clinical benefit assessment. A systematic (peer review and grey) literature review was conducted using an analytical framework examining: (1) 'Responsibilities and structure of HTA agencies'; (2) 'Evidence and evaluation criteria considered in HTAs'; (3) 'Methods and techniques applied in HTAs'; and (4) 'Outcomes and implementation of HTAs'. Study countries were France, Germany, England, Sweden, Italy, Netherlands, Poland and Spain. Evidence from the literature was validated and updated through two rounds of feedback involving primary data collection from national experts. All countries assess similar types of evidence; however, the specific criteria/endpoints used, their level of provision and requirement, and the way they are incorporated (e.g. explicitly vs. implicitly) varies across countries, with their relative importance remaining generally unknown. Incorporation of additional 'social value judgements' (beyond clinical benefit assessment) and economic evaluation could help explain heterogeneity in coverage recommendations and decision-making. More comprehensive and systematic assessment procedures characterised by increased transparency, in terms of selection of evaluation criteria, their importance and intensity of use, could lead to more rational evidence-based decision-making, possibly improving efficiency in resource allocation, while also raising public confidence and fairness.

  10. Expert system for fast reactor diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parcy, J.P.

    1982-09-01

    A general description of expert systems is given. The operation of a fast reactor is reviewed. The expert system to the diagnosis of breakdowns limited to the reactor core. The structure of the system is described: specification of the diagnostics; structure of the data bank and evaluation of the rules; specification of the prediagnostics and evaluation; explanation of the diagnostics; time evolution of the system; comparison with other expert systems. Applications to some cases of faults are finally presented [fr

  11. Expert auditors’ services classification

    OpenAIRE

    Jolanta Wisniewska

    2013-01-01

    The profession of an expert auditor is a public trust occupation with a distinctive feature of taking responsibility for actions in the public interest. The main responsibility of expert auditors is performing financial auditing; however, expert auditors are prepared to carry out different tasks which encompass a wide plethora of financial and auditing services for different kinds of institutions and companies. The aim of the article is first of all the description of expert auditors’ service...

  12. Efficacy and safety of ingredients found in preworkout supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eudy, Anne E; Gordon, Lindsay L; Hockaday, Brandon C; Lee, Daniel A; Lee, Vivianne; Luu, Daniel; Martinez, Carlos A; Ambrose, Peter J

    2013-04-01

    Published evidence on common ingredients of "energy drinks" and other dietary supplements widely used by consumers in hopes of enhancing athletic performance is reviewed. Preworkout products- unregulated dietary supplements- typically contain "proprietary blends" of multiple ingredients, including caffeine, dimethylamylamine, creatine, arginine, β-alanine, taurine, and phosphates. While some dietary supplement labels instruct consumers to seek the advice of a health care professional before using the products, the labels usually do not disclose all ingredients or their precise amounts, and evidence to support the purported performance-enhancing benefits is generally lacking. There is limited evidence to support the use of some preworkout supplement ingredients. For example, in one small placebo-controlled study (n = 12), the use of the energy drink Red Bull (containing caffeine and taurine) 40 minutes before a simulated cycling time trial appeared to provide a meaningful ergogenic benefit; in another small study (n = 12), the use of a similar caffeine-containing product (Redline) by strength-trained athletes was found to improve reaction time, energy, and mental focus relative to placebo use. However, published evidence on the use of the other ingredients listed above is scant, inconclusive, or conflicting. Adverse effects reported in association with preworkout supplements include gastrointestinal symptoms, cardiac arrhythmia, blood pressure increases, and potential effects on lipids and blood glucose. Although evidence exists to support the performance-enhancement efficacy of some preworkout ingredients as standalone agents, published data on combination products are scant, inconclusive, or conflicting. The safety of these products may be compromised if users consume larger-than-recommended amounts or use more than one product.

  13. Persuasiveness of expert systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, JJ; Liebrand, WBG; Timminga, E; Liebrand, Wim B.G.

    1998-01-01

    Expert system advice is not always evaluated by examining its contents. Users can be persuaded by expert system advice because they have certain beliefs about advice given by a computer. The experiment in this paper shows that subjects (n = 84) thought that, given the same argumentation, expert

  14. International Expert Review of Sr-Can: Safety Assessment Methodology - External review contribution in support of SSI's and SKI's review of SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagar, Budhi (Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (US)); Egan, Michael (Quintessa Limited, Henley-on-Thames (GB)); Roehlig, Klaus-Juergen (Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (DE)); Chapman, Neil (Independent Consultant (XX)); Wilmot, Roger (Galson Sciences Limited, Oakham (GB))

    2008-03-15

    In 2006, SKB published a safety assessment (SR-Can) as part of its work to support a licence application for the construction of a final repository for spent nuclear fuel. The purposes of the SR-Can project were stated in the main project report to be: 1. To make a first assessment of the safety of potential KBS-3 repositories at Forsmark and Laxemar to dispose of canisters as specified in the application for the encapsulation plant. 2. To provide feedback to design development, to SKB's research and development (R and D) programme, to further site investigations and to future safety assessments. 3. To foster a dialogue with the authorities that oversee SKB's activities, i.e. the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, SKI, and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, SSI, regarding interpretation of applicable regulations, as a preparation for the SR-Site project. To help inform their review of SKB's proposed approach to development of the longterm safety case, the authorities appointed three international expert review teams to carry out a review of SKB's SR-Can safety assessment report. Comments from one of these teams - the Safety Assessment Methodology (SAM) review team - are presented in this document. The SAM review team's scope of work included an examination of SKB's documentation of the assessment ('Long-term safety for KBS-3 Repositories at Forsmark and Laxemar - a first evaluation' and several supporting reports) and hearings with SKB staff and contractors, held in March 2007. As directed by SKI and SSI, the SAM review team focused on methodological aspects and sought to determine whether SKB's proposed safety assessment methodology is likely to be suitable for use in the future SR-Site and to assess its consistency with the Swedish regulatory framework. No specific evaluation of long-term safety or site acceptability was undertaken by any of the review teams. SKI and SSI's Terms of Reference for the SAM

  15. Expert systems as decision tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, C.K.

    1989-01-01

    The feasibility of using expert systems as an aid in regulatory compliance functions has been investigated. A literature review was carried out to identify applications of expert systems to regulatory affairs. A bibliography of the small literature on such applications was prepared. A prototype system, ARIES, was developed to demonstrate the use of an expert system as an aid to a Project Officer in assuring compliance with licence requirements. The system runs on a personal computer with a graphical interface. Extensive use is made of hypertext to link interrelated rules and requirements as well as to provide an explanation facility. Based on the performance of ARIES the development of a field version is recommended

  16. TU Delft expert judgment data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, Roger M.; Goossens, Louis L.H.J.

    2008-01-01

    We review the applications of structured expert judgment uncertainty quantification using the 'classical model' developed at the Delft University of Technology over the last 17 years [Cooke RM. Experts in uncertainty. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1991; Expert judgment study on atmospheric dispersion and deposition. Report Faculty of Technical Mathematics and Informatics No.01-81, Delft University of Technology; 1991]. These involve 45 expert panels, performed under contract with problem owners who reviewed and approved the results. With a few exceptions, all these applications involved the use of seed variables; that is, variables from the experts' area of expertise for which the true values are available post hoc. Seed variables are used to (1) measure expert performance, (2) enable performance-based weighted combination of experts' distributions, and (3) evaluate and hopefully validate the resulting combination or 'decision maker'. This article reviews the classical model for structured expert judgment and the performance measures, reviews applications, comparing performance-based decision makers with 'equal weight' decision makers, and collects some lessons learned

  17. Novel botanical ingredients for beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenwald, Joerg

    2009-01-01

    Natural substances are generally preferred over chemical ones and are generally seen as healthy. The increasing demand for natural ingredients, improving health and appearance, is also attracting beverages as the fastest growing segment on the functional food market. Functional beverages are launched as fortified water, tea, diary or juices claiming overall nutrition, energy, anti-aging or relaxing effects. The substitution of so called superfruits, such as berries, grapes, or pomegranate delivers an effective range of beneficial compounds, including vitamins, fatty acids, minerals, and anti-oxidants. In this context, new exotic and African fruits could be useful sources in the near future. Teas and green botanicals, such as algae or aloe vera are also rich in effective bioactives and have been used traditionally. The botanical kingdom offers endless possibilities.

  18. Mobile Applications for Diabetics: A Systematic Review and Expert-Based Usability Evaluation Considering the Special Requirements of Diabetes Patients Age 50 Years or Older

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quade, Mandy; Kirch, Wilhelm

    2014-01-01

    Background A multitude of mhealth (mobile health) apps have been developed in recent years to support effective self-management of patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 or 2. Objective We carried out a systematic review of all currently available diabetes apps for the operating systems iOS and Android. We considered the number of newly released diabetes apps, range of functions, target user groups, languages, acquisition costs, user ratings, available interfaces, and the connection between acquisition costs and user ratings. Additionally, we examined whether the available applications serve the special needs of diabetes patients aged 50 or older by performing an expert-based usability evaluation. Methods We identified relevant keywords, comparative categories, and their specifications. Subsequently, we performed the app review based on the information given in the Google Play Store, the Apple App Store, and the apps themselves. In addition, we carried out an expert-based usability evaluation based on a representative 10% sample of diabetes apps. Results In total, we analyzed 656 apps finding that 355 (54.1%) offered just one function and 348 (53.0%) provided a documentation function. The dominating app language was English (85.4%, 560/656), patients represented the main user group (96.0%, 630/656), and the analysis of the costs revealed a trend toward free apps (53.7%, 352/656). The median price of paid apps was €1.90. The average user rating was 3.6 stars (maximum 5). Our analyses indicated no clear differences in the user rating between free and paid apps. Only 30 (4.6%) of the 656 available diabetes apps offered an interface to a measurement device. We evaluated 66 apps within the usability evaluation. On average, apps were rated best regarding the criterion “comprehensibility” (4.0 out of 5.0), while showing a lack of “fault tolerance” (2.8 out of 5.0). Of the 66 apps, 48 (72.7%) offered the ability to read the screen content aloud. The number of

  19. Mobile applications for diabetics: a systematic review and expert-based usability evaluation considering the special requirements of diabetes patients age 50 years or older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnhold, Madlen; Quade, Mandy; Kirch, Wilhelm

    2014-04-09

    A multitude of mhealth (mobile health) apps have been developed in recent years to support effective self-management of patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 or 2. We carried out a systematic review of all currently available diabetes apps for the operating systems iOS and Android. We considered the number of newly released diabetes apps, range of functions, target user groups, languages, acquisition costs, user ratings, available interfaces, and the connection between acquisition costs and user ratings. Additionally, we examined whether the available applications serve the special needs of diabetes patients aged 50 or older by performing an expert-based usability evaluation. We identified relevant keywords, comparative categories, and their specifications. Subsequently, we performed the app review based on the information given in the Google Play Store, the Apple App Store, and the apps themselves. In addition, we carried out an expert-based usability evaluation based on a representative 10% sample of diabetes apps. In total, we analyzed 656 apps finding that 355 (54.1%) offered just one function and 348 (53.0%) provided a documentation function. The dominating app language was English (85.4%, 560/656), patients represented the main user group (96.0%, 630/656), and the analysis of the costs revealed a trend toward free apps (53.7%, 352/656). The median price of paid apps was €1.90. The average user rating was 3.6 stars (maximum 5). Our analyses indicated no clear differences in the user rating between free and paid apps. Only 30 (4.6%) of the 656 available diabetes apps offered an interface to a measurement device. We evaluated 66 apps within the usability evaluation. On average, apps were rated best regarding the criterion "comprehensibility" (4.0 out of 5.0), while showing a lack of "fault tolerance" (2.8 out of 5.0). Of the 66 apps, 48 (72.7%) offered the ability to read the screen content aloud. The number of functions was significantly negative correlated

  20. Expert status and performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Burgman

    Full Text Available Expert judgements are essential when time and resources are stretched or we face novel dilemmas requiring fast solutions. Good advice can save lives and large sums of money. Typically, experts are defined by their qualifications, track record and experience. The social expectation hypothesis argues that more highly regarded and more experienced experts will give better advice. We asked experts to predict how they will perform, and how their peers will perform, on sets of questions. The results indicate that the way experts regard each other is consistent, but unfortunately, ranks are a poor guide to actual performance. Expert advice will be more accurate if technical decisions routinely use broadly-defined expert groups, structured question protocols and feedback.

  1. Treating an established episode of delirium in palliative care: expert opinion and review of the current evidence base with recommendations for future development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Shirley H; Kanji, Salmaan; Pereira, José L; Davis, Daniel H J; Currow, David C; Meagher, David; Rabheru, Kiran; Wright, David; Bruera, Eduardo; Hartwick, Michael; Gagnon, Pierre R; Gagnon, Bruno; Breitbart, William; Regnier, Laura; Lawlor, Peter G

    2014-08-01

    Delirium is a highly prevalent complication in patients in palliative care settings, especially in the end-of-life context. To review the current evidence base for treating episodes of delirium in palliative care settings and propose a framework for future development. We combined multidisciplinary input from delirium researchers and other purposely selected stakeholders at an international delirium study planning meeting. This was supplemented by a literature search of multiple databases and relevant reference lists to identify studies regarding therapeutic interventions for delirium. The context of delirium management in palliative care is highly variable. The standard management of a delirium episode includes the investigation of precipitating and aggravating factors followed by symptomatic treatment with drug therapy. However, the intensity of this management depends on illness trajectory and goals of care in addition to the local availability of both investigative modalities and therapeutic interventions. Pharmacologically, haloperidol remains the practice standard by consensus for symptomatic control. Dosing schedules are derived from expert opinion and various clinical practice guidelines as evidence-based data from palliative care settings are limited. The commonly used pharmacologic interventions for delirium in this population warrant evaluation in clinical trials to examine dosing and titration regimens, different routes of administration, and safety and efficacy compared with placebo. Delirium treatment is multidimensional and includes the identification of precipitating and aggravating factors. For symptomatic management, haloperidol remains the practice standard. Further high-quality collaborative research investigating the appropriate treatment of this complex syndrome is needed. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. All rights reserved.

  2. Neuropathic pain phenotyping by international consensus (NeuroPPIC) for genetic studies: a NeuPSIG systematic review, Delphi survey, and expert panel recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hecke, Oliver; Kamerman, Peter R; Attal, Nadine; Baron, Ralf; Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Bennett, David L H; Bennett, Michael I; Bouhassira, Didier; Diatchenko, Luda; Freeman, Roy; Freynhagen, Rainer; Haanpää, Maija; Jensen, Troels S; Raja, Srinivasa N; Rice, Andrew S C; Seltzer, Zeʼev; Thorgeirsson, Thorgeir E; Yarnitsky, David; Smith, Blair H

    2015-11-01

    For genetic research to contribute more fully to furthering our knowledge of neuropathic pain, we require an agreed, valid, and feasible approach to phenotyping, to allow collaboration and replication in samples of sufficient size. Results from genetic studies on neuropathic pain have been inconsistent and have met with replication difficulties, in part because of differences in phenotypes used for case ascertainment. Because there is no consensus on the nature of these phenotypes, nor on the methods of collecting them, this study aimed to provide guidelines on collecting and reporting phenotypes in cases and controls for genetic studies. Consensus was achieved through a staged approach: (1) systematic literature review to identify all neuropathic pain phenotypes used in previous genetic studies; (2) Delphi survey to identify the most useful neuropathic pain phenotypes and their validity and feasibility; and (3) meeting of experts to reach consensus on the optimal phenotype(s) to be collected from patients with neuropathic pain for genetic studies. A basic "entry level" set of phenotypes was identified for any genetic study of neuropathic pain. This set identifies cases of "possible" neuropathic pain, and controls, and includes: (1) a validated symptom-based questionnaire to determine whether any pain is likely to be neuropathic; (2) body chart or checklist to identify whether the area of pain distribution is neuroanatomically logical; and (3) details of pain history (intensity, duration, any formal diagnosis). This NeuroPPIC "entry level" set of phenotypes can be expanded by more extensive and specific measures, as determined by scientific requirements and resource availability.

  3. Operational expert system applications in Europe

    CERN Document Server

    Zarri, Gian Piero

    1992-01-01

    Operational Expert System Applications in Europe describes the representative case studies of the operational expert systems (ESs) that are used in Europe.This compilation provides examples of operational ES that are realized in 10 different European countries, including countries not usually examined in the standard reviews of the field.This book discusses the decision support system using several artificial intelligence tools; expert systems for fault diagnosis on computerized numerical control (CNC) machines; and expert consultation system for personal portfolio management. The failure prob

  4. Courting the expert: a clash of culture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, P

    2005-06-01

    This article reviews the utility of expert opinion in legal proceedings and the deployment of expert witnesses in adversarial litigation. The use of expert witnesses to assist courts in making just and fair conclusions may be contrasted with the partisan interests of those who call them. An adversarial system is a bad method of scientific enquiry and undermines the court's capacity to reach the 'right' answer. As a consequence, courts may reach the wrong conclusion based on bad science. The role of the expert as a witness places strain on an expert to provide certainty, where in fact there may be none. Recent reforms in the civil courts have changed little and the problem is even more acute in criminal trials. The expert can rely solely on the integrity of his or her own opinion, tempered with a little humility. However, when filtered through the rhetoric and advocacy of a court arena, even this may be compromised.

  5. What determines ingredient awareness of consumers? A study on ten functional food ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bornkessel, S.; Bröring, S.; Omta, S.W.F.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    Given the importance of consumer awareness of functional food ingredients for healthy food choices, the aim of this study is to explore consumers’ ingredient awareness and the determinants which influence the awareness about functional food ingredients. A sample of 200 German consumers was

  6. Microencapsulation as a tool for incorporating bioactive ingredients into food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, S S; Oliveira, J C; Crean, A M

    2010-11-01

    Microencapsulation has been developed by the pharmaceutical industry as a means to control or modify the release of drug substances from drug delivery systems. In drug delivery systems microencapsulation is used to improve the bioavailability of drugs, control drug release kinetics, minimize drug side effects, and mask the bitter taste of drug substances. The application of microencapsulation has been extended to the food industry, typically for controlling the release of flavorings and the production of foods containing functional ingredients (e.g. probiotics and bioactive ingredients). Compared to the pharmaceutical industry, the food industry has lower profit margins and therefore the criteria in selecting a suitable microencapsulation technology are more stringent. The type of microcapsule (reservoir and matrix systems) produced and its resultant release properties are dependent on the microencapsulation technology, in addition to the physicochemical properties of the core and the shell materials. This review discusses the factors that affect the release of bioactive ingredients from microcapsules produced by different microencapsulation technologies. The key criteria in selecting a suitable microencapsulation technology are also discussed. Two of the most common physical microencapsulation technologies used in pharmaceutical processing, fluidized-bed coating, and extrusion-spheronization are explained to highlight how they might be adapted to the microencapsulation of functional bioactive ingredients in the food industry.

  7. Electrostatic separation for functional food ingredient production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Dry fractionation is a promising alternative to wet extraction processes for production of food ingredients, since it uses hardly any water, consumes less energy and retains the native functionality of the ingredients. It combines milling and dry separation to enrich

  8. Electrostatic separation for functional food ingredient production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary

    Dry fractionation is a promising alternative to wet extraction processes for production of food ingredients, since it uses hardly any water, consumes less energy and retains the native functionality of the ingredients. It combines milling and dry separation to

  9. Being an expert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brechet, Y.; Musseau, O.; Bruna, G.; Sperandio, M.; Roulleaux-Dugage, M.; Andrieux, S.; Metteau, L.

    2014-01-01

    This series of short articles are dedicated to the role of the expert in the enterprise. There is an important difference between a scientific counsellor and an expert, the expert, recognized by his peers, can speak publicly in his field of expertise but has a duty of transparency while the job of a scientific counsellor requires confidentiality. The making and the use of an expert in an enterprise requires a dedicated organization. The organization of the expertise in 5 enterprises in nuclear industry are considered: CEA (French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission), IRSN (Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety), AREVA, ANDRA (National Radioactive Waste Management Agency) and EDF (Electricity of France)

  10. Real time expert systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asami, Tohru; Hashimoto, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Seiichi

    1992-01-01

    Recently, aiming at the application to the plant control for nuclear reactors and traffic and communication control, the research and the practical use of the expert system suitable to real time processing have become conspicuous. In this report, the condition for the required function to control the object that dynamically changes within a limited time is presented, and the technical difference between the real time expert system developed so as to satisfy it and the expert system of conventional type is explained with the actual examples and from theoretical aspect. The expert system of conventional type has the technical base in the problem-solving equipment originating in STRIPS. The real time expert system is applied to the fields accompanied by surveillance and control, to which conventional expert system is hard to be applied. The requirement for the real time expert system, the example of the real time expert system, and as the techniques of realizing real time processing, the realization of interruption processing, dispersion processing, and the mechanism of maintaining the consistency of knowledge are explained. (K.I.)

  11. Trendwatch combining expert opinion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrix, E.M.T.; Kornelis, M.; Pegge, S.M.; Galen, van M.A.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, focus is on a systematic way to detect future changes in trends that may effect the dynamics in the agro-food sector, and on the combination of opinions of experts. For the combination of expert opinions, the usefulness of multilevel models is investigated. Bayesian data analysis is

  12. Expert systems: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdejo, F.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce readers to the basic principles of rule-based expert systems. Four topics are discussed in subsequent sections: (1) Definition; (2) Structure of an expert system; (3) State of the art and (4) Impact and future research. (orig.)

  13. Expert Systems in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartschuh, Wayne

    This paper argues that the concepts and techniques used in the development of expert systems should be expanded and applied to the field of education, particularly in the area of intelligent tutoring systems. It is noted that expert systems are a well known area of artificial intelligence and have been proven effective in well-defined topic areas.…

  14. Combining Expert Advice Efficiently

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.M. Koolen-Wijkstra (Wouter); S. de Rooij (Steven)

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractWe show how models for prediction with expert advice can be defined concisely and clearly using hidden Markov models (HMMs); standard HMM algorithms can then be used to efficiently calculate, among other things, how the expert predictions should be weighted according to the model. We

  15. Expert judgement in performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmot, R.D.; Galson, D.A.

    2000-01-01

    This report is a pilot study that systematically describes the various types of expert judgement that are made throughout the development of a PA, and summarizes existing tools and practices for dealing with expert judgements. The report also includes recommendations for further work in the area of expert judgement. Expert judgements can be classified in a number of ways, including classification according to why the judgements are made and according to how the judgements are made. In terms of why judgements are made, there is a broad distinction between: Judgements concerning data that are made because alternatives are not feasible; and Judgements about the conduct of a PA that are made because there are no alternative approaches for making the decision. In the case of how judgements are made, the report distinguishes between non-elicited judgements made by individuals, non-elicited judgements made by groups, and elicited judgements made by individuals or groups. These types of judgement can generally be distinguished by the extent of the associated documentation, and hence their traceability. Tools for assessing judgements vary depending on the type of judgements being examined. Key tools are peer review, an appropriate QA regime, documentation, and elicitation. Dialogue with stake holders is also identified as important in establishing whether judgements are justified in the context in which they are used. The PA process comprises a number of stages, from establishing the assessment context, through site selection and repository design, to scenario and model development and parametrisation. The report discusses how judgements are used in each of these stages, and identifies which of the tools and procedures for assessing judgements are most appropriate at each stage. Recommendations for further work include the conduct of a trial expert elicitation to gain experience in the advantages and disadvantages of this technique, the development of guidance for peer

  16. Developing a biomedical expert finding system using medical subject headings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harpreet; Singh, Reema; Malhotra, Arjun; Kaur, Manjit

    2013-12-01

    Efficient identification of subject experts or expert communities is vital for the growth of any organization. Most of the available expert finding systems are based on self-nomination, which can be biased, and are unable to rank experts. Thus, the objective of this work was to develop a robust and unbiased expert finding system which can quantitatively measure expertise. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a controlled vocabulary developed by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) for indexing research publications, articles and books. Using the MeSH terms associated with peer-reviewed articles published from India and indexed in PubMed, we developed a Web-based program which can be used to identify subject experts and subjects associated with an expert. We have extensively tested our system to identify experts from India in various subjects. The system provides a ranked list of experts where known experts rank at the top of the list. The system is general; since it uses information available with the PubMed, it can be implemented for any country. The expert finding system is able to successfully identify subject experts in India. Our system is unique because it allows the quantification of subject expertise, thus enabling the ranking of experts. Our system is based on peer-reviewed information. Use of MeSH terms as subjects has standardized the subject terminology. The system matches requirements of an ideal expert finding system.

  17. Report of the experts' mission to review thermal hydraulic and structural analyses for PTS assessment of Kozloduy NPP units 1-4 reactor pressure vessels, Sofia, Bulgaria 3-7 April 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Based upon a request of the Government of Bulgaria and in order to assist its Regulatory Body, an experts' mission was carried out to Sofia and Kozloduy, 21-25 November 1994 within the framework of the IAEA TC Project BUL/9/013-05 and of the IAEA Extrabudgetary Programme on the Safety of the WWER NPPs. The mission also specified the technical content of further assistance by the IAEA. With respect to the findings and recommendations made in November 1994, WWER-SC-109, a follow-up expert's mission was carried out to Sofia, Bulgaria, April 3-7, 1995. The objective of the mission was to review the selection of transients, thermal hydraulic, stress and fracture mechanics analyses for reactor pressure vessel integrity assessment of Kozloduy unit 1-4. In addition, an update on the activities completed, underway and planned related to unit 1 reactor pressure vessel embrittlement was presented and discussed. The review was carried out by 4 international experts from Finland, France, Russia and IAEA in co-operation with the Bulgarian regulatory body, plant, Energoproject Sofia and Institute of Metals staff. The mission was conducted out within the frame of the IAEA TC Project BUL/9/013-05 and of the IAEA Extrabudgetary Programme on the Safety of the WWER NPPs. 18 refs

  18. The Standards in Admitting Expert Evidence in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abreha Mesele Zinabu

    The Reception of Incriminating Expert Evidence (i.e., Forensic Science) in Four. Adversarial Jurisdictions. University of Denver Criminal Law Review, Vol. 3, pp 31-109. 9 This is all about competence where it incorporates both the relevance of the qualification and the capability of the expert to provide the expert testimony.

  19. Experts on public trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blok, Anders

    2007-01-01

    a case study of the May 2003 Danish consensus conference on environmental economics as a policy tool, the article reflects on the politics of expert authority permeating practices of public participation. Adopting concepts from the sociology of scientific knowledge (SSK), the conference is seen......-than-successful defense in the citizen perspective. Further, consensus conferences are viewed alternatively as "expert dissent conferences," serving to disclose a multiplicity of expert commitments. From this perspective, some challenges for democratizing expertise through future exercises in public participation...

  20. Return on Investment Analysis of Health Experts onLine at Portsmouth: A 2-Year Review of the Navy's Newest Teleconsultation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Andrew H; Welstead, Bethany L; Morey, Brittany L; Mahnke, C Becket; Cole, Jacob H; Johnston, Michael G

    2017-05-01

    Health Experts onLine at Portsmouth (HELP) is a web-based teleconsultation system launched in June 2014 to facilitate communication between specialists at Naval Medical Center Portsmouth and providers assigned to both the fleet forces and primary care clinics across the eastern United States, Europe, and the Middle East. Specialist consultations through the HELP system purport to improve access to care for patients who otherwise might be referred to the civilian network or medically evacuated (MEDEVACed) to Naval Medical Center Portsmouth for specialized care. If HELP-facilitated communications help avoid civilian referrals or MEDEVACs, the associated costs of that care should be reduced. We evaluated cost savings associated with prevented MEDEVACs by analyzing both tangible savings (prevented costs of flights, per diems, and consults) and intangible savings (reduced lost productivity time). We compared these savings to the costs of maintaining and utilizing the HELP system: startup costs, administrative costs, and provider time costs. We used patient and provider data from the HELP database to evaluate clinical consult cases. Before this analysis, a panel of 3 physicians associated with HELP reviewed each consult to determine whether a case qualified as a prevented MEDEVAC. Data from the Military Health System (MHS) Management and Analysis Reporting Tool and the MHS Data Repository were used to estimate costs associated with provider time, patient time, and direct care medical encounters. The HELP program delivered measurable, positive returns on investment (ROIs) between June 2014 and December 2015. In that time frame, 559 consult cases occurred in the HELP system. Of the 559 total consult cases, 50 consults prevented MEDEVACs. Incorporating only tangible savings, HELP produced an 80% ROI on the basis of prevented medical evacuations; the addition of intangible savings such as reduced lost productivity increased the ROI to 250%. The dollar values of these savings

  1. The Expert Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Peter F.; Henson, Kenneth T.

    1982-01-01

    The curriculum and instruction specialist should not fall prey to the "expert syndrome," in which the specialist decides on the "best" curriculum or instructional method without considering the teacher's discipline or personality. (CJ)

  2. Experts' meeting: Maintenance '83

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The brochure presents, in full wording, 20 papers read at the experts' meeting ''Maintenance '83'' in Wiesbaden. Most of the papers discuss reliability data (acquisition, evaluation, processing) of nearly all fields of industry. (RW) [de

  3. Encapsulation and delivery of food ingredients using starch based systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fan

    2017-08-15

    Functional ingredients can be encapsulated by various wall materials for controlled release in food and digestion systems. Starch, as one of the most abundant natural carbohydrate polymers, is non-allergenic, GRAS, and cheap. There has been increasing interest of using starch in native and modified forms to encapsulate food ingredients such as flavours, lipids, polyphenols, carotenoids, vitamins, enzymes, and probiotics. Starches from various botanical sources in granular or amorphous forms are modified by chemical, physical, and/or enzymatic means to obtain the desired properties for targeted encapsulation. Other wall materials are also employed in combination with starch to facilitate some types of encapsulation. Various methods of crafting the starch-based encapsulation such as electrospinning, spray drying, antisolvent, amylose inclusion complexation, and nano-emulsification are introduced in this mini-review. The physicochemical and structural properties of the particles are described. The encapsulation systems can positively influence the controlled release of food ingredients in food and nutritional applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Writing implementation research grant proposals: ten key ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Proctor Enola K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background All investigators seeking funding to conduct implementation research face the challenges of preparing a high-quality proposal and demonstrating their capacity to conduct the proposed study. Applicants need to demonstrate the progressive nature of their research agenda and their ability to build cumulatively upon the literature and their own preliminary studies. Because implementation science is an emerging field involving complex and multilevel processes, many investigators may not feel equipped to write competitive proposals, and this concern is pronounced among early stage implementation researchers. Discussion This article addresses the challenges of preparing grant applications that succeed in the emerging field of dissemination and implementation. We summarize ten ingredients that are important in implementation research grants. For each, we provide examples of how preliminary data, background literature, and narrative detail in the application can strengthen the application. Summary Every investigator struggles with the challenge of fitting into a page-limited application the research background, methodological detail, and information that can convey the project’s feasibility and likelihood of success. While no application can include a high level of detail about every ingredient, addressing the ten ingredients summarized in this article can help assure reviewers of the significance, feasibility, and impact of the proposed research.

  5. Stabilising emulsion-based colloidal structures with mixed food ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Eric

    2013-03-15

    The physical scientist views food as a complex form of soft matter. The complexity has its origin in the numerous ingredients that are typically mixed together and the subtle variations in microstructure and texture induced by thermal and mechanical processing. The colloid science approach to food product formulation is based on the assumption that the major product attributes such as appearance, rheology and physical stability are determined by the spatial distribution and interactions of a small number of generic structural entities (biopolymers, particles, droplets, bubbles, crystals) organised in various kinds of structural arrangements (layers, complexes, aggregates, networks). This review describes some recent advances in this field with reference to three discrete classes of dispersed systems: particle-stabilised emulsions, emulsion gels and aerated emulsions. Particular attention is directed towards explaining the crucial role of the macromolecular ingredients (proteins and polysaccharides) in controlling the formation and stabilisation of the colloidal structures. The ultimate objective of this research is to provide the basic physicochemical insight required for the reliable manufacture of novel structured foods with an appealing taste and texture, whilst incorporating a more healthy set of ingredients than those found in many existing traditional products. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Allergenic Ingredients in Personal Hygiene Wet Wipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenbeck, Kelly A; Warshaw, Erin M

    Wet wipes are a significant allergen source for anogenital allergic contact dermatitis. The aim of the study was to calculate the frequency of potentially allergenic ingredients in personal hygiene wet wipes. Ingredient lists from brand name and generic personal hygiene wet wipes from 4 large retailers were compiled. In the 54 personal hygiene wet wipes evaluated, a total of 132 ingredients were identified (average of 11.9 ingredients per wipe). The most common ingredients were Aloe barbadensis (77.8%), citric acid (77.8%), fragrance (72.2%), sorbic acid derivatives (63.0%), tocopherol derivatives (63.0%), glycerin (59.3%), phenoxyethanol (55.6%), disodium cocoamphodiacetate (53.7%), disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (42.6%), propylene glycol (42.6%), iodopropynyl butylcarbamate (40.7%), chamomile extracts (38.9%), sodium benzoate (35.2%), bronopol (22.2%), sodium citrate (22.2%), lanolin derivatives (20.4%), parabens (20.4%), polyethylene glycol derivatives (18.5%), disodium phosphate (16.7%), dimethylol dimethyl hydantoin (DMDM) (14.8%), and cocamidopropyl propylene glycol (PG)-dimonium chloride phosphate (11.1%). Of note, methylisothiazolinone (5.6%) was uncommon; methylchloroisothiazolinone was not identified in the personal hygiene wet wipes examined. There are many potential allergens in personal hygiene wet wipes, especially fragrance and preservatives.

  7. Expert tool use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Kathrine Liedtke; Ravn, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    and autoethnographic material from one former elite skipper, we take some initial steps toward the development of a more nuanced understanding of the concept of incorporation; one that is able to accommodate the experiences of expert tool users. In sum, our analyses indicate that the possibility for experiencing...... a tool as incorporated depends on the existence of an extraordinary kind of relationship between the tool and the expert tool user. This relation, that can persist even when successful manipulation of the tool fails, is not only cultivated through deliberate practice of physical skills, but also through...... the collective sense-making process going on within a particular community of practice. Therefore, expert tool users may experience a more profound kind of incorporation that can persist even when normal motor incorporation fails....

  8. Experts on public trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blok, Anders

    2007-01-01

    Citizen deliberation on technoscientific developments is regularly regarded as a hallmark of Danish democracy, embodied in particular by the Danish Board of Technology. Few empirically guided questions have been raised, however, as to how the Board's democratic projects actually work. Through...... a case study of the May 2003 Danish consensus conference on environmental economics as a policy tool, the article reflects on the politics of expert authority permeating practices of public participation. Adopting concepts from the sociology of scientific knowledge (SSK), the conference is seen......-than-successful defense in the citizen perspective. Further, consensus conferences are viewed alternatively as "expert dissent conferences," serving to disclose a multiplicity of expert commitments. From this perspective, some challenges for democratizing expertise through future exercises in public participation...

  9. Soft Expert Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawkat Alkhazaleh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1999, Molodtsov introduced the concept of soft set theory as a general mathematical tool for dealing with uncertainty. Many researchers have studied this theory, and they created some models to solve problems in decision making and medical diagnosis, but most of these models deal only with one expert. This causes a problem with the user, especially with those who use questionnaires in their work and studies. In our model, the user can know the opinion of all experts in one model. So, in this paper, we introduce the concept of a soft expert set, which will more effective and useful. We also define its basic operations, namely, complement, union intersection AND, and OR. Finally, we show an application of this concept in decision-making problem.

  10. Integration of gender-transformative interventions into health professional education reform for the 21st century: implications of an expert review

    OpenAIRE

    Newman, Constance; Ng, Crystal; Pacqu?-Margolis, Sara; Frymus, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Background Gender discrimination and inequality in health professional education (HPE) affect students and faculty and hinder production of the robust health workforces needed to meet health and development goals, yet HPE reformers pay scant attention to these gender barriers. Gender equality must be a core value and professional practice competency for all actors in HPE and health employment systems. Methods Peer-review and non-peer-review literature previously identified in a review of the ...

  11. Winter Reads: Your expert guide to the best history books

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newby, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Review of K. Barclay, 'Love, Intimacy and Power' as part of a feature in which experts on Scottish History were asked to choose their book of the year.......Review of K. Barclay, 'Love, Intimacy and Power' as part of a feature in which experts on Scottish History were asked to choose their book of the year....

  12. Skill in expert dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helton, William S

    2007-09-01

    The motor control of novice participants is often cognitively demanding and susceptible to interference by other tasks. As people develop expertise, their motor control becomes less susceptible to interference from other tasks. Researchers propose a transition in human motor skill from active control to automaticity. This progression may also be the case with nonhuman animals. Differences in performance characteristics between expert, advanced, intermediate, and novice dogs competing in the sport of agility were investigated. There were statistically significant differences between dogs of varying competitive levels in speed, motor control, and signal detections suggestive of increasing motor control automaticity in highly skilled, or expert, dogs. The largest sequential motor control difference was between novice and intermediate dogs, d = .96, whereas the largest sequential signal detection difference was between advanced and expert dogs, d = .90. These findings have two significant implications for expertise researchers: first, the observed similarities between dogs and humans may enable dogs to be used as expert models; and second, expertise science and methods may be profitably employed in the future to create more proficient canine workers.

  13. Capital Expert System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowell, Laurie; Gary, Jack; Illingworth, Bill; Sargent, Tom

    1987-05-01

    Gathering information, necessary forms, and financial calculations needed to generate a "capital investment proposal" is an extremely complex and difficult process. The intent of the capital investment proposal is to ensure management that the proposed investment has been thoroughly investigated and will have a positive impact on corporate goals. Meeting this requirement typically takes four or five experts a total of 12 hours to generate a "Capital Package." A Capital Expert System was therefore developed using "Personal Consultant." The completed system is hybrid and as such does not depend solely on rules but incorporates several different software packages that communicate through variables and functions passed from one to another. This paper describes the use of expert system techniques, methodology in building the knowledge base, contexts, LISP functions, data base, and special challenges that had to be overcome to create this system. The Capital Expert System is the successful result of a unique integration of artificial intelligence with business accounting, financial forms generation, and investment proposal expertise.

  14. Neural Expert Systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šíma, Jiří

    1995-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (1995), s. 261-271 ISSN 0893-6080 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/95/0976 Keywords : expert system * knowledge representation * multilayered neural network * back propagation * interval neuron function * incomplete information * explanation Impact factor: 1.262, year: 1995

  15. Expert Cold Structure Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, T.; Demuysere, P.

    2011-05-01

    The EXPERT Program is funded by ESA. The objective of the EXPERT mission is to perform a sub-orbital flight during which measurements of critical aero- thermodynamic phenomena will be obtained by using state-of-the-art instrumentation. As part of the EXPERT Flight Segment, the responsibility of the Cold Structure Development Design, Manufacturing and Validation was committed to the Belgian industrial team SONACA/SABCA. The EXPERT Cold Structure includes the Launcher Adapter, the Bottom Panel, the Upper Panel, two Cross Panels and the Parachute Bay. An additional Launcher Adapter was manufactured for the separation tests. The selected assembly definition and manufacturing technologies ( machined parts and sandwich panels) were dictated classically by the mass and stiffness, but also by the CoG location and the sensitive separation interface. Used as support for the various on-board equipment, the Cold Structure is fixed to but thermally uncoupled from the PM 1000 thermal shield. It is protect on its bottom panel by a thermal blanket. As it is a protoflight, analysis was the main tool for the verification. Low level stiffness and modal analysis tests have also been performed on the Cold Structure equipped with its ballast. It allowed to complete its qualification and to prepare SONACA/SABCA support for the system dynamic tests foreseen in 2011. The structure was finally coated with a thermal control black painting and delivered on time to Thales Alenia Space-Italy end of March 201.

  16. Criteria for development of a database for safety evaluation of fragrance ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, R A; Domeyer, B; Easterday, O; Maier, K; Middleton, J

    2000-04-01

    Over 2000 different ingredients are used in the manufacture of fragrances. The majority of these ingredients have been used for many decades. Despite this long history of use, all of these ingredients need continued monitoring to ensure that each ingredient meets acceptable safety standards. As with other large databases of existing chemicals, fulfilling this need requires an organized approach to identify the most important potential hazards. One such approach, specifically considering the dermal route of exposure as the most relevant one for fragrance ingredients, has been developed. This approach provides a rational selection of materials for review and gives guidance for determining the test data that would normally be considered necessary for the elevation of safety under intended conditions of use. As a first step, the process takes into account the following criteria: quantity of use, consumer exposure, and chemical structure. These are then used for the orderly selection of materials for review with higher quantity, higher exposure, and the presence of defined structural alerts all contributing to a higher priority for review. These structural alerts along with certain exposure and volume limits are then used to develop guidelines for determining the quality and quantity of data considered necessary to support an adequate safety evaluation of the chosen materials, taking into account existing data on the substance itself as well as on closely related analogs. This approach can be considered an alternative to testing; therefore, it is designed to be conservative but not so much so as to require excessive effort when not justified.

  17. 7 CFR 58.718 - Flavor ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flavor ingredients. 58.718 Section 58.718 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE...

  18. 21 CFR 106.20 - Ingredient control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ingredient control. 106.20 Section 106.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA QUALITY CONTROL PROCEDURES Quality Control Procedures for Assuring Nutrient Content...

  19. 9 CFR 381.118 - Ingredients statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Establishments may interchange the identity of two kinds of poultry (e.g., chicken and turkey, chicken meat and turkey meat) used in a product formulation without changing the product's ingredient statement or product... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...

  20. What are the "ingredients" for economic growth?

    OpenAIRE

    Wolla, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    Is there a recipe for economic growth? Perhaps some Miracle-Gro for the economy? If only it were that easy. While the exact recipe is a mystery, economists have identified some of the key ingredients. This month’s newsletter discusses the role that economic institutions play in fostering long-term economic growth.

  1. USDA dietary supplement ingredient database, release 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL),Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center (BHNRC), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), USDA, in collaboration with the Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health (ODS/NIH) and other federal agencies has developed a Dietary Supplement Ingredient ...

  2. 7 CFR 58.520 - Nondairy ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ingredients such as fruits, nuts, chives or other vegetables used or blended with cottage cheese shall be... cottage cheese may first be soaked for 15 to 20 minutes in a cold 25 to 50 ppm chlorine solution to appreciably reduce the bacterial population. After soaking, the vegetables shall be drained and used soon...

  3. Insights on in vitro models for safety and toxicity assessment of cosmetic ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Andreia; Sarmento, Bruno; Rodrigues, Francisca

    2017-03-15

    According to the current European legislation, the safety assessment of each individual cosmetic ingredient of any formulation is the basis for the safety evaluation of a cosmetic product. Also, animal testing in the European Union is prohibited for cosmetic ingredients and products since 2004 and 2009, respectively. Additionally, the commercialization of any cosmetic products containing ingredients tested on animal models was forbidden in 2009. In consequence of these boundaries, the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) proposes a list of validated cell-based in vitro models for predicting the safety and toxicity of cosmetic ingredients. These models have been demonstrated as valuable and effective tools to overcome the limitations of animal in vivo studies. Although the use of in vitro cell-based models for the evaluation of absorption and permeability of cosmetic ingredients is widespread, a detailed study on the properties of these platforms and the in vitro-in vivo correlation compared with human data are required. Moreover, additional efforts must be taken to develop in vitro models to predict carcinogenicity, repeat dose toxicity and reproductive toxicity, for which no alternative in vitro methods are currently available. This review paper summarizes and characterizes the most relevant in vitro models validated by ECVAM employed to predict the safety and toxicology of cosmetic ingredients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A Systematic Review of the Mysterious Caterpillar Fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis in Dong-ChongXiaCao (冬蟲夏草 Dōng Chóng Xià Cǎo) and Related Bioactive Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Hui-Chen; Hsieh, Chienyan; Lin, Fang-Yi; Hsu, Tai-Hao

    2013-01-01

    The caterpillar fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn.† Cordyceps sinensis), which was originally used in traditional Tibetan and Chinese medicine, is called either “yartsa gunbu” or “DongChongXiaCao (冬蟲夏草 Dōng Chóng Xià Cǎo)” (“winter worm-summer grass”), respectively. The extremely high price of DongChongXiaCao, approximately USD $20,000 to 40,000 per kg, has led to it being regarded as “soft gold” in China. The multi-fungi hypothesis has been proposed for DongChongXiaCao; however, Hirsutella sinensis is the anamorph of O. sinensis. In Chinese, the meaning of “DongChongXiaCao” is different for O. sinensis, Cordyceps spp.,‡ and Cordyceps spƒ. Over 30 bioactivities, such as immunomodulatory, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities, have been reported for wild DongChongXiaCao and for the mycelia and culture supernatants of O. sinensis. These bioactivities derive from over 20 bioactive ingredients, mainly extracellular polysaccharides, intracellular polysaccharides, cordycepin, adenosine, mannitol, and sterols. Other bioactive components have been found as well, including two peptides (cordymin and myriocin), melanin, lovastatin, γ-aminobutyric acid, and cordysinins. Recently, the bioactivities of O. sinensis were described, and they include antiarteriosclerosis, antidepression, and antiosteoporosis activities, photoprotection, prevention and treatment of bowel injury, promotion of endurance capacity, and learning-memory improvement. H. sinensis has the ability to accelerate leukocyte recovery, stimulate lymphocyte proliferation, antidiabetes, and improve kidney injury. Starting January 1st, 2013, regulation will dictate that one fungus can only have one name, which will end the system of using separate names for anamorphs. The anamorph name “H. sinensis” has changed by the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants to O. sinensis. PMID:24716152

  5. A Systematic Review of the Mysterious Caterpillar Fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis in DongChongXiaCao (冬蟲夏草 Dōng Chóng Xià Cǎo and Related Bioactive Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Chen Lo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The caterpillar fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn.† Cordyceps sinensis, which was originally used in traditional Tibetan and Chinese medicine, is called either “yartsa gunbu” or “DongChongXiaCao (冬蟲夏草 Dōng Chóng Xià Cǎo” (“winter worm-summer grass”, respectively. The extremely high price of DongChongXiaCao, approximately USD $20,000 to 40,000 per kg, has led to it being regarded as “soft gold” in China. The multi-fungi hypothesis has been proposed for DongChongXiaCao; however, Hirsutella sinensis is the anamorph of O. sinensis. In Chinese, the meaning of “DongChongXiaCao” is different for O. sinensis, Cordyceps spp.,‡ and Cordyceps spƒ. Over 30 bioactivities, such as immunomodulatory, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities, have been reported for wild DongChongXiaCao and for the mycelia and culture supernatants of O. sinensis. These bioactivities derive from over 20 bioactive ingredients, mainly extracellular polysaccharides, intracellular polysaccharides, cordycepin, adenosine, mannitol, and sterols. Other bioactive components have been found as well, including two peptides (cordymin and myriocin, melanin, lovastatin, γ-aminobutyric acid, and cordysinins. Recently, the bioactivities of O. sinensis were described, and they include antiarteriosclerosis, antidepression, and antiosteoporosis activities, photoprotection, prevention and treatment of bowel injury, promotion of endurance capacity, and learning-memory improvement. H. sinensis has the ability to accelerate leukocyte recovery, stimulate lymphocyte proliferation, antidiabetes, and improve kidney injury. Starting January 1st, 2013, regulation will dictate that one fungus can only have one name, which will end the system of using separate names for anamorphs. The anamorph name “H. sinensis” has changed by the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants to O. sinensis.

  6. Bioethics for Technical Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Shigetaka

    Along with rapidly expanding applications of life science and technology, technical experts have been implicated more and more often with ethical, social, and legal problems than before. It should be noted that in this background there are scientific and social uncertainty elements which are inevitable during the progress of life science in addition to the historically-established social unreliability to scientists and engineers. In order to solve these problems, therefore, we should establish the social governance with ‘relief’ and ‘reliance’ which enables for both citizens and engineers to share the awareness of the issues, to design social orders and criterions based on hypothetical sense of values for bioethics, to carry out practical use management of each subject carefully, and to improve the sense of values from hypothetical to universal. Concerning these measures, the technical experts can learn many things from the present performance in the medical field.

  7. Expert PLSQL Practices

    CERN Document Server

    Beresniewicz, John

    2011-01-01

    Expert PL/SQL Practices is a book of collected wisdom on PL/SQL programming from some of the best and the brightest in the field. Each chapter is a deep-dive into a specific problem, technology, or feature set that you'll face as a PL/SQL programmer. Each author has chosen their topic out of the strong belief that what they share can make a positive difference in the quality and scalability of code that you write. The path to mastery begins with syntax and the mechanics of writing statements to make things happen. If you've reached that point with PL/SQL, then let the authors of Expert PL/SQL

  8. Expert Systems Development Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-28

    was able to prove such a machine could exist. 3 Lady Ada Lovelace was a contemporary of George Babbage. She studied with Babbage and wrote a popular...essay explaining the analytical engine. She is sometimes credited with inventing computer languages. The Ada computer language is named in her honor. -8...documentation and logic flow charting of the whole system. If your expert system is written in a highly structured language such as Ada , logic flow

  9. ALICE Expert System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionita, C; Carena, F

    2014-01-01

    The ALICE experiment at CERN employs a number of human operators (shifters), who have to make sure that the experiment is always in a state compatible with taking Physics data. Given the complexity of the system and the myriad of errors that can arise, this is not always a trivial task. The aim of this paper is to describe an expert system that is capable of assisting human shifters in the ALICE control room. The system diagnoses potential issues and attempts to make smart recommendations for troubleshooting. At its core, a Prolog engine infers whether a Physics or a technical run can be started based on the current state of the underlying sub-systems. A separate C++ component queries certain SMI objects and stores their state as facts in a Prolog knowledge base. By mining the data stored in different system logs, the expert system can also diagnose errors arising during a run. Currently the system is used by the on-call experts for faster response times, but we expect it to be adopted as a standard tool by regular shifters during the next data taking period

  10. Comprehensive review of the evidence regarding the effectiveness of community-based primary health care in improving maternal, neonatal and child health: 8. summary and recommendations of the Expert Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Robert E; Taylor, Carl E; Arole, Shobha; Bang, Abhay; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Chowdhury, A Mushtaque R; Kirkwood, Betty R; Kureshy, Nazo; Lanata, Claudio F; Phillips, James F; Taylor, Mary; Victora, Cesar G; Zhu, Zonghan; Perry, Henry B

    2017-06-01

    The contributions that community-based primary health care (CBPHC) and engaging with communities as valued partners can make to the improvement of maternal, neonatal and child health (MNCH) is not widely appreciated. This unfortunate reality is one of the reasons why so few priority countries failed to achieve the health-related Millennium Development Goals by 2015. This article provides a summary of a series of articles about the effectiveness of CBPHC in improving MNCH and offers recommendations from an Expert Panel for strengthening CBPHC that were formulated in 2008 and have been updated on the basis of more recent evidence. An Expert Panel convened to guide the review of the effectiveness of community-based primary health care (CBPHC). The Expert Panel met in 2008 in New York City with senior UNICEF staff. In 2016, following the completion of the review, the Panel considered the review's findings and made recommendations. The review consisted of an analysis of 661 unique reports, including 583 peer-reviewed journal articles, 12 books/monographs, 4 book chapters, and 72 reports from the gray literature. The analysis consisted of 700 assessments since 39 were analyzed twice (once for an assessment of improvements in neonatal and/or child health and once for an assessment in maternal health). The Expert Panel recommends that CBPHC should be a priority for strengthening health systems, accelerating progress in achieving universal health coverage, and ending preventable child and maternal deaths. The Panel also recommends that expenditures for CBPHC be monitored against expenditures for primary health care facilities and hospitals and reflect the importance of CBPHC for averting mortality. Governments, government health programs, and NGOs should develop health systems that respect and value communities as full partners and work collaboratively with them in building and strengthening CBPHC programs - through engagement with planning, implementation (including the

  11. Consensus Modeling for Prediction of Estrogenic Activity of Ingredients Commonly Used in Sunscreen Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huixiao Hong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sunscreen products are predominantly regulated as over-the-counter (OTC drugs by the US FDA. The “active” ingredients function as ultraviolet filters. Once a sunscreen product is generally recognized as safe and effective (GRASE via an OTC drug review process, new formulations using these ingredients do not require FDA review and approval, however, the majority of ingredients have never been tested to uncover any potential endocrine activity and their ability to interact with the estrogen receptor (ER is unknown, despite the fact that this is a very extensively studied target related to endocrine activity. Consequently, we have developed an in silico model to prioritize single ingredient estrogen receptor activity for use when actual animal data are inadequate, equivocal, or absent. It relies on consensus modeling to qualitatively and quantitatively predict ER binding activity. As proof of concept, the model was applied to ingredients commonly used in sunscreen products worldwide and a few reference chemicals. Of the 32 chemicals with unknown ER binding activity that were evaluated, seven were predicted to be active estrogenic compounds. Five of the seven were confirmed by the published data. Further experimental data is needed to confirm the other two predictions.

  12. [Expert Opinions in Court: Liability of the Expert].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiltenwolf, Marcus; Beckmann, Nickolas; Gaidzik, Peter

    2017-12-01

    Experts in criminal, civil and, increasingly, in social court cases have to present their expert opinions in court. This should be regarded not only as a burden, even if this may at times appear superfluous to the expert, perhaps because the discussion is mere repetition of the opinion he has already written, or because the questions appear to be biased against the expert. Nonetheless, the expert is always advised to appear calm and objective during the interrogation by judges and parties or participants and their legal representatives, and should not allow himself or herself to be provoked by questioning. Furthermore, it may be necessary to correct the written expert statement in the course of the interrogation, but this can be a sign of a truly competent medical expert. The expert consulted can be held liable for adverse health effects resulting from the interrogation and investigation, as well as for deliberate or grossly faulty reports. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Report of an experts' mission to review the modernization programme of Rovno NPP unit 4. Rovno, Ukraine 2 to 12 October 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    This report is structured into 3 main chapters. Chapter 1 is an introduction. Chapter 2 describes the results of the review of the Rovno 4 modernization programme area by area according to the Issue Book. Chapter 3 summarizes the important general conclusions and recommendations

  14. T4 report. An expert consortium review of the EC-commissioned report "Alternative (non-animal) methods for cosmetics testing: Current status and future prospects - 2010"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartung, T.; Blaauboer, B.J.; Bosgra, S.; Carney, E.; Coenen, J.; Conolly, R.B.; Corsini, E.; Green, S.; Faustman, E.M.; Gaspari, A.; Hayashi, M.; Hayes, A.W.; Hengstler, J.G.; Knudsen, L.E.; Knudsen, T.B.; McKim, J.M.; Pfaller, W.; Roggen, E.L.

    2011-01-01

    The European cosmetics legislation foresees a review in 2011 and possible postponement of the 2013 marketing ban to enforce the testing ban for systemic and repeated-dose animal tests. For this purpose, a 119-page report commissioned by the European Commission was published recently. Here, a group

  15. Expert and novice facilitated modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavella, Elena; Papadopoulos, Thanos

    2015-01-01

    the behaviour of one expert and two novice facilitators during a Viable System Model workshop. The findings suggest common facilitation patterns in the behaviour of experts and novices. This contrasts literature claiming that experts and novices behave and use their available knowledge differently......This paper provides an empirical study based on action research in which expert and novice facilitators in facilitated modelling workshops are compared. There is limited empirical research analysing the differences between expert and novice facilitators. Aiming to address this gap we study...... and facilitation strategies in contexts in which external, expert facilitation is not always possible are also discussed, and limitations of this study are provided....

  16. Integration of gender-transformative interventions into health professional education reform for the 21st century: implications of an expert review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Constance; Ng, Crystal; Pacqué-Margolis, Sara; Frymus, Diana

    2016-04-12

    Gender discrimination and inequality in health professional education (HPE) affect students and faculty and hinder production of the robust health workforces needed to meet health and development goals, yet HPE reformers pay scant attention to these gender barriers. Gender equality must be a core value and professional practice competency for all actors in HPE and health employment systems. Peer-review and non-peer-review literature previously identified in a review of the literature identified interventions to counter gender discrimination and inequality in HPE and tertiary education systems in North America and the Caribbean; West, East, and Southern Africa; Asia; the Middle East and North Africa; Europe; Australia; and South America. An assessment considered 51 interventions addressing sexual harassment (18), caregiver discrimination (27), and gender equality (6). Reviewers with expertise in gender and health system strengthening rated and ranked interventions according to six gender-transformative criteria. Thirteen interventions were considered to have transformational potential to address gender-related obstacles to entry, retention, career progression, and graduation in HPE, when implemented in core sets of interventions. The review identified one set with potential to counter sexual harassment in HPE and two sets to counter caregiver discrimination. Gender centers and equal employment opportunity units are structural interventions that can address multiple forms of gender discrimination and inequality. The paper's broad aim is to encourage HPE leaders to make gender-transformative reforms in the current way of doing business and commit to themselves to countering gender discrimination and inequality. Interventions to counter gender discrimination should be seen as integral parts of institutional and instructional reforms and essential investments to scale up quality HPE and recruit and retain health workers in the systems that educate and employ them

  17. Database and Expert Systems Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viborg Andersen, Kim; Debenham, John; Wagner, Roland

    submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on workflow automation, database queries, data classification and recommendation systems, information retrieval in multimedia databases, Web applications, implementational aspects of databases, multimedia databases, XML processing, security, XML......This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Database and Expert Systems Applications, DEXA 2005, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2005.The 92 revised full papers presented together with 2 invited papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 390...... schemata, query evaluation, semantic processing, information retrieval, temporal and spatial databases, querying XML, organisational aspects of databases, natural language processing, ontologies, Web data extraction, semantic Web, data stream management, data extraction, distributed database systems...

  18. International Expert Review of SRCan: Site Investigation Aspects. External review contribution in support of SKI's and SSI's review of SR-Can. INSITE/OVERSITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-03-15

    As a first evaluation of long-term safety for KBS-3 repositories at Forsmark and Laxemar, the SIG (Site Investigation Group) found SR-Can to be a well-produced and generally well-argued safety assessment. Overall, SKB is to be complimented on this project. Members of of the two groups INSITE and OVERSITE within the SIG had somewhat differing views on how well SKB had made use of the site data available at the end of the SDM 1.2 stage of investigations. This difference is less to do with the extent of site characterisation than of its use and application, reflecting the different levels of maturity of SKB's geosphere and biosphere assessment programmes. The more recent and current work on the sites means that our concerns expressed in this review should, to a large extent, be addressable in or prior to SR-Site, provided SKB is so minded. However, we acknowledge that some of the issues we raise will not be fully resolved until underground rock characterisation from excavations or longer records of surface conditions are available. There are also some key aspects of SKB's methodology still under development that would benefit from review prior to their use in SR-Site. More space in the currently pressing schedule would allow for this review and a consequent increase in confidence. In any case, the authorities should be aware that SKB may face residual programmatic risks, associated principally with the underground design and layout (and their knockon effects into performance), even after SR-Site. An early understanding of some of these relationships would be helped by a plan (at least on an outline level) of the underground characterisation programme. We also note that many engineering matters are still to be confronted, not least the EBS design and its implementation, along with the treatment of high stresses, if Forsmark is selected. However, our views on the nature of the SR-Can analysis and the way in which site data have been utilised in it (our

  19. Fragranced consumer products: Chemicals emitted, ingredients unlisted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinemann, Anne C.; MacGregor, Ian C.; Gordon, Sydney M.; Gallagher, Lisa G.; Davis, Amy L.; Ribeiro, Daniel S.; Wallace, Lance A.

    2011-01-01

    Fragranced consumer products are pervasive in society. Relatively little is known about the composition of these products, due to lack of prior study, complexity of formulations, and limitations and protections on ingredient disclosure in the U.S. We investigated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from 25 common fragranced consumer products-laundry products, personal care products, cleaning supplies, and air fresheners-using headspace analysis with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Our analysis found 133 different VOCs emitted from the 25 products, with an average of 17 VOCs per product. Of these 133 VOCs, 24 are classified as toxic or hazardous under U.S. federal laws, and each product emitted at least one of these compounds. For 'green' products, emissions of these compounds were not significantly different from the other products. Of all VOCs identified across the products, only 1 was listed on any product label, and only 2 were listed on any material safety data sheet (MSDS). While virtually none of the chemicals identified were listed, this nonetheless accords with U.S. regulations, which do not require disclosure of all ingredients in a consumer product, or of any ingredients in a mixture called 'fragrance.' Because the analysis focused on compounds emitted and listed, rather than exposures and effects, it makes no claims regarding possible risks from product use. Results of this study contribute to understanding emissions from common products, and their links with labeling and legislation.

  20. Oil Dispersion with Abamectin as Active Ingredient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavica Gašić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abamectin was developed as an insecticide, nematocide and acaricide for use on a varietyof agricultural and horticultural crops. The products with this active ingredient can befound on the market mostly formulated as emulsifiable concentrate (EC. Usually producersrecommend using the EC formulation of abamectin together with some kind of adjuvants(natural oils to improve efficacy of the active ingredient. To overcome the efficacy problemwe tried to formulate the active ingredient abamectin as oil dispersion (OD. Oil dispersion,preferably based on naturally derived oils could improve pesticide efficacy. This type of pesticideformulation contains oil instead of water as in classical suspension concentrate andtypically has better retention and coverage. In the case of abamectin, in this investigationsoybean oil was used with the mixture of different nonionic emulsifiers. Content of abamecetinin formulation was 1.8 %. The developed formulation was tested for few importantparameters. The obtained physicochemical properties for the above mentioned formulationhave shown that it is stable and could be used in plant protection.

  1. Expert systems in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    Recent developments in expert system technology have led to the question whether such systems could be used for the enhancement of nuclear safety, particularly as advisory system during abnormal plant conditions. This document was produced during the Technical Committee Meeting (TCM) to Demonstrate and Review Expert System Prototypes, which was organized jointly by the International Atomic Energy Agency and British Nuclear Fuels Ltd (BNFL) and held at the BNFL site in Springfields, United Kingdom, from 30 September to 4 October 1991. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 14 papers in this document. Refs, figs and tabs

  2. Engineering yeast metabolism for production of terpenoids for use as perfume ingredients, pharmaceuticals and biofuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yueping; Nielsen, Jens; Liu, Zihe

    2017-01-01

    of terpenoids that find applications as perfume ingredients, pharmaceuticals and advanced biofuels. In this review, we describe the strategies to rewire the yeast pathway for terpenoid biosynthesis. Recent advances will be discussed together with challenges and perspectives of yeast as a cell factory to produce...

  3. 21 CFR 346.12 - Vasoconstrictor active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vasoconstrictor active ingredients. 346.12 Section 346.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Vasoconstrictor active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists of any of the following when...

  4. 21 CFR 349.30 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 349.10 may be combined with any single ophthalmic vasoconstrictor active ingredient identified in... vasoconstrictor identified in § 349.18. (d) Any single ophthalmic astringent active ingredient identified in § 349.10 may be combined with any single ophthalmic vasoconstrictor active ingredient identified in § 349...

  5. 21 CFR 333.310 - Acne active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acne active ingredients. 333.310 Section 333.310... FOR HUMAN USE TOPICAL ANTIMICROBIAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Topical Acne Drug Products § 333.310 Acne active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists of any of the...

  6. The panel of experts

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    CHAIRMAN Ousmane Sy, Minister of territorial administration and local institutions (Republic of Mali) SCIENTIFIC COORDINATORS Jérôme Marie (Paris 10 University) Pierre Morand (IRD) Hamady N’Djim (Consulting engineer) MEMBERS Jean-François Bélières (Cirad) Cheik Cissé (Consulting legal expert) Lassine Diarra (IER-CRRA) Almoustapha Fofana (DNH) Pierrick Givone (Cemagref) Housseini Maïga (DNH) Mamadou Kabirou N’Diaye (IER) Didier Orange (IRD) Pierre Sibiri Traoré (Icrisat/IER)

  7. The naked experts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, B.

    1982-01-01

    In an article critical of experts, the cases argued for and against nuclear power are discussed under the headings: environmental hazards arising from the nuclear fuel cycle; proliferation of nuclear weapons capabilities via expansion of the nuclear power industry; political and social threats and restraints of a nuclear society (terrorism, reduction in civil liberties, centralised political and economic power); economic and employment disadvantages of nuclear power; impact of uranium mining on (Australian) aboriginal culture; inadequacy of nuclear power as a solution to energy problems; advantages of a 'soft energy path' based around conservation and renewable energy technologies. (U.K.)

  8. Limitations of Expert Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Serpil Salaçin

    1997-01-01

    Limitations of Expert Evidence Edited by Stephen Leadbeatter MB ChB MCRPath ISBN 1 86016 029 8 Printed in Great Britain by Cathedral Print Services Ltd, Salisbury, 1996 Kitap 25 Ekim 1994 te The Royal College of Physicians ve The Royal College of Pathologists tarafından düzenlenen konferanstan sonra hekimlere ve avukatlara konuyu tartışmaya açmak için basılmış. Bilirkişi görüşünün temel filozofisinin, bu görevi yapanlar ve bu hizmeti alanların yapabileceklerin...

  9. Expert Oracle Exadata

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Randy

    2011-01-01

    Throughout history, advances in technology have come in spurts. A single great idea can often spur rapid change as the idea takes hold and is propagated, often in totally unexpected directions. Exadata embodies such a change in how we think about and manage relational databases. The key change lies in the concept of offloading SQL processing to the storage layer. That concept is a huge win, and its implementation in the form of Exadata is truly a game changer. Expert Oracle Exadata will give you a look under the covers at how the combination of hardware and software that comprise Exadata actua

  10. [Review by expert group in the diagnosis and treatment of anemia in pregnant women. Federación Mexicana de Colegios de Obstetricia y Ginecología].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya Romero, Jose de Jesús; Castelazo Morales, Ernesto; Valerio Castro, Emilio; Velázquez Cornejo, Gerardo; Nava Muñoz, David Antonio; Escárcega Preciado, Jaime Arturo; Montoya Cossío, Javier; Pichardo Villalón, Guadalupe Mireya; Maldonado Aragón, Aristeo; Santana García, Héctor Rogelio; Fajardo Dueñas, Sergio; Mondragón Galindo, César Germán; García Lee, Teresa; García, Angel; Hernández de Morán, Marcela; Chávez Güitrón, Luis Eduardo; Jiménez Gutiérrez, Carlos

    2012-09-01

    According to data from the World Health Organization and UNICEF from year 2009, iron deficiency is the most widespread nutritional deficiency worldwide. This deficiency causes an imbalance between needs and iron supply, which consequently results in anemia. Around the world, two million people suffer from anemia, half of which is due to iron deficiency. The most impacted groups are children and teenagers, due to their highest requirements derived from the growing process, and women in their reproductive age, due to their loss of iron derived from menstruating or to their highest iron needs during pregnancy. This increase in needs is not satisfied by the regular diet, since it includes an insufficient amount and/or low bioavailability of iron. To share with the medical community treating pregnant women the experience of an expert group so that they always bear in mind the repercussions caused by anemia during pregnancy, know more about the diagnostic possibilities and have a reference point for prescribing iron supplements. The consensus method was used through the expert panel group technique. Two rounds were taken for structuring the clinical questions. The first one was to facilitate working groups their focusing in the clinical topics and the population of interest; the second one was to aid in posing specific questions observing the Patient, Intervention, Compare and Outcome (PICO) structure. The primary and clinical secondary study variables were defined by the working groups from the previously developed questions and during the face-to-face working period, according to the natural history of the disease: risk factors, diagnostic classification, (either pharmacological or non pharmacological) treatment and prognosis. The level of evidence and clinical recommendation was classified based on the Evidence Classification Level and Clinical Recommendation of the Medicine Group based on Evidence from Oxford University. In Mexico, 20.6% of pregnant women suffer from

  11. Prebiotics as functional food ingredients preventing diet-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florowska, A; Krygier, K; Florowski, T; Dłużewska, E

    2016-05-18

    This paper reviews the potential of prebiotic-containing foods in the prevention or postponement of certain diet-related diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases with hypercholesterolemia, osteoporosis, diabetes, gastrointestinal infections and gut inflammation. Also the data on prebiotics as food ingredients and their impact on food product quality are presented. Prebiotics are short chain carbohydrates that are resistant to the digestion process in the upper part of the digestive system, are not absorbed in any segment of the gastrointestinal system, and finally are selectively fermented by specific genera of colonic bacteria. The mechanisms of the beneficial impacts of prebiotics on human health are very difficult to specify directly, because their health-promoting functions are related to fermentation by intestinal microflora. The impact of prebiotics on diet-related diseases in many ways also depends on the products of their fermentation. Prebiotics as functional food ingredients also have an impact on the quality of food products, due to their textural and gelling properties. Prebiotics as food additives can be very valuable in the creation of functional food aimed at preventing or postponing many diet-related diseases. They additionally have beneficial technological properties which improve the quality of food products.

  12. Plant Cell Cultures as Source of Cosmetic Active Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Barbulova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The last decades witnessed a great demand of natural remedies. As a result, medicinal plants have been increasingly cultivated on a commercial scale, but the yield, the productive quality and the safety have not always been satisfactory. Plant cell cultures provide useful alternatives for the production of active ingredients for biomedical and cosmetic uses, since they represent standardized, contaminant-free and biosustainable systems, which allow the production of desired compounds on an industrial scale. Moreover, thanks to their totipotency, plant cells grown as liquid suspension cultures can be used as “biofactories” for the production of commercially interesting secondary metabolites, which are in many cases synthesized in low amounts in plant tissues and differentially distributed in the plant organs, such as roots, leaves, flowers or fruits. Although it is very widespread in the pharmaceutical industry, plant cell culture technology is not yet very common in the cosmetic field. The aim of the present review is to focus on the successful research accomplishments in the development of plant cell cultures for the production of active ingredients for cosmetic applications.

  13. Macroalgae-Derived Ingredients for Cosmetic Industry—An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa B. Pimentel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a natural and progressive declining physiological process that is influenced by multifactorial aspects and affects individuals’ health in very different ways. The skin is one of the major organs in which aging is more evident, as it progressively loses some of its natural functions. With the new societal paradigms regarding youth and beauty have emerged new concerns about appearance, encouraging millions of consumers to use cosmetic/personal care products as part of their daily routine. Hence, cosmetics have become a global and highly competitive market in a constant state of evolution. This industry is highly committed to finding natural sources of functional/bioactive-rich compounds, preferably from sustainable and cheap raw materials, to deliver innovative products and solutions that meet consumers’ expectations. Macroalgae are an excellent example of a natural resource that can fit these requirements. The incorporation of macroalgae-derived ingredients in cosmetics has been growing, as more and more scientific evidence reports their skin health-promoting effects. This review provides an overview on the possible applications of macroalgae as active ingredients for the cosmetic field, highlighting the main compounds responsible for their bioactivity on skin.

  14. Hydroxytyrosol: Health Benefits and Use as Functional Ingredient in Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Martínez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxytyrosol (HXT is a phenolic compound drawn from the olive tree and its leaves as a by-product obtained from the manufacturing of olive oil. It is considered the most powerful antioxidant compound after gallic acid and one of the most powerful antioxidant compounds between phenolic compounds from olive tree followed by oleuropein, caffeic and tyrosol. Due to its molecular structure, its regular consumption has several beneficial effects such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and as a protector of skin and eyes, etc. For these reasons, the use of HXT extract is a good strategy for use in meat products to replace synthetics additives. However, this extract has a strong odour and flavour, so it is necessary to previously treat this compound in order to not alter the organoleptic quality of the meat product when is added as ingredient. The present review exposes the health benefits provided by HXT consumption and the latest research about its use on meat. In addition, new trends about the application of HXT in the list of ingredients of healthier meat products will be discussed.

  15. Darwin, Culture and Expert Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Romem, Yoram

    2010-01-01

    In summary, there is a close analogical relationship between Expert Systems fundamental processes and Darwinian evolution processes: Just as evolution reaches a stabilization phase only after a successful mutation survives the natural selection, so does the new knowledge of the expert become a habit and noticeable only after it has been successfully transmitted as rules in the Expert System26.

  16. Safe anastomosis in laparoscopic and robotic low anterior resection for rectal cancer: a narrative review and outcomes study from an expert tertiary center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asari, S A L; Cho, M S; Kim, N K

    2015-02-01

    Anastomotic leak and stricture formation are recognised complications of colorectal anastomoses. Surgical technique has been implicated in its aetiology. The use of innovative anastomotic techniques and technical standardisation may facilitate risk modification. Early detection of complications using novel diagnostic tests can lead to reduction in delay of diagnosis as long as a standard system is used. We review our practice for creation a safe anastomosis for minimal invasive rectal cancer resection. Several technical points discussed and evaluated based on the evidence. We propose several recommendations aiming to standardize the technique and to minimize anastomotic complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Application of FT-IR pattern recognition method for the quality control of pharmaceutical ingredients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horgos, József; Kóger, Péter; Zelkó, Romána

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics have proven their effectiveness for both qualitative and quantitative analyses in different fields like agriculture, food, chemical and oil industry. Furier Transformation Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) combined with Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) plate is a fast identification instrument. It is suitable for analysis of solid and liquid phase, too. Associated with chemometrics, it would be a powerful tool for the pharmaceutical wholesalers to detect the insufficient quality of pharmaceutical ingredients. In the present study beside the review of the infra red technology, pharmaceutical ingredients were examined with the help of our spectra library.

  18. Safety aspects of the production of foods and food ingredients from insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlüter, Oliver; Rumpold, Birgit; Holzhauser, Thomas; Roth, Angelika; Vogel, Rudi F; Quasigroch, Walter; Vogel, Stephanie; Heinz, Volker; Jäger, Henry; Bandick, Nils; Kulling, Sabine; Knorr, Dietrich; Steinberg, Pablo; Engel, Karl-Heinz

    2017-06-01

    At present, insects are rarely used by the European food industry, but they are a subject of growing interest as an alternative source of raw materials. The risks associated with the use of insects in the production of foods and food ingredients have not been sufficiently investigated. There is a lack of scientifically based knowledge of insect processing to ensure food safety, especially when these processes are carried out on an industrial scale. This review focuses on the safety aspects that need to be considered regarding the fractionation of insects for the production of foods and food ingredients. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems: the feasibility of computer interrogation of experts for WISAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wight, L.H.

    1980-05-01

    Simulation of the response of a waste repository to events that could initiate a fault tree to breach and failure is currently a keystone to the Battelle Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP). The repository simulation, which is part of the Disruptive Event Analysis Task, models the repository for its entire design life, one million years. This is clearly a challenging calculation, requiring input unlike any other response analysis by virtue of the long design life of the facility. What technology will provide design criteria for a million year design life. Answers to questions like this can, to some extent, be based on data, but always require some subjective judgments. The subjectivity, which is sometimes driven by inadequate or incomplete data or by a lack of understanding of the physical process, is therefore a crucial ingredient in an analysis of initiating events. Because of the variety of possible initiating events (glaciation, man-caused disruption, volcanism, etc.), many expert opinions will be solicited as input. The complexity of the simulation, the variety of experts involved, and the volume of applicable data all suggest that there may be a more direct, economical method to solicit the expert opinion. This report addresses the feasibility of such a system. Background information is presented that demonstrates the advantages of a computer interrogation system over conventional interrogation and assessment techniques. In the subsequent three sections the three elements - structure and decomposition, scaling, and synthesis - that are basic to any interrogation and assessment technique are reviewed. The interrelationship are schematically illustrated between these three fundamental elements and, therefore, serves as a useful guide to these three sections. Each of these three sections begins with a recommended approach to the particular element and ends with an illustration of representative dialogue.

  20. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems: the feasibility of computer interrogation of experts for WISAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wight, L.H.

    1980-05-01

    Simulation of the response of a waste repository to events that could initiate a fault tree to breach and failure is currently a keystone to the Battelle Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP). The repository simulation, which is part of the Disruptive Event Analysis Task, models the repository for its entire design life, one million years. This is clearly a challenging calculation, requiring input unlike any other response analysis by virtue of the long design life of the facility. What technology will provide design criteria for a million year design life. Answers to questions like this can, to some extent, be based on data, but always require some subjective judgments. The subjectivity, which is sometimes driven by inadequate or incomplete data or by a lack of understanding of the physical process, is therefore a crucial ingredient in an analysis of initiating events. Because of the variety of possible initiating events (glaciation, man-caused disruption, volcanism, etc.), many expert opinions will be solicited as input. The complexity of the simulation, the variety of experts involved, and the volume of applicable data all suggest that there may be a more direct, economical method to solicit the expert opinion. This report addresses the feasibility of such a system. Background information is presented that demonstrates the advantages of a computer interrogation system over conventional interrogation and assessment techniques. In the subsequent three sections the three elements - structure and decomposition, scaling, and synthesis - that are basic to any interrogation and assessment technique are reviewed. The interrelationship are schematically illustrated between these three fundamental elements and, therefore, serves as a useful guide to these three sections. Each of these three sections begins with a recommended approach to the particular element and ends with an illustration of representative dialogue

  1. Hybrid expert system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsoukalas, L.; Ikonomopoulos, A.; Uhrig, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology that couples rule-based expert systems using fuzzy logic, to pre-trained artificial neutral networks (ANN) for the purpose of transient identification in Nuclear Power Plants (NPP). In order to provide timely concise, and task-specific information about the may aspects of the transient and to determine the state of the system based on the interpretation of potentially noisy data a model-referenced approach is utilized. In it, the expert system performs the basic interpretation and processing of the model data, and pre-trained ANNs provide the model. having access to a set of neural networks that typify general categories of transients, the rule based system is able to perform identification functions. Membership functions - condensing information about a transient in a form convenient for a rule-based identification system characterizing a transient - are the output of neural computations. This allows the identification function to be performed with a speed comparable to or faster than that of the temporal evolution of the system. Simulator data form major secondary system pipe rupture is used to demonstrate the methodology. The results indicate excellent noise-tolerance for ANN's and suggest a new method for transient identification within the framework of Fuzzy Logic

  2. Demystifying the Expert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, Anca; Feitosa, Klebert

    We present here a program that aims at significantly diminishing the increasingly pervasive fear of approaching scientific concepts, particularly for people without math related backgrounds or interests. We built a series of grassroots yet unique science shows delivered in an up-beat, visually, and socially appealing environment, that bring forward the crucially needed bridge between the realm of scientific research and that of ordinary people through... comedy. While staged by two physics professors as hosts, the hilarious interactions between a science expert and a student-led improvisational comedy troupe constitute the main tool to unlock, decipher, and enjoy the mystery of the scientific research. Our program gets everyone in with lots of laughs, at no expense to academic quality, community involvement, diversity, excellence, integrity, and student focus. Our independent dedicated website for this project (sites.jmu.edu/demystifying), archives the podcasts (soundcloud.com/demystifying), short segment videos, blog posts, experts' bios, photo albums, testimonials, press releases, along with quantitative results of our assessment efforts. The overarching goal of this program is to pioneer a low cost yet efficient method of science education that can be replicated world wide.

  3. Confessions and expert testimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Kenneth J

    2003-01-01

    In this clinical paper, the author discusses criminal confessions from the point of view of the expert witness who may be asked to comment on the reliability of the statement and waiver of rights. From the time a suspect is in police custody, constitutional protections against self-incrimination and for due process are in place. The Supreme Court set the standard for these situations in the 1966 Miranda v. Arizona decision. Although it has long been criticized by law enforcement, the decision was upheld in the 2000 decision in Dickerson v. U.S. For a waiver of rights to be valid, it must be a knowing, intelligent, and voluntary decision. Voluntariness is an equation of objective and subjective variables. Treatment by police, physical conditions of interrogation, the suspect's experience and mental state can alter the reliability of a confession. Accordingly, the author has devised a mnemonic for the recognition of conditions that may give rise to expert testimony. The conditions are: Mental illness, Intoxication, Retardation, Acquiescence, Narcotic withdrawal, Deception, and Abuse. These are discussed, supported by examples from the author's practice.

  4. Expert opinion and review article: The timing of comedone extraction in the treatment of premenstrual acne--a proposed therapeutic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steventon, K

    2011-04-01

    The face is the most exposed part of our body, and deterioration of facial appearance, through disease or ageing, causes psychological distress. Acne lesions and subsequent pigmentation changes contribute to the unevenness of skin colour that is detrimental to facial attractiveness and leads to rejection and stigmatization in our society. The purpose of this review is to look at the root causes of premenstrual acne and, for the first time ever, propose that the specific timing of treatment can, at least in part, resolve the acne lesions. We postulate that it is the timing of the manual extraction that matters in resolving premenstrual acne and that the effectiveness of this therapy could be improved. Based on the reviewed evidence, we propose that it is important to remove the comedones at the time of ovulation, prior to the reduction of the size of the sebaceous orifice and epidermal barrier function, to counteract the onset of increased sebum production, prevent blockage of the pores and subsequent bacterial colonization and inflammation. If performed successfully, the extraction may contribute to a reduction in inflamed acne lesions and thus benefit women by increasing their facial attractiveness, well-being, social function and thereby decrease psychological stress. © 2010 The Author. ICS © 2010 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  5. The Dark Side of CML: A Look at Expert Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Dale C.

    The paper examines implications of the application of computer expert systems in the field of education, particularly special education. The development of expert systems in general is reviewed as are its applications in education as intelligent tutoring systems and in special education in the areas of student classification, teacher education,…

  6. Book Review: Radiological Conditions in the Dnieper River Basin: Assessment by an International Expert Team and Recommendations for an Action Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napier, Bruce A.

    2007-01-01

    This article is a book review of a report from the International Atomic Energy Agency that was prepared by a team of scientists from Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine as an assessment of radiological contamination of the Dnieper River, which flows through these three countries. The topics covered begin with radioactive sources (actual and potential) including areas affected by the Chernobyl nuclear accident, nuclear power plants along the river and its tributaries, uranium mining and ore processing, radioactive waste storage and disposal sites, and non-power sources, such as medicine, industry, and research. The report continues with an assessment of human exposures to radiation from these sources. An additional area of consideration is radiological 'hot spots' in the region. The report finishes with conclusions and recommendations to the regional governments for a strategic action plan and individual government national plans.

  7. Book Review: Radiological Conditions in the Dnieper River Basin: Assessment by an International Expert Team and Recommendations for an Action Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, Bruce A.

    2007-12-31

    This article is a book review of a report from the International Atomic Energy Agency that was prepared by a team of scientists from Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine as an assessment of radiological contamination of the Dnieper River, which flows through these three countries. The topics covered begin with radioactive sources (actual and potential) including areas affected by the Chernobyl nuclear accident, nuclear power plants along the river and its tributaries, uranium mining and ore processing, radioactive waste storage and disposal sites, and non-power sources, such as medicine, industry, and research. The report continues with an assessment of human exposures to radiation from these sources. An additional area of consideration is radiological “hot spots” in the region. The report finishes with conclusions and recommendations to the regional governments for a strategic action plan and individual government national plans.

  8. False confessions, expert testimony, and admissibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Clarence; Weiss, Kenneth J; Pouncey, Claire

    2010-01-01

    The confession of a criminal defendant serves as a prosecutor's most compelling piece of evidence during trial. Courts must preserve a defendant's constitutional right to a fair trial while upholding the judicial interests of presenting competent and reliable evidence to the jury. When a defendant seeks to challenge the validity of that confession through expert testimony, the prosecution often contests the admissibility of the expert's opinion. Depending on the content and methodology of the expert's opinion, testimony addressing the phenomenon of false confessions may or may not be admissible. This article outlines the scientific and epistemological bases of expert testimony on false confession, notes the obstacles facing its admissibility, and provides guidance to the expert in formulating opinions that will reach the judge or jury. We review the 2006 New Jersey Superior Court decision in State of New Jersey v. George King to illustrate what is involved in the admissibility of false-confession testimony and use the case as a starting point in developing a best-practice approach to working in this area.

  9. The effect of tobacco ingredients on smoke chemistry. Part II: casing ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Richard R; Pereira da Silva, José R; Smith, Graham

    2004-01-01

    This is the second part of a study in which the effects of adding a range of ingredients to tobacco on the chemistry of cigarette mainstream smoke are assessed. The examination of smoke chemistry has concentrated on those constituents in smoke that regulatory authorities in the USA and Canada believe to be relevant to smoking-related diseases. In this part of the study the effects of 29 casing ingredients and three humectants have been assessed at the maximum levels typically used on cigarettes by British American Tobacco. This brings the total number of ingredients assessed in Parts I and II of this study to 482. The casing ingredients were added at levels of up to 68 mg on the cigarettes. Their effects on smoke constituents were generally larger than the effects of flavouring ingredients, which were added at parts per million levels. Many of the casing ingredient mixtures either had no statistically significant effect on the level of the analytes investigated in smoke relative to a control cigarette, or they produced decreases of up to 44% in some cases. Those analytes that were increased in smoke are highlighted in this paper. The largest increases were for formaldehyde levels, up to 26 microg (73%) in one case, observed from casing mixtures containing sugar. This is most likely due to the generation of formaldehyde by pyrolysis of sugars. Occasional small increases were also observed for other analytes. However, the statistical significance of many of these increases was not present when the long-term variability of the analytical method was taken into account. The significance and possible reasons for the increases are discussed.

  10. Expert systems for plant operations training and assistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pack, R.W.; Lazar, P.M.; Schmidt, R.V.; Gaddy, C.D.

    1988-01-01

    The project described in this paper explored the use of expert systems for plant operations training and assistance. Three computer technologies were reviewed: computer-aided instruction, expert systems, and expert training systems (ETS). The technology of CAI has been developed since the early 1960s, and a wide range of applications are available commercially today. Expert systems have been developed primarily as job performance aids, and the number of commercial applications is increasing. A fully developed ETS has models of the trainer and trainee, in addition to a knowledge base

  11. New feed ingredients: the insect opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Raamsdonk, L W D; van der Fels-Klerx, H J; de Jong, J

    2017-08-01

    In the framework of sustainability and a circular economy, new ingredients for feed are desired and, to this end, initiatives for implementing such novel ingredients have been started. The initiatives include a range of different sources, of which insects are of particular interest. Within the European Union, generally, a new feed ingredient should comply with legal constraints in terms of 'yes, provided that' its safety commits to a range of legal limits for heavy metals, mycotoxins, pesticides, contaminants, pathogens etc. In the case of animal proteins, however, a second legal framework applies which is based on the principle 'no, unless'. This legislation for eradicating transmissible spongiform encephalopathy consists of prohibitions with a set of derogations applying to specific situations. Insects are currently considered animal proteins. The use of insect proteins is a good case to illustrate this difference between a positive, although restricted, modus and a negative modus for allowing animal proteins. This overview presents aspects in the areas of legislation, feed safety, environmental issues, efficiency and detection of the identity of insects. Use of insects as an extra step in the feed production chain costs extra energy and this results in a higher footprint. A measure for energy conversion should be used to facilitate the comparison between production systems based on cold- versus warm-blooded animals. Added value can be found by applying new commodities for rearing, including but not limited to category 2 animal by-products, catering and household waste including meat, and manure. Furthermore, monitoring of a correct use of insects is one possible approach for label control, traceability and prevention of fraud. The link between legislation and enforcement is strong. A principle called WISE (Witful, Indicative, Societal demands, Enforceable) is launched for governing the relationship between the above-mentioned aspects.

  12. [Germinated or fermented legumes: food or ingredients of functional food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Marbelly A; Sangronis, Elba; Granito, Marisela

    2003-12-01

    Epidemiological research has shown a positive association between certain diseases and dietary intake of food components found in fruits, grains, legumes, fish oil among others. Food that may provide a health benefit beyond the traditional nutrients that it contains, are named functional food. In addition to the varied nutrients, legumes contain compounds such as polyphenols, soluble fiber, alpha-galactosides and isoflavones which confer propierties of functional foods. Do to the cuse of flatus production in some people, long cooking periods, or anti-nutritional factors, legume consumption levels are limited. In this review, germination and fermentation processes will be presented as alternatives that are able to reduce or inactivate anti-nutritional factors, preserve and even improve the content of the isoflavones, or better the potencial of the legumes as functional food or as ingredients for the formulation of functional foods.

  13. Microbial production of antioxidant food ingredients via metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuheng; Jain, Rachit; Yan, Yajun

    2014-04-01

    Antioxidants are biological molecules with the ability to protect vital metabolites from harmful oxidation. Due to this fascinating role, their beneficial effects on human health are of paramount importance. Traditional approaches using solvent-based extraction from food/non-food sources and chemical synthesis are often expensive, exhaustive, and detrimental to the environment. With the advent of metabolic engineering tools, the successful reconstitution of heterologous pathways in Escherichia coli and other microorganisms provides a more exciting and amenable alternative to meet the increasing demand of natural antioxidants. In this review, we elucidate the recent progress in metabolic engineering efforts for the microbial production of antioxidant food ingredients - polyphenols, carotenoids, and antioxidant vitamins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Expert Water Quality Panel Review of Responses to the NASA Request for Information for the International Space Station On-Board Environmental Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Julianna L.; Mudgett, Paul D.; Packham, Nigel J.; Schultz, John R.; Straub, John E., II

    2005-01-01

    On August 9, 2003, NASA, with the cooperative support of the Vehicle Office of the International Space Station Program, the Advanced Human Support Technology Program, and the Johnson Space Center Habitability and Environmental Factors Office released a Request for Information, or RFI, to identify next-generation environmental monitoring systems that have demonstrated ability or the potential to meet defined requirements for monitoring air and water quality onboard the International Space Station. This report summarizes the review and analysis of the proposed solutions submitted to meet the water quality monitoring requirements. Proposals were to improve upon the functionality of the existing Space Station Total Organic Carbon Analyzer (TOCA) and monitor additional contaminants in water samples. The TOCA is responsible for in-flight measurement of total organic carbon, total inorganic carbon, total carbon, pH, and conductivity in the Space Station potable water supplies. The current TOCA requires hazardous reagents to accomplish the carbon analyses. NASA is using the request for information process to investigate new technologies that may improve upon existing capabilities, as well as reduce or eliminate the need for hazardous reagents. Ideally, a replacement for the TOCA would be deployed in conjunction with the delivery of the Node 3 water recovery system currently scheduled for November 2007.

  15. Transforming the diagnosis of tuberculosis: an editorial board member's opinion at the 15th year of Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Madhukar; Raison, Claire

    2015-03-01

    Interview with Professor Madhukar Pai, MD, PhD by Claire Raison (Commissioning Editor). Professor Madhukar Pai did his medical training and community medicine residency in Vellore, India. He completed his PhD in epidemiology at the University of California, Berkeley (CA, USA) and a postdoctoral fellowship at the University of California, San Francisco (CA, USA). He is currently an associate professor of epidemiology at McGill University in Montreal (Canada). He serves as the Director of Global Health Programs, and as an Associate Director of the McGill International Tuberculosis Centre. In addition, he serves as a Consultant for the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. He also serves on the Scientific Advisory Committee of the Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics, Geneva, Switzerland. His research is focused on improving the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis, especially in high-burden countries such as India and South Africa. His research is supported by grant funding from the Gates Foundation, Grand Challenges Canada and Canadian Institutes of Health Research. He has more than 200 peer-reviewed publications. He is recipient of the Union Scientific Prize, Chanchlani Global Health Research Award and Stars in Global Health award from Grand Challenges Canada, and is a member of the Royal Society of Canada.

  16. Diagnosis - Using automatic test equipment and artificial intelligence expert systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, J. E., Jr.

    Three expert systems (ATEOPS, ATEFEXPERS, and ATEFATLAS), which were created to direct automatic test equipment (ATE), are reviewed. The purpose of the project was to develop an expert system to troubleshoot the converter-programmer power supply card for the F-15 aircraft and have that expert system direct the automatic test equipment. Each expert system uses a different knowledge base or inference engine, basing the testing on the circuit schematic, test requirements document, or ATLAS code. Implementing generalized modules allows the expert systems to be used for any different unit under test. Using converted ATLAS to LISP code allows the expert system to direct any ATE using ATLAS. The constraint propagated frame system allows for the expansion of control by creating the ATLAS code, checking the code for good software engineering techniques, directing the ATE, and changing the test sequence as needed (planning).

  17. The rational thinking of expert opinion and communicating in courtroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the past half century, expert testimony has played an increasingly important role in Chinese litigation. As the amount of expert testimony has grown, the issues about its admissibility and scientific foundation related to evidence are becoming to be questioned commonly. Since eighteenth central committee (China adopted the decision of the Central Committee of China on several important issues in promoting the legal system, the evidence was redefined to become the predominance in the whole proceeding. This article reviews the expert knowledge implicit in the opinions. It argues that the expert opinions ask judges to be aware of the role of communicationg between participants. Expert opinion is not only gained from laboratory, but also socially constructed in the rational expression and communication, which requir us think logically in terms of legal perceptions of science and expert knowledge in the empirical world.

  18. ESG - EXPERT SCRIPT GENERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, E. G.

    1994-01-01

    The Automation Technology Branch of NASA's Langley Research Center is employing increasingly complex degrees of operator/robot cooperation (telerobotics). A good relationship between the operator and computer is essential for smooth performance by a telerobotic system. ESG (Expert Script Generator) is a software package that automatically generates high-level task objective commands from the NASA Intelligent Systems Research Lab's (ISRL's) complex menu-driven language. ESG reduces errors and makes the telerobotics lab accessible to researchers who are not familiar with the comprehensive language developed by ISRL for interacting with the various systems of the ISRL testbed. ESG incorporates expert system technology to capture the typical rules of operation that a skilled operator would use. The result is an operator interface which optimizes the system's capability to perform a task remotely in a hazardous environment, in a timely manner, and without undue stress to the operator, while minimizing the chance for operator errors that may damage equipment. The intricate menu-driven command interface which provides for various control modes of both manipulators and their associated sensors in the TeleRobotic System Simulation (TRSS) has a syntax which is both irregular and verbose. ESG eliminates the following two problems with this command "language": 1) knowing the correct command sequence to accomplish a task, and 2) inputting a known command sequence without typos and other errors. ESG serves as an additional layer of interface, working in conjunction with the menu command processor, not supplanting it. By specifying task-level commands, such as GRASP, CONNECT, etc., ESG will generate the appropriate menu elements to accomplish the task. These elements will be collected in a script file which can then be executed by the ISRL menu command processor. In addition, the operator can extend the list of task-level commands to include customized tasks composed of sub

  19. Towards a taxonomy of common factors in psychotherapy-results of an expert survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschacher, Wolfgang; Junghan, Ulrich Martin; Pfammatter, Mario

    2014-01-01

    How change comes about is hotly debated in psychotherapy research. One camp considers 'non-specific' or 'common factors', shared by different therapy approaches, as essential, whereas researchers of the other camp consider specific techniques as the essential ingredients of change. This controversy, however, suffers from unclear terminology and logical inconsistencies. The Taxonomy Project therefore aims at contributing to the definition and conceptualization of common factors of psychotherapy by analyzing their differential associations to standard techniques. A review identified 22 common factors discussed in psychotherapy research literature. We conducted a survey, in which 68 psychotherapy experts assessed how common factors are implemented by specific techniques. Using hierarchical linear models, we predicted each common factor by techniques and by experts' age, gender and allegiance to a therapy orientation. Common factors differed largely in their relevance for technique implementation. Patient engagement, Affective experiencing and Therapeutic alliance were judged most relevant. Common factors also differed with respect to how well they could be explained by the set of techniques. We present detailed profiles of all common factors by the (positively or negatively) associated techniques. There were indications of a biased taxonomy not covering the embodiment of psychotherapy (expressed by body-centred techniques such as progressive muscle relaxation, biofeedback training and hypnosis). Likewise, common factors did not adequately represent effective psychodynamic and systemic techniques. This taxonomic endeavour is a step towards a clarification of important core constructs of psychotherapy. This article relates standard techniques of psychotherapy (well known to practising therapists) to the change factors/change mechanisms discussed in psychotherapy theory. It gives a short review of the current debate on the mechanisms by which psychotherapy works. We

  20. Expert system in PNC, 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobita, Yoshimasa; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Matsumoto, Mitsuo; Ono, Kiyoshi.

    1990-01-01

    The computer code system which can evaluate the mass balance and cycle cost in nuclear fuel cycle has been developing a PNC using an artificial intelligence technique. This system is composed of the expert system, data base and analysis codes. The expert system is the most important one in the system and the content of the expert system is explained in this paper. The expert system has the three functions. The first is the function of understanding the meaning of user's questions by natural language, the second is the function of selecting the best way to solve the problem given by the user using the knowledge which is already installed in the system, and the last is the function of answering the questions. The knowledge of the experts installed in the expert system is represented by the frame-type rules. Therefore, the knowledge will be simply added to the system, and consequently the system will be easily extended. (author)

  1. Patients Want to Meet With Imaging Experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koney, Nii; Roudenko, Alexandra; Ro, Maryann; Bahl, Sumeet; Kagen, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    The evolving health care landscape demands a multidisciplinary approach to care and increased emphasis on patient engagement. Radiologists may play an important role in this respect, by improving patient agency and understanding through direct patient interaction. The purpose of this study is to assess patient preferences and perceptions regarding direct communication with radiologists, focusing on a medically underserved demographic. Our institutional review board approved this HIPAA-compliant study. English- and/or Spanish-speaking adults undergoing imaging studies across two tertiary-care hospitals and a busy outpatient center were surveyed over a consecutive two-month period, to assess knowledge of the role of a radiologist, interest in, and perceived benefits of reviewing examination results with imaging experts. A total of 628 surveys were completed: 20% of total respondents accurately identified the role of radiologists; 28% identified radiologists as doctors. A total of 68% of respondents expressed an interest in receiving imaging results immediately, or whenever results became available, regardless of when referring physicians received results. An interest in reviewing imaging results with an expert was indicated by 81% of respondents; 88% anticipated that reviewing imaging results with an expert would be beneficial. Although 58% of respondents indicated that they might be willing to pay out of pocket for such a service, 50% selected $0 when asked to indicate an amount. Although most patients do not know the role of radiologists, they want immediate results, and perceive value in consulting directly with imaging experts. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Updates on chemical and biological research on botanical ingredients in dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Rahul S; Tamta, Hemlata; Ma, Jun; Krynitsky, Alexander J; Grundel, Erich; Wamer, Wayne G; Rader, Jeanne I

    2013-05-01

    Increased use of dietary supplements is a phenomenon observed worldwide. In the USA, more than 40% of the population recently reported using complementary and alternative medicines, including botanical dietary supplements. Perceptions that such dietary supplements are natural and safe, may prevent disease, may replace prescription medicines, or may make up for a poor diet, play important roles in their increased use. Toxicity of botanical dietary supplements may result from the presence of naturally occurring toxic constituents or from contamination or adulteration with pharmaceutical agents, heavy metals, mycotoxins, pesticides, or bacteria, misidentification of a plant species in a product, formation of electrophilic metabolites, organ-specific reactions, or botanical-drug interactions. The topics discussed in this review illustrate several issues in recent research on botanical ingredients in dietary supplements. These include (1) whether 1,3-dimethylamylamine is a natural constituent of rose geranium (Pelargonium graveolens), (2) how analysis of the components of dietary supplements containing bitter melon (Momordica charantia) is essential to understanding their potential biological effects, and (3) how evolving methods for in vitro studies on botanical ingredients can contribute to safety evaluations. The virtual explosion in the use of botanical ingredients in hundreds of products presents a considerable challenge to the analytical community, and the need for appropriate methods cannot be overstated. We review recent developments and use of newer and increasingly sensitive methods that can contribute to increasing the safety and quality of botanical ingredients in dietary supplements.

  3. Applicability of in silico genotoxicity models on food and feed ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuorinen, Anna; Bellion, Phillip; Beilstein, Paul

    2017-11-01

    Evaluation of the genotoxic potential of food and feed ingredients is required in the development of new substances and for their registration. In addition to in vitro and in vivo assays, in silico tools such as expert alert-based and statistical models can be used for data generation. These in silico models are commonly used among the pharmaceutical industry, whereas the food industry has not widely adopted them. In this study, the applicability of in silico tools for predicting genotoxicity was evaluated, with a focus on bacterial mutagenicity, in vitro and in vivo chromosome damage assays. For this purpose, a test set of 27 food and feed ingredients including vitamins, carotenoids, and nutraceuticals with experimental genotoxicity data was constructed from proprietary data. This dataset was run through multiple models and the model applicability was analyzed. The compounds were generally within the applicability domain of the models and the models predicted the compounds correctly in most of the cases. Although the regulatory acceptance of in silico tools as single data source is still limited, the models are applicable and can be used in the safety evaluation of food and feed ingredients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Expert Systems for the Analytical Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Monchy, Allan R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Discusses two computer problem solving programs: rule-based expert systems and decision analysis expert systems. Explores the application of expert systems to automated chemical analyses. Presents six factors to consider before using expert systems. (MVL)

  5. Expert Systems as Tools for Technical Communicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grider, Daryl A.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses expertise, what an expert system is, what an expert system shell is, what expert systems can and cannot do, knowledge engineering and technical communicators, and planning and managing expert system projects. (SR)

  6. Online-Expert: An Expert System for Online Database Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahir, Sajjad; Chang, Chew Lik

    1992-01-01

    Describes the design and development of a prototype expert system called ONLINE-EXPERT that helps users select online databases and vendors that meet users' needs. Search strategies are discussed; knowledge acquisition and knowledge bases are described; and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), a decision analysis technique that ranks databases,…

  7. System Experts and Decision Making Experts in Transdisciplinary Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieg, Harald A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims at a better understanding of expert roles in transdisciplinary projects. Thus, the main purpose is the analysis of the roles of experts in transdisciplinary projects. Design/methodology/approach: The analysis of the ETH-UNS case studies from the point of view of the psychology of expertise and the sociology of professions…

  8. Spirulina as a functional ingredient in broiler chicken diets | Bonos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , especially eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid after spirulina supplementation. Therefore, spirulina could be a promising functional ingredient in broiler chicken nutrition. Keywords: Poultry, microalgae, performance, meat ...

  9. Expert Systems in Reference Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roysdon, Christine, Ed.; White, Howard D., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Eleven articles introduce expert systems applications in library and information science, and present design and implementation issues of system development for reference services. Topics covered include knowledge based systems, prototype development, the use of artificial intelligence to remedy current system inadequacies, and an expert system to…

  10. Expert Systems and Special Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Alan M.; Ferrara, Joseph M.

    The application of artificial intelligence to the problems of education is examined. One of the most promising areas in artificial intelligence is expert systems technology which engages the user in a problem-solving diaglogue. Some of the characteristics that make expert systems "intelligent" are identified and exemplified. The rise of…

  11. Laserjet Printer Troubleshooting Expert System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SOFTLINKS DIGITAL

    -printer specialist solve their printer problems, and give time-based assistance to those who are in need of instant help when the maintenance experts are not handy. 2.0. Architecture of the LAPTEX Expert System. Working memory. (Fact base).

  12. Sensory analysis of cosmetic powders: personal care ingredients and emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussour, M; Lavarde, M; Pensé-Lhéritier, A-M; Bouton, F

    2017-02-01

    The powders are ingredients increasingly used in the formulation of cosmetic products for the sensory qualities they give. The objective of this study was the development of a lexicon and a referential for sensory characterization of these pure raw materials as well as formulations which contain them. Eleven expert panellists from Ecole de biologie industrielle de Cergy (France) developed a lexicon and a referential based on 12 powders of different chemical natures. The selected attributes were then used for performing a quantitative descriptive profile of two powders and an emulsion containing or not one of these two powders. A lexicon has been established through a consensus approach of the panel. It contains seven attributes that allow the evaluation of the powders in four phases: the appearance, the pickup, the application and the after-feel. This lexicon contains definitions and assessment protocols and provides references products. The quantitative descriptive profile of two powders of the same chemical nature, but different in physical quality showed significant differences in sensory level between products. These same attributes used to evaluate an emulsion containing the powder or not allowed to prove the contribution of these raw materials on the sensory specificities of the emulsion. The lexicon developed in this study can be used for assessment of other powders but also to define the quantities necessary to put in the formulation to meet the sensory characteristics of these raw materials powder. © 2016 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  13. Reflection group on 'Expert Culture'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggermont, G.

    2000-01-01

    As part of SCK-CEN's social sciences and humanities programme, a reflection group on 'Expert Culture' was established. The objectives of the reflection group are: (1) to clarify the role of SCK-CEN experts; (2) to clarify the new role of expertise in the evolving context of risk society; (3) to confront external views and internal SCK-CEN experiences on expert culture; (4) to improve trust building of experts and credibility of SCK-CEN as a nuclear actor in society; (5) to develop a draft for a deontological code; (6) to integrate the approach in training on assertivity and communication; (7) to create an output for a topical day on the subject of expert culture. The programme, achievements and perspectives of the refection group are summarised

  14. Cognitive resources of physics experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Darrick C.

    One important goal of physics education is to help students develop reasoning patterns similar to those of expert physicists. To achieve this goal, physics educators must know what makes physics experts so successful at solving challenging physics problems. However, this dimension of physics expertise has not been fully explored by the physics education research (PER) community. In this dissertation, I describe several studies I have conducted that further the PER community's understanding of physics expertise. In these studies, I investigate how expert physicists reason as they solve unfamiliar, challenging physics problems by using a resource-based model of cognition to analyze videotaped recordings of problem solving sessions. By developing a way to determine when experts are making conceptual breakthroughs I analyze what resources experts use during conceptual breakthroughs. In the first study, I show that physics conceptual breakthroughs are characterized by reasoning which combines resources related to intuitive knowledge, higher level physics based conceptual knowledge, and epistemological knowledge. In the second study, I develop a way to reliably code for epistemological resources and determine what epistemological resources experts rely on most during conceptual breakthroughs. My findings show that experts rely on contrasting cases more often than any other epistemological resource. In the third study, I use variation theory to investigate how experts use contrasting cases. I look for patterns across all instances when experts use contrasting cases to make a conceptual breakthrough and show how scientific epistemology can be used to better understand experts' use of contrasting cases. I discuss how the findings of each study can be used to inform physics education.

  15. Impurities in Drug Products and Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kątny, M; Frankowski, M

    2017-05-04

    Analytical methods should be selective and fast. In modern times, scientists strive to meet the criteria of green chemistry, so they choose analytical procedures that are as short as possible and use the least toxic solvents. It is quite obvious that the products intended for human consumption should be characterized as completely as possible. The safety of a drug is dependent mainly on the impurities that it contains. High pressure liquid chromatography and ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography have been proposed as the main techniques for forced degradation and impurity profiling. The aim of this article was to characterize the relevant classification of drug impurities and to review the methods of impurities determination for atorvastatin (ATV) and duloxetine (DLX) (both in active pharmaceutical ingredients and in different dosage forms). These drugs have an impact on two systems of the human body: cardiac and nervous. Simple characteristics of ATV and DLX, their properties and specificity of action on the human body, are also included in this review. The analyzed pharmaceuticals-ATV (brand name Lipiron) and DLX (brand name Cymbalta)-were selected for this study based on annual rankings prepared by Information Medical Statistics.

  16. Expert software for accident identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobnikar, M.; Nemec, T.; Muehleisen, A.

    2003-01-01

    Each type of an accident in a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) causes immediately after the start of the accident variations of physical parameters that are typical for that type of the accident thus enabling its identification. Examples of these parameter are: decrease of reactor coolant system pressure, increase of radiation level in the containment, increase of pressure in the containment. An expert software enabling a fast preliminary identification of the type of the accident in Krsko NPP has been developed. As input data selected typical parameters from Emergency Response Data System (ERDS) of the Krsko NPP are used. Based on these parameters the expert software identifies the type of the accident and also provides the user with appropriate references (past analyses and other documentation of such an accident). The expert software is to be used as a support tool by an expert team that forms in case of an emergency at Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA) with the task to determine the cause of the accident, its most probable scenario and the source term. The expert software should provide initial identification of the event, while the final one is still to be made after appropriate assessment of the event by the expert group considering possibility of non-typical events, multiple causes, initial conditions, influences of operators' actions etc. The expert software can be also used as an educational/training tool and even as a simple database of available accident analyses. (author)

  17. 21 CFR 333.110 - First aid antibiotic active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false First aid antibiotic active ingredients. 333.110... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE TOPICAL ANTIMICROBIAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE First Aid Antibiotic Drug Products § 333.110 First aid antibiotic active ingredients. The product consists of any of...

  18. Potential of Insect-Derived Ingredients for Food Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzompa Sosa, D.A.; Fogliano, V.

    2017-01-01

    Insects are a sustainable and efficient protein and lipid source, compared with conventional livestock. Moreover, insect proteins and lipids are highly nutritional. Therefore, insect proteins and lipids can find its place as food ingredients. The use of insect proteins and lipids as food ingredients

  19. Structured adsorbents for isolation of functional food ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez Illera, M.

    2014-01-01

    Separation and purification of functional ingredients from raw or waste streams are often done via processes that include a chromatographic step using a packed bed of resin particles that have affinity for the ingredients to be separated. A column packed with these particles presents numerous

  20. Recent developments on umami ingredients of edible mushrooms: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umami is a pleasant savory taste which has been attributed mainly to the presence of MSG-like amino acids and flavor 5’- nucleotides and widely used in food industry. Edible mushrooms have a peculiar umami taste. The umami taste makes the edible mushrooms palatable and adaptable in most food prepara...

  1. Ask-the-expert: Active Learning Based Knowledge Discovery Using the Expert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Kamalika; Avrekh, Ilya; Matthews, Bryan; Sharma, Manali; Oza, Nikunj

    2017-01-01

    Often the manual review of large data sets, either for purposes of labeling unlabeled instances or for classifying meaningful results from uninteresting (but statistically significant) ones is extremely resource intensive, especially in terms of subject matter expert (SME) time. Use of active learning has been shown to diminish this review time significantly. However, since active learning is an iterative process of learning a classifier based on a small number of SME-provided labels at each iteration, the lack of an enabling tool can hinder the process of adoption of these technologies in real-life, in spite of their labor-saving potential. In this demo we present ASK-the-Expert, an interactive tool that allows SMEs to review instances from a data set and provide labels within a single framework. ASK-the-Expert is powered by an active learning algorithm for training a classifier in the backend. We demonstrate this system in the context of an aviation safety application, but the tool can be adopted to work as a simple review and labeling tool as well, without the use of active learning.

  2. Fragranced consumer products and undisclosed ingredients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinemann, Anne C.

    2009-01-01

    Fragranced consumer products-such as air fresheners, laundry supplies, personal care products, and cleaners-are widely used in homes, businesses, institutions, and public places. While prevalent, these products can contain chemicals that are not disclosed to the public through product labels or material safety data sheets (MSDSs). What are some of these chemicals and what limits their disclosure? This article investigates these questions, and brings new pieces of evidence to the science, health, and policy puzzle. Results from a regulatory analysis, coupled with a chemical analysis of six best-selling products (three air fresheners and three laundry supplies), provide several findings. First, no law in the U.S. requires disclosure of all chemical ingredients in consumer products or in fragrances. Second, in these six products, nearly 100 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were identified, but none of the VOCs were listed on any product label, and one was listed on one MSDS. Third, of these identified VOCs, ten are regulated as toxic or hazardous under federal laws, with three (acetaldehyde, chloromethane, and 1,4-dioxane) classified as Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs). Results point to a need for improved understanding of product constituents and mechanisms between exposures and effects

  3. Experts views' on Digital Competence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, José; Stoyanov, Slavi

    2013-01-01

    Janssen, J., & Stoyanov, S. (2012, 20 November). Online Consultation for a Digital Competence Framework: Experts' views on Digital Competence. Workshop presentation at the Institute for Prospective Technological Studies, Seville, Spain.

  4. Expert robots in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, J.S.; Fisher, J.J.; DeVries, K.R.; Martin, T.P.

    1987-01-01

    Expert robots will enhance safety and operations in nuclear plants. E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, Savannah River Laboratory, is developing expert mobile robots for deployment in nuclear applications at the Savannah River Plant. Knowledge-based expert systems are being evaluated to simplify operator control, to assist in navigation and manipulation functions, and to analyze sensory information. Development work using two research vehicles is underway to demonstrate semiautonomous, intelligent, expert robot system operation in process areas. A description of the mechanical equipment, control systems, and operating modes is presented, including the integration of onboard sensors. A control hierarchy that uses modest computational methods is being used to allow mobile robots to autonomously navigate and perform tasks in known environments without the need for large computer systems

  5. Cornell Mixing Zone Expert System

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides an overview Cornell Mixing Zone Expert System water quality modeling and decision support system designed for environmental impact assessment of mixing zones resulting from wastewater discharge from point sources

  6. Expert opinion vs. empirical evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Rod A; Raybould, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Expert opinion is often sought by government regulatory agencies when there is insufficient empirical evidence to judge the safety implications of a course of action. However, it can be reckless to continue following expert opinion when a preponderance of evidence is amassed that conflicts with this opinion. Factual evidence should always trump opinion in prioritizing the information that is used to guide regulatory policy. Evidence-based medicine has seen a dramatic upturn in recent years spurred by examples where evidence indicated that certain treatments recommended by expert opinions increased death rates. We suggest that scientific evidence should also take priority over expert opinion in the regulation of genetically modified crops (GM). Examples of regulatory data requirements that are not justified based on the mass of evidence are described, and it is suggested that expertise in risk assessment should guide evidence-based regulation of GM crops. PMID:24637724

  7. Expert robots in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, J.S.; Fisher, J.J.; DeVries, K.R.; Martin, T.P.

    1987-01-01

    Expert robots enhance a safety and operations in nuclear plants. E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, Savannah River Laboratory, is developing expert mobile robots for deployment in nuclear applications at the Savannah River Plant. Knowledge-based expert systems are being evaluated to simplify operator control, to assist in navigation and manipulation functions, and to analyze sensory information. Development work using two research vehicles is underway to demonstrate semiautonomous, intelligence, expert robot system operation in process areas. A description of the mechanical equipment, control systems, and operating modes is presented, including the integration of onboard sensors. A control hierarchy that uses modest computational methods is being used to allow mobile robots to autonomously navigate and perform tasks in known environments without the need for large computer systems

  8. Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Harold O.; Burford, Anna Marie

    1990-01-01

    Delineates artificial intelligence/expert systems (AI/ES) concepts; provides an exposition of some business application areas; relates progress; and creates an awareness of the benefits, limitations, and reservations of AI/ES. (Author)

  9. Expert music performance: cognitive, neural, and developmental bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel M; Zatorre, Robert J; Penhune, Virginia B

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we explore what happens in the brain of an expert musician during performance. Understanding expert music performance is interesting to cognitive neuroscientists not only because it tests the limits of human memory and movement, but also because studying expert musicianship can help us understand skilled human behavior in general. In this chapter, we outline important facets of our current understanding of the cognitive and neural basis for music performance, and developmental factors that may underlie musical ability. We address three main questions. (1) What is expert performance? (2) How do musicians achieve expert-level performance? (3) How does expert performance come about? We address the first question by describing musicians' ability to remember, plan, execute, and monitor their performances in order to perform music accurately and expressively. We address the second question by reviewing evidence for possible cognitive and neural mechanisms that may underlie or contribute to expert music performance, including the integration of sound and movement, feedforward and feedback motor control processes, expectancy, and imagery. We further discuss how neural circuits in auditory, motor, parietal, subcortical, and frontal cortex all contribute to different facets of musical expertise. Finally, we address the third question by reviewing evidence for the heritability of musical expertise and for how expertise develops through training and practice. We end by discussing outlooks for future work. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Counselor Expert System | Debretsion | Zede Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An expert system plays an important role on alleviating primarily shortage of experts in a specific area of interest. With the help of an expert system, personnel with little expertise can solve problems that require expert knowledge. In this paper all major aspects of an expert system development have been presented.

  11. Experts in science and society

    CERN Document Server

    Gigerenzer, Gerd

    2004-01-01

    In today's complex world, we have come to rely increasingly on those who have expertise in specific areas and can bring their knowledge to bear on crucial social, political and scientific questions. Taking the viewpoint that experts are consulted when there is something important at stake for an individual, a group, or society at large, Experts in Science and Society explores expertise as a relational concept. How do experts balance their commitment to science with that to society? How does a society actually determine that a person has expertise? What personal traits are valued in an expert? From where does the expert derive authority? What makes new forms of expertise emerge? These and related questions are addressed from a wide range of areas in order to be inclusive, as well as to demonstrate similarities across areas. Likewise, in order to be culturally comparative, this volume includes examples and discussions of experts in different countries and even in different time periods. The topics include the r...

  12. Supplier's Status for Critical Solid Propellants, Explosive, and Pyrotechnic Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, B. L.; Painter, C. R.; Nauflett, G. W.; Cramer, R. J.; Mulder, E. J.

    2000-01-01

    In the early 1970's a program was initiated at the Naval Surface Warfare Center/Indian Head Division (NSWC/IHDIV) to address the well-known problems associated with availability and suppliers of critical ingredients. These critical ingredients are necessary for preparation of solid propellants and explosives manufactured by the Navy. The objective of the program was to identify primary and secondary (or back-up) vendor information for these critical ingredients, and to develop suitable alternative materials if an ingredient is unavailable. In 1992 NSWC/IHDIV funded Chemical Propulsion Information Agency (CPIA) under a Technical Area Task (TAT) to expedite the task of creating a database listing critical ingredients used to manufacture Navy propellant and explosives based on known formulation quantities. Under this task CPIA provided employees that were 100 percent dedicated to the task of obtaining critical ingredient suppliers information, selecting the software and designing the interface between the computer program and the database users. TAT objectives included creating the Explosive Ingredients Source Database (EISD) for Propellant, Explosive and Pyrotechnic (PEP) critical elements. The goal was to create a readily accessible database, to provide users a quick-view summary of critical ingredient supplier's information and create a centralized archive that CPIA would update and distribute. EISD funding ended in 1996. At that time, the database entries included 53 formulations and 108 critical used to manufacture Navy propellant and explosives. CPIA turned the database tasking back over to NSWC/IHDIV to maintain and distribute at their discretion. Due to significant interest in propellant/explosives critical ingredients suppliers' status, the Propellant Development and Characterization Subcommittee (PDCS) approached the JANNAF Executive committee (EC) for authorization to continue the critical ingredient database work. In 1999, JANNAF EC approved the PDCS panel

  13. Limitations of Expert Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serpil Salaçin

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Limitations of Expert Evidence Edited by Stephen Leadbeatter MB ChB MCRPath ISBN 1 86016 029 8 Printed in Great Britain by Cathedral Print Services Ltd, Salisbury, 1996 Kitap 25 Ekim 1994 te The Royal College of Physicians ve The Royal College of Pathologists tarafından düzenlenen konferanstan sonra hekimlere ve avukatlara konuyu tartışmaya açmak için basılmış. Bilirkişi görüşünün temel filozofisinin, bu görevi yapanlar ve bu hizmeti alanların yapabileceklerinin sınırlarının tartışılması amaçlanmış.Seksen altı sayfadan oluşan kitabın fiatı on iki İngiliz Sterlini. Kitap üç bölüm ve bunların altında toplanan on ana başlıktan oluşmakta. Elinize aldığınızda küçük boyutu ve anlaşılır dili ile hemen okunup bitirelecek kitaplardan sanılıyor. En azından ben böyle düşünmüştüm. Ancak daha L A Tuınberg ve A J Bellinham’ın ön yazısında ben çarpıldım. Değerli yazarların kaleme aldığı başlıklar ve gündeme getirdiği tartışmaların tüm Adli Bilimlerle uğraşanların dikkatle okuması gereken cinsten olduğu kanısındayım. Birinci bölüm The Legal Perspective iki anabaşlıktan oluşuyor, The Criminal legal perspective Honour Judje Martin Stephens tarafından yazılmış,bilirkişi olarak görev yapabilmek için belgelenmiş bir eğitim olması gerektiği, mahkemelerde ya da yazılı raporlarda verilebilecek görüşlerin incelikleri tartışılmış. Bu bölümün ikinci anabaşlığı The civil legal perspective avukat Jennifer Cummin tarafından yazılmış. Toplum gözünde bilirkişinin anlamı ve mahkemenin bilirkişi görüşünü değişmez bilimsel doğru gibi algılayarak düştüğü bilimsel yanılgı ve raporlardaki kavram farkı dile getirilmiş. İkinci Bölüm The Medical And Scientific Perspective başlığı altında Roger C Evans MD Clinical evidence başlığında toplumun hasta tedavisi ve bilirkişilik hizmetinden beklentilerinin unrealistik olduğu ve

  14. Coffee silverskin: a possible valuable cosmetic ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Francisca; Palmeira-de-Oliveira, Ana; das Neves, José; Sarmento, Bruno; Amaral, M Helena; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2015-03-01

    Currently, there is a great tendency in cosmetic area to use natural extracts. Coffee silverskin (CS) is the most abundant solid by-product generated during roasting of coffee processing. To evaluate different CS extracts as promising cosmetic ingredients, regarding antioxidant, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic properties. Aqueous, hydroalcoholic and ethanolic CS extracts were obtained by an environmentally friendly procedure considering costs and pollution. Extracts were characterized for total phenolic and flavonoid contents (TPC and TFC, respectively), antioxidant activity by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), antimicrobial activity expressed as minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and cytotoxicity using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays in two skin cell lines (fibroblasts and keratinocytes). The TPC of extracts was 18.33-35.25 mg of gallic acid equivalents per g of material on a dry basis (mg GAE/g db). The TFC of extracts was 1.08-2.47 µg cathechin equivalents per g dry material (µg CE/g db). The antioxidant activity was high, with values ranging between 95.95 and 216.40 µmol Fe(2+)/g for aqueous and alcoholic samples, respectively. Preliminary assays for antimicrobial potential showed that extracts display antibacterial activity. The MIC varied from 31.3 to 250 µg/mL for Gram-positive, and from 31.3 to 1000 µg/mL for Gram-negative. Extracts did not affect in vitro cell viability, with values near 100% in all concentrations tested. RESULTS seem show that CS is a safe source of natural antioxidants with antifungal and antibacterial activity and no cytotoxicity, with potential usefulness for cosmetic applications.

  15. Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis: Ask the Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Experts | Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis Ask the Experts Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis Ask the Experts Home Administering Vaccines ... infants have died. How many doses of pediatric diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine does an infant ...

  16. Study on Chinese herbal medicine active ingredients labelled with tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Mo; Bao Guangliang

    2008-01-01

    Chinese medicinal herb active ingredients was labeled with triteium by using exchange of new synthesized tritiated water or exchange of low-pressure gas-liquid. The active ingredients was Genipin, acetylalkannin and chlorogenic acid .The radiochemical purity of the three labeled compounds were more than 95% after TLC and HPLC purification. The specific activities of tritium labeled-genipin, acetylalkannin and chlorogenic acid were 5.97, 3.24 and 470 GBq/g, respectively. The results indicated that the unstable Chinese medicinal herb active ingredients could be labeled with tritium by the methods of exchange of new synthesized tritiated water and exchange of low-pressure gas-liquid. (authors)

  17. Expert system application education project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzelez, Avelino J.; Ragusa, James M.

    1988-01-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) technology, and in particular expert systems, has shown potential applicability in many areas of operation at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). In an era of limited resources, the early identification of good expert system applications, and their segregation from inappropriate ones can result in a more efficient use of available NASA resources. On the other hand, the education of students in a highly technical area such as AI requires an extensive hands-on effort. The nature of expert systems is such that proper sample applications for the educational process are difficult to find. A pilot project between NASA-KSC and the University of Central Florida which was designed to simultaneously address the needs of both institutions at a minimum cost. This project, referred to as Expert Systems Prototype Training Project (ESPTP), provided NASA with relatively inexpensive development of initial prototype versions of certain applications. University students likewise benefit by having expertise on a non-trivial problem accessible to them at no cost. Such expertise is indispensible in a hands-on training approach to developing expert systems.

  18. Expert systems and nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltracchi, L.

    1990-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Electric Power Research Institute have initiated a broad-based exploration of means to evaluate the potential applications of expert systems in the nuclear industry. This exploratory effort will assess the use of expert systems to augment the diagnostic and decision-making capabilities of personnel with the goal of enhancing productivity, reliability, and performance. The initial research effort is the development and documentation of guidelines for verifying and validating (V and V) expert systems. An initial application of expert systems in the nuclear industry is to aid operations and maintenance personnel in decision-making tasks. The scope of the decision aiding covers all types of cognitive behavior consisting of skill, rule, and knowledge-based behavior. For example, procedure trackers were designed and tested to support rule-based behavior. Further, these systems automate many of the tedious, error-prone human monitoring tasks, thereby reducing the potential for human error. The paper version of the procedure contains the knowledge base and the rules and thus serves as the basis of the design verification of the procedure tracker. Person-in-the-loop tests serve as the basis for the validation of a procedure tracker. When conducting validation tests, it is important to ascertain that the human retains the locus of control in the use of the expert system

  19. Marine Bioactives as Functional Food Ingredients: Potential to Reduce the Incidence of Chronic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lordan, Sinéad; Ross, R. Paul; Stanton, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    The marine environment represents a relatively untapped source of functional ingredients that can be applied to various aspects of food processing, storage, and fortification. Moreover, numerous marine-based compounds have been identified as having diverse biological activities, with some reported to interfere with the pathogenesis of diseases. Bioactive peptides isolated from fish protein hydrolysates as well as algal fucans, galactans and alginates have been shown to possess anticoagulant, anticancer and hypocholesterolemic activities. Additionally, fish oils and marine bacteria are excellent sources of omega-3 fatty acids, while crustaceans and seaweeds contain powerful antioxidants such as carotenoids and phenolic compounds. On the basis of their bioactive properties, this review focuses on the potential use of marine-derived compounds as functional food ingredients for health maintenance and the prevention of chronic diseases. PMID:21747748

  20. Legumes as Functional Ingredients in Gluten-Free Bakery and Pasta Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foschia, Martina; Horstmann, Stefan W; Arendt, Elke K; Zannini, Emanuele

    2017-02-28

    The increasing demand for gluten-free food products from consumers has triggered food technologists to investigate a wide range of gluten-free ingredients from different sources to reproduce the unique network structure developed by gluten in a wheat-dough system. In recent times, the attention has been focused on novel application of legume flour or ingredients. The interest in this crop category is mainly attributed to their functional properties, such as solubility and water-binding capacity, which play an important role in gluten-free food formulation and processing. Their nutritional profile may also counteract the lack of nutrients commonly highlighted in commercial gluten-free bakery and pasta products, providing valuable sources of protein, dietary fiber, vitamins, minerals, and complex carbohydrates, which in turn have a positive impact on human health. This review reports the main chemical and functional characteristics of legumes and their functional application in gluten-free products.

  1. Marine Bioactives as Functional Food Ingredients: Potential to Reduce the Incidence of Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Stanton

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The marine environment represents a relatively untapped source of functional ingredients that can be applied to various aspects of food processing, storage, and fortification. Moreover, numerous marine-based compounds have been identified as having diverse biological activities, with some reported to interfere with the pathogenesis of diseases. Bioactive peptides isolated from fish protein hydrolysates as well as algal fucans, galactans and alginates have been shown to possess anticoagulant, anticancer and hypocholesterolemic activities. Additionally, fish oils and marine bacteria are excellent sources of omega-3 fatty acids, while crustaceans and seaweeds contain powerful antioxidants such as carotenoids and phenolic compounds. On the basis of their bioactive properties, this review focuses on the potential use of marine-derived compounds as functional food ingredients for health maintenance and the prevention of chronic diseases.

  2. Nano- and micro-structured assemblies for encapsulation of food ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, Mary Ann; Hemar, Yacine

    2009-04-01

    This tutorial review provides an overview of the science of food materials and encapsulation techniques that underpin the development of delivery vehicles for functional food components, nutrients and bioactives. Examples of how the choice of materials, formulation and process affect the structure of micro- and nano-encapsulated ingredients and the release of the core are provided. The review is of relevance to chemists, material scientists, food scientists, engineers and nutritionists who are interested in addressing delivery challenges in the food and health industries.

  3. Expert judgment for nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Sung; Lee, Sun Ho; Lee, Byong Whi

    2000-01-01

    Public perception on nuclear energy is much influenced by subjective impressions mostly formed through sensational and dramatic news of mass media or anti-nuclear groups. However, nuclear experts, those who have more relevant knowledge and information about nuclear energy, may have reasonable opinion based on scientific facts or inferences. Thus their opinion and consensus should be examined and taken into account during the process of nuclear energy policy formulation. For the purpose of eliciting experts' opinion, the web-based on-line survey system (eBOSS) was developed. Using the survey system, experts' views on nuclear energy were tallied, analyzed and compared with the public's. Based on the survey results, the paper suggests some recommendations about the future direction of the public information program in Korea

  4. Register of hydrogen technology experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludtke, P. R.

    1975-01-01

    This register presents the names of approximately 235 individuals who are considered experts, or very knowledgeable, in various fields of technology related to hydrogen. Approximately 90 organizations are represented. Each person is listed by organizational affiliation, address, and principal area of expertise. The criteria for selection of names for the register are extensive experience in a given field of work, participation in or supervision of relevant research programs, contributions to the literature, or being recognized as an expert in a particular field. The purpose of the register is to present, in easy form, sources of dependable information regarding highly technical areas of hydrogen technology, with particular emphasis on safety. The register includes two indexes: an alphabetical listing of the experts and an alphabetical listing of the organizations with which they are affiliated.

  5. 21 CFR 347.12 - Astringent active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... contains 0.13 to 0.5 percent aluminum acetate). (b) Aluminum sulfate, 46 to 63 percent (the concentration... following within the specified concentration established for each ingredient: (a) Aluminum acetate, 0.13 to...

  6. 21 CFR 347.20 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ingredients to prepare an aluminum acetate solution. Aluminum sulfate tetradecahydrate may be combined with calcium acetate monohydrate in powder or tablet form to provide a 0.13 to 0.5 percent aluminum acetate...

  7. Natural ingredients based cosmetics. Content of selected fragrance sensitizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Johansen, J D; Menné, T

    1996-01-01

    In the present study, we have investigated 42 cosmetic products based on natural ingredients for content of 11 fragrance substances: geraniol, hydroxycitronellal, eugenol, isoeugenol, cinnamic aldehyde, cinnamic alcohol, alpha-amylcinnamic aldehyde, citral, coumarin, dihydrocoumarin and alpha...

  8. 21 CFR 701.3 - Designation of ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 720.8(a) of this chapter, in lieu of label declaration of identity the phrase “and other ingredients... brand designation, and no trade name or brand designation not common to all such products appears in the...

  9. An accurate and precise representation of drug ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Josh; Bian, Jiang; Hogan, William R

    2016-01-01

    In previous work, we built the Drug Ontology (DrOn) to support comparative effectiveness research use cases. Here, we have updated our representation of ingredients to include both active ingredients (and their strengths) and excipients. Our update had three primary lines of work: 1) analysing and extracting excipients, 2) analysing and extracting strength information for active ingredients, and 3) representing the binding of active ingredients to cytochrome P450 isoenzymes as substrates and inhibitors of those enzymes. To properly differentiate between excipients and active ingredients, we conducted an ontological analysis of the roles that various ingredients, including excipients, have in drug products. We used the value specification model of the Ontology for Biomedical Investigations to represent strengths of active ingredients and then analyzed RxNorm to extract excipient and strength information and modeled them according to the results of our analysis. We also analyzed and defined dispositions of molecules used in aggregate as active ingredients to bind cytochrome P450 isoenzymes. Our analysis of excipients led to 17 new classes representing the various roles that excipients can bear. We then extracted excipients from RxNorm and added them to DrOn for branded drugs. We found excipients for 5,743 branded drugs, covering ~27% of the 21,191 branded drugs in DrOn. Our analysis of active ingredients resulted in another new class, active ingredient role. We also extracted strengths for all types of tablets, capsules, and caplets, resulting in strengths for 5,782 drug forms, covering ~41% of the 14,035 total drug forms and accounting for ~97 % of the 5,970 tablets, capsules, and caplets in DrOn. We represented binding-as-substrate and binding-as-inhibitor dispositions to two cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes (CYP2C19 and CYP2D6) and linked these dispositions to 65 compounds. It is now possible to query DrOn automatically for all drug products that contain active

  10. Hydration and chemical ingredients in sport drinks: food safety in the European context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urdampilleta, Aritz; Gómez-Zorita, Saioa; Soriano, José M; Martínez-Sanz, José M; Medina, Sonia; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel

    2015-05-01

    Before, during and after physical activity, hydration is a limiting factor in athletic performance. Therefore, adequate hydration provides benefits for health and performance of athletes. Besides, hydration is associated to the intake of carbohydrates, protein, sodium, caffeine and other substances by different dietary aids, during the training and/or competition by athletes. These requirements have led to the development of different products by the food industry, to cover the nutritional needs of athletes. Currently in the European context, the legal framework for the development of products, substances and health claims concerning to sport products is incomplete and scarce. Under these conditions, there are many products with different ingredients out of European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) control where claims are wrong due to no robust scientific evidence and it can be dangerous for the health. Further scientific evidence should be constructed by new clinical trials in order to assist to the Experts Commitees at EFSA for obtaining robust scientific opinions concerning to the functional foods and the individual ingredients for sport population. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  11. Bonneville Power Administration Communication Alarm Processor expert system:

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goeltz, R.; Purucker, S.; Tonn, B. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Wiggen, T. (Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (USA)); MacGregor, D. (MacGregor-Bates, Inc., Eugene, OR (USA))

    1990-06-01

    This report describes the Communications Alarm Processor (CAP), a prototype expert system developed for the Bonneville Power Administration by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The system is designed to receive and diagnose alarms from Bonneville's Microwave Communications System (MCS). The prototype encompasses one of seven branches of the communications network and a subset of alarm systems and alarm types from each system. The expert system employs a backward chaining approach to diagnosing alarms. Alarms are fed into the expert system directly from the communication system via RS232 ports and sophisticated alarm filtering and mailbox software. Alarm diagnoses are presented to operators for their review and concurrence before the diagnoses are archived. Statistical software is incorporated to allow analysis of archived data for report generation and maintenance studies. The delivered system resides on a Digital Equipment Corporation VAX 3200 workstation and utilizes Nexpert Object and SAS for the expert system and statistical analysis, respectively. 11 refs., 23 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. Expert Systems: An Introduction -46 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C++, and Microsoft C/C++ compilers. The personal edition is licensed for educational, research, and hobby use. Applications created with RT -Expert personal edition are not licensed for commercial purposes. Professional editions are available for commercial applications using DOS, Windows, and. Unix environments.

  13. QUEST: Quality of Expert Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perre, M.

    1991-01-01

    TNO Physics and Electronics laboratory, in collaboration with the University of Limburg and the Research Institute for Knowledge Systems, worked on a technology project named 'QUEST: Quality of Expert Systems' [FEL90]. QUEST was carried out under commision of the Dutch Ministry of Defence. A strong

  14. The role of the expert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smeesters, P.

    1998-01-01

    The expert's role in the involvement in decisions on nuclear risks is discussed. The responsibility of scientists in ethics and in several sociological problems is highlighted. The mandates, the positivist reaction, way to knowledge, the scientist as a subject studying an object, and application in the domain of radioprotection are the main issues of the somewhat philosophical essay. (R.P.)

  15. The EU’s Contribution to Common Global Rules : Challenges in an Age of Power Shift, Summary of Findings of the Expert Consultation in the Framework of the EU Strategic Review Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitelaar, T.; Larik, J.E.; Matta, A.

    2015-01-01

    On 8 and 9 December 2015, The Hague Institute for Global Justice, in collaboration with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Netherlands, organized both a public high-level discussion and a closed expert consultation on the EU’s forthcoming Global Strategy on Foreign and Security Policy. The

  16. Tobacco companies’ efforts to undermine ingredient disclosure: the Massachusetts benchmark study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velicer, Clayton; Aguinaga-Bialous, Stella; Glantz, Stanton

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the Massachusetts Benchmark ‘Study’ (MBS) that the tobacco companies presented to the Massachusetts Department of Public Health (MDPH) in 1999 in response to ingredient disclosure regulations in the state. This case study can inform future ingredient disclosure regulations, including implementation of Articles 9 and 10 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). Methods We analysed documents available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu to identify internal communications regarding the design and execution of the MBS and internal studies on the relationship between tar, nicotine and carbon monoxide and smoke constituents and reviewed publications that further evaluated data published as part of the MBS. Results The companies conducted extensive studies of cigarette design factors and ingredients that significantly impacted the levels of constituents. While this study asserted that by-brand emissions could be estimated reliably from published tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide levels, the tobacco companies were well aware that factors beyond tar, nicotine and carbon monoxide influenced levels of constituents included in the study. This severely limited the potential usefulness of the MBS predictor equations. Conclusions Despite promises to provide data that would allow regulators to predict constituent data for all brands on the market, the final MBS results offered no useful predictive information to inform regulators, the scientific community or consumers. When implementing FCTC Articles 9 and 10, regulatory agencies should demand detailed by-brand information on tobacco product constituents and toxin deliveries to users. PMID:26292701

  17. [Research advance in metabolism of effective ingredients from traditional Chinese medicines by probiotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Cheng-En; Li, Hai-Long; He, Xiao-Ping; Zheng, Fen-Fen; Zhu, Hua-Liu; Liu, Liang-Feng; Du, Wei

    2018-01-01

    The pharmacological activity of active ingredients from Chinese medicine depends greatly on the microecological environment of probiotics in the human body. After effective ingredients from traditional Chinese medicines are metabolized or biotransformed by probiotics, their metabolites can increase pharmacological activity, and can be absorbed more easily to improve the bioavailability. Therefore, the combination of Chinese medicines with probiotics is the innovation point in R&D of functional food and Chinese medicines, and also a new thinking for the modernization of Chinese medicine.This review summarizes and analyses the research progress on metabolism effects of gut microbiota on Chinese medicines components, the regulating effect of effective ingredients from Chinese medicine on intestinal probiotics, the application status of probiotics in traditional Chinese medicines, and the main problems and prospects in the research and development of Chinese medicines products with probiotic, aiming to provide theoretical guidance and practical value for the fermentation engineering of Chinese herbal medicine. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  18. Ingredients derived from the slaughter of bovines in dog food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina De Carli Loureiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the nutritional levels, apparent digestibility coefficients, and faecal characteristics of dogs fed with four by-products from bovine slaughter: testicles, residue sirloin steak, trachea, and liver. Ingredients were processed and packed in tins for heat treatment in autoclaves. For the digestibility and faeces quality, ingredients were mixed with a reference diet (commercial food in the proportion of 30g kg-1 test ingredient and 70g kg-1 reference diet (as dry matter. Ten adult dogs were distributed in double Latin block squares (5x5 with five treatments and five periods, totalling ten repetitions per treatment. The residue sirloin steak presented the highest levels of essential (414.2g kg-1 of dry matter and non-essential (399.0g kg-1 of dry matter amino acids in tested ingredients. No differences (P>0.05 were observed in apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter - ADCDM (907g kg-1, ADCOM (930g kg-1, ADCCP (841g kg-1, ADCAEE (954g kg-1 values, and DE (5069kcal kg-1 and ME (4781kcal kg-1 values between testicle, residue sirloin steak, and liver. The trachea presented lower digestibility and energy values (digestible and metabolizable than the other ingredients. This lower trachea digestibility resulted in higher faecal volume for natural and dry matter (P0.05 in faecal score between ingredients. Ingredients tested in this study can be used in feeds for adult dogs; however, their nutritional levels and digestibility values should be considered for correct diet balance.

  19. Ingredients and meals rather than recipes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woolrych, Alan; Hornbæk, Kasper; Frøkjær, Erik

    2011-01-01

    work as a whole) or smaller ones (e.g., the impact of specific aspects of a method). This article argues that these foci on comparisons and method innovations ignore the reality that usability evaluation methods are loose incomplete collections of resources, which successful practitioners configure......, adapt, and complement to match specific project circumstances. Through a review of existing research on methods and resources, resources associated with specific evaluation methods, and ones that can complement existing methods, or be used separately, are identified. Next, a generic classification...... scheme for evaluation resources is developed, and the scheme is extended with project specific resources that impact the effective use of methods. With these reviews and analyses in place, implications for research, teaching, and practice are derived. Throughout, the article draws on culinary analogies...

  20. Consumer versus expert hazard identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagemann, Kit S.; Scholderer, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    between technical experts and consumers over the nature of the hazards on which risk assessments should focus, and perceptions of insufficient openness about uncertainties in risk assessment. Whilst previous research has almost exclusively focused on genetically modified foods, the present paper...... investigates plant varieties developed by means of mutation breeding, a less-debated class of novel foods. Two studies were conducted that investigated the mental models of experts and laypeople. The results revealed that the mental models of both groups differed in terms of scope, depth and the role...... of uncertainty. Furthermore, a number of misconceptions became apparent in the study of laypeople's mental models, often related to the regulatory system governing risk assessments of novel foods. Critical issue are outlined and communication needs are discussed....

  1. Expert system controlled image display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swett, H.A.; Fisher, P.; Mutalik, P.

    1988-01-01

    Conventional medical expert systems deliver advice as text (a diagnosis, list, recommendation, or discussion). This may be quite useful in some areas of medical decision making but has distinct limitations in such a visually oriented discipline as diagnostic imaging, where decisions often depend on pattern recognition and the appreciation of subtle morphologic features. We are developing an expert system that displays groups of images as part of its intelligent output. This system uses a rule-based strategy to select images for display. They may be displayed because they share a common feature, cluster of features, or clinical history. Such a system may be useful as a diagnostic aid or for continuing medical education. It is likely to have particular value in the setting of picture archiving and communication systems

  2. Expert system based radionuclide identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarnio, P.A.; Ala-Heikkil, J.J.; Hakulinen, T.T.; Nikkinen, M.T.

    1998-01-01

    An expert system coupled with the gamma spectrum analysis system SAMPO has been developed for automating the qualitative identification of radionuclides as well as for determining the quantitative parameters of the spectrum components. The program is written in C-language and runs in various environments ranging from PCs to UNIX workstations. The expert system utilizes a complete gamma library with over 2600 nuclides and 80,000 lines, and a rule base of about fifty criteria including energies, relative peak intensities, genesis modes, half lives, parent-daughter relationships, etc. The rule base is furthermore extensible by the user. This is not an original contribution but a somewhat updated version of papers and reports previously published elsewhere. (author)

  3. Innovations in natural ingredients and their use in skin care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Joseph F; Woolery-Lloyd, Heather; Waldorf, Heidi; Saini, Ritu

    2010-06-01

    Natural ingredients have been used traditionally for millennia and their application in topical creams, lotions and preparations within the traditional medicines and healing traditions of many cultures has been observed. Over the last 20 years, clinical and laboratory studies have identified the benefits of an array of natural ingredients for skin care. Consequently, a number of these ingredients and compounds are today being developed, used or considered not only for anti-aging effects, but also for use in dermatologic disorders. Certain ingredients, such as colloidal oatmeal and aloe vera, have been identified as beneficial in the treatment of psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, respectively, due to their anti-inflammatory properties. For combating acne and rosacea, green tea, niacinamide and feverfew are considered efficacious. As to hyperpigmentation and antioxidative capabilities, licorice, green tea, arbutin, soy, acai berry, turmeric and pomegranate are among those plants and compounds found to be most beneficial. Additional research is needed to determine to confirm and elucidate the benefits of these ingredients in the prevention and management of skin disease.

  4. Safety of botanical ingredients in personal care products/cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antignac, Eric; Nohynek, Gerhard J; Re, Thomas; Clouzeau, Jacques; Toutain, Hervé

    2011-02-01

    The key issue of the safety assessment of botanical ingredients in personal care products (PCP) is the phytochemical characterisation of the plant source, data on contamination, adulteration and hazardous residues. The comparative approach used in the safety assessment of GM-plants may be applied to novel botanical PCP ingredients. Comparator(s) are the parent plant or varieties of the same species. Chemical grouping includes definition of chemical groups suitable for a read-across approach; it allows the estimation of toxicological endpoints on the basis of data from related substances (congeneric groups) with physical/chemical properties producing similar toxicities. The Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) and Dermal Sensitisation Threshold (DST) are tools for the assessment of trace substances or minor ingredients. The evaluation of skin penetration of substances present in human food is unnecessary, whereas mixtures may be assessed on the basis of physical/chemical properties of individual substances. Adverse dermal effects of botanicals include irritation, sensitisation, phototoxicity and immediate-type allergy. The experience from dietary supplements or herbal medicines showed that being natural is not equivalent to being safe. Pragmatic approaches for quality and safety standards of botanical ingredients are needed; consumer safety should be the first objective of conventional and botanical PCP ingredients. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Memory-Based Expert Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    relevant cases quickly from a large memory -plus the requirement for an explicit theory of index content in the complex social domain where relevance often...Sep 89 - 31 Jan 92 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS " MEMORY -BASED EXPERT SYSTEMS" (U) 61102F 2304/A7 6. AUTHOR(S) Dr. Roger C. Schank 7...three problems: (1) The development of a robust memory -based parsing technology (Direct Memory Access Parsing, or DMP), (2) The development of case

  6. Experts in an Open Society

    OpenAIRE

    Rajani, Rakesh

    2011-01-01

    Experts have been in charge of the formal business of development for 50-odd years. But despite good intentions, they cannot boast an impressive track record, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. Sure, there has been progress on several fronts. But too many people still live in abject poverty, lack decent basic services, and suffer daily indignities at the hands of the very authorities meant to serve them.

  7. Expert System for ASIC Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shri N.; Arshak, Khalil I.; McDonnell, Pearse; Boyce, Conor; Duggan, Andrew

    1989-07-01

    With the developments in the techniques of artificial intelligence over the last few years, development of advisory, scheduling and similar class of problems has become very convenient using tools such as PROLOG. In this paper an expert system has been described which helps lithographers and process engineers in several ways. The methodology used is to model each work station according to its input, output and control parameters, combine these work stations in a logical sequence based on past experience and work out process schedule for a job. In addition, all the requirements vis-a-vis a particular job parameters are converted into decision rules. One example is the exposure time, develop time for a wafer with different feature sizes would be different. This expert system has been written in Turbo Prolog. By building up a large number of rules, one can tune the program to any facility and use it for as diverse applications as advisory help, trouble shooting etc. Leitner (1) has described an advisory expert system that is being used at National Semiconductor. This system is quite different from the one being reported in the present paper. The approach is quite different for one. There is stress on job flow and process for another.

  8. Uncertainty reasoning in expert systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    1993-01-01

    Intelligent control is a very successful way to transform the expert's knowledge of the type 'if the velocity is big and the distance from the object is small, hit the brakes and decelerate as fast as possible' into an actual control. To apply this transformation, one must choose appropriate methods for reasoning with uncertainty, i.e., one must: (1) choose the representation for words like 'small', 'big'; (2) choose operations corresponding to 'and' and 'or'; (3) choose a method that transforms the resulting uncertain control recommendations into a precise control strategy. The wrong choice can drastically affect the quality of the resulting control, so the problem of choosing the right procedure is very important. From a mathematical viewpoint these choice problems correspond to non-linear optimization and are therefore extremely difficult. In this project, a new mathematical formalism (based on group theory) is developed that allows us to solve the problem of optimal choice and thus: (1) explain why the existing choices are really the best (in some situations); (2) explain a rather mysterious fact that fuzzy control (i.e., control based on the experts' knowledge) is often better than the control by these same experts; and (3) give choice recommendations for the cases when traditional choices do not work.

  9. Expert witness and Jungian archetypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallave, Juan Antonio; Gutheil, Thomas Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Jung's theories of archetype, shadow, and the personal and collective unconscious provide a postmodern framework in which to consider the role of the expert witness in judicial proceedings. Archetypal themes, motifs, and influences help to illuminate the shadow of the judicial system and projections and behaviors among the cast of the court in pursuing justice. This article speaks to archetypal influences and dialectical tensions encountered by the expert witness in this judicial drama. The archetype of Justice is born from the human need for order and relational fairness in a world of chaos. The persona of justice is the promise of truth in the drama. The shadow of justice is untruth, the need to win by any means. The dynamics of the trickster archetype serve and promote injustice. These influences are examined by means of a case example. This approach will deepen understanding of court proceedings and the role of the expert witness in the heroic quest for justice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 21 CFR 516.141 - Qualified expert panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... competitive advantage for a person or organization. (2) Factors relevant to whether there is a conflict of.... (2) Act in accordance with generally accepted professional and ethical business practices. (3) Review... ethical business practices. (2) The qualified expert panel leader serves as the principal point of contact...

  11. Professional Education in Expert Search: A Content Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Catherine L.; Roseberry, Martha I.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a descriptive model of the subject matter taught in courses on expert search in ALA-accredited programs, answering the question: What is taught in formal professional education on search expertise? The model emerged from a grounded content analysis of 44 course descriptions and 16 syllabi, and was validated via a review of…

  12. Expert scientific evidence in the Israeli court.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahar, A

    2007-06-01

    Most judges, by the very nature of their educational background, are less than sufficiently prepared for the task to fully comprehend the problems in disputes concerning scientific subjects. Judicial cognizance in such matters gives no support. The judge has no recourse but to rely on Expert Evidence. However, such evidence, especially in the adversarial system, requires the ability to evaluate it. Back to square one? Almost. The Israeli court borrowed, and followed for many years, the American solution - the Frye Principle (Frye v. United States, 54 App.D.C. at 47, 293 F. 1013 (1923) 1014) - "the thing from which the deduction is made must be sufficiently established to have gained general acceptance in the particular field in which it belongs " - meaning that an Expert's view is held as true if proven that it had been held by "the scientific community." This solution presented an almost insurmountable problem for novel scientific ideas. The were also exceptions - several Israeli Courts made the rather difficult task of examining the Experts' "working papers", i.e. the "crude" data on which he based his deductions. The model of such effort seems to be the English decision, by Stuart-Smith LJ in Loveday v Renton and Wellcome Foundation Ltd. ( (QBD) 1 Med Law Review, 1990:117). Seventy years after Frye the U.S. Supreme Court reviewed the subject of evaluation of scientific evidence. The new requirements were "... (1) ... whether the theory or technique can be and has been tested; (2) ... whether the theory or technique has been subjected to peer review ... (3) ... the known or potential rate of error of[the] technique; (4) [no requirement of] a particular degree of acceptance of the theory or technique within that [scientific] community, ... and (5) the inquiry is a flexible one, and the focus must be solely on principles and methodology, not on the conclusions that such principles and methodology generate ". Namely - the Judge, guided by intelligence and logic, is

  13. Fuzzy expert system for diagnosing diabetic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani Katigari, Meysam; Ayatollahi, Haleh; Malek, Mojtaba; Kamkar Haghighi, Mehran

    2017-02-15

    To design a fuzzy expert system to help detect and diagnose the severity of diabetic neuropathy. The research was completed in 2014 and consisted of two main phases. In the first phase, the diagnostic parameters were determined based on the literature review and by investigating specialists' perspectives ( n = 8). In the second phase, 244 medical records related to the patients who were visited in an endocrinology and metabolism research centre during the first six months of 2014 and were primarily diagnosed with diabetic neuropathy, were used to test the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the fuzzy expert system. The final diagnostic parameters included the duration of diabetes, the score of a symptom examination based on the Michigan questionnaire, the score of a sign examination based on the Michigan questionnaire, the glycolysis haemoglobin level, fasting blood sugar, blood creatinine, and albuminuria. The output variable was the severity of diabetic neuropathy which was shown as a number between zero and 10, had been divided into four categories: absence of the disease, (the degree of severity) mild, moderate, and severe. The interface of the system was designed by ASP.Net (Active Server Pages Network Enabled Technology) and the system function was tested in terms of sensitivity (true positive rate) (89%), specificity (true negative rate) (98%), and accuracy (a proportion of true results, both positive and negative) (93%). The system designed in this study can help specialists and general practitioners to diagnose the disease more quickly to improve the quality of care for patients.

  14. Grounded theory in medical laboratory science expert practice development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibach, Elizabeth Kenimer

    2011-01-01

    Grounded theory and methods related to expert practice development in medical laboratory science were described using data from a large national survey of medical laboratory scientists (MLS) overlaid on findings from analysis of expert practice domains reported in nursing literature. An extensive focus group/expert review iterative process followed by a survey of MLS practitioners produced 25 critical thinking (CT) behaviors important in expert practice. Factor analysis was applied to discern common threads or themes linking the CT behaviors. The 25 important CT behaviors were reduced to a 7-factor structure representing constructs underlying the individual, observable CT behaviors. This 7-factor structure in MLS was compared to the 7 practice domains identified in expert nursing practice. The comparison yielded commonality between MLS and nursing in CT behaviors observed in the 7 expert practice domains of both professions: professional techniques, caring communication, growing professionally, setting priorities, practicing with judgment, anticipating/revising, and creating unique meaning. Emergent grounded theory is that (1) critical thinking is a metaprocess that facilitates learning by interlinking the more basic processes associated with different learning orientations: cognitivist, behaviorist, humanist (affective), and situated/contextual learning, (2) CT behaviors are observable events following from the CT metaprocess, and (3) observations of CT behaviors increase as practice advances from novice to expert. Identification and definition of CT behaviors, i.e., practice competencies, along the continuum of novice to expert can serve as the foundation for MLS curriculum and instructional design as well as measurement and evaluation in both formal and continuing education settings.

  15. Contemporary Expert Debates on the SCO-Related Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Evgen'evich Denisov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since its establishment the SCO has always attracted a lot of expert attention. The SCO Forum was founded in 2006 to bring together for annual debates experts from all member-states. Within this format in-depth discussions took place in April 2016 in Dushanbe, which hosted this year conference of the SCO Forum. Participating experts and officials reviewed problems of security, economic cooperation (including transport and water-energy issues and SCO enlargement, the latter being one of the most debatable. Experts presented some new thesis on all these problems, in particular on the enlargement issue. These new thesis are summed up in this article. Besides, the SCO Forum this year had many statements on the organization approaching a sort of new phase in its development. This line of discussions may lead in the future to even more active debates on SCO's role in the world. This article puts emphasis on the new elements of these debates and reviews major experts' attitudes within this line of discussion on the SCO being in front of a new stage of development.

  16. Effects of Some Topological Ingredients on the Evolutionary Ultimatum Game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Lili; Zhang Jianxiong; Tang Wansheng; Zhang Wei

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at figuring out the crucial topological ingredients which affect the outcomes of the ultimatum game located on different networks, encompassing the regular network, the random network, the small-world network, and the scale-free network. With the aid of random interchanging algorithm, we investigate the relations between the outcomes of the ultimatum game and some topological ingredients, including the average range, the clustering coefficient and the heterogeneity, and so forth. It is found that for the regular, random and small-work networks, the average range and the clustering coefficient have evident impacts on the ultimatum game, while for the scale-free network, the original degree heterogeneity and the underlying rich-club characterizations are the mainly important topological ingredients that influence the outcomes of ultimatum game substantially.

  17. What Is “Natural”? Consumer Responses to Selected Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Chambers

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Interest in “natural” food has grown enormously over the last decade. Because the United States government has not set a legal definition for the term “natural”, customers have formed their own sensory perceptions and opinions on what constitutes natural. In this study, we examined 20 ingredients to determine what consumers consider to be natural. Using a national database, 630 consumers were sampled (50% male and 50% female online, and the results were analyzed using percentages and chi-square tests. No ingredient was considered natural by more than 69% of respondents. We found evidence that familiarity may play a major role in consumers’ determination of naturalness. We also found evidence that chemical sounding names and the age of the consumer have an effect on whether an ingredient and potentially a food is considered natural. Interestingly, a preference towards selecting GMO (genetically modified organisms foods had no significant impact on perceptions of natural.

  18. Use of expert judgement in NUREG-1150

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, N.R.; Wheeler, T.A.; Breeding, R.J.; Hora, S.; Meyer, M.A.; Kenney, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The explicit expert judgment process used in NUREG-1150, 'Severe Accident Risks: An Assessment for Five US Nuclear Plants', is discussed in this paper. The main steps of the process are described, including selection of issues and experts, elicitation training, presentation of issues to the experts, preparation of issue analyses by the experts, discussion of issue analyses and elicitation, and recomposition and aggregation of results. To demonstrate the application of the expert judgment process to NUREG-1150, two issues are summarized: one from the accident frequency analysis, and one from the accident progression analysis. Recommendations and insights are provided to improve the use of explicit expert judgment in complex technical issues. (orig.)

  19. The use of rapid spectroscopic screening methods to detect adulteration of food raw materials and ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Klavs Martin; Khakimov, Bekzod; Engelsen, Søren Balling

    2016-01-01

    International trade in food commodities will continue to increase and the complex food supply chains make adulteration detection and traceability a technical, logistical and financial challenge. There is no magic solution for adulteration testing, but NIR spectroscopy in combination...... with chemometrics appears to be an efficient first choice for testing incoming raw materials and ingredients in the food production. However, in order to realize its full potential, it is necessary to move away from the current thoughts at the Parnassus, namely the targeted approach. This review will focus...

  20. Acquisition of Expert/Non-Expert Vocabulary from Reformulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Edwige; Grabar, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    Technical medical terms are complicated to be correctly understood by non-experts. Vocabulary, associating technical terms with layman expressions, can help in increasing the readability of technical texts and their understanding. The purpose of our work is to build this kind of vocabulary. We propose to exploit the notion of reformulation following two methods: extraction of abbreviations and of reformulations with specific markers. The segments associated thanks to these methods are aligned with medical terminologies. Our results allow to cover over 9,000 medical terms and show precision of extractions between 0.24 and 0.98. The results and analyzed and compared with the existing work.

  1. Experts bodies, experts minds: How physical and mental training shape the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debarnot, Ursula; Sperduti, Marco; Di Rienzo, Franck; Guillot, Aymeric

    2014-01-01

    Skill learning is the improvement in perceptual, cognitive, or motor performance following practice. Expert performance levels can be achieved with well-organized knowledge, using sophisticated and specific mental representations and cognitive processing, applying automatic sequences quickly and efficiently, being able to deal with large amounts of information, and many other challenging task demands and situations that otherwise paralyze the performance of novices. The neural reorganizations that occur with expertise reflect the optimization of the neurocognitive resources to deal with the complex computational load needed to achieve peak performance. As such, capitalizing on neuronal plasticity, brain modifications take place over time-practice and during the consolidation process. One major challenge is to investigate the neural substrates and cognitive mechanisms engaged in expertise, and to define "expertise" from its neural and cognitive underpinnings. Recent insights showed that many brain structures are recruited during task performance, but only activity in regions related to domain-specific knowledge distinguishes experts from novices. The present review focuses on three expertise domains placed across a motor to mental gradient of skill learning: sequential motor skill, mental simulation of the movement (motor imagery), and meditation as a paradigmatic example of "pure" mental training. We first describe results on each specific domain from the initial skill acquisition to expert performance, including recent results on the corresponding underlying neural mechanisms. We then discuss differences and similarities between these domains with the aim to identify the highlights of the neurocognitive processes underpinning expertise, and conclude with suggestions for future research.

  2. A demonstration of expert systems applications in transportation engineering : volume I, transportation engineers and expert systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Expert systems, a branch of artificial-intelligence studies, is introduced with a view to its relevance in transportation engineering. Knowledge engineering, the process of building expert systems or transferring knowledge from human experts to compu...

  3. Fibre content and physiochemical properties of various horse feed ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøkner, Christine; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2010-01-01

    There is an increasing need for identifying energy dense feed ingredients based on fibre, as starch has been shown to cause health problems in sports horses (Kronfeld et al., 2005). This experiment aimed at evaluating feeds considered to be suitable for horses by use of an enzymatic-chemical diet......-chemical dietary fibre (DF) analytical method compared with conventional analytical methods of crude fibre (CF) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF). We expect the DF method to provide detailed and useful information concerning the nutritional properties of feed ingredients for horses....

  4. Contact allergy to the active ingredients of Kathon CG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruze, M; Dahlquist, I; Fregert, S; Gruvberger, B; Persson, K

    1987-04-01

    The preservative Kathon CG is a commercial preparation, consisting of 2 active ingredients and other components. 28 patients with contact allergy to Kathon CG participated in a study in which patch testing was performed with serial dilutions, and with 5 chromatographically separated fractions. All reacted to fraction IV, and 2 patients also to fraction II. Mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry identified fraction II and IV to be the active ingredients; 2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one and 5-chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one.

  5. Galloyl-RGD as a new cosmetic ingredient

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Dae-Hun; Jung, Dae Hyun; Kim, Soo Jung; Kim, Sung Han; Park, Kyung Mok

    2014-01-01

    Background The cosmetics market has rapidly increased over the last years. For example, in 2011 it reached 242.8 billion US dollars, which was a 3.9% increase compared to 2010. There have been many recent trials aimed at finding the functional ingredients for new cosmetics. Gallic acid is a phytochemical derived from various herbs, and has anti-fungal, anti-viral, and antioxidant properties. Although phytochemicals are useful as cosmetic ingredients, they have a number of drawbacks, such as t...

  6. Expert chess memory: revisiting the chunking hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobet, F; Simon, H A

    1998-05-01

    After reviewing the relevant theory on chess expertise, this paper re-examines experimentally the finding of Chase and Simon (1973a) that the differences in ability of chess players at different skill levels to copy and to recall positions are attributable to the experts' storage of thousands of chunks (patterned clusters of pieces) in long-term memory. Despite important differences in the experimental apparatus, the data of the present experiments regarding latencies and chess relations between successively placed pieces are highly correlated with those of Chase and Simon. We conclude that the two-second inter-chunk interval used to define chunk boundaries is robust, and that chunks have psychological reality. We discuss the possible reasons why Masters in our new study used substantially larger chunks than the Master of the 1973 study, and extend the chunking theory to take account of the evidence for large retrieval structures (templates) in long-term memory.

  7. Expert – Non-expert differences in visual behaviour during alpine slalom skiing

    OpenAIRE

    Decroix, Marjolein; Wazir, Mohd Rozilee Wazir Norjali; Zeuwts, Linus; Deconinck, Frederik; Lenoir, Matthieu; Vansteenkiste, Pieter

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate visual behaviour of expert and non-expert ski athletes during an alpine slalom. Fourteen non-experts and five expert slalom skiers completed an alpine slalom course in an indoor ski slope while wearing a head-mounted eye tracking device. Experts completed the slalom clearly faster than non-experts, but no significant difference was found in timing and position of the turn initiation. Although both groups already looked at future obstacles approximately...

  8. ExpertSeer: a Keyphrase Based Expert Recommender for Digital Libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Hung-Hsuan; Ororbia II, Alexander G.; Giles, C. Lee

    2015-01-01

    We describe ExpertSeer, a generic framework for expert recommendation based on the contents of a digital library. Given a query term q, ExpertSeer recommends experts of q by retrieving authors who published relevant papers determined by related keyphrases and the quality of papers. The system is based on a simple yet effective keyphrase extractor and the Bayes' rule for expert recommendation. ExpertSeer is domain independent and can be applied to different disciplines and applications since t...

  9. Expert system isssues in automated, autonomous space vehicle rendezvous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Mary Ann; Bochsler, Daniel C.

    1987-01-01

    The problems involved in automated autonomous rendezvous are briefly reviewed, and the Rendezvous Expert (RENEX) expert system is discussed with reference to its goals, approach used, and knowledge structure and contents. RENEX has been developed to support streamlining operations for the Space Shuttle and Space Station program and to aid definition of mission requirements for the autonomous portions of rendezvous for the Mars Surface Sample Return and Comet Nucleus Sample return unmanned missions. The experience with REMEX to date and recommendations for further development are presented.

  10. Early-career experts essential for planetary sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Michelle; Lynch, Abigail J.; Fernández-Llamazares, Alvaro; Balint, Lenke; Basher, Zeenatul; Chan, Ivis; Jaureguiberry, Pedro; Mohamed, A.A.A.; Mwampamba, Tuyeni H.; Palomo, Ignacio; Pliscoff, Patricio; Salimov, R.A.; Samakov, Aibek; Selomane, Odirilwe; Shrestha, Uttam B.; Sidorovich, Anna A.

    2017-01-01

    Early-career experts can play a fundamental role in achieving planetary sustainability by bridging generational divides and developing novel solutions to complex problems. We argue that intergenerational partnerships and interdisciplinary collaboration among early-career experts will enable emerging sustainability leaders to contribute fully to a sustainable future. We review 16 international, interdisciplinary, and sustainability-focused early-career capacity building programs. We conclude that such programs are vital to developing sustainability leaders of the future and that decision-making for sustainability is likely to be best served by strong institutional cultures that promote intergenerational learning and involvement.

  11. Cataloging Expert Systems: Optimism and Frustrated Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmstadt, William J.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses artificial intelligence and attempts to catalog expert systems. Topics include the nature of expertise; examples of cataloging expert systems; barriers to implementation; and problems, including total automation, cataloging expertise, priorities, and system design. (LRW)

  12. Expert systems for crash data collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-02-01

    The goal of the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Expert Systems for Crash Data Collection Program was to use expert system technology to improve the accuracy and consistency of police-reported data. The program included the development and evalu...

  13. Fuzzy expert systems using CLIPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thach C.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a CLIPS-based fuzzy expert system development environment called FCLIPS and illustrates its application to the simulated cart-pole balancing problem. FCLIPS is a straightforward extension of CLIPS without any alteration to the CLIPS internal structures. It makes use of the object-oriented and module features in CLIPS version 6.0 for the implementation of fuzzy logic concepts. Systems of varying degrees of mixed Boolean and fuzzy rules can be implemented in CLIPS. Design and implementation issues of FCLIPS will also be discussed.

  14. Expert Oracle GoldenGate

    CERN Document Server

    Prusinski, Ben; Chung, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Expert Oracle GoldenGate is a hands-on guide to creating and managing complex data replication environments using the latest in database replication technology from Oracle. GoldenGate is the future in replication technology from Oracle, and aims to be best-of-breed. GoldenGate supports homogeneous replication between Oracle databases. It supports heterogeneous replication involving other brands such as Microsoft SQL Server and IBM DB2 Universal Server. GoldenGate is high-speed, bidirectional, highly-parallelized, and makes only a light impact on the performance of databases involved in replica

  15. Expert opinion on climatic change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordhaus, W.D.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of an indepth interview survey of experts, both social and natural scientists, about estimates of the economic impact of potential greenhouse warming. The range of estimate impacts was enormous as was the difference between disciplines, particularly mainstream economists and natural scientists. The nineteen survey participants and their affiliations are listed. The general areas discussed in the paper include the following: survey development; estimation of subjective probabilities; description of different scenarios presented; discussion of pertinent answers and general trends in answers including influence of point of view; magnitude of problem; ecosystems; secondary effects; ability to adapt; regional distribution of impacts; nonmarket effects; limits to understanding. 7 figs

  16. Expert Oracle RAC 12c

    CERN Document Server

    Shamsudeen, Riyaj; Yu, Kai; Farooq, Tariq

    2013-01-01

    Expert Oracle RAC 12c is a hands-on book helping you understand and implement Oracle Real Application Clusters (RAC), and to reduce the total-cost-of-ownership (TCO) of a RAC database. As a seasoned professional, you are probably aware of the importance of understanding the technical details behind the RAC stack. This book provides deep understanding of RAC concepts and implementation details that you can apply toward your day-to-day operational practices. You'll be guided in troubleshooting and avoiding trouble in your installation. Successful RAC operation hinges upon a fast-performing netwo

  17. Hierarchical Model of Assessing and Selecting Experts

    OpenAIRE

    Chernysheva, Tatiana Yurievna; Korchuganova, Mariya Anatolievna; Borisov, V. V.; Minkov, S. L.

    2016-01-01

    Revealing experts' competences is a multi-objective issue. Authors of the paper deal with competence assessing methods of experts seen as objects, and criteria of qualities. An analytic hierarchy process of assessing and ranking experts is offered, which is based on paired comparison matrices and scores, quality parameters are taken into account as well. Calculation and assessment of experts is given as an example.

  18. An expert system for uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chhipa, V.K.; Sengupta, M.

    1989-01-01

    Artificial intelligence is an emerging technology in the field of computer application. Expert systems have been developed to imitate human intelligence and reasoning process. Expert systems have much scope of application in the decision making process in mineral exploration as such decisions are highly subjective and expert opinions are very helpful. This paper presents a small expert system to analyze the reasoning process in exploring for uranium deposits in sandstone

  19. Expert systems in process control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittig, T.

    1987-01-01

    To illustrate where the fundamental difference between expert systems in classical diagnosis and in industrial control lie, the work of process control instrumentation is used as an example for the job of expert systems. Starting from the general process of problem-solving, two classes of expert systems can be defined accordingly. (orig.) [de

  20. Fire Effects, Education, and Expert Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Martin

    1987-01-01

    Predicting the effects of fires in the year 2000 and beyond will be enhanced by the use of expert systems. Although our predictions may have broad confidence limits, expert systems should help us to improve the predictions and to focus on the areas where improved knowledge is most needed. The knowledge of experts can be incorporated into previously existing knowledge...

  1. Differentiating Experts' Anticipatory Skills in Beach Volleyball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canal-Bruland, Rouwen; Mooren, Merel; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined how perceptual-motor expertise and watching experience contribute to anticipating the outcome of opponents' attacking actions in beach volleyball. To this end, we invited 8 expert beach volleyball players, 8 expert coaches, 8 expert referees, and 8 control participants with no beach volleyball experience to watch videos…

  2. Expert Systems for auditing management information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheroghe Popescu

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Expert systems are built with the help of: specialised programming languages or expert system generators (shell. But this structure was reached after tens of years of work and research, because expert systems are nothing but pragmatic capitalisation of the results of research carried out in artificial intelligence and theory of knowledge.

  3. Do experts' SKU forecasts improve after feedback?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Legerstee (Rianne); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWe analyze the behavior of experts who quote forecasts for monthly SKU-level sales data where we compare data before and after the moment that experts received different kinds of feedback on their behavior. We have data for 21 experts located in as many countries who make

  4. Do Experts' SKU Forecasts improve after Feedback?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Legerstee (Rianne); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWe analyze the behavior of experts who quote forecasts for monthly SKU-level sales data where we compare data before and after the moment that experts received different kinds of feedback on their behavior. We have data for 21 experts located in as many countries who make SKU-level

  5. Courts, Experts and Interest Groups: Mobilization and Location of Expert Knowledge in the Sentence C 355/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Javier Maldonado Castañeda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the interactions between courts, experts and interest groups present in the sentence C 355/2006, through which abortion is partially decriminalized in Colombia. A detailed review of this paper allows to track the role that interest groups and social movements have in the mobilization of expert discourses in the high courts as a strategy to influence their decisions. The use of disciplines and fields of knowledge is articulated to the general structure of the sentence as literary technology that makes visible the role of the court as administrator of justice.

  6. 21 CFR 341.12 - Antihistamine active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Antihistamine active ingredients. 341.12 Section 341.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE COLD, COUGH, ALLERGY, BRONCHODILATOR, AND ANTIASTHMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE...

  7. Nutritive Value and Availability of Commonly Used Feed Ingredients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Commonly utilized feed ingredients for culture of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) from Kenya, Tanzania and Rwanda were collected over a period of six months (January - June 2010) and evaluated for their nutritive composition through proximate analysis. Most of the fish feed ...

  8. 7 CFR 58.634 - Assembling and combining mix ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assembling and combining mix ingredients. 58.634 Section 58.634 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS...

  9. Botanical supplements: detecting the transition from ingredients to supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methods were developed using flow injection mass spectrometry (FIMS) and chemometrics for the comparison of spectral similarities and differences of 3 botanical ingredients and their supplements: Echinacea purpurea aerial samples and solid and liquid supplements, E. purpurea root samples and solid s...

  10. PCR-based detection of allergenic mackerel ingredients in seafood

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Keywords. Scomber mackerel; allergy; seafood; PCR; genus identification. RESEARCH NOTE. PCR-based detection of allergenic mackerel ingredients in seafood. FUTOSHI ARANISHI 1,* and TAKANE OKIMOTO 1,2. 1Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Miyazaki University,. Miyazaki 889-2192, Japan.

  11. Effectiveness of probiotic feed ingredient on the growth performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of antibiotics in human or veterinary therapy is followed by the appearance of bacteria resistance to these antibiotics. This is a serious problem because of the direct impact on therapeutic possibilities. This study aimed at evaluating the efficiency of a probiotic feed ingredient (Starter) on the growth performance of ...

  12. Consumer needs and requirements for food and ingredient traceability information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijswijk, van W.; Frewer, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of improved food traceability systems has aimed to restore consumer confidence in food safety and quality, in part by being able to provide consumers with more information about the origins of foods and food ingredients. However, little is known about consumers’ opinions and beliefs

  13. Natural ingredients based cosmetics. Content of selected fragrance sensitizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Johansen, J D; Menné, T

    1996-01-01

    -hexylcinnamic aldehyde. The study revealed that the 91% (20/22) of the natural ingredients based perfumes contained 0.027%-7.706% of 1 to 7 of the target fragrances. Between 1 and 5 of the chemically defined synthetic constituents of fragrance mix were found in 82% (18/22) of the perfumes. 35% (7/20) of the other...

  14. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID) release 4.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearly half of U.S. adults report taking dietary supplements (DS). A single serving of a DS may contain amounts of nutrients or other bioactive compounds that exceed their concentration in foods. During the manufacturing of DS, ingredients may be added in amounts exceeding the label claims in orde...

  15. Biovailability of the antisalmonellal active ingredients contained in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biovailability of the antisalmonellal active ingredients contained in Allium sativum bulbs. D Gatsing, R Aliyu, GI Adoga, Félicité M Tchouanguep. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  16. Microbiological Assay Of Ingredients, Contact Surfaces And Stages ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sample at various stages and contact surfaces were obtained during akara processing from three locations in Maiduguri metropolis. The locations were Hausari, Mairi and Wulari. Samples of the ingredients and swabs of contact surfaces were taken. Total aerobic plate count, coliform count, taphylococcal count and ...

  17. Idea-Generation Techniques: A Formulary of Active Ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gerald F.

    1998-01-01

    Reports the results of a study of active ingredients of creativity techniques, devices that promote idea generation, through an analysis of 172 idea-generation methods which identified three types of idea-generation devices--strategies, tactics, and enablers. These devices were organized into meaningful categories comprising a formulary of active…

  18. Antiulcerogenic benefits of herbal ingredients in ethanol-induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antiulcerogenic benefits of herbal ingredients in ethanol-induced animal models. ... Although therapeutic approaches are widely available, preventive regimens are limited. Numerous studies have demonstrated that herbal ... gastric ulcer. Key words: Herbal Medicines, Gastric ulcer, Prevention, Animal models, Alcohol ...

  19. 21 CFR 352.20 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Permitted combinations of active ingredients. 352.20 Section 352.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... effective date was stayed until further notice. For the convenience of the user, the text is set forth as...

  20. 21 CFR 352.10 - Sunscreen active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sunscreen active ingredients. 352.10 Section 352.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... until further notice. For the convenience of the user, the revised text is set forth as follows: § 352...

  1. 21 CFR 333.320 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Permitted combinations of active ingredients. 333.320 Section 333.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Note: At 75 FR 9776, Mar. 4, 2010, § 333.320 was revised, effective Mar. 4, 2011. For the convenience...

  2. 21 CFR 101.4 - Food; designation of ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ingredients of dietary supplements that are botanicals (including fungi and algae) shall be consistent with... designation is not required for algae. The name of the part of the plant shall be expressed in English (e.g... rules on nomenclature, such as those found in the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature and shall...

  3. Introducing CSR - The Missing Ingredient in the Land Reform Recipe?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article identifies corporate social responsibility (CSR) as one of the missing ingredients in the recipe for a successful land reform programme. The article introduces CSR and discusses the business case for CSR; identifies its benefits; considers its possible limitations; and examines the major drivers behind the notion.

  4. A critique of the EC's expert (draft) reports on the status of alternatives for cosmetics testing to meet the 2013 deadline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Katy; Casalegno, Carlotta; Stengel, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    The 7th Amendment to the EU's Cosmetic Directive (now recast as Regulation 1223/2009) bans the testing of cosmetic ingredients and products on animals, effective 2009. An extension until 2013 was granted, for marketing purposes only, for three endpoints: repeated dose, toxicokinetics, and reproductive toxicity. If the European Commission determines that alternatives for these endpoints are not likely to be available, it can propose a further extension. To this end, the Commission has instructed experts to produce reports on the status of alternatives for the 2013 deadline. We criticized the draft reports on a number of issues. First, the experts fell into the "high fidelity fallacy trap," i.e. asserting that full replication of the in vivo response, as opposed to high predictivity, is required before an animal test can be considered useful for regulatory purposes. Second, the experts' reports were incomplete, omitting various methods and failing to provide data on the validity, reliability, and applicability of all the methods discussed, regardless of whether the methods were in vivo, in vitro, or in silico. In this paper we provide a summary of our criticisms and provide some of the missing data in an alternative proposal for replacement of animal tests by 2013. It is our belief that use of the Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) will be a useful method to mitigate much animal testing. Alternative approaches for carcinogenicity and skin sensitization could be considered sufficient in the very near future, even though these tests are not listed under the 2013 extension. For repeated dose, toxicokinetics, and reproductive toxicity a combination of in vitro methods may be able to provide appropriate protection for consumers, especially when viewed in the context of the poor predictivity of the animal models they replace. We hope the revised report will incorporate these comments, since a more thorough and positive review is required if the elimination of animal

  5. Assessment of geomechanical properties of intact Opalinus Clay - Expert report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amann, F.; Vogelhuber, M.

    2015-11-01

    This comprehensive report published by the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate ENSI presents an expert report published on the assessment of the geomechanical properties of intact Opalinus Clay. This review report addresses the conceptual constitutive framework for repositories in Opalinus Clay. The author addresses the geomechanical fundamentals that are necessary in order to adequately judge experiments on intact Opalinus Clay and the interpretation of the results. The report assesses in detail the various test series on intact Opalinus Clay carried out along with the interpretations made by experts and NAGRA. Further assessments are quoted including those on sample geometries tested, effective strength properties, undrained shear strength properties and elastic properties. The results of work done by other experts are also presented and discussed. The report is completed with a list of relevant literature

  6. Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems Research and Their Possible Impact on Information Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borko, Harold

    1985-01-01

    Defines artificial intelligence (AI) and expert systems; describes library applications utilizing AI to automate creation of document representations, request formulations, and design and modify search strategies for information retrieval systems; discusses expert system development for information services; and reviews impact of these…

  7. A quick and selected overview of the expert panel on effective ways of investing in health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Pedro Pita

    2017-01-01

    The European Commission created the Expert Panel on Effective Ways of Investing in Health (EXPH) in 2012. The EXPH started its activities in July 2013 and ended its first term in May 2016. A personal review of the Expert Panel contributions in its first term is provided.

  8. Operational expert system applications in Canada

    CERN Document Server

    Suen, Ching Y

    1992-01-01

    This book is part of a new series on operational expert systems worldwide. Expert systems are now widely used in different parts of the world for various applications. The past four years have witnessed a steady growth in the development and deployment of expert systems in Canada. Research in this field has also gained considerable momentum during the past few years. However, the field of expert systems is still young in Canada. This book contains 13 chapters contributed by 31 experts from both universities and industries across Canada covering a wide range of applications related to electric

  9. Expert systems: A 5-year perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacAllister, D.J.; Day, R.; McCormack, M.D.

    1996-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of a major integrated oil company's experience with artificial intelligence (AI) over the last 5 years, with an emphasis on expert systems. The authors chronicle the development of an AI group, including details on development tool selection, project selection strategies, potential pitfalls, and descriptions of several completed expert systems. Small expert systems produced by teams of petroleum technology experts and experienced expert system developers that are focused in well-defined technical areas have produced substantial benefits and accelerated petroleum technology transfer

  10. Experimental approaches to study the nutritional value of food ingredients for dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Harmon

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This review covers methods that have been applied to study the nutrient value or quality of specific ingredients fed to dogs, cats and comparable species (i.e. foxes, minks, rats, etc.. Typically, the nutritional value or utilization of a specific ingredient is measured by total tract digestibility and has been expanded through the measurement of total nutrient balance (i.e. nitrogen or energy. However, to better understand digestion it is necessary to obtain a more accurate measurement of nutrients entering and leaving the small intestine. Accurate measurement of small intestinal digestion is crucial in dogs and cats because nutrient digestion and absorption occurs primarily in the small intestine. Measuring small intestinal digestibility requires access to digesta leaving the small intestine and can be obtained by placing a cannula at the terminal ileum. This approach also necessitates the use of markers (e.g. chromic oxide to monitor flow of digesta. Specifically, this approach has been used for the direct measurement of intestinal digestion of carbohydrates and amino acids. It also permits a separate measurement of large intestinal digestion which is particularly useful for the study of fiber fermentation. Passage of foods through the gastrointestinal tract is also an important component of utilization and these methods are reviewed.

  11. Integration of active pharmaceutical ingredient solid form selection and particle engineering into drug product design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticehurst, Martyn David; Marziano, Ivan

    2015-06-01

    This review seeks to offer a broad perspective that encompasses an understanding of the drug product attributes affected by active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) physical properties, their link to solid form selection and the role of particle engineering. While the crucial role of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) solid form selection is universally acknowledged in the pharmaceutical industry, the value of increasing effort to understanding the link between solid form, API physical properties and drug product formulation and manufacture is now also being recognised. A truly holistic strategy for drug product development should focus on connecting solid form selection, particle engineering and formulation design to both exploit opportunities to access simpler manufacturing operations and prevent failures. Modelling and predictive tools that assist in establishing these links early in product development are discussed. In addition, the potential for differences between the ingoing API physical properties and those in the final product caused by drug product processing is considered. The focus of this review is on oral solid dosage forms and dry powder inhaler products for lung delivery. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  12. A Guide to the Ingredients and Potential Benefits of Over-the-Counter Cleansers and Moisturizers for Rosacea Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Richard

    2011-01-01

    It is difficult for rosacea patients to discern which products and ingredients will be beneficial to their skin and which products will lead to an exacerbation of the signs and symptoms of rosacea. In this paper, the authors provide a brief overview of rosacea, its pathogenesis, signs and symptoms, and the management of the two major rosacea subtypes—erythematotelangiectatic rosacea and papular pustular rosacea. Reviewed in greater detail are the common ingredients used in over-the-counter cleansers and moisturizers with discussion of how these ingredients potentially benefit or harm the skin of patients with rosacea. Clinical studies investigating the benefits of using certain over-the-counter cleansers and moisturizers in patients with erythematotelangiectatic rosacea and papular pustular rosacea with or without topical prescription therapy are also reviewed. The specific formulas used in the clinical studies include a sensitive skin synthetic detergent bar, a nonalkaline cleanser and moisturizer, polyhydroxy acid containing cleanser and moisturizer, and a ceramide-based cleanser and moisturizer formulated in a multivesicular emulsion. Based on review of available data, the authors conclude that the use of mild over-the-counter cleansers and moisturizers is beneficial for patients with erythematotelangiectatic rosacea and papular pustular rosacea. The properties of over-the-counter cleansers and moisturizers that contribute to their mildness include an acidic-neutral pH to minimize the flux in skin pH; surfactants or emulsifiers that will not strip the skin of its moisture or strip the lipids and proteins of the stratum corneum; moisturizing ingredients such as emollients, humectants, and occlusives; and formulas without potential irritants and allergens. The most consistent clinical benefits demonstrated in the reviewed studies were a subjectively perceived improvement in subjective symptoms of dryness and irritation as well as an objective improvement in

  13. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) and expert testimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulich, Ronald; Maciewicz, Raymond; Scrivani, Steven J

    2009-03-01

    Medical experts frequently use imaging studies to illustrate points in their court testimony. This article reviews how these studies impact the credibility of expert testimony with judges and juries. The apparent "objective" evidence provided by such imaging studies can lend strong credence to a judge's or jury's appraisal of medical expert's testimony. However, as the court usually has no specialized scientific expertise, the use of complex images as part of courtroom testimony also has the potential to mislead or at least inappropriately bias the weight given to expert evidence. Recent advances in brain imaging may profoundly impact forensic expert testimony. Functional magnetic resonance imaging and other physiologic imaging techniques currently allow visualization of the activation pattern of brain regions associated with a wide variety of cognitive and behavioral tasks, and more recently, pain. While functional imaging technology has a valuable role in brain research and clinical investigation, it is important to emphasize that the use of imaging studies in forensic matters requires a careful scientific foundation and a rigorous legal assessment.

  14. Contextual Factors for Finding Similar Experts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, Katja; Balog, Krisztian; Bogers, Toine

    2010-01-01

    Expertise-seeking research studies how people search for expertise and choose whom to contact in the context of a specific task. An important outcome are models that identify factors that influence expert finding. Expertise retrieval addresses the same problem, expert finding, but from a system......-centered perspective. The main focus has been on developing content-based algorithms similar to document search. These algorithms identify matching experts primarily on the basis of the textual content of documents with which experts are associated. Other factors, such as the ones identified by expertise......-seeking models, are rarely taken into account. In this article, we extend content-based expert-finding approaches with contextual factors that have been found to influence human expert finding. We focus on a task of science communicators in a knowledge-intensive environment, the task of finding similar experts...

  15. Language theory and expert systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attilio Agodi

    1988-11-01

    Full Text Available Some remarks on the problem of knowledge representation and processing, as recognized in connection with the use of computers in the scientific research work, emphasizes the relevance of these problems for the studies on both the theory of languages and the expert system. A consideration of the common traits in the recent history of these studies, with reference to the use of computers on texts in natural language motivates the introduction of set theoretic and algebraic methods, suitable for applications in the analysis and in the automatic treatment of languages, based on the concept of model sets and on relational structures suggested from the connections between syntax and semantics evidenced in some example of sub-languages corresponding to theories of different classes of physical phenomena. Some details of these methods are evidenced, which have already successfully used or whose applications appears suggestive of interesting development.

  16. Database, expert systems, information retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedele, P.; Grandoni, G.; Mammarella, M.C.

    1989-12-01

    The great debate concerning the Italian high-school reform has induced a ferment of activity among the most interested and sensible of people. This was clearly demonstrated by the course 'Innovazione metodologico-didattica e tecnologie informatiche' organized for the staff of the 'lstituto Professionale L. Einaudi' of Lamezia Terme. The course was an interesting opportunity for discussions and interaction between the world of School and computer technology used in the Research field. This three day course included theoretical and practical lessons, showing computer facilities that could be useful for teaching. During the practical lessons some computer tools were presented from the very simple Electronic Sheets to the more complicated information Retrieval on CD-ROM interactive realizations. The main topics will be discussed later. They are: Modelling, Data Base, Integrated Information Systems, Expert Systems, Information Retrieval. (author)

  17. 1st Advanced Marine Renewable Energy Instrumentation Experts Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-10-01

    The U.S. marine energy industry is actively pursuing development of offshore wind and marine hydrokinetic (MHK) energy systems. Experience in the wind energy sector demonstrates that new technology development requires thorough measurement and characterization of the environmental conditions prevalent at installation sites and of technology operating in the field. Presently, there are no turn-key instrumentation system solutions that meet the measurement needs of the marine energy industry. The 1st Advanced Marine Renewable Energy Instrumentation Experts Workshop brought together technical experts from government laboratories, academia, and industry representatives from marine energy, wind, offshore oil and gas, and instrumentation developers to present and discuss the instrumentation needs of the marine energy industry. The goals of the meeting were to: 1. Share the latest relevant knowledge among technical experts; 2. Review relevant state-of-the-art field measurement technologies and methods; 3. Review lessons learned from recent field deployments; 4. Identify synergies across different industries; 5. Identify gaps between existing and needed instrumentation capabilities; 6. Understand who are the leading experts; 7. Provide a forum where stakeholders from the marine energy industry could provide substantive input in the development of new marine energy field deployable instrumentation packages.

  18. Expert judgment in NRC licensing proceedings and its impact on the regulatory decision-making process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minwalla, H.

    1995-01-01

    Expert judgment will be widely used in the site characterization, repository performance assessment and the licensing of a high-level radioactive waste repository. Technical expert judgment relates to the consideration of parameters for which little or no experimental data exists. The use of technical expert judgment in repository performance assessment is intended to complement and interpret available data rather than to substitute for technical data and scientific information. Decision-maker expert judgment will be used on the other hand by the NRC or by the Hearing Licensing Board to choose among conflicting technical expert judgments during licensing hearings or review, and gauge the limitations in scientific understanding of repository performance. This paper examines the use of expert judgment by the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board on the proper seismic and geologic design bases in the show cause licensing proceeding for the restart of the Vallecitor - General Electric Test Reactor

  19. Milk fat globule membrane glycoproteins: Valuable ingredients for lactic acid bacteria encapsulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Justine; Burgain, Jennifer; Gomand, Faustine; Scher, Joël; Gaiani, Claire

    2017-10-04

    The membrane (Milk Fat Globule Membrane - MFGM) surrounding the milk fat globule is becoming increasingly studied for its use in food applications due to proven nutritional and technological properties. This review focuses first on current researches which have been led on the MFGM structure and composition and also on laboratory and industrial purification and isolation methods developed in the last few years. The nutritional, health benefits and techno-functional properties of the MFGM are then discussed. Finally, new techno-functional opportunities of MFGM glycoproteins as a possible ingredient for Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) encapsulation are detailed. The ability of MFGM to form liposomes entrapping bioactive compounds has been already demonstrated. One drawback is that liposomes are too small to be used for bacteria encapsulation. For the first time, this review points out the numerous advantages to use MFGM glycoproteins as a protecting, encapsulating matrix for bacteria and especially for LAB.

  20. Total phenolic contents, antioxidant activities, and bioactive ingredients of juices from pomegranate cultivars worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaycıoğlu, Zeynep; Erim, F Bedia

    2017-04-15

    Numerous recent scientific publications investigating the health benefits of pomegranate juice have greatly increased consumer interest in this fruit. The primary cause of the positive health effect of pomegranate is the unique antioxidant activity of this fruit. As a result of the increased attention given to pomegranate, the number of countries producing pomegranate has increased and new cultivars are appearing. The purpose of this review is to quantitatively establish the antioxidant activities, the total phenolic contents which are highly correlated to antioxidant activities, and the other important ingredients of pomegranate juices obtained from cultivars of different regions. Pomegranate wine, vinegar, and sour sauce obtained directly from pomegranate juice are included in this review. Comparison of aril juices with peel and seed extracts is also given. This data could be useful to the pomegranate industry in identifying and developing cultivars having commercial value. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Protection of Proprietary Data Rights for Data Used to Support Tolerance Exemptions for Inert Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    The FFDCA provides both exclusive use and data compensation protections for data that inert ingredient manufacturers submit to EPA to establish or maintain tolerances or tolerance exemptions for these ingredients. Find information about these protections.

  2. Experts bodies, experts minds: How physical and mental training shape the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula eDebarnot

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Skill learning is the improvement in perceptual, cognitive, or motor performance following practice. Expert performance levels can be achieved with well-organized knowledge, using sophisticated and specific mental representations and cognitive processing, applying automatic sequences quickly and efficiently, being able to deal with large amounts of information, and many other challenging task demands and situations that otherwise paralyze the performance of novices. The neural reorganizations that occur with expertise reflect the optimization of the neurocognitive resources to deal with the complex computational load needed to achieve peak performance. As such, capitalizing on neuronal plasticity, brain modifications take place over time-practice and during the consolidation process. One major challenge is to investigate the neural substrates and cognitive mechanisms engaged in expertise, and to define expertise from its neural and cognitive underpinnings. Recent insights showed that many brain structures are recruited during task performance, but only activity in regions related to domain-specific knowledge distinguishes experts from novices. The present review focuses on three expertise domains placed across a motor to mental gradient of skill learning: sequential motor skill, mental simulation of the movement (motor imagery, and meditation as a paradigmatic example of pure mental training. We first describe results on each specific domain from the initial skill acquisition to the achieving of expert performance, including recent results on the corresponding underlying neural mechanisms. We then discuss differences and similarities between these domains with the aim to identify the highlights of the neurocognitive processes underpinning expertise, and conclude with suggestions for future research.

  3. Acrylamide content distribution and possible alternative ingredients for snack foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wei Chih; Sun, De Chao; Chou, Shin Shou; Yeh, An I

    2012-12-01

    Acrylamide (AA) contents in 294 snack foods including cereal-based, root- and tuber-based, and seafood-based foods, nuts, dried beans, and dried fruits purchased in Taiwan were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in this study. The highest levels of average AA content were found in root- and tuber-based snack foods (435 μg/kg), followed by cereal-based snack foods (299 μg/kg). Rice flour-based, seafood-based, and dried fruit snack foods had the lowest average AA content (snack foods in Taiwan. The results could provide important data regarding intake information from the snack foods. In addition, the results showed a great diversity of AA content in snack foods prepared from different ingredients. Rice- and seafood-based products had much lower AA than those made from other ingredients. This information could constitute a good reference for consumers to select products for healthy snacking.

  4. The essential ingredients of successful strategic planning and its implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deroth, L

    1990-09-01

    The strategic planning process initiated by the Pew Foundation through the Pritchard Report became a major preoccupation of all of the 31 faculties of veterinary medicine in the United States and Canada. It is proposed that, in order to be successful in the strategic planning process, three determinants related to perception, to personality, and to psychosocial behavior are necessary ingredients. First, the professional program should evolve in a team-spirited milieu which can inspire future veterinarians to work in teams. Second, all channels of communication should be kept open. Third, passion and enthusiasm should be the prevailing and all-encompassing characteristics of faculty endeavors. Team-spirit, communication and enthusiasm are the essential ingredients which will be needed to confront the challenges facing the profession, to look towards the future with tremendous hope, and to embrace the 21st century with eagerness.

  5. Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids: Potential Health and Beauty Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Chrapusta

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Human skin is constantly exposed to damaging ultraviolet radiation (UVR, which induces a number of acute and chronic disorders. To reduce the risk of UV-induced skin injury, people apply an additional external protection in the form of cosmetic products containing sunscreens. Nowadays, because of the use of some chemical filters raises a lot of controversies, research focuses on exploring novel, fully safe and highly efficient natural UV-absorbing compounds that could be used as active ingredients in sun care products. A promising alternative is the application of multifunctional mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs, which can effectively compete with commercially available filters. Here, we outline a complete characterization of these compounds and discuss their enormous biotechnological potential with special emphasis on their use as sunscreens, activators of cells proliferation, anti-cancer agents, anti-photoaging molecules, stimulators of skin renewal, and functional ingredients of UV-protective biomaterials.

  6. Contact dermatitis due to cosmetics and their ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogra A

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Patches of common cosmetics like lipstick, sindhoor, cold cream, eyebrow pencil, rouge, bindi and their ingredients including methyl paraben, colophony, para phenylene diamine, balsam peru, cetostearyl alcohol, formaldehyde, lanolin, beeswax and liquid paraffin were applied in 200 females. Ingredients of cosmetics showed more frequent sensitivity as compared to the cosmetics applied as such. Para phenylene diamine (35% being the most common allergen followed by balsam peru (22.5% and parabens (19.25%. The least common allergen was liquid paraffin (0.5%. Among cosmetics, the most common agent was sindhoor (5.5% followed by lipstick (5.1% cold cream (3.75% rouge (2%, bindi (1.75% and eyebrow pencil (1.5%

  7. Environmental persistence of porcine coronaviruses in feed and feed ingredients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela P Trudeau

    Full Text Available Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV, Porcine Delta Corona Virus (PDCoV, and Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus (TGEV are major threats to swine health and contaminated feed plays a role in virus transmission. The objective of our study was to characterize inactivation of PEDV, PDCoV, and TGEV in various feed ingredient matrices. Samples of complete feed, spray dried porcine plasma, meat meal, meat and bone meal, blood meal, corn, soybean meal, and corn dried distillers grains with solubles were weighed (5 g/sample into scintillation vials and inoculated with 1 mL of PEDV, PDCoV, or TGEV. Samples were incubated at room temperature for up to 56 days. Aliquots were removed at various time points followed by preparing serial 10-fold dilutions and inoculating in cell cultures to determine the amount of surviving virus. Inactivation kinetics were determined using the Weibull model, which estimates a delta value indicating the time necessary to reduce virus concentration by 1 log. Delta values of various ingredients were compared and analyzed as to their nutrient composition. Soybean meal had the greatest delta value (7.50 days for PEDV (P < 0.06 as compared with all other ingredients. High delta values (P < 0.001 were observed in soybean meal for PDCoV (42.04 days and TGEV (42.00 days. There was a moderate correlation between moisture content and the delta value for PDCoV (r = 0.49, P = 0.01 and TGEV (r = 0.41, P = 0.02. There was also a moderate negative correlation between TGEV survival and ether extract content (r = -0.51, P = 0.01. In conclusion, these results indicate that the first log reduction of PDCoV and TGEV takes the greatest amount of time in soybean meal. In addition to this, moisture and ether content appear to be an important determinant of virus survival in feed ingredients.

  8. The essential ingredients of successful strategic planning and its implementation

    OpenAIRE

    DeRoth, Laszlo

    1990-01-01

    The strategic planning process initiated by the Pew Foundation through the Pritchard Report became a major preoccupation of all of the 31 faculties of veterinary medicine in the United States and Canada. It is proposed that, in order to be successful in the strategic planning process, three determinants related to perception, to personality, and to psychosocial behavior are necessary ingredients. First, the professional program should evolve in a team-spirited milieu which can inspire future ...

  9. Vegetable fats and oils as functional ingredients in meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Totosaus

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sausages are a widely consumed food in México, and due to their low fat content (ca. 10% they can be employed to enrich diet by including functional or nutraceutic ingredients as vegetable fats and oils. The replace or incorporation of vegetable fats or oils in cooked sausages is a way to improve their nutritional profile to offer functional meat products.

  10. Galloyl-RGD as a new cosmetic ingredient

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The cosmetics market has rapidly increased over the last years. For example, in 2011 it reached 242.8 billion US dollars, which was a 3.9% increase compared to 2010. There have been many recent trials aimed at finding the functional ingredients for new cosmetics. Gallic acid is a phytochemical derived from various herbs, and has anti-fungal, anti-viral, and antioxidant properties. Although phytochemicals are useful as cosmetic ingredients, they have a number of drawbacks, such as thermal stability, residence time in the skin, and permeability through the dermal layer. To overcome these problems, we considered conjugation of gallic acid with a peptide. Results We synthesized galloyl-RGD, which represents a conjugate of gallic acid and the peptide RGD, purified it by HPLC and characterized by MALDI-TOF with the aim of using it as a new cosmetic ingredient. Thermal stability of galloyl-RGD was tested at alternating temperatures (consecutive 4°C, 20°C, or 40°C for 8 h each) on days 2, 21, 41, and 61. Galloyl-RGD was relatively safe to HaCaT keratinocytes, as their viability after 48 h incubation with 500 ppm galloyl-RGD was 93.53%. In the group treated with 50 ppm galloyl-RGD, 85.0% of free radicals were removed, whereas 1000 ppm galloyl-RGD suppressed not only L-DOPA formation (43.8%) but also L-DOPA oxidation (54.4%). Conclusions Galloyl-RGD is a promising candidate for a cosmetic ingredient. PMID:25103826

  11. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF LIPSTICKS CONTAINING NATURAL INGREDIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Gouri Kumar Dash*, Nur Anis Amira Mohd Anas and Shahnaz Majeed

    2017-01-01

    The use of lipsticks has gained considerable importance in recent years and several cosmetic industries have geared up their marketing with different shades of colors to meet the demands of women. Many lipsticks often contain synthetic chemicals that are known to cause serious side effects upon prolonged use. In the present study, we have made an attempt to formulate lipsticks that contained only natural ingredients using extracts of the flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, juice of the roots o...

  12. Mineralogical characterization of chemically isolated ingredients from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haykiri-Acma, H.; Yaman, S.; Alkan, M.; Kucukbayrak, S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Isolation methods have an intrinsic weakness. • Isolated ingredients contain no ignorable inorganics in different forms. • The first study dealing with the mineral phases in isolated lignin and holocellulose. - Abstract: The complex structure of biomass materials can be studied by means of a number of different techniques. Of which, chemical isolation of macromolecular biomass ingredients such as lignin, hemicellulose, and cellulose, and then characterization of each isolated ingredient has been a common practice. However, the isolated individual ingredients have always been regarded as pure materials, and so far potential inorganic impurities resulting from the parent biomass have not been considered. Accordingly, this paper focuses on the determination of inorganics, if any, in the isolated parts of biomass. For this, two different biomass species such as hybrid poplar wood and apricot stones have been subjected to sequential isolation procedures of ASTM D1105, Wise’s Chlorite Method, and van Soest’s Method. The isolated holocellulose (hemicellulose + cellulose), lignin, and extractives-free bulk were then characterized mineralogically by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) techniques, and the results were compared with those for the parent biomass species. It was found that the isolated holocelluloses and lignins are not just ash-free and they have ash contents up to 2.2% and 4.0%, respectively. Also, various minerals including potassium chloride, several phosphate minerals, and alumina silicates were found to survive after chemical treatments applied during isolation. In addition, several heavy metals were also detected. These results reveal that minerals cannot be eliminated entirely because of the natures of the chemicals used, and they unavoidably remain in the isolated macromolecules

  13. Actellic 2% dust as pesticide in feed ingredients: Effects on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A uniform diet was compounded from ingredients certified to be apparently pesticide residue-free. This diet was partitioned into 5 sub-diets. The first partition A had no residue, serving as control, while B, C, D, and E had 0.01, 0.02, 0.03 and 0.04% inclusion of the Actellic 2% dust, respectively. A total of 20 rabbits of mixed ...

  14. the amino acid composition of selected south african feed ingredients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samples (25 mg) of each milled ingredient were measured in duplicate into rimless pyrex test tubes (l2 X 150 mm). One of each pair of tubes was for the analysis for all the amino acids except cystine and tryptophan. To this tube, 6 mol dm -t - hydrochloric acid (3 cm.r) was added. The mixture was frozen in an acetone/dry ice.

  15. VALUATION OF THE EFFECTS OF VARIATION IN INGREDIENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The semimembranous muscle from singed beef carcass was trimmed of all visible bones and connective tissue. The meat was sliced into thin sheet of 0.15 – 0.3cm thick and between 5.0 – 9.0 cm long. The experiment comprised of five treatments. Treatment one (T1) In served as the control, with all ingredients present ...

  16. Environmental factors and puberty timing: expert panel research needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Louis, G.M. Buck; Jr, L.E. Gray; Marcus, M.

    2008-01-01

    Serono Symposia International convened an expert panel to review the impact of environmental influences on the regulation of pubertal onset and progression while identifying critical data gaps and future research priorities. An expert panel reviewed the literature on endocrine-disrupting chemicals......, body size, and puberty. The panel concluded that available experimental animal and human data support a possible role of endocrine-disrupting chemicals and body size in relation to alterations in pubertal onset and progression in boys and girls. Critical data gaps prioritized for future research...... the continuum of exposures at critical windows while assessing a spectrum of pubertal markers as outcomes. Coupled with comparative species studies, such research may provide insight regarding the causal ordering of events that underlie pubertal onset and progression and their role in the pathway of adult...

  17. Expert Meeting Report: Foundations Research Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojczyk, C.; Huelman, P.; Carmody, J.

    2013-05-01

    In the Expert Meeting Plan, the NorthernSTAR Team proposed to host two Expert Meetings in calendar year 2011. Invitees to the meetings would include experts in the current field of study, other BA team members, and representatives from DOE and NREL. They will invite leading industry experts to present at these meetings. The Expert Meetings will focus on key systems areas that will be required to meet the Building America performance goals and shall be sufficiently narrow in scope that specific conclusions, action items, and delegation of future tasks can be identified and completed. The two expert meeting topics are 'Foundations' and 'Window Retrofit.' The first session is designed as a webinar only and the second will be a live meeting.

  18. Experts' perceptions on the entrepreneurial framework conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Aldina; e Silva, Eliana Costa; Lopes, I. Cristina; Braga, Alexandra; Braga, Vitor

    2017-11-01

    The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor is a large scale database for internationally comparative entrepreneurship. This database includes information of more than 100 countries concerning several aspects of entrepreneurship activities, perceptions, conditions, national and regional policy, among others, in two main sources of primary data: the Adult Population Survey and the National Expert Survey. In the present work the National Expert Survey datasets for 2011, 2012 and 2013 are analyzed with the purpose of studying the effects of different type of entrepreneurship expert specialization on the perceptions about the Entrepreneurial Framework Conditions (EFCs). The results of the multivariate analysis of variance for the 2013 data show significant differences of the entrepreneurship experts when compared the 2011 and 2012 surveys. For the 2013 data entrepreneur experts are less favorable then most of the other experts to the EFCs.

  19. Botanicals and anti-inflammatories: natural ingredients for rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emer, Jason; Waldorf, Heidi; Berson, Diane

    2011-09-01

    Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory skin condition characterized by cutaneous hypersensitivity. There are many therapeutic options available for the treatment of rosacea, but none are curative. Since the pathogenesis of rosacea remains elusive, it is not surprising that no single treatment is paramount and that many patients find therapies unsatisfactory or even exacerbating. Treatments are prescribed to work in concert with each other in order to ameliorate the common clinical manifestations, which include: papules and pustules, telangiectasias, erythema, gland hypertrophy, and ocular disease. The most validated topical therapies include metronidazole, azelaic acid, and sodium sulfacetamide-sulfur. Many other topical therapies, such as calcineurin inhibitors, benzoyl peroxide, clindamycin, retinoids, topical corticosteroids, and permethrin have demonstrated varying degrees of success. Due to the inconsistent results of the aforementioned therapies patients are increasingly turning to alternative products containing natural ingredients or botanicals to ease inflammation and remit disease. Additional research is needed to elucidate the benefits of these ingredients in the management of rosacea, but some important considerations regarding the natural ingredients with clinical data will be discussed here. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Top 10 botanical ingredients in 2010 anti-aging creams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Hyland; Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2010-09-01

    New developments in the realm of skin rejuvenation such as phytotherapy are at an astounding increasing pace in the cosmeceutical market. Yet, many of these products that are classified as cosmeceuticals are tested less vigorously and do not have to be approved by the Food and Drug Administration to establish efficacy and safety. Thus, as clinicians, we must ask the question, "Is there science-based evidence to validate the mechanism of these new treatments?" We assessed the top anti-aging creams currently on the market specifically evaluating their botanical ingredients. Some of the most common botanicals that are hot off the market are: Rosmarinus officinalis, Vitis vinifera (grape seed extract), Citronellol, Limonene, Oenothera biennis (evening primrose), Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice extract), Aframomum angustifolium seed extract, Diosgenin (wild yam), N6 furfuryladenine (kinetin), and Ergothioneine. Through researching each of these botanical ingredients, we have concluded that randomized controlled trials are still needed in this area, but there is promise in some of these ingredients and science to validate them. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Safety Evaluation of Cosmetic Ingredients Regarding Their Skin Sensitization Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winfried Steiling

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Up to today, product safety evaluation in the EU is predominantly based on data/information on their individual ingredients. Consequently, the quality and reliability of individual ingredient data is of vital interest. In this context, the knowledge about skin sensitization potential is an explicit need for both hazard and risk assessment. Proper skin sensitization data of the individual chemicals is essential, especially when dermal contact is intended, like for cosmetics. In some cases, e.g., in the presence of irritating chemicals, the combination of individual ingredients may also need to be evaluated to cover possible mixture effects. Today, it seems unlikely or even impossible that skin sensitization in humans can be adequately described by a single test result or even by a simple combination of a few data points (in vivo or in vitro. It is becoming evident that a set of data (including human data and market data and knowledge about the ingredient’s specific sensitizing potency needs to be taken into account to enable a reliable assessment of skin sensitization. A more in-depth understanding on mechanistic details of the Adverse-Outcome-Pathway of skin sensitization could contribute key data for a robust conclusion on skin sensitization.

  2. Hierarchical Model of Assessing and Selecting Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernysheva, T. Y.; Korchuganova, M. A.; Borisov, V. V.; Min'kov, S. L.

    2016-04-01

    Revealing experts’ competences is a multi-objective issue. Authors of the paper deal with competence assessing methods of experts seen as objects, and criteria of qualities. An analytic hierarchy process of assessing and ranking experts is offered, which is based on paired comparison matrices and scores, quality parameters are taken into account as well. Calculation and assessment of experts is given as an example.

  3. WINE ADVISOR EXPERT SYSTEM USING DECISION RULES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinuca Elena Claudia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article I focus on developing an expert system for advising the choice of wine that best matches a specific occasion. An expert system is a computer application that performs a task that would be performed by a human expert. The implementation is done using Delphi programming language. I used to represent the knowledge bases a set of rules. The rules are of type IF THEN ELSE rules, decision rules based on different important wine features.

  4. IODE Group of Experts on Technical Aspects of Data Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    During the 8th session of the IODE Group of Experts on Technical Aspects of Data Exchange reviewed the achievements made during the previous inter-sessional period. The Group also adopted a comprehensive workplan and medium-term objectives for GETADE that include: (i) develop End-To-End Data Management framework strategy and appropriate projects, products and services, based on user requirements; (ii) develop IODE Global metadata management system; (iii) develop marine XML as a mechanism to f...

  5. 40 CFR 152.114 - Approval of registration under FIFRA sec. 3(c)(7)-Products that contain a new active ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Agency Review of Applications § 152.114 Approval of registration under FIFRA sec. 3(c)(7)—Products that contain a new active ingredient. An application for registration of a pesticide...

  6. First symposium of ichthyosis experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Martín, A; Torrelo-Fernández, A; de Lucas-Laguna, R; Casco, F; González-Sarmiento, R; Vega, A; Pedreira-Massa, J L; de Unamuno-Pérez, P; Larcher, F; Arroyo, I; Traupe, H

    2013-12-01

    On June 22, 2012 the First Symposium of Ichthyosis Experts in Spain was held at the Hospital Niño de Jesús in Madrid. It was a one-day symposium for dermatologists, pediatricians, and physicians-in-training interested in this disease, as well as for other health care professionals involved in the care of patients with ichthyosis. The aim of the meeting was to try to structure the care of ichthyosis patients in Spain. As happens in other rare diseases, because of the low prevalence of ichthyosis and the absence of designated referral centers, the number of patients treated in each center is very low and few dermatologists have any real clinical experience with this condition or know how to order diagnostic genetic tests. This article summarizes the presentations given at the symposium and is intended as a reference for anyone interested in the subject. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  7. Expert system development (ESD) shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmini, S.; Diwakar, M.P.; Rathode, N.C.; Bairi, B.R.

    1991-01-01

    An Expert System Development (ESD) Shell design implementation is desribed in detail. The shell provides high-level generic facilities for Knowledge Representation (KR) and inferencing and tools for developing user interfaces. Powerful set of tools in the shell relieves much of the programming burden in the ES development. The shell is written in PROLOG under IBM PC/AT. KR facilities are based on two very powerful formalisms namely, frames and rules. Inference Engine (IE) draws most of its power from unification and backward reasoning strategy in PROLOG. This basic mechanism is enhanced further by incorporating both forward and backward chaining of rules and frame-based inferencing. Overall programming style integrates multiple paradigms including logic, object oriented, access-oriented and imperative programming. This permits ES designer a lot of flexibility in organizing inference control. Creation and maintainance of knowledge base is a major activity. The shell, therefore, provides number of facilities to simplify these tasks. Shell design also takes note of the fact that final success of any system depends on end-user satisfaction and hence provides features to build use-friendly interfaces. The shell also provides a set of interfacing predicates so that it can be embedded within any PROLOG program to incorporate functionalilty of the shell in the user program. (author). 10 refs., 8 figs

  8. Succession planning for technical experts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirk, Bernadette Lugue [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cain, Ronald A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dewji, Shaheen A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Agreda, Carla L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This report describes a methodology for identifying, evaluating, and mitigating the loss of key technical skills at nuclear operations facilities. The methodology can be adapted for application within regulatory authorities and research and development organizations, and can be directly applied by international engagement partners of the Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The resultant product will be of direct benefit to two types of NNSA missions: (1) domestic human capital development programs tasked to provide focused technical expertise to succeed an aging nuclear operations workforce, and (2) international safeguards programs charged with maintaining operational safeguards for developing/existing nuclear power program in nations where minimal available resources must be used effectively. This report considers succession planning and the critical skills necessary to meet an institution’s goals and mission. Closely tied to succession planning are knowledge management and mentorship. In considering succession planning, critical skill sets are identified and are greatly dependent on the subject matter expert in question. This report also provides examples of critical skills that are job specific.

  9. Succession planning for technical experts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, Bernadette Lugue; Cain, Ronald A.; Dewji, Shaheen A.; Agreda, Carla L.

    2017-01-01

    This report describes a methodology for identifying, evaluating, and mitigating the loss of key technical skills at nuclear operations facilities. The methodology can be adapted for application within regulatory authorities and research and development organizations, and can be directly applied by international engagement partners of the Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The resultant product will be of direct benefit to two types of NNSA missions: (1) domestic human capital development programs tasked to provide focused technical expertise to succeed an aging nuclear operations workforce, and (2) international safeguards programs charged with maintaining operational safeguards for developing/existing nuclear power program in nations where minimal available resources must be used effectively. This report considers succession planning and the critical skills necessary to meet an institution’s goals and mission. Closely tied to succession planning are knowledge management and mentorship. In considering succession planning, critical skill sets are identified and are greatly dependent on the subject matter expert in question. This report also provides examples of critical skills that are job specific.

  10. Nano-microdelivery systems for oral delivery of an active ingredient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    A composition for oral delivery of one or more active ingredients in the form of a lipid nano-micro-delivery system comprising a lipid nano-micro-structure comprising at least one lipid and at least one active ingredient, said at least one active ingredient being immobilized in said lipid nano...

  11. 21 CFR 700.18 - Use of chloroform as an ingredient in cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of chloroform as an ingredient in cosmetic... SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.18 Use of chloroform as an ingredient in cosmetic products. (a) Chloroform has been used as an ingredient in cosmetic...

  12. 9 CFR 318.6 - Requirements concerning ingredients and other articles used in preparation of products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and other articles used in preparation of products. 318.6 Section 318.6 Animals and Animal Products... ingredients and other articles used in preparation of products. (a) All ingredients and other articles used in... products. (11) (12) Ingredients for use in any product may not bear or contain any pesticide chemical or...

  13. BWR recirculation pump diagnostic expert system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, S.C.; Morimoto, C.N.; Torres, M.R.

    2004-01-01

    At General Electric (GE), an on-line expert system to support maintenance decisions for BWR recirculation pumps for nuclear power plants has been developed. This diagnostic expert system is an interactive on-line system that furnishes diagnostic information concerning BWR recirculation pump operational problems. It effectively provides the recirculation pump diagnostic expertise in the plant control room continuously 24 hours a day. The expert system is interfaced to an on-line monitoring system, which uses existing plant sensors to acquire non-safety related data in real time. The expert system correlates and evaluates process data and vibration data by applying expert rules to determine the condition of a BWR recirculation pump system by applying knowledge based rules. Any diagnosis will be automatically displayed, indicating which pump may have a problem, the category of the problem, and the degree of concern expressed by the validity index and color hierarchy. The rules incorporate the expert knowledge from various technical sources such as plant experience, engineering principles, and published reports. These rules are installed in IF-THEN formats and the resulting truth values are also expressed in fuzzy terms and a certainty factor called a validity index. This GE Recirculation Pump Expert System uses industry-standard software, hardware, and network access to provide flexible interfaces with other possible data acquisition systems. Gensym G2 Real-Time Expert System is used for the expert shell and provides the graphical user interface, knowledge base, and inference engine capabilities. (author)

  14. Liquid low level waste management expert system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrada, J.J.; Abraham, T.J.; Jackson, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    An expert system has been developed as part of a new initiative for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) systems analysis program. This expert system will aid in prioritizing radioactive waste streams for treatment and disposal by evaluating the severity and treatability of the problem, as well as the final waste form. The objectives of the expert system development included: (1) collecting information on process treatment technologies for liquid low-level waste (LLLW) that can be incorporated in the knowledge base of the expert system, and (2) producing a prototype that suggests processes and disposal technologies for the ORNL LLLW system. 4 refs., 9 figs

  15. Cooperative expert system reasoning for waste remediations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohn, S.J.; Pennock, K.A.; Franklin, A.L.

    1991-12-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is facing a large task in completing Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Studies (RI/FS) for hazardous waste sites across the nation. One of the primary objectives of an RI/FS is the specification of viable sequences of technology treatment trains which can provide implementable site solutions. We present a methodology which integrates expert system technology within an object-oriented framework to create a cooperative reasoning system designed to provide a comprehensive list of these implementable solutions. The system accomplishes its goal of specifying technology trains by utilizing a team'' of expert system objects. The system distributes the problem solving among the individual expert objects, and then coordinates the combination of individual decisions into a joint solution. Each expert object possesses the knowledge of an expert in a particular technology. An expert object can examine the parameters and characteristics of the waste site, seek information and support from other expert objects, and then make decisions concerning its own applicability. This methodology has at least two primary benefits. First, the creation of multiple expert objects provides a more direct mapping from the actual process to a software system, making the system easier to build. Second, the distribution of the inferencing among a number of loosely connected expert objects allows for a more robust and maintainable final product.

  16. Cooperative expert system reasoning for waste remediations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohn, S.J.; Pennock, K.A.; Franklin, A.L.

    1991-12-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is facing a large task in completing Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Studies (RI/FS) for hazardous waste sites across the nation. One of the primary objectives of an RI/FS is the specification of viable sequences of technology treatment trains which can provide implementable site solutions. We present a methodology which integrates expert system technology within an object-oriented framework to create a cooperative reasoning system designed to provide a comprehensive list of these implementable solutions. The system accomplishes its goal of specifying technology trains by utilizing a ``team`` of expert system objects. The system distributes the problem solving among the individual expert objects, and then coordinates the combination of individual decisions into a joint solution. Each expert object possesses the knowledge of an expert in a particular technology. An expert object can examine the parameters and characteristics of the waste site, seek information and support from other expert objects, and then make decisions concerning its own applicability. This methodology has at least two primary benefits. First, the creation of multiple expert objects provides a more direct mapping from the actual process to a software system, making the system easier to build. Second, the distribution of the inferencing among a number of loosely connected expert objects allows for a more robust and maintainable final product.

  17. Cooperative expert system reasoning for waste remediations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohn, S.J.; Pennock, K.A.; Franklin, A.L.

    1991-12-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is facing a large task in completing Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Studies (RI/FS) for hazardous waste sites across the nation. One of the primary objectives of an RI/FS is the specification of viable sequences of technology treatment trains which can provide implementable site solutions. We present a methodology which integrates expert system technology within an object-oriented framework to create a cooperative reasoning system designed to provide a comprehensive list of these implementable solutions. The system accomplishes its goal of specifying technology trains by utilizing a ''team'' of expert system objects. The system distributes the problem solving among the individual expert objects, and then coordinates the combination of individual decisions into a joint solution. Each expert object possesses the knowledge of an expert in a particular technology. An expert object can examine the parameters and characteristics of the waste site, seek information and support from other expert objects, and then make decisions concerning its own applicability. This methodology has at least two primary benefits. First, the creation of multiple expert objects provides a more direct mapping from the actual process to a software system, making the system easier to build. Second, the distribution of the inferencing among a number of loosely connected expert objects allows for a more robust and maintainable final product

  18. Skin sensitisation to fragrance ingredients: is there a role for household cleaning/maintenance products?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basketter, David A; Lemoine, Sylvie; McFadden, John P

    2015-01-01

    The induction of contact allergy to fragrance ingredients and the consequent risk of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) present a human health concern that cannot be ignored. The problem arises when exposure exceeds safe levels, but the source(s) of exposure which lead to induction often remain unclear. This contrasts with the elicitation of ACD, where the eczema frequently can be traced to specific source(s) of skin exposure. Cosmetic products are often implicated, both for induction and elicitation. However, other products contain fragrance ingredients, including household cleaning products. In this paper, the risk assessment concerning the ability of these products to induce fragrance contact allergy is considered and the clinical evidence for the induction and/or elicitation of ACD is reviewed. It can be concluded that the risk of the induction of fragrance contact allergy from household cleaning products is low. Especially where more potent fragrance allergens are used in higher exposure products, the aggregated exposure from such products can augment the risk for the elicitation of ACD. This supports the need to manage this risk via the provision of information to consumers.

  19. The Role of Biologically Active Ingredients from Natural Drug Treatments for Arrhythmias in Different Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Hu, Dan; Song, Xiaoli; Han, Tao; Gao, Yonghong; Xing, Yanwei

    2017-01-01

    Arrhythmia is a disease that is caused by abnormal electrical activity in the heart rate or rhythm. It is the major cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although several antiarrhythmic drugs have been used in clinic for decades, their application is often limited by their adverse effects. As a result, natural drugs, which have fewer side effects, are now being used to treat arrhythmias. We searched for all articles on the role of biologically active ingredients from natural drug treatments for arrhythmias in different mechanisms in PubMed. This study reviews 19 natural drug therapies, with 18 active ingredient therapies, such as alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, quinones, and terpenes, and two kinds of traditional Chinese medicine compound (Wenxin-Keli and Shensongyangxin), all of which have been studied and reported as having antiarrhythmic effects. The primary focus is the proposed antiarrhythmic mechanism of each natural drug agent. Conclusion . We stress persistent vigilance on the part of the provider in discussing the use of natural drug agents to provide a solid theoretical foundation for further research on antiarrhythmia drugs.

  20. Cosmetic Functional Ingredients from Botanical Sources for Anti-Pollution Skincare Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Juliano

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is a rising problem in many metropolitan areas around the world. Airborne contaminants are predominantly derived from anthropogenic activities, and include carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, ozone and particulate matter (PM; a mixture of solid and liquid particles of variable size and composition, able to absorb and delivery a large number of pollutants. The exposure to these air pollutants is associated to detrimental effects on human skin, such as premature aging, pigment spot formation, skin rashes and eczema, and can worsen some skin conditions, such as atopic dermatitis. A cosmetic approach to this problem involves the topical application of skincare products containing functional ingredients able to counteract pollution-induced skin damage. Considering that the demand for natural actives is growing in all segments of global cosmetic market, the aim of this review is to describe some commercial cosmetic ingredients obtained from botanical sources able to reduce the impact of air pollutants on human skin with different mechanisms, providing a scientific rationale for their use.