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Sample records for infrared photoacoustic detection

  1. Near infrared photoacoustic detection of heptane in synthetic air

    Duggen, Lars; Albu, Mihaela; Willatzen, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Trace contaminations of n-heptane in synthetic air is measured in the parts-per-billion (ppb) range using near infrared photoacoustic detection. We describe the fundamental theory used in the design of the photoacoustic cell for trace gas analysis and determine the detection limit of the cell...

  2. Differentiation and detection of microorganisms using Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy

    Irudayaraj, Joseph; Yang, Hong; Sakhamuri, Sivakesava

    2002-03-01

    Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) was used to differentiate and identify microorganisms on a food (apple) surface. Microorganisms considered include bacteria (Lactobacillus casei, Bacillus cereus, and Escherichia coli), yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), and fungi (Aspergillus niger and Fusarium verticilliodes). Discriminant analysis was used to differentiate apples contaminated with the different microorganisms from uncontaminated apple. Mahalanobis distances were calculated to quantify the differences. The higher the value of the Mahalanobis distance metric between different microorganisms, the greater is their difference. Additionally, pathogenic (O157:H7) E. coli was successfully differentiated from non-pathogenic strains. Results demonstrate that FTIR-PAS spectroscopy has the potential to become a non-destructive analysis tool in food safety related research.

  3. Photoacoustic Imaging in Oxygen Detection

    Fei Cao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen level, including blood oxygen saturation (sO2 and tissue oxygen partial pressure (pO2, are crucial physiological parameters in life science. This paper reviews the importance of these two parameters and the detection methods for them, focusing on the application of photoacoustic imaging in this scenario. sO2 is traditionally detected with optical spectra-based methods, and has recently been proven uniquely efficient by using photoacoustic methods. pO2, on the other hand, is typically detected by PET, MRI, or pure optical approaches, yet with limited spatial resolution, imaging frame rate, or penetration depth. Great potential has also been demonstrated by employing photoacoustic imaging to overcome the existing limitations of the aforementioned techniques.

  4. Photoacoustic Experimental System to Confirm Infrared Absorption Due to Greenhouse Gases

    Kaneko, Fumitoshi; Monjushiro, Hideaki; Nishiyama, Masayoshi; Kasai, Toshio; Harris, Harold H.

    2010-01-01

    An experimental system for detecting infrared absorption using the photoacoustic (PA) effect is described. It is aimed for use at high-school level to illustrate the difference in infrared (IR) absorption among the gases contained in the atmosphere in connection with the greenhouse effect. The experimental system can be built with readily…

  5. Pulsed near-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy of blood

    Laufer, Jan G.; Elwell, Clare E.; Delpy, Dave T.; Beard, Paul C.

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this study was to use pulsed near infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy to determine the oxygen saturation (SO2) of a saline suspension of red blood cells in vitro. The photoacoustic measurements were made in a cuvette which formed part of a larger circuit through which the red blood cell suspension was circulated. Oxygen saturation of the red blood cell suspension was altered between 2-3% to 100% in step increments using a membrane oxygenator and at each increment an independent measurement of oxygen saturation was made using a co-oximeter. An optical parametric oscillator laser system provided nanosecond excitation pulses at a number of wavelengths in the near-infrared spectrum (740-1040nm) which were incident on the cuvette. The resulting acoustic signals were detected using a broadband (15MHz) Fabry-Perot polymer film transducer. The optical transport coefficient and amplitude were determined from the acoustic signals as a function of wavelength. These data were then used to calculate the relative concentrations of oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin, using their known specific absorption coefficients and an empirically determined wavelength dependence of optical scattering over the wavelength range investigated. From this, the oxygen saturation of the suspension was derived with an accuracy of +/-5% compared to the co-oximeter SO2 measurements.

  6. Applications of infrared photo-acoustic spectroscopy for wood samples

    Mon-Lin Kuo; John F. McClelland; Siquan Luo; Po-Liang Chien; R.D. Walker; Chung-Yun Hse

    1988-01-01

    Various infrared (IR) spectroscopic techniques for the analysis of wood samples are briefly discussed. Theories and instrumentation of the newly developed photoacoustic spectroscopic (PAS) technique for measuring absorbance spectra of solids are presented. Some important applications of the PAS technique in wood science research are discussed. The application of the...

  7. Photoacoustic Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy Of Solids

    Vidrine, D. Warren

    1981-10-01

    After discovering the photoacoustic effect, Alexander Graham Bell predicted its use in spectrometers, and that it would find its greatest utility "in the ultra-red." More than ninety years were required to fulfil his first prediction, and the second is still a prophecy. There is no record whether he ever imagined that an invention being developed that same winter by a young protege of his named Albert Michelson would ever be combined with his photoacoustic effect. A century later, the combination was made by Farrow Burnham, and Eyring, using a visible-range interferometer spectrometer of their own design. Soon afterwards, Rockley and myself, working independently, applied the technique to infrared measurements of solid samples. Photoacoustic cells are now commercially available as FT-IR accessories, and the technique is in use in the field.

  8. Mid-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy for atmospheric NO2 measurements

    Lassen, Mikael; Lamard, Laurent; Balslev-Harder, David; Peremans, Andre; Petersen, Jan C.

    2018-02-01

    A photoacoustic (PA) sensor for spectroscopic measurements of NO2-N2 at ambient pressure and temperature is demonstrated. The PA sensor is pumped resonantly by a nanosecond pulsed single-mode mid-infrared (MIR) optical parametric oscillator (OPO). Spectroscopic measurements of NO2-N2 in the 3.25 μm to 3.55 μm wavelength region with a resolution bandwidth of 5 cm-1 and with a single shot detection limit of 1.6 ppmV (μmol/mol) is demonstrated. The measurements were conducted with a constant flow rate of 300 ml/min, thus demonstrating the suitability of the gas sensor for real time trace gas measurements. The acquired spectra is compared with data from the Hitran database and good agreement is found. An Allan deviation analysis shows that the detection limit at optimum integration time for the PAS sensor is 14 ppbV (nmol/mol) at 170 seconds of integration time, corresponding to a normalized noise equivalent absorption (NNEA) coefficient of 3.3×10-7 W cm-1 Hz-1/2.

  9. Sensitive Detection: Photoacoustics, Thermography, and Optical Radiation Pressure

    Diebold, Gerald J. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States)

    2017-04-21

    Research during the granting period has been carried out in several areas concerned with sensitive detection. An infrared pyrometer based on the photoacoustic effect has been developed. The sensitivity of this instrument to temperature differentials has been shown to be 50 mK. An investigation of transients that accompany photoacoustic waves generated by pulsed lasers has been carried out. Experiments have shown the existence of the transients, and a theory based on rapid heat diffusion has been developed. The photoacoustic effect in one dimension is known to increase without bound (in the linear acoustics regime) when an optical beam moves in a fluid at the sound speed. A solution to the wave equation for pressure has been found that describes the photoacoustic effect in a cell where an infrared optical grating moves at the sound speed. It was shown that the amplification effect exists along with a cavity resonance that can be used to great advantage in trace gas detection. The theory of the photoacoustic effect in a structure where the acoustic properties periodically vary in a one-dimensional based has been formulated based on solutions to a Mathieu equation. It was found that it is possible to excite photoacoustic waves within the band gaps to produce large amplitude acoustic waves. The idea of self-oscillation in a photoacoustic cell using a continuous laser has been investigated. A theory has been completed showing that in a compressive wave, the absorption increases as a result of the density increase leading to further absorption and hence an increased amplitude photoacoustic effect with the result that in a resonator, self-oscillation can place. Experiments have been carried out where irradiation of a suspension of absorbing carbon particles with a high power laser has been shown to result in cavitation luminescence. That is, following generation of CO and H2 from the carbon particles through the carbon-steam reaction, an expanding gas bubble is

  10. Detection of Melanoma Metastases in Resected Human Lymph Nodes by Noninvasive Multispectral Photoacoustic Imaging

    Gerrit Cornelis Langhout

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Sentinel node biopsy in patients with cutaneous melanoma improves staging, provides prognostic information, and leads to an increased survival in node-positive patients. However, frozen section analysis of the sentinel node is not reliable and definitive histopathology evaluation requires days, preventing intraoperative decision-making and immediate therapy. Photoacoustic imaging can evaluate intact lymph nodes, but specificity can be hampered by other absorbers such as hemoglobin. Near infrared multispectral photoacoustic imaging is a new approach that has the potential to selectively detect melanin. The purpose of the present study is to examine the potential of multispectral photoacoustic imaging to identify melanoma metastasis in human lymph nodes. Methods. Three metastatic and nine benign lymph nodes from eight melanoma patients were scanned ex vivo using a Vevo LAZR© multispectral photoacoustic imager and were spectrally analyzed per pixel. The results were compared to histopathology as gold standard. Results. The nodal volume could be scanned within 20 minutes. An unmixing procedure was proposed to identify melanoma metastases with multispectral photoacoustic imaging. Ultrasound overlay enabled anatomical correlation. The penetration depth of the photoacoustic signal was up to 2 cm. Conclusion. Multispectral three-dimensional photoacoustic imaging allowed for selective identification of melanoma metastases in human lymph nodes.

  11. Photoacoustic spectroscopy of CO2 laser in the detection of gaseous molecules

    Lima, G. R.; Sthel, M. S.; da Silva, M. G.; Schramm, D. U. S.; de Castro, M. P. P.; Vargas, H.

    2011-01-01

    The detection of trace gases is very important for a variety of applications, including the monitoring of atmospheric pollutants, industrial process control, measuring air quality in workplaces, research into fruits physiological processes and medical diagnosis of diseases through the analysis of exhaled gases. The implementation of these and many other applications requiring gas sensors able to meet high sensitivity and selectivity. In this work, a photoacoustic laser spectrometer with CO2 emission in the infrared range and a resonant photoacoustic cell was used. We obtain the resonance frequency of 2.4 kHz to photoacoustic cell, was estimated detection limit of the spectrometer for molecules of ethylene (C2H4), 16 ppbV and ammonia (NH3) 42 ppbV.

  12. Photoacoustic spectroscopy of CO2 laser in the detection of gaseous molecules

    Lima, G R; Sthel, M S; Da Silva, M G; Schramm, D U S; De Castro, M P P; Vargas, H

    2011-01-01

    The detection of trace gases is very important for a variety of applications, including the monitoring of atmospheric pollutants, industrial process control, measuring air quality in workplaces, research into fruits physiological processes and medical diagnosis of diseases through the analysis of exhaled gases. The implementation of these and many other applications requiring gas sensors able to meet high sensitivity and selectivity. In this work, a photoacoustic laser spectrometer with CO 2 emission in the infrared range and a resonant photoacoustic cell was used. We obtain the resonance frequency of 2.4 kHz to photoacoustic cell, was estimated detection limit of the spectrometer for molecules of ethylene (C 2 H 4 ), 16 ppbV and ammonia (NH 3 ) 42 ppbV.

  13. Photoacoustic-based detector for infrared laser spectroscopy

    Scholz, L.; Palzer, S., E-mail: stefan.palzer@imtek.uni-freiburg.de [Department of Microsystems Engineering-IMTEK, Laboratory for Gas Sensors, University of Freiburg, Georges-Köhler-Allee 102, Freiburg 79110 (Germany)

    2016-07-25

    In this contribution, we present an alternative detector technology for use in direct absorption spectroscopy setups. Instead of a semiconductor based detector, we use the photoacoustic effect to gauge the light intensity. To this end, the target gas species is hermetically sealed under excess pressure inside a miniature cell along with a MEMS microphone. Optical access to the cell is provided by a quartz window. The approach is particularly suitable for tunable diode laser spectroscopy in the mid-infrared range, where numerous molecules exhibit large absorption cross sections. Moreover, a frequency standard is integrated into the method since the number density and pressure inside the cell are constant. We demonstrate that the information extracted by our method is at least equivalent to that achieved using a semiconductor-based photon detector. As exemplary and highly relevant target gas, we have performed direct spectroscopy of methane at the R3-line of the 2v{sub 3} band at 6046.95 cm{sup −1} using both detector technologies in parallel. The results may be transferred to other infrared-active transitions without loss of generality.

  14. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Photoacoustic Spectroscopy for Saliva Analysis.

    Mikkonen, Jopi J W; Raittila, Jussi; Rieppo, Lassi; Lappalainen, Reijo; Kullaa, Arja M; Myllymaa, Sami

    2016-09-01

    Saliva provides a valuable tool for assessing oral and systemic diseases, but concentrations of salivary components are very small, calling the need for precise analysis methods. In this work, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy using transmission and photoacoustic (PA) modes were compared for quantitative analysis of saliva. The performance of these techniques was compared with a calibration series. The linearity of spectrum output was verified by using albumin-thiocyanate (SCN(-)) solution at different SCN(-) concentrations. Saliva samples used as a comparison were obtained from healthy subjects. Saliva droplets of 15 µL were applied on the silicon sample substrate, 6 drops for each specimen, and dried at 37 ℃ overnight. The measurements were carried out using an FT-IR spectrometer in conjunction with an accessory unit for PA measurements. The findings with both transmission and PA modes mirror each other. The major bands presented were 1500-1750 cm(-1) for proteins and 1050-1200 cm(-1) for carbohydrates. In addition, the distinct spectral band at 2050 cm(-1) derives from SCN(-) anions, which is converted by salivary peroxidases to hypothiocyanate (OSCN(-)). The correlation between the spectroscopic data with SCN(-) concentration (r > 0.990 for transmission and r = 0.967 for PA mode) was found to be significant (P < 0.01), thus promising to be utilized in future applications. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Near-Infrared Squaraine Dye Encapsulated Micelles for in Vivo Fluorescence and Photoacoustic Bimodal Imaging.

    Sreejith, Sivaramapanicker; Joseph, James; Lin, Manjing; Menon, Nishanth Venugopal; Borah, Parijat; Ng, Hao Jun; Loong, Yun Xian; Kang, Yuejun; Yu, Sidney Wing-Kwong; Zhao, Yanli

    2015-06-23

    Combined near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence and photoacoustic imaging techniques present promising capabilities for noninvasive visualization of biological structures. Development of bimodal noninvasive optical imaging approaches by combining NIR fluorescence and photoacoustic tomography demands suitable NIR-active exogenous contrast agents. If the aggregation and photobleaching are prevented, squaraine dyes are ideal candidates for fluorescence and photoacoustic imaging. Herein, we report rational selection, preparation, and micelle encapsulation of an NIR-absorbing squaraine dye (D1) for in vivo fluorescence and photoacoustic bimodal imaging. D1 was encapsulated inside micelles constructed from a biocompatible nonionic surfactant (Pluoronic F-127) to obtain D1-encapsulated micelles (D1(micelle)) in aqueous conditions. The micelle encapsulation retains both the photophysical features and chemical stability of D1. D1(micelle) exhibits high photostability and low cytotoxicity in biological conditions. Unique properties of D1(micelle) in the NIR window of 800-900 nm enable the development of a squaraine-based exogenous contrast agent for fluorescence and photoacoustic bimodal imaging above 820 nm. In vivo imaging using D1(micelle), as demonstrated by fluorescence and photoacoustic tomography experiments in live mice, shows contrast-enhanced deep tissue imaging capability. The usage of D1(micelle) proven by preclinical experiments in rodents reveals its excellent applicability for NIR fluorescence and photoacoustic bimodal imaging.

  16. Discrimination of organic coffee via Fourier transform infrared-photoacoustic spectroscopy.

    Gordillo-Delgado, Fernando; Marín, Ernesto; Cortés-Hernández, Diego Mauricio; Mejía-Morales, Claudia; García-Salcedo, Angela Janet

    2012-08-30

    Procedures for the evaluation of the origin and quality of ground and roasted coffee are constantly needed for the associated industry due to complexity of the related market. Conventional Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy can be used for detecting changes in functional groups of compounds, such as coffee. However, dispersion, reflection and non-homogeneity of the sample matrix can cause problems resulting in low spectral quality. On the other hand, sample preparation frequently takes place in a destructive way. To overcome these difficulties, in this work a photoacoustic cell has been adapted as a detector in a FTIR spectrophotometer to perform a study of roasted and ground coffee from three varieties of Coffea arabica grown by organic and conventional methods. Comparison between spectra of coffee recorded by FTIR-photoacoustic spectrometry (PAS) and by FTIR spectrophotometry showed a better resolution of the former method, which, aided by principal components analysis, allowed the identification of some absorption bands that allow the discrimination between organic and conventional coffee. The results obtained provide information about the spectral behavior of coffee powder which can be useful for establishing discrimination criteria. It has been demonstrated that FTIR-PAS can be a useful experimental tool for the characterization of coffee. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Identification of Chinese medicinal fungus Cordyceps sinensis by depth-profiling mid-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy

    Du, Changwen; Zhou, Jianmin; Liu, Jianfeng

    2017-02-01

    With increased demand for Cordyceps sinensis it needs rapid methods to meet the challenge of identification raised in quality control. In this study Cordyceps sinensis from four typical natural habitats in China was characterized by depth-profiling Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy. Results demonstrated that Cordyceps sinensis samples resulted in typical photoacoustic spectral appearance, but heterogeneity was sensed in the whole sample; due to the heterogeneity Cordyceps sinensis was represented by spectra of four groups including head, body, tail and leaf under a moving mirror velocity of 0.30 cm s- 1. The spectra of the four groups were used as input of a probabilistic neural network (PNN) to identify the source of Cordyceps sinensis, and all the samples were correctly identified by the PNN model. Therefore, depth-profiling Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy provides novel and unique technique to identify Cordyceps sinensis, which shows great potential in quality control of Cordyceps sinensis.

  18. First application of multilayer graphene cantilever for laser photoacoustic detection

    Suchánek, Jan; Dostál, Michal; Vlasáková, T.; Janda, Pavel; Klusáčková, Monika; Kubát, Pavel; Nevrlý, V.; Bitala, P.; Civiš, Svatopluk; Zelinger, Zdeněk

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 101, APR 2017 (2017), s. 9-14 ISSN 0263-2241 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-14696S; GA MŠk(CZ) LD14022 Grant - others:COST(XE) TD1105 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Cantilever * Multilayer graphene * Photoacoustic detection * Methanol detection Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 2.359, year: 2016

  19. Photoacoustic determination of glucose concentration in whole blood by a near-infrared laser diode

    Zhao, Zuomin; Myllylae, Risto A.

    2001-06-01

    The near-infrared photoacoustic technique is recognized as a potential method for the non-invasive determination of human glucose, because near-infrared light can incident a few millimeters into human tissue, where it produces an acoustic wave capable of carrying information about the composition of the tissue. This paper demonstrates a photoacoustic glucose measurement in a blood sample as a step toward a non-invasive measurement. The experimental apparatus consists of a near-infrared laser diode operating with 4 micro joules pulse energy at 905 nm, a roller pump connected to a silicon plastic tube and a cuvette for circulating the blood sample. In addition, the apparatus comprises a PZT piezoelectric transducer integrated with a battery-powered preamplifier to receive the photoacoustic signal. During the experiment, a glucose solution is mixed into a human blood sample to change its concentration. Although the absorption coefficient of glucose is much smaller than that of blood in the near-infrared region, the osmotic and hydrophilic properties of glucose decrease the reduced scattering coefficient of blood caused by the dissolved glucose surrounding the blood cells. This changes the distribution of the absorbed optical energy in blood, which, in turn, produces a change in the photoacoustic signal. Our experiment demonstrates that signal amplitudes in fresh and stored blood samples in crease about 7% and 10%, respectively, when the glucose concentration reaches the upper limit of the physiological region (500 mg/dl).

  20. Photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy for conducting gas tracer tests and measuring water saturations in landfills

    Jung, Yoojin; Han, Byunghyun; Mostafid, M. Erfan; Chiu, Pei; Yazdani, Ramin; Imhoff, Paul T.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy tested for measuring tracer gas in landfills. ► Measurement errors for tracer gases were 1–3% in landfill gas. ► Background signals from landfill gas result in elevated limits of detection. ► Technique is much less expensive and easier to use than GC. - Abstract: Gas tracer tests can be used to determine gas flow patterns within landfills, quantify volatile contaminant residence time, and measure water within refuse. While gas chromatography (GC) has been traditionally used to analyze gas tracers in refuse, photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) might allow real-time measurements with reduced personnel costs and greater mobility and ease of use. Laboratory and field experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of PAS for conducting gas tracer tests in landfills. Two tracer gases, difluoromethane (DFM) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6 ), were measured with a commercial PAS instrument. Relative measurement errors were invariant with tracer concentration but influenced by background gas: errors were 1–3% in landfill gas but 4–5% in air. Two partitioning gas tracer tests were conducted in an aerobic landfill, and limits of detection (LODs) were 3–4 times larger for DFM with PAS versus GC due to temporal changes in background signals. While higher LODs can be compensated by injecting larger tracer mass, changes in background signals increased the uncertainty in measured water saturations by up to 25% over comparable GC methods. PAS has distinct advantages over GC with respect to personnel costs and ease of use, although for field applications GC analyses of select samples are recommended to quantify instrument interferences.

  1. Photoacoustic Spectroscopy with Quantum Cascade Lasers for Trace Gas Detection

    Gaetano Scamarcio

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Various applications, such as pollution monitoring, toxic-gas detection, noninvasive medical diagnostics and industrial process control, require sensitive and selectivedetection of gas traces with concentrations in the parts in 109 (ppb and sub-ppb range.The recent development of quantum-cascade lasers (QCLs has given a new aspect toinfrared laser-based trace gas sensors. In particular, single mode distributed feedback QCLsare attractive spectroscopic sources because of their excellent properties in terms of narrowlinewidth, average power and room temperature operation. In combination with these lasersources, photoacoustic spectroscopy offers the advantage of high sensitivity and selectivity,compact sensor platform, fast time-response and user friendly operation. This paper reportsrecent developments on quantum cascade laser-based photoacoustic spectroscopy for tracegas detection. In particular, different applications of a photoacoustic trace gas sensoremploying a longitudinal resonant cell with a detection limit on the order of hundred ppb ofozone and ammonia are discussed. We also report two QC laser-based photoacousticsensors for the detection of nitric oxide, for environmental pollution monitoring andmedical diagnostics, and hexamethyldisilazane, for applications in semiconductormanufacturing process.

  2. Photoacoustic detection of NH3 in power plant emissions

    Rassmussen, O.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes a photoacoustic spectrometer initially designed for detection of NH 3 in power plant emission with a detection limit below 1 ppm. The radiation source is a high tunable CO 2 waveguide laser emitting its own frequency standard in one of 90 laserlines. The detection is performed at reduced pressure where the vibration-rotation transitions give an unambiguous fingerprint for each trace gas. Immunity against interference is ensured by recording this characteristic spectral fingerprint over the tuning range of the laser, and problems associated with the high concentration of CO 2 or other interfering molecules are further eliminated by utilizing the effect of kinetic cooling in the photoacoustic phase. The use of a CO 2 laser as radiation source combined with the highly sensitive photoacoustic detection provides a great possibility of measuring a wide range of air pollutants in the range down to ppt concentrations. Experimental measurements have been carried out on gases like sulfur dioxide, ethylene, sulfur hexafluoride, vinylchloride, ozone, etc., and many others have been theoretically examined to give a high response in the CO 2 laser frequency range. A computerized NH 3 spectrometer has been constructed and tested under realistic conditions at a Danish power plant operating a test facility for selective non-catalytic reduction of NO x . Results of this test will be presented

  3. Photoacoustic detection of neovascularities in skin graft

    Yamazaki, Mutsuo; Sato, Shunichi; Saitoh, Daizo; Ishihara, Miya; Okada, Yoshiaki; Ashida, Hiroshi; Obara, Minoru

    2005-04-01

    We previously proposed a new method for monitoring adhesion of skin graft by measuring photoacoustic (PA) signal originated from the neovascularities. In this study, immunohistochemical staining (IHC) with CD31 antibody was performed for grafted skin tissue to observe neovascularity, and the results were compared with PA signals. We also used a laser Doppler imaging (LDI) to observe blood flow in the grafted skin, and sensitivity of PA measurement and that of LDI were compared. In rat autograft models, PA signals were measured for the grafted skin at postgrafting times of 0-48 h. At 6 h postgrafting, PA signal was observed in the skin depth region of 500-600 mm, while the results of IHC showed that angiogenesis occurred at the depth of about 600 mm. Depths at which PA signal and angiogenesis were observed decreased with postgrafting time. These indicate that the PA signal observed at 6 h postgrafting originated from the neovascularities in the skin graft. Results of LDI showed no blood-originated signal before 48 h postgrafting. These findings suggest that PA measurement is effective in monitoring the adhesion of skin graft in early stage after transplantation.

  4. Near-infrared light-responsive liposomal contrast agent for photoacoustic imaging and drug release applications.

    Sivasubramanian, Kathyayini; Mathiyazhakan, Malathi; Wiraja, Christian; Upputuri, Paul Kumar; Xu, Chenjie; Pramanik, Manojit

    2017-04-01

    Photoacoustic imaging has become an emerging tool for theranostic applications. Not only does it help in release and therapeutic applications. We explore near-infrared light-sensitive liposomes coated with gold nanostars (AuNSs) for both imaging and drug release applications using a photoacoustic imaging system. Being amphiphilic, the liposomes lipid bilayer and the aqueous core enable encapsulation of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs. The AuNSs on the surface of the liposomes act as photon absorbers due to their intrinsic surface plasmon resonance. Upon excitation by laser light at specific wavelength, AuNSs facilitate rapid release of the contents encapsulated in the liposomes due to local heating and pressure wave formation (photoacoustic wave). Herein, we describe the design and optimization of the AuNSs-coated liposomes and demonstrate the release of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic model drugs (paclitaxel and calcein, respectively) through laser excitation at near-infrared wavelength. The use of AuNSs-coated liposomes as contrast agents for photoacoustic imaging is also explored with tissue phantom experiments. In comparison to blood, the AuNSs-coated liposomes have better contrast (approximately two times) at 2-cm imaging depth.

  5. Oxidative stress and pathogenic attack in plants, studied by laser based photoacoustic trace gas detection

    Santosa, Ignatius Edi

    2002-01-01

    Photoacoustic detection has proven to be a sensitive method, which is suitable for trace gas measurement. In this thesis, we improved the photoacoustic detection system to measure new biologically interesting gases, ethane (C2H6) and nitric oxide (NO). A new design of grating holder is incorporated

  6. Detection of circulating breast cancer cells using photoacoustic flow cytometry

    Bhattacharyya, Kiran

    According to the American Cancer Society, more than 200,000 new cases of breast cancer are expected to be diagnosed this year. Moreover, about 40,000 women died from breast cancer last year alone. As breast cancer progresses in an individual, it can transform from a localized state to a metastatic one with multiple tumors distributed through the body, not necessarily contained within the breast. Metastasis is the spread of cancer through the body by circulating tumor cells (CTCs) which can be found in the blood and lymph of the diagnosed patient. Diagnosis of a metastatic state by the discovery of a secondary tumor can often come too late and hence, significantly reduce the patient's chance of survival. There is a current need for a CTC detection method which would diagnose metastasis before the secondary tumor occurs or reaches a size resolvable by current imaging systems. Since earlier detection would improve prognosis, this study proposes a method of labeling of breast cancer cells for detection with a photoacoustic flow cytometry system as a model for CTC detection in human blood. Gold nanoparticles and fluorescent polystyrene nanoparticles are proposed as contrast agents for T47D, the breast cancer cell line of choice. The labeling, photoacoustic detection limit, and sensitivity are first characterized and then applied to a study to show detection from human blood.

  7. Detection, mapping, and quantification of single walled carbon nanotubes in histological specimens with photoacoustic microscopy.

    Avti, Pramod K; Hu, Song; Favazza, Christopher; Mikos, Antonios G; Jansen, John A; Shroyer, Kenneth R; Wang, Lihong V; Sitharaman, Balaji

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the efficacy of multi-scale photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) was investigated to detect, map, and quantify trace amounts [nanograms (ng) to micrograms (µg)] of SWCNTs in a variety of histological tissue specimens consisting of cancer and benign tissue biopsies (histological specimens from implanted tissue engineering scaffolds). Optical-resolution (OR) and acoustic-resolution (AR)--Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) was employed to detect, map and quantify the SWCNTs in a variety of tissue histological specimens and compared with other optical techniques (bright-field optical microscopy, Raman microscopy, near infrared (NIR) fluorescence microscopy). Both optical-resolution and acoustic-resolution PAM, allow the detection and quantification of SWCNTs in histological specimens with scalable spatial resolution and depth penetration. The noise-equivalent detection sensitivity to SWCNTs in the specimens was calculated to be as low as ∼7 pg. Image processing analysis further allowed the mapping, distribution, and quantification of the SWCNTs in the histological sections. The results demonstrate the potential of PAM as a promising imaging technique to detect, map, and quantify SWCNTs in histological specimens, and could complement the capabilities of current optical and electron microscopy techniques in the analysis of histological specimens containing SWCNTs.

  8. Detection, mapping, and quantification of single walled carbon nanotubes in histological specimens with photoacoustic microscopy.

    Pramod K Avti

    Full Text Available In the present study, the efficacy of multi-scale photoacoustic microscopy (PAM was investigated to detect, map, and quantify trace amounts [nanograms (ng to micrograms (µg] of SWCNTs in a variety of histological tissue specimens consisting of cancer and benign tissue biopsies (histological specimens from implanted tissue engineering scaffolds.Optical-resolution (OR and acoustic-resolution (AR--Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM was employed to detect, map and quantify the SWCNTs in a variety of tissue histological specimens and compared with other optical techniques (bright-field optical microscopy, Raman microscopy, near infrared (NIR fluorescence microscopy.Both optical-resolution and acoustic-resolution PAM, allow the detection and quantification of SWCNTs in histological specimens with scalable spatial resolution and depth penetration. The noise-equivalent detection sensitivity to SWCNTs in the specimens was calculated to be as low as ∼7 pg. Image processing analysis further allowed the mapping, distribution, and quantification of the SWCNTs in the histological sections.The results demonstrate the potential of PAM as a promising imaging technique to detect, map, and quantify SWCNTs in histological specimens, and could complement the capabilities of current optical and electron microscopy techniques in the analysis of histological specimens containing SWCNTs.

  9. Theoretical and experimental investigation of multispectral photoacoustic osteoporosis detection method

    Steinberg, Idan; Hershkovich, Hadas Sara; Gannot, Israel; Eyal, Avishay

    2014-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a widespread disorder, which has a catastrophic impact on patients lives and overwhelming related to healthcare costs. Recently, we proposed a multispectral photoacoustic technique for early detection of osteoporosis. Such technique has great advantages over pure ultrasonic or optical methods as it allows the deduction of both bone functionality from the bone absorption spectrum and bone resistance to fracture from the characteristics of the ultrasound propagation. We demonstrated the propagation of multiple acoustic modes in animal bones in-vitro. To further investigate the effects of multiple wavelength excitations and of induced osteoporosis on the PA signal a multispectral photoacoustic system is presented. The experimental investigation is based on measuring the interference of multiple acoustic modes. The performance of the system is evaluated and a simple two mode theoretical model is fitted to the measured phase signals. The results show that such PA technique is accurate and repeatable. Then a multiple wavelength excitation is tested. It is shown that the PA response due to different excitation wavelengths revels that absorption by the different bone constitutes has a profound effect on the mode generation. The PA response is measured in single wavelength before and after induced osteoporosis. Results show that induced osteoporosis alters the measured amplitude and phase in a consistent manner which allows the detection of the onset of osteoporosis. These results suggest that a complete characterization of the bone over a region of both acoustic and optical frequencies might be used as a powerful tool for in-vivo bone evaluation.

  10. Quantum-cascade laser photoacoustic detection of methane emitted from natural gas powered engines

    Rocha, M. V.; Sthel, M. S.; Silva, M. G.; Paiva, L. B.; Pinheiro, F. W.; Miklòs, A.; Vargas, H.

    2012-03-01

    In this work we present a laser photoacoustic arrangement for the detection of the important greenhouse gas methane. A quantum-cascade laser and a differential photoacoustic cell were employed. A detection limit of 45 ppbv in nitrogen was achieved as well as a great selectivity. The same methodology was also tested in the detection of methane issued from natural gas powered vehicles (VNG) in Brazil, which demonstrates the excellent potential of this arrangement for greenhouse gas detection emitted from real sources.

  11. Detection of Molecular Oxygen at Low Concentrations Using Quartz Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    Andreas Pohlkötter

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Molecular oxygen is detected at low concentrations using photoacoustic spectroscopy despite its unfavorable photoacoustic properties. The system consists of a seed laser diode, a tapered amplifier and a quartz tuning fork based spectrophone, thus employing quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS. With this system a detection limit of 13 ppm is reached with a compact and long term stable setup. Further improvement of the detection limit is possible by adding suitable gases to the sample gas that promote the radiationless de-excitation of the oxygen molecules.

  12. In vivo detection of hemoglobin oxygen saturation and carboxyhemoglobin saturation with multiwavelength photoacoustic microscopy.

    Chen, Zhongjiang; Yang, Sihua; Xing, Da

    2012-08-15

    A method for noninvasively detecting hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SO2) and carboxyhemoglobin saturation (SCO) in subcutaneous microvasculature with multiwavelength photoacoustic microscopy is presented. Blood samples mixed with different concentrations of carboxyhemoglobin were used to test the feasibility and accuracy of photoacoustic microscopy compared with the blood-gas analyzer. Moreover, fixed-point detection of SO2 and SCO in mouse ear was obtained, and the changes from normoxia to carbon monoxide hypoxia were dynamically monitored in vivo. Experimental results demonstrate that multiwavelength photoacoustic microscopy can detect SO2 and SCO, which has future potential clinical applications.

  13. Speckle-based off-axis holographic detection for non-contact photoacoustic tomography

    Buj C.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A very fast innovative holographic off-axis non-contact detection method for Photoacoustic Tomography (PAT is introduced. It overcomes the main problems of most state-of-the-art photoacoustic imaging approaches that are long acquisition times and the requirement of acoustic contact. In order to increase the acquisition speed significantly, the surface displacements of the object, caused by the photoacoustic pressure waves, are measured interferometrically in two dimensions. Phase alterations in the observed speckle field are used to identify changes in the object’s topography. A sampling rate of up to 80 MHz is feasible, which reduces the occurrence of motion artefacts.

  14. Photoacoustic imaging to detect rat brain activation after cocaine hydrochloride injection

    Jo, Janggun; Yang, Xinmai

    2011-03-01

    Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) was employed to detect small animal brain activation after the administration of cocaine hydrochloride. Sprague Dawley rats were injected with different concentrations (2.5, 3.0, and 5.0 mg per kg body) of cocaine hydrochloride in saline solution through tail veins. The brain functional response to the injection was monitored by photoacoustic tomography (PAT) system with horizontal scanning of cerebral cortex of rat brain. Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) was also used for coronal view images. The modified PAT system used multiple ultrasonic detectors to reduce the scanning time and maintain a good signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The measured photoacoustic signal changes confirmed that cocaine hydrochloride injection excited high blood volume in brain. This result shows PAI can be used to monitor drug abuse-induced brain activation.

  15. Real-time Near-infrared Virtual Intraoperative Surgical Photoacoustic Microscopy

    Changho Lee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We developed a near infrared (NIR virtual intraoperative surgical photoacoustic microscopy (NIR-VISPAM system that combines a conventional surgical microscope and an NIR light photoacoustic microscopy (PAM system. NIR-VISPAM can simultaneously visualize PA B-scan images at a maximum display rate of 45 Hz and display enlarged microscopic images on a surgeon's view plane through the ocular lenses of the surgical microscope as augmented reality. The use of the invisible NIR light eliminated the disturbance to the surgeon's vision caused by the visible PAM excitation laser in a previous report. Further, the maximum permissible laser pulse energy at this wavelength is approximately 5 times more than that at the visible spectral range. The use of a needle-type ultrasound transducer without any water bath for acoustic coupling can enhance convenience in an intraoperative environment. We successfully guided needle and injected carbon particles in biological tissues ex vivo and in melanoma-bearing mice in vivo.

  16. Photoacoustic contrast imaging of biological tissues with nanodiamonds fabricated for high near-infrared absorbance.

    Zhang, Ti; Cui, Huizhong; Fang, Chia-Yi; Su, Long-Jyun; Ren, Shenqiang; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Yang, Xinmai; Forrest, M Laird

    2013-02-01

    Radiation-damaged nanodiamonds (DNDs) are potentially ideal optical contrast agents for photoacoustic (PA) imaging in biological tissues due to their low toxicity and high optical absorbance. PA imaging contrast agents have been limited to quantum dots and gold particles, since most existing carbon-based nanoparticles, including fluorescent nanodiamonds, do not have sufficient optical absorption in the near-infrared (NIR) range. A new DND by He+ ion beam irradiation with very high NIR absorption was synthesized. These DNDs produced a 71-fold higher PA signal on a molar basis than similarly dimensioned gold nanorods, and 7.1 fmol of DNDs injected into rodents could be clearly imaged 3 mm below the skin surface with PA signal enhancement of 567% using an 820-nm laser wavelength.

  17. Quantum Cascade Laser-Based Photoacoustic Sensor for Trace Detection of Formaldehyde Gas

    Pietro Mario Lugarà

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We report on the development of a photoacoustic sensor for the detection of formaldehyde (CH2O using a thermoelectrically cooled distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser operating in pulsed mode at 5.6 mm. A resonant photoacoustic cell, equipped with four electret microphones, is excited in its first longitudinal mode at 1,380 Hz. The absorption line at 1,778.9 cm-1 is selected for CH2O detection. A detection limit of 150 parts per billion in volume in nitrogen is achieved using a 10 seconds time constant and 4 mW laser power. Measurements in ambient air will require water vapour filters.

  18. Quantification of photoacoustic microscopy images for ovarian cancer detection

    Wang, Tianheng; Yang, Yi; Alqasemi, Umar; Kumavor, Patrick D.; Wang, Xiaohong; Sanders, Melinda; Brewer, Molly; Zhu, Quing

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, human ovarian tissues with malignant and benign features were imaged ex vivo by using an opticalresolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) system. Several features were quantitatively extracted from PAM images to describe photoacoustic signal distributions and fluctuations. 106 PAM images from 18 human ovaries were classified by applying those extracted features to a logistic prediction model. 57 images from 9 ovaries were used as a training set to train the logistic model, and 49 images from another 9 ovaries were used to test our prediction model. We assumed that if one image from one malignant ovary was classified as malignant, it is sufficient to classify this ovary as malignant. For the training set, we achieved 100% sensitivity and 83.3% specificity; for testing set, we achieved 100% sensitivity and 66.7% specificity. These preliminary results demonstrate that PAM could be extremely valuable in assisting and guiding surgeons for in vivo evaluation of ovarian tissue.

  19. Detection, mapping, and quantification of single walled carbon nanotubes in histological specimens with photoacoustic microscopy.

    Avti, P.K.; Hu, S.; Favazza, C.; Mikos, A.G.; Jansen, J.A.; Shroyer, K.R.; Wang, L.V.; Sitharaman, B.

    2012-01-01

    AIMS: In the present study, the efficacy of multi-scale photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) was investigated to detect, map, and quantify trace amounts [nanograms (ng) to micrograms (microg)] of SWCNTs in a variety of histological tissue specimens consisting of cancer and benign tissue biopsies

  20. Detection of Photoacoustic Transients Originating from Microstructures in Optically Diffuse Media such as Biological Tissue

    Hoelen, C.G.A.; Dekker, Andre; de Mul, F.F.M.

    2001-01-01

    The generation and detection of broadband photoacoustic (PA) transients may be used for on-axis monitoring or for imaging of optically different structures in the interior of diffuse bodies such as biological tissue. Various piezoelectric sensors are characterized and compared in terms of

  1. Toward in-vivo photoacoustic imaging of human ovarian tissue for cancer detection

    Aguirre, Andres; Kumavor, Patrick; Ardeshirpour, Yasaman; Sanders, Mary M.; Brewer, Molly; Zhu, Quing

    2011-03-01

    Currently, most of the cancers in the ovary are detected when they have already metastasized to other parts of the body. As a result, ovarian cancer has the highest mortality of all gynecological cancers with a 5-year survival rate of 30% or less [1]. The reason is the lack of reliable symptoms as well as the lack of efficacious screening techniques [2,3]. Thus, there is an urgent need to improve the current diagnostic techniques. We have investigated the potential role of co-registered photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging in ovarian cancer detection. In an effort to bring this technique closer to clinical application, we have developed a co-registered ultrasound and photoacoustic transvaginal probe. A fiber coupling assembly has been developed to deliver the light from around the transducer for reflection geometry imaging. Co-registered ultrasound and photoacoustic images of swine ovaries through vagina wall muscle and human ovaries using the aforementioned probe, demonstrate the potential of photoacoustic imaging to non-invasively detect ovarian cancer in vivo.

  2. Characterization of underground storage tank sludge using fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy

    Luo, S.; Bajic, S.J.; Jones, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of underground storage tank (UST) contents is critical for the determination of proper disposal protocols and storage procedures of nuclear waste materials. Tank volume reduction processes during the 1940's and 50's have produced a waste form that compositionally varies widely and has a consistency that ranges from paste like sludge to saltcake. The heterogeneity and chemical reactivity of the waste form makes analysis difficult by most conventional methods which require extensive sample preparation. In this paper, a method is presented to characterize nuclear waste from UST's at the Westinghouse Hanford Site in Washington State, using Fourier transform infrared-photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS). FTIR-PAS measurements on milligram amounts of surrogate sludge samples have been used to accurately identify phosphate, sulfate, nitrite, nitrate and ferrocyanide components. A simple sample preparation method was followed to provide a reproducible homogeneous sample for quantitative analysis. The sample preparation method involved freeze drying the sludge sample prior to analysis to prevent the migration of soluble species. Conventional drying (e.g., air or, oven) leads to the formation of crystals near the surface where evaporation occurs. Sample preparation as well as the analytical utility of this method will be discussed

  3. Microstructural and Photoacoustic Infrared Spectroscopic Studies of Human Cortical Bone with Osteogenesis Imperfecta

    Gu, Chunju; Katti, Dinesh R.; Katti, Kalpana S.

    2016-04-01

    The molecular basis of bone disease osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) and the mineralization of hydroxyapatite in OI bone have been of significant research interest. To further investigate the mechanism of OI disease and bone mineralization, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction (XRD) are used in the present study to describe the structural and compositional differences between OI and healthy bone. OI bone exhibits more porous, fibrous features, abnormal collagen fibrils, and abnormal mineral deposits. Likewise, photoacoustic-FTIR experiments indicate an aberrant collagen structure and an altered mineral structure in OI. In contrast, there is neither significant difference in the non-collagenous proteins (NCPs) composition observed nor apparent change in the crystal structure between OI and healthy bone minerals as shown in XRD and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) results. This observation indicates that the biomineralization process is more controlled by the bone cells and non-collagenous phosphorylated proteins. The present study also confirms that there is an orientational influence on the stoichiometry of the mineral in OI bone. Also, a larger volume of the hydrated layer in the transverse plane than the longitudinal plane of the mineral crystal structure is proposed. The appearance of a new C-S band in the FTIR spectra in OI bone suggests the substitution of glycine by cysteine in collagen molecules or/and an increased amount of cysteine-rich osteonectin that relates to mineral nucleation and mineral crystal formation.

  4. CO2-laser photoacoustic detection of gaseous n-pentylacetate

    Herecová, L.; Hejzlar, T.; Pavlovský, J.; Míček, D.; Zelinger, Zdeněk; Kubát, Pavel; Janečková, B.; Nevrlý, Václav; Bitala, P.; Střižík, Michal; Klouda, E.; Civiš, Svatopluk

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 256, č. 1 (2009), s. 109-110 ISSN 0022-2852 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 111; GA MŠk LC06071; GA ČR GA202/06/0216; GA MŽP SPII1A0/45/07 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : n-pentylacetate * CO2 laser photoacoustic spectroscopy * FTIR spectroscopy Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.542, year: 2009

  5. Simultaneous Photoacoustic and Photopyroelectric Detection of Trace Gas Emissions from Some Plant Parts and Their Related Essential Oils in a Combined Detection Cell

    Abu-Taha, M. I.; Abu-Teir, M. M.; Al-Jamal, A. J.; Eideh, H.

    The aim of this work was to establish the feasibility of the combined photoacoustic (PA) and photopyroelectric (PPE) detection of the vapours emitted from essential oils and their corresponding uncrushed leaves or flowers. Gas traces of jasmine (Jessamine (Jasminum)), mint (Mentha arvensis L.) and Damask rose (Rosa damascena Miller) and their essential oils were tested using a combined cell fitted with both a photopyroelectric film (PVDF) and a microphone in conjunction with a pulsed wideband infrared source (PWBS) source. Infrared PA and PPE absorbances were obtained simultaneously at room temperatures with excellent reproducibility and high signal-to-noise ratios. Significant similarities found between the PA and PPE spectra of the trace gas emissions of plant parts, i.e., flowers or leaves and their related essential oils show the good correlation of their emissions and that both effects are initiated by the same absorbing molecules.

  6. Photoacoustic detection of CO2 based on LABVIEW at 10.303 μm.

    Zhao, Junjuan; Zhao, Zhan; Du, Lidong; Geng, Daoqu; Wu, Shaohua

    2011-04-01

    A detailed study on a photoacoustic carbon dioxide detection system, through sound card based on virtual instrument, is presented in this paper. In this system, the CO(2) concentration was measured with the non-resonant photoacoustic cell technique through measuring the photoacoustic signal caused by the CO(2). In order to obtain small photoacoustic signals buried in noise, a measurement software was designed with LABVIEW. It has functions of Lock-in Amplifier, digital filter, and signal generator; can also be used to achieve spectrum analysis and signal recovery; has been provided with powerful function for data processing and communication with other measuring instrument. The test results show that the entire system has an outstanding measuring performance with the sensitivity of 10 μv between 10-44 KHz. The non-resonance test of the trace gas analyte CO(2) conducted at 100 Hz demonstrated large signals (15.89 mV) for CO(2) concentrations at 600 ppm and high signal-to-noise values (∼85:1). © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  7. Detection of melanoma cells suspended in mononuclear cells and blood plasma using photoacoustic generation

    Spradling, Emily M.; Viator, John A.

    2009-02-01

    Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer. Although the initial malignant cells are removed, it is impossible to determine whether or not the cancer has metastasized until a secondary tumor forms that is large enough to detect with conventional imaging. Photoacoustic detection of circulating melanoma cells in the bloodstream has shown promise for early detection of metastasis that may aid in treatment of this aggressive cancer. When blood is irradiated with energy from an Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm, photoacoustic signals are created and melanoma cells can be differentiated from the surrounding cells based on waveforms produced by an oscilloscope. Before this can be used as a diagnostic technique, however, we needed to investigate several parameters. Specifically, the current technique involves the in vitro separation of blood through centrifugation to isolate and test only the white blood cell layer. Using this method, we have detected a single cultured melanoma cell among a suspension of white blood cells. However, the process could be made simpler if the plasma layer were used for detection instead of the white blood cell layer. This layer is easier to obtain after blood separation, the optical difference between plasma and melanoma cells is more pronounced in this layer than in the white blood cell layer, and the possibility that any stray red blood cells could distort the results is eliminated. Using the photoacoustic apparatus, we detected no melanoma cells within the plasma of whole blood samples spiked with cultured melanoma cells.

  8. Quantum cascade laser photoacoustic detection of nitrous oxide released from soils for biofuel production

    Couto, F. M.; Sthel, M. S.; Castro, M. P. P.; da Silva, M. G.; Rocha, M. V.; Tavares, J. R.; Veiga, C. F. M.; Vargas, H.

    2014-12-01

    In order to investigate the generation of greenhouse gases in sugarcane ethanol production chain, a comparative study of N2O emission in artificially fertilized soils and soils free from fertilizers was carried out. Photoacoustic spectroscopy using quantum cascade laser with an emission ranging from 7.71 to 7.88 µm and differential photoacoustic cell were applied to detect nitrous oxide (N2O), an important greenhouse gas emitted from soils cultivated with sugar cane. Owing to calibrate the experimental setup, an initial N2O concentration was diluted with pure nitrogen and detection limit of 50 ppbv was achieved. The proposed methodology was selective and sensitive enough to detect N2O from no fertilized and artificially fertilized soils. The measured N2O concentration ranged from ppmv to ppbv.

  9. The extent of unwanted infrared photoacoustic signals from polymer sampling tubings exposed to ultraviolet radiation

    Bicanic, D.; Solyom, A.; Angeli, G.; Wegh, H.; Postumus, M.; Jalink, H.

    1995-01-01

    The extent of unwanted photoacoustic (PA) signals due to volatiles released from various polymer tubing materials [transparent, red and black polyethylene (PE), polymer of tetrafluorethylene (PTFE) and copolymer of tetrafluorethylene and hexafluorethylene (FEP)] when exposed to 245 nm radiation was

  10. Enhanced near-infrared photoacoustic imaging of silica-coated rare-earth doped nanoparticles

    Sheng, Yang [Engineering Product Development, Singapore University of Technology and Design, 8 Somapah Road, Singapore 487372 (Singapore); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu 213164 (China); Liao, Lun-De [Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Nanomedicine, National Health Research Institutes, 35 Keyan Rd., Zhunan Town, Miaoli County 35053, Taiwan, ROC (China); Singapore Institute for Neurotechnology (SINAPSE), National University of Singapore, 28 Medical Drive, #05-COR, Singapore 117456 (Singapore); Bandla, Aishwarya [Singapore Institute for Neurotechnology (SINAPSE), National University of Singapore, 28 Medical Drive, #05-COR, Singapore 117456 (Singapore); Department of Biomedical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 21 Lower Kent Ridge Rd, Singapore 119077 (Singapore); Liu, Yu-Hang [Singapore Institute for Neurotechnology (SINAPSE), National University of Singapore, 28 Medical Drive, #05-COR, Singapore 117456 (Singapore); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 21 Lower Kent Ridge Rd, Singapore 119077 (Singapore); Yuan, Jun [Singapore Institute for Neurotechnology (SINAPSE), National University of Singapore, 28 Medical Drive, #05-COR, Singapore 117456 (Singapore); Thakor, Nitish [Singapore Institute for Neurotechnology (SINAPSE), National University of Singapore, 28 Medical Drive, #05-COR, Singapore 117456 (Singapore); Department of Biomedical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 21 Lower Kent Ridge Rd, Singapore 119077 (Singapore); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 21 Lower Kent Ridge Rd, Singapore 119077 (Singapore); Tan, Mei Chee, E-mail: meichee.tan@sutd.edu.sg [Engineering Product Development, Singapore University of Technology and Design, 8 Somapah Road, Singapore 487372 (Singapore)

    2017-01-01

    Near-infrared photoacoustic (PA) imaging is an emerging diagnostic technology that utilizes the tissue transparent window to achieve improved contrast and spatial resolution for deep tissue imaging. In this study, we investigated the enhancement effect of the SiO{sub 2} shell on the PA property of our core/shell rare-earth nanoparticles (REs) consisting of an active rare-earth doped core of NaYF{sub 4}:Yb,Er (REDNPs) and an undoped NaYF{sub 4} shell. We observed that the PA signal amplitude increased with SiO{sub 2} shell thickness. Although the SiO{sub 2} shell caused an observed decrease in the integrated fluorescence intensity due to the dilution effect, fluorescence quenching of the rare earth emitting ions within the REDNPs cores was successfully prevented by the undoped NaYF{sub 4} shell. Therefore, our multilayer structure consisting of an active core with successive functional layers was demonstrated to be an effective design for dual-modal fluorescence and PA imaging probes with improved PA property. The result from this work addresses a critical need for the development of dual-modal contrast agent that advances deep tissue imaging with high resolution and signal-to-noise ratio. - Graphical abstract: Illustration of multilayer structured imaging probe with REDNPs as active core, undoped NaYF{sub 4} as intermediate layer and SiO{sub 2} as outer shell. The PA signal amplitude of REs/SiO{sub 2} was increased with the SiO{sub 2} shell thickness. - Highlights: • Silica coating was demonstrated to be much more effective in enhancing the PA signal amplitude comparing to soft polymer. • PA enhancement was attributed to the increased phonon modes and phonon energy with the introduction of the SiO{sub 2} coating. • Multilayer structure was an effective design for dual-modal fluorescence and PA imaging probes with improved PA property.

  11. Research on fiber-optic cantilever-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy for trace gas detection

    Chen, Ke; Zhou, Xinlei; Gong, Zhenfeng; Yu, Shaochen; Qu, Chao; Guo, Min; Yu, Qingxu

    2018-01-01

    We demonstrate a new scheme of cantilever-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy, combining a sensitivity-improved fiber-optic cantilever acoustic sensor with a tunable high-power fiber laser, for trace gas detection. The Fabry-Perot interferometer based cantilever acoustic sensor has advantages such as high sensitivity, small size, easy to install and immune to electromagnetic. Tunable erbium-doped fiber ring laser with an erbium-doped fiber amplifier is used as the light source for acoustic excitation. In order to improve the sensitivity for photoacoustic signal detection, a first-order longitudinal resonant photoacoustic cell with the resonant frequency of 1624 Hz and a large size cantilever with the first resonant frequency of 1687 Hz are designed. The size of the cantilever is 2.1 mm×1 mm, and the thickness is 10 μm. With the wavelength modulation spectrum and second-harmonic detection methods, trace ammonia (NH3) has been measured. The gas detection limits (signal-to-noise ratio = 1) near the wavelength of 1522.5 nm is achieved to be 3 ppb.

  12. Speed of sound and photoacoustic imaging with an optical camera based ultrasound detection system

    Nuster, Robert; Paltauf, Guenther

    2017-07-01

    CCD camera based optical ultrasound detection is a promising alternative approach for high resolution 3D photoacoustic imaging (PAI). To fully exploit its potential and to achieve an image resolution SOS) in the image reconstruction algorithm. Hence, in the proposed work the idea and a first implementation are shown how speed of sound imaging can be added to a previously developed camera based PAI setup. The current setup provides SOS-maps with a spatial resolution of 2 mm and an accuracy of the obtained absolute SOS values of about 1%. The proposed dual-modality setup has the potential to provide highly resolved and perfectly co-registered 3D photoacoustic and SOS images.

  13. Detection and capture of single circulating melanoma cells using photoacoustic flowmetry

    O'Brien, Christine; Mosley, Jeffrey; Goldschmidt, Benjamin S.; Viator, John A.

    2010-02-01

    Photoacoustic flowmetry has been used to detect single circulating melanoma cells in vitro. Circulating melanoma cells are those cells that travel in the blood and lymph systems to create secondary tumors and are the hallmark of metastasis. This technique involves taking blood samples from patients, separating the white blood and melanoma cells from whole blood and irradiating them with a pulsed laser in a flowmetry set up. Rapid, visible wavelength laser pulses on the order of 5 ns can induce photoacoustic waves in melanoma cells due to their melanin content, while surrounding white blood cells remain acoustically passive. We have developed a system that identifies rare melanoma cells and captures them in 50 microliter volumes using suction applied near the photoacoustic detection chamber. The 50 microliter sample is then diluted and the experiment is repeated using the new sample until only a melanoma cell remains. We have tested this system on dyed microspheres ranging in size from 300 to 500 microns. Capture of circulating melanoma cells may provide the opportunity to study metastatic cells for basic understanding of the spread of cancer and to optimize patient specific therapies.

  14. Improved pulsed photoacoustic detection by means of an adapted filter

    González, M.; Santiago, G.; Peuriot, A.; Slezak, V.; Mosquera, C.

    2005-06-01

    We present a numerical and experimental study of two adapted filters devised to the quantitative analysis of weak photoacoustic signals. The first one is a simple convolution-type one and the other is based on neural networks of the multilayer perceptron type. The theoretical signal used as one of the inputs in both filters is derived from the solution of the transient response of the acoustic cell modeled with a simple transmission-line analogue. The filters were tested numerically by using the theoretical signal corrupted with white noise. After 500 iterations it was possible to define an average error for the returned value of each filter. Since the neural network outperformed the convolution-type, we assessed its performance by measuring SF6 traces diluted in N2 and excited by tuned TEA CO2 laser. The results show the use of the neural network filter allows recovering a signal with poor signal-to-noise ratio without resorting to extensive averaging, thus reducing the acquisition time while improving the precision of the measurement.

  15. Initial experiences in the photoacoustic detection of melanoma metastases in resected lymph nodes

    Grootendorst, D.; Jose, J.; Van der Jagt, P.; Van der Weg, W.; Nagel, K.; Wouters, M.; Van Boven, H.; Van Leeuwen, T. G.; Steenbergen, W.; Ruers, T.; Manohar, S.

    2011-03-01

    Accurate lymph node analysis is essential to determine the prognosis and treatment of patients suffering from melanoma. The initial results of a tomographic photoacoustic modality to detect melanoma metastases in resected lymph nodes are presented based on phantom models and a human lymph node. The results show melanoma metastases detection is feasible and the setup is capable of distinguishing absorbing structures down to 1 mm. In addition, the use of longer laser wavelengths could result in an image containing a higher contrast ratio. Future research shall be focused on using the melanin characteristics to improve contrast and detection possibilities.

  16. New maxillofacial infrared detection technologies

    Reshetnikov, A. P.; Kopylov, M. V.; Nasyrov, M. R., E-mail: marat.1994@me.com; Fisher, E. L.; Chernova, L. V. [Izhevsk State Medical Academy, Izhevsk, Russia (426034, Izhevsk, Kommunarov street, 281) (Russian Federation); Soicher, E. M. [Moscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry named after A.I. Evdokimov of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia, (127473, Moscow, Delegatskaya str., 20/1) (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-17

    At the dental clinic the infrared range radiation spectrum of tissues was used to study the dynamics of local temperature and structure of the skin, subcutaneous fat, and other tissues of the maxillofacial area in adult healthy volunteers and patients. In particular, we studied the dynamics of local temperature of mucous membranes of the mouth, teeth, and places in the mouth and dental structures in the norm and in various pathological conditions of the lips, gums, teeth, tongue, palate, and cheeks before, during and after chewing food, drinking water, medication, and inhalation of air. High safety and informational content of infrared thermography are prospective for the development of diagnostics in medicine. We have 3 new methods for infrared detection protected by patents in Russia.

  17. Application of Fourier transform infrared-photoacoustic spectroscopy for the characterisation of organic wastes and determination of their usefulness for bioenergy and as soil amendments

    Bekiaris, Georgios

    of this project was the development of less time-consuming and inexpensive techniques that can partially replace laboratory assays in the determination the usefulness of organic wastes. In this project the potential of a relatively new spectroscopic technique, i.e. Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic...

  18. Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy study of physicochemical interaction between human dentin and etch-&-rinse adhesives in a simulated moist bond technique

    Ubaldini, Adriana L M; Baesso, Mauro L; Sehn, Elizandra

    2012-01-01

    systems: (a) 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) and 4-methacryloxyethyl trimellitate anhydrate (4-META), and (b) HEMA. The Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy was performed before and after dentin treatment with 37% phosphoric acid, with adhesive systems and also for the adhesive systems...

  19. Use of photoacoustic mid-infrared spectroscopy to characterize soil properties and soil organic matter stability

    Peltre, Clement; Bruun, Sander; Du, Changwen; Stoumann Jensen, Lars

    2014-05-01

    The persistence of soil organic matter (SOM) is recognized as a major ecosystem property due to its key role in earth carbon cycling, soil quality and ecosystem services. SOM stability is typically studied using biological methods such as measuring CO2-C evolution from microbial decomposition of SOM during laboratory incubation or by physical or chemical fractionation methods, allowing the separation of a labile fraction of SOM. However these methods are time consuming and there is still a need for developing reliable techniques to characterize SOM stability, providing both quantitative measurements and qualitative information, in order to improve our understanding of the mechanisms controlling SOM persistence. Several spectroscopic techniques have been used to characterize and predict SOM stability, such as near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) and diffuse reflectance mid-infrared spectroscopy (DRIFT). The latter allows a proper identification of spectral regions corresponding to vibrations of specific molecular or functional groups associated with SOM lability. However, reflectance spectroscopy for soil analyses raises some difficulties related to the low reflectance of soils, and to the high influence of particle size. In the last three decades, the progresses in microphone sensitivity dramatically increased the performance of photoacoustic Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS). This technique offers benefits over reflectance spectroscopy techniques, because particle size and the level of sample reflectance have little effect of on the PAS signal, since FTIR-PAS is a direct absorption technique. Despite its high potential for soil analysis, only a limited number of studies have so far applied FTIR-PAS for soil characterization and its potential for determining SOM degradability still needs to be investigated. The objective of this study was to assess the potential of FTIR-PAS for the characterization of SOM decomposability during

  20. Structural phototransformation of WO{sub 3} thin films detected by photoacoustic analysis

    Pacheco, Argelia Perez, E-mail: ekargy@hotmail.com [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Laboratorio de Fotofisica y Peliculas Delgadas-CCADET, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacan, A.P. 70-186, C.P. 04510, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Montes de Oca, C. Oliva; Castaneda-Guzman, R.; Garcia, A. Esparza [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Laboratorio de Fotofisica y Peliculas Delgadas-CCADET, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacan, A.P. 70-186, C.P. 04510, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The phototransformation of WO{sub 3} thin films were studied by photoacoustic technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The phase transition in WO{sub 3} thin films was induced by laser irradiation fluence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The onset and end of the phototransformation in the thin films was identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ablation threshold for each sample was identified. - Abstract: The photoacoustic technique (PA) was used to detect the phase transformation from amorphous to crystalline state of tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) thin films induced by UV pulsed laser radiation at low energy (<1.5 mJ). The evolution of photoacoustic signal was studied by a correlation analysis, comparing successive signals at fluences ranging from 0 to 20 mJ/cm{sup 2}. In this interval, it was possible to observe structural changes and the ablation threshold in films due to incident laser fluence effect. Thin films of WO{sub 3} were deposited by DC reactive magnetron sputtering over glass substrates at different deposition times. The results obtained by correlation analysis were compared with Raman spectroscopy data.

  1. PHOTOACOUSTIC SPECTROSCOPY USING A SYNCHROTRON LIGHT SOURCE

    JACKSON, R.S.; MICHAELIAN, K.H.; HOMES, C.C.

    2001-01-01

    We have investigated the use of a synchrotron as a source for infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy. A synchrotron has an intrinsically high radiance, which is beneficial when photoacoustic spectroscopy is applied to small samples, especially at long wavelengths

  2. Selectivity enhancement in photoacoustic gas analysis via phase-sensitive detection at high modulation frequency

    Kosterev, Anatoliy (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method for detecting a target fluid in a fluid sample comprising a first fluid and the target fluid using photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS), comprises a) providing a light source configured to introduce an optical signal having at least one wavelength into the fluid sample; b) modulating the optical signal at a desired modulation frequency such that the optical signal generates an acoustic signal in the fluid sample; c) measuring the acoustic signal in a resonant acoustic detector; and d) using the phase of the acoustic signal to detect the presence of the target fluid.

  3. Near-infrared multispectral photoacoustic microscopy using a graded-index fiber amplifier

    Takashi Buma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate optical resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM of lipid-rich tissue using a multi-wavelength pulsed laser based on nonlinear fiber optics. 1047 nm laser pulses are converted to 1098, 1153, 1215, and 1270 nm pulses via stimulated Raman scattering in a graded-index multimode fiber. Multispectral PAM of a lipid phantom is demonstrated with our low-cost and simple technique.

  4. Imaging and detection of early stage dental caries with an all-optical photoacoustic microscope

    Hughes, D A; Kirk, K J; Sampathkumar, A; Longbottom, C

    2015-01-01

    Tooth decay, at its earliest stages, manifests itself as small, white, subsurface lesions in the enamel. Current methods for detection in the dental clinic are visual and tactile investigations, and bite-wing X-ray radiographs. These techniques suffer from poor sensitivity and specificity at the earliest (and reversible) stages of the disease due to the small size (<100μm) of the lesion. A fine-resolution (600 nm) ultra-broadband (200 MHz) all-optical photoacoustic microscopy system was is used to image the early signs of tooth decay. Ex-vivo tooth samples exhibiting white spot lesions were scanned and were found to generate a larger (one order of magnitude) photoacoustic (PA) signal in the lesion regions compared to healthy enamel. The high contrast in the PA images potentially allows lesions to be imaged and measured at a much earlier stage than current clinical techniques allow. PA images were cross referenced with histology photographs to validate our experimental results. Our PA system provides a noncontact method for early detection of white-spot lesions with a high detection bandwidth that offers advantages over previously demonstrated ultrasound methods. The technique provides the sensing depth of an ultrasound system, but with the spatial resolution of an optical system

  5. Optimizing ultrasound detection for sensitive 3D photoacoustic breast tomography

    Xia, W.

    2013-01-01

    The standard modality for breast cancer detection is X-ray imaging. Diagnosis is performed after the triple assessment of X-ray mammography assisted by ultrasonog- raphy and biopsy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is sometimes used in specific problem solving such as contradictory results are

  6. Resonant photoacoustic detection of NO2 traces with a Q-switched green laser

    Slezak, Verónica; Codnia, Jorge; Peuriot, Alejandro L.; Santiago, Guillermo

    2003-01-01

    Resonant photoacoustic detection of NO2 traces by means of a high repetition pulsed green laser is presented. The resonator is a cylindrical Pyrex glass cell with a measured Q factor 380 for the first radial mode in air at atmospheric pressure. The system is calibrated with known mixtures in dry air and a minimum detectable volume concentration of 50 parts in 109 is obtained (S/N=1). Its sensitivity allows one to detect and quantify NO2 traces in the exhaust gases of cars. Previously, the analysis of gas adsorption and desorption on the walls and of changes in the sample composition is carried out in order to minimize errors in the determination of NO2 content upon application of the extractive method. The efficiency of catalytic converters of several models of automobiles is studied and the NO2 concentration in samples from exhausts of different types of engine (gasoline, diesel, and methane gas) at idling operation are measured.

  7. Isometric multimodal photoacoustic microscopy based on optically transparent micro-ring ultrasonic detection.

    Dong, Biqin; Li, Hao; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Kevin; Chen, Siyu; Sun, Cheng; Zhang, Hao F

    2015-01-01

    Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) is an attractive imaging tool complementary to established optical microscopic modalities by providing additional molecular specificities through imaging optical absorption contrast. While the development of optical resolution photoacoustic microscopy (ORPAM) offers high lateral resolution, the acoustically-determined axial resolution is limited due to the constraint in ultrasonic detection bandwidth. ORPAM with isometric spatial resolution along both axial and lateral direction is yet to be developed. Although recently developed sophisticated optical illumination and reconstruction methods offer improved axial resolution in ORPAM, the image acquisition procedures are rather complicated, limiting their capabilities for high-speed imaging and being easily integrated with established optical microscopic modalities. Here we report an isometric ORPAM based on an optically transparent micro-ring resonator ultrasonic detector and a commercial inverted microscope platform. Owing to the superior spatial resolution and the ease of integrating our ORPAM with established microscopic modalities, single cell imaging with extrinsic fluorescence staining, intrinsic autofluorescence, and optical absorption can be achieved simultaneously. This technique holds promise to greatly improve the accessibility of PAM to the broader biomedical researchers.

  8. CO2 laser photoacoustic detection of ammonia emitted by ceramic industries.

    Sthel, M S; Schramm, D U; Lima, G R; Carneiro, L; Faria, R T; Castro, M P P; Alexandre, J; Toledo, R; Silva, M G; Vargas, H

    2011-01-01

    A homemade photoacoustic spectrometer has been constructed for monitoring gas emission from several sources. Numerous air pollutant gases are emitted exhaust of industries, vehicles and power plants. The photoacoustic technique is extremely sensitive and selective in detecting various gases. This work focuses on the gas emitted by the ceramic industry in northern Rio de Janeiro State in Brazil, the ceramic industry plays a remarkable role in the economy activity of this region, in recent years, this region developed into a significant red ceramic complex. The potential impact on the atmospheric environment of the region due to gaseous pollutant emissions from these anthropogenic sources needs to be evaluated. In this work we identified NH3 present in the samples collected in the kiln of a ceramic plant, in the concentration range of 33-52 ppmV. The ammonia gas present in our collected samples might come from the excess nitrogen in the manure soil from where the ceramic material was extracted. This soil was used for the sugarcane culture which is another important economic activity of this region. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A Feasibility Study of Photoacoustic Detection of Hidden Dental Caries Using a Fiber-Based Imaging System

    Takuya Koyama

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the feasibility of an optical fiber-based photoacoustic imaging system for detecting caries lesions inside a tooth is examined. Models of hidden caries were prepared using a pigment with an absorption spectrum similar to that of real caries lesions, and the occlusal surface of the model teeth containing the pigment was irradiated with laser pulses with a wavelength of 532 nm. An examination of the frequency spectra of the emitted photoacoustic waves revealed that the spectra from simulated caries lesions included frequency components in the range of 0.5–1.2 MHz that were not seen in the spectra from healthy parts of the teeth. This indicates that hidden caries can be detected via a photoacoustic imaging technique. Accordingly, an imaging system for clinical applications was fabricated. It consists of a bundle of hollow-optical fibers for laser radiation and an acoustic probe that is attached to the tooth surface. Results of ex vivo imaging experiments using model teeth and an extracted tooth with hidden caries lesions show that relatively large caries lesions inside teeth that are not seen in visual inspections can be detected by focusing on the above frequency components of the photoacoustic waves.

  10. Optical parametric oscillator-based photoacoustic detection of CO2 at 4.23 mu m allows real-time monitoring of the respiration of small insects

    Herpen, M.M.J.W. van; Ngai, A.K.Y.; Bisson, S.E.; Hackstein, J.H.P.; Woltering, E.J.; Harren, F.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    A continuous wave, single frequency and continuously tunable optical parametric oscillator is used in combination with photoacoustic spectroscopy to detect trace emissions of CO2 from insects under atmospheric conditions. The optical parametric oscillator (OPO) contains a periodically poled lithium

  11. Optical parametric oscillator-based photoacoustic detection of CO 2 at 4.23 µm allows real-time monitoring of the respiration of small insects

    Herpen, van M.M.J.W.; Ngai, A.K.Y.; Bisson, S.E.; Hackstein, J.H.P.; Woltering, E.J.; Harren, F.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    A continuous wave, single frequency and continuously tunable optical parametric oscillator is used in combination with photoacoustic spectroscopy to detect trace emissions of CO2 from insects under atmospheric conditions. The optical parametric oscillator (OPO) contains a periodically poled lithium

  12. Rapid estimation of the biochemical methane potential of plant biomasses using Fourier transform mid-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy.

    Bekiaris, Georgios; Triolo, Jin M; Peltre, Clément; Pedersen, Lene; Jensen, Lars S; Bruun, Sander

    2015-12-01

    Biochemical methane potential (BMP) is a very important characteristic of a given feedstock for optimisation of its use in biogas production. However, the long digestion time needed to determine BMP is the main limitation for the use of this assay during the operation of anaerobic digesters to produce biogas. Fourier transform mid-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) was used to predict the BMP of 87 plant biomasses. The developed calibration model was able to explain 81% of the variance in the measured BMP of a selected test set with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 40NLCH4kg(-1) of volatile solids (VS) and a ratio of performance to deviation (RPD) of 2.38. The interpretation of the regression coefficients used in the calibration revealed a positive correlation of BMP with easily degradable compounds (amorphous cellulose, hemicellulose and aliphatic compounds) and a negative correlation with inhibitors of cellulose hydrolysis (lignin, hemicellulose). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Photoacoustic Detection of Terahertz Radiation for Chemical Sensing and Imaging Applications

    2013-03-01

    ISSN 2229-5518 [39] Jingle Liu, Benjamin Clough, and X. C. Zhang, “Enhancement of photoacoustic emission through terahertz-field driven electron...materials,” Journal of Electroceramics, vol. 2: p. 257-272, 2009. [47] Jingle Liu, Benjamin Clough, and X. C. Zhang, “Enhancement of photoacoustic

  14. Laser photoacoustic spectroscopy helps fight terrorism: High sensitivity detection of chemical Warfare Agent and explosives

    Patel, C. K. N.

    2008-01-01

    Tunable laser photoacoustic spectroscopy is maturing rapidly in its applications to real world problems. One of the burning problems of the current turbulent times is the threat of terrorist acts against civilian population. This threat appears in two distinct forms. The first is the potential release of chemical warfare agents (CWA), such as the nerve agents, in a crowded environment. An example of this is the release of Sarin by Aum Shinrikyo sect in a crowded Tokyo subway in 1995. An example of the second terrorist threat is the ever-present possible suicide bomber in crowded environment such as airports, markets and large buildings. Minimizing the impact of both of these threats requires early detection of the presence of the CWAs and explosives. Photoacoustic spectroscopy is an exquisitely sensitive technique for the detection of trace gaseous species, a property that Pranalytica has extensively exploited in its CO2 laser based commercial instrumentation for the sub-ppb level detection of a number of industrially important gases including ammonia, ethylene, acrolein, sulfur hexafluoride, phosphine, arsine, boron trichloride and boron trifluoride. In this presentation, I will focus, however, on our recent use of broadly tunable single frequency high power room temperature quantum cascade lasers (QCL) for the detection of the CWAs and explosives. Using external grating cavity geometry, we have developed room temperature QCLs that produce continuously tunable single frequency CW power output in excess of 300 mW at wavelengths covering 5 μm to 12 μm. I will present data that show a CWA detection capability at ppb levels with false alarm rates below 1:108. I will also show the capability of detecting a variety of explosives at a ppb level, again with very low false alarm rates. Among the explosives, we have demonstrated the capability of detecting homemade explosives such as triacetone triperoxide and its liquid precursor, acetone which is a common household

  15. High-sensitivity high-selectivity detection of CWAs and TICs using tunable laser photoacoustic spectroscopy

    Pushkarsky, Michael; Webber, Michael; Patel, C. Kumar N.

    2005-03-01

    We provide a general technique for evaluating the performance of an optical sensor for the detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) in realistic environments and present data from a simulation model based on a field deployed discretely tunable 13CO2 laser photoacoustic spectrometer (L-PAS). Results of our calculations show the sensor performance in terms of usable sensor sensitivity as a function of probability of false positives (PFP). The false positives arise from the presence of many other gases in the ambient air that could be interferents. Using the L-PAS as it exists today, we can achieve a detection threshold of about 4 ppb for the CWAs while maintaining a PFP of less than 1:106. Our simulation permits us to vary a number of parameters in the model to provide guidance for performance improvement. We find that by using a larger density of laser lines (such as those obtained through the use of tunable semiconductor lasers), improving the detector noise and maintaining the accuracy of laser frequency determination, optical detection schemes can make possible CWA sensors having sub-ppb detection capability with TIC detection.

  16. Near infrared detection of ammonium minerals.

    Krohn, M.D.; Altaner, S.P.

    1987-01-01

    Diagnostic near-infrared spectral features have been identified for minerals with ammonium (NH4+) bound in the crystal structure. Near-infrared detection of NH4-bearing minerals may provide useful information for prospecting for certain ore deposits and may provide a better understanding of the nitrogen cycle within geologic environments.-from Authors

  17. Detection of greenhouse gas precursors from diesel engines using electrochemical and photoacoustic sensors.

    Mothé, Geórgia; Castro, Maria; Sthel, Marcelo; Lima, Guilherme; Brasil, Laisa; Campos, Layse; Rocha, Aline; Vargas, Helion

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric pollution is one of the worst threats to modern society. The consequences derived from different forms of atmospheric pollution vary from the local to the global scale, with deep impacts on climate, environment and human health. Several gaseous pollutants, even when present in trace concentrations, play a fundamental role in important processes that occur in atmosphere. Phenomena such as global warming, photochemical smog formation, acid rain and the depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer are strongly related to the increased concentration of certain gaseous species in the atmosphere. The transport sector significantly produces atmospheric pollution, mainly when diesel oil is used as fuel. Therefore, new methodologies based on selective and sensitive gas detection schemes must be developed in order to detect and monitor pollutant gases from this source. In this work, CO(2) Laser Photoacoustic Spectroscopy was used to evaluate ethylene emissions and electrochemical analyzers were used to evaluate the emissions of CO, NO(x) and SO(2) from the exhaust of diesel powered vehicles (rural diesel with 5% of biodiesel, in this paper called only diesel) at different engine rotation speeds. Concentrations in the range 6 to 45 ppmV for ethylene, 109 to 1,231 ppmV for carbon monoxide, 75 to 868 ppmV for nitrogen oxides and 3 to 354 ppmV for sulfur dioxide were obtained. The results indicate that the detection techniques used were sufficiently selective and sensitive to detect the gaseous species mentioned above in the ppmV range.

  18. Finite element simulation of photoacoustic fiber optic sensors for surface corrosion detection on a steel rod

    Tang, Qixiang; Owusu Twumasi, Jones; Hu, Jie; Wang, Xingwei; Yu, Tzuyang

    2018-03-01

    Structural steel members have become integral components in the construction of civil engineering infrastructures such as bridges, stadiums, and shopping centers due to versatility of steel. Owing to the uniqueness in the design and construction of steel structures, rigorous non-destructive evaluation techniques are needed during construction and operation processes to prevent the loss of human lives and properties. This research aims at investigating the application of photoacoustic fiber optic transducers (FOT) for detecting surface rust of a steel rod. Surface ultrasonic waves propagation in intact and corroded steel rods was simulated using finite element method (FEM). Radial displacements were collected and short-time Fourier transform (STFT) was applied to obtain the spectrogram. It was found that the presence of surface rust between the FOT and the receiver can be detected in both time and frequency domain. In addition, spectrogram can be used to locate and quantify surface rust. Furthermore, a surface rust detection algorithm utilizing the FOT has been proposed for detection, location and quantification of the surface rust.

  19. Detection of Greenhouse Gas Precursors from Diesel Engines Using Electrochemical and Photoacoustic Sensors

    Aline Rocha

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric pollution is one of the worst threats to modern society. The consequences derived from different forms of atmospheric pollution vary from the local to the global scale, with deep impacts on climate, environment and human health. Several gaseous pollutants, even when present in trace concentrations, play a fundamental role in important processes that occur in atmosphere. Phenomena such as global warming, photochemical smog formation, acid rain and the depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer are strongly related to the increased concentration of certain gaseous species in the atmosphere. The transport sector significantly produces atmospheric pollution, mainly when diesel oil is used as fuel. Therefore, new methodologies based on selective and sensitive gas detection schemes must be developed in order to detect and monitor pollutant gases from this source. In this work, CO2 Laser Photoacoustic Spectroscopy was used to evaluate ethylene emissions and electrochemical analyzers were used to evaluate the emissions of CO, NOx and SO2 from the exhaust of diesel powered vehicles (rural diesel with 5% of biodiesel, in this paper called only diesel at different engine rotation speeds. Concentrations in the range 6 to 45 ppmV for ethylene, 109 to 1,231 ppmV for carbon monoxide, 75 to 868 ppmV for nitrogen oxides and 3 to 354 ppmV for sulfur dioxide were obtained. The results indicate that the detection techniques used were sufficiently selective and sensitive to detect the gaseous species mentioned above in the ppmV range.

  20. Stand-Off Chemical Detection Using Photoacoustic Sensing Techniques—From Single Element to Phase Array

    Deepa Gupta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Technologies that can detect harmful chemicals, such as explosive devices, harmful gas leaks, airborne chemicals or/and biological agents, are heavily invested in by the government to prevent any possible catastrophic consequences. Some key features of such technology are, but not limited to, effective signal-to-noise ratio (SNR of the detected signal and extended distance between the detector and target. In this work, we describe the development of photoacoustic sensing techniques from simple to more complex systems. These techniques include passive and active noise filters, parabolic sound reflectors, a lock-in amplifier, and beam-forming with an array of microphones; using these techniques, we increased detection distance from a few cm in an indoor setting to over 41 feet in an outdoor setting. We also establish a theoretical mathematical model that explains the underlying principle of how SNR can be improved with an increasing number of microphone elements in the phase array. We validate this model with computational simulations as well as experimental results.

  1. Imaging and detection of early stage dental caries with an all-optical photoacoustic microscope

    Hughes, D. A.; Sampathkumar, A.; Longbottom, C.; Kirk, K. J.

    2015-01-01

    Tooth decay, at its earliest stages, manifests itself as small, white, subsurface lesions in the enamel. Current methods for detection in the dental clinic are visual and tactile investigations, and bite-wing X-ray radiographs. These techniques suffer from poor sensitivity and specificity at the earliest (and reversible) stages of the disease due to the small size (tooth decay. Ex-vivo tooth samples exhibiting white spot lesions were scanned and were found to generate a larger (one order of magnitude) photoacoustic (PA) signal in the lesion regions compared to healthy enamel. The high contrast in the PA images potentially allows lesions to be imaged and measured at a much earlier stage than current clinical techniques allow. PA images were cross referenced with histology photographs to validate our experimental results. Our PA system provides a noncontact method for early detection of white-spot lesions with a high detection bandwidth that offers advantages over previously demonstrated ultrasound methods. The technique provides the sensing depth of an ultrasound system, but with the spatial resolution of an optical system.

  2. Phase transition of TiO{sub 2} thin films detected by the pulsed laser photoacoustic technique

    Perez-Pacheco, A.; Castaneda-Guzman, R.; Oliva Montes de Oca, C.; Esparza-Garcia, A. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, CCADET-UNAM, Laboratorio de Fotofisica y Peliculas Delgadas, Cd. Universitaria, A.P. 70-186, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Perez Ruiz, S.J. [CCADET-UNAM, Acustica y Vibraciones, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2011-03-15

    In this work, we present characterization of titanium oxide thin films by photoacoustic measurements to determine the ablation threshold and phase transitions from amorphous to crystalline states. The important advantages of this method are that it does not require amplification at the detection stage and that it is a non-destructive technique. The correlation analysis of the photoacoustic signals allows us to visualize the ablation threshold and the phase transitions with enhanced sensitivity. This correlation analysis clearly exhibits the changes in the thin-film morphology due to controlled variations of the fluence (energy/area) and the temperature of the surrounding medium. This is particularly important for those cases where the crystalline changes caused by temperature variations need to be monitored. The thin-film samples were prepared by the sputtering technique at room temperature in the amorphous state. The phase transformations were induced by controlled temperature scanning and then corroborated with Raman spectroscopy measurements. (orig.)

  3. In vivo tumor detection with combined MR–Photoacoustic-Thermoacoustic imaging

    Lin Huang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report a new method using combined magnetic resonance (MR–Photoacoustic (PA–Thermoacoustic (TA imaging techniques, and demonstrate its unique ability for in vivo cancer detection using tumor-bearing mice. Circular scanning TA and PA imaging systems were used to recover the dielectric and optical property distributions of three colon carcinoma bearing mice While a 7.0-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI unit with a mouse body volume coil was utilized for high resolution structural imaging of the same mice. Three plastic tubes filled with soybean sauce were used as fiducial markers for the co-registration of MR, PA and TA images. The resulting fused images provided both enhanced tumor margin and contrast relative to the surrounding normal tissues. In particular, some finger-like protrusions extending into the surrounding tissues were revealed in the MR/TA infused images. These results show that the tissue functional optical and dielectric properties provided by PA and TA images along with the anatomical structure by MRI in one picture make accurate tumor identification easier. This combined MR–PA–TA-imaging strategy has the potential to offer a clinically useful triple-modality tool for accurate cancer detection and for intraoperative surgical navigation.

  4. Dangerous gas detection based on infrared video

    Ding, Kang; Hong, Hanyu; Huang, Likun

    2018-03-01

    As the gas leak infrared imaging detection technology has significant advantages of high efficiency and remote imaging detection, in order to enhance the detail perception of observers and equivalently improve the detection limit, we propose a new type of gas leak infrared image detection method, which combines background difference methods and multi-frame interval difference method. Compared to the traditional frame methods, the multi-frame interval difference method we proposed can extract a more complete target image. By fusing the background difference image and the multi-frame interval difference image, we can accumulate the information of infrared target image of the gas leak in many aspect. The experiment demonstrate that the completeness of the gas leakage trace information is enhanced significantly, and the real-time detection effect can be achieved.

  5. Circulating Tumor Cell Detection and Capture by Photoacoustic Flow Cytometry in Vivo and ex Vivo

    Galanzha, Ekaterina I. [Phillips Classic Laser and Nanomedicine Laboratories, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4301 West Markham Street, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Zharov, Vladimir P., E-mail: zharovvladimirp@uams.edu [Phillips Classic Laser and Nanomedicine Laboratories, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4301 West Markham Street, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Arkansas Nanomedicine Center, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4301 West Markham Street, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States)

    2013-12-10

    Despite progress in detecting circulating tumor cells (CTCs), existing assays still have low sensitivity (1–10 CTC/mL) due to the small volume of blood samples (5–10 mL). Consequently, they can miss up to 10{sup 3}–10{sup 4} CTCs, resulting in the development of barely treatable metastasis. Here we analyze a new concept of in vivo CTC detection with enhanced sensitivity (up to 10{sup 2}–10{sup 3} times) by the examination of the entire blood volume in vivo (5 L in adults). We focus on in vivo photoacoustic (PA) flow cytometry (PAFC) of CTCs using label-free or targeted detection, photoswitchable nanoparticles with ultrasharp PA resonances, magnetic trapping with fiber-magnetic-PA probes, optical clearance, real-time spectral identification, nonlinear signal amplification, and the integration with PAFC in vitro. We demonstrate PAFC’s capability to detect rare leukemia, squamous carcinoma, melanoma, and bulk and stem breast CTCs and its clusters in preclinical animal models in blood, lymph, bone, and cerebrospinal fluid, as well as the release of CTCs from primary tumors triggered by palpation, biopsy or surgery, increasing the risk of metastasis. CTC lifetime as a balance between intravasation and extravasation rates was in the range of 0.5–4 h depending on a CTC metastatic potential. We introduced theranostics of CTCs as an integration of nanobubble-enhanced PA diagnosis, photothermal therapy, and feedback through CTC counting. In vivo data were verified with in vitro PAFC demonstrating a higher sensitivity (1 CTC/40 mL) and throughput (up to 10 mL/min) than conventional assays. Further developments include detection of circulating cancer-associated microparticles, and super-resolution PAFC beyond the diffraction and spectral limits.

  6. All-optical photoacoustic imaging and detection of early-stage dental caries

    Sampathkumar, Ashwin; Hughes, David A.; Longbottom, Chris; Kirk, Katherine J.

    2015-02-01

    Dental caries remain one of the most common oral diseases in the world. Current detection methods, such as dental explorer and X-ray radiography, suffer from poor sensitivity and specificity at the earliest (and reversible) stages of the disease because of the small size (tooth decay. This AOPAI system provides a non-contact, non-invasive and non-ionizing means of detecting early-stage dental caries. Ex-vivo teeth exhibiting early-stage, white-spot lesions were imaged using AOPAI. Experimental scans targeted each early-stage lesion and a reference healthy enamel region. Photoacoustic (PA) signals were generated in the tooth using a 532-nm pulsed laser and the light-induced broadband ultrasound signal was detected at the surface of the tooth with an optical path-stabilized Michelson interferometer operating at 532 nm. The measured time-domain signal was spatially resolved and back-projected to form 2D and 3D maps of the lesion using k-wave reconstruction methods. Experimental data collected from areas of healthy and diseased enamel indicate that the lesion generated a larger PA response compared to healthy enamel. The PA-signal amplitude alone was able to detect a lesion on the surface of the tooth. However, time- reversal reconstructions of the PA scans also quantitatively depicted the depth of the lesion. 3D PA reconstruction of the diseased tooth indicated a sub-surface lesion at a depth of 0.6 mm, in addition to the surface lesion. These results suggest that our AOPAI system is well suited for rapid clinical assessment of early-stage dental caries. An overview of the AOPAI system, fine-resolution PA and histology results of diseased and healthy teeth will be presented.

  7. Photo-acoustic sensor for detection of oil contamination in compressed air systems.

    Lassen, Mikael; Harder, David Baslev; Brusch, Anders; Nielsen, Ole Stender; Heikens, Dita; Persijn, Stefan; Petersen, Jan C

    2017-02-06

    We demonstrate an online (in-situ) sensor for continuous detection of oil contamination in compressed air systems complying with the ISO-8573 standard. The sensor is based on the photo-acoustic (PA) effect. The online and real-time PA sensor system has the potential to benefit a wide range of users that require high purity compressed air. Among these are hospitals, pharmaceutical industries, electronics manufacturers, and clean room facilities. The sensor was tested for sensitivity, repeatability, robustness to molecular cross-interference, and stability of calibration. Explicit measurements of hexane (C6H14) and decane (C10H22) vapors via excitation of molecular C-H vibrations at approx. 2950 cm-1 (3.38 μm) were conducted with a custom made interband cascade laser (ICL). For the decane measurements a (1 σ) standard deviation (STD) of 0.3 ppb was demonstrated, which corresponds to a normalized noise equivalent absorption (NNEA) coefficient for the prototype PA sensor of 2.8×10-9 W cm-1 Hz1/2.

  8. Multi-modality photoacoustic tomography, ultrasound, and light sheet microscopy for volumetric tumor margin detection

    Sangha, Gurneet S.; Hu, Bihe; Bolus, Daniel; Wang, Mei; Skidmore, Shelby J.; Sholl, Andrew B.; Brown, J. Quincy; Goergen, Craig J.

    2018-02-01

    Current methods for breast tumor margin detection are invasive, time consuming, and typically result in a reoperative rate of over 25%. This marks a clear clinical need to develop improved tools to intraoperatively differentiate negative versus positive tumor margins. Here, we utilize photoacoustic tomography (PAT), ultrasound (US), and inverted Selective Plane Illumination Microscopy (iSPIM) to assess breast tumor margins in eight human breast biopsies. Our PAT/US system consists of a tunable Nd:YAG laser (NT 300, EKSPLA) coupled with a 40MHz central frequency US probe (Vevo2100, FUJIFILM Visual Sonics). This system allows for the delivery of 10Hz, 5ns pulses with fluence of 40mJ/cm2 to the tissue with PAT and US axial resolutions of 125μm and 40μm, respectively. For this study, we used a linear stepper motor to acquire volumetric PAT/US images of the breast biopsies using 1100nm light to identify bloodrich "tumor" regions and 1210nm light to identify lipid-rich "healthy" regions. iSPIM (Applied Scientific Instrumentation) is an advanced microscopy technique with lateral resolution of 1.5μm and axial resolution of 7μm. We used 488nm laser excitation and acridine orange as a general comprehensive histology stain. Our results show that PAT/US can be used to identify lipid-rich regions, dense areas of arterioles and arteries, and other internal structures such as ducts. iSPIM images correlate well with histopathology slides and can verify nuclear features, cell type and density, stromal features, and microcalcifications. Together, this multimodality approach has the potential to improve tumor margin detection with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity.

  9. The Performance of CO2 Laser Photoacoustic Spectrometer In Concentration Acetone Detection As Biomarker For Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

    Tyas, F. H.; Nikita, J. G.; Apriyanto, D. K.; Mitrayana; Amin, M. N.

    2018-04-01

    Breath analysis is useful for the diagnosis of human diseases and monitoring of metabolic status. However, because of the low concentrations and the large numbers of compounds in the breath, the breath analysis requires highly sensitive and highly selective instruments to identify and determine the concentrations of certain biomarkers [1]. Various methods developed over the past 20 years to detect biomarker gases [2]. CO2 laser photoacoustic spectroscopy offers a sensitive technique for the detection and monitoring of gas footprints at low concentrations [3]. The performance of photoacoustic spectrometer (PAS) examined with intracavity configuration. In this research, the highest observed intracavity power was (49,96 ± 0,02) W for active medium gas composition He: N2: CO2 at 30:50:50. The highest laser absorption line for standard acetone gas set at 10P20, and the lowest detection limit set at (30 ± 4) ppb. For application purposes, the photoacoustic spectrometer was used to measure the concentration of acetone gas in exhaled gases from a group of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and a group of healthy volunteers. Exhaled gas sampling method took manually, and the measurement result was examined using multicomponent analysis. The measurement showed that the highest acetone gas concentration for type 2 diabetes mellitus patients was (162 ± 3) × 10 ppb and the lowest one was (101 ± 3) × 10 ppb. Furthermore, for healthy volunteers, the highest acetone gas concentration was (85 ± 3) × 10 ppb and the lowest one was (15 ± 3) × 10 ppb.

  10. Photoacoustic tomography and sensing in biomedicine

    Li Changhui; Wang, Lihong V

    2009-01-01

    Photoacoustics has been broadly studied in biomedicine, for both human and small animal tissues. Photoacoustics uniquely combines the absorption contrast of light or radio frequency waves with ultrasound resolution. Moreover, it is non-ionizing and non-invasive, and is the fastest growing new biomedical method, with clinical applications on the way. This review provides a brief recap of recent developments in photoacoustics in biomedicine, from basic principles to applications. The emphasized areas include the new imaging modalities, hybrid detection methods, photoacoustic contrast agents and the photoacoustic Doppler effect, as well as translational research topics. (topical review)

  11. A SIMULTANEOUS MULTI-PROBE DETECTION LABEL-FREE OPTICAL-RESOLUTION PHOTOACOUSTIC MICROSCOPY TECHNIQUE BASED ON MICROCAVITY TRANSDUCER

    YONGBO WU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the feasibility of simultaneous multi-probe detection for an optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM system. OR-PAM has elicited the attention of biomedical imaging researchers because of its optical absorption contrast and high spatial resolution with great imaging depth. OR-PAM allows label-free and noninvasive imaging by maximizing the optical absorption of endogenous biomolecules. However, given the inadequate absorption of some biomolecules, detection sensitivity at the same incident intensity requires improvement. In this study, a modulated continuous wave with power density less than 3 mW/cm2 (1/4 of the ANSI safety limit excited the weak photoacoustic (PA signals of biological cells. A microcavity transducer is developed based on the bulk modulus of gas five orders of magnitude lower than that of solid; air pressure variation is inversely proportional to cavity volume at the same temperature increase. Considering that a PA wave expands in various directions, detecting PA signals from different positions and adding them together can increase detection sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio. Therefore, we employ four detectors to acquire tiny PA signals simultaneously. Experimental results show that the developed OR-PAM system allows the label-free imaging of cells with weak optical absorption.

  12. A photoacoustic technique applied to detection of ethylene emissions in edible coated passion fruit

    Alves, G V L; Santos, W C dos; Vargas, H; Silva, M G da; Waldman, W R; Oliveira, J G

    2010-01-01

    Photoacoustic spectroscopy was applied to study the physiological behavior of passion fruit when coated with edible films. The results have shown a reduction of the ethylene emission rate. Weight loss monitoring has not shown any significant differences between the coated and uncoated passion fruit. On the other hand, slower color changes of coated samples suggest a slowdown of the ripening process in coated passion fruit.

  13. Multispectral photoacoustic method for the early detection and diagnosis of osteoporosis

    Steinberg, Idan; Eyal, Avishay; Gannot, Israel

    2013-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem worldwide, with healthcare costs of billions of dollars annually. The risk of fracture depends on the bone mineral density (measured in clinical practice) as well as on the bone microstructure and functional status. Since pure ultrasonic methods can measure bone strength and spectroscopic optical methods can provide valuable functional information, a hybrid multispectral photoacoustic technique can be of great value. We have developed such a system based on a tunable Ti:Sapph laser at 750 - 950 nm, followed by an acousto-optic modulator to generate photoacoustic signals with frequencies of 0.5 - 2.5 MHz. Another system was based on two directly modulated 830nm laser diodes. The systems were used to photoacoustically excite the proximal end of a rat tibia. Spectrum analyzer with tracking generator was used for measuring both the amplitude and the phase at the distal end. Scanning along both the optical wavelength as well as the acoustic frequency enables full mapping of the bone transfer function. Analyzing this function along the wavelength axis allows deducing the gross biochemical composition related to the bone functional and pathological state. Analyzing the amplitude and phase along the acoustic frequency axis yields the speed of sound dispersion and the broadband ultrasonic attenuation - both have shown clinical relevance.

  14. Photoacoustic and photothermal spectroscopies

    Sawada, Tsuguo; Kitamori, Takehiko; Nakamura, Masato

    1995-01-01

    Photoacoustic and photothermal spectroscopy methods can be effectively applied to the analysis of microparticles in condensed matter. A more violent photothermal conversion phenomenon of a particle, laser breakdown and accompanying plasma and acoustic emission, was applied to individual detection and analysis of ultrafine particles in ultrapure water. Laser-like nonlinear emission from the plasma was observed. (author)

  15. Plasmonically enhanced thermomechanical detection of infrared radiation.

    Yi, Fei; Zhu, Hai; Reed, Jason C; Cubukcu, Ertugrul

    2013-04-10

    Nanoplasmonics has been an attractive area of research due to its ability to localize and manipulate freely propagating radiation on the nanometer scale for strong light-matter interactions. Meanwhile, nanomechanics has set records in the sensing of mass, force, and displacement. In this work, we report efficient coupling between infrared radiation and nanomechanical resonators through nanoantenna enhanced thermoplasmonic effects. Using efficient conversion of electromagnetic energy to mechanical energy in this plasmo-thermomechanical platform with a nanoslot plasmonic absorber integrated directly on a nanobeam mechanical resonator, we demonstrate room-temperature detection of nanowatt level power fluctuations in infrared radiation. We expect our approach, which combines nanoplasmonics with nanomechanical resonators, to lead to optically controlled nanomechanical systems enabling unprecedented functionality in biomolecular and toxic gas sensing and on-chip mass spectroscopy.

  16. Acousto-Optic Q-Switched Fiber Laser-Based Intra-Cavity Photoacoustic Spectroscopy for Trace Gas Detection

    Qinduan Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We proposed a new method for gas detection in photoacoustic spectroscopy based on acousto-optic Q-switched fiber laser by merging a transmission PAS cell (resonant frequency f0 = 5.3 kHz inside the fiber laser cavity. The Q-switching was achieved by an acousto-optic modulator, achieving a peak pulse power of ~679 mW in the case of the acousto-optic modulation signal with an optimized duty ratio of 10%. We used a custom-made fiber Bragg grating with a central wavelength of 1530.37 nm (the absorption peak of C2H2 to select the laser wavelength. The system achieved a linear response (R2 = 0.9941 in a concentration range from 400 to 7000 ppmv, and the minimum detection limit compared to that of a conventional intensity modulation system was enhanced by 94.2 times.

  17. Acousto-Optic Q-Switched Fiber Laser-Based Intra-Cavity Photoacoustic Spectroscopy for Trace Gas Detection.

    Zhang, Qinduan; Chang, Jun; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Zongliang; Wang, Fupeng; Qin, Zengguang

    2017-12-25

    We proposed a new method for gas detection in photoacoustic spectroscopy based on acousto-optic Q-switched fiber laser by merging a transmission PAS cell (resonant frequency f ₀ = 5.3 kHz) inside the fiber laser cavity. The Q-switching was achieved by an acousto-optic modulator, achieving a peak pulse power of ~679 mW in the case of the acousto-optic modulation signal with an optimized duty ratio of 10%. We used a custom-made fiber Bragg grating with a central wavelength of 1530.37 nm (the absorption peak of C₂H₂) to select the laser wavelength. The system achieved a linear response (R² = 0.9941) in a concentration range from 400 to 7000 ppmv, and the minimum detection limit compared to that of a conventional intensity modulation system was enhanced by 94.2 times.

  18. Photoacoustic Spectroscopy for Trace Vapor Detection and Standoff Detection of Explosives

    2016-08-01

    construction of sensors that are designed for specific tasks. PAS is well suited for trace detection of gaseous and condensed media. Recent research has...The TLV for chemical substances is defined as a concentration in air , typically for inhalation or skin exposure. For acetone , the TLV is 250 ppm...12 pt) The findings in this report are not to be construed as an official Department of the Army position unless so designated by other authorized

  19. Ultrasensitive Detection of Infrared Photon Using Microcantilever: Theoretical Analysis

    Li-Xin, Cao; Feng-Xin, Zhang; Yin-Fang, Zhu; Jin-Ling, Yang

    2010-01-01

    We present a new method for detecting near-infrared, mid-infrared, and far-infrared photons with an ultrahigh sensitivity. The infrared photon detection was carried out by monitoring the displacement change of a vibrating microcantilever under light pressure using a laser Doppler vibrometer. Ultrathin silicon cantilevers with high sensitivity were produced using micro/nano-fabrication technology. The photon detection system was set up. The response of the microcantilever to the photon illumination is theoretically estimated, and a nanowatt resolution for the infrared photon detection is expected at room temperature with this method

  20. Impact of Humidity on Quartz-Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy Based CO Detection Using a Near-IR Telecommunication Diode Laser

    Xukun Yin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A near-IR CO trace gas sensor based on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS is evaluated using humidified nitrogen samples. Relaxation processes in the CO-N2-H2O system are investigated. A simple kinetic model is used to predict the sensor performance at different gas pressures. The results show that CO has a ~3 and ~5 times slower relaxation time constant than CH4 and HCN, respectively, under dry conditions. However, with the presence of water, its relaxation time constant can be improved by three orders of magnitude. The experimentally determined normalized detection sensitivity for CO in humid gas is 1.556 × 10 − 8   W ⋅ cm − 1 / Hz 1 / 2 .

  1. Detection of bottled explosives by near infrared

    Itozaki, Hideo; Sato-Akaba, Hideo

    2013-10-01

    Bottled liquids are not allowed through the security gate in the airport, because liquid explosives have been used by the terrorists. However, passengers have a lot of trouble if they cannot bring their own bottles. For example, a mother would like to carry her own milk in the airplane for her baby. Therefore the detection technology of liquid explosives should be developed as soon as possible. This paper shows that near infrared spectroscopy can detect bottled explosives quickly. The transmission method cannot deal with milk in the sense of liquid inspection. Here we examined the reflection method to the test of milk. The inspection method with light cannot make test for the metal can. We also use ultrasonic method to check metal can simultaneously in order to expand test targets.

  2. Photoacoustic Tomography

    Wang, Lihong V.

    Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) refers to imaging that is based on the photoacoustic effect. Although the photoacoustic effect as a physical phenomenon was first reported on by Alexander Graham Bell in 1880 [1], PAT as an imaging technology was developed only after the advent of ultrasonic transducers, computers, and lasers [2-31]. A review on biomedical photoacoustics is available [32]. The motivation for PAT is to combine optical-absorption contrast with ultrasonic spatial resolution for deep imaging in the optical quasi-diffusive or diffusive regime. In PAT, the tissue is irradiated by usually a short-pulsed laser beam to achieve a thermal and acoustic impulse response (Fig. 19.1). Locally absorbed light is converted into heat, which is further converted to a pressure rise via thermo-elastic expansion. The initial pressure rise - determined by the local optical absorption coefficient (μ â ), fluence (ψ) and other thermal and mechanical properties - propagates as an ultrasonic wave, which is referred to as a photoacoustic wave.

  3. Toward the detection of intraplaque hemorrhage in carotid artery lesions using photoacoustic imaging

    Arabul, Mustafa Umit; Heres, Maarten; Rutten, Marcel C. M.; van Sambeek, Marc R.; van de Vosse, Frans N.; Lopata, Richard G. P.

    2017-04-01

    Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) may have the ability to reveal the composition and the anatomical structure of carotid plaques, which determines its mechanical properties and vulnerability. We used PAI and plane wave ultrasound (PUS) imaging to obtain three-dimensional (3-D) images of endarterectomy samples ex vivo and compared the results with histology to investigate the potential of PAI-based identification of intraplaque hemorrhage. Seven carotid plaque samples were obtained from patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy and imaged with a fully integrated hand-held photoacoustic (PA) probe, consisting of a pulsed diode laser (tpulse=130 ns, Epulse=1 mJ, λ=808 nm) and a linear array transducer (fc=7.5 MHz). The samples were rotated 360 deg with 10 deg steps, and data were spatially compounded to obtain complete 3-D images of the plaques. Areas of high absorption in the 3-D datasets were identified and compared to histological data of the plaques. Data in six out of seven endarterectomy samples revealed the presence of intraplaque hemorrhages that were not visible in the PUS images. Due to the noninvasive nature of PAI, this ex vivo study may elucidate preclinical studies toward the in vivo, noninvasive, vulnerability assessment of the atherosclerotic carotid plaque.

  4. Abnormal Activity Detection Using Pyroelectric Infrared Sensors

    Xiaomu Luo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Healthy aging is one of the most important social issues. In this paper, we propose a method for abnormal activity detection without any manual labeling of the training samples. By leveraging the Field of View (FOV modulation, the spatio-temporal characteristic of human activity is encoded into low-dimension data stream generated by the ceiling-mounted Pyroelectric Infrared (PIR sensors. The similarity between normal training samples are measured based on Kullback-Leibler (KL divergence of each pair of them. The natural clustering of normal activities is discovered through a self-tuning spectral clustering algorithm with unsupervised model selection on the eigenvectors of a modified similarity matrix. Hidden Markov Models (HMMs are employed to model each cluster of normal activities and form feature vectors. One-Class Support Vector Machines (OSVMs are used to profile the normal activities and detect abnormal activities. To validate the efficacy of our method, we conducted experiments in real indoor environments. The encouraging results show that our method is able to detect abnormal activities given only the normal training samples, which aims to avoid the laborious and inconsistent data labeling process.

  5. Use of time history speckle pattern and pulsed photoacoustic techniques to detect the self-accommodating transformation in a Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloy

    Sanchez-Arevalo, F.M.; Aldama-Reyna, W.; Lara-Rodriguez, A.G.; Garcia-Fernandez, T.; Pulos, G.; Trivi, M.; Villagran-Muniz, M.

    2010-01-01

    Continuous and pulsed electromagnetic radiation was used to detect the self-accommodation mechanism on a polycrystalline Cu-13.83 wt.%Al-2.34 wt.%Ni shape memory alloy. Rectangular samples of this alloy were mechanically polished to observe the austenite and martensite phases. The samples were cooled in liquid nitrogen prior to the experiments to obtain the martensite phase. Using a dynamic speckle technique with a continuous wave laser we obtained the time history of the speckle pattern image and monitored the surface changes caused by the self-accommodation mechanism during the inverse (martensitic to austenitic) transformation. Using a photoacoustic technique based on a pulsed laser source it was also possible to detect the self-accommodation phenomena in a bulk sample. For comparison purposes, we used differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to detect the critical temperatures of transformation and use these as reference to evaluate the performance of the optical and photoacoustical techniques. In all cases, the same range of temperature was obtained during the inverse transformation. From these results, we conclude that time history speckle pattern (THSP) and pulsed photoacoustic are complementary techniques; they are non-destructive and useful to detect surface and bulk martensitic transformation induced by a temperature change.

  6. Use of time history speckle pattern and pulsed photoacoustic techniques to detect the self-accommodating transformation in a Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloy

    Sanchez-Arevalo, F.M., E-mail: fsanchez@iim.unam.mx [CCADET - Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 70-186, Mexico D.F., C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Aldama-Reyna, W. [Departamento Academico de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Trujillo, Trujillo (Peru); Lara-Rodriguez, A.G. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Garcia-Fernandez, T. [Universidad Autonoma de la Ciudad de Mexico (UACM), Prolongacion San Isidro 151, Col. San Lorenzo Tezonco, Mexico DF, C.P. 09790 (Mexico); Pulos, G. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Trivi, M. [Centro de Investigaciones Opticas, Universidad de la Plata (Argentina); Villagran-Muniz, M. [CCADET - Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 70-186, Mexico D.F., C.P. 04510 (Mexico)

    2010-05-15

    Continuous and pulsed electromagnetic radiation was used to detect the self-accommodation mechanism on a polycrystalline Cu-13.83 wt.%Al-2.34 wt.%Ni shape memory alloy. Rectangular samples of this alloy were mechanically polished to observe the austenite and martensite phases. The samples were cooled in liquid nitrogen prior to the experiments to obtain the martensite phase. Using a dynamic speckle technique with a continuous wave laser we obtained the time history of the speckle pattern image and monitored the surface changes caused by the self-accommodation mechanism during the inverse (martensitic to austenitic) transformation. Using a photoacoustic technique based on a pulsed laser source it was also possible to detect the self-accommodation phenomena in a bulk sample. For comparison purposes, we used differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to detect the critical temperatures of transformation and use these as reference to evaluate the performance of the optical and photoacoustical techniques. In all cases, the same range of temperature was obtained during the inverse transformation. From these results, we conclude that time history speckle pattern (THSP) and pulsed photoacoustic are complementary techniques; they are non-destructive and useful to detect surface and bulk martensitic transformation induced by a temperature change.

  7. Application of photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy and PIXE/PIGME tot he analysis and provenancing of inorganic pigments from an archaeological site

    Goodall, R.A.; Bartley, J.P.; David, B.

    1997-01-01

    As part of a larger study into the sources of ochre used by indigenous people in south eastern Cape York Peninsula, Australia, the ochres found in excavated deposits and paint samples from the stencils and painted panels in Fern Cave, near Chillagoe, were investigated. Previous work in the analysis of paints has identified the need to used non-destructive techniques and the necessity of taking samples of microgram quantities. When selecting the techniques for use in this study these factors were kept in mind. Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) was selected because it can be applied to samples of only a few micrograms and because it is completely non-destructive when necessary. To compliment and support the information obtained from the FTIR-PAS, elemental analysis was also carried out on the same samples using scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDXA), proton induced x-ray and gamma ray emission (PIXE/PIGME). The spectra were obtained with little or no sample preparation and provided the structural and compositional information to identify the major and minor mineral present in both excavated and painted samples

  8. Application of photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy and PIXE/PIGME tot he analysis and provenancing of inorganic pigments from an archaeological site.

    Goodall, R.A.; Bartley, J.P. [Queensland Univ., St. Lucia, QLD (Australia). Dept. of Chemistry; David, B. [Queensland Univ., St. Lucia, QLD (Australia). Dept. of Anthropology and Sociology

    1997-12-31

    As part of a larger study into the sources of ochre used by indigenous people in south eastern Cape York Peninsula, Australia, the ochres found in excavated deposits and paint samples from the stencils and painted panels in Fern Cave, near Chillagoe, were investigated. Previous work in the analysis of paints has identified the need to used non-destructive techniques and the necessity of taking samples of microgram quantities. When selecting the techniques for use in this study these factors were kept in mind. Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) was selected because it can be applied to samples of only a few micrograms and because it is completely non-destructive when necessary. To compliment and support the information obtained from the FTIR-PAS, elemental analysis was also carried out on the same samples using scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDXA), proton induced x-ray and gamma ray emission (PIXE/PIGME). The spectra were obtained with little or no sample preparation and provided the structural and compositional information to identify the major and minor mineral present in both excavated and painted samples. Paper no. 65; Extended abstract. 8 refs.

  9. Non-invasive detection of the early phase of kidney injury by photoacoustic/computed tomography imaging

    Pan, Wanma; Peng, Wen; Ning, Fengling; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Yunfei; Wang, Yinhang; Xie, Weiyi; Zhang, Jing; Xin, Hong; Li, Cong; Zhang, Xuemei

    2018-06-01

    The early diagnosis of kidney diseases, which can remarkably impair the quality of life and are costly, has encountered great difficulties. Therefore, the development of methods for early diagnosis has great clinical significance. In this study, we used an emerging technique of photoacoustic (PA) imaging, which has relatively high spatial resolution and good imaging depth. Two kinds of PA gold nanoparticle (GNP)-based bioprobes were developed based on their superior photo detectability, size controllability and biocompatibility. The kidney injury mouse model was developed by unilateral ureteral obstruction for 96 h and the release of obstruction model). Giving 3.5 and 5.5 nm bioprobes by tail vein injection, we found that the 5.5 nm probe could be detected in the bladder in the model group, but not in the control group. These results were confirmed by computed tomography imaging. Furthermore, the model group did not show changes in the blood biochemical indices (BUN and Scr) and histologic examination. The 5.5 nm GNPs were found to be the critical point for early diagnosis of kidney injury. This new method was faster and more sensitive and accurate for the detection of renal injury, compared with conventional methods, and can be used for the development of a PA GNP-based bioprobe for diagnosing renal injury.

  10. Detection of rheumatoid arthritis using infrared imaging

    Frize, Monique; Adéa, Cynthia; Payeur, Pierre; Di Primio, Gina; Karsh, Jacob; Ogungbemile, Abiola

    2011-03-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory disease causing pain, swelling, stiffness, and loss of function in joints; it is difficult to diagnose in early stages. An early diagnosis and treatment can delay the onset of severe disability. Infrared (IR) imaging offers a potential approach to detect changes in degree of inflammation. In 18 normal subjects and 13 patients diagnosed with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), thermal images were collected from joints of hands, wrists, palms, and knees. Regions of interest (ROIs) were manually selected from all subjects and all parts imaged. For each subject, values were calculated from the temperature measurements: Mode/Max, Median/Max, Min/Max, Variance, Max-Min, (Mode-Mean), and Mean/Min. The data sets did not have a normal distribution, therefore non parametric tests (Kruskal-Wallis and Ranksum) were applied to assess if the data from the control group and the patient group were significantly different. Results indicate that: (i) thermal images can be detected on patients with the disease; (ii) the best joints to image are the metacarpophalangeal joints of the 2nd and 3rd fingers and the knees; the difference between the two groups was significant at the 0.05 level; (iii) the best calculations to differentiate between normal subjects and patients with RA are the Mode/Max, Variance, and Max-Min. We concluded that it is possible to reliably detect RA in patients using IR imaging. Future work will include a prospective study of normal subjects and patients that will compare IR results with Magnetic Resonance (MR) analysis.

  11. Photoacoustic imaging of vascular networks in transgenic mice

    Laufer, J. G.; Cleary, J. O.; Zhang, E. Z.; Lythgoe, M. F.; Beard, P. C.

    2010-02-01

    The preferential absorption of near infrared light by blood makes photoacoustic imaging well suited to visualising vascular structures in soft tissue. In addition, the spectroscopic specificity of tissue chromophores can be exploited by acquiring images at multiple excitation wavelengths. This allows the quantification of endogenous chromophores, such as oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin, and hence blood oxygenation, and the detection of exogenous chromophores, such as functionalised contrast agents. More importantly, this approach has the potential to visualise the spatial distribution of low concentrations of functionalised contrast agents against the strong background absorption of the endogenous chromophores. This has a large number of applications in the life sciences. One example is the structural and functional phenotyping of transgenic mice for the study of the genetic origins of vascular malformations, such as heart defects. In this study, photoacoustic images of mouse embryos have been acquired to study the development of the vasculature following specific genetic knockouts.

  12. Recording membrane potential changes through photoacoustic voltage sensitive dye

    Zhang, Haichong K.; Kang, Jeeun; Yan, Ping; Abou, Diane S.; Le, Hanh N. D.; Thorek, Daniel L. J.; Kang, Jin U.; Gjedde, Albert; Rahmim, Arman; Wong, Dean F.; Loew, Leslie M.; Boctor, Emad M.

    2017-03-01

    Monitoring of the membrane potential is possible using voltage sensitive dyes (VSD), where fluorescence intensity changes in response to neuronal electrical activity. However, fluorescence imaging is limited by depth of penetration and high scattering losses, which leads to low sensitivity in vivo systems for external detection. In contrast, photoacoustic (PA) imaging, an emerging modality, is capable of deep tissue, noninvasive imaging by combining near infrared light excitation and ultrasound detection. In this work, we develop the theoretical concept whereby the voltage-dependent quenching of dye fluorescence leads to a reciprocal enhancement of PA intensity. Based on this concept, we synthesized a novel near infrared photoacoustic VSD (PA-VSD) whose PA intensity change is sensitive to membrane potential. In the polarized state, this cyanine-based probe enhances PA intensity while decreasing fluorescence output in a lipid vesicle membrane model. With a 3-9 μM VSD concentration, we measured a PA signal increase in the range of 5.3 % to 18.1 %, and observed a corresponding signal reduction in fluorescence emission of 30.0 % to 48.7 %. A theoretical model successfully accounts for how the experimental PA intensity change depends on fluorescence and absorbance properties of the dye. These results not only demonstrate the voltage sensing capability of the dye, but also indicate the necessity of considering both fluorescence and absorbance spectral sensitivities in order to optimize the characteristics of improved photoacoustic probes. Together, our results demonstrate photoacoustic sensing as a potential new modality for sub-second recording and external imaging of electrophysiological and neurochemical events in the brain.

  13. Infrared helioseismology - Detection of the chromospheric mode

    Deming, D.; Kaeufl, H. U.; Espenak, F.; Glenar, D. A.; Hill, A. A.

    1986-01-01

    Time-series observations of an infrared solar OH absorption line profile have been obtained on two consecutive days using a laser heterodyne spectrometer to view a 2 arcsec portion of the quiet sun at disk center. A power spectrum of the line center velocity shows the well-known photospheric p-mode oscillations very prominently, but also shows a second feature near 4.3 mHz. A power spectrum of the line intensity shows only the 4.3 mHz feature, which is identified as the fundamental p-mode resonance of the solar chromosphere. The frequency of the mode is observed to be in substantial agreement with the eigenfrequency of current chromospheric models. A time series of two beam difference measurements shows that the mode is present only for horizontal wavelengths greater than 19 Mm. The period of a chromospheric p-mode resonance is directly related to the sound travel time across the chromosphere, which depends on the chromospheric temperature and geometric height. Thus, detection of this resonance will provide an important new constraint on chromospheric models.

  14. Intrauterine photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging probe

    Miranda, Christopher; Barkley, Joel; Smith, Barbara S.

    2018-04-01

    Intrauterine photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging are probe-based imaging modalities with translational potential for use in detecting endometrial diseases. This deep-tissue imaging probe design allows for the retrofitting of commercially available endometrial sampling curettes. The imaging probe presented here has a 2.92-mm diameter and approximate length of 26 cm, which allows for entry into the human endometrial cavity, making it possible to use photoacoustic imaging and high-resolution ultrasound to characterize the uterus. We demonstrate the imaging probes' ability to provide structural information of an excised pig uterus using ultrasound imaging and detect photoacoustic signals at a radial depth of 1 cm.

  15. Photoacoustic detection and optical spectroscopy of high-intensity focused ultrasound-induced thermal lesions in biologic tissue

    Alhamami, Mosa; Kolios, Michael C.; Tavakkoli, Jahan, E-mail: jtavakkoli@ryerson.ca [Department of Physics, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, Ontario M5B 2K3 (Canada)

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: The aims of this study are: (a) to investigate the capability of photoacoustic (PA) method in detecting high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatments in muscle tissuesin vitro; and (b) to determine the optical properties of HIFU-treated and native tissues in order to assist in the interpretation of the observed contrast in PA detection of HIFU treatments. Methods: A single-element, spherically concaved HIFU transducer with a centre frequency of 1 MHz was utilized to create thermal lesions in chicken breast tissuesin vitro. To investigate the detectability of HIFU treatments photoacoustically, PA detection was performed at 720 and 845 nm on seven HIFU-treated tissue samples. Within each tissue sample, PA signals were acquired from 22 locations equally divided between two regions of interest within two volumes in tissue – a HIFU-treated volume and an untreated volume. Optical spectroscopy was then carried out on 10 HIFU-treated chicken breast specimens in the wavelength range of 500–900 nm, in 1-nm increments, using a spectrophotometer with an integrating sphere attachment. The authors’ optical spectroscopy raw data (total transmittance and diffuse reflectance) were used to obtain the optical absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of HIFU-induced thermal lesions and native tissues by employing the inverse adding-doubling method. The aforementioned interaction coefficients were subsequently used to calculate the effective attenuation coefficient and light penetration depth of HIFU-treated and native tissues in the wavelength range of 500–900 nm. Results: HIFU-treated tissues produced greater PA signals than native tissues at 720 and 845 nm. At 720 nm, the averaged ratio of the peak-to-peak PA signal amplitude of HIFU-treated tissue to that of native tissue was 3.68 ± 0.25 (mean ± standard error of the mean). At 845 nm, the averaged ratio of the peak-to-peak PA signal amplitude of HIFU-treated tissue to that of native tissue was 3.75

  16. Sensitive Multi-Species Emissions Monitoring: Infrared Laser-Based Detection of Trace-Level Contaminants

    Steill, Jeffrey D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Huang, Haifeng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Hoops, Alexandra A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Patterson, Brian D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Birtola, Salvatore R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Jaska, Mark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Strecker, Kevin E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Chandler, David W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Bisson, Soott [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This report summarizes our development of spectroscopic chemical analysis techniques and spectral modeling for trace-gas measurements of highly-regulated low-concentration species present in flue gas emissions from utility coal boilers such as HCl under conditions of high humidity. Detailed spectral modeling of the spectroscopy of HCl and other important combustion and atmospheric species such as H 2 O, CO 2 , N 2 O, NO 2 , SO 2 , and CH 4 demonstrates that IR-laser spectroscopy is a sensitive multi-component analysis strategy. Experimental measurements from techniques based on IR laser spectroscopy are presented that demonstrate sub-ppm sensitivity levels to these species. Photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy is used to detect and quantify HCl at ppm levels with extremely high signal-to-noise even under conditions of high relative humidity. Additionally, cavity ring-down IR spectroscopy is used to achieve an extremely high sensitivity to combustion trace gases in this spectral region; ppm level CH 4 is one demonstrated example. The importance of spectral resolution in the sensitivity of a trace-gas measurement is examined by spectral modeling in the mid- and near-IR, and efforts to improve measurement resolution through novel instrument development are described. While previous project reports focused on benefits and complexities of the dual-etalon cavity ring-down infrared spectrometer, here details on steps taken to implement this unique and potentially revolutionary instrument are described. This report also illustrates and critiques the general strategy of IR- laser photodetection of trace gases leading to the conclusion that mid-IR laser spectroscopy techniques provide a promising basis for further instrument development and implementation that will enable cost-effective sensitive detection of multiple key contaminant species simultaneously.

  17. Detection of Dissolved Carbon Monoxide in Transformer Oil Using 1.567 μm Diode Laser-Based Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    Qu Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO is one of the most important fault characteristic gases dissolved in power transformer oil. With the advantages of high sensitivity and accuracy, long-term stability, and short detection time, photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS has been proven to be one promising sensing technology for trace gas recognition. In this investigation, a tunable PAS experimental system based on a distributed-feedback (DFB diode laser was proposed for recognizing dissolved CO in transformer oil. The molecular spectral line of CO gas detection was selected at 1.567 μm in the whole experiment. Relationships between the photoacoustic (PA signal and gas pressure, temperature, laser power, and CO gas concentration were measured and discussed in detail, respectively. Finally, based on the least square regression theory, a novel quantitative identification method for CO gas detection with the PAS experimental system was proposed. And a comparative research about the gas detection performances performed by the PAS system and gas chromatography (GC measurement was presented. All results lay a solid foundation for exploring a portable and tunable CO gas PAS detection device for practical application in future.

  18. Infrared detection based on localized modification of Morpho butterfly wings.

    Zhang, Fangyu; Shen, Qingchen; Shi, Xindong; Li, Shipu; Wang, Wanlin; Luo, Zhen; He, Gufeng; Zhang, Peng; Tao, Peng; Song, Chengyi; Zhang, Wang; Zhang, Di; Deng, Tao; Shang, Wen

    2015-02-01

    Inspired by butterflies an advanced detection and sensing system is developed. The hierarchical nanoarchitecture of Morpho butterfly wings is shown to facilitate the selective modification of such a structure, which results in a sensitive infrared response. These findings offer a new path both for detecting infrared photons and for generating nanostructured bimaterial systems for high-performance sensing platforms. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Oriented regions grouping based candidate proposal for infrared pedestrian detection

    Wang, Jiangtao; Zhang, Jingai; Li, Huaijiang

    2018-04-01

    Effectively and accurately locating the positions of pedestrian candidates in image is a key task for the infrared pedestrian detection system. In this work, a novel similarity measuring metric is designed. Based on the selective search scheme, the developed similarity measuring metric is utilized to yield the possible locations for pedestrian candidate. Besides this, corresponding diversification strategies are also provided according to the characteristics of the infrared thermal imaging system. Experimental results indicate that the presented scheme can achieve more efficient outputs than the traditional selective search methodology for the infrared pedestrian detection task.

  20. Superconducting microphone for photoacoustic spectroscopy

    Ribeiro, P.C.; Labrunie, M.; Weid, J.P. von der; Symko, O.G.

    1982-07-01

    A superconducting microphone has been developed for photoacoustic spectroscopy at low temperatures. The microphone consists of a thin mylar membrane coated with a film of lead whose motion is detected by a SQUID magnetometer. For the simple set-up presented here, the limiting pressure sensitivity is 7.5x10 -14 atmospheres/√Hz. (Author) [pt

  1. Photoacoustic Techniques for Trace Gas Sensing Based on Semiconductor Laser Sources

    Vincenzo Spagnolo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an overview on the use of photoacoustic sensors based on semiconductor laser sources for the detection of trace gases. We review the results obtained using standard, differential and quartz enhanced photoacoustic techniques.

  2. Listening to membrane potential: photoacoustic voltage-sensitive dye recording

    Zhang, Haichong K.; Yan, Ping; Kang, Jeeun; Abou, Diane S.; Le, Hanh N. D.; Jha, Abhinav K.; Thorek, Daniel L. J.; Kang, Jin U.; Rahmim, Arman; Wong, Dean F.; Boctor, Emad M.; Loew, Leslie M.

    2017-04-01

    Voltage-sensitive dyes (VSDs) are designed to monitor membrane potential by detecting fluorescence changes in response to neuronal or muscle electrical activity. However, fluorescence imaging is limited by depth of penetration and high scattering losses, which leads to low sensitivity in vivo systems for external detection. By contrast, photoacoustic (PA) imaging, an emerging modality, is capable of deep tissue, noninvasive imaging by combining near-infrared light excitation and ultrasound detection. Here, we show that voltage-dependent quenching of dye fluorescence leads to a reciprocal enhancement of PA intensity. We synthesized a near-infrared photoacoustic VSD (PA-VSD), whose PA intensity change is sensitive to membrane potential. In the polarized state, this cyanine-based probe enhances PA intensity while decreasing fluorescence output in a lipid vesicle membrane model. A theoretical model accounts for how the experimental PA intensity change depends on fluorescence and absorbance properties of the dye. These results not only demonstrate PA voltage sensing but also emphasize the interplay of both fluorescence and absorbance properties in the design of optimized PA probes. Together, our results demonstrate PA sensing as a potential new modality for recording and external imaging of electrophysiological and neurochemical events in the brain.

  3. Nondestructive detection of surface flaws in materials by infrared thermography

    Ishii, Toshimitsu; Ooka, Norikazu; Eto, Motokuni; Hoshiya, Taiji; Okamoto, Yoshizo

    1999-01-01

    Infrared thermography is one of the useful remote sensing techniques applied to the nondestructive detection of surface flaws in materials. Radiation temperatures of the specimen surface and surrounding walls as well as the difference in them are crucial factors to detect surface flaws from thermal images, and it is essential that these factors be properly evaluated beforehand in order to detect the flaws by infrared thermography. In this study, the radiation temperature of nuclear graphite specimens heated uniformly was measured by infrared thermography to evaluate the radiation characteristics such as emissivity, radiosity coefficient and variation of radiation temperature. The influence of the temperature difference between the test specimen and its surroundings on the limit of detection of pinhole flaws was discussed on the basis of the thermal images of graphite specimen with surface flaws. It was found that the thermal image of a small flaw was clearly visible with increase in the temperature difference. (author)

  4. Photoacoustic CO2-Sensor for Automotive Applications

    Huber, J.; Weber, C.; Eberhardt, A.; Wöllenstein, J.

    2016-01-01

    We present a field-tested miniaturized spectroscopic CO2 sensor which is based on the photoacoustic effect. The sensor is developed for automotive applications and considers the requirements for the usage in vehicles. The sensor measures two measurement ranges simultaneously: The monitoring of the indoor air quality and the detection of possible leakages of the coolant in CO2 air-conditioning systems. The sensor consists of a miniaturized innovative photoacoustic sensor unit with integrated e...

  5. Transurethral light delivery for prostate photoacoustic imaging

    Lediju Bell, Muyinatu A.; Guo, Xiaoyu; Song, Danny Y.; Boctor, Emad M.

    2015-01-01

    Photoacoustic imaging has broad clinical potential to enhance prostate cancer detection and treatment, yet it is challenged by the lack of minimally invasive, deeply penetrating light delivery methods that provide sufficient visualization of targets (e.g., tumors, contrast agents, brachytherapy seeds). We constructed a side-firing fiber prototype for transurethral photoacoustic imaging of prostates with a dual-array (linear and curvilinear) transrectal ultrasound probe. A method to calculate ...

  6. An optimized ultrasound detector for photoacoustic breast tomography

    Xia, Wenfeng; Piras, Daniele; van Hespen, Johan C. G.; van Veldhoven, Spiridon; Prins, Christian; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; Manohar, Srirang

    2013-01-01

    Photoacoustic imaging has proven to be able to detect vascularization-driven optical absorption contrast associated with tumors. In order to detect breast tumors located a few centimeter deep in tissue, a sensitive ultrasound detector is of crucial importance for photoacoustic mammography. Further,

  7. Radar and Infrared Sensors for Landmine Detection

    Borchers, Brian

    2001-01-01

    .... Data from the IR camera and GPR system, in conjunction with soil water content measurements have been used to help validate theoretical models of the performance of the IR and GPR sensors for landmine detection...

  8. Photoacoustic spectroscopy of β-hematin

    Samson, Edward B; Goldschmidt, Benjamin S; Whiteside, Paul J D; Sudduth, Amanda S M; Custer, John R; Viator, John A; Beerntsen, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    Malaria affects over 200 million individuals annually, resulting in 800 000 fatalities. Current tests use blood smears and can only detect the disease when 0.1–1% of blood cells are infected. We are investigating the use of photoacoustic flowmetry to sense as few as one infected cell among 10 million or more normal blood cells, thus diagnosing infection before patients become symptomatic. Photoacoustic flowmetry is similar to conventional flow cytometry, except that rare cells are targeted by nanosecond laser pulses to induce ultrasonic responses. This system has been used to detect single melanoma cells in 10 ml of blood. Our objective is to apply photoacoustic flowmetry to detection of the malaria pigment hemozoin, which is a byproduct of parasite-digested hemoglobin in the blood. However, hemozoin is difficult to purify in quantities greater than a milligram, so a synthetic analog, known as β-hematin was derived from porcine hemin. The specific purpose of this study is to establish the efficacy of using β-hematin, rather than hemozoin, for photoacoustic measurements. We characterized β-hematin using UV–vis spectroscopy, TEM, and FTIR, then tested the effects of laser irradiation on the synthetic product. We finally determined its absorption spectrum using photoacoustic excitation. UV–vis spectroscopy verified that β-hematin was distinctly different from its precursor. TEM analysis confirmed its previously established nanorod shape, and comparison of the FTIR results with published spectroscopy data showed that our product had the distinctive absorbance peaks at 1661 and 1206 cm −1 . Also, our research indicated that prolonged irradiation dramatically alters the physical and optical properties of the β-hematin, resulting in increased absorption at shorter wavelengths. Nevertheless, the photoacoustic absorption spectrum mimicked that generated by UV–vis spectroscopy, which confirms the accuracy of the photoacoustic method and strongly suggests

  9. Methods and systems for detecting gas flow by photoacoustic signal generation

    Choudhury, Niloy; Challener, William Albert

    2018-03-06

    A method for the detection of a gas flowing from a location in a structure is described. A hollow-core optical fiber is placed in a position adjacent the structure. The fiber includes a sound-conductive cladding layer; and further includes at least one aperture extending into its cross-sectional diameter. A beam of pulsed, optical is transmitted into the fiber with a tunable laser. The optical energy is characterized by a wavelength that can be absorbed by the gas that flows into the fiber through the aperture. This causes a temperature fluctuation in the region of gas absorption, which in turn generates an acoustic wave in the absorption region. The acoustic wave travels through the cladding layer, and can be detected with a microphone, so as to provide the location of gas flow, based on the recorded position and movement of the acoustic wave. A related system is also described.

  10. Near-infrared Mueller matrix imaging for colonic cancer detection

    Wang, Jianfeng; Zheng, Wei; Lin, Kan; Huang, Zhiwei

    2016-03-01

    Mueller matrix imaging along with polar decomposition method was employed for the colonic cancer detection by polarized light in the near-infrared spectral range (700-1100 nm). A high-speed (colonic tissues (i.e., normal and caner) were acquired. Polar decomposition was further implemented on the 16 images to derive the diattentuation, depolarization, and the retardance images. The decomposed images showed clear margin between the normal and cancerous colon tissue samples. The work shows the potential of near-infrared Mueller matrix imaging for the early diagnosis and detection of malignant lesions in the colon.

  11. Photoacoustic imaging of hidden dental caries by using a fiber-based probing system

    Koyama, Takuya; Kakino, Satoko; Matsuura, Yuji

    2017-04-01

    Photoacoustic method to detect hidden dental caries is proposed. It was found that high frequency ultrasonic waves are generated from hidden carious part when radiating laser light to occlusal surface of model tooth. By making a map of intensity of these high frequency components, photoacoustic images of hidden caries were successfully obtained. A photoacoustic imaging system using a bundle of hollow optical fiber was fabricated for using clinical application, and clear photoacoustic image of hidden caries was also obtained by this system.

  12. A novel visual saliency detection method for infrared video sequences

    Wang, Xin; Zhang, Yuzhen; Ning, Chen

    2017-12-01

    Infrared video applications such as target detection and recognition, moving target tracking, and so forth can benefit a lot from visual saliency detection, which is essentially a method to automatically localize the ;important; content in videos. In this paper, a novel visual saliency detection method for infrared video sequences is proposed. Specifically, for infrared video saliency detection, both the spatial saliency and temporal saliency are considered. For spatial saliency, we adopt a mutual consistency-guided spatial cues combination-based method to capture the regions with obvious luminance contrast and contour features. For temporal saliency, a multi-frame symmetric difference approach is proposed to discriminate salient moving regions of interest from background motions. Then, the spatial saliency and temporal saliency are combined to compute the spatiotemporal saliency using an adaptive fusion strategy. Besides, to highlight the spatiotemporal salient regions uniformly, a multi-scale fusion approach is embedded into the spatiotemporal saliency model. Finally, a Gestalt theory-inspired optimization algorithm is designed to further improve the reliability of the final saliency map. Experimental results demonstrate that our method outperforms many state-of-the-art saliency detection approaches for infrared videos under various backgrounds.

  13. Infrared small target detection technology based on OpenCV

    Liu, Lei; Huang, Zhijian

    2013-09-01

    Accurate and fast detection of infrared (IR) dim target has very important meaning for infrared precise guidance, early warning, video surveillance, etc. In this paper, some basic principles and the implementing flow charts of a series of algorithms for target detection are described. These algorithms are traditional two-frame difference method, improved three-frame difference method, background estimate and frame difference fusion method, and building background with neighborhood mean method. On the foundation of above works, an infrared target detection software platform which is developed by OpenCV and MFC is introduced. Three kinds of tracking algorithms are integrated in this software. In order to explain the software clearly, the framework and the function are described in this paper. At last, the experiments are performed for some real-life IR images. The whole algorithm implementing processes and results are analyzed, and those algorithms for detection targets are evaluated from the two aspects of subjective and objective. The results prove that the proposed method has satisfying detection effectiveness and robustness. Meanwhile, it has high detection efficiency and can be used for real-time detection.

  14. Infrared small target detection with kernel Fukunaga Koontz transform

    Liu, Rui-ming; Liu, Er-qi; Yang, Jie; Zhang, Tian-hao; Wang, Fang-lin

    2007-09-01

    The Fukunaga-Koontz transform (FKT) has been proposed for many years. It can be used to solve two-pattern classification problems successfully. However, there are few researchers who have definitely extended FKT to kernel FKT (KFKT). In this paper, we first complete this task. Then a method based on KFKT is developed to detect infrared small targets. KFKT is a supervised learning algorithm. How to construct training sets is very important. For automatically detecting targets, the synthetic target images and real background images are used to train KFKT. Because KFKT can represent the higher order statistical properties of images, we expect better detection performance of KFKT than that of FKT. The well-devised experiments verify that KFKT outperforms FKT in detecting infrared small targets.

  15. Comparison of vehicle-mounted forward-looking polarimetric infrared and downward-looking infrared sensors for landmine detection

    Cremer, F.; Schavemaker, J.G.M.; Jong, W. de; Schutte, K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper gives a comparison of two vehicle-mounted infrared systems for landmine detection. The first system is a down-ward looking standard infrared camera using processing methods developed within the EU project LOTUS. The second system is using a forward-looking polarimetric infrared camera.

  16. Photoacoustic Point Source

    Calasso, Irio G.; Craig, Walter; Diebold, Gerald J.

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the photoacoustic effect generated by heat deposition at a point in space in an inviscid fluid. Delta-function and long Gaussian optical pulses are used as sources in the wave equation for the displacement potential to determine the fluid motion. The linear sound-generation mechanism gives bipolar photoacoustic waves, whereas the nonlinear mechanism produces asymmetric tripolar waves. The salient features of the photoacoustic point source are that rapid heat deposition and nonlinear thermal expansion dominate the production of ultrasound

  17. Texture orientation-based algorithm for detecting infrared maritime targets.

    Wang, Bin; Dong, Lili; Zhao, Ming; Wu, Houde; Xu, Wenhai

    2015-05-20

    Infrared maritime target detection is a key technology for maritime target searching systems. However, in infrared maritime images (IMIs) taken under complicated sea conditions, background clutters, such as ocean waves, clouds or sea fog, usually have high intensity that can easily overwhelm the brightness of real targets, which is difficult for traditional target detection algorithms to deal with. To mitigate this problem, this paper proposes a novel target detection algorithm based on texture orientation. This algorithm first extracts suspected targets by analyzing the intersubband correlation between horizontal and vertical wavelet subbands of the original IMI on the first scale. Then the self-adaptive wavelet threshold denoising and local singularity analysis of the original IMI is combined to remove false alarms further. Experiments show that compared with traditional algorithms, this algorithm can suppress background clutter much better and realize better single-frame detection for infrared maritime targets. Besides, in order to guarantee accurate target extraction further, the pipeline-filtering algorithm is adopted to eliminate residual false alarms. The high practical value and applicability of this proposed strategy is backed strongly by experimental data acquired under different environmental conditions.

  18. Development of the infrared instrument for gas detection

    Chen, Ching-Wei; Chen, Chia-Ray

    2017-08-01

    MWIR (Mid-Wave Infrared) spectroscopy shows a large potential in the current IR devices market, due to its multiple applications, such as gas detection, chemical analysis, industrial monitoring, combustion and flame characterization. It opens this technique to the fields of application, such as industrial monitoring and control, agriculture and environmental monitoring. However, a major barrier, which is the lack of affordable specific key elements such a MWIR light sources and low cost uncooled detectors, have held it back from its widespread use. In this paper an uncooled MWIR detector combined with image enhancement technique is reported. This investigation shows good results in gas leakage detection test. It also verify the functions of self-developed MWIR lens and optics. A good agreement in theoretical design and experiment give us the lessons learned for the potential application in infrared satellite technology. A brief discussions will also be presented in this paper.

  19. Generation and detection of ultrabroadband infrared wave exceeding 200 THz

    Ashida Masaaki

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available By focusing a hollow-fiber compressed intense 10–fs pulse and its second harmonic in air, an ultrabroadband infrared pulse with a spectral range of 1–200 THz is generated through a plasma. Coherent detection of the signal up to 100 THz is achieved with electro–optic sampling and THz air-breakdown-coherent-detection. The drastic dependence on the orientation of the second harmonic crystal is clarified in a range of 100–200 THz. From these, the whole frequency components are confirmed to be generated from the AC biased plasma and phase-locked.

  20. Gas leak detection in infrared video with background modeling

    Zeng, Xiaoxia; Huang, Likun

    2018-03-01

    Background modeling plays an important role in the task of gas detection based on infrared video. VIBE algorithm is a widely used background modeling algorithm in recent years. However, the processing speed of the VIBE algorithm sometimes cannot meet the requirements of some real time detection applications. Therefore, based on the traditional VIBE algorithm, we propose a fast prospect model and optimize the results by combining the connected domain algorithm and the nine-spaces algorithm in the following processing steps. Experiments show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  1. Infrared thermal imaging for automated detection of diabetic foot complications.

    van Netten, Jaap J; van Baal, Jeff G; Liu, Chanjuan; van der Heijden, Ferdi; Bus, Sicco A

    2013-09-01

    Although thermal imaging can be a valuable technology in the prevention and management of diabetic foot disease, it is not yet widely used in clinical practice. Technological advancement in infrared imaging increases its application range. The aim was to explore the first steps in the applicability of high-resolution infrared thermal imaging for noninvasive automated detection of signs of diabetic foot disease. The plantar foot surfaces of 15 diabetes patients were imaged with an infrared camera (resolution, 1.2 mm/pixel): 5 patients had no visible signs of foot complications, 5 patients had local complications (e.g., abundant callus or neuropathic ulcer), and 5 patients had diffuse complications (e.g., Charcot foot, infected ulcer, or critical ischemia). Foot temperature was calculated as mean temperature across pixels for the whole foot and for specified regions of interest (ROIs). No differences in mean temperature >1.5 °C between the ipsilateral and the contralateral foot were found in patients without complications. In patients with local complications, mean temperatures of the ipsilateral and the contralateral foot were similar, but temperature at the ROI was >2 °C higher compared with the corresponding region in the contralateral foot and to the mean of the whole ipsilateral foot. In patients with diffuse complications, mean temperature differences of >3 °C between ipsilateral and contralateral foot were found. With an algorithm based on parameters that can be captured and analyzed with a high-resolution infrared camera and a computer, it is possible to detect signs of diabetic foot disease and to discriminate between no, local, or diffuse diabetic foot complications. As such, an intelligent telemedicine monitoring system for noninvasive automated detection of signs of diabetic foot disease is one step closer. Future studies are essential to confirm and extend these promising early findings. © 2013 Diabetes Technology Society.

  2. Recording membrane potential changes through photoacoustic voltage sensitive dye

    Zhang, Haichong K.; Kang, Jeeun; Yan, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring of the membrane potential is possible using voltage sensitive dyes (VSD), where fluorescence intensity changes in response to neuronal electrical activity. However, fluorescence imaging is limited by depth of penetration and high scattering losses, which leads to low sensitivity in vivo...... systems for external detection. In contrast, photoacoustic (PA) imaging, an emerging modality, is capable of deep tissue, noninvasive imaging by combining near infrared light excitation and ultrasound detection. In this work, we develop the theoretical concept whereby the voltage-dependent quenching...... the experimental PA intensity change depends on fluorescence and absorbance properties of the dye. These results not only demonstrate the voltage sensing capability of the dye, but also indicate the necessity of considering both fluorescence and absorbance spectral sensitivities in order to optimize...

  3. Intrauterine photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging probe.

    Miranda, Christopher; Barkley, Joel; Smith, Barbara

    2018-04-01

    Intrauterine photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging are probe-based imaging modalities with translational potential for use in detecting endometrial diseases. This deep-tissue imaging probe design allows for the retrofitting of commercially available endometrial sampling curettes. The imaging probe presented here has a 2.92-mm diameter and approximate length of 26 cm, which allows for entry into the human endometrial cavity, making it possible to use photoacoustic imaging and high-resolution ultrasound to characterize the uterus. We demonstrate the imaging probes' ability to provide structural information of an excised pig uterus using ultrasound imaging and detect photoacoustic signals at a radial depth of 1 cm. (2018) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  4. Molecular photoacoustic imaging of follicular thyroid carcinoma

    Levi, Jelena; Kothapalli, Sri-Rajashekar; Bohndiek, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    in living mice optically, observing the increase in Alexa750 fluorescence, and photoacoustically, using a dual wavelength imaging method. Results Active forms of both MMP2 and MMP-9 enzymes were found in FTC133 tumor homogenates, with MMP-9 detected in greater amounts. The molecular imaging agent......Purpose To evaluate the potential of targeted photoacoustic imaging as a non-invasive method for detection of follicular thyroid carcinoma. Experimental Design We determined the presence and activity of two members of matrix metalloproteinase family (MMP), MMP-2 and MMP-9, suggested as biomarkers...... for malignant thyroid lesions, in FTC133 thyroid tumors subcutaneously implanted in nude mice. The imaging agent used to visualize tumors was MMP activatable photoacoustic probe, Alexa750-CXeeeeXPLGLAGrrrrrXK-BHQ3. Cleavage of the MMP activatable agent was imaged after intratumoral and intravenous injections...

  5. High resolution ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging of single cells

    Eric M. Strohm

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available High resolution ultrasound and photoacoustic images of stained neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes from a blood smear were acquired using a combined acoustic/photoacoustic microscope. Photoacoustic images were created using a pulsed 532 nm laser that was coupled to a single mode fiber to produce output wavelengths from 532 nm to 620 nm via stimulated Raman scattering. The excitation wavelength was selected using optical filters and focused onto the sample using a 20× objective. A 1000 MHz transducer was co-aligned with the laser spot and used for ultrasound and photoacoustic images, enabling micrometer resolution with both modalities. The different cell types could be easily identified due to variations in contrast within the acoustic and photoacoustic images. This technique provides a new way of probing leukocyte structure with potential applications towards detecting cellular abnormalities and diseased cells at the single cell level.

  6. Salient man-made structure detection in infrared images

    Li, Dong-jie; Zhou, Fu-gen; Jin, Ting

    2013-09-01

    Target detection, segmentation and recognition is a hot research topic in the field of image processing and pattern recognition nowadays, among which salient area or object detection is one of core technologies of precision guided weapon. Many theories have been raised in this paper; we detect salient objects in a series of input infrared images by using the classical feature integration theory and Itti's visual attention system. In order to find the salient object in an image accurately, we present a new method to solve the edge blur problem by calculating and using the edge mask. We also greatly improve the computing speed by improving the center-surround differences method. Unlike the traditional algorithm, we calculate the center-surround differences through rows and columns separately. Experimental results show that our method is effective in detecting salient object accurately and rapidly.

  7. Infrared allows a peek inside to detect grow-ops

    Jastrow, B. [Infrared Solutions, Inc., Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2009-06-15

    Apartment buildings have become a preferred location for marijuana growers in the Greater Toronto Area. The grow operations pose a fire and health risk to neighbours who may breathe in potentially harmful mould spores and pores from fertilizers. One advantage for growers is that many apartment buildings have only a single hydro meter for the entire building. As such, Toronto Hydro cannot detect extraordinary electricity consumption. This article described a method for detecting high electricity use by infrared thermography. An average size hallway electrical distribution panel is equipped with an 80 Amp or 100 Amp double-pole circuit breaker. Growers unplug the 220 Volt stove outlet and run their 1000 Watt lighting systems for long periods of time. Since the lights create excessive lamp loading, a thermal anomaly can be detected on the individual circuit breaker. High-end thermal imagers will detect this thermal pattern and transpose it into a thermograph. 1 fig.

  8. Electrochemical and Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy Detection of SF₆ Decomposition Products.

    Dong, Ming; Zhang, Chongxing; Ren, Ming; Albarracín, Ricardo; Ye, Rixin

    2017-11-15

    Sulfur hexafluoride (SF₆) gas-insulated electrical equipment is widely used in high-voltage (HV) and extra-high-voltage (EHV) power systems. Partial discharge (PD) and local heating can occur in the electrical equipment because of insulation faults, which results in SF₆ decomposition and ultimately generates several types of decomposition products. These SF₆ decomposition products can be qualitatively and quantitatively detected with relevant detection methods, and such detection contributes to diagnosing the internal faults and evaluating the security risks of the equipment. At present, multiple detection methods exist for analyzing the SF₆ decomposition products, and electrochemical sensing (ES) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy are well suited for application in online detection. In this study, the combination of ES with IR spectroscopy is used to detect SF₆ gas decomposition. First, the characteristics of these two detection methods are studied, and the data analysis matrix is established. Then, a qualitative and quantitative analysis ES-IR model is established by adopting a two-step approach. A SF₆ decomposition detector is designed and manufactured by combining an electrochemical sensor and IR spectroscopy technology. The detector is used to detect SF₆ gas decomposition and is verified to reliably and accurately detect the gas components and concentrations.

  9. A Brazing Defect Detection Using an Ultrasonic Infrared Imaging Inspection

    Cho, Jai Wan; Choi, Young Soo; Jung, Seung Ho; Jung, Hyun Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-15

    When a high-energy ultrasound propagates through a solid body that contains a crack or a delamination, the two faces of the defect do not ordinarily vibrate in unison, and dissipative phenomena such as friction, rubbing and clapping between the faces will convert some of the vibrational energy to heat. By combining this heating effect with infrared imaging, one can detect a subsurface defect in material in real time. In this paper a realtime detection of the brazing defect of thin Inconel plates using the UIR (ultrasonic infrared imaging) technology is described. A low frequency (23 kHz) ultrasonic transducer was used to infuse the welded Inconel plates with a short pulse of sound for 280 ms. The ultrasonic source has a maximum power of 2 kW. The surface temperature of the area under inspection is imaged by an infrared camera that is coupled to a fast frame grabber in a computer. The hot spots, which are a small area around the bound between the two faces of the Inconel plates near the defective brazing point and heated up highly, are observed. And the weak thermal signal is observed at the defect position of brazed plate also. Using the image processing technology such as background subtraction average and image enhancement using histogram equalization, the position of defective brazing regions in the thin Inconel plates can be located certainly

  10. Indocyanine green loaded graphene oxide for high-efficient photoacoustic tumor therapy

    Baoyun Yan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Photoacoustic therapy, using the photoacoustic effect of agents for selectively killing tumor cells, has shown promising for treating tumor. Utilization of high optical absorption probes can help to effectively improve the photoacoustic therapy efficiency. Herein, we report a novel high-absorption photoacoustic probe that is composed of indocyanine green (ICG and graphene oxide (GO, entitled GO-ICG, for photoacoustic therapy. The attached ICG with narrow absorption spectral profile has strong optical absorption in the infrared region. The absorption spectrum of the GO-ICG solution reveals that the GO-ICG particles exhibited a 10-fold higher absorbance at 780nm (its peak absorbance as compared with GO. Importantly, ICG’s fluorescence is quenched by GO via fluorescence resonance energy transfer. As a result, GO-ICG can high-efficiently convert the absorbed light energy to acoustic wave under pulsed laser irradiation. We further demonstrate that GO-ICG can produce stronger photoacoustic wave than the GO and ICG alone. Moreover, we conjugate this contrast agent with integrin αvβ3 mono-clonal antibody to molecularly target the U87-MG human glioblastoma cells for selective tumor cell killing. Finally, our results testify that the photoacoustic therapy efficiency of GO-ICG is higher than the existing photoacoustic therapy agent. Our work demonstrates that GO-ICG is a high-efficiency photoacoustic therapy agent. This novel photoacoustic probe is likely to be an available candidate for tumor therapy.

  11. Near-infrared laser, time domain, breast tumour detection system

    Joblin, A.J.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The use of near-infrared laser, time domain techniques have been proposed for some time now as an alternative to X-ray mammography, as a means of mass screening for breast disease. The great driving force behind this research has been that near-infrared photons are a non-ionising radiation, which affords a greater degree of patient safety than when using X-rays. This would mean that women at risk of breast disease could be screened with a near-infrared laser imaging system, much more regularly than with an X-ray mammography system, which should allow for the earlier detection and treatment of breast disease. This paper presents a theoretical investigation of the performance of a near-infrared, time domain breast imaging system. The performance of the imaging system is characterised by the resolution and contrast parameters, which were studied using a numerical finite difference calculation method. The finite difference method is used to solve the diffusion equation for the photon transport through the inhomogeneous breast tissue medium. Optimal performance was found to be obtained with short photon times of flight. However the signal to noise ratio decreases rapidly as the photon time of flight is decreased. The system performance will therefore be limited by the noise equivalent power of the time resolved detection system, which is the signal incident on the time resolved detection system which gives a signal to noise ratio of 1:1. Photon times of flight shorter than 500 ps are not practical with current technology, which places limits on the resolution and contrast. The photon signal throughput can be increased by increasing the size of the laser beam width, by increasing the size of the aperture stop of the detector, by increasing the laser pulse duration or decreasing the detector time resolution. Best system performance is found by optimising these parameters for a given time gating and detector system characteristic (NEP). It was found that the

  12. Automated system for crack detection using infrared thermograph

    Starman, Stanislav

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was the development of the automated system for crack detection on square steel bars used in the automotive industry for axle and shaft construction. The automated system for thermographic crack detection uses brief pulsed eddy currents to heat steel components under inspection. Cracks, if present, will disturb the current flow and so generate changes in the temperature profile in the crack area. These changes of temperature are visualized using an infrared camera. The image acquired by the infrared camera is evaluated through an image processing system. The advantages afforded by the system are its inspection time, its excellent flaw detection sensitivity and its ability to detect hidden, subsurface cracks. The automated system consists of four IR cameras (each side of steel bar is evaluated at a time), coil, high frequency generator and control place with computers. The system is a part of the inspection line where the subsurface and surface cracks are searched. If the crack is present, the cracked place is automatically marked. The components without cracks are then deposited apart from defective blocks. The system is fully automated and its ability is to evaluate four meter blocks within 20 seconds. This is the real reason for using this system in real industrial applications. (author)

  13. MTG infrared sounder detection chain: first radiometric test results

    Dumestier, D.; Pistone, F.; Dartois, T.; Blazquez, E.

    2017-11-01

    Europe's next fleet of geostationary meteorological satellites, MeteoSat Third Generation, will introduce new functions in addition to continuity of high-resolution meteorological data. The atmosphere Infrared Sounder (IRS), as high -end instrument, is part of this challenging program. IRS principle is a Fourier Transform Interferometer, which allows recomposing atmospheric spectrum after infrared photons detection. Transmission spectrums will be used to support numerical weather prediction. IRS instrument is able to offer full disk coverage in one hour, an on-ground resolution of 4 by 4 km, in two spectral bands (MWIR: 1600 to 2175cm-1 and LWIR: 700 to 1210cm-1) with a spectral resolution of 0.6cm-1. Among critical technologies and processes, IRS detection chain shall offer outstanding characteristics in terms of radiometric performance like Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR), dynamic range and linearity. Selected detectors are HgCdTe two-dimensions arrays, cooled at 55 Kelvins, hybridized on snapshot silicon read-out circuit at 160x160 format. Video electronics present 16 bits resolution, and the whole detection chain (Detectors and electronics) permits to reach SNR between 2 000 and 10 000 as requested by the application. Radiometric onground test results performed on design representative detection chains are presented and are confirming the challenging phase A design choices.

  14. Multispectral photoacoustic characterization of ICG and porcine blood using an LED-based photoacoustic imaging system

    Shigeta, Yusuke; Sato, Naoto; Kuniyil Ajith Singh, Mithun; Agano, Toshitaka

    2018-02-01

    Photoacoustic imaging is a hybrid biomedical imaging modality that has emerged over the last decade. In photoacoustic imaging, pulsed-light absorbed by the target emits ultrasound that can be detected using a conventional ultrasound array. This ultrasound data can be used to reconstruct the location and spatial details of the intrinsic/extrinsic light absorbers in the tissue. Recently we reported on the development of a multi-wavelength high frame-rate LED-based photoacoustic/ultrasound imaging system (AcousticX). In this work, we photoacoustically characterize the absorption spectrum of ICG and porcine blood using LED arrays with multiple wavelengths (405, 420, 470, 520, 620, 660, 690, 750, 810, 850, 925, 980 nm). Measurements were performed in a simple reflection mode configuration in which LED arrays where fixed on both sides of the linear array ultrasound probe. Phantom used consisted of micro-test tubes filled with ICG and porcine blood, which were placed in a tank filled with water. The photoacoustic spectrum obtained from our measurements matches well with the reference absorption spectrum. These results demonstrate the potential capability of our system in performing clinical/pre-clinical multispectral photoacoustic imaging.

  15. Near field ice detection using infrared based optical imaging technology

    Abdel-Moati, Hazem; Morris, Jonathan; Zeng, Yousheng; Corie, Martin Wesley; Yanni, Victor Garas

    2018-02-01

    If not detected and characterized, icebergs can potentially pose a hazard to oil and gas exploration, development and production operations in arctic environments as well as commercial shipping channels. In general, very large bergs are tracked and predicted using models or satellite imagery. Small and medium bergs are detectable using conventional marine radar. As icebergs decay they shed bergy bits and growlers, which are much smaller and more difficult to detect. Their low profile above the water surface, in addition to occasional relatively high seas, makes them invisible to conventional marine radar. Visual inspection is the most common method used to detect bergy bits and growlers, but the effectiveness of visual inspections is reduced by operator fatigue and low light conditions. The potential hazard from bergy bits and growlers is further increased by short detection range (<1 km). As such, there is a need for robust and autonomous near-field detection of such smaller icebergs. This paper presents a review of iceberg detection technology and explores applications for infrared imagers in the field. Preliminary experiments are performed and recommendations are made for future work, including a proposed imager design which would be suited for near field ice detection.

  16. Cultural Artifact Detection in Long Wave Infrared Imagery.

    Anderson, Dylan Zachary [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Craven, Julia M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ramon, Eric [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Detection of cultural artifacts from airborne remotely sensed data is an important task in the context of on-site inspections. Airborne artifact detection can reduce the size of the search area the ground based inspection team must visit, thereby improving the efficiency of the inspection process. This report details two algorithms for detection of cultural artifacts in aerial long wave infrared imagery. The first algorithm creates an explicit model for cultural artifacts, and finds data that fits the model. The second algorithm creates a model of the background and finds data that does not fit the model. Both algorithms are applied to orthomosaic imagery generated as part of the MSFE13 data collection campaign under the spectral technology evaluation project.

  17. Wave study of compound eyes for efficient infrared detection

    Kilinc, Takiyettin Oytun; Hayran, Zeki; Kocer, Hasan; Kurt, Hamza

    2017-08-01

    Improving sensitivity in the infrared spectrum is a challenging task. Detecting infrared light over a wide bandwidth and at low power consumption is very important. Novel solutions can be acquired by mimicking biological eyes such as compound eye with many individual lenses inspired from the nature. The nature provides many ingenious approaches of sensing and detecting the surrounding environment. Even though compound eye consists of small optical units, it can detect wide-angle electromagnetic waves and it has high transmission and low reflection loss. Insects have eyes that are superior compared to human eyes (single-aperture eyes) in terms of compactness, robustness, wider field of view, higher sensitivity of light intensity and being cheap vision systems. All these desired properties are accompanied by an important drawback: lower spatial resolution. The first step to investigate the feasibility of bio-inspired optics in photodetectors is to perform light interaction with the optical system that gather light and detect it. The most common method used in natural vision systems is the ray analysis. Light wave characteristics are not taken into consideration in such analyses, such as the amount of energy at the focal point or photoreceptor site, the losses caused by reflection at the interfaces and absorption cannot be investigated. In this study, we present a bio-inspired optical detection system investigated by wave analysis. We numerically model the wave analysis based on Maxwell equations from the viewpoint of efficient light detection and revealing the light propagation after intercepting the first interface of the eye towards the photoreceptor site.

  18. Quartz-enhanced photo-acoustic spectroscopy for breath analyses

    Petersen, Jan C.; Lamard, Laurent; Feng, Yuyang; Focant, Jeff-F.; Peremans, Andre; Lassen, Mikael

    2017-03-01

    An innovative and novel quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) sensor for highly sensitive and selective breath gas analysis is introduced. The QEPAS sensor consists of two acoustically coupled micro- resonators (mR) with an off-axis 20 kHz quartz tuning fork (QTF). The complete acoustically coupled mR system is optimized based on finite element simulations and experimentally verified. Due to the very low fabrication costs the QEPAS sensor presents a clear breakthrough in the field of photoacoustic spectroscopy by introducing novel disposable gas chambers in order to avoid cleaning after each test. The QEPAS sensor is pumped resonantly by a nanosecond pulsed single-mode mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator (MIR OPO). Spectroscopic measurements of methane and methanol in the 3.1 μm to 3.7 μm wavelength region is conducted. Demonstrating a resolution bandwidth of 1 cm-1. An Allan deviation analysis shows that the detection limit at optimum integration time for the QEPAS sensor is 32 ppbv@190s for methane and that the background noise is solely due to the thermal noise of the QTF. Spectra of both individual molecules as well as mixtures of molecules were measured and analyzed. The molecules are representative of exhaled breath gasses that are bio-markers for medical diagnostics.

  19. Quinone-fused porphyrins as contrast agents for photoacoustic imaging

    Banala, Srinivas

    2017-06-27

    Photoacoustic (PA) imaging is an emerging non-invasive diagnostic modality with many potential clinical applications in oncology, rheumatology and the cardiovascular field. For this purpose, there is a high demand for exogenous contrast agents with high absorption coefficients in the optical window for tissue imaging, i.e. the near infrared (NIR) range between 680 and 950 nm. We herein report the photoacoustic properties of quinone-fused porphyrins inserted with different transition metals as new highly promising candidates. These dyes exhibit intense NIR absorption, a lack of fluorescence emission, and PA sensitivity in concentrations below 3 nmol mL. In this context, the highest PA signal was obtained with a Zn(ii) inserted dye. Furthermore, this dye was stable in blood serum and free thiol solution and exhibited negligible cell toxicity. Additionally, the Zn(ii) probe could be detected with an up to 3.2 fold higher PA intensity compared to the clinically most commonly used PA agent, ICG. Thus, further exploration of the \\'quinone-fusing\\' approach to other chromophores may be an efficient way to generate highly potent PA agents that do not fluoresce and shift their absorption into the NIR range.

  20. Photoacoustic imaging and spectroscopy

    Wang, Lihong

    2009-01-01

    Photoacoustics promises to revolutionize medical imaging and may well make as dramatic a contribution to modern medicine as the discovery of the x-ray itself once did. Combining electromagnetic and ultrasonic waves synergistically, photoacoustics can provide deep speckle-free imaging with high electromagnetic contrast at high ultrasonic resolution and without any health risk. While photoacoustic imaging is probably the fastest growing biomedical imaging technology, this book is the first comprehensive volume in this emerging field covering both the physics and the remarkable noninvasive applic

  1. Instrument for the detection of meteors in the infrared

    Svedhem, H.; Koschny, D.; Ter Haar, J.

    2014-07-01

    The flux of interplanetary particles in the size range 2 mm to 20 m is poorly constrained due to insufficient data --- the larger bodies may be observed remotely by ground-based or space-based telescopes and the smaller particles are measured by in-situ impact detectors in space or by meteor cameras from ground. An infrared video rate imager in Earth orbit would enable a systematic characterization for an extended period, day and night, of the flux in this range by monitoring the bright meteor/fireball generated during atmospheric entry. Due to the low flux of meteoroids in this range a very large detector is required. With this method a large portion of the Earth atmosphere is in fact used as a huge detector. Such an instrument has never flown in Earth orbit. The only sensors of a similar kind fly on US defense satellites for monitoring launches of ballistic missiles. The data from these sensors, however, is largely inaccessible to scientists. The knowledge on emission of light by meteors/bolides at infrared wavelengths is very limited while it can be suspected that the continuum emission from meteors/bolides have stronger emission at infrared wavelengths than in the visible due to the likely low temperatures of these events. At the same time line emission is dominating over the continuum in the visible so it is not clear how this will compare with the continuum in the infrared. We have developed a bread-board version of an IR video rate camera, the SPOSH-IR. The instrument is based on an earlier technology development, SPOSH --- Smart Panoramic Optical Sensor Head, for operation in the visible range, but with the sensor replaced by a cooled IR detector and new infrared optics. The earlier work has proven the concept of the instrument and of automatic detection of meteors/bolides in the visible wavelength range. The new hardware has been built by Jena-Optronik, Jena, Germany and has been tested during several meteor showers in the Netherlands and at ESA's OGS

  2. Human ear detection in the thermal infrared spectrum

    Abaza, Ayman; Bourlai, Thirimachos

    2012-06-01

    In this paper the problem of human ear detection in the thermal infrared (IR) spectrum is studied in order to illustrate the advantages and limitations of the most important steps of ear-based biometrics that can operate in day and night time environments. The main contributions of this work are two-fold: First, a dual-band database is assembled that consists of visible and thermal profile face images. The thermal data was collected using a high definition middle-wave infrared (3-5 microns) camera that is capable of acquiring thermal imprints of human skin. Second, a fully automated, thermal imaging based ear detection method is developed for real-time segmentation of human ears in either day or night time environments. The proposed method is based on Haar features forming a cascaded AdaBoost classifier (our modified version of the original Viola-Jones approach1 that was designed to be applied mainly in visible band images). The main advantage of the proposed method, applied on our profile face image data set collected in the thermal-band, is that it is designed to reduce the learning time required by the original Viola-Jones method from several weeks to several hours. Unlike other approaches reported in the literature, which have been tested but not designed to operate in the thermal band, our method yields a high detection accuracy that reaches ~ 91.5%. Further analysis on our data set yielded that: (a) photometric normalization techniques do not directly improve ear detection performance. However, when using a certain photometric normalization technique (CLAHE) on falsely detected images, the detection rate improved by ~ 4%; (b) the high detection accuracy of our method did not degrade when we lowered down the original spatial resolution of thermal ear images. For example, even after using one third of the original spatial resolution (i.e. ~ 20% of the original computational time) of the thermal profile face images, the high ear detection accuracy of our method

  3. Detection of ethylene gas in exhaled breath of people living in landfill using CO{sub 2} laser photoacoustic spectroscopy with multicomponent analysis

    Oktafiani, Fitri, E-mail: fitri.oktafiani@mail.ugm.ac.id; Stiyabudi, Rizky; Amin, Mochamad Nurul; Mitrayana [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara BLS 21, Yogyakarta, 55281 Indonesia (Indonesia)

    2016-06-17

    The photoacoustic spectrometer (PAS) had been built and the performance had been determined. The research was based on the conversion of the absorbed middle infra red (IR) radiation by gas confined in a closed PAS cell into standing acoustic wave, which could be detected by a suitable electroacoustic transducer such as a microphone. The lowest detection limit for this setup was (57,1 ± 0,3) ppb and quality factor was (14,5 ± 0,6) for ethylene gas in 10P14 CO{sub 2} laser line. Then, this PAS was used to measure of ethylene gas concentration in breath sample of people living in near the Piyungan Bantul Yogyakarta landfill. The result from multicomponent analysis showed that PAS enable to measure the lowest concentration of volatile organic compound (VOC), such as ethylene, which occured on ambien air in Piyungan landfill. Variaty of distance area applied in this research. In the range of ±0,5 km from landfill, we obtained the concentration of ethylene gas concentration for human breath was (1,520 ± 0,002) ppm, while in the range of ±45 km, the ethylene gas concentration for human breath was (0,424 ± 0,002) ppm. Ethylene gas concentrations in exhaled gas decreased along with increasing distance variation of the landfill.

  4. Original Research. Photoacoustic Microscopy in Dental Medicine

    Stan Adrian Tudor

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Photoacoustic microscopy, also known as optoacoustic imaging, is a comparatively new method of investigation in dental medicine, which uses a laser-generated ultrasound (short laser pulses to achieve images for interpretation. Photoacoustic microscopy can be used in a broad spectrum, from detecting tooth decay at its earliest stages to dental anatomy analysis. Material and methods: The energy emitted by the photoacoustic pulse is moderately absorbed by the target and exchanged into heat, leading to a local transitory temperature upsurge. The tension propagates and grows as ultrasonic waves, distinguished by the ultrasonic transducers which are planted apart from the tissue. The photoacoustic microscope has a tunable dye laser which passes through a condensing lens, an objective and ultimately an ultrasonic transducer attached to an acoustic lens to capture and receive information about the scanned probe from a sample moved on the X, Y dimensions. Results: The precise anatomy of layered concentric structures can be clearly observed in photoacoustic microscopy. The image value of the inner layer can be higher, indicating strong optical absorption, while the image value of the outer layer is lower, indicating weaker optical absorption. Meanwhile, the inner layer has the exact same size as the dentin structure and the outer layer has the exact same size as the enamel structure in this cross-section. Conclusions: The photoacoustic microscope (all-optical comes out to be a future and promising tool for detecting early-stage caries and lesions on the surface of the teeth, where micro-leakage occurs at the interface of tooth restoration, and also the anatomy of dental tissues.

  5. Towards Improved Airborne Fire Detection Systems Using Beetle Inspired Infrared Detection and Fire Searching Strategies

    Herbert Bousack

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Every year forest fires cause severe financial losses in many countries of the world. Additionally, lives of humans as well as of countless animals are often lost. Due to global warming, the problem of wildfires is getting out of control; hence, the burning of thousands of hectares is obviously increasing. Most important, therefore, is the early detection of an emerging fire before its intensity becomes too high. More than ever, a need for early warning systems capable of detecting small fires from distances as large as possible exists. A look to nature shows that pyrophilous “fire beetles” of the genus Melanophila can be regarded as natural airborne fire detection systems because their larvae can only develop in the wood of fire-killed trees. There is evidence that Melanophila beetles can detect large fires from distances of more than 100 km by visual and infrared cues. In a biomimetic approach, a concept has been developed to use the surveying strategy of the “fire beetles” for the reliable detection of a smoke plume of a fire from large distances by means of a basal infrared emission zone. Future infrared sensors necessary for this ability are also inspired by the natural infrared receptors of Melanophila beetles.

  6. A Novel Approach of Sensitive Infrared Signal Detection for Space Applications

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop an innovative frequency up-conversion device that will efficiently convert the infrared signals into visible/near-infrared signals to enable detection of...

  7. Carbon Chemistry in IRC+10216: Infrared Detection of Diacetylene

    Fonfría, J. P.; Agúndez, M.; Cernicharo, J.; Richter, M. J.; Lacy, J. H.

    2018-01-01

    We present the detection of C4H2 for first time in the envelope of the C-rich AGB star IRC+10216, based on high spectral resolution mid-infrared observations carried out with the Texas Echelon-cross-Echelle Spectrograph mounted on the Infrared Telescope Facility. The obtained spectrum contains 24 narrow absorption features above the detection limit, identified as lines of the ro-vibrational C4H2 band {ν }6+{ν }8({σ }u+). The analysis of these lines through a ro-vibrational diagram indicates that the column density of C4H2 is (2.4 ± 1.5) × 1016 cm‑2. Diacetylene is distributed in two excitation populations accounting for 20% and 80% of the total column density and with rotational temperatures of 47 ± 7 and 420 ± 120 K, respectively. This two-folded rotational temperature suggests that the absorbing gas is located beyond ≃0.″4 ≃ 20 R ⋆ from the star, with a noticeable cold contribution outwards from ≃10″ ≃ 500 R ⋆. This outer shell matches up with the place where cyanoacetylenes and carbon chains are known to form due to the action of the Galactic dissociating radiation field on the neutral gas coming from the inner layers of the envelope.

  8. Automated vehicle detection in forward-looking infrared imagery.

    Der, Sandor; Chan, Alex; Nasrabadi, Nasser; Kwon, Heesung

    2004-01-10

    We describe an algorithm for the detection and clutter rejection of military vehicles in forward-looking infrared (FLIR) imagery. The detection algorithm is designed to be a prescreener that selects regions for further analysis and uses a spatial anomaly approach that looks for target-sized regions of the image that differ in texture, brightness, edge strength, or other spatial characteristics. The features are linearly combined to form a confidence image that is thresholded to find likely target locations. The clutter rejection portion uses target-specific information extracted from training samples to reduce the false alarms of the detector. The outputs of the clutter rejecter and detector are combined by a higher-level evidence integrator to improve performance over simple concatenation of the detector and clutter rejecter. The algorithm has been applied to a large number of FLIR imagery sets, and some of these results are presented here.

  9. Infrared light sensor applied to early detection of tooth decay

    Benjumea, Eberto; Espitia, José; Díaz, Leonardo; Torres, Cesar

    2017-08-01

    The approach dentistry to dental care is gradually shifting to a model focused on early detection and oral-disease prevention; one of the most important methods of prevention of tooth decay is opportune diagnosis of decay and reconstruction. The present study aimed to introduce a procedure for early diagnosis of tooth decay and to compare result of experiment of this method with other common treatments. In this setup, a laser emitting infrared light is injected in core of one bifurcated fiber-optic and conduced to tooth surface and with the same bifurcated fiber the radiation reflected for the same tooth is collected and them conduced to surface of sensor that measures thermal and light frequencies to detect early signs of decay below a tooth surface, where demineralization is difficult to spot with x-ray technology. This device will can be used to diagnose tooth decay without any chemicals and rays such as high power lasers or X-rays.

  10. Characterization of a photoacoustic system through neural networks to determine multicomponent samples

    Zajarevich, N. M.; Peuriot, A. L.; Slezak, V. B.

    2016-07-01

    Photoacoustic spectroscopy for trace gases detection, based on a CO2 laser, can be used in a wide range of applications. The tunability of this laser in the mid-infrared (9.4-10.6 μm) allows the quantitative determination of different substances in multicomponent samples. In general, at traces level, the total photoacoustic amplitude at a certain wavelength may be approximated by a linear superposition of the amplitudes given by each of the species absorbing at that wavelength. However, in some cases, the sum of the individual signals is no longer valid. In particular, it is known the presence of CO2 delays the acoustic signal in relation to the laser excitation due to the exchange of vibrational energy between CO2 and N2. This phenomenon generates a slow V-T energy relaxation from a metastable N2 vibrational level and the sum of individual contributions may no longer be valid. Moreover, the resolution of a linear equation system has limitations, so the possibility to determine concentrations in photoacoustics based on neural network is proposed in this work. This procedure is tried in a particular case of a volatile organic compound, such as C2H4, and CO2 in air. The results are compared with the ones obtained with a model based on rate equations.

  11. Detecting Plastic PFM-1 Butterfly Mines Using Thermal Infrared Sensing

    Baur, J.; de Smet, T.; Nikulin, A.

    2017-12-01

    Remnant plastic-composite landmines, such as the mass-produced PFM-1, represent an ongoing humanitarian threat aggravated by high costs associated with traditional demining efforts. These particular unexploded ordnance (UXO) devices pose a challenge to conventional geophysical detection methods, due their plastic-body design and small size. Additionally, the PFM-1s represent a particularly heinous UXO, due to their low mass ( 25 lb) trigger limit and "butterfly" wing design, earning them the reputation of a "toy mine" - disproportionally impacting children across post-conflict areas. We developed a detection algorithm based on data acquired by a thermal infrared camera mounted to a commercial UAV to detect time-variable temperature difference between the PFM-1 and the surrounding environment. We present results of a field study focused on thermal detection and identification of the PFM-1 anti-personnel landmines from a remotely operated unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). We conducted a series of field detection experiments meant to simulate the mountainous terrains where PFM-1 mines were historically deployed and remain in place. In our tests, 18 inert PFM-1 mines along with the aluminum KSF-1 casing were randomly dispersed to mimic an ellipsoidal minefield of 8-10 x 18-20 m dimensions in a de-vegetated rubble yard at Chenango Valley State Park (New York State). We collected multiple thermal infrared imagery datasets focused on these model minefields with the FLIR Vue Pro R attached to the 3DR Solo UAV flying at approximately at 2 m. We identified different environmental variables to constrain the optimal time of day and daily temperature variations to reveal presence of these plastic UXOs. We show that in the early-morning hours when thermal inertia is greatest, the PFM-1 mines can be detected based on their differential thermal inertia. Because the mines have statistically different temperatures than background and a characteristic shape, we were able to train a

  12. Quantitative spatially resolved measurement of tissue chromophore concentrations using photoacoustic spectroscopy: application to the measurement of blood oxygenation and haemoglobin concentration

    Laufer, Jan; Delpy, Dave; Elwell, Clare; Beard, Paul

    2007-01-01

    A new approach based on pulsed photoacoustic spectroscopy for non-invasively quantifying tissue chromophore concentrations with high spatial resolution has been developed. The technique is applicable to the quantification of tissue chromophores such as oxyhaemoglobin (HbO2) and deoxyhaemoglobin (HHb) for the measurement of physiological parameters such as blood oxygen saturation (SO2) and total haemoglobin concentration. It can also be used to quantify the local accumulation of targeted contrast agents used in photoacoustic molecular imaging. The technique employs a model-based inversion scheme to recover the chromophore concentrations from photoacoustic measurements. This comprises a numerical forward model of the detected time-dependent photoacoustic signal that incorporates a multiwavelength diffusion-based finite element light propagation model to describe the light transport and a time-domain acoustic model to describe the generation, propagation and detection of the photoacoustic wave. The forward model is then inverted by iteratively fitting it to measurements of photoacoustic signals acquired at different wavelengths to recover the chromophore concentrations. To validate this approach, photoacoustic signals were generated in a tissue phantom using nanosecond laser pulses between 740 nm and 1040 nm. The tissue phantom comprised a suspension of intralipid, blood and a near-infrared dye in which three tubes were immersed. Blood at physiological haemoglobin concentrations and oxygen saturation levels ranging from 2% to 100% was circulated through the tubes. The signal amplitude from different temporal sections of the detected photoacoustic waveforms was plotted as a function of wavelength and the forward model fitted to these data to recover the concentrations of HbO2 and HHb, total haemoglobin concentration and SO2. The performance was found to compare favourably to that of a laboratory CO-oximeter with measurement resolutions of ±3.8 g l-1 (±58 µM) and ±4

  13. Quantitative spatially resolved measurement of tissue chromophore concentrations using photoacoustic spectroscopy: application to the measurement of blood oxygenation and haemoglobin concentration

    Laufer, Jan; Delpy, Dave; Elwell, Clare; Beard, Paul [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, Malet Place Engineering Building, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-07

    A new approach based on pulsed photoacoustic spectroscopy for non-invasively quantifying tissue chromophore concentrations with high spatial resolution has been developed. The technique is applicable to the quantification of tissue chromophores such as oxyhaemoglobin (HbO{sub 2}) and deoxyhaemoglobin (HHb) for the measurement of physiological parameters such as blood oxygen saturation (SO{sub 2}) and total haemoglobin concentration. It can also be used to quantify the local accumulation of targeted contrast agents used in photoacoustic molecular imaging. The technique employs a model-based inversion scheme to recover the chromophore concentrations from photoacoustic measurements. This comprises a numerical forward model of the detected time-dependent photoacoustic signal that incorporates a multiwavelength diffusion-based finite element light propagation model to describe the light transport and a time-domain acoustic model to describe the generation, propagation and detection of the photoacoustic wave. The forward model is then inverted by iteratively fitting it to measurements of photoacoustic signals acquired at different wavelengths to recover the chromophore concentrations. To validate this approach, photoacoustic signals were generated in a tissue phantom using nanosecond laser pulses between 740 nm and 1040 nm. The tissue phantom comprised a suspension of intralipid, blood and a near-infrared dye in which three tubes were immersed. Blood at physiological haemoglobin concentrations and oxygen saturation levels ranging from 2% to 100% was circulated through the tubes. The signal amplitude from different temporal sections of the detected photoacoustic waveforms was plotted as a function of wavelength and the forward model fitted to these data to recover the concentrations of HbO{sub 2} and HHb, total haemoglobin concentration and SO{sub 2}. The performance was found to compare favourably to that of a laboratory CO-oximeter with measurement resolutions of {+-}3

  14. Quantitative spatially resolved measurement of tissue chromophore concentrations using photoacoustic spectroscopy: application to the measurement of blood oxygenation and haemoglobin concentration

    Laufer, Jan; Delpy, Dave; Elwell, Clare; Beard, Paul

    2007-01-01

    A new approach based on pulsed photoacoustic spectroscopy for non-invasively quantifying tissue chromophore concentrations with high spatial resolution has been developed. The technique is applicable to the quantification of tissue chromophores such as oxyhaemoglobin (HbO 2 ) and deoxyhaemoglobin (HHb) for the measurement of physiological parameters such as blood oxygen saturation (SO 2 ) and total haemoglobin concentration. It can also be used to quantify the local accumulation of targeted contrast agents used in photoacoustic molecular imaging. The technique employs a model-based inversion scheme to recover the chromophore concentrations from photoacoustic measurements. This comprises a numerical forward model of the detected time-dependent photoacoustic signal that incorporates a multiwavelength diffusion-based finite element light propagation model to describe the light transport and a time-domain acoustic model to describe the generation, propagation and detection of the photoacoustic wave. The forward model is then inverted by iteratively fitting it to measurements of photoacoustic signals acquired at different wavelengths to recover the chromophore concentrations. To validate this approach, photoacoustic signals were generated in a tissue phantom using nanosecond laser pulses between 740 nm and 1040 nm. The tissue phantom comprised a suspension of intralipid, blood and a near-infrared dye in which three tubes were immersed. Blood at physiological haemoglobin concentrations and oxygen saturation levels ranging from 2% to 100% was circulated through the tubes. The signal amplitude from different temporal sections of the detected photoacoustic waveforms was plotted as a function of wavelength and the forward model fitted to these data to recover the concentrations of HbO 2 and HHb, total haemoglobin concentration and SO 2 . The performance was found to compare favourably to that of a laboratory CO-oximeter with measurement resolutions of ±3.8 g l -1 (±58

  15. Fully Automated Lipid Pool Detection Using Near Infrared Spectroscopy

    Elżbieta Pociask

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Detecting and identifying vulnerable plaque, which is prone to rupture, is still a challenge for cardiologist. Such lipid core-containing plaque is still not identifiable by everyday angiography, thus triggering the need to develop a new tool where NIRS-IVUS can visualize plaque characterization in terms of its chemical and morphologic characteristic. The new tool can lead to the development of new methods of interpreting the newly obtained data. In this study, the algorithm to fully automated lipid pool detection on NIRS images is proposed. Method. Designed algorithm is divided into four stages: preprocessing (image enhancement, segmentation of artifacts, detection of lipid areas, and calculation of Lipid Core Burden Index. Results. A total of 31 NIRS chemograms were analyzed by two methods. The metrics, total LCBI, maximal LCBI in 4 mm blocks, and maximal LCBI in 2 mm blocks, were calculated to compare presented algorithm with commercial available system. Both intraclass correlation (ICC and Bland-Altman plots showed good agreement and correlation between used methods. Conclusions. Proposed algorithm is fully automated lipid pool detection on near infrared spectroscopy images. It is a tool developed for offline data analysis, which could be easily augmented for newer functions and projects.

  16. Co-registered photoacoustic, thermoacoustic, and ultrasound mouse imaging

    Reinecke, Daniel R.; Kruger, Robert A.; Lam, Richard B.; DelRio, Stephen P.

    2010-02-01

    We have constructed and tested a prototype test bed that allows us to form 3D photoacoustic CT images using near-infrared (NIR) irradiation (700 - 900 nm), 3D thermoacoustic CT images using microwave irradiation (434 MHz), and 3D ultrasound images from a commercial ultrasound scanner. The device utilizes a vertically oriented, curved array to capture the photoacoustic and thermoacoustic data. In addition, an 8-MHz linear array fixed in a horizontal position provides the ultrasound data. The photoacoustic and thermoacoustic data sets are co-registered exactly because they use the same detector. The ultrasound data set requires only simple corrections to co-register its images. The photoacoustic, thermoacoustic, and ultrasound images of mouse anatomy reveal complementary anatomic information as they exploit different contrast mechanisms. The thermoacoustic images differentiate between muscle, fat and bone. The photoacoustic images reveal the hemoglobin distribution, which is localized predominantly in the vascular space. The ultrasound images provide detailed information about the bony structures. Superposition of all three images onto a co-registered hybrid image shows the potential of a trimodal photoacoustic-thermoacoustic-ultrasound small-animal imaging system.

  17. Resonant detectors and focal plane arrays for infrared detection

    Choi, K. K.; Allen, S. C.; Sun, J. G.; DeCuir, E. A.

    2017-08-01

    We are developing resonator-QWIPs for narrowband and broadband long wavelength infrared detection. Detector pixels with 25 μm and 30 μm pitches were hybridized to fanout circuits and readout integrated electronics for radiometric measurements. With a low to moderate doping of 0.2-0.5 × 1018 cm-3 and a thin active layer thickness of 0.6-1.3 μm, we achieved a quantum efficiency between 25 and 37% and a conversion efficiency between of 15 and 20%. The temperature at which photocurrent equals dark current is about 65 K under F/2 optics for a cutoff wavelength up to 11 μm. The NEΔT of the FPAs is estimated to be 20 mK at 2 ms integration time and 60 K operating temperature. This good performance confirms the advantages of the resonator-QWIP approach.

  18. Pedestrian detection in infrared image using HOG and Autoencoder

    Chen, Tianbiao; Zhang, Hao; Shi, Wenjie; Zhang, Yu

    2017-11-01

    In order to guarantee the safety of driving at night, vehicle-mounted night vision system was used to detect pedestrian in front of cars and send alarm to prevent the potential dangerous. To decrease the false positive rate (FPR) and increase the true positive rate (TPR), a pedestrian detection method based on HOG and Autoencoder (HOG+Autoencoder) was presented. Firstly, the HOG features of input images were computed and encoded by Autoencoder. Then the encoded features were classified by Softmax. In the process of training, Autoencoder was trained unsupervised. Softmax was trained with supervision. Autoencoder and Softmax were stacked into a model and fine-tuned by labeled images. Experiment was conducted to compare the detection performance between HOG and HOG+Autoencoder, using images collected by vehicle-mounted infrared camera. There were 80000 images for training set and 20000 for the testing set, with a rate of 1:3 between positive and negative images. The result shows that when TPR is 95%, FPR of HOG+Autoencoder is 0.4%, while the FPR of HOG is 5% with the same TPR.

  19. Photoacoustic imaging of blood vessels with a double-ring sensor featuring a narrow angular aperture

    Kolkman, R.G.M.; Hondebrink, Erwin; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; van Leeuwen, Ton; de Mul, F.F.M.

    2004-01-01

    A photoacoustic double-ring sensor, featuring a narrow angular aperture, is developed for laser-induced photoacoustic imaging of blood vessels. An integrated optical fiber enables reflection-mode detection of ultrasonic waves. By using the cross-correlation between the signals detected by the two

  20. Molecular photoacoustic imaging

    Frogh Jafarian Dehkordi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hybrid imaging modalities which simultaneously benefit from capabilities of combined modalities provides an opportunity to modify quality of the images which can be obtained by each of the combined imaging systems. One of the imaging modalities, emerged in medical research area as a hybrid of ultrasound imaging and optical imaging, is photoacoustic imaging which apply ultrasound wave generated by tissue, after receiving laser pulse, to produce medical images. Materials and Methods: In this review, using keywords such as photoacoustic, optoacoustic, laser-ultrasound, thermoacoustic at databases such as PubMed and ISI, studies performed in the field of photoacoustic and related findings were evaluated. Results: Photoacoustic imaging, acquiring images with high contrast and desired resolution, provides an opportunity to perform physiologic and anatomic studies. Because this technique does not use ionizing radiation, it is not restricted by the limitation of the ionizing-based imaging systems therefore it can be used noninvasively to make images from cell, vessels, whole body imaging of the animal and distinguish tumor from normal tissue. Conclusion: Photoacoustic imaging is a new method in preclinical researches which can be used in various physiologic and anatomic studies. This method, because of application of non-ionizing radiation, may resolve limitation of radiation based method in diagnostic assessments.

  1. Is the aerosol emission detectable in the thermal infrared?

    Hollweg, H.-D.; Bakan, S.; Taylor, J. P.

    2006-08-01

    The impact of aerosols on the thermal infrared radiation can be assessed by combining observations and radiative transfer calculations. Both have uncertainties, which are discussed in this paper. Observational uncertainties are obtained for two FTIR instruments operated side by side on the ground during the LACE 1998 field campaign. Radiative transfer uncertainties are assessed using a line-by-line model taking into account the uncertainties of the HITRAN 2004 spectroscopic database, uncertainties in the determination of the atmospheric profiles of water vapor and ozone, and differences in the treatment of the water vapor continuum absorption by the CKD 2.4.1 and MT_CKD 1.0 algorithms. The software package OPAC was used to describe the optical properties of aerosols for climate modeling. The corresponding radiative signature is a guideline to the assessment of the uncertainty ranges of observations and models. We found that the detection of aerosols depends strongly on the measurement accuracy of atmospheric profiles of water vapor and ozone and is easier for drier conditions. Within the atmospheric window, only the forcing of downward radiation at the surface by desert aerosol emerges clearly from the uncertainties of modeling and FTIR measurement. Urban and polluted continental aerosols are only partially detectable depending on the wave number and on the atmospheric water vapor amount. Simulations for the space-borne interferometer IASI show that only upward radiation above transported mineral dust aloft emerges out of the uncertainties. The detection of aerosols with weak radiative impact by FTIR instruments like ARIES and OASIS is made difficult by noise as demonstrated by the signal to noise ratio for clean continental aerosols. Altogether, the uncertainties found suggest that it is difficult to detect the optical depths of nonmineral and unpolluted aerosols.

  2. Simple Model of a Photoacoustic System as a CR Circuit

    Fukuhara, Akiko; Kaneko, Fumitoshi; Ogawa, Naohisa

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the photoacoustic educational system (PAES), by which we can identify which gas causes the greenhouse effect in a classroom (Kaneko "et al" 2010 "J. Chem. Educ." 87 202-4). PAES is an experimental system in which a pulse of infrared (IR) is absorbed into gas as internal energy, an oscillation of pressure (sound) appears, and then we…

  3. Quantitative imaging of bilirubin by photoacoustic microscopy

    Zhou, Yong; Zhang, Chi; Yao, Da-Kang; Wang, Lihong V.

    2013-03-01

    Noninvasive detection of both bilirubin concentration and its distribution is important for disease diagnosis. Here we implemented photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) to detect bilirubin distribution. We first demonstrate that our PAM system can measure the absorption spectra of bilirubin and blood. We also image bilirubin distributions in tissuemimicking samples, both without and with blood mixed. Our results show that PAM has the potential to quantitatively image bilirubin in vivo for clinical applications.

  4. Photoacoustic imaging of teeth for dentine imaging and enamel characterization

    Periyasamy, Vijitha; Rangaraj, Mani; Pramanik, Manojit

    2018-02-01

    Early detection of dental caries, cracks and lesions is needed to prevent complicated root canal treatment and tooth extraction procedures. Resolution of clinically used x-ray imaging is low, hence optical imaging techniques such as optical coherence tomography, fluorescence imaging, and Raman imaging are widely experimented for imaging dental structures. Photoacoustic effect is used in photon induced photoacoustic streaming technique to debride the root canal. In this study, the extracted teeth were imaged using photoacoustic tomography system at 1064 nm. The degradation of enamel and dentine is an indicator of onset of dental caries. Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) was used to study the tooth enamel. Images were acquired using acoustic resolution PAM system. This was done to identify microscopic cracks and dental lesion at different anatomical sites (crown and cementum). The PAM tooth profile is an indicator of calcium distribution which is essential for demineralization studies.

  5. Methylene blue microbubbles as a model dual-modality contrast agent for ultrasound and activatable photoacoustic imaging

    Jeon, Mansik; Song, Wentao; Huynh, Elizabeth; Kim, Jungho; Kim, Jeesu; Helfield, Brandon L.; Leung, Ben Y. C.; Goertz, David E.; Zheng, Gang; Oh, Jungtaek; Lovell, Jonathan F.; Kim, Chulhong

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging are highly complementary modalities since both use ultrasonic detection for operation. Increasingly, photoacoustic and ultrasound have been integrated in terms of hardware instrumentation. To generate a broadly accessible dual-modality contrast agent, we generated microbubbles (a standard ultrasound contrast agent) in a solution of methylene blue (a standard photoacoustic dye). This MB2 solution was formed effectively and was optimized as a dual-modality contrast solution. As microbubble concentration increased (with methylene blue concentration constant), photoacoustic signal was attenuated in the MB2 solution. When methylene blue concentration increased (with microbubble concentration held constant), no ultrasonic interference was observed. Using an MB2 solution that strongly attenuated all photoacoustic signal, high powered ultrasound could be used to burst the microbubbles and dramatically enhance photoacoustic contrast (>800-fold increase), providing a new method for spatiotemporal control of photoacoustic signal generation.

  6. Graphene-based ultrasonic detector for photoacoustic imaging

    Yang, Fan; Song, Wei; Zhang, Chonglei; Fang, Hui; Min, Changjun; Yuan, Xiaocong

    2018-03-01

    Taking advantage of optical absorption imaging contrast, photoacoustic imaging technology is able to map the volumetric distribution of the optical absorption properties within biological tissues. Unfortunately, traditional piezoceramics-based transducers used in most photoacoustic imaging setups have inadequate frequency response, resulting in both poor depth resolution and inaccurate quantification of the optical absorption information. Instead of the piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer, we develop a graphene-based optical sensor for detecting photoacoustic pressure. The refractive index in the coupling medium is modulated due to photoacoustic pressure perturbation, which creates the variation of the polarization-sensitive optical absorption property of the graphene. As a result, the photoacoustic detection is realized through recording the reflectance intensity difference of polarization light. The graphene-based detector process an estimated noise-equivalentpressure (NEP) sensitivity of 550 Pa over 20-MHz bandwidth with a nearby linear pressure response from 11.0 kPa to 53.0 kPa. Further, a graphene-based photoacoustic microscopy is built, and non-invasively reveals the microvascular anatomy in mouse ears label-freely.

  7. Near-infrared imaging spectroscopy for counterfeit drug detection

    Arnold, Thomas; De Biasio, Martin; Leitner, Raimund

    2011-06-01

    Pharmaceutical counterfeiting is a significant issue in the healthcare community as well as for the pharmaceutical industry worldwide. The use of counterfeit medicines can result in treatment failure or even death. A rapid screening technique such as near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy could aid in the search for and identification of counterfeit drugs. This work presents a comparison of two laboratory NIR imaging systems and the chemometric analysis of the acquired spectroscopic image data. The first imaging system utilizes a NIR liquid crystal tuneable filter and is designed for the investigation of stationary objects. The second imaging system utilizes a NIR imaging spectrograph and is designed for the fast analysis of moving objects on a conveyor belt. Several drugs in form of tablets and capsules were analyzed. Spectral unmixing techniques were applied to the mixed reflectance spectra to identify constituent parts of the investigated drugs. The results show that NIR spectroscopic imaging can be used for contact-less detection and identification of a variety of counterfeit drugs.

  8. Using aerial infrared thermography to detect utility theft of service

    Stockton, Gregory R.; Lucas, R. Gillem

    2012-06-01

    Natural gas and electric utility companies, public utility commissions, consumer advocacy groups, city governments, state governments and the federal government United States continue to turn a blind eye towards utility energy theft of service which we conservatively estimate is in excess of 10 billion a year. Why? Many in the United States have exhausted their unemployment benefits. The amounts for federal funding for low income heating assistance programs (LIHEAP) funds were cut by nearly 40% for 2012 to 3.02 billion. "At peak funding ($5.1 billion in 2009), the program was national in scale but still only had enough resources to support roughly 1/4 of the eligible households.i" Contributions to charities are down and the number of families below the poverty line who are unable to pay to heat their houses continues to rise. Many of the less fortunate in our society now consider theft and fraud to be an attractive option for their supply of natural gas and/or electricity. A record high mild winter in 2011-2012 coupled with 10-year low natural gas prices temporarily obscured the need for low income heating assistance programs (LIHEAPs) from the news and federal budgets, but cold winters will return. The proliferation of smart meters and automated meter infrastructures across our nation can do little to detect energy theft because the thieves can simply by-pass the meters, jumper around the meters and/or steal meters from abandoned houses and use them. Many utility systems were never set-up to stop these types of theft. Even with low-cost per identified thief method using aerial infrared thermography, utilities continue to ignore theft detection.

  9. Photoacoustic Sounds from Meteors

    Spalding, R.; Tencer, J.; Sweatt, W.; Conley, B.; Hogan, R.; Boslough, M.B.; Gonzales, G.; Spurný, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, February (2017), 41251/1-41251/6 ISSN 2045-2322 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : photoacoustic coupling * experimental results * numerical models Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  10. Photoacoustics: a historical review

    Manohar, Srirang; Razansky, D.

    2016-01-01

    We review the history of photoacoustics from the discovery in 1880 that modulated light produces acoustic waves to the current time, when the pulsed variant of the discovery is fast developing into a powerful biomedical imaging modality. We trace the meandering and fascinating passage of the effect

  11. Photoacoustic thermal flowmetry with a single light source

    Liu, Wei; Lan, Bangxin; Hu, Leo; Chen, Ruimin; Zhou, Qifa; Yao, Junjie

    2017-09-01

    We report a photoacoustic thermal flowmetry based on optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) using a single laser source for both thermal tagging and photoacoustic excitation. When an optically absorbing medium is flowing across the optical focal zone of OR-PAM, a small volume of the medium within the optical focus is repeatedly illuminated and heated by a train of laser pulses with a high repetition rate. The average temperature of the heated volume at each laser pulse is indicated by the photoacoustic signal excited by the same laser pulse due to the well-established linear relationship between the Grueneisen coefficient and the local temperature. The thermal dynamics of the heated medium volume, which are closely related to the flow speed, can therefore be measured from the time course of the detected photoacoustic signals. Here, we have developed a lumped mathematical model to describe the time course of the photoacoustic signals as a function of the medium's flow speed. We conclude that the rising time constant of the photoacoustic signals is linearly dependent on the flow speed. Thus, the flow speed can be quantified by fitting the measured photoacoustic signals using the derived mathematical model. We first performed proof-of-concept experiments using defibrinated bovine blood flowing in a plastic tube. The experiment results have demonstrated that the proposed method has high accuracy (˜±6%) and a wide range of measurable flow speeds. We further validated the method by measuring the blood flow speeds of the microvasculature in a mouse ear in vivo.

  12. Quartz-Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy: A Review

    Patimisco, Pietro; Scamarcio, Gaetano; Tittel, Frank K.; Spagnolo, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    A detailed review on the development of quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensors (QEPAS) for the sensitive and selective quantification of molecular trace gas species with resolved spectroscopic features is reported. The basis of the QEPAS technique, the technology available to support this field in terms of key components, such as light sources and quartz-tuning forks and the recent developments in detection methods and performance limitations will be discussed. Furthermore, different experimental QEPAS methods such as: on-beam and off-beam QEPAS, quartz-enhanced evanescent wave photoacoustic detection, modulation-cancellation approach and mid-IR single mode fiber-coupled sensor systems will be reviewed and analysed. A QEPAS sensor operating in the THz range, employing a custom-made quartz-tuning fork and a THz quantum cascade laser will be also described. Finally, we evaluated data reported during the past decade and draw relevant and useful conclusions from this analysis. PMID:24686729

  13. Quartz-Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy: A Review

    Pietro Patimisco

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A detailed review on the development of quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensors (QEPAS for the sensitive and selective quantification of molecular trace gas species with resolved spectroscopic features is reported. The basis of the QEPAS technique, the technology available to support this field in terms of key components, such as light sources and quartz-tuning forks and the recent developments in detection methods and performance limitations will be discussed. Furthermore, different experimental QEPAS methods such as: on-beam and off-beam QEPAS, quartz-enhanced evanescent wave photoacoustic detection, modulation-cancellation approach and mid-IR single mode fiber-coupled sensor systems will be reviewed and analysed. A QEPAS sensor operating in the THz range, employing a custom-made quartz-tuning fork and a THz quantum cascade laser will be also described. Finally, we evaluated data reported during the past decade and draw relevant and useful conclusions from this analysis.

  14. Study on the Micro Crack Detection in Joints by Using Ultrasound Infrared Thermography

    Park, Hee Sang; Choi, Man Yong; Park, Jeong Hak; Lee, Seung Seok; Huh, Yong Hak; Lee, Bo Young; Jae Seong

    2012-01-01

    This study detected SCC defects of dissimilar metal welded(STS304 and SA106 Gr. b) pipes using the ultrasonic infrared thermography method and the lock-in image treatment method among infrared thermography method. The infrared excitement equipment has 250 Watt of output and 20 kHz of frequency. By using the ultrasound infrared thermography method, the internal defects of dissimilar metal weld joints of pipes used at nuclear power plants could get detected. By an actual PT test, it was observed that the cracks inside the pipe existed not as a single crack but rather as a multiple cracks within a certain area and generated a hot spot image of a broad area on the thermography image. In addition, UT technology could not easily defects detected by the width of 10 μm fine hair cracks. but, ultrasound infrared thermography technique was defect detected

  15. Intracavity Laser Photoacoustic Spectrometer with High Sensitivity

    Mitrayana; Muslim; Wasono, M.A.J.

    2002-01-01

    A photo acoustic spectrometer set-up has been upgraded from an extra cavity into an intracavity configuration using a sealed-off CO 2 laser as the spectrometer's radiation source. The detection level of the upgrade Intracavity Photoacoustic Spectrometer (IPS) reached (200 ± 50) ppt for C 2 H 4 and (20 ± 5) ppt for SF 6 with response time (6.6 ± 0.2) s. (author)

  16. Human Movement Detection and Identification Using Pyroelectric Infrared Sensors

    Jaeseok Yun

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Pyroelectric infrared (PIR sensors are widely used as a presence trigger, but the analog output of PIR sensors depends on several other aspects, including the distance of the body from the PIR sensor, the direction and speed of movement, the body shape and gait. In this paper, we present an empirical study of human movement detection and identification using a set of PIR sensors. We have developed a data collection module having two pairs of PIR sensors orthogonally aligned and modified Fresnel lenses. We have placed three PIR-based modules in a hallway for monitoring people; one module on the ceiling; two modules on opposite walls facing each other. We have collected a data set from eight subjects when walking in three different conditions: two directions (back and forth, three distance intervals (close to one wall sensor, in the middle, close to the other wall sensor and three speed levels (slow, moderate, fast. We have used two types of feature sets: a raw data set and a reduced feature set composed of amplitude and time to peaks; and passage duration extracted from each PIR sensor. We have performed classification analysis with well-known machine learning algorithms, including instance-based learning and support vector machine. Our findings show that with the raw data set captured from a single PIR sensor of each of the three modules, we could achieve more than 92% accuracy in classifying the direction and speed of movement, the distance interval and identifying subjects. We could also achieve more than 94% accuracy in classifying the direction, speed and distance and identifying subjects using the reduced feature set extracted from two pairs of PIR sensors of each of the three modules.

  17. Minimum detectable gas concentration performance evaluation method for gas leak infrared imaging detection systems.

    Zhang, Xu; Jin, Weiqi; Li, Jiakun; Wang, Xia; Li, Shuo

    2017-04-01

    Thermal imaging technology is an effective means of detecting hazardous gas leaks. Much attention has been paid to evaluation of the performance of gas leak infrared imaging detection systems due to several potential applications. The minimum resolvable temperature difference (MRTD) and the minimum detectable temperature difference (MDTD) are commonly used as the main indicators of thermal imaging system performance. This paper establishes a minimum detectable gas concentration (MDGC) performance evaluation model based on the definition and derivation of MDTD. We proposed the direct calculation and equivalent calculation method of MDGC based on the MDTD measurement system. We build an experimental MDGC measurement system, which indicates the MDGC model can describe the detection performance of a thermal imaging system to typical gases. The direct calculation, equivalent calculation, and direct measurement results are consistent. The MDGC and the minimum resolvable gas concentration (MRGC) model can effectively describe the performance of "detection" and "spatial detail resolution" of thermal imaging systems to gas leak, respectively, and constitute the main performance indicators of gas leak detection systems.

  18. In vivo Photoacoustic Imaging of Prostate Cancer Using Targeted Contrast Agent

    2016-11-01

    AD______________ AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0242 TITLE: In Vivo Photoacoustic Imaging of Prostate Cancer Using Targeted Contrast Agent PRINCIPAL...TITLE AND SUBTITLE In vivo Photoacoustic Imaging of Prostate Cancer Using T argeted Contrast Agent 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0242 5b. GRANT...diagnose prostate cancer based on the near-infrared optical absorption of either endogenous tissue constituents or exogenous contrast agents . Although

  19. Discrimination of the glucose and the white sugar based on the pulsed laser-induced photoacoustic technique

    Ren, Zhong; Liu, Guodong

    2017-08-01

    In this study, to discriminate the glucose and the white sugar gradient in the food, a noninvasive optical detection system based on pulsed laser-induced photoacoustic technique was developed. Meanwhile, the Nd: YAG 532nm pumped OPO pulsed laser was used as the excitation light source to generate of the photoacoustic signals of the glucose and white sugar. The focused ultrasonic transducer with central detection frequency of 1MHz was used to capture the photoacoustic signals. In experiments, the real-time photoacoustic signals of the glucose and the white sugar aqueous solutions were gotten and compared with each other. In addition, to discriminate the difference of the characteristic photoacoustic signals between both of them, the difference spectrum and the first order derivative technique between the peak-to-peak photoacoustic signals of the water and that of the glucose and white sugar were employed. The difference characteristic photoacoustic wavelengths between the glucose and the white sugar were found based on the established photoacoustic detection system. This study provides the potential possibility for the discrimination of the glucose and the white sugar by using the photoacoustic detection method.

  20. Improved photoacoustic dosimetry for retinal laser surgery

    Dufour, Suzie; Brown, Robert B.; Gallant, Pascal; Mermut, Ozzy

    2018-02-01

    Lasers are employed for numerous medical interventions by exploiting ablative, disruptive or thermal effects. In ocular procedures, lasers have been used for decades to treat diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, macular edema and aged related macular degeneration via photocoagulation of retinal tissues. Although laser photocoagulation is well established in today's practice, efforts to improve clinical outcomes by reducing the collateral damage from thermal diffusion is leading to novel treatments using shorter (μs) laser pulses (e.g. selective retinal therapy) which result in physical rather than thermal damage. However, for these new techniques to be widely utilized, a method is required to ensure safe but sufficient dosage has been applied, since no visible effects can be seen by ophthalmoscopy directly post treatment. Photoacoustic feedback presents an attractive solution, as the signal is dependent directly on absorbed dosage. Here, we present a method that takes advantage of temporal pulse formatting technology to minimize variation in absorbed dose in ophthalmic laser treatment and provide intelligent dosimetry feedback based on photoacoustic (PA) response. This method tailors the pulse to match the frequency response of the sample and/or detection chain. Depending on the system, this may include the absorbing particle size, the laser beam diameter, the laser pulse duration, tissue acoustic properties and the acoustic detector frequency response. A significant improvement (<7x) of photoacoustic signal-to-noise ratio over equivalent traditional pulse formats have been achieved, while spectral analysis of the detected signal provides indications of cavitation events and other sample properties.

  1. PHOTOACOUSTIC NON-DESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION AND IMAGING OF CARIES IN DENTAL SAMPLES

    Li, T.; Dewhurst, R. J.

    2010-01-01

    Dental caries is a disease wherein bacterial processes damage hard tooth structure. Traditional dental radiography has its limitations for detecting early stage caries. In this study, a photoacoustic (PA) imaging system with the near-infrared light source has been applied to postmortem dental samples to obtain 2-D and 3-D images. Imaging results showed that the PA technique can be used to image human teeth caries. For non-destructive photoacoustic evaluation and imaging, the induced temperature and pressure rises within biotissues should not cause physical damage to the tissue. For example, temperature rises above 5 deg. C within live human teeth will cause pulpal necrosis. Therefore, several simulations based on the thermoelastic effect have been applied to predict temperature and pressure fields within samples. Predicted temperature levels are below corresponding safety limits, but care is required to avoid nonlinear absorption phenomena. Furthermore, PA imaging results from the phantom provide evidence for high sensitivity, which shows the imaging potential of the PA technique for detecting early stage disease.

  2. Infrared thermal imaging for automated detection of diabetic foot complications

    van Netten, Jaap J.; van Baal, Jeff G.; Liu, C.; van der Heijden, Ferdinand; Bus, Sicco A.

    Background: Although thermal imaging can be a valuable technology in the prevention and management of diabetic foot disease, it is not yet widely used in clinical practice. Technological advancement in infrared imaging increases its application range. The aim was to explore the first steps in the

  3. Infrared thermal imaging for automated detection of diabetic foot complications

    van Netten, Jaap J.; van Baal, Jeff G.; Liu, Chanjuan; van der Heijden, Ferdi; Bus, Sicco A.

    2013-01-01

    Although thermal imaging can be a valuable technology in the prevention and management of diabetic foot disease, it is not yet widely used in clinical practice. Technological advancement in infrared imaging increases its application range. The aim was to explore the first steps in the applicability

  4. Coarse to fine aircraft detection from front-looking infrared images

    Lin, Jin; Tan, Yihua; Tian, Jinwen

    2018-03-01

    Due to the weak feature and wide angle of long-distance aircraft targeting in the parking apron from front-looking infrared images, there are always false alarms in aircraft targeting detection. This leads to relatively poor reliability for detection results. In this paper, we present a scene-driven coarse-to-fine aircraft target detection method. First, we preprocess the image by combining the sharpened and enhanced images. Second, the region of interest (ROI) is segmented by using the local mean variance of the image and a series of subsequent processing. Then, target candidate areas are located by using the feature of local marginal distributions. Lastly, aircrafts can be detected accurately by a novel aircraft shape filter. Experiments on three infrared image sequences have shown that the presented method is effective and robust in detecting long-distance aircraft from front-looking infrared images and can also improve the reliability of the detection results.

  5. Recursive estimation techniques for detection of small objects in infrared image data

    Zeidler, J. R.; Soni, T.; Ku, W. H.

    1992-04-01

    This paper describes a recursive detection scheme for point targets in infrared (IR) images. Estimation of the background noise is done using a weighted autocorrelation matrix update method and the detection statistic is calculated using a recursive technique. A weighting factor allows the algorithm to have finite memory and deal with nonstationary noise characteristics. The detection statistic is created by using a matched filter for colored noise, using the estimated noise autocorrelation matrix. The relationship between the weighting factor, the nonstationarity of the noise and the probability of detection is described. Some results on one- and two-dimensional infrared images are presented.

  6. Ship detection based on rotation-invariant HOG descriptors for airborne infrared images

    Xu, Guojing; Wang, Jinyan; Qi, Shengxiang

    2018-03-01

    Infrared thermal imagery is widely used in various kinds of aircraft because of its all-time application. Meanwhile, detecting ships from infrared images attract lots of research interests in recent years. In the case of downward-looking infrared imagery, in order to overcome the uncertainty of target imaging attitude due to the unknown position relationship between the aircraft and the target, we propose a new infrared ship detection method which integrates rotation invariant gradient direction histogram (Circle Histogram of Oriented Gradient, C-HOG) descriptors and the support vector machine (SVM) classifier. In details, the proposed method uses HOG descriptors to express the local feature of infrared images to adapt to changes in illumination and to overcome sea clutter effects. Different from traditional computation of HOG descriptor, we subdivide the image into annular spatial bins instead of rectangle sub-regions, and then Radial Gradient Transform (RGT) on the gradient is applied to achieve rotation invariant histogram information. Considering the engineering application of airborne and real-time requirements, we use SVM for training ship target and non-target background infrared sample images to discriminate real ships from false targets. Experimental results show that the proposed method has good performance in both the robustness and run-time for infrared ship target detection with different rotation angles.

  7. Detection algorithm of infrared small target based on improved SUSAN operator

    Liu, Xingmiao; Wang, Shicheng; Zhao, Jing

    2010-10-01

    The methods of detecting small moving targets in infrared image sequences that contain moving nuisance objects and background noise is analyzed in this paper. A novel infrared small target detection algorithm based on improved SUSAN operator is put forward. The algorithm selects double templates for the infrared small target detection: one size is greater than the small target point size and another size is equal to the small target point size. First, the algorithm uses the big template to calculate the USAN of each pixel in the image and detect the small target, the edge of the image and isolated noise pixels; Then the algorithm uses the another template to calculate the USAN of pixels detected in the first step and improves the principles of SUSAN algorithm based on the characteristics of the small target so that the algorithm can only detect small targets and don't sensitive to the edge pixels of the image and isolated noise pixels. So the interference of the edge of the image and isolate noise points are removed and the candidate target points can be identified; At last, the target is detected by utilizing the continuity and consistency of target movement. The experimental results indicate that the improved SUSAN detection algorithm can quickly and effectively detect the infrared small targets.

  8. An experimental and theoretical approach to the study of the photoacoustic signal produced by cancer cells

    Rafael Pérez Solano

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The distinctive spectral absorption characteristics of cancer cells make photoacoustic techniques useful for detection in vitro and in vivo. Here we report on our evaluation of the photoacoustic signal produced by a series of monolayers of different cell lines in vitro. Only the melanoma cell line HS936 produced a detectable photoacoustic signal in which amplitude was dependent on the number of cells. This finding appears to be related to the amount of melanin available in these cells. Other cell lines (i.e. HL60, SK-Mel-1, T47D, Hela, HT29 and PC12 exhibited values similar to a precursor of melanin (tyrosinase, but failed to produce sufficient melanin to generate a photoacoustic signal that could be distinguished from background noise. To better understand this phenomenon, we determined a formula for the time-domain photoacoustic wave equation for a monolayer of cells in a non-viscous fluid on the thermoelastic regime. The theoretical results showed that the amplitude and profile of the photoacoustic signal generated by a cell monolayer depended upon the number and distribution of the cells and the location of the point of detection. These findings help to provide a better understanding of the factors involved in the generation of a photoacoustic signal produced by different cells in vitro and in vivo.

  9. Detecting ship targets in spaceborne infrared image based on modeling radiation anomalies

    Wang, Haibo; Zou, Zhengxia; Shi, Zhenwei; Li, Bo

    2017-09-01

    Using infrared imaging sensors to detect ship target in the ocean environment has many advantages compared to other sensor modalities, such as better thermal sensitivity and all-weather detection capability. We propose a new ship detection method by modeling radiation anomalies for spaceborne infrared image. The proposed method can be decomposed into two stages, where in the first stage, a test infrared image is densely divided into a set of image patches and the radiation anomaly of each patch is estimated by a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM), and thereby target candidates are obtained from anomaly image patches. In the second stage, target candidates are further checked by a more discriminative criterion to obtain the final detection result. The main innovation of the proposed method is inspired by the biological mechanism that human eyes are sensitive to the unusual and anomalous patches among complex background. The experimental result on short wavelength infrared band (1.560 - 2.300 μm) and long wavelength infrared band (10.30 - 12.50 μm) of Landsat-8 satellite shows the proposed method achieves a desired ship detection accuracy with higher recall than other classical ship detection methods.

  10. Clinical photoacoustic imaging of cancer

    Valluru, Keerthi S.; Willmann, Juergen K. [Dept. of Radiology, Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Photoacoustic imaging is a hybrid technique that shines laser light on tissue and measures optically induced ultrasound signal. There is growing interest in the clinical community over this new technique and its possible clinical applications. One of the most prominent features of photoacoustic imaging is its ability to characterize tissue, leveraging differences in the optical absorption of underlying tissue components such as hemoglobin, lipids, melanin, collagen and water among many others. In this review, the state-of-the-art photoacoustic imaging techniques and some of the key outcomes pertaining to different cancer applications in the clinic are presented.

  11. Detection of leaks in buried rural water pipelines using thermal infrared images

    Eidenshink, Jeffery C.

    1985-01-01

    Leakage is a major problem in many pipelines. Minor leaks called 'seeper leaks', which generally range from 2 to 10 m3 per day, are common and are difficult to detect using conventional ground surveys. The objective of this research was to determine whether airborne thermal-infrared remote sensing could be used in detecting leaks and monitoring rural water pipelines. This study indicates that such leaks can be detected using low-altitude 8.7- to 11.5. micrometer wavelength, thermal infrared images collected under proper conditions.

  12. Photoacoustic spectroscopic differences between normal and malignant thyroid tissues

    Li, Li; Xie, Wengming; Li, Hui

    2012-12-01

    The thyroid is one of the main endocrine glands of human body, which plays a crucial role in the body's metabolism. Thyroid cancer mortality ranks only second to ovarian cancer in endocrine cancer. Routine diagnostic methods of thyroid diseases in present clinic exist misdiagnosis and missed diagnosis to varying degrees. Those lead to miss the best period of cancer treatment--early. Photoacoustic spectroscopy technology is a new tool, which provides an effective and noninvasive way for biomedical materials research, being highly sensitive and without sample pretreatment. In this paper, we use photoacoustic spectroscopy technology (PAST) to detect the absorption spectrum between normal and malignant thyroid tissues. The result shows that the photoacoustic spectroscopy technology (PAST) could differentiate malignant thyroid tissue from normal thyroid tissue very well. This technique combined with routine diagnostic methods has the potential to increase the diagnostic accuracy in clinical thyroid cancer diagnosis.

  13. Infrared processing and sensor fusion for anti-personnel land-mine detection

    Schavemaker, J.G.M.; Cremer, F.; Schutte, K.; Breejen, E. den

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of infrared processing and sensor fusion obtained within the European research project GEODE (Ground Explosive Ordnance DEtection) that strives for the realization of a vehicle-mounted, multi-sensor anti-personnel land-mine detection system for humanitarian

  14. Infrared

    Vollmer, M.

    2013-11-01

    'Infrared' is a very wide field in physics and the natural sciences which has evolved enormously in recent decades. It all started in 1800 with Friedrich Wilhelm Herschel's discovery of infrared (IR) radiation within the spectrum of the Sun. Thereafter a few important milestones towards widespread use of IR were the quantitative description of the laws of blackbody radiation by Max Planck in 1900; the application of quantum mechanics to understand the rotational-vibrational spectra of molecules starting in the first half of the 20th century; and the revolution in source and detector technologies due to micro-technological breakthroughs towards the end of the 20th century. This has led to much high-quality and sophisticated equipment in terms of detectors, sources and instruments in the IR spectral range, with a multitude of different applications in science and technology. This special issue tries to focus on a few aspects of the astonishing variety of different disciplines, techniques and applications concerning the general topic of infrared radiation. Part of the content is based upon an interdisciplinary international conference on the topic held in 2012 in Bad Honnef, Germany. It is hoped that the information provided here may be useful for teaching the general topic of electromagnetic radiation in the IR spectral range in advanced university courses for postgraduate students. In the most general terms, the infrared spectral range is defined to extend from wavelengths of 780 nm (upper range of the VIS spectral range) up to wavelengths of 1 mm (lower end of the microwave range). Various definitions of near, middle and far infrared or thermal infrared, and lately terahertz frequencies, are used, which all fall in this range. These special definitions often depend on the scientific field of research. Unfortunately, many of these fields seem to have developed independently from neighbouring disciplines, although they deal with very similar topics in respect of the

  15. Evaluation of detectable angle of mid-infrared slot antennas

    Obara, R.; Horikawa, J.; Shimakage, H.; Kawakami, A.

    2017-07-01

    For evaluations of a mid-infrared (MIR) detectors with antenna, we constructed an angular dependence measurement system of the antenna properties. The fabricated MIR detector consisted of twin slot antennas and a bolometer. The area of the slot antennas was designed to be 2.6 × 0.2 μm2 as to resonate at 61 THz, and they were located parallel and separated 1.6 μm each other. The bolometer was fabricated using by a 7.0-nm thick NbN thin film, and located at the center of the twin antennas. We measured polarization angle dependence and directivity, and showed that the MIR antennas have polarization dependence and directivity like radiofrequency antennas.

  16. Targeted nanodiamonds as phenotype-specific photoacoustic contrast agents for breast cancer.

    Zhang, Ti; Cui, Huizhong; Fang, Chia-Yi; Cheng, Kun; Yang, Xinmai; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Forrest, M Laird

    2015-03-01

    The aim is to develop irradiated nanodiamonds (INDs) as a molecularly targeted contrast agent for high-resolution and phenotype-specific detection of breast cancer with photoacoustic (PA) imaging. The surface of acid treated radiation-damaged nanodiamonds was grafted with PEG to improve its stability and circulation time in blood, followed by conjugation to an anti-HER2 peptide with a final nanoparticle size of approximately 92 nm. Immunocompetent mice bearing orthotopic HER2-positive or negative tumors were administered INDs and PA imaged using an 820-nm near-infrared laser. PA images demonstrated that INDs accumulate in tumors and completely delineated the entire tumor within 10 h. HER2 targeting significantly enhanced imaging of HER2-positive tumors. Pathological examination demonstrated INDs are nontoxic. PA technology is adaptable to low-cost bedside medicine, and with new contrast agents described herein, PA can achieve high-resolution (sub-mm) and phenotype-specific monitoring of cancer growth.

  17. Using high-power light emitting diodes for photoacoustic imaging

    Hansen, R. S.

    2011-01-01

    for the experiment consists of a 3mm high x 5mm wide slice of green colored gelatine overlaid by a 3cm layer of colorless gelatine. The light pulses from the LED is focused on the green gelatine. The photoacoustic response from the green gelatine is detected by a single transducer on the opposite (top) surface...

  18. Vascular elastic photoacoustic tomography in humans

    Hai, Pengfei; Zhou, Yong; Liang, Jinyang; Li, Chiye; Wang, Lihong V.

    2016-03-01

    Quantification of vascular elasticity can help detect thrombosis and prevent life-threatening conditions such as acute myocardial infarction or stroke. Here, we propose vascular elastic photoacoustic tomography (VE-PAT) to measure vascular elasticity in humans. VE-PAT was developed by incorporating a linear-array-based photoacoustic computed tomography system with a customized compression stage. By measuring the deformation of blood vessels under uniaxial loading, VE-PAT was able to quantify the vascular compliance. We first demonstrated the feasibility of VE-PAT in blood vessel phantoms. In large vessel phantoms, VE-PAT detected a decrease in vascular compliance due to simulated thrombosis, which was validated by a standard compression test. In small blood vessel phantoms embedded 3 mm deep in gelatin, VE-PAT detected elasticity changes at depths that are difficult to image using other elasticity imaging techniques. We then applied VE-PAT to assess vascular compliance in a human subject and detected a decrease in vascular compliance when an occlusion occurred downstream from the measurement point, demonstrating the potential of VE-PAT in clinical applications such as detection of deep venous thrombosis.

  19. Nonlinear photoacoustic spectroscopy of hemoglobin.

    Danielli, Amos; Maslov, Konstantin; Favazza, Christopher P; Xia, Jun; Wang, Lihong V

    2015-05-18

    As light intensity increases in photoacoustic imaging, the saturation of optical absorption and the temperature dependence of the thermal expansion coefficient result in a measurable nonlinear dependence of the photoacoustic (PA) signal on the excitation pulse fluence. Here, under controlled conditions, we investigate the intensity-dependent photoacoustic signals from oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin at varied optical wavelengths and molecular concentrations. The wavelength and concentration dependencies of the nonlinear PA spectrum are found to be significantly greater in oxygenated hemoglobin than in deoxygenated hemoglobin. These effects are further influenced by the hemoglobin concentration. These nonlinear phenomena provide insights into applications of photoacoustics, such as measurements of average inter-molecular distances on a nm scale or with a tuned selection of wavelengths, a more accurate quantitative PA tomography.

  20. Nonlinear photoacoustic spectroscopy of hemoglobin

    Danielli, Amos; Maslov, Konstantin; Favazza, Christopher P.; Xia, Jun; Wang, Lihong V.

    2015-01-01

    As light intensity increases in photoacoustic imaging, the saturation of optical absorption and the temperature dependence of the thermal expansion coefficient result in a measurable nonlinear dependence of the photoacoustic (PA) signal on the excitation pulse fluence. Here, under controlled conditions, we investigate the intensity-dependent photoacoustic signals from oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin at varied optical wavelengths and molecular concentrations. The wavelength and concentration dependencies of the nonlinear PA spectrum are found to be significantly greater in oxygenated hemoglobin than in deoxygenated hemoglobin. These effects are further influenced by the hemoglobin concentration. These nonlinear phenomena provide insights into applications of photoacoustics, such as measurements of average inter-molecular distances on a nm scale or with a tuned selection of wavelengths, a more accurate quantitative PA tomography

  1. Nonlinear photoacoustic spectroscopy of hemoglobin

    Danielli, Amos; Maslov, Konstantin; Favazza, Christopher P.; Xia, Jun; Wang, Lihong V., E-mail: LHWANG@WUSTL.EDU [Optical Imaging Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States)

    2015-05-18

    As light intensity increases in photoacoustic imaging, the saturation of optical absorption and the temperature dependence of the thermal expansion coefficient result in a measurable nonlinear dependence of the photoacoustic (PA) signal on the excitation pulse fluence. Here, under controlled conditions, we investigate the intensity-dependent photoacoustic signals from oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin at varied optical wavelengths and molecular concentrations. The wavelength and concentration dependencies of the nonlinear PA spectrum are found to be significantly greater in oxygenated hemoglobin than in deoxygenated hemoglobin. These effects are further influenced by the hemoglobin concentration. These nonlinear phenomena provide insights into applications of photoacoustics, such as measurements of average inter-molecular distances on a nm scale or with a tuned selection of wavelengths, a more accurate quantitative PA tomography.

  2. Vehicle Detection and Classification Using Passive Infrared Sensing

    Odat, Enas M.; Mousa, Mustafa; Claudel, Christian

    2015-01-01

    or multiple remote temperature sensors. We show an implementation of this device, and illustrate its performance in both traffic flow sensing. Field data shows that the sensor can detect vehicles with a 99% accuracy, in addition to estimating their speed

  3. Forward looking anomaly detection via fusion of infrared and color imagery

    Stone, K.; Keller, J. M.; Popescu, M.; Havens, T. C.; Ho, K. C.

    2010-04-01

    This paper develops algorithms for the detection of interesting and abnormal objects in color and infrared imagery taken from cameras mounted on a moving vehicle, observing a fixed scene. The primary purpose of detection is to cue a human-in-the-loop detection system. Algorithms for direct detection and change detection are investigated, as well as fusion of the two. Both methods use temporal information to reduce the number of false alarms. The direct detection algorithm uses image self-similarity computed between local neighborhoods to determine interesting, or unique, parts of an image. Neighborhood similarity is computed using Euclidean distance in CIELAB color space for the color imagery, and Euclidean distance between grey levels in the infrared imagery. The change detection algorithm uses the affine scale-invariant feature transform (ASIFT) to transform multiple background frames into the current image space. Each transformed image is then compared to the current image, and the multiple outputs are fused to produce a single difference image. Changes in lighting and contrast between the background run and the current run are adjusted for in both color and infrared imagery. Frame-to-frame motion is modeled using a perspective transformation, the parameters of which are computed using scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) keypoint correspondences. This information is used to perform temporal accumulation of single frame detections for both the direct detection and change detection algorithms. Performance of the proposed algorithms is evaluated on multiple lanes from a data collection at a US Army test site.

  4. Simultaneous ultrasound and photoacoustics based flow cytometry

    Gnyawali, Vaskar; Strohm, Eric M.; Tsai, Scott S. H.; Kolios, Michael C.

    2018-04-01

    We have developed a flow cytometer based on simultaneous detection of ultrasound and photoacoustic waves from individual particles/cells flowing in a microfluidic channel. Our polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) based hydrodynamic 3-dimensional (3D) flow-focusing microfluidic device contains a cross-junction channel, a micro-needle (ID 100 μm and OD 200 μm) insert, and a 3D printed frame to hold and align a high frequency (center frequency 375 MHz) ultrasound transducer. The focused flow passes through a narrow focal zone with lateral and axial focal lengths of 6-8 μm and 15-20 μm, respectively. Both the lateral and axial alignments are achieved by screwing the transducer to the frame onto the PDMS device. Individual particles pass through an interrogation zone in the microfluidic channel with a collinearly aligned ultrasound transducer and a focused 532 nm wavelength laser beam. The particles are simultaneously insonified by high-frequency ultrasound and irradiated by a laser beam. The ultrasound backscatter and laser generated photoacoustic waves are detected for each passing particle. The backscattered ultrasound and photoacoustic signal are strongly dependent on the size, morphology, mechanical properties, and material properties of the flowing particles; these parameters can be extracted by analyzing unique features in the power spectrum of the signals. Frequencies less than 100 MHz do not have these unique spectral signatures. We show that we can reliably distinguish between different particles in a sample using the acoustic-based flow cytometer. This technique, when extended to biomedical applications, allows us to rapidly analyze the spectral signatures from individual single cells of a large cell population, with applications towards label-free detection and characterization of healthy and diseased cells.

  5. Detection limits of intraoperative near infrared imaging for tumor resection.

    Thurber, Greg M; Figueiredo, Jose-Luiz; Weissleder, Ralph

    2010-12-01

    The application of fluorescent molecular imaging to surgical oncology is a developing field with the potential to reduce morbidity and mortality. However, the detection thresholds and other requirements for successful intervention remain poorly understood. Here we modeled and experimentally validated depth and size of detection of tumor deposits, trade-offs in coverage and resolution of areas of interest, and required pharmacokinetics of probes based on differing levels of tumor target presentation. Three orthotopic tumor models were imaged by widefield epifluorescence and confocal microscopes, and the experimental results were compared with pharmacokinetic models and light scattering simulations to determine detection thresholds. Widefield epifluorescence imaging can provide sufficient contrast to visualize tumor margins and detect tumor deposits 3-5  mm deep based on labeled monoclonal antibodies at low objective magnification. At higher magnification, surface tumor deposits at cellular resolution are detectable at TBR ratios achieved with highly expressed antigens. A widefield illumination system with the capability for macroscopic surveying and microscopic imaging provides the greatest utility for varying surgical goals. These results have implications for system and agent designs, which ultimately should aid complete resection in most surgical beds and provide real-time feedback to obtain clean margins. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Research on capability of detecting ballistic missile by near space infrared system

    Lu, Li; Sheng, Wen; Jiang, Wei; Jiang, Feng

    2018-01-01

    The infrared detection technology of ballistic missile based on near space platform can effectively make up the shortcomings of high-cost of traditional early warning satellites and the limited earth curvature of ground-based early warning radar. In terms of target detection capability, aiming at the problem that the formula of the action distance based on contrast performance ignores the background emissivity in the calculation process and the formula is only valid for the monochromatic light, an improved formula of the detecting range based on contrast performance is proposed. The near space infrared imaging system parameters are introduced, the expression of the contrastive action distance formula based on the target detection of the near space platform is deduced. The detection range of the near space infrared system for the booster stage ballistic missile skin, the tail nozzle and the tail flame is calculated. The simulation results show that the near-space infrared system has the best effect on the detection of tail-flame radiation.

  7. Detection and location of fouling on photovoltaic panels using a drone-mounted infrared thermography system

    Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Lifu; Wu, Taixia; Zhang, Hongming; Sun, Xuejian

    2017-01-01

    Due to weathering and external forces, solar panels are subject to fouling and defects after a certain amount of time in service. These fouling and defects have direct adverse consequences such as low-power efficiency. Because solar power plants usually have large-scale photovoltaic (PV) panels, fast detection and location of fouling and defects across large PV areas are imperative. A drone-mounted infrared thermography system was designed and developed, and its ability to detect rapid fouling on large-scale PV panel systems was investigated. The infrared images were preprocessed using the K neighbor mean filter, and the single PV module on each image was recognized and extracted. Combining the local and global detection method, suspicious sites were located precisely. The results showed the flexible drone-mounted infrared thermography system to have a strong ability to detect the presence and determine the position of PV fouling. Drone-mounted infrared thermography also has good technical feasibility and practical value in the detection of PV fouling detection.

  8. Infrared video based gas leak detection method using modified FAST features

    Wang, Min; Hong, Hanyu; Huang, Likun

    2018-03-01

    In order to detect the invisible leaking gas that is usually dangerous and easily leads to fire or explosion in time, many new technologies have arisen in the recent years, among which the infrared video based gas leak detection is widely recognized as a viable tool. However, all the moving regions of a video frame can be detected as leaking gas regions by the existing infrared video based gas leak detection methods, without discriminating the property of each detected region, e.g., a walking person in a video frame may be also detected as gas by the current gas leak detection methods.To solve this problem, we propose a novel infrared video based gas leak detection method in this paper, which is able to effectively suppress strong motion disturbances.Firstly, the Gaussian mixture model(GMM) is used to establish the background model.Then due to the observation that the shapes of gas regions are different from most rigid moving objects, we modify the Features From Accelerated Segment Test (FAST) algorithm and use the modified FAST (mFAST) features to describe each connected component. In view of the fact that the statistical property of the mFAST features extracted from gas regions is different from that of other motion regions, we propose the Pixel-Per-Points (PPP) condition to further select candidate connected components.Experimental results show that the algorithm is able to effectively suppress most strong motion disturbances and achieve real-time leaking gas detection.

  9. Detection of water leakage in buried pipes using infrared technology; a comparative study of using high and low resolution infrared cameras for evaluating distant remote detection

    Shakmak, B; Al-Habaibeh, A

    2015-01-01

    Water is one of the most precious commodities around the world. However, significant amount of water is lost daily in many countries through broken and leaking pipes. This paper investigates the use of low and high resolution infrared systems to detect water leakage in relatively dry countries. The overall aim is to develop a non-contact and high speed system that could be used to detect leakage in pipes remotely via the effect of the change in humidity on the temperature of the ground due to...

  10. Cellulose nanoparticles: photoacoustic contrast agents that biodegrade to simple sugars

    Jokerst, Jesse V.; Bohndiek, Sarah E.; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.

    2014-03-01

    In photoacoustic imaging, nanoparticle contrast agents offer strong signal intensity and long-term stability, but are limited by poor biodistribution and clearance profiles. Conversely, small molecules offer renal clearance, but relatively low photoacoustic signal. Here we describe a cellulose-based nanoparticle with photoacoustic signal superior to gold nanorods, but that undergoes enzymatic cleavage into constituent glucose molecules for renal clearance. Cellulose nanoparticles (CNPs) were synthesized through acidic cleavage of cellulose linters and purified with centrifugation. TEM indicated that the nanoparticles were 132 +/- 46 nm; the polydispersity index was 0.138. Ex vivo characterization showed a photoacoustic limit of detection of 0.02 mg/mL CNPs, and the photoacoustic signal of CNPs was 1.5- to 3.0-fold higher than gold nanorods (also at 700 nm resonance) on a particle-to-particle basis. Cell toxicity assays suggested that overnight doses below 0.31 mg/mL CNPs produced no significant (p>0.05) impact on cell metabolism. Intravenous doses up to 0.24 mg were tolerated well in nude mice. Subcutaneous and orthotopic tumor xenografts of the OV2008 ovarian cancer cell line were then created in nude mice. Data was collected with a Nexus128 scanner from Endra LifeSciences. Spectral data used a LAZR system from Visualsonics both at 700 nm excitation. We injected CNPs (0.024 mg, 0.048 mg, and 0.80 mg) via tail vein and showed that the tumor photoacoustic signal reached maximum increase between 10 and 20 minutes. All injected concentrations were statistically (p0.96 suggesting quantitative signal. CNP biodegradation was demonstrated ex vivo with a glucose assay. CNPs in the presence of cellulase were reduced to free glucose in under than four hours. The glucose concentration before addition of cellulase was not detectable, but increased to 92.1 μg/mL in four hours. CNPs in the absence of cellulase did not produce glucose. Small fragments of nanoparticle in the

  11. Photoacoustic Soot Spectrometer (PASS) Instrument Handbook

    Dubey, M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Springston, S [Brookhaven National Laboratory; Koontz, A [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Aiken, A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2013-01-17

    The photoacoustic soot spectrometer (PASS) measures light absorption by aerosol particles. As the particles pass through a laser beam, the absorbed energy heats the particles and in turn the surrounding air, which sets off a pressure wave that can be detected by a microphone. The PASS instruments deployed by ARM can also simultaneously measure the scattered laser light at three wavelengths and therefore provide a direct measure of the single-scattering albedo. The Operator Manual for the PASS-3100 is included here with the permission of Droplet Measurement Technologies, the instrument’s manufacturer.

  12. Photoacoustic signal amplification through plasmonic nanoparticle aggregation

    Bayer, Carolyn L.; Nam, Seung Yun; Chen, Yun-Sheng; Emelianov, Stanislav Y.

    2013-01-01

    Photoacoustic imaging, using targeted plasmonic metallic nanoparticles, is a promising noninvasive molecular imaging method. Analysis of the photoacoustic signal generated by plasmonic metallic nanoparticles is complex because of the dependence upon physical properties of both the nanoparticle and the surrounding environment. We studied the effect of the aggregation of gold nanoparticles on the photoacoustic signal amplitude. We found that the photoacoustic signal from aggregated silica-coate...

  13. Polarized near-infrared autofluorescence imaging combined with near-infrared diffuse reflectance imaging for improving colonic cancer detection.

    Shao, Xiaozhuo; Zheng, Wei; Huang, Zhiwei

    2010-11-08

    We evaluate the diagnostic feasibility of the integrated polarized near-infrared (NIR) autofluorescence (AF) and NIR diffuse reflectance (DR) imaging technique developed for colonic cancer detection. A total of 48 paired colonic tissue specimens (normal vs. cancer) were measured using the integrated NIR DR (850-1100 nm) and NIR AF imaging at the 785 nm laser excitation. The results showed that NIR AF intensities of cancer tissues are significantly lower than those of normal tissues (ppolarization conditions gives a higher diagnostic accuracy (of ~92-94%) compared to non-polarized NIR AF imaging or NIR DR imaging. Further, the ratio imaging of NIR DR to NIR AF with polarization provides the best diagnostic accuracy (of ~96%) among the NIR AF and NIR DR imaging techniques. This work suggests that the integrated NIR AF/DR imaging under polarization condition has the potential to improve the early diagnosis and detection of malignant lesions in the colon.

  14. A simple infrared-augmented digital photography technique for detection of pupillary abnormalities.

    Shazly, Tarek A; Bonhomme, G R

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe a simple infrared photography technique to aid in the diagnosis and documentation of pupillary abnormalities. An unmodified 12-megapixel "point and shoot" digital camera was used to obtain binocular still photos and videos under different light conditions with near-infrared illuminating frames. The near-infrared light of 850 nm allows the capture of clear pupil images in both dim and bright light conditions. It also allows easy visualization of the pupil despite pigmented irides by augmenting the contrast between the iris and the pupil. The photos and videos obtained illustrated a variety of pupillary abnormalities using the aforementioned technique. This infrared-augmented photography technique supplements medical education, and aids in the more rapid detection, diagnosis, and documentation of a wide spectrum of pupillary abnormalities. Its portability and ease of use with minimal training complements the education of trainees and facilitates the establishment of difficult diagnoses.

  15. Automatically detect and track infrared small targets with kernel Fukunaga-Koontz transform and Kalman prediction

    Liu, Ruiming; Liu, Erqi; Yang, Jie; Zeng, Yong; Wang, Fanglin; Cao, Yuan

    2007-11-01

    Fukunaga-Koontz transform (FKT), stemming from principal component analysis (PCA), is used in many pattern recognition and image-processing fields. It cannot capture the higher-order statistical property of natural images, so its detection performance is not satisfying. PCA has been extended into kernel PCA in order to capture the higher-order statistics. However, thus far there have been no researchers who have definitely proposed kernel FKT (KFKT) and researched its detection performance. For accurately detecting potential small targets from infrared images, we first extend FKT into KFKT to capture the higher-order statistical properties of images. Then a framework based on Kalman prediction and KFKT, which can automatically detect and track small targets, is developed. Results of experiments show that KFKT outperforms FKT and the proposed framework is competent to automatically detect and track infrared point targets.

  16. Evolution of a MEMS Photoacoustic Chemical Sensor

    Pellegrino, Paul M; Polcawich, Ronald G

    2003-01-01

    .... Initial MEMS work is centered on fabrication of a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) microphone subsystem to be incorporated in the full photoacoustic device. Preliminary results were very positive for the macro-photoacoustic cell, PZT membrane microphones design / fabrication and elementary monolithic MEMS photoacoustic cavity.

  17. Photoacoustic investigation of QCL modulation techniques

    Germer, M; Wolff, M

    2010-01-01

    High detection sensitivity and spectral selectivity is important for gas analysers to identify the measured compound and to detect low concentrations. We investigated three different modulation methods - pulse gate modulation, pulse frequency modulation and chopper modulation - for a new pulsed quantum cascade laser based photoacoustic sensor. The spectral selectivity and the detection limit for the three modulation methods are compared by measuring nitric oxide absorption lines and different concentrations. The highest detection sensitivity of 70 ppb was achieved with pulse gate modulation but at the lowest spectral resolution. The highest spectral resolution was achieved with chopper modulation but at the lowest detection sensitivity. It is demonstrated that for the three modulation methods a compromise has to be made between selectivity and sensitivity for each measuring task.

  18. Photoacoustic spectroscopy for analytical measurements

    Haisch, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Many different techniques, such as UV/vis absorption, IR spectroscopy, fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy are routinely applied in chemical (micro-)analysis and chemical imaging, and a large variety of instruments is commercially available. Up to now, opto- or photoacoustic (PA) and other optothermal (OT) methods are less common and only a limited number of instruments reached a level of application beyond prototypes in research laboratories. The underlying principle of all these techniques is the detection of local heating due to the conversion of light into heat by optical absorption. Considering the versatility, robustness and instrumental simplicity of many PA techniques, it is surprising that the number of commercial instruments based on such approaches is so sparse. The impetus of this review is to summarize basic principles and possible applications described in the literature, in order to foster routine application of these techniques in industry, process analysis and environmental screening. While the terms OT and PA methods cover a very wide range of methods and physical phenomena, this review will concentrate on techniques with applications for analytical measurements. (topical review)

  19. Reverse photoacoustic standoff spectroscopy

    Van Neste, Charles W [Kingston, TN; Senesac, Lawrence R [Knoxville, TN; Thundat, Thomas G [Knoxville, TN

    2011-04-12

    A system and method are disclosed for generating a reversed photoacoustic spectrum at a greater distance. A source may emit a beam to a target and a detector measures signals generated as a result of the beam being emitted on the target. By emitting a chopped/pulsed light beam to the target, it may be possible to determine the target's optical absorbance by monitoring the intensity of light collected at the detector at different wavelengths. As the wavelength of light is changed, the target may absorb or reject each optical frequency. Rejection may increase the intensity at the sensing element and absorption may decrease the intensity. Accordingly, an identifying spectrum of the target may be made with the intensity variation of the detector as a function of illuminating wavelength.

  20. Photoacoustic point spectroscopy

    Van Neste, Charles W [Kingston, TN; Senesac, Lawrence R [Knoxville, TN; Thundat, Thomas G [Knoxville, TN

    2011-06-14

    A system and method are disclosed for generating a photoacoustic spectrum in an open or closed environment with reduced noise. A source may emit a beam to a target substance coated on a detector that measures acoustic waves generated as a result of a light beam being absorbed by the target substance. By emitting a chopped/pulsed light beam to the target substance on the detector, it may be possible to determine the target's optical absorbance as the wavelength of light is changed. Rejection may decrease the intensity of the acoustic waves on the detector while absorption may increase the intensity. Accordingly, an identifying spectrum of the target may be made with the intensity variation of the detector as a function of illuminating wavelength.

  1. Vehicle Detection and Classification Using Passive Infrared Sensing

    Odat, Enas M.

    2015-10-19

    We propose a new sensing device that can simultaneously monitor urban traffic congestion and another phenomenon of interest (flash floods on the present case). This sensing device is based on the combination of an ultrasonic rangefinder with one or multiple remote temperature sensors. We show an implementation of this device, and illustrate its performance in both traffic flow sensing. Field data shows that the sensor can detect vehicles with a 99% accuracy, in addition to estimating their speed and classifying them in function of their length. The same sensor can also monitor urban water levels with an accuracy of less than 2 cm.

  2. Depleted Nanocrystal-Oxide Heterojunctions for High-Sensitivity Infrared Detection

    2015-08-28

    Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: 4.3 Electronic Sensing - Depleted Nanocrystal- Oxide Heterojunctions for High...reviewed journals: Final Report: 4.3 Electronic Sensing - Depleted Nanocrystal- Oxide Heterojunctions for High-Sensitivity Infrared Detection Report Title...PERCENT_SUPPORTEDNAME FTE Equivalent: Total Number: 1 1 Final Progress Report Project title: Depleted Nanocrystal- Oxide Heterojunctions for High

  3. Improved detection probability of low level light and infrared image fusion system

    Luo, Yuxiang; Fu, Rongguo; Zhang, Junju; Wang, Wencong; Chang, Benkang

    2018-02-01

    Low level light(LLL) image contains rich information on environment details, but is easily affected by the weather. In the case of smoke, rain, cloud or fog, much target information will lose. Infrared image, which is from the radiation produced by the object itself, can be "active" to obtain the target information in the scene. However, the image contrast and resolution is bad, the ability of the acquisition of target details is very poor, and the imaging mode does not conform to the human visual habit. The fusion of LLL and infrared image can make up for the deficiency of each sensor and give play to the advantages of single sensor. At first, we show the hardware design of fusion circuit. Then, through the recognition probability calculation of the target(one person) and the background image(trees), we find that the trees detection probability of LLL image is higher than that of the infrared image, and the person detection probability of the infrared image is obviously higher than that of LLL image. The detection probability of fusion image for one person and trees is higher than that of single detector. Therefore, image fusion can significantly enlarge recognition probability and improve detection efficiency.

  4. Determination of Peroxide-Based Explosives Using Liquid Chromatography with On-Line Infrared Detection

    Schulte-Ladbeck, Rasmus; Edelmann, Andrea; Quintas, Guillermo; Lendl, Bernhard; Karst, U.

    2006-01-01

    A nondestructive analytical method for peroxide-based explosives determination in solid samples is described. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography in combination with on-line Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) detection is used for the analysis of triacetonetriperoxide (TATP) and

  5. Resonantly enhanced nonlinear optics in semiconductor quantum wells: An application to sensitive infrared detection

    Yelin, S.F.; Hemmer, P.R.

    2002-01-01

    A novel class of coherent nonlinear optical phenomena, involving induced transparency in semiconductor quantum wells, is considered in the context of a particular application to sensitive long-wavelength infrared detection. It is shown that the strongest decoherence mechanisms can be suppressed or mitigated, resulting in substantial enhancement of nonlinear optical effects in semiconductor quantum wells

  6. Nondestructive detection of zebra chip disease in potatoes using near-infrared spectroscopy

    Near-Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy in the wavelength region from 900 nm to 2600 nm was evaluated as the basis for a rapid, non-destructive method for the detection of Zebra Chip disease in potatoes and the measurement of sugar concentrations in affected tubers. Using stepwise regression in conjunction...

  7. An infrared small target detection method based on multiscale local homogeneity measure

    Nie, Jinyan; Qu, Shaocheng; Wei, Yantao; Zhang, Liming; Deng, Lizhen

    2018-05-01

    Infrared (IR) small target detection plays an important role in the field of image detection area owing to its intrinsic characteristics. This paper presents a multiscale local homogeneity measure (MLHM) for infrared small target detection, which can enhance the performance of IR small target detection system. Firstly, intra-patch homogeneity of the target itself and the inter-patch heterogeneity between target and the local background regions are integrated to enhance the significant of small target. Secondly, a multiscale measure based on local regions is proposed to obtain the most appropriate response. Finally, an adaptive threshold method is applied to small target segmentation. Experimental results on three different scenarios indicate that the MLHM has good performance under the interference of strong noise.

  8. Far-infrared contraband-detection-system development for personnel-search applications

    Schellenbaum, R.L.

    1982-09-01

    Experiments have been conducted toward the development of an active near-millimeter-wave, far infrared, personnel search system for the detection of contraband. These experiments employed a microwave hybrid tee interferometer/radiometer scanning system and quasi-optical techniques at 3.3-mm wavelength to illuminate and detect the reflection from target objects against a human body background. Clothing and other common concealing materials are transport at this wavelength. Retroreflector arrays, in conjunction with a Gunn diode radiation source, were investigated to provide all-angle illumination and detection of specular reflections from unaligned and irregular-shaped objects. Results indicate that, under highly controlled search conditions, metal objects greater than or equal to 25 cm 2 can be detected in an enclosure lined with retroreflectors. Further development is required to produce a practical personnel search system. The investigation and feasibility of alternate far infrared search techniques are presented. 23 figures, 2 tables

  9. Photoacoustic tomography of human hepatic malignancies using intraoperative indocyanine green fluorescence imaging.

    Miyata, Akinori; Ishizawa, Takeaki; Kamiya, Mako; Shimizu, Atsushi; Kaneko, Junichi; Ijichi, Hideaki; Shibahara, Junji; Fukayama, Masashi; Midorikawa, Yutaka; Urano, Yasuteru; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2014-01-01

    Recently, fluorescence imaging following the preoperative intravenous injection of indocyanine green has been used in clinical settings to identify hepatic malignancies during surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of photoacoustic tomography using indocyanine green as a contrast agent to produce representative fluorescence images of hepatic tumors by visualizing the spatial distribution of indocyanine green on ultrasonographic images. Indocyanine green (0.5 mg/kg, intravenous) was preoperatively administered to 9 patients undergoing hepatectomy. Intraoperatively, photoacoustic tomography was performed on the surface of the resected hepatic specimens (n = 10) under excitation with an 800 nm pulse laser. In 4 hepatocellular carcinoma nodules, photoacoustic imaging identified indocyanine green accumulation in the cancerous tissue. In contrast, in one hepatocellular carcinoma nodule and five adenocarcinoma foci (one intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and 4 colorectal liver metastases), photoacoustic imaging delineated indocyanine green accumulation not in the cancerous tissue but rather in the peri-cancerous hepatic parenchyma. Although photoacoustic tomography enabled to visualize spatial distribution of ICG on ultrasonographic images, which was consistent with fluorescence images on cut surfaces of the resected specimens, photoacoustic signals of ICG-containing tissues decreased approximately by 40% even at 4 mm depth from liver surfaces. Photoacoustic tomography using indocyanine green also failed to identify any hepatocellular carcinoma nodules from the body surface of model mice with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. In conclusion, photoacoustic tomography has a potential to enhance cancer detectability and differential diagnosis by ultrasonographic examinations and intraoperative fluorescence imaging through visualization of stasis of bile-excreting imaging agents in and/or around hepatic tumors. However, further technical advances are needed

  10. Photoacoustic tomography of human hepatic malignancies using intraoperative indocyanine green fluorescence imaging.

    Akinori Miyata

    Full Text Available Recently, fluorescence imaging following the preoperative intravenous injection of indocyanine green has been used in clinical settings to identify hepatic malignancies during surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of photoacoustic tomography using indocyanine green as a contrast agent to produce representative fluorescence images of hepatic tumors by visualizing the spatial distribution of indocyanine green on ultrasonographic images. Indocyanine green (0.5 mg/kg, intravenous was preoperatively administered to 9 patients undergoing hepatectomy. Intraoperatively, photoacoustic tomography was performed on the surface of the resected hepatic specimens (n = 10 under excitation with an 800 nm pulse laser. In 4 hepatocellular carcinoma nodules, photoacoustic imaging identified indocyanine green accumulation in the cancerous tissue. In contrast, in one hepatocellular carcinoma nodule and five adenocarcinoma foci (one intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and 4 colorectal liver metastases, photoacoustic imaging delineated indocyanine green accumulation not in the cancerous tissue but rather in the peri-cancerous hepatic parenchyma. Although photoacoustic tomography enabled to visualize spatial distribution of ICG on ultrasonographic images, which was consistent with fluorescence images on cut surfaces of the resected specimens, photoacoustic signals of ICG-containing tissues decreased approximately by 40% even at 4 mm depth from liver surfaces. Photoacoustic tomography using indocyanine green also failed to identify any hepatocellular carcinoma nodules from the body surface of model mice with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. In conclusion, photoacoustic tomography has a potential to enhance cancer detectability and differential diagnosis by ultrasonographic examinations and intraoperative fluorescence imaging through visualization of stasis of bile-excreting imaging agents in and/or around hepatic tumors. However, further technical

  11. Photoacoustic imaging in both soft and hard biological tissue

    Li, T; Dewhurst, R J

    2010-01-01

    To date, most Photoacoustic (PA) imaging results have been from soft biotissues. In this study, a PA imaging system with a near-infrared pulsed laser source has been applied to obtain 2-D and 3-D images from both soft tissue and post-mortem dental samples. Imaging results showed that the PA technique has the potential to image human oral disease, such as early-stage teeth decay. For non-invasive photoacoustic imaging, the induced temperature and pressure rises within biotissues should not cause physical damage to the tissue. Several simulations based on the thermoelastic effect have been applied to predict initial temperature and pressure fields within a tooth sample. Predicted initial temperature and pressure rises are below corresponding safety limits.

  12. Photoacoustic imaging of early gastric cancer diagnosis based on long focal area ultrasound transducer

    Wu, Huaqin; Li, Zuoran; Liu, Lantian; Li, Zhifang; Wu, Shulian; Li, Hui

    2017-06-01

    We illustrated a novel imaging method to diagnose gastric neoplasms via photoacoustic tomography (PAT). Depending on the structural characteristics of gastric cavity, we used column diffusion fiber to irradiate the stomach tissue through the esophagus, and the externally placed telecentric focus ultrasonic transducer detected photoacoustic signals from the gastric tissue. We reconstructed the distribution of light energy deposition of the simulated gastric tumor, and obtained the location and size information of gastric tumor.

  13. Development and miniaturization of a photoacoustic silicon integrated spectrometer for trace gas analysis; Etude et developpement d`un spectrometre photoacoustique integre sur silicium pour analyse de gaz

    Jourdain, A.

    1998-10-29

    The study deals with the integration on silicon wafers of an infrared spectrometer for carbon dioxide measurements. Photoacoustic detection that measures a differential pressure in a cavity turns out to be the best spectroscopic technique for miniaturization and integration. The micro-system is composed of two main components: an infrared light source on a silicon nitride membrane and a component integrating a tunable optical filter, a microphone for detection and a micro-cavity. After a theoretical study of the different components, each element is realized with the microelectronic techniques such as photolithography, thin films deposits and dry and wet etching. A resin sealing of all the different elements realizes the final micro-spectrophotometer. A characterization of the components is done thanks to the realization of an electronic specific set-up. (author) 107 refs.

  14. Multisensor Network System for Wildfire Detection Using Infrared Image Processing

    I. Bosch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the next step in the evolution of multi-sensor wireless network systems in the early automatic detection of forest fires. This network allows remote monitoring of each of the locations as well as communication between each of the sensors and with the control stations. The result is an increased coverage area, with quicker and safer responses. To determine the presence of a forest wildfire, the system employs decision fusion in thermal imaging, which can exploit various expected characteristics of a real fire, including short-term persistence and long-term increases over time. Results from testing in the laboratory and in a real environment are presented to authenticate and verify the accuracy of the operation of the proposed system. The system performance is gauged by the number of alarms and the time to the first alarm (corresponding to a real fire, for different probability of false alarm (PFA. The necessity of including decision fusion is thereby demonstrated.

  15. Using FTIR-photoacoustic spectroscopy for phosphorus speciation analysis of biochars

    Bekiaris, Georgios; Peltre, Clément; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, numerous studies have evaluated the benefits of biochar for improving soil quality. The purposes of the current study were to use Fourier transform infrared-photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) to analyse P species in biochar and to determine the effect of pyrolysis temperatu...

  16. Clinical experiences with photoacoustic breast imaging: the appearance of suspicious lesions

    Heijblom, M.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes photoacoustic (PA) imaging of suspicious breast lesions. In PA imaging, the tissue of interest is illuminated by short pulses of laser light, usually in the near infrared (NIR) regime. Upon absorption by primarily the tumor vasculature, the light causes a small temperature

  17. Influence of nanoscale temperature rises on photoacoustic generation: Discrimination between optical absorbers based on thermal nonlinearity at high frequency.

    Simandoux, Olivier; Prost, Amaury; Gateau, Jérôme; Bossy, Emmanuel

    2015-03-01

    In this work, we experimentally investigate thermal-based nonlinear photoacoustic generation as a mean to discriminate between different types of absorbing particles. The photoacoustic generation from solutions of dye molecules and gold nanospheres (same optical densities) was detected using a high frequency ultrasound transducer (20 MHz). Photoacoustic emission was observed with gold nanospheres at low fluence for an equilibrium temperature around 4 °C, where the linear photoacoustic effect in water vanishes, highlighting the nonlinear emission from the solution of nanospheres. The photoacoustic amplitude was also studied as a function of the equilibrium temperature from 2 °C to 20 °C. While the photoacoustic amplitude from the dye molecules vanished around 4 °C, the photoacoustic amplitude from the gold nanospheres remained significant over the whole temperature range. Our preliminary results suggest that in the context of high frequency photoacoustic imaging, nanoparticles may be discriminated from molecular absorbers based on nanoscale temperature rises.

  18. Active and passive infrared thermography applied to the detection and characterization of hidden defects in structure

    Dumoulin, Jean

    2013-04-01

    Infrared thermography for Non Destructive Testing (NDT) has encountered a wide spreading this last 2 decades, in particular thanks to emergence on the market of low cost uncooled infrared camera. So, infrared thermography is not anymore a measurement technique limited to laboratory application. It has been more and more involved in civil engineering and cultural heritage applications, but also in many other domains, as indicated by numerous papers in the literature. Nevertheless, laboratory, measurements are done as much as possible in quite ideal conditions (good atmosphere conditions, known properties of materials, etc.), while measurement on real site requires to consider the influence of not controlled environmental parameters and additional unknown thermal properties. So, dedicated protocol and additional sensors are required for measurement data correction. Furthermore, thermal excitation is required to enhance the signature of defects in materials. Post-processing of data requires to take into account the protocol used for the thermal excitation and sometimes its nature to avoid false detection. This analysis step is based on signal and image processing tool and allows to carry out the detection. Characterization of anomalies detected at the previous step can be done by additional signal processing in particular for manufactured objects. The use of thermal modelling and inverse method allows to determine properties of the defective area. The present paper will first address a review of some protocols currently in use for field measurement with passive and/or active infrared measurements. Illustrations in various experiments carried out on civil engineering structure will be shown and discussed. In a second part, different post-processing approaches will be presented and discussed. In particular, a review of the most standard processing methods like Fast Fourier Analysis, Principal Components Analysis, Polynomial Decomposition, defect characterization using

  19. Small-target leak detection for a closed vessel via infrared image sequences

    Zhao, Ling; Yang, Hongjiu

    2017-03-01

    This paper focus on a leak diagnosis and localization method based on infrared image sequences. Some problems on high probability of false warning and negative affect for marginal information are solved by leak detection. An experimental model is established for leak diagnosis and localization on infrared image sequences. The differential background prediction is presented to eliminate the negative affect of marginal information on test vessel based on a kernel regression method. A pipeline filter based on layering voting is designed to reduce probability of leak point false warning. A synthesize leak diagnosis and localization algorithm is proposed based on infrared image sequences. The effectiveness and potential are shown for developed techniques through experimental results.

  20. Single-cell photoacoustic thermometry

    Gao, Liang; Wang, Lidai; Li, Chiye; Liu, Yan; Ke, Haixin; Zhang, Chi

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. A novel photoacoustic thermometric method is presented for simultaneously imaging cells and sensing their temperature. With three-seconds-per-frame imaging speed, a temperature resolution of 0.2°C was achieved in a photo-thermal cell heating experiment. Compared to other approaches, the photoacoustic thermometric method has the advantage of not requiring custom-developed temperature-sensitive biosensors. This feature should facilitate the conversion of single-cell thermometry into a routine lab tool and make it accessible to a much broader biological research community. PMID:23377004

  1. Near-infrared hyperspectral imaging of water evaporation dynamics for early detection of incipient caries.

    Usenik, Peter; Bürmen, Miran; Fidler, Aleš; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2014-10-01

    Incipient caries is characterized as demineralization of the tooth enamel reflecting in increased porosity of enamel structure. As a result, the demineralized enamel may contain increased amount of water, and exhibit different water evaporation dynamics than the sound enamel. The objective of this paper is to assess the applicability of water evaporation dynamics of sound and demineralized enamel for detection and quantification of incipient caries using near-infrared hyperspectral imaging. The time lapse of water evaporation from enamel samples with artificial and natural caries lesions of different stages was imaged by a near-infrared hyperspectral imaging system. Partial least squares regression was used to predict the water content from the acquired spectra. The water evaporation dynamics was characterized by a first order logarithmic drying model. The calculated time constants of the logarithmic drying model were used as the discriminative feature. The conducted measurements showed that demineralized enamel contains more water and exhibits significantly faster water evaporation than the sound enamel. By appropriate modelling of the water evaporation process from the enamel surface, the contrast between the sound and demineralized enamel observed in the individual near infrared spectral images can be substantially enhanced. The presented results indicate that near-infrared based prediction of water content combined with an appropriate drying model presents a strong foundation for development of novel diagnostic tools for incipient caries detection. The results of the study enhance the understanding of the water evaporation process from the sound and demineralized enamel and have significant implications for the detection of incipient caries by near-infrared hyperspectral imaging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Photoacoustic Sounds from Meteors.

    Spalding, Richard E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tencer, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sweatt, William C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hogan, Roy E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Boslough, Mark B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Spurny, Pavel [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (ASCR), Prague (Czech Republic)

    2015-03-01

    High-speed photometric observations of meteor fireballs have shown that they often produce high-amplitude light oscillations with frequency components in the kHz range, and in some cases exhibit strong millisecond flares. We built a light source with similar characteristics and illuminated various materials in the laboratory, generating audible sounds. Models suggest that light oscillations and pulses can radiatively heat dielectric materials, which in turn conductively heats the surrounding air on millisecond timescales. The sound waves can be heard if the illuminated material is sufficiently close to the observer’s ears. The mechanism described herein may explain many reports of meteors that appear to be audible while they are concurrently visible in the sky and too far away for sound to have propagated to the observer. This photoacoustic (PA) explanation provides an alternative to electrophonic (EP) sounds hypothesized to arise from electromagnetic coupling of plasma oscillation in the meteor wake to natural antennas in the vicinity of an observer.

  3. Towards a low-cost mobile subcutaneous vein detection solution using near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Juric, Simon; Flis, Vojko; Debevc, Matjaz; Holzinger, Andreas; Zalik, Borut

    2014-01-01

    Excessive venipunctures are both time- and resource-consuming events, which cause anxiety, pain, and distress in patients, or can lead to severe harmful injuries. We propose a low-cost mobile health solution for subcutaneous vein detection using near-infrared spectroscopy, along with an assessment of the current state of the art in this field. The first objective of this study was to get a deeper overview of the research topic, through the initial team discussions and a detailed literature review (using both academic and grey literature). The second objective, that is, identifying the commercial systems employing near-infrared spectroscopy, was conducted using the PubMed database. The goal of the third objective was to identify and evaluate (using the IEEE Xplore database) the research efforts in the field of low-cost near-infrared imaging in general, as a basis for the conceptual model of the upcoming prototype. Although the reviewed commercial devices have demonstrated usefulness and value for peripheral veins visualization, other evaluated clinical outcomes are less conclusive. Previous studies regarding low-cost near-infrared systems demonstrated the general feasibility of developing cost-effective vein detection systems; however, their limitations are restricting their applicability to clinical practice. Finally, based on the current findings, we outline the future research direction.

  4. Towards a Low-Cost Mobile Subcutaneous Vein Detection Solution Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    Simon Juric

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive venipunctures are both time- and resource-consuming events, which cause anxiety, pain, and distress in patients, or can lead to severe harmful injuries. We propose a low-cost mobile health solution for subcutaneous vein detection using near-infrared spectroscopy, along with an assessment of the current state of the art in this field. The first objective of this study was to get a deeper overview of the research topic, through the initial team discussions and a detailed literature review (using both academic and grey literature. The second objective, that is, identifying the commercial systems employing near-infrared spectroscopy, was conducted using the PubMed database. The goal of the third objective was to identify and evaluate (using the IEEE Xplore database the research efforts in the field of low-cost near-infrared imaging in general, as a basis for the conceptual model of the upcoming prototype. Although the reviewed commercial devices have demonstrated usefulness and value for peripheral veins visualization, other evaluated clinical outcomes are less conclusive. Previous studies regarding low-cost near-infrared systems demonstrated the general feasibility of developing cost-effective vein detection systems; however, their limitations are restricting their applicability to clinical practice. Finally, based on the current findings, we outline the future research direction.

  5. Photoacoustic spectroscopy, FTIR spectra and thermal diffusivity investigation of emeraldine pellet

    Phing, T.E.; Fanny, C.Y.J.; Wan Mahmood Mat Yunus

    2001-01-01

    Photoacoustic spectra for both emeraldine base and emeraldine salt in bulk form were measured in the wavelength range of 350 nm to 700 nm. The Fourier transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) have also been studied to determine the structure changes due to the protonation process. For the thermal diffusivity measurement, the open photoacoustic cell (OPC) technique has been used. It was found that the emeraldine salt exhibit higher thermal diffusivity compare to emeraldine base and this is similar to the higher conductivity characteristics of emeraldine salt. (Author)

  6. A UV-Vis photoacoustic spectrophotometer.

    Wiegand, Joseph R; Mathews, L Dalila; Smith, Geoffrey D

    2014-06-17

    A novel photoacoustic spectrophotometer (PAS) for the measurement of gas-phase and aerosol absorption over the UV-visible region of the spectrum is described. Light from a broadband Hg arc lamp is filtered in eight separate bands from 300 to 700 nm using bandpass interference filters (centered at 301 nm, 314 nm, 364 nm, 405 nm, 436 nm, 546 nm, 578 and 687 nm) and modulated with an optical chopper before entering the photoacoustic cell. All wavelength bands feature a 20-s detection limit of better than 3.0 Mm(-1) with the exception of the lower-intensity 687 nm band for which it is 10.2 Mm(-1). Validation measurements of gas-phase acetone and nigrosin aerosol absorption cross sections at several wavelengths demonstrate agreement to within 10% with those measured previously (for acetone) and those predicted by Mie theory (for nigrosin). The PAS instrument is used to measure the UV-visible absorption spectrum of ambient aerosol demonstrating a dramatic increase in the UV region with absorption increasing by 300% from 405 to 301 nm. This type of measurement throughout the UV-visible region and free from artifacts associated with filter-based methods has not been possible previously, and we demonstrate its promise for classifying and quantifying different types of light-absorbing ambient particles.

  7. EVALUATION OF A PORTABLE FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED GAS ANALYZER FOR MEASUREMENTS OF AIR TOXICS IN POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH

    A portable Fourier transform infrared gas analyzer with a photoacoustic detector performed reliably during pollution prevention research at two industrial facilities. It exhibited good agreement (within approximately 6%) with other analytical instruments (dispersive infrared and ...

  8. Variation in detection among passive infrared triggered-cameras used in wildlife research

    Damm, Philip E.; Grand, James B.; Barnett, Steven W.

    2010-01-01

    Precise and accurate estimates of demographics such as age structure, productivity, and density are necessary in determining habitat and harvest management strategies for wildlife populations. Surveys using automated cameras are becoming an increasingly popular tool for estimating these parameters. However, most camera studies fail to incorporate detection probabilities, leading to parameter underestimation. The objective of this study was to determine the sources of heterogeneity in detection for trail cameras that incorporate a passive infrared (PIR) triggering system sensitive to heat and motion. Images were collected at four baited sites within the Conecuh National Forest, Alabama, using three cameras at each site operating continuously over the same seven-day period. Detection was estimated for four groups of animals based on taxonomic group and body size. Our hypotheses of detection considered variation among bait sites and cameras. The best model (w=0.99) estimated different rates of detection for each camera in addition to different detection rates for four animal groupings. Factors that explain this variability might include poor manufacturing tolerances, variation in PIR sensitivity, animal behavior, and species-specific infrared radiation. Population surveys using trail cameras with PIR systems must incorporate detection rates for individual cameras. Incorporating time-lapse triggering systems into survey designs should eliminate issues associated with PIR systems.

  9. Quantitative defects detection in wind turbine blade using optical infrared thermography

    Kwaon, Koo Ahn [School of Aerospace System Engineering, UST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Man Yong; Park, Hee Sang; Park, Jeong Hak; Huh, Yong Hak; Choi, Won Jai [Safety Measurement Center, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    A wind turbine blade is an important component in wind-power generation, and is generally exposed to harsh environmental conditions. Ultrasonic inspection is mainly used to inspect such blades, but it has been difficult to quantify defect sizes in complicated composite structures. Recently, active infrared thermography has been widely studied for inspecting composite structures, in which thermal energy is applied to an object, and an infrared camera detects the energy emitted from it. In this paper, a calibration method for active optical lock-in thermography is proposed to quantify the size. Inclusion, debonding and wrinkle defects, created in a wind blade for 100 kW wind power generation, were all successfully detected using this method. In particular, a 50.0 mm debonding defect was sized with 98.0% accuracy.

  10. Photoacoustic imaging at 1064nm wavelength with exogenous contrast agents

    Upputuri, Paul Kumar; Jiang, Yuyan; Pu, Kanyi; Pramanik, Manojit

    2018-02-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) imaging is a promising imaging modality for both preclinical research and clinical practices. Laser wavelengths in the first near infrared window (NIR-I, 650-950 nm) have been widely used for photoacoustic imaging. As compared with NIR-I window, scattering of photons by biological tissues is largely reduced in the second NIR (NIR-II) window, leading to enhanced imaging fidelity. However, the lack of biocompatible NIR-II absorbing exogenous agents prevented the use of this window for in vivo imaging. In recent years, few studies have been reported on photoacoustic imaging in NIR-II window using exogenous contrast agents. In this work, we discuss the recent work on PA imaging using 1064 nm wavelength, the fundamental of Nd:YAG laser, as an excitation wavelength. The PA imaging at 1064 nm is advantageous because of the low and homogeneous signal from tissue background, enabling high contrast in PA imaging when NIR-II absorbing contrast agents are employed.

  11. Photoacoustic microscopy of bilirubin in tissue phantoms

    Zhou, Yong; Zhang, Chi; Yao, Da-Kang; Wang, Lihong V.

    2012-12-01

    Determining both bilirubin's concentration and its spatial distribution are important in disease diagnosis. Here, for the first time, we applied quantitative multiwavelength photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) to detect bilirubin concentration and distribution simultaneously. By measuring tissue-mimicking phantoms with different bilirubin concentrations, we showed that the root-mean-square error of prediction has reached 0.52 and 0.83 mg/dL for pure bilirubin and for blood-mixed bilirubin detection (with 100% oxygen saturation), respectively. We further demonstrated the capability of the PAM system to image bilirubin distribution both with and without blood. Finally, by underlaying bilirubin phantoms with mouse skins, we showed that bilirubin can be imaged with consistent accuracy down to >400 μm in depth. Our results show that PAM has potential for noninvasive bilirubin monitoring in vivo, as well as for further clinical applications.

  12. Photoacoustic imaging of lymphatic pumping

    Forbrich, Alex; Heinmiller, Andrew; Zemp, Roger J.

    2017-10-01

    The lymphatic system is responsible for fluid homeostasis and immune cell trafficking and has been implicated in several diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and cancer metastasis. Despite its importance, the lack of suitable in vivo imaging techniques has hampered our understanding of the lymphatic system. This is, in part, due to the limited contrast of lymphatic fluids and structures. Photoacoustic imaging, in combination with optically absorbing dyes or nanoparticles, has great potential for noninvasively visualizing the lymphatic vessels deep in tissues. Multispectral photoacoustic imaging is capable of separating the components; however, the slow wavelength switching speed of most laser systems is inadequate for imaging lymphatic pumping without motion artifacts being introduced into the processed images. We investigate two approaches for visualizing lymphatic processes in vivo. First, single-wavelength differential photoacoustic imaging is used to visualize lymphatic pumping in the hindlimb of a mouse in real time. Second, a fast-switching multiwavelength photoacoustic imaging system was used to assess the propulsion profile of dyes through the lymphatics in real time. These approaches may have profound impacts in noninvasively characterizing and investigating the lymphatic system.

  13. The Continuous Monitoring of Desert Dust using an Infrared-based Dust Detection and Retrieval Method

    Duda, David P.; Minnis, Patrick; Trepte, Qing; Sun-Mack, Sunny

    2006-01-01

    Airborne dust and sand are significant aerosol sources that can impact the atmospheric and surface radiation budgets. Because airborne dust affects visibility and air quality, it is desirable to monitor the location and concentrations of this aerosol for transportation and public health. Although aerosol retrievals have been derived for many years using visible and near-infrared reflectance measurements from satellites, the detection and quantification of dust from these channels is problematic over bright surfaces, or when dust concentrations are large. In addition, aerosol retrievals from polar orbiting satellites lack the ability to monitor the progression and sources of dust storms. As a complement to current aerosol dust retrieval algorithms, multi-spectral thermal infrared (8-12 micron) data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Meteosat-8 Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) are used in the development of a prototype dust detection method and dust property retrieval that can monitor the progress of Saharan dust fields continuously, both night and day. The dust detection method is incorporated into the processing of CERES (Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy System) aerosol retrievals to produce dust property retrievals. Both MODIS (from Terra and Aqua) and SEVERI data are used to develop the method.

  14. Transversely Excited Multipass Photoacoustic Cell Using Electromechanical Film as Microphone

    Jaakko Saarela

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel multipass photoacoustic cell with five stacked electromechanical films as a microphone has been constructed, tested and characterized. The photoacoustic cell is an open rectangular structure with two steel plates facing each other. The longitudinal acoustic resonances are excited transversely in an optical multipass configuration. A detection limit of 22 ppb (10−9 was achieved for flowing NO2 in N2 at normal pressure by using the maximum of 70 laser beams between the resonator plates. The corresponding minimum detectable absorption and the normalized noise-equivalent absorption coefficients were 2:2 × 10−7 cm−1 and 3:2 × 10−9 cm−1WHz−1/2, respectively.

  15. TED: a novel man portable infrared detection and situation awareness system

    Tidhar, Gil; Manor, Ran

    2007-04-01

    Infrared Search and Track (IRST) and threat warning systems are used in vehicle mounted or in fixed land positions. Migration of this technology to the man portable applications proves to be difficult due to the tight constraints of power consumption, dimensions, weight and due to the high video rate requirements. In this report we provide design details of a novel transient event detection (TED) system, capable of detection of blasts and gun shot events in a very wide field of view, while used by an operator in motion

  16. Laser Fluence Recognition Using Computationally Intelligent Pulsed Photoacoustics Within the Trace Gases Analysis

    Lukić, M.; Ćojbašić, Ž.; Rabasović, M. D.; Markushev, D. D.; Todorović, D. M.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, the possibilities of computational intelligence applications for trace gas monitoring are discussed. For this, pulsed infrared photoacoustics is used to investigate SF6-Ar mixtures in a multiphoton regime, assisted by artificial neural networks. Feedforward multilayer perceptron networks are applied in order to recognize both the spatial characteristics of the laser beam and the values of laser fluence Φ from the given photoacoustic signal and prevent changes. Neural networks are trained in an offline batch training regime to simultaneously estimate four parameters from theoretical or experimental photoacoustic signals: the laser beam spatial profile R(r), vibrational-to-translational relaxation time τ _{V-T} , distance from the laser beam to the absorption molecules in the photoacoustic cell r* and laser fluence Φ . The results presented in this paper show that neural networks can estimate an unknown laser beam spatial profile and the parameters of photoacoustic signals in real time and with high precision. Real-time operation, high accuracy and the possibility of application for higher intensities of radiation for a wide range of laser fluencies are factors that classify the computational intelligence approach as efficient and powerful for the in situ measurement of atmospheric pollutants.

  17. Integrated Photoacoustic and Fluorescence Confocal Microscopy

    Wang, Yu; Maslov, Konstantin; Kim, Chulhong; Hu, Song; Wang, Lihong V.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a dual-modality imaging system by integrating optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy and fluorescence confocal microscopy to provide optical absorption and fluorescence contrasts simultaneously. By sharing the same laser source and objective lens, intrinsically registered photoacoustic and fluorescence images are acquired in a single scan. The micrometer resolution allows imaging of both blood and lymphatic vessels down to the capillary level. Simultaneous photoacoustic...

  18. Design and implement of infrared small target real-time detection system based on pipeline technology

    Sun, Lihui; Wang, Yongzhong; He, Yongqiang

    2007-01-01

    The detection for motive small target in infrared image sequence has become a hot topic nowadays. Background suppress algorithm based on minim gradient median filter and temporal recursion target detection algorithm are introduced. On the basis of contents previously mentioned, a four stages pipeline structure infrared small target detection process system, which aims at characters of algorithm complexity, large amounts of data to process, high frame frequency and exigent real-time character in this kind of application, is designed and implemented. The logical structure of the system was introduced and the function and signals flows are programmed. The system is composed of two FPGA chips and two DSP chips of TI. According to the function of each part, the system is divided into image preprocess stage, target detection stage, track relation stage and image output stage. The experiment of running algorithms on the system presented in this paper proved that the system could meet acquisition and process of 50Hz 240x320 digital image and the system could real time detect small target with a signal-noise ratio more than 3 reliably. The system achieves the characters of large amount of memory, high real-time processing, excellent extension and favorable interactive interface.

  19. Evaluation of an optical fiber probe for in vivo measurement of the photoacoustic response of tissues

    Beard, Paul C.; Mills, Timothy N.

    1995-05-01

    A miniature (1 mm diameter) all-optical photoacoustic probe for generating and detecting ultrasonic thermoelastic waves in biological media at the tip of an optical fiber has been developed. The probe provides a compact and convenient means of performing pulsed photoacoustic spectroscopy for the characterization of biological tissue. The device is based upon a transparent Fabry Perot polymer film ultrasound sensor mounted directly over the end of a multimode optical fiber. The optical fiber is used to deliver nanosecond laser pulses to the tissue producing thermoelastic waves which are then detected by the sensor. Detection sensitivities of 53 mv/MPa and a 10 kPa acoustic noise floor have been demonstrated giving excellent signal to noise ratios in a strong liquid absorber. Lower, but clearly detectable, signals in post mortem human aorta have also been observed. The performance and small physical size of the device suggest that it has the potential to perform remote in situ photoacoustic measurements in tissue.

  20. Electromagnetic detection and infrared visualization techniques for non-metallic inclusions in molten aluminum

    Fei Ming; Ludwig, Reinhold; Shankar, Sumanth; Apelian, Diran

    2002-01-01

    The role of detecting non-metallic and weakly conducting inclusions in hot melts during the manufacturing process is of major importance. However, the key impediment to assessing melt cleanliness is the quantification of the level of inclusions. In this paper, we present the theory and practice in using a magnetic force-based detection system capable of monitoring small inclusions of micron-size dimensions. The idea is to force the non-conducting inclusions to a detection location (the free melt surface) by electromagnetic Archimedes forces. Further, an infrared (IR) imaging system can then be applied to detect their thermal signature. Finally, a novel image-processing algorithm is used to analyze the inclusion level on the measurement surface

  1. Electrochemical and Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy Detection of SF6 Decomposition Products

    Ming Dong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6 gas-insulated electrical equipment is widely used in high-voltage (HV and extra-high-voltage (EHV power systems. Partial discharge (PD and local heating can occur in the electrical equipment because of insulation faults, which results in SF6 decomposition and ultimately generates several types of decomposition products. These SF6 decomposition products can be qualitatively and quantitatively detected with relevant detection methods, and such detection contributes to diagnosing the internal faults and evaluating the security risks of the equipment. At present, multiple detection methods exist for analyzing the SF6 decomposition products, and electrochemical sensing (ES and infrared (IR spectroscopy are well suited for application in online detection. In this study, the combination of ES with IR spectroscopy is used to detect SF6 gas decomposition. First, the characteristics of these two detection methods are studied, and the data analysis matrix is established. Then, a qualitative and quantitative analysis ES-IR model is established by adopting a two-step approach. A SF6 decomposition detector is designed and manufactured by combining an electrochemical sensor and IR spectroscopy technology. The detector is used to detect SF6 gas decomposition and is verified to reliably and accurately detect the gas components and concentrations.

  2. Electrochemical and Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy Detection of SF6 Decomposition Products

    Dong, Ming; Ren, Ming; Ye, Rixin

    2017-01-01

    Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) gas-insulated electrical equipment is widely used in high-voltage (HV) and extra-high-voltage (EHV) power systems. Partial discharge (PD) and local heating can occur in the electrical equipment because of insulation faults, which results in SF6 decomposition and ultimately generates several types of decomposition products. These SF6 decomposition products can be qualitatively and quantitatively detected with relevant detection methods, and such detection contributes to diagnosing the internal faults and evaluating the security risks of the equipment. At present, multiple detection methods exist for analyzing the SF6 decomposition products, and electrochemical sensing (ES) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy are well suited for application in online detection. In this study, the combination of ES with IR spectroscopy is used to detect SF6 gas decomposition. First, the characteristics of these two detection methods are studied, and the data analysis matrix is established. Then, a qualitative and quantitative analysis ES-IR model is established by adopting a two-step approach. A SF6 decomposition detector is designed and manufactured by combining an electrochemical sensor and IR spectroscopy technology. The detector is used to detect SF6 gas decomposition and is verified to reliably and accurately detect the gas components and concentrations. PMID:29140268

  3. Submillisecond mixing in a continuous-flow, microfluidic mixer utilizing mid-infrared hyperspectral imaging detection.

    Kise, Drew P; Magana, Donny; Reddish, Michael J; Dyer, R Brian

    2014-02-07

    We report a continuous-flow, microfluidic mixer utilizing mid-infrared hyperspectral imaging detection, with an experimentally determined, submillisecond mixing time. The simple and robust mixer design has the microfluidic channels cut through a polymer spacer that is sandwiched between two IR transparent windows. The mixer hydrodynamically focuses the sample stream with two side flow channels, squeezing it into a thin jet and initiating mixing through diffusion and advection. The detection system generates a mid-infrared hyperspectral absorbance image of the microfluidic sample stream. Calibration of the hyperspectral image yields the mid-IR absorbance spectrum of the sample versus time. A mixing time of 269 μs was measured for a pD jump from 3.2 to above 4.5 in a D2O sample solution of adenosine monophosphate (AMP), which acts as an infrared pD indicator. The mixer was further characterized by comparing experimental results with a simulation of the mixing of an H2O sample stream with a D2O sheath flow, showing good agreement between the two. The IR microfluidic mixer eliminates the need for fluorescence labeling of proteins with bulky, interfering dyes, because it uses the intrinsic IR absorbance of the molecules of interest, and the structural specificity of IR spectroscopy to follow specific chemical changes such as the protonation state of AMP.

  4. Quantum cascade laser-based photoacoustic sulfuryl fluoride sensing

    Minini, Kariza Mayra Silva; Bueno, Sâmylla Cristina Espécie; da Silva, Marcelo Gomes; Sthel, Marcelo Silva; Vargas, Helion; Angster, Judit; Miklós, András

    2017-02-01

    Although sulfuryl fluoride (SO2F2) is an efficient fumigant that does not react with the surface of indoor materials and does not reduce the stratospheric ozone shield, there are some concerns about its use. It is a toxic gas that attacks the central nervous system, and its global warming potential (GWP) value is 4780 for 100 years' time. Therefore, it is a clear necessity of implementing detection methods for tracing such a molecule. In this work a sensitive photoacoustic setup was built to detect SO2F2 at concentrations of parts per billion by volume (ppbv). The symmetric S-O stretching mode was excited by a continuous-wave quantum cascade laser with radiation wavenumber ranging from 1275.7 to 1269.3 cm-1. The photoacoustic signal was generated by modulating the laser wavenumber at the first longitudinal mode of the photoacoustic cell with amplitude depth of 5 × 10-3 cm-1. The detection of a minimum SO2F2 concentration of 20 ppbv was achieved.

  5. Research on the algorithm of infrared target detection based on the frame difference and background subtraction method

    Liu, Yun; Zhao, Yuejin; Liu, Ming; Dong, Liquan; Hui, Mei; Liu, Xiaohua; Wu, Yijian

    2015-09-01

    As an important branch of infrared imaging technology, infrared target tracking and detection has a very important scientific value and a wide range of applications in both military and civilian areas. For the infrared image which is characterized by low SNR and serious disturbance of background noise, an innovative and effective target detection algorithm is proposed in this paper, according to the correlation of moving target frame-to-frame and the irrelevance of noise in sequential images based on OpenCV. Firstly, since the temporal differencing and background subtraction are very complementary, we use a combined detection method of frame difference and background subtraction which is based on adaptive background updating. Results indicate that it is simple and can extract the foreground moving target from the video sequence stably. For the background updating mechanism continuously updating each pixel, we can detect the infrared moving target more accurately. It paves the way for eventually realizing real-time infrared target detection and tracking, when transplanting the algorithms on OpenCV to the DSP platform. Afterwards, we use the optimal thresholding arithmetic to segment image. It transforms the gray images to black-white images in order to provide a better condition for the image sequences detection. Finally, according to the relevance of moving objects between different frames and mathematical morphology processing, we can eliminate noise, decrease the area, and smooth region boundaries. Experimental results proves that our algorithm precisely achieve the purpose of rapid detection of small infrared target.

  6. Noninvasive detection of change in skeletal muscle oxygenation during incremental exercise with near-infrared spectroscopy

    Liu, Fang; Luo, Qingming; Xu, Guodong; Li, Pengcheng

    2003-12-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been developed as a non-invasive method to assess O2 delivery, O2 consumption and blood flow, in diverse local muscle groups at rest and during exercise. The aim of this study was to investigate local O2 consumption in exercising muscle by use of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Ten elite athletes of different sport items were tested in rest and during step incremental load exercise. Local variations of quadriceps muscles were investigated with our wireless NIRS blood oxygen monitor system. The results show that the changes of blood oxygen relate on the sport items, type of muscle, kinetic capacity et al. These results indicate that NIRS is a potential useful tool to detect local muscle oxygenation and blood flow profiles; therefore it might be easily applied for evaluating the effect of athletes training.

  7. Tensor Fukunaga-Koontz transform for small target detection in infrared images

    Liu, Ruiming; Wang, Jingzhuo; Yang, Huizhen; Gong, Chenglong; Zhou, Yuanshen; Liu, Lipeng; Zhang, Zhen; Shen, Shuli

    2016-09-01

    Infrared small targets detection plays a crucial role in warning and tracking systems. Some novel methods based on pattern recognition technology catch much attention from researchers. However, those classic methods must reshape images into vectors with the high dimensionality. Moreover, vectorizing breaks the natural structure and correlations in the image data. Image representation based on tensor treats images as matrices and can hold the natural structure and correlation information. So tensor algorithms have better classification performance than vector algorithms. Fukunaga-Koontz transform is one of classification algorithms and it is a vector version method with the disadvantage of all vector algorithms. In this paper, we first extended the Fukunaga-Koontz transform into its tensor version, tensor Fukunaga-Koontz transform. Then we designed a method based on tensor Fukunaga-Koontz transform for detecting targets and used it to detect small targets in infrared images. The experimental results, comparison through signal-to-clutter, signal-to-clutter gain and background suppression factor, have validated the advantage of the target detection based on the tensor Fukunaga-Koontz transform over that based on the Fukunaga-Koontz transform.

  8. Robust Small Target Co-Detection from Airborne Infrared Image Sequences.

    Gao, Jingli; Wen, Chenglin; Liu, Meiqin

    2017-09-29

    In this paper, a novel infrared target co-detection model combining the self-correlation features of backgrounds and the commonality features of targets in the spatio-temporal domain is proposed to detect small targets in a sequence of infrared images with complex backgrounds. Firstly, a dense target extraction model based on nonlinear weights is proposed, which can better suppress background of images and enhance small targets than weights of singular values. Secondly, a sparse target extraction model based on entry-wise weighted robust principal component analysis is proposed. The entry-wise weight adaptively incorporates structural prior in terms of local weighted entropy, thus, it can extract real targets accurately and suppress background clutters efficiently. Finally, the commonality of targets in the spatio-temporal domain are used to construct target refinement model for false alarms suppression and target confirmation. Since real targets could appear in both of the dense and sparse reconstruction maps of a single frame, and form trajectories after tracklet association of consecutive frames, the location correlation of the dense and sparse reconstruction maps for a single frame and tracklet association of the location correlation maps for successive frames have strong ability to discriminate between small targets and background clutters. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed small target co-detection method can not only suppress background clutters effectively, but also detect targets accurately even if with target-like interference.

  9. Detector location selection based on VIP analysis in near-infrared detection of dural hematoma

    Qiuming Sun

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Detection of dural hematoma based on multi-channel near-infrared differential absorbance has the advantages of rapid and non-invasive detection. The location and number of detectors around the light source are critical for reducing the pathological characteristics of the prediction model on dural hematoma degree. Therefore, rational selection of detector numbers and their distances from the light source is very important. In this paper, a detector position screening method based on Variable Importance in the Projection (VIP analysis is proposed. A preliminary modeling based on Partial Least Squares method (PLS for the prediction of dural position μa was established using light absorbance information from 30 detectors located 2.0–5.0 cm from the light source with a 0.1 cm interval. The mean relative error (MRE of the dural position μa prediction model was 4.08%. After VIP analysis, the number of detectors was reduced from 30 to 4 and the MRE of the dural position μa prediction was reduced from 4.08% to 2.06% after the reduction in detector numbers. The prediction model after VIP detector screening still showed good prediction of the epidural position μa. This study provided a new approach and important reference on the selection of detector location in near-infrared dural hematoma detection. Keywords: Detector location screening, Epidural hematoma detection, Variable importance in the projection

  10. Detection of small surface vessels in near, medium, and far infrared spectral bands

    Dulski, R.; Milewski, S.; Kastek, M.; Trzaskawka, P.; Szustakowski, M.; Ciurapinski, W.; Zyczkowski, M.

    2011-11-01

    Protection of naval bases and harbors requires close co-operation between security and access control systems covering land areas and those monitoring sea approach routes. The typical location of naval bases and harbors - usually next to a large city - makes it difficult to detect and identify a threat in the dense regular traffic of various sea vessels (i.e. merchant ships, fishing boats, tourist ships). Due to the properties of vessel control systems, such as AIS (Automatic Identification System), and the effectiveness of radar and optoelectronic systems against different targets it seems that fast motor boats called RIB (Rigid Inflatable Boat) could be the most serious threat to ships and harbor infrastructure. In the paper the process and conditions for the detection and identification of high-speed boats in the areas of ports and naval bases in the near, medium and far infrared is presented. Based on the results of measurements and recorded thermal images the actual temperature contrast delta T (RIB / sea) will be determined, which will further allow to specify the theoretical ranges of detection and identification of the RIB-type targets for an operating security system. The data will also help to determine the possible advantages of image fusion where the component images are taken in different spectral ranges. This will increase the probability of identifying the object by the multi-sensor security system equipped additionally with the appropriate algorithms for detecting, tracking and performing the fusion of images from the visible and infrared cameras.

  11. Instant detection and identification of concealed explosive-related compounds: Induced Stokes Raman versus infrared.

    Elbasuney, Sherif; El-Sherif, Ashraf F

    2017-01-01

    The instant detection of explosives and explosive-related compounds has become an urgent priority in recent years for homeland security and counter-terrorism applications. Modern techniques should offer enhancement in selectivity, sensitivity, and standoff distances. Miniaturisation, portability, and field-ruggedisation are crucial requirements. This study reports on instant and standoff identification of concealed explosive-related compounds using customized Raman technique. Stokes Raman spectra of common explosive-related compounds were generated and spectrally resolved to create characteristic finger print spectra. The scattered Raman emissions over the band 400:2000cm -1 were compared to infrared absorption using FTIR. It has been demonstrated that the two vibrational spectroscopic techniques were opposite and completing each other. Molecular vibrations with strong absorption in infrared (those involve strong change in dipole moments) induced weak signals in Raman and vice versa. The tailored Raman offered instant detection, high sensitivity, and standoff detection capabilities. Raman demonstrated characteristic fingerprint spectra with stable baseline and sharp intense peaks. Complete correlations of absorption/scattered signals to certain molecular vibrations were conducted to generate an entire spectroscopic profile of explosive-related compounds. This manuscript shades the light on Raman as one of the prevailing technologies for instantaneous detection of explosive-related compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Upconversion enhanced degenerate four-wave mixing in the mid-infrared for sensitive detection of acetylene in gas flows

    Høgstedt, Lasse; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Sahlberg, Anna-Lena

    2014-01-01

    We present a new background free method for in situ gas detection that combines degenerate four-wave mixing with an infra-red light detector based on parametric frequency upconversion of infra-red light. The system is demonstrated at mid infrared wavelengths for low concentration measurements...... of acetylene diluted in a N2 gas flow at ambient conditions. It is demonstrated that the system is able to cover more than 100 nm in scanning range and detect concentrations as low as 3 ppm based on the R9e line. A major issue in small signal measurements is scattered light and it is showed how a spatial...

  13. Near-infrared high-resolution real-time omnidirectional imaging platform for drone detection

    Popovic, Vladan; Ott, Beat; Wellig, Peter; Leblebici, Yusuf

    2016-10-01

    Recent technological advancements in hardware systems have made higher quality cameras. State of the art panoramic systems use them to produce videos with a resolution of 9000 x 2400 pixels at a rate of 30 frames per second (fps).1 Many modern applications use object tracking to determine the speed and the path taken by each object moving through a scene. The detection requires detailed pixel analysis between two frames. In fields like surveillance systems or crowd analysis, this must be achieved in real time.2 In this paper, we focus on the system-level design of multi-camera sensor acquiring near-infrared (NIR) spectrum and its ability to detect mini-UAVs in a representative rural Swiss environment. The presented results show the UAV detection from the trial that we conducted during a field trial in August 2015.

  14. An Estimation of a Passive Infra-Red Sensor Probability of Detection

    Osman, E.A.; El-Gazar, M.I.; Shaat, M.K.; El-Kafas, A.A.; Zidan, W.I.; Wadoud, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    Passive Infera-Red (PIR) sensors are one of many detection sensors are used to detect any intrusion process of the nuclear sites. In this work, an estimation of a PIR Sensor's Probability of Detection of a hypothetical facility is presented. sensor performance testing performed to determine whether a particular sensor will be acceptable in a proposed design. We have access to a sensor test field in which the sensor of interest is already properly installed and the parameters have been set to optimal levels by preliminary testing. The PIR sensor construction, operation and design for the investigated nuclear site are explained. Walking and running intrusion tests were carried out inside the field areas of the PIR sensor to evaluate the sensor performance during the intrusion process. 10 trials experimentally performed for achieving the intrusion process via a passive infra-red sensor's network system. The performance and intrusion senses of PIR sensors inside the internal zones was recorded and evaluated.

  15. Gastric cancer target detection using near-infrared hyperspectral imaging with chemometrics

    Yi, Weisong; Zhang, Jian; Jiang, Houmin; Zhang, Niya

    2014-09-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death in the world due to its high morbidity and mortality. Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is an emerging, non-destructive, cutting edge analytical technology that combines conventional imaging and spectroscopy in one single system. The manuscript has investigated the application of near-infrared hyperspectral imaging (900-1700 nm) (NIR-HSI) for gastric cancer detection with algorithms. Major spectral differences were observed in three regions (950-1050, 1150-1250, and 1400-1500 nm). By inspecting cancerous mean spectrum three major absorption bands were observed around 975, 1215 and 1450 nm. Furthermore, the cancer target detection results are consistent and conformed with histopathological examination results. These results suggest that NIR-HSI is a simple, feasible and sensitive optical diagnostic technology for gastric cancer target detection with chemometrics.

  16. A photoacoustic tomography system for imaging of biological tissues

    Su Yixiong; Zhang Fan; Xu Kexin; Yao Jianquan; Wang, Ruikang K

    2005-01-01

    Non-invasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is a promising imaging modality in the biomedical optical imaging field. This technology, based on the intrinsic optical properties of tissue and ultrasonic detection, overcomes the resolution disadvantage of pure-optical imaging caused by strong light scattering and the contrast and speckle disadvantages of pure ultrasonic imaging. Here, we report a PAT experimental system constructed in our laboratory. In our system, a Q-switched Nd : YAG pulse laser operated at 532 nm with a 8 ns pulse width is used to generate a photoacoustic signal. By using this system, the two-dimensional distribution of optical absorption in the tissue-mimicking phantom is reconstructed and has an excellent agreement with the original ones. The spatial resolution of the imaging system approaches 100 μm through about 4 cm of highly scattering medium

  17. H2O2-responsive liposomal nanoprobe for photoacoustic inflammation imaging and tumor theranostics via in vivo chromogenic assay.

    Chen, Qian; Liang, Chao; Sun, Xiaoqi; Chen, Jiawen; Yang, Zhijuan; Zhao, He; Feng, Liangzhu; Liu, Zhuang

    2017-05-23

    Abnormal H 2 O 2 levels are closely related to many diseases, including inflammation and cancers. Herein, we simultaneously load HRP and its substrate, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), into liposomal nanoparticles, obtaining a Lipo@HRP&ABTS optical nanoprobe for in vivo H 2 O 2 -responsive chromogenic assay with great specificity and sensitivity. In the presence of H 2 O 2 , colorless ABTS would be converted by HRP into the oxidized form with strong near-infrared (NIR) absorbance, enabling photoacoustic detection of H 2 O 2 down to submicromolar concentrations. Using Lipo@HRP&ABTS as an H 2 O 2 -responsive nanoprobe, we could accurately detect the inflammation processes induced by LPS or bacterial infection in which H 2 O 2 is generated. Meanwhile, upon systemic administration of this nanoprobe we realize in vivo photoacoustic imaging of small s.c. tumors (∼2 mm in size) as well as orthotopic brain gliomas, by detecting H 2 O 2 produced by tumor cells. Interestingly, local injection of Lipo@HRP&ABTS further enables differentiation of metastatic lymph nodes from those nonmetastatic ones, based on their difference in H 2 O 2 contents. Moreover, using the H 2 O 2 -dependent strong NIR absorbance of Lipo@HRP&ABTS, tumor-specific photothermal therapy is also achieved. This work thus develops a sensitive H 2 O 2 -responsive optical nanoprobe useful not only for in vivo detection of inflammation but also for tumor-specific theranostic applications.

  18. Detection of emission sources using passive-remote Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Demirgian, J.C.; Macha, S.M.; Darby, S.M.; Ditillo, J.

    1995-01-01

    The detection and identification of toxic chemicals released in the environment is important for public safety. Passive-remote Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometers can be used to detect these releases. Their primary advantages are their small size and ease of setup and use. Open-path FTIR spectrometers are used to detect concentrations of pollutants from a fixed frame of reference. These instruments detect plumes, but they are too large and difficult to aim to be used to track a plume to its source. Passive remote FTIR spectrometers contain an interferometer, optics, and a detector. They can be used on tripods and in some cases can be hand-held. A telescope can be added to most units. We will discuss the capability of passive-remote FTIR spectrometers to detect the origin of plumes. Low concentration plumes were released using a custom-constructed vaporizer. These plumes were detected with different spectrometers from different distances. Passive-remote spectrometers were able to detect small 10 cm on a side chemical releases at concentration-pathlengths at the low parts per million-meter (ppm-m) level

  19. Challenges in the noninvasive detection of body composition using near-infrared spectroscopy

    Wenliang Chen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Noninvasive detection of body composition plays a significant role in the improvement of life quality and reduction in complications of the patients, and the near-infrared (NIR spectroscopy, with the advantages of painlessness and convenience, is considered as the most promising tool for the online noninvasive monitoring of body composition. However, quite different from other fields of online detection using NIR spectroscopy, such as food safety and environment monitoring, noninvasive detection of body composition demands higher precision of the instruments as well as more rigorousness of measurement conditions. Therefore, new challenges emerge when NIR spectroscopy is applied to the noninvasive detection of body composition, which, in this paper, are first concluded from the aspects of measurement methods, measurement conditions, instrument precision, multi-component influence, individual difference and novel weak-signal extraction method based on our previous research in the cutting-edge field of NIR noninvasive blood glucose detection. Moreover, novel ideas and approaches of our group to solve these problems are introduced, which may provide evidence for the future development of noninvasive blood glucose detection, and further contribute to the noninvasive detection of other body compositions using NIR spectroscopy.

  20. Analytical potential of mid-infrared detection in capillary electrophoresis and liquid chromatography: A review

    Kuligowski, Julia; Quintas, Guillermo; Guardia, Miguel de la; Lendl, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    Literature published in the last decade concerning the use of mid-infrared spectrometry as a detection system in separation techniques employing a liquid mobile phase is reviewed. In addition to the continued use of isocratic liquid chromatographic (LC) techniques, advances in chemometric data evaluation techniques now allow the use of gradient techniques on a routine basis, thus significantly broadening the range of possible applications of LC-IR. The general trend towards miniaturized separation systems was also followed for mid-IR detection where two key developments are of special importance. Firstly, concerning on-line detection the advent of micro-fabricated flow-cells with inner volumes of only a few nL for transmission as well as attenuated total reflection measurements enabled on-line mid-IR detection in capillary LC and opened the path for the first successful realization of on-line mid-IR detection in capillary zone electrophoresis as well as micellar electrokinetic chromatography. Secondly, concerning off-line detection the use of micro-flow through dispensers now enables to concentrate eluting analytes on dried spots sized a few tens of micrometers, thus matching the dimensions for sensitive detection by mid-IR microscopy. Finally in an attempt to increase detection sensitivity of on-line mid-IR detection, mid-IR quantum cascade lasers have been used. Applications cover the field of food analysis, environmental analysis and the characterization of explosives among others. Best detection sensitivities for on-line and off-line detection have been achieved in miniaturized systems and are in the order of 50 ng and 2 ng on column, respectively.

  1. Infrared machine vision system for the automatic detection of olive fruit quality.

    Guzmán, Elena; Baeten, Vincent; Pierna, Juan Antonio Fernández; García-Mesa, José A

    2013-11-15

    External quality is an important factor in the extraction of olive oil and the marketing of olive fruits. The appearance and presence of external damage are factors that influence the quality of the oil extracted and the perception of consumers, determining the level of acceptance prior to purchase in the case of table olives. The aim of this paper is to report on artificial vision techniques developed for the online estimation of olive quality and to assess the effectiveness of these techniques in evaluating quality based on detecting external defects. This method of classifying olives according to the presence of defects is based on an infrared (IR) vision system. Images of defects were acquired using a digital monochrome camera with band-pass filters on near-infrared (NIR). The original images were processed using segmentation algorithms, edge detection and pixel value intensity to classify the whole fruit. The detection of the defect involved a pixel classification procedure based on nonparametric models of the healthy and defective areas of olives. Classification tests were performed on olives to assess the effectiveness of the proposed method. This research showed that the IR vision system is a useful technology for the automatic assessment of olives that has the potential for use in offline inspection and for online sorting for defects and the presence of surface damage, easily distinguishing those that do not meet minimum quality requirements. Crown Copyright © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Research on propane leak detection system and device based on mid infrared laser

    Jiang, Meng; Wang, Xuefeng; Wang, Junlong; Wang, Yizhao; Li, Pan; Feng, Qiaoling

    2017-10-01

    Propane is a key component of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and crude oil volatile. This issue summarizes the recent progress of propane detection technology. Meanwhile, base on the development trend, our latest progress is also provided. We demonstrated a mid infrared propane sensor system, which is based on wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) technique with a CW interband cascade laser (ICL) emitting at 3370.4nm. The ICL laser scanned over a sharp feature in the broader spectrum of propane, and harmonic signals are obtained by lock-in amplifier for gas concentration deduction. The surrounding gas is extracted into the fine optical absorption cell through the pump to realize online detection. The absorption cell is designed in mid infrared windows range. An example experimental setup is shown. The second harmonic signals 2f and first harmonic signals1f are obtained. We present the sensor performance test data including dynamic precision and temperature stability. The propane detection sensor system and device is portable can carried on the mobile inspection vehicle platforms or intelligent robot inspection platform to realize the leakage monitoring of whole oil gas tank area.

  3. THE A-X INFRARED BANDS OF ALUMINUM OXIDE IN STARS: SEARCH AND NEW DETECTIONS

    Banerjee, D. P. K.; Mathew, Blesson; Ashok, N. M. [Astronomy and Astrophysics Division, Physical Research Laboratory, Navrangpura, Ahmedabad, Gujarat 380009 (India); Varricatt, W. P. [Joint Astronomy Centre, 660 N. Aohoku Place, University Park, Hilo, Hawaii, HI 96720 (United States); Launila, O., E-mail: orion@prl.res.in [KTH-AlbaNova, Applied Physics, Roslagstullsbacken 21, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    We describe a search for the A-X infrared bands of AlO with a view toward better understanding the characteristics of this radical. These bands are infrequently encountered in astronomical sources but surprisingly were very prominent in the spectra of two well-known, novalike variables (V838 Mon and V4332 Sgr) thereby motivating us to explore the physical conditions necessary for their excitation. In this study, we present the detection of A-X bands in the spectra of 13 out of 17 stars, selected on the basis of their J - K colors as potential candidates for detection of these bands. The majority of the AlO detections are in asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, viz., nine OH/IR stars, two Mira variables, and two bright infrared sources. Our study shows that the A-X bands are fairly prevalent in sources with low temperature and O-rich environments. Interesting variation in the strength of the AlO bands in one of the sources (IRAS 18530+0817) is reported and the cause for this is examined. Possible applications of the present study are discussed in terms of the role of AlO in alumina dust formation, the scope for estimating the radioactive {sup 26}Al content in AGB stars from the A-X bands, and providing possible targets for further mm/radio studies of AlO which has recently been discovered at millimeter wavelengths.

  4. Remote detection of physiological depression in crop plants with infrared thermal imagery

    Inoue, Y.

    1990-01-01

    The infrared thermal imagery was measured concurrently with physiological status in stressed and non-stressed corn and wheat canopies. Thermal images were obtained with an infrared thermography system from a distance of 5 to 20 m. Each thermal image, composed of 512 (H) × 240 (V) pixels with a sensitivity of 0.05°C, was recorded in a video tape every 8 seconds in the field, and analyzed in a laboratory later. A root-reducing treatment was used for simulating environmental stresses, which treatment was carried out by cutting a root system with a thin metal plate at the depth of 20 cm, but brought little apparent change in plant stands. Photosynthesis, transpiration and stomatal conductance in the stressed canopy were depressed, which were accompanied with an inverse change in the canopy surface temperature. The maximum difference in mean surface temperatures of the stressed and non-stressed parts of the canopy was no less than 4.2°C in corn and 3.1°C in wheat. Gaussian distribution of spatial temperature frequency in the stressed part shifted toward higher temperature from that of non-stressed part of the canopy, which was visualized clearly on the pseudo-color thermal image while no visible changes were observed directly from the distance. The infrared imagery was effective, especially, for detecting phisiological depression or for comparing various canopies in their physiological status on a remote and real-time basis

  5. Remote detection of physiological depression in crop plants with infrared thermal imagery

    Inoue, Y. [Agricultural Research Center, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1990-12-15

    The infrared thermal imagery was measured concurrently with physiological status in stressed and non-stressed corn and wheat canopies. Thermal images were obtained with an infrared thermography system from a distance of 5 to 20 m. Each thermal image, composed of 512 (H) × 240 (V) pixels with a sensitivity of 0.05°C, was recorded in a video tape every 8 seconds in the field, and analyzed in a laboratory later. A root-reducing treatment was used for simulating environmental stresses, which treatment was carried out by cutting a root system with a thin metal plate at the depth of 20 cm, but brought little apparent change in plant stands. Photosynthesis, transpiration and stomatal conductance in the stressed canopy were depressed, which were accompanied with an inverse change in the canopy surface temperature. The maximum difference in mean surface temperatures of the stressed and non-stressed parts of the canopy was no less than 4.2°C in corn and 3.1°C in wheat. Gaussian distribution of spatial temperature frequency in the stressed part shifted toward higher temperature from that of non-stressed part of the canopy, which was visualized clearly on the pseudo-color thermal image while no visible changes were observed directly from the distance. The infrared imagery was effective, especially, for detecting phisiological depression or for comparing various canopies in their physiological status on a remote and real-time basis.

  6. Detecting Canopy Water Status Using Shortwave Infrared Reflectance Data From Polar Orbiting and Geostationary Platforms

    Fensholt, Rasmus; Huber Gharib, Silvia; Proud, Simon Richard

    2010-01-01

    -based canopy water status detection from geostationary Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) data as compared to polar orbiting environmental satellite (POES)-based moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. The EO-based SWIR water stress index...... (SIWSI) is evaluated against in situ measured canopy water content indicators at a semi-arid grassland savanna site in Senegal 2008. Daily SIWSI from both MODIS and SEVIRI data show an overall inverse relation to Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) throughout the growing season. SIWSI...... for SWIR-based canopy water status and stress monitoring in a semi-arid environment....

  7. Semiconducting Polymer Photodetectors with Electron and Hole Blocking Layers: High Detectivity in the Near-Infrared

    Xiong Gong

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Sensing from the ultraviolet-visible to the infrared is critical for a variety of industrial and scientific applications. Photodetectors with broad spectral response, from 300 nm to 1,100 nm, were fabricated using a narrow-band gap semiconducting polymer blended with a fullerene derivative. By using both an electron-blocking layer and a hole-blocking layer, the polymer photodetectors, operating at room temperature, exhibited calculated detectivities greater than 1013 cm Hz1/2/W over entire spectral range with linear dynamic range approximately 130 dB. The performance is comparable to or even better than Si photodetectors.

  8. Infrared Thermographic Diagnosis Mechanism for Fault Detection of Ball Bearing under Dynamic Loading Conditions

    Seo, Jin Ju; Yoon, Hanvit; Kim, Dong Yeon; Hong, Dong Pyo; Kim, Won Tae

    2011-01-01

    Fault detection for dynamic loading conditions of rotational machineries was considered from the contactless, non-destructive infrared thermographic method, rather than the traditional diagnosis method. In this paper, by applying a rotating deep-grooved ball bearing, passive thermographic experiment was performed as an alternative way proceeding the traditional fault monitoring. In addition, the thermographic experiments were compared with the vibration spectrum analysis to evaluate the efficiency of the proposed method. Based on the results, it was concluded the temperature characteristics of the ball bearing under dynamic loading conditions were analyzed thoroughly

  9. Near-infrared detection of ammonium minerals at Ivanhoe Hot Springs, Nevada

    Krohn, M. D.

    1986-01-01

    Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data were collected over the fossil hot spring deposit at Ivanhoe, Nevada in order to determine the surface distribution of NH4-bearing minerals. Laboratory studies show that NH4-bearing minerals have characteristic absorption features in the near-infrared (NIR). Ammonium-bearing feldspars and alunites were observed at the surface of Ivanhoe using a hand-held radiometer. However, first look analysis of the AIS images showed that the line was about 500 m east of its intended mark, and the vegetation cover was sufficiently dense to inhibit preliminary attempts at making relative reflectance images for detection of ammonium minerals.

  10. Near-infrared Polarimetry of the Outflow Source AFGL 6366S: Detection of Circular Polarization

    Kwon, Jungmi; Nakagawa, Takao; Tamura, Motohide; Hough, James H.; Kandori, Ryo; Choi, Minho; Kang, Miju; Cho, Jungyeon; Nakajima, Yasushi; Nagata, Tetsuya

    2018-07-01

    We have carried out near-infrared circular and linear imaging polarimetry of the AFGL 6366S region. There is one large infrared reflection nebula associated with the AFGL 6366S cluster and one small infrared reflection nebula associated with AFGL 6366S NE. Prominent and extended polarized nebulosities over the AFGL 6366S cluster field are found to be composed of several components and local nebula peaks, and those nebulosities are illuminated by at least three sources, which is roughly consistent with a previous study. However, the detailed linear polarization patterns and their degrees differ from the earlier study. The brightest regions of the nebulae are illuminated by the IRAS/WISE source. In addition, we report the first detection of circular polarization (CP) in the reflection nebula associated with AFGL 6366S. The CP is as large as approximately 4% in the K s band, and the maximum CP extent is approximately 0.45 pc, which is comparable to that for the largest CP regions known to date, such as Orion and Mon R2, although the CP degrees are much smaller. The CP pattern is mostly quadrupolar, and its morphology resembles the shape of the C18O dense core. Therefore, the CP region is probably illuminated by the IRAS/WISE source and its polarization is amplified by the dichroic absorption of the dense core associated with the cluster. This is the ninth source whose degrees of CPs are measured to be greater than 3%, suggesting that large and extended infrared CP regions are common among mid- to high-mass young stellar objects.

  11. Forensic applications of infrared imaging for the detection and recording of latent evidence.

    Lin, Apollo Chun-Yen; Hsieh, Hsing-Mei; Tsai, Li-Chin; Linacre, Adrian; Lee, James Chun-I

    2007-09-01

    We report on a simple method to record infrared (IR) reflected images in a forensic science context. Light sources using ultraviolet light have been used previously in the detection of latent prints, but the use of infrared light has been subjected to less investigation. IR light sources were used to search for latent evidence and the images were captured by either video or using a digital camera with a CCD array sensitive to IR wavelength. Bloodstains invisible to the eye, inks, tire prints, gunshot residue, and charred document on dark background are selected as typical matters that may be identified during a forensic investigation. All the evidence types could be detected and identified using a range of photographic techniques. In this study, a one in eight times dilution of blood could be detected on 10 different samples of black cloth. When using 81 black writing inks, the observation rates were 95%, 88% and 42% for permanent markers, fountain pens and ball-point pens, respectively, on the three kinds of dark cloth. The black particles of gunshot residue scattering around the entrance hole under IR light were still observed at a distance of 60 cm from three different shooting ranges. A requirement of IR reflectivity is that there is a contrast between the latent evidence and the background. In the absence of this contrast no latent image will be detected, which is similar to all light sources. The use of a video camera allows the recording of images either at a scene or in the laboratory. This report highlights and demonstrates the robustness of IR to detect and record the presence of latent evidence.

  12. Photoacoustic Spectroscopy Analysis of Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Chen, Lu; Zhao, Bin-xing; Xiao, Hong-tao; Tong, Rong-sheng; Gao, Chun-ming

    2013-09-01

    Chinese medicine is a historic cultural legacy of China. It has made a significant contribution to medicine and healthcare for generations. The development of Chinese herbal medicine analysis is emphasized by the Chinese pharmaceutical industry. This study has carried out the experimental analysis of ten kinds of Chinese herbal powder including Fritillaria powder, etc., based on the photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) method. First, a photoacoustic spectroscopy system was designed and constructed, especially a highly sensitive solid photoacoustic cell was established. Second, the experimental setup was verified through the characteristic emission spectrum of the light source, obtained by using carbon as a sample in the photoacoustic cell. Finally, as the photoacoustic spectroscopy analysis of Fritillaria, etc., was completed, the specificity of the Chinese herb medicine analysis was verified. This study shows that the PAS can provide a valid, highly sensitive analytical method for the specificity of Chinese herb medicine without preparing and damaging samples.

  13. Far-infrared pedestrian detection for advanced driver assistance systems using scene context

    Wang, Guohua; Liu, Qiong; Wu, Qingyao

    2016-04-01

    Pedestrian detection is one of the most critical but challenging components in advanced driver assistance systems. Far-infrared (FIR) images are well-suited for pedestrian detection even in a dark environment. However, most current detection approaches just focus on pedestrian patterns themselves, where robust and real-time detection cannot be well achieved. We propose a fast FIR pedestrian detection approach, called MAP-HOGLBP-T, to explicitly exploit the scene context for the driver assistance system. In MAP-HOGLBP-T, three algorithms are developed to exploit the scene contextual information from roads, vehicles, and background objects of high homogeneity, and we employ the Bayesian approach to build a classifier learner which respects the scene contextual information. We also develop a multiframe approval scheme to enhance the detection performance based on spatiotemporal continuity of pedestrians. Our empirical study on real-world datasets has demonstrated the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed method. The performance is shown to be better than that of state-of-the-art low-level feature-based approaches.

  14. NH4HCO3 gas-generating liposomal nanoparticle for photoacoustic imaging in breast cancer

    Xia J

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Jizhu Xia, Gang Feng, Xiaorong Xia, Lan Hao, Zhigang Wang Chongqing Key Laboratory of Ultrasound Molecular Imaging, Department of Ultrasound, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: In this study, we have developed a biodegradable nanomaterial for photoacoustic imaging (PAI. Its biodegradation products can be fully eliminated from a living organism. It is a gas-generating nanoparticle of liposome-encapsulating ammonium bicarbonate (NH4HCO3 solution, which is safe, effective, inexpensive, and free of side effects. When lasers irradiate these nanoparticles, NH4HCO3 decomposes to produce CO2, which can absorb much of the light energy under laser irradiation with a specific wavelength, and then expand under heat to generate a thermal acoustic wave. An acoustic detector can detect this wave and show it as a photoacoustic signal on a display screen. The intensity of the photoacoustic signal is enhanced corresponding to an increase in time, concentration, and temperature. During in vivo testing, nanoparticles were injected into tumor-bearing nude mice through the caudal vein, and photoacoustic signals were detected from the tumor, reaching a peak in 4 h, and then gradually disappearing. There was no damage to the skin or subcutaneous tissue from laser radiation. Our developed gas-generating nanomaterial, NH4HCO3 nanomaterial, is feasible, effective, safe, and inexpensive. Therefore, it is a promising material to be used in clinical PAI. Keywords: Photoacoustic tomography, CO2, NH4HCO3, contrast agent, cancer

  15. Discriminating between absorption and scattering coefficients in optical characterisation measurements on gold nanoparticle based photoacoustic contrast agents

    Ungureanu, C.; Manohar, Srirang; van Leeuwen, Ton; Amelink, A.; Sterenborg, Henricus J.C.M.; Oraevsky, Alexander A.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2009-01-01

    Plasmon resonant nanoparticles such as gold nanoshells and gold nanorods can be tuned to possess sharp interaction peaks in the near-infrared wavelength regions. These have great importance as contrast agents in photoacoustic imaging and as photothermal agents for therapeutic applications due to

  16. Boron doping compensation of hydrogenated amorphous and polymorphous germanium thin films for infrared detection applications

    Moreno, M.; Delgadillo, N.; Torres, A.; Ambrosio, R.; Rosales, P.; Kosarev, A.; Reyes-Betanzo, C.; Hidalga-Wade, J. de la; Zuniga, C.; Calleja, W.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we have studied boron doping of hydrogenated amorphous germanium a-Ge:H and polymorphous germanium (pm-Ge:H) in low regimes, in order to compensate the material from n-type (due to oxygen contamination that commonly occurs during plasma deposition) to intrinsic, and in this manner improve the properties that are important for infrared (IR) detection, as activation energy (E a ) and temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR). Electrical, structural and optical characterization was performed on the films produced. Measurements of the temperature dependence of conductivity, room temperature conductivity (σ RT ), E a and current–voltage characteristics under IR radiation were performed in the compensated a-Ge:H and pm-Ge:H films. Our results demonstrate that, effectively, the values of E a , TCR and IR detection are improved on the a-Ge:H/pm-Ge:H films, using boron doping in low regimes, which results of interest for infrared detectors. - Highlights: • We reported boron doping compensation of amorphous and polymorphous germanium. • The films were deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. • The aim is to use the films as thermo-sensing elements in un-cooled microbolometers. • Those films have advantages over boron doped a-Si:H used in commercial detectors

  17. Using infrared HOG-based pedestrian detection for outdoor autonomous searching UAV with embedded system

    Shao, Yanhua; Mei, Yanying; Chu, Hongyu; Chang, Zhiyuan; He, Yuxuan; Zhan, Huayi

    2018-04-01

    Pedestrian detection (PD) is an important application domain in computer vision and pattern recognition. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have become a major field of research in recent years. In this paper, an algorithm for a robust pedestrian detection method based on the combination of the infrared HOG (IR-HOG) feature and SVM is proposed for highly complex outdoor scenarios on the basis of airborne IR image sequences from UAV. The basic flow of our application operation is as follows. Firstly, the thermal infrared imager (TAU2-336), which was installed on our Outdoor Autonomous Searching (OAS) UAV, is used for taking pictures of the designated outdoor area. Secondly, image sequences collecting and processing were accomplished by using high-performance embedded system with Samsung ODROID-XU4 and Ubuntu as the core and operating system respectively, and IR-HOG features were extracted. Finally, the SVM is used to train the pedestrian classifier. Experiment show that, our method shows promising results under complex conditions including strong noise corruption, partial occlusion etc.

  18. Early detection of emerging street drugs by near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    Risoluti, R; Materazzi, S; Gregori, A; Ripani, L

    2016-06-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRs) is spreading as the tool of choice for fast and non-destructive analysis and detection of different compounds in complex matrices. This paper investigated the feasibility of using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy coupled to chemometrics calibration to detect new psychoactive substances in street samples. The capabilities of this approach in forensic chemistry were assessed in the determination of new molecules appeared in the illicit market and often claimed to contain "non-illegal" compounds, although exhibiting important psychoactive effects. The study focused on synthetic molecules belonging to the classes of synthetic cannabinoids and phenethylamines. The approach was validated comparing results with officials methods and has been successfully applied for "in site" determination of illicit drugs in confiscated real samples, in cooperation with the Scientific Investigation Department (Carabinieri-RIS) of Rome. The achieved results allow to consider NIR spectroscopy analysis followed by chemometrics as a fast, cost-effective and useful tool for the preliminary determination of new psychoactive substances in forensic science. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Boron doping compensation of hydrogenated amorphous and polymorphous germanium thin films for infrared detection applications

    Moreno, M., E-mail: mmoreno@inaoep.mx [National Institute of Astrophysics, Optics and Electronics, INAOE, P.O. Box 51 and 216, Puebla, Z. P. 72840 Puebla (Mexico); Delgadillo, N. [Universidad Autónoma de Tlaxcala, Av. Universidad No. 1, Z. P. 90006 Tlaxcala (Mexico); Torres, A. [National Institute of Astrophysics, Optics and Electronics, INAOE, P.O. Box 51 and 216, Puebla, Z. P. 72840 Puebla (Mexico); Ambrosio, R. [Technology and Engineering Institute, Ciudad Juarez University UACJ, Av. Del Charro 450N, Z. P. 32310 Chihuahua (Mexico); Rosales, P.; Kosarev, A.; Reyes-Betanzo, C.; Hidalga-Wade, J. de la; Zuniga, C.; Calleja, W. [National Institute of Astrophysics, Optics and Electronics, INAOE, P.O. Box 51 and 216, Puebla, Z. P. 72840 Puebla (Mexico)

    2013-12-02

    In this work we have studied boron doping of hydrogenated amorphous germanium a-Ge:H and polymorphous germanium (pm-Ge:H) in low regimes, in order to compensate the material from n-type (due to oxygen contamination that commonly occurs during plasma deposition) to intrinsic, and in this manner improve the properties that are important for infrared (IR) detection, as activation energy (E{sub a}) and temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR). Electrical, structural and optical characterization was performed on the films produced. Measurements of the temperature dependence of conductivity, room temperature conductivity (σ{sub RT}), E{sub a} and current–voltage characteristics under IR radiation were performed in the compensated a-Ge:H and pm-Ge:H films. Our results demonstrate that, effectively, the values of E{sub a}, TCR and IR detection are improved on the a-Ge:H/pm-Ge:H films, using boron doping in low regimes, which results of interest for infrared detectors. - Highlights: • We reported boron doping compensation of amorphous and polymorphous germanium. • The films were deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. • The aim is to use the films as thermo-sensing elements in un-cooled microbolometers. • Those films have advantages over boron doped a-Si:H used in commercial detectors.

  20. Detecting adulterants in milk with lower cost mid-infrared and Raman spectroscopy

    Lee, Changwon; Wang, Wenbo; Wilson, Benjamin K.; Connett, Marie; Keller, Matthew D.

    2018-02-01

    Adulteration of milk for economic gains is a widespread issue throughout the developing world that can have far-reaching health and nutritional impacts. Milk analysis technologies, such as infrared spectroscopy, can screen for adulteration, but the cost of these technologies has prohibited their use in low resource settings. Recent developments in infrared and Raman spectroscopy hardware have led to commercially available low-cost devices. In this work, we evaluated the performance of two such spectrometers in detecting and quantifying the presence of milk adulterants. Five common adulterants - ammonium sulfate, melamine, sodium bicarbonate, sucrose, and urea, were spiked into five different raw cow and goat milk samples at different concentrations. Collected MIR and Raman spectra were analyzed using partial least squares regression. The limit of detection (LOD) for each adulterant was determined to be in the range of 0.04 to 0.28% (400 to 2800 ppm) using MIR spectroscopy. Raman spectroscopy showed similar LOD's for some of the adulterants, notably those with strong amine group signals, and slightly higher LOD's (up to 1.0%) for other molecules. Overall, the LODs were comparable to other spectroscopic milk analyzers on the market, and they were within the economically relevant concentration range of 100 to 4000 ppm. These lower cost spectroscopic devices therefore appear to hold promise for use in low resource settings.

  1. Parametric Processes for Generation and Low Noise Detection of Infrared Light

    Høgstedt, Lasse

    This thesis describes an experimentally based, and application oriented investigation of sum- and difference frequency generation for photon conversion,from one spectral domain to another. The applications in focus are coherent gas spectroscopy in the near- and mid-infrared regimes. The investiga......This thesis describes an experimentally based, and application oriented investigation of sum- and difference frequency generation for photon conversion,from one spectral domain to another. The applications in focus are coherent gas spectroscopy in the near- and mid-infrared regimes...... upconversion modules are tested as part of a detection system in two different applications for spectroscopic gas measurements. The first test was done at Lund University together with the Combustion Physics Group, where the detection level of acetylene gas in a four-wave mixing setup was improved a factor...... of 500 compared to previous measurements. The second test was performed at the Atmospheric Physics Department at the German Aerospace Center in Oberpfaffenhofen. Here the upconversion detector was tested as an alternative to an InGaAs detector in a differential absorption lidar setup for long range...

  2. Infrared maritime target detection using a probabilistic single Gaussian model of sea clutter in Fourier domain

    Zhou, Anran; Xie, Weixin; Pei, Jihong; Chen, Yapei

    2018-02-01

    For ship targets detection in cluttered infrared image sequences, a robust detection method, based on the probabilistic single Gaussian model of sea background in Fourier domain, is put forward. The amplitude spectrum sequences at each frequency point of the pure seawater images in Fourier domain, being more stable than the gray value sequences of each background pixel in the spatial domain, are regarded as a Gaussian model. Next, a probability weighted matrix is built based on the stability of the pure seawater's total energy spectrum in the row direction, to make the Gaussian model more accurate. Then, the foreground frequency points are separated from the background frequency points by the model. Finally, the false-alarm points are removed utilizing ships' shape features. The performance of the proposed method is tested by visual and quantitative comparisons with others.

  3. Near-infrared Thermal Emission Detections of a Number of Hot Jupiters and the Systematics of Ground-based Near-infrared Photometry

    Croll, Bryce; Albert, Loic; Jayawardhana, Ray; Cushing, Michael; Moutou, Claire; Lafreniere, David; Johnson, John Asher; Bonomo, Aldo S.; Deleuil, Magali; Fortney, Jonathan

    2015-03-01

    We present detections of the near-infrared thermal emission of three hot Jupiters and one brown dwarf using the Wide-field Infrared Camera (WIRCam) on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT). These include Ks-band secondary eclipse detections of the hot Jupiters WASP-3b and Qatar-1b and the brown dwarf KELT-1b. We also report Y-band, K CONT-band, and two new and one reanalyzed Ks-band detections of the thermal emission of the hot Jupiter WASP-12b. We present a new reduction pipeline for CFHT/WIRCam data, which is optimized for high precision photometry. We also describe novel techniques for constraining systematic errors in ground-based near-infrared photometry, so as to return reliable secondary eclipse depths and uncertainties. We discuss the noise properties of our ground-based photometry for wavelengths spanning the near-infrared (the YJHK bands), for faint and bright stars, and for the same object on several occasions. For the hot Jupiters WASP-3b and WASP-12b we demonstrate the repeatability of our eclipse depth measurements in the Ks band; we therefore place stringent limits on the systematics of ground-based, near-infrared photometry, and also rule out violent weather changes in the deep, high pressure atmospheres of these two hot Jupiters at the epochs of our observations. Based on observations obtained with WIRCam, a joint project of Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), Taiwan, Korea, Canada, France, at the CFHT, which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institute National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii.

  4. Novel applications of photoacoustic spectroscopy in life sciences

    Stolik, S.

    2004-10-01

    The Photoacoustic Spectroscopy, based on the generation of acoustic waves following the absorption of the modulated light by an enclosed material, was discovered in 1880 by Alexander Graham Bell. There are a lot of remarkable achievements in this topic since those days. It has been intended to present a relatively new tool to the researchers in biological areas and, simultaneously, to propose new fields of investigation to those who have been attracted by physics. The application of Photoacoustic trace gas detection to the determination of ethylene content in mice exhalation is described as a biomarker of free radicals production. It has been demonstrated the feasibility of studying the lipid peroxidation in vivo by this technique. Specifically, the results of δ-aminolevulinic acid administration in mice are presented. This drug has been used to induce Protoporphyrin IX production and ultimately to apply the Photodynamic Therapy, a recent method in cancer treatment. A kinetic study of Protoporphyrin IX production in mice skin and blood after δ-aminolevulinic acid administration in different doses is also shown. This study was performed using Photoacoustic Spectroscopy in solids.

  5. Infrared photothermal imaging spectroscopy for detection of trace explosives on surfaces.

    Kendziora, Christopher A; Furstenberg, Robert; Papantonakis, Michael; Nguyen, Viet; Byers, Jeff; Andrew McGill, R

    2015-11-01

    We are developing a technique for the standoff detection of trace explosives on relevant substrate surfaces using photothermal infrared (IR) imaging spectroscopy (PT-IRIS). This approach leverages one or more compact IR quantum cascade lasers, which are tuned to strong absorption bands in the analytes and directed to illuminate an area on a surface of interest. An IR focal plane array is used to image the surface and detect increases in thermal emission upon laser illumination. The PT-IRIS signal is processed as a hyperspectral image cube comprised of spatial, spectral, and temporal dimensions as vectors within a detection algorithm. The ability to detect trace analytes at standoff on relevant substrates is critical for security applications but is complicated by the optical and thermal analyte/substrate interactions. This manuscript describes a series of PT-IRIS experimental results and analysis for traces of RDX, TNT, ammonium nitrate, and sucrose on steel, polyethylene, glass, and painted steel panels. We demonstrate detection at surface mass loadings comparable with fingerprint depositions ( 10μg/cm2 to 100μg/cm2) from an area corresponding to a single pixel within the thermal image.

  6. Study on the defects detection in composites by using optical position and infrared thermography

    Kwn, Koo Ahn; Choi, Man Yong; Park, Jeong Hak; Choi, Won Jae [Safety Measurement Center, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hee Sang [Dept. of Research and Development, Korea Research Institute of Smart Material and Structures System Association, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Non-destructive testing methods for composite materials (e.g., carbon fiber-reinforced and glass fiber-reinforced plastic) have been widely used to detect damage in the overall industry. This study detects defects using optical infrared thermography. The transient heat transport in a solid body is characterized by two dynamic quantities, namely, thermal diffusivity and thermal effusivity. The first quantity describes the speed with thermal energy diffuses through a material, whereas the second one represents a type of thermal inertia. The defect detection rate is increased by utilizing a lock-in method and performing a comparison of the defect detection rates. The comparison is conducted by dividing the irradiation method into reflection and transmission methods and the irradiation time into 50 mHz and 100 mHz. The experimental results show that detecting defects at 50 mHz is easy using the transmission method. This result implies that low-frequency thermal waves penetrate a material deeper than the high-frequency waves.

  7. Time series analysis of infrared satellite data for detecting thermal anomalies: a hybrid approach

    Koeppen, W. C.; Pilger, E.; Wright, R.

    2011-07-01

    We developed and tested an automated algorithm that analyzes thermal infrared satellite time series data to detect and quantify the excess energy radiated from thermal anomalies such as active volcanoes. Our algorithm enhances the previously developed MODVOLC approach, a simple point operation, by adding a more complex time series component based on the methods of the Robust Satellite Techniques (RST) algorithm. Using test sites at Anatahan and Kīlauea volcanoes, the hybrid time series approach detected ~15% more thermal anomalies than MODVOLC with very few, if any, known false detections. We also tested gas flares in the Cantarell oil field in the Gulf of Mexico as an end-member scenario representing very persistent thermal anomalies. At Cantarell, the hybrid algorithm showed only a slight improvement, but it did identify flares that were undetected by MODVOLC. We estimate that at least 80 MODIS images for each calendar month are required to create good reference images necessary for the time series analysis of the hybrid algorithm. The improved performance of the new algorithm over MODVOLC will result in the detection of low temperature thermal anomalies that will be useful in improving our ability to document Earth's volcanic eruptions, as well as detecting low temperature thermal precursors to larger eruptions.

  8. Automated high-pressure titration system with in situ infrared spectroscopic detection

    Thompson, Christopher J.; Martin, Paul F.; Chen, Jeffrey; Schaef, Herbert T.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Loring, John S.; Benezeth, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    A fully automated titration system with infrared detection was developed for investigating interfacial chemistry at high pressures. The apparatus consists of a high-pressure fluid generation and delivery system coupled to a high-pressure cell with infrared optics. A manifold of electronically actuated valves is used to direct pressurized fluids into the cell. Precise reagent additions to the pressurized cell are made with calibrated tubing loops that are filled with reagent and placed in-line with the cell and a syringe pump. The cell's infrared optics facilitate both transmission and attenuated total reflection (ATR) measurements to monitor bulk-fluid composition and solid-surface phenomena such as adsorption, desorption, complexation, dissolution, and precipitation. Switching between the two measurement modes is accomplished with moveable mirrors that direct the light path of a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer into the cell along transmission or ATR light paths. The versatility of the high-pressure IR titration system was demonstrated with three case studies. First, we titrated water into supercritical CO 2 (scCO 2 ) to generate an infrared calibration curve and determine the solubility of water in CO 2 at 50 °C and 90 bar. Next, we characterized the partitioning of water between a montmorillonite clay and scCO 2 at 50 °C and 90 bar. Transmission-mode spectra were used to quantify changes in the clay's sorbed water concentration as a function of scCO 2 hydration, and ATR measurements provided insights into competitive residency of water and CO 2 on the clay surface and in the interlayer. Finally, we demonstrated how time-dependent studies can be conducted with the system by monitoring the carbonation reaction of forsterite (Mg 2 SiO 4 ) in water-bearing scCO 2 at 50 °C and 90 bar. Immediately after water dissolved in the scCO 2 , a thin film of adsorbed water formed on the mineral surface, and the film thickness increased with time as the

  9. An assessment of radiance in Landsat TM middle and thermal infrared wavebands for the detection of tropical forest regeneration

    Boyd, D.S.; Foody, G.M.; Curran, P.J.; Lucas, R.M.; Honzak, M.

    1996-01-01

    It has been postulated that tropical forests regenerating after deforestation constitute an unmeasured terrestrial sink of atmospheric carbon, and that the strength of this sink is a function of regeneration stage. Such regeneration stages can be characterized by biophysical properties, such as leaf and wood biomass, which influence the radiance emitted and/or reflected from the forest canopy. Remotely sensed data can therefore be used to estimate these biophysical properties and thereby determine the forest regenerative stage. Studies conducted on temperate forests have related biophysical properties successfully with red and near-infrared radiance, particularly within the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). However, only weak correlations have generally been observed for tropical forests and it is suggested here that the relationship between forest biophysical properties and middle and thermal infrared radiance may be stronger than that between those properties and visible and near-infrared radiance.An assessment of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data revealed that radiance acquired in middle and thermal infrared wavebands contained significant information for the detection of regeneration stages in Amazonian tropical forests. It was demonstrated that tropical forest regeneration stages were most separable using middle infrared and thermal infrared wavebands and that the correlation with regeneration stage was stronger with middle infrared, thermal infrared or combinations of these wavebands than they were with visible, near infrared or combinations of these wavebands. For example, correlation coefficients increased from — 0·26 (insignificant at 95 per cent confidence level) when using the NDVI, to up to 0·93 (significant at 99 per cent confidence level) for a vegetation index containing data acquired in the middle and thermal infrared wavebands. These results point to the value of using data acquired in middle and thermal infrared wavebands for the

  10. Infrared laser spectroscopic trace gas sensing

    Sigrist, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Chemical sensing and analyses of gas samples by laser spectroscopic methods are attractive owing to several advantages such as high sensitivity and specificity, large dynamic range, multi-component capability, and lack of pretreatment or preconcentration procedures. The preferred wavelength range comprises the fundamental molecular absorption range in the mid-infared between 3 and 15 μm, whereas the near-infrared range covers the (10-100 times weaker) higher harmonics and combination bands. The availability of near-infrared and, particularly, of broadly tunable mid-infrared sources like external cavity quantum cascade lasers (EC-QCLs), interband cascade lasers (ICLs), difference frequency generation (DFG), optical parametric oscillators (OPOs), recent developments of diode-pumped lead salt semiconductor lasers, of supercontinuum sources or of frequency combs have eased the implementation of laser-based sensing devices. Sensitive techniques for molecular absorption measurements include multipass absorption, various configurations of cavity-enhanced techniques such as cavity ringdown (CRD), or of photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) including quartz-enhanced (QEPAS) or cantilever-enhanced (CEPAS) techniques. The application requirements finally determine the optimum selection of laser source and detection scheme. In this tutorial talk I shall discuss the basic principles, present various experimental setups and illustrate the performance of selected systems for chemical sensing of selected key atmospheric species. Applications include an early example of continuous vehicle emission measurements with a mobile CO2-laser PAS system [1]. The fast analysis of C1-C4 alkanes at sub-ppm concentrations in gas mixtures is of great interest for the petrochemical industry and was recently achieved with a new type of mid-infrared diode-pumped piezoelectrically tuned lead salt vertical external cavity surface emitting laser (VECSEL) [2]. Another example concerns measurements on short

  11. Detection of mechanical injury on pickling cucumbers using near-infrared hyperspectral imaging

    Ariana, D.; Lu, R.; Guyer, D.

    2005-11-01

    Automated detection of defects on freshly harvested pickling cucumbers will help the pickle industry provide higher quality pickle products and reduce potential economic losses. Research was conducted on using a hyperspectral imaging system for detecting defects on pickling cucumbers caused by mechanical stress. A near-infrared hyperspectral imaging system was used to capture both spatial and spectral information from cucumbers in the spectral region of 900 - 1700 nm. The system consisted of an imaging spectrograph attached to an InGaAs camera with line-light fiber bundles as an illumination source. Cucumber samples were subjected to two forms of mechanical loading, dropping and rolling, to simulate stress caused by mechanical harvesting. Hyperspectral images were acquired from the cucumbers over time periods of 0, 1, 2, 3, and 6 days after mechanical stress. Hyperspectral image processing methods, including principal component analysis and wavelength selection, were developed to separate normal and mechanically injured cucumbers. Results showed that reflectance from normal or non-bruised cucumbers was consistently higher than that from bruised cucumbers. The spectral region between 950 and 1350 nm was found to be most effective for bruise detection. The hyperspectral imaging system detected all mechanically injured cucumbers immediately after they were bruised. The overall detection accuracy was 97% within two hours of bruising and it was lower as time progressed. Lower detection accuracies for the prolonged times after bruising were attributed to the self- healing of the bruised tissue after mechanical injury. This research demonstrated that hyperspectral imaging is useful for detecting mechanical injury on pickling cucumbers.

  12. A new paradigm of oral cancer detection using digital infrared thermal imaging

    Chakraborty, M.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Dasgupta, A.; Banerjee, S.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Patsa, S.; Ray, J. G.; Chaudhuri, K.

    2016-03-01

    Histopathology is considered the gold standard for oral cancer detection. But a major fraction of patient pop- ulation is incapable of accessing such healthcare facilities due to poverty. Moreover, such analysis may report false negatives when test tissue is not collected from exact cancerous location. The proposed work introduces a pioneering computer aided paradigm of fast, non-invasive and non-ionizing modality for oral cancer detection us- ing Digital Infrared Thermal Imaging (DITI). Due to aberrant metabolic activities in carcinogenic facial regions, heat signatures of patients are different from that of normal subjects. The proposed work utilizes asymmetry of temperature distribution of facial regions as principle cue for cancer detection. Three views of a subject, viz. front, left and right are acquired using long infrared (7:5 - 13μm) camera for analysing distribution of temperature. We study asymmetry of facial temperature distribution between: a) left and right profile faces and b) left and right half of frontal face. Comparison of temperature distribution suggests that patients manifest greater asymmetry compared to normal subjects. For classification, we initially use k-means and fuzzy k-means for unsupervised clustering followed by cluster class prototype assignment based on majority voting. Average classification accuracy of 91:5% and 92:8% are achieved by k-mean and fuzzy k-mean framework for frontal face. The corresponding metrics for profile face are 93:4% and 95%. Combining features of frontal and profile faces, average accuracies are increased to 96:2% and 97:6% respectively for k-means and fuzzy k-means framework.

  13. Quantifying bone thickness, light transmission, and contrast interrelationships in transcranial photoacoustic imaging

    Lediju Bell, Muyinatu A.; Ostrowski, Anastasia K.; Li, Ke; Kaanzides, Peter; Boctor, Emad

    2015-03-01

    We previously introduced photoacoustic imaging to detect blood vessels surrounded by bone and thereby eliminate the deadly risk of carotid artery injury during endonasal, transsphenoidal surgeries. Light would be transmitted through an optical fiber attached to the surgical drill, while a transcranial probe placed on the temporal region of the skull receives photoacoustic signals. This work quantifies changes in photoacoustic image contrast as the sphenoid bone is drilled. Frontal bone from a human adult cadaver skull was cut into seven 3 cm x 3 cm chips and sanded to thicknesses ranging 1-4 mm. For 700-940 nm wavelengths, the average optical transmission through these specimens increased from 19% to 44% as bone thickness decreased, with measurements agreeing with Monte Carlo simulations within 5%. These skull specimens were individually placed in the optical pathway of a 3.5 mm diameter, cylindrical, vessel-mimicking photoacoustic target, as the laser wavelength was varied between 700-940 nm. The mean optical insertion loss and photoacoustic image contrast loss due to the bone specimens were 56-80% and 46-79%, respectively, with the majority of change observed when the bone was <=2 mm thick. The decrease in contrast is directly proportional to insertion loss over this thickness range by factors of 0.8-1.1 when multiple wavelengths are considered. Results suggest that this proportional relationship may be used to determine the amount of bone that remains to be drilled when the thickness is 2 mm or less.

  14. Validating tyrosinase homologue MelA as a photoacoustic reporter gene for imaging Escherichia coli

    Paproski, Robert J.; Li, Yan; Barber, Quinn; Lewis, John D.; Campbell, Robert; Zemp, Roger

    2015-03-01

    Antibiotic drug resistance is a major worldwide issue. Development of new therapies against pathogenic bacteria requires appropriate research tools for replicating and characterizing infections. Previously fluorescence and bioluminescence modalities have been used to image infectious burden in animal models but scattering significantly limits imaging depth and resolution. We hypothesize that photoacoustic imaging, which has improved depth-toresolution ratio, could be useful for visualizing MelA-expressing bacteria since MelA is a bacterial tyrosinase homologue involved in melanin production. Using an inducible expression system, E. coli expressing MelA were visibly black in liquid culture. Phosphate buffered saline (PBS), MelA-expressing bacteria (at different dilutions in PBS), and chicken embryo blood were injected in plastic tubes which were imaged using a VisualSonics Vevo LAZR system. Photoacoustic imaging at 6 different wavelengths (680, 700, 750, 800, 850 and 900nm) enabled spectral de-mixing to distinguish melanin signals from blood. The signal to noise ratio of 9x diluted MelA bacteria was 55, suggesting that ~20 bacteria cells could be detected with our system. When MelA bacteria were injected as a 100 μL bolus into a chicken embryo, photoacoustic signals from deoxy- and oxy- hemoglobin as well as MelA-expressing bacteria could be separated and overlaid on an ultrasound image, allowing visualization of the bacterial location. Photoacoustic imaging may be a useful tool for visualizing bacterial infections and further work incorporating photoacoustic reporters into infectious bacterial strains is warranted.

  15. Infrared maritime target detection using the high order statistic filtering in fractional Fourier domain

    Zhou, Anran; Xie, Weixin; Pei, Jihong

    2018-06-01

    Accurate detection of maritime targets in infrared imagery under various sea clutter conditions is always a challenging task. The fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) is the extension of the Fourier transform in the fractional order, and has richer spatial-frequency information. By combining it with the high order statistic filtering, a new ship detection method is proposed. First, the proper range of angle parameter is determined to make it easier for the ship components and background to be separated. Second, a new high order statistic curve (HOSC) at each fractional frequency point is designed. It is proved that maximal peak interval in HOSC reflects the target information, while the points outside the interval reflect the background. And the value of HOSC relative to the ship is much bigger than that to the sea clutter. Then, search the curve's maximal target peak interval and extract the interval by bandpass filtering in fractional Fourier domain. The value outside the peak interval of HOSC decreases rapidly to 0, so the background is effectively suppressed. Finally, the detection result is obtained by the double threshold segmenting and the target region selection method. The results show the proposed method is excellent for maritime targets detection with high clutters.

  16. Intracranial Hematoma Detection by Near Infrared Spectroscopy in a Helicopter Emergency Medical Service: Practical Experience.

    Schober, Patrick; Bossers, Sebastiaan M; Schwarte, Lothar A

    2017-01-01

    In (helicopter) emergency medical services, (H)EMS, the prehospital detection of intracranial hematomas should improve patient care and the triage to specialized neurosurgical hospitals. Recently, noninvasive detection of intracranial hematomas became possible by applying transcranial near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Herein, second-generation devices are currently available, for example, the Infrascanner 2000 (Infrascan), that appear suited also for prehospital (H)EMS applications. Since (H)EMS operations are time-critical, we studied the Infrascanner 2000 as a "first-time-right" monitor in healthy volunteers ( n = 17, hospital employees, no neurologic history). Further, we studied the implementation of the Infrascanner 2000 in a European HEMS organization (Lifeliner 1, Amsterdam, The Netherlands). The principal results of our study were as follows: The screening for intracranial hematomas in healthy volunteers with first-time-right intention resulted in a marked rate of virtual hematomas (false positive results, i.e., 12/17), rendering more time consuming repeat measurements advisable. The results of the implementation of the Infrascanner in HEMS suggest that NIRS-based intracranial hematoma detection is feasible in the HEMS setting. However, some drawbacks exist and their possible solutions are discussed. Future studies will have to demonstrate how NIRS-based intracranial hematoma detection will improve prehospital decision making in (H)EMS and ultimately patient outcome.

  17. Detecting the honeycomb sandwich composite material's moisture impregnating defects by using infrared thermography technique

    Kwon, Koo Ahn; Choi, Man Yong; Park, Jeong Hak; Choi, Won Jae; Park, Hee Sang

    2017-01-01

    Many composite materials are used in the aerospace industry because of their excellent mechanical properties. However, the nature of aviation exposes these materials to high temperature and high moisture conditions depending on climate, location, and altitude. Therefore, the molecular arrangement chemical properties, and mechanical properties of composite materials can be changed under these conditions. As a result, surface disruptions and cracks can be created. Consequently, moisture-impregnating defects can be induced due to the crack and delamination of composite materials as they are repeatedly exposed to moisture absorption moisture release, fatigue environment, temperature changes, and fluid pressure changes. This study evaluates the possibility of detecting the moisture-impregnating defects of CFRP and GFRP honeycomb structure sandwich composite materials, which are the composite materials in the aircraft structure, by using an active infrared thermography technology among non-destructive testing methods. In all experiments, it was possible to distinguish the area and a number of CFRP composite materials more clearly than those of GFRP composite material. The highest detection rate was observed in the heating duration of 50 mHz and the low detection rate was at the heating duration of over 500 mHz. The reflection method showed a higher detection rate than the transmission method

  18. Infrared Small Moving Target Detection via Saliency Histogram and Geometrical Invariability

    Minjie Wan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to detect both bright and dark small moving targets effectively in infrared (IR video sequences, a saliency histogram and geometrical invariability based method is presented in this paper. First, a saliency map that roughly highlights the salient regions of the original image is obtained by tuning its amplitude spectrum in the frequency domain. Then, a saliency histogram is constructed by means of averaging the accumulated saliency value of each gray level in the map, through which bins corresponding to bright target and dark target are assigned with large values in the histogram. Next, single-frame detection of candidate targets is accomplished by a binarized segmentation using an adaptive threshold, and their centroid coordinates with sub-pixel accuracy are calculated through a connected components labeling method as well as a gray-weighted criterion. Finally, considering the motion characteristics in consecutive frames, an inter-frame false alarm suppression method based on geometrical invariability is developed to improve the precision rate further. Quantitative analyses demonstrate the detecting precision of this proposed approach can be up to 97% and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curves further verify our method outperforms other state-of-the-arts methods in both detection rate and false alarm rate.

  19. Moving target detection based on temporal-spatial information fusion for infrared image sequences

    Toing, Wu-qin; Xiong, Jin-yu; Zeng, An-jun; Wu, Xiao-ping; Xu, Hao-peng

    2009-07-01

    Moving target detection and localization is one of the most fundamental tasks in visual surveillance. In this paper, through analyzing the advantages and disadvantages of the traditional approaches about moving target detection, a novel approach based on temporal-spatial information fusion is proposed for moving target detection. The proposed method combines the spatial feature in single frame and the temporal properties within multiple frames of an image sequence of moving target. First, the method uses the spatial image segmentation for target separation from background and uses the local temporal variance for extracting targets and wiping off the trail artifact. Second, the logical "and" operator is used to fuse the temporal and spatial information. In the end, to the fusion image sequence, the morphological filtering and blob analysis are used to acquire exact moving target. The algorithm not only requires minimal computation and memory but also quickly adapts to the change of background and environment. Comparing with other methods, such as the KDE, the Mixture of K Gaussians, etc., the simulation results show the proposed method has better validity and higher adaptive for moving target detection, especially in infrared image sequences with complex illumination change, noise change, and so on.

  20. Apple detection using infrared thermal image, 3: Real-time temperature measurement of apple tree

    Zhang, S.H.; Takahashi, T.; Fukuchi, H.; Sun, M.; Terao, H.

    1998-01-01

    In Part 1, we reported the thermal distribution characteristics and the identification methods of apples, leaves and branches by using the infrared thermal image at the specific time. This paper reports the temperature changing characteristics and the relationships among apples, leaves and air temperature based on the information measured by the infrared thermal image equipment in the real-time for 24 hours. As a result, it was confirmed that the average temperature of apples was 1 degree C or more higher than the one of the leaves, and the average temperature of the leaves was almost same as the air temperature within daytime and about 3 hours period after sunset. It was also clarified for a remarkable temperature difference not to exist for midnight and the early morning between the apples and the leaves, and both became almost as well as the air temperature. Moreover, a binary image was easily obtained and the apples could be detected by using this temperature difference informat

  1. Detection of compatibility between baclofen and excipients with aid of infrared spectroscopy and chemometry.

    Rojek, Barbara; Wesolowski, Marek; Suchacz, Bogdan

    2013-12-01

    In the paper infrared (IR) spectroscopy and multivariate exploration techniques: principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) were applied as supportive methods for the detection of physicochemical incompatibilities between baclofen and excipients. In the course of research, the most useful rotational strategy in PCA proved to be varimax normalized, while in CA Ward's hierarchical agglomeration with Euclidean distance measure enabled to yield the most interpretable results. Chemometrical calculations confirmed the suitability of PCA and CA as the auxiliary methods for interpretation of infrared spectra in order to recognize whether compatibilities or incompatibilities between active substance and excipients occur. On the basis of IR spectra and the results of PCA and CA it was possible to demonstrate that the presence of lactose, β-cyclodextrin and meglumine in binary mixtures produce interactions with baclofen. The results were verified using differential scanning calorimetry, differential thermal analysis, thermogravimetry/differential thermogravimetry and X-ray powder diffraction analyses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Photoacoustic spectra of rare earth pentaphosphates

    Strek, W.; Lukowiak, E.; Marchewka, M.; Ratajczak, H.

    1987-01-01

    The photoacoustic (PA) spectra of raee earth pentaphosphates of the general formula REP 5 O 14 , where RE = Pr,Nd,Ho,Er,Tm, are reported. The photoacoustic bands were identified and compared with the absorption spectra. For quantitative analysis of PA bands of lanthanide (III) ions, the intensity ratio vector is introduced characterizing the intensity distribution of f-f transitions. It was found that the relative intensities of photoacoustic bands are comparable with the intensities of absorption bands. It is concluded that the nonradiative relaxation mechanism leading to the PA signal is independent of the manifold-to-manifold J-J' radiationless transitions

  3. Development of MEMS photoacoustic spectroscopy

    Robinson, Alex Lockwood; Eichenfield, Matthew S.; Griffin, Benjamin; Harvey, Heidi Alyssa; Nielson, Gregory N.; Okandan, Murat; Langlois, Eric; Resnick, Paul James; Shaw, Michael J.; Young, Ian; Givler, Richard C.; Reinke, Charles M.

    2014-01-01

    After years in the field, many materials suffer degradation, off-gassing, and chemical changes causing build-up of measurable chemical atmospheres. Stand-alone embedded chemical sensors are typically limited in specificity, require electrical lines, and/or calibration drift makes data reliability questionable. Along with size, these "Achilles' heels" have prevented incorporation of gas sensing into sealed, hazardous locations which would highly benefit from in-situ analysis. We report on development of an all-optical, mid-IR, fiber-optic based MEMS Photoacoustic Spectroscopy solution to address these limitations. Concurrent modeling and computational simulation are used to guide hardware design and implementation.

  4. Photoacoustic and spectroscopic characterization of the ablation process in orthogonal double-pulse configuration

    Sobral, H; Sanchez-Ake, C; Sangines, R; Alvarez-Zauco, E; Jimenez-Duran, K

    2011-01-01

    A photoacoustic technique was used as an alternative method to monitor the crater volume and its role in the emission line intensification in double-pulse pre-ablation configuration. The crater volume was measured using confocal microscopy and correlated with the changes in the photoacoustic signal. Laser emission spectroscopy was used to characterize the emission enhancement as a function of the delay between lasers and the first pulse energy. Optimum delay was found to be in the microsecond timescale corresponding to the maximum of the crater volume and the largest change between the single- and the double-pulse photoacoustic signals. Only a slight intensification was detected with increasing first pulse energy above the first pulse ablation threshold; however, the crater volume did not significantly change and the possible involved mechanisms are discussed.

  5. Photoacoustic imaging of hidden dental caries by using a bundle of hollow optical fibers

    Koyama, Takuya; Kakino, Satoko; Matsuura, Yuji

    2018-02-01

    Photoacoustic imaging system using a bundle of hollow-optical fibers to detect hidden dental caries is proposed. Firstly, we fabricated a hidden caries model with a brown pigment simulating a common color of caries lesion. It was found that high frequency ultrasonic waves are generated from hidden carious part when radiating Nd:YAG laser light with a 532 nm wavelength to occlusal surface of model tooth. We calculated by Fourier transform and found that the waveform from the carious part provides frequency components of approximately from 0.5 to 1.2 MHz. Then a photoacoustic imaging system using a bundle of hollow optical fiber was fabricated for clinical applications. From intensity map of frequency components in 0.5-1.2 MHz, photoacoustic images of hidden caries in the simulated samples were successfully obtained.

  6. Study on Dihydrated Praseodymium Acetylacetonate by Photoacoustic Spectra with Broad Wavelength Range

    于锡娟; 伍荣护; 宋慧宇; 苏庆德

    2003-01-01

    The UV-Vis, NIR and MIR photoacoustic spectra of Pr(aa)3*2H2O were measured and most f-f transition peaks of Pr3+ are detected. The peak split and peak shift are studied also. The covalency parameter is calculated and it turns out that the covalent bonds between Pr(Ⅲ) ions and ligands exist. The results conclude that photoacoustic spectroscopy offers a unique and complementary method in analysis of solid rare earth complexes. Compared with conventional FT-IR transmission and absorption approaches, PAS has the advantages of fast, nondestructive analysis and high resolution.

  7. In vivo Microscopic Photoacoustic Spectroscopy for Non-Invasive Glucose Monitoring Invulnerable to Skin Secretion Products.

    Sim, Joo Yong; Ahn, Chang-Geun; Jeong, Eun-Ju; Kim, Bong Kyu

    2018-01-18

    Photoacoustic spectroscopy has been shown to be a promising tool for non-invasive blood glucose monitoring. However, the repeatability of such a method is susceptible to changes in skin condition, which is dependent on hand washing and drying due to the high absorption of infrared excitation light to the skin secretion products or water. In this paper, we present a method to meet the challenges of mid-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy for non-invasive glucose monitoring. By obtaining the microscopic spatial information of skin during the spectroscopy measurement, the skin region where the infrared spectra is insensitive to skin condition can be locally selected, which enables reliable prediction of the blood glucose level from the photoacoustic spectroscopy signals. Our raster-scan imaging showed that the skin condition for in vivo spectroscopic glucose monitoring had significant inhomogeneities and large variability in the probing area where the signal was acquired. However, the selective localization of the probing led to a reduction in the effects of variability due to the skin secretion product. Looking forward, this technology has broader applications not only in continuous glucose monitoring for diabetic patient care, but in forensic science, the diagnosis of malfunctioning sweat pores, and the discrimination of tumors extracted via biopsy.

  8. Cosmic microwave and infrared backgrounds cross-correlation for ISW detection

    Ilić, S

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the cross-correlation between the cosmic infrared and microwave backgrounds (CIB and CMB) anisotropies through the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect. We have first described the CIB anisotropies using a linearly biased power spectrum, then derive the theoretical angular power spectrum of the CMB-CIB cross-correlation for different instruments and frequencies. We have discussed the detectability of the ISW signal by performing a signal-to-noise (SNR) analysis with our predicted spectra. The significances obtained range from 6σ to 7σ in an ideal case, depending on the frequency; in realistic cases which account for the presence of noise including astrophysical contaminants, the results span the range 2 – 5σ, depending strongly on the major contribution to the noise term

  9. Detection of OH from Comet Halley in the far-infrared

    Stacey, G.J.; Lugten, J.B.; Genzel, R.

    1986-01-01

    The 2 Pi 3/2 (J = 5/2 yields 3/2 + yields - parity) transition of OH was detected in comet Halley at 119.44 microns. The upper limit to the line intensity of the - yields + parity transition is 119.23 microns. The ratio of these lines is consistent with radiative pumping of the rotational levels through absorption of near ultraviolet solar photons which excite the low lying vibrational levels of OH. The far-infrared lines probe the inner regions of the coma where OH is produced through photodissociation of a parent molecule (presumably H 2 O). Hence, these lines complement the 18 cm radio measurements which are sensitive to the outer regions of the comet coma. The OH production rate is highly model dependent but is of the order 2 to 4 times 10 to the 29th power molecules/sec

  10. Ultrasound tagged near infrared spectroscopy does not detect hyperventilation-induced reduction in cerebral blood flow

    Lund, Anton; Secher, Niels H.; Hirasawa, Ai

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Continuous non-invasive monitoring of cerebral blood flow (CBF) may be important during anaesthesia and several options are available. We evaluated the CerOx monitor that employs ultrasound tagged near infrared spectroscopy to estimate changes in a CBF index (CFI).Methods: Seven...... healthy males (age 21-26 years) hyperventilated and were administered phenylephrine to increase mean arterial pressure by 20-30 mmHg. Frontal lobe tissue oxygenation (ScO2) and CFI were obtained using the CerOx and mean blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (MCAvmean) was determined....... Administration of phenylephrine was not associated with any changes in MCAvmean, ICAf, ECAf, ScO2, SkBF, SskinO2, or CFI.Conclusion: The CerOx was able to detect a stable CBF during administration of phenylephrine. However, during hyperventilation MCAvmean and ICAf decreased while CFI increased, likely due...

  11. Detecting an infrared photon within an hour. Transition-edge detector at ALPS-II

    Dreyling-Eschweiler, Jan [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik; Horns, Dieter [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik; Collaboration: ALPS-II collaboration

    2013-09-15

    An essential design requirement of the ALPS-II experiment is the efficient detection of single photons with a very low instrumental background of 10 {mu}Hz. In 2011 the ALPS collaboration started to set up a TES detector (Transition-Edge Sensor) for ALPS-II, the second phase of the experiment. Since mid of 2013 the setup is ready for characterization in the ALPS laboratory: an ADR cryostat (Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator) as millikelvin environment, a low noise SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device) with electronics for read-out and a fiber-coupled high-efficient TES for near-infrared photons as sensor. First measurements have shown a good discrimination between noise and 1064 nm signals.

  12. Precision of coherence analysis to detect cerebral autoregulation by near-infrared spectroscopy in preterm infants

    Hahn, GH; Christensen, KB; Leung, TS

    2010-01-01

    Coherence between spontaneous fluctuations in arterial blood pressure (ABP) and the cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy signal can detect cerebral autoregulation. Because reliable measurement depends on signals with high signal-to-noise ratio, we hypothesized that coherence is more precisely...... determined when fluctuations in ABP are large rather than small. Therefore, we investigated whether adjusting for variability in ABP (variabilityABP) improves precision. We examined the impact of variabilityABP within the power spectrum in each measurement and between repeated measurements in preterm infants....... We also examined total monitoring time required to discriminate among infants with a simulation study. We studied 22 preterm infants (GAABP within the power spectrum did not improve the precision. However, adjusting...

  13. Near Infrared Spectroscopy Detection and Quantification of Herbal Medicines Adulterated with Sibutramine.

    da Silva, Neirivaldo Cavalcante; Honorato, Ricardo Saldanha; Pimentel, Maria Fernanda; Garrigues, Salvador; Cervera, Maria Luisa; de la Guardia, Miguel

    2015-09-01

    There is an increasing demand for herbal medicines in weight loss treatment. Some synthetic chemicals, such as sibutramine (SB), have been detected as adulterants in herbal formulations. In this study, two strategies using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy have been developed to evaluate potential adulteration of herbal medicines with SB: a qualitative screening approach and a quantitative methodology based on multivariate calibration. Samples were composed by products commercialized as herbal medicines, as well as by laboratory adulterated samples. Spectra were obtained in the range of 14,000-4000 per cm. Using PLS-DA, a correct classification of 100% was achieved for the external validation set. In the quantitative approach, the root mean squares error of prediction (RMSEP), for both PLS and MLR models, was 0.2% w/w. The results prove the potential of NIR spectroscopy and multivariate calibration in quantifying sibutramine in adulterated herbal medicines samples. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  14. Emitted short wavelength infrared radiation for detection and monitoring of volcanic activity

    Rothery, D. A.; Francis, P. W.; Wood, C. A.

    1988-01-01

    Thematic Mapper images from LANDSAT were used to monitor volcanoes. Achievements include: (1) the discovery of a magmatic precursor to the 16 Sept. 1986 eruption of Lascar, northern Chile, on images from Mar. and July 1985 and of continuing fumarolic activity after the eruption; (2) the detection of unreported major changes in the distribution of lava lakes on Erta'Ale, Ethiopia; and (3) the mapping of a halo of still-hot spatter surrounding a vent on Mount Erebus, Antarctica, on an image acquired 5 min after a minor eruption otherwise known only from seismic records. A spaceborne short wavelength infrared sensor for observing hot phenomena of volcanoes is proposed. A polar orbit is suggested.

  15. Detecting an infrared photon within an hour. Transition-edge detector at ALPS-II

    Dreyling-Eschweiler, Jan; Hamburg Univ.; Horns, Dieter

    2013-09-01

    An essential design requirement of the ALPS-II experiment is the efficient detection of single photons with a very low instrumental background of 10 μHz. In 2011 the ALPS collaboration started to set up a TES detector (Transition-Edge Sensor) for ALPS-II, the second phase of the experiment. Since mid of 2013 the setup is ready for characterization in the ALPS laboratory: an ADR cryostat (Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator) as millikelvin environment, a low noise SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device) with electronics for read-out and a fiber-coupled high-efficient TES for near-infrared photons as sensor. First measurements have shown a good discrimination between noise and 1064 nm signals.

  16. Sparse representation for infrared Dim target detection via a discriminative over-complete dictionary learned online.

    Li, Zheng-Zhou; Chen, Jing; Hou, Qian; Fu, Hong-Xia; Dai, Zhen; Jin, Gang; Li, Ru-Zhang; Liu, Chang-Ju

    2014-05-27

    It is difficult for structural over-complete dictionaries such as the Gabor function and discriminative over-complete dictionary, which are learned offline and classified manually, to represent natural images with the goal of ideal sparseness and to enhance the difference between background clutter and target signals. This paper proposes an infrared dim target detection approach based on sparse representation on a discriminative over-complete dictionary. An adaptive morphological over-complete dictionary is trained and constructed online according to the content of infrared image by K-singular value decomposition (K-SVD) algorithm. Then the adaptive morphological over-complete dictionary is divided automatically into a target over-complete dictionary describing target signals, and a background over-complete dictionary embedding background by the criteria that the atoms in the target over-complete dictionary could be decomposed more sparsely based on a Gaussian over-complete dictionary than the one in the background over-complete dictionary. This discriminative over-complete dictionary can not only capture significant features of background clutter and dim targets better than a structural over-complete dictionary, but also strengthens the sparse feature difference between background and target more efficiently than a discriminative over-complete dictionary learned offline and classified manually. The target and background clutter can be sparsely decomposed over their corresponding over-complete dictionaries, yet couldn't be sparsely decomposed based on their opposite over-complete dictionary, so their residuals after reconstruction by the prescribed number of target and background atoms differ very visibly. Some experiments are included and the results show that this proposed approach could not only improve the sparsity more efficiently, but also enhance the performance of small target detection more effectively.

  17. Sparse Representation for Infrared Dim Target Detection via a Discriminative Over-Complete Dictionary Learned Online

    Zheng-Zhou Li

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult for structural over-complete dictionaries such as the Gabor function and discriminative over-complete dictionary, which are learned offline and classified manually, to represent natural images with the goal of ideal sparseness and to enhance the difference between background clutter and target signals. This paper proposes an infrared dim target detection approach based on sparse representation on a discriminative over-complete dictionary. An adaptive morphological over-complete dictionary is trained and constructed online according to the content of infrared image by K-singular value decomposition (K-SVD algorithm. Then the adaptive morphological over-complete dictionary is divided automatically into a target over-complete dictionary describing target signals, and a background over-complete dictionary embedding background by the criteria that the atoms in the target over-complete dictionary could be decomposed more sparsely based on a Gaussian over-complete dictionary than the one in the background over-complete dictionary. This discriminative over-complete dictionary can not only capture significant features of background clutter and dim targets better than a structural over-complete dictionary, but also strengthens the sparse feature difference between background and target more efficiently than a discriminative over-complete dictionary learned offline and classified manually. The target and background clutter can be sparsely decomposed over their corresponding over-complete dictionaries, yet couldn’t be sparsely decomposed based on their opposite over-complete dictionary, so their residuals after reconstruction by the prescribed number of target and background atoms differ very visibly. Some experiments are included and the results show that this proposed approach could not only improve the sparsity more efficiently, but also enhance the performance of small target detection more effectively.

  18. Privacy-Preserved Behavior Analysis and Fall Detection by an Infrared Ceiling Sensor Network

    Mineichi Kudo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An infrared ceiling sensor network system is reported in this study to realize behavior analysis and fall detection of a single person in the home environment. The sensors output multiple binary sequences from which we know the existence/non-existence of persons under the sensors. The short duration averages of the binary responses are shown to be able to be regarded as pixel values of a top-view camera, but more advantageous in the sense of preserving privacy. Using the “pixel values” as features, support vector machine classifiers succeeded in recognizing eight activities (walking, reading, etc. performed by five subjects at an average recognition rate of 80.65%. In addition, we proposed a martingale framework for detecting falls in this system. The experimental results showed that we attained the best performance of 95.14% (F1 value, the FAR of 7.5% and the FRR of 2.0%. This accuracy is not sufficient in general but surprisingly high with such low-level information. In summary, it is shown that this system has the potential to be used in the home environment to provide personalized services and to detect abnormalities of elders who live alone.

  19. An On-Line Method for Thermal Diffusivity Detection of Thin Films Using Infrared Video

    Dong Huilong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel method for thermal diffusivity evolution of thin-film materials with pulsed Gaussian beam and infrared video is reported. Compared with common pulse methods performed in specialized labs, the proposed method implements a rapid on-line measurement without producing the off-centre detection error. Through mathematical deduction of the original heat conduction model, it is discovered that the area s, which is encircled by the maximum temperature curve rTMAX(θ, increases linearly over elapsed time. The thermal diffusivity is acquired from the growth rate of the area s. In this study, the off-centre detection error is avoided by performing the distance regularized level set evolution formulation. The area s was extracted from the binary images of temperature variation rate, without inducing errors from determination of the heat source centre. Thermal diffusivities of three materials, 304 stainless steel, titanium, and zirconium have been measured with the established on-line detection system, and the measurement errors are: −2.26%, −1.07%, and 1.61% respectively.

  20. Anomaly detection in forward looking infrared imaging using one-class classifiers

    Popescu, Mihail; Stone, Kevin; Havens, Timothy; Ho, Dominic; Keller, James

    2010-04-01

    In this paper we describe a method for generating cues of possible abnormal objects present in the field of view of an infrared (IR) camera installed on a moving vehicle. The proposed method has two steps. In the first step, for each frame, we generate a set of possible points of interest using a corner detection algorithm. In the second step, the points related to the background are discarded from the point set using an one class classifier (OCC) trained on features extracted from a local neighborhood of each point. The advantage of using an OCC is that we do not need examples from the "abnormal object" class to train the classifier. Instead, OCC is trained using corner points from images known to be abnormal object free, i.e., that contain only background scenes. To further reduce the number of false alarms we use a temporal fusion procedure: a region has to be detected as "interesting" in m out of n, mGM). The comparison is performed using a set of about 900 background point neighborhoods for training and 400 for testing. The best performing OCC is then used to detect abnormal objects in a set of IR video sequences obtained on a 1 mile long country road.

  1. A superconducting microcalorimeter for low-flux detection of near-infrared single photons

    Dreyling-Eschweiler, Jan

    2014-07-01

    This thesis covers the development and the characterization of a single photon detector based on a superconducting microcalorimeter. The detector development is motivated by the Any Light Particle Search II (ALPS II) experiment at DESY in Hamburg, which searches for weakly interacting sub-eV particles (WISPs). Therefore, a detection of low-fluxes of 1064 nm light is required. The work is divided in three analyses: the characterization of a milli-kelvin (mK) cryostat, the characterization of superconducting sensors for single photon detection, and the determination of dark count rates concerning 1064 nm signals. Firstly, an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) is characterized, which allows to reach mK-temperatures. During commissioning, the ADR cryostat is optimized and prepared to stably cool superconducting sensors at 80 mK±25 μK. It is found that sensors can be continuously operated for ∝20 h before recharging the system in -4 s -1 . By operating a fiber-coupled TES, it is found that the dark count rate for 1064 nm signals is dominated by pile-up events of near-infrared thermal photons coming through the fiber from the warm environment. Considering a detection efficiency of ∝18 %, a dark count rate of 8.6 . 10 -3 s -1 is determined for 1064 nm ALPS photons.Concerning ALPS II, this results in a sensitivity gain compared to the ALPS I detector. Furthermore, this thesis is the starting point of TES detector development in Hamburg, Germany.

  2. Rating the Effectiveness of Fishery Closures With Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite Boat Detection Data

    Christopher D. Elvidge

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Fishery closures are widely used to promote the sustainability of fish stocks. Fishery agencies typically have very little data relevant to planning closure enforcement actions and evaluating the effectiveness of closures, due in part to the vast expanse and remote nature of many closures. In some cases the effectiveness of closures can be evaluated using data from GPS based beacons, such as Automatic Identification System (AIS or Vessel Monitoring Systems (VMS installed on fishing boats. In fisheries where few boats are equipped with AIS or VMS, the rating of closures relies on other data sources capable of detecting or inferring fishing activity. One such source comes from low light imaging data collected by the NASA/NOAA Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS, which can detect fishing boats using lights to attract catch. This is a widely used practice in Asia and several other regions. NOAA has developed an automatic system for reporting the locations of VIIRS boat detections with a nominal 4 h temporal latency. VIIRS boat detection alerts are running for more than 900 fishery closures in the Philippines, with email and SMS transmission modes. These alerts are being actively used in the Philippines to plan enforcement actions and there is a growing list of apprehensions that occurred based on tip-offs from VIIRS. The VIIRS boat detection archive extends back to April 2012. A VIIRS closure index (VCI has been developed to rate the effectiveness of closures on monthly increments in terms of a percentage. The VCI analysis was performed on three types of closures: an ad hoc fishery closure associated with a toxic industrial discharge, a seasonal fishery closure and a permanent closure in restricted coastal waters. The VCI results indicate that it is possible to rank the effectiveness of different closure, year-to-year differences in compliance levels, and to identify closure encroachments which may warrant additional enforcement effort.

  3. Comparison of Near-Infrared Imaging Camera Systems for Intracranial Tumor Detection.

    Cho, Steve S; Zeh, Ryan; Pierce, John T; Salinas, Ryan; Singhal, Sunil; Lee, John Y K

    2018-04-01

    Distinguishing neoplasm from normal brain parenchyma intraoperatively is critical for the neurosurgeon. 5-Aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) has been shown to improve gross total resection and progression-free survival but has limited availability in the USA. Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence has advantages over visible light fluorescence with greater tissue penetration and reduced background fluorescence. In order to prepare for the increasing number of NIR fluorophores that may be used in molecular imaging trials, we chose to compare a state-of-the-art, neurosurgical microscope (System 1) to one of the commercially available NIR visualization platforms (System 2). Serial dilutions of indocyanine green (ICG) were imaged with both systems in the same environment. Each system's sensitivity and dynamic range for NIR fluorescence were documented and analyzed. In addition, brain tumors from six patients were imaged with both systems and analyzed. In vitro, System 2 demonstrated greater ICG sensitivity and detection range (System 1 1.5-251 μg/l versus System 2 0.99-503 μg/l). Similarly, in vivo, System 2 demonstrated signal-to-background ratio (SBR) of 2.6 ± 0.63 before dura opening, 5.0 ± 1.7 after dura opening, and 6.1 ± 1.9 after tumor exposure. In contrast, System 1 could not easily detect ICG fluorescence prior to dura opening with SBR of 1.2 ± 0.15. After the dura was reflected, SBR increased to 1.4 ± 0.19 and upon exposure of the tumor SBR increased to 1.8 ± 0.26. Dedicated NIR imaging platforms can outperform conventional microscopes in intraoperative NIR detection. Future microscopes with improved NIR detection capabilities could enhance the use of NIR fluorescence to detect neoplasm and improve patient outcome.

  4. Enlarged acceptance angle of a finite size detector in photoacoustic imaging using acoustic lenses

    Xia, W.; Piras, D.; Heijblom, Michelle; van Hespen, Johannes C.G.; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; Manohar, Srirang; van Veldhoven, Spiridon; Prins, Christian; van Leeuwen, Ton

    2011-01-01

    A large surface area transducer is preferable to be used to detect extremely weak photoacoustic signals in mammography due to its high sensitivity. The lateral resolution is limited by the small acceptance angle of such a transducer. We introduce an excellent material for an acoustic lens used to

  5. Inverse transport theory of photoacoustics

    Bal, Guillaume; Jollivet, Alexandre; Jugnon, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    We consider the reconstruction of optical parameters in a domain of interest from photoacoustic data. Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) radiates high-frequency electromagnetic waves into the domain and measures acoustic signals emitted by the resulting thermal expansion. Acoustic signals are then used to construct the deposited thermal energy map. The latter depends on the constitutive optical parameters in a nontrivial manner. In this paper, we develop and use an inverse transport theory with internal measurements to extract information on the optical coefficients from knowledge of the deposited thermal energy map. We consider the multi-measurement setting in which many electromagnetic radiation patterns are used to probe the domain of interest. By developing an expansion of the measurement operator into singular components, we show that the spatial variations of the intrinsic attenuation and the scattering coefficients may be reconstructed. We also reconstruct coefficients describing anisotropic scattering of photons, such as the anisotropy coefficient g(x) in a Henyey–Greenstein phase function model. Finally, we derive stability estimates for the reconstructions

  6. Bone Composition Diagnostics: Photoacoustics Versus Ultrasound

    Yang, Lifeng; Lashkari, Bahman; Mandelis, Andreas; Tan, Joel W. Y.

    2015-06-01

    Ultrasound (US) backscatter from bones depends on the mechanical properties and the microstructure of the interrogated bone. On the other hand, photoacoustics (PA) is sensitive to optical properties of tissue and can detect composition variation. Therefore, PA can provide complementary information about bone health and integrity. In this work, a comparative study of US backscattering and PA back-propagating signals from animal trabecular bones was performed. Both methods were applied using a linear frequency modulation chirp and matched filtering. A 2.2 MHz ultrasonic transducer was employed to detect both signals. The use of the frequency domain facilitates spectral analysis. The variation of signals shows that in addition to sensitivity to mineral changes, PA exhibits sensitivity to changes in the organic part of the bone. It is, therefore, concluded that the combination of both modalities can provide complementary detailed information on bone health than either method separately. In addition, comparison of PA and US depthwise images shows the higher penetration of US. Surface scan images exhibit very weak correlation between US and PA which could be caused by the different signal generation origins in mechanical versus optical properties, respectively.

  7. Whole-body and multispectral photoacoustic imaging of adult zebrafish

    Huang, Na; Xi, Lei

    2016-10-01

    Zebrafish is a top vertebrate model to study developmental biology and genetics, and it is becoming increasingly popular for studying human diseases due to its high genome similarity to that of humans and the optical transparency in embryonic stages. However, it becomes difficult for pure optical imaging techniques to volumetric visualize the internal organs and structures of wild-type zebrafish in juvenile and adult stages with excellent resolution and penetration depth. Even with the establishment of mutant lines which remain transparent over the life cycle, it is still a challenge for pure optical imaging modalities to image the whole body of adult zebrafish with micro-scale resolution. However, the method called photoacoustic imaging that combines all the advantages of the optical imaging and ultrasonic imaging provides a new way to image the whole body of the zebrafish. In this work, we developed a non-invasive photoacoustic imaging system with optimized near-infrared illumination and cylindrical scanning to image the zebrafish. The lateral and axial resolution yield to 80 μm and 600 μm, respectively. Multispectral strategy with wavelengths from 690 nm to 930 nm was employed to image various organs inside the zebrafish. From the reconstructed images, most major organs and structures inside the body can be precisely imaged. Quantitative and statistical analysis of absorption for organs under illumination with different wavelengths were carried out.

  8. Automated high-pressure titration system with in situ infrared spectroscopic detection

    Thompson, Christopher J., E-mail: chris.thompson@pnnl.gov; Martin, Paul F.; Chen, Jeffrey; Schaef, Herbert T.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Loring, John S. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Benezeth, Pascale [Géosciences Environnement Toulouse (GET), CNRS-Université de Toulouse, 31400 Toulouse (France)

    2014-04-15

    A fully automated titration system with infrared detection was developed for investigating interfacial chemistry at high pressures. The apparatus consists of a high-pressure fluid generation and delivery system coupled to a high-pressure cell with infrared optics. A manifold of electronically actuated valves is used to direct pressurized fluids into the cell. Precise reagent additions to the pressurized cell are made with calibrated tubing loops that are filled with reagent and placed in-line with the cell and a syringe pump. The cell's infrared optics facilitate both transmission and attenuated total reflection (ATR) measurements to monitor bulk-fluid composition and solid-surface phenomena such as adsorption, desorption, complexation, dissolution, and precipitation. Switching between the two measurement modes is accomplished with moveable mirrors that direct the light path of a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer into the cell along transmission or ATR light paths. The versatility of the high-pressure IR titration system was demonstrated with three case studies. First, we titrated water into supercritical CO{sub 2} (scCO{sub 2}) to generate an infrared calibration curve and determine the solubility of water in CO{sub 2} at 50 °C and 90 bar. Next, we characterized the partitioning of water between a montmorillonite clay and scCO{sub 2} at 50 °C and 90 bar. Transmission-mode spectra were used to quantify changes in the clay's sorbed water concentration as a function of scCO{sub 2} hydration, and ATR measurements provided insights into competitive residency of water and CO{sub 2} on the clay surface and in the interlayer. Finally, we demonstrated how time-dependent studies can be conducted with the system by monitoring the carbonation reaction of forsterite (Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) in water-bearing scCO{sub 2} at 50 °C and 90 bar. Immediately after water dissolved in the scCO{sub 2}, a thin film of adsorbed water formed on the mineral surface

  9. Real-time person detection in low-resolution thermal infrared imagery with MSER and CNNs

    Herrmann, Christian; Müller, Thomas; Willersinn, Dieter; Beyerer, Jürgen

    2016-10-01

    In many camera-based systems, person detection and localization is an important step for safety and security applications such as search and rescue, reconnaissance, surveillance, or driver assistance. Long-wave infrared (LWIR) imagery promises to simplify this task because it is less affected by background clutter or illumination changes. In contrast to a lot of related work, we make no assumptions about any movement of persons or the camera, i.e. persons may stand still and the camera may move or any combination thereof. Furthermore, persons may appear arbitrarily in near or far distances to the camera leading to low-resolution persons in far distances. To address this task, we propose a two-stage system, including a proposal generation method and a classifier to verify, if the detected proposals really are persons. In contradiction to use all possible proposals as with sliding window approaches, we apply Maximally Stable Extremal Regions (MSER) and classify the detected proposals afterwards with a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN). The MSER algorithm acts as a hot spot detector when applied to LWIR imagery. Because the body temperature of persons is usually higher than the background, they appear as hot spots in the image. However, the MSER algorithm is unable to distinguish between different kinds of hot spots. Thus, all further LWIR sources such as windows, animals or vehicles will be detected, too. Still by applying MSER, the number of proposals is reduced significantly in comparison to a sliding window approach which allows employing the high discriminative capabilities of deep neural networks classifiers that were recently shown in several applications such as face recognition or image content classification. We suggest using a CNN as classifier for the detected hot spots and train it to discriminate between person hot spots and all further hot spots. We specifically design a CNN that is suitable for the low-resolution person hot spots that are common with

  10. Flow immune photoacoustic sensor for real-time and fast sampling of trace gases

    Petersen, Jan C.; Balslev-Harder, David; Pelevic, Nikola; Brusch, Anders; Persijn, Stefan; Lassen, Mikael

    2018-02-01

    A photoacoustic (PA) sensor for fast and real-time gas sensing is demonstrated. The PA cell has been designed for flow noise immunity using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. PA measurements were conducted at different flow rates by exciting molecular C-H stretch vibrational bands of hexane (C6H14) in clean air at 2950cm-1 (3.38 μm) with a custom made mid-infrared interband cascade laser (ICL). The PA sensor will contribute to solve a major problem in a number of industries using compressed air by the detection of oil contaminants in high purity compressed air. We observe a (1σ, standard deviation) sensitivity of 0.4 +/-0.1 ppb (nmol/mol) for hexane in clean air at flow rates up to 2 L/min, corresponding to a normalized noise equivalent absorption (NNEA) coefficient of 2.5×10-9 W cm-1 Hz1/2, thus demonstrating high sensitivity and fast and real-time gas analysis. The PA sensor is not limited to molecules with C-H stretching modes, but can be tailored to measure any trace gas by simply changing the excitation wavelength (i.e. the laser source) making it useful for many different applications where fast and sensitive trace gas measurements are needed.

  11. Targeted Nanodiamonds as Phenotype Specific Photoacoustic Contrast Agents for Breast Cancer

    Zhang, Ti; Cui, Huizhong; Fang, Chia-Yi; Cheng, Kun; Yang, Xinmai; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Forrest, M. Laird

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim is to develop irradiated nanodiamonds (INDs) as a molecularly-targeted contrast agent for high resolution and phenotype-specific detection of breast cancer with photoacoustic (PA) imaging. Materials & Methods The surface of acid treated radiation-damaged nanodiamonds was grafted with polyethylene glycol (PEG) to improve its stability and circulation time in blood, followed by conjugation to an anti-Human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) peptide (KCCYSL) with a final nanoparticle size of ca. 92 nm. Immunocompetent mice bearing orthotopic HER2 positive or negative tumors were administered INDs and PA imaged using an 820-nm near infrared laser. Results PA images demonstrated that INDs accumulate in tumors and completely delineated the entire tumor within 10 hours. HER2 targeting significantly enhanced imaging of HER2-positive tumors. Pathological examination demonstrated INDs are non-toxic. Conclusions PA technology is adaptable to low-cost bedside medicine, and with new contrast agents described herein, PA can achieve high resolution (sub-mm) and phenotype specific monitoring of cancer growth. PMID:25723091

  12. AN EVALUATION OF INFRARED THERMOGRAPHY FOR DETECTION OF BUMBLEFOOT (PODODERMATITIS) IN PENGUINS.

    Duncan, Ann E; Torgerson-White, Lauri L; Allard, Stephanie M; Schneider, Tom

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate infrared thermography as a noninvasive screening tool for detection of pododermatitis during the developing and active stages of disease in three species of penguins: king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) , macaroni penguin (Eudyptes chrysolophus), and rockhopper penguin (Eudyptes chrysocome). In total, 67 penguins were examined every 3 mo over a 15-mo period. At each exam, bumblefoot lesions were characterized and measured, and a timed series of thermal images were collected over a 4-min period. Three different methods were compared for analysis of thermograms. Feet with active lesions that compromise the surface of the foot were compared to feet with inactive lesions and no lesions. The hypothesis was that feet with active lesions would have warmer surface temperatures than the other conditions. Analysis of the data showed that although feet with active bumblefoot lesions are warmer than feet with inactive or no lesions, the variability seen in each individual penguin from one exam day to the next and the overlap seen between temperatures from each condition made thermal imaging an unreliable tool for detection of bumblefoot in the species studied.

  13. INFRARED NON-DETECTION OF FOMALHAUT b: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE PLANET INTERPRETATION

    Janson, Markus; Carson, Joseph C.; Bent, John R.; Wong, Palmer; Lafrenière, David; Spiegel, David S.

    2012-01-01

    The nearby A4-type star Fomalhaut hosts a debris belt in the form of an eccentric ring, which is thought to be caused by dynamical influence from a giant planet companion. In 2008, a detection of a point source inside the inner edge of the ring was reported and was interpreted as a direct image of the planet, named Fomalhaut b. The detection was made at ∼600-800 nm, but no corresponding signatures were found in the near-infrared range, where the bulk emission of such a planet should be expected. Here, we present deep observations of Fomalhaut with Spitzer/IRAC at 4.5 μm, using a novel point-spread function subtraction technique based on angular differential imaging and Locally Optimized Combination of Images, in order to substantially improve the Spitzer contrast at small separations. The results provide more than an order of magnitude improvement in the upper flux limit of Fomalhaut b and exclude the possibility that any flux from a giant planet surface contributes to the observed flux at visible wavelengths. This renders any direct connection between the observed light source and the dynamically inferred giant planet highly unlikely. We discuss several possible interpretations of the total body of observations of the Fomalhaut system and find that the interpretation that best matches the available data for the observed source is scattered light from a transient or semi-transient dust cloud.

  14. Detection and quantification of adulteration in sandalwood oil through near infrared spectroscopy.

    Kuriakose, Saji; Thankappan, Xavier; Joe, Hubert; Venkataraman, Venkateswaran

    2010-10-01

    The confirmation of authenticity of essential oils and the detection of adulteration are problems of increasing importance in the perfumes, pharmaceutical, flavor and fragrance industries. This is especially true for 'value added' products like sandalwood oil. A methodical study is conducted here to demonstrate the potential use of Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy along with multivariate calibration models like principal component regression (PCR) and partial least square regression (PLSR) as rapid analytical techniques for the qualitative and quantitative determination of adulterants in sandalwood oil. After suitable pre-processing of the NIR raw spectral data, the models are built-up by cross-validation. The lowest Root Mean Square Error of Cross-Validation and Calibration (RMSECV and RMSEC % v/v) are used as a decision supporting system to fix the optimal number of factors. The coefficient of determination (R(2)) and the Root Mean Square Error of Prediction (RMSEP % v/v) in the prediction sets are used as the evaluation parameters (R(2) = 0.9999 and RMSEP = 0.01355). The overall result leads to the conclusion that NIR spectroscopy with chemometric techniques could be successfully used as a rapid, simple, instant and non-destructive method for the detection of adulterants, even 1% of the low-grade oils, in the high quality form of sandalwood oil.

  15. Room temperature high-detectivity mid-infrared photodetectors based on black arsenic phosphorus.

    Long, Mingsheng; Gao, Anyuan; Wang, Peng; Xia, Hui; Ott, Claudia; Pan, Chen; Fu, Yajun; Liu, Erfu; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Lu, Wei; Nilges, Tom; Xu, Jianbin; Wang, Xiaomu; Hu, Weida; Miao, Feng

    2017-06-01

    The mid-infrared (MIR) spectral range, pertaining to important applications, such as molecular "fingerprint" imaging, remote sensing, free space telecommunication, and optical radar, is of particular scientific interest and technological importance. However, state-of-the-art materials for MIR detection are limited by intrinsic noise and inconvenient fabrication processes, resulting in high-cost photodetectors requiring cryogenic operation. We report black arsenic phosphorus-based long-wavelength IR photodetectors, with room temperature operation up to 8.2 μm, entering the second MIR atmospheric transmission window. Combined with a van der Waals heterojunction, room temperature-specific detectivity higher than 4.9 × 10 9 Jones was obtained in the 3- to 5-μm range. The photodetector works in a zero-bias photovoltaic mode, enabling fast photoresponse and low dark noise. Our van der Waals heterojunction photodetectors not only exemplify black arsenic phosphorus as a promising candidate for MIR optoelectronic applications but also pave the way for a general strategy to suppress 1/ f noise in photonic devices.

  16. Rapid detection of defects in fuel-cell electrodes using infrared reactive-flow-through technique

    Das, Prodip K.; Weber, Adam Z.; Bender, Guido; Manak, Austin; Bittinat, Daniel; Herring, Andrew M.; Ulsh, Michael

    2014-09-01

    As fuel cells become more prominent, new manufacturing and production methods will need to be developed to deal efficiently and effectively with increased demand. One necessary component of this industrial growth is the accurate measurement of the variability in the manufacturing process. In this study, we present a diagnostic system that combines infrared thermography with a reactive-flow-through technique to detect catalyst-loading defects in fuel-cell gas-diffusion electrodes accurately with high spatial and temporal resolutions. Experimental results are compared with model predictions of thermal response with good agreement. Data analysis, operating-condition impacts, and detection limits are explored using both experiments and simulation. Overall, the results demonstrate the potential of this technique to measure defects on the millimeter length scale with temporal resolutions appropriate for use on a web-line. Thus we present the first development stage of a next-generation non-destructive diagnostic tool, which may be amenable to eventual use on roll-to-roll manufacturing lines.

  17. Detection of sibutramine in adulterated dietary supplements using attenuated total reflectance-infrared spectroscopy.

    Deconinck, E; Cauwenbergh, T; Bothy, J L; Custers, D; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O

    2014-11-01

    Sibutramine is one of the most occurring adulterants encountered in dietary supplements with slimming as indication. These adulterated dietary supplements often contain a herbal matrix. When customs intercept these kind of supplements it is almost impossible to discriminate between the legal products and the adulterated ones, due to misleading packaging. Therefore in most cases these products are confiscated and send to laboratories for analysis. This results inherently in the confiscation of legal, non-adulterated products. Therefore there is a need for easy to use equipment and techniques to perform an initial screening of samples. Attenuated total reflectance-infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy was evaluated for the detection of sibutramine in adulterated dietary supplements. Data interpretation was performed using different basic chemometric techniques. It was found that the use of ATR-IR combined with the k-Nearest Neighbours (k-NN) was able to detect all adulterated dietary supplements in an external test set and this with a minimum of false positive results. This means that a small amount of legal products will still be confiscated and analyzed in a laboratory to be found negative, but no adulterated samples will pass the initial ATR-IR screening. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Corrosion/erosion detection of boiler tubes utilizing pulsed infrared imaging

    Bales, Maurice J.; Bishop, Chip C.

    1995-05-01

    This paper discusses a new technique for locating and detecting wall thickness reduction in boiler tubes caused by erosion/corrosion. Traditional means for this type of defect detection utilizes ultrasonics (UT) to perform a point by point measurement at given intervals of the tube length, which requires extensive and costly shutdown or `outage' time to complete the inspection, and has led to thin areas going undetected simply because they were located in between the sampling points. Pulsed infrared imaging (PII) can provide nearly 100% inspection of the tubes in a fraction of the time needed for UT. The IR system and heat source used in this study do not require any special access or fixed scaffolding, and can be remotely operated from a distance of up to 100 feet. This technique has been tried experimentally in a laboratory environment and verified in an actual field application. Since PII is a non-contact technique, considerable time and cost savings should be realized as well as the ability to predict failures rather than repairing them once they have occurred.

  19. Fourier Transform Infrared Radiation Spectroscopy Applied for Wood Rot Decay and Mould Fungi Growth Detection

    Bjørn Petter Jelle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Material characterization may be carried out by the attenuated total reflectance (ATR Fourier transform infrared (FTIR radiation spectroscopical technique, which represents a powerful experimental tool. The ATR technique may be applied on both solid state materials, liquids, and gases with none or only minor sample preparations, also including materials which are nontransparent to IR radiation. This facilitation is made possible by pressing the sample directly onto various crystals, for example, diamond, with high refractive indices, in a special reflectance setup. Thus ATR saves time and enables the study of materials in a pristine condition, that is, the comprehensive sample preparation by pressing thin KBr pellets in traditional FTIR transmittance spectroscopy is hence avoided. Materials and their ageing processes, both ageing by natural and accelerated climate exposure, decomposition and formation of chemical bonds and products, may be studied in an ATR-FTIR analysis. In this work, the ATR-FTIR technique is utilized to detect wood rot decay and mould fungi growth on various building material substrates. An experimental challenge and aim is to be able to detect the wood rot decay and mould fungi growth at early stages when it is barely visible to the naked eye. Another goal is to be able to distinguish between various species of fungi and wood rot.

  20. Early tumor detection afforded by in vivo imaging of near-infrared II fluorescence.

    Tao, Zhimin; Dang, Xiangnan; Huang, Xing; Muzumdar, Mandar D; Xu, Eric S; Bardhan, Neelkanth Manoj; Song, Haiqin; Qi, Ruogu; Yu, Yingjie; Li, Ting; Wei, Wei; Wyckoff, Jeffrey; Birrer, Michael J; Belcher, Angela M; Ghoroghchian, P Peter

    2017-07-01

    Cell-intrinsic reporters such as luciferase (LUC) and red fluorescent protein (RFP) have been commonly utilized in preclinical studies to image tumor growth and to monitor therapeutic responses. While extrinsic reporters that emit near infrared I (NIR-I: 650-950 nm) or near-infrared II (NIR-II: 1000-1700 nm) optical signals have enabled minimization of tissue autofluorescence and light scattering, it has remained unclear as to whether their use has afforded more accurate tumor imaging in small animals. Here, we developed a novel optical imaging construct comprised of rare earth lanthanide nanoparticles coated with biodegradable diblock copolymers and doped with organic fluorophores, generating NIR-I and NIR-II emissive bands upon optical excitation. Simultaneous injection of multiple spectrally-unique nanoparticles into mice bearing tumor implants established via intraperitoneal dissemination of LUC + /RFP + OVCAR-8 ovarian cancer cells enabled direct comparisons of imaging with extrinsic vs. intrinsic reporters, NIR-II vs. NIR-I signals, as well as targeted vs. untargeted exogenous contrast agents in the same animal and over time. We discovered that in vivo optical imaging at NIR-II wavelengths facilitates more accurate detection of smaller and earlier tumor deposits, offering enhanced sensitivity, improved spatial contrast, and increased depths of tissue penetration as compared to imaging with visible or NIR-I fluorescent agents. Our work further highlights the hitherto underappreciated enhancements in tumor accumulation that may be achieved with intraperitoneal as opposed to intravenous administration of nanoparticles. Lastly, we found discrepancies in the fidelity of tumor uptake that could be obtained by utilizing small molecules for in vivo as opposed to in vitro targeting of nanoparticles to disseminated tumors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. In-situ volumetric topography of IC chips for defect detection using infrared confocal measurement with active structured light

    Chen, Liang-Chia; Le, Manh-Trung; Phuc, Dao Cong; Lin, Shyh-Tsong

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the development of in-situ integrated circuit (IC) chip defect detection techniques for automated clipping detection by proposing infrared imaging and full-field volumetric topography. IC chip inspection, especially held during or post IC packaging, has become an extremely critical procedure in IC fabrication to assure manufacturing quality and reduce production costs. To address this, in the article, microscopic infrared imaging using an electromagnetic light spectrum that ranges from 0.9 to 1.7 µm is developed to perform volumetric inspection of IC chips, in order to identify important defects such as silicon clipping, cracking or peeling. The main difficulty of infrared (IR) volumetric imaging lies in its poor image contrast, which makes it incapable of achieving reliable inspection, as infrared imaging is sensitive to temperature difference but insensitive to geometric variance of materials, resulting in difficulty detecting and quantifying defects precisely. To overcome this, 3D volumetric topography based on 3D infrared confocal measurement with active structured light, as well as light refractive matching principles, is developed to detect defects the size, shape and position of defects in ICs. The experimental results show that the algorithm is effective and suitable for in-situ defect detection of IC semiconductor packaging. The quality of defect detection, such as measurement repeatability and accuracy, is addressed. Confirmed by the experimental results, the depth measurement resolution can reach up to 0.3 µm, and the depth measurement uncertainty with one standard deviation was verified to be less than 1.0% of the full-scale depth-measuring range. (paper)

  2. The performance and application of laser-induced photoacoustic spectrometer

    Wang Bo; Chen Xi; Yao Jun

    2012-01-01

    Laser-induced photoacoustic spectrometer (LIPAS) is a key instrument can be used in the investigation of radionuclides migration behaviors due to its higher sensitivity for the detection and identification of radionuclides speciation in aqueous solutions. The speciation of radionuclides such as oxidation states and complexation may be determined directly by using this specific non-contact and nondestructive analytical technique, and the sensitivity of LIPAS surpasses that of conventional absorption spectroscopy by one to two orders of magnitude. In the present work, LIPAS system was established at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), and the principle, performance and preliminary application of LIPAS are also be presented. (authors)

  3. Photoacoustic cavitation for theranostics: mechanism, current progress and applications

    Feng, Y; Qin, D; Wan, M

    2015-01-01

    As an emerging cavitation technology, photoacoustic cavitation (PAC) means the formation of bubbles in liquids using focused laser and pre-established ultrasound synchronously. Its significant advantages include the decreased threshold of each modality and the precise location of cavitation determined by the focused laser. In this paper, a brief review of PAC is presented, including the physical mechanism description, the classic experimental technology, the representative results in variety of media, and its applications in biomedical imaging and therapy. Moreover, some preliminary results of PAC in perfluoropentane (PFP) liquid and PFP droplets investigated by passive cavitation detection (PCD) in our group are also presented. (paper)

  4. Ingestible roasted barley for contrast-enhanced photoacoustic imaging in animal and human subjects.

    Wang, Depeng; Lee, Dong Hyeun; Huang, Haoyuan; Vu, Tri; Lim, Rachel Su Ann; Nyayapathi, Nikhila; Chitgupi, Upendra; Liu, Maggie; Geng, Jumin; Xia, Jun; Lovell, Jonathan F

    2018-08-01

    Photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) is an emerging imaging modality. While many contrast agents have been developed for PACT, these typically cannot immediately be used in humans due to the lengthy regulatory process. We screened two hundred types of ingestible foodstuff samples for photoacoustic contrast with 1064 nm pulse laser excitation, and identified roasted barley as a promising candidate. Twenty brands of roasted barley were further screened to identify the one with the strongest contrast, presumably based on complex chemical modifications incurred during the roasting process. Individual roasted barley particles could be detected through 3.5 cm of chicken-breast tissue and through the whole hand of healthy human volunteers. With PACT, but not ultrasound imaging, a single grain of roasted barley was detected in a field of hundreds of non-roasted particles. Upon oral administration, roasted barley enabled imaging of the gut and peristalsis in mice. Prepared roasted barley tea could be detected through 2.5 cm chicken breast tissue. When barley tea was administered to humans, photoacoustic imaging visualized swallowing dynamics in healthy volunteers. Thus, roasted barley represents an edible foodstuff that should be considered for photoacoustic contrast imaging of swallowing and gut processes, with immediate potential for clinical translation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A robust sub-pixel edge detection method of infrared image based on tremor-based retinal receptive field model

    Gao, Kun; Yang, Hu; Chen, Xiaomei; Ni, Guoqiang

    2008-03-01

    Because of complex thermal objects in an infrared image, the prevalent image edge detection operators are often suitable for a certain scene and extract too wide edges sometimes. From a biological point of view, the image edge detection operators work reliably when assuming a convolution-based receptive field architecture. A DoG (Difference-of- Gaussians) model filter based on ON-center retinal ganglion cell receptive field architecture with artificial eye tremors introduced is proposed for the image contour detection. Aiming at the blurred edges of an infrared image, the subsequent orthogonal polynomial interpolation and sub-pixel level edge detection in rough edge pixel neighborhood is adopted to locate the foregoing rough edges in sub-pixel level. Numerical simulations show that this method can locate the target edge accurately and robustly.

  6. A high-transmission liquid-crystal Fabry-Perot infrared filter for electrically tunable spectral imaging detection

    Liu, Zhonglun; Xin, Zhaowei; Long, Huabao; Wei, Dong; Dai, Wanwan; Zhang, Xinyu; Wang, Haiwei; Xie, Changsheng

    2018-02-01

    Previous studies have presented the usefulness of typical liquid-crystal Fabry-Perot (LC-FP) infrared filters for spectral imaging detection. Yet, their infrared transmission performances still remain to improve or even rise. In this paper, we propose a new type of electrically tunable LC-FP infrared filter to solve the problem above. The key component of the device is a FP resonant cavity composed of two parallel plane mirrors, in which the zinc selenide (ZnSe) materials with a very high transmittance in the mid-long-wavelength infrared regions are used as the electrode substrates and a layer of nano-aluminum (Al) film, which is directly contacted with liquid-crystal materials, is chosen to make high reflective mirrors as well as the electrodes. Particularly, it should be noted that the directional layer made up of ployimide (PI) used previously is removed. The experiment results indicate that the filter can reduce the absorption of infrared wave remarkably, and thus highlight a road to effectively improve the infrared transmittance ability.

  7. Spectroscopic photoacoustics for assessing ischemic kidney damage

    Berndl, Elizabeth S. L.; He, Xiaolin; Yuen, Darren A.; Kolios, Michael C.

    2018-02-01

    Ischemic reperfusion injuries (IRIs) are caused by return of blood to a tissue or organ after a period without oxygen or nutrients. Damage in the microvasculature causes an inflammatory response and heterogeneous scarring, which is associated with an increase in collagen in the extracellular matrix. Although most often associated with heart attacks and strokes, IRI also occurs when blood reperfuses a transplanted organ. Currently, monitoring for IRI is limited to biopsies, which are invasive and sample a limited area. In this work, we explored photoacoustic (PA) biomarkers of scarring. IRI events were induced in mice (n=2) by clamping the left renal artery, then re-establishing flow. At 53 days post-surgery, kidneys were saline perfused and cut in half laterally. One half was immediately imaged with a VevoX system (Fujifilm-VisualSonics, Toronto) in two near infrared ranges - 680 to 970 nm (NIR), and 1200 to 1350 nm (NIR II). The other half was decellularized and then imaged at NIR and NIR II. Regions of interest were manually identified and analyzed for each kidney. For both cellularized and decellularized samples, the PA signal ratio based on irradiation wavelengths of 715:930 nm was higher in damaged kidneys than for undamaged kidneys (p collagen in the NIR II range, while healthy kidneys did not. Collagen rich spectra were more apparent in decellularized kidneys, suggesting that in the cellularized samples, other components may be contributing to the signal. PA imaging using spectral ratios associated with collagen signatures may provide a non-invasive tool to determine areas of tissue damage due to IRIs.

  8. Flow detection via sparse frame analysis for suspicious event recognition in infrared imagery

    Fernandes, Henrique C.; Batista, Marcos A.; Barcelos, Celia A. Z.; Maldague, Xavier P. V.

    2013-05-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that intelligent systems are very bene¯cial for society and that the further development of such systems is necessary to continue to improve society's quality of life. One area that has drawn the attention of recent research is the development of automatic surveillance systems. In our work we outline a system capable of monitoring an uncontrolled area (an outside parking lot) using infrared imagery and recognizing suspicious events in this area. The ¯rst step is to identify moving objects and segment them from the scene's background. Our approach is based on a dynamic background-subtraction technique which robustly adapts detection to illumination changes. It is analyzed only regions where movement is occurring, ignoring in°uence of pixels from regions where there is no movement, to segment moving objects. Regions where movement is occurring are identi¯ed using °ow detection via sparse frame analysis. During the tracking process the objects are classi¯ed into two categories: Persons and Vehicles, based on features such as size and velocity. The last step is to recognize suspicious events that may occur in the scene. Since the objects are correctly segmented and classi¯ed it is possible to identify those events using features such as velocity and time spent motionless in one spot. In this paper we recognize the suspicious event suspicion of object(s) theft from inside a parked vehicle at spot X by a person" and results show that the use of °ow detection increases the recognition of this suspicious event from 78:57% to 92:85%.

  9. Detectability of planetary rings around super-earths by direct infrared imaging

    Morel, Carine

    2013-01-01

    Super-Earths, of which more than 80 have already been discovered, draw a lot of attention. With masses between those of the Earth and Neptune, they are ideal targets for searching for bio-signatures. All the gas giants of the solar system have a ring system, and even the Earth is suspected to have had rings in the past; their presence around super-Earths is thus expected and could give information on the formation process of these planets. The characterization of Super-Earths and their environment has thus become an important goal of modern astronomy. They are still difficult to study because of their small size, but the potential presence of planetary rings can make them easier to observe by the transit method and by direct imaging. This PhD evaluates the possibilities of detecting and characterizing rings around super-Earths by direct infrared imaging with the ELT-METIS instrument. To do this, a model to simulate the thermal emission of a super-Earth and its rings is developed. It is then used to study the influence of physical parameters and orientation of the rings and of planetary orbit on their detectability. The results show that ELT-METIS will be able to detect rings similar to the B and C rings of Saturn, extended within the Roche limit. The super-Earths surrounded by rings will be observable in middle orbit, between about 0.4 and 1 AU, around hot stars within 20 pc of the Sun. It is also shown that the photometric monitoring along the orbit of a super-Earth surrounded by rings should help constrain some of their physical characteristics. (author) [fr

  10. Scale invariant SURF detector and automatic clustering segmentation for infrared small targets detection

    Zhang, Haiying; Bai, Jiaojiao; Li, Zhengjie; Liu, Yan; Liu, Kunhong

    2017-06-01

    The detection and discrimination of infrared small dim targets is a challenge in automatic target recognition (ATR), because there is no salient information of size, shape and texture. Many researchers focus on mining more discriminative information of targets in temporal-spatial. However, such information may not be available with the change of imaging environments, and the targets size and intensity keep changing in different imaging distance. So in this paper, we propose a novel research scheme using density-based clustering and backtracking strategy. In this scheme, the speeded up robust feature (SURF) detector is applied to capture candidate targets in single frame at first. And then, these points are mapped into one frame, so that target traces form a local aggregation pattern. In order to isolate the targets from noises, a newly proposed density-based clustering algorithm, fast search and find of density peak (FSFDP for short), is employed to cluster targets by the spatial intensive distribution. Two important factors of the algorithm, percent and γ , are exploited fully to determine the clustering scale automatically, so as to extract the trace with highest clutter suppression ratio. And at the final step, a backtracking algorithm is designed to detect and discriminate target trace as well as to eliminate clutter. The consistence and continuity of the short-time target trajectory in temporal-spatial is incorporated into the bounding function to speed up the pruning. Compared with several state-of-arts methods, our algorithm is more effective for the dim targets with lower signal-to clutter ratio (SCR). Furthermore, it avoids constructing the candidate target trajectory searching space, so its time complexity is limited to a polynomial level. The extensive experimental results show that it has superior performance in probability of detection (Pd) and false alarm suppressing rate aiming at variety of complex backgrounds.

  11. Single-wavelength functional photoacoustic microscopy in biological tissue

    Danielli, Amos; Favazza, Christopher P.; Maslov, Konstantin; Wang, Lihong V.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, we developed a reflection-mode relaxation photoacoustic microscope, based on saturation intensity, to measure picosecond relaxation times using a nanosecond laser. Here, using the different relaxation times of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin molecules, both possessing extremely low fluorescence quantum yields, the oxygen saturation was quantified in vivo with single-wavelength photoacoustic microscopy. All previous functional photoacoustic microscopy measurements required ima...

  12. Infrared detection and photon energy up-conversion in graphene layer infrared photodetectors integrated with LEDs based on van der Waals heterostructures: Concept, device model, and characteristics

    Ryzhii, V.; Otsuji, T.; Ryzhii, M.; Karasik, V. E.; Shur, M. S.

    2017-09-01

    We propose the concept of the infrared detection and photon energy up-conversion in the devices using the integration of the graphene layer infrared detectors (GLIPs) and the light emitting diodes (LEDs) based on van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures. Using the developed device model of the GLIP-LEDs, we calculate their characteristics. The GLIP-LED devices can operate as the detectors of far- and mid infrared radiation (FIR and MIR) with an electrical output or with near-infrared radiation (NIR) or visible radiation (VIR) output. In the latter case, GLIP-LED devices function as the photon energy up-converters of FIR and MIR to NIR or VIR. The operation of GLIP-LED devices is associated with the injection of the electron photocurrent produced due to the interband absorption of the FIR/MIR photons in the GLIP part into the LED emitting NIR/VIR photons. We calculate the GLIP-LED responsivity and up-conversion efficiency as functions the structure parameters and the energies of the incident FIR/MIR photons and the output NIR/VIR photons. The advantages of the GLs in the vdW heterostructures (relatively high photoexcitation rate from and low capture efficiency into GLs) combined with the reabsorption of a fraction of the NIR/FIR photon flux in the GLIP (which can enable an effective photonic feedback) result in the elevated GLIP-LED device responsivity and up-conversion efficiency. The positive optical feedback from the LED section of the device lead to increasing current injection enabling the appearance of the S-type current-voltage characteristic with a greatly enhanced responsivity near the switching point and current filamentation.

  13. Self-assembled nanomaterials for photoacoustic imaging

    Wang, Lei; Yang, Pei-Pei; Zhao, Xiao-Xiao; Wang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, extensive endeavors have been paid to construct functional self-assembled nanomaterials for various applications such as catalysis, separation, energy and biomedicines. To date, different strategies have been developed for preparing nanomaterials with diversified structures and functionalities via fine tuning of self-assembled building blocks. In terms of biomedical applications, bioimaging technologies are urgently calling for high-efficient probes/contrast agents for high-performance bioimaging. Photoacoustic (PA) imaging is an emerging whole-body imaging modality offering high spatial resolution, deep penetration and high contrast in vivo. The self-assembled nanomaterials show high stability in vivo, specific tolerance to sterilization and prolonged half-life stability and desirable targeting properties, which is a kind of promising PA contrast agents for biomedical imaging. Herein, we focus on summarizing recent advances in smart self-assembled nanomaterials with NIR absorption as PA contrast agents for biomedical imaging. According to the preparation strategy of the contrast agents, the self-assembled nanomaterials are categorized into two groups, i.e., the ex situ and in situ self-assembled nanomaterials. The driving forces, assembly modes and regulation of PA properties of self-assembled nanomaterials and their applications for long-term imaging, enzyme activity detection and aggregation-induced retention (AIR) effect for diagnosis and therapy are emphasized. Finally, we conclude with an outlook towards future developments of self-assembled nanomaterials for PA imaging.

  14. Self-assembled nanomaterials for photoacoustic imaging.

    Wang, Lei; Yang, Pei-Pei; Zhao, Xiao-Xiao; Wang, Hao

    2016-02-07

    In recent years, extensive endeavors have been paid to construct functional self-assembled nanomaterials for various applications such as catalysis, separation, energy and biomedicines. To date, different strategies have been developed for preparing nanomaterials with diversified structures and functionalities via fine tuning of self-assembled building blocks. In terms of biomedical applications, bioimaging technologies are urgently calling for high-efficient probes/contrast agents for high-performance bioimaging. Photoacoustic (PA) imaging is an emerging whole-body imaging modality offering high spatial resolution, deep penetration and high contrast in vivo. The self-assembled nanomaterials show high stability in vivo, specific tolerance to sterilization and prolonged half-life stability and desirable targeting properties, which is a kind of promising PA contrast agents for biomedical imaging. Herein, we focus on summarizing recent advances in smart self-assembled nanomaterials with NIR absorption as PA contrast agents for biomedical imaging. According to the preparation strategy of the contrast agents, the self-assembled nanomaterials are categorized into two groups, i.e., the ex situ and in situ self-assembled nanomaterials. The driving forces, assembly modes and regulation of PA properties of self-assembled nanomaterials and their applications for long-term imaging, enzyme activity detection and aggregation-induced retention (AIR) effect for diagnosis and therapy are emphasized. Finally, we conclude with an outlook towards future developments of self-assembled nanomaterials for PA imaging.

  15. Inverse diffusion theory of photoacoustics

    Bal, Guillaume; Uhlmann, Gunther

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the reconstruction of diffusion and absorption parameters in an elliptic equation from knowledge of internal data. In the application of photoacoustics, the internal data are the amount of thermal energy deposited by high frequency radiation propagating inside a domain of interest. These data are obtained by solving an inverse wave equation, which is well studied in the literature. We show that knowledge of two internal data based on well-chosen boundary conditions uniquely determines two constitutive parameters in diffusion and Schrödinger equations. Stability of the reconstruction is guaranteed under additional geometric constraints of strict convexity. No geometric constraints are necessary when 2n internal data for well-chosen boundary conditions are available, where n is spatial dimension. The set of well-chosen boundary conditions is characterized in terms of appropriate complex geometrical optics solutions

  16. Tunable Semiconducting Polymer Nanoparticles with INDT-Based Conjugated Polymers for Photoacoustic Molecular Imaging.

    Stahl, Thomas; Bofinger, Robin; Lam, Ivan; Fallon, Kealan J; Johnson, Peter; Ogunlade, Olumide; Vassileva, Vessela; Pedley, R Barbara; Beard, Paul C; Hailes, Helen C; Bronstein, Hugo; Tabor, Alethea B

    2017-06-21

    Photoacoustic imaging combines both excellent spatial resolution with high contrast and specificity, without the need for patients to be exposed to ionizing radiation. This makes it ideal for the study of physiological changes occurring during tumorigenesis and cardiovascular disease. In order to fully exploit the potential of this technique, new exogenous contrast agents with strong absorbance in the near-infrared range, good stability and biocompatibility, are required. In this paper, we report the formulation and characterization of a novel series of endogenous contrast agents for photoacoustic imaging in vivo. These contrast agents are based on a recently reported series of indigoid π-conjugated organic semiconductors, coformulated with 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, to give semiconducting polymer nanoparticles of about 150 nm diameter. These nanoparticles exhibited excellent absorption in the near-infrared region, with good photoacoustic signal generation efficiencies, high photostability, and extinction coefficients of up to three times higher than those previously reported. The absorption maximum is conveniently located in the spectral region of low absorption of chromophores within human tissue. Using the most promising semiconducting polymer nanoparticle, we have demonstrated wavelength-dependent differential contrast between vasculature and the nanoparticles, which can be used to unambiguously discriminate the presence of the contrast agent in vivo.

  17. High speed intravascular photoacoustic imaging of atherosclerotic arteries (Conference Presentation)

    Piao, Zhonglie; Ma, Teng; Qu, Yueqiao; Li, Jiawen; Yu, Mingyue; He, Youmin; Shung, K. Kirk; Zhou, Qifa; Kim, Chang-Seok; Chen, Zhongping

    2016-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the industrialized nations. Accurate quantification of both the morphology and composition of lipid-rich vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque are essential for early detection and optimal treatment in clinics. In previous works, intravascular photoacoustic (IVPA) imaging for detection of lipid-rich plaque within coronary artery walls has been demonstrated in ex vivo, but the imaging speed is still limited. In order to increase the imaging speed, a high repetition rate laser is needed. In this work, we present a high speed integrated IVPA/US imaging system with a 500 Hz optical parametric oscillator laser at 1725 nm. A miniature catheter with 1.0 mm outer diameter was designed with a 200 μm multimode fiber and an ultrasound transducer with 45 MHz center frequency. The fiber was polished at 38 degree and enclosed in a glass capillary for total internal reflection. An optical/electrical rotary junction and pull-back mechanism was applied for rotating and linearly scanning the catheter to obtain three-dimensional imaging. Atherosclerotic rabbit abdominal aorta was imaged as two frame/second at 1725 nm. Furthermore, by wide tuning range of the laser wavelength from 1680 nm to 1770 nm, spectroscopic photoacoustic analysis of lipid-mimicking phantom and an human atherosclerotic artery was performed ex vivo. The results demonstrated that the developed IVPA/US imaging system is capable for high speed intravascular imaging for plaque detection.

  18. Research on the Effects of Drying Temperature on Nitrogen Detection of Different Soil Types by Near Infrared Sensors.

    Nie, Pengcheng; Dong, Tao; He, Yong; Xiao, Shupei

    2018-01-29

    Soil is a complicated system whose components and mechanisms are complex and difficult to be fully excavated and comprehended. Nitrogen is the key parameter supporting plant growth and development, and is the material basis of plant growth as well. An accurate grasp of soil nitrogen information is the premise of scientific fertilization in precision agriculture, where near infrared sensors are widely used for rapid detection of nutrients in soil. However, soil texture, soil moisture content and drying temperature all affect soil nitrogen detection using near infrared sensors. In order to investigate the effects of drying temperature on the nitrogen detection in black soil, loess and calcium soil, three kinds of soils were detected by near infrared sensors after 25 °C placement (ambient temperature), 50 °C drying (medium temperature), 80 °C drying (medium-high temperature) and 95 °C drying (high temperature). The successive projections algorithm based on multiple linear regression (SPA-MLR), partial least squares (PLS) and competitive adaptive reweighted squares (CARS) were used to model and analyze the spectral information of different soil types. The predictive abilities were assessed using the prediction correlation coefficients (R P ), the root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP), and the residual predictive deviation (RPD). The results showed that the loess (R P = 0.9721, RMSEP = 0.067 g/kg, RPD = 4.34) and calcium soil (R P = 0.9588, RMSEP = 0.094 g/kg, RPD = 3.89) obtained the best prediction accuracy after 95 °C drying. The detection results of black soil (R P = 0.9486, RMSEP = 0.22 g/kg, RPD = 2.82) after 80 °C drying were the optimum. In conclusion, drying temperature does have an obvious influence on the detection of soil nitrogen by near infrared sensors, and the suitable drying temperature for different soil types was of great significance in enhancing the detection accuracy.

  19. Multi-channel up-conversion infrared spectrometer and method of detecting a spectral distribution of light

    2015-01-01

    A multi-channel infrared spectrometer for detecting an infrared spectrum of light received from an object. The spectrometer comprises a wavelength converter system comprising a nonlinear material and having an input side and an output side. The wavelength converter system comprises at least a first...... on the first side into light in a second output wavelength range output on the second side. The spectrometer further comprises a demultiplexer configured for demultiplexing light in the first up-conversion channel and light in the second up-conversion channel. The demultiplexer is located on the first side...

  20. Measurements of Low Frequency Noise of Infrared Photo-Detectors with Transimpedance Detection System

    Ciura Łukasz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the method and results of low-frequency noise measurements of modern mid-wavelength infrared photodetectors. A type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice based detector with nBn barrier architecture is compared with a high operating temperature (HOT heterojunction HgCdTe detector. All experiments were made in the range 1 Hz - 10 kHz at various temperatures by using a transimpedance detection system, which is examined in detail. The power spectral density of the nBn’s dark current noise includes Lorentzians with different time constants while the HgCdTe photodiode has more uniform 1/f - shaped spectra. For small bias, the low-frequency noise power spectra of both devices were found to scale linearly with bias voltage squared and were connected with the fluctuations of the leakage resistance. Leakage resistance noise defines the lower noise limit of a photodetector. Other dark current components give raise to the increase of low-frequency noise above this limit. For the same voltage biasing devices, the absolute noise power densities at 1 Hz in nBn are 1 to 2 orders of magnitude lower than in a MCT HgCdTe detector. In spite of this, low-frequency performance of the HgCdTe detector at ~ 230K is still better than that of InAs/GaSb superlattice nBn detector.

  1. Infrared absorption of gaseous ClCS detected with time-resolved Fourier-transform spectroscopy

    Chu, Li-Kang; Han, Hui-Ling; Lee, Yuan-Pern

    2007-01-01

    A transient infrared absorption spectrum of gaseous ClCS was detected with a step-scan Fourier-transform spectrometer coupled with a multipass absorption cell. ClCS was produced upon irradiating a flowing mixture of Cl 2 CS and N 2 or CO 2 with a KrF excimer laser at 248 nm. A transient band in the region of 1160-1220 cm -1 , which diminished on prolonged reaction, is assigned to the C-S stretching (ν 1 ) mode of ClCS. Calculations with density-functional theory (B3P86 and B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ) predict the geometry, vibrational wave numbers, and rotational parameters of ClCS. The rotational contour of the spectrum of ClCS simulated based on predicted rotational parameters agrees satisfactorily with experimental observation; from spectral simulation, the band origin is determined to be at 1194.4 cm -1 . Reaction kinetics involving ClCS, CS, and CS 2 are discussed

  2. Using near infrared spectroscopy and heart rate variability to detect mental overload.

    Durantin, G; Gagnon, J-F; Tremblay, S; Dehais, F

    2014-02-01

    Mental workload is a key factor influencing the occurrence of human error, especially during piloting and remotely operated vehicle (ROV) operations, where safety depends on the ability of pilots to act appropriately. In particular, excessively high or low mental workload can lead operators to neglect critical information. The objective of the present study is to investigate the potential of functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) - a non-invasive method of measuring prefrontal cortex activity - in combination with measurements of heart rate variability (HRV), to predict mental workload during a simulated piloting task, with particular regard to task engagement and disengagement. Twelve volunteers performed a computer-based piloting task in which they were asked to follow a dynamic target with their aircraft, a task designed to replicate key cognitive demands associated with real life ROV operating tasks. In order to cover a wide range of mental workload levels, task difficulty was manipulated in terms of processing load and difficulty of control - two critical sources of workload associated with piloting and remotely operating a vehicle. Results show that both fNIRS and HRV are sensitive to different levels of mental workload; notably, lower prefrontal activation as well as a lower LF/HF ratio at the highest level of difficulty, suggest that these measures are suitable for mental overload detection. Moreover, these latter measurements point toward the existence of a quadratic model of mental workload. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Hot spots in energetic materials generated by infrared and ultrasound, detected by thermal imaging microscopy.

    Chen, Ming-Wei; You, Sizhu; Suslick, Kenneth S; Dlott, Dana D

    2014-02-01

    We have observed and characterized hot spot formation and hot-spot ignition of energetic materials (EM), where hot spots were created by ultrasonic or long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) exposure, and were detected by high-speed thermal microscopy. The microscope had 15-20 μm spatial resolution and 8.3 ms temporal resolution. LWIR was generated by a CO2 laser (tunable near 10.6 μm or 28.3 THz) and ultrasound by a 20 kHz acoustic horn. Both methods of energy input created spatially homogeneous energy fields, allowing hot spots to develop spontaneously due to the microstructure of the sample materials. We observed formation of hot spots which grew and caused the EM to ignite. The EM studied here consisted of composite solids with 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine crystals and polymer binders. EM simulants based on sucrose crystals in binders were also examined. The mechanisms of hot spot generation were different with LWIR and ultrasound. With LWIR, hot spots were most efficiently generated within the EM crystals at LWIR wavelengths having longer absorption depths of ∼25 μm, suggesting that hot spot generation mechanisms involved localized absorbing defects within the crystals, LWIR focusing in the crystals or LWIR interference in the crystals. With ultrasound, hot spots were primarily generated in regions of the polymer binder immediately adjacent to crystal surfaces, rather than inside the EM crystals.

  4. Applying Fourier Transform Mid Infrared Spectroscopy to Detect the Adulteration of Salmo salar with Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Moreira, Maria João

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy coupled with chemometric methods to detect fish adulteration. Muscles of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) (SS) and Salmon trout (Onconrhynchus mykiss) (OM) muscles were mixed in different percentages and transformed into mini-burgers. These were stored at 3 °C, then examined at 0, 72, 160, and 240 h for deteriorative microorganisms. Mini-burgers was submitted to Soxhlet extraction, following which lipid extracts were analyzed by FTIR. The principal component analysis (PCA) described the studied adulteration using four principal components with an explained variance of 95.60%. PCA showed that the absorbance in the spectral region from 721, 1097, 1370, 1464, 1655, 2805, to 2935, 3009 cm−1 may be attributed to biochemical fingerprints related to differences between SS and OM. The partial least squares regression (PLS-R) predicted the presence/absence of adulteration in fish samples of an external set with high accuracy. The proposed methods have the advantage of allowing quick measurements, despite the storage time of the adulterated fish. FTIR combined with chemometrics showed that a methodology to identify the adulteration of SS with OM can be established, even when stored for different periods of time. PMID:29621135

  5. Infrared interference patterns for new capabilities in laser end point detection

    Heason, D J; Spencer, A G

    2003-01-01

    Standard laser interferometry is used in dry etch fabrication of semiconductor and MEMS devices to measure etch depth, rate and to detect the process end point. However, many wafer materials, such as silicon are absorbing at probing wavelengths in the visible, severely limiting the amount of information that can be obtained using this technique. At infrared (IR) wavelengths around 1500 nm and above, silicon is highly transparent. In this paper we describe an instrument that can be used to monitor etch depth throughout a thru-wafer etch. The provision of this information could eliminate the requirement of an 'etch stop' layer and improve the performance of fabricated devices. We have added a further new capability by using tuneable lasers to scan through wavelengths in the near IR to generate an interference pattern. Fitting a theoretical curve to this interference pattern gives in situ measurement of film thickness. Whereas conventional interferometry would only allow etch depth to be monitored in real time, we can use a pre-etch thickness measurement to terminate the etch on a remaining thickness of film material. This paper discusses the capabilities of, and the opportunities offered by, this new technique and gives examples of applications in MEMS and waveguides

  6. Automatic detection of diabetic foot complications with infrared thermography by asymmetric analysis

    Liu, Chanjuan; van Netten, Jaap J.; van Baal, Jeff G.; Bus, Sicco A.; van der Heijden, Ferdi

    2015-02-01

    Early identification of diabetic foot complications and their precursors is essential in preventing their devastating consequences, such as foot infection and amputation. Frequent, automatic risk assessment by an intelligent telemedicine system might be feasible and cost effective. Infrared thermography is a promising modality for such a system. The temperature differences between corresponding areas on contralateral feet are the clinically significant parameters. This asymmetric analysis is hindered by (1) foot segmentation errors, especially when the foot temperature and the ambient temperature are comparable, and by (2) different shapes and sizes between contralateral feet due to deformities or minor amputations. To circumvent the first problem, we used a color image and a thermal image acquired synchronously. Foot regions, detected in the color image, were rigidly registered to the thermal image. This resulted in 97.8%±1.1% sensitivity and 98.4%±0.5% specificity over 76 high-risk diabetic patients with manual annotation as a reference. Nonrigid landmark-based registration with B-splines solved the second problem. Corresponding points in the two feet could be found regardless of the shapes and sizes of the feet. With that, the temperature difference of the left and right feet could be obtained.

  7. Time Resolved Detection of Infrared Synchrotron Radiation at DAΦNE

    Bocci, A.; Marcelli, A.; Drago, A.; Guidi, M. Cestelli; Pace, E.; Piccinini, M.; Sali, D.; Morini, P.; Piotrowski, J.

    2007-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation is characterized by a very wide spectral emission from IR to X-ray wavelengths and a pulsed structure that is a function of the source time structure. In a storage ring, the typical temporal distance between two bunches, whose duration is a few hundreds of picoseconds, is on the nanosecond scale. Therefore, synchrotron radiation sources are a very powerful tools to perform time-resolved experiments that however need extremely fast detectors. Uncooled IR devices optimized for the mid-IR range with sub-nanosecond response time, are now available and can be used for fast detection of intense IR sources such as synchrotron radiation storage rings. We present here different measurements of the pulsed synchrotron radiation emission at DAΦNE (Double Annular Φ-factory for Nice Experiments), the collider of the Laboratori Nazionali of Frascati (LNF) of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), performed with very fast uncooled infrared detectors with a time resolution of a few hundreds of picoseconds. We resolved the emission time structure of the electron bunches of the DAΦNE collider when it works in a normal condition for high energy physics experiments with both photovoltaic and photoconductive detectors. Such a technology should pave the way to new diagnostic methods in storage rings, monitoring also source instabilities and bunch dynamics

  8. Silicone sensing phase for detection of aromatic hydrocarbons in water employing near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Albuquerque, Jackson S; Pimentel, M Fernanda; Silva, Valdinete L; Raimundo, Ivo M; Rohwedder, Jarbas J R; Pasquini, Celio

    2005-01-01

    The use of silicone for detection of aromatic hydrocarbons in water using near-infrared spectroscopy is proposed. A sensing phase of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) was prepared, and a rod of this material was adapted to a transflectance probe for measurements from 850 to 1800 nm. Deionized water samples contaminated separately with known amounts of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and m-xylene were used for evaluation of the PDMS sensing phase, and measurements were made in a closed reactor with constant stirring. Equilibrium states were obtained after 90, 180, 360, and 405 min for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and m-xylene, respectively. The PDMS sensing phase showed a reversible response, presenting linear response ranges up to 360, 290, 100, and 80 mg L(-1), with detection limits of 8.0, 7.0, 2.6, and 3.0 mg L(-1) for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and m-xylene, respectively. Reference spectra obtained with different rods showed a relative standard deviation of 0.5%, indicating repeatability in the sensing phase preparation. A relative standard deviation of 6.7% was obtained for measurements performed with six different rods, using a 52 mg L(-1) toluene aqueous solution. The sensing phase was evaluated for identification of sources of contamination of water in simulated studies, employing Brazilian gasoline type A (without ethanol), gasoline type C (with 25% of anhydrous ethanol), and diesel fuel. Principal component analysis was able to classify the water in distinct groups, contaminated by gasoline A, gasoline C, or diesel fuel.

  9. FIRST DETECTION OF NEAR-INFRARED LINE EMISSION FROM ORGANICS IN YOUNG CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS

    Mandell, Avi M.; Mumma, Michael J.; Villanueva, Geronimo [Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Bast, Jeanette; Van Dishoeck, Ewine F. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Blake, Geoffrey A. [California Institute of Technology, Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, MS 150-21, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Salyk, Colette, E-mail: Avi.Mandell@nasa.gov [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2012-03-10

    We present an analysis of high-resolution spectroscopy of several bright T Tauri stars using the CRIRES spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope and NIRSPEC spectrograph on the Keck Telescope, revealing the first detections of emission from HCN and C{sub 2}H{sub 2} in circumstellar disks at near-infrared wavelengths. Using advanced data reduction techniques, we achieve a dynamic range with respect to the disk continuum of {approx}500 at 3 {mu}m, revealing multiple emission features of H{sub 2}O, OH, HCN, and C{sub 2}H{sub 2}. We also present stringent upper limits for two other molecules thought to be abundant in the inner disk, CH{sub 4} and NH{sub 3}. Line profiles for the different detected molecules are broad but centrally peaked in most cases, even for disks with previously determined inclinations of greater than 20 Degree-Sign , suggesting that the emission has both a Keplerian and non-Keplerian component as observed previously for CO emission. We apply two different modeling strategies to constrain the molecular abundances and temperatures: we use a simplified single-temperature local thermal equilibrium (LTE) slab model with a Gaussian line profile to make line identifications and determine a best-fit temperature and initial abundance ratios, and we compare these values with constraints derived from a detailed disk radiative transfer model assuming LTE excitation but utilizing a realistic temperature and density structure. Abundance ratios from both sets of models are consistent with each other and consistent with expected values from theoretical chemical models, and analysis of the line shapes suggests that the molecular emission originates from within a narrow region in the inner disk (R < 1 AU).

  10. Non-Invasive Detection of Lung Inflammation by Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging Using Bimodal Liposomes.

    Desu, Hari R; Wood, George C; Thoma, Laura A

    2016-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) and its more severe form, acute respiratory distress syndrome results in respiratory obstruction and severe lung inflammation. Critical characteristics of ALI are alveolar edema, infiltration of leukocytes (neutrophils and monocytes), release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines into broncho-alveolar lavage fluid, and activation of integrin receptors. The purpose of the study was to demonstrate non-invasive detection of lung inflammation using integrin receptor targeted fluorescence liposomes. An inflammation similar to that observed in ALI was elicited in rodents by intra-tracheal instillation of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta). Cyclic arginine glycine-(D)-aspartic acid-peptide (cRGD-peptide) grafted fluorescence liposomes were administered to ALI induced male Sprague-Dawley rats for targeting lung integrin receptors. Near-infrared fluorescence imaging (NIRFI) was applied for visualization and quantitation of lung inflammation. NIRFI signals were correlated with inflammatory cellular and biochemical markers of lungs. A positive correlation was observed between NIRF signals and lung inflammation markers. Compared to control group, an intense NIRF signal was observed in ALI induced rats in the window 6-24 h post-IL-1beta instillation. Interaction of integrin receptors with targeted liposomes was assumed to contribute to intense NIRF signal. RT-PCR studies showed an elevated lung expression of alphavbeta5 integrin receptors, 12 h post-IL-1beta instillation. In vitro studies demonstrated integrin receptor specificity of targeted liposomes. These targeted liposomes showed binding to alphavbeta5 integrin receptors expressed on alveolar cells. Non-invasive detection of lung inflammation was demonstrated using a combination of integrin receptor targeting and NIRFI.

  11. Commercial Non-Dispersive Infrared Spectroscopy Sensors for Sub-Ambient Carbon Dioxide Detection

    Swickrath, Michael J.; Anderson, Molly S.; McMillin, Summer; Broerman, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Carbon dioxide produced through respiration can accumulate rapidly within closed spaces. If not managed, a crew's respiratory rate increases, headaches and hyperventilation occur, vision and hearing are affected, and cognitive abilities decrease. Consequently, development continues on a number of CO2 removal technologies for human spacecraft and spacesuits. Terrestrially, technology development requires precise performance characterization to qualify promising air revitalization equipment. On-orbit, instrumentation is required to identify and eliminate unsafe conditions. This necessitates accurate in situ CO2 detection. Recursive compensation algorithms were developed for sub-ambient detection of CO2 with commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) sensors. In addition, the source of the exponential loss in accuracy is developed theoretically. The basis of the loss can be explained through thermal, Doppler, and Lorentz broadening effects that arise as a result of the temperature, pressure, and composition of the gas mixture under analysis. The objective was to develop a mathematical routine to compensate COTS CO2 sensors relying on NDIR over pressures, temperatures, and compositions far from calibration conditions. The routine relies on a power-law relationship for the pressure dependency of the sensors along with an equivalent pressure to account for the composition dependency. A Newton-Raphson iterative technique solves for actual carbon dioxide concentration based on the reported concentration. Moreover, first principles routines were established to predict mixed-gas spectra based on sensor specifications (e.g., optical path length). The first principles model can be used to parametrically optimize sensors or sensor arrays across a wide variety of pressures/temperatures/ compositions. In this work, heuristic scaling arguments were utilized to develop reasonable compensation techniques. Experimental results confirmed this approach and provided

  12. Near-infrared imaging system for detecting small organic foreign substances in foods

    Tashima, Hiroto; Genta, Tsuneaki; Ishii, Yuya; Ishiyama, Takeshi; Arai, Shinichi; Fukuda, Mitsuo

    2013-09-01

    Contamination of foodstuffs with foreign substances is a serious problem because it often has negative effects on consumer health. However, detection of small organic substances in foods can be difficult because they are undetectable with traditional inspection apparatus. In this work, we developed new equipment that can detect small organic contaminant substances in food at high speed using a near-infrared (NIR) imaging technique. The absorption spectra of various foods were measured, and the spectra showed low absorbance at wavelengths from 600 nm to 1150 nm. Based on the observable wavelength range of a CMOS camera, which has a high dynamic range, superluminescent diodes (SLDs) with a wavelength of 830 nm were selected as light sources. We arranged 40 SLDs on a flat panel and placed a diffusion panel over them. As a result, uniformly distributed light with an intensity of 0.26 mW/cm2 illuminated an area of 6.0 cm × 6.0 cm. Insects (3 mm wide) and hairs (0.1 mm in diameter) were embedded in stacked ham slices and in chocolate, with a total thickness of 5 mm in each case, and the transmission images were observed. Both insects and hairs were clearly observed as dark shadows with high contrast. We also compensated the images by using software developed in this study to eliminate low spatial frequency components in the images and improve the sharpness and contrast. As a result, the foreign substances were more clearly distinguished in the 5-mm-thick ham.

  13. Automatic internal crack detection from a sequence of infrared images with a triple-threshold Canny edge detector

    Wang, Gaochao; Tse, Peter W.; Yuan, Maodan

    2018-02-01

    Visual inspection and assessment of the condition of metal structures are essential for safety. Pulse thermography produces visible infrared images, which have been widely applied to detect and characterize defects in structures and materials. When active thermography, a non-destructive testing tool, is applied, the necessity of considerable manual checking can be avoided. However, detecting an internal crack with active thermography remains difficult, since it is usually invisible in the collected sequence of infrared images, which makes the automatic detection of internal cracks even harder. In addition, the detection of an internal crack can be hindered by a complicated inspection environment. With the purpose of putting forward a robust and automatic visual inspection method, a computer vision-based thresholding method is proposed. In this paper, the image signals are a sequence of infrared images collected from the experimental setup with a thermal camera and two flash lamps as stimulus. The contrast of pixels in each frame is enhanced by the Canny operator and then reconstructed by a triple-threshold system. Two features, mean value in the time domain and maximal amplitude in the frequency domain, are extracted from the reconstructed signal to help distinguish the crack pixels from others. Finally, a binary image indicating the location of the internal crack is generated by a K-means clustering method. The proposed procedure has been applied to an iron pipe, which contains two internal cracks and surface abrasion. Some improvements have been made for the computer vision-based automatic crack detection methods. In the future, the proposed method can be applied to realize the automatic detection of internal cracks from many infrared images for the industry.

  14. Towards optimized naphthalocyanines as sonochromes for photoacoustic imaging in vivo

    Mitchell J. Duffy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we establish a methodology to predict photoacoustic imaging capabilities from the structure of absorber molecules (sonochromes. The comparative in vitro and in vivo screening of naphthalocyanines and cyanine dyes has shown a substitution pattern dependent shift in photoacoustic excitation wavelength, with distal substitution producing the preferred maximum around 800 nm. Central ion change showed variable production of photoacoustic signals, as well as singlet oxygen photoproduction and fluorescence with the optimum for photoacoustic imaging being nickel(II. Our approach paves the way for the design, evaluation and realization of optimized sonochromes as photoacoustic contrast agents. Keywords: Naphthalocyanines, Spectroscopy

  15. Quick detection and quantification of iron-cyanide complexes using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Sut-Lohmann, Magdalena; Raab, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The continuous release of persistent iron-cyanide (Fe-CN) complexes from various industrial sources poses a high hazard to the environment and indicates the necessity to analyze a considerable amount of samples. Conventional flow injection analysis (FIA) is a time and cost consuming method for cyanide (CN) determination. Thus, a rapid and economic alternative needs to be developed to quantify the Fe-CN complexes. 52 soil samples were collected at a former Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) site in order to determine the feasibility of diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier spectroscopy (DRIFTS). Soil analysis revealed CN concentrations in a range from 8 to 14.809 mg kg −1 , where 97% was in the solid form (Fe 4 [Fe(CN) 6 ] 3 ), which is characterized by a single symmetrical CN band in the range 2092–2084 cm −1 . The partial least squares (PLS) calibration-validation model revealed IR response to CN tot which exceeds 2306 mg kg −1 (limit of detection, LOD). Leave-one-out cross-validation (LOO-CV) was performed on soil samples, which contained low CN tot (<900 mg kg −1 ). This improved the sensitivity of the model by reducing the LOD to 154 mg kg −1 . Finally, the LOO-CV conducted on the samples with CN tot  > 900 mg kg −1 resulted in LOD equal to 3751 mg kg −1 . It was found that FTIR spectroscopy provides the information concerning different CN species in the soil samples. Additionally, it is suitable for quantifying Fe-CN species in matrixes with CN tot  > 154 mg kg −1 . Thus, FTIR spectroscopy, in combination with the statistical approach applied here seems to be a feasible and quick method for screening of contaminated sites. - Highlights: • A protocol for a quick and cheap quantitative cyanide analysis in soil using FTIR is proposed. • Splitting of the data, resulting in low and high CN set, reduced the LOD and increased the sensitivity of the model. • Regression coefficients indicate positive response of IR frequencies to

  16. Synergistic Use of Thermal Infrared Field and Satellite Data: Eruption Detection, Monitoring and Science

    Ramsey, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The ASTER-based observational success of active volcanic processes early in the Terra mission later gave rise to a funded NASA program designed to both increase the number of ASTER scenes following an eruption and perform the ground-based science needed to validate that data. The urgent request protocol (URP) system for ASTER grew out of this initial study and has now operated in conjunction with and the support of the Alaska Volcano Observatory, the University of Alaska Fairbanks, the University of Hawaii, the USGS Land Processes DAAC, and the ASTER science team. The University of Pittsburgh oversees this rapid response/sensor-web system, which until 2011 had focused solely on the active volcanoes in the North Pacific region. Since that time, it has been expanded to operate globally with AVHRR and MODIS and now ASTER visible and thermal infrared (TIR) data are being acquired at numerous active volcanoes around the world. This program relies on the increased temporal resolution of AVHRR/MODIS midwave infrared data to trigger the next available ASTER observation, which results in ASTER data as frequently as every 2-5 days. For many new targets such as Mt. Etna, the URP has increased the observational frequency by as much 50%. Examples of these datasets will be presented, which have been used for operational response to new eruptions as well as longer-term scientific studies. These studies include emplacement of new lava flows, detection of endogenous dome growth, and interpretation of hazardous dome collapse events. As a means to validate the ASTER TIR data and capture higher-resolution images, a new ground-based sensor has recently been developed that consists of standard FLIR camera modified with wavelength filters similar to the ASTER bands. Data from this instrument have been acquired of the lava lake at Kilauea and reveal differences in emissivity between molten and cooled surfaces confirming prior laboratory results and providing important constraints on lava

  17. Miniature fibre optic probe for minimally invasive photoacoustic sensing

    Mathews, Sunish J.; Zhang, Edward Z.; Desjardins, Adrien E.; Beard, Paul C.

    2016-03-01

    A miniature (175 μm) all-optical photoacoustic probe has been developed for minimally invasive sensing and imaging applications. The probe comprises a single optical fibre which delivers the excitation light and a broadband 50 MHz Fabry-Pérot (F-P) ultrasound sensor at the distal end for detecting the photoacoustic waves. A graded index lens proximal to the F-P sensor is used to reduce beam walk-off and thus increase sensitivity as well as confine the excitation beam in order to increase lateral spatial resolution. The probe was evaluated in non-scattering media and found to provide lateral and axial resolutions of < 100 μm and < 150 μm respectively for distances up to 1 cm from the tip of the probe. The ability of the probe to detect a blood vessel mimicking phantom at distances up to 7 mm from the tip was demonstrated in order to illustrate its potential suitability for needle guidance applications.

  18. "Smart" gold nanoparticles for photoacoustic imaging: an imaging contrast agent responsive to the cancer microenvironment and signal amplification via pH-induced aggregation.

    Song, Jaejung; Kim, Jeesu; Hwang, Sekyu; Jeon, Mansik; Jeong, Sanghwa; Kim, Chulhong; Kim, Sungjee

    2016-07-07

    'Smart' gold nanoparticles can respond to mild acidic environments, rapidly form aggregates, and shift the absorption to red and near-infrared. They were used as a photoacoustic imaging agent responsive to the cancer microenvironment, and have demonstrated the cancer-specific accumulation at the cellular level and an amplified signal which is twice higher than the control in vivo.

  19. A sulfur hexafluoride sensor using quantum cascade and CO2 laser-based photoacoustic spectroscopy.

    Rocha, Mila; Sthel, Marcelo; Lima, Guilherme; da Silva, Marcelo; Schramm, Delson; Miklós, András; Vargas, Helion

    2010-01-01

    The increase in greenhouse gas emissions is a serious environmental problem and has stimulated the scientific community to pay attention to the need for detection and monitoring of gases released into the atmosphere. In this regard, the development of sensitive and selective gas sensors has been the subject of several research programs. An important greenhouse gas is sulphur hexafluoride, an almost non-reactive gas widely employed in industrial processes worldwide. Indeed it is estimated that it has a radiative forcing of 0.52 W/m(2). This work compares two photoacoustic spectrometers, one coupled to a CO(2) laser and another one coupled to a Quantum Cascade (QC) laser, for the detection of SF(6). The laser photoacoustic spectrometers described in this work have been developed for gas detection at small concentrations. Detection limits of 20 ppbv for CO(2) laser and 50 ppbv for quantum cascade laser were obtained.

  20. A Multiwavelength Study of Cygnus X-1: The First Mid-Infrared Spectroscopic Detection of Compact Jets

    Rahoui, Farid; Lee, Julia C.; Heinz, Sebastian; Hines, Dean C.; Pottschmidt, Katja; Wilms, Joern

    2011-01-01

    We report on a Spitzer/IRS (mid-infrared), RXTE /PCA+HEXTE (X-ray), and Ryle (radio) simultaneous multi-wavelength study of the micro quasar Cygnus X-I, which aimed at an investigation of the origin of its mid-infrared emission. Compact jets were present in two out of three observations, and we show that they strongly contribute to the mid-infrared continuum. During the first observation, we detect the spectral break - where the transition from the optically thick to the optically thin regime takes place - at about 2.9 x 10(exp 13) Hz. We then show that the jet's optically thin synchrotron emission accounts for the Cygnus X-1's emission beyond 400 keY, although it cannot alone explain its 3-200 keV continuum. A compact jet was also present during the second observation, but we do not detect the break, since it has likely shifted to higher frequencies. In contrast, the compact jet was absent during the last observation, and we show that the 5-30 micron mid-infrared continuum of Cygnus X-I stems from the blue supergiant companion star HD 226868. Indeed, the emission can then be understood as the combination of the photospheric Raleigh-Jeans tail and the bremsstrahlung from the expanding stellar wind. Moreover, the stellar wind is found to be clumpy, with a filling factor f(sub infinity) approx.= 0.09-0.10. Its bremsstrahlung emission is likely anti-correlated to the soft X-ray emission, suggesting an anticorrelation between the mass-loss and mass-accretion rates. Nevertheless, we do not detect any mid-infrared spectroscopic evidence of interaction between the jets and the Cygnus X-1's environment and/or companion star's stellar wind.

  1. Homogeneity and internal defects detect of infrared Se-based chalcogenide glass

    Li, Zupana; Wu, Ligang; Lin, Changgui; Song, Bao'an; Wang, Xunsi; Shen, Xiang; Dai, Shixunb

    2011-10-01

    Ge-Sb-Se chalcogenide glasses is a kind of excellent infrared optical material, which has been enviromental friendly and widely used in infrared thermal imaging systems. However, due to the opaque feature of Se-based glasses in visible spectral region, it's difficult to measure their homogeneity and internal defect as the common oxide ones. In this study, a measurement was proposed to observe the homogeneity and internal defect of these glasses based on near-IR imaging technique and an effective measurement system was also constructed. The testing result indicated the method can gives the information of homogeneity and internal defect of infrared Se-based chalcogenide glass clearly and intuitionally.

  2. Intravascular photoacoustic imaging of human coronary atherosclerosis

    Jansen, Krista; van der Steen, Antonius F. W.; Springeling, Geert; van Beusekom, Heleen M. M.; Oosterhuis, J. Wolter; van Soest, Gijs

    2011-03-01

    We demonstrate intravascular photoacoustic imaging of human coronary atherosclerotic plaque. We specifically imaged lipid content, a key factor in vulnerable plaques that may lead to myocardial infarction. An integrated intravascular photoacoustics (IVPA) and ultrasound (IVUS) catheter with an outer diameter of 1.25 mm was developed. The catheter comprises an angle-polished optical fiber adjacent to a 30 MHz single-element transducer. The ultrasonic transducer was optically isolated to eliminate artifacts in the PA image. We performed measurements on a cylindrical vessel phantom and isolated point targets to demonstrate its imaging performance. Axial and lateral point spread function widths were 110 μm and 550 μm, respectively, for PA and 89 μm and 420 μm for US. We imaged two fresh human coronary arteries, showing different stages of disease, ex vivo. Specific photoacoustic imaging of lipid content, is achieved by spectroscopic imaging at different wavelengths between 1180 and 1230 nm.

  3. Photoacoustic imaging of mesenchymal stem cells in living mice via silica-coated gold nanorods

    Jokerst, Jesse V.; Thangaraj, Mridhula; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.

    2014-03-01

    Imaging is crucial for stem cell therapy to monitor the location(s), numbers, and state of the implanted cells. Real-time imaging in particular can ensure proper cell delivery for best engraftment. However, established imaging tools such as MRI are limited by their temporal resolution for guidance during delivery. In contrast, photoacoustic imaging is ideally suited for real time, image-guided therapy. Here, we use silica-coated gold nanorods as photoacoustic contrast agents and deploy them to image and quantitate mesenchymal stem cells during implant into the muscle tissue of live mice. Silica-coated gold nanorods (SiGNRs) were created with standard methods and loaded into mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) without transfection agents. There was no significant (pmuscle tissue to simulate a muscular dystrophy patient. Mice (N=5) treated with these SiGNRlabeled MSCs exhibited no adverse events and implants up to 5 mm deep were easily visualized. The in vivo detection limit was 90,000 cells in a 100 uL bolus in mouse thigh muscle. Here, the B-mode signal is useful for orienting the treatment area and visualizing the delivery catheter while the photoacoustic mode offers cell-specific content. The photoacoustic signal was validated with histology a long-term fluorescent tracking dye after MSC transplant.

  4. Challenging Near InfraRed Spectroscopy discriminating ability for counterfeit pharmaceuticals detection

    Storme-Paris, I. [Groupe de Chimie Analytique de Paris-Sud, EA 4041, IFR 141, School of Pharmacy, Univ Paris-Sud, 5 rue Jean Baptiste Clement, 92296 Chatenay-Malabry (France); Rebiere, H. [Laboratories and Control Department, French Health Products Safety Agency (AFSSAPS), 635 rue de la Garenne, 34740 Vendargues (France); Matoga, M. [Groupe de Chimie Analytique de Paris-Sud, EA 4041, IFR 141, School of Pharmacy, Univ Paris-Sud, 5 rue Jean Baptiste Clement, 92296 Chatenay-Malabry (France); Civade, C.; Bonnet, P.-A.; Tissier, M.H. [Laboratories and Control Department, French Health Products Safety Agency (AFSSAPS), 635 rue de la Garenne, 34740 Vendargues (France); Chaminade, P., E-mail: pierre.chaminade@u-psud.fr [Groupe de Chimie Analytique de Paris-Sud, EA 4041, IFR 141, School of Pharmacy, Univ Paris-Sud, 5 rue Jean Baptiste Clement, 92296 Chatenay-Malabry (France)

    2010-01-25

    This study was initiated by the laboratories and control department of the French Health Products Safety Agency (AFSSAPS) as part of the fight against the public health problem of rising counterfeit and imitation medicines. To test the discriminating ability of Near InfraRed Spectroscopy (NIRS), worse cases scenarios were first considered for the discrimination of various pharmaceutical final products containing the same Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) with different excipients, such as generics of proprietary medicinal products (PMP). Two generic databases were explored: low active strength hard capsules of Fluoxetine and high strength tablets of Ciprofloxacin. Then 4 other cases involving suspicious samples, counterfeits and imitations products were treated. In all these cases, spectral differences between samples were studied, giving access to API or excipient contents information, and eventually allowing manufacturing site identification. A chemometric background is developed to explain the optimisation methodology, consisting in the choices of appropriate pretreatments, algorithms for data exploratory analyses (unsupervised Principal Component Analysis), and data classification (supervised cluster analysis, and Soft Independent Modelling of Class Analogy). Results demonstrate the high performance of NIRS, highlighting slight differences in formulations, such as 2.5% (w/w) in API strength, 1.0% (w/w) in excipient and even coating variations (<1%, w/w) with identical contents, approaching the theoretical limits of NIRS sensitivity. All the different generic formulations were correctly discriminated and foreign PMP, constituted of formulations slightly different from the calibration ones, were also all discriminated. This publication addresses the ability of NIRS to detect counterfeits and imitations and presents the NIRS as an ideal tool to master the global threat of counterfeit drugs.

  5. Challenging Near InfraRed Spectroscopy discriminating ability for counterfeit pharmaceuticals detection

    Storme-Paris, I.; Rebiere, H.; Matoga, M.; Civade, C.; Bonnet, P.-A.; Tissier, M.H.; Chaminade, P.

    2010-01-01

    This study was initiated by the laboratories and control department of the French Health Products Safety Agency (AFSSAPS) as part of the fight against the public health problem of rising counterfeit and imitation medicines. To test the discriminating ability of Near InfraRed Spectroscopy (NIRS), worse cases scenarios were first considered for the discrimination of various pharmaceutical final products containing the same Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) with different excipients, such as generics of proprietary medicinal products (PMP). Two generic databases were explored: low active strength hard capsules of Fluoxetine and high strength tablets of Ciprofloxacin. Then 4 other cases involving suspicious samples, counterfeits and imitations products were treated. In all these cases, spectral differences between samples were studied, giving access to API or excipient contents information, and eventually allowing manufacturing site identification. A chemometric background is developed to explain the optimisation methodology, consisting in the choices of appropriate pretreatments, algorithms for data exploratory analyses (unsupervised Principal Component Analysis), and data classification (supervised cluster analysis, and Soft Independent Modelling of Class Analogy). Results demonstrate the high performance of NIRS, highlighting slight differences in formulations, such as 2.5% (w/w) in API strength, 1.0% (w/w) in excipient and even coating variations (<1%, w/w) with identical contents, approaching the theoretical limits of NIRS sensitivity. All the different generic formulations were correctly discriminated and foreign PMP, constituted of formulations slightly different from the calibration ones, were also all discriminated. This publication addresses the ability of NIRS to detect counterfeits and imitations and presents the NIRS as an ideal tool to master the global threat of counterfeit drugs.

  6. Infrared absorption of CH3OSO detected with time-resolved Fourier-transform spectroscopy.

    Chen, Jin-Dah; Lee, Yuan-Pern

    2011-03-07

    A step-scan Fourier-transform spectrometer coupled with a multipass absorption cell was employed to detect temporally resolved infrared absorption spectra of CH(3)OSO produced upon irradiation of a flowing gaseous mixture of CH(3)OS(O)Cl in N(2) or CO(2) at 248 nm. Two intense transient features with origins near 1152 and 994 cm(-1) are assigned to syn-CH(3)OSO; the former is attributed to overlapping bands at 1154 ± 3 and 1151 ± 3 cm(-1), assigned to the S=O stretching mixed with CH(3) rocking (ν(8)) and the S=O stretching mixed with CH(3) wagging (ν(9)) modes, respectively, and the latter to the C-O stretching (ν(10)) mode at 994 ± 6 cm(-1). Two weak bands at 2991 ± 6 and 2956 ± 3 cm(-1) are assigned as the CH(3) antisymmetric stretching (ν(2)) and symmetric stretching (ν(3)) modes, respectively. Observed vibrational transition wavenumbers agree satisfactorily with those predicted with quantum-chemical calculations at level B3P86∕aug-cc-pVTZ. Based on rotational parameters predicted at that level, the simulated rotational contours of these bands agree satisfactorily with experimental results. The simulation indicates that the S=O stretching mode of anti-CH(3)OSO near 1164 cm(-1) likely makes a small contribution to the observed band near 1152 cm(-1). A simple kinetic model of self-reaction is employed to account for the decay of CH(3)OSO and yields a second-order rate coefficient k=(4 ± 2)×10(-10) cm(3)molecule(-1)s(-1). © 2011 American Institute of Physics.

  7. Micro-Spec: an Integrated, Direct-Detection Spectrometer for Far-Infrared and Submillimeter Astronomy

    Cataldo, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The far-infrared and submillimeter portions of the electromagnetic spectrum provide a unique view of the astrophysical processes present in the early universe. Our ability to fully explore this rich spectral region has been limited, however, by the size and cost of the cryogenic spectrometers required to carry out such measurements. Micro-Spec (u-Spec) is a high-sensitivity, direct-detection spectrometer concept working in the 450-1000 micromillimeter wavelength range which will enable a wide range of flight missions that would otherwise be challenging due to the large size of current instruments with the required spectral resolution and sensitivity. The spectrometer design utilizes two internal antenna arrays, one for transmitting and one for receiving, superconducting microstrip transmission lines for power division and phase delay, and an array of microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs) to achieve these goals. The instrument will be integrated on a approximately 10 square cm silicon chip and can therefore become an important capability under the low background conditions accessible via space and high-altitude borne platforms. In this paper, an optical design methodology for Micro-Spec is presented, with particular attention given to its twodimensional diffractive region, where the light of different wavelengths is focused on the different detectors. The method is based on the maximization of the instrument resolving power and minimization of the RMS phase error on the instrument focal plane. This two-step optimization can generate geometrical configurations given specific requirements on spectrometer size, operating spectral range and performance. A point design with resolving power of 257, an RMS phase error less than 0.1 radians and four stigmatic points was developed for initial demonstration and will be the basis of future instruments with resolving power up to about 1200.

  8. Early detection of melanoma with the combined use of acoustic microscopy, infrared reflectance and Raman spectroscopy

    Karagiannis, Georgios T.; Grivas, Ioannis; Tsingotjidou, Anastasia; Apostolidis, Georgios K.; Grigoriadou, Ifigeneia; Dori, I.; Poulatsidou, Kyriaki-Nefeli; Doumas, Argyrios; Wesarg, Stefan; Georgoulias, Panagiotis

    2015-03-01

    Malignant melanoma is a form of skin cancer, with increasing incidence worldwide. Early diagnosis is crucial for the prognosis and treatment of the disease. The objective of this study is to develop a novel animal model of melanoma and apply a combination of the non-invasive imaging techniques acoustic microscopy, infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies, for the detection of developing tumors. Acoustic microscopy provides information about the 3D structure of the tumor, whereas, both spectroscopic modalities give qualitative insight of biochemical changes during melanoma development. In order to efficiently set up the final devices, propagation of ultrasonic and electromagnetic waves in normal skin and melanoma simulated structures was performed. Synthetic and grape-extracted melanin (simulated tumors), endermally injected, were scanned and compared to normal skin. For both cases acoustic microscopy with central operating frequencies of 110MHz and 175MHz were used, resulting to the tomographic imaging of the simulated tumor, while with the spectroscopic modalities IR and Raman differences among spectra of normal and melanin- injected sites were identified in skin depth. Subsequently, growth of actual tumors in an animal melanoma model, with the use of human malignant melanoma cells was achieved. Acoustic microscopy and IR and Raman spectroscopies were also applied. The development of tumors at different time points was displayed using acoustic microscopy. Moreover, the changes of the IR and Raman spectra were studied between the melanoma tumors and adjacent healthy skin. The most significant changes between healthy skin and the melanoma area were observed in the range of 900-1800cm-1 and 350-2000cm-1, respectively.

  9. Quick detection and quantification of iron-cyanide complexes using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Sut-Lohmann, Magdalena; Raab, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    The continuous release of persistent iron-cyanide (Fe-CN) complexes from various industrial sources poses a high hazard to the environment and indicates the necessity to analyze a considerable amount of samples. Conventional flow injection analysis (FIA) is a time and cost consuming method for cyanide (CN) determination. Thus, a rapid and economic alternative needs to be developed to quantify the Fe-CN complexes. 52 soil samples were collected at a former Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) site in order to determine the feasibility of diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier spectroscopy (DRIFTS). Soil analysis revealed CN concentrations in a range from 8 to 14.809 mg kg -1 , where 97% was in the solid form (Fe 4 [Fe(CN) 6 ] 3 ), which is characterized by a single symmetrical CN band in the range 2092-2084 cm -1 . The partial least squares (PLS) calibration-validation model revealed IR response to CN tot which exceeds 2306 mg kg -1 (limit of detection, LOD). Leave-one-out cross-validation (LOO-CV) was performed on soil samples, which contained low CN tot ( 900 mg kg -1 resulted in LOD equal to 3751 mg kg -1 . It was found that FTIR spectroscopy provides the information concerning different CN species in the soil samples. Additionally, it is suitable for quantifying Fe-CN species in matrixes with CN tot  > 154 mg kg -1 . Thus, FTIR spectroscopy, in combination with the statistical approach applied here seems to be a feasible and quick method for screening of contaminated sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Fourier Transform Near Infrared Microspectroscopy, Infrared Chemical Imaging, High-Resolution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Fluorescence Microspectroscopy Detection of Single Cancer Cells and Single Viral Particles

    Baianu,I C; Hofmann, N E; Korban, S S; Lozano, P; You, T

    2004-01-01

    Single Cancer Cells from Human tumors are being detected and imaged by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), Fourier Transform Near Infrared (FT-NIR)Hyperspectral Imaging and Fluorescence Correlation Microspectroscopy. The first FT-NIR chemical, microscopic images of biological systems approaching one micron resolution are here reported. Chemical images obtained by FT-NIR and FT-IR Microspectroscopy are also presented for oil in soybean seeds and somatic embryos under physiological conditions. FT-NIR spectra of oil and proteins were obtained for volumes as small as two cubic microns. Related, HR-NMR analyses of oil contents in somatic embryos as well as 99% accurate calibrations are also presented here with nanoliter precision. Such high-resolution, 400 MHz H-1 NMR analyses allowed the selection of mutagenized embryos with higher oil content (e.g. >~20%) compared to the average levels in non-mutagenized control embryos. Moreover, developmental changes in single soybean seeds and/or somatic embryos may be monito...

  11. Impact of Soil Water Content on Landmine Detection Using Radar and Thermal Infrared Sensors

    Hong, Sung-ho

    2001-01-01

    .... The most important of these is water content since it directly influences the three other properties in this study, the ground penetrating radar and thermal infrared sensors were used to identify non...

  12. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Aerosol Detection Environmental Data Record (EDR) from NDE

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a high quality operational Environmental Data Record (EDR) of suspended matter from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS)...

  13. Better feature acquisition through the use of infrared imaging for human detection systems

    Kunene, Dumisani C

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available are used for training the classifiers with infrared samples. The conventional use of support vector machines (SVM) on HOG features is tested against extreme learning machines (ELM) and convolutional neural networks (CNN). The results obtained show...

  14. pnCCD for photon detection from near-infrared to X-rays

    Meidinger, Norbert; Andritschke, Robert; Hartmann, Robert; Herrmann, Sven; Holl, Peter; Lutz, Gerhard; Strueder, Lothar

    2006-01-01

    A pnCCD is a special type of charge-coupled device developed for spectroscopy and imaging of X-rays with high time resolution and quantum efficiency. Its most famous application is the operation on the XMM-Newton satellite, an X-ray astronomy mission that was launched by the European space agency in 1999. The excellent performance of the focal plane camera has been maintained for more than 6 years in orbit. The energy resolution in particular has shown hardly any degradation since launch. In order to satisfy the requirements of future X-ray astronomy missions as well as those of ground-based experiments, a new type of pnCCD has been developed. This 'frame-store pnCCD' shows an enhanced performance compared to the XMM-Newton type of pnCCD. Now, more options in device design and operation are available to tailor the detector to its respective application. Part of this concept is a programmable analog signal processor, which has been developed for the readout of the CCD signals. The electronic noise of the new detector has a value of only 2 electrons equivalent noise charge (ENC), which is less than half of the figure achieved for the XMM-Newton-type pnCCD. The energy resolution for the Mn-K α line at 5.9 keV is approximately 130 eV FWHM. We have close to 100% quantum efficiency for both low- and high-energy photon detection (e.g. the C-K line at 277 eV, and the Ge-K α line at 10 keV, respectively). Very high frame rates of 1000 images/s have been achieved due to the ultra-fast readout accomplished by the parallel architecture of the pnCCD and the analog signal processor. Excellent spectroscopic performance is shown even at the relatively high operating temperature of -25 deg. C that can be achieved by a Peltier cooler. The applications of the low-noise and fast pnCCD detector are not limited to the detection of X-rays. With an anti-reflective coating deposited on the photon entrance window, we achieve high quantum efficiency also for near-infrared and optical

  15. Extraordinary TCR in Carbon Nanotube-Polymer Composites and Device Implications in Bolometric Infrared Detection

    2015-03-24

    uncooled mid-infrared photovoltaic responses arising in heterojunction diodes of reduced graphene oxide with p-Si. This study was initially motivated...NUMBER(S) 14. ABSTRACT _ The development of high TCR materials, such as vanadium oxide (VOx), has enabled the introduction of bolometric infrared... oxide -Si contact. Our analysis of the current-voltage characteristics at various temperatures suggest that the two materials form a type-11 (broken

  16. Spectroscopic and photoacoustic characterization of encapsulated iron oxide super-paramagnetic nanoparticles as a new multiplatform contrast agent

    Armanetti, Paolo; Flori, Alessandra; Avigo, Cinzia; Conti, Luca; Valtancoli, Barbara; Petroni, Debora; Doumett, Saer; Cappiello, Laura; Ravagli, Costanza; Baldi, Giovanni; Bencini, Andrea; Menichetti, Luca

    2018-06-01

    Recently, a number of photoacoustic (PA) agents with increased tissue penetration and fine spatial resolution have been developed for molecular imaging and mapping of pathophysiological features at the molecular level. Here, we present bio-conjugated near-infrared light-absorbing magnetic nanoparticles as a new agent for PA imaging. These nanoparticles exhibit suitable absorption in the near-infrared region, with good photoacoustic signal generation efficiency and high photo-stability. Furthermore, these encapsulated iron oxide nanoparticles exhibit strong super-paramagnetic behavior and nuclear relaxivities that make them useful as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast media as well. Their simple bio-conjugation strategy, optical and chemical stability, and straightforward manipulation could enable the development of a PA probe with magnetic and spectroscopic properties suitable for in vitro and in vivo real-time imaging of relevant biological targets.

  17. In vivo virtual intraoperative surgical photoacoustic microscopy

    Han, Seunghoon; Kim, Sehui; Kim, Jeehyun; Lee, Changho; Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Chulhong

    2013-01-01

    We developed a virtual intraoperative surgical photoacoustic microscopy system by combining with a commercial surgical microscope and photoacoustic microscope (PAM). By sharing the common optical path in the microscope and PAM system, we could acquire the PAM and microscope images simultaneously. Moreover, by employing a beam projector to back-project 2D PAM images onto the microscope view plane as augmented reality, the conventional microscopic and 2D cross-sectional PAM images are concurrently mapped on the plane via an ocular lens of the microscope in real-time. Further, we guided needle insertion into phantom ex vivo and mice skins in vivo

  18. In vivo virtual intraoperative surgical photoacoustic microscopy

    Han, Seunghoon, E-mail: hsh860504@gmail.com; Kim, Sehui, E-mail: sehui0916@nate.com; Kim, Jeehyun, E-mail: jeehk@knu.ac.kr, E-mail: chulhong@postech.edu [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Changho, E-mail: ch31037@postech.edu; Jeon, Mansik, E-mail: msjeon@postech.edu [Department of Creative IT Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chulhong, E-mail: jeehk@knu.ac.kr, E-mail: chulhong@postech.edu [Department of Creative IT Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomedical Engineering, The State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14221 (United States)

    2013-11-11

    We developed a virtual intraoperative surgical photoacoustic microscopy system by combining with a commercial surgical microscope and photoacoustic microscope (PAM). By sharing the common optical path in the microscope and PAM system, we could acquire the PAM and microscope images simultaneously. Moreover, by employing a beam projector to back-project 2D PAM images onto the microscope view plane as augmented reality, the conventional microscopic and 2D cross-sectional PAM images are concurrently mapped on the plane via an ocular lens of the microscope in real-time. Further, we guided needle insertion into phantom ex vivo and mice skins in vivo.

  19. [Research on the temperature field detection method of hot forging based on long-wavelength infrared spectrum].

    Zhang, Yu-Cun; Wei, Bin; Fu, Xian-Bin

    2014-02-01

    A temperature field detection method based on long-wavelength infrared spectrum for hot forging is proposed in the present paper. This method combines primary spectrum pyrometry and three-stage FP-cavity LCTF. By optimizing the solutions of three group nonlinear equations in the mathematical model of temperature detection, the errors are reduced, thus measuring results will be more objective and accurate. Then the system of three-stage FP-cavity LCTF was designed on the principle of crystal birefringence. The system realized rapid selection of any wavelength in a certain wavelength range. It makes the response of the temperature measuring system rapid and accurate. As a result, without the emissivity of hot forging, the method can acquire exact information of temperature field and effectively suppress the background light radiation around the hot forging and ambient light that impact the temperature detection accuracy. Finally, the results of MATLAB showed that the infrared spectroscopy through the three-stage FP-cavity LCTF could meet the requirements of design. And experiments verified the feasibility of temperature measuring method. Compared with traditional single-band thermal infrared imager, the accuracy of measuring result was improved.

  20. Sol-gel based mid-infrared evanescent wave sensors for detection of organophosphate pesticides in aqueous solution

    Janotta, Markus; Karlowatz, Manfred; Vogt, Frank; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2003-10-31

    This work demonstrates the application of organically modified sol-gels as recognition layers combined with mid-infrared evanescent wave sensors for in situ detection of nitrated organics in aqueous media. Sol-gels were prepared by acid-catalyzed copolymerization of phenyltrimethoxysilane (PTMOS) and tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) and were spin-coated onto ZnSe attenuated total reflection (ATR) waveguides. These sensors were investigated with respect to their enrichment properties of selected organophosphates, i.e. parathion, fenitrothion and paraoxon, respectively, and their capability of suppressing interfering water background absorptions. Figures of merit are derived from calibration curves determined to assess sensitivity and reproducibility of the applied sensor system. It can be concluded that sol-gel coated infrared optical sensors enable reproducible detection of organophosphates down to the sub-ppm concentration range. Furthermore, measurement of spiked river water samples demonstrates feasibility as remote field sensor system. Once the required sensitivity is achieved, sol-gel based mid-infrared evanescent wave sensors have the potential of being an alternative to commonly applied biosensors for detection of organophosphates in environmental analysis, since they provide superior mechanical and chemical stability during application relevant periods of time.

  1. Visualization of Protease Activity In Vivo Using an Activatable Photo-Acoustic Imaging Probe Based on CuS Nanoparticles

    Yang, Kai; Zhu, Lei; Nie, Liming; Sun, Xiaolian; Cheng, Liang; Wu, Chenxi; Niu, Gang; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Liu, Zhuang

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we for the first time report a novel activatable photoacoustic (PA) imaging nano-probe for in vivo detection of cancer-related matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). A black hole quencher 3 (BHQ3) which absorbs red light is conjugated to near-infrared (NIR)-absorbing copper sulfide (CuS) nanoparticles via a MMP-cleavable peptide linker. The obtained CuS-peptide-BHQ3 (CPQ) nano-probe exhibits two distinctive absorption peaks at 630 nm and 930 nm. Inside the tumor microenviorment where MMPs present, the MMP-sensitive peptide would be cleaved, releasing BHQ3 from the CuS nanoparticles, the former of which as a small molecule is then rapidly cleared out from the tumor, whereas the latter of which as large nanoparticles would retain inside the tumor for a much longer period of time. As the result, the PA signal at 680 nm which is contributed by BHQ3 would be quickly diminished while that at 930 nm would be largely retained. The PA signal ratio of 680 nm / 930 nm could thus serve as an in vivo indicator of MMPs activity inside the tumor. Our work presents a novel strategy of in vivo sensing of MMPs based on PA imaging, which should offer remarkably improved detection depth compared with traditional optical imaging techniques. PMID:24465271

  2. A superconducting microcalorimeter for low-flux detection of near-infrared single photons

    Dreyling-Eschweiler, Jan

    2014-07-15

    obtain a dark count rate for 1064 nm signals. The ALPS TES detector is calibrated by a 1064 nm single photon source and methods are developed to analyze signals. In long-term measurements, background events are measured by using different optical setups. By operating the TES without an optical link outside mK-environment, intrinsic background components are observed and classified. This results in an intrinsic dark count rate for 1064 nm signals of 1.0 . 10{sup -4} s{sup -1}. By operating a fiber-coupled TES, it is found that the dark count rate for 1064 nm signals is dominated by pile-up events of near-infrared thermal photons coming through the fiber from the warm environment. Considering a detection efficiency of ∝18 %, a dark count rate of 8.6 . 10{sup -3} s{sup -1} is determined for 1064 nm ALPS photons.Concerning ALPS II, this results in a sensitivity gain compared to the ALPS I detector. Furthermore, this thesis is the starting point of TES detector development in Hamburg, Germany.

  3. High-speed photoacoustic imaging using an LED-based photoacoustic imaging system

    Sato, Naoto; Kuniyil Ajith Singh, Mithun; Shigeta, Yusuke; Hanaoka, Takamitsu; Agano, Toshitaka

    2018-02-01

    Recently we developed a multispectral LED-based photoacoustic/ultrasound imaging system (AcousticX) and have been continuously working on its technical/functional improvements. AcousticX is a linear array ultrasound transducer (128 elements, 10 MHz)-based system in which LED arrays (selectable wavelengths, pulse repetition frequency: 4 kHz, pulse width: tunable from 40 - 100 ns) are fixed on both sides of the transducer to illuminate the tissue for photoacoustic imaging. The ultrasound/photoacoustic data from all 128 elements can be simultaneously acquired, processed and displayed. We already demonstrated our system's capability to perform photoacoustic/ultrasound imaging for dynamic imaging of the tissue at a frame rate of 10 Hz (for example to visualize the pulsation of arteries in vivo in human subjects). In this work, we present the development of a new high-speed imaging mode in AcousticX. In this mode, instead of toggling between ultrasound and photoacoustic measurements, it is possible to continuously acquire only photoacoustic data for 1.5 seconds with a time interval of 1 ms. With this improvement, we can record photoacoustic signals from the whole aperture (38 mm) at fast rate and can be reviewed later at different speeds for analyzing dynamic changes in the photoacoustic signals. We believe that AcousticX with this new high-speed mode opens up a feasible technical path for multiple dynamic studies, for example one which focus on imaging the response of voltage sensitive dyes. We envisage to improve the acquisition speed further in future for exploring ultra-high-speed applications.

  4. Diode Laser Detection of Greenhouse Gases in the Near-Infrared Region by Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy: Pressure Dependence of the Detection Sensitivity

    Takashi Asakawa

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the pressure dependence of the detection sensitivity of CO2, N2O and CH4 using wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS with distributed feed-back diode lasers in the near infrared region. The spectral line shapes and the background noise of the second harmonics (2f detection of the WMS were analyzed theoretically. We determined the optimum pressure conditions in the detection of CO2, N2O and CH4, by taking into consideration the background noise in the WMS. At the optimum total pressure for the detection of CO2, N2O and CH4, the limits of detection in the present system were determined.

  5. All-optical photoacoustic microscopy using a MEMS scanning mirror

    Chen, Sung-Liang; Xie, Zhixing; Ling, Tao; Wei, Xunbin; Guo, L. Jay; Wang, Xueding

    2013-03-01

    It has been studied that a potential marker to obtain prognostic information about bladder cancer is tumor neoangiogenesis, which can be quantified by morphometric characteristics such as microvascular density. Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) can render sensitive three-dimensional (3D) mapping of microvasculature, providing promise to evaluate the neoangiogenesis that is closely related to the diagnosis of bladder cancer. To ensure good image quality, it is desired to acquire bladder PAM images from its inside via the urethra, like conventional cystoscope. Previously, we demonstrated all-optical PAM systems using polymer microring resonators to detect photoacoustic signals and galvanometer mirrors for laser scanning. In this work, we build a miniature PAM system using a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) scanning mirror, demonstrating a prototype of an endoscopic PAM head capable of high imaging quality of the bladder. The system has high resolutions of 17.5 μm in lateral direction and 19 μm in the axial direction at a distance of 5.4 mm. Images of printed grids and the 3D structure of microvasculature in animal bladders ex vivo by the system are demonstrated.

  6. Micro and Nano Electromechanical Systems for Near-Zero Power Infrared Detection

    Qian, Zhenyun

    Light is one of the most important tools for human beings to probe and sense the physical world. Infrared (IR) radiation located in longer wavelengths than those of visible light carries rich information of an environment as it reveals the temperature distribution and chemical composition of objects. In addition, it has been utilized for communication and distance measurement owing to the atmospheric window and insensitiveness of human eyes to the IR radiation. As a result, IR detectors nowadays can be found in a wide variety of applications, including thermal imaging, automotive night vision, standoff chemical detection, remote control and laser ranging, just to mention a few. On the other hand, due to the recent fast development of the Internet of Things (IoT), there is a growing demand for miniaturized and power efficient unattended sensors that can be widely distributed in large volumes to form a wireless sensor networks capable of monitoring the environment with high accuracy and long lifetime. In this context, micro and nano electromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS) may provide a huge impact, since they can be used for the implementation of miniaturized, low power, high-performance sensors and wireless communication devices fully compatible with standard integrated circuitry. This dissertation presents the design and the experimental verification of high performance uncooled IR detectors based on Aluminum Nitride (AlN) nano electromechanical resonators, and a first-of-its-kind near-zero power IR digitizer based on plasmonically-enhanced micromechanical photoswitches. The unique advantages of the piezoelectric AlN thin film in terms of scaling in thickness and transduction efficiency are exploited by the first experimental demonstration of ultra-fast (thermal time constant, tau ˜ 80 mus) and high resolution (noise equivalent power, NEP ˜ 656 pW/Hz1/2) AlN NEMS resonant IR detectors with reduced pixel size comparable to the state-of-the-art microbolometers

  7. Infrared detection of the mineralogical aspects that influence the processing of calcined kaolin

    Groenheide, Stefan; Guatame-Garcia, Adriana; Buxton, Mike; van der Werff, Harald

    2017-04-01

    Calcined kaolin is an industrial minerals product used in the production of paper, paint, rubber and other specialty applications. It is produced from kaolinite through a series of refinement steps and final calcination at temperatures of above 900°C, with the aim of generating a whiter and more abrasive material. The raw kaolin ore is a mixture of clay minerals, quartz and feldspars, where kaolinite is the main constituent. The optimal kaolin ores to feed the processing plant should ideally have high kaolinite abundance, be free in Fe-bearing mineralogy (to avoid influence in the colour of the product), and the kaolinite itself should be of high crystallinity (to ensure the correct abrasiveness after calcination). This work presents a case study from the kaolin deposits in the St. Austell Granite (South-West England), which are known for their high quality and world-class size. In this area, the kaolin is of primary-hydrothermal origin, with mineral associations that are related to the genetic history. The eventual depletion of the high-quality reserves is bringing now the attention to the lower grade zones, where the amount of impurities increases. As a consequence, it is critical to developing strategies that ensure the supply of high-quality ore to the processing plant. For this, it is necessary to acquire a thorough knowledge of the ore, including relative abundance of the minerals and their textural relationships. Hyperspectral images in the visible-near infrared (VNIR) and short-wave infrared (SWIR) ranges were collected from drill cores and run-off-mine (ROM) samples, obtained from one of the kaolin pits in the St. Austell area, where the kaolin quality is known to be lower than in the rest of the deposit. A series of mineral maps were generated to assess the distribution, texture and abundance of the Fe-bearing mineralogy and the other kaolin-associated minerals, as well as the variations in the crystallinity of kaolinite. The mineral maps enabled the

  8. Reflection-artifact-free photoacoustic imaging using PAFUSion (photoacoustic-guided focused ultrasound)

    Kuniyil Ajith Singh, Mithun; Jaeger, Michael; Frenz, Martin; Steenbergen, Wiendelt

    2016-03-01

    Reflection artifacts caused by acoustic inhomogeneities are a main challenge to deep-tissue photoacoustic imaging. Photoacoustic transients generated by the skin surface and superficial vasculature will propagate into the tissue and reflect back from echogenic structures to generate reflection artifacts. These artifacts can cause problems in image interpretation and limit imaging depth. In its basic version, PAFUSion mimics the inward travelling wave-field from blood vessel-like PA sources by applying focused ultrasound pulses, and thus provides a way to identify reflection artifacts. In this work, we demonstrate reflection artifact correction in addition to identification, towards obtaining an artifact-free photoacoustic image. In view of clinical applications, we implemented an improved version of PAFUSion in which photoacoustic data is backpropagated to imitate the inward travelling wave-field and thus the reflection artifacts of a more arbitrary distribution of PA sources that also includes the skin melanin layer. The backpropagation is performed in a synthetic way based on the pulse-echo acquisitions after transmission on each single element of the transducer array. We present a phantom experiment and initial in vivo measurements on human volunteers where we demonstrate significant reflection artifact reduction using our technique. The results provide a direct confirmation that reflection artifacts are prominent in clinical epi-photoacoustic imaging, and that PAFUSion can reduce these artifacts significantly to improve the deep-tissue photoacoustic imaging.

  9. pH-Responsive Fe(III)-Gallic Acid Nanoparticles for In Vivo Photoacoustic-Imaging-Guided Photothermal Therapy.

    Zeng, Jianfeng; Cheng, Ming; Wang, Yong; Wen, Ling; Chen, Ling; Li, Zhen; Wu, Yongyou; Gao, Mingyuan; Chai, Zhifang

    2016-04-06

    pH-responsive biocompatible Fe(III)-gallic acid nanoparticles with strong near-infrared absorbance are very stable in mild acidic conditions, but easily decomposed in neutral conditions, which enables the nanoparticles to be stable in a tumor and easily metabolized in other organs, thus providing a safe nanoplatform for in vivo photoacoustic imaging/photothermal therapy theranostic applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. A false-alarm aware methodology to develop robust and efficient multi-scale infrared small target detection algorithm

    Moradi, Saed; Moallem, Payman; Sabahi, Mohamad Farzan

    2018-03-01

    False alarm rate and detection rate are still two contradictory metrics for infrared small target detection in an infrared search and track system (IRST), despite the development of new detection algorithms. In certain circumstances, not detecting true targets is more tolerable than detecting false items as true targets. Hence, considering background clutter and detector noise as the sources of the false alarm in an IRST system, in this paper, a false alarm aware methodology is presented to reduce false alarm rate while the detection rate remains undegraded. To this end, advantages and disadvantages of each detection algorithm are investigated and the sources of the false alarms are determined. Two target detection algorithms having independent false alarm sources are chosen in a way that the disadvantages of the one algorithm can be compensated by the advantages of the other one. In this work, multi-scale average absolute gray difference (AAGD) and Laplacian of point spread function (LoPSF) are utilized as the cornerstones of the desired algorithm of the proposed methodology. After presenting a conceptual model for the desired algorithm, it is implemented through the most straightforward mechanism. The desired algorithm effectively suppresses background clutter and eliminates detector noise. Also, since the input images are processed through just four different scales, the desired algorithm has good capability for real-time implementation. Simulation results in term of signal to clutter ratio and background suppression factor on real and simulated images prove the effectiveness and the performance of the proposed methodology. Since the desired algorithm was developed based on independent false alarm sources, our proposed methodology is expandable to any pair of detection algorithms which have different false alarm sources.

  11. Validating tyrosinase homologue melA as a photoacoustic reporter gene for imaging Escherichia coli

    Paproski, Robert J.; Li, Yan; Barber, Quinn; Lewis, John D.; Campbell, Robert E.; Zemp, Roger

    2015-10-01

    To understand the pathogenic processes for infectious bacteria, appropriate research tools are required for replicating and characterizing infections. Fluorescence and bioluminescence imaging have primarily been used to image infections in animal models, but optical scattering in tissue significantly limits imaging depth and resolution. Photoacoustic imaging, which has improved depth-to-resolution ratio compared to conventional optical imaging, could be useful for visualizing melA-expressing bacteria since melA is a bacterial tyrosinase homologue which produces melanin. Escherichia coli-expressing melA was visibly dark in liquid culture. When melA-expressing bacteria in tubes were imaged with a VisualSonics Vevo LAZR system, the signal-to-noise ratio of a 9× dilution sample was 55, suggesting that ˜20 bacteria cells could be detected with our system. Multispectral (680, 700, 750, 800, 850, and 900 nm) analysis of the photoacoustic signal allowed unmixing of melA-expressing bacteria from blood. To compare photoacoustic reporter gene melA (using Vevo system) with luminescent and fluorescent reporter gene Nano-lantern (using Bruker Xtreme In-Vivo system), tubes of bacteria expressing melA or Nano-lantern were submerged 10 mm in 1% Intralipid, spaced between melA-expressing bacteria even when the tubes were less than 1 mm from each other, while bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging could not resolve the two tubes of Nano-lantern-expressing bacteria even when the tubes were spaced 10 mm from each other. After injecting 100-μL of melA-expressing bacteria in the back flank of a chicken embryo, photoacoustic imaging allowed visualization of melA-expressing bacteria up to 10-mm deep into the embryo. Photoacoustic signal from melA could also be separated from deoxy- and oxy-hemoglobin signal observed within the embryo and chorioallantoic membrane. Our results suggest that melA is a useful photoacoustic reporter gene for visualizing bacteria, and further work

  12. Fluence compensated photoacoustic tomography in small animals (Conference Presentation)

    Hussain, Altaf; Pool, Martin; Daoudi, Khalid; de Vries, Liesbeth G.; Steenbergen, Wiendelt

    2017-03-01

    Light fluence inside turbid media can be experimentally mapped by measuring ultrasonically modulated light (Acousto-optics). To demonstrate the feasibility of fluence corrected Photoacoustic (PA) imaging, we have realized a tri-modality (i.e. photoacoustic, acousto-optic and ultrasound) tomographic small animal imaging system. Wherein PA imaging provides high resolution map of absorbed optical energy density, Acousto-optics yields the fluence distribution map in the corresponding PA imaging plane and Ultrasound provides morphological information. Further, normalization of the PA image with the acousto-optically measured fluence map results in an image that directly represents the optical absorption. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is commonly found overexpressed in human cancers, among which breast cancers, resulting in a more aggressive tumor phenotype. Identification of HER2-expression is clinically relevant, because cancers overexpressing this marker are amenable to HER2-directed therapies, among which antibodies trastuzumab and pertuzumab. Here, we investigate the feasibility and advantage of acousto-optically assisted fluence compensated PA imaging over PA imaging alone in visualizing and quantifying HER2 expression. For this experiment, nude mice were xenografted with human breast cancer cell lines SKBR3 and BT474 (both HER2 overexpressing), as well as HER2-negative MDA-MB-231. To visualize HER2 expression in these mice, HER2 monoclonal antibody pertuzumab (Perjeta®, Roche), was conjugated to near-infrared dye IRDye 800CW (800CW, LICOR Biosciences) at a ratio of 1∶2 antibody to 800CW. When xenograft tumors measured ≥ 100 mm3, mice received 100 µg 800CW-pertuzumab intravenously. Three days post injection, mice were scanned for fluorescence signal with an IVIS scanner. After fluorescence scans, mice were euthanized and imaged in our PA tomographic imaging system.

  13. Detection of trees damaged by pests in Abies religiosa forests in the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve using infrared aerial photography

    Pablo Leautaud Valenzuela

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Forest pests are pathogens that cause mechanical or physiological damage to trees, such as deformations, disrupted growth, weakening, or even death, leading to important ecological, economic and social impacts. This study focused on the development of a technique for the detection of forest pests using infrared aerial photography. The general reflectance characteristics of healthy and damaged leaves are currently well known; Reid (1987 already described these features, with a shift toward blue and a reduced infrared reflectance as the dominant effects. As the plant disease progresses, the above effects become more apparent. The use of infrared digital aerial photographs allowed to obtain VIR (visible + infrared images with four bands and a resolution of approximately one meter per pixel. Trees with some degree of deterioration and even dead individuals were identified and located through visual interpretation. Color and infrared digital aerial photographs captured in March 2009 were used; two cameras were used: a Nikon D2X camera for the acquisition of images in the visible range (EV, and a Canon EOS Digital Rebel camera for infrared (IR images. Once individual photographs were processed and organized, V and IR images were superimposed using the Photoshop editing program (Adobe™ Once composite V+IR (VIR images were obtained, those covering the sampling area were selected and georeferenced. Rectified images were required to elaborate a mosaic encompassing the sampling area. The rectified images and the final mosaic had a spatial resolution of 90 centimeters per pixel. The detection technique was designed using three methodological approaches: automatic, semi-automatic and manual processes. The semi-automatic and automatic modalities correspond to an assisted and unassisted spectral classification, respectively, while the manual method consisted in the direct observation of the photographs processed. The technique developed used as basis the

  14. A monitoring campaign for Luhman 16AB. I. Detection of resolved near-infrared spectroscopic variability

    Burgasser, Adam J. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Science, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Gillon, Michaël; Jehin, E.; Delrez, L.; Opitom, C. [Institute of Astrophysics and Géophysique, Université of Liège, allée du 6 Août 17, B-4000 Liège (Belgium); Faherty, Jacqueline K. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5241 Broad Branch Road NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Radigan, Jacqueline [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Triaud, Amaury H. M. J. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Plavchan, Peter [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, California Institute of Technology, M/C 100-22, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Street, Rachel, E-mail: aburgasser@ucsd.edu [LCOGT, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States)

    2014-04-10

    We report resolved near-infrared spectroscopic monitoring of the nearby L dwarf/T dwarf binary WISE J104915.57–531906.1AB (Luhman 16AB), as part of a broader campaign to characterize the spectral energy distribution and temporal variability of this system. A continuous 45 minute sequence of low-resolution IRTF/SpeX data spanning 0.8-2.4 μm were obtained, concurrent with combined-light optical photometry with ESO/TRAPPIST. Our spectral observations confirm the flux reversal of this binary, and we detect a wavelength-dependent decline in the relative spectral fluxes of the two components coincident with a decline in the combined-light optical brightness of the system over the course of the observation. These data are successfully modeled as a combination of achromatic (brightness) and chromatic (color) variability in the T0.5 Luhman 16B, consistent with variations in overall cloud opacity; and no significant variability was found in L7.5 Luhman 16A, consistent with recent resolved photometric monitoring. We estimate a peak-to-peak amplitude of 13.5% at 1.25 μm over the full light curve. Using a simple two-spot brightness temperature model for Luhman 16B, we infer an average cold covering fraction of ≈30%-55%, varying by 15%-30% over a rotation period assuming a ≈200-400 K difference between hot and cold regions. We interpret these variations as changes in the covering fraction of a high cloud deck and corresponding 'holes' which expose deeper, hotter cloud layers, although other physical interpretations are possible. A Rhines scale interpretation for the size of the variable features explains an apparent correlation between period and amplitude for Luhman 16B and the variable T dwarfs SIMP 0136+0933 and 2MASS J2139+0220, and predicts relatively fast winds (1-3 km s{sup –1}) for Luhman 16B consistent with light curve evolution on an advective time scale (1-3 rotation periods). The strong variability observed in this flux reversal brown dwarf pair

  15. Growth of melanoma brain tumors monitored by photoacoustic microscopy

    Staley, Jacob; Grogan, Patrick; Samadi, Abbas K.; Cui, Huizhong; Cohen, Mark S.; Yang, Xinmai

    2010-07-01

    Melanoma is a primary malignancy that is known to metastasize to the brain and often causes death. The ability to image the growth of brain melanoma in vivo can provide new insights into its evolution and response to therapies. In our study, we use a reflection mode photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) system to detect the growth of melanoma brain tumor in a small animal model. The melanoma tumor cells are implanted in the brain of a mouse at the beginning of the test. Then, PAM is used to scan the region of implantation in the mouse brain, and the growth of the melanoma is monitored until the death of the animal. It is demonstrated that PAM is capable of detecting and monitoring the brain melanoma growth noninvasively in vivo.

  16. Deep neural network-based bandwidth enhancement of photoacoustic data.

    Gutta, Sreedevi; Kadimesetty, Venkata Suryanarayana; Kalva, Sandeep Kumar; Pramanik, Manojit; Ganapathy, Sriram; Yalavarthy, Phaneendra K

    2017-11-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) signals collected at the boundary of tissue are always band-limited. A deep neural network was proposed to enhance the bandwidth (BW) of the detected PA signal, thereby improving the quantitative accuracy of the reconstructed PA images. A least square-based deconvolution method that utilizes the Tikhonov regularization framework was used for comparison with the proposed network. The proposed method was evaluated using both numerical and experimental data. The results indicate that the proposed method was capable of enhancing the BW of the detected PA signal, which inturn improves the contrast recovery and quality of reconstructed PA images without adding any significant computational burden. (2017) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  17. Robust Vehicle Detection under Various Environments to Realize Road Traffic Flow Surveillance Using an Infrared Thermal Camera

    Iwasaki, Yoichiro; Misumi, Masato; Nakamiya, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    To realize road traffic flow surveillance under various environments which contain poor visibility conditions, we have already proposed two vehicle detection methods using thermal images taken with an infrared thermal camera. The first method uses pattern recognition for the windshields and their surroundings to detect vehicles. However, the first method decreases the vehicle detection accuracy in winter season. To maintain high vehicle detection accuracy in all seasons, we developed the second method. The second method uses tires' thermal energy reflection areas on a road as the detection targets. The second method did not achieve high detection accuracy for vehicles on left-hand and right-hand lanes except for two center-lanes. Therefore, we have developed a new method based on the second method to increase the vehicle detection accuracy. This paper proposes the new method and shows that the detection accuracy for vehicles on all lanes is 92.1%. Therefore, by combining the first method and the new method, high vehicle detection accuracies are maintained under various environments, and road traffic flow surveillance can be realized. PMID:25763384

  18. Robust Vehicle Detection under Various Environmental Conditions Using an Infrared Thermal Camera and Its Application to Road Traffic Flow Monitoring

    Toshiyuki Nakamiya

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We have already proposed a method for detecting vehicle positions and their movements (henceforth referred to as “our previous method” using thermal images taken with an infrared thermal camera. Our experiments have shown that our previous method detects vehicles robustly under four different environmental conditions which involve poor visibility conditions in snow and thick fog. Our previous method uses the windshield and its surroundings as the target of the Viola-Jones detector. Some experiments in winter show that the vehicle detection accuracy decreases because the temperatures of many windshields approximate those of the exterior of the windshields. In this paper, we propose a new vehicle detection method (henceforth referred to as “our new method”. Our new method detects vehicles based on tires’ thermal energy reflection. We have done experiments using three series of thermal images for which the vehicle detection accuracies of our previous method are low. Our new method detects 1,417 vehicles (92.8% out of 1,527 vehicles, and the number of false detection is 52 in total. Therefore, by combining our two methods, high vehicle detection accuracies are maintained under various environmental conditions. Finally, we apply the traffic information obtained by our two methods to traffic flow automatic monitoring, and show the effectiveness of our proposal.

  19. Robust Vehicle Detection under Various Environments to Realize Road Traffic Flow Surveillance Using an Infrared Thermal Camera

    Yoichiro Iwasaki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To realize road traffic flow surveillance under various environments which contain poor visibility conditions, we have already proposed two vehicle detection methods using thermal images taken with an infrared thermal camera. The first method uses pattern recognition for the windshields and their surroundings to detect vehicles. However, the first method decreases the vehicle detection accuracy in winter season. To maintain high vehicle detection accuracy in all seasons, we developed the second method. The second method uses tires’ thermal energy reflection areas on a road as the detection targets. The second method did not achieve high detection accuracy for vehicles on left-hand and right-hand lanes except for two center-lanes. Therefore, we have developed a new method based on the second method to increase the vehicle detection accuracy. This paper proposes the new method and shows that the detection accuracy for vehicles on all lanes is 92.1%. Therefore, by combining the first method and the new method, high vehicle detection accuracies are maintained under various environments, and road traffic flow surveillance can be realized.

  20. Robust vehicle detection under various environments to realize road traffic flow surveillance using an infrared thermal camera.

    Iwasaki, Yoichiro; Misumi, Masato; Nakamiya, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    To realize road traffic flow surveillance under various environments which contain poor visibility conditions, we have already proposed two vehicle detection methods using thermal images taken with an infrared thermal camera. The first method uses pattern recognition for the windshields and their surroundings to detect vehicles. However, the first method decreases the vehicle detection accuracy in winter season. To maintain high vehicle detection accuracy in all seasons, we developed the second method. The second method uses tires' thermal energy reflection areas on a road as the detection targets. The second method did not achieve high detection accuracy for vehicles on left-hand and right-hand lanes except for two center-lanes. Therefore, we have developed a new method based on the second method to increase the vehicle detection accuracy. This paper proposes the new method and shows that the detection accuracy for vehicles on all lanes is 92.1%. Therefore, by combining the first method and the new method, high vehicle detection accuracies are maintained under various environments, and road traffic flow surveillance can be realized.

  1. Robust vehicle detection under various environmental conditions using an infrared thermal camera and its application to road traffic flow monitoring.

    Iwasaki, Yoichiro; Misumi, Masato; Nakamiya, Toshiyuki

    2013-06-17

    We have already proposed a method for detecting vehicle positions and their movements (henceforth referred to as "our previous method") using thermal images taken with an infrared thermal camera. Our experiments have shown that our previous method detects vehicles robustly under four different environmental conditions which involve poor visibility conditions in snow and thick fog. Our previous method uses the windshield and its surroundings as the target of the Viola-Jones detector. Some experiments in winter show that the vehicle detection accuracy decreases because the temperatures of many windshields approximate those of the exterior of the windshields. In this paper, we propose a new vehicle detection method (henceforth referred to as "our new method"). Our new method detects vehicles based on tires' thermal energy reflection. We have done experiments using three series of thermal images for which the vehicle detection accuracies of our previous method are low. Our new method detects 1,417 vehicles (92.8%) out of 1,527 vehicles, and the number of false detection is 52 in total. Therefore, by combining our two methods, high vehicle detection accuracies are maintained under various environmental conditions. Finally, we apply the traffic information obtained by our two methods to traffic flow automatic monitoring, and show the effectiveness of our proposal.

  2. Detecting stellar-wind bubbles through infrared arcs in H II regions

    Mackey, Jonathan; Haworth, Thomas J.; Gvaramadze, Vasilii V.; Mohamed, Shazrene; Langer, Norbert; Harries, Tim J.

    2016-02-01

    Mid-infrared arcs of dust emission are often seen near ionizing stars within H II regions. A possible explanations for these arcs is that they could show the outer edges of asymmetric stellar wind bubbles. We use two-dimensional, radiation-hydrodynamics simulations of wind bubbles within H II regions around individual stars to predict the infrared emission properties of the dust within the H II region. We assume that dust and gas are dynamically well-coupled and that dust properties (composition, size distribution) are the same in the H II region as outside it, and that the wind bubble contains no dust. We post-process the simulations to make synthetic intensity maps at infrared wavebands using the torus code. We find that the outer edge of a wind bubble emits brightly at 24 μm through starlight absorbed by dust grains and re-radiated thermally in the infrared. This produces a bright arc of emission for slowly moving stars that have asymmetric wind bubbles, even for cases where there is no bow shock or any corresponding feature in tracers of gas emission. The 24 μm intensity decreases exponentially from the arc with increasing distance from the star because the dust temperature decreases with distance. The size distribution and composition of the dust grains has quantitative but not qualitative effects on our results. Despite the simplifications of our model, we find good qualitative agreement with observations of the H II region RCW 120, and can provide physical explanations for any quantitative differences. Our model produces an infrared arc with the same shape and size as the arc around CD -38°11636 in RCW 120, and with comparable brightness. This suggests that infrared arcs around O stars in H II regions may be revealing the extent of stellar wind bubbles, although we have not excluded other explanations.

  3. Polymer fiber detectors for photoacoustic imaging

    Grün, Hubert; Berer, Thomas; Pühringer, Karoline; Nuster, Robert; Paltauf, Günther; Burgholzer, Peter

    2010-02-01

    Photoacoustic imaging is a novel imaging method for medical and biological applications, combining the advantages of Diffuse Optical Imaging (high contrast) and Ultrasonic Imaging (high spatial resolution). A short laser pulse hits the sample. The absorbed energy causes a thermoelastic expansion and thereby launches a broadband ultrasonic wave (photoacoustic signal). The distribution of absorbed energy density is reconstructed from measurements of the photoacoustic signals around the sample. For collecting photoacoustic signals either point like or extended, integrating detectors can be used. The latter integrate the pressure at least in one dimension, e.g. along a line. Thereby, the three dimensional imaging problem is reduced to a two dimensional problem. For a tomography device consisting of a scanning line detector and a rotating sample, fiber-based detectors made of polymer have been recently introduced. Fiber-based detectors are easy to use and possess a constant, high spatial resolution over their entire active length. Polymer fibers provide a better impedance matching and a better handling compared with glass fibers which were our first approach. First measurement results using polymer fiber detectors and some approaches for improving the performance are presented.

  4. Photoacoustic imaging of port-wine stains

    Kolkman, Roy G. M.; Mulder, Miranda J.; Glade, Conrad P.; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; van Leeuwen, Ton G.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To optimize laser therapy of port-wine stains (PWSs), information about the vasculature as well as lesion depth is valuable. In this study we investigated the use of photoacoustic imaging (PAI) to obtain this information. STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS: PAI uses pulsed

  5. Photoacoustic Imaging of Port-Wine Stains

    Kolkman, R.G.M.; Mulder, M.J.; Mulder, Miranda J.; Glade, Conrad P.; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; van Leeuwen, Ton

    2008-01-01

    Background and Objective: To optimize laser therapy of port-wine stains (PWSs), information about the vasculature as well as lesion depth is valuable. In this study we investigated the use of photoacoustic imaging (PAI) to obtain this information. - Study Design/Materials and Methods: PAI uses

  6. Thermoviscous analysis of open photoacoustic cells

    Mannoor, Madhusoodanan; Kang, Sangmo

    2017-11-01

    Open photoacoustic cells, apart from the conventional spectroscopic applications, are increasingly useful in bio medical applications such as in vivo blood sugar measurement. Maximising the acoustic pressure amplitude and the quality factor are major design considerations associated with open cells.Conventionaly, resonant photoacoustic cells are analyzed by either transmission line analogy or Eigen mode expansion method. In this study, we conducted a more comprehensive thermo viscous analysis of open photoacoustic cells. A Helmholtz cell and a T-shaped cell, which are acoustically different, are considered for analysis. Effect of geometrical dimensions on the acoustic pressure, quality factor and the intrusion of noise are analyzed and compared between these cells. Specific attention is given to the sizing of the opening and fixtures on it to minimize the radiational losses and the intrusion of noise. Our results are useful for proper selection of the type of open photoacoustic cells for in vivo blood sugar measurement and the optimization of geometric variables of such cells. This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and future planning (2017R1A2B4005006).

  7. High resolution functional photoacoustic tomography of breast cancer

    Li, Xiaoqi; Yao, Lei; Xi, Lei; Jiang, Huabei, E-mail: hjiang@bme.ufl.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Heldermon, Coy D. [Department of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of functional photoacoustic tomography (fPAT) for high resolution detection and characterization of breast cancer and to demonstrate for the first time quantitative hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation images of breasts that were formed with model-based reconstruction of tomographic photoacoustic data. Methods: The study was HIPAA compliant and was approved by the university institutional review board. Written informed consents were obtained from all the participants. Ten cases, including six cancer and four healthy (mean age = 50 yr; age range = 41–66 yr), were examined. Functional images of breast tissue including absolute total hemoglobin concentration (Hb{sub T}) and oxygen saturation (StO{sub 2}%) were obtained by fPAT and cross validated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) readings and/or histopathology. Results: Hb{sub T} and StO{sub 2}% maps from all six pathology-confirmed cancer cases (60%) show clear detection of tumor, while MR images indicate clear detection of tumor for five of six cancer cases; one small tumor was read as near-complete-resolution by MRI. The average Hb{sub T} and StO{sub 2}% value of suspicious lesion area for the cancer cases was 61.6 ± 18.9 μM/l and 67.5% ± 5.2% compared to 25.6 ± 7.4 μM/l and 65.2% ± 3.8% for background normal tissue. Conclusions: fPAT has the potential to be a significant add-on in breast cancer detection and characterization as it provides submillimeter resolution functional images of breast lesions.

  8. Infrared thermography, a new method for detection of brown adipose tissue activity after a meal in humans

    Habek, Nikola; Kordić, Milan; Jurenec, Franjo; Dugandžić, Aleksandra

    2018-03-01

    The activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) after cold exposure leads to heat production. However, the activation of BAT activity after a meal as part of diet induced thermogenesis is still controversial. A possible reason is that measuring BAT activity by positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET CT) via accumulation of radiotracer fludeoxyglucose (18F-FDG), which competes with an increase in glucose concentration after a meal, fails as the method of choice. In this study, activity of BAT was determined by infrared thermography. Activation of BAT 30 min after a meal increases glucose consumption, decreases plasma glucose concentration, and leads to changes of body temperature (diet-induced thermogenesis). Detecting pathophysiological changes in BAT activity after a meal by infrared thermography, a non-invasive more sensitive method, will be of great importance for people with increased body weight and diabetes mellitus type 2.

  9. Validation of a near infrared microscopy method for the detection of animal products in feedingstuffs: results of a collaborative study.

    Boix, A; Fernández Pierna, J A; von Holst, C; Baeten, V

    2012-01-01

    The performance characteristics of a near infrared microscopy (NIRM) method, when applied to the detection of animal products in feedingstuffs, were determined via a collaborative study. The method delivers qualitative results in terms of the presence or absence of animal particles in feed and differentiates animal from vegetable feed ingredients on the basis of the evaluation of near infrared spectra obtained from individual particles present in the sample. The specificity ranged from 86% to 100%. The limit of detection obtained on the analysis of the sediment fraction, prepared as for the European official method, was 0.1% processed animal proteins (PAPs) in feed, since all laboratories correctly identified the positive samples. This limit has to be increased up to 2% for the analysis of samples which are not sedimented. The required sensitivity for the official control is therefore achieved in the analysis of the sediment fraction of the samples where the method can be applied for the detection of the presence of animal meal. Criteria for the classification of samples, when fewer than five spectra are found, as being of animal origin needs to be set up in order to harmonise the approach taken by the laboratories when applying NIRM for the detection of the presence of animal meal in feed.

  10. Isolation of circulating tumor cells using photoacoustic flowmetry and two phase flow

    O'Brien, Christine M.; Rood, Kyle D.; Gupta, Sagar K.; Mosley, Jeffrey D.; Goldschmidt, Benjamin S.; Sharma, Nikhilesh; Sengupta, Shramik; Viator, John A.

    2011-03-01

    Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer, yet current diagnostic methods are inadequately sensitive. Patients must wait until secondary tumors form before malignancy can be diagnosed and treatment prescribed. Detection of cells that have broken off the original tumor and flow through the blood or lymph system can provide data for diagnosing and monitoring cancer. Our group utilizes the photoacoustic effect to detect metastatic melanoma cells, which contain the pigmented granule melanin. As a rapid laser pulse irradiates melanoma, the melanin undergoes thermo-elastic expansion and ultimately creates a photoacoustic wave. Thus, melanoma patient's blood samples can be enriched, leaving the melanoma in a white blood cell (WBC) suspension. Irradiated melanoma cells produce photoacoustic waves, which are detected with a piezoelectric transducer, while the optically transparent WBCs create no signals. Here we report an isolation scheme utilizing two-phase flow to separate detected melanoma from the suspension. By introducing two immiscible fluids through a t-junction into one flow path, the analytes are compartmentalized. Therefore, the slug in which the melanoma cell is located can be identified and extracted from the system. Two-phase immiscible flow is a label free technique, and could be used for other types of pathological analytes.

  11. Spectroscopic and thermal characterization of bovine enamel and dentine using the photoacoustic effect

    Stolf, Sandro Fernando

    2003-01-01

    The optical and thermal properties of dental tissues determine the nature and extent of the tissue response through the processes of absorption, transmission, reflection and scattering of the laser light and the heat produced by the absorption of that light. The spectroscopic characterization of bovine dentine and enamel, and the determination of the thermal diffusivity were the aim of this study. The photoacoustic spectra from these tissues were obtained in the Near-Infrared range 900 - 2500 nm, which is the clinical range for odontological application of most lasers. Photoacoustic spectra were taken from block, slices and powder of enamel and dentine. Also photoacoustic spectra were registered before and after 2, 5 and 10 h of topical fluoride (2.26%) application. Using the same technique spectra were taken from dentine and enamel after irradiation with Nd:YAG, Er:YAG, Ho:YLF and CO 2 . It is evident from the results that the presence of O-H in the composition of hydroxyapatite and the water present in the teeth tissue make the obtention of spectrum from components other than O-H bond a very difficult task. In this way, only bands assigned to overtones and combinations of O-H stretch were observed. The thermal diffusivity of the bovine dentine was also measured using the photoacoustic technique. The thermal diffusivity is the physical quantity which measures the rate of heat diffusion throughout the sample. For higher values of the thermal diffusivity the heat diffusion and temperature rise will be faster. As there is many studies devoted to the processes of heat transfer throughout dental tissues using bovine teeth, it is important the determination of its thermal diffusivity. The measured value was found to be a = 2.0 (±0.1).1O -3 cm 2 /s for the both direction, perpendicular and parallel to the dentinal tubules. These a lues indicate that there is no difference between the thermal diffusivities for the both directions. (author)

  12. Mid-infrared and near-infrared spectroscopy for rapid detection of Gardeniae Fructus by a liquid-liquid extraction process.

    Tao, Lingyan; Lin, Zhonglin; Chen, Jiashan; Wu, Yongjiang; Liu, Xuesong

    2017-10-25

    Gardeniae Fructus is widely used in the pharmaceutical industry, and many studies have confirmed its medical and economic value. In this study, samples collected from different liquid-liquid extraction batches of Gardeniae Fructus were detected by mid-infrared (MIR) and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Seven analytes, neochlorogenic acid (5-CQA), cryptochlorogenic acid (4-CQA), chlorogenic acid (3-CQA), geniposidic acid (GEA), deacetyl-asperulosidic acid methyl ester (DAAME), genipin-gentiobioside (GGB), and gardenoside (GA), were chosen as quality property indexes of Gardeniae Fructus. The two kinds of spectra were each used to build models by single partial least squares (PLS). Additionally, both spectral data were combined and modeled by multiblock PLS. For single spectroscopy modeling results, NIR had a better prediction for high-concentration analytes (3-CQA, DAAME, GGB, and GA) whereas MIR performed better for low-concentration analytes (5-CQA, 4-CQA, and GEA). The multiblock methodology was found to be better compared to single spectroscopy models for all seven analytes. Specifically, the coefficients of determination (R 2 ) of the NIR, MIR, and multiblock PLS calibration models of all seven components were higher than 0.95. Relative standard errors of prediction (RSEP) were all less than 7%, except for models of GGB, which were 10.36%, 13.24%, and 8.15% for the NIR-PLS, MIR-PLS, and multiblock models, respectively. These results indicate that MIR and NIR spectrographic techniques could provide a new choice for quality control in industrial production of Gardeniae Fructus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Photoacoustic spectroscopy of thin films of As2S3, As2Se3 and GeSe2

    Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) is one of the important branches of spectroscopy, which enables one to detect light-induced heat production following the absorption of pulsed radiation by the sample. As2S3, As2Se3 and GeSe2 exhibit a wide variety of photo-induced phenomena that enable them to be used as optical ...

  14. Light-activated microbubbles around gold nanorods for photoacoustic microsurgery

    Cavigli, Lucia; Centi, Sonia; Lai, Sarah; Borri, Claudia; Micheletti, Filippo; Tortoli, Paolo; Panettieri, Ilaria; Streit, Ingolf; Rossi, Francesca; Ratto, Fulvio; Pini, Roberto

    2018-02-01

    The increasing interest around imaging and microsurgery techniques based on the photoacoustic effect has boosted active research into the development of exogenous contrast agents that may enhance the potential of this innovative approach. In this context, plasmonic particles as gold nanorods are achieving resounding interest, owing to their efficiency of photothermal conversion, intense optical absorbance in the near infrared region, inertness in the body and convenience for conjugation with ligands of molecular targets. On the other hand, the photoinstability of plasmonic particles remains a remarkable obstacle. In particular, gold nanorods easily reshape into nanospheres and so lose their optical absorbance in the near infrared region, under exposure to few-ns-long laser pulses. This issue is attracting much attention and stimulating ad-hoc solutions, such as the addition of rigid shells and the optimization of multiple parameters. In this contribution, we focus on the influence of the shape of gold nanorods on their photothermal behavior and photostability. We describe the photothermal process in the gold nanorods by modeling their optical absorption and consequent temperature dynamics as a function of their aspect ratio (length / diameter). Our results suggest that increasing the aspect ratio does probably not limit the photostability of gold nanorods, while shifting the plasmonic peak towards wavelengths around 1100 nm, which hold more technological interest.

  15. Observations of the Hubble Deep Field with the Infrared Space Observatory .2. Source detection and photometry

    Goldschmidt, P.; Oliver, S.J.; Serjeant, S.B.G.

    1997-01-01

    We present positions and fluxes of point sources found in the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) images of the Hubble Deep Field (HDF) at 6.7 and 15 mu m. We have constructed algorithmically selected 'complete' flux-limited samples of 19 sources in the 15-mu m image, and seven sources in the 6.7-mu m...

  16. New enhanced sensitivity infrared laser spectroscopy techniques applied to reactive plasmas and trace gas detection

    Welzel, S.

    2009-01-01

    Infrared laser absorption spectroscopy (IRLAS) employing both tuneable diode and quantum cascade lasers (TDLs, QCLs) has been applied with both high sensitivity and high time resolution to plasma diagnostics and trace gas measurements. TDLAS combined with a conventional White type multiple pass cell

  17. Near-infrared spectroscopy for detection of hailstorm damage on olive fruit

    A rapid, robust, unbiased and inexpensive discriminant method capable of classifying olive fruit (Olea europaea L.) on the basis of the presence of hailstorm damage is economically important to the olive oil milling industry. Thus, in the present study, the feasibility of Near-Infrared (NIR) spectro...

  18. Detection of Parathyroid Autofluorescence Using Near-Infrared Imaging: A Multicenter Analysis of Concordance Between Different Surgeons.

    Kahramangil, Bora; Dip, Fernando; Benmiloud, Fares; Falco, Jorge; de La Fuente, Martin; Verna, Silvina; Rosenthal, Raul; Berber, Eren

    2018-04-01

    Parathyroid glands (PGs) exhibit autofluorescence (AF) when excited by near-infrared laser. This multicenter study aims to analyze how this imaging could facilitate the detection of PGs during thyroidectomy and parathyroidectomy procedures. This was a retrospective Institutional Review Board-approved analysis of prospectively collected data at three centers. Near-infrared fluorescence imaging (NIFI) was used to detect AF from PGs during thyroidectomy and parathyroidectomy procedures. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the utility of NIFI to identify PGs and concordance at these centers. Overall, 210 patients underwent total thyroidectomy (n = 95), thyroid lobectomy (n = 41), and parathyroidectomy (n = 74) (n = 70 per center). Using NIFI, AF was detected from 98% of visually identified PGs. Upon initial exploration, 46% of PGs were not visible to the naked eye due to coverage by soft tissue, but AF from these glands could be detected by NIFI without any further dissection. Overall, a median of one PG per patient was detected by NIFI in this fashion before being identified visually (p = nonsignificant between centers). On logistic regression, smaller PGs were more likely to be missed visually, but localized by AF on NIFI (odds ratio with increasing size, 0.91; p = 0.02). In our experience, NIFI facilitated PG identification by detecting their AF, before conventional recognition by the surgeon, in 37-67% of the time. Despite the variability in this rate across centers, there was a concordance in detecting AF from 97 to 99% of the PGs using NIFI. We suggest the incorporation of AF on NIFI alongside conventional visual cues to aid identification of PGs during neck operations.

  19. [A review on studies and applications of near infrared spectroscopy technique(NIRS) in detecting quality of hay].

    Ding, Wu-Rong; Gan, You-Min; Guo, Xu-Sheng; Yang, Fu-Yu

    2009-02-01

    The quality of hay can directly affect the price of hay and also livestock productivity. Many kinds of methods have been developed for detecting the quality of hay and the method of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been widely used with consideration of its fast, effective and nondestructive characteristics during detecting process. In the present paper, the feasibility and effectiveness of application of NIRS to detecting hay quality were expounded. Meanwhile, the advance in the study of using NIRS to detect chemical compositions, extent of incursion by epiphyte, amount of toxicant excreted by endogenetic epiphyte and some minim components that can not be detected by using chemical methods were also introduced detailedly. Based on the review of the progresses in using NIRS to detect the quality of hay, it can be concluded that using NIRS to detect hay quality can avoid the disadvantages of time wasting, complication and high cost when using traditional chemical method. And for better utilization of NIRS in practice, some more studies still need to be implemented to further perfect and improve the utilization of NIRS for detecting forage quality, and more accurate modes and systematic analysis software need to be established in times to come.

  20. Comparison of photoacoustic radiometry to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry methods for monitoring chlorinated hydrocarbons

    Sollid, J.E.; Trujillo, V.L.; Limback, S.P.; Woloshun, K.A.

    1996-01-01

    A comparison of two methods of gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) and a nondispersive infrared technique, photoacoustic radiometry (PAR), is presented in the context of field monitoring a disposal site. First is presented an historical account describing the site and early monitoring to provide an overview. The intent and nature of the monitoring program changed when it was proposed to expand the Radiological Waste Site close to the Hazardous Waste Site. Both the sampling methods and analysis techniques were refined in the course of this exercise

  1. The phase-resolved photoacoustic method to indicate chemical assignments of paracetamol

    Camilotti, J. G.; Somer, A.; Costa, G. F.; Ribeiro, M. A.; Bonardi, C.; Cruz, G. K.; Gómez, S. L.; Beltrame, F. L.; Medina, A. N.; Sato, F.; Astrath, N. G. C.; Novatski, A.

    2014-03-01

    In this work, the phase-resolved photoacoustic method was applied to provide specific information on the chemical assignments of paracetamol in the near-infrared region. Two broad bands, centered at 1370 and 1130 nm, were well-resolved using this method, making it possible to assign the peaks centered at 1398, 1355 and 1295 nm to a C-H combination from a CH3 structure and the peak at 1305 nm to a C-H combination from the aromatic ring. This information represents a new finding in chemical studies regarding this medicament.

  2. High-resolution photoacoustic tomography of resting-state functional connectivity in the mouse brain

    Nasiriavanaki, Mohammadreza; Xia, Jun; Wan, Hanlin; Bauer, Adam Quentin; Culver, Joseph P.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing use of mouse models for human brain disease studies presents an emerging need for a new functional imaging modality. Using optical excitation and acoustic detection, we developed a functional connectivity photoacoustic tomography system, which allows noninvasive imaging of resting-state functional connectivity in the mouse brain, with a large field of view and a high spatial resolution. Bilateral correlations were observed in eight functional regions, including the olfactory bu...

  3. Probe beam deflection technique as acoustic emission directionality sensor with photoacoustic emission source.

    Barnes, Ronald A; Maswadi, Saher; Glickman, Randolph; Shadaram, Mehdi

    2014-01-20

    The goal of this paper is to demonstrate the unique capability of measuring the vector or angular information of propagating acoustic waves using an optical sensor. Acoustic waves were generated using photoacoustic interaction and detected by the probe beam deflection technique. Experiments and simulations were performed to study the interaction of acoustic emissions with an optical sensor in a coupling medium. The simulated results predict the probe beam and wavefront interaction and produced simulated signals that are verified by experiment.

  4. Light and ultrasound activated microbubbles around gold nanorods for photoacoustic microsurgery

    Cavigli, Lucia; Centi, Sonia; Lai, Sarah; Borri, Claudia; Micheletti, Filippo; Tortoli, Paolo; Panettieri, Ilaria; Streit, Ingolf; Rossi, Francesca; Ratto, Fulvio; Pini, Roberto

    2017-07-01

    Photoacoustic imaging and microsurgery have recently attracted attention for applications in oncology. Here, we present a versatile set-up to trigger vapor microbubbles around plasmonic nanoparticles by a combined light-ultrasound excitation. This system enables the detection and parametrization of bubbles as a function of several variables, such us optical fluence, ultrasound intensity, nanoparticles concentration, thus providing useful directions to the development of new strategies for treatments based on optical cavitation.

  5. Single-wavelength functional photoacoustic microscopy in biological tissue.

    Danielli, Amos; Favazza, Christopher P; Maslov, Konstantin; Wang, Lihong V

    2011-03-01

    Recently, we developed a reflection-mode relaxation photoacoustic microscope, based on saturation intensity, to measure picosecond relaxation times using a nanosecond laser. Here, using the different relaxation times of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin molecules, both possessing extremely low fluorescence quantum yields, the oxygen saturation was quantified in vivo with single-wavelength photoacoustic microscopy. All previous functional photoacoustic microscopy measurements required imaging with multiple-laser-wavelength measurements to quantify oxygen saturation. Eliminating the need for multiwavelength measurements removes the influence of spectral properties on oxygenation calculations and improves the portability and cost-effectiveness of functional or molecular photoacoustic microscopy.

  6. A widely tunable, near-infrared laser-based trace gas sensor for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) detection in exhaled breath

    Azhar, M.; Mandon, J.; Neerincx, A. H.; Liu, Z.; Mink, J.; Merkus, P. J. F. M.; Cristescu, S. M.; Harren, F. J. M.

    2017-11-01

    A compact, cost-effective sensor is developed for detection of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) in exhaled breath within seconds. For this, an off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy setup is combined with a widely tunable compact near-infrared laser (tunability 1527-1564 nm). For HCN a detection sensitivity has been obtained of 8 ppbv in nitrogen (within 1 s), equal to a noise equivalent absorption sensitivity of 1.9 × 10-9 cm-1 Hz-1/2. With this sensor we demonstrated the presence of HCN in exhaled breath; its detection could be a good indicator for bacterial lung infection. Due to its compact, cost-effective and user-friendly design, this laser-based sensor has the potential to be implemented in future clinical applications.

  7. Anatomical and metabolic small-animal whole-body imaging using ring-shaped confocal photoacoustic computed tomography

    Xia, Jun; Chatni, Muhammad; Maslov, Konstantin; Wang, Lihong V.

    2013-03-01

    Due to the wide use of animals for human disease studies, small animal whole-body imaging plays an increasingly important role in biomedical research. Currently, none of the existing imaging modalities can provide both anatomical and glucose metabolic information, leading to higher costs of building dual-modality systems. Even with image coregistration, the spatial resolution of the metabolic imaging modality is not improved. We present a ring-shaped confocal photoacoustic computed tomography (RC-PACT) system that can provide both assessments in a single modality. Utilizing the novel design of confocal full-ring light delivery and ultrasound transducer array detection, RC-PACT provides full-view cross-sectional imaging with high spatial resolution. Scanning along the orthogonal direction provides three-dimensional imaging. While the mouse anatomy was imaged with endogenous hemoglobin contrast, the glucose metabolism was imaged with a near-infrared dye-labeled 2-deoxyglucose. Through mouse tumor models, we demonstrate that RC-PACT may be a paradigm shifting imaging method for preclinical research.

  8. Development of new devices for detection of gastric cancer on laparoscopic surgery using near-infrared light

    Inada, Shunko A.; Fuchi, Shingo; Mori, Kensaku; Hasegawa, Junichi; Misawa, Kazunari; Nakanishi, Hayao

    2015-03-01

    In recent year, for the treatment of gastric cancer the laparoscopic surgery is performed, which has good benefits, such as low-burden, low-invasive and the efficacy is equivalent to the open surgery. For identify location of the tumor intraperitoneally for extirpation of the gastric cancer, several points of charcoal ink is injected around the primary tumor. However, in the time of laparoscopic operation, it is difficult to estimate specific site of primary tumor, because the injected charcoal ink diffusely spread to the area distant from the tumor in the stomach. Therefore, a broad area should be resected which results in a great stress for the patients. To overcome this problem, we focused in the near-infrared wavelength of 1000nm band which have high biological transmission. In this study, we developed a fluorescent clip which was realized with glass phosphor (Yb3+, Nd3+ doped to Bi2O3-B2O3 based glasses. λp: 976 nm, FWHM: 100 nm, size: 2x1x3 mm) and the laparoscopic fluorescent detection system for clip-derived near-infrared light. To evaluate clinical performance of a fluorescent clip and the laparoscopic fluorescent detection system, we used resected stomach (thickness: 13 mm) from the patients. Fluorescent clip was fixed on the gastric mucosa, and an excitation light (λ: 808 nm) was irradiated from outside of stomach for detection of fluorescence through stomach wall. As a result, fluorescence emission from the clip was successfully detected. Furthermore, we confirmed that detection sensitivity of the emission of fluorescence from the clip depends on the output power of the excitation light. We conformed that the fluorescent clip in combination with laparoscopic fluorescent detection system is very useful method to identify the exact location of the primary gastric cancer.

  9. Detection of trace explosives on relevant substrates using a mobile platform for photothermal infrared imaging spectroscopy (PT-IRIS)

    Kendziora, Christopher A.; Furstenberg, Robert; Papantonakis, Michael; Nguyen, Viet; Byers, Jeff; McGill, R. Andrew

    2015-05-01

    This manuscript describes the results of recent tests regarding standoff detection of trace explosives on relevant substrates using a mobile platform. We are developing a technology for detection based on photo-thermal infrared (IR) imaging spectroscopy (PT-IRIS). This approach leverages one or more microfabricated IR quantum cascade lasers, tuned to strong absorption bands in the analytes and directed to illuminate an area on a surface of interest. An IR focal plane array is used to image the surface thermal emission upon laser illumination. The PT-IRIS signal is processed as a hyperspectral image cube comprised of spatial, spectral and temporal dimensions as vectors within a detection algorithm. Increased sensitivity to explosives and selectivity between different analyte types is achieved by narrow bandpass IR filters in the collection path. We have previously demonstrated the technique at several meters of stand-off distance indoors and in field tests, while operating the lasers below the infrared eye-safe intensity limit (100 mW/cm2). Sensitivity to explosive traces as small as a single 10 μm diameter particle (~1 ng) has been demonstrated. Analytes tested here include RDX, TNT, ammonium nitrate and sucrose. The substrates tested in this current work include metal, plastics, glass and painted car panels.

  10. Rapid Detection of Pesticide Residues in Chinese Herbal Medicines by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Coupled with Partial Least Squares Regression

    Tianming Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a simple, rapid, and effective method for simultaneous detection of cartap (Ca, thiocyclam (Th, and tebufenozide (Te in Chinese herbal medicines including Radix Angelicae Dahuricae and Liquorices using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR coupled with partial least squares regression (PLSR. The proposed method can handle the intrinsic interferences of herbal samples; satisfactory average recoveries attained from near-infrared (NIR and mid-infrared (MIR PLSR models were 99.0±10.8 and 100.2±1.0% for Ca, 100.2±6.9 and 99.7±2.5% for Th, and 99.1±6.3 and 99.6±1.0% for Te, respectively. Furthermore, some statistical parameters and figures of merit are fully investigated to evaluate the performance of the two models. It was found that both models could give accurate results and only the performance of MIR-PLSR was slightly better than that of NIR-PLSR in the cases suffering from herbal matrix interferences. In conclusion, FT-IR spectroscopy in combination with PLSR has been demonstrated for its application in rapid screening and quantitative analysis of multipesticide residues in Chinese herbal medicines without physical or chemical separation pretreatment step and any spectral processing, which also implies other potential applications such as food and drug safety, herbal plants quality, and environmental evaluation, due to its advantages of nontoxic and nondestructive analysis.

  11. Dynamic thermal effects of epidermal melanin and plasmonic nanoparticles during photoacoustic breast imaging

    Ghassemi, Pejhman; Wang, Quanzeng; Pfefer, T. Joshua

    2016-03-01

    Photoacoustic Tomography (PAT) employs high-power near-infrared (near-IR) laser pulses to generate structural and functional information on tissue chromophores up to several centimeters below the surface. Such insights may facilitate detection of breast cancer - the most common cancer in women. PAT mammography has been the subject of extensive research, including techniques based on exogenous agents for PAT contrast enhancement and molecular specificity. However, photothermal safety risks of PAT due to strong chromophores such as epidermal melanin and plasmonic nanoparticles have not been rigorously studied. We have used computational and experimental approaches to elucidate highly dynamic optical-thermal processes during PAT. A Monte Carlo model was used to simulate light propagation at 800 and 1064 nm in a multi-layer breast tissue geometry with different epidermal pigmentation levels and a tumorsimulating inclusion incorporating nanoparticles. Energy deposition results were then used in a bioheat transfer model to simulate temperature transients. Experimental measurements involved multi-layer hydrogel phantoms with inclusions incorporating gold nanoparticles. Phantom optical properties were measured using the inverse adding-doubling technique. Thermal imaging was performed as phantoms were irradiated with 5 ns near-IR pulses. Scenarios using 10 Hz laser irradiation of breast tissue containing various nanoparticle concentrations were implemented experimentally and computationally. Laser exposure levels were based on ANSI/IEC limits. Surface temperature measurements were compared to corresponding simulation data. In general, the effect of highly pigmented skin on temperature rise was significant, whereas unexpectedly small levels of temperature rise during nanoparticle irradiation were attributed to rapid photodegradation. Results provide key initial insights into light-tissue interactions impacting the safety and effectiveness of PAT.

  12. Molecular imaging of neutropilin-1 receptor using photoacoustic spectroscopy in breast tumors

    Stantz, Keith M.; Cao, Minsong; Liu, Bo; Miller, Kathy D.; Guo, Lili

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: Our purpose is to develop and test a molecular probe that can detect the expression of neutropilin-1 receptor (NPR-1) in vivo using fluorescence imaging and photoacoustic spectroscopy. Introduction: NPR-1 is expressed on endothelial cells and some breast cancer cells, and binds to vascular endothelial growth factor VEGF165, a growth factor associated with pathological tumor angiogenesis. This receptor is coexpressed with VEGFR2 and shown to enhance the binding of VEGF165; therefore, it has the potential to be used as a marker of angiogenic activity and targeted for therapy. Material and Methods: A peptide specific to NPR-1 receptor was synthesized and conjugated to a NIR fluorochrome (IRDye800CW) and was intravenously injected into mice with breast tumors (MCF7VEGF). Probe kinetics was monitored in vivo via near infrared fluorescence (NIRF) within an optical imager for up to 72 hours within the tumor and compared to other organs (liver, muscle) for binding specificity. A multivariate fitting algorithm was used to spectrally deconvolve the IRDye800CW from endogenous hemoglobin signature (hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation). Results: Dynamics of the NIR fluorescence signal within the first hour after injection indicates specific binding compared to muscle, with an average tumor-to-muscle ration of 2.00 (+/- 0.27). Spectral analysis clearly indentified the presence of the NPR-1 probe. Based on calibration data, the average tumor concentration from both NIRF and PCT-S was measured to be ~200-300nM. Conclusion: These preliminary results show the capability of PCT to image an exogenous probe in vivo in addition to its hemoglobin state.

  13. A quantitative method to detect explosives and selected semivolatiles in soil samples by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Clapper-Gowdy, M.; Dermirgian, J.; Robitaille, G.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a novel Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic method that can be used to rapidly screen soil samples from potentially hazardous waste sites. Samples are heated in a thermal desorption unit and the resultant vapors are collected and analyzed in a long-path gas cell mounted in a FTIR. Laboratory analysis of a soil sample by FTIR takes approximately 10 minutes. This method has been developed to identify and quantify microgram concentrations of explosives in soil samples and is directly applicable to the detection of selected volatile organics, semivolatile organics, and pesticides

  14. Mid-Infrared Spectrum of the Zodiacal Emission: Detection of Crystalline Silicates in Interplanetary Dust

    Ootsubo, T.; Onaka, T.; Yamamura, I.; Ishihara, D.; Tanabe, T.; Roellig, T. L.

    2003-01-01

    Within a few astronomical units of the Sun the solar system is filled with interplanetary dust, which is believed to be dust of cometary and asteroidal origin. Spectroscopic observations of the zodiacal emission with moderate resolution provide key information on the composition and size distribution of the dust in the interplanetary space. They can be compared directly to laboratory measurements of candidate materials, meteorites, and dust particles collected in the stratosphere. Recently mid-infrared spectroscopic observations of the zodiacal emission have been made by two instruments on board the Infrared Space Observatory; the camera (ISOCAM) and the spectrophotometer (ISOPHOT-S). A broad excess emission feature in the 9-11 micron range is reported in the ISOCAM spectrum, whereas the ISOPHOT-S spectra in 6-12 microns can be well fitted by a blackbody radiation without spectral features.

  15. Silicon based mechanic-photonic wavelength converter for infrared photo-detection

    Rudnitsky, Arkady; Agdarov, Sergey; Gulitsky, Konstantin; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2017-06-01

    In this paper we present a new concept to realize a mechanic-photonic wavelength converter in silicon chip by construction of nanorods and by modulating the input illumination at temporal frequency matched to the mechanic resonance of the nanorods. The use case is to realize an infrared photo detector in silicon which is not based on absorption but rather on the mechanical interaction of the nanorods with the incoming illumination.

  16. Fourier Transform Infrared Radiation Spectroscopy Applied for Wood Rot Decay and Mould Fungi Growth Detection

    Jelle, Bjørn Petter; Hovde, Per Jostein

    2012-01-01

    Material characterization may be carried out by the attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) radiation spectroscopical technique, which represents a powerful experimental tool. The ATR technique may be applied on both solid state materials, liquids, and gases with none or only minor sample preparations, also including materials which are nontransparent to IR radiation. This facilitation is made possible by pressing the sample directly onto various crystals, for exa...

  17. Design of a sector bowtie nano-rectenna for optical power and infrared detection

    Wang, Kai; Hu, Haifeng; Lu, Shan; Guo, Lingju; He, Tao

    2015-10-01

    We designed a sector bowtie nanoantenna integrated with a rectifier (Au-TiO x -Ti diode) for collecting infrared energy. The optical performance of the metallic bowtie nanoantenna was numerically investigated at infrared frequencies (5-30 μm) using three-dimensional frequency-domain electromagnetic field calculation software based on the finite element method. The simulation results indicate that the resonance wavelength and local field enhancement are greatly affected by the shape and size of the bowtie nanoantenna, as well as the relative permittivity and conductivity of the dielectric layer. The output current of the rectified nano-rectenna is substantially at nanoampere magnitude with an electric field intensity of 1 V/m. Moreover, the power conversion efficiency for devices with three different substrates illustrates that a substrate with a larger refractive index yields a higher efficiency and longer infrared response wavelength. Consequently, the optimized structure can provide theoretical support for the design of novel optical rectennas and fabrication of optoelectronic devices.

  18. Nitroaromatic detection and infrared communication from wild-type plants using plant nanobionics

    Wong, Min Hao; Giraldo, Juan P.; Kwak, Seon-Yeong; Koman, Volodymyr B.; Sinclair, Rosalie; Lew, Tedrick Thomas Salim; Bisker, Gili; Liu, Pingwei; Strano, Michael S.

    2017-02-01

    Plant nanobionics aims to embed non-native functions to plants by interfacing them with specifically designed nanoparticles. Here, we demonstrate that living spinach plants (Spinacia oleracea) can be engineered to serve as self-powered pre-concentrators and autosamplers of analytes in ambient groundwater and as infrared communication platforms that can send information to a smartphone. The plants employ a pair of near-infrared fluorescent nanosensors--single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) conjugated to the peptide Bombolitin II to recognize nitroaromatics via infrared fluorescent emission, and polyvinyl-alcohol functionalized SWCNTs that act as an invariant reference signal--embedded within the plant leaf mesophyll. As contaminant nitroaromatics are transported up the roots and stem into leaf tissues, they accumulate in the mesophyll, resulting in relative changes in emission intensity. The real-time monitoring of embedded SWCNT sensors also allows residence times in the roots, stems and leaves to be estimated, calculated to be 8.3 min (combined residence times of root and stem) and 1.9 min mm-1 leaf, respectively. These results demonstrate the ability of living, wild-type plants to function as chemical monitors of groundwater and communication devices to external electronics at standoff distances.

  19. Nitroaromatic detection and infrared communication from wild-type plants using plant nanobionics.

    Wong, Min Hao; Giraldo, Juan P; Kwak, Seon-Yeong; Koman, Volodymyr B; Sinclair, Rosalie; Lew, Tedrick Thomas Salim; Bisker, Gili; Liu, Pingwei; Strano, Michael S

    2017-02-01

    Plant nanobionics aims to embed non-native functions to plants by interfacing them with specifically designed nanoparticles. Here, we demonstrate that living spinach plants (Spinacia oleracea) can be engineered to serve as self-powered pre-concentrators and autosamplers of analytes in ambient groundwater and as infrared communication platforms that can send information to a smartphone. The plants employ a pair of near-infrared fluorescent nanosensors-single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) conjugated to the peptide Bombolitin II to recognize nitroaromatics via infrared fluorescent emission, and polyvinyl-alcohol functionalized SWCNTs that act as an invariant reference signal-embedded within the plant leaf mesophyll. As contaminant nitroaromatics are transported up the roots and stem into leaf tissues, they accumulate in the mesophyll, resulting in relative changes in emission intensity. The real-time monitoring of embedded SWCNT sensors also allows residence times in the roots, stems and leaves to be estimated, calculated to be 8.3 min (combined residence times of root and stem) and 1.9 min mm -1 leaf, respectively. These results demonstrate the ability of living, wild-type plants to function as chemical monitors of groundwater and communication devices to external electronics at standoff distances.

  20. A Real-Time Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging Method for the Detection of Oral Cancers in Mice Using an Indocyanine Green-Labeled Podoplanin Antibody.

    Ito, Akihiro; Ohta, Mitsuhiko; Kato, Yukinari; Inada, Shunko; Kato, Toshio; Nakata, Susumu; Yatabe, Yasushi; Goto, Mitsuo; Kaneda, Norio; Kurita, Kenichi; Nakanishi, Hayao; Yoshida, Kenji

    2018-01-01

    Podoplanin is distinctively overexpressed in oral squamous cell carcinoma than oral benign neoplasms and plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis and metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinoma but its diagnostic application is quite limited. Here, we report a new near-infrared fluorescence imaging method using an indocyanine green (ICG)-labeled anti-podoplanin antibody and a desktop/a handheld ICG detection device for the visualization of oral squamous cell carcinoma-xenografted tumors in nude mice. Both near-infrared imaging methods using a desktop (in vivo imaging system: IVIS) and a handheld device (photodynamic eye: PDE) successfully detected oral squamous cell carcinoma tumors in nude mice in a podoplanin expression-dependent manner with comparable sensitivity. Of these 2 devices, only near-infrared imaging methods using a handheld device visualized oral squamous cell carcinoma xenografts in mice in real time. Furthermore, near-infrared imaging methods using the handheld device (PDE) could detect smaller podoplanin-positive oral squamous cell carcinoma tumors than a non-near-infrared, autofluorescence-based imaging method. Based on these results, a near-infrared imaging method using an ICG-labeled anti-podoplanin antibody and a handheld detection device (PDE) allows the sensitive, semiquantitative, and real-time imaging of oral squamous cell carcinoma tumors and therefore represents a useful tool for the detection and subsequent monitoring of malignant oral neoplasms in both preclinical and some clinical settings.