WorldWideScience

Sample records for infrared light observations

  1. MIRIS observation of near-infrared diffuse Galactic light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Yosuke; Sano, Kei; Matsuura, Shuji; Jeong, Woong-Seob; Pyo, Jeonghyun; Kim, Il-Jong; Seo, Hyun Jong; Han, Wonyong; Lee, DaeHee; Moon, Bongkon; Park, Wonkee; Park, Younsik; Kim, MinGyu; Matsumoto, Toshio; Matsuhara, Hideo; Nakagawa, Takao; Tsumura, Kohji; Shirahata, Mai; Arai, Toshiaki; Ienaka, Nobuyuki

    2018-06-01

    We report near-infrared (IR) observations of high Galactic latitude clouds to investigate diffuse Galactic light (DGL), which is starlight scattered by interstellar dust grains. The observations were performed at 1.1 and 1.6 μm with a wide-field camera instrument, the Multi-purpose Infra-Red Imaging System (MIRIS) onboard the Korean satellite STSAT-3. The DGL brightness is measured by correlating the near-IR images with a far-IR 100 μm map of interstellar dust thermal emission. The wide-field observation of DGL provides the most accurate DGL measurement achieved to-date. We also find a linear correlation between optical and near-IR DGL in the MBM32 field. To study interstellar dust properties in MBM32, we adopt recent dust models with and without μm-sized very large grains and predict the DGL spectra, taking into account the reddening effect of the interstellar radiation field. The result shows that the observed color of the near-IR DGL is closer to the model spectra without very large grains. This may imply that dust growth in the observed MBM32 field is not active owing to the low density of its interstellar medium.

  2. New gonioscopy system using only infrared light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Kota; Ito, Kunio; Matsunaga, Koichi; Miura, Katsuya; Esaki, Koji; Uji, Yukitaka

    2005-08-01

    To describe an infrared gonioscopy system designed to observe the anterior chamber angle under natural mydriasis in a completely darkened room. An infrared light filter was used to modify the light source of the slit-lamp microscope. A television monitor connected to a CCD monochrome camera was used to indirectly observe the angle. Use of the infrared system enabled observation of the angle under natural mydriasis in a completely darkened room. Infrared gonioscopy is a useful procedure for the observation of the angle under natural mydriasis.

  3. Infrared observations of RS CVn stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berriman, G.; De Campli, W. M.; Werner, M. W.; Hatchett, S. P.

    1983-01-01

    The paper presents infrared photometry of the RS CVn binary stars AR Lac (1.2-10 microns) and MM Her (1.2-3.5 microns) as they egressed from their primary and secondary eclipses; of the eclipsing systems RS CVn and Z Her at maximum light (1.2-10 microns) and of the non-eclipsing systems UX Ari and HR 1099 (1.2-10 microns). An analysis of these and published V data based on flux ratio diagrams (linear analogues of color-color diagrams) shows that G and K stars supply the infrared light of these systems. In AR Lac, the combined light of a G5-K0 subgiant and either a late F dwarf or an early F subgiant can account for the observed visual and infrared light curves. None of these systems shows infrared emission from circumstellar matter. This result is simply understood: dust grains would not be expected to form in the physical conditions surrounding the subgiant, and the corona and chromosphere (whose properties have been deduced from spectroscopic X-ray observations) should not produce appreciable infrared emission.

  4. Transcranial red and near infrared light transmission in a cadaveric model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared R Jagdeo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Low level light therapy has garnered significant interest within the past decade. The exact molecular mechanisms of how red and near infrared light result in physiologic modulation are not fully understood. Heme moieties and copper within cells are red and near infrared light photoreceptors that induce the mitochondrial respiratory chain component cytochrome C oxidase, resulting in a cascade linked to cytoprotection and cellular metabolism. The copper centers in cytochrome C oxidase have a broad absorption range that peaks around 830 nm. Several in vitro and in vivo animal and human models exist that have demonstrated the benefits of red light and near infrared light for various conditions. Clinical applications for low level light therapy are varied. One study in particular demonstrated improved durable functional outcomes status post-stroke in patients treated with near infrared low level light therapy compared to sham treatment [1]. Despite previous data suggesting the beneficial effect in treating multiple conditions, including stroke, with low level light therapy, limited data exists that measures transmission in a human model. STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS: To investigate this idea, we measured the transmission of near infrared light energy, using red light for purposes of comparison, through intact cadaver soft tissue, skull bones, and brain using a commercially available LED device at 830 nm and 633 nm. RESULTS: Our results demonstrate that near infrared measurably penetrates soft tissue, bone and brain parenchyma in the formalin preserved cadaveric model, in comparison to negligible red light transmission in the same conditions. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that near infrared light can penetrate formalin fixed soft tissue, bone and brain and implicate that benefits observed in clinical studies are potentially related to direct action of near infrared light on neural tissue.

  5. Cosmic Infrared Background Fluctuations and Zodiacal Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Richard G.; Kashlinsky, A.; Moseley, S. H.; Mather, J.

    2016-06-01

    We performed a specific observational test to measure the effect that the zodiacal light can have on measurements of the spatial fluctuations of the near-IR background. Previous estimates of possible fluctuations caused by zodiacal light have often been extrapolated from observations of the thermal emission at longer wavelengths and low angular resolution or from IRAC observations of high-latitude fields where zodiacal light is faint and not strongly varying with time. The new observations analyzed here target the COSMOS field at low ecliptic latitude where the zodiacal light intensity varies by factors of ˜2 over the range of solar elongations at which the field can be observed. We find that the white-noise component of the spatial power spectrum of the background is correlated with the modeled zodiacal light intensity. Roughly half of the measured white noise is correlated with the zodiacal light, but a more detailed interpretation of the white noise is hampered by systematic uncertainties that are evident in the zodiacal light model. At large angular scales (≳100″) where excess power above the white noise is observed, we find no correlation of the power with the modeled intensity of the zodiacal light. This test clearly indicates that the large-scale power in the infrared background is not being caused by the zodiacal light.

  6. Far infrared supplement: Catalog of infrared observations, second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gezari, D.Y.; Schmitz, M.; Mead, J.M.

    1988-08-01

    The Far Infrared Supplement: Catalog of Infrared Observations summarizes all infrared astronomical observations at far infrared wavelengths (5 to 1000 microns) published in the scientific literature from 1965 through 1986. The Supplement list contain 25 percent of the observations in the full Catalog of Infrared Observations (CIO), and essentially eliminates most visible stars from the listings. The Supplement is thus more compact than the main catalog, and is intended for easy reference during astronomical observations. The Far Infrared Supplement (2nd Edition) includes the Index of Infrared Source Positions and the Bibliography of Infrared Astronomy for the subset of far infrared observations listed

  7. Broadband integrated mid infrared light sources as enabling technology for point of care mid-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-20

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2017-0061 Broadband integrated mid-infrared light sources as enabling technology for point-of-care mid- infrared spectroscopy Alex...mid-infrared light sources as enabling technology for point-of-care mid-infrared spectroscopy 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA2386-16-1-4037...Broadband integrated mid-infrared light sources as enabling technology for point-of-care mid- infrared spectroscopy ” Date: 16th August 2017 Name

  8. Infrared spectral observation of stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komaki, Kazuo; Kodaira, Keiichi; Tanaka, W.; Suemoto, Zenzaburo

    1976-01-01

    The atmosphere of fixed stars must be studied in a supplementary way with both observation and theory. In case of low-temperature stars, however, there are difficulties in both two aspects. Under the situation, the multi-color measurement of the near infrared region was performed with a balloon telescope BAT-1 (the aperture of 15 cm) on June 17 and 18, 1975. For the red supergiant αSco, the data of light measurement was able to be obtained. (mori, K.)

  9. High Resolution Near Infrared Spectrometer to Study the Zodiacal Light Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutyrev, Alexander; Arendt, R.; Dwek, E.; Moseley, S. H.; Silverberg, R.; Rapchun, D.

    2007-12-01

    We are developing a near infrared spectrometer for measuring solar absorption lines in the zodiacal light in the near infrared region. R. Reynolds at el. (2004, ApJ 612, 1206) demonstrated that observing single Fraunhofer line can be a powerful tool for extracting zodiacal light parameters based on their measurements of the profile of the Mg I line at 5184 A. We are extending this technique to the near infrared with the primary goal of measuring the absolute intensity of the zodiacal light. This measurement will provide the crucial information needed to accurately subtract zodiacal emission from the DIRBE measurements to get a much higher quality measurement of the extragalactic IR background. The instrument design is based on a dual Fabry-Perot interferometer with a narrow band filter. Its double etalon design allows to achieve high spectral contrast to reject the bright out of band telluric OH emission. High spectral contrast is absolutely necessary to achieve detection limits needed to accurately measure the intensity of the absorption line. We present the design, estimated performance of the instrument with the expected results of the observing program. The project is supported by NASA ROSES-APRA grant.

  10. [Near infrared light irradiator using halogen lamp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Yasuo

    2012-07-01

    The practical electric light bulb was invented by Thomas Alva Edison in 1879. Halogen lamp is the toughest and brightest electric light bulb. With light filter, it is used as a source of near infrared light. Super Lizer and Alphabeam are made as near infrared light irradiator using halogen lamp. The light emmited by Super Lizer is linear polarized near infrared light. The wave length is from 600 to 1,600 nm and strongest at about 1,000 nm. Concerning Super Lizer, there is evidence of analgesic effects and normalization of the sympathetic nervous system. Super Lizer has four types of probes. SG type is used for stellate ganglion irradiation. B type is used for narrow area irradiation. C and D types are for broad area irradiation. The output of Alphabeam is not polarized. The wave length is from 700 to 1,600 nm and the strongest length is about 1,000nm. Standard attachment is used for spot irradiation. Small attachment is used for stellate ganglion irradiation. Wide attachment is used for broad area irradiation. The effects of Alphabeam are thought to be similar to that of Super Lizer.

  11. Near infrared photoluminescence properties of porous silicon prepared under the influence of light illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamadeh, H; Naddaf, M; Jazmati, A

    2008-01-01

    Porous silicon (PS) has been prepared by anodic etching of boron doped silicon under the influence of monochromatic light illumination. The optical properties of the PS samples have been investigated using temperature dependent photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. An overall enhancement of the infrared luminescence yield is caused by the light illumination. In the visible spectral range, changes at the low energy side of the broad PL band were observed. In the near infrared spectral range, a new PL band at 850 nm, which is strongly correlated with light illumination, was detected. The new PL band disappears once blue light is used, whereas an increase in its intensity is observed, when the etching is performed under the illumination of light with wavelengths close to the band gap. By increasing the temperature, the 850 nm transition band grows at the expense of the main near infrared transition at 1100 nm. The recombination characteristics of this PL band are indicative of its extrinsic nature. The macroscopic morphology shows strong dependence on the wavelength of the illumination light. Photoassisted preparation could provide a tool for the control of the optical and structural properties of PS.

  12. Near infrared photoluminescence properties of porous silicon prepared under the influence of light illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamadeh, H; Naddaf, M; Jazmati, A [Department of Physics, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, PO Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)], E-mail: Scientific8@aec.org.sy

    2008-12-21

    Porous silicon (PS) has been prepared by anodic etching of boron doped silicon under the influence of monochromatic light illumination. The optical properties of the PS samples have been investigated using temperature dependent photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. An overall enhancement of the infrared luminescence yield is caused by the light illumination. In the visible spectral range, changes at the low energy side of the broad PL band were observed. In the near infrared spectral range, a new PL band at 850 nm, which is strongly correlated with light illumination, was detected. The new PL band disappears once blue light is used, whereas an increase in its intensity is observed, when the etching is performed under the illumination of light with wavelengths close to the band gap. By increasing the temperature, the 850 nm transition band grows at the expense of the main near infrared transition at 1100 nm. The recombination characteristics of this PL band are indicative of its extrinsic nature. The macroscopic morphology shows strong dependence on the wavelength of the illumination light. Photoassisted preparation could provide a tool for the control of the optical and structural properties of PS.

  13. Near infrared photoluminescence properties of porous silicon prepared under the influence of light illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamadeh, H.; Naddaf, M.; Jazmati, A.

    2009-01-01

    Porous silicon (PS) has been prepared by anodic etching of boron doped silicon under the influence of monochromatic light illumination. The optical properties of the PS samples have been investigated using temperature dependent photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. An overall enhancement of the infrared luminescence yield is caused by the light illumination. In the visible spectral range, changes at the low energy side of the broad PL band were observed. In the near infrared spectral range, a new PL band at 850 nm, which is strongly correlated with light illumination, was detected. The new PL band disappears once blue light is used, whereas an increase of its intensity is observed, when the etching is performed under the illumination of light with wavelengths close to the band gap. By increasing the temperature, the 850 nm transition band grows at the expense of the main near infrared transition at 1100 nm. The recombination characteristics of this PL band are indicative of its extrinsic nature. The macroscopic morphology shows strong dependence on the wavelength of the illumination light. Photoassisted preparation could provide a tool for the control of the optical and structural properties of PS. (author)

  14. Near infrared photoluminescence properties of porous silicon prepared under the influence of light illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadeh, H.; Naddaf, M.; Jazmati, A.

    2008-12-01

    Porous silicon (PS) has been prepared by anodic etching of boron doped silicon under the influence of monochromatic light illumination. The optical properties of the PS samples have been investigated using temperature dependent photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. An overall enhancement of the infrared luminescence yield is caused by the light illumination. In the visible spectral range, changes at the low energy side of the broad PL band were observed. In the near infrared spectral range, a new PL band at 850 nm, which is strongly correlated with light illumination, was detected. The new PL band disappears once blue light is used, whereas an increase in its intensity is observed, when the etching is performed under the illumination of light with wavelengths close to the band gap. By increasing the temperature, the 850 nm transition band grows at the expense of the main near infrared transition at 1100 nm. The recombination characteristics of this PL band are indicative of its extrinsic nature. The macroscopic morphology shows strong dependence on the wavelength of the illumination light. Photoassisted preparation could provide a tool for the control of the optical and structural properties of PS.

  15. Infrared observations of RS CVn stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berriman, G.; De Campli, W.M.; Werner, M.W.; Hatchett, S.P.

    1983-01-01

    Infrared photometry is presented of the RS CVn binary stars AR Lac (1.2-10 μm) and MM Her (1.2-3.5 μm) as they egressed from their primary and secondary eclipses; of the eclipsing systems RS CVn and Z Her at maximum light (1.2-10 μm) and of the non-eclipsing systems UX Ari and HR 1099 (1.2-10 μm). An analysis of these and published V data based on flux ratio diagrams (linear analogues of colour-colour diagrams) shows that G and K stars supply the infrared light of these systems. None of these systems shows infrared emission from circumstellar matter. (author)

  16. The origin of the infrared light of cataclysmic variable stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berriman, G.; Szkody, P.; Capps, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents a model-independent overview of the origin of the near infrared (1-2 μm) light of a sample of 28 cataclysmic binary stars, largely dwarf novae in quiescence. The infrared light comes from the red dwarf that supplies matter to the white dwarf companion and the accretion disc around the white dwarf. The complex nature of the disc prevents near-infrared photometry from being a good probe of the red dwarfs, even in those systems where they are seen in the visual. All that can be found reliably is an upper limit to the proportion light that the red dwarfs supply, and consequently lower limits to the distances to the systems. The infrared light of the discs comes from opaque material and from the optically thin gas that gives rise to the visual and UV emission lines. (author)

  17. Long-term reduction in infrared autofluorescence caused by infrared light below the maximum permissible exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masella, Benjamin D; Williams, David R; Fischer, William S; Rossi, Ethan A; Hunter, Jennifer J

    2014-05-20

    Many retinal imaging instruments use infrared wavelengths to reduce the risk of light damage. However, we have discovered that exposure to infrared illumination causes a long-lasting reduction in infrared autofluorescence (IRAF). We have characterized the dependence of this effect on radiant exposure and investigated its origin. A scanning laser ophthalmoscope was used to obtain IRAF images from two macaques before and after exposure to 790-nm light (15-450 J/cm(2)). Exposures were performed with either raster-scanning or uniform illumination. Infrared autofluorescence images also were obtained in two humans exposed to 790-nm light in a separate study. Humans were assessed with direct ophthalmoscopy, Goldmann visual fields, multifocal ERG, and photopic microperimetry to determine whether these measures revealed any effects in the exposed locations. A significant decrease in IRAF after exposure to infrared light was seen in both monkeys and humans. In monkeys, the magnitude of this reduction increased with retinal radiant exposure. Partial recovery was seen at 1 month, with full recovery within 21 months. Consistent with a photochemical origin, IRAF decreases caused by either raster-scanning or uniform illumination were not significantly different. We were unable to detect any effect of the light exposure with any measure other than IRAF imaging. We cannot exclude the possibility that changes could be detected with more sensitive tests or longer follow-up. This long-lasting effect of infrared illumination in both humans and monkeys occurs at exposure levels four to five times below current safety limits. The photochemical basis for this phenomenon remains unknown. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  18. Infrared observation of the early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, T.

    1984-01-01

    The rocket observation of the near-infrared extragalactic background radiation and its influence on the cosmology are described. The furute plans to observe the near-infrared and far-infrared backgrounds are also presented. (author)

  19. COBE DIRBE near-infrared polarimetry of the zodiacal light: Initial results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berriman, G. B.; Boggess, N. W.; Hauser, M. G.; Kelsall, T.; Lisse, C. M.; Moseley, S. H.; Reach, W. T.; Silverberg, R. F.

    1994-01-01

    This Letter describes near-infrared polarimetry of the zodiacal light at 2.2 micrometers, measured with the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) aboard the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) spacecraft. The polarization is due to scattering of sunlight. The polarization vector is perpendicular to the scattering plane, and its observed amplitude on the ecliptic equator at an elongation of 90 deg and ecliptic longitude of 10 deg declines from 12.0 +/- 0.4% at 1.25 micrometers to 8.0 +/- 0.6% at 3.5 micrometers (cf. 16% in the visible); the principal source of uncertainty is photometric noise due to stars. The observed near-infrared colors at this location are redder than Solar, but at 3.5 micrometers this is due at least in part to the thermal emission contribution from the interplanetary dust. Mie theory calculations show that both polarizations and colors are important in constraining models of interplanetary dust.

  20. Hierarchical Models for Type Ia Supernova Light Curves in the Optical and Near Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Kaisey; Narayan, G.; Kirshner, R. P.

    2011-01-01

    I have constructed a comprehensive statistical model for Type Ia supernova optical and near infrared light curves. Since the near infrared light curves are excellent standard candles and are less sensitive to dust extinction and reddening, the combination of near infrared and optical data better constrains the host galaxy extinction and improves the precision of distance predictions to SN Ia. A hierarchical probabilistic model coherently accounts for multiple random and uncertain effects, including photometric error, intrinsic supernova light curve variations and correlations across phase and wavelength, dust extinction and reddening, peculiar velocity dispersion and distances. An improved BayeSN MCMC code is implemented for computing probabilistic inferences for individual supernovae and the SN Ia and host galaxy dust populations. I use this hierarchical model to analyze nearby Type Ia supernovae with optical and near infared data from the PAIRITEL, CfA3, and CSP samples and the literature. Using cross-validation to test the robustness of the model predictions, I find that the rms Hubble diagram scatter of predicted distance moduli is 0.11 mag for SN with optical and near infrared data versus 0.15 mag for SN with only optical data. Accounting for the dispersion expected from random peculiar velocities, the rms intrinsic prediction error is 0.08-0.10 mag for SN with both optical and near infrared light curves. I discuss results for the inferred intrinsic correlation structures of the optical-NIR SN Ia light curves and the host galaxy dust distribution captured by the hierarchical model. The continued observation and analysis of Type Ia SN in the optical and near infrared is important for improving their utility as precise and accurate cosmological distance indicators.

  1. Non-collinear upconversion of infrared light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian; Hu, Qi; Høgstedt, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    Two dimensional mid-infrared upconversion imaging provides unique spectral and spatial information showing good potential for mid- infrared spectroscopy and hyperspectral imaging. However, to extract spectral or spatial information from the upconverted images an elaborate model is needed, which...... includes non-collinear interaction. We derive here a general theory providing the far field of the upconverted light when two arbitrary fields interact inside a non linear crystal. Theoretical predictions are experimentally verified for incoherent radiation and subsequently applied to previously published...

  2. Observation of galactic far-infrared ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maihara, Toshinori; Oda, Naoki; Okuda, Haruyuki; Sugiyama, Takuya; Sakai, Kiyomi.

    1978-01-01

    Galactic far-infrared was observed to study the spatial distribution of interstellar dust. Far-infrared is emitted by interstellar dust distributing throughout the galactic plane. The observation of far-infrared is very important to study the overall structure of the galaxy, that is the structure of the galactic arm and gas distribution. The balloon experiment was conducted on May 25, 1978. The detector was a germanium bolometer cooled by liquid helium. The size of the detector is 1.6 mm in diameter. The geometrical factor was 4 x 10 3 cm 2 sr. The result showed that the longitude distribution of far-infrared at 150 μm correlated with H 166 α recombination line. This indicates that the observed far-infrared is emitted by interstellar dust heated by photons of Lyman continuum. (Yoshimori, M.)

  3. All-Quantum-Dot Infrared Light-Emitting Diodes

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Zhenyu

    2015-12-22

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are promising candidates for infrared electroluminescent devices. To date, CQD-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have employed a CQD emission layer sandwiched between carrier transport layers built using organic materials and inorganic oxides. Herein, we report the infrared LEDs that use quantum-tuned materials for each of the hole-transporting, the electron-transporting, and the light-emitting layers. We successfully tailor the bandgap and band position of each CQD-based component to produce electroluminescent devices that exhibit emission that we tune from 1220 to 1622 nm. Devices emitting at 1350 nm achieve peak external quantum efficiency up to 1.6% with a low turn-on voltage of 1.2 V, surpassing previously reported all-inorganic CQD LEDs.

  4. Infrared and optical light curves of EX Hydrae and VW Hydri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherrington, M.R.; Lawson, P.A.; King, A.R.; Jameson, R.F.

    1980-01-01

    Optical and infrared light curves of EX Hya (V and K) and VW Hyi (J and K) are presented. The infrared colours imply very large discs for these systems. It is also found for EX Hya that the structure of the light curves is non-repeatable. (author)

  5. A color fusion method of infrared and low-light-level images based on visual perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing; Yan, Minmin; Zhang, Yi; Bai, Lianfa

    2014-11-01

    The color fusion images can be obtained through the fusion of infrared and low-light-level images, which will contain both the information of the two. The fusion images can help observers to understand the multichannel images comprehensively. However, simple fusion may lose the target information due to inconspicuous targets in long-distance infrared and low-light-level images; and if targets extraction is adopted blindly, the perception of the scene information will be affected seriously. To solve this problem, a new fusion method based on visual perception is proposed in this paper. The extraction of the visual targets ("what" information) and parallel processing mechanism are applied in traditional color fusion methods. The infrared and low-light-level color fusion images are achieved based on efficient typical targets learning. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method. The fusion images achieved by our algorithm can not only improve the detection rate of targets, but also get rich natural information of the scenes.

  6. Infrared observations of the eclipsing millisecond pulsar 1957 + 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eales, S.A.; Becklin, E.E.; Zuckerman, B.

    1990-01-01

    We have taken 2.2-μm images, over the entire range of orbital phase, of the eclipsing millisecond pulsar 1957 + 20. We show that the 2.2-μm flux from the pulsar system is variable, and that the infrared light curve is similar to the optical light curve. Four additional images at 1.2 μm show that there is a possible infrared excess from the system. (author)

  7. All-Quantum-Dot Infrared Light-Emitting Diodes

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Zhenyu; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Liu, Mengxia; Yuan, Mingjian; Ip, Alexander H.; Ahmed, Osman S.; Levina, Larissa; Kinge, Sachin; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Sargent, Edward H.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are promising candidates for infrared electroluminescent devices. To date, CQD-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have employed a CQD emission layer sandwiched between carrier transport

  8. Infrared observations of planetary atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orton, G.S.; Baines, K.H.; Bergstralh, J.T.

    1988-01-01

    The goal of this research in to obtain infrared data on planetary atmospheres which provide information on several aspects of structure and composition. Observations include direct mission real-time support as well as baseline monitoring preceding mission encounters. Besides providing a broader information context for spacecraft experiment data analysis, observations will provide the quantitative data base required for designing optimum remote sensing sequences and evaluating competing science priorities. In the past year, thermal images of Jupiter and Saturn were made near their oppositions in order to monitor long-term changes in their atmospheres. Infrared images of the Jovian polar stratospheric hot spots were made with IUE observations of auroral emissions. An exploratory 5-micrometer spectrum of Uranus was reduced and accepted for publication. An analysis of time-variability of temperature and cloud properties of the Jovian atomsphere was made. Development of geometric reduction programs for imaging data was initiated for the sun workstation. Near-infrared imaging observations of Jupiter were reduced and a preliminary analysis of cloud properties made. The first images of the full disk of Jupiter with a near-infrared array camera were acquired. Narrow-band (10/cm) images of Jupiter and Saturn were obtained with acousto-optical filters

  9. Infrared rotational light curves on Jupiter induced by wave activities and cloud patterns andimplications on brown dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Huazhi; Zhang, Xi; Fletcher, Leigh; Orton, Glenn S.; Sinclair, James Andrew; Fernandes,, Joshua; Momary, Thomas W.; Warren, Ari; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Sato, Takao M.; Fujiyoshi, Takuya

    2017-10-01

    Many brown dwarfs exhibit infrared rotational light curves with amplitude varying from a fewpercent to twenty percent (Artigau et al. 2009, ApJ, 701, 1534; Radigan et al. 2012, ApJ, 750,105). Recently, it was claimed that weather patterns, especially planetary-scale waves in thebelts and cloud spots, are responsible for the light curves and their evolutions on brown dwarfs(Apai et al. 2017, Science, 357, 683). Here we present a clear relationship between the direct IRemission maps and light curves of Jupiter at multiple wavelengths, which might be similar withthat on cold brown dwarfs. Based on infrared disk maps from Subaru/COMICS and VLT/VISIR,we constructed full maps of Jupiter and rotational light curves at different wavelengths in thethermal infrared. We discovered a strong relationship between the light curves and weatherpatterns on Jupiter. The light curves also exhibit strong multi-bands phase shifts and temporalvariations, similar to that detected on brown dwarfs. Together with the spectra fromTEXES/IRTF, our observations further provide detailed information of the spatial variations oftemperature, ammonia clouds and aerosols in the troposphere of Jupiter (Fletcher et al. 2016,Icarus, 2016 128) and their influences on the shapes of the light curves. We conclude that waveactivities in Jupiter’s belts (Fletcher et al. 2017, GRL, 44, 7140), cloud holes, and long-livedvortices such as the Great Red Spot and ovals control the shapes of IR light curves and multi-wavelength phase shifts on Jupiter. Our finding supports the hypothesis that observed lightcurves on brown dwarfs are induced by planetary-scale waves and cloud spots.

  10. Integrative Multi-Spectral Sensor Device for Far-Infrared and Visible Light Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Tiezhu; Chen, Lulu; Pang, Yusong; Yan, Gaowei

    2018-06-01

    Infrared and visible light image fusion technology is a hot spot in the research of multi-sensor fusion technology in recent years. Existing infrared and visible light fusion technologies need to register before fusion because of using two cameras. However, the application effect of the registration technology has yet to be improved. Hence, a novel integrative multi-spectral sensor device is proposed for infrared and visible light fusion, and by using the beam splitter prism, the coaxial light incident from the same lens is projected to the infrared charge coupled device (CCD) and visible light CCD, respectively. In this paper, the imaging mechanism of the proposed sensor device is studied with the process of the signals acquisition and fusion. The simulation experiment, which involves the entire process of the optic system, signal acquisition, and signal fusion, is constructed based on imaging effect model. Additionally, the quality evaluation index is adopted to analyze the simulation result. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed sensor device is effective and feasible.

  11. THE EXTRAORDINARY FAR-INFRARED VARIATION OF A PROTOSTAR: HERSCHEL/PACS OBSERVATIONS OF LRLL54361

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balog, Zoltan; Detre, Örs H.; Bouwmann, Jeroen; Nielbock, Markus; Klaas, Ulrich; Krause, Oliver; Henning, Thomas [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy Königstuhl 17, Heidelberg D-69117 (Germany); Muzerolle, James [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Flaherty, Kevin [Astronomy Department, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT 06459 (United States); Furlan, Elise [Natinal Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Gutermuth, Rob [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Juhasz, Attila [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333-CA Leiden (Netherlands); Bally, John [CASA, University of Colorado, CB 389, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Marton, Gabor, E-mail: balog@mpia.de [Konkoly Observatory, Research Center for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Konkoly Thege 15-17, 1121 Budapest (Hungary)

    2014-07-10

    We report Herschel/Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) photometric observations at 70 μm and 160 μm of LRLL54361—a suspected binary protostar that exhibits periodic (P = 25.34 days) flux variations at shorter wavelengths (3.6 μm and 4.5 μm) thought to be due to pulsed accretion caused by binary motion. The PACS observations show unprecedented flux variation at these far-infrared wavelengths that are well correlated with the variations at shorter wavelengths. At 70 μm the object increases its flux by a factor of six while at 160 μm the change is about a factor of two, consistent with the wavelength dependence seen in the far-infrared spectra. The source is marginally resolved at 70 μm with varying FWHM. Deconvolved images of the sources show elongations exactly matching the outflow cavities traced by the scattered light observations. The spatial variations are anti-correlated with the flux variation, indicating that a light echo is responsible for the changes in FWHM. The observed far-infrared flux variability indicates that the disk and envelope of this source is periodically heated by the accretion pulses of the central source, and suggests that such long wavelength variability in general may provide a reasonable proxy for accretion variations in protostars.

  12. The effect of lunarlike satellites on the orbital infrared light curves of Earth-analog planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskovitz, Nicholas A; Gaidos, Eric; Williams, Darren M

    2009-04-01

    We have investigated the influence of lunarlike satellites on the infrared orbital light curves of Earth-analog extrasolar planets. Such light curves will be obtained by NASA's Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and ESA's Darwin missions as a consequence of repeat observations to confirm the companion status of a putative planet and determine its orbit. We used an energy balance model to calculate disk-averaged infrared (bolometric) fluxes from planet-satellite systems over a full orbital period (one year). The satellites are assumed to lack an atmosphere, have a low thermal inertia like that of the Moon, and span a range of plausible radii. The planets are assumed to have thermal and orbital properties that mimic those of Earth, while their obliquities and orbital longitudes of inferior conjunction remain free parameters. Even if the gross thermal properties of the planet can be independently constrained (e.g., via spectroscopy or visible-wavelength detection of specular glint from a surface ocean), only the largest (approximately Mars-sized) lunarlike satellites can be detected by light curve data from a TPF-like instrument (i.e., one that achieves a photometric signal-to-noise ratio of 10 to 20 at infrared wavelengths). Nondetection of a lunarlike satellite can obfuscate the interpretation of a given system's infrared light curve so that it may resemble a single planet with high obliquity, different orbital longitude of vernal equinox relative to inferior conjunction, and in some cases drastically different thermal characteristics. If the thermal properties of the planet are not independently established, then the presence of a lunarlike satellite cannot be inferred from infrared data, which would thus demonstrate that photometric light curves alone can only be used for preliminary study, and the addition of spectroscopic data will be necessary.

  13. Infrared observations of Seyfert galaxies and quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neugebauer, G.

    1978-01-01

    The infrared energy distributions of the Seyfert galaxies apparently contain three components: a galactic stellar component, a thermal component from heated dust, plus a nonthermal component. The appearance of the infrared energy distribution depends on which component dominates. There is also a correlation observed between the infrared energy distribution and the Khachikian Weedman class. Preliminary data on bright quasars are given. The infrared energy distributions generally increase into the infrared with a power law slope of approximately 1. In detail they differ from power laws with a significant fraction emitting most of their energy near 3μm. No differences in radio loud and radio quiet are obvious from the infrared energy distributions. The variability of the quasars in the infrared is generally correlated with the variability in the visible, although significant exceptions have been observed. (Auth.)

  14. Origin of Infrared Light Modulation in Reflectance-Mode Photoplethysmography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor S Sidorov

    Full Text Available We recently pointed out the important role of dermis deformation by pulsating arterial pressure in the formation of a photoplethysmographic signal at green light. The aim of this study was to explore the role of this novel finding in near-infrared (NIR light. A light-emitting diode (LED-based imaging photoplethysmography (IPPG system was used to detect spatial distribution of blood pulsations under frame-to-frame switching green and NIR illumination in the palms of 34 healthy individuals. We observed a significant increase of light-intensity modulation at the heartbeat frequency for both illuminating wavelengths after a palm was contacted with a glass plate. Strong positive correlation between data measured at green and NIR light was found, suggesting that the same signal was read independently from the depth of penetration. Analysis of the data shows that an essential part of remitted NIR light is modulated in time as a result of elastic deformations of dermis caused by variable blood pressure in the arteries. Our observations suggest that in contrast with the classical model, photoplethysmographic waveform originates from the modulation of the density of capillaries caused by the variable pressure applied to the skin from large blood vessels. Particularly, beat-to-beat transmural pressure in arteries compresses/decompresses the dermis and deforms its connective-tissue components, thus affecting the distance between the capillaries, which results in the modulation of absorption and scattering coefficients of both green and NIR light. These findings are important for the correct interpretation of this widely used medical technique, which may have novel applications in diagnosis and treatment monitoring of aging and skin diseases.

  15. Near-infrared light emitting device using semiconductor nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Supran, Geoffrey J.S.; Song, Katherine W.; Hwang, Gyuweon; Correa, Raoul Emile; Shirasaki, Yasuhiro; Bawendi, Moungi G.; Bulovic, Vladimir; Scherer, Jennifer

    2018-04-03

    A near-infrared light emitting device can include semiconductor nanocrystals that emit at wavelengths beyond 1 .mu.m. The semiconductor nanocrystals can include a core and an overcoating on a surface of the core.

  16. Observation of near and intermediate infrared galactic radiation by the rocket K-10-14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Satio; Matsumoto, Toshio; Mizuno, Tomohisa; Murakami, Hiroshi; Noguchi, Kunio

    1981-01-01

    The spatial and the energy spectra of near and intermediate infrared radiation were observed by using a detector system loaded on a rocket. The detector system is a He-cooled infrared telescope, and consists of an optical system, a cryostat, an electronic system, and a star sensor. The system was loaded on the rocket K-10-14, and the observation was made for about 400 second on August 27, 1980. For the radiation with wavelength of 2.4 mu m and 4.6 mu m, the intensity of galactic light around 338, 9, 15 and 12 degree of galactic longitude was observed. For the wavelength of 7.6, 10.1 and 14.7 mu m, the data around 340 and 10 degree of galactic longitude were obtained. The latitudinal distribution of radiation of 2.4 and 4.6 mu m was measured. After the correction for interstellar absorption, it can be said that the galactic radiation of wavelength between 2.4 mu m and 7.6 mu m was mainly composed of the radiation from light balls of late type stars. (Kato, T.)

  17. Infrared observations of AE Aquarii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanzi, E. G.; Chincarini, G.; Tarenghi, M.

    1981-01-01

    Broadband infrared observations of the cataclysmic variable AE Aquarii are reported. The observations were obtained in the J, H, K and L filters with the InSb photometer attached to the 1-m telescope of the European Southern Observatory. The infrared energy distribution observed from 0.35 to 3.5 microns for phase 0.5 suggests a spectral type of K5 V for the secondary and a distance to the system of approximately 70 pc if an absolute magnitude of 7.3 is assumed. Monitoring of the flux at 2.2 microns reveals a variability with an amplitude of approximately 0.3 magnitude over one third of the orbital period, the nature of which is under investigation.

  18. Killing Cancer Cells with the Help of Infrared Light – Photoimmunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Near-infrared photoimmunotherapy uses an antibody–photoabsorber conjugate that binds to cancer cells. When near-infrared light is applied, the cells swell and then burst, causing the cancer cell to die. Photoimmunotherapy is in clinical trials in patients with inoperable tumors.

  19. Towards strong light-matter coupling at the single-resonator level with sub-wavelength mid-infrared nano-antennas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malerba, M.; De Angelis, F., E-mail: francesco.deangelis@iit.it [Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Morego, 30, I-16163 Genova (Italy); Ongarello, T.; Paulillo, B.; Manceau, J.-M.; Beaudoin, G.; Sagnes, I.; Colombelli, R., E-mail: raffaele.colombelli@u-psud.fr [Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (C2N Orsay), CNRS UMR9001, Univ. Paris Sud, Univ. Paris Saclay, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2016-07-11

    We report a crucial step towards single-object cavity electrodynamics in the mid-infrared spectral range using resonators that borrow functionalities from antennas. Room-temperature strong light-matter coupling is demonstrated in the mid-infrared between an intersubband transition and an extremely reduced number of sub-wavelength resonators. By exploiting 3D plasmonic nano-antennas featuring an out-of-plane geometry, we observed strong light-matter coupling in a very low number of resonators: only 16, more than 100 times better than what reported to date in this spectral range. The modal volume addressed by each nano-antenna is sub-wavelength-sized and it encompasses only ≈4400 electrons.

  20. High pressure near infrared study of the mutated light-harvesting complex LH2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braun P.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The pressure sensitivities of the near infrared spectra of the light-harvesting (LH2 complex and a mutant complex with a simplified BChl-B850 binding pocket were compared. In the mutant an abrupt change in the spectral properties occurred at 250 MPa, which was not observed with the native sample. Increased disorder due to collapse of the chromophore pocket is suggested.

  1. Broadband mid-infrared superlattice light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricker, R. J.; Provence, S. R.; Norton, D. T.; Boggess, T. F.; Prineas, J. P.

    2017-05-01

    InAs/GaSb type-II superlattice light-emitting diodes were fabricated to form a device that provides emission over the entire 3-5 μm mid-infrared transmission window. Variable bandgap emission regions were coupled together using tunnel junctions to emit at peak wavelengths of 3.3 μm, 3.5 μm, 3.7 μm, 3.9 μm, 4.1 μm, 4.4 μm, 4.7 μm, and 5.0 μm. Cascading the structure recycles the electrons in each emission region to emit several wavelengths simultaneously. At high current densities, the light-emitting diode spectra broadened into a continuous, broadband spectrum that covered the entire mid-infrared band. When cooled to 77 K, radiances of over 1 W/cm2 sr were achieved, demonstrating apparent temperatures above 1000 K over the 3-5 μm band. InAs/GaSb type-II superlattices are capable of emitting from 3 μm to 30 μm, and the device design can be expanded to include longer emission wavelengths.

  2. Near-infrared branding efficiently correlates light and electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Derron; Nikić, Ivana; Brinkoetter, Mary; Knecht, Sharmon; Potz, Stephanie; Kerschensteiner, Martin; Misgeld, Thomas

    2011-06-05

    The correlation of light and electron microscopy of complex tissues remains a major challenge. Here we report near-infrared branding (NIRB), which facilitates such correlation by using a pulsed, near-infrared laser to create defined fiducial marks in three dimensions in fixed tissue. As these marks are fluorescent and can be photo-oxidized to generate electron contrast, they can guide re-identification of previously imaged structures as small as dendritic spines by electron microscopy.

  3. Modeling the light-travel-time effect on the far-infrared size of IRC +10216

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Edward L.; Baganoff, Frederick K.

    1995-01-01

    Models of the far-infrared emission from the large circumstellar dust envelope surrounding the carbon star IRC +10216 are used to assess the importance of the light-travel-time effect (LTTE) on the observed size of the source. The central star is a long-period variable with an average period of 644 +/- 17 days and a peak-to-peak amplitude of two magnituds, so a large light-travel-time effect is seen at 1 min radius. An attempt is made to use the LTTE to reconcile the discrepancy between the observations of Fazio et al. and Lester et al. regarding the far-infrared source size. This discrepancy is reviewed in light of recent, high-spatial-resolution observations at 11 microns by Danchi et al. We conclude that IRC +10216 has been resolved on the arcminute scale by Fazio et al. Convolution of the model intensity profile at 61 microns with the 60 sec x 90 sec Gaussian beam of Fazio et al. yields an observed source size full width at half maximum (FWHM) that ranges from approximately 67 sec to 75 sec depending on the phase of the star and the assumed distance to the source. Using a simple r(exp -2) dust distribution and the 106 deg phase of the Fazio et al. observations, the LTTE model reaches a peak size of 74.3 sec at a distance of 300 pc. This agrees favorably with the 78 sec x 6 sec size measured by Fazio et al. Finally, a method is outlined for using the LTTE as a distance indicator to IRC +10216 and other stars with extended mass outflows.

  4. Evaluation of light detector surface area for functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Ayaz, Hasan; Izzetoglu, Meltem; Onaral, Banu

    2017-10-01

    Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an emerging neuroimaging technique that utilizes near infrared light to detect cortical concentration changes of oxy-hemoglobin and deoxy-hemoglobin non-invasively. Using light sources and detectors over the scalp, multi-wavelength light intensities are recorded as time series and converted to concentration changes of hemoglobin via modified Beer-Lambert law. Here, we describe a potential source for systematic error in the calculation of hemoglobin changes and light intensity measurements. Previous system characterization and analysis studies looked into various fNIRS parameters such as type of light source, number and selection of wavelengths, distance between light source and detector. In this study, we have analyzed the contribution of light detector surface area to the overall outcome. Results from Monte Carlo based digital phantoms indicated that selection of detector area is a critical system parameter in minimizing the error in concentration calculations. The findings here can guide the design of future fNIRS sensors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Near-infrared light-controlled tunable grating based on graphene/elastomer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Jia, Shuhai; Wang, Yonglin; Tang, Zhenhua

    2018-02-01

    A near-infrared (nIR) light actuated tunable transmission optical grating based on graphene nanoplatelet (GNP)/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and PDMS is proposed. A simple fabrication protocol is studied that allows integration of the grating with the actuation mechanism; both components are made from soft elastomers, and this ensure the tunability and the light-driven operation of the grating. The resulting grating structure demonstrates continuous period tunability of 2.7% under an actuation power density of 220 mW cm-2 within a period of 3 s and also demonstrates a time-independent characteristic. The proposed infrared activated grating can be developed for wireless remote light splitting in bio/chemical sensing and optical telecommunications applications.

  6. BRIGHTNESS AND FLUCTUATION OF THE MID-INFRARED SKY FROM AKARI OBSERVATIONS TOWARD THE NORTH ECLIPTIC POLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyo, Jeonghyun; Jeong, Woong-Seob; Matsumoto, Toshio; Matsuura, Shuji

    2012-01-01

    We present the smoothness of the mid-infrared sky from observations by the Japanese infrared astronomical satellite AKARI. AKARI monitored the north ecliptic pole (NEP) during its cold phase with nine wave bands covering from 2.4 to 24 μm, out of which six mid-infrared bands were used in this study. We applied power-spectrum analysis to the images in order to search for the fluctuation of the sky brightness. Observed fluctuation is explained by fluctuation of photon noise, shot noise of faint sources, and Galactic cirrus. The fluctuations at a few arcminutes scales at short mid-infrared wavelengths (7, 9, and 11 μm) are largely caused by the diffuse Galactic light of the interstellar dust cirrus. At long mid-infrared wavelengths (15, 18, and 24 μm), photon noise is the dominant source of fluctuation over the scale from arcseconds to a few arcminutes. The residual fluctuation amplitude at 200'' after removing these contributions is at most 1.04 ± 0.23 nW m –2 sr –1 or 0.05% of the brightness at 24 μm and at least 0.47 ± 0.14 nW m –2 sr –1 or 0.02% at 18 μm. We conclude that the upper limit of the fluctuation in the zodiacal light toward the NEP is 0.03% of the sky brightness, taking 2σ error into account.

  7. OBSERVED ASTEROID SURFACE AREA IN THE THERMAL INFRARED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, C. R. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J.; Kramer, E.; Sonnett, S. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Wright, E. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Grav, T. [Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The rapid accumulation of thermal infrared observations and shape models of asteroids has led to increased interest in thermophysical modeling. Most of these infrared observations are unresolved. We consider what fraction of an asteroid’s surface area contributes the bulk of the emitted thermal flux for two model asteroids of different shapes over a range of thermal parameters. The resulting observed surface in the infrared is generally more fragmented than the area observed in visible wavelengths, indicating high sensitivity to shape. For objects with low values of the thermal parameter, small fractions of the surface contribute the majority of thermally emitted flux. Calculating observed areas could enable the production of spatially resolved thermal inertia maps from non-resolved observations of asteroids.

  8. TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA LIGHT-CURVE INFERENCE: HIERARCHICAL BAYESIAN ANALYSIS IN THE NEAR-INFRARED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandel, Kaisey S.; Friedman, Andrew S.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Wood-Vasey, W. Michael

    2009-01-01

    We present a comprehensive statistical analysis of the properties of Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) light curves in the near-infrared using recent data from Peters Automated InfraRed Imaging TELescope and the literature. We construct a hierarchical Bayesian framework, incorporating several uncertainties including photometric error, peculiar velocities, dust extinction, and intrinsic variations, for principled and coherent statistical inference. SN Ia light-curve inferences are drawn from the global posterior probability of parameters describing both individual supernovae and the population conditioned on the entire SN Ia NIR data set. The logical structure of the hierarchical model is represented by a directed acyclic graph. Fully Bayesian analysis of the model and data is enabled by an efficient Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm exploiting the conditional probabilistic structure using Gibbs sampling. We apply this framework to the JHK s SN Ia light-curve data. A new light-curve model captures the observed J-band light-curve shape variations. The marginal intrinsic variances in peak absolute magnitudes are σ(M J ) = 0.17 ± 0.03, σ(M H ) = 0.11 ± 0.03, and σ(M Ks ) = 0.19 ± 0.04. We describe the first quantitative evidence for correlations between the NIR absolute magnitudes and J-band light-curve shapes, and demonstrate their utility for distance estimation. The average residual in the Hubble diagram for the training set SNe at cz > 2000kms -1 is 0.10 mag. The new application of bootstrap cross-validation to SN Ia light-curve inference tests the sensitivity of the statistical model fit to the finite sample and estimates the prediction error at 0.15 mag. These results demonstrate that SN Ia NIR light curves are as effective as corrected optical light curves, and, because they are less vulnerable to dust absorption, they have great potential as precise and accurate cosmological distance indicators.

  9. Infrared light extinction by charged dielectric core-coat particles

    OpenAIRE

    Thiessen, Elena; Heinisch, Rafael L.; Bronold, Franz X.; Fehske, Holger

    2014-01-01

    We study the effect of surplus electrons on the infrared extinction of dielectric particles with a core-coat structure and propose to use it for an optical measurement of the particle charge in a dusty plasma. The particles consist of an inner core with negative and an outer coat with positive electron affinity. Both the core and the coat give rise to strong transverse optical phonon resonances, leading to anomalous light scattering in the infrared. Due to the radial profile of the electron a...

  10. Far-infrared observations of globules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keene, J.

    1981-01-01

    Observations of far-infrared emission from nine globules are presented. The intensity and uniformity of the emission confirm that the heat source is the interstellar radiation field. Spectra of B133 and B335 are presented; they are consistent with optically thin thermal emission from dust with temperature 13--16 K. The emissivity of the grains must fall as fast as lambda -2 for lambda>500 μm. The temperature and intensity of B335 are used to calculate the ratio of visual extinction to far-infrared emission frequency

  11. Combined infrared light and bipolar radiofrequency for skin tightening in Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Carol S; Yeung, Chi K; Shek, Samantha Y; Tse, Raymond K; Kono, Taro; Chan, Henry H

    2007-07-01

    As the demand for non-invasive procedures for skin tightening is increasing, combined optical and radiofrequency (RF) devices have recently emerged. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a device that combined broadband infrared (IR) light (700-2000 nm) and bipolar RF (electro-optical synergy [ELOS]) for non-ablative treatment of facial laxity. DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nineteen Chinese volunteers of skin types III-V, with facial laxity and periorbital rhytides, received three treatments at 3-week intervals with combined IR (700-2000 nm, 10 W/cm(2)) and RF energies (70-120 J/cm(3)). Standardized photographs were taken by the Canfield Visia CR system at baseline and serially for 3 months after the last treatment. Two masked assessors evaluated the photographs to assess the improvement in skin laxity. Patient satisfaction scores were also obtained. At 3 months after the last treatment, 89.5% of the subjects reported moderate to significant subjective improvement in skin laxity of cheek, jowl, periorbital area and upper neck, with a high overall satisfaction rating. Masked observers' assessments were less remarkable. Mild improvement in skin laxity was observed over mid and lower face. There was no serious complication. The combination of broadband infrared light and bipolar radiofrequency produces mild improvement of facial laxity in Asians with no serious adverse sequelae. A high patients' satisfaction is achieved. However, further studies are necessary to demonstrate the long-term effects of the procedure and to optimize treatment parameters. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Near-infrared 808 nm light boosts complex IV-dependent respiration and rescues a Parkinson-related pink1 model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Vos

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC defects are observed in Parkinson's disease (PD patients and in PD fly- and mouse-models; however it remains to be tested if acute improvement of ETC function alleviates PD-relevant defects. We tested the hypothesis that 808 nm infrared light that effectively penetrates tissues rescues pink1 mutants. We show that irradiating isolated fly or mouse mitochondria with 808 nm light that is absorbed by ETC-Complex IV acutely improves Complex IV-dependent oxygen consumption and ATP production, a feature that is wavelength-specific. Irradiating Drosophila pink1 mutants using a single dose of 808 nm light results in a rescue of major systemic and mitochondrial defects. Time-course experiments indicate mitochondrial membrane potential defects are rescued prior to mitochondrial morphological defects, also in dopaminergic neurons, suggesting mitochondrial functional defects precede mitochondrial swelling. Thus, our data indicate that improvement of mitochondrial function using infrared light stimulation is a viable strategy to alleviate pink1-related defects.

  13. Near-infrared light absorption by brown carbon in the ambient atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, C.; Hoffer, A.; Beres, N. D.; Moosmüller, H.; Liu, C.; Green, M.; Kim, S. W.; Engelbrecht, J. P.; Gelencser, A.

    2017-12-01

    Organic aerosols have been assumed to have little-to-no absorption in the red and near-infrared spectral regions of solar radiation, even though a class of organic aerosols were shown to absorb significantly in these spectral regions. Here, we show that ambient atmospheric data from commonly-used 7-wavelength aethalometers contain evidence of abundant near-infrared light absorption by organic aerosol. This evidence comes from the absorption Ångström exponent over 880 950 nm, which often exceeds values explainable by fresh or coated black carbon, or mineral dust. This evidence is not due to an artifact from the instrument random errors or biases, either. The best explanation for these large 880/950 nm absorption Ångström exponent values in the aethalometer data is near-infrared light absorption by tar balls. Tar balls are among common particles from forest fire.

  14. Near-infrared observations of the far-infrared source V region in NGC 6334

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J.; Joyce, R.R.; Simon, M.; Simon, T.

    1982-01-01

    We have observed a very red near-infrared source at the center of NGC 6334 FIRS V, a far-infrared source suspected of variability by McBreen et al. The near-infrared source has deep ice and silicate absorption bands, and its half-power size at 20 μm is approx.15'' x 10''. Over the past 2 years we have observed no variability in the near-infrared flux. We have also detected an extended source of H 2 line emission in this region. The total luminosity in the H 2 v-1--0 S(1) line, uncorrected for extinction along the line of sight, is 0.3 L/sub sun/. Detection of emission in high-velocity wings of the J = 1--0 12 CO line suggests that the H 2 emission is associated with a supersonic gas flow

  15. Assembling the Infrared Extragalactic Background Light with CIBER-2: Probing Inter-Halo Light and the Epoch of Reionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, James

    We propose to carry out a program of observations with the Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment (CIBER-2). CIBER-2 is a near-infrared sounding rocket experiment designed to measure spatial fluctuations in the extragalactic background light. CIBER-2 scientifically follows on the detection of fluctuations with the CIBER-1 imaging instrument, and will use measurement techniques developed and successfully demonstrated by CIBER-1. With high-sensitivity, multi-band imaging measurements, CIBER-2 will elucidate the history of interhalo light (IHL) production and carry out a deep search for extragalactic background fluctuations associated with the epoch of reionization (EOR). CIBER-1 has made high-quality detections of large-scale fluctuations over 4 sounding rocket flights. CIBER-1 measured the amplitude and spatial power spectrum of fluctuations, and observed an electromagnetic spectrum that is close to Rayleigh-Jeans, but with a statistically significant turnover at 1.1 um. The fluctuations cross-correlate with Spitzer images and are significantly bluer than the spectrum of the integrated background derived from galaxy counts. We interpret the CIBER-1 fluctuations as arising from IHL, low-mass stars tidally stripped from their parent galaxies during galaxy mergers. The first generation of stars and their remnants are likely responsible for the for the reionization of the intergalactic medium, observed to be ionized out to the most distant quasars at a redshift of 6. The total luminosity produced by first stars is uncertain, but a lower limit can be placed assuming a minimal number of photons to produce and sustain reionization. This 'minimal' extragalactic background component associated with reionization is detectable in fluctuations at the design sensitivity of CIBER-2. The CIBER-2 instrument is optimized for sensitivity to surface brightness in a short sounding rocket flight. The instrument consists of a 28 cm wide-field telescope operating in 6 spectral bands

  16. Infrared Observations of FS CMa Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitko, Michael L.; Russell, R. W.; Lynch, D. K.; Grady, C. A.; Hammel, H. B.; Beerman, L. C.; Day, A. N.; Huelsman, D.; Rudy, R. J.; Brafford, S. M.; Halbedel, E. M.

    2009-01-01

    A subset of non-supergiant B[e] stars has recently been recognized as forming a fairly unique class of objects with very strong emission lines, infrared excesses, and locations not associated with star formation. The exact evolutionary state of these stars, named for the prototype FS CMa, is uncertain, and they have often been classified as isolated Herbig AeBe stars. We present infrared observations of two of these stars, HD 45677 (FS CMa), HD 50138 (MWC 158), and the candidate FS CMa star HD 190073 (V1295 Aql) that span over a decade in time. All three exhibit an emission band at 10 microns due to amorphous silicates, confirming that much (if not all) of the infrared excess is due to dust. HD 50138 is found to exhibit 20% variability between 3-13 microns that resembles that found in pre-main sequence systems (HD 163296 and HD 31648). HD 45677, despite large changes at visual wavelengths, has remained relatively stable in the infrared. To date, no significant changes have been observed in HD 190073. This work is supported in part by NASA Origins of Solar Systems grant NAG5-9475, NASA Astrophysics Data Program contract NNH05CD30C, and the Independent Research and Development program at The Aerospace Corporation.

  17. The Investigation of Property of Radiation and Absorbed of Infrared Lights of the Biological Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xiao-Feng; Deng, Bo; Xiao, He-Lan; Cai, Guo-Ping

    2010-04-01

    The properties of absorption of infrared light for collagen, hemoglobin, bivine serum albumen (BSA) protein molecules with α- helix structure and water in the living systems as well as the infrared transmission spectra for person’s skins and finger hands of human body in the region of 400-4000 cm-1 (i.e., wavelengths of 2-20 μm) have been collected and determined by using a Nicolet Nexus 670 FT-IR Spectrometer, a Perkin Elmer GX FT-IR spectrometer, an OMA (optical multichannel analysis) and an infrared probe systems, respectively. The experimental results obtained show that the protein molecules and water can all absorb the infrared lights in the ranges of 600-1900 cm-1 and 2900-3900 cm-l, but their properties of absorption are somewhat different due to distinctions of their structure and conformation and molecular weight. We know from the transmission spectra of person’s finger hands and skin that the infrared lights with wavelengths of 2 μm-7 μm can not only transmit over the person’s skin and finger hands, but also be absorbed by the above proteins and water in the living systems. Thus, we can conclude from this study that the human beings and animals can absorb the infrared lights with wavelengths of 2 μm-7 μm.

  18. Far infrared observations of the galactic center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatley, I.

    1977-01-01

    Maps of a region 10' in diameter around the galactic center made simultaneously in three wavelength bands at 30 μm, 50 μm, and 100 μm with approximately 1' resolution are presented, and the distribution of far infrared luminosity and color temperature across this region is derived. The position of highest far infrared surface brightness coincides with the peak of the late-type stellar distribution and with the H II region Sgr A West. The high spatial and temperature resolution of the data is used to identify features of the far infrared maps with known sources of near infrared, radio continuum, and molecular emission. The emission mechanism and energy sources for the far infrared radiation are anslyzed qualitatively, and it is concluded that all of the observed far infrared radiation from the galactic center region can be attributed to thermal emission from dust heated both by the late-type stars and by the ultraviolet sources which ionize the H II regions. A self-consistent model for the far infrared emission from the galactic center region is presented. It is found that the visual extinction across the central 10 pc of the galaxy is only about 3 magnitudes, and that the dust density is fairly uniform in this region. An upper limit of 10 7 L/sub mass/ is set on the luminosity of any presently unidentified source of 0.1 to 1 μm radiation at the galactic center. Additional maps in the vicinity of the source Sgr B2 and observations of Sgr C bring the total number of H II regions within 1 0 of the galactic center studied by the present experiment to nine. The far infrared luminosity, color temperature and optical depth of these regions and the ratio of infrared flux to radio continuum flux lie in the range characteristic of spiral arm H II regions. The far infrared results are therefore consistent with the data that the galactic center H II regions are ionized by luminous, early type stars

  19. Multi-channel up-conversion infrared spectrometer and method of detecting a spectral distribution of light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    A multi-channel infrared spectrometer for detecting an infrared spectrum of light received from an object. The spectrometer comprises a wavelength converter system comprising a nonlinear material and having an input side and an output side. The wavelength converter system comprises at least a first...... on the first side into light in a second output wavelength range output on the second side. The spectrometer further comprises a demultiplexer configured for demultiplexing light in the first up-conversion channel and light in the second up-conversion channel. The demultiplexer is located on the first side...

  20. Effects of ultraviolet radiation, visible light, and infrared radiation on erythema and pigmentation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklar, Lindsay R; Almutawa, Fahad; Lim, Henry W; Hamzavi, Iltefat

    2013-01-01

    The effects of ultraviolet radiation, visible light, and infrared radiation on cutaneous erythema, immediate pigment darkening, persistent pigment darkening, and delayed tanning are affected by a variety of factors. Some of these factors include the depth of cutaneous penetration of the specific wavelength, the individual skin type, and the absorption spectra of the different chromophores in the skin. UVB is an effective spectrum to induce erythema, which is followed by delayed tanning. UVA induces immediate pigment darkening, persistent pigment darkening, and delayed tanning. At high doses, UVA (primarily UVA2) can also induce erythema in individuals with skin types I-II. Visible light has been shown to induce erythema and a tanning response in dark skin, but not in fair skinned individuals. Infrared radiation produces erythema, which is probably a thermal effect. In this article we reviewed the available literature on the effects of ultraviolet radiation, visible light, and infrared radiation on the skin in regards to erythema and pigmentation. Much remains to be learned on the cutaneous effects of visible light and infrared radiation.

  1. Infrared observations of gravitational-wave sources in Advanced LIGO's second observing run

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pound Singer, Leo; Kasliwal, Mansi; Lau, Ryan; Cenko, Bradley; Global Relay of Observatories Watching Transients Happen (GROWTH)

    2018-01-01

    Advanced LIGO observed gravitational waves (GWs) from a binary black hole merger in its first observing run (O1) in September 2015. It is anticipated that LIGO and Virgo will soon detect the first binary neutron star mergers. The most promising electromagnetic counterparts to such events are kilonovae: fast, faint transients powered by the radioactive decay of the r-process ejecta. Joint gravitational-wave and electromagnetic observations of such transients hold the key to many longstanding problems, from the nature of short GRBS to the cosmic production sites of the r-process elements to "standard siren" cosmology. Due to the large LIGO/Virgo error regions of 100 deg2, synoptic survey telescopes have dominated the search for LIGO counterparts. Due to the paucity of infrared instruments with multi-deg2 fields of view, infrared observations have been lacking. Near-infrared emission should not only be a more robust signature of kilonovae than optical emission (independent of viewing angle), but should also be several magnitudes brighter and be detectable for much longer, weeks after merger rather than days. In Advanced LIGO's second observing run, we used the FLAMINGOS-2 instrument on Gemini-South to hunt for the near-infrared emission from GW sources by targeted imaging of the most massive galaxies in the LIGO/Virgo localization volumes. We present the results of this campaign, rates, and interpretation of our near-infrared imaging and spectroscopy. We show that leveraging large-scale structure and targeted imaging of the most massive ~10 galaxies in a LIGO/Virgo localization volume may be a surprisingly effective strategy to find the electromagnetic counterpart.

  2. Biological infrared microspectroscopy at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Lisa M.; Carr, G. Lawrence; Williams, Gwyn P.; Sullivan, Michael; Chance, Mark R.

    2000-01-01

    Beamline U2B at the National Synchrotron Light Source has been designed and built as an infrared beamline dedicated to the study of biomedical problems. In 1997, the horizontal and vertical acceptances of Beamline U2B were increased in order to increase the overall flux of the beamline. A wedged, CVD diamond window separates the UHV vacuum of the VUV ring from the rough vacuum of the beamline. The endstation consists of a Nicolet Magna 860 step-scan FTIR and a NicPlan infrared microscope. The spectrometer is equipped with beamsplitter/detector combinations that permit data collection in the mid-and far-infrared regions. We have also made provisions for mounting an external detector (e.g. bolometer) for far infrared microspectroscopy. Thus far, Beamline U2B has been used to (1) perform chemical imaging of bone tissue and brain cells to address issues related to bone disease and epilepsy, respectively, and (2) examine time-resolved protein structure in the sub-millisecond folding of cytochrome c

  3. Early GRB optical and infrared afterglow observations with the 2-m robotic Liverpool Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomboc, A.; Ljubljana Univ., Ljubljana; Mundell, C.G.; Guidorzi, C.

    2005-01-01

    We present the first optical observations of a Gamma Ray Burst IGRB) afterglow using the 2-m robotic Liverpool Telescope (LT), which is owned and operated by Liverpool John Moores University and situated on La Palma. We briefly discuss the capabilities of LT and its suitability for rapid follow-up observations of early optical and infrared GRB light curves. In particular, the combination of aperture, site, instrumentation and rapid response (robotic over-ride mode aided by telescope's rapid slew and fully-opening enclosure) makes the LT ideal for investigating the nature of short bursts, optically-dark bursts, and GRB blast-wave physics in general. We briefly describe the LT's key position in the RoboNet-1.0 network of robotic telescopes. We present the LT observations of GRB041006 and use its gamma-ray properties to predict the time of the break in optical light curve, a prediction consistent with the observations

  4. [Evaluation of Iris Morphology Viewed through Stromal Edematous Corneas by Infrared Camera].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masaaki; Morishige, Naoyuki; Morita, Yukiko; Yamada, Naoyuki; Kobayashi, Motomi; Sonoda, Koh-Hei

    2016-02-01

    We reported that the application of infrared camera enables us to observe iris morphology in Peters' anomaly through edematous corneas. To observe the iris morphology in bullous keratopathy or failure grafts with an infrared camera. Eleven bullous keratopathy or failure grafts subjects (6 men and 5 women, mean age ± SD; 72.7 ± 13.0 years old) were enrolled in this study. The iris morphology was observed by applying visible light mode and near infrared light mode of infrared camera (MeibomPen). The detectability of pupil shapes, iris patterns and presence of iridectomy was evaluated. Infrared mode observation enabled us to detect the pupil shapes in 11 out of 11 cases, iris patterns in 3 out of 11 cases, and presence of iridetomy in 9 out of 11 cases although visible light mode observation could not detect any iris morphological changes. Applying infrared optics was valuable for observation of the iris morphology through stromal edematous corneas.

  5. THE 1.6 μm NEAR-INFRARED NUCLEI OF 3C RADIO GALAXIES: JETS, THERMAL EMISSION, OR SCATTERED LIGHT?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldi, Ranieri D.; Chiaberge, Marco; Sparks, William; Macchetto, F. Duccio; Capetti, Alessandro; O'Dea, Christopher P.; Axon, David J.; Baum, Stefi A.; Quillen, Alice C.

    2010-01-01

    Using HST NICMOS 2 observations we have measured 1.6 μm near-infrared nuclear luminosities of 100 3CR radio galaxies with z < 0.3, by modeling and subtracting the extended emission from the host galaxy. We performed a multiwavelength statistical analysis (including optical and radio data) of the properties of the nuclei following classification of the objects into FR I and FR II, and low-ionization galaxies (LIGs), high-ionization galaxies (HIGs), and broad-line objects (BLOs) using the radio morphology and optical spectra, respectively. The correlations among near-infrared, optical, and radio nuclear luminosity support the idea that the near-infrared nuclear emission of FR Is has a non-thermal origin. Despite the difference in radio morphology, the multiwavelength properties of FR II LIG nuclei are statistically indistinguishable from those of FR Is, an indication of a common structure of the central engine. All BLOs show an unresolved near-infrared nucleus and a large near-infrared excess with respect to FR II LIGs and FR Is of equal radio core luminosity. This requires the presence of an additional (and dominant) component other than the non-thermal light. Considering the shape of their spectral energy distribution, we ascribe the origin of their near-infrared light to hot circumnuclear dust. A near-infrared excess is also found in HIGs, but their nuclei are substantially fainter than those of BLO. This result indicates that substantial obscuration along the line of sight to the nuclei is still present at 1.6 μm. Nonetheless, HIG nuclei cannot simply be explained in terms of dust obscuration: a significant contribution from light reflected in a circumnuclear scattering region is needed to account for their multiwavelength properties.

  6. Luminescence from potassium feldspars stimulated by infrared and green light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duller, G.A.T.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.

    1993-01-01

    A series of experiments are reported which investigate stimulated luminescence from potassium feldspar. The aim is to provide a basic phenomenological description of the response of the material to stimulation by heat, infrared radiation (875 DELTA 80 nm) and a green light wavelength band from 5 15...... to 560 nm. Two conclusions are drawn: firstly it is suggested that the majority of the trapped charge responsible for the infrared stimulated luminescence signal does not give rise to a thermoluminescence signal, and secondly that a large traction of the two optically stimulated luminescence signals...

  7. Differences between wavefront and subjective refraction for infrared light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teel, Danielle F W; Jacobs, Robert J; Copland, James; Neal, Daniel R; Thibos, Larry N

    2014-10-01

    To determine the accuracy of objective wavefront refractions for predicting subjective refractions for monochromatic infrared light. Objective refractions were obtained with a commercial wavefront aberrometer (COAS, Wavefront Sciences). Subjective refractions were obtained for 30 subjects with a speckle optometer validated against objective Zernike wavefront refractions on a physical model eye (Teel et al., Design and validation of an infrared Badal optometer for laser speckle, Optom Vis Sci 2008;85:834-42). Both instruments used near-infrared (NIR) radiation (835 nm for COAS, 820 nm for the speckle optometer) to avoid correction for ocular chromatic aberration. A 3-mm artificial pupil was used to reduce complications attributed to higher-order ocular aberrations. For comparison with paraxial (Seidel) and minimum root-mean-square (Zernike) wavefront refractions, objective refractions were also determined for a battery of 29 image quality metrics by computing the correcting lens that optimizes retinal image quality. Objective Zernike refractions were more myopic than subjective refractions for 29 of 30 subjects. The population mean discrepancy was -0.26 diopters (D) (SEM = 0.03 D). Paraxial (Seidel) objective refractions tended to be hyperopically biased (mean discrepancy = +0.20 D, SEM = 0.06 D). Refractions based on retinal image quality were myopically biased for 28 of 29 metrics. The mean bias across all 31 measures was -0.24 D (SEM = 0.03). Myopic bias of objective refractions was greater for eyes with brown irises compared with eyes with blue irises. Our experimental results are consistent with the hypothesis that reflected NIR light captured by the aberrometer originates from scattering sources located posterior to the entrance apertures of cone photoreceptors, near the retinal pigment epithelium. The larger myopic bias for brown eyes suggests that a greater fraction of NIR light is reflected from choroidal melanin in brown eyes compared with blue eyes.

  8. Photosynthesis-related infrared light transmission changes in spinach leaf segments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimoto, T.

    1985-01-01

    The time courses of infrared light transmission changes and fluorescence induced by light in spinach leaf segments were measured. The illumination by red light exhibited a complex wave pattern. The transmission approached the baseline after repeating decreases and increases. Illumination by far-red light decreased the transmission. One of the differences between the two responses was the difference between the two amplitudes of the first increasing component. The component in the red light response was larger than the component in the far-red light response. The transmission decrease by far-red light is supposed to correspond to ''red drop.'' The transmission decrease by far-red light was suppressed by red light. This is due to an activation of a transmission-increasing component. This probably corresponds to ''enhancement.'' A proportional correlation existed between the intensity of far-red light and the minimum intensity of red light that suppressed the transmission decrease induced by far-red light. The component which made Peak D in the time course of fluorescence yield and the first increasing component in the transmission changes were suppressed by intense light

  9. White light emission from Er2O3 nano-powder excited by infrared radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabanli, Sevcan; Eryurek, Gonul; Di Bartolo, Baldassare

    2017-07-01

    Phosphors of Er2O3 nano-crystalline powders were synthesized by the thermal decomposition method. The structural properties of the nano-powders were investigated with XRD and HRTEM measurements. The cubic phase with a = 10.540 Å was the only phase observed. The average crystalline sizes and the widths of the grain size distribution curves were determined to be 27.2, 18.7 and 9.7 nm, respectively. The spectroscopic properties of the Er2O3 nano-powder were studied by measuring the luminescence, decay and rise patterns under 808 and 975 nm diode laser excitations. A peculiar effect of the pressure was observed since an optically active ion (Er) is part of the complex and not a dopant. A broad band of the white light emission combined with blue, green and red up-conversion emission bands of Er3+ ions were observed at 0.03 mbar pressure under both excitation wavelengths. Only, an intense broad band white light emission was observed from these nanocrystals at atmospheric pressure. Rising patterns show that the white light intensity reaches its maximum value more rapidly under 975 nm excitation although it decays slower than that of 808 nm excitation. The color quality parameters such as the color coordinate (CRI), correlated color temperature and the color rendering index were found to vary with both the excitation wavelength and the ambient pressure indicating that these nanocrystals could be considered good white light emitting source under the infrared excitations.

  10. An Airborne Infrared Spectrometer for Solar Eclipse Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samra, Jenna; DeLuca, Edward E.; Golub, Leon; Cheimets, Peter; Philip, Judge

    2016-05-01

    The airborne infrared spectrometer (AIR-Spec) is an innovative solar spectrometer that will observe the 2017 solar eclipse from the NSF/NCAR High-Performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research (HIAPER). AIR-Spec will image five infrared coronal emission lines to determine whether they may be useful probes of coronal magnetism.The solar magnetic field provides the free energy that controls coronal heating, structure, and dynamics. Energy stored in coronal magnetic fields is released in flares and coronal mass ejections and ultimately drives space weather. Therefore, direct coronal field measurements have significant potential to enhance understanding of coronal dynamics and improve solar forecasting models. Of particular interest are observations of field lines in the transitional region between closed and open flux systems, providing important information on the origin of the slow solar wind.While current instruments routinely observe only the photospheric and chromospheric magnetic fields, AIR-Spec will take a step toward the direct observation of coronal fields by measuring plasma emission in the infrared at high spatial and spectral resolution. During the total solar eclipse of 2017, AIR-Spec will observe five magnetically sensitive coronal emission lines between 1.4 and 4 µm from the HIAPER Gulfstream V at an altitude above 14.9 km. The instrument will measure emission line intensity, width, and Doppler shift, map the spatial distribution of infrared emitting plasma, and search for waves in the emission line velocities.AIR-Spec consists of an optical system (feed telescope, grating spectrometer, and infrared detector) and an image stabilization system, which uses a fast steering mirror to correct the line-of-sight for platform perturbations. To ensure that the instrument meets its research goals, both systems are undergoing extensive performance modeling and testing. These results are shown with reference to the science requirements.

  11. SPECTRAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MID-INFRARED LIGHT-EMITTING DIODES BASED ON InAs (Sb,P

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Zhumashev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Study. We consider spectral characteristics of mid-infrared light-emitting diodes with heterostructures based on InAs(Sb,P emitting at T=300 K in the wavelength range 3.4–4.1 micrometers. The aim of the study was to search for the ways of increasing the diode efficiency. Methods. The heterostructures were grown from metal-organic chemical compounds with the use of vapor-phase epitaxial technique. The spectra were recorded under pulse excitation with the use of computer-controlled installation employing MDR-23 grating monochromator and a lock-in amplifier. InSb photodiode was used as a detector. Comparative study of electroluminescence spectra of the diodes was carried out at the temperatures equal to 300 K and 77 K. We compared the obtained data with the calculation results of the band diagrams of the heterostructures. Main Results. As a result of comparative study of the electroluminescence spectra of the diodes recorded at 300 K and 77 K we have established that increasing of their efficiency is hindered by substantial influence of Auger recombination. For the first time at 77 К we have observed the effect of stimulated emission from InAsSb active layer in light-emitting structures made of InAs/InAsSb/InAsSbP. For heterostructures with quantum wells InAs/(InAs/InAsSb/InAsSbP we have found out that at 77 К the carrier recombination occurs outside quantum wells, which points out to the insufficient carrier localization in the active layer. Thus, we have shown that the efficiency of mid-infrared light-emitting diodes based on InAs(Sb,P can be increased via suppression of Auger-recombination and improvement of carrier localization in the active region. Practical Relevance. The results of the study can be used for development of heterostructures for mid-infrared light-emitting diodes.

  12. Ordering of pentacene in organic thin film transistors induced by irradiation of infrared light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C. H.; Chen, S. W.; Hwang, J.

    2009-01-01

    The device performances of pentacene-based organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) were greatly improved by irradiation of infrared light. The field effect mobility and maximum drain current increase from 0.20±0.01 to 0.57±0.02 cm 2 /V s and 1.14x10 -5 to 4.91x10 -5 A, respectively. The (001) peak of the pentacene 'thin film' phase increases in intensity by 4.5 times after infrared irradiation at 50 W for 2 h. Two types of crystal orientations, i.e., 'crystal I' (2θ=5.91 deg.) and 'crystal II' (2θ=5.84 deg.), coexist in the pentacene. The improvement of the characteristics of OTFTs is attributed to crystallization and crystal reorientation induced by infrared light.

  13. Glow discharge, its sensitivity to infra-red radiation. Observations made during the testing of multiwire proportional chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, J.B.; Souten, K.H.; O'Hagan, B.

    1979-05-01

    It has been shown that under glow discharge conditions, multiwire proportional chambers are sensitive to infra-red radiation. Discharge current measurements and light change measurements have been made and the effect of the input window on the output signal and the importance of the finish of the anode and HT wires have been investigated. From these observations it would appear that a glow discharge in the form detailed in this report is sensitive to infra-red radiation though work is still required to optimise the parameters of such a device for IR detection or solar cell technology. (UK)

  14. Present status of the development of far-infrared coherent light sources with the ISIR linear accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuda, Shuichi [Osaka Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Scientific and Industrial Research

    1996-07-01

    Far-infrared light sources are being developed with a 38-MeV L-band linear accelerator at the Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University. In the experiments of free-electron laser the self-amplified spontaneous emission was observed at wavelengths of 20 and 40 {mu}m with a high-intensity single-bunch beam for a single passage through a wiggler. In the free-electron laser oscillation experiments with a multibunch beam laser light was obtained at wavelengths from 32 to 40 {mu}m. The peak power in a micropulse of the laser was estimated to be 8.3 MW at a wavelength of 40 {mu}m. Coherent radiation emitted from bunched electrons was observed for Cherenkov and transition radiation processes with the single-bunch beam. (author)

  15. On the Physical Significance of Infra-red Corrections to Inflationary Observables

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolo, N; Pietroni, M; Riotto, Antonio; Seery, D

    2008-01-01

    Inflationary observables, like the power spectrum, computed at one- and higher-order loop level seem to be plagued by large infra-red corrections. In this short note, we point out that these large infra-red corrections appear only in quantities which are not directly observable. This is in agreement with general expectations concerning infra-red effects.

  16. The bactericidal effect of carbon nanotube/agar composites irradiated with near-infrared light on Streptococcus mutans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akasaka, Tsukasa, E-mail: akasaka@den.hokudai.ac.jp [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita13 Nishi7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Matsuoka, Makoto [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita13 Nishi7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Hashimoto, Takeshi [Meijo Nano Carbon Co. Ltd., Otsubashi bldg. 4F, 3-4-10 Marunouchi, Naka-ku, Nagoya 460-0002 (Japan); Abe, Shigeaki; Uo, Motohiro; Watari, Fumio [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita13 Nishi7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    Dental caries are mainly associated with oral pathogens, and Streptococcus mutans is a primary cariogenic organism. Many methods have been established to eliminate S. mutans from the oral cavity. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of carbon nanotube (CNT)/agar composites irradiated with near-infrared (NIR) light on S. mutans, as a potential photothermal antimicrobial nanotherapy. A colony-forming unit assay clearly showed that CNT/agar composites attain bactericidal activity after NIR light irradiation; this bactericidal activity is higher than that of graphite (GP)/agar and activated carbon (AC)/agar composites. Furthermore, it was observed that longer irradiation times immobilized S. mutans in the CNT/agar composite.

  17. The bactericidal effect of carbon nanotube/agar composites irradiated with near-infrared light on Streptococcus mutans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akasaka, Tsukasa; Matsuoka, Makoto; Hashimoto, Takeshi; Abe, Shigeaki; Uo, Motohiro; Watari, Fumio

    2010-01-01

    Dental caries are mainly associated with oral pathogens, and Streptococcus mutans is a primary cariogenic organism. Many methods have been established to eliminate S. mutans from the oral cavity. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of carbon nanotube (CNT)/agar composites irradiated with near-infrared (NIR) light on S. mutans, as a potential photothermal antimicrobial nanotherapy. A colony-forming unit assay clearly showed that CNT/agar composites attain bactericidal activity after NIR light irradiation; this bactericidal activity is higher than that of graphite (GP)/agar and activated carbon (AC)/agar composites. Furthermore, it was observed that longer irradiation times immobilized S. mutans in the CNT/agar composite.

  18. Method for measuring retardation of infrared wave-plate by modulated-polarized visible light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Song, Feijun

    2012-11-01

    A new method for precisely measuring the optical phase retardation of wave-plates in the infrared spectral region is presented by using modulated-polarized visible light. An electro-optic modulator is used to accurately determine the zero point by the frequency-doubled signal of the Modulated-polarized light. A Babinet-Soleil compensator is employed to make the phase delay compensation. Based on this method, an instrument is set up to measure the retardations of the infrared wave-plates with visible region laser. Measurement results with high accuracy and sound repetition are obtained by simple calculation. Its measurement precision is less than and repetitive precision is within 0.3%.

  19. High spectral resolution infrared observations of V1057 Cygni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, L.; Kenyon, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    High-resolution near-infrared spectra of V1057 Cygni obtained in 1986 with the KPNO 4-m Fourier transform spectrometer provide support for a previously proposed accretion disk model. The model predicts that the observed rotational broadening of spectral lines should be smaller in the infrared than in the optical. The present observations show that V1057 Cyg rotates more slowly at 2.3 microns than at 6000 A by an amount quantitatively consistent with the simple disk models. The absence of any radial velocity variations in either the infrared or optical spectral regions supports the suggestion that the accreted material arises from a remnant disk of protostellar material. 19 references

  20. MID-INFRARED PROPERTIES OF DISK AVERAGED OBSERVATIONS OF EARTH WITH AIRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hearty, Thomas; Song, Inseok; Kim, Sam; Tinetti, Giovanna

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated mid-infrared spectra of Earth obtained by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument on-board the AQUA spacecraft to explore the characteristics that may someday be observed in extrasolar terrestrial planets. We have used the AIRS infrared (R ∼ 1200; 3.75-15.4 μm) spectra to construct directly observed high-resolution spectra of the only known life bearing planet, Earth. The AIRS spectra are the first such spectra that span the seasons. We investigate the rotational and seasonal spectral variations that would arise due to varying cloud amount and viewing geometry and we explore what signatures may be observable in the mid-infrared by the next generation of telescopes capable of observing extrasolar terrestrial planets.

  1. The first synchrotron infrared beamlines at the Advanced Light Source: Spectromicroscopy and fast timing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Michael C.; McKinney, Wayne R.

    1999-01-01

    Two recently commissioned infrared beamlines on the 1.4 bending magnet port at the Advanced Light Source, LBNL, are described. Using a synchrotron as an IR source provides three primary advantages: increased brightness, very fast light pulses, and enhanced far-IR flux. The considerable brightness advantage manifests itself most beneficially when performing spectroscopy on a microscopic length scale. Beamline (BL) 1.4.3 is a dedicated FTIR spectromicroscopy beamline, where a diffraction-limited spot size using the synchrotron source is utilized. BL 1.4.2 consists of a vacuum FTIR bench with a wide spectral range and step-scan capability. This BL makes use of the pulsed nature of the synchrotron light as well as the far-IR flux. Fast timing is demonstrated by observing the pulses from the electron bunch storage pattern at the ALS. Results from several experiments from both IR beamlines will be presented as an overview of the IR research currently being done at the ALS

  2. Near-infrared light-responsive dynamic wrinkle patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fudong; Hou, Honghao; Yin, Jie; Jiang, Xuesong

    2018-04-01

    Dynamic micro/nanopatterns provide an effective approach for on-demand tuning of surface properties to realize a smart surface. We report a simple yet versatile strategy for the fabrication of near-infrared (NIR) light-responsive dynamic wrinkles by using a carbon nanotube (CNT)-containing poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) elastomer as the substrate for the bilayer systems, with various functional polymers serving as the top stiff layers. The high photon-to-thermal energy conversion of CNT leads to the NIR-controlled thermal expansion of the elastic CNT-PDMS substrate, resulting in dynamic regulation of the applied strain (ε) of the bilayer system by the NIR on/off cycle to obtain a reversible wrinkle pattern. The switchable surface topological structures can transfer between the wrinkled state and the wrinkle-free state within tens of seconds via NIR irradiation. As a proof-of-concept application, this type of NIR-driven dynamic wrinkle pattern was used in smart displays, dynamic gratings, and light control electronics.

  3. High-resolution far-infrared observations of the galactic center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, P.M.; Campbell, M.F.; Hoffmann, W.F.

    1976-01-01

    A map at 53 μ with 17'' resolution and three-color observations at 53 μ, 100 μ, and 175 μ with approx.30'' beams of Sgr A are presented. Sagittarius A is resolved into two main sources, one associated with the cluster of strong 10 μ sources and another approx.45'' to the southwest coincident with a weak 10 μ source. The dust temperature peaks near the strong 10 μ sources, but the 100 μ and 175 μ fluxes and the far-infrared optical depth are greatest near the southwest source. The amount of dust required to explain the far-infrared emission is comparable to that observed in absorption in the near-infrared

  4. Optical and infrared observations of SN 1987A from Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, M.M.

    1988-01-01

    Results from optical and infrared observations of SN 1987A obtained at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory over the first seven months since core collapse are reviewed. Around 130 days after outburst, the bolometric light curve began to smoothly decline at a rate of ∼ 0.01 mag day-1, providing dramatic confirmation of the prediction that radioactivity had powered the optical display after the first month./ the peculiar color changes are kinks observed beginning on the 25th day probably signaled the initial release of trapped energy from mass 56 material. The bolometric luminosity of SN 1987A was unusually low at first, but reached a value more typical of other type II supernovae by the time that the final exponential decline had begun. Over much of the period covered by these observations, the optical and infrared spectra were characterized by strong absorption lines of Ba II and Sr II. Comparison with the spectra of other type II supernovae at similar stages of evolution supports the suggestion that s-processed elements were enriched in the hydrogen envelope of the progenitor, Sanduleak - 69 degrees 202

  5. VLBI observations of Infrared-Faint Radio Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelberg, Enno; Phillips, Chris; Norris, Ray; Tingay, Steven

    2006-10-01

    We propose to observe a small sample of radio sources from the ATLAS project (ATLAS = Australia Telescope Large Area Survey) with the LBA, to determine their compactness and map their structures. The sample consists of three radio sources with no counterpart in the co-located SWIRE survey (3.6 um to 160 um), carried out with the Spitzer Space Telescope. This rare class of sources, dubbed Infrared-Faint Radio Sources, or IFRS, is inconsistent with current galaxy evolution models. VLBI observations are an essential way to obtain further clues on what these objects are and why they are hidden from infrared observations: we will map their structure to test whether they resemble core-jet or double-lobed morphologies, and we will measure the flux densities on long baselines, to determine their compactness. Previous snapshot-style LBA observations of two other IFRS yielded no detections, hence we propose to use disk-based recording with 512 Mbps where possible, for highest sensitivity. With the observations proposed here, we will increase the number of VLBI-observed IFRS from two to five, soon allowing us to draw general conclusions about this intriguing new class of objects.

  6. Time-resolved far-infrared experiments at the National Synchrotron Light Source. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, D.B.; Reitze, D.H.; Carr, G.L.

    1999-01-01

    A facility for time-resolved infrared and far-infrared spectroscopy has been built and commissioned at the National Synchrotron Light Source. This facility permits the study of time dependent phenomena over a frequency range from 2-8000cm -1 (0.25 meV-1 eV). Temporal resolution is approximately 200 psec and time dependent phenomena in the time range out to 100 nsec can be investigated

  7. Far infrared spectroscopy of high-Tc superconductors at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkowitz, S.; Williams, G.P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports the first far infrared transmission spectra for micron-thick films of high-T c rare-earth superconductors such as DyBaCuO, with implications for the superconducting gap. Spectra were obtained at Brookhaven's National Synchrotron Light Source, a new high-intensity, broad-band millimeter to infrared source. The National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory, known for powerful X-ray and UV output, is also a high-intensity (10 to 1000 times above a black body), high-brightness (intensity per solid angle), broad-band, picosecond, millimeter to infrared source. These features make it valuable for far-infrared condensed matter experiments, especially those in highly absorbing or extremely small systems. A first application has been to measure very small infrared transmissions through thick bulk-like high-T c superconducting films. Preliminary measurements through films of the conventional superconductor Nb 3 Ge established techniques. These were followed by the first measurements (to the author's knowledge) through micron-thick films of high-T c rare-earth superconductors such as DyBaCuO over 10-300 cm -1 , which includes the superconducting gap according to BCS or moderately strong-coupled theory. The authors discuss the transmission evidence bearing on the existence of a gap and other important features of high-T c superconductors, and describe the synchrotron and instrumentation features which make possible these unusual measurements

  8. Visible Discrimination of Broadband Infrared Light by Dye-Enhanced Upconversion in Lanthanide-Doped Nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles G. Dupuy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical upconversion of near infrared light to visible light is an attractive way to capture the optical energy or optical information contained in low-energy photons that is otherwise lost to the human eye or to certain photodetectors and solar cells. Until the recent application of broadband absorbing optical antennas, upconversion efficiency in lanthanide-doped nanocrystals was limited by the weak, narrow atomic absorption of a handful of sensitizer elements. In this work, we extend the role of the optical antenna to provide false-color, visible discrimination between bands of infrared radiation. By pairing different optical antenna dyes to specific nanoparticle compositions, unique visible emission is associated with different bands of infrared excitation. In one material set, the peak emission was increased 10-fold, and the width of the spectral response was increased more than 10-fold.

  9. Effects of polychromatic visible and infrared light on biological liquid media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilov, V G; Khadartsev, A A; Bitsoev, V D

    2014-08-01

    Experimental study of the effects of polychromatic visible and infrared light on biological fluids was carried out in order to validate the new approaches to phototherapy. Polychromatic light generated by Bioptron device at different modes and frequencies was released through the fiberoptic cable, including the exposure paralleled by CO2 saturation of water and exposure from a device placed 10 cm above the water surface, which ensured maximum light absorption. The effects of irradiation were recorded in 26 and 15 min, while the increase of light absorption by blood plasma in vivo was recorded 1 h after a bath with water pre-exposed to polarized light. Absorption bands corresponding to those for immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral drugs, were detected. Changes in the spectra of valency oscillations, depending on the oscillation anharmonism values, were detected.

  10. A method for combining passive microwave and infrared rainfall observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummerow, Christian; Giglio, Louis

    1995-01-01

    Because passive microwave instruments are confined to polar-orbiting satellites, rainfall estimates must interpolate across long time periods, during which no measurements are available. In this paper the authors discuss a technique that allows one to partially overcome the sampling limitations by using frequent infrared observations from geosynchronous platforms. To accomplish this, the technique compares all coincident microwave and infrared observations. From each coincident pair, the infrared temperature threshold is selected that corresponds to an area equal to the raining area observed in the microwave image. The mean conditional rainfall rate as determined from the microwave image is then assigned to pixels in the infrared image that are colder than the selected threshold. The calibration is also applied to a fixed threshold of 235 K for comparison with established infrared techniques. Once a calibration is determined, it is applied to all infrared images. Monthly accumulations for both methods are then obtained by summing rainfall from all available infrared images. Two examples are used to evaluate the performance of the technique. The first consists of a one-month period (February 1988) over Darwin, Australia, where good validation data are available from radar and rain gauges. For this case it was found that the technique approximately doubled the rain inferred by the microwave method alone and produced exceptional agreement with the validation data. The second example involved comparisons with atoll rain gauges in the western Pacific for June 1989. Results here are overshadowed by the fact that the hourly infrared estimates from established techniques, by themselves, produced very good correlations with the rain gauges. The calibration technique was not able to improve upon these results.

  11. Pulpal blood flow recorded from exposed dentine with a laser Doppler flow meter using red or infrared light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijsamanmith, Kanittha; Vongsavan, Noppakun; Matthews, Bruce

    2018-03-01

    To determine the percentage of the blood flow signal that is derived from dental pulp when recording from exposed dentine in a human premolar. Recordings were made from 7 healthy teeth in 5 subjects (aged 22-33 yr.) with a laser Doppler flow meter (Periflux 4001) using either a red (635 nm) or an infrared (780 nm) laser. After exposing dentine above the buccal pulpal horn (cavity diam. 1.6 mm, depth 3 mm) and isolating the crown with opaque rubber dam, blood flow was recorded alternately with infrared or red light from the exposed dentine under four conditions: before and after injecting local anaesthetic (3% Mepivacaine without vasoconstrictor) (LA) over the apex of the root of the tooth; after exposing the pulp by cutting a buccal, class V cavity in the tooth; and after sectioning the coronal pulp transversely through the exposure. There was no significant change in mean blood flow recorded with either light source when the tooth was anaesthetized or when the pulp was exposed. After the pulp had been sectioned, the blood flow recorded with infrared light fell by 67.8% and with red light, by 68.4%. The difference between these effects was not significant. When recording blood flow from exposed coronal dentine with either infrared or red light in a tooth isolated with opaque rubber dam, about 68% to the signal was contributed by the pulp. The signal:noise ratio was better with infrared than red light, and when recording from dentine than enamel. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Bright infrared quantum-dot light-emitting diodes through inter-dot spacing control

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Liangfeng; Choi, Joshua J.; Stachnik, David; Bartnik, Adam C.; Hyun, Byung-Ryool; Malliaras, George G.; Hanrath, Tobias; Wise, Frank W.

    2012-01-01

    Infrared light-emitting diodes are currently fabricated from direct-gap semiconductors using epitaxy, which makes them expensive and difficult to integrate with other materials. Light-emitting diodes based on colloidal semiconductor quantum dots, on the other hand, can be solution-processed at low cost, and can be directly integrated with silicon. However, so far, exciton dissociation and recombination have not been well controlled in these devices, and this has limited their performance. Here, by tuning the distance between adjacent PbS quantum dots, we fabricate thin-film quantum-dot light-emitting diodes that operate at infrared wavelengths with radiances (6.4 W sr '1 m '2) eight times higher and external quantum efficiencies (2.0%) two times higher than the highest values previously reported. The distance between adjacent dots is tuned over a range of 1.3 nm by varying the lengths of the linker molecules from three to eight CH 2 groups, which allows us to achieve the optimum balance between charge injection and radiative exciton recombination. The electroluminescent powers of the best devices are comparable to those produced by commercial InGaAsP light-emitting diodes. By varying the size of the quantum dots, we can tune the emission wavelengths between 800 and 1,850 nm.© 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

  13. Bright infrared quantum-dot light-emitting diodes through inter-dot spacing control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liangfeng; Choi, Joshua J; Stachnik, David; Bartnik, Adam C; Hyun, Byung-Ryool; Malliaras, George G; Hanrath, Tobias; Wise, Frank W

    2012-05-06

    Infrared light-emitting diodes are currently fabricated from direct-gap semiconductors using epitaxy, which makes them expensive and difficult to integrate with other materials. Light-emitting diodes based on colloidal semiconductor quantum dots, on the other hand, can be solution-processed at low cost, and can be directly integrated with silicon. However, so far, exciton dissociation and recombination have not been well controlled in these devices, and this has limited their performance. Here, by tuning the distance between adjacent PbS quantum dots, we fabricate thin-film quantum-dot light-emitting diodes that operate at infrared wavelengths with radiances (6.4 W sr(-1) m(-2)) eight times higher and external quantum efficiencies (2.0%) two times higher than the highest values previously reported. The distance between adjacent dots is tuned over a range of 1.3 nm by varying the lengths of the linker molecules from three to eight CH(2) groups, which allows us to achieve the optimum balance between charge injection and radiative exciton recombination. The electroluminescent powers of the best devices are comparable to those produced by commercial InGaAsP light-emitting diodes. By varying the size of the quantum dots, we can tune the emission wavelengths between 800 and 1,850 nm.

  14. Bright infrared quantum-dot light-emitting diodes through inter-dot spacing control

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Liangfeng

    2012-05-06

    Infrared light-emitting diodes are currently fabricated from direct-gap semiconductors using epitaxy, which makes them expensive and difficult to integrate with other materials. Light-emitting diodes based on colloidal semiconductor quantum dots, on the other hand, can be solution-processed at low cost, and can be directly integrated with silicon. However, so far, exciton dissociation and recombination have not been well controlled in these devices, and this has limited their performance. Here, by tuning the distance between adjacent PbS quantum dots, we fabricate thin-film quantum-dot light-emitting diodes that operate at infrared wavelengths with radiances (6.4 W sr \\'1 m \\'2) eight times higher and external quantum efficiencies (2.0%) two times higher than the highest values previously reported. The distance between adjacent dots is tuned over a range of 1.3 nm by varying the lengths of the linker molecules from three to eight CH 2 groups, which allows us to achieve the optimum balance between charge injection and radiative exciton recombination. The electroluminescent powers of the best devices are comparable to those produced by commercial InGaAsP light-emitting diodes. By varying the size of the quantum dots, we can tune the emission wavelengths between 800 and 1,850 nm.© 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

  15. Infrared Observations of Cometary Dust and Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisse, Carey

    2004-01-01

    This bibliography lists citations for publications published under the grant. Subjects of the publications include cometary dust, instellar and interplanetary dust, comet nuclei and comae, Comet Hale-Bopp, infrared observations of comets, mass loss, and comet break-up.

  16. Far-infrared observations of Sagittarius B2 - reconsideration of source structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thronson, H.A. Jr.; Harper, D.A.; Yerkes Observatory, Williams Bay, WI)

    1986-01-01

    New moderate-angular-resolution far-infrared observations of the Sagittarius B2 star-forming region are presented, discussed, and compared with recent radio molecular and continuum observations of this source. In contrast to previous analyses, its far-infrared spectrum is interpreted as the result of a massive frigid cloud overlying a more-or-less normal infrared source, a natural explanation for the object's previously-noted peculiarities. The characteristics derived for the obscuring cloud are similar to those found for the W51 MAIN object. Both sources have high sub-millimeter surface brightness, a high ratio of sub-millimeter to far-infrared flux, and numerous regions of molecular maser emission. 28 references

  17. THE CYTOTOXIC EFFECTS OF LOW INTENSITY VISIBLE AND INFRARED LIGHT ON HUMAN BREAST CANCER (MCF7 CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Peidaee

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A concept of using low intensity light therapy (LILT as an alternative approach to cancer treatment is at early stages of development; while the therapeutic effects of LILT as a non-invasive treatment modality for localized joint and soft tissue wound healing are widely corroborated. The LEDs-based exposure system was designed and constructed to irradiate the selected cancer and normal cells and evaluate the biological effects induced by light exposures in visible and infrared light range. In this study, human breast cancer (MCF7 cells and human epidermal melanocytes (HEM cells (control were exposed to selected far infrared light (3400nm, 3600nm, 3800nm, 3900nm, 4100nm and 4300nm and visible and near infrared wavelengths (466nm, 585nm, 626nm, 810nm, 850nm and 950nm. The optical intensities of LEDs used for exposures were in the range of 15µW to 30µW. Cellular morphological changes of exposed and sham-exposed cells were evaluated using light microscopy. The cytotoxic effects of these low intensity light exposures on human cancer and normal cell lines were quantitatively determined by Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH cytotoxic activity and PrestoBlueTM cell viability assays. Findings reveal that far-infrared exposures were able to reduce cell viability of MCF7 cells as measured by increased LDH release activity and PrestoBlueTM assays. Further investigation of the effects of light irradiation on different types of cancer cells, study of possible signaling pathways affected by electromagnetic radiation (EMR and in vivo experimentation are required in order to draw a firm conclusion about the efficacy of low intensity light as an alternative non-invasive cancer treatment.

  18. Near-infrared to Mid-infrared Observations of Galaxy Mergers: NGC 2782 and NGC 7727

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaka, Takashi; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Sakon, Itsuki; Wu, Ronin; Ohsawa, Ryou; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Lebouteiller, Vianney; Roellig, Thomas L.

    2018-01-01

    We present the results of near-infrared-to-mid-infrared (NIR-to-MIR) imaging and NIR spectroscopic observations of two galaxy mergers, NGC 2782 (Arp 215) and NGC 7727 (Arp 222), with the Infrared Camera on board AKARI. NGC 2782 shows extended MIR emission in the eastern side of the galaxy, which corresponds to the eastern tidal tail seen in the H I 21 cm map, while NGC 7727 shows extended MIR emission in the north of the galaxy, which is similar to the plumes seen in the residual image at the K-band after subtracting a galaxy model. Both extended structures are thought to have formed in association with their merger events. They show excess emission at 7–15 μm, which can be attributed to emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), while the observed spectral energy distributions (SEDs) decline longward of 24 μm, suggesting that very small grains (VSGs) are deficient. These characteristics of the observed MIR SED may be explained if PAHs are formed by fragmentation of VSGs during merger events. The star formation rate is estimated from the MIR PAH emission in the eastern tail region of NGC 2782 and it is in fair agreement with those estimated from Hα and [C II] 158 μm. MIR observations are efficient for the study of dust processing and structures formed during merger events.

  19. Fabrication of thin-film thermoelectric generators with ball lenses for conversion of near-infrared solar light

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, Yoshitaka; Mizoshiri, Mizue; Mikami, Masashi; Kondo, Tasuku; Sakurai, Junpei; Hata, Seiichi

    2017-01-01

    We designed and fabricated thin-film thermoelectric generators (TEGs) with ball lenses, which separated visible light and near-infrared (NIR) solar light using a chromatic aberration. The transmitted visible light was used as daylight and the NIR light was used for thermoelectric generation. Solar light was estimated to be separated into the visible light and NIR light by a ray tracing method. 92.7% of the visible light was used as daylight and 9.9% of the NIR light was used for thermoelectri...

  20. Light-leaking region segmentation of FOG fiber based on quality evaluation of infrared image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haoting; Wang, Wei; Gao, Feng; Shan, Lianjie; Ma, Yuzhou; Ge, Wenqian

    2014-07-01

    To improve the assembly reliability of Fiber Optic Gyroscope (FOG), a light leakage detection system and method is developed. First, an agile movement control platform is designed to implement the pose control of FOG optical path component in 6 Degrees of Freedom (DOF). Second, an infrared camera is employed to capture the working state images of corresponding fibers in optical path component after the manual assembly of FOG; therefore the entire light transmission process of key sections in light-path can be recorded. Third, an image quality evaluation based region segmentation method is developed for the light leakage images. In contrast to the traditional methods, the image quality metrics, including the region contrast, the edge blur, and the image noise level, are firstly considered to distinguish the image characters of infrared image; then the robust segmentation algorithms, including graph cut and flood fill, are all developed for region segmentation according to the specific image quality. Finally, after the image segmentation of light leakage region, the typical light-leaking type, such as the point defect, the wedge defect, and the surface defect can be identified. By using the image quality based method, the applicability of our proposed system can be improved dramatically. Many experiment results have proved the validity and effectiveness of this method.

  1. Graphene metamaterial spatial light modulator for infrared single pixel imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Kebin; Suen, Jonathan Y; Padilla, Willie J

    2017-10-16

    High-resolution and hyperspectral imaging has long been a goal for multi-dimensional data fusion sensing applications - of interest for autonomous vehicles and environmental monitoring. In the long wave infrared regime this quest has been impeded by size, weight, power, and cost issues, especially as focal-plane array detector sizes increase. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrated a new approach based on a metamaterial graphene spatial light modulator (GSLM) for infrared single pixel imaging. A frequency-division multiplexing (FDM) imaging technique is designed and implemented, and relies entirely on the electronic reconfigurability of the GSLM. We compare our approach to the more common raster-scan method and directly show FDM image frame rates can be 64 times faster with no degradation of image quality. Our device and related imaging architecture are not restricted to the infrared regime, and may be scaled to other bands of the electromagnetic spectrum. The study presented here opens a new approach for fast and efficient single pixel imaging utilizing graphene metamaterials with novel acquisition strategies.

  2. Robust Visible and Infrared Light Emitting Devices Using Rare-Earth-Doped GaN

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steckl, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Rare earth (RE) dopants (such as Er, Eu, Tm) in the wide bandgap semiconductor (WBGS) GaN are investigated for the fabrication of robust visible and infrared light emitting devices at a variety of wavelengths...

  3. Far-infrared spectrophotometer for astronomical observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, H.; Silverberg, R. F.

    1981-01-01

    A liquid-helium-cooled far infrared spectrophotometer was built and used to make low resolution observations of the continua of several kinds of astronomical objects using the Kuiper Airborne Observatory. This instrument fills a gap in both sensitivity to continuum sources and spectral resolution between the broadband photometers with lambda/Delta lambda approximately 1 and spectrometers with lambda/Delta lambda greater than 50. While designed primarily to study planetary nebulae, the instrument permits study of the shape of the continua of many weak sources which cannot easily be observed with high resolution systems.

  4. Infrared, radio, and x-ray observations of Cygnus X-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becklin, E.E.; Hawkins, F.J.; Mason, K.O.; Matthews, K.; Neugebauer, G.; Packman, D.; Sanford, P.W.; Schupler, B.; Stark, A.; Wynn-Williams, C.G.

    1974-01-01

    The x-ray source Cygnus X-3 has been interpreted as being a binary system on the basis of extensive x-ray observations of periodic variability. At radio wavelengths, the source displays erratic outbursts. Cyg x-3 has not been detected visually but at infrared wavelengths periodic variations in phase with the x-ray variations have been reported. Infrared, x-ray and radio observations of Cyg X-3 made during 1973 through 1973 October are presented. (U.S.)

  5. Far-infared spectroscopic observations with a Balloon-Borne infrared telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maihara, Toshinori; Takami, Hideki; Mizutani, Kohei

    1986-01-01

    The first observations of far-infrared celestial objects using the 50-cm Balloon-Borne Infrared Telescope were made in Alice Springs, Australia. Far-infrared spectrophotometric data between 45 and 115 μm were taken for the Orion-KL region, Saturn and a southern H II region RCW 38. The data including high excitation transition lines of CO for Orion-KL, O III lines for RCW 38 and a PH 3 absorption feature of Saturn will be presented. (author)

  6. High-Resolution Infrared Spectroscopic Observations of the Upper Scorpius Eclipsing Binary EPIC 203868608

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marshall C.; Mace, Gregory N.; Kim, Hwihyun; Kaplan, Kyle; McLane, Jacob; Sokal, Kimberly R.

    2017-06-01

    EPIC 203868608 is a source in the ~10 Myr old Upper Scorpius OB association. Using K2 photometry and ground-based follow-up observations, David et al. (2016) found that it consists of two brown dwarfs with a tertiary object at a projected separation of ~20 AU; the former objects appear to be a double-lined eclipsing binary with a period of 4.5 days. This is one of only two known eclipsing SB2s where both components are below the hydrogen-burning limit. We present additional follow-up observations of this system from the IGRINS high-resolution near-infrared spectrograph at McDonald Observatory. Our measured radial velocities do not follow the orbital solution presented by David et al. (2016). Instead, our combined IGRINS plus literature radial velocity dataset appears to indicate a period significantly different than that of the eclipsing binary obvious from the K2 light curve. We will discuss possible scenarios to account for the conflicting observations of this system.

  7. Type Ia Supernova Light Curve Inference: Hierarchical Models for Nearby SN Ia in the Optical and Near Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Kaisey; Kirshner, R. P.; Narayan, G.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Friedman, A. S.; Hicken, M.

    2010-01-01

    I have constructed a comprehensive statistical model for Type Ia supernova light curves spanning optical through near infrared data simultaneously. The near infrared light curves are found to be excellent standard candles (sigma(MH) = 0.11 +/- 0.03 mag) that are less vulnerable to systematic error from dust extinction, a major confounding factor for cosmological studies. A hierarchical statistical framework incorporates coherently multiple sources of randomness and uncertainty, including photometric error, intrinsic supernova light curve variations and correlations, dust extinction and reddening, peculiar velocity dispersion and distances, for probabilistic inference with Type Ia SN light curves. Inferences are drawn from the full probability density over individual supernovae and the SN Ia and dust populations, conditioned on a dataset of SN Ia light curves and redshifts. To compute probabilistic inferences with hierarchical models, I have developed BayeSN, a Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm based on Gibbs sampling. This code explores and samples the global probability density of parameters describing individual supernovae and the population. I have applied this hierarchical model to optical and near infrared data of over 100 nearby Type Ia SN from PAIRITEL, the CfA3 sample, and the literature. Using this statistical model, I find that SN with optical and NIR data have a smaller residual scatter in the Hubble diagram than SN with only optical data. The continued study of Type Ia SN in the near infrared will be important for improving their utility as precise and accurate cosmological distance indicators.

  8. THE COSMIC INFRARED BACKGROUND EXPERIMENT (CIBER): A SOUNDING ROCKET PAYLOAD TO STUDY THE NEAR INFRARED EXTRAGALACTIC BACKGROUND LIGHT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemcov, M.; Bock, J.; Hristov, V.; Levenson, L. R.; Mason, P. [Department of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Arai, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S.; Tsumura, K.; Wada, T. [Department of Space Astronomy and Astrophysics, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Battle, J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Cooray, A. [Center for Cosmology, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Keating, B.; Renbarger, T. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Kim, M. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, D. H.; Nam, U. W. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Sullivan, I. [Department of Physics, The University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Suzuki, K., E-mail: zemcov@caltech.edu [Instrument Development Group of Technical Center, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan)

    2013-08-15

    The Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment (CIBER) is a suite of four instruments designed to study the near infrared (IR) background light from above the Earth's atmosphere. The instrument package comprises two imaging telescopes designed to characterize spatial anisotropy in the extragalactic IR background caused by cosmological structure during the epoch of reionization, a low resolution spectrometer to measure the absolute spectrum of the extragalactic IR background, and a narrow band spectrometer optimized to measure the absolute brightness of the zodiacal light foreground. In this paper we describe the design and characterization of the CIBER payload. The detailed mechanical, cryogenic, and electrical design of the system are presented, including all system components common to the four instruments. We present the methods and equipment used to characterize the instruments before and after flight, and give a detailed description of CIBER's flight profile and configurations. CIBER is designed to be recoverable and has flown four times, with modifications to the payload having been informed by analysis of the first flight data. All four instruments performed to specifications during the subsequent flights, and the scientific data from these flights are currently being analyzed.

  9. SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF LONG-TERM INFRARED VARIABILITY AMONG YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS IN CHAMAELEON I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaherty, Kevin M.; Herbst, William [Van Vleck Observatory, Astronomy Department, Wesleyan University, 96 Foss Hill Drive, Middletown, CT 06459 (United States); DeMarchi, Lindsay [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Colgate University, 13 Oak Drive, Hamilton, NY 13346 (United States); Muzerolle, James [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Balog, Zoltan [Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Megeath, S. Thomas [Ritter Astrophysical Research Center, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Furlan, Elise [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, 770 S. Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gutermuth, Robert [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2016-12-10

    Infrared variability is common among young stellar objects, with surveys finding daily to weekly fluctuations of a few tenths of a magnitude. Space-based observations can produce highly sampled infrared light curves, but are often limited to total baselines of about 1 month due to the orientation of the spacecraft. Here we present observations of the Chameleon I cluster, whose low declination makes it observable by the Spitzer Space Telescope over a 200-day period. We observe 30 young stellar objects with a daily cadence to better sample variability on timescales of months. We find that such variability is common, occurring in ∼80% of the detected cluster members. The change in [3.6]–[4.5] color over 200 days for many of the sources falls between that expected for extinction and fluctuations in disk emission. With our high cadence and long baseline we can derive power spectral density curves covering two orders of magnitude in frequency and find significant power at low frequencies, up to the boundaries of our 200-day survey. Such long timescales are difficult to explain with variations driven by the interaction between the disk and stellar magnetic field, which has a dynamical timescale of days to weeks. The most likely explanation is either structural or temperature fluctuations spread throughout the inner ∼0.5 au of the disk, suggesting that the intrinsic dust structure is highly dynamic.

  10. Soft Lithographic Procedure for Producing Plastic Microfluidic Devices with View-ports Transparent to Visible and Infrared Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryana, Mona; Shanmugarajah, Jegan V; Maniam, Sivakumar M; Grenci, Gianluca

    2017-08-17

    Infrared (IR) spectro-microscopy of living biological samples is hampered by the absorption of water in the mid-IR range and by the lack of suitable microfluidic devices. Here, a protocol for the fabrication of plastic microfluidic devices is demonstrated, where soft lithographic techniques are used to embed transparent Calcium Fluoride (CaF2) view-ports in connection with observation chamber(s). The method is based on a replica casting approach, where a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold is produced through standard lithographic procedures and then used as the template to produce a plastic device. The plastic device features ultraviolet/visible/infrared (UV/Vis/IR) -transparent windows made of CaF2 to allow for direct observation with visible and IR light. The advantages of the proposed method include: a reduced need for accessing a clean room micro-fabrication facility, multiple view-ports, an easy and versatile connection to an external pumping system through the plastic body, flexibility of the design, e.g., open/closed channels configuration, and the possibility to add sophisticated features such as nanoporous membranes.

  11. The influence of melt purification and structure defects on mid-infrared light emitting diodes

    CERN Document Server

    Krier, A

    2003-01-01

    Mid-infrared light emitting diodes which exhibit more than 7 mW (pulsed) and 0.35 mW dc output power at 3.3 mu m and at room temperature have been fabricated by liquid phase epitaxy using Pb as a neutral solvent. Using Pb solution an increase in pulsed output power of between two and three times was obtained compared with InAs light emitting diodes (LEDs) made using rare-earth gettering. The performance improvements were attributed to a reduction in residual carrier concentration arising from the removal of un-intentional donors and structure defects in the InAs active region material. These LEDs are well matched to the CH sub 4 absorption spectrum and potentially could form the basis of a practical infrared CH sub 4 gas sensor.

  12. Turning on lights to stop neurodegeneration: the potential of near infrared light therapy in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M Johnstone

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease are the two most common neurodegenerative disorders. They develop after a progressive death of many neurones in the brain. Although therapies are available to treat the signs and symptoms of both diseases, the progression of neuronal death remains relentless, and it has proved difficult to slow or stop. Hence, there is a need to develop neuroprotective or disease-modifying treatments that stabilise this degeneration. Red to infrared light therapy (λ=600-1070nm, and in particular light in the near infrared (NIr range, is emerging as a safe and effective therapy that is capable of arresting neuronal death. Previous studies have used NIr to treat tissue stressed by hypoxia, toxic insult, genetic mutation and mitochondrial dysfunction with much success. Here we propose NIr therapy as a neuroprotective or disease-modifying treatment for Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s patients.

  13. The Infrared Light Curve of SN 2011fe in M101 and the Distance to M101

    OpenAIRE

    Matheson, T.; Joyce, R. R.; Allen, L. E.; Saha, A.; Silva, D. R.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Adams, J. J.; Anderson, R. E.; Beck, T. L.; Bentz, M. C.; Bershady, M. A.; Binkert, W. S.; Butler, K.; Camarata, M. A.; Eigenbrot, A.

    2012-01-01

    We present near infra-red light curves of supernova (SN) 2011fe in M101, including 34 epochs in H band starting fourteen days before maximum brightness in the B-band. The light curve data were obtained with the WIYN High-Resolution Infrared Camera (WHIRC). When the data are calibrated using templates of other Type Ia SNe, we derive an apparent H-band magnitude at the epoch of B-band maximum of 10.85 \\pm 0.04. This implies a distance modulus for M101 that ranges from 28.86 to 29.17 mag, depend...

  14. Dynamic Softening or Stiffening a Supramolecular Hydrogel by Ultraviolet or Near-Infrared Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhao; Hu, Jingjing; Wang, Hui; Huang, Junlin; Yu, Yihua; Zhang, Qiang; Cheng, Yiyun

    2017-07-26

    The development of light-responsive hydrogels that exhibit switchable size and mechanical properties with temporal and spatial resolution is of great importance in many fields. However, it remains challenging to prepare smart hydrogels that dramatically change their properties in response to both ultraviolet (UV) and near-infrared (NIR) lights. Here, we designed a dual-light responsive supramolecular gel by integrating UV light-switchable host-guest recognition, temperature responsiveness, and NIR photothermal ability in the gel. The gel could rapidly self-heal and is capable of both softening and stiffening controlled by UV and NIR lights, respectively. Besides stiffness modulation, the bending direction of the gel can be controlled by UV or NIR light irradiation. The smart gel makes it possible to generate dynamic materials that respond to both UV and NIR lights and represents a useful tool that might be used to modulate cellular microenvironments with spatiotemporal resolution.

  15. Gold nanocages covered by smart polymers for controlled release with near-infrared light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Mustafa S; Cheng, Yiyun; Chen, Jingyi; Cobley, Claire M; Zhang, Qiang; Rycenga, Matthew; Xie, Jingwei; Kim, Chulhong; Song, Kwang H; Schwartz, Andrea G; Wang, Lihong V; Xia, Younan

    2009-12-01

    Photosensitive caged compounds have enhanced our ability to address the complexity of biological systems by generating effectors with remarkable spatial/temporal resolutions. The caging effect is typically removed by photolysis with ultraviolet light to liberate the bioactive species. Although this technique has been successfully applied to many biological problems, it suffers from a number of intrinsic drawbacks. For example, it requires dedicated efforts to design and synthesize a precursor compound for each effector. The ultraviolet light may cause damage to biological samples and is suitable only for in vitro studies because of its quick attenuation in tissue. Here we address these issues by developing a platform based on the photothermal effect of gold nanocages. Gold nanocages represent a class of nanostructures with hollow interiors and porous walls. They can have strong absorption (for the photothermal effect) in the near-infrared while maintaining a compact size. When the surface of a gold nanocage is covered with a smart polymer, the pre-loaded effector can be released in a controllable fashion using a near-infrared laser. This system works well with various effectors without involving sophisticated syntheses, and is well suited for in vivo studies owing to the high transparency of soft tissue in the near-infrared region.

  16. Narrowband infrared emitters for combat ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pralle, Martin U.; Puscasu, Irina; Daly, James; Fallon, Keith; Loges, Peter; Greenwald, Anton; Johnson, Edward

    2007-04-01

    There is a strong desire to create narrowband infrared light sources as personnel beacons for application in infrared Identify Friend or Foe (IFF) systems. This demand has augmented dramatically in recent years with the reports of friendly fire casualties in Afghanistan and Iraq. ICx Photonics' photonic crystal enhanced TM (PCE TM) infrared emitter technology affords the possibility of creating narrowband IR light sources tuned to specific IR wavebands (near 1-2 microns, mid 3-5 microns, and long 8-12 microns) making it the ideal solution for infrared IFF. This technology is based on a metal coated 2D photonic crystal of air holes in a silicon substrate. Upon thermal excitation the photonic crystal modifies the emitted yielding narrowband IR light with center wavelength commensurate with the periodicity of the lattice. We have integrated this technology with microhotplate MEMS devices to yield 15mW IR light sources in the 3-5 micron waveband with wall plug efficiencies in excess of 10%, 2 orders of magnitude more efficient that conventional IR LEDs. We have further extended this technology into the LWIR with a light source that produces 9 mW of 8-12 micron light at an efficiency of 8%. Viewing distances >500 meters were observed with fielded camera technologies, ideal for ground to ground troop identification. When grouped into an emitter panel, the viewing distances were extended to 5 miles, ideal for ground to air identification.

  17. CR-39 (PADC) Reflection and Transmission of Light in the Ultraviolet-Near-Infrared (UV-NIR) Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traynor, Nathan B J; McLauchlin, Christopher; Dodge, Kenneth; McGarrah, James E; Padalino, Stephen J; McCluskey, Michelle; Sangster, T C; McLean, James G

    2018-04-01

    The spectral reflection (specular and diffuse) and transmission of Columbia Resin 39 (CR-39) were measured for incoherent light with wavelengths in the range of 200-2500 nm. These results will be of use for the optical characterization of CR-39, as well as in investigations of the chemical modifications of the polymer caused by ultraviolet (UV) exposure. A Varian Cary 5000 was used to perform spectroscopy on several different thicknesses of CR-39. With proper analysis for the interdependence of reflectance and transmittance, results are consistent across all samples. The reflectivity from each CR-39-air boundary reveals an increase in the index of refraction in the near-UV. Absorption observations are consistent with the Beer-Lambert law. Strong absorption of UV light of wavelength shorter than 350 nm suggests an optical band gap of 3.5 eV, although the standard analysis is not conclusive. Absorption features observed in the near infrared are assigned to molecular vibrations, including some that are new to the literature.

  18. Mars Infrared Spectroscopy: From Theory and the Laboratory To Field Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, Laurel (Editor); Mustard, John (Editor); McAfee, John (Editor); Hapke, Bruce (Editor); Ramsey, Michael (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    The continuity and timely implementation of the Mars exploration strategy relies heavily on the ability of the planetary community to interpret infrared spectral data. However, the increasing mission rate, data volume, and data variety, combined with the small number of spectroscopists within the planetary community, will require a coordinated community effort for effective and timely interpretation of the newly acquired and planned data sets. Relevant spectroscopic instruments include the 1996 TES, 2001 THEMIS, 2003 Pancam, 2003 Mini-TES, 2003 Mars Express OMEGA, 2003 Mars Express PFS, and 2005 CFUSM. In light of that, leaders of the Mars spectral community met June 4-6 to address the question: What terrestrial theoretical, laboratory, and field studies are most needed to best support timely interpretations of current and planned visible infrared spectrometer data sets, in light of the Mars Program goals? A primary goal of the spectral community is to provide a reservoir of information to enhance and expand the exploration of Mars. Spectroscopy has a long history of providing the fundamental compositional discoveries in the solar system, from atmospheric constituents to surface mineralogy, from earth-based to spacecraft-based observations. However, such spectroscopic compositional discoveries, especially surface mineralogies, have usually come after long periods of detailed integration of remote observations, laboratory analyses, and field measurements. Spectroscopic information of surfaces is particularly complex and often is confounded by interference of broad, overlapping absorption features as well as confusing issues of mixtures, coatings, and grain size effects. Thus some spectroscopic compositional discoveries have come only after many years of research. However, we are entering an era of Mars exploration with missions carrying sophisticated spectrometers launching about every 2 years. It is critical that each mission provide answers to relevant questions

  19. Transdermal thiol-acrylate polyethylene glycol hydrogel synthesis using near infrared light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Solchan; Lee, Hwangjae; Kim, Hyung-Seok; Kim, Min-Gon; Lee, Luke P.; Lee, Jae Young

    2016-07-01

    Light-induced polymerization has been widely applied for hydrogel synthesis, which conventionally involves the use of ultraviolet or visible light to activate a photoinitiator for polymerization. However, with these light sources, transdermal gelation is not efficient and feasible due to their substantial interactions with biological systems, and thus a high power is required. In this study, we used biocompatible and tissue-penetrating near infrared (NIR) light to remotely trigger a thiol-acrylate reaction for efficient in vivo gelation with good controllability. Our gelation system includes gold nanorods as a photothermal agent, a thermal initiator, diacrylate polyethylene glycol (PEG), and thiolated PEG. Irradiation with a low-power NIR laser (0.3 W cm-2) could induce gelation via a mixed-mode reaction with a small increase in temperature (~5 °C) under the optimized conditions. We also achieved successful transdermal gelation via the NIR-assisted photothermal thiol-acryl reactions. This new type of NIR-assisted thiol-acrylate polymerization provides new opportunities for in situ hydrogel formation for injectable hydrogels and delivery of drugs/cells for various biomedical applications.Light-induced polymerization has been widely applied for hydrogel synthesis, which conventionally involves the use of ultraviolet or visible light to activate a photoinitiator for polymerization. However, with these light sources, transdermal gelation is not efficient and feasible due to their substantial interactions with biological systems, and thus a high power is required. In this study, we used biocompatible and tissue-penetrating near infrared (NIR) light to remotely trigger a thiol-acrylate reaction for efficient in vivo gelation with good controllability. Our gelation system includes gold nanorods as a photothermal agent, a thermal initiator, diacrylate polyethylene glycol (PEG), and thiolated PEG. Irradiation with a low-power NIR laser (0.3 W cm-2) could induce gelation

  20. Longwave infrared observation of urban landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goward, S. N.

    1981-01-01

    An investigation is conducted regarding the feasibility to develop improved methods for the identification and analysis of urban landscapes on the basis of a utilization of longwave infrared observations. Attention is given to landscape thermal behavior, urban thermal properties, modeled thermal behavior of pavements and buildings, and observed urban landscape thermal emissions. The differential thermal behavior of buildings, pavements, and natural areas within urban landscapes is found to suggest that integrated multispectral solar radiant reflectance and terrestrial radiant emissions data will significantly increase potentials for analyzing urban landscapes. In particular, daytime satellite observations of the considered type should permit better identification of urban areas and an analysis of the density of buildings and pavements within urban areas. This capability should enhance the utility of satellite remote sensor data in urban applications.

  1. Near infrared observations of the visual reflection nebulae NGC 7023, NGC 2023, and NGC 2068

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellgren, K.

    1984-01-01

    The emission of the nebulae NGC 7023, 2023, and 2068 at visual wavelengths is due to reflected starlight. Recently the infrared emission of these nebulae has been found to consist not of reflected light, but rather to be due to some other emission process. Spectra of the infrared emission at nebular positions in NGC 7023 and NGC 2023 are shown. The infrared emission consists of a smooth continuum which extends at least from 1.25 to 4.8 μm, and strong emission features at 3.3 and 3.4μm. (author)

  2. Fractionated bipolar radiofrequency and bipolar radiofrequency potentiated by infrared light for treating striae: A prospective randomized, comparative trial with objective evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmelin, Yona; Boineau, Dominique; Cardot-Leccia, Nathalie; Fontas, Eric; Bahadoran, Philippe; Becker, Anne-Lise; Montaudié, Henri; Castela, Emeline; Perrin, Christophe; Lacour, Jean-Philippe; Passeron, Thierry

    2016-03-01

    Very few treatments for striae are based on prospective randomized trials. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of bipolar fractional radiofrequency and bipolar radiofrequency potentiated with infrared light, alone or combined, for treating abdominal stretch marks. Bicentric prospective interventional randomized controlled trial in the department of Dermatology of University Hospital of Nice and Aesthetics Laser Center of Bordeaux, France. Men and women of age 18 years or above, who presented for the treatment of mature or immature abdominal striae were included. The patients' abdomens were divided into four equal quadrants. Bipolar radiofrequency potentiated with infrared light and fractional bipolar radiofrequency were applied, alone or combined, and compared to the remaining untreated quadrant. The main criterion of evaluation was the measurement of depth of striae, using 3D photography at 6 months follow-up. A global assessment was also rated by the physician performing the treatment and by the patients. Histological analysis and confocal laser microscopy were additionally performed. A total of 22 patients were enrolled, and 384 striae were measured. In per protocol analysis mean striae depth was decreased by 21.64%, observed at 6 months follow-up with the combined approach, compared to an increase of 1.73% in the control group (P radiofrequency, combined with bipolar radiofrequency potentiated by infrared light, is an effective treatment of both immature and mature striae of the abdomen. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. THE INFRARED LIGHT CURVE OF SN 2011fe IN M101 AND THE DISTANCE TO M101

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matheson, T.; Joyce, R. R.; Allen, L. E.; Saha, A.; Silva, D. R.; Binkert, W. S.; Butler, K.; Everett, M.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Adams, J. J.; Anderson, R. E.; Beck, T. L.; Bentz, M. C.; Bershady, M. A.; Eigenbrot, A.; Gallagher, J. S.; Camarata, M. A.; Garnavich, P. M.; Glikman, E.; Harbeck, D.

    2012-01-01

    We present near-infrared light curves of supernova (SN) 2011fe in M101, including 34 epochs in H band starting 14 days before maximum brightness in the B band. The light curve data were obtained with the WIYN High-Resolution Infrared Camera. When the data are calibrated using templates of other Type Ia SNe, we derive an apparent H-band magnitude at the epoch of B-band maximum of 10.85 ± 0.04. This implies a distance modulus for M101 that ranges from 28.86 to 29.17 mag, depending on which absolute calibration for Type Ia SNe is used.

  4. THE INFRARED LIGHT CURVE OF SN 2011fe IN M101 AND THE DISTANCE TO M101

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matheson, T.; Joyce, R. R.; Allen, L. E.; Saha, A.; Silva, D. R.; Binkert, W. S.; Butler, K.; Everett, M. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Wood-Vasey, W. M. [Pittsburgh Particle Physics, Astrophysics, and Cosmology Center (PITT-PACC), University of Pittsburgh, 3941 O' Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Adams, J. J. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Anderson, R. E.; Beck, T. L. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Bentz, M. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Astronomy Offices, One Park Place South SE, Suite 700, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Bershady, M. A.; Eigenbrot, A.; Gallagher, J. S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Camarata, M. A. [Department of Physics, Southern Connecticut State University, 501 Crescent Street, New Haven, CT 06515 (United States); Garnavich, P. M. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Glikman, E. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Harbeck, D., E-mail: matheson@noao.edu [WIYN Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); and others

    2012-07-20

    We present near-infrared light curves of supernova (SN) 2011fe in M101, including 34 epochs in H band starting 14 days before maximum brightness in the B band. The light curve data were obtained with the WIYN High-Resolution Infrared Camera. When the data are calibrated using templates of other Type Ia SNe, we derive an apparent H-band magnitude at the epoch of B-band maximum of 10.85 {+-} 0.04. This implies a distance modulus for M101 that ranges from 28.86 to 29.17 mag, depending on which absolute calibration for Type Ia SNe is used.

  5. MULTI-COLOR OPTICAL AND NEAR-INFRARED LIGHT CURVES OF 64 STRIPPED-ENVELOPE CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianco, F. B.; Modjaz, M. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Hicken, M.; Friedman, A.; Kirshner, R. P.; Challis, P.; Marion, G. H. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bloom, J. S. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Wood-Vasey, W. M. [PITT PACC, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 3941 O' Hara Street, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Rest, A., E-mail: fb55@nyu.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    We present a densely sampled, homogeneous set of light curves of 64 low-redshift (z ≲ 0.05) stripped-envelope supernovae (SNe of Type IIb, Ib, Ic, and Ic-BL). These data were obtained between 2001 and 2009 at the Fred L. Whipple Observatory (FLWO) on Mount Hopkins in Arizona, with the optical FLWO 1.2 m and the near-infrared (NIR) Peters Automated Infrared 1.3 m telescopes. Our data set consists of 4543 optical photometric measurements on 61 SNe, including a combination of U BV RI, U BV r{sup ′}i{sup ′}, and u{sup ′} BV r{sup ′}i{sup ′}, and 1919 JHK{sub s} NIR measurements on 25 SNe. This sample constitutes the most extensive multi-color data set of stripped-envelope SNe to date. Our photometry is based on template-subtracted images to eliminate any potential host-galaxy light contamination. This work presents these photometric data, compares them with data in the literature, and estimates basic statistical quantities: date of maximum, color, and photometric properties. We identify promising color trends that may permit the identification of stripped-envelope SN subtypes from their photometry alone. Many of these SNe were observed spectroscopically by the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) SN group, and the spectra are presented in a companion paper. A thorough exploration that combines the CfA photometry and spectroscopy of stripped-envelope core-collapse SNe will be presented in a follow-up paper.

  6. The first synchrotron infrared beamlines at the Advanced Light Source: Microspectroscopy and fast timing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, M.C.; McKinney, W.R.

    1998-05-01

    A set of new infrared (IR) beamlines on the 1.4 bending magnet port at the Advanced Light Source, LBNL, are described. Using a synchrotron as an IR source provides considerable brightness advantages, which manifests itself most beneficially when performing spectroscopy on a microscopic length scale. Beamline (BL) 1.4.3 is a dedicated microspectroscopy beamline, where the much smaller focused spot size using the synchrotron source is utilized. This enables an entirely new set of experiments to be performed where spectroscopy on a truly microscopic scale is now possible. BL 1.4.2 consists of a vacuum FTIR bench with a wide spectral range and step-scan capabilities. The fast timing is demonstrated by observing the synchrotron electron storage pattern at the ALS

  7. Infrared emission from a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) excited by ultraviolet laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherchneff, I.; Barker, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    The infrared fluorescence spectrum from the C-H stretch modes of vibrationally excited azulene (C10H8), a PAH was measured in the laboratory. PAHs are candidates as carriers of the unidentified infrared emission bands that are observed in many astronomical objects associated with dust and ultraviolet light. In the present experiment, gas phase azulene was excited with light from a 308 nm pulsed laser, and the infrared emission spectrum was time-resolved and wavelength-resolved. Moreover, the infrared absorption spectrum of gas phase azulene was obtained using an FTIR spectrometer. The laboratory emission spectrum resembles observed infrared emission spectra from the interstellar medium, providing support for the hypothesis that PAHs are the responsible carriers. The azulene C-H stretch emission spectrum is more asymmetric than the absorption spectrum, probably due to anharmonicity of levels higher than nu = 1. 36 refs

  8. Multiwavelength light curve parameters of Cepheid variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhardwaj Anupam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a comparative analysis of theoretical and observed light curves of Cepheid variables using Fourier decomposition. The theoretical light curves at multiple wavelengths are generated using stellar pulsation models for chemical compositions representative of Cepheids in the Galaxy and Magellanic Clouds. The observed light curves at optical (VI, near-infrared (JHKs and mid-infrared (3.6 & 4.5-μm bands are compiled from the literature. We discuss the variation of light curve parameters as a function of period, wavelength and metallicity. Theoretical and observed Fourier amplitude parameters decrease with increase in wavelength while the phase parameters increase with wavelength. We find that theoretical amplitude parameters obtained using canonical mass-luminosity levels exhibit a greater offset with respect to observations when compared to non-canonical relations. We also discuss the impact of variation in convective efficiency on the light curve structure of Cepheid variables. The increase in mixing length parameter results in a zero-point offset in bolometric mean magnitudes and reduces the systematic large difference in theoretical amplitudes with respect to observations.

  9. Modeling of light absorption in tissue during infrared neural stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Alexander C.; Wade, Scott A.; Brown, William G. A.; Stoddart, Paul R.

    2012-07-01

    A Monte Carlo model has been developed to simulate light transport and absorption in neural tissue during infrared neural stimulation (INS). A range of fiber core sizes and numerical apertures are compared illustrating the advantages of using simulations when designing a light delivery system. A range of wavelengths, commonly used for INS, are also compared for stimulation of nerves in the cochlea, in terms of both the energy absorbed and the change in temperature due to a laser pulse. Modeling suggests that a fiber with core diameter of 200 μm and NA=0.22 is optimal for optical stimulation in the geometry used and that temperature rises in the spiral ganglion neurons are as low as 0.1°C. The results show a need for more careful experimentation to allow different proposed mechanisms of INS to be distinguished.

  10. Infrared reflection nebulae in Orion Molecular Cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendleton, Y.; Werner, M.W.; Capps, R.; Lester, D.; Hawaii Univ., Honolulu; Texas Univ., Austin)

    1986-01-01

    New observations of Orion Molecular Cloud 2 have been made from 1 to 100 microns using the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility and the Kuiper Airborne Observatory. An extensive program of polarimetry, photometry, and spectrophotometry has shown that the extended emission regions associated with two of the previously known near-infrared sources, IRS 1 and IRS 4, are infrared reflection nebulae, and that the compact sources IRS 1 and IRS 4 are the main luminosity sources in the cloud. The constraints from the far-infrared observations and an analysis of the scattered light from the IRS 1 nebula show that OMC-2/IRS 1 can be characterized by L of 500 solar luminosities or less and T of roughly 1000 K. The near-infrared albedo of the grains in the IRS 1 nebula is greater than 0.08. 27 references

  11. EXTRASOLAR STORMS: PRESSURE-DEPENDENT CHANGES IN LIGHT-CURVE PHASE IN BROWN DWARFS FROM SIMULTANEOUS HST AND SPITZER OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hao; Apai, Dániel; Karalidi, Theodora [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Marley, Mark S. [NASA Ames Research Center, Naval Air Station, Moffett Field, Mountain View, CA 94035 (United States); Flateau, Davin [Department of Planetary Sciences, 1629 E. University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Showman, Adam P. [Department of Planetary Sciences, University of Arizona, 1629 University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Metchev, Stanimir [The University of Western Ontario, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Centre for Planetary Science and Exploration, 1151 Richmond St., London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Buenzli, Esther [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zürich Wolfgang-Pauli-Str. 27, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Radigan, Jacqueline [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Artigau, Étienne [Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128 Succ. Centre-ville, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada); Lowrance, Patrick J. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Burgasser, Adam J., E-mail: haoyang@email.arizona.edu, E-mail: apai@arizona.edu [Center for Astrophysics and Space Science, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2016-07-20

    We present Spitzer /Infrared Array Camera Ch1 and Ch2 monitoring of six brown dwarfs during eight different epochs over the course of 20 months. For four brown dwarfs, we also obtained simulataneous Hubble Space Telescope ( HST )/WFC3 G141 grism spectra during two epochs and derived light curves in five narrowband filters. Probing different pressure levels in the atmospheres, the multiwavelength light curves of our six targets all exhibit variations, and the shape of the light curves evolves over the timescale of a rotation period, ranging from 1.4 to 13 hr. We compare the shapes of the light curves and estimate the phase shifts between the light curves observed at different wavelengths by comparing the phase of the primary Fourier components. We use state-of-the-art atmosphere models to determine the flux contribution of different pressure layers to the observed flux in each filter. We find that the light curves that probe higher pressures are similar and in phase, but are offset and often different from the light curves that probe lower pressures. The phase differences between the two groups of light curves suggest that the modulations seen at lower and higher pressures may be introduced by different cloud layers.

  12. Light-cone observables and gauge-invariance in the geodesic light-cone formalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaccabarozzi, Fulvio; Yoo, Jaiyul, E-mail: fulvio@physik.uzh.ch, E-mail: jyoo@physik.uzh.ch [Center for Theoretical Astrophysics and Cosmology, Institute for Computational Science, University of Zürich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057, Zürich (Switzerland)

    2017-06-01

    The remarkable properties of the geodesic light-cone (GLC) coordinates allow analytic expressions for the light-cone observables, providing a new non-perturbative way for calculating the effects of inhomogeneities in our Universe. However, the gauge-invariance of these expressions in the GLC formalism has not been shown explicitly. Here we provide this missing part of the GLC formalism by proving the gauge-invariance of the GLC expressions for the light-cone observables, such as the observed redshift, the luminosity distance, and the physical area and volume of the observed sources. Our study provides a new insight on the properties of the GLC coordinates and it complements the previous work by the GLC collaboration, leading to a comprehensive description of light propagation in the GLC representation.

  13. Conformational changes in matrix-isolated 6-methoxyindole: Effects of the thermal and infrared light excitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes Jesus, A. J. [CQC, Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal); CQC, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra, 3004-295 Coimbra (Portugal); Reva, I., E-mail: reva@qui.uc.pt; Fausto, R. [CQC, Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal); Araujo-Andrade, C. [CQC, Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal); Unidad Académica de Física de la Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Zacatecas (Mexico); ICFO–The Institute of Photonic Sciences, 08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain)

    2016-03-28

    Conformational changes induced thermally or upon infrared excitation of matrix-isolated 6-methoxyindole were investigated. Narrowband near-infrared excitation of the first overtone of the N–H stretching vibration of each one of the two identified conformers is found to induce a selective large-scale conversion of the pumped conformer into the other one. This easily controllable bidirectional process consists in the intramolecular reorientation of the methoxy group and allowed a full assignment of the infrared spectra of the two conformers. Matrices with different conformational compositions prepared by narrow-band irradiations were subsequently used to investigate the effects of both thermal and broadband infrared excitations on the conformational mixtures. Particular attention is given to the influence of the matrix medium (Ar vs. Xe) and conformational effects of exposition of the sample to the spectrometer light source during the measurements.

  14. A comparison between red and infrared light for recording pulpal blood flow from human anterior teeth with a laser Doppler flow meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijsamanmith, Kanittha; Timpawat, Siriporn; Vongsavan, Noppakun; Matthews, Bruce

    2011-06-01

    To compare red (635 nm) and infrared (780 nm) light for recording pulpal blood flow from human anterior teeth with a laser Doppler flow meter. Recordings were made from 7 healthy teeth in 5 subjects (aged 22-55 years) using a laser Doppler flow meter (Periflux 4001) equipped with both red and infrared lasers. Average blood flow signals were obtained with both light sources alternately from each tooth under five conditions: intact tooth without opaque rubber dam, intact tooth with dam, after injecting local anaesthetic (3% Mepivacaine) (LA) over the apex of the tooth and cavity preparation to almost expose the pulp, after removal and replacement of the pulp, and with the root canal empty. With infrared light, because of technical limitations, data were obtained for the first three conditions only. The dam significantly decreased the mean blood flow by 82%. Injecting LA and cavity preparation had no significant effect. With red light, dam produced a decrease of 56%, and the resulting signal was reduced by 33% after LA and cavity preparation. The remaining signal fell by 46% after pulp removal and replacement. This contribution of the pulp is similar to that recorded previously with infrared light. There was no significant further change when the pulp was finally removed. The importance of using opaque rubber dam is confirmed. With dam, there is no advantage to using red rather than infrared light, and in each case the pulp contributes less than 50% to the blood flow signal. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Improved detection probability of low level light and infrared image fusion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuxiang; Fu, Rongguo; Zhang, Junju; Wang, Wencong; Chang, Benkang

    2018-02-01

    Low level light(LLL) image contains rich information on environment details, but is easily affected by the weather. In the case of smoke, rain, cloud or fog, much target information will lose. Infrared image, which is from the radiation produced by the object itself, can be "active" to obtain the target information in the scene. However, the image contrast and resolution is bad, the ability of the acquisition of target details is very poor, and the imaging mode does not conform to the human visual habit. The fusion of LLL and infrared image can make up for the deficiency of each sensor and give play to the advantages of single sensor. At first, we show the hardware design of fusion circuit. Then, through the recognition probability calculation of the target(one person) and the background image(trees), we find that the trees detection probability of LLL image is higher than that of the infrared image, and the person detection probability of the infrared image is obviously higher than that of LLL image. The detection probability of fusion image for one person and trees is higher than that of single detector. Therefore, image fusion can significantly enlarge recognition probability and improve detection efficiency.

  16. Near-infrared observations of IRAS minisurvey galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carico, D.P.; Soifer, B.T.; Elias, J.H.; Matthews, K.; Neugebauer, G.; Beichman, C.; Persson, C.J.; Persson, S.E.

    1987-01-01

    Near infrared photometry at J, H, and K was obtained for 82 galaxies from the IRAS minisurvey. The near infrared colors of these galaxies cover a larger range in J-H and H-K than do normal field spiral galaxies, and evidence is presented of a tighter correlation between the near and far infrared emission in far infrared bright galaxies than exists between the far infrared and the visible emission. These results suggest the presence of dust in the far infrared bright galaxies, with hot dust emission contributing to the 2.2 micron emission, and extinction by dust affecting both the near infrared colors and the visible luminosities. In addition, there is some indication that the infrared emission in many of the minisurvey galaxies is coming from a strong nuclear component

  17. Observation of near-infrared surface brightness of the large Magellanic cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Satio; Koizumi, Yutaka; Matsumoto, Toshio; Murakami, Hiroshi; Uyama, Kiichiro.

    1981-01-01

    The near-infrared surface brightness of the large Magellanic cloud was observed by an infrared telescope carried by a balloon. The balloon flight was made at Australian Balloon Launching Station. The brightness distribution of 2.4 Mu m radiation was obtained. A part of Bar was bright, and the expansion of the contour at the east end of Bar corresponded to the 30 Dor region. Many near-infrared sources distribute in this region. Discussions on the color and brightness of the center of Bar and the 30 Dor region are presented. (Kato, T.)

  18. Lethal photosensitization of wound-associated microbes using indocyanine green and near-infrared light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Michael

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increase in resistance to antibiotics among disease-causing bacteria necessitates the development of alternative antimicrobial approaches such as the use of light-activated antimicrobial agents (LAAAs. Light of an appropriate wavelength activates the LAAA to produce cytotoxic species which can then cause bacterial cell death via loss of membrane integrity, lipid peroxidation, the inactivation of essential enzymes, and/or exertion of mutagenic effects due to DNA modification. In this study, the effect of the LAAA indocyanine green excited with high or low intensity light (808 nm from a near-infrared laser (NIR on the viability of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was investigated. Results All species were susceptible to killing by the LAAA, the bactericidal effect being dependent on both the concentration of indocyanine green and the light dose. Indocyanine green photosensitization using both high (1.37 W cm-2 and low (0.048 W cm-2 intensity NIR laser light was able to achieve reductions of 5.6 log10 (>99.99% and 6.8 log10 (>99.99% in the viable counts of Staph. aureus and Strep. pyogenes (using starting concentrations of 106–107 CFU ml-1. Kills of 99.99% were obtained for P. aeruginosa (initial concentration 108–109 CFU ml-1 photosensitized by the high intensity light (1.37 W cm-2; while a kill of 80% was achieved using low intensity irradiation (0.07 W cm-2. The effects of L-tryptophan (a singlet oxygen scavenger and deuterium oxide (as an enhancer of the life span of singlet oxygen on the survival of Staph. aureus was also studied. L-tryptophan reduced the proportion of Staph. aureus killed; whereas deuterium oxide increased the proportion killed suggesting that singlet oxygen was involved in the killing of the bacteria. Conclusion These findings imply that indocyanine green in combination with light from a near-infrared laser may be an effective means of eradicating bacteria

  19. In-situ volumetric topography of IC chips for defect detection using infrared confocal measurement with active structured light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Liang-Chia; Le, Manh-Trung; Phuc, Dao Cong; Lin, Shyh-Tsong

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the development of in-situ integrated circuit (IC) chip defect detection techniques for automated clipping detection by proposing infrared imaging and full-field volumetric topography. IC chip inspection, especially held during or post IC packaging, has become an extremely critical procedure in IC fabrication to assure manufacturing quality and reduce production costs. To address this, in the article, microscopic infrared imaging using an electromagnetic light spectrum that ranges from 0.9 to 1.7 µm is developed to perform volumetric inspection of IC chips, in order to identify important defects such as silicon clipping, cracking or peeling. The main difficulty of infrared (IR) volumetric imaging lies in its poor image contrast, which makes it incapable of achieving reliable inspection, as infrared imaging is sensitive to temperature difference but insensitive to geometric variance of materials, resulting in difficulty detecting and quantifying defects precisely. To overcome this, 3D volumetric topography based on 3D infrared confocal measurement with active structured light, as well as light refractive matching principles, is developed to detect defects the size, shape and position of defects in ICs. The experimental results show that the algorithm is effective and suitable for in-situ defect detection of IC semiconductor packaging. The quality of defect detection, such as measurement repeatability and accuracy, is addressed. Confirmed by the experimental results, the depth measurement resolution can reach up to 0.3 µm, and the depth measurement uncertainty with one standard deviation was verified to be less than 1.0% of the full-scale depth-measuring range. (paper)

  20. Infrared light-emitting diode radiation causes gravitropic and morphological effects in dark-grown oat seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. F.; Brown, C. S.; Wheeler, R. M.; Sager, J. C.; Chapman, D. K.; Deitzer, G. F.

    1996-01-01

    Oat (Avena sativa cv Seger) seedlings were irradiated with IR light-emitting diode (LED) radiation passed through a visible-light-blocking filter. Infrared LED irradiated seedlings exhibited differences in growth and gravitropic response when compared to seedlings grown in darkness at the same temperature. Thus, the oat seedlings in this study were able to detect IR LED radiation. These findings call into question the use of IR LED as a safe-light for some photosensitive plant response experiments. These findings also expand the defined range of wavelengths involved in radiation-gravity (light-gravity) interactions to include wavelengths in the IR region of the spectrum.

  1. Observation of runaway electrons by infrared camera in J-TEXT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, R. H.; Chen, Z. Y., E-mail: zychen@hust.edu.cn; Zhang, M.; Huang, D. W.; Yan, W.; Zhuang, G. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2016-11-15

    When the energy of confined runaway electrons approaches several tens of MeV, the runaway electrons can emit synchrotron radiation in the range of infrared wavelength. An infrared camera working in the wavelength of 3-5 μm has been developed to study the runaway electrons in the Joint Texas Experimental Tokamak (J-TEXT). The camera is located in the equatorial plane looking tangentially into the direction of electron approach. The runaway electron beam inside the plasma has been observed at the flattop phase. With a fast acquisition of the camera, the behavior of runaway electron beam has been observed directly during the runaway current plateau following the massive gas injection triggered disruptions.

  2. New infrared observations of IRS 1, IRS 3, and the adjacent nebula in the OMC-2 cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendelton, Y.; Werner, M.; Dinerstein, H.

    1984-01-01

    Recent reports show that near infrared reflection nebulae are often observed around embedded protostellar objects. New observations are here reported of the infrared cluster of low luminosity protostars in Orion Molecular Cloud 2 (OMC2). It has been determined that the asymmetric distribution of the extended emission seen about IRS1 is in fact another infrared reflection nebula. Observations of near infrared polarimetry, photometry, and spectrophotometry were carried out at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility October 1982 and January 1983. (author)

  3. Contribution of infrared observations to the study of supernovae remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douvion, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the study of dust in young supernovae remnants observed in middle infrared, mainly by means of the ISOCAM instrument installed on the ISO satellite. The author first presents the supernovae physics and the studied young remnants, describes dusts and the main sites of formation and destruction, and outlines the difficulties and benefits of observations performed in the middle infrared. Then, the author reports acquired evidences related to the formation of dusts in supernovae, and the search for a millimetre emission by cold dust contained in regions which are not yet excited by the shock, in order to better assess the overall quantities created by supernovae. He reports the use of observations of dust and neon in Cassiopeia A to perform a diagnosis on the mixture of elements during the supernovae explosion [fr

  4. Infrared observations of extragalactic sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinmann, D.E.

    1977-01-01

    The available balloon-borne and airborne infrared data on extragalactic sources, in particular M 82, NGC 1068 and NGC 253, is reviewed and discussed in the context of the extensive groundbased work. The data is examined for the clues they provide on the nature of the ultimate source of the energy radiated and on the mechanism(s) by which it is radiated. Since the discovery of unexpectedly powerful infrared radiation from extragalactic objects - a discovery now about 10 years old - the outstanding problems in this field have been to determine (1) the mechanism by which prodigious amounts of energy are released in the infrared, and (2) the nature of the underlying energy source. (Auth.)

  5. Observing the Peripheral Burning of Cigarettes by an Infrared Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu C

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A modern infrared camera was used to observe the peripheral burning of cigarettes during puffing and smouldering. The computer-controlled infrared system captured thermal images with recording rates up to 50 Hz at 8-bit (256-colour resolution. The response time was less than 0.04 s at ca. 780 °C. The overall performance of the system was superior to most infrared systems used in previously reported investigations. The combined capacity allowed us to capture some faster, smaller high-temperature burning events on the periphery of a cigarette during puffing, which was first described by Egertion et al. in 1963 using an X-ray method. These transient burning events were caused by tobacco shreds near the coal surface experiencing the maximum air influx. The temperature of these transient burning events could be ca. 200 to 250 °C higher than the average peripheral temperature of the cigarette. The likelihood of these high-temperature burning events occurring during smouldering was significantly less. Some other details of the cigarette's combustion were also observed with improved simplicity and clarity.

  6. A setup for simultaneous measurement of infrared spectra and light scattering signals: Watching amyloid fibrils grow from intact proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yang; Maurer, Jürgen; Roth, Andreas; Vogel, Vitali; Winter, Ernst; Mäntele, Werner, E-mail: maentele@biophysik.uni-frankfurt.de [Institut für Biophysik, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main, Max-von Laue-Straße 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    A setup for the simultaneous measurement of mid-infrared spectra and static light scattering is described that can be used for the analysis of the formation of nanoscale and microscopic aggregates from smaller molecules to biopolymers. It can be easily integrated into sample chambers of infrared spectrometers or combined with laser beams from tunable infrared lasers. Here, its use for the analysis of the formation of amyloid fibrils from intact proteins is demonstrated. The formation of amyloid fibrils or plaques from proteins is a widespread and pathogenetic relevant process, and a number of diseases are caused and correlated with the deposition of amyloid fibrils in cells and tissues. The molecular mechanisms of these transformations, however, are still unclear. We report here the simultaneous measurement of infrared spectra and static light scattering for the analysis of fibril formation from egg-white lysozyme. The transformation of the native form into non-native forms rich in β-sheet structure is measured by analysis of the amide I spectral region in the infrared spectra, which is sensitive for local structures. At the same time, light scattering signals at forward direction as well as the forward/backward ratio, which are sensitive for the number of scattering centers and their approximate sizes, respectively, are collected for the analysis of fibril growth. Thermodynamic and kinetic parameters as well as mechanistic information are deduced from the combination of the two complementary techniques.

  7. A setup for simultaneous measurement of infrared spectra and light scattering signals: Watching amyloid fibrils grow from intact proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Maurer, Jürgen; Roth, Andreas; Vogel, Vitali; Winter, Ernst; Mäntele, Werner

    2014-08-01

    A setup for the simultaneous measurement of mid-infrared spectra and static light scattering is described that can be used for the analysis of the formation of nanoscale and microscopic aggregates from smaller molecules to biopolymers. It can be easily integrated into sample chambers of infrared spectrometers or combined with laser beams from tunable infrared lasers. Here, its use for the analysis of the formation of amyloid fibrils from intact proteins is demonstrated. The formation of amyloid fibrils or plaques from proteins is a widespread and pathogenetic relevant process, and a number of diseases are caused and correlated with the deposition of amyloid fibrils in cells and tissues. The molecular mechanisms of these transformations, however, are still unclear. We report here the simultaneous measurement of infrared spectra and static light scattering for the analysis of fibril formation from egg-white lysozyme. The transformation of the native form into non-native forms rich in β-sheet structure is measured by analysis of the amide I spectral region in the infrared spectra, which is sensitive for local structures. At the same time, light scattering signals at forward direction as well as the forward/backward ratio, which are sensitive for the number of scattering centers and their approximate sizes, respectively, are collected for the analysis of fibril growth. Thermodynamic and kinetic parameters as well as mechanistic information are deduced from the combination of the two complementary techniques.

  8. Monte Carlo simulation of near-infrared light propagation in realistic adult head models with hair follicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Boan; Fang, Xiang; Liu, Weichao; Li, Nanxi; Zhao, Ke; Li, Ting

    2018-02-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) has been used to measure brain activation, which are clinically important. Monte Carlo simulation has been applied to the near infrared light propagation model in biological tissue, and has the function of predicting diffusion and brain activation. However, previous studies have rarely considered hair and hair follicles as a contributing factor. Here, we attempt to use MCVM (Monte Carlo simulation based on 3D voxelized media) to examine light transmission, absorption, fluence, spatial sensitivity distribution (SSD) and brain activation judgement in the presence or absence of the hair follicles. The data in this study is a series of high-resolution cryosectional color photograph of a standing Chinse male adult. We found that the number of photons transmitted under the scalp decreases dramatically and the photons exported to detector is also decreasing, as the density of hair follicles increases. If there is no hair follicle, the above data increase and has the maximum value. Meanwhile, the light distribution and brain activation have a stable change along with the change of hair follicles density. The findings indicated hair follicles make influence of NIRS in light distribution and brain activation judgement.

  9. On Shocks Driven by High-mass Planets in Radiatively Inefficient Disks. III. Observational Signatures in Thermal Emission and Scattered Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hord, Blake; Lyra, Wladimir; Flock, Mario; Turner, Neal J.; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark

    2017-11-01

    Recent observations of the protoplanetary disk around the Herbig Be star HD 100546 show two bright features in infrared (H and {L}{\\prime } bands) at about 50 au,with one so far unexplained. We explore the observational signatures of a high-mass planet causing shock heating in order to determine if it could be the source of the unexplained infrared feature in HD 100546. More fundamentally, we identify and characterize planetary shocks as an extra, hitherto ignored, source of luminosity in transition disks. The RADMC-3D code is used to perform dust radiative transfer calculations on the hydrodynamical disk models, including volumetric heating. A stronger shock heating rate by a factor of 20 would be necessary to qualitatively reproduce the morphology of the second infrared source. Instead, we find that the outer edge of the gap carved by the planet heats up by about 50% relative to the initial reference temperature, which leads to an increase in the scale height. The bulge is illuminated by the central star, producing a lopsided feature in scattered light, as the outer gap edge shows an asymmetry in density and temperature attributable to a secondary spiral arm launched not from the Lindblad resonances but from the 2:1 resonance. We conclude that high-mass planets lead to shocks in disks that may be directly observed, particularly at wavelengths of 10 μm or longer, but that they are more likely to reveal their presence in scattered light by puffing up their outer gap edges and exciting multiple spiral arms.

  10. The large scale infrared emission in the galactic plane - observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuda, H.

    1981-01-01

    Infrared radiation is deeply involved in a variety of matters and processes in the galaxy. Near infrared radiation is predominantly emitted by late type stars which include the major part of the mass in the Galaxy and hence govern its dynamics. Short wavelength radiation (UV and visible) emitted from early type stars is easily absorbed by dust around the stars themselves or by interstellar dust, and reemitted in middle or far infrared regions. A variety of emission lines, fine structure lines of neutral and ionized heavy elements, as well as many molecular lines are also clustered in the middle and far infrared regions. Since their line intensities are generally very weak, and, moreover, spectroscopic observations demand relatively difficult techniques in their detection, the surveys so far done have been limited mostly to continuum emission. This article compiles them and discusses briefly their implications to the structure of the Galaxy in its inner region. (Auth.)

  11. Ultraviolet light and infrared radiation. Measurement and hazard assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, A.; Salsi, S.

    1979-01-01

    Ultraviolet, light and infrared radiation exists in many work places and can be dangerous in many ways, especially for the eyes. The INRS has developed a method and an apparatus for measuring on site or in a laboratory the spectral energy distribution of such radiation and the luminance of the source. With current knowledge of the effects of radiation on the eyes and by comparing readings taken and recommended limit values, it is possible to determine the risk levels at work places in the different wave ranges. Two examples of readings taken at a pot furnace in a crystal glass factory and at an MAG welding station are given and the appropriate protective measures described [fr

  12. Pulpal blood flow recorded from human premolar teeth with a laser Doppler flow meter using either red or infrared light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijsamanmith, Kanittha; Timpawat, Siriporn; Vongsavan, Noppakun; Matthews, Bruce

    2011-07-01

    To compare red (635 nm) and infrared (780 nm) light for recording pulpal blood flow from human premolar teeth. Recordings were made from 11 healthy teeth in 9 subjects (aged 16-30 years) using a laser Doppler flow meter (Periflux 4001) equipped with both red and infrared lasers. Average blood flow signals were obtained with both light sources alternately from each tooth under five conditions: intact tooth without opaque rubber dam, intact tooth with dam, after injecting local anaesthetic (3% Mepivacaine) (LA) over the apex of the tooth and cavity preparation to almost expose the pulp, after removal and replacement of the pulp, and with the root canal empty. With infrared light, the dam significantly decreased the mean blood flow by 80%. Injecting LA and cavity preparation had no significant effect. Removal and replacement of the pulp reduced the mean blood flow by 58%. There was no further change when the pulp was removed. With red light, the dam reduced the signal from intact teeth by 60%. Injecting LA and cavity preparation had no significant effect. The signal fell by 67% after pulp removal and replacement and did not change significantly when the pulp was removed. Opaque rubber dam minimises the contribution of non-pulpal tissues to the laser Doppler signal recorded from premolars. Using dam, the pulp contributed about 60% to the blood flow signal with both red and infrared light. The difference between them in this respect was not significant. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Far-infrared and CO observations of NGC 6357 and regions surrounding NGC 6357 and NGC 6334

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBreen, B.; Jaffe, D.T.; Fazio, G.G.

    1983-01-01

    We have surveyed two 1.7 square degree sections of the galactic plane at 70 μm with one-arcminute resolution. The scanned areas included the giant southern H II region complexes NGC 6357 and NGC 6334. Nineteen far-infrared sources were observed. The sources range in luminosity from 1.6 x 10 4 to 5.5 x 10 5 L/sub sun/ . We present far-infrared continuum and CO line observations of NGC 6357. Four far-infrared sources were found in this complex and for one of these sources the exciting stars are identified. We present far-infrared and CO observations of sources in the field surrounding NGC 6357 and NGC 6334. The far-infrared sources coincide frequently with CO line temperature peaks. The CO clouds which surround the far-infrared sources have similar 13 CO column densities. Two of the far-infrared sources in the field have associated OH and H 2 O maser emission and compact H II regions

  14. Infrared light sensor applied to early detection of tooth decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjumea, Eberto; Espitia, José; Díaz, Leonardo; Torres, Cesar

    2017-08-01

    The approach dentistry to dental care is gradually shifting to a model focused on early detection and oral-disease prevention; one of the most important methods of prevention of tooth decay is opportune diagnosis of decay and reconstruction. The present study aimed to introduce a procedure for early diagnosis of tooth decay and to compare result of experiment of this method with other common treatments. In this setup, a laser emitting infrared light is injected in core of one bifurcated fiber-optic and conduced to tooth surface and with the same bifurcated fiber the radiation reflected for the same tooth is collected and them conduced to surface of sensor that measures thermal and light frequencies to detect early signs of decay below a tooth surface, where demineralization is difficult to spot with x-ray technology. This device will can be used to diagnose tooth decay without any chemicals and rays such as high power lasers or X-rays.

  15. Near Infrared Photoimmunotherapy with Combined Exposure of External and Interstitial Light Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruoka, Yasuhiro; Nagaya, Tadanobu; Sato, Kazuhide; Ogata, Fusa; Okuyama, Shuhei; Choyke, Peter L; Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2018-02-21

    Near infrared photoimmunotherapy (NIR-PIT) is a new target-cell-specific cancer treatment that induces highly selective necrotic/immunogenic cell death after systemic administration of a photoabsorber antibody conjugate and subsequent NIR light exposure. However, the depth of NIR light penetration in tissue (approximately 2 cm) with external light sources limits the therapeutic effects of NIR-PIT. Interstitial light exposure using cylindrical diffusing optical fibers can overcome this limitation. The purpose in this study was to compare three NIR light delivery methods for treating tumors with NIR-PIT using a NIR laser system at an identical light energy; external exposure alone, interstitial exposure alone, and the combination. Panitumumab conjugated with the photoabsorber IRDye-700DX (pan-IR700) was intravenously administered to mice with A431-luc xenografts which are epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) positive. One and 2 days later, NIR light was administered to the tumors using one of three methods. Interstitial exposure alone and in combination with external sources showed the greatest decrease in bioluminescence signal intensity. Additionally, the combination of external and interstitial NIR light exposure showed significantly greater tumor size reduction and prolonged survival after NIR-PIT compared to external exposure alone. This result suggested that the combination of external and interstitial NIR light exposure was more effective than externally applied light alone. Although external exposure is the least invasive means of delivering light, the combination of external and interstitial exposures produces superior therapeutic efficacy in tumors greater than 2 cm in depth from the tissue surface.

  16. IrisDenseNet: Robust Iris Segmentation Using Densely Connected Fully Convolutional Networks in the Images by Visible Light and Near-Infrared Light Camera Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsalan, Muhammad; Naqvi, Rizwan Ali; Kim, Dong Seop; Nguyen, Phong Ha; Owais, Muhammad; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2018-05-10

    The recent advancements in computer vision have opened new horizons for deploying biometric recognition algorithms in mobile and handheld devices. Similarly, iris recognition is now much needed in unconstraint scenarios with accuracy. These environments make the acquired iris image exhibit occlusion, low resolution, blur, unusual glint, ghost effect, and off-angles. The prevailing segmentation algorithms cannot cope with these constraints. In addition, owing to the unavailability of near-infrared (NIR) light, iris recognition in visible light environment makes the iris segmentation challenging with the noise of visible light. Deep learning with convolutional neural networks (CNN) has brought a considerable breakthrough in various applications. To address the iris segmentation issues in challenging situations by visible light and near-infrared light camera sensors, this paper proposes a densely connected fully convolutional network (IrisDenseNet), which can determine the true iris boundary even with inferior-quality images by using better information gradient flow between the dense blocks. In the experiments conducted, five datasets of visible light and NIR environments were used. For visible light environment, noisy iris challenge evaluation part-II (NICE-II selected from UBIRIS.v2 database) and mobile iris challenge evaluation (MICHE-I) datasets were used. For NIR environment, the institute of automation, Chinese academy of sciences (CASIA) v4.0 interval, CASIA v4.0 distance, and IIT Delhi v1.0 iris datasets were used. Experimental results showed the optimal segmentation of the proposed IrisDenseNet and its excellent performance over existing algorithms for all five datasets.

  17. IrisDenseNet: Robust Iris Segmentation Using Densely Connected Fully Convolutional Networks in the Images by Visible Light and Near-Infrared Light Camera Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Arsalan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The recent advancements in computer vision have opened new horizons for deploying biometric recognition algorithms in mobile and handheld devices. Similarly, iris recognition is now much needed in unconstraint scenarios with accuracy. These environments make the acquired iris image exhibit occlusion, low resolution, blur, unusual glint, ghost effect, and off-angles. The prevailing segmentation algorithms cannot cope with these constraints. In addition, owing to the unavailability of near-infrared (NIR light, iris recognition in visible light environment makes the iris segmentation challenging with the noise of visible light. Deep learning with convolutional neural networks (CNN has brought a considerable breakthrough in various applications. To address the iris segmentation issues in challenging situations by visible light and near-infrared light camera sensors, this paper proposes a densely connected fully convolutional network (IrisDenseNet, which can determine the true iris boundary even with inferior-quality images by using better information gradient flow between the dense blocks. In the experiments conducted, five datasets of visible light and NIR environments were used. For visible light environment, noisy iris challenge evaluation part-II (NICE-II selected from UBIRIS.v2 database and mobile iris challenge evaluation (MICHE-I datasets were used. For NIR environment, the institute of automation, Chinese academy of sciences (CASIA v4.0 interval, CASIA v4.0 distance, and IIT Delhi v1.0 iris datasets were used. Experimental results showed the optimal segmentation of the proposed IrisDenseNet and its excellent performance over existing algorithms for all five datasets.

  18. Infrared spectroscopy by use of synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanba, Takao

    1991-01-01

    During five years since the author wrote the paper on the utilization of synchrotron radiation in long wavelength region, it seems to be recognized that in synchrotron radiation, the light from infrared to milli wave can be utilized, and is considerably useful. Recently the research on coherent synchrotron radiation in this region using electron linac has been developed by Tohoku University group, and the high capability of synchrotron radiation as light source is verified. This paper is the report on the infrared spectroscopic research using incoherent synchrotron radiation obtained from the deflection electromagnet part of electron storage rings. Synchrotron radiation is high luminance white light source including from X-ray to micro wave. The example of research that the author carried out at UVSOR is reported, and the perspective in near future is mentioned. Synchrotron radiation as the light source for infrared spectroscopy, the intensity and dimensions of the light source, far infrared region and mid infrared region, far infrared high pressure spectroscopic experiment, and the heightening of luminance of synchrotron radiation as infrared light source are described. (K.I.)

  19. Infrared microscope inspection apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Steven E.; Caunt, James W.

    1985-02-26

    Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface.

  20. Dynamic light scattering. Observation of polymer dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroi, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic light scattering is a technique to measure properties of polymer solutions such as size distribution. Principle of dynamic light scattering is briefly explained. Sometime dynamic light scattering is regarded as the observation of Doppler shift of scattered light. First, the difficulty for the direct observation of this Doppler shift is mentioned. Then the measurement by using a time correlation function is introduced. Measuring techniques for dynamic light scattering are also introduced. In addition to homodyne and heterodyne detection techniques, the technique called partial heterodyne method is also introduced. This technique is useful for the analysis of nonergodic medium such as polymer gels. Then the application of this technique to condensed suspension is briefly reviewed. As one of the examples, a dynamic light scattering microscope is introduced. By using this apparatus, we can measure the concentration dependence of the size distribution of polymer solutions. (author)

  1. Built-in hyperspectral camera for smartphone in visible, near-infrared and middle-infrared lights region (second report): sensitivity improvement of Fourier-spectroscopic imaging to detect diffuse reflection lights from internal human tissues for healthcare sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Natsumi; Hosono, Satsuki; Ishimaru, Ichiro

    2016-05-01

    We proposed the snapshot-type Fourier spectroscopic imaging for smartphone that was mentioned in 1st. report in this conference. For spectroscopic components analysis, such as non-invasive blood glucose sensors, the diffuse reflection lights from internal human skins are very weak for conventional hyperspectral cameras, such as AOTF (Acousto-Optic Tunable Filter) type. Furthermore, it is well known that the spectral absorption of mid-infrared lights or Raman spectroscopy especially in long wavelength region is effective to distinguish specific biomedical components quantitatively, such as glucose concentration. But the main issue was that photon energies of middle infrared lights and light intensities of Raman scattering are extremely weak. For improving sensitivity of our spectroscopic imager, the wide-field-stop & beam-expansion method was proposed. Our line spectroscopic imager introduced a single slit for field stop on the conjugate objective plane. Obviously to increase detected light intensities, the wider slit width of the field stop makes light intensities higher, regardless of deterioration of spatial resolutions. Because our method is based on wavefront-division interferometry, it becomes problems that the wider width of single slit makes the diffraction angle narrower. This means that the narrower diameter of collimated objective beams deteriorates visibilities of interferograms. By installing the relative inclined phaseshifter onto optical Fourier transform plane of infinity corrected optical systems, the collimated half flux of objective beams derived from single-bright points on objective surface penetrate through the wedge prism and the cuboid glass respectively. These two beams interfere each other and form the infererogram as spatial fringe patterns. Thus, we installed concave-cylindrical lens between the wider slit and objective lens as a beam expander. We successfully obtained the spectroscopic characters of hemoglobin from reflected lights from

  2. IRTF/SPEX OBSERVATIONS OF THE UNUSUAL KEPLER LIGHT CURVE SYSTEM KIC 8462852

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisse, C. M. [JHU-APL, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Sitko, M. L. [Department of Physics, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0011 (United States); Marengo, M., E-mail: carey.lisse@jhuapl.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, 12 Physics Hall, Ames, IA 50010 (United States)

    2015-12-20

    We have utilized the NASA/IRTF 3 m SpeX instrument’s high-resolution spectral mode to observe and characterize the near-infrared flux emanating from the unusual Kepler light curve system KIC 8462852. By comparing the resulting 0.8–4.2 μm spectrum to a mesh of model photospheric spectra, the 6 emission line analyses of the Rayner et al. catalog, and the 25 system collections of debris disks we have observed to date using SpeX under the Near InfraRed Debris disk Survey, we have been able to additionally characterize the system. Within the errors of our measurements, this star looks like a normal solar abundance main-sequence F1V to F3V dwarf star without any obvious traces of significant circumstellar dust or gas. Using Connelley and Greene’s emission measures, we also see no evidence of significant ongoing accretion onto the star nor any stellar outflow away from it. Our results are inconsistent with large amounts of static close-in obscuring material or the unusual behavior of a YSO system, but are consistent with the favored episodic giant comet models of a Gyr old stellar system favored by Boyajian et al. We speculate that KIC 8462852, like the ∼1.4 Gyr old F2V system η Corvi, is undergoing a late heavy bombardment, but is only in its very early stages.

  3. Correcting the effect of refraction and dispersion of light in FT-IR spectroscopic imaging in transmission through thick infrared windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, K L Andrew; Kazarian, Sergei G

    2013-01-15

    Transmission mode is one of the most common sampling methods for FT-IR spectroscopic imaging because the spectra obtained generally have a reasonable signal-to-noise ratio. However, dispersion and refraction of infrared light occurs when samples are sandwiched between infrared windows or placed underneath a layer of liquid. Dispersion and refraction cause infrared light to focus with different focal lengths depending on the wavelength (wavenumber) of the light. As a result, images obtained are in focus only at a particular wavenumber while they are defocused at other wavenumber values. In this work, a solution to correct this spread of focus by means of adding a lens on top of the infrared transparent window, such that a pseudo hemisphere is formed, has been investigated. Through this lens (or pseudo hemisphere), refraction of light is removed and the light across the spectral range has the same focal depth. Furthermore, the lens acts as a solid immersion objective and an increase of both magnification and spatial resolution (by 1.4 times) is demonstrated. The spatial resolution was investigated using an USAF resolution target, showing that the Rayleigh criterion can be achieved, as well as a sample with a sharp polymer interface to indicate the spatial resolution that can be expected in real samples. The reported approach was used to obtain chemical images of cross sections of cancer tissue and hair samples sandwiched between infrared windows showing the versatility and applicability of the method. In addition to the improved spatial resolution, the results reported herein also demonstrate that the lens can reduce the effect of scattering near the edges of tissue samples. The advantages of the presented approach, obtaining FT-IR spectroscopic images in transmission mode with the same focus across all wavenumber values and simultaneous improvement in spatial resolution, will have wide implications ranging from studies of live cells to sorption of drugs into tissues.

  4. Energetic molecular outflow near AFGL 961: millimeter-wave and infrared observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lada, C.J.; Gautier, T.N. III

    1982-01-01

    We report detailed millimeter-wave and near-infrared spectroscopy of the dynamically active region around the infrared source AFGL 961, near the Rosette nebula. Millimeter-wave 12 CO observations are used to study the high-velocity molecular flow around AFGL 961. These observations show that the high-velocity flow has a maximum extent of at least 6' or 2.9 pc at the distance of AFGL 961. The flow is found to be anisotropic, with redshifted high-velocity emission considerably more extended than blueshifted high-velocity emission. However, the flow does not appear to be as highly collimated as some other sources of high-velocity bipolar outflow. We also find the emission profiles to be asymmetric in velocity such that the integrated intensity of the redshifted high-velocity emission is on average 2.5 times greater than that of the blueshifted emission. The mass of the gas involved in the flow is determined to be approximately 19 M/sub sun/, and the kinetic energy of this gas is estimated to be about 8 x 10 46 ergs. These observations are interpreted as evidence that an energetic bipolar outflow of molecular gas is occurring near AFGL 961. The momentum of the outflowing molecular gas is large, and it is shown that this places strong constraints on possible physical mechanisms which may be driving the outflow. The near-infrared spectrum of AFGL 961 from 1.4-2.4 μm was obtained in order to study the conditions immediately around the infrared source which may be driving the molecular outflow

  5. Studies of dust grain properties in infrared reflection nebulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, Y J; Tielens, A G; Werner, M W

    1990-01-20

    We have developed a model for reflection nebulae around luminous infrared sources embedded in dense dust clouds. The aim of this study is to determine the sizes of the scattering grains. In our analysis, we have adopted an MRN-like power-law size distribution (Mathis, Rumpl, and Nordsieck) of graphite and silicate grains, but other current dust models would give results which were substantially the same. In the optically thin limit, the intensity of the scattered light is proportional to the dust column density, while in the optically thick limit, it reflects the grain albedo. The results show that the shape of the infrared spectrum is the result of a combination of the scattering properties of the dust, the spectrum of the illuminating source, and foreground extinction, while geometry plays a minor role. Comparison of our model results with infrared observations of the reflection nebula surrounding OMC-2/IRS 1 shows that either a grain size distribution like that found in the diffuse interstellar medium, or one consisting of larger grains, can explain the observed shape of the spectrum. However, the absolute intensity level of the scattered light, as well as the observed polarization, requires large grains (approximately 5000 angstroms). By adding water ice mantles to the silicate and graphite cores, we have modeled the 3.08 micrometers ice band feature, which has been observed in the spectra of several infrared reflection nebulae. We show that this ice band arises naturally in optically thick reflection nebulae containing ice-coated grains. We show that the shape of the ice band is diagnostic of the presence of large grains, as previously suggested by Knacke and McCorkle. Comparison with observations of the BN/KL reflection nebula in the OMC-1 cloud shows that large ice grains (approximately 5000 angstroms) contribute substantially to the scattered light.

  6. Infrared reflectometry of skin: Analysis of backscattered light from different skin layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleitez, Miguel A.; Hertzberg, Otto; Bauer, Alexander; Lieblein, Tobias; Glasmacher, Mathias; Tholl, Hans; Mäntele, Werner

    2017-09-01

    We have recently reported infrared spectroscopy of human skin in vivo using quantum cascade laser excitation and photoacoustic or photothermal detection for non-invasive glucose measurement . Here, we analyze the IR light diffusely reflected from skin layers for spectral contributions of glucose. Excitation of human skin by an external cavity tunable quantum cascade laser in the spectral region from 1000 to 1245 cm- 1, where glucose exhibits a fingerprint absorption, yields reflectance spectra with some contributions from glucose molecules. A simple three-layer model of skin was used to calculate the scattering intensities from the surface and from shallow and deeper layers using the Boltzmann radiation transfer equation. Backscattering of light at wavelengths around 10 μm from the living skin occurs mostly from the Stratum corneum top layers and the shallow layers of the living epidermis. The analysis of the polarization of the backscattered light confirms this calculation. Polarization is essentially unchanged; only a very small fraction (light is due to specular reflectance and to scattering from layers close to the surface. Diffusely reflected light from deeper layers undergoing one or more scattering processes would appear with significantly altered polarization. We thus conclude that a non-invasive glucose measurement based on backscattering of IR light from skin would have the drawback that only shallow layers containing some glucose at concentrations only weakly related to blood glucose are monitored.

  7. "Slow-scanning" in Ground-based Mid-infrared Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsawa, Ryou; Sako, Shigeyuki; Miyata, Takashi; Kamizuka, Takafumi; Okada, Kazushi; Mori, Kiyoshi; Uchiyama, Masahito S.; Yamaguchi, Junpei; Fujiyoshi, Takuya; Morii, Mikio; Ikeda, Shiro

    2018-04-01

    Chopping observations with a tip-tilt secondary mirror have conventionally been used in ground-based mid-infrared observations. However, it is not practical for next generation large telescopes to have a large tip-tilt mirror that moves at a frequency larger than a few hertz. We propose an alternative observing method, a "slow-scanning" observation. Images are continuously captured as movie data, while the field of view is slowly moved. The signal from an astronomical object is extracted from the movie data by a low-rank and sparse matrix decomposition. The performance of the "slow-scanning" observation was tested in an experimental observation with Subaru/COMICS. The quality of a resultant image in the "slow-scanning" observation was as good as in a conventional chopping observation with COMICS, at least for a bright point-source object. The observational efficiency in the "slow-scanning" observation was better than that in the chopping observation. The results suggest that the "slow-scanning" observation can be a competitive method for the Subaru telescope and be of potential interest to other ground-based facilities to avoid chopping.

  8. Near-Infrared Keck Interferometer and IOTA Closure Phase Observations of Wolf-Rayet stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, J.; Wallace, D.; Barry, R.; Richardson, L. J.; Traub, W.; Danchi, W. C.

    We present first results from observations of a small sample of IR-bright Wolf-Rayet stars with the Keck Interferometer in the near-infrared, and with the IONIC beam three-telescope beam combiner at the Infrared and Optical Telescope Array (IOTA) observatory. The former results were obtained as part of shared-risk observations in commissioning the Keck Interferometer and form a subset of a high-resolution study of dust around Wolf-Rayet stars using multiple interferometers in progress in our group. The latter results are the first closure phase observations of these stars in the near-infrared in a separated telescope interferometer. Earlier aperture-masking observations with the Keck-I telescope provide strong evidence that dust-formation in late-type WC stars are a result of wind-wind collision in short-period binaries.Our program with the Keck interferometer seeks to further examine this paradigm at much higher resolution. We have spatially resolved the binary in the prototypical dusty WC type star WR 140. WR 137, another episodic dust-producing star, has been partially resolved for the first time, providing the first direct clue to its possible binary nature.We also include WN stars in our sample to investigate circumstellar dust in this other main sub-type of WRs. We have been unable to resolve any of these, indicating a lack of extended dust.Complementary observations using the MIDI instrument on the VLTI in the mid-infrared are presented in another contribution to this workshop.

  9. Near-Infrared Scintillation of Liquid Argon: Recent Results Obtained with the NIR Facility at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escobar, C. O. [Fermilab; Rubinov, P. [Fermilab; Tilly, E. [Sewanee U.

    2018-03-19

    After a short review of previous attempts to observe and measure the near-infrared scintillation in liquid argon, we present new results obtained with NIR, a dedicated cryostat at the Fermilab Proton Assembly Building (PAB). The new results give confidence that the near-infrared light can be used as the much needed light signal in large liquid argon time projection chambers.11 pages,

  10. One-Year Observations of Jupiter by the Jovian Infrared Auroral Mapper on Juno

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriani, A.; Mura, A.; Bolton, S. J.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Levin, S.; Becker, H. N.; Bagenal, F.; Hansen, C. J.; Orton, G.; Gladstone, R.; Kurth, W. S.; Mauk, B.; Valek, P. W.

    2017-12-01

    The Jovian InfraRed Auroral Mapper (JIRAM) [1] on board the Juno [2,3] spacecraft, is equipped with an infrared camera and a spectrometer working in the spectral range 2-5 μm. JIRAM was built to study the infrared aurora of Jupiter as well as to map the planet's atmosphere in the 5 µm spectral region. The spectroscopic observations are used for studying clouds and measuring the abundance of some chemical species that have importance in the atmosphere's chemistry, microphysics and dynamics like water, ammonia and phosphine. During 2017 the instrument will operate during all 7 of Juno's Jupiter flybys. JIRAM has performed several observations of the polar regions of the planet addressing the aurora and the atmosphere. Unprecedented views of the aurora and the polar atmospheric structures have been obtained. We present a survey of the most significant observations that the instrument has performed during the current year. [1] Adriani A. et al., JIRAM, the Jovian Infrared Auroral Mapper. Space Sci. Rew., DOI 10.1007/s11214-014-0094-y, 2014. [2] Bolton S.J. et al., Jupiter's interior and deep atmosphere: The initial pole-to-pole passes with the Juno spacecraft. Science DOI: 10.1126/science.aal2108, 2017. [3] Connerney J. E.P. et al., Jupiter's magnetosphere and aurorae observed by the Juno spacecraft during its first polar orbits. Science, DOI: 10.1126/science.aam5928, 2017.

  11. Synchronous photoelectrical observations of flare stars in the visible and near infrared ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruevich, V.V.; Kilyachkov, N.N.; Shevchenko, V.S.; Burnashov, V.I.; Grinin, V.P.; Koryshev, V.V.; Shakhovskaya, N.I.

    1980-01-01

    The results of synchronous photoelectrical observations of the AD Leo and EV Lac flare stars made in 1975 in the Crimea in B-filter and in the near infrared region (i-band, lambdasub(ef) approximately 0.85 μm) and the observations of the UV Cet and EV Lac stars made in 1976 in the Astronomical Institute Uzbek SSR in three passbands: U, isub(TiO)(lambdasub(ef)=0.71 μ) and isub(C)(lambdasub(ef)=0.80μm) are given. Practically all strong flares in the visible spectral range were followed by the IR-flares. In about 70% of the cases the predicted infrared negative preflares were observed. The amplitudes (in erg/s) of the negative flares are comparable with the amplitude of the optical flares. The analysis of the observed data shows that: a) the amplitudes and the energies of the positive IR flares are in average the larger the stronger is the optical flare; b) the amplitudes of the negative IR preflares are on the contrary the smaller the stronger is the optical flare; c) there are infrared flares the main energy out of which takes place in the infrared range of wavelengths; d) The U-i color shows a positive correlation with the amplitude of the flare in U: the stronger is the flare the bluer is its radiation

  12. Radio and infrared observations of the faint nebula GM24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, L F; Roth, M; Tapia, M; Canto, J; Persi, P; Ferrari-Toniolo, M

    1986-02-01

    The faint nebulosity GM24=PP85 listed by Parsamian and Petrosian (1979) was observed at infrared (1-10 ..mu..m) and radio (6 cm and CO line) wavelengths in the vicinity of the CO hot spot reported by Torrelles et al. (1983). The radio continuum (6 cm) emission from a spherically symmetrical HII region was detected with the Very Large Array. Its position coincides with the brightest part of the visible nebulosity and a 1-4 ..mu..m emission peak. Their infrared maps made at the Observatorio Astronomico Nacional de San Pedro Martir, show two additional (1-10 ..mu..m) peaks located at distances approx. 30 arc sec from the compact HII region, all surrounded by extended near infrared (1-4 ..mu..m) emission. A detailed CO (J=1 ..-->.. 0) map of the whole molecular cloud was also obtained with the University of Texas Millimeter - Wave Telescope. Their results are interpreted in terms of the recent formation of three massive stars, one of which, having developed an HII region, is at a slightly later phase of its evolution. The extended near infrared emission may arise in a reflection nebula similar to NGC 7538-Irs 9. 4 references.

  13. Silicon based near infrared photodetector using self-assembled organic crystalline nano-pillars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajiki, Yoshiharu, E-mail: yoshiharu-ajiki@ot.olympus.co.jp, E-mail: isao@i.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Micromachine Center, 67 Kanda Sakumagashi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-0026 (Japan); Kan, Tetsuo [Department of Mechano-Informatics, Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Yahiro, Masayuki; Hamada, Akiko; Adachi, Chihaya [Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research (OPERA), Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Adachi, Junji [Office for Strategic Research Planning, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Matsumoto, Kiyoshi [IRT Research Initiative, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Shimoyama, Isao, E-mail: yoshiharu-ajiki@ot.olympus.co.jp, E-mail: isao@i.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Mechano-Informatics, Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); IRT Research Initiative, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2016-04-11

    We propose a silicon (Si) based near-infrared photodetector using self-assembled organic crystalline nano-pillars, which were formed on an n-type Si substrate and were covered with an Au thin-film. These structures act as antennas for near-infrared light, resulting in an enhancement of the light absorption on the Au film. Because the Schottky junction is formed between the Au/n-type Si, the electron excited by the absorbed light can be detected as photocurrent. The optical measurement revealed that the nano-pillar structures enhanced the responsivity for the near-infrared light by 89 (14.5 mA/W) and 16 (0.433 mA/W) times compared with those of the photodetector without nano-pillars at the wavelengths of 1.2 and 1.3 μm, respectively. Moreover, no polarization dependency of the responsivity was observed, and the acceptable incident angle ranged from 0° to 30°. These broad responses were likely to be due to the organic nano-pillar structures' having variation in their orientation, which is advantageous for near-infrared detector uses.

  14. Generation of pulsed far-infrared radiation and its application for far-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Yasuhiro [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-07-01

    So-called time-resolved spectroscopy technique has been used from old time as the means for studying the dynamic optical property, light-induced reaction and so on of matters. As an example, there is the method called pump and probe, and here, the wavelength of this probe light is the problem. If the object energy region is limited to about 0.1 eV, fast time-resolved spectroscopy is feasible relatively easily. However, energy region is extended to low energy region, the light source which is available as the pulsed probe light having sufficient intensity is limited. In this paper, the attempt of time-resolved spectroscopy utilizing coherent radiation, which has ended in failure, and the laser pulse-induced far-infrared radiation which can be utilized as new far-infrared probe light are reported. The reason why far-infrared radiation is used is explained. The attempt of time-resolved spectroscopy using NaCl crystals is reported on the equipment, the method of measuring absorption spectra and the results. Laser pulse-induced far-infrared radiation and the method of generating it are described. The multi-channel detector for far-infrared radiation which was made for trial is shown. (K.I.)

  15. Near-infrared light-responsive liposomal contrast agent for photoacoustic imaging and drug release applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasubramanian, Kathyayini; Mathiyazhakan, Malathi; Wiraja, Christian; Upputuri, Paul Kumar; Xu, Chenjie; Pramanik, Manojit

    2017-04-01

    Photoacoustic imaging has become an emerging tool for theranostic applications. Not only does it help in release and therapeutic applications. We explore near-infrared light-sensitive liposomes coated with gold nanostars (AuNSs) for both imaging and drug release applications using a photoacoustic imaging system. Being amphiphilic, the liposomes lipid bilayer and the aqueous core enable encapsulation of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs. The AuNSs on the surface of the liposomes act as photon absorbers due to their intrinsic surface plasmon resonance. Upon excitation by laser light at specific wavelength, AuNSs facilitate rapid release of the contents encapsulated in the liposomes due to local heating and pressure wave formation (photoacoustic wave). Herein, we describe the design and optimization of the AuNSs-coated liposomes and demonstrate the release of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic model drugs (paclitaxel and calcein, respectively) through laser excitation at near-infrared wavelength. The use of AuNSs-coated liposomes as contrast agents for photoacoustic imaging is also explored with tissue phantom experiments. In comparison to blood, the AuNSs-coated liposomes have better contrast (approximately two times) at 2-cm imaging depth.

  16. Generalized Beer-Lambert model for near-infrared light propagation in thick biological tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Manish; Ayyalasomayajula, Kalyan R.; Yalavarthy, Phaneendra K.

    2016-07-01

    The attenuation of near-infrared (NIR) light intensity as it propagates in a turbid medium like biological tissue is described by modified the Beer-Lambert law (MBLL). The MBLL is generally used to quantify the changes in tissue chromophore concentrations for NIR spectroscopic data analysis. Even though MBLL is effective in terms of providing qualitative comparison, it suffers from its applicability across tissue types and tissue dimensions. In this work, we introduce Lambert-W function-based modeling for light propagation in biological tissues, which is a generalized version of the Beer-Lambert model. The proposed modeling provides parametrization of tissue properties, which includes two attenuation coefficients μ0 and η. We validated our model against the Monte Carlo simulation, which is the gold standard for modeling NIR light propagation in biological tissue. We included numerous human and animal tissues to validate the proposed empirical model, including an inhomogeneous adult human head model. The proposed model, which has a closed form (analytical), is first of its kind in providing accurate modeling of NIR light propagation in biological tissues.

  17. Analysis of periodically patterned metallic nanostructures for infrared absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Sha; Yuan, Ying; Long, Huabao; Liu, Runhan; Wei, Dong; Zhang, Xinyu; Wang, Haiwei; Xie, Changsheng

    2018-02-01

    With rapid advancement of infrared detecting technology in both military and civil domains, the photo-electronic performances of near-infrared detectors have been widely concerned. Currently, near-infrared detectors demonstrate some problems such as low sensitivity, low detectivity, and relatively small array scale. The current studies show that surface plasmons (SPs) stimulated over the surface of metallic nanostructures by incident light can be used to break the diffraction limit and thus concentrate light into sub-wavelength scale, so as to indicate a method to develop a new type of infrared absorber or detector with very large array. In this paper, we present the design and characterization of periodically patterned metallic nanostructures that combine nanometer thickness aluminum film with silicon wafer. Numerical computations show that there are some valleys caused by surface plasmons in the reflection spectrum in the infrared region, and both red shift and blue shift of the reflection spectrum were observed through changing the nanostructural parameters such as angle α and diameters D. Moreover, the strong E-field intensity is located at the sharp corner of the nano-structures.

  18. Fabrication of thin-film thermoelectric generators with ball lenses for conversion of near-infrared solar light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yoshitaka; Mizoshiri, Mizue; Mikami, Masashi; Kondo, Tasuku; Sakurai, Junpei; Hata, Seiichi

    2017-06-01

    We designed and fabricated thin-film thermoelectric generators (TEGs) with ball lenses, which separated visible light and near-infrared (NIR) solar light using a chromatic aberration. The transmitted visible light was used as daylight and the NIR light was used for thermoelectric generation. Solar light was estimated to be separated into the visible light and NIR light by a ray tracing method. 92.7% of the visible light was used as daylight and 9.9% of the NIR light was used for thermoelectric generation. Then, the temperature difference of the pn junctions of the TEG surface was 0.71 K, determined by heat conduction analysis using a finite element method. The thin-film TEGs were fabricated using lithography and deposition processes. When the solar light (A.M. 1.5) was irradiated to the TEGs, the open-circuit voltage and maximum power were 4.5 V/m2 and 51 µW/m2, respectively. These TEGs are expected to be used as an energy supply for Internet of Things sensors.

  19. High-Contrast Near-Infrared Imaging Polarimetry of the Protoplanetary Disk around RY Tau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takami, Michihiro; Karr, Jennifer L.; Hashimoto, Jun; Kim, Hyosun; Wisenewski, John; Henning, Thomas; Grady, Carol; Kandori, Ryo; Hodapp, Klaus W.; Kudo, Tomoyuki; hide

    2013-01-01

    We present near-infrared coronagraphic imaging polarimetry of RY Tau. The scattered light in the circumstellar environment was imaged at H-band at a high resolution (approx. 0.05) for the first time, using Subaru-HiCIAO. The observed polarized intensity (PI) distribution shows a butterfly-like distribution of bright emission with an angular scale similar to the disk observed at millimeter wavelengths. This distribution is offset toward the blueshifted jet, indicating the presence of a geometrically thick disk or a remnant envelope, and therefore the earliest stage of the Class II evolutionary phase. We perform comparisons between the observed PI distribution and disk models with: (1) full radiative transfer code, using the spectral energy distribution (SED) to constrain the disk parameters; and (2) monochromatic simulations of scattered light which explore a wide range of parameters space to constrain the disk and dust parameters. We show that these models cannot consistently explain the observed PI distribution, SED, and the viewing angle inferred by millimeter interferometry. We suggest that the scattered light in the near-infrared is associated with an optically thin and geometrically thick layer above the disk surface, with the surface responsible for the infrared SED. Half of the scattered light and thermal radiation in this layer illuminates the disk surface, and this process may significantly affect the thermal structure of the disk.

  20. HIGH-CONTRAST NEAR-INFRARED IMAGING POLARIMETRY OF THE PROTOPLANETARY DISK AROUND RY TAU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takami, Michihiro; Karr, Jennifer L.; Kim, Hyosun; Chou, Mei-Yin [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica. P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Hashimoto, Jun; Kandori, Ryo; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Kwon, Jungmi [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Wisniewski, John [H. L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 West Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Henning, Thomas; Brandner, Wolfgang [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Grady, Carol A. [Eureka Scientific, 2452 Delmer, Suite 100, Oakland, CA 96002 (United States); Hodapp, Klaus W. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 640 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Kudo, Tomoyuki [Subaru Telescope, 650 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Itoh, Yoichi [Nishi-Harima Astronomical Observatory, Center for Astronomy, University of Hyogo, 407-2 Nishigaichi, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5313 (Japan); Momose, Munetake [College of Science, Ibaraki University, 2-1-1 Bunkyo, Mito, Ibaraki 310-8512 (Japan); Mayama, Satoshi [The Center for the Promotion of Integrated Sciences, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), Shonan International Village, Hayama-cho, Miura-gun, Kanagawa 240-0193 (Japan); Currie, Thayne [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Follette, Katherine B. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson AZ 85721 (United States); Abe, Lyu, E-mail: hiro@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Laboratoire Lagrange (UMR 7293), Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Cote d' Azur, 28 Avenue Valrose, F-06108 Nice Cedex 2 (France); and others

    2013-08-01

    We present near-infrared coronagraphic imaging polarimetry of RY Tau. The scattered light in the circumstellar environment was imaged at the H band at a high resolution ({approx}0.''05) for the first time, using Subaru/HiCIAO. The observed polarized intensity (PI) distribution shows a butterfly-like distribution of bright emission with an angular scale similar to the disk observed at millimeter wavelengths. This distribution is offset toward the blueshifted jet, indicating the presence of a geometrically thick disk or a remnant envelope, and therefore the earliest stage of the Class II evolutionary phase. We perform comparisons between the observed PI distribution and disk models with (1) full radiative transfer code, using the spectral energy distribution (SED) to constrain the disk parameters; and (2) monochromatic simulations of scattered light which explore a wide range of parameters space to constrain the disk and dust parameters. We show that these models cannot consistently explain the observed PI distribution, SED, and the viewing angle inferred by millimeter interferometry. We suggest that the scattered light in the near-infrared is associated with an optically thin and geometrically thick layer above the disk surface, with the surface responsible for the infrared SED. Half of the scattered light and thermal radiation in this layer illuminates the disk surface, and this process may significantly affect the thermal structure of the disk.

  1. Multicenter clinical perspectives on a broadband infrared light device for skin tightening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taub, Amy Forman; Battle, Eliot F; Nikolaidis, Gregory

    2006-09-01

    Modalities for skin tightening include radiofrequency (RF) energy, lasers, and combination RF and diode lasers. A new broadband infrared light device (BILD) (Titan, Cutera, Inc, Brisbane, CA) targets water to achieve dermal heating and collagen remodeling for skin tightening. Although thousands of procedures have been performed worldwide with this device, only one article (to the author's knowledge) describing its performance in skin tightening has been published. Three US dermatologists report their experience with and provide their perspective on facial skin tightening with the BILD system. As early adopters, they each have 12 to 18 months experience with this system. One author (A.F.T.) treated 42 patients twice at 1-month intervals over 18 months. The mean improvement score was 1.83 (scale 0 to 4, with 4 denoting maximum improvement) with an average follow-up time of 3.7 months. More than 90% of treated patients showed visible improvement. No complications were observed and patient satisfaction was high. This paper presents the general consensus of the authors on patient selection and treatment protocol, their modifications of the manufacturer's treatment protocol, and the outcomes of 42 patients treated by one author (A.F.T.). The observations were gathered separately and turned out to be very similar. The recommendations are presented to help practitioners achieve consistently good results and avoid complications with the BILD procedure.

  2. Far infrared extinction coefficients of minerals of interest for astronomical observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, H.

    1984-01-01

    Far infrared extinction coefficients of mineral grains of interest for astronomical observations have been measured. The measured mineral species are: amorphous carbon, high temperature magnesium silicates, hydrous silicates, iron oxides, and amorphous silicates. (author)

  3. Effects of Linear-Polarized Near-Infrared Light Irradiation on Chronic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the efficacy of linear-polarized near-infrared light irradiation (LPNIR on relieving chronic pain in conjunction with nerve block (NB or local block (LB, a 3-week prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled study was conducted to evaluate the pre- and post-therapy pain intensity. Visual analogue scales (VASs were measured in all patients before and 6 months after therapy visiting the pain clinic during the period of August 2007 to January 2008. A total of 52 patients with either shoulder periarthritis or myofascial pain syndrome or lateral epicondylitis were randomly assigned into two groups by drawing lots. Patients in Group I were treated with NB or LB plus LPNIR; Group II patients, for their part, were treated with the same procedures as in Group I, but not using LPNIR. In both groups, the pain intensity (VAS score decreased significantly immediately after therapy as compared to therapy. There was a significant difference between the test and control groups immediately after therapy (P<0.05, while no effect 6 months later. No side effects were observed. It is concluded that LPNIR is an effective and safe modality to treat various chronic pains, which has synergic effects with NB or LB.

  4. Quantum Dots in Two-Dimensional Perovskite Matrices for Efficient Near-Infrared Light Emission

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Zhenyu

    2017-03-13

    Quantum-dot-in-perovskite solids are excellent candidates for infrared light-emitting applications. The first generation of dot-in-perovskite light-emitting diodes (LEDs) has shown bright infrared electroluminescence with tunable emission wavelength; however, their performance has been limited by degradation of the active layer at practical operating voltages. This arises from the instability of the three-dimensional (3D) organolead halide perovskite matrix. Herein we report the first dot-in-perovskite solids that employ two-dimensional (2D) perovskites as the matrix. 2D perovskite passivation is achieved via an in situ alkylammonium/alkylamine substitution carried out during the quantum dot (QD) ligand exchange process. This single-step film preparation process enables deposition of the QD/perovskite active layers with thicknesses of 40 nm, over seven times thinner than the first-generation dot-in-perovskite thin films that relied on a multistep synthesis. The dot-in-perovskite film roughness improved from 31 nm for the first-generation films to 3 nm for films as a result of this new approach. The best devices exhibit external quantum efficiency peaks exceeding 2% and radiances of ∼1 W sr–1 m–2, with an improved breakdown voltage up to 7.5 V. Compared to first-generation dot-in-perovskites, this new process reduces materials consumptions 10-fold and represents a promising step toward manufacturable devices.

  5. Quantum Dots in Two-Dimensional Perovskite Matrices for Efficient Near-Infrared Light Emission

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Zhenyu; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Walters, Grant; Fan, James Z.; Liu, Min; Kinge, Sachin; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Sargent, Edward H.

    2017-01-01

    Quantum-dot-in-perovskite solids are excellent candidates for infrared light-emitting applications. The first generation of dot-in-perovskite light-emitting diodes (LEDs) has shown bright infrared electroluminescence with tunable emission wavelength; however, their performance has been limited by degradation of the active layer at practical operating voltages. This arises from the instability of the three-dimensional (3D) organolead halide perovskite matrix. Herein we report the first dot-in-perovskite solids that employ two-dimensional (2D) perovskites as the matrix. 2D perovskite passivation is achieved via an in situ alkylammonium/alkylamine substitution carried out during the quantum dot (QD) ligand exchange process. This single-step film preparation process enables deposition of the QD/perovskite active layers with thicknesses of 40 nm, over seven times thinner than the first-generation dot-in-perovskite thin films that relied on a multistep synthesis. The dot-in-perovskite film roughness improved from 31 nm for the first-generation films to 3 nm for films as a result of this new approach. The best devices exhibit external quantum efficiency peaks exceeding 2% and radiances of ∼1 W sr–1 m–2, with an improved breakdown voltage up to 7.5 V. Compared to first-generation dot-in-perovskites, this new process reduces materials consumptions 10-fold and represents a promising step toward manufacturable devices.

  6. Absorption Spectroscopy in Hollow-Glass Waveguides Using Infrared Diode Lasers[4817-25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blake, Thomas A.; Kelly, James F.; Stewart, Timothy L.; Hartman, John S.; Sharpe, Steven W.; Sams, Robert L.; Alan Fried

    2002-01-01

    Near- and mid-infrared diode lasers combined with flexible, hollow waveguides hold the promise of light weight, field portable, fast response gas sensors. The advantages of using the waveguides compared to White or Herriott multireflection cells include a small gas volume, a high photon fill factor in the waveguide, which increases molecule-light interactions, and reduction or elimination of optical fringing, which usually sets the practical limit of detectivity in absorption spectroscopy. Though hollow waveguides have been commercially available for several years, relatively few results have been reported in the literature. We present here results from our laboratory where we have injected infrared laser light into straight and coiled lengths of hollow waveguides and performed direct and wavelength modulated absorption spectroscopy on nitrous oxide, ethylene, and nitric oxide. Using a 1 mm bore, 3 meter long coiled waveguide coated for the near infrared, nitrous oxide transitions near 6595 cm-1 were observed under flowing conditions. Signal-to-noise ratios on the order of 1500:1 with RMS noise equal to 2 X 10-5 were measured. In the mid-infrared light from either a 10.1 or 5.3 micron lead salt diode laser was injected into a three meter length of 1 mm bore hollow waveguide coated for the mid-infrared. The waveguide was coiled with one loop at a diameter of 52 cm. Ethylene transitions were observed in the vicinity of 985 cm-1 with a static fill of 0.2 Torr of pure ethylene in the waveguide and nitric oxide transitions were observed in the vicinity of 1906 cm-1 using either a flow or a static fill of 1 ppm NO in nitrogen. In direct absorption the NO transitions are observed to have a signal-to-noise of approximately 5:1 for transitions with absorbances on the order of 10-3. Using wavelength modulated techniques the signal-to-noise ratio improves at least an order of magnitude. These encouraging results indicate that waveguides can be used for in situ gas monitoring

  7. Infrared galaxies evolution. From cosmological observations with ISO to a mid-infrared to sub-millimetric modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dole, Herve

    2000-01-01

    This thesis deals with the analysis of the FIRBACK deep survey performed in the far infrared at λ=170 μm with the Infrared Space Observatory whose aim is the study of the galaxies contributing to the Cosmic Infrared Background, and with the modelling of galaxy evolution in the mid-infrared to submillimeter range. The FIRBACK survey covers 3. 89 Sq. Deg. in 3 high galactic latitude and low foreground emission fields (2 of which are in the northern sky). I first present the techniques of reduction, processing and calibration of the ISOPHOT cosmological data. I show that there is a good agreement between PHOT and DIRBE on extended emission, thanks to the derivation of the PHOT footprint. Final maps are created, and the survey is confusion limited at σc=45 mJy. I present then the techniques of source extraction and the simulations for photometry needed to build the final catalog of 106 sources between 180 mJy (4σ) and 2.4 Jy. The complementary catalog is made of 90 sources between 135 and 180 mJy. Galaxy counts show a large excess with respect to local counts or models (with and without evolution), only compatible with strong evolution scenarios. The Cosmic Infrared Background (CIB) is resolved at 4 % at 170 μm. The identifications of the sources at other wavelengths suggest that most of the sources are local, but a non-negligible part lies above redshift 1. I have developed a phenomenological model of galaxy evolution in order to constrain galaxy evolution in the infrared and to have a better understanding of what the FIRBACK sources are. Using the local Luminosity Function (LF), and template spectra of starburst galaxies, it is possible to constrain the evolution of the LF using all the available data: deep source counts at 15, 170 and 850 μm and the CIB spectrum. I show that galaxy evolution is dominated by a high infrared luminosity population, peaking at L=2.0*10"1"1 Redshift distributions are in agreement with available observations. Predictions are

  8. Properties of the Variation of the Infrared Emission of OH/IR Stars I. The K Band Light Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Won Suh

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available To study properties of the variation of the infrared emission of OH/IR stars, we collect and analyze the infrared observational data in K band for nine OH/IR stars. We use the observational data obtained for about three decades including recent data from the two micron all sky survey (2MASS and the deep near infrared survey of the southern sky (DENIS. We use Marquardt-Levenberg algorithm to determine the pulsation period and amplitude for each star and compare them with previous results of infrared and radio investigations.

  9. Development of a real-time and quantitative thrombus sensor for an extracorporeal centrifugal blood pump by near-infrared light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakota, Daisuke; Fujiwara, Tatsuki; Ohuchi, Katsuhiro; Kuwana, Katsuyuki; Yamazaki, Hiroyuki; Kosaka, Ryo; Nishida, Masahiro; Mizuno, Tomohiro; Arai, Hirokuni; Maruyama, Osamu

    2018-01-01

    We developed an optical thrombus sensor for a monopivot extracorporeal centrifugal blood pump. In this study, we investigated its quantitative performance for thrombus detection in acute animal experiments of left ventricular assist using the pump on pathogen-free pigs. Optical fibers were set in the driver unit of the pump. The incident light at the near-infrared wavelength of 810 nm was aimed at the pivot bearing, and the resulting scattered light was guided to the optical fibers. The detected signal was analyzed to obtain the thrombus formation level. As a result, real-time and quantitative monitoring of the thrombus surface area on the pivot bearing was achieved with an accuracy of 3.6 ± 2.3 mm 2 . In addition, the sensing method using the near-infrared light was not influenced by changes in the oxygen saturation and the hematocrit. It is expected that the developed sensor will be useful for optimal anticoagulation management for long-term extracorporeal circulation therapies.

  10. [Effects of Light Near-Infrared Radiation on Rats Assessed by Succinate Dehydrogenase Activity in Lymphocytes on Blood Smears].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khunderyakova, N V; Zakharchenko, A V; Zakharchenko, M V; Muller, H; Fedotcheva, I; Kondrashova, M N

    2015-01-01

    Biological effects of light near infrared radiation (850 nm), with modulation acoustic frequency of 101 Hz, was studied. The study was conducted on rats, the effect was recorded by succinate dehydrogenase activity in lymphocytes on the blood smear after administration of the activating dose of adrenaline, which simulates the state of the organism in the early stages of the pathogenic effects (stress). A pronounced regulating effect of infrared radiation on the activity of succinate dehydrogenase in animals activated by adrenaline was shown. Infrared radiation has a normalizing effect reducing the degree of inhibition or activation of the enzyme induced by adrenaline and had no effect on the control animals. Thus, by modulating the activity of succinate dehydrogenase infrared radiation regulates energy production in the mitochondria supported by the most powerful oxidation substrate--succinic acid, which is especially pronounced under stress.

  11. Global Night-Time Lights for Observing Human Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipskind, Stephen R.; Elvidge, Chris; Gurney, K.; Imhoff, Mark; Bounoua, Lahouari; Sheffner, Edwin; Nemani, Ramakrishna R.; Pettit, Donald R.; Fischer, Marc

    2011-01-01

    We present a concept for a small satellite mission to make systematic, global observations of night-time lights with spatial resolution suitable for discerning the extent, type and density of human settlements. The observations will also allow better understanding of fine scale fossil fuel CO2 emission distribution. The NASA Earth Science Decadal Survey recommends more focus on direct observations of human influence on the Earth system. The most dramatic and compelling observations of human presence on the Earth are the night light observations taken by the Defence Meteorological System Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS). Beyond delineating the footprint of human presence, night light data, when assembled and evaluated with complementary data sets, can determine the fine scale spatial distribution of global fossil fuel CO2 emissions. Understanding fossil fuel carbon emissions is critical to understanding the entire carbon cycle, and especially the carbon exchange between terrestrial and oceanic systems.

  12. Mid-infrared response of reduced graphene oxide and its high-temperature coefficient of resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Liang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Much effort has been made to study the formation mechanisms of photocurrents in graphene and reduced graphene oxide films under visible and near-infrared light irradiation. A built-in field and photo-thermal electrons have been applied to explain the experiments. However, much less attention has been paid to clarifying the mid-infrared response of reduced graphene oxide films at room temperature. Thus, mid-infrared photoresponse and annealing temperature-dependent resistance experiments were carried out on reduced graphene oxide films. A maximum photocurrent of 75 μA was observed at room temperature, which was dominated by the bolometer effect, where the resistance of the films decreased as the temperature increased after they had absorbed light. The electrons localized in the defect states and the residual oxygen groups were thermally excited into the conduction band, forming a photocurrent. In addition, a temperature increase of 2 °C for the films after light irradiation for 2 minutes was observed using absorption power calculations. This work details a way to use reduced graphene oxide films that contain appropriate defects and residual oxygen groups as bolometer-sensitive materials in the mid-infrared range.

  13. Polydopamine Particle-Filled Shape-Memory Polyurethane Composites with Fast Near-Infrared Light Responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Tong, Rui; Wang, Zhanhua; Xia, Hesheng

    2018-03-25

    A new kind of fast near-infrared (NIR) light-responsive shape-memory polymer composites was prepared by introducing polydopamine particles (PDAPs) into commercial shape-memory polyurethane (SMPU). The toughness and strength of the polydopamine-particle-filled polyurethane composites (SMPU-PDAPs) were significantly enhanced with the addition of PDAPs due to the strong interface interaction between PDAPs and polyurethane segments. Owing to the outstanding photothermal effect of PDAPs, the composites exhibit a rapid light-responsive shape-memory process in 60 s with a PDAPs content of 0.01 wt%. Due to the excellent dispersion and convenient preparation method, PDAPs have great potential to be used as high-efficiency and environmentally friendly fillers to obtain novel photoactive functional polymer composites. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. DEEP SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF INFRARED-FAINT RADIO SOURCES: HIGH-REDSHIFT RADIO-LOUD ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, Ray P.; Mao, Minnie; Afonso, Jose; Cava, Antonio; Farrah, Duncan; Oliver, Seb; Huynh, Minh T.; Mauduit, Jean-Christophe; Surace, Jason; Ivison, R. J.; Jarvis, Matt; Lacy, Mark; Maraston, Claudia; Middelberg, Enno; Seymour, Nick

    2011-01-01

    Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRSs) are a rare class of objects which are relatively bright at radio wavelengths but very faint at infrared and optical wavelengths. Here we present sensitive near-infrared observations of a sample of these sources taken as part of the Spitzer Extragalactic Representative Volume Survey. Nearly all the IFRSs are undetected at a level of ∼1 μJy in these new deep observations, and even the detections are consistent with confusion with unrelated galaxies. A stacked image implies that the median flux density is S 3.6μm ∼ 0.2 μJy or less, giving extreme values of the radio-infrared flux density ratio. Comparison of these objects with known classes of object suggests that the majority are probably high-redshift radio-loud galaxies, possibly suffering from significant dust extinction.

  15. Shape memory nanocomposite of poly(L-lactic acid/graphene nanoplatelets triggered by infrared light and thermal heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lashgari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs on the shape memory properties of poly(L-lactic acid (PLLA was studied. In addition to thermal activation, the possibility of infrared actuating of thermo-responsive shape memory PLLA/GNPs nanocomposite was investigated. The incorporated GNPs were expected to absorb infrared wave’s energy and activate shape memory PLLA/GNPs. Different techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD, field emission gun scanning electron microscope (FEG-SEM and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA were used to characterize samples. DSC and WAXD results indicated that GNPs augmented crystallinity due to nucleating effect of graphene particles. GNPs improved both thermal and infrared activating shape memory properties along with faster response. Pure shape memory PLLA was slightly responsive to infrared light and its infrared actuated shape recovery ratio was 86% which increased to more than 95% with loading of GNPs. Drastic improvement in the crystallinity was obtained in nanocomposites with lower GNPs contents (0.5 and 1 wt% due to finer dispersion of graphene which resulted in more prominent mechanical and shape memory properties enhancement. Infrared activated shape memory PLLA/GNPs nanocomposites can be developed for wireless remote shape control of smart medical and bio-systems.

  16. Infrared and optical observations of Nova Mus 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitelock, P.A.; Carter, B.S.; Feast, M.W.; Glass, I.S.; Laney, D.; Menzies, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    Extensive optical (UBVRI) and infrared (JHKL) photometry of Nova Mus 1983 obtained over a period of 300 days is tabulated. Infrared and optical spectra are described. Although by classical definition this was a fast nova its later development was slower than for typical objects of this class. Surprisingly the development of infrared thermal dust emission did not occur. Throughout the period covered, the infrared emission was characteristic of a bound-free plus free-free plasma continuum with emission lines. (author)

  17. Infra-red signature neutron detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Zane William [Oak Ridge, TN; Boatner, Lynn Allen [Oak Ridge, TN

    2009-10-13

    A method of detecting an activator, the method including impinging with an activator a receptor material that includes a photoluminescent material that generates infrared radiation and generation a by-product of a nuclear reaction due to the activator impinging the receptor material. The method further includes generating light from the by-product via the Cherenkov effect, wherein the light activates the photoluminescent material so as to generate the infrared radiation. Identifying a characteristic of the activator based on the infrared radiation.

  18. Characterization of silver halide fiber optics and hollow silica waveguides for use in the construction of a mid-infrared attenuated total reflection fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damin, Craig A; Sommer, André J

    2013-11-01

    Advances in fiber optic materials have allowed for the construction of fibers and waveguides capable of transmitting infrared radiation. An investigation of the transmission characteristics associated with two commonly used types of infrared-transmitting fibers/waveguides for prospective use in a fiber/waveguide-coupled attenuated total internal reflection (ATR) probe was performed. Characterization of silver halide polycrystalline fiber optics and hollow silica waveguides was done on the basis of the transmission of infrared light using a conventional fiber optic coupling accessory and an infrared microscope. Using the fiber optic coupling accessory, the average percent transmission for three silver halide fibers was 18.1 ± 6.1% relative to a benchtop reflection accessory. The average transmission for two hollow waveguides (HWGs) using the coupling accessory was 8.0 ± 0.3%. (Uncertainties in the relative percent transmission represent the standard deviations.) Reduced transmission observed for the HWGs was attributed to the high numerical aperture of the coupling accessory. Characterization of the fibers/waveguides using a zinc selenide lens objective on an infrared microscope indicated 24.1 ± 7.2% of the initial light input into the silver halide fibers was transmitted. Percent transmission obtained for the HWGs was 98.7 ± 0.1%. Increased transmission using the HWGs resulted from the absence or minimization of insertion and scattering losses due to the hollow air core and a better-matched numerical aperture. The effect of bending on the transmission characteristics of the fibers/waveguides was also investigated. Significant deviations in the transmission of infrared light by the solid-core silver halide fibers were observed for various bending angles. Percent transmission greater than 98% was consistently observed for the HWGs at the bending angles. The combined benefits of high percent transmission, reproducible instrument responses, and increased bending

  19. Highly-efficient mid-infrared CW laser operation in a lightly-doped 3 at.% Er:SrF2 single crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Liangbi; Guo, Xinsheng; Jiang, Dapeng; Wu, Qinghui; Qin, Zhipeng; Xie, Guoqiang

    2018-03-05

    3 at.% Er:SrF 2 laser crystals with high optical quality were successfully grown using the temperature gradient technique (TGT). The intense mid-infrared emission was observed around 2.7 μm with excitation by a 970 nm LD. Based on the Judd-Ofelt theory, the emission cross-sections of the 4 I 13/2 - 4 I 11/2 transition were calculated by using the Fuchtbauer-Ladenburg (FL) method. Efficient continuous-wave laser operation at 2.8 µm was achieved with the lightly-doped 3 at.% Er:SrF 2 crystal pumped by a 970 nm laser diode. The laser output power reached up to 1.06 W with a maximum slope efficiency of 26%.

  20. Infrared-faint radio sources remain undetected at far-infrared wavelengths. Deep photometric observations using the Herschel Space Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, A.; Norris, R. P.; Middelberg, E.; Spitler, L. R.; Leipski, C.; Parker, Q. A.

    2015-08-01

    Context. Showing 1.4 GHz flux densities in the range of a few to a few tens of mJy, infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) are a type of galaxy characterised by faint or absent near-infrared counterparts and consequently extreme radio-to-infrared flux density ratios up to several thousand. Recent studies showed that IFRS are radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at redshifts ≳2, potentially linked to high-redshift radio galaxies (HzRGs). Aims: This work explores the far-infrared emission of IFRS, providing crucial information on the star forming and AGN activity of IFRS. Furthermore, the data enable examining the putative relationship between IFRS and HzRGs and testing whether IFRS are more distant or fainter siblings of these massive galaxies. Methods: A sample of six IFRS was observed with the Herschel Space Observatory between 100 μm and 500 μm. Using these results, we constrained the nature of IFRS by modelling their broad-band spectral energy distribution (SED). Furthermore, we set an upper limit on their infrared SED and decomposed their emission into contributions from an AGN and from star forming activity. Results: All six observed IFRS were undetected in all five Herschel far-infrared channels (stacking limits: σ = 0.74 mJy at 100 μm, σ = 3.45 mJy at 500 μm). Based on our SED modelling, we ruled out the following objects to explain the photometric characteristics of IFRS: (a) known radio-loud quasars and compact steep-spectrum sources at any redshift; (b) starburst galaxies with and without an AGN and Seyfert galaxies at any redshift, even if the templates were modified; and (c) known HzRGs at z ≲ 10.5. We find that the IFRS analysed in this work can only be explained by objects that fulfil the selection criteria of HzRGs. More precisely, IFRS could be (a) known HzRGs at very high redshifts (z ≳ 10.5); (b) low-luminosity siblings of HzRGs with additional dust obscuration at lower redshifts; (c) scaled or unscaled versions of Cygnus A at any

  1. White light spectral interferometer for measuring dispersion in the visible-near infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arosa, Yago; Rodríguez Fernández, Carlos Damian; Algnamat, Bilal S.; López-Lago, Elena; de la Fuente, Raul

    2017-08-01

    We have designed a spectrally resolved interferometer to measure the refractive index of transparent samples over a wide spectral band from 400 to 1550 nm. The measuring device consists of a Michelson interferometer whose output is analyzed by means of three fiber spectrometers. The first one is a homemade prism spectrometer, which obtains the interferogram produced by the sample over 400 to 1050 nm; the second one is a homemade transmission grating spectrometer thought to measure the interferogram in the near infrared spectral band from 950 to 1550 nm; the last one is a commercial Czerny-Turner spectrometer used to make high precision measurements of the displacement between the Michelson mirrors also using white light interferometry. The whole system is illuminated by a white light source with an emission spectrum similar to black body. We have tested the instrument with solid and liquids samples achieving accuracy to the fourth decimal on the refractive index after fitting it to a Cauchy formula

  2. Infrared Astronomy and Star Formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, N.J.

    1985-01-01

    Infrared astronomy is a natural tool to use in studying star formation because infrared light penetrates the surrounding dust and because protostars are expected to emit infrared light. Infrared mapping and photometry have revealed many compact sources, often embedded in more extensive warm dust associated with a molecular cloud core. More detailed study of these objects is now beginning, and traditional interpretations are being questioned. Some compact sources are now thought to be density enhancements which are not self-luminous. Infrared excesses around young stars may not always be caused by circumstellar dust; speckle measurements have shown that at least some of the excess toward T Tauri is caused by an infrared companion. Spectroscopic studies of the dense, star-forming cores and of the compact objects themselves have uncovered a wealth of new phenomena, including the widespread occurence of energetic outflows. New discoveries with IRAS and with other planned infrared telescopes will continue to advance this field. (author)

  3. Simultaneous Observations of p-mode Light Walls and Magnetic Reconnection Ejections above Sunspot Light Bridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Yijun; Zhang, Jun; Li, Ting; Yang, Shuhong; Li, Xiaohong, E-mail: yijunhou@nao.cas.cn, E-mail: zjun@nao.cas.cn [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2017-10-10

    Recent high-resolution observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph reveal bright wall-shaped structures in active regions (ARs), especially above sunspot light bridges. Their most prominent feature is the bright oscillating front in the 1400/1330 Å channel. These structures are named light walls and are often interpreted to be driven by p-mode waves. Above the light bridge of AR 12222 on 2014 December 06, we observed intermittent ejections superimposed on an oscillating light wall in the 1400 Å passband. At the base location of each ejection, the emission enhancement was detected in the Solar Dynamics Observatory 1600 Å channel. Thus, we suggest that in wall bases (light bridges), in addition to the leaked p-mode waves consistently driving the oscillating light wall, magnetic reconnection could happen intermittently at some locations and eject the heated plasma upward. Similarly, in the second event occurring in AR 12371 on 2015 June 16, a jet was simultaneously detected in addition to the light wall with a wave-shaped bright front above the light bridge. At the footpoint of this jet, lasting brightening was observed, implying magnetic reconnection at the base. We propose that in these events, two mechanisms, p-mode waves and magnetic reconnection, simultaneously play roles in the light bridge, and lead to the distinct kinetic features of the light walls and the ejection-like activities, respectively. To illustrate the two mechanisms and their resulting activities above light bridges, in this study we present a cartoon model.

  4. On interstellar light polarization by diamagnetic silicate and carbon dust in the infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoular, R.

    2018-04-01

    The motion of diamagnetic dust particles in interstellar magnetic fields is studied numerically with several different sets of parameters. Two types of behaviour are observed, depending on the value of the critical number R, which is a function of the grain inertia, the magnetic susceptibility of the material and of the strength of rotation braking. If R ≤ 10, the grain ends up in a static state and perfectly aligned with the magnetic field, after a few braking times. If not, it goes on precessing and nutating about the field vector for a much longer time. Usual parameters are such that the first situation can hardly be observed. Fortunately, in the second and more likely situation, there remains a persistent partial alignment that is far from negligible, although it decreases as the field decreases and as R increases. The solution of the complete equations of motion of grains in a field helps understanding the details of this behaviour. One particular case of an ellipsoidal forsterite silicate grain is studied in detail and shown to polarize light in agreement with astronomical measurements of absolute polarization in the infrared. Phonons are shown to contribute to the progressive flattening of extinction and polarization towards long wavelengths. The measured dielectric properties of forsterite qualitatively fit the Serkowski peak in the visible.

  5. Development and application of a far infrared laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Kazuya; Okajima, Shigeki; Kawahata, Kazuo

    2011-01-01

    There has been a 40 years history on the application of an infrared laser to interference, polarization and scattering light sources in fusion plasma diagnostics. It is one of important light sources in ITER plasma diagnostics too. In the present review, authors recall the history of the infrared laser development especially of cw infrared lasers. In addition, the state-of-the-art technology for infrared lasers, infrared components and its applications to plasma diagnostics are discussed. (J.P.N.)

  6. Large Magellanic Cloud Near-infrared Synoptic Survey. V. Period–Luminosity Relations of Miras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Wenlong; Macri, Lucas M.; He, Shiyuan; Huang, Jianhua Z.; Kanbur, Shashi M.; Ngeow, Chow-Choong

    2017-01-01

    We study the near-infrared properties of 690 Mira candidates in the central region of the Large Magellanic Cloud, based on time-series observations at JHK s . We use densely sampled I -band observations from the OGLE project to generate template light curves in the near-infrared and derive robust mean magnitudes at those wavelengths. We obtain near-infrared Period–Luminosity relations for oxygen-rich Miras with a scatter as low as 0.12 mag at K s . We study the Period–Luminosity–Color relations and the color excesses of carbon-rich Miras, which show evidence for a substantially different reddening law.

  7. Near-infrared light-responsive inorganic nanomaterials for photothermal therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihong Bao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Novel nanomaterials and advanced nanotechnologies prompt the fast development of new protocols for biomedical application. The unique light-to-heat conversion property of nanoscale materials can be utilized to produce novel and effective therapeutics for cancer treatment. In particular, near-infrared (NIR photothermal therapy (PTT has gained popularity and very quickly developed in recent years due to minimally invasive treatments for patients. This review summarizes the current state-of-the-art in the development of inorganic nanocomposites for photothermal cancer therapy. The current states of the design, synthesis, the cellular uptake behavior, the cellular cytotoxicity and both in vivo and in vitro nanoparticle assisted photothermal treatments of inorganic photothermal therapy agents (PTA are described. Finally, the perspective and challenges of PTT development are presented and some proposals are suggested for its further development and exploration. This summary should provide improved understanding of cancer treatment with photothermal nanomaterials and push nanoscience and nanotechnology one step at a time toward clinical applications.

  8. Measurement of infrared optical constants with visible photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterova, Anna; Yang, Hongzhi; An, Chengwu; Kalashnikov, Dmitry; Krivitsky, Leonid

    2018-04-01

    We demonstrate a new scheme for infrared spectroscopy with visible light sources and detectors. The technique relies on the nonlinear interference of correlated photons, produced via spontaneous parametric down conversion in a nonlinear crystal. Visible and infrared photons are split into two paths and the infrared photons interact with the sample under study. The photons are reflected back to the crystal, resembling a conventional Michelson interferometer. Interference of the visible photons is observed and it is dependent on the phases of all three interacting photons: pump, visible and infrared. The transmission coefficient and the refractive index of the sample in the infrared range can be inferred from the interference pattern of visible photons. The method does not require the use of potentially expensive and inefficient infrared detectors and sources, it can be applied to a broad variety of samples, and it does not require a priori knowledge of sample properties in the visible range.

  9. Monitoring light-induced structural changes of Channelrhodopsin-2 by UV-visible and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Eglof; Stehfest, Katja; Berndt, Andre; Hegemann, Peter; Bartl, Franz J

    2008-12-12

    Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) is a microbial type rhodopsin and a light-gated cation channel that controls phototaxis in Chlamydomonas. We expressed ChR2 in COS-cells, purified it, and subsequently investigated this unusual photoreceptor by flash photolysis and UV-visible and Fourier transform infrared difference spectroscopy. Several transient photoproducts of the wild type ChR2 were identified, and their kinetics and molecular properties were compared with those of the ChR2 mutant E90Q. Based on the spectroscopic data we developed a model of the photocycle comprising six distinguishable intermediates. This photocycle shows similarities to the photocycle of the ChR2-related Channelrhodopsin of Volvox but also displays significant differences. We show that molecular changes include retinal isomerization, changes in hydrogen bonding of carboxylic acids, and large alterations of the protein backbone structure. These alterations are stronger than those observed in the photocycle of other microbial rhodopsins like bacteriorhodopsin and are related to those occurring in animal rhodopsins. UV-visible and Fourier transform infrared difference spectroscopy revealed two late intermediates with different time constants of tau = 6 and 40 s that exist during the recovery of the dark state. The carboxylic side chain of Glu(90) is involved in the slow transition. The molecular changes during the ChR2 photocycle are discussed with respect to other members of the rhodopsin family.

  10. Lead Apron Inspection Using Infrared Light: A Model Validation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenney, Sarah E; Otero, Hansel J; Fricke, Stanley T

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate defect detection in radiation protective apparel, typically called lead aprons, using infrared (IR) thermal imaging. The use of IR lighting eliminates the need for access to x-ray-emitting equipment and radiation dose to the inspector. The performance of radiation workers was prospectively assessed using both a tactile inspection and the IR inspection with a lead apron phantom over a 2-month period. The phantom was a modified lead apron with a series of nine holes of increasing diameter ranging from 2 to 35 mm in accordance with typical rejection criteria. Using the tactile method, a radiation worker would feel for the defects in the lead apron. For the IR inspection, a 250-W IR light source was used to illuminate the lead apron phantom; an IR camera detected the transmitted radiation. The radiation workers evaluated two stills from the IR camera. From the 31 participants inspecting the lead apron phantom with the tactile method, only 2 participants (6%) correctly discovered all 9 holes and 1 participant reported a defect that was not there; 10 of the 20 participants (50%) correctly identified all 9 holes using the IR method. Using a weighted average, 5.4 defects were detected with the tactile method and 7.5 defects were detected with the IR method. IR light can penetrate an apron's protective outer fabric and illuminate defects below the current standard rejection size criteria. The IR method improves defect detectability as compared with the tactile method. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Changes in Cell Viability of Wounded Fibroblasts following Laser Irradiation in Broad-Spectrum or Infrared Light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, D.; Abrahamse, H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective. This study aimed to establish if broad-spectrum or infrared (IR) light in combination with laser therapy can assist phototherapy to improve the cell function of wounded cells. Background. The effect of laser light may be partly or completely reduced by broad-spectrum light. Methods. Wounded human skin fibroblasts were irradiated with 5 J/cm2 using a helium-neon laser, a diode laser, or an Nd:YAG laser in the dark, in the light, or in IR. Changes in cell viability were evaluated by cell morphology, ATP cell viability, LDH membrane integrity, and caspase 3/7 as an early marker of apoptosis. Results. Wounded cells exposed to 5 J/cm2 using 632.8 nm in the dark or 830 nm in the light or 1064 nm in the dark showed an increase in ATP viability, an increase in cytokine expression, and a decrease in LDH cytotoxicity indicating that the metabolic activity of the wounded cells was stimulated. Conclusion. Wounded cells irradiated in IR light showed an undesirable thermal effect that was proportional to the duration of exposure.

  12. Near infrared light induces post-translational modifications of human red blood cell proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walski, Tomasz; Dyrda, Agnieszka; Dzik, Małgorzata; Chludzińska, Ludmiła; Tomków, Tomasz; Mehl, Joanna; Detyna, Jerzy; Gałecka, Katarzyna; Witkiewicz, Wojciech; Komorowska, Małgorzata

    2015-11-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that near infrared (NIR) light exerts beneficial effects on cells. Its usefulness in the treatment of cancer, acute brain injuries, strokes and neurodegenerative disorders has been proposed. The mechanism of the NIR action is probably of photochemical nature, however it is not fully understood. Here, using a relatively simple biological model, human red blood cells (RBCs), and a polychromatic non-polarized light source, we investigate the impact of NIR radiation on the oxygen carrier, hemoglobin (Hb), and anion exchanger (AE1, Band 3). The exposure of intact RBCs to NIR light causes quaternary transitions in Hb, dehydration of proteins and decreases the amount of physiologically inactive methemoglobin, as detected by Raman spectroscopy. These effects are accompanied by a lowering of the intracellular pH (pHi) and changes in the cell membrane topography, as documented by atomic force microscopy (AFM). All those changes are in line with our previous studies where alterations of the membrane fluidity and membrane potential were attributed to NIR action on RBCs. The rate of the above listed changes depends strictly on the dose of NIR light that the cells receive, nonetheless it should not be considered as a thermal effect.

  13. All-photonic drying and sintering process via flash white light combined with deep-UV and near-infrared irradiation for highly conductive copper nano-ink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hyun-Jun; Oh, Kyung-Hwan; Kim, Hak-Sung

    2016-01-01

    We developed an ultra-high speed photonic sintering method involving flash white light (FWL) combined with near infrared (NIR) and deep UV light irradiation to produce highly conductive copper nano-ink film. Flash white light irradiation energy and the power of NIR/deep UV were optimized to obtain high conductivity Cu films. Several microscopic and spectroscopic characterization techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), a x-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy were employed to characterize the Cu nano-films. Optimally sintered Cu nano-ink films produced using a deep UV-assisted flash white light sintering technique had the lowest resistivity (7.62 μΩ·cm), which was only 4.5-fold higher than that of bulk Cu film (1.68 μΩ•cm). PMID:26806215

  14. Visualizing Veins With Near-Infrared Light to Facilitate Blood Withdrawal in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuper, Natascha J.; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf M.; de Roode, Rowland; de Vooght, Karen M. K.; Viergever, Max A.; Kalkman, Cor J.; de Graaff, Jurgen C.

    Introduction. This study aims to evaluate for the first time the value of visualizing veins by a prototype of a near-infrared (NIR) vascular imaging system for venipuncture in children. Methods. An observational feasibility study of venipunctures in children (0-6 years) attending the clinical

  15. Infrared synchrotron radiation from electron storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, W.D.; Williams, G.P.

    1983-01-01

    Simple and useful approximations, valid at infrared wavelengths, to the equations for synchrotron radiation are presented and used to quantify the brightness and power advantage of current synchrotron radiation light sources over conventional infrared broadband laboratory sources. The Daresbury Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS) and the Brookhaven National Synchrotron Light Source (vacuum ultraviolet) [NSLS(VUV)] storage rings are used as examples in the calculation of the properties of infrared synchrotron radiation. The pulsed nature of the emission is also discussed, and potential areas of application for the brightness, power, and time structure advantages are presented. The use of infrared free electron lasers and undulators on the next generation of storage ring light sources is briefly considered

  16. Circumstellar envelopes seen in radio (OH masers) and in the infrared observations (IRAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, Pedro-Correia-de-Matos

    1992-01-01

    Intermediate mass stars, namely from one to nine solar masses, eject mass into the surrounding interstellar medium at high rates (up to 1/10000 solar masses per year) in their late stages of evolution on the so called asymptotic giant branch (AGB). Indeed, the presence of a circumstellar envelope (CSE) composed of dust and gas is one of the principal features of the objects on the AGB. Because of the high opacity at visible wavelength of the CSE, most of these objects can only be observed at infrared and radio frequencies. This study was undertaken using infrared and radio data from a large sample of CSE sources. The infrared data was obtained from the infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) data base. For a selection of IRAS objects, radio observations were made of the OH maser at 1612 and 1667 MHz at the Nancay radio telescope, France. This work consists in two parts, one is theoretical in nature, the other observational. The theoretical part is concerned with the modeling of IRAS low resolution spectra (LRS catalog) and IRAS photometry through the use of a radiative transfer code. Confrontation between models and data has yielded such results as a better definition of the grain optical properties and the behavior of the CSE as it evolves. A model of a shock wave (a possible lifting engine of the CSE) propagating in the atmosphere of Mira stars (AGB) is described. On the observational side, a large number of objects has been surveyed for the presence of OH masers at 1612 and 1667 MHz. A statistical analysis has established more clearly the evolutionary status of CSE and the OH maser characteristics. A compiling of detection rates for the occurrence of masers, average location of these masing CSEs in the Galaxy, and OH maser characteristics is reported for use in future work. (author) [fr

  17. The nature of cometary dust as determined from infrared observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, K. S. Krishna; Sandford, Scott A.; Allamandola, Louis J.; Witteborn, Fred C.; Bregman, Jesse D.

    1989-01-01

    The infrared measurements of comets, the compositional information available from interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), and the recent results of flybys to Comet Halley can help in restricting the nature and composition of cometary dust models (c.f., Proceedings of the 20th ESLAB Symposium on Exploration of Halley's Comet, 1986). Researchers tried to incorporate some of these results into a coherent model to account for the observed cometary infrared emission. The presence of 10 and 3.4 micron features in Comet Halley (c.f. Bregman et al. 1987; Wickramasinghe and Allen 1986) indicated the presence of at least two components in the grain material, namely silicates and some form of amorphous carbon. These two components could reside in separate grains or may be parts of composite particles. Both these cases have been considered (see Krishna Swamy el a. 1988a, 1988b). In the absence of refractive index data for cometary analogs, the authors used the optical constants of olivine-rich lunar material 12009.48 (Perry et al. 1972) for the infrared region and that of alpha:C-H film for amorphous carbon (angus et al. 1986). For the visible region, a value of m = 1.38-0.39i was used for the silicates, and values published by Arakawa et al. (1985) were used for the amorphous carbon. These materials should give a representative behavior of the expected results. The model results were compared to observational data. The strength of the 3.4 micron and 10 micron features relative to the adjacent continuum, as well as the slope of the continuum between 2500 and 1250 cm(exp -1) (4 to 8 microns), were used as criteria for comparison. Model calculations with alpha approx. equals -3.5, and also the size distribution function inferred for Comet Halley, with a mass fraction (X) of silicate to amorphous carbon grains of about 40 to 1 can fit the data. A good match is obtained for the infrared spectra of Comets Halley and West from a 40 to 1 mixture of silicate and amorphous carbon grains

  18. Using near infrared light to manage symptoms associated with restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guffey, J Stephen; Motts, Susan; Barymon, Deanna; Wooten, Amber; Clough, Tim; Payne, Emily; Henderson, McCall; Tice, Neal

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the application of near infrared (NIR) light could positively modulate symptoms associated with restless legs syndrome (RLS). Twenty-one subjects with RLS were treated with NIR three times weekly for four weeks. Baseline measures of: (1) international restless legs syndrome rating scale (IRLSRS) score; (2) Semmes Weinstein monofilament (SWM) test; (3) visual analog pain scale (VAS); (4) ankle-brachial index (ABI); and (5) sonographic imaging of the popliteal and posterior tibial arteries were compared to post-treatment values. NIR (850 nm) was delivered transcutaneously at 8 J/cm(2) to four locations on each leg and the plantar surface of each foot. A pre-test-post-test one group design was employed. Baseline and post-treatment measures were compared using either a dependent t-test when data were normal or the Wilcoxon signed rank test in the absence of normality. A significant improvement in IRLSRS scores was observed. Sensation improved from less than protective in 16.6% of sites tested at the baseline to 13.4% post-intervention. There was a significant improvement in ABI scores. VAS and sonographic imaging measures other than ABI remained unchanged. The use of NIR to modulate symptoms associated with RLS was supported by the data.

  19. Near-infrared light-triggered theranostics for tumor-specific enhanced multimodal imaging and photothermal therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu B

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bo Wu,1,* Bing Wan,2,* Shu-Ting Lu,1 Kai Deng,3 Xiao-Qi Li,1 Bao-Lin Wu,1 Yu-Shuang Li,1 Ru-Fang Liao,1 Shi-Wen Huang,3 Hai-Bo Xu1,2 1Department of Radiology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, 2Department of Radiology, Union Hospital of Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 3Department of Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Biomedical Polymers, Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The major challenge in current clinic contrast agents (CAs and chemotherapy is the poor tumor selectivity and response. Based on the self-quench property of IR820 at high concentrations, and different contrast effect ability of Gd-DOTA between inner and outer of liposome, we developed “bomb-like” light-triggered CAs (LTCAs for enhanced CT/MRI/FI multimodal imaging, which can improve the signal-to-noise ratio of tumor tissue specifically. IR820, Iohexol and Gd-chelates were firstly encapsulated into the thermal-sensitive nanocarrier with a high concentration. This will result in protection and fluorescence quenching. Then, the release of CAs was triggered by near-infrared (NIR light laser irradiation, which will lead to fluorescence and MRI activation and enable imaging of inflammation. In vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that LTCAs with 808 nm laser irradiation have shorter T1 relaxation time in MRI and stronger intensity in FI compared to those without irradiation. Additionally, due to the high photothermal conversion efficiency of IR820, the injection of LTCAs was demonstrated to completely inhibit C6 tumor growth in nude mice up to 17 days after NIR laser irradiation. The results indicate that the LTCAs can serve as a promising platform for NIR-activated multimodal imaging and photothermal therapy. Keywords: light triggered, near-infrared light, tumor-specific, multimodal imaging, photothermal therapy, contrast agents

  20. Optical and infrared observations of SU tau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doroshenko, V T; Efimov, Yu S; Rozenbush, A E; Terebizh, V Yu; Shenavrin, V I [Krymskaya Stantsiya GAISh (Ukrainian SSR); AN SSSR, Crimea. Krymskaya Astrofizicheskaya Observatoriya; AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Glavnaya Astronomicheskaya Observatoriya)

    1978-02-01

    The results of the narrow-band (with the resolution of 50-100A) and UBVJK photometry and optical linear polarimetry of SU Tau in 1974-1977 are given. The polarization observed is mainly an interstellar one. An estimation of A/sub V/ approximately equal to 1.3/sup m/-2,0/sub m/ for the interstellar absorption from polarization data leads to the absolute magnitude M/sub V/ approximately equal to - 3/sup m/ which is typical for the RCrB stars. Nearer to the light maximum the continuous spectrum of the star corresponds to that of a type not later than G1 supergiant. An excess of energy in the spectral region from 1.25 to 2.2 ..mu..m may be associated with 1000 K blackbody radiation of the dust. The decrease of the brightness of the star is apparently due to the shielding effect of a cloud of graphite particles with sizes of about 0.06 ..mu..m. The light reduced by 3/sup m/ needs a surface density of about 1.5x10/sup 10/ cm/sup -2/. The change of light is accompanied by complicated changes in color. The reddening is the most in the rising branch of light, which is also typical for other RCrB type stars.

  1. 3D reconstruction of internal structure of animal body using near-infrared light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Trung Nghia; Yamamoto, Kohei; Namita, Takeshi; Kato, Yuji; Shimizu, Koichi

    2014-03-01

    To realize three-dimensional (3D) optical imaging of the internal structure of animal body, we have developed a new technique to reconstruct CT images from two-dimensional (2D) transillumination images. In transillumination imaging, the image is blurred due to the strong scattering in the tissue. We had developed a scattering suppression technique using the point spread function (PSF) for a fluorescent light source in the body. In this study, we have newly proposed a technique to apply this PSF for a light source to the image of unknown light-absorbing structure. The effectiveness of the proposed technique was examined in the experiments with a model phantom and a mouse. In the phantom experiment, the absorbers were placed in the tissue-equivalent medium to simulate the light-absorbing organs in mouse body. Near-infrared light was illuminated from one side of the phantom and the image was recorded with CMOS camera from another side. Using the proposed techniques, the scattering effect was efficiently suppressed and the absorbing structure can be visualized in the 2D transillumination image. Using the 2D images obtained in many different orientations, we could reconstruct the 3D image. In the mouse experiment, an anesthetized mouse was held in an acrylic cylindrical holder. We can visualize the internal organs such as kidneys through mouse's abdomen using the proposed technique. The 3D image of the kidneys and a part of the liver were reconstructed. Through these experimental studies, the feasibility of practical 3D imaging of the internal light-absorbing structure of a small animal was verified.

  2. Multilayer tungsten-alumina-based broadband light absorbers for high-temperature applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chirumamilla, Manohar; Roberts, Alexander Sylvester; Ding, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Efficient broadband absorption of visible and near-infrared light by low quality-factor metal-insulator-metal (MIM) resonators using refractory materials is reported. Omnidirectional absorption of incident light for broad angles of incidence and polarization insensitivity are observed for the fab...

  3. Measurement of light penetration of near-infrared laser at the lumbosacral nerves in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Naoya; Shimoyama, Hiroshi; Kawase, Yuki; Motohara, Shosaku; Okayama, Takamitsu; Niwa, Daisuke; Koyama, Jun

    2018-02-01

    Photobiomodulation or low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been utilized in various areas of medical practice including pain relief, wound healing, and inflammation treatment. Some recent animal studies have reported that near-infrared laser irradiation to the lumbosacral nerves transcutateously relieves neuropathic pain by controlling activity of lumbosacral nerves. However, transcutaneous laser penetration to the nerves has not yet been fully elucidated. Our aim is to determine the light penetration to lumbosacral nerves when near-infrared laser was irradiated transcutateously to lumbosacral nerves. We implanted photodiodes near the lumbosacral nerves of rats and connected the photodiodes to an oscilloscope through an amplifier. Near-infrared lasers (wavelengths: 808 nm and 830 nm) were irradiated through the skin at 2, 5 and 10 W pulses (Duty 10%, 5 Hz) and outputs of photodiodes were collected. After irradiation, the depth of the photodiodes and the nerves from the skin surface were determined by micro-CT device. The result showed that the fluence rate at the lumbosacral nerves was 179+/-19.2 mW/cm2 and 232+/-20.7 mW/cm2 when the 808-nm and 830-nm laser was irradiated at 10 W respectively. These findings would be beneficial for following study of photobiomodulation.

  4. Ring-patterned plasmonic photonic crystal thermal light source for miniaturized near-infrared spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labib, Shady R.; Elsayed, Ahmed A.; Sabry, Yasser M.; Khalil, Diaa

    2018-02-01

    There is a growing number of spectroscopy applications in the near-infrared (NIR) range including gas sensing, food analysis, pharmaceutical and industrial applications that requires highly efficient, more compact and low-cost miniaturized spectrometers. One of the key components for such systems is the wideband light source that can be fabricated using Silicon technology and hence integrated with other components on the same chip. In this work, we report a ring-patterned plasmonic photonic crystal (PC) thermal light source for miniaturized near-infrared spectrometers. The design is based on silicon and tuned to achieve wavelength selectivity in the emitted spectrum. The design is optimized by using Rigorous Coupled-Wave Analysis (RCWA) simulation, which is used to compute the power reflectance and transmittance that are used to predict the emissivity of the structure. The design consists of a PC of silicon rings coated with platinum. The period of the structure is about 2 μm and the silicon is highly-doped with n-type doping level in the order of 1019-1020 cm-3 to enhance the free-carrier absorption. The ring etching depth, diameter and shell thickness are optimized to increase its emissivity within a specific wavelength range of interest. The simulation results show an emissivity exceeding 0.9 in the NIR range up to 2.5 μm, while the emissivity is decreased significantly for longer wavelengths suppressing the emission out of the range of interest, and hence increasing the efficiency for the source. The reported results open the door for black body radiation engineering in integrated silicon sources for spectrometer miniaturization.

  5. Infrared detectors for Earth observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, K.; Davis, R. P.; Knowles, P.; Shorrocks, N.

    2016-05-01

    IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer), developed by CNES and launched since 2006 on the Metop satellites, is established as a major source of data for atmospheric science and weather prediction. The next generation - IASI NG - is a French national contribution to the Eumetsat Polar System Second Generation on board of the Metop second generation satellites and is under development by Airbus Defence and Space for CNES. The mission aim is to achieve twice the performance of the original IASI instrument in terms of sensitivity and spectral resolution. In turn, this places very demanding requirements on the infrared detectors for the new instrument. Selex ES in Southampton has been selected for the development of the infrared detector set for the IASI-NG instruments. The wide spectral range, 3.6 to 15.5 microns, is covered in four bands, each served by a dedicated detector design, with a common 4 x 4 array format of 1.3 mm square macropixels. Three of the bands up to 8.7 microns employ photovoltaic MCT (mercury cadmium telluride) technology and the very long wave band employs photoconductive MCT, in common with the approach taken between Airbus and Selex ES for the SEVIRI instrument on Second Generation Meteosat. For the photovoltaic detectors, the MCT crystal growth of heterojunction photodiodes is by the MOVPE technique (metal organic vapour phase epitaxy). Novel approaches have been taken to hardening the photovoltaic macropixels against localised crystal defects, and integrating transimpedance amplifiers for each macropixel into a full-custom silicon read out chip, which incorporates radiation hard design.

  6. Infrared observations and mass loss of the binary system V861 Sco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanzi, E.G.; Maraschi, L.; Tarenghi, M.; Treves, A.

    1981-01-01

    V 861 Sco (HD 152667) is a well known single line binary. The proposed association with a variable X-ray source has triggered renewed interest in the system. Here the authors report on a series of photometric observations in the infrared (from 1.25 to 4.8 μ) taken at various orbital phases which improve and extend previous measurements by Tanzi et al. The results give evidence of a phase modulated infrared excess which can be interpreted in terms of a non isotropic mass flow in the system or, alternately, of a contribution from a colder secondary component. (Auth.)

  7. Large Magellanic Cloud Near-infrared Synoptic Survey. V. Period–Luminosity Relations of Miras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Wenlong; Macri, Lucas M. [George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); He, Shiyuan; Huang, Jianhua Z. [Department of Statistics, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Kanbur, Shashi M. [Department of Physics, The State University of New York at Oswego, Oswego, NY 13126 (United States); Ngeow, Chow-Choong, E-mail: lmacri@tamu.edu [Graduate Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, Jhongli 32001, Taiwan (China)

    2017-10-01

    We study the near-infrared properties of 690 Mira candidates in the central region of the Large Magellanic Cloud, based on time-series observations at JHK{sub s}. We use densely sampled I -band observations from the OGLE project to generate template light curves in the near-infrared and derive robust mean magnitudes at those wavelengths. We obtain near-infrared Period–Luminosity relations for oxygen-rich Miras with a scatter as low as 0.12 mag at K{sub s}. We study the Period–Luminosity–Color relations and the color excesses of carbon-rich Miras, which show evidence for a substantially different reddening law.

  8. Far-infrared luminosities of Markarian starburst galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, L.K.; Willner, S.P.

    1986-01-01

    Total far-infrared luminosities have been calculated from measured IRAS fluxes for a sample of optically selected galaxies and for a comparison sample of spiral galaxies. The starburst galaxies are notably more luminous in the far-infrared and have higher dust color temperatures than the comparison galaxies. The far-infrared light dominates the total luminosity of the starburst galaxies, and a significant amount of dust must be present. The far-infrared emission correlates well with total blue luminosity, nuclear blue luminosity, and nuclear H-alpha luminosity. The dust that produces the far-infrared light is probably heated predominantly by B rather than by O stars. 30 references

  9. CuS/RGO hybrid photocatalyst for full solar spectrum photoreduction from UV/Vis to near-infrared light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie; Liu, Baibai; Ren, Zhenxing; Ni, Mengying; Li, Can; Gong, Yinyan; Qin, Wei; Huang, Yongli; Sun, Chang Q; Liu, Xinjuan

    2018-05-01

    To make full use of the solar energy, it remains a great challenge for semiconductor photocatalysts to harvest the full solar light spectrum from ultraviolet (UV) to visible even the near infrared (NIR) wavelength. Here we show firstly the CuS/RGO (reduced graphene oxide) hybrid photocatalyst synthesized via a microwave assisted method with full solar light (UV-Vis-NIR) active for efficient Cr(VI) reduction. The CuS/RGO displays high absorption and catalytic activity in the UV, visible and even the NIR light regions. As co-catalyst, RGO can separate and inhibit the recombination of charge carriers, consequently improving the catalytic activity. Only 1wt% RGO emersions can reduce 90% of Cr(VI) under the radiation of light over the full spectrum. Findings may provide a new strategy and substance to expand the utilization range of solar light from UV to visible even the NIR energy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Statistical retrieval of thin liquid cloud microphysical properties using ground-based infrared and microwave observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marke, Tobias; Ebell, Kerstin; Löhnert, Ulrich; Turner, David D.

    2016-12-01

    In this article, liquid water cloud microphysical properties are retrieved by a combination of microwave and infrared ground-based observations. Clouds containing liquid water are frequently occurring in most climate regimes and play a significant role in terms of interaction with radiation. Small perturbations in the amount of liquid water contained in the cloud can cause large variations in the radiative fluxes. This effect is enhanced for thin clouds (liquid water path, LWP cloud properties crucial. Due to large relative errors in retrieving low LWP values from observations in the microwave domain and a high sensitivity for infrared methods when the LWP is low, a synergistic retrieval based on a neural network approach is built to estimate both LWP and cloud effective radius (reff). These statistical retrievals can be applied without high computational demand but imply constraints like prior information on cloud phase and cloud layering. The neural network retrievals are able to retrieve LWP and reff for thin clouds with a mean relative error of 9% and 17%, respectively. This is demonstrated using synthetic observations of a microwave radiometer (MWR) and a spectrally highly resolved infrared interferometer. The accuracy and robustness of the synergistic retrievals is confirmed by a low bias in a radiative closure study for the downwelling shortwave flux, even for marginally invalid scenes. Also, broadband infrared radiance observations, in combination with the MWR, have the potential to retrieve LWP with a higher accuracy than a MWR-only retrieval.

  11. Smart pH-responsive upconversion nanoparticles for enhanced tumor cellular internalization and near-infrared light-triggered photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng; Zhang, Lei; Dong, Chunhong; Su, Lin; Wang, Hanjie; Chang, Jin

    2015-01-01

    A smart pH-responsive photodynamic therapy system based on upconversion nanoparticle loaded PEG coated polymeric lipid vesicles (RB-UPPLVs) was designed and prepared. These RB-UPPLVs which are promising agents for deep cancer photodynamic therapy applications can achieve enhanced tumor cellular internalization and near-infrared light-triggered photodynamic therapy.

  12. Infrared Astronomy and Education: Linking Infrared Whole Sky Mapping with Teacher and Student Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borders, Kareen; Mendez, Bryan; Thaller, Michelle; Gorjian, Varoujan; Borders, Kyla; Pitman, Peter; Pereira, Vincent; Sepulveda, Babs; Stark, Ron; Knisely, Cindy; Dandrea, Amy; Winglee, Robert; Plecki, Marge; Goebel, Jeri; Condit, Matt; Kelly, Susan

    The Spitzer Space Telescope and the recently launched WISE (Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer) observe the sky in infrared light. Among the objects WISE will study are asteroids, the coolest and dimmest stars, and the most luminous galaxies. Secondary students can do authentic research using infrared data. For example, students will use WISE data to mea-sure physical properties of asteroids. In order to prepare students and teachers at this level with a high level of rigor and scientific understanding, the WISE and the Spitzer Space Tele-scope Education programs provided an immersive teacher professional development workshop in infrared astronomy.The lessons learned from the Spitzer and WISE teacher and student pro-grams can be applied to other programs engaging them in authentic research experiences using data from space-borne observatories such as Herschel and Planck. Recently, WISE Educator Ambassadors and NASA Explorer School teachers developed and led an infrared astronomy workshop at Arecibo Observatory in PuertoRico. As many common misconceptions involve scale and distance, teachers worked with Moon/Earth scale, solar system scale, and distance and age of objects in the Universe. Teachers built and used basic telescopes, learned about the history of telescopes, explored ground and satellite based telescopes, and explored and worked on models of WISE Telescope. An in-depth explanation of WISE and the Spitzer telescopes gave participants background knowledge for infrared astronomy observations. We taught the electromagnetic spectrum through interactive stations. We will outline specific steps for sec-ondary astronomy professional development, detail student involvement in infrared telescope data analysis, provide data demonstrating the impact of the above professional development on educator understanding and classroom use, and detail future plans for additional secondary professional development and student involvement in infrared astronomy. Funding was

  13. Time-resolved infrared absorption study of nine TiO2 photocatalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakata, Akira; Ishibashi, Taka-aki; Onishi, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    Electron kinetics of nine TiO 2 catalysts were compared in a microsecond time domain. Each catalyst was band-gap excited with an UV light pulse, and electron-induced absorption of mid infrared light was observed as a function of time delay. The probability of electron-hole recombination in the bulk, electron attachment to adsorbed oxygen, and hole attachment to adsorbed methoxy species was estimated

  14. Infrared Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Carbon Nanotube Emitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Arko; Murawski, Caroline; Zakharko, Yuriy; Zaumseil, Jana; Gather, Malte C

    2018-03-01

    While organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) covering all colors of the visible spectrum are widespread, suitable organic emitter materials in the near-infrared (nIR) beyond 800 nm are still lacking. Here, the first OLED based on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as the emitter is demonstrated. By using a multilayer stacked architecture with matching charge blocking and charge-transport layers, narrow-band electroluminescence at wavelengths between 1000 and 1200 nm is achieved, with spectral features characteristic of excitonic and trionic emission of the employed (6,5) SWCNTs. Here, the OLED performance is investigated in detail and it is found that local conduction hot-spots lead to pronounced trion emission. Analysis of the emissive dipole orientation shows a strong horizontal alignment of the SWCNTs with an average inclination angle of 12.9° with respect to the plane, leading to an exceptionally high outcoupling efficiency of 49%. The SWCNT-based OLEDs represent a highly attractive platform for emission across the entire nIR. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Observations of far-infrared molecular emission lines from the Orion molecular cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viscuso, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    The Orion Nebula has been the subject of intensive study for over one hundred years. Far-infrared (FIR) molecular line observations of CO in the shock region surrounding the infrared source IRc2 have suggested that the molecular hydrogen density in the shocked and post-shock gas is roughly 3 x 10 6 cm -3 . The temperature of this gas is on the order of 750-2000K. IRc2, like other nearby infrared sources within the Nebula, is thought to be a site of recent star formation. This object is apparently at the center of a massive bipolar molecular outflow of gas, which is producing a shock front where it meets the ambient molecular cloud surrounding IRc2. Study of such regions is important for the understanding of the chemical and physical processes that are involved in the formation of stars from molecular clouds. Recently, several far-infrared transitions among the low-lying levels of OH have been observed toward IRc2. OH is thought to be abundant, and it plays an important role in the chemical evolution of the shock and post-shock regions. The OH emission serves as a sensitive probe of the temperature and density for the shock-processed gas. A rigorous treatment of the radiative transfer of these measured transitions is performed using the escape probability formalism. From this analysis, the author determines the temperature of the OH-emitting region to be on the order of 40K. This suggests that the gas is part of the post-shock gas that has cooled sufficiently, most likely by way of radiative cooling by CO

  16. Transdermal gelation of methacrylated macromers with near-infrared light and gold nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gramlich, William M; Holloway, Julianne L; Rai, Reena; Burdick, Jason A

    2014-01-01

    Injectable hydrogels provide locally controlled tissue bulking and a means to deliver drugs and cells to the body. The formation of hydrogels in vivo may involve the delivery of two solutions that spontaneously crosslink when mixed, with pH or temperature changes, or with light (e.g., visible or ultraviolet). With these approaches, control over the kinetics of gelation, introduction of the initiation trigger (e.g., limited penetration of ultraviolet light through tissues), or alteration of the material physical properties (e.g., mechanics) may be difficult to achieve. To overcome these limitations, we used the interaction of near-infrared (NIR) light with gold nanorods (AuNRs) to generate heat through the photothermal effect. NIR light penetrates tissues to a greater extent than other wavelengths and provides a means to indirectly initiate radical polymerization. Specifically, this heating coupled with a thermal initiator (VA-044) produced radicals that polymerized methacrylated hyaluronic acid (MeHA) and generated hydrogels. A range of VA-044 concentrations changed the gelation time, yielding a system stable at 37 ° C for 22 min that gels quickly (∼3 min) when heated to 55 ° C. With a constant irradiation time (10 min) and laser power (0.3 W), different VA-044 and AuNR concentrations tuned the compressive modulus of the hydrogel. By changing the NIR irradiation time we attained a wide range of moduli at a set solution composition. In vivo mouse studies confirmed that NIR laser irradiation through tissue could gel an injected precursor solution transdermally. (paper)

  17. Transdermal gelation of methacrylated macromers with near-infrared light and gold nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramlich, William M.; Holloway, Julianne L.; Rai, Reena; Burdick, Jason A.

    2014-01-01

    Injectable hydrogels provide locally controlled tissue bulking and a means to deliver drugs and cells to the body. The formation of hydrogels in vivo may involve the delivery of two solutions that spontaneously crosslink when mixed, with pH or temperature changes, or with light (e.g., visible or ultraviolet). With these approaches, control over the kinetics of gelation, introduction of the initiation trigger (e.g., limited penetration of ultraviolet light through tissues), or alteration of the material physical properties (e.g., mechanics) may be difficult to achieve. To overcome these limitations, we used the interaction of near-infrared (NIR) light with gold nanorods (AuNRs) to generate heat through the photothermal effect. NIR light penetrates tissues to a greater extent than other wavelengths and provides a means to indirectly initiate radical polymerization. Specifically, this heating coupled with a thermal initiator (VA-044) produced radicals that polymerized methacrylated hyaluronic acid (MeHA) and generated hydrogels. A range of VA-044 concentrations changed the gelation time, yielding a system stable at 37 ° C for 22 min that gels quickly (˜3 min) when heated to 55 ° C. With a constant irradiation time (10 min) and laser power (0.3 W), different VA-044 and AuNR concentrations tuned the compressive modulus of the hydrogel. By changing the NIR irradiation time we attained a wide range of moduli at a set solution composition. In vivo mouse studies confirmed that NIR laser irradiation through tissue could gel an injected precursor solution transdermally.

  18. Water-filtered infrared a irradiation in combination with visible light inhibits acute chlamydial infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Marti

    Full Text Available New therapeutic strategies are needed to overcome drawbacks in treatment of infections with intracellular bacteria. Chlamydiaceae are Gram-negative bacteria implicated in acute and chronic diseases such as abortion in animals and trachoma in humans. Water-filtered infrared A (wIRA is short wavelength infrared radiation with a spectrum ranging from 780 to 1400 nm. In clinical settings, wIRA alone and in combination with visible light (VIS has proven its efficacy in acute and chronic wound healing processes. This is the first study to demonstrate that wIRA irradiation combined with VIS (wIRA/VIS diminishes recovery of infectious elementary bodies (EBs of both intra- and extracellular Chlamydia (C. in two different cell lines (Vero, HeLa regardless of the chlamydial strain (C. pecorum, C. trachomatis serovar E as shown by indirect immunofluorescence and titration by subpassage. Moreover, a single exposure to wIRA/VIS at 40 hours post infection (hpi led to a significant reduction of C. pecorum inclusion frequency in Vero cells and C. trachomatis in HeLa cells, respectively. A triple dose of irradiation (24, 36, 40 hpi during the course of C. trachomatis infection further reduced chlamydial inclusion frequency in HeLa cells without inducing the chlamydial persistence/stress response, as ascertained by electron microscopy. Irradiation of host cells (HeLa, Vero neither affected cell viability nor induced any molecular markers of cytotoxicity as investigated by Alamar blue assay and Western blot analysis. Chlamydial infection, irradiation, and the combination of both showed a similar release pattern of a subset of pro-inflammatory cytokines (MIF/GIF, Serpin E1, RANTES, IL-6, IL-8 and chemokines (IL-16, IP-10, ENA-78, MIG, MIP-1α/β from host cells. Initial investigation into the mechanism indicated possible thermal effects on Chlamydia due to irradiation. In summary, we demonstrate a non-chemical reduction of chlamydial infection using the combination

  19. The safety and efficacy of a combined diode laser and bipolar radiofrequency compared with combined infrared light and bipolar radiofrequency for skin rejuvenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon Jin Choi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: As the demand for noninvasive procedures for skin rejuvenation is increasing, combined diode laser and radiofrequency and combined infrared and radiofrequency devices have recently emerged. Aim: To compare Polaris WRA TM , a combination device of diode light and RF, and ReFirme ST TM , a combination device of infrared and bipolar RF, in terms of safety and efficacy on skin rejuvenation. Methods: Fourteen Korean volunteers of skin type II-IV, with facial laxity and periorbital rhytids, received three treatments at 3-week intervals with combined diode laser and bipolar radiofrequency (laser fluence 30 J/cm 2 , RF fluence 90 J/cm 3 on the right half of their faces and combined infrared light and bipolar radiofrequency (RF fluence 120 J/cm 3 on the left half of their faces. Clinical photos of front and bilateral sides of the subjects′ faces were taken at baseline and at 6, 9, 12 weeks after the treatment initiation. The investigators′ and the subjects′ global assessments were performed. Results: There is no statistically significant difference in the overall outcome between Polaris WRA TM and Refirme ST TM based on pre- and post-treatment objective measurements. Polaris WRA TM was more effective than Refirme ST TM at reducing wrinkles when therapeutic results of the two appliances were compared based on the patient satisfaction measurements. After the treatment with both instruments, histological increase in the production and rearrangement of collagen fibers at the dermal layer was observed. The density of the collagen fibers was more increased with the Polaris WRA TM -treated facial area than that of Refirme ST TM . Treatment was generally well tolerated, and there was no serious complication. Conclusion: In this study, both the lasers appeared to be safe, and effective methods for treating skin laxity and facial wrinkles. Combined diode laser and radiofrequency was more effective than combined infrared and radiofrequency at

  20. The safety and efficacy of a combined diode laser and bipolar radiofrequency compared with combined infrared light and bipolar radiofrequency for skin rejuvenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yeon Jin; Lee, Jung Yeon; Ahn, Ji Young; Kim, Myeung Nam; Park, Mi Youn

    2012-01-01

    As the demand for noninvasive procedures for skin rejuvenation is increasing, combined diode laser and radiofrequency and combined infrared and radiofrequency devices have recently emerged. To compare Polaris WRA(TM), a combination device of diode light and RF, and ReFirme ST(TM), a combination device of infrared and bipolar RF, in terms of safety and efficacy on skin rejuvenation. Fourteen Korean volunteers of skin type II-IV, with facial laxity and periorbital rhytids, received three treatments at 3-week intervals with combined diode laser and bipolar radiofrequency (laser fluence 30 J/cm2, RF fluence 90 J/cm3) on the right half of their faces and combined infrared light and bipolar radiofrequency (RF fluence 120 J/cm3) on the left half of their faces. Clinical photos of front and bilateral sides of the subjects' faces were taken at baseline and at 6, 9, 12 weeks after the treatment initiation. The investigators' and the subjects' global assessments were performed. There is no statistically significant difference in the overall outcome between Polaris WRA(TM) and Refirme ST(TM) based on pre- and post-treatment objective measurements. Polaris WRA(TM) was more effective than Refirme ST(TM) at reducing wrinkles when therapeutic results of the two appliances were compared based on the patient satisfaction measurements. After the treatment with both instruments, histological increase in the production and rearrangement of collagen fibers at the dermal layer was observed. The density of the collagen fibers was more increased with the Polaris WRA(TM)-treated facial area than that of Refirme ST(TM). Treatment was generally well tolerated, and there was no serious complication. In this study, both the lasers appeared to be safe, and effective methods for treating skin laxity and facial wrinkles. Combined diode laser and radiofrequency was more effective than combined infrared and radiofrequency at reducing wrinkles and pores when the therapeutic results of both the

  1. Light scattering in additively colored alkali-halide crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trakhbrot, B.M.

    1979-01-01

    Studied is extinction in ultra-violet, visible and infrared spectrum ranges, caused by light scattering in additively colored KCl and KBr crystals. The crystals were prepared of the powder. The specimens were annealed in saturated potassium vapours: KBr - at 600-630 deg C, KCl - at 700 deg C. While investigating the spectra it is observed that the optical density of the specimens processed in such a regime is more than 2 in the ultraviolet and visible spectrum ranges at the 0.1-0.05 cm thickness of the specimens. In the infrared spectra the growth of the extinction coefficient with the wave length decrease is observed. The spectrum character shows IR radiation scattering by the defects in the crystal lattice. The attempt of determination of the scattering centres nature is taken. It is shown that the possible centres causing the light scattering observed can be colloid and quasicolloid centres in the additively colored materials

  2. Venus' night side atmospheric dynamics using near infrared observations from VEx/VIRTIS and TNG/NICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota Machado, Pedro; Peralta, Javier; Luz, David; Gonçalves, Ruben; Widemann, Thomas; Oliveira, Joana

    2016-10-01

    We present night side Venus' winds based on coordinated observations carried out with Venus Express' VIRTIS instrument and the Near Infrared Camera (NICS) of the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG). With NICS camera, we acquired images of the continuum K filter at 2.28 μm, which allows to monitor motions at the Venus' lower cloud level, close to 48 km altitude. We will present final results of cloud tracked winds from ground-based TNG observations and from coordinated space-based VEx/VIRTIS observations.The Venus' lower cloud deck is centred at 48 km of altitude, where fundamental dynamical exchanges that help maintain superrotation are thought to occur. The lower Venusian atmosphere is a strong source of thermal radiation, with the gaseous CO2 component allowing radiation to escape in windows at 1.74 and 2.28 μm. At these wavelengths radiation originates below 35 km and unit opacity is reached at the lower cloud level, close to 48 km. Therefore, it is possible to observe the horizontal cloud structure, with thicker clouds seen silhouetted against the bright thermal background from the low atmosphere. By continuous monitoring of the horizontal cloud structure at 2.28 μm (NICS Kcont filter), it is possible to determine wind fields using the technique of cloud tracking. We acquired a series of short exposures of the Venus disk. Cloud displacements in the night side of Venus were computed taking advantage of a phase correlation semi-automated technique. The Venus apparent diameter at observational dates was greater than 32" allowing a high spatial precision. The 0.13" pixel scale of the NICS narrow field camera allowed to resolve ~3-pixel displacements. The absolute spatial resolution on the disk was ~100 km/px at disk center, and the (0.8-1") seeing-limited resolution was ~400 km/px. By co-adding the best images and cross-correlating regions of clouds the effective resolution was significantly better than the seeing-limited resolution. In order to correct for

  3. Application of Cherenkov light observation to reactor measurements (1). Estimation of reactor power from Cherenkov light intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Keiichi; Takeuchi, Tomoaki; Kimura, Nobuaki; Ohtsuka, Noriaki; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko; Sano, Tadafumi; Nakajima, Ken; Homma, Ryohei; Kosuge, Fumiaki

    2015-01-01

    Development of the reactor measurement system was started to obtain the real-time in-core nuclear and thermal information, where the quantitative measurement of brightness of Cherenkov light was investigated. The system would be applied as a monitoring system in severe accidents and for the advanced operation management technology in existing LWRs. The calculation and the observation were performed to obtain the quantity of the Cherenkov light caused by the gamma and beta rays emitted from the fuels in the core of Kyoto University Research Reactor. The results indicate that the real-time reactor power can be estimated from the brightness of the Cherenkov light observed by a CCD camera. This method can also work for the estimation of the burn-up of spent fuels at commercial reactors. Since the observed brightness value of the Cherenkov light was influenced by the camera position, the optical observation method should be improved to achieve high accuracy observation. (author)

  4. Visualization of light propagation in visible Chinese human head for functional near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Gong, Hui; Luo, Qingming

    2011-04-01

    Using the visible Chinese human data set, which faithfully represents human anatomy, we visualize the light propagation in the head in detail based on Monte Carlo simulation. The simulation is verified to agree with published experimental results in terms of a differential path-length factor. The spatial sensitivity profile turns out to seem like a fat tropical fish with strong distortion along the folding cerebral surface. The sensitive brain region covers the gray matter and extends to the superficial white matter, leading to a large penetration depth (>3 cm). Finally, the optimal source-detector separation is suggested to be narrowed down to 3-3.5 cm, while the sensitivity of the detected signal to brain activation reaches the peak of 8%. These results indicate that the cerebral cortex folding geometry actually has substantial effects on light propagation, which should be necessarily considered for applications of functional near-infrared spectroscopy.

  5. Time-resolved infrared absorption study of nine TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamakata, Akira; Ishibashi, Taka-aki [Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology (KAST), KSP, Takatsu, Kawasaki 213-0012 (Japan); Onishi, Hiroshi [Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology (KAST), KSP, Takatsu, Kawasaki 213-0012 (Japan)], E-mail: oni@kobe-u.ac.jp

    2007-10-15

    Electron kinetics of nine TiO{sub 2} catalysts were compared in a microsecond time domain. Each catalyst was band-gap excited with an UV light pulse, and electron-induced absorption of mid infrared light was observed as a function of time delay. The probability of electron-hole recombination in the bulk, electron attachment to adsorbed oxygen, and hole attachment to adsorbed methoxy species was estimated.

  6. Megapixel Longwave Infrared SLS FPAs for High Spatial Resolution Earth Observing Missions, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Earth observing missions like NASA's LANDSAT Data Continuity Mission - Thermal Infrared Sensor (LDCM-TIRS) require greater spatial resolution of the earth than the ~...

  7. Megapixel Longwave Infrared SLS FPAs for High Spatial Resolution Earth Observing Missions, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Earth observing missions like NASA's LANDSAT Data Continuity Mission - Thermal Infrared Sensor (LDCM-TIRS) require greater spatial resolution of the earth than the ~...

  8. White Light Generation in Human Saliva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, C.; Dharmadhikari, A. K.; Dharmadhikari, J. A.; Alti, K.; Mathur, D.

    2011-07-01

    Interaction of intense, femto-second pulses of infrared light (800 nm) with water generates white light supercontinuum due to nonlinear optical effects. This supercontinuum was found to be suppressed by the addition of alpha amylase, a major protein in the human saliva. We have studied the suppression of supper continuum by human saliva, collected from healthy subjects with and without smoking habits. Suppression of the blue-sided components was observed significantly in non-smokers saliva than chain smokers.

  9. Near-infrared spectroscopic tissue imaging for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demos, Stavros [Livermore, CA; Staggs, Michael C [Tracy, CA

    2006-12-12

    Near infrared imaging using elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence are explored for medical applications. The approach involves imaging using cross-polarized elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence in the Near Infra-Red (NIR) coupled with image processing and inter-image operations to differentiate human tissue components.

  10. FAR-INFRARED EXTINCTION MAPPING OF INFRARED DARK CLOUDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Wanggi [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Tan, Jonathan C. [Departments of Astronomy and Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2014-01-10

    Progress in understanding star formation requires detailed observational constraints on the initial conditions, i.e., dense clumps and cores in giant molecular clouds that are on the verge of gravitational instability. Such structures have been studied by their extinction of near-infrared and, more recently, mid-infrared (MIR) background light. It has been somewhat more of a surprise to find that there are regions that appear as dark shadows at far-infrared (FIR) wavelengths as long as ∼100 μm! Here we develop analysis methods of FIR images from Spitzer-MIPS and Herschel-PACS that allow quantitative measurements of cloud mass surface density, Σ. The method builds on that developed for MIR extinction mapping by Butler and Tan, in particular involving a search for independently saturated, i.e., very opaque, regions that allow measurement of the foreground intensity. We focus on three massive starless core/clumps in the Infrared Dark Cloud (IRDC) G028.37+00.07, deriving mass surface density maps from 3.5 to 70 μm. A by-product of this analysis is the measurement of the spectral energy distribution of the diffuse foreground emission. The lower opacity at 70 μm allows us to probe to higher Σ values, up to ∼1 g cm{sup –2} in the densest parts of the core/clumps. Comparison of the Σ maps at different wavelengths constrains the shape of the MIR-FIR dust opacity law in IRDCs. We find that it is most consistent with the thick ice mantle models of Ossenkopf and Henning. There is tentative evidence for grain ice mantle growth as one goes from lower to higher Σ regions.

  11. FAR-INFRARED EXTINCTION MAPPING OF INFRARED DARK CLOUDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Wanggi; Tan, Jonathan C.

    2014-01-01

    Progress in understanding star formation requires detailed observational constraints on the initial conditions, i.e., dense clumps and cores in giant molecular clouds that are on the verge of gravitational instability. Such structures have been studied by their extinction of near-infrared and, more recently, mid-infrared (MIR) background light. It has been somewhat more of a surprise to find that there are regions that appear as dark shadows at far-infrared (FIR) wavelengths as long as ∼100 μm! Here we develop analysis methods of FIR images from Spitzer-MIPS and Herschel-PACS that allow quantitative measurements of cloud mass surface density, Σ. The method builds on that developed for MIR extinction mapping by Butler and Tan, in particular involving a search for independently saturated, i.e., very opaque, regions that allow measurement of the foreground intensity. We focus on three massive starless core/clumps in the Infrared Dark Cloud (IRDC) G028.37+00.07, deriving mass surface density maps from 3.5 to 70 μm. A by-product of this analysis is the measurement of the spectral energy distribution of the diffuse foreground emission. The lower opacity at 70 μm allows us to probe to higher Σ values, up to ∼1 g cm –2 in the densest parts of the core/clumps. Comparison of the Σ maps at different wavelengths constrains the shape of the MIR-FIR dust opacity law in IRDCs. We find that it is most consistent with the thick ice mantle models of Ossenkopf and Henning. There is tentative evidence for grain ice mantle growth as one goes from lower to higher Σ regions

  12. LIGHT BRIDGE IN A DEVELOPING ACTIVE REGION. I. OBSERVATION OF LIGHT BRIDGE AND ITS DYNAMIC ACTIVITY PHENOMENA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toriumi, Shin; Katsukawa, Yukio; Cheung, Mark C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Light bridges, the bright structures that divide the umbra of sunspots and pores into smaller pieces, are known to produce a wide variety of activity events in solar active regions (ARs). It is also known that the light bridges appear in the assembling process of nascent sunspots. The ultimate goal of this series of papers is to reveal the nature of light bridges in developing ARs and the occurrence of activity events associated with the light bridge structures from both observational and numerical approaches. In this first paper, exploiting the observational data obtained by Hinode, the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph, and the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we investigate the detailed structure of the light bridge in NOAA AR 11974 and its dynamic activity phenomena. As a result, we find that the light bridge has a weak, horizontal magnetic field, which is transported from the interior by a large-scale convective upflow and is surrounded by strong, vertical fields of adjacent pores. In the chromosphere above the bridge, a transient brightening occurs repeatedly and intermittently, followed by a recurrent dark surge ejection into higher altitudes. Our analysis indicates that the brightening is the plasma heating due to magnetic reconnection at lower altitudes, while the dark surge is the cool, dense plasma ejected from the reconnection region. From the observational results, we conclude that the dynamic activity observed in a light bridge structure such as chromospheric brightenings and dark surge ejections are driven by magnetoconvective evolution within the light bridge and its interaction with the surrounding magnetic fields

  13. LIGHT BRIDGE IN A DEVELOPING ACTIVE REGION. I. OBSERVATION OF LIGHT BRIDGE AND ITS DYNAMIC ACTIVITY PHENOMENA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toriumi, Shin; Katsukawa, Yukio [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Cheung, Mark C. M., E-mail: shin.toriumi@nao.ac.jp [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, 3251 Hanover Street, Building/252, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Light bridges, the bright structures that divide the umbra of sunspots and pores into smaller pieces, are known to produce a wide variety of activity events in solar active regions (ARs). It is also known that the light bridges appear in the assembling process of nascent sunspots. The ultimate goal of this series of papers is to reveal the nature of light bridges in developing ARs and the occurrence of activity events associated with the light bridge structures from both observational and numerical approaches. In this first paper, exploiting the observational data obtained by Hinode, the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph, and the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we investigate the detailed structure of the light bridge in NOAA AR 11974 and its dynamic activity phenomena. As a result, we find that the light bridge has a weak, horizontal magnetic field, which is transported from the interior by a large-scale convective upflow and is surrounded by strong, vertical fields of adjacent pores. In the chromosphere above the bridge, a transient brightening occurs repeatedly and intermittently, followed by a recurrent dark surge ejection into higher altitudes. Our analysis indicates that the brightening is the plasma heating due to magnetic reconnection at lower altitudes, while the dark surge is the cool, dense plasma ejected from the reconnection region. From the observational results, we conclude that the dynamic activity observed in a light bridge structure such as chromospheric brightenings and dark surge ejections are driven by magnetoconvective evolution within the light bridge and its interaction with the surrounding magnetic fields.

  14. Infrared radiation has potential antidepressant and anxiolytic effects in animal model of depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Akiyoshi, Jotaro; Kawahara, Yoshinari; Ishitobi, Yoshinobu; Hatano, Koji; Hoaki, Nobuhiko; Mori, Ayumi; Goto, Shinjiro; Tsuru, Jusen; Matsushita, Hirotaka; Hanada, Hiroaki; Kodama, Kensuke; Isogawa, Koichi; Kitamura, Hirokazu; Fujikura, Yoshihisa

    2011-04-01

    Bright light therapy has been shown to have antidepressant and anxiolytic effects in humans. The antidepressant and anxiolytic effects of infrared radiation were evaluated using an experimental animal model. Rats were randomly assigned to either an acutely or chronically exposed infrared radiation group or to a nonexposed control group. Acutely exposed rats were treated with an infrared radiation machine for one session, whereas chronically exposed animals were treated with an infrared radiation for 10 sessions. Control group rats were exposed to the sound of the infrared radiation machine as a sham treatment. After infrared radiation or control exposure, rats underwent behavioral evaluation, including elevated plus maze test, light/dark box, and forced swim test. Chronic infrared radiation exposure decreased indicators of depression- and anxiety-like behavior. No significant effect on general locomotor activity was observed. The number of BrdU-positive cells in CA1 of the hippocampus was significantly increased in both acutely and chronically exposed infrared radiation groups compared with the control group. These results indicate that chronic infrared radiation might produce antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like effects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Infrared astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setti, G.; Fazio, G.

    1978-01-01

    This volume contains lectures describing the important achievements in infrared astronomy. The topics included are galactic infrared sources and their role in star formation, the nature of the interstellar medium and galactic structure, the interpretation of infrared, optical and radio observations of extra-galactic sources and their role in the origin and structure of the universe, instrumental techniques and a review of future space observations. (C.F.)

  16. Ultraviolet and infrared emission from lightning discharges observed at Aragats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilingarian, A.; Karapetyan, T.; Pokhsraryan, D.; Bogomolov, V.; Garipov, G.; Panasyuk, M.; Svertilov, S.; Saleev, K.

    2016-01-01

    The ultraviolet and infrared optical sensors previously used at RELEC space missions were installed at the high altitude research station Aragats at 3200 m above the sea level. The spectral composition and temporal structure of the recorded optical signals and measurements of the electrostatic field and atmospheric discharges obtained by “fast” and “slow” field sensors have been compared. Measurements of lightning and related to them phenomena observed at the mountain altitude and on board of orbiting satellites are compared. (author)

  17. Theoretical and experimental investigation of near-infrared light propagation in a model of the adult head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, E; Firbank, M; Schweiger, M; Arridge, S R; Cope, M; Delpy, D T

    1997-01-01

    Near-infrared light propagation in various models of the adult head is analyzed by both time-of-flight measurements and mathematical prediction. The models consist of three- or four-layered slabs, the latter incorporating a clear cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) layer. The most sophisticated model also incorporates slots that imitate sulci on the brain surface. For each model, the experimentally measured mean optical path length as a function of source-detector spacing agrees well with predictions from either a Monte Carlo model or a finite-element method based on diffusion theory or a hybrid radiosity-diffusion theory. Light propagation in the adult head is shown to be highly affected by the presence of the clear CSF layer, and both the optical path length and the spatial sensitivity profile of the models with a CSF layer are quite different from those without the CSF layer. However, the geometry of the sulci and the boundary between the gray and the white matter have little effect on the detected light distribution.

  18. Microbunch Instability Observations from a THz Detector at Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, W.; Bartolini, R.; Boorman, G.; Karataev, P.; Lyapin, A.; Puntree, J.; Rehm, G.

    2012-05-01

    Diamond Light source is a third generation synchrotron facility dedicated to producing radiation of outstanding brightness, ranging from infra-red to x-rays. The short electron bunches that are accelerated around the storage ring are susceptible to the phenomenon of microbunching instabilities when the bunch charge exceeds a threshold. The primary feature of the microbunch instabilities is the onset of bursts of radiation in the THz range. The high frequencies involved in the emissions make detection and analysis challenging. A 60-90 GHz Schottky Barrier Diode detector was installed to investigate turn by turn evolution of the instabilities.

  19. Microbunch Instability Observations from a THz Detector at Diamond Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shields, W; Boorman, G; Karataev, P; Lyapin, A; Bartolini, R; Rehm, G; Puntree, J

    2012-01-01

    Diamond Light source is a third generation synchrotron facility dedicated to producing radiation of outstanding brightness, ranging from infra-red to x-rays. The short electron bunches that are accelerated around the storage ring are susceptible to the phenomenon of microbunching instabilities when the bunch charge exceeds a threshold. The primary feature of the microbunch instabilities is the onset of bursts of radiation in the THz range. The high frequencies involved in the emissions make detection and analysis challenging. A 60-90 GHz Schottky Barrier Diode detector was installed to investigate turn by turn evolution of the instabilities.

  20. Study of polarization phenomena in Schottky CdTe diodes using infrared light illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Goro, E-mail: gsato@astro.isas.jaxa.jp [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Fukuyama, Taro [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Watanabe, Shin; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Ohta, Masayuki; Ishikawa, Shin' nosuke [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Takahashi, Tadayuki [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Shiraki, Hiroyuki; Ohno, Ryoichi [ACRORAD Co., Ltd., 13-23 Suzaki, Uruma, Okinawa 904-2234 (Japan)

    2011-10-01

    Schottky CdTe diode detectors suffer from a polarization phenomenon, which is characterized by degradation of the spectral properties over time following exposure to high bias voltage. This is considered attributable to charge accumulation at deep acceptor levels. A Schottky CdTe diode was illuminated with an infrared light for a certain period during a bias operation, and two opposite behaviors emerged. The detector showed a recovery when illuminated after the bias-induced polarization had completely progressed. Conversely, when the detector was illuminated before the emergence of bias-induced polarization, the degradation of the spectral properties was accelerated. Interpretation of these effects and discussion on the energy level of deep acceptors are presented.

  1. Searching for biological traces on different materials using a forensic light source and infrared photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterzik, V; Panzer, S; Apfelbacher, M; Bohnert, M

    2016-05-01

    Because biological traces often play an important role in the investigation process of criminal acts, their detection is essential. As they are not always visible to the human eye, tools like a forensic light source or infrared photography can be used. The intention of the study presented was to give advice how to visualize biological traces best. Which wavelengths and/or filters give the best results for different traces on different fabrics of different colors? Therefore, blood (undiluted and diluted), semen, urine, saliva, and perspiration have been examined on 29 different materials.

  2. Interstitial near-infrared photoimmunotherapy: effective treatment areas and light doses needed for use with fiber optic diffusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyama, Shuhei; Nagaya, Tadanobu; Sato, Kazuhide; Ogata, Fusa; Maruoka, Yasuhiro; Choyke, Peter L; Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2018-02-16

    Near-infrared photoimmunotherapy (NIR-PIT), a promising cancer therapy utilizing an antibody-photoabsorber conjugate (APC) and NIR light, which induces rapid necrotic cell death only in APC-bound cells. Effective NIR-PIT in mouse models has been achieved using superficial light illumination (SLI) with light emitting diodes (LEDs) or lasers, but in the clinical setting, fiber optic diffusers have been employed to deliver light to deeper tumors. However, the performance of NIR light in tissue delivered by fiber optic diffusers is poorly understood. Here, we investigated NIR-PIT using a cylindrical fiber optic diffuser in a mouse model of A431 tumors. NIR-PIT with 100 J/cm, the same light dose used in clinical trials of NIR-PIT, was applied after insertion of the diffuser within the tumor bed, and then both bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging were analyzed to assess the therapeutic efficacy. The diffuser can deliver adequate NIR light dose for effective NIR-PIT to the A431 tumor at a distance of approximately 1 cm around the light source at 100 J/cm. At 50 J/cm NIR light effective NIR-PIT was reduced to a distance of 5 - 7 mm diameter around the light source. These results indicate that the energy of interstitial light (measured in Joules/cm) administered via a fiber diffuser determines the depth of effective NIR-PIT around the diffuser and determines the spacing at which such diffusers should be placed to entirely cover the tumor. Thermal measurements demonstrate that interstitial light for NIR-PIT does not cause damage to the skin overlying the diffuser.

  3. Multi-Wavelength Observations of Asteroid 2100 Ra-Shalom: Visible, Infrared, and Thermal Spectroscopy Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Beth Ellen; Shepard, M.; Bus, S. J.; Vilas, F.; Rivkin, A. S.; Lim, L.; Lederer, S.; Jarvis, K.; Shah, S.; McConnochie, T.

    2004-01-01

    The August 2003 apparition of asteroid 2100 Ra-Shalom brought together a collaboration of observers with the goal of obtaining rotationally resolved multiwavelength spectra at each of 5 facilities: infrared spectra at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (Clark and Shepard), radar images at Arecibo (Shepard and Clark), thermal infrared spectra at Palomar (Lim, McConnochie and Bell), visible spectra at McDonald Observatory (Vilas, Lederer and Jarvis), and visible lightcurves at Ondrojev Observatory (Pravec). The radar data was to be used to develop a high spatial resolution physical model to be used in conjunction with spectral data to investigate compositional and textural properties on the near surface of Ra Shalom as a function of rotation phase. This was the first coordinated multi-wavelength investigation of any Aten asteroid. There are many reasons to study near-Earth asteroid (NEA) 2100 Ra-Shalom: 1) It has a controversial classification (is it a C- or K-type object)? 2) There would be interesting dynamical ramifications if Ra-Shalom is a K-type because most K-types come from the Eos family and there are no known dynamical pathways from Eos to the Aten population. 3) The best available spectra obtained previously may indicate a heterogeneous surface (most asteroids appear to be fairly homogeneous). 4) Ra-Shalom thermal observations obtained previously indicated a lack of regolith, minimizing the worry of space weathering effects in the spectra. 5) Radar observations obtained previously hinted at interesting surface structures. 6) Ra-Shalom is one of the largest Aten objects. And 7) Ra-Shalom is on a short list of proposed NEAs for spacecraft encounters and possible sample returns. Preliminary results from the visible, infrared, and thermal spectroscopy measurements will be presented here.

  4. Contrasting trends in light pollution across Europe based on satellite observed night time lights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennie, Jonathan; Davies, Thomas W; Duffy, James P; Inger, Richard; Gaston, Kevin J

    2014-01-21

    Since the 1970s nighttime satellite images of the Earth from space have provided a striking illustration of the extent of artificial light. Meanwhile, growing awareness of adverse impacts of artificial light at night on scientific astronomy, human health, ecological processes and aesthetic enjoyment of the night sky has led to recognition of light pollution as a significant global environmental issue. Links between economic activity, population growth and artificial light are well documented in rapidly developing regions. Applying a novel method to analysis of satellite images of European nighttime lights over 15 years, we show that while the continental trend is towards increasing brightness, some economically developed regions show more complex patterns with large areas decreasing in observed brightness over this period. This highlights that opportunities exist to constrain and even reduce the environmental impact of artificial light pollution while delivering cost and energy-saving benefits.

  5. Infrared astronomy seeing the heat : from William Herschel to the Herschel space observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Clements, David L

    2014-01-01

    Uncover the Secrets of the Universe Hidden at Wavelengths beyond Our Optical GazeWilliam Herschel's discovery of infrared light in 1800 led to the development of astronomy at wavelengths other than the optical. Infrared Astronomy - Seeing the Heat: from William Herschel to the Herschel Space Observatory explores the work in astronomy that relies on observations in the infrared. Author David L. Clements, a distinguished academic and science fiction writer, delves into how the universe works, from the planets in our own Solar System to the universe as a whole. The book first presents the major t

  6. Cancer theranostics with near-infrared light-activatable multimodal nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melancon, Marites P; Zhou, Min; Li, Chun

    2011-10-18

    Nanomaterials that interact with light provide a unique opportunity for applications in biophotonic nanomedicine. Image-guided therapies could be designed based on multifunctional nanoparticles (NPs). Such NPs have a strong and tunable surface plasmon resonance absorption in the near-infrared region and can be detected using multiple imaging modalities (magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear imaging, and photoacoustic imaging). These novel nanostructures, once introduced, are expected to home in on solid tumors either via a passive targeting mechanism (i.e., the enhanced permeability and retention effect) or via an active targeting mechanism facilitated by ligands bound to their surfaces. Once the NPs reach their target tissue, their activity can then be turned on using an external stimulus. For example, photothermal conducting NPs primarily act by converting light energy into heat. As a result, the temperature in the treatment volume is elevated above the thermal damage threshold, which kills the cells. This process, termed photothermal ablation therapy (PTA), is effective, but it is also unlikely to kill all tumor cells when used alone. In addition to PTA, photothermal conducting NPs can also efficiently trigger the release of drugs and activate RNA interference. A multimodal approach, which permits simultaneous PTA therapy, chemotherapy, and therapeutic RNA interference, has the potential to completely eradicate residual diseased cells. In this Account, we provide an up-to-date review of the synthesis and characterization, functionalization, and in vitro and in vivo evaluation of NIR lightactivatable multifunctional nanostructures used for imaging and therapy. We emphasize research on hollow gold nanospheres, magnetic core-shell gold nanoshells, and semiconductor copper monosulfide NPs. We discuss three types of novel drug delivery systems in which hollow gold nanospheres are used to mediate controlled drug release.

  7. Development of infrared Echelle spectrograph and mid-infrared heterodyne spectrometer on a small telescope at Haleakala, Hawaii for planetary observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakanoi, Takeshi; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Kagitani, Masato; Nakagawa, Hiromu; Kuhn, Jeff; Okano, Shoichi

    2014-08-01

    We report the development of infrared Echelle spectrograph covering 1 - 4 micron and mid-infrared heterodyne spectrometer around 10 micron installed on the 60-cm telescope at the summit of Haleakala, Hawaii (alt.=3000m). It is essential to carry out continuous measurement of planetary atmosphere, such as the Jovian infrared aurora and the volcanoes on Jovian satellite Io, to understand its time and spatial variations. A compact and easy-to-use high resolution infrared spectrometer provide the good opportunity to investigate these objects continuously. We are developing an Echelle spectrograph called ESPRIT: Echelle Spectrograph for Planetary Research In Tohoku university. The main target of ESPRIT is to measure the Jovian H3+ fundamental line at 3.9 micron, and H2 nu=1 at 2.1 micron. The 256x256 pixel CRC463 InSb array is used. An appropriate Echelle grating is selected to optimize at 3.9 micron and 2.1 micron for the Jovian infrared auroral observations. The pixel scale corresponds to the atmospheric seeing (0.3 arcsec/pixel). This spectrograph is characterized by a long slit field-of-view of ~ 50 arcsec with a spectral resolution is over 20,000. In addition, we recently developed a heterodyne spectrometer called MILAHI on the 60 cm telescope. MILAHI is characterized by super high-resolving power (more than 1,500,000) covering from 7 - 13 microns. Its sensitivity is 2400 K at 9.6 micron with a MCT photo diode detector of which bandwidth of 3000 MHz. ESPRIT and MILAHI is planned to be installed on 60 cm telescope is planned in 2014.

  8. MICADO: first light imager for the E-ELT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davies, R.; Schubert, J.; Hartl, M.; Alves, J.; Clénet, Y.; Lang-Bardl, F.; Nicklas, H.; Pott, J. -U; Ragazzoni, R.; Tolstoy, E.; Agocs, T.; Anwand-Heerwart, H.; Barboza, S.; Baudoz, P.; Bender, R.; Bizenberger, P.; Boccaletti, A.; Boland, W.; Bonifacio, P.; Briegel, F.; Buey, T.; Chapron, F.; Cohen, M.; Czoske, O.; Dreizler, S.; Falomo, R.; Feautrier, P.; Förster Schreiber, N.; Gendron, E.; Genzel, R.; Glück, M.; Gratadour, D.; Greimel, R.; Grupp, F.; Häuser, M.; Haug, M.; Hennawi, J.; Hess, H. J.; Hörmann, V.; Hofferbert, R.; Hopp, U.; Hubert, Z.; Ives, D.; Kausch, W.; Kerber, F.; Kravcar, H.; Kuijken, K.; Leitzinger, M.; Leschinski, K.; Massari, D.; Mei, S.; Merlin, F.; Mohr, L.; Monna, A.; Müller, F.; Navarro, R.; Plattner, M.; Przybilla, N.; Ramlau, R.; Ramsay, S.; Ratzka, T.; Rhode, P.; Richter, J.; Rix, H. -W; Rodeghiero, G.; Rohloff, R. -R; Rousset, G.; Ruddenklau, R.; Schaffenroth, V.; Schlichter, J.; Sevin, A.; Stuik, R.; Sturm, E.; Thomas, J.; Tromp, N.; Turatto, M.; Verdoes-Kleijn, G.; Vidal, F.; Wagner, R.; Wegner, M.; Zeilinger, W.; Ziegler, B.; Zins, G.

    2016-01-01

    MICADO will equip the E-ELT with a first light capability for diffraction limited imaging at near-infrared wavelengths. The instrument's observing modes focus on various flavours of imaging, including astrometric, high contrast, and time resolved. There is also a single object spectroscopic mode

  9. Optical, infrared and radio astronomy from techniques to observation

    CERN Document Server

    Poggiani, Rosa

    2017-01-01

    This textbook presents the established sciences of optical, infrared, and radio astronomy as distinct research areas, focusing on the science targets and the constraints that they place on instrumentation in the different domains. It aims to bridge the gap between specialized books and practical texts, presenting the state of the art in different techniques. For each type of astronomy, the discussion proceeds from the orders of magnitude for observable quantities that drive the building of instrumentation and the development of advanced techniques. The specific telescopes and detectors are then presented, together with the techniques used to measure fluxes and spectra. Finally, the instruments and their limits are discussed to assist readers in choice of setup, planning and execution of observations, and data reduction. The volume also includes worked examples and problem sets to improve student understanding; tables and figures in chapters summarize the state of the art of instrumentation and techniques.

  10. Constraints on Circumstellar Dust Grain Sizes from High Spatial Resolution Observations in the Thermal Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloemhof, E. E.; Danen, R. M.; Gwinn, C. R.

    1996-01-01

    We describe how high spatial resolution imaging of circumstellar dust at a wavelength of about 10 micron, combined with knowledge of the source spectral energy distribution, can yield useful information about the sizes of the individual dust grains responsible for the infrared emission. Much can be learned even when only upper limits to source size are available. In parallel with high-resolution single-telescope imaging that may resolve the more extended mid-infrared sources, we plan to apply these less direct techniques to interpretation of future observations from two-element optical interferometers, where quite general arguments may be made despite only crude imaging capability. Results to date indicate a tendency for circumstellar grain sizes to be rather large compared to the Mathis-Rumpl-Nordsieck size distribution traditionally thought to characterize dust in the general interstellar medium. This may mean that processing of grains after their initial formation and ejection from circumstellar atmospheres adjusts their size distribution to the ISM curve; further mid-infrared observations of grains in various environments would help to confirm this conjecture.

  11. Clouds across the Arctic: A spatial perspective uniting surface observations of downwelling infrared radiation, reanalyses and education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Christopher J.

    The polar regions serve an important role in the Earth's energy balance by acting as a heat sink for the global climate system. In the Arctic, a complex distribution of continental and oceanic features support large spatial variability in environmental parameters important for climate. Additionally, feedbacks that are unique to the cryosphere cause the region to be very sensitive to climate perturbations. Environmental changes are being observed, including increasing temperatures, reductions in sea ice extent and thickness, melting permafrost, changing atmospheric circulation patterns and changing cloud properties, which may be signaling a shift in climate. Despite these changes, the Arctic remains an understudied region, including with respect to the atmosphere and clouds. A better understanding of cloud properties and their geographical variability is needed to better understand observed changes and to forecast the future state of the system, to support adaptation and mitigation strategies, and understand how Arctic change impacts other regions of the globe. Surface-based observations of the atmosphere are critical measurements in this effort because they are high quality and have high temporal resolution, but there are few atmospheric observatories in the Arctic and the period of record is short. Reanalyses combine assimilated observations with models to fill in spatial and temporal data gaps, and also provide additional model-derived parameters. Reanalyses are spatially comprehensive, but are limited by large uncertainties and biases, in particular with respect to derived parameters. Infrared radiation is a large component of the surface energy budget. Infrared emission from clouds is closely tied to cloud properties, so measurements of the infrared spectrum can be used to retrieve information about clouds and can also be used to investigate the influence clouds have on the surface radiation balance. In this dissertation, spectral infrared radiances and other

  12. The impact of clustering and angular resolution on far-infrared and millimeter continuum observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béthermin, Matthieu; Wu, Hao-Yi; Lagache, Guilaine; Davidzon, Iary; Ponthieu, Nicolas; Cousin, Morgane; Wang, Lingyu; Doré, Olivier; Daddi, Emanuele; Lapi, Andrea

    2017-11-01

    Follow-up observations at high-angular resolution of bright submillimeter galaxies selected from deep extragalactic surveys have shown that the single-dish sources are comprised of a blend of several galaxies. Consequently, number counts derived from low- and high-angular-resolution observations are in tension. This demonstrates the importance of resolution effects at these wavelengths and the need for realistic simulations to explore them. We built a new 2 deg2 simulation of the extragalactic sky from the far-infrared to the submillimeter. It is based on an updated version of the 2SFM (two star-formation modes) galaxy evolution model. Using global galaxy properties generated by this model, we used an abundance-matching technique to populate a dark-matter lightcone and thus simulate the clustering. We produced maps from this simulation and extracted the sources, and we show that the limited angular resolution of single-dish instruments has a strong impact on (sub)millimeter continuum observations. Taking into account these resolution effects, we are reproducing a large set of observables, as number counts and their evolution with redshift and cosmic infrared background power spectra. Our simulation consistently describes the number counts from single-dish telescopes and interferometers. In particular, at 350 and 500 μm, we find that the number counts measured by Herschel between 5 and 50 mJy are biased towards high values by a factor 2, and that the redshift distributions are biased towards low redshifts. We also show that the clustering has an important impact on the Herschel pixel histogram used to derive number counts from P(D) analysis. We find that the brightest galaxy in the beam of a 500 μm Herschel source contributes on average to only 60% of the Herschel flux density, but that this number will rise to 95% for future millimeter surveys on 30 m-class telescopes (e.g., NIKA2 at IRAM). Finally, we show that the large number density of red Herschel sources

  13. Observations and Modelling of the Zodiacal Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsall, T.

    1994-12-01

    The DIRBE instrument on the COBE satellite performed a full-sky survey in ten bands covering the spectral range from 1.25 to 240 microns, and made measurements of the polarization from 1.25 to 3.5 microns. These observations provide a wealth of data on the radiations from the interplanetary dust cloud (IPD). The presentation covers the observations, the model-independent findings, and the results from the extensive efforts of the DIRBE team to model the IPD. Emphasis is placed on describing the importance of correctly accounting for the IPD contribution to the observed-sky signal for the purpose of detecting the cosmic infrared background. (*) The NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is responsible for the design, development, and operation of the COBE mission. GSFC is also responsible for the development of the analysis software and for the production of the mission data sets. Scientific guidance is provided by the COBE Science Working Group. The COBE program is supported by the Astrophysics Division of NASA's Office of Space Science.

  14. The solar-flare infrared continuum: observational techniques and upper limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, H.S.

    1975-01-01

    Exploratory observations at 20μ and 350 μ have determined detection thresholds for solar flares in these wavelengths. In the 20μ range solar atmospheric fluctuations (the 'temperature field') set the basic limits on flare detectability at approximately 5K; at 350μ the extinction in the Earth's atmosphere provides the basic limitation of approximately 30 K. These thresholds are low enough for the successful detection of several infrared-emitting components of large flares. Limited observing time and lack of solar activity have prevented observations of large flares up to the present, but the techniques promise to be extremely useful in the future. The upper limits obtained thus far, for subflares, indicate that the thickness of the Hα flare region does not exceed approximately 10 km. This result confirms the conclusion of Suemoto and Hiei (1959) regarding the small effective thickness of the Hα-emitting regions in solar flares. (Auth.)

  15. Application of Cherenkov light observation to reactor measurements (2). Design and trial fabrication of Cherenkov light estimation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Keiichi; Takeuchi, Tomoaki; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko; Hayashi, Takayasu; Kosuge, Fumiaki; Sano, Tadafumi

    2015-11-01

    Development of the reactor measurement system was started to obtain the real-time in-core nuclear and thermal information, where the quantitative measurement of brightness of Cherenkov light was investigated. This report summarized the results of design and trial fabrication of the Cherenkov light estimation system from thermal power evaluation from Cherenkov light image emitted from the fuel elements. The developed Cherenkov light estimation system was verified with the Cherenkov light image emitted from the fuels in the core of Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR). From the results, the thermal power of the fuel elements evaluated from the brightness of the Cherenkov light observed by a CCD camera was almost the same as that of thermal power calculated from SRAC code. On the other hand, the evaluation values of some fuel elements were different from the calculation values. This, it is necessary to improve the observation method of Cherenkov light in the reactor and the evaluation method of the brightness of Cherenkov light. (author)

  16. Controlling coulomb interactions in infrared stereometamaterials for unity light absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudachathi, Renilkumar; Moritake, Yuto; Tanaka, Takuo

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the influence of near field interactions between the constituent 3D split ring resonators on the absorbance and resonance frequency of a stereo metamaterial based perfect light absorber. The experimental and theoretical analyses reveal that the magnetic resonance red shifts and broadens for both the decreasing vertical and lateral separations of the constituents within the metamaterial lattice, analogous to plasmon hybridization. The strong interparticle interactions for higher density reduce the effective cross-section per resonator, which results in weak light absorption observed in both experimental and theoretical analyses. The red shift of the magnetic resonance with increasing lattice density is an indication of the dominating electric dipole interactions and we analyzed the metamaterial system in an electrostatic point of view to explain the observed resonance shift and decreasing absorption peak. From these analyses, we found that the fill factor introduces two competing factors determining the absorption efficiency such as coulomb interactions between the constituent resonators and their number density in a given array structure. We predicted unity light absorption for a fill factor of 0.17 balancing these two opposing factors and demonstrate an experimental absorbance of 99.5% at resonance with our 3D device realized using residual stress induced bending of 2D patterns.

  17. The Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, James; Battle, J.; Cooray, A.; Hristov, V.; Kawada, M.; Keating, B.; Lee, D.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S.; Nam, U.; Renbarger, T.; Sullivan, I.; Tsumura, K.; Wada, T.; Zemcov, M.

    2009-01-01

    We are developing the Cosmic Infrared Background ExpeRiment (CIBER) to search for signatures of first-light galaxy emission in the extragalactic background. The first generation of stars produce characteristic signatures in the near-infrared extragalactic background, including a redshifted Ly-cutoff feature and a characteristic fluctuation power spectrum, that may be detectable with a specialized instrument. CIBER consists of two wide-field cameras to measure the fluctuation power spectrum, and a low-resolution and a narrow-band spectrometer to measure the absolute background. The cameras will search for fluctuations on angular scales from 7 arcseconds to 2 degrees, where the first-light galaxy spatial power spectrum peaks. The cameras have the necessary combination of sensitivity, wide field of view, spatial resolution, and multiple bands to make a definitive measurement. CIBER will determine if the fluctuations reported by Spitzer arise from first-light galaxies. The cameras observe in a single wide field of view, eliminating systematic errors associated with mosaicing. Two bands are chosen to maximize the first-light signal contrast, at 1.6 um near the expected spectral maximum, and at 1.0 um; the combination is a powerful discriminant against fluctuations arising from local sources. We will observe regions of the sky surveyed by Spitzer and Akari. The low-resolution spectrometer will search for the redshifted Lyman cutoff feature in the 0.7 - 1.8 um spectral region. The narrow-band spectrometer will measure the absolute Zodiacal brightness using the scattered 854.2 nm Ca II Fraunhofer line. The spectrometers will test if reports of a diffuse extragalactic background in the 1 - 2 um band continues into the optical, or is caused by an under estimation of the Zodiacal foreground. We report performance of the assembled and tested instrument as we prepare for a first sounding rocket flight in early 2009. CIBER is funded by the NASA/APRA sub-orbital program.

  18. Development of new devices for detection of gastric cancer on laparoscopic surgery using near-infrared light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inada, Shunko A.; Fuchi, Shingo; Mori, Kensaku; Hasegawa, Junichi; Misawa, Kazunari; Nakanishi, Hayao

    2015-03-01

    In recent year, for the treatment of gastric cancer the laparoscopic surgery is performed, which has good benefits, such as low-burden, low-invasive and the efficacy is equivalent to the open surgery. For identify location of the tumor intraperitoneally for extirpation of the gastric cancer, several points of charcoal ink is injected around the primary tumor. However, in the time of laparoscopic operation, it is difficult to estimate specific site of primary tumor, because the injected charcoal ink diffusely spread to the area distant from the tumor in the stomach. Therefore, a broad area should be resected which results in a great stress for the patients. To overcome this problem, we focused in the near-infrared wavelength of 1000nm band which have high biological transmission. In this study, we developed a fluorescent clip which was realized with glass phosphor (Yb3+, Nd3+ doped to Bi2O3-B2O3 based glasses. λp: 976 nm, FWHM: 100 nm, size: 2x1x3 mm) and the laparoscopic fluorescent detection system for clip-derived near-infrared light. To evaluate clinical performance of a fluorescent clip and the laparoscopic fluorescent detection system, we used resected stomach (thickness: 13 mm) from the patients. Fluorescent clip was fixed on the gastric mucosa, and an excitation light (λ: 808 nm) was irradiated from outside of stomach for detection of fluorescence through stomach wall. As a result, fluorescence emission from the clip was successfully detected. Furthermore, we confirmed that detection sensitivity of the emission of fluorescence from the clip depends on the output power of the excitation light. We conformed that the fluorescent clip in combination with laparoscopic fluorescent detection system is very useful method to identify the exact location of the primary gastric cancer.

  19. Deepest Infrared View of the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-12-01

    VLT Images Progenitors of Today's Large Galaxies Summary An international team of astronomers [2] has made the deepest-ever near-infrared Ks-band image of the sky, using the ISAAC multi-mode instrument on the 8.2-m VLT ANTU telescope. For this, the VLT was pointed for more than 100 hours under optimal observing conditions at the Hubble Deep Field South (HDF-S) and obtained images in three near-infrared filters. The resulting images reveal extremely distant galaxies, which appear at infrared wavelengths, but are barely detected in the deepest optical images acquired with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Astronomer Marijn Franx from the University of Leiden and leader of the team concludes: "These results demonstrate that very deep observations in the near-infrared are essential to obtain a proper census of the earliest phases of the universe. The new VLT images have opened a new research domain which has not been observationally accessible before". The HDF-S is a tiny field on the sky in the southern constellation Tucana (The Toucan) - only about 1% of the area of the full moon. The NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observed it with a total exposure time of about 1 week, yielding the deepest optical images ever taken of the sky, similar to those made earlier on the Hubble Deep Field North (HDF-N). The VLT infrared images of the same field were obtained in the course of a major research project, the Faint InfraRed Extragalactic Survey (FIRES). They were made at wavelengths up to 2.3 µm where the HST is not competitive. Ivo Labbé, another team member from the University of Leiden, is certain: "Without the unique capabilities of the VLT and ISAAC we would never have been able to observe these very remote galaxies. In fact, the image in the Ks-band is the deepest which has ever been made at that wavelength". The optical light emitted by the distant galaxies has been redshifted to the near-infrared spectral region [3]. Indeed, some of the galaxies found in the new

  20. Observation of near infrared and enhanced visible emissions from electroluminescent devices with organo samarium(III) complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, B [Key Laboratory of the Excited States Process, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 16-Dong NanHu Road, Economic Development Area, Changchun, 130033 (China); Li, W L [Key Laboratory of the Excited States Process, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 16-Dong NanHu Road, Economic Development Area, Changchun, 130033 (China); Hong, Z R [Key Laboratory of the Excited States Process, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 16-Dong NanHu Road, Economic Development Area, Changchun, 130033 (China); Zang, F X [Key Laboratory of the Excited States Process, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 16-Dong NanHu Road, Economic Development Area, Changchun, 130033 (China); Wei, H Z [Key Laboratory of the Excited States Process, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 16-Dong NanHu Road, Economic Development Area, Changchun, 130033 (China); Wang, D Y [Key Laboratory of the Excited States Process, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 16-Dong NanHu Road, Economic Development Area, Changchun, 130033 (China); Li, M T [Key Laboratory of the Excited States Process, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 16-Dong NanHu Road, Economic Development Area, Changchun, 130033 (China); Lee, C S [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Lee, S T [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)

    2006-11-07

    Samarium (dibenzoylmethanato){sub 3} bathophenanthroline (Sm(DBM){sub 3} bath) was employed as an emitting and electron transport layer in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), and narrow electroluminescent (EL) emissions of a Sm{sup 3+} ion were observed in the visible and near infrared (NIR) region, differing from those of the same devices with Eu{sup 3+}- or Tb{sup 3+}-complex EL devices with the same structure. The EL emissions of the Sm{sup 3+}-devices originate from transitions from {sup 4}G{sub 5/2} to the lower respective levels of Sm{sup 3+} ions. A maximum luminance of 490 cd m{sup -2} at 15 V and an EL efficiency of 0.6% at 0.17 mA cm{sup -2} were obtained in the visible region, and the improved efficiency should be attributed to introducing a transitional layer between the N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'-bis(3-methylphenyl)-1,1'-diphenyl-4,4'-diamine (TPD) film and the Sm(DBM){sub 3} bath film and the avoidance of interfacial exciplex emission in devices. Sharp emissions of Sm{sup 3+} ions in the NIR region were also observed under a lower threshold value less than 4.5 V.

  1. A new technique for infrared scintillation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiossi, F., E-mail: federico.chiossi@studenti.unipd.it [Dip. di Fisica e Astronomia and INFN, University of Padua, Via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Brylew, K. [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Grudziadzka 5, 87-100 Torun (Poland); Borghesani, A.F. [CNISM Unit and Dip. di Fisica e Astronomia, University of Padua, Via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Braggio, C.; Carugno, G. [Dip. di Fisica e Astronomia and INFN, University of Padua, Via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Drozdowski, W. [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Grudziadzka 5, 87-100 Torun (Poland); Guarise, M. [Dip. di Fisica e Astronomia and INFN, University of Padua, Via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy)

    2017-05-21

    We propose a new technique to measure the infrared scintillation light yield of rare earth doped crystals by comparing it to near UV–visible scintillation of a calibrated Pr:(Lu{sub 0.75}Y{sub 0.25}){sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} sample. As an example, we apply this technique to provide the light yield in visible and infrared range up to 1700 nm of this crystal.

  2. A new technique for infrared scintillation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiossi, F.; Brylew, K.; Borghesani, A.F.; Braggio, C.; Carugno, G.; Drozdowski, W.; Guarise, M.

    2017-01-01

    We propose a new technique to measure the infrared scintillation light yield of rare earth doped crystals by comparing it to near UV–visible scintillation of a calibrated Pr:(Lu_0_._7_5Y_0_._2_5)_3Al_5O_1_2 sample. As an example, we apply this technique to provide the light yield in visible and infrared range up to 1700 nm of this crystal.

  3. Infrared and CCD photometric study of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manousoyannaki, I.

    1986-01-01

    Infrared J (1.2 μm), H (1.6 μm), and K (2.2 μm) photometry is presented for a subsample of galaxies with morphological types of Sc and Sb of the sample types Sc and Sb of the sample by Rubin et al. and one edge-on spiral galaxy. After an overview of the science of infrared photometry, accurate photometric magnitudes are derived via curves of growth that have been computed using a compiled catalogue of galaxies observed in the infrared. The catalogue is presented in Appendix I. The photometric data are used to derive mass to light ratio distribution and the colors for each galaxy. Several correlations of photometric and dynamical quantities are examined and discussed as integral properties of the two morphological types. The main result of this analysis is that the mass to H-light ratio is independent of radius and of H-luminosity and is a good measure of the stellar component of the galaxy. Emphasis is placed on the Tully-Fisher, absolute magnitude vs log (rotational velocity), relation and its application to derive distances of galaxies. The data are used to derive surface brightness distribution profiles and decompose the profiles to spheroidal and disk components. The radial distribution of color in these galaxies is also discussed

  4. Face recognition in the thermal infrared domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, M.; Grudzień, A.; Palka, N.; Szustakowski, M.

    2017-10-01

    Biometrics refers to unique human characteristics. Each unique characteristic may be used to label and describe individuals and for automatic recognition of a person based on physiological or behavioural properties. One of the most natural and the most popular biometric trait is a face. The most common research methods on face recognition are based on visible light. State-of-the-art face recognition systems operating in the visible light spectrum achieve very high level of recognition accuracy under controlled environmental conditions. Thermal infrared imagery seems to be a promising alternative or complement to visible range imaging due to its relatively high resistance to illumination changes. A thermal infrared image of the human face presents its unique heat-signature and can be used for recognition. The characteristics of thermal images maintain advantages over visible light images, and can be used to improve algorithms of human face recognition in several aspects. Mid-wavelength or far-wavelength infrared also referred to as thermal infrared seems to be promising alternatives. We present the study on 1:1 recognition in thermal infrared domain. The two approaches we are considering are stand-off face verification of non-moving person as well as stop-less face verification on-the-move. The paper presents methodology of our studies and challenges for face recognition systems in the thermal infrared domain.

  5. Infrared induced visible emission from porous silicon: the mechanism of anodic oxidatio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, Ernst S.; Rama, A.R.; Kelly, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    The visible luminescence caused by anodic oxidation of p-type porous silicon has been studied. It is shown that similar luminescence can be observed in n-type material by illumination with near-infrared light. Addition of a suitable reducing agent to the electrolyte solution can both suppress the

  6. Far-infrared and CO observations of Cep F: Implications for star formation in Cepheus OB3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargent, A.I.; van Duinen, R.J.; Nordh, H.L.; Fridlund, C.V.M.; Aalders, J.W.G.; Beintema, D.

    1983-01-01

    Observations at 80-μm and 130-μm have revealed a source of far-infrared emission in the Cep F portion of the Cepheus OB3 molecular cloud. Molecular line measurements of this region, at the CO J = 1-0 line frequency, have led to the discovery of two CO maxima. One of these coincides with the new far-infrared source. The other is at least as intense as Cep B, until now considered to be the hottest part of the cloud. There is some evidence to suggest that a second far-infrared source is associated with this hotspot. If the far-infrared emission results from the presence of embedded protostars, their location, relative to the OB association stars and to the other active region, Cep A, requires a reexamination of how stars form in the Cepheus OB3 association

  7. Infrared neural stimulation (INS) inhibits electrically evoked neural responses in the deaf white cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Claus-Peter; Rajguru, Suhrud M.; Robinson, Alan; Young, Hunter K.

    2014-03-01

    Infrared neural stimulation (INS) has been used in the past to evoke neural activity from hearing and partially deaf animals. All the responses were excitatory. In Aplysia californica, Duke and coworkers demonstrated that INS also inhibits neural responses [1], which similar observations were made in the vestibular system [2, 3]. In deaf white cats that have cochleae with largely reduced spiral ganglion neuron counts and a significant degeneration of the organ of Corti, no cochlear compound action potentials could be observed during INS alone. However, the combined electrical and optical stimulation demonstrated inhibitory responses during irradiation with infrared light.

  8. Relationship between ice water path and downward longwave radiation for clouds optically thin in the infrared: Observations and model calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttal, Taneil; Matrosov, Sergey Y.; Snider, Jack B.; Kropfli, Robert A.

    1994-01-01

    A vertically pointing 3.2-cm radar is used to observe altostratus and cirrus clouds as they pass overhead. Radar reflectivities are used in combination with an empirical Z(sub i)-IWC (ice water content) relationship developed by Sassen (1987) to parameterize IWC, which is then integrated to obtain estimates of ice water path (IWP). The observed dataset is segregated into all-ice and mixed-phase periods using measurements of integrated liquid water paths (LWP) detected by a collocated, dual-channel microwave radiometer. The IWP values for the all ice periods are compared to measurements of infrared (IR) downward fluxes measured by a collocated narrowband (9.95-11.43 microns) IR radiometer, which results in scattergrams representing the observed dependence of IR fluxes on IWP. A two-stream model is used to calculate the infrared fluxes expected from ice clouds with boundary conditions specified by the actual clouds, and similar curves relating IWP and infrared fluxes are obtained. The model and observational results suggest that IWP is one of the primary controls on infrared thermal fluxes for ice clouds.

  9. Infrared observations of the dark matter lens candidate Q2345+007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcleod, Brian; Rieke, Marcia; Weedman, Daniel

    1994-01-01

    Deep K-band observations are presented of the double image quasar Q2345+007. This has the largest separation (7.1 sec) of any quasar image pair considered as gravitationally lensed, so the required lens is massive (10(exp 13) solar masses). No lens has been detected in previous deep images at visible wavelengths, and we find no lens to limiting K magnitude 20.0 in the infrared image. This constrains any lens to being much less luminous than brightest cluster galaxies, while the lens must be much more massive than such galaxies to produce the observed separation. Because spectral data indicate exceptional intrinsic similarity in the quasar image components, this pair remains as the most intriguing example of an observed configuration requiring the presence of massive, concentrated dark matter acting as a gravitational lens.

  10. Noninvasive observation of skeletal muscle contraction using near-infrared time-resolved reflectance and diffusing-wave spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belau, Markus; Ninck, Markus; Hering, Gernot; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Contini, Davide; Torricelli, Alessandro; Gisler, Thomas

    2010-09-01

    We introduce a method for noninvasively measuring muscle contraction in vivo, based on near-infrared diffusing-wave spectroscopy (DWS). The method exploits the information about time-dependent shear motions within the contracting muscle that are contained in the temporal autocorrelation function g(1)(τ,t) of the multiply scattered light field measured as a function of lag time, τ, and time after stimulus, t. The analysis of g(1)(τ,t) measured on the human M. biceps brachii during repetitive electrical stimulation, using optical properties measured with time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy, shows that the tissue dynamics giving rise to the speckle fluctuations can be described by a combination of diffusion and shearing. The evolution of the tissue Cauchy strain e(t) shows a strong correlation with the force, indicating that a significant part of the shear observed with DWS is due to muscle contraction. The evolution of the DWS decay time shows quantitative differences between the M. biceps brachii and the M. gastrocnemius, suggesting that DWS allows to discriminate contraction of fast- and slow-twitch muscle fibers.

  11. Far-infrared observations of Large Magellanic Cloud H II regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, M.W.; Becklin, E.E.; Gatley, I.; Ellis, M.J.; Hyland, A.R.; Robinson, G.; Thomas, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    Far-infrared emission has been measured from four Large Magellanic Cloud H II regions: the 30 Doradus nebula, MC75, MC76 and MC77. The far-infrared radiation is thermal emission from dust heated by starlight. The results show that the LMC H II regions, like H II regions in the Galaxy, have far-infrared luminosities comparable to the total luminosity of their exciting stars. (author)

  12. Near-Infrared-Light-Responsive Magnetic DNA Microgels for Photon- and Magneto-Manipulated Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yitong; Wang, Ling; Yan, Miaomiao; Dong, Shuli; Hao, Jingcheng

    2017-08-30

    Functional DNA molecules have been introduced into polymer-based nanocarrier systems to incorporate chemotherapy drugs for cancer therapy. Here is the first report of dual-responsive microgels composed of a core of Au nanorods and a shell of magnetic ionic liquid and DNA moieties in the cross-linking network simultaneously, as effective drug delivery vectors. TEM images indicated a magnetic polymer shell has an analogous "doughnut" shape which loosely surround the AuNRs core. When irradiated with a near-infrared-light (near-IR) laser, Au nanorods are the motors which convert the light to heat, leading to the release of the encapsulated payloads with high controllability. DNA acts not only as a cross-linker agent, but also as a gatekeeper to regulate the release of drugs. The internalization study and MTT assay confirm that these core-shell DNA microgels are excellent candidates which can enhance the cytotoxicity of cancer cells controlled by near-IR laser and shield the high toxicity of chemotherapeutic agents to improve the killing efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents efficiently in due course.

  13. TRICLOBS portable triband color lowlight observation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    We present the design and first test results of the TRICLOBS (TRI-band Color Low-light OBServation) system The TRICLOBS is an all-day all-weather surveillance and navigation tool. Its sensor suite consists of two digital image intensifiers (Photonis ICU's) and an uncooled longwave infrared

  14. Interpretation of photometric observations of R Coronae Borealis. Light curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugach, A.F.

    1990-01-01

    The calculations confirm the 'reptive hypothesis' of light variations of R CrB. The central point of the hypothesis is an assertion of infinite expansion of an elementary dust cloud. The calculations for different masses of the dust cloud provide a set of elementary light curves. Superposition of the curves yields a complex light curve. The comparison with the observed minima of 1972 has been performed

  15. NEAR-INFRARED LIGHT CURVES OF THE BROWN DWARF ECLIPSING BINARY 2MASS J05352184-0546085: CAN SPOTS EXPLAIN THE TEMPERATURE REVERSAL?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Maqueo Chew, Yilen; Stassun, Keivan G.; Prsa, Andrej; Mathieu, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    We present near-infrared JHK S light curves for the double-lined eclipsing binary system Two Micron All Sky Survey J05352184 - 0546085, in which both components have been shown to be brown dwarfs with an age of ∼1 Myr. We analyze these light curves together with the previously published I C -band light curve and radial velocities to provide refined measurements of the system's physical parameters. The component masses and radii are here determined with an accuracy of ∼6.5% and ∼1.5%, respectively. In addition, we confirm the previous surprising finding that the primary brown dwarf has a cooler effective temperature than its lower mass companion. Next, we perform a detailed study of the residual variations in the out-of-eclipse phases of the light curves to ascertain the properties of any inhomogeneities (e.g., spots) on the surfaces of the brown dwarfs. Our analysis reveals two low-amplitude (∼0.02 mag) periodic signals, one attributable to the rotation of the primary with a period of 3.293 ± 0.001 d and the other to the rotation of the secondary with a period of 14.05 ± 0.05 d. Both periods are consistent with the measured vsin i and radii. Finally, we explore the effects on the derived physical parameters of the system when spots are included in the modeling of the light curves. The observed low-amplitude rotational modulations are well fitted by cool spots covering a small fraction (∼<10%) of the brown dwarfs' surfaces. Such small spots negligibly affect the physical properties of the brown dwarfs, and thus by themselves cannot explain the primary's unexpectedly low surface temperature. To mimic the observed ∼200 K suppression of the primary's temperature, our model requires that the primary possesses a very large spot coverage fraction of ∼65%. These spots must in addition be symmetrically distributed on the primary's surface so as not to produce photometric variations larger than observed. Altogether, a spot configuration in which the primary

  16. Infrared Radiative Properties of Food Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precisely, infrared radiation is electromagnetic radiation whose wavelength is longer than that of visible light, but shorter than that of terahertz radiation and microwaves. The infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum spans roughly three orders of magnitude (750 nm to 100 µm) and has been...

  17. Infrared hyperspectral upconversion imaging using spatial object translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, Louis Martinus; Sanders, Nicolai Højer; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In this paper hyperspectral imaging in the mid-infrared wavelength region is realised using nonlinear frequency upconversion. The infrared light is converted to the near-infrared region for detection with a Si-based CCD camera. The object is translated in a predefined grid by motorized actuators...

  18. CSI 2264: simultaneous optical and infrared light curves of young disk-bearing stars in NGC 2264 with CoRoT and Spitzer—evidence for multiple origins of variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cody, Ann Marie; Stauffer, John; Rebull, Luisa M.; Carey, Sean; Baglin, Annie; Micela, Giuseppina; Flaccomio, Ettore; Morales-Calderón, María; Aigrain, Suzanne; Bouvier, Jèrôme; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Carpenter, John; Findeisen, Krzysztof; Gutermuth, Robert; Song, Inseok; Turner, Neal; Alencar, Silvia H. P.; Zwintz, Konstanze; Plavchan, Peter; Terebey, Susan

    2014-01-01

    We present the Coordinated Synoptic Investigation of NGC 2264, a continuous 30 day multi-wavelength photometric monitoring campaign on more than 1000 young cluster members using 16 telescopes. The unprecedented combination of multi-wavelength, high-precision, high-cadence, and long-duration data opens a new window into the time domain behavior of young stellar objects. Here we provide an overview of the observations, focusing on results from Spitzer and CoRoT. The highlight of this work is detailed analysis of 162 classical T Tauri stars for which we can probe optical and mid-infrared flux variations to 1% amplitudes and sub-hour timescales. We present a morphological variability census and then use metrics of periodicity, stochasticity, and symmetry to statistically separate the light curves into seven distinct classes, which we suggest represent different physical processes and geometric effects. We provide distributions of the characteristic timescales and amplitudes and assess the fractional representation within each class. The largest category (>20%) are optical 'dippers' with discrete fading events lasting ∼1-5 days. The degree of correlation between the optical and infrared light curves is positive but weak; notably, the independently assigned optical and infrared morphology classes tend to be different for the same object. Assessment of flux variation behavior with respect to (circum)stellar properties reveals correlations of variability parameters with Hα emission and with effective temperature. Overall, our results point to multiple origins of young star variability, including circumstellar obscuration events, hot spots on the star and/or disk, accretion bursts, and rapid structural changes in the inner disk.

  19. Pedestrian Detection Based on Adaptive Selection of Visible Light or Far-Infrared Light Camera Image by Fuzzy Inference System and Convolutional Neural Network-Based Verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jin Kyu; Hong, Hyung Gil; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2017-07-08

    A number of studies have been conducted to enhance the pedestrian detection accuracy of intelligent surveillance systems. However, detecting pedestrians under outdoor conditions is a challenging problem due to the varying lighting, shadows, and occlusions. In recent times, a growing number of studies have been performed on visible light camera-based pedestrian detection systems using a convolutional neural network (CNN) in order to make the pedestrian detection process more resilient to such conditions. However, visible light cameras still cannot detect pedestrians during nighttime, and are easily affected by shadows and lighting. There are many studies on CNN-based pedestrian detection through the use of far-infrared (FIR) light cameras (i.e., thermal cameras) to address such difficulties. However, when the solar radiation increases and the background temperature reaches the same level as the body temperature, it remains difficult for the FIR light camera to detect pedestrians due to the insignificant difference between the pedestrian and non-pedestrian features within the images. Researchers have been trying to solve this issue by inputting both the visible light and the FIR camera images into the CNN as the input. This, however, takes a longer time to process, and makes the system structure more complex as the CNN needs to process both camera images. This research adaptively selects a more appropriate candidate between two pedestrian images from visible light and FIR cameras based on a fuzzy inference system (FIS), and the selected candidate is verified with a CNN. Three types of databases were tested, taking into account various environmental factors using visible light and FIR cameras. The results showed that the proposed method performs better than the previously reported methods.

  20. Infrared technique for measuring steam density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, S.C.; Baker, A.G.

    1982-01-01

    A prototype infrared steam densitometer using a two-wavelength, dual-beam technique was developed. Tests were performed on dry steam flows with this technique, which uses two narrow bandwidths of infrared light in the region of 0.9 to 3.0 μm. One wavelength is absorbed by steam, while the other is not. The latter wavelength is used to account for nonabsorptive light losses. In addition to the beam that traverses the steam flow, a reference beam that does not traverse the flow allows the light source to be monitored. The theory of the device is presented, along with a description of the components and of the system's operation. Test results are also presented

  1. Ray trace visualization of negative refraction of light in two-dimensional air-bridged silicon photonic crystal slabs at 1.55 microm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Lin; Liu, Ya-Zhao; Li, Jiang-Yan; Zhang, Ze-Bo; Zhang, Dao-Zhong; Li, Zhi-Yuan

    2009-06-08

    We demonstrate design, fabrication, and ray trace observation of negative refraction of near-infrared light in a two-dimensional square lattice of air holes etched into an air-bridged silicon slab. Special surface morphologies are designed to reduce the impedance mismatch when light refracts from a homogeneous silicon slab into the photonic crystal slab. We clearly observed negative refraction of infrared light for TE-like modes in a broad wavelength range by using scanning near-field optical microscopy technology. The experimental results are in good agreement with finite-difference time-domain simulations. The results indicate the designed photonic crystal structure can serve as polarization beam splitter.

  2. Introductory survey for wireless infrared communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munsif Ali Jatoi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Wireless infrared communications can be defined as the propagation of light waves in free space using infrared radiation whose range is 400–700 nm. This range corresponds to frequencies of hundreds of terahertz, which is high for higher data rate applications. Wireless infrared is applied for higher data rates applications such as wireless computing, wireless video and wireless multimedia communication applications. Introduced by Gfeller, this field has grown with different link configurations, improved transmitter efficiency, increased receiver responsivity and various multiple access techniques for improved quality. Errors are caused because of background light, which causes degradation overall system performance. Error correction techniques are used to remove the errors caused during transmission. This study provides a brief account on field theory used for error correction in wireless infrared systems. The results are produced in terms of bit error rate and signal-to-noise ratio for various bit lengths to show the ability of encoding and decoding algorithms.

  3. Topological insulator infrared pseudo-bolometer with polarization sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Peter Anand

    2017-10-25

    Topological insulators can be utilized in a new type of infrared photodetector that is intrinsically sensitive to the polarization of incident light and static magnetic fields. The detector isolates single topological insulator surfaces and allows light collection and exposure to static magnetic fields. The wavelength range of interest is between 750 nm and about 100 microns. This detector eliminates the need for external polarization selective optics. Polarization sensitive infrared photodetectors are useful for optoelectronics applications, such as light detection in environments with low visibility in the visible wavelength regime.

  4. Characterization of process-induced damage in Cu/low-k interconnect structure by microscopic infrared spectroscopy with polarized infrared light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, Hirofumi, E-mail: Hirofumi-Seki@trc.toray.co.jp; Hashimoto, Hideki [Toray Research Center, Inc., 3-3-7 Sonoyama, Otsu, Shiga 520-8567 (Japan); Ozaki, Yukihiro [Department of Chemistry, School of Science and Technology, Kwansei Gakuin University, 2-1, Gakuen, Sanda, Hyogo 669-1337 (Japan)

    2016-09-07

    Microscopic Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra are measured for a Cu/low-k interconnect structure using polarized IR light for different widths of low-k spaces and Cu lines, and for different heights of Cu lines, on Si substrates. Although the widths of the Cu line and the low-k space are 70 nm each, considerably smaller than the wavelength of the IR light, the FT-IR spectra of the low-k film were obtained for the Cu/low-k interconnect structure. A suitable method was established for measuring the process-induced damage in a low-k film that was not detected by the TEM-EELS (Transmission Electron Microscope-Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy) using microscopic IR polarized light. Based on the IR results, it was presumed that the FT-IR spectra mainly reflect the structural changes in the sidewalls of the low-k films for Cu/low-k interconnect structures, and the mechanism of generating process-induced damage involves the generation of Si-OH groups in the low-k film when the Si-CH{sub 3} bonds break during the fabrication processes. The Si-OH groups attract moisture and the OH peak intensity increases. It was concluded that the increase in the OH groups in the low-k film is a sensitive indicator of low-k damage. We achieved the characterization of the process-induced damage that was not detected by the TEM-EELS and speculated that the proposed method is applicable to interconnects with line and space widths of 70 nm/70 nm and on shorter scales of leading edge devices. The location of process-induced damage and its mechanism for the Cu/low-k interconnect structure were revealed via the measurement method.

  5. Development of Infrared Phase Closure Capability in the Infrared-Optical Telescope Array (IOTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traub, Wesley A.

    2002-01-01

    We completed all major fabrication and testing for the third telescope and phase-closure operation at the Infrared-Optical Telescope Array (IOTA) during this period. In particular we successfully tested the phase-closure operation, using a laboratory light source illuminating the full delay-line optical paths, and using an integrated-optic beam combiner coupled to our Picnic-detector camera. This demonstration is an important and near-final milestone achievement. As of this writing, however, several tasks yet remain, owing to development snags and weather, so the final proof of success, phase-closure observation of a star, is now expected to occur in early 2002, soon after this report has been submitted.

  6. Photothermal Therapy Using Gold Nanorods and Near-Infrared Light in a Murine Melanoma Model Increases Survival and Decreases Tumor Volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary K. Popp

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Photothermal therapy (PTT treatments have shown strong potential in treating tumors through their ability to target destructive heat preferentially to tumor regions. In this paper we demonstrate that PTT in a murine melanoma model using gold nanorods (GNRs and near-infrared (NIR light decreases tumor volume and increases animal survival to an extent that is comparable to the current generation of melanoma drugs. GNRs, in particular, have shown a strong ability to reach ablative temperatures quickly in tumors when exposed to NIR light. The current research tests the efficacy of GNRs PTT in a difficult and fast growing murine melanoma model using a NIR light-emitting diode (LED light source. LED light sources in the NIR spectrum could provide a safer and more practical approach to photothermal therapy than lasers. We also show that the LED light source can effectively and quickly heat in vitro and in vivo models to ablative temperatures when combined with GNRs. We anticipate that this approach could have significant implications for human cancer therapy.

  7. A PHOTOMETRICALLY AND MORPHOLOGICALLY VARIABLE INFRARED NEBULA IN L483

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connelley, Michael S.; Hodapp, Klaus W.; Fuller, Gary A.

    2009-01-01

    We present narrow and broad K-band observations of the Class 0/I source IRAS 18148-0440 that span 17 years. The infrared nebula associated with this protostar in the L483 dark cloud is both morphologically and photometrically variable on a timescale of only a few months. This nebula appears to be an infrared analog to other well known optically visible variable nebulae associated with young stars, such as Hubble's Variable Nebula. Along with Cepheus A, this is one of the first large variable nebulae to be found that is only visible in the infrared. The variability of this nebula is most likely due to changing illumination of the cloud rather than any motion of the structure in the nebula. Both morphological and photometric changes are observed on a timescale only a few times longer than the light crossing time of the nebula, suggesting very rapid intrinsic changes in the illumination of the nebula. Our narrowband observations also found that H 2 knots are found nearly twice as far to the east of the source as to its west, and that H 2 emission extends farther east of the source than the previously known CO outflow.

  8. Acute radiation nephritis. Light and electron microscopic observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapur, S.; Chandra, R.; Antonovych, T.

    1977-01-01

    Light and electron microscopy were used to observe acute radiation nephritis. By light microscopy the changes were of fibrinoid necrosis of the arteries and arterioles with segmental necrosis of the glomerular tufts. By electron microscopy the endocapillary cells reacted by hypertrophy and hyperplasia with increase in cytoplasmic organelles. In addition, disruption of endothelial and epithelial cells from the basement membranes were seen. It is concluded that the electron microscopic changes were unique and may be helpful in differentiating the necrotizing glomerulitis seen in other conditions, especially malignant hypertension

  9. DISCORDANCE BETWEEN BLUE-LIGHT AUTOFLUORESCENCE AND NEAR-INFRARED AUTOFLUORESCENCE IN AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiferman, Michael J; Fawzi, Amani A

    2016-12-01

    To identify the origin and significance of discordance between blue-light autofluorescence (BL-AF; 488 nm) and near-infrared autofluorescence (NI-AF; 787 nm) in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). A total of 86 eyes of 59 patients with a diagnosis of AMD were included in this cross-sectional study conducted between March 9, 2015 and May 1, 2015. A masked observer examined the BL-AF, NI-AF, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images. Areas with discordance of autofluorescence patterns between NI-AF and BL-AF images were correlated with structural findings at the corresponding location in optical coherence tomography scans. Seventy-nine eyes had discordance between BL-AF and NI-AF. The most common optical coherence tomography finding accounting for these discrepancies was pigment migration accounting for 35 lesions in 21 eyes. The most clinically relevant finding was geographic atrophy missed on BL-AF in 7 eyes. Our findings indicate that variations in the distribution of lipofuscin, melanin and melanolipofuscin account for the majority of discordance between BL-AF and NI-AF. Given our finding of missed geographic atrophy lesions on BL-AF in 24% of eyes with geographic atrophy (7/29 eyes), clinicians should consider multimodal imaging, including NI-AF and optical coherence tomography, especially in clinical trials of geographic atrophy.

  10. The near infrared polarization of NGC 7023

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellgren, K.

    1984-01-01

    NGC 7023 is a visual reflection nebula whose low optical depth at near infrared wavelengths suggests it may be well-suited to analysis of the near infrared scattering properties of dust. While processes other than scattered light dominate the near infrared emission of NGC 7023, a detectable scattered light component remains, as can be demonstrated by polarization measurements. Polarization at 2.2 μm has been detected at two positions in NGC 7023. The polarization angles at these two positions are perpendicular to the line between each nebular position and the star which illuminates the visual reflection nebulosity, indicating that the polarization mechanism is most likely the scattering of starlight from this star. (author)

  11. Plasmon-enhanced energy transfer for improved upconversion of infrared radiation in doped-lanthanide nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qi; Mundoor, Haridas; Ribot, Josep; Singh, Vivek; Smalyukh, Ivan; Nagpal, Prashant

    2014-03-01

    Upconversion of infrared radiation into visible light has been investigated for applications in biological imaging and photovoltaics. However, low conversion efficiency due to small absorption cross-section for infrared light (Yb3+) , and slow rate of energy transfer (to Er3+ states) has prevented application of upconversion photoluminescence (UPL) for diffuse sunlight or imaging tissue samples. Here, we utilize resonant surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) waves to enhance UPL in doped-lanthanide nanocrystals. Our analysis indicates that SPP waves not only enhance the electromagnetic field, and hence weak Purcell effect, but also increases the rate of resonant energy transfer from Yb3+ to Er3+ ions by 6 fold. While we do observe strong metal mediated quenching (14 fold) of green fluorescence on flat metal surfaces, the nanostructured metal is resonant in the infrared, and hence enhances the nanocrystal UPL. This strong columbic effect on energy transfer can have important implications for other fluorescent and excitonic systems too.

  12. Plasmon-enhanced energy transfer for improved upconversion of infrared radiation in doped-lanthanide nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qi-C; Mundoor, Haridas; Ribot, Josep C; Singh, Vivek; Smalyukh, Ivan I; Nagpal, Prashant

    2014-01-08

    Upconversion of infrared radiation into visible light has been investigated for applications in photovoltaics and biological imaging. However, low conversion efficiency due to small absorption cross-section for infrared light (Yb(3+)), and slow rate of energy transfer (to Er(3+) states) has prevented application of upconversion photoluminescence (UPL) for diffuse sunlight or imaging tissue samples. Here, we utilize resonant surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) waves to enhance UPL in doped-lanthanide nanocrystals. Our analysis indicates that SPP waves not only enhance the electromagnetic field, and hence weak Purcell effect, but also increase the rate of resonant energy transfer from Yb(3+) to Er(3+) ions by 6 fold. While we do observe strong metal mediated quenching (14-fold) of green fluorescence on flat metal surfaces, the nanostructured metal is resonant in the infrared and hence enhances the nanocrystal UPL. This strong Coulombic effect on energy transfer can have important implications for other fluorescent and excitonic systems too.

  13. Analysis of auroral infrared emissions observed during the ELIAS experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Caledonia

    Full Text Available The ELIAS (Earth Limb Infrared Atmospheric Structure experiment was flown from the Poker Flat Research Range, Alaska in 1983 and successfully monitored visible and infrared emissions from an IBC III+ aurora. Measurements were performed in both staring and scanning modes over several hundred seconds. The data for short- and mid-wave infrared regions have been analyzed in terms of auroral excitation of the NO and NO+ vibrational bands. Auroral excitation efficiencies and kinetic implications are presented.

  14. THE ORIGIN OF THE INFRARED EMISSION IN RADIO GALAXIES. II. ANALYSIS OF MID- TO FAR-INFRARED SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF THE 2JY SAMPLE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicken, D.; Tadhunter, C.; Axon, D.; Morganti, R.; Inskip, K. J.; Holt, J.; Delgado, R. Gonzalez; Groves, B.

    2009-01-01

    We present an analysis of deep mid- to far-infrared (MFIR) Spitzer photometric observations of the southern 2Jy sample of powerful radio sources (0.05

  15. Impacts of field of view configuration of Cross-track Infrared Sounder on clear-sky observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Likun; Chen, Yong; Han, Yong

    2016-09-01

    Hyperspectral infrared radiance measurements from satellite sensors contain valuable information on atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles and greenhouse gases, and therefore are directly assimilated into numerical weather prediction (NWP) models as inputs for weather forecasting. However, data assimilations in current operational NWP models still mainly rely on cloud-free observations due to the challenge of simulating cloud-contaminated radiances when using hyperspectral radiances. The limited spatial coverage of the 3×3 field of views (FOVs) in one field of regard (FOR) (i.e., spatial gap among FOVs) as well as relatively large footprint size (14 km) in current Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) instruments limits the amount of clear-sky observations. This study explores the potential impacts of future CrIS FOV configuration (including FOV size and spatial coverage) on the amount of clear-sky observations by simulation experiments. The radiance measurements and cloud mask products (VCM) from the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) are used to simulate CrIS clear-sky observation under different FOV configurations. The results indicate that, given the same FOV coverage (e.g., 3×3), the percentage of clear-sky FOVs and the percentage of clear-sky FORs (that contain at least one clear-sky FOV) both increase as the FOV size decreases. In particular, if the CrIS FOV size were reduced from 14 km to 7 km, the percentage of clear-sky FOVs increases from 9.02% to 13.51% and the percentage of clear-sky FORs increases from 18.24% to 27.51%. Given the same FOV size but with increasing FOV coverage in each FOR, the clear-sky FOV observations increases proportionally with the increasing sampling FOVs. Both reducing FOV size and increasing FOV coverage can result in more clear-sky FORs, which benefit data utilization of NWP data assimilation.

  16. Noise reduction methods in the analysis of near infrared lunar occultation light curves for high angular resolution measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baug Tapas; Chandrasekhar Thyagarajan

    2013-01-01

    A lunar occultation (LO) technique in the near-infrared (NIR) provides angular resolution down to milliarcseconds for an occulted source, even with ground-based 1 m class telescopes. LO observations are limited to brighter objects because they require a high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N ∼40) for proper extraction of angular diameter values. Hence, methods to improve the S/N ratio by reducing noise using Fourier and wavelet transforms have been explored in this study. A sample of 54 NIR LO light curves observed with the IR camera at Mt Abu Observatory has been used. It is seen that both Fourier and wavelet methods have shown an improvement in S/N compared to the original data. However, the application of wavelet transforms causes a slight smoothing of the fringes and results in a higher value for angular diameter. Fourier transforms which reduce discrete noise frequencies do not distort the fringe. The Fourier transform method seems to be effective in improving the S/N, as well as improving the model fit, particularly in the fainter regime of our sample. These methods also provide a better model fit for brighter sources in some cases, though there may not be a significant improvement in S/N

  17. Conversion and quantum efficiency from ultraviolet light to near infrared emission in Yb{sup 3+}-doped pyrovanadates MZnV{sub 2}O{sub 7} (M = Ca, Sr, Ba)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan, Ying; Huang, Yanlin [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Tsuboi, Taiju; Huang, Wei [Jiangsu-Singapore Joint Research Center for Organic/Bio-Electronics and Information Displays and Institute of Advanced Materials, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211816 (China); Chen, Cuili; Cai, Peiqing [Department of Physics and Interdisciplinary Program of Biomedical, Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hyo Jin, E-mail: hjseo@pknu.ac.kr [Department of Physics and Interdisciplinary Program of Biomedical, Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Efficient convertors of Yb{sup 3+} doped pyrovanadates are prepared and characterized. • Broadband down-conversion from ultraviolet into near-infrared is realized. • High quantum efficiency of 18.5% can be reached. • Energy transfer from VO{sub 4} groups to Yb{sup 3+} ions is demonstrated on the base of the crystal structure. - Abstract: Yb{sup 3+}-doped CaZnV{sub 2}O{sub 7}, SrZnV{sub 2}O{sub 7} and BaZnV{sub 2}O{sub 7} were synthesized via the solid-state reaction. The polycrystalline samples were investigated by XRD and SEM measurements. The reflectance spectra, photoluminescence (PL) excitation and emission spectra, the absolute quantum efficiency (QE) of the IR emission (900–1100 nm) were measured. The efficient conversion from ultraviolet (UV) light to near-infrared (NIR) emission has been demonstrated in the Yb{sup 3+}-doped pyrovanadates by the broadband down conversion from VO{sub 4}{sup 3−} to Yb{sup 3+} ions. Under UV light excitation, an intense NIR emission around 1000 nm ascribed to the {sup 2}F{sub 5/2} → {sup 2}F{sub 7/2} transition of Yb{sup 3+} ions has been observed, which just corresponds to the spectral response of Si solar cells. The NIR emission efficiency is observed to depend on the lattice of pyrovanadate. The mechanism of the NIR emission ascribed to energy transfer is discussed by taking into account the experimental results and the crystal structures.

  18. Gold nanocages covered by smart polymers for controlled release with near-infrared light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Mustafa S.; Cheng, Yiyun; Chen, Jingyi; Cobley, Claire M.; Zhang, Qiang; Rycenga, Matthew; Xie, Jingwei; Kim, Chulhong; Schwartz, Andrea G.; Wang, Lihong V.; Xia, Younan

    2009-01-01

    Photosensitive caged compounds have enhanced our ability to address the complexity of biological systems by generating effectors with remarkable spatial/temporal resolutions1-3. The caging effect is typically removed by photolysis with ultraviolet light to liberate the bioactive species. Although this technique has been successfully applied to many biological problems, it suffers from a number of intrinsic drawbacks. For example, it requires dedicated efforts to design and synthesize a precursor compound to the effector. The ultraviolet light may cause damage to biological samples and is only suitable for in vitro studies because of its quick attenuation in tissue4. Here we address these issues by developing a platform based on the photothermal effect of gold nanocages. Gold nanocages represent a class of nanostructures with hollow interiors and porous walls5. They can have strong absorption (for the photothermal effect) in the near-infrared (NIR) while maintaining a compact size. When the surface of a gold nanocage is covered with a smart polymer, the pre-loaded effector can be released in a controllable fashion using a NIR laser. This system works well with various effectors without involving sophiscated syntheses, and is well-suited for in vivo studies due to the high transparency of soft tissue in NIR6. PMID:19881498

  19. Spot fat reduction by red and near infrared LED phototherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sungkyoo; Park, Eal-Whan

    2018-02-01

    Low level light therapy (LLLT) using light from red and near infrared LEDs or Lasers have been reported effective as noninvasive methods for reducing spot fat. A total of 55 subjects were randomly divided into test groups and control groups for abdominal fat reduction clinical trial using red and near infrared LED phototherapy devices. Red and near infrared light with irradiance of 10 mW/cm2 were irradiated over the abdominal area to the test group for 30 minutes followed by 30 minutes of aerobic exercise, 3 times a week for 4 weeks. Control group used sham devices for 30 minutes and followed by 30 minutes of aerobic exercise. It is expected that red and near infrared LED phototherapy combined with aerobic exercise would be effective and safe for abdominal fat reduction without any side effects.

  20. Synthesis and Study of Shape-Memory Polymers Selectively Induced by Near-Infrared Lights via In Situ Copolymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianyu Fang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Shape-memory polymers (SMPs selectively induced by near-infrared lights of 980 or 808 nm were synthesized via free radical copolymerization. Methyl methacrylate (MMA monomer, ethylene glycol dimethylacrylate (EGDMA as a cross-linker, and organic complexes of Yb(TTA2AAPhen or Nd(TTA2AAPhen containing a reactive ligand of acrylic acid (AA were copolymerized in situ. The dispersion of the organic complexes in the copolymer matrix was highly improved, while the transparency of the copolymers was negligibly influenced in comparison with the pristine cross-linked PMMA. In addition, the thermal resistance of the copolymers was enhanced with the complex loading, while their glass transition temperature, cross-linking level, and mechanical properties were to some extent reduced. Yb(TTA2AAPhen and Nd(TTA2AAPhen provided the prepared copolymers with selective photothermal effects and shape-memory functions for 980 and 808 nm NIR lights, respectively. Finally, smart optical devices which exhibited localized transparency or diffraction evolution procedures were demonstrated based on the prepared copolymers, owing to the combination of good transparency and selective light wavelength responsivity.

  1. Infrared and visible fusion face recognition based on NSCT domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhihua; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Guodong; Xiong, Jinquan

    2018-01-01

    Visible face recognition systems, being vulnerable to illumination, expression, and pose, can not achieve robust performance in unconstrained situations. Meanwhile, near infrared face images, being light- independent, can avoid or limit the drawbacks of face recognition in visible light, but its main challenges are low resolution and signal noise ratio (SNR). Therefore, near infrared and visible fusion face recognition has become an important direction in the field of unconstrained face recognition research. In this paper, a novel fusion algorithm in non-subsampled contourlet transform (NSCT) domain is proposed for Infrared and visible face fusion recognition. Firstly, NSCT is used respectively to process the infrared and visible face images, which exploits the image information at multiple scales, orientations, and frequency bands. Then, to exploit the effective discriminant feature and balance the power of high-low frequency band of NSCT coefficients, the local Gabor binary pattern (LGBP) and Local Binary Pattern (LBP) are applied respectively in different frequency parts to obtain the robust representation of infrared and visible face images. Finally, the score-level fusion is used to fuse the all the features for final classification. The visible and near infrared face recognition is tested on HITSZ Lab2 visible and near infrared face database. Experiments results show that the proposed method extracts the complementary features of near-infrared and visible-light images and improves the robustness of unconstrained face recognition.

  2. CLASSIFICATION OF SEVERAL SKIN CANCER TYPES BASED ON AUTOFLUORESCENCE INTENSITY OF VISIBLE LIGHT TO NEAR INFRARED RATIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aryo Tedjo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Skin cancer is a malignant growth on the skin caused by many factors. The most common skin cancers are Basal Cell Cancer (BCC and Squamous Cell Cancer (SCC. This research uses a discriminant analysis to classify some tissues of skin cancer based on criterion number of independent variables. An independent variable is variation of excitation light sources (LED lamp, filters, and sensors to measure Autofluorescence Intensity (IAF of visible light to near infrared (VIS/NIR ratio of paraffin embedded tissue biopsy from BCC, SCC, and Lipoma. From the result of discriminant analysis, it is known that the discriminant function is determined by 4 (four independent variables i.e., Blue LED-Red Filter, Blue LED-Yellow Filter, UV LED-Blue Filter, and UV LED-Yellow Filter. The accuracy of discriminant in classifying the analysis of three skin cancer tissues is 100 %.

  3. Recognition of Banknote Fitness Based on a Fuzzy System Using Visible Light Reflection and Near-infrared Light Transmission Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Seung Yong; Pham, Tuyen Danh; Park, Kang Ryoung; Jeong, Dae Sik; Yoon, Sungsoo

    2016-06-11

    Fitness classification is a technique to assess the quality of banknotes in order to determine whether they are usable. Banknote classification techniques are useful in preventing problems that arise from the circulation of substandard banknotes (such as recognition failures, or bill jams in automated teller machines (ATMs) or bank counting machines). By and large, fitness classification continues to be carried out by humans, and this can cause the problem of varying fitness classifications for the same bill by different evaluators, and requires a lot of time. To address these problems, this study proposes a fuzzy system-based method that can reduce the processing time needed for fitness classification, and can determine the fitness of banknotes through an objective, systematic method rather than subjective judgment. Our algorithm was an implementation to actual banknote counting machine. Based on the results of tests on 3856 banknotes in United States currency (USD), 3956 in Korean currency (KRW), and 2300 banknotes in Indian currency (INR) using visible light reflection (VR) and near-infrared light transmission (NIRT) imaging, the proposed method was found to yield higher accuracy than prevalent banknote fitness classification methods. Moreover, it was confirmed that the proposed algorithm can operate in real time, not only in a normal PC environment, but also in an embedded system environment of a banknote counting machine.

  4. Recognition of Banknote Fitness Based on a Fuzzy System Using Visible Light Reflection and Near-infrared Light Transmission Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Yong Kwon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fitness classification is a technique to assess the quality of banknotes in order to determine whether they are usable. Banknote classification techniques are useful in preventing problems that arise from the circulation of substandard banknotes (such as recognition failures, or bill jams in automated teller machines (ATMs or bank counting machines. By and large, fitness classification continues to be carried out by humans, and this can cause the problem of varying fitness classifications for the same bill by different evaluators, and requires a lot of time. To address these problems, this study proposes a fuzzy system-based method that can reduce the processing time needed for fitness classification, and can determine the fitness of banknotes through an objective, systematic method rather than subjective judgment. Our algorithm was an implementation to actual banknote counting machine. Based on the results of tests on 3856 banknotes in United States currency (USD, 3956 in Korean currency (KRW, and 2300 banknotes in Indian currency (INR using visible light reflection (VR and near-infrared light transmission (NIRT imaging, the proposed method was found to yield higher accuracy than prevalent banknote fitness classification methods. Moreover, it was confirmed that the proposed algorithm can operate in real time, not only in a normal PC environment, but also in an embedded system environment of a banknote counting machine.

  5. Effects of electromagnetic radiation (bright light, extremely low-frequency magnetic fields, infrared radiation) on the circadian rhythm of melatonin synthesis, rectal temperature, and heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griefahn, Barbara; Künemund, Christa; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Lerchl, Alexander; Degen, Gisela H

    2002-10-01

    Electromagnetic spectra reduce melatonin production and delay the nadirs of rectal temperature and heart rate. Seven healthy men (16-22 yrs) completed 4 permuted sessions. The control session consisted of a 24-hours bedrest at infrared radiation (65 degrees C) was applied from 5 pm to 1 am. Salivary melatonin level was determined hourly, rectal temperature and heart rate were continuously recorded. Melatonin synthesis was completely suppressed by light but resumed thereafter. The nadirs of rectal temperature and heart rate were delayed. The magnetic field had no effect. Infrared radiation elevated rectal temperature and heart rate. Only bright light affected the circadian rhythms of melatonin synthesis, rectal temperature, and heart rate, however, differently thus causing a dissociation, which might enhance the adverse effects of shiftwork in the long run.

  6. SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF PASSIVE AND STAR-FORMING EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES: AN INFRARED COLOR-COLOR SEQUENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temi, Pasquale; Brighenti, Fabrizio; Mathews, William G.

    2009-01-01

    We describe the infrared properties of a large sample of early-type galaxies, comparing data from the Spitzer archive with Ks-band emission from the Two Micron All Sky Survey. While most representations of this data result in correlations with large scatter, we find a remarkably tight relation among colors formed by ratios of luminosities in Spitzer-Multiband Imaging Photometer bands (24, 70, and 160 μm) and the Ks band. Remarkably, this correlation among E and S0 galaxies follows that of nearby normal galaxies of all morphological types. In particular, the tight infrared color-color correlation for S0 galaxies alone follows that of the entire Hubble sequence of normal galaxies, roughly in order of galaxy type from ellipticals to spirals to irregulars. The specific star formation rate (SFR) of S0 galaxies estimated from the 24 μm luminosity increases with decreasing K-band luminosity (or stellar mass) from essentially zero, as with most massive ellipticals, to rates typical of irregular galaxies. Moreover, the luminosities of the many infrared-luminous S0 galaxies can significantly exceed those of the most luminous (presumably post-merger) E galaxies. SFRs in the most infrared-luminous S0 galaxies approach 1-10 solar masses per year. Consistently, with this picture we find that while most early-type galaxies populate an infrared red sequence, about 24% of the objects (mostly S0s) are in an infrared blue cloud together with late-type galaxies. For those early-type galaxies also observed at radio frequencies, we find that the far-infrared luminosities correlate with the mass of neutral and molecular hydrogen, but the scatter is large. This scatter suggests that the star formation may be intermittent or that similar S0 galaxies with cold gaseous disks of nearly equal mass can have varying radial column density distributions that alter the local and global SFRs.

  7. Diminution of acute radiation reaction of mouse skin with low-intensity infrared laser/red diodes-emitted light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshcherikova, V.V.; Klimakov, B.D.; Goldobenko, G.V.; Vajnson, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    Efficiency of the application of different regimes of laser treatment of radiation-induced skin reactions in mice feet is compared. Posterior limb feet of mice were exposed to acute X radiation at 30-36 Gy dose or fractionated radiation at 45 Gy dose. In the day of primary irradiation or different time later the feet were treated using magnetic infrared laser therapeutic MILTA-01 apparatus. Magnetic and light components of the MILTA-01 apparatus reduce the effect of radiation on mice skin corresponding two time decrease in X-radiation dose [ru

  8. Hollow-core infrared fiber incorporating metal-wire metamaterial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Min; Mortensen, Asger

    2009-01-01

    Infrared (IR) light is considered important for short-range wireless communication, thermal sensing, spectroscopy, material processing, medical surgery, astronomy etc. However, IR light is in general much harder to transport than optical light or microwave radiation. Existing hollow-core IR...

  9. Direct observation of strong localization of quasi-two-dimensional light waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    1999-01-01

    Scattering of surface plasmon polaritons on rough metal surfaces is investigated by using scanning near-field optical microscopy. Different scattering regimes, i.e. single, double and multiple scattering, are observed and related to the spatial Fourier spectra of the corresponding near-field opti...... caused by surface roughness. Similar bright light spots are observed with light scattering by silver colloid clusters deposited on glass substrates. Differences and similarities in these scattering phenomena are discussed....

  10. Alma observations of nearby luminous infrared galaxies with various agn energetic contributions using dense gas tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imanishi, Masatoshi [Subaru Telescope, 650 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Nakanishi, Kouichiro, E-mail: masa.imanishi@nao.ac.jp [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    We present the results of our ALMA Cycle 0 observations, using HCN/HCO{sup +}/HNC J = 4-3 lines, of six nearby luminous infrared galaxies with various energetic contributions from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) estimated from previous infrared spectroscopy. These lines are very effective for probing the physical properties of high-density molecular gas around the hidden energy sources in the nuclear regions of these galaxies. We find that HCN to HCO{sup +} J = 4-3 flux ratios tend to be higher in AGN-important galaxies than in starburst-dominated regions, as was seen at the J = 1-0 transition, while there is no clear difference in the HCN-to-HNC J = 4-3 flux ratios among observed sources. A galaxy with a starburst-type infrared spectral shape and very large molecular line widths shows a high HCN-to-HCO{sup +} J = 4-3 flux ratio, which could be due to turbulence-induced heating. We propose that enhanced HCN J = 4-3 emission relative to HCO{sup +} J = 4-3 could be used to detect more energetic activity than normal starbursts, including deeply buried AGNs, in dusty galaxy populations.

  11. Bolometers for far-infrared and submillimetre astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    Important scientific goals of far-infrared and submillimetre astronomy include measurements of anisotropies in the cosmic background radiation, deep imaging surveys for detection of high-red-shift galaxies, and imaging and spectroscopy of star formation regions and the interstellar medium in the milky way and nearby galaxies. Use of sensitive bolometer arrays leads to very large improvements in observing speed. Recent progress in the development of bolometric detector systems for ground-based and space-borne far-infrared and submillimetre astronomical observations is reviewed, including spider-web NTD bolometers, transition-edge superconducting sensors, and micromachined planar arrays of ion-implanted silicon bolometers. Future arrays may be based on planar absorbers without feedhorns, which offer potential advantages including more efficient use of space in the focal plane and improved instantaneous sampling of the telescope point spread function, but present challenges in suppression of stray light and RF interference. FIRST and Planck Surveyor are planned satellite missions involving passively cooled (∼70 K) telescopes, and bolometer array developments for these missions are described

  12. Can an observer really catch up with light?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Guihua; Zheng, Zhao

    2003-01-01

    Given a null geodesic γ 0 (λ) with a point r in (p, q) conjugate to p along γ 0 (λ), up to the second variation, there will be a variation of γ 0 (λ) which will give a timelike curve from p to q. This is the well-known theory proved in the famous book (Hawking S W and Ellis G F R 1973 The Large Scale Structure of Space-Time (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)). In this paper, we prove that the timelike curves coming from the above-mentioned second variation have a proper acceleration approaching infinity as the timelike curves approach the null geodesic. This means no observer infinitesimally near the light can begin at the same point with it and finally catch up with it. Only when separated from the light path finitely, can the observer begin at the same point with it and really catch up with it

  13. Improving NIR snow pit stratigraphy observations by introducing a controlled NIR light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, J.; Marshall, H.; Rutter, N.; Karlson, A.

    2013-12-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) photography in a prepared snow pit measures mm-/grain-scale variations in snow structure, as reflectivity is strongly dependent on microstructure and grain size at the NIR wavelengths. We explore using a controlled NIR light source to maximize signal to noise ratio and provide uniform incident, diffuse light on the snow pit wall. NIR light fired from the flash is diffused across and reflected by an umbrella onto the snow pit; the lens filter transmits NIR light onto the spectrum-modified sensor of the DSLR camera. Lenses are designed to refract visible light properly, not NIR light, so there must be a correction applied for the subsequent NIR bright spot. To avoid interpolation and debayering algorithms automatically performed by programs like Adobe's Photoshop on the images, the raw data are analyzed directly in MATLAB. NIR image data show a doubling of the amount of light collected in the same time for flash over ambient lighting. Transitions across layer boundaries in the flash-lit image are detailed by higher camera intensity values than ambient-lit images. Curves plotted using median intensity at each depth, normalized to the average profile intensity, show a separation between flash- and ambient-lit images in the upper 10-15 cm; the ambient-lit image curve asymptotically approaches the level of the flash-lit image curve below 15cm. We hypothesize that the difference is caused by additional ambient light penetrating the upper 10-15 cm of the snowpack from above and transmitting through the wall of the snow pit. This indicates that combining NIR ambient and flash photography could be a powerful technique for studying penetration depth of radiation as a function of microstructure and grain size. The NIR flash images do not increase the relative contrast at layer boundaries; however, the flash more than doubles the amount of recorded light and controls layer noise as well as layer boundary transition noise.

  14. A light therapy for treating Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue; Han, Mengmeng; Wang, Qiyan; Zeng, Yuhui; Meng, Qingqiang; Zhang, Jun; Wei, Xunbin

    2017-02-01

    It is generally believed that there are some connections between Alzheimer's disease and amyloid protein plaques in the brain. The typical symptoms of Alzheimer's disease are memory loss, language disorders, mood swings, loss of motivation and behavioral issues. Currently, the main therapeutic method is pharmacotherapy, which may temporarily reduce symptoms, but has many side effects. Infrared light therapy has been studied in a range of single and multiple irradiation protocols in previous studies and was found beneficial for neuropathology. In our research we have studied the effect of infrared light on Alzheimer's disease through transgenic mouse model. We designed an experimental apparatus for treating mice, which primarily included a therapeutic box and a LED array, which emitted infrared light. After the treatment, we assessed the effects of infrared light by performing two tests: cognitive performance of mice in Morris water maze, and plaque load by immunofluorescence analysis. Immunofluorescence analysis was based on measuring the quantity of plaques in mouse brain slices. Our results show that infrared therapy is able to improve cognitive performance in the mouse model. It might provide a novel and safe way to treat Alzheimer's disease.

  15. Systematic research on Ag2X (X = O, S, Se, Te) as visible and near-infrared light driven photocatalysts and effects of their electronic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Wu, Zhaomei; Zhu, Yingming; Tian, Wen; Liang, Bin

    2018-01-01

    Four silver chalcogen compounds, Ag2O, Ag2S, Ag2Se and Ag2Te, can be utilized as visible-light-driven photocatalysts. In this research, the electronic structures of these compounds were analyzed by simulation and experiments to systematically reveal the relationship between photocatalytic performance and energetic structure. All four chalcogenides exhibited interesting photocatalytic activities under ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared light. However, their photocatalytic performances and stability significantly depended on the band gap width, and the valence band and conduct band position, which was determined by their composition. Increasing the X atomic number from O to Te resulted in the upward movement of the valence band top and the conduct band bottom, which resulted in narrower band gaps, a wider absorption spectrum, a weaker photo-oxidization capacity, a higher recombination probability of hole and electron pairs, lower quantum efficiency, and worse stability. Among them, Ag2O has the highest photocatalytic performance and stability due to its widest band gap and lowest position of VB and CB. The combined action of photogenerated holes and different radicals, depending on the different electronic structures, including anion ozone radical, hydroxide radical, and superoxide radical, was observed and understood. The results of experimental observations and simulations of the four silver chalcogen compounds suggested that a proper electronic structure is necessary to obtain a balance between photocatalytic performance and absorbable light region in the development of new photocatalysts.

  16. Estimating the top altitude of optically thick ice clouds from thermal infrared satellite observations using CALIPSO data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, Patrick; Yost, Chris R.; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Chen, Yan

    2008-06-01

    The difference between cloud-top altitude Z top and infrared effective radiating height Z eff for optically thick ice clouds is examined using April 2007 data taken by the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) and the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). For even days, the difference ΔZ between CALIPSO Z top and MODIS Z eff is 1.58 +/- 1.26 km. The linear fit between Z top and Z eff , applied to odd-day data, yields a difference of 0.03 +/- 1.21 km and can be used to estimate Z top from any infrared-based Z eff for thick ice clouds. Random errors appear to be due primarily to variations in cloud ice-water content (IWC). Radiative transfer calculations show that ΔZ corresponds to an optical depth of ~1, which based on observed ice-particle sizes yields an average cloud-top IWC of ~0.015 gm-3, a value consistent with in situ measurements. The analysis indicates potential for deriving cloud-top IWC using dual-satellite data.

  17. Molecular line observations of infrared dark clouds in the galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Susanna C.

    Although massive stars play many important roles in the universe, their formation is poorly understood. Recently, a class of interstellar clouds known as Infrared Dark Clouds (IRDCs) has been identified as likely progenitors of massive stars and clusters. These clouds are dense (nH 2 > 105 cm--3), cold (T Nessie Nebula," an extreme case of a filamentary IRDC, with predictions from the theory of the fluid instability and then expand the sample to other filamentary IRDCs. The observations are consistent with theoretical predictions of clump spacing, clump masses, and linear mass density. Fragmentation of filaments due to the sausage instability might be the dominant mode of star formation in the Universe.

  18. Results from the Prototype GLOBE at Night Worldwide Light Pollution Observation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Constance E.; Pompea, S. M.; Isbell, D.; Orellana, D.; Blurton, C.; Henderson, S.

    2006-06-01

    Students, families, and educators worldwide participated in GLOBE at Night - an international event designed to observe and record the visible stars as a means of measuring light pollution in a given location. Participation was open to anyone - anywhere in the world - who could get outside and look skyward during the week of March 22-29, 2006. Our goal was 5000 observations from around the world in this prototype program.The hands-on learning activities associated with the program were designed to extend the traditional classroom and school day with a week of nighttime observations involving teachers, students and their families. By locating specific constellations in the sky, students from around the world learned how the lights in their community contribute to light pollution. Students explored the different light sources in their community learning the relationship between science, technology and society, and they reported their observations online through a central database allowing for authentic worldwide research and analysis. The observations made during GLOBE at Night helped students and scientists together assess how the quality of the night sky varies around the world as well as the level of energy wastage associated with poorly-shielded lights.For more information, visit http://www.globe.gov/globeatnight.GLOBE at Night is a collaboration between The GLOBE Program, the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), Centro de Apoyo a la Didactica de la Astronomia (CADIAS) in Chile , Windows to the Universe, and Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. (ESRI).

  19. Mini Review of TiO2 -Based Multifunctional Nanocomposites for Near-Infrared Light-Responsive Phototherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meifang; Hou, Zhiyao; Al Kheraif, Abdulaziz A; Xing, Bengang; Lin, Jun

    2018-06-25

    Phototherapy with the properties of specific spatial/temporal selectivity and minimal invasiveness has been acknowledged as one of the most promising cancer therapy types. Among all the photoactive substance for phototherapy, titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanomaterials are paid more and more attention due to their outstanding photocatalytic properties, prominent biocompatibility, and excellent chemical stability. However, the wide bandgap (3.0-3.2 eV) of TiO 2 limits its absorption only to the ultraviolet (UV) light region. For a long time, UV light-stimulated TiO 2 was applied in the phototherapy researches of tumors located in the skin layer, while it is unsatisfactory for most deep-tissue tumors. Due to the maximum penetration into tissue existing in the near-infrared (NIR) region, how to use NIR light to trigger photochemical reaction of TiO 2 remains a big challenge. In this review, two strategies to develop and construct NIR-triggered TiO 2 -based nanocomposites (NCs) for phototherapy are summarized, and the relevant mechanism and background knowledge of TiO 2 -based phototherapy are also given in order to better understand the application value and current situation of TiO 2 in phototherapy. Finally, the challenges and research directions of TiO 2 in the future clinic phototherapy application are also discussed. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Infrared astronomy and the galactic dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecker, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    The existence, in the Galaxy, of small absorbing dust grains has been known for a long time, as they redden the light of stars located behind them, and obscure by amounts which can often even be several magnitudes... In the infrared, where absorption is smaller, one can see through the dust, while at the same time, one can observe the emission of cold dust clouds. After a brief review of technical developments, the reasons for studying the infrared, and the principles of diagnostics, are given. The analysis of the spectral features leads to identification of ice, graphite, and various silicates, as main constituents of the dust. In the fifth section, examples are given of the various sources that one meets when travelling in the Galaxy: protostars, cold and dilute, dense envelopes of young stars (cold or hot), dilute envelopes of not so young stars, and ejected clouds surrounding evolved objects... The simultaneous observation of dust, molecules and atoms, in the same regions, shows that the knowledge of the circumstellar dense regions might be of a great interest, in the study of the origin of life, and of the evolution of the Universe. (Auth.)

  1. Orion star-forming region - far-infrared and radio molecular observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thronson, H.A. Jr.; Harper, D.A.; Bally, J.; Dragovan, M.; Mozurkewich, D.; Yerkes Observatory, Williams Bay, WI; ATandT Bell Labs., Holmdel, NJ; Chicago Uni., IL; E. O. Hulburt Center for Space Research, Washington, DC)

    1986-01-01

    New J = 1-0 CO and far-infrared maps of the Orion star-forming region are presented and discussed. The total infrared luminosity of the Orion star-forming ridge is 250,000 solar luminosities. The material that is emitting strongly at 60 microns is traced and found to be highly centrally concentrated. However, the majority of the extended emission from this region comes from dust that is ultimately heated by the visible Trapezium cluster stars. The luminosity of IRc 2, the most luminous member of the infrared cluster, is estimated to be 40,000-50,000 solar luminosities. A schematic drawing of the Ori MC 1 region is presented. 30 references

  2. Near-Infrared Free-Radical and Free-Radical-Promoted Cationic Photopolymerizations by In-Source Lighting Using Upconverting Glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaarslan, Azra; Tabanli, Sevcan; Eryurek, Gonul; Yagci, Yusuf

    2017-11-13

    A method is presented for the initiation of free-radical and free-radical-promoted cationic photopolymerizations by in-source lighting in the near-infrared (NIR) region using upconverting glass (UCG). This approach utilizes laser irradiation of UCG at 975 nm in the presence of fluorescein (FL) and pentamethyldiethylene triamine (PMDETA). FL excited by light emitted from the UCG undergoes electron-transfer reactions with PMDETA to form free radicals capable of initiating polymerization of methyl methacrylate. To execute the corresponding free-radical-promoted cationic polymerization of cyclohexene oxide, isobutyl vinyl ether, and N-vinyl carbazole, it was necessary to use FL, dimethyl aniline (DMA), and diphenyliodonium hexafluorophosphate as sensitizer, coinitiator, and oxidant, respectively. Iodonium ions promptly oxidize DMA radicals formed to the corresponding cations. Thus, cationic polymerization with efficiency comparable to the conventional irradiation source was achieved. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Effects of varying environmental conditions on emissivity spectra of bulk lunar soils: Application to Diviner thermal infrared observations of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson Hanna, K. L.; Greenhagen, B. T.; Patterson, W. R.; Pieters, C. M.; Mustard, J. F.; Bowles, N. E.; Paige, D. A.; Glotch, T. D.; Thompson, C.

    2017-02-01

    Currently, few thermal infrared measurements exist of fine particulate (samples (e.g. minerals, mineral mixtures, rocks, meteorites, and lunar soils) measured under simulated lunar conditions. Such measurements are fundamental for interpreting thermal infrared (TIR) observations by the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment (Diviner) onboard NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter as well as future TIR observations of the Moon and other airless bodies. In this work, we present thermal infrared emissivity measurements of a suite of well-characterized Apollo lunar soils and a fine particulate (sample as we systematically vary parameters that control the near-surface environment in our vacuum chamber (atmospheric pressure, incident solar-like radiation, and sample cup temperature). The atmospheric pressure is varied between ambient (1000 mbar) and vacuum (radiation is varied between 52 and 146 mW/cm2, and the sample cup temperature is varied between 325 and 405 K. Spectral changes are characterized as each parameter is varied, which highlight the sensitivity of thermal infrared emissivity spectra to the atmospheric pressure and the incident solar-like radiation. Finally spectral measurements of Apollo 15 and 16 bulk lunar soils are compared with Diviner thermal infrared observations of the Apollo 15 and 16 sampling sites. This comparison allows us to constrain the temperature and pressure conditions that best simulate the near-surface environment of the Moon for future laboratory measurements and to better interpret lunar surface compositions as observed by Diviner.

  4. Infrared laser scattering system for plasma diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muraoka, K; Hiraki, N; Kawasaki, S [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

    1975-05-01

    The possibility of observing the collective scattering of infrared laser light from plasmas is discussed in terms of the laser power requirement, the necessary optical system and the detector performance, and is shown to be feasible with the present day techniques to get the ion temperature by means of a CO/sub 2/ laser on theta pinch plasmas. Based on this estimate, the construction of the TEA CO/sub 2/ laser and the preparations of the optical components have been started and some preliminary results of these are described.

  5. Infrared laser scattering system for plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muraoka, Katsunori; Hiraki, Naoji; Kawasaki, Shoji

    1975-01-01

    The possibility of observing the collective scattering of infrared laser light from plasmas is discussed in terms of the laser power requirement, the necessary optical system and the detector performance, and is shown to be feasible with the present day techniques to get the ion temperature by means of a CO 2 laser on theta pinch plasmas. Based on this estimate, the construction of the TEA CO 2 laser and the preparations of the optical components have been started and some preliminary results of these are described. (auth.)

  6. A high-speed, eight-wavelength visible light-infrared pyrometer for shock physics experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rongbo; Li, Shengfu; Zhou, Weijun; Luo, Zhen-Xiong; Meng, Jianhua; Tian, Jianhua; He, Lihua; Cheng, Xianchao

    2017-09-01

    An eight-channel, high speed pyrometer for precise temperature measurement is designed and realized in this work. The addition of longer-wavelength channels sensitive at lower temperatures highly expands the measured temperature range, which covers the temperature of interest in shock physics from 1500K-10000K. The working wavelength range is 400-1700nm from visible light to near-infrared (NIR). Semiconductor detectors of Si and InGaAs are used as photoelectric devices, whose bandwidths are 50MHz and 150MHz respectively. Benefitting from the high responsivity and high speed of detectors, the time resolution of the pyrometer can be smaller than 10ns. By combining the high-transmittance beam-splitters and narrow-bandwidth filters, the peak spectrum transmissivity of each channel can be higher than 60%. The gray-body temperatures of NaI crystal under shock-loading are successfully measured by this pyrometer.

  7. Analysis of peripheral thermal damage after laser irradiation of dentin using polarized light microscopy and synchrotron radiation infrared spectromicroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dela Rosa, Alfredo; Sarma, Anupama V.; Le, Charles Q.; Jones, Robert S.; Fried, Daniel

    2004-05-01

    It is necessary to minimize peripheral thermal damage during laser irradiation, since thermal damage to collagen and mineral compromises the bond strength to restorative materials in dentin and inhibits healing and osteointegration in bone. The overall objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that lasers resonant to the specific absorption of water, collagen, and hydroxyapatite with pulse durations less than the thermal relaxation times at each respective laser wavelength will efficiently remove dentin with minimal peripheral thermal damage. Precise incisions were produced in 3 x 3 mm2 blocks of human dentin using CO2 (9.6 μm), Er:YSGG (2.79 μm), and Nd:YAG (355 nm) lasers with and without a computer controlled water spray. Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography was used to obtain optical cross-sections of each incision to determine the rate and efficiency of ablation. The peripheral thermal damage zone around each incision was analyzed using polarized light microscopy (PLM) and Synchrotron-Radiation Fourier Transform Infrared Spectro-microscopy (SR-FTIR). Thermally induced chemical changes to both mineral and the collagen matrix was observed with SR-FTIR with a 10-μm spatial resolution and those changes were correlated with optical changes observed with PLM. Minimal (alveolar bone.

  8. Infrared Astronomy Professional Development for K-12 Educators: WISE Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borders, Kareen; Mendez, B. M.

    2010-01-01

    K-12 educators need effective and relevant astronomy professional development. WISE Telescope (Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer) and Spitzer Space Telescope Education programs provided an immersive teacher professional development workshop at Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico during the summer of 2009. As many common misconceptions involve scale and distance, teachers worked with Moon/Earth scale, solar system scale, and distance of objects in the universe. Teachers built and used basic telescopes, learned about the history of telescopes, explored ground and satellite based telescopes, and explored and worked on models of WISE Telescope. An in-depth explanation of WISE and Spitzer telescopes gave participants background knowledge for infrared astronomy observations. We taught the electromagnetic spectrum through interactive stations. The stations included an overview via lecture and power point, the use of ultraviolet beads to determine ultraviolet exposure, the study of WISE lenticulars and diagramming of infrared data, listening to light by using speakers hooked up to photoreceptor cells, looking at visible light through diffraction glasses and diagramming the data, protocols for using astronomy based research in the classroom, and infrared thermometers to compare environmental conditions around the observatory. An overview of LIDAR physics was followed up by a simulated LIDAR mapping of the topography of Mars. We will outline specific steps for K-12 infrared astronomy professional development, provide data demonstrating the impact of the above professional development on educator understanding and classroom use, and detail future plans for additional K-12 professional development. Funding was provided by WISE Telescope, Spitzer Space Telescope, Starbucks, Arecibo Observatory, the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, and the Washington Space Grant Consortium.

  9. Infrared Video Pupillography Coupled with Smart Phone LED for Measurement of Pupillary Light Reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Lily Yu-Li; Turuwhenua, Jason; Qu, Tian Yuan; Black, Joanna M; Acosta, Monica L

    2017-01-01

    Clinical assessment of pupil appearance and pupillary light reflex (PLR) may inform us the integrity of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Current clinical pupil assessment is limited to qualitative examination, and relies on clinical judgment. Infrared (IR) video pupillography combined with image processing software offer the possibility of recording quantitative parameters. In this study we describe an IR video pupillography set-up intended for human and animal testing. As part of the validation, resting pupil diameter was measured in human subjects using the NeurOptics ™ (Irvine, CA, USA) pupillometer, to compare against that measured by our IR video pupillography set-up, and PLR was assessed in guinea pigs. The set-up consisted of a smart phone with a light emitting diode (LED) strobe light (0.2 s light ON, 5 s light OFF cycles) as the stimulus and an IR camera to record pupil kinetics. The consensual response was recorded, and the video recording was processed using a custom MATLAB program. The parameters assessed were resting pupil diameter (D1), constriction velocity (CV), percentage constriction ratio, re-dilation velocity (DV) and percentage re-dilation ratio. We report that the IR video pupillography set-up provided comparable results as the NeurOptics ™ pupillometer in human subjects, and was able to detect larger resting pupil size in juvenile male guinea pigs compared to juvenile female guinea pigs. At juvenile age, male guinea pigs also had stronger pupil kinetics for both pupil constriction and dilation. Furthermore, our IR video pupillography set-up was able to detect an age-specific increase in pupil diameter (female guinea pigs only) and reduction in CV (male and female guinea pigs) as animals developed from juvenile (3 months) to adult age (7 months). This technique demonstrated accurate and quantitative assessment of pupil parameters, and may provide the foundation for further development of an integrated system useful for clinical

  10. Near-Infrared Light Activation of Proteins Inside Living Cells Enabled by Carbon Nanotube-Mediated Intracellular Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, He; Fan, Xinqi; Chen, Xing

    2016-02-01

    Light-responsive proteins have been delivered into the cells for controlling intracellular events with high spatial and temporal resolution. However, the choice of wavelength is limited to the UV and visible range; activation of proteins inside the cells using near-infrared (NIR) light, which has better tissue penetration and biocompatibility, remains elusive. Here, we report the development of a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)-based bifunctional system that enables protein intracellular delivery, followed by NIR activation of the delivered proteins inside the cells. Proteins of interest are conjugated onto SWCNTs via a streptavidin-desthiobiotin (SA-DTB) linkage, where the protein activity is blocked. SWCNTs serve as both a nanocarrier for carrying proteins into the cells and subsequently a NIR sensitizer to photothermally cleave the linkage and release the proteins. The released proteins become active and exert their functions inside the cells. We demonstrated this strategy by intracellular delivery and NIR-triggered nuclear translocation of enhanced green fluorescent protein, and by intracellular delivery and NIR-activation of a therapeutic protein, saporin, in living cells. Furthermore, we showed that proteins conjugated onto SWCNTs via the SA-DTB linkage could be delivered to the tumors, and optically released and activated by using NIR light in living mice.

  11. High-pressure synchrotron infrared spectroscopy at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemley, R.J.; Goncharov, A.F.; Lu, R.; Struzhkin, V.V.; Li, M.; Mao, H.K.

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes a synchrotron infrared facility for high-pressure spectroscopy and microspectroscopy at the National Synchrotron Light-Source (NSLS). Located at beamline U2B on the VUV ring of the NSLS, the facility utilizes a commercial FT-IR together with custom-built microscope optics designed for a variety of diamond anvil cell experiments, including low- and high- temperature studies. The system contains an integrated laser optical/grating spectrometer for concurrent optical experiments. The facility has been used to characterize a growing number of materials to ultrahigh pressure and has been instrumental of new high-pressure phenomena. Experiments on dense hydrogen to >200 GPa have led to the discovery of numerous unexpected properties of this fundamental system. The theoretically predicted molecular-atomic transition of H 2 O ice to the symmetric hydrogen-bonded structure has been identified, and new classes of high-density clathrates and molecular compounds have been characterized. Experiments on natural and synthetic mineral samples have been performed to study hydrogen speciation, phase transformations, and microscopic inclusions in multiphase assemblages. Detailed information on the behavior of new materials, including novel high-pressure glasses and ceramics, has also been obtained

  12. MID-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS OF THE DUST-FORMING CLASSICAL NOVA V2676 OPH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakita, Hideyo; Arai, Akira; Shinnaka, Yoshiharu [Koyama Astronomical Observatory, Kyoto Sangyo University, Motoyama, Kamigamo, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan); Ootsubo, Takafumi [Department of Earth Science and Astronomy, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); Nagashima, Masayoshi, E-mail: kawakthd@cc.kyoto-su.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Kyoto Sangyo University, Motoyama, Kamigamo, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan)

    2017-02-01

    The dust-forming nova V2676 Oph is unique in that it was the first nova to provide evidence of C{sub 2} and CN molecules during its near-maximum phase and evidence of CO molecules during its early decline phase. Observations of this nova have revealed the slow evolution of its lightcurves and have also shown low isotopic ratios of carbon ({sup 12}C/{sup 13}C) and nitrogen ({sup 14}N/{sup 15}N) in its envelope. These behaviors indicate that the white dwarf (WD) star hosting V2676 Oph is a CO-rich WD rather than an ONe-rich WD (typically larger in mass than the former). We performed mid-infrared spectroscopic and photometric observations of V2676 Oph in 2013 and 2014 (respectively 452 and 782 days after its discovery). No significant [Ne ii] emission at 12.8 μ m was detected at either epoch. These provided evidence for a CO-rich WD star hosting V2676 Oph. Both carbon-rich and oxygen-rich grains were detected in addition to an unidentified infrared feature at 11.4 μ m originating from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules or hydrogenated amorphous carbon grains in the envelope of V2676 Oph.

  13. Shining new light on treating dementia: integrating EEG neurofeedback training and near infrared photobiomodulation (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Marvin H.

    2017-02-01

    Evidence from animal and human studies regarding the biological impact of near infrared light stimulation has significantly increased of late noting the disease modifying properties of photobiomodulation for improving physical and cognitive performance in subjects with a variety of neurodegenerative conditions. Concurrently we see a growing body of literature regarding the efficacy of operant conditioning of EEG amplitude and connectivity in remediating both cognitive and behavioral symptoms of both neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders including traumatic brain injury, ADHD, PTSD, and dementia. This presentation seeks to outline a treatment model combining these two treatment methods to stop the progression of neurodegeneration using pulsed (10hz), brief (5-20minutes) repeated (1-2x/daily) transcranial and intranasal photobiomodulation with 810nm and 1068nm near infrared phototherapy and operant conditioning of EEG amplitude and coherence. Our initial study on treating dementia with EEG biofeedback (N=37) showed neuroplasticity's potential for modifying cognitive and behavioral symptoms using the evidence from decades of neurological research that never felt the warm touch of a translational researcher's hand. The near infrared interventional studies clarified the order of treatment, i.e., tissue health and renewal were achieved, followed by neural connectivity enhancement. Significant improvements in both immediate and delayed recall and praxis memory as well as executive functioning and behavioral regulation were obtained with each intervention. The inferred synergistic impact of properly combining these approaches is what informs our current clinical applications and future research efforts examining the value of combined treatments for all dementias, parkinson's disease and age-related dry macular degeneration.

  14. Forensic applications of infrared imaging for the detection and recording of latent evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Apollo Chun-Yen; Hsieh, Hsing-Mei; Tsai, Li-Chin; Linacre, Adrian; Lee, James Chun-I

    2007-09-01

    We report on a simple method to record infrared (IR) reflected images in a forensic science context. Light sources using ultraviolet light have been used previously in the detection of latent prints, but the use of infrared light has been subjected to less investigation. IR light sources were used to search for latent evidence and the images were captured by either video or using a digital camera with a CCD array sensitive to IR wavelength. Bloodstains invisible to the eye, inks, tire prints, gunshot residue, and charred document on dark background are selected as typical matters that may be identified during a forensic investigation. All the evidence types could be detected and identified using a range of photographic techniques. In this study, a one in eight times dilution of blood could be detected on 10 different samples of black cloth. When using 81 black writing inks, the observation rates were 95%, 88% and 42% for permanent markers, fountain pens and ball-point pens, respectively, on the three kinds of dark cloth. The black particles of gunshot residue scattering around the entrance hole under IR light were still observed at a distance of 60 cm from three different shooting ranges. A requirement of IR reflectivity is that there is a contrast between the latent evidence and the background. In the absence of this contrast no latent image will be detected, which is similar to all light sources. The use of a video camera allows the recording of images either at a scene or in the laboratory. This report highlights and demonstrates the robustness of IR to detect and record the presence of latent evidence.

  15. Corrugated Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector Focal Plane Array Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, A.; Choi, K. K.; Das, N. C.; La, A.; Jhabvala, M.

    1999-01-01

    The corrugated quantum-well infrared photodetector (C-QWIP) uses total internal reflection to couple normal incident light into the optically active quantum wells. The coupling efficiency has been shown to be relatively independent of the pixel size and wavelength thus making the C-QWIP a candidate for detectors over the entire infrared spectrum. The broadband coupling efficiency of the C-QWIP makes it an ideal candidate for multiwavelength detectors. We fabricated and tested C-QWIP focal plane arrays (FPAs) with cutoff wavelengths of 11.2 and 16.2 micrometers. Each FPA has 256 x 256 pixels that are bump-bonded to a direct injection readout circuit. Both FPAs provided infrared imagery with good aesthetic attributes. For the 11.2-micrometers FPA, background-limited performance (BLIP) was observed at 60 K with f/3 optics. For the 16.2-micrometers FPA, BLIP was observed at 38 K. Besides the reduction of dark current in C-QWIP structures, the measured internal quantum efficiency (eta) remains to be high. The values for responsivity and quantum efficiency obtained from the FPA results agree well with those measured for single devices.

  16. Defect induced visible-light-activated near-infrared emissions in Gd3-x-y-zYbxBiyErzGa5O12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Liping; Saito, Katsuhiko; Guo, Qixin; Zhou, Han; Fan, Tongxiang; Zhang, Di

    2017-11-01

    Visible-light-activated near-infrared luminescent materials are promising photoluminescent materials due to their convenience and low cost. Crystal defects can seriously affect the performance of luminescent materials, and better understanding of the complexity of the structural disorder and electronic structures of such materials opens up new possibilities in luminescent material development. In this work, we successfully design a novel, effective, visible-light-activated near-infrared luminescent Gd3Ga5O12: 4.2%Yb3+, 8.4%Er3+, and 4.2%Bi3+ system based on first principles. This exhibits strong emission intensity and high luminous efficiency (0.993) and also has a lifetime (7.002 ms) that is at least twice as long as the longest lifetime reported in published papers. We utilize density functional theory with an effective LSDA + U method to study the structural properties of Gd3-x-y-zGa5O12: xYb3+, yBi3+, zEr3+ (GGG: Yb3+, Bi3+, Er3+). The d and f electron orbits of rare-earth ions are considered for an effective Hund exchange. Detailed analysis reveals that GGG: 4.2%Yb3+, 8.4%Er3+, 4.2%Bi3+ has the smallest cell volume because of the strong covalent bonds of Bi-O, Er-O, and Yb-O. Bi 3d is a hybridized state that acts as sensitizing ions during the process of luminescence in GGG: Yb3+, Bi3+, Er3+. Together with experimental and theoretical results, we analyze the influence of defects on emission intensity. The locations of Yb3+, Er3+, and Bi3+ are determined by X-ray absorption fine structure measurements, which are in agreement with the model constructed using first principles. This work may provide innovative guidance for the design of high-performance visible-light-activated near-infrared luminophores based on calculations and a new methodology for application of coherent laser radar and optical communication.

  17. Infrared to visible image up-conversion using optically addressed spatial light modulator utilizing liquid crystal and InGaAs photodiodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solodar, A., E-mail: asisolodar@gmail.com; Arun Kumar, T.; Sarusi, G.; Abdulhalim, I. [Department of Electro-Optics Engineering and The Ilse Katz Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2016-01-11

    Combination of InGaAs/InP heterojunction photodetector with nematic liquid crystal (LC) as the electro-optic modulating material for optically addressed spatial light modulator for short wavelength infra-red (SWIR) to visible light image conversion was designed, fabricated, and tested. The photodetector layer is composed of 640 × 512 photodiodes array based on heterojunction InP/InGaAs having 15 μm pitch on InP substrate and with backside illumination architecture. The photodiodes exhibit extremely low, dark current at room temperature, with optimum photo-response in the SWIR region. The photocurrent generated in the heterojunction, due to the SWIR photons absorption, is drifted to the surface of the InP, thus modulating the electric field distribution which modifies the orientation of the LC molecules. This device can be attractive for SWIR to visible image upconversion, such as for uncooled night vision goggles under low ambient light conditions.

  18. Study and use of an infrared camera optimized for ground based observations in the 10 micron wavelength range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remy, Sophie

    1991-01-01

    Astronomical observations in the 10 micron atmospheric window provide very important information for many of astrophysical topics. But because of the very large terrestrial photon background at that wavelength, ground based observations have been impeded. On the other band, the ground based telescopes offer a greater angular resolution than the spatially based telescopes. The recent development of detector arrays for the mid infrared range made easier the development of infrared cameras with optimized detectors for astronomical observations from the ground. The CAMIRAS infrared camera, built by the 'Service d'Astrophysique' in Saclay is the instrument we have studied and we present its performances. Its sensitivity, given for an integration time of one minute on source and a signal to noise ratio of 3, is 0.15 Jy for punctual sources, and 20 mJy arcs"-"2 for extended sources. But we need to get rid of the enormous photon background so we have to find a better way of observation based on modulation techniques as 'chopping' or 'nodding'. Thus we show that a modulation about 1 Hz is satisfactory with our detectors arrays without perturbing the signal to noise ratio. As we have a good instrument and because we are able to get rid of the photon background, we can study astronomical objects. Results from a comet, dusty stellar disks, and an ultra-luminous galaxy are presented. (author) [fr

  19. An Exploration into Integrating Daylight and Artificial Light via an Observational Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin

    2015-01-01

    An Exploration into Integrating Daylight and Artificial Light via an Observational Instrument Daylight is dynamic and dependent upon weather conditions; unfolding with both subtle and dramatic variations in qualities of light. Through a building’s apertures, daylight creates a connection between...... abstract and blurred phenomena, these diffused luminous reflections rouse us into interactions with the world. In this book we are interested in identifying the qualitative parameters involved in the integration of dynamic artificial lighting and daylight; the latter being already highly dynamic by nature...... that examine how the dynamic artificial lighting in the observational instrument unfolds during the changing of the daylight situations that are generated by the weather outside. This research employs the concept of coupling between interior and exterior, in order to identify a spectrum of design parameters...

  20. High spatial resolution observations of the T Tau system - II. Interferometry in the mid-infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratzka, Thorsten

    2008-01-01

    Each time the resolution was improved, observations of the young low-mass star T Tau led to new insights. Initially classified as the prototype of low-mass pre-main-sequence stars, measurements with high resolution techniques in the near-infrared revealed the existence of a deeply embedded companion only 0.7 arcsec to the south. Later on, this companion itself has been resolved into two sources with a separation of only about 50 mas. We investigated both the optically bright northern component and the embedded southern binary with the MID-infrared Interferometric instrument (MIDI). The resulting visibilities of the northern component decrease with wavelength, independent of the baseline's position angle. This is a clear sign of the large face-on circumstellar disc. With a simultaneous fit of a radiative transfer model to both the interferometric results and the spectral energy distribution, the properties of this disc can be determined without the high degeneracy of fits to the spectral energy distribution alone. Since the visibilities of the southern binary are clearly dominated by the typical sinusoidal binary signal, we could for the first time in the mid-infrared derive separate spectra for both components together with a very precise relative position. This position is in excellent agreement with the orbit found from a fit to the near-infrared adaptive optics measurements. The orbit with its small periastron distance indicates tidally truncated discs, which are consistent with the interferometric measurements. The peculiar properties of the infrared companion can be explained by the model of an intermediate mass star extincted by an almost edge-on disc.

  1. Nonlinear optics in germanium mid-infrared fiber material: Detuning oscillations in femtosecond mid-infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ordu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Germanium optical fibers hold great promise in extending semiconductor photonics into the fundamentally important mid-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The demonstration of nonlinear response in fabricated Ge fiber samples is a key step in the development of mid-infrared fiber materials. Here we report the observation of detuning oscillations in a germanium fiber in the mid-infrared region using femtosecond dispersed pump-probe spectroscopy. Detuning oscillations are observed in the frequency-resolved response when mid-infrared pump and probe pulses are overlapped in a fiber segment. The oscillations arise from the nonlinear frequency resolved nonlinear (χ(3 response in the germanium semiconductor. Our work represents the first observation of coherent oscillations in the emerging field of germanium mid-infrared fiber optics.

  2. Introduction to experimental infrared spectroscopy fundamentals and practical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Tasumi, Mitsuo; Ochiai, Shukichi

    2014-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopy is generally understood to mean the science of spectra relating to infrared radiation, namely electromagnetic waves, in the wavelength region occurring intermediately between visible light and microwaves. Measurements of infrared spectra have been providing useful information, for a variety of scientific research and industrial studies, for over half a century; this is set to continue in the foreseeable future. Introduction to Experimental Infrared Spectroscopy is intended to be a handy guide for those who have no, or limited, experience in infrared spectroscopi

  3. Orbital Signatures from Observed Light Curves of Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Variability in active galactic nuclei is observed in UV to X-ray emission based light curves. This could be attributed to orbital signatures of the plasma that constitutes the accretion flow on the putative disk or in the developing jet close to the inner region of the central black hole. We discuss some theoretical ...

  4. Observation of a rainbow of visible colors in a near infrared cascaded Raman fiber laser and its novel application as a diagnostic tool for length resolved spectral analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparanji, Santosh; Balaswamy, V.; Arun, S.; Supradeepa, V. R.

    2018-02-01

    In this work, we report and analyse the surprising observation of a rainbow of visible colors, spanning 390nm to 620nm, in silica-based, Near Infrared, continuous-wave, cascaded Raman fiber lasers. The cascaded Raman laser is pumped at 1117nm at around 200W and at full power we obtain 100 W at 1480nm. With increasing pump power at 1117nm, the fiber constituting the Raman laser glows in various hues along its length. From spectroscopic analysis of the emitted visible light, it was identified to be harmonic and sum-frequency components of various locally propagating wavelength components. In addition to third harmonic components, surprisingly, even 2nd harmonic components were observed. Despite being a continuous-wave laser, we expect the phase-matching occurring between the core-propagating NIR light with the cladding-propagating visible wavelengths and the intensity fluctuations characteristic of Raman lasers to have played a major role in generation of visible light. In addition, this surprising generation of visible light provides us a powerful non-contact method to deduce the spectrum of light propagating in the fiber. Using static images of the fiber captured by a standard visible camera such as a DSLR, we demonstrate novel, image-processing based techniques to deduce the wavelength component propagating in the fiber at any given spatial location. This provides a powerful diagnostic tool for both length and power resolved spectral analysis in Raman fiber lasers. This helps accurate prediction of the optimal length of fiber required for complete and efficient conversion to a given Stokes wavelength.

  5. b-dipole transitions in trans-HOCO observed by far infrared laser magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sears, T.J.; Radford, H.E.; Moore, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    Far infrared laser magnetic resonance spectroscopy is used to measure components of 12 rotational transitions in the ground state of the HOCO radical. The transitions are all b-dipole in character in contrast to the a-dipole rotational spectrum previously reported [Radford, Wei, and Sears, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 3989 (1992)]. The new data determine the A rotational constant to high precision and allow the determination of several centrifugal distortion constants for the first time. The hyperfine coupling in the radical leads to observable splittings in several of the observed transitions and these are used to estimate two of the four expected nonzero hyperfine parameters in the radical

  6. Automated and observer based light field indicator edge evaluation in diagnostic X-ray equipment

    OpenAIRE

    Bottaro, Márcio; Nagy, Balázs Vince; Soares, Fernanda Cristina Salvador; Rosendo, Danilo Cabral

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction To analyze edge detection and optical contrast calculation of light field-indicators used in X-ray via automated- and observer-based methods, and comparison with current standard approaches, which do not give exact definition for light field edge determination. Methods Automated light sensor array was used to measure the penumbra zone of the edge in the standard X-ray equipment, while trained and naïve human observers were asked to mark the light field edge according t...

  7. Near-Infrared to Visible Organic Upconversion Devices Based on Organic Light-Emitting Field Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongwei; Hu, Yongsheng; Zhang, Nan; Lv, Ying; Lin, Jie; Guo, Xiaoyang; Fan, Yi; Luo, Jinsong; Liu, Xingyuan

    2017-10-18

    The near-infrared (NIR) to visible upconversion devices have attracted great attention because of their potential applications in the fields of night vision, medical imaging, and military security. Herein, a novel all-organic upconversion device architecture has been first proposed and developed by incorporating a NIR absorption layer between the carrier transport layer and the emission layer in heterostructured organic light-emitting field effect transistors (OLEFETs). The as-prepared devices show a typical photon-to-photon upconversion efficiency as high as 7% (maximum of 28.7% under low incident NIR power intensity) and millisecond-scale response time, which are the highest upconversion efficiency and one of the fastest response time among organic upconversion devices as referred to the previous reports up to now. The high upconversion performance mainly originates from the gain mechanism of field-effect transistor structures and the unique advantage of OLEFETs to balance between the photodetection and light emission. Meanwhile, the strategy of OLEFETs also offers the advantage of high integration so that no extra OLED is needed in the organic upconversion devices. The results would pave way for low-cost, flexible and portable organic upconversion devices with high efficiency and simplified processing.

  8. Red/near-infrared light-emitting diode therapy for traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeser, Margaret A.; Martin, Paula I.; Ho, Michael D.; Krengel, Maxine H.; Bogdanova, Yelena; Knight, Jeffrey A.; Yee, Megan K.; Zafonte, Ross; Frazier, Judith; Hamblin, Michael R.; Koo, Bang-Bon

    2015-05-01

    This invited paper reviews our research with scalp application of red/near-infrared (NIR) light-emitting diodes (LED) to improve cognition in chronic, traumatic brain injury 1. Application of red/NIR light improves mitochondrial function (especially hypoxic/compromised cells) promoting increased ATP, important for cellular metabolism. Nitric oxide is released locally, increasing regional cerebral blood flow. Eleven chronic, mTBI participants with closed-head injury and cognitive dysfunction received 18 outpatient treatments (MWF, 6 Wks) starting at 10 Mo. to 8 Yr. post-mTBI (MVA, sports-related, IED blast injury). LED therapy is non-invasive, painless, non-thermal (FDA-cleared, non-significant risk device). Each LED cluster head (2.1" diameter, 500mW, 22.2mW/cm2) was applied 10 min (13J/cm2) to 11 scalp placements: midline, from front-to-back hairline; and bilaterally on dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, temporal, and parietal areas. Testing performed pre- and post-LED (+1 Wk, 1 and 2 Mo post- 18th treatment) showed significant linear trend for LED effect over time, on improved executive function and verbal memory. Fewer PTSD symptoms were reported. New studies at VA Boston include TBI patients treated with transcranial LED (26J/cm2); or treated with only intranasal red, 633nm and NIR, 810nm diodes placed into the nostrils (25 min, 6.5mW, 11.4J/cm2). Intranasal LEDs are hypothesized to deliver photons to hippocampus. Results are similar to Naeser et al. (2014). Actigraphy sleep data show increased sleep time (average, +1 Hr/night) post-18th transcranial or intranasal LED treatment. LED treatments may be self-administered at home (Naeser et al., 2011). A shamcontrolled study with Gulf War Illness Veterans is underway.

  9. Infrared Observations of the Orion Capsule During EFT-1 Hypersonic Reentry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Thomas J.; Rufer, Shann J.; Schuster, David M.; Mendeck, Gavin F.; Oliver, A. Brandon; Schwartz, Richard J.; Verstynen, Harry A.; Mercer, C. David; Tack, Steven; Ingram, Ben; hide

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution infrared observations of the Orion capsule during its atmospheric reentry on December 5, 2015 were made from a US Navy NP-3D. This aircraft, equipped with a long-range optical sensor system, tracked the capsule from Mach 10 to 7 from a distance of approximately 60 nmi. Global surface temperatures of the capsule's thermal heatshield were derived from near infrared intensity measurements. The global surface temperature measurements complemented onboard instrumentation and were invaluable to the interpretation of the in-depth thermocouple measurements which rely on inverse heat transfer methods and material response codes to infer the desired surface temperature from the sub-surface measurements. The full paper will address the motivations behind the NASA Engineering Safety Center sponsored observation and highlight premission planning processes with an emphasis on aircraft placement, optimal instrument configuration and sensor calibrations. Critical aspects of mission operations coordinated from the NASA Johnson Spaceflight Center and integration with the JSC Flight Test Management Office will be discussed. A summary of the imagery that was obtained and processed to global surface temperature will be presented. At the capsule's point of closest approach relative to the imaging system, the spatial resolution was estimated to be approximately 15-inches per pixel and was sufficient to identify localized temperature increases associated with compression pad support hardware on the heatshield. The full paper will discuss the synergy of the quantitative imagery derived temperature maps with in-situ thermocouple measurements. Comparison of limited onboard surface thermocouple data to the image derived surface temperature will be presented. The two complimentary measurements serve as an example of the effective leveraging of resources to advance the understanding of high Mach number environments associated with an ablated heatshield and provide unique data

  10. Infrared observations of Comet Austin (1990 V) by the COBE/Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisse, C. M.; Freudenreich, H. T.; Hauser, M. G.; Kelsall, T.; Moseley, S. H.; Reach, W. T.; Silverberg, R. F.

    1994-01-01

    Comet Austin was observed by the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE)/Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) with broadband photometry at 1-240 micrometers during the comet's close passage by Earth in 1990 May. A 6 deg long (6 x 10(exp 6) km) dust tail was found at 12 and 25 micrometers, with detailed structure due to variations in particle properties and mass-loss rate. The spectrum of the central 42 x 42 sq arcmin pixel was found to agree with that of a graybody of temperature 309 +/- 5 K and optical depth 7.3 +/- 10(exp -8). Comparison with IUE and ground-based obervations indicates that particles of radius greater than 20 micrometers predominate by surface area. A mass-loss rate of 510 (+510/-205) kg/s and a total tail mass of 7 +/- 2 x 10(exp 10) kg was found for a model dust tail composed of Mie spheres with a differential particle mass distribution dn/d log m approx. m(exp -0.63) and 2:1 silicate:amorphous carbon composition by mass.

  11. Extending pure luminosity evolution models into the mid-infrared, far-infrared and submillimetre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Michael D.; Shanks, Tom

    2011-07-01

    Simple pure luminosity evolution (PLE) models, in which galaxies brighten at high redshift due to increased star formation rates (SFRs), are known to provide a good fit to the colours and number counts of galaxies throughout the optical and near-infrared. We show that optically defined PLE models, where dust reradiates absorbed optical light into infrared spectra composed of local galaxy templates, fit galaxy counts and colours out to 8 μm and to at least z≈ 2.5. At 24-70 μm, the model is able to reproduce the observed source counts with reasonable success if 16 per cent of spiral galaxies show an excess in mid-IR flux due to a warmer dust component and a higher SFR, in line with observations of local starburst galaxies. There remains an underprediction of the number of faint-flux, high-z sources at 24 μm, so we explore how the evolution may be altered to correct this. At 160 μm and longer wavelengths, the model fails, with our model of normal galaxies accounting for only a few percent of sources in these bands. However, we show that a PLE model of obscured AGN, which we have previously shown to give a good fit to observations at 850 μm, also provides a reasonable fit to the Herschel/BLAST number counts and redshift distributions at 250-500 μm. In the context of a ΛCDM cosmology, an AGN contribution at 250-870 μm would remove the need to invoke a top-heavy IMF for high-redshift starburst galaxies.

  12. Infrared radiation from an extrasolar planet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Drake; Seager, Sara; Richardson, L Jeremy; Harrington, Joseph

    2005-04-07

    A class of extrasolar giant planets--the so-called 'hot Jupiters' (ref. 1)--orbit within 0.05 au of their primary stars (1 au is the Sun-Earth distance). These planets should be hot and so emit detectable infrared radiation. The planet HD 209458b (refs 3, 4) is an ideal candidate for the detection and characterization of this infrared light because it is eclipsed by the star. This planet has an anomalously large radius (1.35 times that of Jupiter), which may be the result of ongoing tidal dissipation, but this explanation requires a non-zero orbital eccentricity (approximately 0.03; refs 6, 7), maintained by interaction with a hypothetical second planet. Here we report detection of infrared (24 microm) radiation from HD 209458b, by observing the decrement in flux during secondary eclipse, when the planet passes behind the star. The planet's 24-microm flux is 55 +/- 10 microJy (1sigma), with a brightness temperature of 1,130 +/- 150 K, confirming the predicted heating by stellar irradiation. The secondary eclipse occurs at the midpoint between transits of the planet in front of the star (to within +/- 7 min, 1sigma), which means that a dynamically significant orbital eccentricity is unlikely.

  13. CIMEX: a prototype Instrument to observe from space the amazon forest In the near and shortwave infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, François; Dantes, Didier; Savaria, Eric; Selingardi, Mario Luis; Montes, Amauri Silva

    2018-04-01

    This paper, "CIMEX: a prototype Instrument to observe from space the amazon forest In the near and shortwave infrared," was presented as part of International Conference on Space Optics—ICSO 1997, held in Toulouse, France.

  14. Ultrasensitive Detection of Infrared Photon Using Microcantilever: Theoretical Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li-Xin, Cao; Feng-Xin, Zhang; Yin-Fang, Zhu; Jin-Ling, Yang

    2010-01-01

    We present a new method for detecting near-infrared, mid-infrared, and far-infrared photons with an ultrahigh sensitivity. The infrared photon detection was carried out by monitoring the displacement change of a vibrating microcantilever under light pressure using a laser Doppler vibrometer. Ultrathin silicon cantilevers with high sensitivity were produced using micro/nano-fabrication technology. The photon detection system was set up. The response of the microcantilever to the photon illumination is theoretically estimated, and a nanowatt resolution for the infrared photon detection is expected at room temperature with this method

  15. A global climatology of stratospheric gravity waves from Atmospheric Infrared Sounder observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Lars; Xue, Xianghui; Alexander, M. Joan

    2014-05-01

    We present the results of a new study that aims on the detection and classification of `hotspots' of stratospheric gravity waves on a global scale. The analysis is based on a nine-year record (2003 to 2011) of radiance measurements by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) aboard NASA's Aqua satellite. We detect the presence of stratospheric gravity waves based on 4.3 micron brightness temperature variances. Our method is optimized for peak events, i.e., strong gravity wave events for which the local variance considerably exceeds background levels. We estimated the occurrence frequencies of these peak events for different seasons and time of day and used the results to find local maxima of gravity wave activity. In addition, we use AIRS radiances at 8.1 micron to simultaneously detect convective events, including deep convection in the tropics and mesoscale convective systems at mid latitudes. We classified the gravity waves according to their sources, based on seasonal occurrence frequencies for convection and by means of topographic data. Our study reproduces well-known hotspots of gravity waves, e.g., the mountain wave hotspots at the Andes and the Antarctic Peninsula or the convective hotspot during the thunderstorm season over the North American Great Plains. However, the high horizontal resolution of the AIRS observations also helped us to locate several smaller hotspots, which were partly unknown or poorly studied so far. Most of these smaller hotspots are found near orographic features like small mountain ranges, in coastal regions, in desert areas, or near isolated islands. This new study will help to select the most promising regions and seasons for future observational studies of gravity waves. Reference: Hoffmann, L., X. Xue, and M. J. Alexander, A global view of stratospheric gravity wave hotspots located with Atmospheric Infrared Sounder observations, J. Geophys. Res., 118, 416-434, doi:10.1029/2012JD018658, 2013.

  16. Dual-channel operation in a synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator for the generation of broadband mid-infrared coherent light sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pei; Wang, Sicong; He, Puyuan; Zhang, Zhaowei

    2018-05-01

    We report, to the best of our knowledge, a novel approach for generating broadband mid-infrared (mid-IR) light by implementing a dual-channel scheme in a synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator (SPOPO). Two-channel operation was achieved by inserting a prism pair and two reflection mirrors inside an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) cavity. Pumped by a Yb-fiber laser, the OPO generated an idler wave at ∼3150  nm with a -10  dB bandwidth of ∼13.2  THz, which was twice as much as that of the pump source. This scheme represents a promising technical route to transform conventional SPOPOs into a device capable of generating mid-IR light with very broad instantaneous bandwidth.

  17. Built-in hyperspectral camera for smartphone in visible, near-infrared and middle-infrared lights region (third report): spectroscopic imaging for broad-area and real-time componential analysis system against local unexpected terrorism and disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosono, Satsuki; Kawashima, Natsumi; Wollherr, Dirk; Ishimaru, Ichiro

    2016-05-01

    The distributed networks for information collection of chemical components with high-mobility objects, such as drones or smartphones, will work effectively for investigations, clarifications and predictions against unexpected local terrorisms and disasters like localized torrential downpours. We proposed and reported the proposed spectroscopic line-imager for smartphones in this conference. In this paper, we will mention the wide-area spectroscopic-image construction by estimating 6 DOF (Degrees Of Freedom: parallel movements=x,y,z and rotational movements=θx, θy, θz) from line data to observe and analyze surrounding chemical-environments. Recently, smartphone movies, what were photographed by peoples happened to be there, had worked effectively to analyze what kinds of phenomenon had happened around there. But when a gas tank suddenly blew up, we did not recognize from visible-light RGB-color cameras what kinds of chemical gas components were polluting surrounding atmospheres. Conventionally Fourier spectroscopy had been well known as chemical components analysis in laboratory usages. But volatile gases should be analyzed promptly at accident sites. And because the humidity absorption in near and middle infrared lights has very high sensitivity, we will be able to detect humidity in the sky from wide field spectroscopic image. And also recently, 6-DOF sensors are easily utilized for estimation of position and attitude for UAV (Unmanned Air Vehicle) or smartphone. But for observing long-distance views, accuracies of angle measurements were not sufficient to merge line data because of leverage theory. Thus, by searching corresponding pixels between line spectroscopic images, we are trying to estimate 6-DOF in high accuracy.

  18. Automated and observer based light field indicator edge evaluation in diagnostic X-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottaro, Marcio; Nagy, Balazs Vince; Soares, Fernanda Cristina Salvador; Rosendo, Danilo Cabral

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: To analyze edge detection and optical contrast calculation of light field-indicators used in X-ray via automated- and observer-based methods, and comparison with current standard approaches, which do not give exact definition for light field edge determination. Methods: Automated light sensor array was used to measure the penumbra zone of the edge in the standard X-ray equipment, while trained and naive human observers were asked to mark the light field edge according to their own determination. Different interpretations of the contrast were then calculated and compared. Results: In contrast to automated measurements of edge definition and detection, measurements by human observers showed large inter-observer variation independent of their training with X-ray equipment. Different contrast calculations considering the different edge definitions gave very different contrast values. Conclusion: As the main conclusion, we propose a more exact edge definition of the X-ray light field, corresponding well to the average human observer's edge determination. The new edge definition method with automated systems would reduce human variability in edge determination. Such errors could potentially affect the approval of X-ray equipment, and also increase the radiation dose. The automated measurement based on human observers’ edge definition and the corresponding contrast calculation may lead to a more precise light field calibration, which enables reduced irradiation doses on radiology patients. (author)

  19. Automated and observer based light field indicator edge evaluation in diagnostic X-ray equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottaro, Marcio; Nagy, Balazs Vince; Soares, Fernanda Cristina Salvador; Rosendo, Danilo Cabral, E-mail: marcio@iee.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil); Optics and Engineering Informatics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest (Hungary)

    2017-04-15

    Introduction: To analyze edge detection and optical contrast calculation of light field-indicators used in X-ray via automated- and observer-based methods, and comparison with current standard approaches, which do not give exact definition for light field edge determination. Methods: Automated light sensor array was used to measure the penumbra zone of the edge in the standard X-ray equipment, while trained and naive human observers were asked to mark the light field edge according to their own determination. Different interpretations of the contrast were then calculated and compared. Results: In contrast to automated measurements of edge definition and detection, measurements by human observers showed large inter-observer variation independent of their training with X-ray equipment. Different contrast calculations considering the different edge definitions gave very different contrast values. Conclusion: As the main conclusion, we propose a more exact edge definition of the X-ray light field, corresponding well to the average human observer's edge determination. The new edge definition method with automated systems would reduce human variability in edge determination. Such errors could potentially affect the approval of X-ray equipment, and also increase the radiation dose. The automated measurement based on human observers’ edge definition and the corresponding contrast calculation may lead to a more precise light field calibration, which enables reduced irradiation doses on radiology patients. (author)

  20. Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors: Device Physics and Light Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandara, S. V.; Gunapala, S. D.; Liu, J. K.; Mumolo, J.; Luong, E.; Hong, W.; Sengupta, D. K.

    1997-01-01

    It is customary to make infrared (IR) detectors in the long wavelength range by utilizing the interband transition which promotes an electron across the band gap (Eg) from the valence band to the conduction.

  1. Ultraviolet, X-ray, and infrared observations of HDE 226868 equals Cygnus X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treves, A.; Chiappetti, L.; Tanzi, E. G.; Tarenghi, M.; Gursky, H.; Dupree, A. K.; Hartmann, L. W.; Raymond, J.; Davis, R. J.; Black, J.

    1980-01-01

    During April, May, and July of 1978, HDE 226868, the optical counterpart of Cygnus X-1, was repeatedly observed in the ultraviolet with the IUE satellite. Some X-ray and infrared observations have been made during the same period. The general shape of the spectrum is that expected from a late O supergiant. Strong absorption features are apparent in the ultraviolet, some of which have been identified. The equivalent widths of the most prominent lines appear to be modulated with the orbital phase. This modulation is discussed in terms of the ionization contours calculated by Hatchett and McCray, for a binary X-ray source in the stellar wind of the companion.

  2. Far-infrared Spectral Radiance Observations and Modeling of Arctic Cirrus: Preliminary Results From RHUBC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humpage, Neil; Green, Paul D.; Harries, John E.

    2009-03-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the important contribution of the far-infrared (electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths greater than 12 μm) to the Earth's radiative energy budget. In a cloud-free atmosphere, a significant fraction of the Earth's cooling to space from the mid- and upper troposphere takes place via the water vapor pure rotational band between 17 and 33 μm. Cirrus clouds also play an important role in the Earth's outgoing longwave radiation. The effect of cirrus on far-infrared radiation is of particular interest, since the refractive index of ice depends strongly on wavelength in this spectral region. The scattering properties of ice crystals are directly related to the refractive index, so consequently the spectral signature of cirrus measured in the FIR is sensitive to the cloud microphysical properties [1, 2]. By examining radiances measured at wavelengths between the strong water vapor absorption lines in the FIR, the understanding of the relationship between cirrus microphysics and the radiative transfer of thermal energy through cirrus may be improved. Until recently, very few observations of FIR spectral radiances had been made. The Tropospheric Airborne Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TAFTS) was developed by Imperial College to address this lack of observational data. TAFTS observes both zenith and nadir radiances at 0.1 cm-1 resolution, between 80 and 600 cm-1. During February and March 2007, TAFTS was involved in RHUBC (the Radiative Heating in Under-explored Bands Campaign), an ARM funded field campaign based at the ACRF-North Slope of Alaska site near Barrow, situated at 71° latitude. Infrared zenith spectral observations were taken by both TAFTS and the AERI-ER (spectral range 400-3300 cm-1) from the ground during both cloud-free and cirrus conditions. A wide range of other instrumentation was also available at the site, including a micropulse lidar, 35 GHz radar and the University of Colorado/NOAA Ground-based Scanning Radiometer

  3. Graphical User Interface for an Observing Control System for the UK Infrared Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, M.; Bridger, A.; Wright, G. S.; Adamson, A. J.; Currie, M. J.; Economou, F.

    A Graphical user interface for the observing control system of UK Infrared Telescope has been developed as a part of the ORAC (Observatory Reduction and Acquisition Control) Project. We analyzed and designed the system using the Unified Modelling Language (UML) with the CASE tool Rational Rose 98. The system has been implemented in a modular way with Java packages using Swing and RMI. This system is component-based with pluggability. Object orientation concepts and UML notations have been applied throughout the development.

  4. A user-friendly technical set-up for infrared photography of forensic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost, Thomas; Kalberer, Nicole; Scheurer, Eva

    2017-09-01

    Infrared photography is interesting for a use in forensic science and forensic medicine since it reveals findings that normally are almost invisible to the human eye. Originally, infrared photography has been made possible by the placement of an infrared light transmission filter screwed in front of the camera objective lens. However, this set-up is associated with many drawbacks such as the loss of the autofocus function, the need of an external infrared source, and long exposure times which make the use of a tripod necessary. These limitations prevented up to now the routine application of infrared photography in forensics. In this study the use of a professional modification inside the digital camera body was evaluated regarding camera handling and image quality. This permanent modification consisted of the replacement of the in-built infrared blocking filter by an infrared transmission filter of 700nm and 830nm, respectively. The application of this camera set-up for the photo-documentation of forensically relevant post-mortem findings was investigated in examples of trace evidence such as gunshot residues on the skin, in external findings, e.g. hematomas, as well as in an exemplary internal finding, i.e., Wischnewski spots in a putrefied stomach. The application of scattered light created by indirect flashlight yielded a more uniform illumination of the object, and the use of the 700nm filter resulted in better pictures than the 830nm filter. Compared to pictures taken under visible light, infrared photographs generally yielded better contrast. This allowed for discerning more details and revealed findings which were not visible otherwise, such as imprints on a fabric and tattoos in mummified skin. The permanent modification of a digital camera by building in a 700nm infrared transmission filter resulted in a user-friendly and efficient set-up which qualified for the use in daily forensic routine. Main advantages were a clear picture in the viewfinder, an auto

  5. Mass loss rates of OB stars derived from infrared observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanzi, E.G.; Tarenghi, M.; Panagia, N.

    1981-01-01

    In this paper the authors report briefly on a study of the mass loss of early type stars in the infrared. Up to now near infrared (1.25 - 4.8 μ) broad band photometry of 70 southern OB stars of various luminosity class has been secured. Program stars have been selected, among those bright enough in the infrared to give a suitable photometric accuracy, in order to cover a wide range of spectral types. 37 stars are found to exhibit emission in excess over a blackbody photospheric continuum, which is interpreted in terms of gas ejected in the form of an accelerated wind. By means of model calculations the corresponding mass loss rates are derived. The obtained values compare well with those determined independently by various authors for stars in common. Their data show that mass loss rates increase with luminosity and are a decreasing function of surface gravity. (Auth.)

  6. Near infrared and extreme ultraviolet light pulses induced modifications of ultrathin Co films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kisielewski

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We report on comparative study of magnetic properties of Pt/Co/Pt trilayers after irradiation with different light sources. Ultrathin Pt/Co/Pt films were deposited by molecular beam epitaxy technique on sapphire (0001 substrates. Pt buffers were grown at room temperature (RT and at 750°C (high temperature, HT. The samples were irradiated with a broad range of light energy densities (up to film ablation using two different single pulse irradiation sources: (i 40 fs laser with 800 nm wavelength and (ii 3 ns laser-plasma source of extreme ultraviolet (EUV with the most intense emission centered at 11 nm. The light pulse-driven irreversible structural and as a consequence, magnetic modifications were investigated using polar magneto-optical Kerr effect-based microscopy and atomic and magnetic force microscopies. The light pulse-induced transitions from the out-of-plane to in-plane magnetization state, and from in-plane to out-of-plane, were observed for both types of samples and irradiation methods. Diagrams of the magnetic states as a function of the Co layer thickness and energy density of the absorbed femtosecond pulses were constructed for the samples with both the RT and HT buffers. The energy density range responsible for the creation of the out-of-plane magnetization was wider for the HT than for RT buffer. This is correlated with the higher (for HT crystalline quality and much smoother Pt/Co surface deduced from the X-ray diffraction studies. Submicrometer magnetic domains were observed in the irradiated region while approaching the out-of-plane magnetization state. Changes of Pt/Co/Pt structures are discussed for both types of light pulses.

  7. Superfast Near-Infrared Light-Driven Polymer Multilayer Rockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhiguang; Si, Tieyan; Gao, Wei; Lin, Xiankun; Wang, Joseph; He, Qiang

    2016-02-03

    A gold nanoshell-functionalized polymer multilayer nanorocket performs self-propulsion upon the irradiation with NIR light in the absence of chemical fuel. Theoretical simulations reveal that the NIR light-triggered self-thermophoresis drives the propulsion of the nanorocket. The nanorocket also displays -efficient NIR light-triggered propulsion in -biofluids and thus holds considerable promise for various potential biomedical applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Wide-angle ITER-prototype tangential infrared and visible viewing system for DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasnier, C. J., E-mail: lasnier@LLNL.gov; Allen, S. L.; Ellis, R. E.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; McLean, A. G.; Meyer, W. H.; Morris, K.; Seppala, L. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551-0808 (United States); Crabtree, K. [College of Optics, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Van Zeeland, M. A. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    An imaging system with a wide-angle tangential view of the full poloidal cross-section of the tokamak in simultaneous infrared and visible light has been installed on DIII-D. The optical train includes three polished stainless steel mirrors in vacuum, which view the tokamak through an aperture in the first mirror, similar to the design concept proposed for ITER. A dichroic beam splitter outside the vacuum separates visible and infrared (IR) light. Spatial calibration is accomplished by warping a CAD-rendered image to align with landmarks in a data image. The IR camera provides scrape-off layer heat flux profile deposition features in diverted and inner-wall-limited plasmas, such as heat flux reduction in pumped radiative divertor shots. Demonstration of the system to date includes observation of fast-ion losses to the outer wall during neutral beam injection, and shows reduced peak wall heat loading with disruption mitigation by injection of a massive gas puff.

  9. Photometrical Observations "SBIRS GEO-2"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhov, P. P.; Epishev, V. P.; Karpenko, G. F.; Sukhov, K. P.; Kudak, V. I.

    2015-08-01

    Photometrical observations GSS "SBIRS GEO 2" in B,V,R filters were carried near the equinoxes 2014-2015. Used velocity electrophotometer based on the FEU-79 in the pulse-counting mode. Received more than 25 light curves. From the known dimensions are defined; effective reflecting area - Sγλ, the spectral reflectance index - γλ, periods of light variation. Color-indices showed that in the reflected light flux from the GSS prevails "red" component. In the light curves are periodically dips and specular flash. This shows that GSS orbit is not in a static position specified triaxial orientation as in dynamic motion. Assumed following dynamics of the satellite "SBIRS GEO 2" in orbit. Helical scanning the Earth's surface visible infrared sensors satellite occurs with a period P1 = 15.66 sec. and swinging of the GSS about the direction of the motion vector of the satellite in an orbit with P2 = 62.64 sec., from the northern to the southern pole. Thus, during the period of swinging GSS going on 2 scan the visible part of the northern and southern hemispheres. In some dates observations dynamics work satellite in orbit changed.

  10. Infrared spectroscopy and photochemistry of NCCN+ and CNCN+ trapped in solid neon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacox, Marilyn E.; Thompson, Warren E.

    2007-01-01

    When a Ne:NCCN sample is codeposited at 4.3 K with neon atoms that have been excited in a microwave discharge, the infrared and near infrared spectra of the resulting deposit include a prominent peak at 1799.5 cm -1 , previously assigned to ν 3 of NCCN + , and several new absorptions at higher frequencies which are contributed by combination bands of ground-state NCCN + . The exposure of the deposit to near infrared and red light results in the appearance of two new absorptions which are attributed to CNCN + . The reverse isomerization occurs when the sample is exposed to near ultraviolet radiation, but the two new absorptions are regenerated upon subsequent irradiation with near infrared and red light

  11. Photometric Observation and Light Curve Analysis of Binary System ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Photometric Observation and Light Curve Analysis of Binary System ER-Orionis ... February to April 2008 with the 51 cm telescope of Biruni Observatory of Shiraz University in U, B and V filters (Johnson system) and an RCA 4509 photomultiplier. ... Articles are also visible in Web of Science immediately.

  12. Interband cascade light emitting devices based on type-II quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Rui Q.; Lin, C.H.; Murry, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    The authors discuss physical processes in the newly developed type-II interband cascade light emitting devices, and review their recent progress in the demonstration of the first type-II interband cascade lasers and the observation of interband cascade electroluminescence up to room temperature in a broad mid-infrared wavelength region (extended to 9 μm)

  13. Effect of low-level light therapy on diabetic foot ulcers: a near-infrared spectroscopy study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvi, Massimo; Rimini, Daniele; Molinari, Filippo; Bestente, Gianni; Bruno, Alberto

    2017-03-01

    Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) is a diabetic complication due to peripheral vasculopathy and neuropathy. A promising technology for wound healing in DFU is low-level light therapy (LLLT). Despite several studies showing positive effects of LLLT on DFU, LLLT's physiological effects have not yet been studied. The objective of this study was to investigate vascular and nervous systems modification in DFU after LLLT. Two samples of 45 DFU patients and 11 healthy controls (HCs) were recruited. The total hemoglobin (totHb) concentration change was monitored before and after LLLT by near-infrared spectroscopy and analyzed in time and frequency domains. The spectral power of the totHb changes in the very-low frequency (VLF, 20 to 60 mHz) and low frequency (LF, 60 to 140 mHz) bandwidths was calculated. Data analysis revealed a mean increase of totHb concentration after LLLT in DFU patients, but not in HC. VLF/LF ratio decreased significantly after the LLLT period in DFU patients (indicating an increased activity of the autonomic nervous system), but not in HC. Eventually, different treatment intensities in LLLT therapy showed a different response in DFU. Overall, our results demonstrate that LLLT improves blood flow and autonomic nervous system regulation in DFU and the importance of light intensity in therapeutic protocols.

  14. A visible and infrared study of the eclipsing dwarf nova Oy Carinae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berriman, G.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents three simultaneous visible (V) and infrared (J,H,K) light curves of the eclipsing dwarf nova binary system OY Carinae in quiescence. The infrared light curves show a secondary minimum, not seen in the visible, which is the ellipsoidal variations of the red dwarf and its eclipse by the accretion disc surrounding the white dwarf companion. The red star, an M dwarf, supplies between 30 and 60 per cent of the total light at J,H and K. This requires that the system is between 100 and 300 pc away. The infrared continuum of the accretion disc around the white dwarf companion comes largely from the optically thin gas giving rise to the emission lines seen in the visible and ultraviolet. (author)

  15. Automated and observer based light field indicator edge evaluation in diagnostic X-ray equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Bottaro

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction To analyze edge detection and optical contrast calculation of light field-indicators used in X-ray via automated- and observer-based methods, and comparison with current standard approaches, which do not give exact definition for light field edge determination. Methods Automated light sensor array was used to measure the penumbra zone of the edge in the standard X-ray equipment, while trained and naïve human observers were asked to mark the light field edge according to their own determination. Different interpretations of the contrast were then calculated and compared. Results In contrast to automated measurements of edge definition and detection, measurements by human observers showed large inter-observer variation independent of their training with X-ray equipment. Different contrast calculations considering the different edge definitions gave very different contrast values. Conclusion As the main conclusion, we propose a more exact edge definition of the X-ray light field, corresponding well to the average human observer’s edge determination. The new edge definition method with automated systems would reduce human variability in edge determination. Such errors could potentially affect the approval of X-ray equipment, and also increase the radiation dose. The automated measurement based on human observers’ edge definition and the corresponding contrast calculation may lead to a more precise light field calibration, which enables reduced irradiation doses on radiology patients.

  16. A simple infrared-augmented digital photography technique for detection of pupillary abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shazly, Tarek A; Bonhomme, G R

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe a simple infrared photography technique to aid in the diagnosis and documentation of pupillary abnormalities. An unmodified 12-megapixel "point and shoot" digital camera was used to obtain binocular still photos and videos under different light conditions with near-infrared illuminating frames. The near-infrared light of 850 nm allows the capture of clear pupil images in both dim and bright light conditions. It also allows easy visualization of the pupil despite pigmented irides by augmenting the contrast between the iris and the pupil. The photos and videos obtained illustrated a variety of pupillary abnormalities using the aforementioned technique. This infrared-augmented photography technique supplements medical education, and aids in the more rapid detection, diagnosis, and documentation of a wide spectrum of pupillary abnormalities. Its portability and ease of use with minimal training complements the education of trainees and facilitates the establishment of difficult diagnoses.

  17. Indirect application of near infrared light induces neuro-protection in a mouse model of parkinsonism - an abscopal neuro-protective effective evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnstone, D.M.; Spana, S.; Purushothuman, S.; Stone, J.; Mitrofanis, J.; Johnstone, D.M.; Spana, S.; Purushothuman, S.; Stone, J.; El Massri, N.; Mitrofanis, J.; Moro, C.; Torres, N.; Chabrol, C.; De Jaeger, X.; Reinhart, F.; Benabid, A.L.; Wang, X.S.

    2014-01-01

    We have previously shown near infrared light (NIr), directed transcranially, mitigates the loss of dopaminergic cells in MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine)-treated mice, a model of parkinsonism. These findings complement others suggesting NIr treatment protects against damage from various insults. However one puzzling feature of NIr treatment is that unilateral exposure can lead to a bilateral healing response, suggesting NIr may have 'indirect' protective effects. We investigated whether remote NIr treatment is neuro-protective by administering different MPTP doses (50-, 75-, 100-mg/kg) to mice and treating with 670-nm light directed specifically at either the head or body. Our results show that, despite no direct irradiation of the damaged tissue, remote NIr treatment produces a significant rescue of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells in the substantia nigra pars compacta at the milder MPTP dose of 50-mg/kg (30% increase vs sham-treated MPTP mice, p≤ 0.05). However this protection did not appear as robust as that achieved by direct irradiation of the head (50% increase vs sham-treated MPTP mice, p ≤0.001). There was no quantifiable protective effect of NIr at higher MPTP doses, irrespective of the delivery mode. Astrocyte and microglia cell numbers in substantia nigra pars compacta were not influenced by either mode of NIr treatment. In summary, the findings suggest that treatment of a remote tissue with NIr is sufficient to induce protection of the brain, reminiscent of the 'abscopal effect' sometimes observed in radiation treatment of metastatic cancer. This discovery has implications for the clinical translation of light-based therapies, providing an improved mode of delivery over trans-cranial irradiation. (authors)

  18. Infrared spectroscopy and density functional theory investigation of calcite, chalk, and coccoliths-do we observe the mineral surface?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Martin Peter; Hem, Caroline Piper; Schultz, Logan Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    broadening from macroscopic dielectric effects. We detect water adsorbed on the high surface area synthetic calcite, which permits observation of the chemistry of thin liquid films on calcite using transmission infrared spectroscopy. The combination of infrared spectroscopy and density functional theory also...... asymmetric for the coccoliths and the synthetic calcite prepared using the carbonation method. It can be very well fitted by two peaks: a narrow Lorenzian at lower frequency and a broader Gaussian at higher frequency. These two samples both have a high specific surface area. Density functional theory...

  19. New Light on Dark Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Using ESO's Very Large Telescope Interferometer, astronomers have probed the inner parts of the disc of material surrounding a young stellar object, witnessing how it gains its mass before becoming an adult. ESO PR Photo 03/08 ESO PR Photo 03a/08 The disc around MWC 147 (Artist's Impression) The astronomers had a close look at the object known as MWC 147, lying about 2,600 light years away towards the constellation of Monoceros ('the Unicorn'). MWC 147 belongs to the family of Herbig Ae/Be objects. These have a few times the mass of our Sun and are still forming, increasing in mass by swallowing material present in a surrounding disc. MWC 147 is less than half a million years old. If one associated the middle-aged, 4.6 billion year old Sun with a person in his early forties, MWC 147 would be a 1-day-old baby [1]. The morphology of the inner environment of these young stars is however a matter of debate and knowledge of it is important to better understand how stars and their cortège of planets form. The astronomers Stefan Kraus, Thomas Preibisch, and Keiichi Ohnaka have used the four 8.2-m Unit Telescopes of ESO's Very Large Telescope to this purpose, combining the light from two or three telescopes with the MIDI and AMBER instruments. "With our VLTI/MIDI and VLTI/AMBER observations of MWC147, we combine, for the first time, near- and mid-infrared interferometric observations of a Herbig Ae/Be star, providing a measurement of the disc size over a wide wavelength range [2]," said Stefan Kraus, lead-author of the paper reporting the results. "Different wavelength regimes trace different temperatures, allowing us to probe the disc's geometry on the smaller scale, but also to constrain how the temperature changes with the distance from the star." The near-infrared observations probe hot material with temperatures of up to a few thousand degrees in the innermost disc regions, while the mid-infrared observations trace cooler dust further out in the disc. The

  20. Dissecting a Light Echo

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for audio animation This animation illustrates how a light echo works, and how an optical illusion of material moving outward is created. A light echo occurs when a star explodes, acting like a cosmic flashbulb. The light from this explosion zips through nearby dust clumps, illuminating and heating them up slightly. This brief period of warming causes them to glow in infrared, like a chain of Christmas bulbs lighting up one by one. The animation starts by showing the explosion of a star, which results in a flash of light that moves outward in all directions. The direction of our line of sight from Earth is indicated by the blue arrow. When the light flash reaches surrounding dust, shown here as three dark clouds, the dust is heated up, creating infrared light that begins to travel toward Earth (indicated by the red arrows). Dust closest to the explosion lights up first, while the explosion's shock wave takes longer to reach more distant material. This results in light from different parts of the cloud reaching Earth at different times, creating the illusion of motion over time. As the animation shows, the inclination of the cloud toward our line of sight can result in the material seeming to move both away from and toward the central star.

  1. ISO far-infrared observations of rich galaxy clusters I. Abell 2670

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lene; Jorgensen, H.E.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik

    1999-01-01

    As part of an investigation of far-infrared emission from rich galaxy clusters the central part of Abell 2670 has been mapped with ISO at 60 mu m, 100 mu m, 135 mu m, and 200 mu m using the PHT-C camera. Point sources detected in the field have infrared fluxes comparable to normal spirals...

  2. HAWC+/SOFIA observations of Rho Oph A: far-infrared polarization spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Fabio; Dowell, Charles D.; Houde, Martin; Looney, Leslie; Lopez-Rodriguez, Enrique; Novak, Giles; Ward-Thompson, Derek; HAWC+ Science Team

    2018-01-01

    In this work, we present preliminary results from the HAWC+ far-infrared polarimeter that operates on the SOFIA airborne observatory. The densest portions of the Rho Ophiuchi molecular complex, known as Rho Oph A, have been mapped using HAWC+ bands C (89 microns) and D (155 microns). Rho Oph A is a well known nearby star forming region. At the target's distance of approximately 130 pc, our observations provide excellent spatial resolution (~5 mpc in band C).The magnetic field map suggests a compressed and distorted field morphology around Oph S1, a massive B3 star that is the main heat source of Rho Oph A. We compute the ratio p(D)/p(C), where p(C) and p(D) are the polarization degree maps at bands C and D, respectively. This ratio estimates the slope of the polarization spectrum in the far-infrared. Although the slope is predicted to be positive by dust grain models, previous observations of other molecular clouds have revealed that negative slopes are common. In Rho Oph A, we find that there is a smooth gradient of p(D)/p(C) across the mapped field. The change in p(D)/p(C) is well correlated with the integrated NH3 (1,1) emission. A positive slope dominates the lower density and well illuminated portions of the cloud, whereas a transition to a negative slope is observed at the denser and less evenly illuminated cloud core.We interpret the positive to negative slope transition as being consistent with the radiative torques (RATs) grain alignment theory. For the sight lines of higher column density, polarized emission from the warmer outer cloud layers is added to emission from the colder inner well-shielded layers lying along the same line-of-sight. Given that the outer layers receive more radiation from Oph S1, their grain alignment efficiency is expected to be higher according to RATs. The combination of warmer, well aligned grains with cooler, poorly aligned grains is what causes the negative slope. This effect is not present in the sight lines of lower column

  3. Eye safety related to near infrared radiation exposure to biometric devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourkoumelis, Nikolaos; Tzaphlidou, Margaret

    2011-03-01

    Biometrics has become an emerging field of technology due to its intrinsic security features concerning the identification of individuals by means of measurable biological characteristics. Two of the most promising biometric modalities are iris and retina recognition, which primarily use nonionizing radiation in the infrared region. Illumination of the eye is achieved by infrared light emitting diodes (LEDs). Even if few LED sources are capable of causing direct eye damage as they emit incoherent light, there is a growing concern about the possible use of LED arrays that might pose a potential threat. Exposure to intense coherent infrared radiation has been proven to have significant effects on living tissues. The purpose of this study is to explore the biological effects arising from exposing the eye to near infrared radiation with reference to international legislation.

  4. Cooling atomic ions with visible and infra-red light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenfelser, F.; Marinelli, M.; Negnevitsky, V.; Ragg, S.; Home, J. P.

    2017-06-01

    We demonstrate the ability to load, cool and detect singly charged calcium ions in a surface electrode trap using only visible and infrared lasers for the trapped-ion control. As opposed to the standard methods of cooling using dipole-allowed transitions, we combine power broadening of a quadrupole transition at 729 nm with quenching of the upper level using a dipole allowed transition at 854 nm. By observing the resulting 393 nm fluorescence we are able to perform background-free detection of the ion. We show that this system can be used to smoothly transition between the Doppler cooling and sideband cooling regimes, and verify theoretical predictions throughout this range. We achieve scattering rates which reliably allow recooling after collision events and allow ions to be loaded from a thermal atomic beam. This work is compatible with recent advances in optical waveguides, and thus opens a path in current technologies for large-scale quantum information processing. In situations where dielectric materials are placed close to trapped ions, it carries the additional advantage of using wavelengths which do not lead to significant charging, which should facilitate high rate optical interfaces between remotely held ions.

  5. Near infrared and visible face recognition based on decision fusion of LBP and DCT features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhihua; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Guodong; Xiong, Jinquan

    2018-03-01

    Visible face recognition systems, being vulnerable to illumination, expression, and pose, can not achieve robust performance in unconstrained situations. Meanwhile, near infrared face images, being light- independent, can avoid or limit the drawbacks of face recognition in visible light, but its main challenges are low resolution and signal noise ratio (SNR). Therefore, near infrared and visible fusion face recognition has become an important direction in the field of unconstrained face recognition research. In order to extract the discriminative complementary features between near infrared and visible images, in this paper, we proposed a novel near infrared and visible face fusion recognition algorithm based on DCT and LBP features. Firstly, the effective features in near-infrared face image are extracted by the low frequency part of DCT coefficients and the partition histograms of LBP operator. Secondly, the LBP features of visible-light face image are extracted to compensate for the lacking detail features of the near-infrared face image. Then, the LBP features of visible-light face image, the DCT and LBP features of near-infrared face image are sent to each classifier for labeling. Finally, decision level fusion strategy is used to obtain the final recognition result. The visible and near infrared face recognition is tested on HITSZ Lab2 visible and near infrared face database. The experiment results show that the proposed method extracts the complementary features of near-infrared and visible face images and improves the robustness of unconstrained face recognition. Especially for the circumstance of small training samples, the recognition rate of proposed method can reach 96.13%, which has improved significantly than 92.75 % of the method based on statistical feature fusion.

  6. Observations of zodiacal light of the isolated Herbig BF Ori Ae star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinin, V.P.; Kiselev, N.N.; Minikulov, N.Kh.; AN Tadzhikskoj SSR, Dushanbe

    1989-01-01

    The isolated Herbig BF Ori Ae-star belongs to the subclass of young irreguLar variables with non-periodic Algol-type brightness variations. In the course of polarization and photometrical patrol observations carried out in 1987-88 in the Crimea and Sanglock, high linear polarization has been observed in deep minima. The analysis of the observations show, that the most probably a source of polarization is the scattered light from the circumstellar dust disklike envelope that is the analogue of the solar zodiacal light. It is concluded that the bimodal distribution oF positional angles of linear polarization in L 1641 reflects a complex structure of the magnetic field in this giant cloud

  7. Enhanced middle-infrared light transmission through Au/SiO(x)N(y)/Au aperture arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Gongli; Yao, Xiang; Ji, Xinming; Zhou, Jia; Bao, Zongming; Huang, Yiping

    2011-12-01

    The enhanced middle-infrared light transmission through Au/SiO(x)N(y)/Au aperture arrays by changing the refractive index and the thickness of a dielectric layer was studied experimentally. The results indicated that the transmission spectra was highly dependent on the refractive index and the thickness of SiO(x)N(y). We found that the transmission peaks redshifted regularly along with the refractive index from 1.6 to 1.8, owing to the role of surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) coupling in the Au/SiO(x)N(y)/Au cascaded metallic structure. Simultaneously, a higher transmission efficiency and narrower transmission peak was obtained in Au/SiO2.1N0.3/Au cascaded metallic structure with small refractive index (1.6) than in Au/SiO0.6N1/Au cascaded metallic structure with large refractive index (1.8). When the thickness of SiO(x)N(y) changes from 0.2 to 0.4 microm, the shape of transmission spectra exhibits a large change. It was found that a higher transmission efficiency and narrower transmission peak was obtained in Au/SiO(x)N(y)/Au cascaded metallic structure with a thin dielectric film (0.2 microm), with the increase of SiO(x)N(y) film's thickness, the transmission peak gradually widened and disappeared finally. This effect is useful in applications of biochemical sensing and tunable integrated plasmonic devices in the middle-infrared region.

  8. Trends of light particle spectra observed in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awes, T.C.; Poggi, G.; Saini, S.; Gelbke, C.K.; Legrain, R.; Westfall, G.D.

    1981-01-01

    The emission of energetic light particles (p,d,t) has been studied for 16 O induced reactions on Al, Zr and Au targets at the incident energies of 140, 215 and 310 MeV. The light-particle energy spectra have been analyzed in terms of a moving thermal source. The apparent temperatures exhibit a systematic variation as a function of the incident energy per nucleon above the Coulomb barrier. The observed trend can be extrapolated in a smooth fashion to temperatures obtained in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. (orig.)

  9. High tunability and superluminescence in InAs mid-infrared light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherstnev, V.V.; Krier, A.; Hill, G.

    2002-01-01

    We report on the observation of super luminescence and high spectral current tunability (181 nm) of InAs light emitting diodes operating at 3.0 μm. The source is based on an optical whispering gallery mode which is generated near the edges of the mesa and which is responsible for the superluminescence. (author)

  10. Characterization of exorings in the infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, C.; Pantin, E.; Ferrari, C.

    2012-04-01

    After the discovery of more than 700 exoplanets, numerous future instruments are now designed to characterize their atmospheres, surfaces and surroundings. Do they have moons or rings, like the planets of our solar system? In the solar system, all giant planets are surrounded by rings, so that exorings can be expected around giant exoplanets. Their presence around telluric planets, like super Earths is also an exciting possibility. Indeed, some theories of the formation of the Moon (Cameron & Ward, 1976 [1]) assume Earth once had a ring, and super Earths could even support naturally more extended rings because of their greater density. Moreover, the presence of exorings is closely linked to theories of planetary formation. Since the study of extra-solar planetary systems enables to see planets at different moments of their evolution, being able to also observe rings could contribute to the development of formation theories not only of rings themselves, but also of planets. Different methods can be used to detect and characterize exorings. The transit of an exoplanet similar to Saturn in front of a solar type star could reveal rings like those of Saturn with the Kepler instrument (Barnes and Fortney, 2004[2]). In visible light, a planet with rings would show a lot of signatures when studying the light reflected by the whole system. However, there is no instrument currently capable of seeing them, nor will there be any in the coming years (Arnold and Schneider, 2004 [3]). We chose to study exorings in the infrared, first because the instrumental context is propitious, with forthcoming instruments expected in the infrared domain like MIRI/JWST and METIS/E-ELT, and second, because of the favorable contrast in the infrared between stars and planets. The effects that rings could produce on the observables have been quantified. In particular, spectral signatures are expected, together with longitudinal effects caused by their variable aspect along the planet orbit as

  11. Photometric Observation and Light Curve Analysis of Binary System ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Photometric observations of the over-contact binary ER ORI were performed during November 2007 and February to April 2008 with the 51cm telescope of Biruni Observatory of Shiraz University in U, B and V filters (Johnson system) and an RCA 4509 photomultiplier. We used these data to obtain the light curves ...

  12. The science case and data processing strategy for the Thinned Aperture Light Collector (TALC): a project for a 20 m far-infrared space telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauvage, Marc; Durand, Gilles A.; Rodriguez, Louis R.; Starck, Jean-Luc; Ronayette, Samuel; Aussel, Herve; Minier, Vincent; Motte, Frederique; Pantin, Eric J.; Sureau, Florent

    2014-01-01

    The future of far-infrared observations rests on our capacity to reach sub-arc-second angular resolution around 100 μm, in order to achieve a significant advance with respect to our current capabilities. Furthermore, by reaching this angular resolution we can bridge the gap between capacities offered by the JWST in the near infrared and those allowed by ALMA in the submillimeter, and thus benefit from similar resolving capacities over the whole wavelength range where interstellar dust radiates and where key atomic and molecular transitions are found. In an accompanying paper, we present a concept of a deployable annular telescope, named TALC for Thinned Aperture Light Collector, reaching 20 m in diameter. Being annular, this telescope features a main beam width equivalent to that of a 27 m telescope, i.e. an angular resolution of 0.92'' at 100 μm. In this paper we focus on the science case of such a telescope as well on the aspects of unconventional data processing that come with this unconventional optical configuration. The principal science cases of TALC revolve around its imaging capacities, that allow resolving the Kuiper belt in extra-solar planetary systems, or the filamentary scale in star forming clouds all the way to the Galactic Center, or the Narrow Line Region in Active Galactic Nuclei of the Local Group, or breaking the confusion limit to resolve the Cosmic Infrared Background. Equipping this telescope with detectors capable of imaging polarimetry offers as well the extremely interesting perspective to study the influence of the magnetic field in structuring the interstellar medium. We will then present simulations of the optical performance of such a telescope. The main feature of an annular telescope is the small amount of energy contained in the main beam, around 30% for the studied configuration, and the presence of bright diffraction rings. Using simulated point spread functions for realistic broad-band filters, we study the observing

  13. Airborne observations of far-infrared upwelling radiance in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Libois

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The first airborne measurements of the Far-InfraRed Radiometer (FIRR were performed in April 2015 during the panarctic NETCARE campaign. Vertical profiles of spectral upwelling radiance in the range 8–50 µm were measured in clear and cloudy conditions from the surface up to 6 km. The clear sky profiles highlight the strong dependence of radiative fluxes to the temperature inversion typical of the Arctic. Measurements acquired for total column water vapour from 1.5 to 10.5 mm also underline the sensitivity of the far-infrared greenhouse effect to specific humidity. The cloudy cases show that optically thin ice clouds increase the cooling rate of the atmosphere, making them important pieces of the Arctic energy balance. One such cloud exhibited a very complex spatial structure, characterized by large horizontal heterogeneities at the kilometre scale. This emphasizes the difficulty of obtaining representative cloud observations with airborne measurements but also points out how challenging it is to model polar clouds radiative effects. These radiance measurements were successfully compared to simulations, suggesting that state-of-the-art radiative transfer models are suited to study the cold and dry Arctic atmosphere. Although FIRR in situ performances compare well to its laboratory performances, complementary simulations show that upgrading the FIRR radiometric resolution would greatly increase its sensitivity to atmospheric and cloud properties. Improved instrument temperature stability in flight and expected technological progress should help meet this objective. The campaign overall highlights the potential for airborne far-infrared radiometry and constitutes a relevant reference for future similar studies dedicated to the Arctic and for the development of spaceborne instruments.

  14. Comment on "Infrared freezing of Euclidean QCD observables"

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Caprini, I.; Fischer, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 1 (2007), 018501/1-018501/5 ISSN 1550-7998 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P04LA211 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : QCD * analyticity * infrared freezing Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 4.696, year: 2007

  15. Near infrared focal plane for the ISOCAM camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, G.; Stefanovitch, D.; Tiphene, D.; Carpentier, Y.; Lorans, D.

    1988-01-01

    ISOCAM is one of the science instruments in the Infrared Space Observatory. It is a 2-channel IR Astronomical Imager intended to observe at very low flux levels, thanks to the use of a liquid helium cooled telescope. This paper describes the Focal Plane Assembly design of the short wavelength channel. The operation of a 32 x 32 InSb CID-SAT array detector has been demonstrated. The problems encountered in the design of the cooled electronics and the component selection process are discussed in the light of specific ISO constraints, such as thermal control and radiation shielding. 6 references

  16. Protein folding and misfolding shining light by infrared spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Fabian, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopy is a new and innovative technology to study protein folding/misfolding events in the broad arsenal of techniques conventionally used in this field. The progress in understanding protein folding and misfolding is primarily due to the development of biophysical methods which permit to probe conformational changes with high kinetic and structural resolution. The most commonly used approaches rely on rapid mixing methods to initiate the folding event via a sudden change in solvent conditions. Traditionally, techniques such as fluorescence, circular dichroism or visible absorption are applied to probe the process. In contrast to these techniques, infrared spectroscopy came into play only very recently, and the progress made in this field up to date which now permits to probe folding events over the time scale from picoseconds to minutes has not yet been discussed in a book. The aim of this book is to provide an overview of the developments as seen by some of the main contributors to the field...

  17. Optical design and fabrication of palm/fingerprint uniform illumination system with a high-power near-infrared light-emitting diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Lei; Wang, Yao; Zhao, Huifu; Ke, Hongliang; Wang, Xiaoxun; Gao, Qun

    2017-06-10

    In order to meet the requirements of uniform illumination for optical palm/fingerprint instruments and overcome the shortcomings of the poor uniform illumination on the working plane of the optical palm/fingerprint prism, a novel secondary optical lens with a free-form surface, compact structure, and high uniformity is presented in this paper. The design of the secondary optical lens is based on emission properties of the near-infrared light-emitting diode (LED) and basic principles of non-imaging optics, especially considering the impact of the thickness of the prism in the design. Through the numerical solution of Snell's law in geometric optics, we obtain the profile of the free-form surface of the lens. Using the optical software TracePro, we trace and simulate the illumination system. The results show that the uniformity is 89.8% on the working plane of the prism, and the test results show that the actual uniformity reaches 85.7% in the experiment, which provides an effective way for realizing a highly uniform illumination system with high-power near-infrared LED.

  18. Au Nanoclusters Sensitized Black TiO2-x Nanotubes for Enhanced Photodynamic Therapy Driven by Near-Infrared Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dan; Gulzar, Arif; Yang, Guixin; Gai, Shili; He, Fei; Dai, Yunlu; Zhong, Chongna; Yang, Piaoping

    2017-12-01

    The low reactive oxygen species production capability and the shallow tissue penetration of excited light (UV) are still two barriers in photodynamic therapy (PDT). Here, Au cluster anchored black anatase TiO 2- x nanotubes (abbreviated as Au 25 /B-TiO 2- x NTs) are synthesized by gaseous reduction of anatase TiO 2 NTs and subsequent deposition of noble metal. The Au 25 /B-TiO 2- x NTs with thickness of about 2 nm exhibit excellent PDT performance. The reduction process increased the density of Ti 3+ on the surface of TiO 2 , which effectively depresses the recombination of electron and hole. Furthermore, after modification of Au 25 nanoclusters, the PDT efficiency is further enhanced owing to the changed electrical distribution in the composite, which forms a shallow potential well on the metal-TiO 2 interface to further hamper the recombination of electron and hole. Especially, the reduction of anatase TiO 2 can expend the light response range (UV) of TiO 2 to the visible and even near infrared (NIR) light region with high tissue penetration depth. When excited by NIR light, the nanoplatform shows markedly improved therapeutic efficacy attributed to the photocatalytic synergistic effect, and promotes separation or restrained recombination of electron and hole, which is verified by experimental results in vitro and in vivo. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Optical and IR light curves of VV Puppis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szkody, P.; Bailey, J.A.; Hough, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    We present optical (0.36 to 0.6 μm) light curves with time resolutions of seconds and infrared (IR) (1.25 to 2.2 μm) light curves with time resolutions of minutes for VV Puppis during a high state. The optical light curves show a single hump with largest amplitude in the V filter, while the IR light curves show a double hump sinusoidal variation. Flickering is evident in both the optical and IR light curves, with the largest amplitude in optical B light. Through subtraction of the low state fluxes from our high state values, we obtain a flux distribution of the accretion column which peaks at 0.55 μm and becomes #betta# 2 in the IR, consistent with current cyclotron models. Comparison of the observed IR variations throughout the orbit with the expected variations due to an M4 star heated by an accretion column at an inclination of 66 0 suggests that the IR light is a combination of the secondary star plus contributions from two emitting poles. (author)

  20. Broadening of white-light continuum by filamentation in BK7 glass at its zero-dispersion point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Jiaming; Zhong, Yue; Zheng, Yinghui; Zeng, Zhinan; Ge, Xiaochun; Li, Ruxin

    2015-01-01

    Broadening of white-light continuum is observed by filamentation of near-infrared femtosecond laser pulses with peak power exceeding the megawatt level in BK7 glass with the presence of the zero-dispersion point. The simulated results show that, due to the low dispersion at the zero-dispersion point, the broadening of white-light continuum can be wider and the filament can persist in propagating stably longer distance. - Highlights: • We observed the white-light continuum by filamentation at the zero-dispersion point. • Peak power significantly exceeding the critical value of self-focusing was used. • Wider spectral broadening was obtained around the zero-dispersion point

  1. Novel mid-infrared imaging system based on single-mode quantum cascade laser illumination and upconversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomko, Jan; Junaid, Saher; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Compared to the visible or near-infrared (NIR) spectral regions, there is a lack of very high sensitivity detectors in the mid-infrared (MIR) that operate near room temperature. Upconversion of the MIR light to NIR light that is imaged using affordable, fast, and sensitive NIR detectors or camera...

  2. Stray radiation and the Infrared Astronomical Satellite /IRAS/ telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, R. J.; Harned, R.; Breault, R. P.; Malugin, R.

    1981-01-01

    Stray light control is a major consideration in the design of infrared cryogenically cooled telescopes such as the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS). The basic design of the baffle system, and the placement, shape, and coating of the secondary support struts for the telescope subsystem are described. The intent of this paper is to highlight the stray light problems encountered while designing the system, and to illustrate how computer analysis can be a useful design aid. Scattering measurements of the primary mirror, and a full system level scatter measurement are presented. Comparisons of predicted performance with the measured results are also presented.

  3. Phase microscopy using light-field reconstruction method for cell observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiu, Peng; Zhou, Xin; Kuang, Cuifang; Xu, Yingke; Liu, Xu

    2015-08-01

    The refractive index (RI) distribution can serve as a natural label for undyed cell imaging. However, the majority of images obtained through quantitative phase microscopy is integrated along the illumination angle and cannot reflect additional information about the refractive map on a certain plane. Herein, a light-field reconstruction method to image the RI map within a depth of 0.2 μm is proposed. It records quantitative phase-delay images using a four-step phase shifting method in different directions and then reconstructs a similar scattered light field for the refractive sample on the focus plane. It can image the RI of samples, transparent cell samples in particular, in a manner similar to the observation of scattering characteristics. The light-field reconstruction method is therefore a powerful tool for use in cytobiology studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dual-Band Modulation of Visible and Near-Infrared Light Transmittance in an All-Solution-Processed Hybrid Micro-Nano Composite Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiao; Chen, Mei; Guo, Shumeng; Zhang, Lanying; Li, Fasheng; Yang, Huai

    2017-11-22

    Smart windows with controllable visible and near-infrared light transmittance can significantly improve the building's energy efficiency and inhabitant comfort. However, most of the current smart window technology cannot achieve the target of ideal solar control. Herein, we present a novel all-solution-processed hybrid micronano composite smart material that have four optical states to separately modulate the visible and NIR light transmittance through voltage and temperature, respectively. This dual-band optical modulation was achieved by constructing a phase-separated polymer framework, which contains the microsized liquid crystals domains with a negative dielectric constant and tungsten-doped vanadium dioxide (W-VO 2 ) nanocrystals (NCs). The film with 2.5 wt % W-VO 2 NCs exhibits transparency at normal condition, and the passage of visible light can be reversibly and actively regulated between 60.8% and 1.3% by external applied voltage. Also, the transmittance of NIR light can be reversibly and passively modulated between 59.4% and 41.2% by temperature. Besides, the film also features easy all-solution processability, fast electro-optical (E-O) response time, high mechanical strength, and long-term stability. The as-prepared film provides new opportunities for next-generation smart window technology, and the proposed strategy is conductive to engineering novel hybrid inorganic-organic functional matters.

  5. Galvanic displacement synthesis of Al/Ni core–shell pigments and their low infrared emissivity application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Le, E-mail: yuanle.cn@gmail.com [Center for Advanced Materials and Energy, Xihua University, Chengdu, 610039 (China); National Engineering Research Center of Electromagnetic Radiation Control Materials, UESTC, Chengdu, 610054 (China); Hu, Juan [Center for Advanced Materials and Energy, Xihua University, Chengdu, 610039 (China); Weng, Xiaolong [National Engineering Research Center of Electromagnetic Radiation Control Materials, UESTC, Chengdu, 610054 (China); Zhang, Qingyong [Center for Advanced Materials and Energy, Xihua University, Chengdu, 610039 (China); Deng, Longjiang [National Engineering Research Center of Electromagnetic Radiation Control Materials, UESTC, Chengdu, 610054 (China)

    2016-06-15

    We have successfully developed a magnetic Al/Ni core–shell pigment via a galvanic displacement reaction to obtain low infrared emissivity pigment with low lightness and visible light reflectance. Al/Ni core–shell particles were prepared via a simple one-step synthetic method where Ni was deposited onto the Al surface at the expense of Al atoms. The influence of pH and the amount of NH{sub 4}F complexing agent on phase structure, surface morphology, optical and magnetic properties were studied systematically. The neutral condition and high concentration of NH{sub 4}F forms smooth, flat, uniform and dense Ni shell on the surface of flake Al particles, which can significantly reduce the lightness and visible light reflectance but slightly increase the infrared emissivity. When the core–shell pigments are prepared in neutral pH solution at NH{sub 4}F = 11.2 g/L, the lightness (L{sup *}) and visual light reflectivity can be reduced by 12.6 and 0.46, respectively versus uncoated flake Al pigments, but the infrared emissivity is only increased by 0.02. The color changes from brilliant silver to gray black and the saturation magnetization value is 6.59 emu/g. Therefore, these Al/Ni magnetic composite pigments can be used as a novel low infrared emissivity pigment to improve the multispectral stealth performance of low-E coatings in the visual, IR and Radar wavebands. - Highlights: • Prepared magnetic Al/Ni core–shell pigment with low lightness and low emissivity. • Used one-pot galvanic displacement reaction to form smooth and dense Ni shell. • Show enhanced stealth performance in the visual, IR and Radar wavebands. • The lightness and visible light reflectance was decreased by 12.6 and 0.46. • But the infrared emissivity was only increases by 0.02.

  6. Galvanic displacement synthesis of Al/Ni core–shell pigments and their low infrared emissivity application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Le; Hu, Juan; Weng, Xiaolong; Zhang, Qingyong; Deng, Longjiang

    2016-01-01

    We have successfully developed a magnetic Al/Ni core–shell pigment via a galvanic displacement reaction to obtain low infrared emissivity pigment with low lightness and visible light reflectance. Al/Ni core–shell particles were prepared via a simple one-step synthetic method where Ni was deposited onto the Al surface at the expense of Al atoms. The influence of pH and the amount of NH_4F complexing agent on phase structure, surface morphology, optical and magnetic properties were studied systematically. The neutral condition and high concentration of NH_4F forms smooth, flat, uniform and dense Ni shell on the surface of flake Al particles, which can significantly reduce the lightness and visible light reflectance but slightly increase the infrared emissivity. When the core–shell pigments are prepared in neutral pH solution at NH_4F = 11.2 g/L, the lightness (L"*) and visual light reflectivity can be reduced by 12.6 and 0.46, respectively versus uncoated flake Al pigments, but the infrared emissivity is only increased by 0.02. The color changes from brilliant silver to gray black and the saturation magnetization value is 6.59 emu/g. Therefore, these Al/Ni magnetic composite pigments can be used as a novel low infrared emissivity pigment to improve the multispectral stealth performance of low-E coatings in the visual, IR and Radar wavebands. - Highlights: • Prepared magnetic Al/Ni core–shell pigment with low lightness and low emissivity. • Used one-pot galvanic displacement reaction to form smooth and dense Ni shell. • Show enhanced stealth performance in the visual, IR and Radar wavebands. • The lightness and visible light reflectance was decreased by 12.6 and 0.46. • But the infrared emissivity was only increases by 0.02.

  7. Infrared emission and extragalactic starbursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telesco, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    The paper examines the belief that recent star formation plays a significant role in determining many of the infrared properties of galaxies. Pertinent types of infrared observations and the infrared properties of starbursts are briefly summarized. Recently developed models which describe the evolution of starbursts are also considered. (U.K.)

  8. Infrared scintillation: a comparison between gaseous and liquid xenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bressi, G.; Carugno, G.; Conti, E.; Del Noce, C.; Iannuzzi, D.

    2001-01-01

    Light yield and spectrum of infrared (IR) scintillation in Xe are different in gaseous and liquid phases. In gas, the spectrum consists mainly of a broad line centered at 1300 nm. In liquid, light is emitted primarily below 1200 nm and with a lower yield

  9. Infrared Red Intubation System (IRRIS) guided flexile videoscope assisted difficult airway management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, M S; Fried, E; Biro, P

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tracheal intubation with a flexible scope is a cornerstone technique in patients with severely difficult airways, but may fail. We report on a technique, Infrared Red Intubation System (IRRIS), that seems to facilitate the identification of the glottis. METHODS: The IRRIS is placed over...... the patient's cricothyroid membrane and emits blinking infrared light through the patient's skin into the subglottic space. When a flexible videoscope (one that does not filter infrared light) is introduced into the airway, it will display this as a blinking white light emerging from the glottis, retrograde...... transillumination, showing the pathway to the trachea. We have introduced this as an adjunct when managing our patients with difficult airways. We describe the technique and retrospectively report on the first ten patients where it was used. RESULTS: All ten patients had significant pathology in the airway...

  10. Infrared Supercontinuum Generation in Optical Fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Sune Vestergaard Lund

    During my PhD studies I have worked with intense lasers and optical fibres. In our conceptual universe the colour of light (wavelength) does not depend on the material in which it propagates. At high intensities however, nonlinear effects change the behaviour of light and rise of new wavelength...... with laser-like intensity is obtained, which otherwise is impossible without the use of more complicated equipment. Until recently, supercontinuum covering the mid-infrared was not possible due to absorption in the silica glass optical fibres are made of. In our project infrared transparent materials...... such as ZBLAN and chalcogenide have been investigated. Using ZBLAN it has been possible to generated a supercontinuum stretching beyond 4200 nm. Supercontinuum generation requires knowledge about the physical properties of the optical fibre in which the pulse-broadening takes place. Consequently thorough...

  11. A Cometary Bow Shock and Mid-Infrared Emission Variations Revealed in Spitzer Observations of HD 34078 and IC 405

    OpenAIRE

    France, Kevin; McCandliss, Stephan R.; Lupu, Roxana E.

    2006-01-01

    We present new infrared observations of the emission/reflection nebula IC 405 obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope. Infrared images in the four IRAC bands (3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 um) and two MIPS bands (24 and 70 um) are complemented by IRS spectroscopy (5-30 um) of two nebular filaments. The IRAC (8.0 um) and MIPS imaging shows evidence of a bow shock associated with the runaway O9.5V star, HD 34078, created by the interaction between the star and nebular material. The ratio of emission...

  12. Volcanic Eruption Observations from an Elevated Point of the Stromboli Using Thermal Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, V.; Gagnon, M. A.; Marcotte, F.; Gouhier, M.; Smekens, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    Many urban areas are located near active volcanoes around the world. Therefore, scientific research on different indicators of imminent eruptions is carried out on an ongoing basis. Due to the hazardous and unpredictable behavior of volcanoes, remote sensing technologies are normally preferred for investigations. Over the years, the Telops Hyper-Cam, a high-performance infrared hyperspectral camera, has established itself as a reference tool for investigating gas clouds over large distances. In order to illustrate the benefits of standoff infrared hyperspectral imaging for characterizing volcanic processes, many different measurements were carried out from an elevated point ( 800 m) of the Stromboli volcano (Italy) by researchers from the Université Blaise-Pascal (Clermont-Ferrand, France). The Stromboli volcano is well known for its periodic eruptions of small magnitude containing various proportions of ash, lava and gases. Imaging was carried out at a relatively high spectral and spatial resolution before and during eruptions from the North-East (NE) craters. Both sulfur dioxide (SO2) and sulfur tetrafluoride (SiF4) could be successfully identified within the volcano's plume from their distinct spectral features. During the passive degassing phase, a total amount of 3.3 kg of SO2 and 0.8 g of SiF4 were estimated. A violent eruption from NE1 crater was then observed and a total of 45 g and and 7 g of SO2 and SiF4 were estimated respectively. These results are in good agreement with previous work using a UV-SO2 camera. Finally, a smaller eruption from NE2 crater was observed. Total amounts of 3 kg and 17 g of SO2 and SiF4 were estimated respectively. Quantitative chemical maps for both gases will be presented. The results show that standoff thermal infrared hyperspectral imaging provides unique insights for a better understanding of volcanic eruptions.

  13. Intersubband absorption in annealed InAs/GaAs quantum dots: a case for polarization-sensitive infrared detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarti, S; Bhattacharya, P; Stiff-Roberts, A D; Lin, Y Y; Singh, J; Lei, Y; Browning, N

    2003-01-01

    We have studied the characteristics of intersubband absorption of polarized infrared (IR) radiation in as-grown and annealed self-organized InAs/GaAs quantum dots. It is observed that with the increase of annealing time and temperature, the dots tend to flatten and behave more like quantum wells. As a result, their sensitivity to TE (in-plane)-polarized light decreases and that to TM (out-of-plane)-polarized light increases. The effect could be utilized for the realization of polarization-sensitive IR detectors

  14. Influences of Pinpoint Plantar Long-Wavelength Infrared Light Irradiation (Stress-Free Therapy on Chorioretinal Hemodynamics, Atherosclerosis Factors, and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisou Ishimaru

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: We previously reported that pinpoint plantar long-wavelength infrared light irradiation (stress-free therapy; SFT is useful for alleviating insulin resistance and improving intracranial blood flow in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study was undertaken to evaluate the influences of SFT on chorioretinal hemodynamics (retinal artery and vein blood flows as well as atherosclerosis-related factors (TG, LDL-C and VEGF in patients with dyslipidemia. Methods: Four patients with dyslipidemia received 15-minute irradiation with a stress-free apparatus (far-infrared wavelength, 30 mW. Using laser speckle flowgraphy, associations of chorioretinal blood flow with peripheral atherosclerosis-inducing factors/VEGF levels before and after irradiation were analyzed. Results: Chorioretinal blood flow increased, while TG/LDL-C levels decreased, after irradiation. VEGF tended to rise in cases with pre-irradiation baseline levels at the lower limit but tended to decrease in cases in which baseline levels had exceeded the normal range. Conclusion: SFT was suggested to enhance chorioretinal circulation and to normalize VEGF, thereby possibly contributing to amelioration of atherosclerosis-inducing factors. Abnormalities in chorioretinal hemodynamics are known to be highly involved in the pathophysiology of diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration, and anti-VEGF antibody has been used for treating these conditions. The necessity of risk management, involving chorioretinal blood flow, has been pointed out when dealing with central retinal vein occlusion, diabetes mellitus, ischemic cerebral/cardiac disease, dementia and so on. SFT is therefore a potential complementary medical strategy which can be expected to contribute to normalization of chorioretinal blood flow and atherosclerosis-inducing factors/VEGF levels, and thereby to the prevention of lifestyle-related chronic diseases. Keywords: Pinpoint plantar long

  15. Low-intensity infrared laser effects on zymosan-induced articular inflammatory response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januária dos Anjos, Lúcia Mara; da Fonseca, Adenilson d. S.; Gameiro, Jacy; de Paoli, Flávia

    2015-03-01

    Low-level therapy laser is a phototherapy treatment that involves the application of low power light in the red or infrared wavelengths in various diseases such as arthritis. In this work, we investigated whether low-intensity infrared laser therapy could cause death by caspase-6 apoptosis or DNA damage pathways in cartilage cells after zymosaninduced articular inflammatory process. Inflammatory process was induced in C57BL/6 mouse by intra-articular injection of zymosan into rear tibio-tarsal joints. Thirty animals were divided in five groups: (I) control, (II) laser, (III) zymosan-induced, (IV) zymosan-induced + laser and (V). Laser exposure was performed after zymosan administration with low-intensity infrared laser (830 nm), power 10 mW, fluence 3.0 J/cm2 at continuous mode emission, in five doses. Twenty-four hours after last irradiation, the animals were sacrificed and the right joints fixed and demineralized. Morphological analysis was observed by hematoxylin and eosin stain, pro-apoptotic (caspase-6) was analyzed by immunocytochemistry and DNA fragmentation was performed by TUNEL assay in articular cartilage cells. Inflammatory process was observed in connective tissue near to articular cartilage, in IV and V groups, indicating zymosan effect. This process was decreased in both groups after laser treatment and dexamethasone. Although groups III and IV presented higher caspase-6 and DNA fragmentation percentages, statistical differences were not observed when compared to groups I and II. Our results suggest that therapies based on low-intensity infrared lasers could reduce inflammatory process and could not cause death by caspase-6 apoptosis or DNA damage pathways in cartilage cells after zymosan-induced articular inflammatory process.

  16. Comparison of the Changes in the Visible and Infrared Irradiance Observed by the SunPhotometers on EURECA to the UARS Total Solar and UV Irradiances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pap, Judit

    1995-01-01

    Solar irradiance in the near-UV (335 nm), visible (500 nm) and infrared (778 nm) spectral bands has been measured by the SunPhotometers developed at the World Radiation Center, Davos, Switzerland on board the European Retrievable Carrier between August 1992 and May 1993. Study of the variations in the visible and infrared irradiance is important for both solar and atmospheric physics. The purpose of this paper is to examine the temporal variations observed in the visible and infrared spectral bands after eliminating the trend in the data mainly related to instrument degradation. The effect of active regions in these spectral irradiances is clearly resolved. Variations in the visible and infrared irradiances are compared to total solar irradiance observed by the SOVA2 radiometer on the EURECA platform and by the ACRIMII radiometer on UARS as well as to UV observations of the UARS and NOAA9 satellites. The space-borne spectral irradiance observations are compared to the photometric sunspot deficit and CaII K irradiance measured at the San Fernando Observatory, California State University at Northridge in order to study the effect of active regions in detail.

  17. Plasmon enhanced green GaN light-emitting diodes - Invited paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Haiyan; Fadil, Ahmed; Iida, Daisuke

    in spectral design, more compact etc. TheIII-nitride (GaN, InNetc.) semiconductors are attracting a lot of research effort because the combination of both could emit light with wavelength range from UV to infrared. Basically one material platform could provide all the solutions to light sources.However huge...... nanosphere lithography. For both cases, emission enhancement is demonstrated. For periodic Ag nanoparicles, aphotoluminescence enhancement of 2.7 is observed with a nanodisk diameter of 330 nm.It is found that an optimalpitch exists for a given particle size.For the random Ag nanoparticles,low temperature...

  18. Andromeda (M31) optical and infrared disk survey. I. Insights in wide-field near-IR surface photometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sick, Jonathan; Courteau, Stéphane; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; McDonald, Michael; De Jong, Roelof; Tully, R. Brent

    2014-01-01

    We present wide-field near-infrared J and K s images of the Andromeda Galaxy (M31) taken with WIRCam at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope as part of the Andromeda Optical and Infrared Disk Survey. This data set allows simultaneous observations of resolved stars and near-infrared (NIR) surface brightness across M31's entire bulge and disk (within R = 22 kpc), permitting a direct test of the stellar composition of near-infrared light in a nearby galaxy. Here we develop NIR observation and reduction methods to recover a uniform surface brightness map across the 3° × 1° disk of M31 with 27 WIRCam fields. Two sky-target nodding strategies are tested, and we find that strictly minimizing sky sampling latency cannot improve background subtraction accuracy to better than 2% of the background level due to spatio-temporal variations in the NIR skyglow. We fully describe our WIRCam reduction pipeline and advocate using flats built from night-sky images over a single night, rather than dome flats that do not capture the WIRCam illumination field. Contamination from scattered light and thermal background in sky flats has a negligible effect on the surface brightness shape compared to the stochastic differences in background shape between sky and galaxy disk fields, which are ∼0.3% of the background level. The most dramatic calibration step is the introduction of scalar sky offsets to each image that optimizes surface brightness continuity. Sky offsets reduce the mean surface brightness difference between observation blocks from 1% to <0.1% of the background level, though the absolute background level remains statistically uncertain to 0.15% of the background level. We present our WIRCam reduction pipeline and performance analysis to give specific recommendations for the improvement of NIR wide-field imaging methods.

  19. Infrared radiation from an extrasolar planet

    OpenAIRE

    Deming, Drake; Seager, Sara; Richardson, L. Jeremy; Harrington, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    A class of extrasolar giant planets - the so-called `hot Jupiters' - orbit within 0.05 AU of their primary stars. These planets should be hot and so emit detectable infrared radiation. The planet HD 209458b is an ideal candidate for the detection and characterization of this infrared light because it is eclipsed by the star. This planet has an anomalously large radius (1.35 times that of Jupiter), which may be the result of ongoing tidal dissipation, but this explanation requires a non-zero o...

  20. Imaging of solid tumor using near-infrared emitting purple bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Sung Min; Min, Jung Joon; Kim, Sun A; Choy, Hyon E.; Bom, Hee Seung

    2005-01-01

    Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1 is α-3 purple nonsulfur eubacterium with an extensive metabolism. Under anaerobic conditions, it is able to grow by photosynthesis, respiration and fermentation. When grown photosynthetically, it uses wavelengths of light in the near-infrared and contains a reaction center that is the peripheral light-harvesting (LH2) complex. These molecules absorb and emit near-infrared light. Using this near-infrared fluorescent bacterial we investigated its targeting capacity of solid tumor in small animals. R. sphaeroides 2.4.1 strains were cultured in sistrons minimal medium A (SIS) at 32 C. Xenograft tumor model has been established by subcutaneous injection of CT26 mouse colon cancer cell line. 1X10 8 Rhodobacter sphaeroides cells suspended in 100 ul of PBS were injected via tail vein with 1-cc insulin syringe into tumor bearing mouse. In vivo fluorescence imaging has been done after 20 min to 30 days of purple bacteria using indocyanine (ICG) emission filter (Em=810∼835 nm). Near-infrared imaging signal from Rhodobacter sphaeroides was initially detected at liver for 3 days but at the necrotic region of tumor mass thereafter. Total photon flux measured 5.5X10 8 (p/s/cm 2 /sr) at Day 1. Also it was increased to 7.8X10 8 (p/s/cm 2 /sr) at 12 day. One of important characteristic is that the signal appeared only at central necrosis area. It has been monitored for 36 day. We successfully imaged cancer with near-infrared fluorescence bacteria. Our result indicate that near-infrared fluorescence purple bacteria are able to be used to monitor bacterial trafficking in living tumor models

  1. Near-infrared spectroscopy of the adult head: effect of scattering and absorbing obstructions in the cerebrospinal fluid layer on light distribution in the tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, H; Delpy, D T

    2000-09-01

    Previous modeling of near-infrared (NIR) light distribution in models of the adult head incorporating a clear nonscattering cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) layer have shown the latter to have a profound effect on the resulting photon measurement density function (PMDF). In particular, the presence of the CSF limits the PMDF largely to the outer cortical gray matter with little signal contribution from the deeper white matter. In practice, the CSF is not a simple unobstructed clear layer but contains light-scattering membranes and is crossed by various blood vessels. Using a radiosity-diffusion finite-element model, we investigated the effect on the PMDF of introducing intrusions within the clear layer. The results show that the presence of such obstructions does not significantly increase the light penetration into the brain tissue, except immediately adjacent to the obstruction and that its presence also increases the light sampling of the adjacent skull tissues, which would lead to additional contamination of the NIR spectroscopy signal by the surface tissue layers.

  2. High-efficiency electroluminescence and amplified spontaneous emission from a thermally activated delayed fluorescent near-infrared emitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Hyeon; D'Aléo, Anthony; Chen, Xian-Kai; Sandanayaka, Atula D. S.; Yao, Dandan; Zhao, Li; Komino, Takeshi; Zaborova, Elena; Canard, Gabriel; Tsuchiya, Youichi; Choi, Eunyoung; Wu, Jeong Weon; Fages, Frédéric; Brédas, Jean-Luc; Ribierre, Jean-Charles; Adachi, Chihaya

    2018-02-01

    Near-infrared organic light-emitting diodes and semiconductor lasers could benefit a variety of applications including night-vision displays, sensors and information-secured displays. Organic dyes can generate electroluminescence efficiently at visible wavelengths, but organic light-emitting diodes are still underperforming in the near-infrared region. Here, we report thermally activated delayed fluorescent organic light-emitting diodes that operate at near-infrared wavelengths with a maximum external quantum efficiency of nearly 10% using a boron difluoride curcuminoid derivative. As well as an effective upconversion from triplet to singlet excited states due to the non-adiabatic coupling effect, this donor-acceptor-donor compound also exhibits efficient amplified spontaneous emission. By controlling the polarity of the active medium, the maximum emission wavelength of the electroluminescence spectrum can be tuned from 700 to 780 nm. This study represents an important advance in near-infrared organic light-emitting diodes and the design of alternative molecular architectures for photonic applications based on thermally activated delayed fluorescence.

  3. Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy and Chemical Kinetics of Free Radicals. Final Performance Report, August 1, 1985--July 31, 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curl, R. F.; Glass, G. P.

    1995-06-01

    This research was directed at the detection, monitoring, and study (by infrared absorption spectroscopy) of the chemical kinetic behavior of small free radical species thought to be important intermediates in combustion. The work typically progressed from the detection and analysis of the infrared spectrum of combustion radical to the utilization of the infrared spectrum thus obtained in the investigation of chemical kinetics of the radical species. The methodology employed was infrared kinetic spectroscopy. In this technique the radical is produced by UV flash photolysis using an excimer laser and then its transient infrared absorption is observed using a single frequency cw laser as the source of the infrared probe light. When the probe laser frequency is near the center of an absorption line of the radical produced by the flash, the transient infrared absorption rises rapidly and then decays as the radical reacts with the precursor or with substances introduced for the purpose of studying the reaction kinetics or with itself. The decay times observed in these studies varied from less than one microsecond to more than one millisecond. By choosing appropriate time windows after the flash and the average infrared detector signal in a window as data channels, the infrared spectrum of the radical may be obtained. By locking the infrared probe laser to the center of the absorption line and measuring the rate of decay of the transient infrared absorption signal as the chemical composition of the gas mixture is varied, the chemical kinetics of the radical may be investigated. In what follows the systems investigated and the results obtained are outlined.

  4. Spitzer/IRAC observations of the variability of Sgr A* and the object G2 at 4.5 μm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hora, J. L.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Fazio, G. G.; Smith, H. A.; Willner, S. P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Witzel, G.; Becklin, E. E.; Ghez, A.; Meyer, L.; Morris, M. R. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Carey, S.; Ingalls, J. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    We present the first detection from the Spitzer Space Telescope of 4.5 μm variability from Sgr A*, the emitting source associated with the Milky Way's central black hole. The >23 hr continuous light curve was obtained with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) instrument in 2013 December. The result characterizes the variability of Sgr A* prior to the closest approach of the tidally deformed G2 object, a putative infalling gas cloud that orbits close to Sgr A*. The high stellar density at the location of Sgr A* produces a background of ∼250 mJy at 4.5 μm in each pixel with a large pixel-to-pixel gradient, but the light curve for the highly variable Sgr A* source was successfully measured by modeling and removing the variations due to pointing wobble. The observed flux densities range from the noise level of ∼0.7 mJy rms in a 6.4 s measurement to ≳10 mJy. Emission was seen above the noise level ∼34% of the time. The light-curve characteristics, including the flux density distribution and structure function, are consistent with those previously derived at shorter infrared wavelengths. We see no evidence in the light curve for activity attributable to the G2 interaction at the observing epoch, ∼100 days before the expected G2 periapsis passage. The IRAC light curve is more than a factor of two longer than any previous infrared observation, improving constraints on the timescale of the break in the power spectral distribution of Sgr A* flux densities. The data favor the longer of the two previously published values for the timescale.

  5. Does light attract piglets to the creep area?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, M L V; Pedersen, L J

    2015-06-01

    Hypothermia, experienced by piglets, has been related to piglet deaths and high and early use of a heated creep area is considered important to prevent hypothermia. The aims of the present study were to investigate how a newly invented radiant heat source, eHeat, would affect piglets' use of the creep area and whether light in the creep area works as an attractant on piglets. A total of 39 sows, divided between two batches, were randomly distributed to three heat source treatments: (1) standard infrared heat lamp (CONT, n=19), (2) eHeat with light (EL, n=10) and (3) eHeat without light (ENL, n=10). Recordings of piglets' use of the creep area were made as scan sampling every 10 min for 3 h during two periods, one in daylight (0900 to 1200 h) and one in darkness (2100 to 2400 h), on day 1, 2, 3, 7, 14 and 21 postpartum. On the same days, piglets were weighted. Results showed an interaction between treatment and observation period (Pcreep area during darkness compared with daylight for CONT and EL litters, but not for ENL litters. Piglets average daily weight gain was not affected by treatment, but was positively correlated with piglets' birth weight and was lower in batch 1 compared with batch 2. Seen from the present results, neither eHeat nor light worked as an attractant on piglets; in contrast, piglets preferred to sleep in the dark and it would therefore be recommended to turn off the light in the creep area during darkness. Heating up the creep area without light can be accomplished by using a radiant heat source such as eHeat in contrast to the normally used light-emitting infrared heat lamp.

  6. INFRARED COLOR-COLOR DIAGRAMS FOR AGB STARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Won Suh

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available We present infrared color-color diagrams of AGB stars from the observations at near and mid infrared bands. We compile the observations for hundreds of OH/IR stars and carbon stars using the data from the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX, the two micron sky survey (2MASS, and the IRAS point source catalog (PSC. We compare the observations with the theoretical evolutionary tracks of AGB stars. From the new observational data base and the theoretical evolution tracks, we discuss the meaning of the infrared color-color diagrams at different wavelengths.

  7. Afterglow Observations Shed New Light on the Nature of X-ray Flashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granot, J

    2005-02-17

    X-ray flashes (XRFs) and X-ray rich gamma-ray bursts (XRGRBs) share many observational characteristics with long duration ({approx}> 2 s) GRBs, but the reason for which the spectral energy distribution of their prompt emission peaks at lower photon energies, E{sub p}, is still a subject of debate. Although many different models have been invoked in order to explain the lower values of E{sub p}, their implications for the afterglow emission were not considered in most cases, mainly because observations of XRF afterglows have become available only recently. Here we examine the predictions of the various XRF models for the afterglow emission, and test them against the observations of XRF 030723 and XRGRB 041006, the events with the best monitored afterglow light curves in their respective class. We show that most existing XRF models are hard to reconcile with the observed afterglow light curves, which are very flat at early times. Such light curves are, however, naturally produced by a roughly uniform jet with relatively sharp edges that is viewed off-axis (i.e. from outside of the jet aperture). This type of model self consistently accommodates both the observed prompt emission and the afterglow light curves of XRGRB 041006 and XRF 030723, implying viewing angles {theta}{sub obs} from the jet axis of ({theta}{sub obs}-{theta}{sub 0}) {approx} 0.15 {theta}{sub 0} and ({theta}{sub obs}-{theta}{sub 0}) {approx} {theta}{sub 0}, respectively, where {theta}{sub 0} {approx} 3{sup o} is the half-opening angle of the jet. This suggests that GRBs, XRGRBs and XRFs are intrinsically similar relativistic jets viewed from different angles. It is then natural to identify GRBs with {gamma}({theta}{sub obs} - {theta}{sub 0}) {approx}< 1, XRGRBs with 1 {approx}< ({theta}{sub obs} - {theta}{sub 0}) {approx}< a few, and XRFs with {gamma}({theta}{sub obs} - {theta}{sub 0}) {approx}> a few, where {gamma} is the Lorentz factor of the outflow near the edge of the jet from which most of the

  8. Infrared Space Observatory Observations of Far-Infrared Rotational Emission Lines of Water Vapor toward the Supergiant Star VY Canis Majoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, David A.; Feuchtgruber, Helmut; Harwit, Martin; Melnick, Gary J.

    1999-06-01

    We report the detection of numerous far-infrared emission lines of water vapor toward the supergiant star VY Canis Majoris. A 29.5-45 μm grating scan of VY CMa, obtained using the Short-Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) of the Infrared Space Observatory at a spectral resolving power λ/Δλ of ~2000, reveals at least 41 spectral features due to water vapor that together radiate a total luminosity of ~25 Lsolar. In addition to pure rotational transitions within the ground vibrational state, these features include rotational transitions within the (010) excited vibrational state. The spectrum also shows the 2Π1/2(J=5/2)VY CMa were carried out in the instrument's Fabry-Perot mode for three water transitions: the 725-616 line at 29.8367 μm, the 441-312 line at 31.7721 μm, and the 432-303 line at 40.6909 μm. The higher spectral resolving power λ/Δλ of approximately 30,000 thereby obtained permits the line profiles to be resolved spectrally for the first time and reveals the ``P Cygni'' profiles that are characteristic of emission from an outflowing envelope. Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, the Netherlands, and the UK) with the participation of ISAS and NASA.

  9. Comet C/2013 US10 (CATALINA) - Dust in the Infrared with SOFIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Charles E.; Kelley, Michael S. P.; Harker, David E.; Russell, Ray W.; Kim, Daryl L.; Sitko, Michael L.; Wooden, Diane H.

    2018-01-01

    One of the major goals of modern astronomy is the "search for origins'' from the big bang to the development of intelligence. A key process in developing our understanding of these origins is how planetary systems are created from dusty disks around stars and evolve into planets with water and other molecules. Traces of primordial materials, and their least-processed products, are found in the outermost regions of the solar system -- the realm of comets -- in the form of ices of volatile materials (H2O, NH3, CO, CH4, and other more rare species), and more refractory dust grains. There is considerable evidence that in the cold regions where cometary material formed, existing comet bodies were mixed with refractory material processed at much higher temperatures. Remote sensing observation of comets provides a means to study the properties of this dust material to characterize the nature of refactory comet grains. These include observations of both the re-radiated thermal (spectrophotometric) and scattered light (spectrophotometric and polarimetric). The former technique provides our most direct link to the composition (mineral content) of the grains.Here we report our post-perihelion (TP = 2015 Nov 15.721 UT) infrared 2 to 31 micron spectrophotometric observations and dust thermal model analyses of comet C/2013 US10 (Catalina), a dynamically new Oort Cloud comet -- 1/aorg [reciprocal original semimajor axis ] = 0.00005339 -- conducted at two contemporaneous observational epochs near close Earth approach (Δ ≈ 0.93 AU) with NASA's Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) complemented by observations from the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF).

  10. Study of GeSn Alloy for Low Cost Monolithic Mid Infrared Quantum Well Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash PAREEK

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on theoretical study of Tin incorporated group IV alloys particularly GeSn and design of quantum well sensor for mid infrared sensing applications. Initially, the physics behind the selection of material for midinfrared sensor is explained. The importance of controlling strain in GeSn alloy is also explained. The physical background and motivation for incorporation of Tin(Sn in Germanium is briefly narrated. Eigen energy states for different Sn concentrations are obtained for strain compensated quantum well in G valley conduction band (GCB, heavy hole (HH band and light hole (LH band by solving coupled Schrödinger and Poisson equations simultaneously. Sn concentration dependent absorption spectra for HH- GCB transition reveals that significant absorption observed in mid infrared range (3-5 µm. So, Ge1-x Snx quantum well can be used for mid infrared sensing applications.

  11. THE COSMIC INFRARED BACKGROUND EXPERIMENT (CIBER): THE NARROW-BAND SPECTROMETER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korngut, P. M.; Bock, J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Renbarger, T.; Keating, B. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Arai, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S. [Department of Space Astronomy and Astrophysics, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Battle, J.; Hristov, V.; Lanz, A.; Levenson, L. R.; Mason, P. [Department of Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Brown, S. W.; Lykke, K. R.; Smith, A. W. [Sensor Science Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Cooray, A. [Center for Cosmology, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Kim, M. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, D. H.; Nam, U. W. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Shultz, B., E-mail: pkorngut@caltech.edu [Materion Barr Precision Optics and Thin Film Coatings, Westford, MA 01886 (United States); and others

    2013-08-15

    We have developed a near-infrared spectrometer designed to measure the absolute intensity of the solar 854.2 nm Ca II Fraunhofer line, scattered by interplanetary dust, in the zodiacal light (ZL) spectrum. Based on the known equivalent line width in the solar spectrum, this measurement can derive the zodiacal brightness, testing models of the ZL based on morphology that are used to determine the extragalactic background light in absolute photometry measurements. The spectrometer is based on a simple high-resolution tipped filter placed in front of a compact camera with wide-field refractive optics to provide the large optical throughput and high sensitivity required for rocket-borne observations. We discuss the instrument requirements for an accurate measurement of the absolute ZL brightness, the measured laboratory characterization, and the instrument performance in flight.

  12. Radio and infrared observations of (almost) one hundred non-Seyfert Markarian galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressel, Linda L.

    1987-01-01

    The 13 cm flux densities of 96 non-Seyfert Markarian galaxies were measured at Arecibo Observatory. Far infrared flux densities have been published for 78 of these galaxies in the IRAS catalog. The radio, infrared, and optical fluxes of these galaxies and of a magnitude limited sample of normal galaxies were compared to clarify the nature of the radio emission in Markarian galaxies. It was found that Markarian galaxies of a given apparent magnitude and Hubble type generally have radio fluxes several times higher that the fluxes typical of normal galaxies of the same magnitude and type. Remarkably, the ratio of radio flux to far infrared flux is nearly the same for most of these starburst galaxies and for normal spiral disks. However, the compact and peculiar Markarian galaxies consistently have about 60% more radio flux per unit infrared flux than the other Markarian galaxies and the normal spirals. It is not clear whether this difference reflects a difference in the evolution of the starbursts in these galaxies or whether there is excess radio emission of nonstellar origin.

  13. A TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA AT REDSHIFT 1.55 IN HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE INFRARED OBSERVATIONS FROM CANDELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodney, Steven A.; Riess, Adam G.; Jones, David O.; Dahlen, Tomas; Ferguson, Henry C.; Casertano, Stefano; Grogin, Norman A.; Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Hjorth, Jens; Frederiksen, Teddy F.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Mobasher, Bahram; Challis, Peter; Kirshner, Robert P.; Faber, S. M.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Garnavich, Peter; Hayden, Brian; Graur, Or; Jha, Saurabh W.

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery of a Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) at redshift z = 1.55 with the infrared detector of the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3-IR) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). This object was discovered in CANDELS imaging data of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field and followed as part of the CANDELS+CLASH Supernova project, comprising the SN search components from those two HST multi-cycle treasury programs. This is the highest redshift SN Ia with direct spectroscopic evidence for classification. It is also the first SN Ia at z > 1 found and followed in the infrared, providing a full light curve in rest-frame optical bands. The classification and redshift are securely defined from a combination of multi-band and multi-epoch photometry of the SN, ground-based spectroscopy of the host galaxy, and WFC3-IR grism spectroscopy of both the SN and host. This object is the first of a projected sample at z > 1.5 that will be discovered by the CANDELS and CLASH programs. The full CANDELS+CLASH SN Ia sample will enable unique tests for evolutionary effects that could arise due to differences in SN Ia progenitor systems as a function of redshift. This high-z sample will also allow measurement of the SN Ia rate out to z ≈ 2, providing a complementary constraint on SN Ia progenitor models.

  14. TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA LIGHT CURVE INFERENCE: HIERARCHICAL MODELS IN THE OPTICAL AND NEAR-INFRARED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandel, Kaisey S.; Narayan, Gautham; Kirshner, Robert P.

    2011-01-01

    We have constructed a comprehensive statistical model for Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) light curves spanning optical through near-infrared (NIR) data. A hierarchical framework coherently models multiple random and uncertain effects, including intrinsic supernova (SN) light curve covariances, dust extinction and reddening, and distances. An improved BAYESN Markov Chain Monte Carlo code computes probabilistic inferences for the hierarchical model by sampling the global probability density of parameters describing individual SNe and the population. We have applied this hierarchical model to optical and NIR data of 127 SNe Ia from PAIRITEL, CfA3, Carnegie Supernova Project, and the literature. We find an apparent population correlation between the host galaxy extinction A V and the ratio of total-to-selective dust absorption R V . For SNe with low dust extinction, A V ∼ V ∼ 2.5-2.9, while at high extinctions, A V ∼> 1, low values of R V < 2 are favored. The NIR luminosities are excellent standard candles and are less sensitive to dust extinction. They exhibit low correlation with optical peak luminosities, and thus provide independent information on distances. The combination of NIR and optical data constrains the dust extinction and improves the predictive precision of individual SN Ia distances by about 60%. Using cross-validation, we estimate an rms distance modulus prediction error of 0.11 mag for SNe with optical and NIR data versus 0.15 mag for SNe with optical data alone. Continued study of SNe Ia in the NIR is important for improving their utility as precise and accurate cosmological distance indicators.

  15. Au/La{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} nanostructures sensitized with black phosphorus for plasmon-enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen production in visible and near-infrared light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Mingshan; Fujitsuka, Mamoru; Majima, Tetsuro [The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research (SANKEN), Osaka University, Ibaraki (Japan); Cai, Xiaoyan [The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research (SANKEN), Osaka University, Ibaraki (Japan); Department of Physics, Beihang University, Beijing (China); Zhang, Junying [Department of Physics, Beihang University, Beijing (China)

    2017-02-13

    Efficient utilization of solar energy is a high-priority target and the search for suitable materials as photocatalysts that not only can harvest the broad wavelength of solar light, from UV to near-infrared (NIR) region, but also can achieve high and efficient solar-to-hydrogen conversion is one of the most challenging missions. Herein, using Au/La{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} (BP-Au/LTO) sensitized with black phosphorus (BP), a broadband solar response photocatalyst was designed and used as efficient photocatalyst for H{sub 2} production. The optimum H{sub 2} production rates of BP-Au/LTO were about 0.74 and 0.30 mmol g{sup -1} h{sup -1} at wavelengths longer than 420 nm and 780 nm, respectively. The broad absorption of BP and plasmonic Au contribute to the enhanced photocatalytic activity in the visible and NIR light regions. Time-resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy revealed efficient interfacial electron transfer from excited BP and Au to LTO which is in accordance with the observed high photoactivities. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Infrared Sky Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Stephan D.

    2009-02-01

    A retrospective is given on infrared sky surveys from Thomas Edison’s proposal in the late 1870s to IRAS, the first sensitive mid- to far-infrared all-sky survey, and the mid-1990s experiments that filled in the IRAS deficiencies. The emerging technology for space-based surveys is highlighted, as is the prominent role the US Defense Department, particularly the Air Force, played in developing and applying detector and cryogenic sensor advances to early mid-infrared probe-rocket and satellite-based surveys. This technology was transitioned to the infrared astronomical community in relatively short order and was essential to the success of IRAS, COBE and ISO. Mention is made of several of the little known early observational programs that were superseded by more successful efforts.

  17. Infrared Irradiation: Toward Green Chemistry, a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo, René; Miranda, René; Martínez, Joel

    2016-03-26

    This review provides a comprehensive overview of where infrared irradiation has been employed, mainly as regards activating green mode for natural products extractions, as well as to favor a reaction, highlighting its actual importance. It is also underlined that infrared irradiation heating has been around for a long time; however, only in the last eighteen years have many of its advantages been applied to satisfy a wide range of chemical processes, natural products extractions, and for the promotion of many kinds of reactions. In addition, it is brought to light that near infrared irradiation is more efficient than middle and far infrared irradiations, being easily controllable and with the quality of a fast responding heat source. Thus, the main objective of this review is to offer infrared irradiation as an alternative clean energy source to activate reactions, in addition to favor the selective extraction of natural products, all of which is within the Green Chemistry protocol. Some recent results from our laboratory are also included.

  18. Use of invisible near infrared light fluorescence with indocyanine green and methylene blue in urology. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polom, Wojciech; Markuszewski, Marcin; Rho, Young Soo; Matuszewski, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    In the second part of this paper, concerning the use of invisible near infrared light (NIR) fluorescence with indocyanine green (ICG) and methylene blue (MB) in urology, other possible uses of this new technique will be presented. In kidney transplantation, this concerns allograft perfusion and real time NIR-guided angiography; moreover, perfusion angiography of tissue flaps, NIRF visualization of ureters, NIR-guided visualization of urinary calcifications, NIRF in male infertility and semen quality assessment. In this part, we have also analysed cancer targeting and imaging fluorophores as well as cost benefits associated with the use of these new techniques. PubMed and Medline databases were searched for ICG and MB use in urological settings, along with data published in abstracts of urological conferences. Although NIR-guided ICG and MB are still in their initial phases, there have been significant developments in a few more major domains of urology, including 1) kidney transplantation: kidney allograft perfusion and vessel reconstruction; 2) angiography perfusion of tissue flaps; 3) visualization of ureters; 4) visualization of urinary calcifications; and 5) NIRF in male infertility and semen quality assessment. Near infrared technology in urology is at its early stages. More studies are needed to assess the true potential and limitations of the technology. Initial studies show that this pioneering tool may influence various aspects of urology.

  19. CubeSat Nighttime Earth Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pack, D. W.; Hardy, B. S.; Longcore, T.

    2017-12-01

    Satellite monitoring of visible emissions at night has been established as a useful capability for environmental monitoring and mapping the global human footprint. Pioneering work using Defense Meteorological Support Program (DMSP) sensors has been followed by new work using the more capable Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS). Beginning in 2014, we have been investigating the ability of small visible light cameras on CubeSats to contribute to nighttime Earth science studies via point-and-stare imaging. This paper summarizes our recent research using a common suite of simple visible cameras on several AeroCube satellites to carry out nighttime observations of urban areas and natural gas flares, nighttime weather (including lighting), and fishing fleet lights. Example results include: urban image examples, the utility of color imagery, urban lighting change detection, and multi-frame sequences imaging nighttime weather and large ocean areas with extensive fishing vessel lights. Our results show the potential for CubeSat sensors to improve monitoring of urban growth, light pollution, energy usage, the urban-wildland interface, the improvement of electrical power grids in developing countries, light-induced fisheries, and oil industry flare activity. In addition to orbital results, the nighttime imaging capabilities of new CubeSat sensors scheduled for launch in October 2017 are discussed.

  20. An infrared view of (candidate accretion) disks around massive young stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bik, A.; Lenorzer, A.; Thi, W.F.; Puga Antolín, E.; Waters, L.B.F.M.; Kaper, L.; Martín-Hernández, L.N.

    2008-01-01

    Near-infrared surveys of high-mass star-forming regions start to shed light onto their stellar content. A particular class of objects found in these regions, the so-called massive Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) are surrounded by dense circumstellar material. Several near- and mid-infrared diagnostic

  1. Ultradeep Near-Infrared ISAAC Observations of the Hubble Deep Field South: Observations, Reduction, Multicolor Catalog, and Photometric Redshifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbé, Ivo; Franx, Marijn; Rudnick, Gregory; Schreiber, Natascha M. Förster; Rix, Hans-Walter; Moorwood, Alan; van Dokkum, Pieter G.; van der Werf, Paul; Röttgering, Huub; van Starkenburg, Lottie; van der Wel, Arjen; Kuijken, Konrad; Daddi, Emanuele

    2003-03-01

    We present deep near-infrared (NIR) Js-, H-, and Ks-band ISAAC imaging of the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) field of the Hubble Deep Field South (HDF-S). The 2.5‧×2.5‧ high Galactic latitude field was observed with the Very Large Telescope under the best seeing conditions, with integration times amounting to 33.6 hr in Js, 32.3 hr in H, and 35.6 hr in Ks. We reach total AB magnitudes for point sources of 26.8, 26.2, and 26.2, respectively (3 σ), which make it the deepest ground-based NIR observation to date and the deepest Ks-band data in any field. The effective seeing of the co-added images is ~0.45" in Js, ~0.48" in H, and ~0.46" in Ks. Using published WFPC2 optical data, we constructed a Ks-limited multicolor catalog containing 833 sources down to Ktots,AB2.3 (in Johnson magnitudes). Because they are extremely faint in the observed optical, they would be missed by ultraviolet-optical selection techniques, such as the U-dropout method. Based on service mode observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile (ESO Program 164.O-0612). Also based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  2. INFRARED OBSERVATIONAL MANIFESTATIONS OF YOUNG DUSTY SUPER STAR CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-González, Sergio; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Silich, Sergiy, E-mail: sergiomtz@inaoep.mx [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica Óptica y Electrónica, AP 51, 72000 Puebla (Mexico)

    2016-01-01

    The growing evidence pointing at core-collapse supernovae as large dust producers makes young massive stellar clusters ideal laboratories to study the evolution of dust immersed in a hot plasma. Here we address the stochastic injection of dust by supernovae, and follow its evolution due to thermal sputtering within the hot and dense plasma generated by young stellar clusters. Under these considerations, dust grains are heated by means of random collisions with gas particles which result in the appearance of  infrared spectral signatures. We present time-dependent infrared spectral energy distributions that are to be expected from young stellar clusters. Our results are based on hydrodynamic calculations that account for the stochastic injection of dust by supernovae. These also consider gas and dust radiative cooling, stochastic dust temperature fluctuations, the exit of dust grains out of the cluster volume due to the cluster wind, and a time-dependent grain size distribution.

  3. INFRARED OBSERVATIONAL MANIFESTATIONS OF YOUNG DUSTY SUPER STAR CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-González, Sergio; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Silich, Sergiy

    2016-01-01

    The growing evidence pointing at core-collapse supernovae as large dust producers makes young massive stellar clusters ideal laboratories to study the evolution of dust immersed in a hot plasma. Here we address the stochastic injection of dust by supernovae, and follow its evolution due to thermal sputtering within the hot and dense plasma generated by young stellar clusters. Under these considerations, dust grains are heated by means of random collisions with gas particles which result in the appearance of  infrared spectral signatures. We present time-dependent infrared spectral energy distributions that are to be expected from young stellar clusters. Our results are based on hydrodynamic calculations that account for the stochastic injection of dust by supernovae. These also consider gas and dust radiative cooling, stochastic dust temperature fluctuations, the exit of dust grains out of the cluster volume due to the cluster wind, and a time-dependent grain size distribution

  4. Low-cost near-infrared imaging device for inspection of historical manuscripts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Ashhar Khalid

    2004-01-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) or sometimes called black light is a waveform beyond visible light and it is not detectable by human eyes. However electronic sensors such as the type used in digital cameras are able to detect signals in the infrared band. To avoid distortion in the pictures obtained near-infrared is blocked by optical filters inserted in digital cameras. By carrying out minor modification allowing near-infrared signal to be imaged while blocking the visible signal, the camera is turned into a low-cost NIR imaging instrument. NIR imaging can be a useful tool in historical manuscript study or restoration. A few applications have been successfully demonstrated in laboratory experiment using the instrument available in MINT. However, due to unavailability of historical items, easily available texts and paintings are used in the demonstrations. This paper reports achievements of early work on the application of digital camera in the detection of damaged prints or writings. (Author)

  5. Influence of evidence, time, source and interferents in the observation of biological fluids with forensic lights

    OpenAIRE

    Laverde-Angarita, Lilia Judith; Clavijo-Bolívar, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The laboratory receives different evidence for analysis, which maycontain fluids such as blood, semen, saliva or urine. A support tool in identifying nonvisible biological stains is observation with forensic lights. At present, there have been research advances in reference to wavelength and combination of different filters for the observation of biological fluids. Methodology: For this research, the alternate lights equipment Polilight® Flare with blue light was used, along wit...

  6. The design of light pipe with microstructures for touch screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Lu, Kan; Liu, Pengfei; Wei, Xiaona

    2010-11-01

    Touch screen has a very wide range of applications. Most of them are used in public information inquiries, for instance, service inquiries in telecommunication bureau, tax bureau, bank system, electric department, etc...Touch screen can also be used for entertainment and virtual reality applications too. Traditionally, touch screen was composed of pairs of infrared LED and correspondent receivers which were all installed in the screen frame. Arrays of LED were set in the adjacent sides of the frame of an infrared touch screen while arrays of the infrared receivers were fixed in each opposite side, so that the infrared detecting network was formed. While the infrared touch screen has some technical limitations nowadays such as the low resolution, limitations of touching methods and fault response due to environmental disturbances. The plastic material has a relatively high absorption rate for infrared light, which greatly limits the size of the touch screen. Our design uses laser diode as source and change the traditional inner structure of touch screen by using a light pipe with microstructures. The geometric parameters of the light pipe and the microstructures were obtained through equation solving. Simulation results prove that the design method for touch screen proposed in this paper could achieve high resolution and large size of touch screen.

  7. Mid-Infrared Observations of the White Dwarf Brown Dwarf Binary GD 1400

    OpenAIRE

    Farihi, J.; Zuckerman, B.; Becklin, E. E.

    2005-01-01

    Fluxes are measured for the DA white dwarf plus brown dwarf pair GD 1400 with the Infrared Array Camera on the {\\em Spitzer Space Telescope}. GD 1400 displays an infrared excess over the entire $3-8\\mu$m region consistent with the presence of a mid- to late-type L dwarf companion. A discussion is given regarding current knowledge of this unique system.

  8. Conversion degrees of resin composites using different light sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Bora; Cobanoglu, Nevin; Cetin, Ali Rıza; Gunduz, Beniz

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the conversion degree of six different composite materials (Filtek Z 250, Filtek P60, Spectrum TPH, Pertac II, Clearfil AP-X, and Clearfil Photo Posterior) using three different light sources (blue light-emitting diode [LED], plasma arc curing [PAC], and conventional halogen lamp [QTH]). Composites were placed in a 2 mm thick and 5 mm diameter Teflon molds and light cured from the top using three methods: LED for 40 s, PAC for 10 s, and QTH for 40 s. A Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to evaluate the degree of conversion (DC) (n=5). The results were analyzed with two-way analysis of variance and Tukey HSD test. DC was significantly influenced by two variables, light source and composite (PDC values than LED (PDC values of QTH and PAC or between DC values of LED and PAC (P>.05). The highest DC was observed in the Z 250 composite specimens following photopolymerization with QTH (70%). The lowest DC was observed in Clearfil Photo Posterior composite specimens following photo-polymerization with LED (43%). The DC was found to be changing according to both light sources and composite materials used. Conventional light halogen (QTH) from light sources and Filtek Z 250 and Filtek P 60 among composite materials showed the most DC performance.

  9. Fiber-based broadband black-light source

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvestre , Thibaut; Lee , Min Won; Ragueh , A. R.; Stiller , Birgit; Fanjoux , Gil; Barviau , B.; Mussot , A.; Kudlinski , A.

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Black-Light or Wood's lamp refers to sources that emit long-wavelength ultraviolet radiation (UV-A) from 315 nm and little visible light till 410 nm (blue). In this paper, we present a new fibre-based source of "black light", a source that emits broadband ultraviolet radiation but only small amounts of visible light and no infrared light. We made this source by pumping a specially designed silica photonic crystal fibre (PCF) with 355 nm light pulses from a Q-switched f...

  10. Near infrared imaging-guided photodynamic therapy under an extremely low energy of light by galactose targeted amphiphilic polypeptide micelle encapsulating BODIPY-Br2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Le; Ruan, Zheng; Li, Tuanwei; Yuan, Pan; Yan, Lifeng

    2016-10-18

    Near infrared (NIR) imaging-guided photodynamic therapy (PDT) is attractive, especially the utilization of one dye as both a photosensitizer and fluorescent probe, and the as-synthesized BODIPY-Br 2 molecule is a candidate. Here, a galactose targeted amphiphilic copolymer of a polypeptide was synthesized and its micelles work as nanocarriers for BODIPY for targeting the NIR imaging-guided PDT of hepatoma cancer cells. At the same time, BODIPY could light up the cytoplasm for real-time imaging and kill cancer cells when the light was switched on. In vitro tests performed on both HepG2 and HeLa cells confirmed that the as-prepared PMAGP-POEGMA-PLys-B micelles showed efficient cell suppression of the cells with galactose receptors in the presence of light under an extremely low energy density (6.5 J cm -2 ). This protocol highlights the potential of polypeptides as biodegradable carriers for NIR image-guided and confined targeting photodynamic therapy.

  11. Near-infrared polarization and color of Comet Halley: What can we learn about the grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooke, T.Y.; Knacke, R.F.

    1988-01-01

    The near infrared polarization and JHK colors of light scattered by dust grains in comet Halley were measured over a wide range in phase angle and heliocentric distance. Colors were redder than solar with no statistically significant variation with phase angle, heliocentric distance, or pre- and post-perihelion. This suggests that the grain population did not change drastically over time and that the data may be combined and modeled. However, short term variations in visible polarization and dust albedo were seen in Halley. Also, near infrared colors became systematically bluer after the observations were completed. The near infrared colors of Halley fall in the range of those of other comets. The near infrared polarization is similar to the visible polarization of Halley and other comets in showing a negative branch at small phase angles and an approximately linear rise toward positive values at larger phase angles. Mie theory calculations and a size distribution based on spacecraft data were used to model the near infrared polarization and color of comet Halley. Numerous lines of evidence point to the presence of dark, absorbing, probably carbonaceous materials in comets

  12. LIGHT TITRATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, John; Baas-Becking, Lourens G. M.

    1926-01-01

    1. The usefulness of the radiomicrometer in titration work has been pointed out. The authors suggest that light titration may also be used where a reaction mixture changes its absorption in the (near) infra-red. 2. The applicability of this method to the starch-iodine reaction has been demonstrated. PMID:19872266

  13. Next-generation mid-infrared sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, D.; Bank, S.; Lee, M. L.; Wasserman, D.

    2017-12-01

    The mid-infrared (mid-IR) is a wavelength range with a variety of technologically vital applications in molecular sensing, security and defense, energy conservation, and potentially in free-space communication. The recent development and rapid commercialization of new coherent mid-infrared sources have spurred significant interest in the development of mid-infrared optical systems for the above applications. However, optical systems designers still do not have the extensive optical infrastructure available to them that exists at shorter wavelengths (for instance, in the visible and near-IR/telecom wavelengths). Even in the field of optoelectronic sources, which has largely driven the growing interest in the mid-infrared, the inherent limitations of state-of-the-art sources and the gaps in spectral coverage offer opportunities for the development of new classes of lasers, light emitting diodes and emitters for a range of potential applications. In this topical review, we will first present an overview of the current state-of-the-art mid-IR sources, in particular thermal emitters, which have long been utilized, and the relatively new quantum- and interband-cascade lasers, as well as the applications served by these sources. Subsequently, we will discuss potential mid-infrared applications and wavelength ranges which are poorly served by the current stable of mid-IR sources, with an emphasis on understanding the fundamental limitations of the current source technology. The bulk of the manuscript will then explore both past and recent developments in mid-infrared source technology, including narrow bandgap quantum well lasers, type-I and type-II quantum dot materials, type-II superlattices, highly mismatched alloys, lead-salts and transition-metal-doped II-VI materials. We will discuss both the advantages and limitations of each of the above material systems, as well as the potential new applications which they might serve. All in all, this topical review does not aim

  14. Development of plenoptic infrared camera using low dimensional material based photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liangliang

    Infrared (IR) sensor has extended imaging from submicron visible spectrum to tens of microns wavelength, which has been widely used for military and civilian application. The conventional bulk semiconductor materials based IR cameras suffer from low frame rate, low resolution, temperature dependent and highly cost, while the unusual Carbon Nanotube (CNT), low dimensional material based nanotechnology has been made much progress in research and industry. The unique properties of CNT lead to investigate CNT based IR photodetectors and imaging system, resolving the sensitivity, speed and cooling difficulties in state of the art IR imagings. The reliability and stability is critical to the transition from nano science to nano engineering especially for infrared sensing. It is not only for the fundamental understanding of CNT photoresponse induced processes, but also for the development of a novel infrared sensitive material with unique optical and electrical features. In the proposed research, the sandwich-structured sensor was fabricated within two polymer layers. The substrate polyimide provided sensor with isolation to background noise, and top parylene packing blocked humid environmental factors. At the same time, the fabrication process was optimized by real time electrical detection dielectrophoresis and multiple annealing to improve fabrication yield and sensor performance. The nanoscale infrared photodetector was characterized by digital microscopy and precise linear stage in order for fully understanding it. Besides, the low noise, high gain readout system was designed together with CNT photodetector to make the nano sensor IR camera available. To explore more of infrared light, we employ compressive sensing algorithm into light field sampling, 3-D camera and compressive video sensing. The redundant of whole light field, including angular images for light field, binocular images for 3-D camera and temporal information of video streams, are extracted and

  15. Infrared observations of HDE 226868/Cyg X-1 and HDE 245770/AO535+26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persi, P.; Toniolo, M.F.; Spada, G.

    1979-01-01

    It is known from Copernicus ultraviolet observations that all O type stars are losing mass by stellar wind. The ionized expanding circumstellar envelope formed by the stellar wind is emitting through free-free and bound-free radiation processes. This radiation is detectable at the infrared wavelengths where the stellar continuum is negligible. The measurement of the IR excess (defined as the difference between the total flux and the stellar continuum at a given wavelength) and the knowledge of the terminal velocity of the envelope, allow one to derive for OB stars the mass loss rate. From the analysis of Ir observations of two O stars, HDE 226868 and HDE 245770, identified as optical counterpart of X-ray sources, an estimate is given of their mass loss rate. (Auth.)

  16. Infrared emission from supernova condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwek, E.; Werner, M.W.

    1981-01-01

    We examine the possibility of detecting grains formed in supernovae by observations of their emission in the infrared. The basic processes determining the temperature and infrared radiation of grains in supernovae environments are analyzed, and the results are used to estimate the infrared emission from the highly metal enriched ''fast moving knots'' in Cas A. The predicted fluxes lie within the reach of current ground-based facilities at 10 μm, and their emission should be detectable throughout the infrared band with cryogenic space telescopes

  17. Infrared radiation increases skin damage induced by other wavelengths in solar urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gálvez, María Victoria; Aguilera, José; Sánchez-Roldán, Cristina; Herrera-Ceballos, Enrique

    2016-09-01

    Photodermatoses are typically investigated by analyzing the individual or combined effects of ultraviolet A (UVA), ultraviolet B (UVB), and visible light using light sources that simulate portions of the solar spectrum. Infrared radiation (IRR), however, accounts for 53% of incident solar radiation, but its effects are not taken into account in standard phototest protocols. The aim was to analyze the effects of IRR, alone and combined with UVA and visible light on solar urticaria lesions, with a distinction between infrared A (IRA) and infrared B (IRB). We performed standard phototests with UVA and visible light in four patients with solar urticaria and also tested the effects after blocking IRB with a water filter. To analyze the direct effect of IRR, we performed phototests with IRA and IRB. Initial standard phototests that were all positive found the induction of erythema and whealing, while when IRR was blocked from the UVA and visible light sources, three of the patients developed no lesions, while the fourth developed a very small wheal. These results suggest that IRR has the potential to produce and exacerbate lesions caused by other types of radiation. Consideration of these effects during phototesting could help prevent diagnostic errors. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The GO Cygni system: photoelectric observations and light curves analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovithis, P.; Rovithis-Livaniou, H.; Niarchos, P.G.

    1990-01-01

    Photoelectric observations, in B and V, of the system GO Cygni obtained during 1985 at the Kryonerion Astronomical Station of the National Observatory of Greece are given. The corresponding light curves (typical β Lyrae) are analysed using Frequency Domain techniques. New photoelectric and absolute elements for the system are given, and its period was found to continue its increasing

  19. Infrared speckle observations of Io - an eruption in the Loki region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, R.R.; Mcginn, M.T.

    1985-01-01

    Speckle observations of Jupiter's satellite Io at a wavelength of 5 micrometers during July 1984 resolved the disk and showed emission from a hot spot in the Loki region. The hot spot contributed a flux approximately equal to 60 percent of that from the disk.Images reconstructed by means of the Knox-Thompson algorithm showed the spot moving across the disk as the satellite rotated. It was located at 301 deg + or - 6 deg west longitude, 10 deg + or - 6 deg north latitude, and had a radiance of (2.96 + or - 0.54) x 10 to the 22nd ergs/sec cm sr/A where A is the area of the spot. For an assumed temperature of 400 K, the area of the source would be 11,400 square kilometers. An active lava lake similar to that seen by Voyager may be the source of the infrared emission. 10 references

  20. Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer Observations of the Evolution of Massive Star-Forming Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, X. P.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Benford, D. J.; Rebull, L. M.; Padgett, D. L.; Asslef, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a mid-infrared survey of II outer Galaxy massive star-forming regions and 3 open clusters with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using a newly developed photometric scheme to identify young stellar objects and exclude extragalactic contamination, we have studied the distribution of young stars within each region. These data tend to support the hypothesis that latter generations may be triggered by the interaction of winds and radiation from the first burst of massive star formation with the molecular cloud material leftover from that earlier generation of stars. We dub this process the "fireworks hypothesis" since star formation by this mechanism would proceed rapidly and resemble a burst of fireworks. We have also analyzed small cutout WISE images of the structures around the edges of these massive star-forming regions. We observe large (1-3 pc size) pillar and trunk-like structures of diffuse emission nebulosity tracing excited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules and small dust grains at the perimeter of the massive star-forming regions. These structures contain small clusters of emerging Class I and Class II sources, but some are forming only a single to a few new stars.

  1. WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER OBSERVATIONS OF THE EVOLUTION OF MASSIVE STAR-FORMING REGIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, X. P.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Benford, D. J.; Padgett, D. L.; Rebull, L. M.; Assef, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a mid-infrared survey of 11 outer Galaxy massive star-forming regions and 3 open clusters with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using a newly developed photometric scheme to identify young stellar objects and exclude extragalactic contamination, we have studied the distribution of young stars within each region. These data tend to support the hypothesis that latter generations may be triggered by the interaction of winds and radiation from the first burst of massive star formation with the molecular cloud material leftover from that earlier generation of stars. We dub this process the 'fireworks hypothesis' since star formation by this mechanism would proceed rapidly and resemble a burst of fireworks. We have also analyzed small cutout WISE images of the structures around the edges of these massive star-forming regions. We observe large (1-3 pc size) pillar and trunk-like structures of diffuse emission nebulosity tracing excited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules and small dust grains at the perimeter of the massive star-forming regions. These structures contain small clusters of emerging Class I and Class II sources, but some are forming only a single to a few new stars.

  2. High resolution radio observations of nuclear and circumnuclear regions of luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberdi, A; Perez-Torres, M A [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (IAA, CSIC), PO Box 3004, 18080-Granada (Spain); Colina, L [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia - IEM, CSIC, C, Serrano 115, 28005 Madrid (Spain); Torrelles, J M [Instituto de Ciencias del Espacio (ICE, CSIC) and IEEC, Gran Capita 2-4, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: antxon@iaa.es, E-mail: torres@iaa.es, E-mail: colina@damir.iem.csic.es, E-mail: torrelle@ieec.fcr.es

    2008-10-15

    High-resolution radio observations of the nuclear region of Luminous and Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs) have shown that its radio structure consists of a compact high surface-brightness central radio source immersed in a diffuse low brightness circumnuclear halo. While the central component could be associated with an AGN or compact star-forming regions where radio supernovae are exploding, it is well known that the circumnuclear regions host bursts of star-formation. The studies of radio supernovae can provide essential information about stellar evolution and CSM/ISM properties in regions hidden by dust at optical and IR wavelengths. In this contribution, we show results from radio interferometric observations from NGC 7469, IRAS 18293-3413 and IRAS 17138-1017 where three extremely bright radio supernovae have been found. High-resolution radio observations of these and other LIRGs would allow us to determine the core-collapse supernova rate in them as well as their star-formation rate.

  3. Feasibility of the optical imaging of thrombus formation in a rotary blood pump by near-infrared light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakota, Daisuke; Murashige, Tomotaka; Kosaka, Ryo; Nishida, Masahiro; Maruyama, Osamu

    2014-09-01

    Blood coagulation is one of the primary concerns when using mechanical circulatory support devices such as blood pumps. Noninvasive detection and imaging of thrombus formation is useful not only for the development of more hemocompatible devices but also for the management of blood coagulation to avoid risk of infarction. The objective of this study is to investigate the use of near-infrared light for imaging of thrombus formation in a rotary blood pump. The optical properties of a thrombus at wavelengths ranging from 600 to 750 nm were analyzed using a hyperspectral imaging (HSI) system. A specially designed hydrodynamically levitated centrifugal blood pump with a visible bottom area was used. In vitro antithrombogenic testing was conducted five times with the pump using bovine whole blood in which the activated blood clotting time was adjusted to 200 s prior to the experiment. Two halogen lights were used for the light sources. The forward scattering through the pump and backward scattering on the pump bottom area were imaged using the HSI system. HSI showed an increase in forward scattering at wavelengths ranging from 670 to 750 nm in the location of thrombus formation. The time at which the thrombus began to form in the impeller rotating at 2780 rpm could be detected. The spectral difference between the whole blood and the thrombus was utilized to image thrombus formation. The results indicate the feasibility of dynamically detecting and imaging thrombus formation in a rotary blood pump. Copyright © 2014 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Use of COTS uncooled microbolometers for the observation of solar eruptions in far infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Ruyet, B.; Bernardi, P.; Sémery, A.

    2017-11-01

    The Small Explorer for Solar Eruptions (SMESE) mission is a French-Chinese satellite dedicated to the combined study of coronal mass ejections and flares. It should operate by the beginning of 2013. The spacecraft is based on a generic MYRIADE platform developed by CNES. Its payload consists of a Lyman α imager and a Lyman α chronograph (LYOT), a far infrared telescope (DESIR) and a hard X and γ ray spectrometer (HEBS). Its Sun-synchronous orbit will allow for continuous observations. LESIA (Laboratoire d'Etudes Spatiales et d'Instrumentation en Astrophysique, in Paris-Meudon Observatory) is in charge of DESIR instrument. DESIR (Detection of Eruptive Solar InfraRed emission) is an imaging photometer observing the sun in two bandwidths: [25; 45μm] and [80; 130μm]. The detector is a commercially available, uncooled microbolometer focal plane array (UL 02 05 1, from ULIS) designed for thermographic imaging in the 8-14 μm wavelength range. The 160x120 pixels are based on amorphous silicon, with dimensions 35x35 μm2. The performances in terms of noise and dynamics given by the manufacturer associated with simulations of a perfect quarter-wave cavity to predict the microbolometer absorption, make possible the use of such a detector to fulfil the DESIR detection specifications in the two FIR bandwidths. During the A Phase, tests have been carried out in our laboratory to validate the feasibility of the project. In this work, we present the first results obtained on the microbolometer performances in the FIR domain.

  5. Flow observation by rod lens and low-light video (videotape script: January 4, 1977)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lord, D.E.; Carter, G.W.; Petrini, R.R.

    1977-01-01

    The script of a demonstration videotape made to show the possibilities of coupling rod lenses to low-light video systems to observe internal flow conditions is presented. The illustrations accompanying the text were photographed directly from the video screen. Some up-dated comments appear as footnotes to the original script and a description of the multiscan low-light television system developed to measure velocity is included in the epilogue. The combination of rod lens and low-light video system makes it possible to observe dynamic events in hitherto inaccessible volumes. The pressure and temperature capabilities of the rod lens make it applicable to many engineering uses. This system, in conjunction with electronic image enhancement systems, provides a new dimension in engineering analysis

  6. AN INTERFEROMETRIC STUDY OF THE FOMALHAUT INNER DEBRIS DISK. II. KECK NULLER MID-INFRARED OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mennesson, B.; Serabyn, E.; Colavita, M. M. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena CA 91109-8099 (United States); Absil, O. [Departement d' Astrophysique, Geophysique et Oceanographie, Universite de Liege, 17 Allee du Six Aout, B-4000 Sart Tilman (Belgium); Lebreton, J.; Augereau, J.-C. [IPAG, UMR 5274, CNRS and Universite Joseph Fourier, BP 53, F-38041 Grenoble (France); Millan-Gabet, R. [Michelson Science Center, California Institute of Technology, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena CA 91125 (United States); Liu, W. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Mail Code 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hinz, P. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Thebault, P. [Observatoire de Paris, Section de Meudon, F-92195 Meudon Principal Cedex (France)

    2013-02-15

    We report on high-contrast mid-infrared observations of Fomalhaut obtained with the Keck Interferometer Nuller (KIN) showing a small resolved excess over the level expected from the stellar photosphere. The measured null excess has a mean value of 0.35% {+-} 0.10% between 8 and 11 {mu}m and increases from 8 to 13 {mu}m. Given the small field of view of the instrument, the source of this marginal excess must be contained within 2 AU of Fomalhaut. This result is reminiscent of previous VLTI K-band ({approx_equal}2{mu}m) observations, which implied the presence of a {approx}0.88% excess, and argued that thermal emission from hot dusty grains located within 6 AU from Fomalhaut was the most plausible explanation. Using a parametric two-dimensional radiative transfer code and a Bayesian analysis, we examine different dust disk structures to reproduce both the near- and mid-infrared data simultaneously. While not a definitive explanation of the hot excess of Fomalhaut, our model suggests that the most likely inner few AU disk geometry consists of a two-component structure, with two different and spatially distinct grain populations. The 2-11 {mu}m data are consistent with an inner hot ring of very small ({approx_equal}10-300 nm) carbon-rich grains concentrating around 0.1 AU. The second dust population-inferred from the KIN data at longer mid-infrared wavelengths-consists of larger grains (size of a few microns to a few tens of microns) located further out in a colder region where regular astronomical silicates could survive, with an inner edge around 0.4 AU-1 AU. From a dynamical point of view, the presence of the inner concentration of submicron-sized grains is surprising, as such grains should be expelled from the inner planetary system by radiation pressure within only a few years. This could either point to some inordinate replenishment rates (e.g., many grazing comets coming from an outer reservoir) or to the existence of some braking mechanism preventing the grains

  7. Extrasolar Planet Transits Observed at Kitt Peak National Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sada, Pedro V.; Jennings, Donald E.; Deming, Drake; Jennings, Donald E.; Jackson, Brian; Hamilton, Catrina M.; Fraine, Jonathan; Peterson, Steven W.; Haase, Flynn; Bays, Kevin; hide

    2012-01-01

    We obtained J-, H-, and JH-band photometry of known extrasolar planet transiting systems at the 2.1 m Kitt Peak National Observatory Telescope using the FLAMINGOS infrared camera between 2008 October and 2011 October. From the derived light curves we have extracted the midtransit times, transit depths and transit durations for these events. The precise midtransit times obtained help improve the orbital periods and also constrain transit-time variations of the systems. For most cases the published system parameters successfully accounted for our observed light curves, but in some instances we derive improved planetary radii and orbital periods. We complemented our 2.1 m infrared observations using CCD z0-band and B-band photometry (plus two H(alpha) filter observations) obtained with the Kitt Peak Visitor Center Telescope, and with four H-band transits observed in 2007 October with the NSO's 1.6 m McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope. The principal highlights of our results are (1) Our ensemble of J-band planetary radii agree with optical radii, with the best-fit relation being RpRJ0:0017 0:979RpRvis. (2) We observe starspot crossings during the transit of WASP-11HAT-P-10. (3) We detect starspot crossings by HAT-P-11b (Kepler-3b), thus confirming that the magnetic evolution of the stellar active regions can be monitored even after the Kepler mission has ended. (4) We confirm a grazing transit for HAT-P-27WASP-40. In total, we present 57 individual transits of 32 known exoplanet systems.

  8. Temperature increase at the light guide tip of 15 contemporary LED units and thermal variation at the pulpal floor of cavities: an infrared thermographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, M; DeVito-Moraes, A; Francci, C; Moraes, R; Pereira, T; Froes-Salgado, N; Yamazaki, L; Silva, L; Zezell, D

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a comprehensive investigation on the temperature increase at the light guide tip of several commercial light-emitting diode (LED) light-curing units (LCUs) and the associated thermal variation (ΔT) at the pulpal floor of dental cavities was carried out. In total, 15 LEDs from all generations were investigated, testing a quartz-tungsten-halogen (QTH) unit as a reference. The irradiance level was measured with a power meter, and spectral distribution was analyzed using a spectrometer. Temperature increase at the tip was measured with a type-K thermocouple connected to a thermometer, while ΔT at the pulpal floor was measured by an infrared photodetector in class V cavities, with a 1-mm-thick dentin pulpal floor. The relationship among measured irradiance, ΔT at the tip, and ΔT at the pulpal floor was investigated using regression analyses. Large discrepancies between the expected and measured irradiances were detected for some LCUs. Most of the LCUs showed an emission spectrum narrower than the QTH unit, with emission peaks usually between 450 and 470 nm. The temperature increase at the tip followed a logarithmic growth for LCUs with irradiance ≥1000 mW/cm(2), with ΔT at the tip following the measured irradiance linearly (R(2)=0.67). Linear temperature increase at the pulpal floor over the 40-second exposure time was observed for several LCUs, with linear association between ΔT at the pulpal floor and measured irradiance (R(2)=0.39) or ΔT at the tip (R(2)=0.28). In conclusion, contemporary LED units show varied irradiance levels that affect the temperature increase at the light guide tip and, as a consequence, the thermal variation at the pulpal floor of dental cavities.

  9. PCA determination of the radiometric noise of high spectral resolution infrared observations from spectral residuals: Application to IASI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serio, C.; Masiello, G.; Camy-Peyret, C.; Jacquette, E.; Vandermarcq, O.; Bermudo, F.; Coppens, D.; Tobin, D.

    2018-02-01

    The problem of characterizing and estimating the instrumental or radiometric noise of satellite high spectral resolution infrared spectrometers directly from Earth observations is addressed in this paper. An approach has been developed, which relies on the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) with a suitable criterion to select the optimal number of PC scores. Different selection criteria have been set up and analysed, which is based on the estimation theory of Least Squares and/or Maximum Likelihood Principle. The approach is independent of any forward model and/or radiative transfer calculations. The PCA is used to define an orthogonal basis, which, in turn, is used to derive an optimal linear reconstruction of the observations. The residual vector that is the observation vector minus the calculated or reconstructed one is then used to estimate the instrumental noise. It will be shown that the use of the spectral residuals to assess the radiometric instrumental noise leads to efficient estimators, which are largely independent of possible departures of the true noise from that assumed a priori to model the observational covariance matrix. Application to the Infrared Atmospheric Sounder Interferometer (IASI) has been co