WorldWideScience

Sample records for influenza risk perception

  1. Network information analysis reveals risk perception transmission in a behaviour-influenza dynamics system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, C-M; You, S-H; Cheng, Y-H

    2015-01-01

    Influenza poses a significant public health burden worldwide. Understanding how and to what extent people would change their behaviour in response to influenza outbreaks is critical for formulating public health policies. We incorporated the information-theoretic framework into a behaviour-influenza (BI) transmission dynamics system in order to understand the effects of individual behavioural change on influenza epidemics. We showed that information transmission of risk perception played a crucial role in the spread of health-seeking behaviour throughout influenza epidemics. Here a network BI model provides a new approach for understanding the risk perception spread and human behavioural change during disease outbreaks. Our study allows simultaneous consideration of epidemiological, psychological, and social factors as predictors of individual perception rates in behaviour-disease transmission systems. We suggest that a monitoring system with precise information on risk perception should be constructed to effectively promote health behaviours in preparation for emerging disease outbreaks.

  2. People at Risk of Influenza Pandemics: The Evolution of Perception and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianhua; Peng, Zongchao

    2015-01-01

    Influenza pandemics can severely impact human health and society. Understanding public perception and behavior toward influenza pandemics is important for minimizing the effects of such events. Public perception and behavior are expected to change over the course of an influenza pandemic, but this idea has received little attention in previous studies. Our study aimed to understand the dynamics of public perception and behavior over the course of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. Three consecutive cross-sectional surveys were administered among Beijing residents with random-digit dialing techniques in March 2008 and August and November 2009. Effective samples of 507, 508 and 1006 respondents were interviewed in each of the three surveys, respectively. The mean scores of risk perception were low to moderate across the three surveys. The perceived risk of infection of self was significantly lower than that of the community, revealing an optimistic bias. Longitudinally, the perceived risk of contracting H1N1 increased, whereas the perceived risk of being unable to obtain medicine and medical care once influenza permeated the community first increased and then decreased. Responsive actions toward influenza varied. Most respondents took actions that required little extra effort, such as ventilating rooms; these actions did not change over time. Comparatively, a smaller number of respondents took actions for coping with influenza, such as vaccination; however, these actions were taken by an increasing number of respondents over time. The association between risk perception and behavior was unstable. Positive, insignificant, and negative associations were obtained in the three surveys. In conclusion, the evolving patterns of risk perception and responsive behavior over the course of an influenza pandemic are sensitive to how risk and behavior are defined and scoped.

  3. Duck Hunters’ Perceptions of Risk for Avian Influenza, Georgia, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Dishman, Hope; Stallknecht, David; Cole, Dana

    2010-01-01

    To determine duck hunters’ risk for highly pathogenic avian influenza, we surveyed duck hunters in Georgia, USA, during 2007–2008, about their knowledge, attitudes, and practices. We found they engage in several practices that could expose them to the virus. Exposures and awareness were highest for those who had hunted >10 years.

  4. Duck hunters' perceptions of risk for avian influenza, Georgia, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishman, Hope; Stallknecht, David; Cole, Dana

    2010-08-01

    To determine duck hunters'risk for highly pathogenic avian influenza, we surveyed duck hunters in Georgia, USA, during 2007-2008, about their knowledge, attitudes, and practices. We found they engage in several practices that could expose them to the virus. Exposures and awareness were highest for those who had hunted >10 years.

  5. Relationships among Trust in Messages, Risk Perception, and Risk Reduction Preferences Based upon Avian Influenza in Taiwan

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    Wen-Shan Hsu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Improvements in communications technology enable consumers to receive information through diverse channels. In the case of avian influenza, information repeated by the mass media socially amplifies the consumer awareness of risks. Facing indeterminate risks, consumers may feel anxious and increase their risk perception. When consumers trust the information published by the media, their uncertainty toward avian influenza may decrease. Consumers might take some actions to reduce risk. Therefore, this study focuses on relationships among trust in messages, risk perception and risk reduction preferences. This study administered 525 random samples and consumer survey questionnaires in different city of Taiwan in 2007. Through statistical analysis, the results demonstrate: (1 the higher the trust consumers have in messages about avian influenza, the lower their risk perceptions are; (2 the higher the consumers’ risk perceptions are and, therefore, the higher their desired level of risk reductive, the more likely they are to accept risk reduction strategies; (3 consumer attributes such as age, education level, and marital status correlate with significant differences in risk perception and risk reduction preferences acceptance. Gender has significant differences only in risk reduction preferences and not in risk perception.

  6. Perception of the Risks of Ebola, Enterovirus-E68 and Influenza Among Emergency Department Patients

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    Lauren K. Whiteside

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Emerging infectious diseases often create concern and fear among the public. Ebola virus disease (EVD and enterovirus (EV-68 are uncommon viral illnesses compared to influenza. The objective of this study was to determine risk for these viral diseases and then determine how public perception of influenza severity and risk of infection relate to more publicized but less common emerging infectious diseases such as EVD and EV-68 among a sample of adults seeking care at an emergency department (ED in the United States. Methods: We included consenting adults who sought care in two different urban EDs in Seattle, WA in November 2014. Excluded were those who were not fluent in English, in police custody, had decreased level of consciousness, a psychiatric emergency, or required active resuscitation. Patients were approached to participate in an anonymous survey performed on a tablet computer. Information sought included demographics, medical comorbidities, risk factors for EVD and EV-68, and perceptions of disease likelihood, severity and worry for developing EVD, EV-68 or influenza along with subjective estimates of the number of people who have died of each virus over the year in the United States. Results: A total of 262 (88.5% participation rate patients participated in the survey. Overall, participants identified that they were more likely to get influenza compared to EVD (p<0.001 or EV-68 (p<0.001, but endorsed worry and concern about getting both EVD and EV-68 despite having little or no risk for these viral diseases. Nearly two-thirds (64% of participants had at-least one risk factor for an influenza-related complication. Most participants (64% believed they could get influenza in the next 12 months. Only 52% had received a seasonal influenza vaccine. Conclusion: Perception of risk for EVD, EV-68 and influenza is discordant with actual risk as well as self-reported use of preventive care. Influenza is a serious public health

  7. Risk Perceptions for Avian Influenza Virus Infection among Poultry Workers, China

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Qi; Liu, Linqing; Pu, Juan; Zhao, Jingyi; Sun, Yipeng; Shen, Guangnian; Wei, Haitao; Zhu, Junjie; Zheng, Ruifeng; Xiong, Dongyan; Liu, Xiaodong; Liu, Jinhua

    2013-01-01

    To determine risk for avian influenza virus infection, we conducted serologic surveillance for H5 and H9 subtypes among poultry workers in Beijing, China, 2009–2010, and assessed workers’ understanding of avian influenza. We found that poultry workers had considerable risk for infection with H9 subtypes. Increasing their knowledge could prevent future infections.

  8. The dynamics of risk perceptions and precautionary behavior in response to 2009 (H1N1 pandemic influenza

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    Li Meng

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The trajectory of an infectious disease outbreak is affected by the behavior of individuals, and the behavior is often related to individuals' risk perception. We assessed temporal changes and geographical differences in risk perceptions and precautionary behaviors in response to H1N1 influenza. Methods 1,290 US adults completed an online survey on risk perceptions, interests in pharmaceutical interventions (preventive intervention and curative intervention, and engagement in precautionary activities (information seeking activities and taking quarantine measures in response to H1N1 influenza between April 28 and May 27 2009. Associations of risk perceptions and precautionary behaviors with respondents' sex, age, and household size were analyzed. Linear and quadratic time trends were assessed by regression analyses. Geographic differences in risk perception and precautionary behaviors were evaluated. Predictors of willingness to take pharmaceutical intervention were analyzed. Results Respondents from larger households reported stronger interest in taking medications and engaged in more precautionary activities, as would be normatively predicted. Perceived risk increased over time, whereas interest in pharmaceutical preventive interventions and the engagement in some precautionary activities decreased over time. Respondents who live in states with higher H1N1 incidence per population perceived a higher likelihood of influenza infection, but did not express greater interests in pharmaceutical interventions, nor did they engage in a higher degree of precautionary activities. Perceived likelihood of influenza infection, willingness to take medications and engagement in information seeking activities were higher for women than men. Conclusions Perceived risk of infection and precautionary behavior can be dynamic in time, and differ by demographic characteristics and geographical locations. These patterns will likely influence the

  9. The effect of risk perception on the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza dynamics.

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    Piero Poletti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza dynamics in Italy was characterized by a notable pattern: as it emerged from the analysis of influenza-like illness data, after an initial period (September-mid-October 2009 characterized by a slow exponential increase in the weekly incidence, a sudden and sharp increase of the growth rate was observed by mid-October. The aim here is to understand whether spontaneous behavioral changes in the population could be responsible for such a pattern of epidemic spread. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to face this issue, a mathematical model of influenza transmission, accounting for spontaneous behavioral changes driven by cost/benefit considerations on the perceived risk of infection, is proposed and validated against empirical epidemiological data. The performed investigation revealed that an initial overestimation of the risk of infection in the general population, possibly induced by the high concern for the emergence of a new influenza pandemic, results in a pattern of spread compliant with the observed one. This finding is also supported by the analysis of antiviral drugs purchase over the epidemic period. Moreover, by assuming a generation time of 2.5 days, the initially diffuse misperception of the risk of infection led to a relatively low value of the reproductive number , which increased to in the subsequent phase of the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study highlights that spontaneous behavioral changes in the population, not accounted by the large majority of influenza transmission models, can not be neglected to correctly inform public health decisions. In fact, individual choices can drastically affect the epidemic spread, by altering timing, dynamics and overall number of cases.

  10. An exploration of how perceptions of the risk of avian influenza in poultry relate to urbanization in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finucane, Melissa L; Nghiem, Tuyen; Saksena, Sumeet; Nguyen, Lam; Fox, Jefferson; Spencer, James H; Thau, Trinh Dinh

    2014-01-01

    This research examined how perceptions of outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) subtype H5N1 in poultry are related to urbanization. Via in-depth interviews with village leaders, household farmers, and large farm operators in modern, transitional, and traditional communes in the north of Vietnam, we explored behaviors, attitudes, cultural values, and traditions that might amplify or attenuate HPAI outbreaks. We also explored conceptualizations of urbanization and its impacts on animal husbandry and disease outbreaks. Qualitative theme analyses identified the key impacts, factors related to HPAI outbreaks, and disease prevention and management strategies. The analyses also highlighted how urbanization improves some aspects of life (e.g., food security, family wealth and health, more employment opportunities, and improved infrastructure), but simultaneously poses significant challenges for poultry farming and disease management. Awareness of qualitative aspects of HPAI risk perceptions and behaviors and how they vary with urbanization processes may help to improve the prevention and management of emerging infectious diseases.

  11. Avian influenza risk perception and preventive behavior among traditional market workers and shoppers in Taiwan: practical implications for prevention.

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    Pei-Chun Kuo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Avian influenza (AI can be highly pathogenic and fatal. Preventive behavior such as handwashing and wearing face masks has been recommended. However, little is known about what psychosocial factors might influence people's decision to adopt such preventive behavior. This study aims to explore risk perception and other factors associated with handwashing and wearing face masks to prevent AI. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An interviewer-administered survey was conducted among 352 traditional market workers and shoppers in Taiwan between December 2009 and January 2010. Factors associated with the recommended AI preventive behavior (i.e., when in a traditional market, wearing a face mask and also washing hands after any contact with poultry included: having correct knowledge about the fatality rate of AI (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.18, knowing of severe cases of AI (AOR = 2.13, being informed of local AI outbreaks (AOR = 2.24, living in northeastern Taiwan (AOR = 6.01, having a senior high-school education (AOR = 3.33, and having a university or higher education (AOR = 6.86. Gender interactive effect was also found among participants with a senior high-school education, with males being less likely to engage in the recommended AI preventive behavior than their female counterparts (AOR = 0.34. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Specific information concerning AI risk perception was associated with the recommended AI preventive behavior. In particular, having correct knowledge about the fatality rate of AI and being informed of severe cases and local outbreaks of AI were linked to increased AI preventive behavior. These findings underscore the importance of transparency in dealing with epidemic information. These results also have practical implications for prevention and policy-making to more effectively promote the recommended AI preventive behavior in the public.

  12. Exploring Risk Perceptions of Emerging Infectious Diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. de Zwart (Onno)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis is about risk perception of infectious diseases, with a special focus on the emerging infections SARS and avian influenza, and explores potential determinants of risk perception and the relation of risk perception with precautionary behaviours. In this first chapter I discuss

  13. Risk perception, preventive behaviors, and vaccination coverage in the Korean population during the 2009-2010 pandemic influenza A (H1N1: comparison between high-risk group and non-high-risk group.

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    Jung Yeon Heo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study was carried out to estimate the vaccination coverage, public perception, and preventive behaviors against pandemic influenza A (H1N1 and to understand the motivation and barriers to vaccination between high-risk and non-high-risk groups during the outbreak of pandemic influenza A (H1N1. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional nationwide telephone survey of 1,650 community-dwelling Korean adults aged 19 years and older was conducted in the later stage of the 2009-2010 pandemic influenza A (H1N1 outbreak. The questionnaire identified the demographics, vaccination status of participants and all household members, barriers to non-vaccination, perceived threat, and preventive behaviors. In Korea, the overall rate of pandemic influenza vaccination coverage in the surveyed population was 15.5%; vaccination coverage in the high-risk group and non-high-risk group was 47.3% and 8.0%, respectively. In the high-risk group, the most important triggering event for vaccination was receiving a notice from a public health organization. In the non-high-risk group, vaccination was more strongly influenced by previous experience with influenza or mass media campaigns. In both groups, the most common reasons for not receiving vaccination was that their health was sufficient to forgo the vaccination, and lack of time. There was no significant difference in how either group perceived the threat or adopted preventive behavior. The predictive factors for pandemic influenza vaccination were being elderly (age ≥ 65 years, prior seasonal influenza vaccination, and chronic medical disease. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: With the exception of vaccination coverage, the preventive behaviors of the high-risk group were not different from those of the non-high-risk group during the 2009-2010 pandemic. For future pandemic preparedness planning, it is crucial to reinforce preventive behaviors to avoid illness before vaccination and to increase

  14. Perceptions on the risk communication strategy during the 2013 avian influenza A/H7N9 outbreak in humans in China: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Richun; Xie, Ruiqian; Yang, Chong; Frost, Melinda

    2016-01-01

    To identify the general public's perceptions of the overall risk communication strategy carried out by Chinese public health agencies during the first wave of avian influenza A(H7N9) outbreak in humans in 2013. Participants were recruited from communities in Beijing, Lanzhou and Hangzhou, China in May and June 2013 by convenience sampling. Demographics and other relevant information were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Focus group interviews were conducted using a set of nine pre-developed questions and a tested moderator guide. The interviews were audio recorded and were transcribed verbatim. The constant comparative method was used to identify trends and themes. A total of nine focus group interviews, with 94 participants recruited from nine communities, were conducted. Most participants received H7N9 information via television and the Internet. Most the participants appreciated the transparency and timeliness of the information released by the government. They expressed a sense of trust in the recommended public health advice and followed most of them. The participants suggested that the government release more information about clinical treatment outcomes, have more specific health recommendations that are practical to their settings and expand the use of new media channels for risk communication. The public perceived the overall risk communication strategy by the Chinese public health agencies as effective, though the moderator had a governmental agency title that might have biased the results. There is a need to expand the use of social media for risk communication in the future.

  15. "Pandemic Public Health Paradox": Time Series Analysis of the 2009/10 Influenza A / H1N1 Epidemiology, Media Attention, Risk Perception and Public Reactions in 5 European Countries.

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    Reintjes, Ralf; Das, Enny; Klemm, Celine; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Keßler, Verena; Ahmad, Amena

    2016-01-01

    In 2009, influenza A H1N1 caused the first pandemic of the 21st century. Although a vaccine against this influenza subtype was offered before or at the onset of the second epidemic wave that caused most of the fatal cases in Europe, vaccination rates for that season were lower than expected. We propose that the contradiction between high risk of infection and low use of available prevention measures represents a pandemic public health paradox. This research aims for a better understanding of this paradox by exploring the time-dependent interplay among changing influenza epidemiology, media attention, pandemic control measures, risk perception and public health behavior among five European countries (Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Spain and the UK). Findings suggest that asynchronicity between media curves and epidemiological curves may potentially explain the pandemic public health paradox; media attention for influenza A H1N1 in Europe declined long before the epidemic reached its peak, and public risk perceptions and behaviors may have followed media logic, rather than epidemiological logic.

  16. Perceptions on the risk communication strategy during the 2013 avian influenza A/H7N9 outbreak in humans in China: a focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richun Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the general public’s perceptions of the overall risk communication strategy carried out by Chinese public health agencies during the first wave of avian influenza A(H7N9 outbreak in humans in 2013. Methods: Participants were recruited from communities in Beijing, Lanzhou and Hangzhou, China in May and June 2013 by convenience sampling. Demographics and other relevant information were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Focus group interviews were conducted using a set of nine pre-developed questions and a tested moderator guide. The interviews were audio recorded and were transcribed verbatim. The constant comparative method was used to identify trends and themes. Results: A total of nine focus group interviews, with 94 participants recruited from nine communities, were conducted. Most participants received H7N9 information via television and the Internet. A majority of the participants appreciated the transparency and timeliness of the information released by the government. They expressed a sense of trust in the recommended public health advice and followed most of them. The participants suggested that the government release more information about clinical treatment outcomes, have more specific health recommendations that are practical to their settings and expand the use of new media channels for risk communication. Conclusion: The public perceived the overall risk communication strategy by the Chinese public health agencies as effective, though the moderator had a governmental agency title that might have biased the results. There is a need to expand the use of social media for risk communication in the future.

  17. Consumer perception of risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim

    2001-01-01

    ' in risk perception research covering structure, process, and the social dynamics of risk debates. After that I will present results from a recently completed research project. In this project, we specifically looked into consumers' perceptions of gene technology applied to brewing, and how...... these perceptions related to consumers' attitudes and choice behavior....

  18. Risk perceptions and health behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Rebecca; Klein, William M

    2015-01-01

    Risk perceptions – or an individual’s perceived susceptibility to a threat – are a key component of many health behavior change theories. Risk perceptions are often targeted in health behavior change interventions, and recent meta-analytic evidence suggests that interventions that successfully engage and change risk perceptions produce subsequent increases in health behaviors. Here, we review recent literature on risk perceptions and health behavior, including research on the formation of risk perceptions, types of risk perceptions (including deliberative, affective, and experiential), accuracy of risk perceptions, and associations and interactions among types of risk perceptions. Taken together, existing research suggests that disease risk perceptions are a critical determinant of health behavior, although the nature of the association among risk perceptions and health behavior may depend on the profile of different types of risk perceptions and the accuracy of such perceptions. PMID:26258160

  19. Monitoring the level of government trust, risk perception and intention of the general public to adopt protective measures during the influenza A (H1N1 pandemic in the Netherlands

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    Oudhoff Jurriaan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the course of an influenza pandemic, governments know relatively little about the possibly changing influence of government trust, risk perception, and receipt of information on the public's intention to adopt protective measures or on the acceptance of vaccination. This study aims to identify and describe possible changes in and factors associated with public's intentions during the 2009 influenza A (H1N1 pandemic in the Netherlands. Methods Sixteen cross-sectional telephone surveys were conducted (N = 8060 between April - November 2009. From these repeated measurements three consecutive periods were categorized based on crucial events during the influenza A (H1N1 pandemic. Time trends in government trust, risk perception, intention to adopt protective measures, and the acceptance of vaccination were analysed. Factors associated with an intention to adopt protective measures or vaccination were identified. Results Trust in the government was high, but decreased over time. During the course of the pandemic, perceived vulnerability and an intention to adopt protective measures increased. Trust and vulnerability were associated with an intention to adopt protective measures in general only during period one. Higher levels of intention to receive vaccination were associated with increased government trust, fear/worry, and perceived vulnerability. In periods two and three receipt of information was positively associated with an intention to adopt protective measures. Most respondents wanted to receive information about infection prevention from municipal health services, health care providers, and the media. Conclusions The Dutch response to the H1N1 virus was relatively muted. Higher levels of trust in the government, fear/worry, and perceived vulnerability were all positively related to an intention to accept vaccination. Only fear/worry was positively linked to an intention to adopt protective measures during the entire

  20. Seismic risk perception test

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    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Camassi, Romano; Pino, Nicola Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    The perception of risks involves the process of collecting, selecting and interpreting signals about uncertain impacts of events, activities or technologies. In the natural sciences the term risk seems to be clearly defined, it means the probability distribution of adverse effects, but the everyday use of risk has different connotations (Renn, 2008). The two terms, hazards and risks, are often used interchangeably by the public. Knowledge, experience, values, attitudes and feelings all influence the thinking and judgement of people about the seriousness and acceptability of risks. Within the social sciences however the terminology of 'risk perception' has become the conventional standard (Slovic, 1987). The mental models and other psychological mechanisms which people use to judge risks (such as cognitive heuristics and risk images) are internalized through social and cultural learning and constantly moderated (reinforced, modified, amplified or attenuated) by media reports, peer influences and other communication processes (Morgan et al., 2001). Yet, a theory of risk perception that offers an integrative, as well as empirically valid, approach to understanding and explaining risk perception is still missing". To understand the perception of risk is necessary to consider several areas: social, psychological, cultural, and their interactions. Among the various research in an international context on the perception of natural hazards, it seemed promising the approach with the method of semantic differential (Osgood, C.E., Suci, G., & Tannenbaum, P. 1957, The measurement of meaning. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press). The test on seismic risk perception has been constructed by the method of the semantic differential. To compare opposite adjectives or terms has been used a Likert's scale to seven point. The test consists of an informative part and six sections respectively dedicated to: hazard; vulnerability (home and workplace); exposed value (with reference to

  1. Risks and perceptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, T.

    1987-11-01

    The article on the risks and perceptions of nuclear power was previously published in the Times Higher Education Supplement, May 1987. The public attitude towards risks associated with nuclear power, compared with other risks in everyday life, is examined. Results of psychological studies of the perceived risk of nuclear power are also discussed. The author argues that fear of nuclear catastrophe is not one which can be brushed aside by statistics or punditry.

  2. Local poultry biosecurity risks to highly pathogenic avian influenza in Kaduna State, Nigeria.

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    Paul, Abdu A; Assam, Assam; Ndang, Tabe-Ntui L

    2013-01-01

    The study appraised local poultry biosecurity risks to highly pathogenic avian influenza by assessing farmers' knowledge, beliefs and poultry practices using a standard questionnaire. Farmers' knowledge on transmission and prevention was high but low on disease recognition. Radio was ineffective at informing Islamic educated farmers. Extensive knowledge on transmission and protection did not result in behavioural change as farmers engaged in risky practices of selling, eating or medicating infected poultry and not reporting poultry death. Islamic educated farmers do not believe highly pathogenic avian influenza is a serious and preventable disease. Women are more likely to self medicate when experiencing influenza-like illness. Audio-visual aids would improve avian influenza recognition while involvement of community leaders would enhance disease reporting. Outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza in local poultry in Nigeria would follow a similar pattern in Southeast Asia if the risk perception among farmers is not urgently articulated.

  3. Local public health workers' perceptions toward responding to an influenza pandemic

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    Everly George S

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current national preparedness plans require local health departments to play an integral role in responding to an influenza pandemic, a major public health threat that the World Health Organization has described as "inevitable and possibly imminent". To understand local public health workers' perceptions toward pandemic influenza response, we surveyed 308 employees at three health departments in Maryland from March – July 2005, on factors that may influence their ability and willingness to report to duty in such an event. Results The data suggest that nearly half of the local health department workers are likely not to report to duty during a pandemic. The stated likelihood of reporting to duty was significantly greater for clinical (Multivariate OR: 2.5; CI 1.3–4.7 than technical and support staff, and perception of the importance of one's role in the agency's overall response was the single most influential factor associated with willingness to report (Multivariate OR: 9.5; CI 4.6–19.9. Conclusion The perceived risk among public health workers was shown to be associated with several factors peripheral to the actual hazard of this event. These risk perception modifiers and the knowledge gaps identified serve as barriers to pandemic influenza response and must be specifically addressed to enable effective local public health response to this significant threat.

  4. Framing effects on risk perception of nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Schütz, Holger; Wiedemann, Peter M.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract How do people judge nanotechnology risks that are completely unfamiliar to them? Drawing on results of previous studies on framing and risk perception, two hypotheses about potential influences on nanotechnology risk perception were examined in an experimental study: 1) Risk perception of nanotechnology is influenced by its benefit perception. 2) Risk perception of nanotechnology is ...

  5. Risk perception for paragliding practitioners.

    OpenAIRE

    Paixão, Jairo Antônio da; Tucher, Guilherme

    2012-01-01

    As an adventure sport, paragliding exposes participants to different levels of life risk. However, the boundary between calculated risk and real risk is a subtle one, depending on the practitioner’s perception. Thus, this study aimed to analyze risk perception of 73 paragliding practitioners. The descriptive-exploratory study method was used. Data was col-lected via a questionnaire validated according to the Delphi technique. Variables were evaluated from a bipolar Likert type scale, ranging ...

  6. Influenza vaccination in children at high risk of respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patria, Maria Francesca; Tagliabue, Claudia; Longhi, Benedetta; Esposito, Susanna

    2013-05-01

    Chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs) are a heterogeneous group of diseases that can affect the pediatric population and health authorities throughout the world recommend influenza vaccination because of the significant risk of influenza-related complications. However, despite this recommendation, vaccine coverage is generally unsatisfactory. The aim of this review is to analyze the impact of influenza on children at high risk of respiratory disease, and the immunogenicity, safety and efficacy of influenza vaccination in such children. The results show that there is a significant risk of influenza-related complications in preterm neonates and infants, in whom influenza vaccines are immunogenic and safe (although their efficacy has not been specifically studied). There are conflicting data concerning the effect of influenza infection on asthma morbidity in children, and whether or not influenza vaccination helps to prevent asthma exacerbations. Recent data provide no evidence that influenza is more frequent in patients with cystic fibrosis than in healthy subjects, or that it is responsible for increased lower respiratory tract morbidity. The lack of any clear correlate of protection suggests that future studies should also consider the efficacy of the different influenza vaccines and not only evaluate them in terms of immunogenicity. Furthermore, there is a need for clinical studies to assess the effectiveness of the available vaccines in patients with other rare CRDs and other chronic underlying diseases with possibly severe respiratory involvement. It is also important to determine whether children with recurrent respiratory tract infections should be included in the list of those for whom influenza vaccination is recommended. In the meantime, given the increasing evidence of the burden of influenza on the population as a whole and the benefits associated with vaccination, annual influenza vaccinations should be recommended for all children at high risk of

  7. Seismic risk perception in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Camassi, Romano; Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Peruzza, Laura

    2014-05-01

    Risk perception is a fundamental element in the definition and the adoption of preventive counter-measures. In order to develop effective information and risk communication strategies, the perception of risks and the influencing factors should be known. This paper presents results of a survey on seismic risk perception in Italy conducted from January 2013 to present . The research design combines a psychometric and a cultural theoretic approach. More than 7,000 on-line tests have been compiled. The data collected show that in Italy seismic risk perception is strongly underestimated; 86 on 100 Italian citizens, living in the most dangerous zone (namely Zone 1), do not have a correct perception of seismic hazard. From these observations we deem that extremely urgent measures are required in Italy to reach an effective way to communicate seismic risk. Finally, the research presents a comparison between groups on seismic risk perception: a group involved in campaigns of information and education on seismic risk and a control group.

  8. Wind speed perception and risk.

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    Duzgun Agdas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: How accurately do people perceive extreme wind speeds and how does that perception affect the perceived risk? Prior research on human-wind interaction has focused on comfort levels in urban settings or knock-down thresholds. No systematic experimental research has attempted to assess people's ability to estimate extreme wind speeds and perceptions of their associated risks. METHOD: We exposed 76 people to 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 mph (4.5, 8.9, 13.4, 17.9, 22.3, and 26.8 m/s winds in randomized orders and asked them to estimate wind speed and the corresponding risk they felt. RESULTS: Multilevel modeling showed that people were accurate at lower wind speeds but overestimated wind speeds at higher levels. Wind speed perceptions mediated the direct relationship between actual wind speeds and perceptions of risk (i.e., the greater the perceived wind speed, the greater the perceived risk. The number of tropical cyclones people had experienced moderated the strength of the actual-perceived wind speed relationship; consequently, mediation was stronger for people who had experienced fewer storms. CONCLUSION: These findings provide a clearer understanding of wind and risk perception, which can aid development of public policy solutions toward communicating the severity and risks associated with natural disasters.

  9. Wind Speed Perception and Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agdas, Duzgun; Webster, Gregory D.; Masters, Forrest J.

    2012-01-01

    Background How accurately do people perceive extreme wind speeds and how does that perception affect the perceived risk? Prior research on human–wind interaction has focused on comfort levels in urban settings or knock-down thresholds. No systematic experimental research has attempted to assess people's ability to estimate extreme wind speeds and perceptions of their associated risks. Method We exposed 76 people to 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 mph (4.5, 8.9, 13.4, 17.9, 22.3, and 26.8 m/s) winds in randomized orders and asked them to estimate wind speed and the corresponding risk they felt. Results Multilevel modeling showed that people were accurate at lower wind speeds but overestimated wind speeds at higher levels. Wind speed perceptions mediated the direct relationship between actual wind speeds and perceptions of risk (i.e., the greater the perceived wind speed, the greater the perceived risk). The number of tropical cyclones people had experienced moderated the strength of the actual–perceived wind speed relationship; consequently, mediation was stronger for people who had experienced fewer storms. Conclusion These findings provide a clearer understanding of wind and risk perception, which can aid development of public policy solutions toward communicating the severity and risks associated with natural disasters. PMID:23226230

  10. Previously diagnosed influenza infections and the risk of developing epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J C; Toovey, S; Jick, S S; Meier, C R

    2015-08-01

    Several epidemiological studies suggest a possible involvement of viral infection in the development of epilepsy. While recent research from in vitro studies increasingly supports the role of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in the pathogenesis of epilepsy, little is known about the role of other viral infections such as influenza. Using data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), we conducted a matched case-control analysis to assess the association between GP-diagnosed influenza infections and the risk of developing an incident diagnosis of epilepsy. During the study period 11 244 incident epilepsy cases and 44 976 matched control patients were identified. Prior exposure to influenza was reported in 7·5% of epilepsy cases and 6·7% of controls [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1·12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·03-1·22]. Prior history of 'complicated influenza', i.e. influenza associated with a possible super-infection, was associated with a slightly increased epilepsy risk (aOR 1·64, 95% CI 1·10-2·46), particularly if recorded within the 2 months preceding the epilepsy diagnosis (aOR 6·03, 95% CI 1·10-33·2). Our findings suggest that prior influenza exposure does not appear to materially alter the risk of developing epilepsy. By contrast, influenza episodes accompanied by complications were associated with a slightly increased epilepsy risk.

  11. Risk management of seasonal influenza during pregnancy: current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudin, Mark H

    2014-01-01

    Influenza poses unique risks to pregnant women, who are particularly susceptible to morbidity and mortality. Historically, pregnant women have been overrepresented among patients with severe illness and complications from influenza, and have been more likely to require hospitalization and intensive care unit admission. An increased risk of adverse outcomes is also present for fetuses/neonates born to women affected by influenza during pregnancy. These risks to mothers and babies have been observed during both nonpandemic and pandemic influenza seasons. During the H1N1 influenza pandemic of 2009–2010, pregnant women were more likely to be hospitalized or admitted to intensive care units, and were at higher risk of death compared to nonpregnant adults. Vaccination remains the most effective intervention to prevent severe illness, and antiviral medications are an important adjunct to ameliorate disease when it occurs. Unfortunately, despite national guidelines recommending universal vaccination for women who are pregnant during influenza season, actual vaccination rates do not achieve desired targets among pregnant women. Pregnant women are also sometimes reluctant to use antiviral medications during pregnancy. Some of the barriers to use of vaccines and medications during pregnancy are a lack of knowledge of recommendations and of safety data. By improving knowledge and understanding of influenza and vaccination recommendations, vaccine acceptance rates among pregnant women can be improved. Currently, the appropriate use of vaccination and antiviral medications is the best line of defense against influenza and its sequelae among pregnant women, and strategies to increase acceptance are crucial. This article will review the importance of influenza in pregnancy, and discuss vaccination and antiviral medications for pregnant women. PMID:25114593

  12. Viral factors in influenza pandemic risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lipsitch, M. (Marc); W.S. Barclay (Wendy); Raman, R. (Rahul); Russell, C.J. (Charles J.); Belser, J.A. (Jessica A.); Cobey, S. (Sarah); Kasson, P.M. (Peter M.); J. Lloyd-Smith (James); S. Maurer-Stroh (Sebastian); S. Riley (Steven); Beauchemin, C.A. (Catherine A.); T. Bedford (Trevor); Friedrich, T.C. (Thomas C.); Handel, A. (Andreas); S. Herfst (Sander); Murcia, P.R. (Pablo R.); Roche, B. (Benjamin); Wilke, C.O. (Claus O.); C.A. Russell (Colin)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe threat of an influenza A virus pandemic stems from continual virus spillovers from reservoir species, a tiny fraction of which spark sustained transmission in humans. To date, no pandemic emergence of a new influenza strain has been preceded by detection of a closely related

  13. Outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases: Risk perception and behaviour of the general public

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Bults (Marloes)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis focuses on risk perception and behaviour of the public during the outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases. It consists of studies on Influenza A (H1N1), Q fever and Lyme disease. These studies were conducted among both the general public and specific risk

  14. Illness perceptions, risk perception and worry in SDH mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsteijn, L.T. van; Kaptein, A.A.; Louisse, A.; Biermasz, N.R.; Smit, J.W.; Corssmit, E.P.

    2014-01-01

    Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) mutation carriers are predisposed for developing paragangliomas. This study aimed to explore illness perceptions, risk perception and disease-related worry in these individuals. All consecutive SDHB and SDHD mutation carriers followed at the Department of Endocrinology

  15. Risk factors of influenza transmission in households

    OpenAIRE

    Viboud, Cécile; Boëlle, Pierre-Yves; Cauchemez, Simon; Lavenu, Audrey; Valleron, Alain-Jacques; Flahault, Antoine; Carrat, Fabrice

    2004-01-01

    Background: Influenza transmission in households is a subject of renewed interest, as the vaccination of children is currently under debate and antiviral treatments have been approved for prophylactic use.

  16. On the perception and operationalization of risk perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoav Ganzach

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We compare and critique two measures of risk perception. We suggest that a single question --- ``How risky is the situation?'' --- captures the concept of risk perception more accurately than the multiple-item measure used by Sitkin and Weingart (1995. In fact, this latter measure inadvertently captures notions of attractiveness or expected return, rather than risk perception. We further propose that the error underlying the construction of Sitkin and Weingart's measure is explained in terms of a top-down model of risk perception, in which perceived risk and perceived return are consequences, rather than determinants, of attractiveness. Two studies compare the validity of the two alternative measures.

  17. Consumer perception of risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim

    2001-01-01

    , as a particular branch of food manufacturing, has in the past been able to dodge implication in major risk debates. The latest crisis in a related industry was the temporary banning of several brands of the Coca-Cola Co. in 1999 in Belgium following symptoms of nausea and vomiting amongst people who had consumed...... them. Applications of gene technology - in all industries a topic which is likely to result in confrontations - are still in the pre-market phase, and a high-profile debate is to be expected as soon as the first products are launched. In the following, I will briefly review the 'state of the art...

  18. Risk perception and credibility of risk communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoeberg, L

    1992-10-01

    Experts and the public frequently disagree when it comes to risk assessment. The reasons for such disagreement are discussed, and it is pointed out that disagreement among experts and lack of full understanding of real risks contributes to skepticism among the public. The notion that people are in general reacting in a highly emotional and non-rational, phobic, manner is rejected. The very conditions for risk assessment present to the public, and common-sense cognitive dynamics, are better explanations of risk perception, as are some social psychological concepts. If trust is to be established in a country where it is quite low some kind of politically regulated public influence on decision making and risk monitoring is probably needed, e.g. by means of a publicly elected and responsible ombudsman. 57 refs, 8 figs, 5 tabs.

  19. School-located influenza vaccination reduces community risk for influenza and influenza-like illness emergency care visits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuc H Tran

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: School-located influenza vaccination (SLIV programs can substantially enhance the sub-optimal coverage achieved under existing delivery strategies. Randomized SLIV trials have shown these programs reduce laboratory-confirmed influenza among both vaccinated and unvaccinated children. This work explores the effectiveness of a SLIV program in reducing the community risk of influenza and influenza-like illness (ILI associated emergency care visits. METHODS: For the 2011/12 and 2012/13 influenza seasons, we estimated age-group specific attack rates (AR for ILI from routine surveillance and census data. Age-group specific SLIV program effectiveness was estimated as one minus the AR ratio for Alachua County versus two comparison regions: the 12 county region surrounding Alachua County, and all non-Alachua counties in Florida. RESULTS: Vaccination of ∼50% of 5-17 year-olds in Alachua reduced their risk of ILI-associated visits, compared to the rest of Florida, by 79% (95% confidence interval: 70, 85 in 2011/12 and 71% (63, 77 in 2012/13. The greatest indirect effectiveness was observed among 0-4 year-olds, reducing AR by 89% (84, 93 in 2011/12 and 84% (79, 88 in 2012/13. Among all non-school age residents, the estimated indirect effectiveness was 60% (54, 65 and 36% (31, 41 for 2011/12 and 2012/13. The overall effectiveness among all age-groups was 65% (61, 70 and 46% (42, 50 for 2011/12 and 2012/13. CONCLUSION: Wider implementation of SLIV programs can significantly reduce the influenza-associated public health burden in communities.

  20. Characterizing perception of ecological risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniels, T; Axelrod, L J; Slovic, P

    1995-10-01

    Relatively little attention has been paid to the role of human perception and judgment in ecological risk management. This paper attempts to characterize perceived ecological risk, using the psychometric paradigm developed in the domain of human health risk perception. The research began by eliciting a set of scale characteristics and risk items (e.g., technologies, actions, events, beliefs) from focus group participants. Participants in the main study were 68 university students who completed a survey instrument that elicited ratings for each of 65 items on 30 characteristic scales and one scale regarding general risk to natural environments. The results are presented in terms of mean responses over individuals for each scale and item combination. Factor analyses show that five factors characterize the judgment data. These have been termed: impact on species, human benefits, impact on humans, avoidability, and knowledge of impacts. The factor results correspond with initial expectations and provide a plausible characterization of judgments regarding ecological risk. Some comparisons of mean responses for selected individual items are also presented.

  1. Outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases: Risk perception and behaviour of the general public

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Bults (Marloes)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis focuses on risk perception and behaviour of the public during the outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases. It consists of studies on Influenza A (H1N1), Q fever and Lyme disease. These studies were conducted among both the general public and specific

  2. Entrepreneurship, risk perception and firm performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boermans, M.A.; Willebrands, Daan

    Risk attitudes of entrepreneurs are well-established drivers of business performance. Most empirical studies in this field only take into account risk propensity, leaving out the complementary concept of risk perception. Using data on 611 entrepreneurs from Tanzania, we show that risk perception is

  3. [Influenza vaccination coverage in children with risk conditions in Catalonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Roser; Campins, Magda; Rodrigo, José Ángel; Uriona, Sonia; Vilca, Luz María

    2015-01-01

    Influenza vaccination is recommended in Catalonia in children older than 6 months with risk conditions for developing flu-related complications. The aim of this study is to determine influenza vaccine coverage in children with risk conditions and their association with socio-demographic factors and medical variables. Descriptive cross-sectional study of children with risk conditions for developing influenza complications (aged between 6months and 15years old) assigned to Primary Health Care centers in Catalonia at the beginning of the 2011-2012 influenza vaccination campaign. The information on vaccination status and study variables were obtained from data registered on electronic health records by primary care teams. The relationship between influenza vaccination and demographic and medical variables was analyzed using bivariate analysis and a multiple logistic regression model. Influenza vaccination coverage was 23.9%. Variables associated with influenza vaccination were: age 2years or older (aOR: 1.6 [1.4-1.7] in children 3-5years old; 1.8 [1.7-2.0] in those 6-10 years, and 2.2 [2.0 -2.4] in children ≥11years]); male sex (aOR: 1.1 [1.0-1.1]); foreign nationality (aOR: 1.2 [1.2-1.3]); age-appropriate immunization according to the systematic immunization schedule (aOR: 3.3 [2.8-3.8]); more than one visit to the primary care physician (5 or more visits) (aOR: 4.1 [3.8-4.4]), and more than one risk condition (3 or more conditions) (aOR: 2.5 [1.6-3.9]). Compared to other countries, influenza vaccination coverage among children with risk conditions is low in our study. Strategies to improve coverage should be implemented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  4. Risk Perception and Social Amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.E. [Environment Agency (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    This paper seeks to consider social amplification as it applies to risk perception. Perceptions of the magnitude of a risk are conditioned by issues such as the degree of uncertainty in probability and consequences, the nature of the consequences and the relative weightings placed on probability and consequences. Risk perceptions are also influenced by factors such as confidence in the operator of an industrial process, trust in the regulator and the perceived fairness of regulatory decision-making. Different people may hold different views about these issues and there may also be difficulties in communication. The paper identifies and discusses self-reinforcing mechanisms, which will be labelled 'lock-in' here. They appear to apply in many situations where social amplification is observed. Historically, the term 'lock-in' has been applied mainly in the technological context but, in this paper, four types of lock-in are identified, namely scientific/technological, economic, social and institutional lock-in. One type of lock-in tends to lead to the next and all are buttressed by people's general acceptance of the familiar, fear of the unknown and resistance to change. The regulator seeks to make decisions which achieve the common good rather than supporting or perpetuating any set of vested interests. In this regard the locked-in positions of stakeholders, whether organisations, interest groups, or individual members of the public, are obstacles and challenges. Existing methods of consultation are unsatisfactory in terms of achieving a proper and productive level of dialogue with stakeholders.

  5. Lay and expert perceptions of zoonotic risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint; Lassen, Jesper; Robinson, P.

    2005-01-01

    As in many other areas, there is a divide between lay and expert perceptions of risk within the food sector, and this can lead to disagreement over priorities in food risk management. The risk perception literature tends to stress that the parties involved in this disagreement have different...

  6. The Belgian Risk Perception Barometer Risk Perception Measuring Instruments Revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aeken, Koen van; Carle, Benny; Hardeman, Frank [SCK-CEN, Mol (Belgium). PISA

    2006-09-15

    The recognition of the societal dimension of risk assessment has been at the cradle of the opinion research on risks. Since risk estimates are not fixed by experts anymore, but are considered to show variation across a diverse population, the people themselves must be asked how they experience the risks. Following the rise in popularity of risk assessment and the recognition of its 'human' dimension, the demand for public opinion surveys on risks has been increasing at a fast pace. Unfortunately, this high demand sees some negative consequences. First, surveys are frequently conducted by people lacking even a minimal knowledge of survey methodology. In this respect, we might think of a journal or a newspaper trying to impress their readers with the definitive public opinion poll about the latest issue in vogue. Second, time pressure causes experienced or trained researchers to lower themselves to 'quick and dirty' work. While methodologically flawed opinion research might not be something to worry about when appearing in the amusement press, concern is due if the results of a survey inspire policy development. Indeed, when public opinion research is conceived as an instrument to support rational, evidence based public policy, the strictest methodological standards should be applied, even if it is clear that scientific research will never substitute political reasoning. This contribution deals with the safeguarding and enhancing of the quality of large scale surveys focusing on risk perception and related issues. This attention is relevant, not only for the reason that methodological standards may be flawed due to the immense popularity of the opinion poll, but also because the results of opinion surveys may have far-reaching policy consequences.

  7. Public Health and Epidemiological Considerations For Avian Influenza Risk Mapping and Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P. Dudley

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza viruses are now widely recognized as important threats to agricultural biosecurity and public health, and as the potential source for pandemic human influenza viruses. Human infections with avian influenza viruses have been reported from Asia (H5N1, H5N2, H9N2, Africa (H5N1, H10N7, Europe (H7N7, H7N3, H7N2, and North America (H7N3, H7N2, H11N9. Direct and indirect public health risks from avian influenzas are not restricted to the highly pathogenic H5N1 "bird flu" virus, and include low pathogenic as well as high pathogenic strains of other avian influenza virus subtypes, e.g., H1N1, H7N2, H7N3, H7N7, and H9N2. Research has shown that the 1918 Spanish Flu pandemic was caused by an H1N1 influenza virus of avian origins, and during the past decade, fatal human disease and human-to-human transmission has been confirmed among persons infected with H5N1 and H7N7 avian influenza viruses. Our ability to accurately assess and map the potential economic and public health risks associated with avian influenza outbreaks is currently constrained by uncertainties regarding key aspects of the ecology and epidemiology of avian influenza viruses in birds and humans, and the mechanisms by which highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses are transmitted between and among wild birds, domestic poultry, mammals, and humans. Key factors needing further investigation from a risk management perspective include identification of the driving forces behind the emergence and persistence of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses within poultry populations, and a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms regulating transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses between industrial poultry farms and backyard poultry flocks. More information is needed regarding the extent to which migratory bird populations to contribute to the transnational and transcontinental spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses, and the potential for wild bird

  8. Incorporating risk communication into highly pathogenic avian influenza preparedness and response efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Shauna J; Malladi, Sasidhar; Sampedro, Fernando; Snider, Tim; Goldsmith, Timothy; Hueston, William D; Lauer, Dale C; Halvorson, David A

    2012-12-01

    A highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreak in the United States will initiate a federal emergency response effort that will consist of disease control and eradication efforts, including quarantine and movement control measures. These movement control measures will not only apply to live animals but also to animal products. However, with current egg industry "just-in-time" production practices, limited storage is available to hold eggs. As a result, stop movement orders can have significant unintended negative consequences, including severe disruptions to the food supply chain. Because stakeholders' perceptions of risk vary, waiting to initiate communication efforts until an HPAI event occurs can hinder disease control efforts, including the willingness of producers to comply with the response, and also can affect consumers' demand for the product. A public-private-academic partnership was formed to assess actual risks involved in the movement of egg industry products during an HPAI event through product specific, proactive risk assessments. The risk analysis process engaged a broad representation of stakeholders and promoted effective risk management and communication strategies before an HPAI outbreak event. This multidisciplinary team used the risk assessments in the development of the United States Department of Agriculture, Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Secure Egg Supply Plan, a comprehensive response plan that strives to maintain continuity of business. The collaborative approach that was used demonstrates how a proactive risk communication strategy that involves many different stakeholders can be valuable in the development of a foreign animal disease response plan and build working relationships, trust, and understanding.

  9. Spatial distribution and risk factors of influenza in Jiangsu province, China, based on geographical information system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Cheng Zhang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Influenza poses a constant, heavy burden on society. Recent research has focused on ecological factors associated with influenza incidence and has also studied influenza with respect to its geographic spread at different scales. This research explores the temporal and spatial parameters of influenza and identifies factors influencing its transmission. A spatial autocorrelation analysis, a spatial-temporal cluster analysis and a spatial regression analysis of influenza rates, carried out in Jiangsu province from 2004 to 2011, found that influenza rates to be spatially dependent in 2004, 2005, 2006 and 2008. South-western districts consistently revealed hotspots of high-incidence influenza. The regression analysis indicates that railways, rivers and lakes are important predictive environmental variables for influenza risk. A better understanding of the epidemic pattern and ecological factors associated with pandemic influenza should benefit public health officials with respect to prevention and controlling measures during future epidemics.

  10. Spatial distribution and risk factors of influenza in Jiangsu province, China, based on geographical information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia-Cheng; Liu, Wen-Dong; Liang, Qi; Hu, Jian-Li; Norris, Jessie; Wu, Ying; Bao, Chang-Jun; Tang, Fen-Yang; Huang, Peng; Zhao, Yang; Yu, Rong-Bin; Zhou, Ming-Hao; Shen, Hong-Bing; Chen, Feng; Peng, Zhi-Hang

    2014-05-01

    Influenza poses a constant, heavy burden on society. Recent research has focused on ecological factors associated with influenza incidence and has also studied influenza with respect to its geographic spread at different scales. This research explores the temporal and spatial parameters of influenza and identifies factors influencing its transmission. A spatial autocorrelation analysis, a spatial-temporal cluster analysis and a spatial regression analysis of influenza rates, carried out in Jiangsu province from 2004 to 2011, found that influenza rates to be spatially dependent in 2004, 2005, 2006 and 2008. South-western districts consistently revealed hotspots of high-incidence influenza. The regression analysis indicates that railways, rivers and lakes are important predictive environmental variables for influenza risk. A better understanding of the epidemic pattern and ecological factors associated with pandemic influenza should benefit public health officials with respect to prevention and controlling measures during future epidemics.

  11. Public Perceptions of Environmental Risk in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.; He, G.; Mol, A.P.J.; Lu, Y.

    2013-01-01

    China, as a ‘double risk’ society, is in urgent need for effective environmental risk management systems. Compared with other risks, man-made environmental risks have not been given due weight. Public awareness and perceptions of environmental risks are crucial in all phases of effective risk

  12. Public Perceptions of Environmental Risk in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.; He, G.; Mol, A.P.J.; Lu, Y.

    2013-01-01

    China, as a ‘double risk’ society, is in urgent need for effective environmental risk management systems. Compared with other risks, man-made environmental risks have not been given due weight. Public awareness and perceptions of environmental risks are crucial in all phases of effective risk manage

  13. [Risk perception of the building population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedron, F; Ferrante, D

    2006-01-01

    The development of a new measure to investigate risk perception in afield setting as building was the aim of this work. Workers' cognitive representation of risk and relation among ris perception, risk-acceptance and risk taking was the goals of the measure. The methodological approach for the measure development was the psychometric paradigm (Fischhoff, Slovic, Lichtenstein, Read e Combs, 1978). A first data collection in field context demonstrates measure's validity and reliability.

  14. Investigating obesity as a risk factor for influenza-like illness during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic using the Health Survey for England

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, R.; Fragaszy, E. B.; Hayward, A. C.; Warren-Gash, C.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Following the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, obesity was shown to be associated with severe influenza outcomes. It remains unclear whether obesity was a risk factor for milder influenza-like illness (ILI). OBJECTIVES: To determine whether obesity was associated with an increased risk of self-reported ILI during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic using Health Survey for England (HSE) 2010 cross-sectional data. METHODS: This study used HSE data collected from English households between...

  15. Examining Perceptions about Mandatory Influenza Vaccination of Healthcare Workers through Online Comments on News Stories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Lei

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to understand online public perceptions of the debate surrounding the choice of annual influenza vaccinations or wearing masks as a condition of employment for healthcare workers, such as the one enacted in British Columbia in August 2012.Four national and 82 local (British Columbia Canadian online news sites were searched for articles posted between August 2012 and May 2013 containing the words "healthcare workers" and "mandatory influenza vaccinations/immunizations" or "mandatory flu shots and healthcare workers." We included articles from sources that predominantly concerned our topic of interest and that generated reader comments. Two researchers coded the unedited comments using thematic analysis, categorizing codes to allow themes to emerge. In addition to themes, the comments were categorized by: 1 sentiment towards influenza vaccines; 2 support for mandatory vaccination policies; 3 citing of reference materials or statistics; 4 self-identified health-care worker status; and 5 sharing of a personal story.1163 comments made by 648 commenters responding to 36 articles were analyzed. Popular themes included concerns about freedom of choice, vaccine effectiveness, patient safety, and distrust in government, public health, and the pharmaceutical industry. Almost half (48% of commenters expressed a negative sentiment toward the influenza vaccine, 28% were positive, 20% were neutral, and 4% expressed mixed sentiment. Of those who commented on the policy, 75% did not support the condition to work policy, while 25% were in favour. Of the commenters, 11% self-identified as healthcare workers, 13% shared personal stories, and 18% cited a reference or statistic.The perception of the influenza vaccine in the comment sections of online news sites is fairly poor. Public health agencies should consider including online forums, comment sections, and social media sites as part of their communication channels to correct

  16. Seismic Risk Perception compared with seismic Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Pessina, Vera; Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Peruzza, Laura

    2016-04-01

    The communication of natural hazards and their consequences is one of the more relevant ethical issues faced by scientists. In the last years, social studies have provided evidence that risk communication is strongly influenced by the risk perception of people. In order to develop effective information and risk communication strategies, the perception of risks and the influencing factors should be known. A theory that offers an integrative approach to understanding and explaining risk perception is still missing. To explain risk perception, it is necessary to consider several perspectives: social, psychological and cultural perspectives and their interactions. This paper presents the results of the CATI survey on seismic risk perception in Italy, conducted by INGV researchers on funding by the DPC. We built a questionnaire to assess seismic risk perception, with a particular attention to compare hazard, vulnerability and exposure perception with the real data of the same factors. The Seismic Risk Perception Questionnaire (SRP-Q) is designed by semantic differential method, using opposite terms on a Likert scale to seven points. The questionnaire allows to obtain the scores of five risk indicators: Hazard, Exposure, Vulnerability, People and Community, Earthquake Phenomenon. The questionnaire was administered by telephone interview (C.A.T.I.) on a statistical sample at national level of over 4,000 people, in the period January -February 2015. Results show that risk perception seems be underestimated for all indicators considered. In particular scores of seismic Vulnerability factor are extremely low compared with house information data of the respondents. Other data collected by the questionnaire regard Earthquake information level, Sources of information, Earthquake occurrence with respect to other natural hazards, participation at risk reduction activities and level of involvement. Research on risk perception aims to aid risk analysis and policy-making by

  17. Is Insomnia a Risk Factor for Decreased Influenza Vaccine Response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Daniel J; Kelly, Kimberly; Kohut, Marian L; Song, Kai-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Healthy young adult college students (N = 133) with Insomnia (n = 65) or No Insomnia (n = 68) were compared on influenza serum antibody levels pre- and four weeks postvaccination. Volunteers underwent structured clinical interviews for sleep disorders to ensure insomnia diagnoses, as well as psychiatric interviews, physical examinations, and drug testing to ensure comorbid health problems were not potential confounds. There were significant time (both groups had increases in antibody levels pre- to postvaccination) and group (Insomnia group had lower HI antibody levels overall) main effects, but the time × group interaction was nonsignificant. Exploratory analyses did find significant PSQI x Time (p Insomnia Status × Time (p = .002) interaction effects. Results indicate insomnia may be a risk factor for lowered immunity to the influenza virus.

  18. PERSONAL VALUES, BELIEFS, AND ECOLOGICAL RISK PERCEPTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A mail survey on ecological risk perception was administered in the summer of 2002 to a randomized sample of the lay public and to selected risk professionals at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). The ranking of 24 ecological risk items, from global climate change...

  19. PERSONAL VALUES, BELIEFS, AND ECOLOGICAL RISK PERCEPTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A mail survey on ecological risk perception was administered in the summer of 2002 to a randomized sample of the lay public and to selected risk professionals at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). The ranking of 24 ecological risk items, from global climate change...

  20. Applying Bayesian network modelling to understand the links between on-farm biosecurity practice during the 2007 equine influenza outbreak and horse managers' perceptions of a subsequent outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, Simon M; Lewis, Fraser I; Schemann, Kathrin; Ward, Michael P; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L; Taylor, Melanie R; Dhand, Navneet K

    2014-10-01

    Australia experienced its first ever outbreak of equine influenza in August 2007. Horses on 9359 premises were infected over a period of 5 months before the disease was successfully eradicated through the combination of horse movement controls, on-farm biosecurity and vaccination. In a previous premises-level case-control study of the 2007 equine influenza outbreak in Australia, the protective effect of several variables representing on-farm biosecurity practices were identified. Separately, factors associated with horse managers' perceptions of the effectiveness of biosecurity measures have been identified. In this analysis we applied additive Bayesian network modelling to describe the complex web of associations linking variables representing on-farm human behaviours during the 2007 equine influenza outbreak (compliance or lack thereof with advised personal biosecurity measures) and horse managers' perceptions of the effectiveness of such measures in the event of a subsequent outbreak. Heuristic structure discovery enabled identification of a robust statistical model for 31 variables representing biosecurity practices and perceptions of the owners and managers of 148 premises. The Bayesian graphical network model we present statistically describes the associations linking horse managers' on-farm biosecurity practices during an at-risk period in the 2007 outbreak and their perceptions of whether such measures will be effective in a future outbreak. Practice of barrier infection control measures were associated with a heightened perception of preparedness, whereas horse managers that considered their on-farm biosecurity to be more stringent during the outbreak period than normal practices had a heightened perception of the effectiveness of other measures such as controlling access to the premises. Past performance in an outbreak setting may indeed be a reliable predictor of future perceptions, and should be considered when targeting infection control guidance to

  1. Cultural theory and individual perceptions of environmental risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steg, L; Sievers, [No Value

    2000-01-01

    Understanding differences in environmental risk perception and risk judgments might facilitate the development of effective environmental risk management strategies, including risk communication. Cultural theory holds that systematic individual differences exist in the perception of environmental ri

  2. Climate change and coastal aquaculture farmers’ risk perceptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahsan, Dewan; Brandt, Urs Steiner

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of risk perception in relation to climate change threats, comparison of risk perceptions in two different regions, and derives general results of what affect peoples’ level of risk perceptions. Revelation of individual risk perception is essential for local acceptan...

  3. Seasonal influenza vaccine coverage among pregnant women: pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Indu B; Singleton, James A; Jamieson, Denise J; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Harrison, Leslie

    2011-05-01

    Since 2004, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) have recommended that pregnant women receive the seasonal influenza vaccine, regardless of pregnancy trimester, because of their increased risk for severe complications from influenza. However, the uptake of the influenza vaccine by pregnant women has been low. During the 2009-2010 influenza season, pregnant women were identified as a priority population to receive the influenza A (H1N1) 2009 (2009 H1N1) monovalent vaccine in addition to the seasonal influenza vaccine. In this issue, we highlight information from the 10 states that collected data using the survey administered by the Pregnancy Risk Assessment and Monitoring System (PRAMS) about seasonal vaccine coverage among women with recent live births and reasons for those who chose not to get vaccinated. The combined estimates from PRAMS of influenza vaccination coverage for the 2009-2010 season, which included data from October 2009 to March 2010, from 10 states were 50.7% for seasonal and 46.6% for 2009 H1N1 vaccine among women with recent live births. Among women who did not get vaccinated, reasons varied from worries about the safety of the vaccines for self and baby to not normally getting the vaccination. Further evaluation is needed on ways to increase influenza vaccination among pregnant women, effectively communicate the risk of influenza illness during pregnancy, and address women's concerns about influenza vaccination safety during pregnancy.

  4. Study on boiler farmers’ perception of vaccine effect under the risk of avian influenza%禽流感风险下肉鸡养殖户对疫苗作用认知研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄泽颖; 王济民; 王晨; 刘春芳

    2016-01-01

    养殖户是农村动物疫情的防控主体,他们的防疫认知程度直接影响着防疫的结果。基于全国331个肉鸡养殖户的调查,采用多元有序的Logistic模型,分析2011年后我国全面免疫效率降低,禽流感疫情反弹的问题,探讨养殖户对疫苗作用认知及其影响因素。结果表明,大部分养殖户对疫苗作用有一定的了解,但仍有大约20%的养殖户对疫苗认识一般,尤其是不了解。对疫病作用认知的影响因素很多,但正向影响最为显著的因素为养殖户的疫病风险认知、禽流感联防联控系统参与意愿,即具有较高疫病风险认知和禽流感联防联控系统参与意愿的养殖户对疫苗作用的认知较高。因此,相关部门应力求提高农户的疫病风险意识和培训养殖户对禽流感联防联控系统的参与意愿。%Farmers’ perception of epidemic prevention directly affects the result of the epidemic prevention since they are the main body of animal epidemic prevention and control in the countryside. Based on the questionnaire survey data of 331 broiler farmers nationwide and applying the multi-order logistic model, this paper analyzed the low efifciency problem of comprehensive immunity and explored farmers’ perception of vaccine effect and its inlfuencing factors. Results show that most farmers understood the vaccine effect to some extent. However, there were still about 20%of farmers having very limited basic understanding of the vaccine effect. This paper also identiifed some inlfuencing factors of farmers’ perception of vaccine effect. The most signiifcant positive factors were farmers’ understanding of disease risk and their willingness of participation in the joint prevention and control avian inlfuenza, meaning that if farmers have high level of understanding of disease risk and willingness of participation in the joint prevention and control avian inlfuenza, his or her understanding of the

  5. Making sense of fishermen's risk perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Fabienne; Grøn, Sisse

    2010-01-01

    , trips and falls. The fieldwork offered an in situ insight into the way fishermen perceive their work and the risks they face, as well as their views of an outsider. Through empirical examples derived from our research and other studies, we show that fishermen’s risk perception can be explained...... by the need to adopt coping strategies, ie compromises and resilience in an environment marked by uncertainty and unpredictability. The difference between lay and expert knowledge is particularly salient in the case of safety researchers and fishermen. In order to make sense of the fishermen’s risk perception...

  6. Risk perception as a driver for risk management policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, María; Mañez, María

    2016-04-01

    Risk is generally defined as the "combination of the probability of the occurrence of an event and its negative consequences" ( UNISDR, 2009). However, the perception of a risk differs among cultures regarding different features such as the context,causes, benefits or damage. Risk perception is the subjective valuation of the probability of an event happening and how concerned individuals or groups are with the consequences (Sjöberg, 2004). Our study is based on an existing framework for risk perception (Rehn and Rohrmann, 2000). We analyse the characteristics of the risk perception regarding extreme events (e.g.droughts) and how the perception of the group drives the action to manage the risk. We do this to achieve an overview of the conditions that let stakeholders join each other to improve risk management especially when governments are not reacting properly. For our research, attention is paid on risk perception of Multi-Sector Partnerships not taking into account the individual level of risk perception. We focus on those factors that make risk management effective and increase resilience. Multi-Sector Partnerships, considered as significant governance structures for risk management, might contribute to reduce vulnerability in prone areas to natural hazards and disasters. The Multi-Sector Partnerships used for our research are existing partnerships identified in the cases studies of the European project ENHANCE. We implement a survey to analyse the perception of risk in the case studies. That survey is based on the Cultural Theory (Douglas and Wildavsky, 1982)and the Protection Motivation Theory (Rogers, 1975). We analyse the results using the Qualitative-Comparative Analysis proposed by Ragin in 1987. The results show the main characteristics of a risk culture that are beneficial to manage a risk. Those characteristics are shaped by the perception of risk of the people involved in the partnership, which in turn shapes their risk management. Nevertheless, we

  7. Integrating public risk perception into formal natural hazard risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Th. Plattner

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An urgent need to take perception into account for risk assessment has been pointed out by relevant literature, its impact in terms of risk-related behaviour by individuals is obvious. This study represents an effort to overcome the broadly discussed question of whether risk perception is quantifiable or not by proposing a still simple but applicable methodology. A novel approach is elaborated to obtain a more accurate and comprehensive quantification of risk in comparison to present formal risk evaluation practice. A consideration of relevant factors enables a explicit quantification of individual risk perception and evaluation. The model approach integrates the effective individual risk reff and a weighted mean of relevant perception affecting factors PAF. The relevant PAF cover voluntariness of risk-taking, individual reducibility of risk, knowledge and experience, endangerment, subjective damage rating and subjective recurrence frequency perception. The approach assigns an individual weight to each PAF to represent its impact magnitude. The quantification of these weights is target-group-dependent (e.g. experts, laypersons and may be effected by psychometric methods. The novel approach is subject to a plausibility check using data from an expert-workshop. A first model application is conducted by means of data of an empirical risk perception study in Western Germany to deduce PAF and weight quantification as well as to confirm and evaluate model applicbility and flexibility. Main fields of application will be a quantification of risk perception by individual persons in a formal and technical way e.g. for the purpose of risk communication issues in illustrating differing perspectives of experts and non-experts. For decision making processes this model will have to be applied with caution, since it is by definition not designed to quantify risk acceptance or risk evaluation. The approach may well explain how risk perception differs, but not

  8. [Risk target effect on risk perception in an industrial area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereu, A; Sardu, C; Minerba, L; Contu, P

    2004-01-01

    This study describes the results of a survey, carried out by the Department of Public Health between October and December 2002, about the perception of the main risk factors for health and environment in Portoscuso (Ca), an industrial area in south west of Sardinia, declared "Environmental high-risk area " with DPCM 23.04.1993. The aim of survey was to investigate the different risk perception between local and global level analyzed by McNemar test. The results showed that risk perception was significantly higher at global level. We didn't observe any difference about local problematics as industrial pollution, work accidents, acid rain, industrial accident. Regarding risk factors, as food safety and life style, the "unrealistic optimism effect" described by Sjöberg with people risk perception higher at global level, is confirmed. Perception of industrial risk, considered only similar and not higher than in other areas, is influenced by citizens' consciousness of living in an area declared at high risk of environmental crisis. These results should be taken into account in future risk communication process in order to avoid interpretation bias.

  9. Perception of risk of HIV infection in marital and cohabiting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... women define risk and to identify the factors that influence risk perceptions in a setting with ... A combination of qualitative and quantitative methods was used during a ... The qualitative and quantitative data show that perception of risk of HIV ...

  10. RF EMF Risk Perception Revisited: Is the Focus on Concern Sufficient for Risk Perception Studies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M. Wiedemann

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An implicit assumption of risk perception studies is that concerns expressed in questionnaires reflect concerns in everyday life. The aim of the present study is to check this assumption, i.e., the extrapolability of risk perceptions expressed in a survey, to risk perceptions in everyday life. To that end, risk perceptions were measured by a multidimensional approach. In addition to the traditional focus on measuring the magnitude of risk perceptions, the thematic relevance (how often people think about a risk issue and the discursive relevance (how often people think about or discuss a risk issue of risk perceptions were also collected. Taking into account this extended view of risk perception, an online survey was conducted in six European countries with 2454 respondents, referring to radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF risk potentials from base stations, and access points, such as WiFi routers and cell phones. The findings reveal that the present study’s multidimensional approach to measuring risk perception provides a more differentiated understanding of RF EMF risk perception. High levels of concerns expressed in questionnaires do not automatically imply that these concerns are thematically relevant in everyday life. We use thematic relevance to distinguish between enduringly concerned (high concern according to both questionnaire and thematic relevance and not enduringly concerned participants (high concern according to questionnaire but no thematic relevance. Furthermore, we provide data for the empirical value of this distinction: Compared to other participants, enduringly concerned subjects consider radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure to a greater extent as a moral and affective issue. They also see themselves as highly exposed to radio frequency electromagnetic fields. However, despite these differences, subjects with high levels of thematic relevance are nevertheless sensitive to exposure reduction as a means

  11. Perceptions of risk: understanding cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Webster

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Ruth Webster1, Emma Heeley21Cardiovascular Division, 2Neurological and Mental Health Division, The George Institute for International Health, Camperdown, NSW, AustraliaAbstract: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is still the leading cause of death and disability worldwide despite the availability of well-established and effective preventive options. Accurate perception of a patient’s risk by both the patient and the doctors is important as this is one of the components that determine health-related behavior. Doctors tend to not use cardiovascular (CV risk calculators and underestimate the absolute CV risk of their patients. Patients show optimistic bias when considering their own risk and consistently underestimate it. Poor patient health literacy and numeracy must be considered when thinking about this problem. Patients must possess a reasonably high level of understanding of numerical processes when doctors discuss risk, a level that is not possessed by large numbers of the population. In order to overcome this barrier, doctors need to utilize various tools including the appropriate use of visual aids to accurately communicate risk with their patients. Any intervention has been shown to be better than nothing in improving health understanding. The simple process of repeatedly conveying risk information to a patient has been shown to improve accuracy of risk perception. Doctors need to take responsibility for the accurate assessment and effective communication of CV risk in their patients in order to improve patient uptake of cardioprotective lifestyle choices and preventive medications.Keywords: risk perception, cardiovascular disease, cardioprotective lifestyle

  12. Aerosol influenza transmission risk contours: A study of humid tropics versus winter temperate zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borup Birthe

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, much attention has been given to the spread of influenza around the world. With the continuing human outbreak of H5N1 beginning in 2003 and the H1N1 pandemic in 2009, focus on influenza and other respiratory viruses has been increased. It has been accepted for decades that international travel via jet aircraft is a major vector for global spread of influenza, and epidemiological differences between tropical and temperate regions observed. Thus we wanted to study how indoor environmental conditions (enclosed locations in the tropics and winter temperate zones contribute to the aerosol spread of influenza by travelers. To this end, a survey consisting of 632 readings of temperature (T versus relative humidity (RH in 389 different enclosed locations air travelers are likely to visit in 8 tropical nations were compared to 102 such readings in 2 Australian cities, including ground transport, hotels, shops, offices and other publicly accessible locations, along with 586 time course readings from aircraft. Results An influenza transmission risk contour map was developed for T versus RH. Empirical equations were created for estimating: 1. risk relative to temperature and RH, and 2. time parameterized influenza transmission risk. Using the transmission risk contours and equations, transmission risk for each country's locations was compared with influenza reports from the countries. Higher risk enclosed locations in the tropics included new automobile transport, luxury buses, luxury hotels, and bank branches. Most temperate locations were high risk. Conclusion Environmental control is recommended for public health mitigation focused on higher risk enclosed locations. Public health can make use of the methods developed to track potential vulnerability to aerosol influenza. The methods presented can also be used in influenza modeling. Accounting for differential aerosol transmission using T and RH can potentially explain

  13. Parental perceptions of school-based influenza immunisation in Ontario, Canada: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougall, Donna; Crowe, Lois; Pereira, Jennifer A; Kwong, Jeffrey C; Quach, Susan; Wormsbecker, Anne E; Ramsay, Hilary; Salvadori, Marina I; Russell, Margaret L

    2014-06-05

    To understand the perspectives of Ontario parents regarding the advantages and disadvantages of adding influenza immunisation to the currently existing Ontario school-based immunisation programmes. Descriptive qualitative study. Parents of school-age children in Ontario, Canada, who were recruited using a variety of electronic strategies (social media, emails and media releases), and identified as eligible (Ontario resident, parent of one or more school-age children, able to read/write English) on the basis of a screening questionnaire. We used stratified purposeful sampling to obtain maximum variation in two groups: parents who had ever immunised at least one child against influenza or who had never done so. We conducted focus groups (teleconference or internet forum) and individual interviews to collect data. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Ontario, Canada. Of the 55 participants, 16 took part in four teleconference focus groups, 35 in 6 internet forum focus groups and four in individual interviews conducted between October 2012 and February 2013. Participants who stated that a school-based influenza immunisation programme would be worthwhile for their child valued its convenience and its potential to reduce influenza transmission without interfering with the family routine. However, most thought that for a programme to be acceptable, it would need to be well designed and voluntary, with adequate parental control and transparent communication between the key stakeholder groups of public health, schools and parents. These results will benefit decision-makers in the public health and education sectors as they consider the advantages and disadvantages of immunising children in schools as part of a system-wide influenza prevention approach. Further research is needed to assess the perceptions of school board and public health stakeholders. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence

  14. Lay and expert perceptions of zoonotic risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint; Lassen, Jesper; Robinson, P.;

    2005-01-01

    concepts of risk and hence are bound more or less to talk at cross-purposes. This paper suggests an alternative analysis: In the light of moral theory, the conflicting perspectives can be understood as a genuine moral conflict. When this conflict is conceptualised, a rational dialogue becomes possible....... The paper reports a series of qualitative interviews with lay people and experts on zoonotic food risks. The interviews are used to reconstruct the values underlying some of the dominant perspectives. The conflict between these stylised perspectives is then analysed with the help of moral theory. Finally......As in many other areas, there is a divide between lay and expert perceptions of risk within the food sector, and this can lead to disagreement over priorities in food risk management. The risk perception literature tends to stress that the parties involved in this disagreement have different...

  15. Risk policies and risk perceptions: a comparative study of environmental health risk policy and perception in six European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bröer, C.; Moerman, G.; Spruijt, P.; van Poll, R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the influence that health risk policies have on the citizens’ perceptions of those health risks. Previously, detailed mixed methods research revealed that noise annoyance policies shaped noise perception. This idea is now applied to nine different environmental health risks in si

  16. Perception of ecological risk to water environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniels, T L; Axelrod, L J; Cavanagh, N S; Slovic, P

    1997-06-01

    This paper examines lay and expert perceptions of the ecological risks associated with a range of human activities that could adversely affect water resource environments. It employs the psychometric paradigm pioneered in characterizing perceptions of human health risks, which involves surveys to obtain judgments from subjects about risk items in terms of several important characteristics of the risks. The paper builds on a previous study that introduced ecological risk perception. This second study employs a larger, more diverse sample, a more focused topic area, and comparisons between lay and expert judgments. The results confirm that a small set of underlying factors explain a great deal of variability in lay judgments about ecological risks. These have been termed Ecological Impact, Human Benefits, Controllability, and Knowledge. The results are useful in explaining subjects' judgments of the general riskiness of, and need for regulation of, various risk items. The results also indicate several differences and areas of agreement among the lay and expert samples that point to potential key issues in future ecological risk management efforts for water resources.

  17. Cattle farmers’ perceptions of risk and risk management strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bishu, Kinfe G.; O'Reilly, Seamus; Lahiff, Edward

    2017-01-01

    utilization were perceived as the most important strategies for managing risks. Livestock disease and labor shortage were perceived as less of a risk by farmers who adopted the practice of zero grazing compared to other farmers, pointing to the potential of this practice for risk reduction. We find strong...... potentially important policy implications for risk management strategies in developing countries.......This study analyzes cattle farmers’ perceptions of risk and risk management strategies in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. We use survey data from a sample of 356 farmers based on multistage random sampling. Factor analysis is employed to classify scores of risk and management strategies, and multiple...

  18. Influenza and pneumococcal pneumonia immunization. Protecting our high risk population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, B R; Mahan, C S; Witte, J J; Janowski, H T

    1990-06-01

    Pneumonia and influenza (P & I) constitute Florida's sixth leading cause of death. The P & I death rate in 1987, 10.5 per 100,000, was the highest since 1978. Major target groups for one or both vaccines used in prevention, as recommended by the Immunization Practices Advisory Committee (ACIP), include persons with chronic diseases of the heart or lungs, residents of nursing homes and other chronic care facilities, and persons aged 65 and older. Despite well-defined recommendations, vaccine coverage rates in Florida are as low as 30% in persons greater than or equal to 65 years of age. Knowledge and attitude surveys demonstrate that low coverage among various population groups may be due largely to insufficient awareness and/or negative attitudes regarding pneumococcal and influenza vaccines. Conversely, recommendations by physicians and other health care providers are strongly associated with receiving either vaccine. If the incidence of P & I is to decrease substantively in Florida, much wider use of the vaccines must occur. Because so many high-risk patients depend on private physicians for health care, their role is critical to the success of Florida public health strategies to reverse P & I trends.

  19. Social risk perception: recent findings in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prades-Lopez, A. [CIEMAT, Centro de Investigacion Energica Medioambiental y Technologia (Spain); Martinez-Arias, R.; Diaz-Hidalgo, M. [Faculty of Psychology, Complutense University, Madrid (Spain)

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present our main results from a survey carried out in Spain in the context of social risk perception. This survey is included in a broad project (PRISP) sponsored by the UE and the national Civil Protection Service, and carried out simultaneously in three countries: Spain, Italy and UK. The project combined qualitative and quantitative assessment methods, although only survey results are presented here. A random sample of 600 subjects from two different Spanish communities close to a COMAH chemical site was selected for the research. Main findings regarding, differential perception between both community populations, sex differences, and 'bias perception' of risks among others have been achieved. Main dimensions were obtained by multidimensional scaling and Factor Analysis. Dimensions reported here are similar to the usual findings from the psychometric paradigm. (authors)

  20. Risk communication, risk perception, and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aakko, Eric

    2004-01-01

    Risk communication is about building trust while deploying an interactive and ongoing communication process in which audience members are active participants. This interactive participation may not solve a public health crisis, but it will help reduce unwarranted fear, anxiety and distrust. Consequently, if a government agency fails to understand how to effectively communicate about health risks, their trustworthiness and credibility may suffer, and a crisis event may go from bad to worse.

  1. Factors Impacting Food Safety Risk Perceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonsor, G.T.; Schroeder, T.C.; Pennings, J.M.E.

    2009-01-01

    We developed and applied a model of consumer risk perceptions of beef food safety to better understand the underlying drivers of consumer demand for food safety. We show how consumer demographics, country-of-residence, as well as reliance on, and trust in, alternative food safety information sources

  2. Risk Perception, Communication and Food Safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.

    2011-01-01

    Developing an effective communication strategy about different food hazards depends not only on technical risk assessments (for example related to health or the environment) but must also take into account consumer perceptions and preferences. In addition, consumers make decisions about food choices

  3. Individual Perceptions of Local Crime Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salm, M.; Vollaard, B.A.

    2014-01-01

    We provide evidence that perceptions of crime risk are severely biased for many years after a move to a new neighborhood. Based on four successive waves of a large crime survey, matched with administrative records on household relocations, we find that the longer an individual lives in a

  4. Risk of fetal death after pandemic influenza infection or vaccination during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håberg, Siri E; Trogstad, Lill; Gunnes, Nina; Wilcox, Allen J.; Gjessing, Håkon K.; Samuelsen, Sven Ove; Skrondal, Anders; Cappelen, Inger; Engeland, Anders; Aavitsland, Preben; Madsen, Steinar; Buajordet, Ingebjørg; Furu, Kari; Nafstad, Per; Vollset, Stein Emil; Berit, Feiring; Nøkleby, Hanne; Magnus, Per; Stoltenberg, Camilla

    2013-01-01

    Background During the 2009 influenza pandemic, pregnant women were at particular risk of serious influenza illness. This concern was further complicated by questions about vaccine safety in pregnant women raised by anecdotal reports of fetal deaths following vaccination. Methods We explored the safety of influenza vaccination of pregnant women by linking Norwegian national registries and medical consultation data to determine influenza diagnosis, vaccination status, birth outcomes, and background information for pregnant women before, during, and after the pandemic. We used Cox regression models to estimate hazard ratios of fetal death, with gestational day as the time metric and vaccination and pandemic exposure as time-dependent exposure variables. Results There were 117,347 eligible pregnancies in Norway in 2009–2010. Fetal mortality was 4.9/1000. 54% of pregnant women in their second or third trimester during the pandemic were vaccinated. Vaccination in pregnancy substantially reduced the risk of influenza diagnosis (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.25 to 0.34). A clinical diagnosis of influenza in the mother increased the risk of fetal death (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.07 to 3.41). Among pregnant women, the risk of fetal death was lower with vaccination, although this reduction was not statistically significant (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.66 to 1.17). Conclusions Pandemic influenza in pregnancy was associated with increased risk of fetal death. Vaccination during pregnancy reduced the risk of influenza diagnosis. Vaccination itself did not increase fetal mortality, and may have reduced the risk of influenza-related fetal death during the pandemic. PMID:23323868

  5. Distribution of influenza vaccine to high-risk groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ompad, Danielle C; Galea, Sandro; Vlahov, David

    2006-01-01

    Vaccine distribution programs have historically targeted individuals at high risk of complications due to influenza. Despite recommendations from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, vaccination coverage among high-risk populations has been generally low. This review systematically summarizes the recent literature evaluating programs in different settings, from within medical settings to venue-based and community-based approaches, in an effort to identify successful program components. The published literature was identified by using the MEDLINE database from 1990 to 2006 covering studies that reported on interventions or programs aimed at vaccinating high-risk populations. The authors reviewed 56 studies. In the United States, the Healthy People 2010 goals included 90% vaccination coverage for adults aged > or = 65 years and 60% for high-risk adults aged 18-64 years. Only a handful of the studies reviewed managed to meet those goals. Interventions that increased vaccination coverage to Healthy People 2010 goals included advertising, provider and patient mailings, registry-based telephone calls, patient and staff education, standing orders coupled with standardized forms, targeting of syringe exchange customers, and visiting nurses. Few studies evaluated the impact of vaccination programs by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. Few studies targeted individuals outside of the health-care and social services sectors. Given the growing disparities in health and health-care access, understanding the way in which interventions can remedy disparities is crucial.

  6. Influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forleo-Neto Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A influenza (gripe é doença infecciosa aguda de origem viral que acomete o trato respiratório e a cada inverno atinge mais de 100 milhões de pessoas na Europa, Japão e Estados Unidos, causando anualmente a morte de cerca de 20 a 40 mil pessoas somente neste último país. O agente etiológico é o Myxovirus influenzae, ou vírus da gripe. Este subdivide-se nos tipos A, B e C, sendo que apenas os do tipo A e B apresentam relevância clínica em humanos. O vírus influenza apresenta altas taxas de mutação, o que resulta freqüentemente na inserção de novas variantes virais na comunidade, para as quais a população não apresenta imunidade. São poucas as opções disponíveis para o controle da influenza. Dentre essas, a vacinação constitui a forma mais eficaz para o controle da doença e de suas complicações. Em função das mutações que ocorrem naturalmente no vírus influenza, recomenda-se que a vacinação seja realizada anualmente. No Brasil, segundo dados obtidos pelo Projeto VigiGripe - ligado à Universidade Federal de São Paulo -, verifica-se que a influenza apresenta pico de atividade entre os meses de maio e setembro. Assim, a época mais indicada para a vacinação corresponde aos meses de março e abril. Para o tratamento específico da influenza estão disponíveis quatro medicamentos antivirais: os fármacos clássicos amantadina e rimantidina e os antivirais de segunda geração oseltamivir e zanamivir. Os últimos, acrescentam alternativas para o tratamento da influenza e ampliam as opções disponíveis para o seu controle.

  7. PERCEPTION OF MERCURY RISK INFORMATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approximately 8% of American women have blood Mercury levels exceeding the EPA reference dose (a dose below which symptoms would be unlikely). The children of these women are at risk of neurological deficits (lower IQ scores) primarily because of the mother's consumption of conta...

  8. Risk: from perception to social representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Hélène

    2003-03-01

    This paper is concerned with how people make meaning of the risks they face. It explores certain assumptions of the risk perception approaches, which dominate the area. It argues that despite changes currently taking place in the field, such models still focus on static, intrapersonal processes, with many viewing human thinking as analogous to erroneous information processing. In the place of an individual 'deficit' focus, the paper proposes a more intersubjective theory of the response to risk. Social representations theory is evaluated and its validity assessed by highlighting empirical work on representations of biotechnological and health risks. The review reveals that the response to risk is a highly social, emotive and symbolic entity. Therefore a theory and methods appropriate to such qualities are proposed, to produce a valid psychology of risk.

  9. Avian influenza transmission risks: analysis of biosecurity measures and contact structure in Dutch poultry farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ssematimba, A; Hagenaars, T J; de Wit, J J; Ruiterkamp, F; Fabri, T H; Stegeman, J A; de Jong, M C M

    2013-04-01

    In the 2003 epidemic of highly pathogenic avian influenza in Dutch poultry, between-farm virus transmission continued for considerable time despite control measures. Gaining more insight into the mechanisms of this spread is necessary for the possible development of better control strategies. We carried out an in-depth interview study aiming to systematically explore all the poultry production activities to identify the activities that could potentially be related to virus introduction and transmission. One of the between-farm contact risks that were identified is the movement of birds between farms during thinning with violations of on-farm biosecurity protocols. In addition, several other risky management practices, risky visitor behaviours and biosecurity breaches were identified. They include human and fomite contacts that occurred without observing biosecurity protocols, poor waste management practices, presence of other animal species on poultry farms, and poor biosecurity against risks from farm neighbourhood activities. Among the detailed practices identified, taking cell phones and jewellery into poultry houses, not observing shower-in protocols and the exchange of unclean farm equipment were common. Also, sometimes certain protocols or biosecurity facilities were lacking. We also asked the interviewed farmers about their perception of transmission risks and found that they had divergent opinions about the visitor- and neighbourhood-associated risks. We performed a qualitative assessment of contact risks (as transmission pathways) based on contact type, corresponding biosecurity practices, and contact frequency. This assessment suggests that the most risky contact types are bird movements during thinning and restocking, most human movements accessing poultry houses and proximity to other poultry farms. The overall risk posed by persons and equipment accessing storage rooms and the premises-only contacts was considered to be medium. Most of the exposure

  10. Cooperative Crisis Management and Avian Influenza. A Risk Assessment Guide for International Contagious Disease Prevention and Risk Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    commercial poultry production facilities, areas in the community where poultry are produced in backyards , and markets where live poultry are sold. Third...goal towards diminishing the risk of avian influenza to humans and poultry ” along with “approaches and implementation plans for the control of...as in the case of avian influenza, where poultry workers and persons who keep small domestic flocks of chickens are at higher risk for exposure from

  11. Stroke risk perception among participants of a stroke awareness campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heuschmann Peter U

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subjective risk factor perception is an important component of the motivation to change unhealthy life styles. While prior studies assessed cardiovascular risk factor knowledge, little is known about determinants of the individual perception of stroke risk. Methods Survey by mailed questionnaire among 1483 participants of a prior public stroke campaign in Germany. Participants had been informed about their individual stroke risk based on the Framingham stroke risk score. Stroke risk factor knowledge, perception of lifetime stroke risk and risk factor status were included in the questionnaire, and the determinants of good risk factor knowledge and high stroke risk perception were identified using logistic regression models. Results Overall stroke risk factor knowledge was good with 67–96% of the participants recognizing established risk factors. The two exceptions were diabetes (recognized by 49% and myocardial infarction (57%. Knowledge of a specific factor was superior among those affected by it. 13% of all participants considered themselves of having a high stroke risk, 55% indicated a moderate risk. All major risk factors contributed significantly to the perception of being at high stroke risk, but the effects of age, sex and education were non-significant. Poor self-rated health was additionally associated with high individual stroke risk perception. Conclusion Stroke risk factor knowledge was high in this study. The self perception of an increased stroke risk was associated with established risk factors as well as low perception of general health.

  12. The Influence Factors and Mechanism of Societal Risk Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Rui; Shi, Kan; Li, Shu

    Risk perception is one of important subjects in management psychology and cognitive psychology. It is of great value in the theory and practice to investigate the societal hazards that the public cares a lot especially in Socio-economic transition period. A survey including 30 hazards and 6 risk attributes was designed and distributed to about 2, 485 residents of 8 districts, Beijing. The major findings are listed as following: Firstly, a scale of societal risk perception was designed and 2 factors were identified (Dread Risk & Unknown Risk). Secondly, structural equation model was used to analyze the influence factors and mechanism of societal risk perception. Risk preference, government support and social justice could influence societal risk perception directly. Government support fully moderated the relationship between government trust and societal risk perception. Societal risk perception influenced life satisfaction, public policy preferences and social development belief.

  13. Cattle farmers’ perceptions of risk and risk management strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bishu, Kinfe G.; O'Reilly, Seamus; Lahiff, Edward

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzes cattle farmers’ perceptions of risk and risk management strategies in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. We use survey data from a sample of 356 farmers based on multistage random sampling. Factor analysis is employed to classify scores of risk and management strategies, and multiple...... utilization were perceived as the most important strategies for managing risks. Livestock disease and labor shortage were perceived as less of a risk by farmers who adopted the practice of zero grazing compared to other farmers, pointing to the potential of this practice for risk reduction. We find strong...... evidence that farmers engage in multiple risk management practices in order to reduce losses from cattle morbidity and mortality. The results suggest that government strategies that aim at reducing farmers’ risk need to be tailored to specific farm and farmer characteristics. Findings from this study have...

  14. Cattle farmers’ perceptions of risk and risk management strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bishu, Kinfe G.; O'Reilly, Seamus; Lahiff, Edward

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzes cattle farmers’ perceptions of risk and risk management strategies in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. We use survey data from a sample of 356 farmers based on multistage random sampling. Factor analysis is employed to classify scores of risk and management strategies, and multiple...... utilization were perceived as the most important strategies for managing risks. Livestock disease and labor shortage were perceived as less of a risk by farmers who adopted the practice of zero grazing compared to other farmers, pointing to the potential of this practice for risk reduction. We find strong...... evidence that farmers engage in multiple risk management practices in order to reduce losses from cattle morbidity and mortality. The results suggest that government strategies that aim at reducing farmers’ risk need to be tailored to specific farm and farmer characteristics. Findings from this study have...

  15. Risk perception and benefits perception. Survey results and discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touzet, R.; Remedi, J. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Sede Central (Argentina); Baron, J. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Univ. Nac. de Cuyo, CEDIAC (Argentina); Caspani, C. [Ministerio de Salud Publica, Pcia. de Santa Fe (Argentina)

    2000-05-01

    The fact that the risks deriving from different activities involving the same radiation exposure are seen very differently by a single population is a highly significant one. Exactly identical risks are considered oppositely, depending on the origin of radiation (whether produced by medical applications or by nuclear power plants, resulting from natural radiation or from artificial radiation). It appears as if there was good radiation and bad radiation..{exclamation_point} One of the purposes of the paper is the discussion of causes. The acceptance of a given risk by a certain section of the population is closely related to the benefits that the group expects to receive-either consciously or unconsciously-from the activity producing the risk. Consequently, an analysis of the factors influencing the eventual rejection of a practice should explore not only fears, but also hopes...{exclamation_point} On the basis of a risk-perception survey carried out in a population sector attending hospitals-including both patients and physicians-, a prior objective analysis of the results obtained was performed and, later on, the various statements by those surveyed were studied. The design of the survey allowed for a comparative assessment of the perception of different risks depending on the people's educational and social level. An epistemological study was made on the validity involved in the use of the data resulting from the survey, so as to reach different conclusions. The population's opinion about the capacity for response, the qualification and the mitigation means available to the State authorities in order to face an eventual radiological emergency plays a leading role in risk perception. In an analysis of the relevant factors involved in risk and benefits perception by the population (in the real world), attention must be paid to the existence of organized opinion groups representing the interest of a given sector. Of course, the population's confidence

  16. Demographic and ecological risk factors for human influenza A virus infections in rural Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Elisabeth Dowling; Agustian, Dwi; Kartasasmita, Cissy; Uyeki, Timothy M; Simões, Eric A F

    2017-09-01

    Indonesia has the world's highest reported mortality for human infections with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N1) virus. Indonesia is an agriculturally driven country where human-animal mixing is common and provides a unique environment for zoonotic influenza A virus transmission. To identify potential demographic and ecological risk factors for human infection with seasonal influenza A viruses in rural Indonesia, a population-based study was conducted in Cileunyi and Soreang subdistricts near Bandung in western Java from 2008 to 2011. Passive influenza surveillance with RT-PCR confirmation of influenza A viral RNA in respiratory specimens was utilized for case ascertainment. A population census and mapping were utilized for population data collection. The presence of influenza A(H3N2) and A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infections in a household was modeled using Generalized Estimating Equations. Each additional child aged influenza A virus infections in rural Indonesian households with young children and poultry. © 2017 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Cost effectiveness of oseltamivir treatment for patients with influenza-like illness who are at increased risk for serious complications of influenza - Illustration for the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Maarten J.; Novak, Annoesjka; Scheijbeler, Huib W. K. F. H.; Gyldmark, Marlene; van Genugten, Marianne L. L.; Wilschut, Jan C.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Oseltamivir is effective in the treatment of influenza. Utilisation in The Netherlands is limited, but increasing. Objective: To estimate the cost effectiveness of oseltamivir treatment (vs symptom relief only) for patients with influenza-like illness (ILI) who are at increased risk for

  18. The Benefits and Risks of Pandemic Influenza Vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.G. Wijnans (Leonoor)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractIn 2009 and 2010 the world experienced the first influenza pandemic of the 21st century. As the new influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus spread across the world, vaccines were being produced and licensed at an unprecedented scale and speed. In Europe, adjuvanted and non-adjuvanted H1N1pdm09

  19. The Benefits and Risks of Pandemic Influenza Vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.G. Wijnans (Leonoor)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractIn 2009 and 2010 the world experienced the first influenza pandemic of the 21st century. As the new influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus spread across the world, vaccines were being produced and licensed at an unprecedented scale and speed. In Europe, adjuvanted and non-adjuvanted H1N1pdm09

  20. Impact of influenza vaccination on mortality risk among the elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenwold, R. H. H.; Hoes, A. W.; Hak, E.

    2009-01-01

    Estimates of influenza vaccine effectiveness have mostly been derived from nonrandomised studies and therefore are potentially confounded. The aim of the current study was to estimate influenza vaccine effectiveness in preventing mortality among the elderly, taking both measured and unmeasured confo

  1. Risk Perception Related to Critical Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badea Dorel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Through this article it is brought to attention the essential aspects related to the perceived risks for critical infrastructure, both theoretically and practically, considering perception as an important input in the risk management process. For the practical part, the added value component in the field consists from the results of research based on survey, conducted in a wider framework of determining the level of awareness of the critical infrastructure issue by a pilot sample, consisting of persons with managerial and operational attributions in this sector.

  2. Psychological Factors Linked to Risk Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaş, I.; Creãu, R. Z.; Stǎnciugelu, I.

    2012-04-01

    Risks are mental models, which allow people to cope with dangerous phenomena (Renn, 2008; Jasanoff, 1998). The term "risk" refers to the likelihood of an adverse effect resulting from an event. The aim of the present study is to identify the psychological factors that are most predictive of risk perception in relation with age, gender, educational level and socio-economical status. Earthquake hazard was considered, because it is an emerging danger for Bucharest. 80% of the laypeople sample are waiting for this event to happen in the next three years. By integrating all the research data, it was attempted to build a risk profile of the investigated population, which could be used by institutions responsible for earthquake risk mitigation situations in Bucharest. This research appealed to the social learning Rotter (1966), auto-effectiveness Bandura (1977; 1983), and anxiety and stress theories. We used psychological variables that measured stress, personal effectiveness and the belief in personal control. The multi-modal risk perception questionnaire was structured on a 49 items sequence. The sample was composed of 1.376 participants recruited on a voluntary basis. The characteristics of risk (like probability and magnitude, time scales) are perceived differently according to psychological factors that play a role also in biases in people's ability to draw inferences from probabilistic information (like cognitive dissonance). Since the 1970's, it has been argued that those who perceive life's events as being beyond their locus of control (external locus of control) are significantly more anxious and less adapted. In this research, strongest associations and significant differences were obtained between sex, age and income categories with Stress vulnerability factor and the External Locus of Control factor. The profile of the low risk perceiver is that of a young, more educated, male individual with a higher self- efficacy level and an internal locus of control.

  3. Food risk perceptions by different consumer groups in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Roosen, Jutta; Thiele, Silke; Hansen, Kristin

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the changing food risk perceptions of German consumers over the period 1992 to 2002. We analyse the respondents' general risk attitudes and their specific perceptions of food risks. Using cluster analysis we generate a typology of four consumer types. One group is worried about natural food risks, the second does not worry about any types of food risks, the third is concerned about technical food risks and the fourth is concerned about all food risks. A mult...

  4. Rethinking the relationship between flood risk perception and flood management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkholz, S; Muro, M; Jeffrey, P; Smith, H M

    2014-04-15

    Although flood risk perceptions and their concomitant motivations for behaviour have long been recognised as significant features of community resilience in the face of flooding events, there has, for some time now, been a poorly appreciated fissure in the accompanying literature. Specifically, rationalist and constructivist paradigms in the broader domain of risk perception provide different (though not always conflicting) contexts for interpreting evidence and developing theory. This contribution reviews the major constructs that have been applied to understanding flood risk perceptions and contextualises these within broader conceptual developments around risk perception theory and contemporary thinking around flood risk management. We argue that there is a need to re-examine and re-invigorate flood risk perception research, in a manner that is comprehensively underpinned by more constructivist thinking around flood risk management as well as by developments in broader risk perception research. We draw attention to an historical over-emphasis on the cognitive perceptions of those at risk to the detriment of a richer understanding of a wider range of flood risk perceptions such as those of policy-makers or of tax-payers who live outside flood affected areas as well as the linkages between these perspectives and protective measures such as state-supported flood insurance schemes. Conclusions challenge existing understandings of the relationship between risk perception and flood management, particularly where the latter relates to communication strategies and the extent to which those at risk from flooding feel responsible for taking protective actions.

  5. Perception of the A/H1N1 influenza pandemic and acceptance of influenza vaccination by Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 staff: A descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amour, Sélilah; Djhehiche, Khaled; Zamora, Adeline; Bergeret, Alain; Vanhems, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the perception and attitudes of university staff, including medical school and other science specialties, toward the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic and influenza vaccination program. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted among 4,529 university personnel on October 19-20, 2009. Seven hundred (15%) employees participated in the study. Only 18% were willing to be vaccinated, men more than women (29% versus 9%, P < 0.001), and professors/researchers more than administrative/technical staff (30% vs. 6%, P < 0.001). Intention to be vaccinated was insufficient. Additional efforts are needed to improve information dissemination among university staff. Medical university personnel should receive more information to increase vaccine coverage and protect them as well as patients.

  6. Cyclists' perception of risk in roundabouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Mette; Hels, Tove

    2008-05-01

    Converting an intersection into a roundabout improves motor vehicle safety, but a similar safety effect is not found for car-bicycle collisions. Very little is known about the reasons behind these collisions. In this study a first step towards an understanding of the reasons behind these collisions is taken. The study focuses on cyclists' perceived risk in specific situations, factors influencing the perception of risk and cyclists' knowledge about traffic rules regulating the interaction between road users in roundabouts. One thousand and nineteen cyclists aged 18-85 participated in the study. Data were collected using structured interviews conducted in five Danish roundabouts. Underestimation of risk and lack of knowledge about relevant traffic rules may contribute to car-bicycle collisions in roundabouts. Cyclists prefer road designs with a clear regulation of road user behaviour. A need to increase knowledge about traffic rules regulating road user behaviour in roundabouts is identified.

  7. The investigation of Risk factors of influenza pandemic H1N1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    koorosh Holakooyi Naeini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Influenza pandemic H1N1 is an acute respiratory infectious disease that is combination of two types of influenza virus type A (H1N1. This study aimed to identify risk factors affecting influenza pandemic H1N1. Methods: In this case-control study, the cases were 18 positive cases of pandemic influenza H1N1 and the controls were the patients who were admitted during the same time as the cases to sections of Orthopedics, Urology, Surgery and Women of the same hospital for reasons other than influenza. The data were collected through a form by two experienced nurses and then were fed into SPSS, and were analyzed using independent T-test and chi-square. Results: A significant relationship was observed between pandemic H1N1 influenza infection and a history of domestic travel, contact with confirmed patients, respiratory diseases, and diabetes (P0.05. Conclusion: People with underlying diseases, especially respiratory diseases, diabetes, heart disease and a secondary infection and cardiovascular disease most likely are susceptible to influenza pandemic H1N1.

  8. Stakeholders' perceptions of 10years of the Global Action Plan for Influenza Vaccines (GAP) - Results from a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nannei, Claudia; Goldin, Shoshanna; Torelli, Guido; Fatima, Hiba; Kumar, Kaveri; Bubb-Humfryes, Oliver; Stenson, Bo; Sparrow, Erin

    2016-10-26

    Ten years after the launch of the Global Action Plan for Influenza Vaccines (GAP), the World Health Organization (WHO) surveyed stakeholders to understand their perceptions of what the programme had achieved. This article provides a summary of the findings; the full report will be available on-line on the GAP website in November 2016 (http://www.who.int/influenza_vaccines_plan/en/). Seventy-seven responses were received from stakeholders including medical doctors, national influenza center officials, country immunization programme teams, surveillance and disease centers, policy-makers, researchers, vaccine manufacturers, and non-governmental organizations from 28 countries, representing all six WHO regions. Respondents cited GAP's biggest successes as capacity building in developing countries; raising international awareness of global needs in the event of a pandemic; and collaborative alignment of influenza stakeholders. The most commonly reported challenges were the limited progress in development of a broadly protective or universal vaccine and the perceived absence of a major increase in seasonal demand. These findings aligned with the perception that less global progress had been made under the third GAP objective, focused on research and development of better vaccines, than on increasing seasonal vaccine use (objective 1) and pandemic vaccine production capacity (objective 2). Respondents explained what they saw as the major challenges to development of better vaccines, including to development of a universal influenza vaccine. The majority of respondents agreed that the goal chosen at the GAP II consultation is still relevant. Results highlighted the importance of promoting research and development of better vaccines, both for facilitating uptake of seasonal vaccines and for ensuring timely vaccine availability in the event of a pandemic. As the GAP concludes its mandate this year, these findings will contribute to discussions on the impact of programme

  9. Climate change and coastal environmental risk perceptions in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton, Stuart J; Jacobson, Susan K

    2013-11-30

    Understanding public perceptions of climate change risks is a prerequisite for effective climate communication and adaptation. Many studies of climate risk perceptions have either analyzed a general operationalization of climate change risk or employed a case-study approach of specific adaptive processes. This study takes a different approach, examining attitudes toward 17 specific, climate-related coastal risks and cognitive, affective, and risk-specific predictors of risk perception. A survey of 558 undergraduates revealed that risks to the physical environment were a greater concern than economic or biological risks. Perceptions of greater physical environment risks were significantly associated with having more pro-environmental attitudes, being female, and being more Democratic-leaning. Perceptions of greater economic risks were significantly associated with having more negative environmental attitudes, being female, and being more Republican-leaning. Perceptions of greater biological risks were significantly associated with more positive environmental attitudes. The findings suggest that focusing on physical environment risks maybe more salient to this audience than communications about general climate change adaptation. The results demonstrate that climate change beliefs and risk perceptions are multifactorial and complex and are shaped by individuals' attitudes and basic beliefs. Climate risk communications need to apply this knowledge to better target cognitive and affective processes of specific audiences, rather than providing simple characterizations of risks.

  10. The Psychology of Hazard Risk Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, K. F.

    2012-12-01

    A critical step in preparing for natural hazards is understanding the risk: what is the hazard, its likelihood and range of impacts, and what are the vulnerabilities of the community? Any hazard forecast naturally includes a degree of uncertainty, and often these uncertainties are expressed in terms of probabilities. There is often a strong understanding of probability among the physical scientists and emergency managers who create hazard forecasts and issue watches, warnings, and evacuation orders, and often such experts expect similar levels of risk fluency among the general public—indeed, the Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities (WGCEP) states in the introduction to its earthquake rupture forecast maps that "In daily living, people are used to making decisions based on probabilities—from the flip of a coin (50% probability of heads) to weather forecasts (such as a 30% chance of rain) to the annual chance of being killed by lightning (about 0.0003%)." [1] However, cognitive psychologists have shown in numerous studies [see, e.g., 2-5] that the WGCEP's expectation of probability literacy is inaccurate. People neglect, distort, misjudge, or misuse probability information, even when given strong guidelines about the meaning of numerical or verbally stated probabilities [6]. Even the most ubiquitous of probabilistic information—weather forecasts—are systematically misinterpreted [7]. So while disaster risk analysis and assessment is undoubtedly a critical step in public preparedness and hazard mitigation plans, it is equally important that scientists and practitioners understand the common psychological barriers to accurate probability perception before they attempt to communicate hazard risks to the public. This paper discusses several common, systematic distortions in probability perception and use, including: the influence of personal experience on use of statistical information; temporal discounting and construal level theory; the effect

  11. Influenza vaccination coverage among high-risk groups in 11 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loerbroks, A.; Stock, C.; Bosch, J.A.; Litaker, D.G.; Apfelbacher, C.J.

    BACKGROUND: National vaccination coverage rates for individuals at increased risk of influenza-related complications represent a useful public health indicator of preparedness. We compared European countries regarding (i) vaccination coverage among high-risk groups and (ii) the likelihood that

  12. Perceptions of hazard and risk on Santorini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominey-Howes, Dale; Minos-Minopoulos, Despina

    2004-10-01

    Santorini, Greece is a major explosive volcano. The Santorini volcanic complex is composed of two active volcanoes—Nea Kameni and Mt. Columbo. Holocene eruptions have generated a variety of processes and deposits and eruption mechanisms pose significant hazards of various types. It has been recognized that, for major European volcanoes, few studies have focused on the social aspects of volcanic activity and little work has been conducted on public perceptions of hazard, risk and vulnerability. Such assessments are an important element of establishing public education programmes and developing volcano disaster management plans. We investigate perceptions of volcanic hazards on Santorini. We find that most residents know that Nea Kameni is active, but only 60% know that Mt. Columbo is active. Forty percent of residents fear that negative impacts on tourism will have the greatest effect on their community. In the event of an eruption, 43% of residents would try to evacuate the island by plane/ferry. Residents aged >50 have retained a memory of the effects of the last eruption at the island, whereas younger residents have no such knowledge. We find that dignitaries and municipal officers (those responsible for planning and managing disaster response) are informed about the history, hazards and effects of the volcanoes. However, there is no "emergency plan" for the island and there is confusion between various departments (Civil Defense, Fire, Police, etc.) about the emergency decision-making process. The resident population of Santorini is at high risk from the hazards associated with a future eruption.

  13. Stroke risk perception among participants of a stroke awareness campaign

    OpenAIRE

    Heuschmann Peter U; Heidrich Jan; Kraywinkel Klaus; Wagner Markus; Berger Klaus

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Subjective risk factor perception is an important component of the motivation to change unhealthy life styles. While prior studies assessed cardiovascular risk factor knowledge, little is known about determinants of the individual perception of stroke risk. Methods Survey by mailed questionnaire among 1483 participants of a prior public stroke campaign in Germany. Participants had been informed about their individual stroke risk based on the Framingham stroke risk score. S...

  14. Establishment of a Risk Assessment Framework for Analysis of the Spread of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing; WANG Jing-fei; WU Chun-yan; YANG Yan-tao; JI Zeng-tao; WANG Hong-bin

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the risk of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in mainland China, a risk assessment framework was built.Risk factors were determined by analyzing the epidemic data using the brainstorming method; the analytic hierarchy process was designed to weigh risk factors, and the integrated multicriteria analysis was used to evaluate the final result.The completed framework included the risk factor system, data standards for risk factors, weights of risk factors, and integrated assessment methods. This risk assessment framework can be used to quantitatively analyze the outbreak and spread of HPAI in mainland China.

  15. Rural Nevada and climate change: vulnerability, beliefs, and risk perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safi, Ahmad Saleh; Smith, William James; Liu, Zhnongwei

    2012-06-01

    In this article, we present the results of a study investigating the influence of vulnerability to climate change as a function of physical vulnerability, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity on climate change risk perception. In 2008/2009, we surveyed Nevada ranchers and farmers to assess their climate change-related beliefs, and risk perceptions, political orientations, and socioeconomic characteristics. Ranchers' and farmers' sensitivity to climate change was measured through estimating the proportion of their household income originating from highly scarce water-dependent agriculture to the total income. Adaptive capacity was measured as a combination of the Social Status Index and the Poverty Index. Utilizing water availability and use, and population distribution GIS databases; we assessed water resource vulnerability in Nevada by zip code as an indicator of physical vulnerability to climate change. We performed correlation tests and multiple regression analyses to examine the impact of vulnerability and its three distinct components on risk perception. We find that vulnerability is not a significant determinant of risk perception. Physical vulnerability alone also does not impact risk perception. Both sensitivity and adaptive capacity increase risk perception. While age is not a significant determinant of it, gender plays an important role in shaping risk perception. Yet, general beliefs such as political orientations and climate change-specific beliefs such as believing in the anthropogenic causes of climate change and connecting the locally observed impacts (in this case drought) to climate change are the most prominent determinants of risk perception. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  16. Public Risk Perceptions towards Oxygenation Pumping in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne

    This report provides the findings of national representative risk perception surveys undertaken in Finland, Lithuania and Sweden during 2011 in rela-tion to oxygenation pumping in the Baltic Sea. The risk perception surveys find that as the scale of pumping increases from small- to large scale...

  17. Spatial assessment of the potential risk of avian influenza A virus infection in three raptor species in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriguchi, Sachiko; Onuma, Manabu; Goka, Koichi

    2016-08-01

    Avian influenza A, a highly pathogenic avian influenza, is a lethal infection in certain species of wild birds, including some endangered species. Raptors are susceptible to avian influenza, and spatial risk assessment of such species may be valuable for conservation planning. We used the maximum entropy approach to generate potential distribution models of three raptor species from presence-only data for the mountain hawk-eagle Nisaetus nipalensis, northern goshawk Accipiter gentilis and peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus, surveyed during the winter from 1996 to 2001. These potential distribution maps for raptors were superimposed on avian influenza A risk maps of Japan, created from data on incidence of the virus in wild birds throughout Japan from October 2010 to March 2011. The avian influenza A risk map for the mountain hawk-eagle showed that most regions of Japan had a low risk for avian influenza A. In contrast, the maps for the northern goshawk and peregrine falcon showed that their high-risk areas were distributed on the plains along the Sea of Japan and Pacific coast. We recommend enhanced surveillance for each raptor species in high-risk areas and immediate establishment of inspection systems. At the same time, ecological risk assessments that determine factors, such as the composition of prey species, and differential sensitivity of avian influenza A virus between bird species should provide multifaceted insights into the total risk assessment of endangered species.

  18. Spatial assessment of the potential risk of avian influenza A virus infection in three raptor species in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    MORIGUCHI, Sachiko; ONUMA, Manabu; GOKA, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Avian influenza A, a highly pathogenic avian influenza, is a lethal infection in certain species of wild birds, including some endangered species. Raptors are susceptible to avian influenza, and spatial risk assessment of such species may be valuable for conservation planning. We used the maximum entropy approach to generate potential distribution models of three raptor species from presence-only data for the mountain hawk-eagle Nisaetus nipalensis, northern goshawk Accipiter gentilis and peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus, surveyed during the winter from 1996 to 2001. These potential distribution maps for raptors were superimposed on avian influenza A risk maps of Japan, created from data on incidence of the virus in wild birds throughout Japan from October 2010 to March 2011. The avian influenza A risk map for the mountain hawk-eagle showed that most regions of Japan had a low risk for avian influenza A. In contrast, the maps for the northern goshawk and peregrine falcon showed that their high-risk areas were distributed on the plains along the Sea of Japan and Pacific coast. We recommend enhanced surveillance for each raptor species in high-risk areas and immediate establishment of inspection systems. At the same time, ecological risk assessments that determine factors, such as the composition of prey species, and differential sensitivity of avian influenza A virus between bird species should provide multifaceted insights into the total risk assessment of endangered species. PMID:26972333

  19. Risk perception and clinical decision making in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfoed, Benedicte Marie Lind

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We aim to present new knowledge about different perspectives of health care professionals’ risk perceptions and clinical decision making. Furthermore, we intend to discuss differences between professional and personal risk perceptions and the impact on decisions in terms of both short...... and long-term outcomes. Background Insight into healthcare professionals’ perception of risk is a cornerstone for understanding their strategies for practising preventive care. The way people perceive risk can be seen as part of a general personality trait influenced by a mixture of individual...... considerations and the specific context. Most research has been focused on understanding of the concepts of risk. However healthcare professionals’ risk perception and personal attitudes also affect their clinical decision-making and risk communication. The differences between health care professionals’ personal...

  20. Poultry slaughtering practices in rural communities of Bangladesh and risk of avian influenza transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rimi, Nadia Ali; Sultana, Rebeca; Ishtiak-Ahmed, Kazi

    2014-01-01

    Slaughtering sick poultry is a risk factor for human infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza and is a common practice in Bangladesh. This paper describes human exposures to poultry during slaughtering process and the customs and rituals influencing these practices in two Bangladeshi rura...

  1. Distribution and risk factors of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) in mainland China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L-Q. Fang (Li-Qun); L-P. Wang (Li-Ping); S.J. de Vlas (Sake); S. Liang (Song); S-L. Tong (Shi-Lu); Y-L. Li (Yan-Li); Y-P. Li (Ya-Pin); Q. Qian (Quan); H. Yang (Hong); M-G. Zhou (Mai-Geng); X-F. Wang (Xiao-Feng); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik); J-Q. Ma (Jia-Qi); W.C. Cao (Wu Chun)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractData from all reported cases of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) were obtained from the China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention. The spatiotemporal distribution patterns of cases were characterized through spatial analysis. The impact of travel-related risk factors on

  2. Influenza vaccination coverage and reasons to refrain among high-risk persons in four European countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroneman, M.; Essen, G.A. van; Paget, J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines influenza vaccine coverage using a population base of an average of 2300 persons in each of four European countries (Germany, Spain, Poland and Sweden). The reasons for non-vaccination of those in the high-risk groups were explored by questionnaire. The vaccine coverage rate (VCR

  3. Risk for Avian Influenza Virus Exposure at Human–Wildlife Interface

    OpenAIRE

    Siembieda, J; Johnson, CK; Boyce, W; Sandrock, C; Cardona, C.

    2008-01-01

    To assess risk for human exposure to avian influenza viruses (AIV), we sampled California wild birds and marine mammals during October 2005-August 2007and estimated human-wildlife contact. Waterfowl hunters were 8 times more likely to have contact with AIV-infected wildlife than were persons with casual or occupational exposures (p

  4. Influenza Vaccination Reduces Dementia Risk in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ju-Chi; Hsu, Yi-Ping; Kao, Pai-Feng; Hao, Wen-Rui; Liu, Shing-Hwa; Lin, Chao-Feng; Sung, Li-Chin; Wu, Szu-Yuan

    2016-03-01

    Taiwan has the highest prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) worldwide. CKD, a manifestation of vascular diseases, is associated with a high risk of dementia. Here, we estimated the association between influenza vaccination and dementia risk in patients with CKD. Data from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan were used in this study. The study cohort included all patients diagnosed with CKD (according to International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes) at healthcare facilities in Taiwan (n = 32,844) from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2007. Each patient was followed up to assess dementia risk or protective factors: demographic characteristics of age and sex; comorbidities of diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, cerebrovascular diseases, parkinsonism, epilepsy, substance and alcohol use disorders, mood disorder, anxiety disorder, psychotic disorder, and sleep disorder; urbanization level; monthly income; and statin, metformin, aspirin, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) use. A propensity score was derived using a logistic regression model for estimating the effect of vaccination by accounting for covariates that predict receiving the intervention (vaccine). A time-dependent Cox proportional hazard model was used to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) of dementia among vaccinated and unvaccinated CKD patients. The study population comprised 11,943 eligible patients with CKD; 5745 (48%) received influenza vaccination and the remaining 6198 (52%) did not. The adjusted HRs (aHRs) of dementia decreased in vaccinated patients compared with those in unvaccinated patients (influenza season, noninfluenza season, and all seasons: aHRs = 0.68, 0.58, and 0.64; P dementia in various models. A stronger protective effect against dementia risk was demonstrated during the noninfluenza season. Regardless of comorbidities or drug use, influenza vaccination was an independent protective factor and

  5. Mapping the risk of avian influenza in wild birds in the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nott Mark P

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian influenza virus (AIV is an important public health issue because pandemic influenza viruses in people have contained genes from viruses that infect birds. The H5 and H7 AIV subtypes have periodically mutated from low pathogenicity to high pathogenicity form. Analysis of the geographic distribution of AIV can identify areas where reassortment events might occur and how high pathogenicity influenza might travel if it enters wild bird populations in the US. Modelling the number of AIV cases is important because the rate of co-infection with multiple AIV subtypes increases with the number of cases and co-infection is the source of reassortment events that give rise to new strains of influenza, which occurred before the 1968 pandemic. Aquatic birds in the orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes have been recognized as reservoirs of AIV since the 1970s. However, little is known about influenza prevalence in terrestrial birds in the order Passeriformes. Since passerines share the same habitat as poultry, they may be more effective transmitters of the disease to humans than aquatic birds. We analyze 152 passerine species including the American Robin (Turdus migratorius and Swainson's Thrush (Catharus ustulatus. Methods We formulate a regression model to predict AIV cases throughout the US at the county scale as a function of 12 environmental variables, sampling effort, and proximity to other counties with influenza outbreaks. Our analysis did not distinguish between types of influenza, including low or highly pathogenic forms. Results Analysis of 13,046 cloacal samples collected from 225 bird species in 41 US states between 2005 and 2008 indicates that the average prevalence of influenza in passerines is greater than the prevalence in eight other avian orders. Our regression model identifies the Great Plains and the Pacific Northwest as high-risk areas for AIV. Highly significant predictors of AIV include the amount of

  6. Healthcare workers' perceptions of the duty to work during an influenza pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damery, S; Draper, H; Wilson, S; Greenfield, S; Ives, J; Parry, J; Petts, J; Sorell, T

    2010-01-01

    Healthcare workers (HCWs) are often assumed to have a duty to work, even if faced with personal risk. This is particularly so for professionals (doctors and nurses). However, the health service also depends on non-professionals, such as porters, cooks and cleaners. The duty to work is currently under scrutiny because of the ongoing challenge of responding to pandemic influenza, where an effective response depends on most uninfected HCWs continuing to work, despite personal risk. This paper reports findings of a survey of HCWs (n = 1032) conducted across three National Health Service trusts in the West Midlands, UK, to establish whether HCWs' likelihood of working during a pandemic is associated with views about the duty to work. The sense that HCWs felt that they had a duty to work despite personal risk emerged strongly regardless of professional status. Besides a strong sense that everyone should pull together, all kinds of HCWs recognised a duty to work even in difficult circumstances, which correlated strongly with their stated likelihood of working. This suggests that HCWs' decisions about whether or not they are prepared to work during a pandemic are closely linked to their sense of duty. However, respondents' sense of the duty to work may conflict with their sense of duty to family, as well as other factors such as a perceived lack of reciprocity from their employers. Interestingly, nearly 25% of doctors did not consider that they had a duty to work where doing so would pose risks to themselves or their families.

  7. Does communicating (flood) risk affect (flood) risk perceptions? Results of al quasi-experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, Teun; Lindell, Michael K.; Gutteling, Jan M.

    2009-01-01

    People's risk perceptions are generally regarded as an important determinant of their decisions to adjust to natural hazards. However, few studies have evaluated how risk communication programs affect these risk perceptions. This study evaluates the effects of a small-scale flood risk communication

  8. International collaboration to assess the risk of Guillain Barre Syndrome following Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dodd, Caitlin N.; Romio, Silvana A.; Black, Steven; Vellozzi, Claudia; Andrews, Nick; Sturkenboom, Miriam; Zuber, Patrick; Hua, Wei; Bonhoeffer, Jan; Buttery, Jim; Crawford, Nigel; Deceuninck, Genevieve; de Vries, Corinne; De Wals, Philippe; Gutierrez-Gimeno, M. Victoria; Heijbel, Harald; Hughes, Hayley; Hur, Kwan; Hviid, Anders; Kelman, Jeffrey; Kilpi, Tehri; Chuang, S. K.; Macartney, Kristine; Rett, Melisa; Lopez-Callada, Vesta Richardson; Salmon, Daniel; Sanchez, Francisco Gimenez; Sanz, Nuria; Silverman, Barbara; Storsaeter, Jann; Thirugnanam, Umapathi; van der Maas, Nicoline; Yih, Katherine; Zhang, Tao; Izurieta, Hector

    2013-01-01

    Background: The global spread of the 2009 novel pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus led to the accelerated production and distribution of monovalent 2009 Influenza A (H1N1) vaccines (pH1N1). This pandemic provided the opportunity to evaluate the risk of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS), which has been an

  9. Targeting influenza in Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, John M; Casey, Baretta; Samuels, Michael E; Whitler, Elmer

    2007-12-01

    Kentucky has the 5th highest influenza-related death rate in the United States with about 1000 Kentuckians dying each year from complications of influenza. The majority of these patients are in identifiable risk groups for complications of influenza. Yearly immunizations with the influenza vaccine reduce the risk for hospitalization and death.

  10. Risk perception, risk evaluation and human values: cognitive bases of acceptability of a radioactive waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earle, T.C.; Lindell, M.K.; Rankin, W.L.

    1981-07-01

    Public acceptance of radioactive waste management alternatives depends in part on public perception of the associated risks. Three aspects of those perceived risks were explored in this study: (1) synthetic measures of risk perception based on judgments of probability and consequences; (2) acceptability of hypothetical radioactive waste policies, and (3) effects of human values on risk perception. Both the work on synthetic measures of risk perception and on the acceptability of hypothetical policies included investigations of three categories of risk: (1) Short-term public risk (affecting persons living when the wastes are created), (2) Long-term public risk (affecting persons living after the time the wastes were created), and (3) Occupational risk (affecting persons working with the radioactive wastes). The human values work related to public risk perception in general, across categories of persons affected. Respondents were selected according to a purposive sampling strategy.

  11. Implications of public understanding of avian influenza for fostering effective risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elledge, Brenda L; Brand, Michael; Regens, James L; Boatright, Daniel T

    2008-10-01

    Avian influenza has three of the four properties necessary to cause a pandemic. However, are we as individuals and communities prepared for a pandemic flu in the United States? To help answer this question, 12 focus groups (N = 60) were conducted in Tulsa, Oklahoma, to determine the level of awareness of avian and pandemic flu for the county health department to develop effective communication messages. The overall findings indicate that the general Tulsa public lacks information about avian influenza or pandemics, does not believe a pandemic will occur, and believes if one does occur the government will take care of it. Finally, the groups agreed that education would be the key to preventing widespread panic if a pandemic occurred. Five themes emerged: confusion about terminology, seriousness of avian influenza, disaster fatigue, appropriate precautions, and credibility of health information. Each should be considered in developing effective risk communication messages.

  12. Pharmaceutical interventions for mitigating an influenza pandemic: modeling the risks and health-economic impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, Maarten J; Milne, George; Nelson, E Anthony S; Pyenson, Bruce; Basili, Marcello; Coker, Richard; Oxford, John; Garrison, Louis P

    2010-12-01

    Model-based analyses built on burden-of-disease and cost-effectiveness theory predict that pharmaceutical interventions may efficiently mitigate both the epidemiologic and economic impact of an influenza pandemic. Pharmaceutical interventions typically encompass the application of (pre)pandemic influenza vaccines, other vaccines (notably pneumococcal), antiviral treatments and other drug treatment (e.g., antibiotics to target potential complications of influenza). However, these models may be too limited to capture the full macro-economic impact of pandemic influenza. The aim of this article is to summarize current health-economic modeling approaches to recognize the strengths and weaknesses of these approaches, and to compare these with more recently proposed alternative methods. We conclude that it is useful, particularly for policy and planning purposes, to extend modeling concepts through the application of alternative approaches, including insurers' risk theories, human capital approaches and sectoral and full macro-economic modeling. This article builds on a roundtable meeting of the Pandemic Influenza Economic Impact Group that was held in Boston, MA, USA, in December 2008.

  13. Family history assessment: impact on disease risk perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Catharine; Sen, Ananda; Ruffin, Mack T; Nease, Donald E; Gramling, Robert; Acheson, Louise S; O'Neill, Suzanne M; Rubinstein, Wendy S

    2012-10-01

    Family Healthware™, a tool developed by the CDC, is a self-administered web-based family history tool that assesses familial risk for six diseases (coronary heart disease; stroke; diabetes; and colon, breast, and ovarian cancers) and provides personalized prevention messages based on risk. The Family Healthware Impact Trial (FHITr) set out to examine the clinical utility of presenting personalized preventive messages tailored to family history risk for improving health behaviors. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of Family Healthware on modifying disease risk perceptions, particularly among those who initially underestimated their risk for certain diseases. A total of 3786 patients were enrolled in a cluster-randomized trial to evaluate the clinical utility of Family Healthware. Participants were recruited from 41 primary care practices among 13 states between 2005 and 2007. Perceived risk for each disease was assessed at baseline and 6-month follow-up using a single-item comparative risk question. Analyses were completed in March 2012. Compared to controls, Family Healthware increased risk perceptions among those who underestimated their risk for heart disease (15% vs 9%, prisk perceptions. Family Healthware was effective at increasing disease risk perceptions, particularly for metabolic conditions, among those who underestimated their risk. Results from this study also demonstrate the relatively resistant nature of risk perceptions. This study is registered at clinicaltrials.govNCT00164658. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  14. Interventions to reduce zoonotic and pandemic risks from avian influenza in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiris, J S Malik; Cowling, Benjamin J; Wu, Joseph T; Feng, Luzhao; Guan, Yi; Yu, Hongjie; Leung, Gabriel M

    2016-02-01

    Novel influenza viruses continue to emerge, posing zoonotic and potentially pandemic threats, such as with avian influenza A H7N9. Although closure of live poultry markets (LPMs) in mainland China stopped H7N9 outbreaks temporarily, closures are difficult to sustain, in view of poultry production and marketing systems in China. In this Personal View, we summarise interventions taken in mainland China, and provide evidence for other more sustainable but effective interventions in the live poultry market systems that reduce risk of zoonotic influenza including rest days, and banning live poultry in markets overnight. Separation of live ducks and geese from land-based (ie, non-aquatic) poultry in LPM systems can reduce the risk of emergence of zoonotic and epizootic viruses at source. In view of evidence that H7N9 is now endemic in over half of the provinces in mainland China and will continue to cause recurrent zoonotic disease in the winter months, such interventions should receive high priority in China and other Asian countries at risk of H7N9 through cross-border poultry movements. Such generic measures are likely to reduce known and future threats of zoonotic influenza.

  15. The function of credibility in information processing for risk perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbo, Craig W; McComas, Katherine A

    2003-04-01

    This study examines how credibility affects the way people process information and how they subsequently perceive risk. Three conceptual areas are brought together in this analysis: the psychometric model of risk perception, Eagly and Chaiken's heuristic-systematic information processing model, and Meyer's credibility index. Data come from a study of risk communication in the circumstance of state health department investigations of suspected cancer clusters (five cases, N = 696). Credibility is assessed for three information sources: state health departments, citizen groups, and industries involved in each case. Higher credibility for industry and the state directly predicts lower risk perception, whereas high credibility for citizen groups predicts greater risk perception. A path model shows that perceiving high credibility for industry and state-and perceiving low credibility for citizen groups-promotes heuristic processing, which in turn is a strong predictor of lower risk perception. Alternately, perceiving industry and the state to have low credibility also promotes greater systematic processing, which consistently leads to perception of greater risk. Between a one-fifth and one-third of the effect of credibility on risk perception is shown to be indirectly transmitted through information processing.

  16. Exposure knowledge and risk perception of RF EMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik eFreudenstein

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented study is part of the EU Project LEXNET (Low EMF Exposure Future Networks, which deals among other things with the issue of whether a reduction of the radiofrequency (RF electro-magnetic fields (EMF exposure will result in more acceptance of wireless communication networks in the public sphere.We assume that the effects of any reduction of EMF exposure will depend on the subjective link between exposure perception and risk perception. Therefore we evaluated respondents’ risk perceptions of different RF EMF sources and their subjective knowledge about various exposure characteristics with regard to their impact on potential health risks. The results show that participants are more concerned about base stations than about all other RF EMF sources. Concerning the subjective exposure knowledge the results suggest that people have a quite appropriate impact model. The question how RF EMF risk perception is actually affected by the knowledge about the various exposure characteristics was tested in a linear regression analysis. The regression indicates that these features - except distance - do influence people’s general RF EMF risk perceptions. In addition, we analyzed the effect of the quality of exposure knowledge on RF EMF risk perception of various sources. The results show a tendency that better exposure knowledge leads to higher risk perception, especially for mobile phones. The study provides empirical support for models of the relationships between exposure perception and risk perception. It is not the aim to extrapolate these findings to the whole population because the samples are not exactly representative for the general public in the participating countries.

  17. Volcanic risk perception in the Vesuvius population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberi, F.; Davis, M. S.; Isaia, R.; Nave, R.; Ricci, T.

    2008-05-01

    A volcanic risk perception study of the population residing near Vesuvius was carried out between May and July, 2006. A total of 3600 questionnaires with 45 items were distributed to students, their parents and the general population. The largest number of surveys (2812) were distributed in the 18 towns of the Red Zone, the area nearest to the volcano that is exposed to pyroclastic flow hazards and whose 550,000 residents, according to the civil protection emergency plan (in operation since 1995), should be evacuated in case of an eruption crisis. The remaining 788 questionnaires were distributed in 3 additional towns and 3 neighborhoods of Naples, all within the Yellow Zone, which is an area exposed to pyroclastic fallout hazards. A total of 2655 surveys were returned, resulting in a response rate of 73.7%. Results indicated that people have a realistic view of the risk: they think that an eruption is likely, that it will have serious consequences for their towns and for themselves and their families and they are quite worried about the threat. However, several other social, economic, and security-related issues were listed as a problem more often than Vesuvius. The study also demonstrated a widespread lack of knowledge about the emergency plan, a lack of confidence in the plan's success and in public officials and low feelings of self-efficacy. People want to be more deeply involved in public discussions with scientists and civil protection officials on emergency planning and individual preparedness measures. It is clear from the results that a major education-information effort is still needed to improve the public's knowledge, confidence and self-efficacy, thereby improving their collective and individual capability to positively face a future volcanic emergency.

  18. Nanotechnology Awareness, Opinions and Risk Perceptions among Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Nurettin; Ekli, Emel

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates awareness, factual knowledge, opinions, and risk perceptions of students from Turkish middle schools with regard to nanotechnology in a very general sense. The study was carried out among 1,396 middle school 6th, 7th, and 8th grade students. The students' perceptions of and opinions about nanotechnology were…

  19. Patients' perceptions of benefits and risks of complete denture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Bárbara Barbério; Dos Santos, Mateus Bertolini Fernandes; Marchini, Leonardo

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess patients' perceptions of benefits and risks concerning complete denture therapy. A secondary objective was to assess the influence of clinical and sociodemographic variables on patients' perceptions. The sample was composed of 104 volunteers who presented themselves for complete denture treatment at a dental school. The average age of the volunteers was 69.2 years (±) 9.3. Patient opinions concerning the benefits of complete denture therapy were recorded using a previously reported questionnaire. The answers were evaluated in three domains: (1) benefits (positive perceptions); (2) risks (negative perceptions); and (3) consequences of no treatment. The average time of use of the previous dentures was 20 years (SD ±12.9). Risk factors (negative perceptions) received lower scores by the patients, while the consequences of no treatment received higher scores. No association was found among evaluations of the previous dentures and educational level, marital status, and gender; however, patients' evaluation about their previous dentures was significantly different depending on age (p = 0.001) and previous dentures' time of use (p = 0.038). Patients presented a positive perception of complete denture therapy, and the risk factors (negative perceptions) received the lowest scores. Patient perception regarding complete denture therapy was not influenced by educational level, evaluation of the previous dentures, or marital status. © 2014 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  20. Nanotechnology Awareness, Opinions and Risk Perceptions among Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Nurettin; Ekli, Emel

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates awareness, factual knowledge, opinions, and risk perceptions of students from Turkish middle schools with regard to nanotechnology in a very general sense. The study was carried out among 1,396 middle school 6th, 7th, and 8th grade students. The students' perceptions of and opinions about nanotechnology were elicited…

  1. Nanotechnology Awareness, Opinions and Risk Perceptions among Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Nurettin; Ekli, Emel

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates awareness, factual knowledge, opinions, and risk perceptions of students from Turkish middle schools with regard to nanotechnology in a very general sense. The study was carried out among 1,396 middle school 6th, 7th, and 8th grade students. The students' perceptions of and opinions about nanotechnology were elicited…

  2. The globalization of risk and risk perception: why we need a new model of risk communication for vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Heidi; Brocard Paterson, Pauline; Erondu, Ngozi

    2012-11-01

    Risk communication and vaccines is complex and the nature of risk perception is changing, with perceptions converging, evolving and having impacts well beyond specific geographic localities and points in time, especially when amplified through the Internet and other modes of global communication. This article examines the globalization of risk perceptions and their impacts, including the example of measles and the globalization of measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine risk perceptions, and calls for a new, more holistic model of risk assessment, risk communication and risk mitigation, embedded in an ongoing process of risk management for vaccines and immunization programmes. It envisions risk communication as an ongoing process that includes trust-building strategies hand-in-hand with operational and policy strategies needed to mitigate and manage vaccine-related risks, as well as perceptions of risk.

  3. Improving influenza vaccination coverage among high-risk patients : a role for computer-supported prevention strategy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hak, E; van Essen, G A; Stalman, W A; de Melker, R A

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Worldwide, population-based influenza vaccination strategies are being developed to trace, immunize and monitor high-risk persons efficiently. Computerized prevention modules may facilitate such a strategy in general practice. OBJECTIVES: We established the applicability of a computerize

  4. Informal Risk Perceptions and Formal Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cayford, Jerry [Resources for the Future, Washington, DC (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Economists have argued persuasively that our goals are wider than just risk minimization, and that they include a prudent weighing of costs and benefits. This economic line of thought recognizes that our policy goals are complex. As we widen the range of goals we are willing to entertain, though, we need to check that the methods we customarily employ are appropriate for the tasks to which we customarily apply them. This paper examines some economic methods of risk assessment, in light of the question of what our policy goals are and should be. Once the question of goals is open, more complexities than just cost intrude: what the public wants and why begs to be addressed. This leads us to the controversial issue of public risk perceptions. We have now examined a number of procedures that experts use to make public policy decisions. Behind all these issues is always the question of social welfare: what actions can we take, what policies should we embrace, to make the world a better place? In many cases, the public and the experts disagree about what the right choice is. In the first section, we saw a possible defense of the experts based on democratic theory: the people's participation, and even their will, can be legitimately set aside in the pursuit of their true interests. If this defense is to work, a great deal of weight rests on the question of the people's interests and the competence and integrity of the experts' pursuit of it. But at the same time, social preferences are ill-defined, and so are not good candidates for rational actor theory. Both the prescriptive legitimacy claim and the very workings of formal theory we have seen to depend on informal, qualitative, political judgments. Unfortunately, we have also seen a steady pattern of expert reliance on technical procedures even when they were manifestly unsuited to the task. The experts seem so intent on excluding informal thought that they would prefer even a bad quantitative process to

  5. Nanotechnology risk perceptions and communication: emerging technologies, emerging challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidgeon, Nick; Harthorn, Barbara; Satterfield, Terre

    2011-11-01

    Nanotechnology involves the fabrication, manipulation, and control of materials at the atomic level and may also bring novel uncertainties and risks. Potential parallels with other controversial technologies mean there is a need to develop a comprehensive understanding of processes of public perception of nanotechnology uncertainties, risks, and benefits, alongside related communication issues. Study of perceptions, at so early a stage in the development trajectory of a technology, is probably unique in the risk perception and communication field. As such it also brings new methodological and conceptual challenges. These include: dealing with the inherent diversity of the nanotechnology field itself; the unfamiliar and intangible nature of the concept, with few analogies to anchor mental models or risk perceptions; and the ethical and value questions underlying many nanotechnology debates. Utilizing the lens of social amplification of risk, and drawing upon the various contributions to this special issue of Risk Analysis on Nanotechnology Risk Perceptions and Communication, nanotechnology may at present be an attenuated hazard. The generic idea of "upstream public engagement" for emerging technologies such as nanotechnology is also discussed, alongside its importance for future work with emerging technologies in the risk communication field. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  6. Risk factors for avian influenza virus contamination of live poultry markets in Zhejiang, China during the 2015–2016 human influenza season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Qimei; Cheng, Wei; Yu, Zhao; Ling, Feng; Mao, Haiyan; Chen, Enfu

    2017-01-01

    Live bird markets (LBMs), being a potential source of avian influenza virus, require effective environmental surveillance management. In our study, a total of 2865 environmental samples were collected from 292 LBMs during the 2015–2016 human influenza season from 10 cities in Zhejiang province, China. The samples were tested by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Field investigations were carried out to investigate probable risk factors. Of the environmental samples, 1519 (53.0%) were contaminated by A subtype. The highest prevalence of the H9 subtype was 30.2%, and the frequencies of the H5 and H7 subtype were 9.3% and 17.3%, respectively. Hangzhou and Jinhua cities were contaminated more seriously than the others. The prevalence of H5/H7/H9 in drinking water samples was highest, at 50.9%, and chopping board swabs ranked second, at 49.3%. Duration of sales per day, types of live poultry, LBM location and the number of live poultry were the main risk factors for environmental contamination, according to logistic regression analysis. In conclusion, LBMs in Zhejiang were contaminated by avian influenza. Our study has provided clues for avian influenza prevention and control during the human influenza season, especially in areas where LBMs are not closed. PMID:28256584

  7. Risk factors for avian influenza virus contamination of live poultry markets in Zhejiang, China during the 2015-2016 human influenza season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Qimei; Cheng, Wei; Yu, Zhao; Ling, Feng; Mao, Haiyan; Chen, Enfu

    2017-03-03

    Live bird markets (LBMs), being a potential source of avian influenza virus, require effective environmental surveillance management. In our study, a total of 2865 environmental samples were collected from 292 LBMs during the 2015-2016 human influenza season from 10 cities in Zhejiang province, China. The samples were tested by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Field investigations were carried out to investigate probable risk factors. Of the environmental samples, 1519 (53.0%) were contaminated by A subtype. The highest prevalence of the H9 subtype was 30.2%, and the frequencies of the H5 and H7 subtype were 9.3% and 17.3%, respectively. Hangzhou and Jinhua cities were contaminated more seriously than the others. The prevalence of H5/H7/H9 in drinking water samples was highest, at 50.9%, and chopping board swabs ranked second, at 49.3%. Duration of sales per day, types of live poultry, LBM location and the number of live poultry were the main risk factors for environmental contamination, according to logistic regression analysis. In conclusion, LBMs in Zhejiang were contaminated by avian influenza. Our study has provided clues for avian influenza prevention and control during the human influenza season, especially in areas where LBMs are not closed.

  8. Perceptions of vulnerability to a future outbreak: a study of horse managers affected by the first Australian equine influenza outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background A growing body of work shows the benefits of applying social cognitive behavioural theory to investigate infection control and biosecurity practices. Protection motivation theory has been used to predict protective health behaviours. The theory outlines that a perception of a lack of vulnerability to a disease contributes to a reduced threat appraisal, which results in poorer motivation, and is linked to poorer compliance with advised health protective behaviours. This study, conducted following the first-ever outbreak of equine influenza in Australia in 2007, identified factors associated with horse managers’ perceived vulnerability to a future equine influenza outbreak. Results Of the 200 respondents, 31.9% perceived themselves to be very vulnerable, 36.6% vulnerable and 31.4% not vulnerable to a future outbreak of equine influenza. Multivariable logistic regression modelling revealed that managers involved in horse racing and those on rural horse premises perceived themselves to have low levels of vulnerability. Managers of horse premises that experienced infection in their horses in 2007 and those seeking infection control information from specific sources reported increased levels of perceived vulnerability to a future outbreak. Conclusion Different groups across the horse industry perceived differing levels of vulnerability to a future outbreak. Increased vulnerability contributes to favourable infection control behaviour and hence these findings are important for understanding uptake of recommended infection control measures. Future biosecurity communication strategies should be delivered through information sources suitable for the horse racing and rural sectors. PMID:23902718

  9. Influence of anchoring on miscarriage risk perception associated with amniocentesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuccio, Regina; Hashmi, S Shahrukh; Mastrobattista, Joan; Noblin, Sarah Jane; Refuerzo, Jerrie; Smith, Janice L; Singletary, Claire N

    2015-04-01

    One factor women consider when deciding whether to pursue amniocentesis is the risk of miscarriage. People use mechanisms like anchoring, or the prior belief regarding the magnitude of risk, as a frame of reference for new information. This study aimed to determine a woman's perception of miscarriage risk associated with amniocentesis before and after genetic counseling and to determine what factors anchor a woman's perception of miscarriage risk. One hundred thirteen women being seen for prenatal genetic counseling and possible amniocentesis at six Houston clinics participated in the two-part anonymous survey. While most women (56.7 %) perceived the risk as low or average pre-counseling and indicated the numeric risk of amniocentesis as perception did not change after the genetic counseling session (60 %). Those who changed their feeling about the risk after counseling showed a decreased perception of the risk (p perception of the risk (p = 0.017) whereas those who declined amniocentesis were more likely to view the risk as high (p = 0.004). The only two anchoring factors that had an effect were having a friend or relative with a personal or family history of a genetic disorder (p = 0.001) and having a child already (p = 0.038); both were associated with a lower risk perception. The lack of significant factors may reflect the uniqueness of each patient's risk assessment framework and reinforces the importance of genetic counseling to elucidate individual concerns, particularly as non-invasive prenatal testing becomes more widely available and further complicates the prenatal testing landscape.

  10. Environmental risk perception from visual cues: the psychophysics of tornado risk perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewitt, Barry; Fischhoff, Baruch; Davis, Alexander; Broomell, Stephen B.

    2015-12-01

    Lay judgments of environmental risks are central to both immediate decisions (e.g., taking shelter from a storm) and long-term ones (e.g., building in locations subject to storm surges). Using methods from quantitative psychology, we provide a general approach to studying lay perceptions of environmental risks. As a first application of these methods, we investigate a setting where lay decisions have not taken full advantage of advances in natural science understanding: tornado forecasts in the US and Canada. Because official forecasts are imperfect, members of the public must often evaluate the risks on their own, by checking environmental cues (such as cloud formations) before deciding whether to take protective action. We study lay perceptions of cloud formations, demonstrating an approach that could be applied to other environmental judgments. We use signal detection theory to analyse how well people can distinguish tornadic from non-tornadic clouds, and multidimensional scaling to determine how people make these judgments. We find that participants (N = 400 recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk) have heuristics that generally serve them well, helping participants to separate tornadic from non-tornadic clouds, but which also lead them to misjudge the tornado risk of certain cloud types. The signal detection task revealed confusion regarding shelf clouds, mammatus clouds, and clouds with upper- and mid-level tornadic features, which the multidimensional scaling task suggested was the result of participants focusing on the darkness of the weather scene and the ease of discerning its features. We recommend procedures for training (e.g., for storm spotters) and communications (e.g., tornado warnings) that will reduce systematic misclassifications of tornadicity arising from observers’ reliance on otherwise useful heuristics.

  11. Climate change risk perception and communication: addressing a critical moment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidgeon, Nick

    2012-06-01

    Climate change is an increasingly salient issue for societies and policy-makers worldwide. It now raises fundamental interdisciplinary issues of risk and uncertainty analysis and communication. The growing scientific consensus over the anthropogenic causes of climate change appears to sit at odds with the increasing use of risk discourses in policy: for example, to aid in climate adaptation decision making. All of this points to a need for a fundamental revision of our conceptualization of what it is to do climate risk communication. This Special Collection comprises seven papers stimulated by a workshop on "Climate Risk Perceptions and Communication" held at Cumberland Lodge Windsor in 2010. Topics addressed include climate uncertainties, images and the media, communication and public engagement, uncertainty transfer in climate communication, the role of emotions, localization of hazard impacts, and longitudinal analyses of climate perceptions. Climate change risk perceptions and communication work is critical for future climate policy and decisions.

  12. [Accident risk perception in high-voltage electrical maintenance workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheli, M; Zanaletti, W; Giorgi, I; Argentero, P; Candura, S M

    2006-01-01

    Promoting safety at work represents a fundamental task for achieving improvement in the quality of working life and preventing accidental injuries at work. Nevertheless, over the last few decades injuries at work have continued to constitute a significant problem. The aim of this study was to examine accident risk perception in a sample of 45 subjects employed in the electricity sector and to relate their risk perception to personality characteristics, cognitive functioning, and personal and professional history. The instruments used were: "Cognitive Behavioral Assessment 2.0", the "Workplace safety questionnaire" (an Italian questionnaire on safety at work), and a battery of neuropsychological tests. Findings show that electricity (current variability) was perceived as the most serious risk factor, while the most frequent perceived risk factors for accidents were accidental falls, cuts and bruises. The subjects of our sample showed a good awareness of risk perception, and good mood response and augmented psychophysiological activation during accidental injuries.

  13. Prior storm experience moderates water surge perception and risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory D Webster

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: How accurately do people perceive extreme water speeds and how does their perception affect perceived risk? Prior research has focused on the characteristics of moving water that can reduce human stability or balance. The current research presents the first experiment on people's perceptions of risk and moving water at different speeds and depths. METHODS: Using a randomized within-person 2 (water depth: 0.45, 0.90 m ×3 (water speed: 0.4, 0.8, 1.2 m/s experiment, we immersed 76 people in moving water and asked them to estimate water speed and the risk they felt. RESULTS: Multilevel modeling showed that people increasingly overestimated water speeds as actual water speeds increased or as water depth increased. Water speed perceptions mediated the direct positive relationship between actual water speeds and perceptions of risk; the faster the moving water, the greater the perceived risk. Participants' prior experience with rip currents and tropical cyclones moderated the strength of the actual-perceived water speed relationship; consequently, mediation was stronger for people who had experienced no rip currents or fewer storms. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide a clearer understanding of water speed and risk perception, which may help communicate the risks associated with anticipated floods and tropical cyclones.

  14. Horse owners'/managers' perceptions about effectiveness of biosecurity measures based on their experiences during the 2007 equine influenza outbreak in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schemann, K; Firestone, S M; Taylor, M R; Toribio, J-A L M L; Ward, M P; Dhand, N K

    2012-09-15

    Following the first ever equine influenza outbreak in Australia in 2007, a study was conducted involving 200 horse owners and managers to determine their perceptions about effectiveness of biosecurity measures and the factors associated with these perceptions. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with horse owners/managers to obtain information about their perceptions of the effectiveness of biosecurity practices, their sources of information about infection control during the outbreak and their horse industry involvement. Two outcome variables were created from horse owners' responses to a 17-item question on the perceived effectiveness of various recommended equine influenza biosecurity measures: (a) a binary outcome variable (Low/High biosecurity effectiveness) and (b) a continuous outcome variable (the proportion of the 17 measures considered 'very effective'). These outcomes were used in binomial logistic and linear regression analyses, respectively, to determine factors associated with perceptions of biosecurity effectiveness. Variables with a p-value biosecurity measures were very effective for protecting their horses from equine influenza infection in the event of a future outbreak. Interviewees that were more likely to judge on-farm biosecurity measures as effective were those who received infection control information from a veterinarian during the outbreak, did not experience equine influenza infection in their horses, and those on small acreage premises (homes with horses on site). Greater levels of preparedness for a future equine influenza outbreak and greater interest in information about infection control were associated with a better perception about effectiveness of biosecurity measures. This study identified factors associated with horse owners' and managers' perception of effectiveness of biosecurity measures. These findings should be considered in the design of infection control programs.

  15. Surveying perceptions of landslide risk management in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Jessica Ka Yi; Eidsvig, Unni

    2016-04-01

    Enhanced precipitation due to climate change leads to increase in both frequency and intensity of landslides in Norway. A proactive approach to risk management is therefore required to significantly reduce the losses associated with landslides. Opinions and perceptions from practitioners on the performance of landslide risk management can provide insights on areas for improvement in the landslide risk management strategies in Norway. The Risk Management Index (RMI), proposed by Cardona et al. (2004), is a well-established method to measure perceptions of disaster management of selected actors holistically. The RMI is measured based on opinion questionnaires to technical staff, decision-makers, and stakeholders involved in all stages of risk reduction strategies. It is a composite index that considers a wide variety of strategies to manage risks, including structural and non-structural measures, acceptance strategies, disaster management, and risk transfer. The RMI method was modified to be implemented in landslide hazards and to fit with Norwegian conditions. An opinion survey was conducted in autumn 2015 to measure perceptions of landslide risk management in Norway. Perceptions were surveyed for two time periods: 2015 and 2050, and are based on national, county, and municipality levels. Based on the survey results, performance of landslide risk management at any administrative levels in Norway is perceived to improve from `significant' in 2015 to `significant' to `outstanding' in 2050. Knowledge and technology, climate, risk perceptions, and anthropogenic activities are mostly considered by respondents for their 2050 perceptions. Several aspects of landslide risk management in Norway can be improved. For example, landslide hazard evaluation and mapping should be prioritised in Norway. Upgrading, retrofitting, and reconstruction of assets may also be included in the landslide risk reduction strategies. In addition, there should be more focus on inter

  16. Information needs and risk perception as predictors of risk information seeking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Huurne, E.F.J.; Gutteling, Jan M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces a theoretical framework that describes the importance of public's information sufficiency, risk perception, and self-efficacy as predictors of intended risk information seeking behaviour. Based on theoretical assumptions, measurement instruments for relevant concepts were

  17. Danish GPs' perception of disease risk and benefit of prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexøe, Jørgen; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte; Kragstrup, Jakob

    2002-01-01

    interventions against risk factors when information about the effects is presented in terms of relative risk reductions rather than absolute risk reductions. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to gain better insight into how GPs perceive risk of disease, and how this perception is influenced by the way...... through medical treatment phrased in terms of either relative risk reduction, absolute risk reduction, number needed to treat or all of the aforementioned terms of risk reduction. The GPs were asked whether they would recommend medical treatment as primary prevention, knowing the case story and expected...

  18. Pregnancy, obesity and other risk factors for complications in influenza A(H1N1) pdm09 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Baño, Jesús; Paño-Pardo, José Ramón; Múñez Rubio, Elena; Segura Porta, Ferran

    2012-10-01

    Although influenza is usually a self-limited disease, patients who develop complications are at increased risk of hospitalization, intensive care unit admission and death. Since preventive and early therapeutic measures should be prioritized in higher risk patients, identification of the risk factors for severe infection is important from a public health perspective. Risk factors for complications in pandemics may show some differences with regard to seasonal influenza. During the influenza A(H1N1)pmd09 pandemic, although many cases occurred in younger adults, the risk factors identified for severe infections and complications were similar to those for seasonal influenza, including chronic respiratory, renal, liver, and heart diseases. Aged patients, although less frequently affected, were also at higher risk. Obesity, and particularly morbid obesity (>40 body mass index) has been noted as a significant risk factor for severe disease in the 2009 influenza pandemic. Some interesting recent studies provide insights into the biological reasons behind the poor outcomes in morbidly obese patients. In terms of pregnancy, the studies have shown contradictory results due to variations in methodology and medical care. However, it seems that pregnancy, particularly during the third trimester, increases the risk of complications, and that early antiviral treatment is associated with improved outcomes.

  19. To Risk or Not to Risk: Anxiety and the Calibration between Risk Perception and Danger Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notebaert, Lies; Masschelein, Stijn; Wright, Bridget; MacLeod, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety prepares an organism for dealing with threats by recruiting cognitive resources to process information about the threat, and by engaging physiological systems to prepare a response. Heightened trait anxiety is associated with biases in both these processes: high trait-anxious individuals tend to report heightened risk perceptions, and…

  20. The structure of risk perception. A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Arias, R. [Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain); Prades, A. [Ciemat, Madrid (Spain); Arranz, L. [Hospital Ramon y Cajal, Madrid (Spain); Macias, M.T. [CSIC, Madrid (Spain)

    2000-05-01

    Research by cognitive and social psychologists has demonstrated that when lay persons make estimates of risks they do not merely calculate in terms of probabilistic information. People tend to construe the risk in accordance with other schemata. The Psychometric Paradigm (Slovic et. al., 1980), found out two main dimensions in the perception of risk: the Dread and the Familiarity-Voluntariness factors. This paper presents some of the key findings of a comparative Latin-American study on radiological risk perception in the health area. The main objective is to check whether or not the Dread and the Familiarity-Voluntariness dimensions explain the perception of risk in this specific context. A questionnaire was distributed to outpatient samples from ten countries: Argentine, Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Uruguay, and Spain, thanks to the collaboration of the different National Radioprotection Societies of the above mentioned countries, and of other concerned professionals (in case they didn't have any association at the time). A list of 22 risks, including both radiological and non-radiological ones, were evaluated on two rating scales: possibility and seriousness. Factor analysis, both exploratory and confirmatory, as well as Multidimensional Scaling will be used for the data analysis. The paper will discuss the main cross-cultural differences with regard to the structure of risk perception. The peculiarities of the health related risks will be emphasised. (author)

  1. Affect, risk perception and future optimism after the tsunami disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Vastfjall

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental events such as natural disasters may influence the public's affective reactions and decisions. Shortly after the 2004 Tsunami disaster we assessed how affect elicited by thinking about this disaster influenced risk perceptions and future time perspective in Swedish undergraduates not directly affected by the disaster. An experimental manipulation was used to increase the salience of affect associated with the disaster. In Study 1 we found that participants reminded about the tsunami had a sense that their life was more finite and included fewer opportunities than participants in the control condition (not reminded about the tsunami. In Study 2 we found similar effects for risk perceptions. In addition, we showed that manipulations of ease-of-thought influenced the extent to which affect influenced these risk perceptions, with greater ease of thoughts being associated with greater perceived risks.

  2. The neural bases underlying social risk perception in purchase decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Nozawa, Takayuki; Sugiura, Motoaki; Yomogida, Yukihito; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Akimoto, Yoritaka; Shibuya, Satoru; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2014-05-01

    Social considerations significantly influence daily purchase decisions, and the perception of social risk (i.e., the anticipated disapproval of others) is crucial in dissuading consumers from making purchases. However, the neural basis for consumers' perception of social risk remains undiscovered, and this novel study clarifies the relevant neural processes. A total of 26 volunteers were scanned while they evaluated purchase intention of products (purchase intention task) and their anticipation of others' disapproval for possessing a product (social risk task), using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The fMRI data from the purchase intention task was used to identify the brain region associated with perception of social risk during purchase decision making by using subjective social risk ratings for a parametric modulation analysis. Furthermore, we aimed to explore if there was a difference between participants' purchase decisions and their explicit evaluations of social risk, with reference to the neural activity associated with social risk perception. For this, subjective social risk ratings were used for a parametric modulation analysis on fMRI data from the social risk task. Analysis of the purchase intention task revealed a significant positive correlation between ratings of social risk and activity in the anterior insula, an area of the brain that is known as part of the emotion-related network. Analysis of the social risk task revealed a significant positive correlation between ratings of social risk and activity in the temporal parietal junction and the medial prefrontal cortex, which are known as theory-of-mind regions. Our results suggest that the anterior insula processes consumers' social risk implicitly to prompt consumers not to buy socially unacceptable products, whereas ToM-related regions process such risk explicitly in considering the anticipated disapproval of others. These findings may prove helpful in understanding the mental

  3. Assessing the oseltamivir-induced resistance risk and implications for influenza infection control strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsieh NH

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nan-Hung Hsieh,1 Yi-Jun Lin,2 Ying-Fei Yang,2 Chung-Min Liao2 1Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA; 2Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan Background: Oseltamivir-resistant mutants with higher drug resistance rates and low transmission fitness costs have not accounted for influenza (subtype viruses. Predicting the impacts of neuraminidase inhibitor therapy on infection rates and transmission of drug-resistant viral strains requires further investigation.Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the potential risk of oseltamivir-induced resistance for influenza A (H1N1 and A (H3N2 viruses.Materials and methods: An immune-response-based virus dynamic model was used to best fit the oseltamivir-resistant A (H1N1 and A (H3N2 infection data. A probabilistic risk assessment model was developed by incorporating branching process-derived probability distribution of resistance to estimate oseltamivir-induced resistance risk.Results: Mutation rate and sensitive strain number were key determinants in assessing resistance risk. By increasing immune response, antiviral efficacy, and fitness cost, the spread of resistant strains for A (H1N1 and A (H3N2 were greatly decreased. Probability of resistance depends most strongly on the sensitive strain number described by a Poisson model. Risk of oseltamivir-induced resistance increased with increasing the mutation rate for A (H1N1 only. The ≥50% of resistance risk induced by A (H1N1 and A (H3N2 sensitive infected cells were 0.4 (95% CI: 0.28–0.43 and 0.95 (95% CI 0.93–0.99 at a mutation rate of 10−6, respectively. Antiviral drugs must be administrated within 1–1.5 days for A (H1N1 and 2–2.5 days for A (H3N2 virus infections to limit viral production.Conclusion: Probabilistic risk assessment of antiviral drug

  4. An Architecture for Agent’s Risk Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis ANTUNES

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the critical issues in agent’s risk decisions is perception, specially because it assumes a key role on the decision process. This subject has not received enough attention in agent’s modelling literature. Until now, the main focus has been on the decision making process of agent’s and consecutive interpretation of their behaviours. In this sense, risk literature needs to focus on perception. It is through this cognitive process that all relation between individuals and the risk event will be recognized. In this sense, agent’s make decisions about a specific type of risk by taking into account their own perception. To help understanding how perception works, it became necessary to design the mechanisms and consequent context dimensions involved on it. Following this objective, we defined an architecture explaining this cognitive process. An architecture for agents’ risk perception complemented by the associated factors of context dimensions, in order to understand this subjective process, that happen in our minds  .

  5. Social contagion of risk perceptions in environmental management networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muter, Bret A; Gore, Meredith L; Riley, Shawn J

    2013-08-01

    An important requisite for improving risk communication practice related to contentious environmental issues is having a better theoretical understanding of how risk perceptions function in real-world social systems. Our study applied Scherer and Cho's social network contagion theory of risk perception (SNCTRP) to cormorant management (a contentious environmental management issue) in the Great Lakes Basin to: (1) assess contagion effects on cormorant-related risk perceptions and individual factors believed to influence those perceptions and (2) explore the extent of social contagion in a full network (consisting of interactions between and among experts and laypeople) and three "isolated" models separating different types of interactions from the full network (i.e., expert-to-expert, layperson-to-layperson, and expert-to-layperson). We conducted interviews and administered questionnaires with experts (e.g., natural resource professionals) and laypeople (e.g., recreational and commercial anglers, business owners, bird enthusiasts) engaged in cormorant management in northern Lake Huron (n = 115). Our findings generally support the SNCTRP; however, the scope and scale of social contagion varied considerably based on the variables (e.g., individual risk perception factors), actors (i.e., experts or laypeople), and interactions of interest. Contagion effects were identified more frequently, and were stronger, in the models containing interactions between experts and laypeople than in those models containing only interactions among experts or laypeople.

  6. Interspecies interactions and potential Influenza A virus risk in small swine farms in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCune Sarah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recent avian influenza epidemic in Asia and the H1N1 pandemic demonstrated that influenza A viruses pose a threat to global public health. The animal origins of the viruses confirmed the potential for interspecies transmission. Swine are hypothesized to be prime "mixing vessels" due to the dual receptivity of their trachea to human and avian strains. Additionally, avian and human influenza viruses have previously been isolated in swine. Therefore, understanding interspecies contact on smallholder swine farms and its potential role in the transmission of pathogens such as influenza virus is very important. Methods This qualitative study aimed to determine swine-associated interspecies contacts in two coastal areas of Peru. Direct observations were conducted at both small-scale confined and low-investment swine farms (n = 36 and in open areas where swine freely range during the day (n = 4. Interviews were also conducted with key stakeholders in swine farming. Results In both locations, the intermingling of swine and domestic birds was common. An unexpected contact with avian species was that swine were fed poultry mortality in 6/20 of the farms in Chancay. Human-swine contacts were common, with a higher frequency on the confined farms. Mixed farming of swine with chickens or ducks was observed in 36% of all farms. Human-avian interactions were less frequent overall. Use of adequate biosecurity and hygiene practices by farmers was suboptimal at both locations. Conclusions Close human-animal interaction, frequent interspecies contacts and suboptimal biosecurity and hygiene practices pose significant risks of interspecies influenza virus transmission. Farmers in small-scale swine production systems constitute a high-risk population and need to be recognized as key in preventing interspecies pathogen transfer. A two-pronged prevention approach, which offers educational activities for swine farmers about sound hygiene and

  7. Correlates of overdose risk perception among illicit opioid users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Christopher; Santos, Glenn-Milo; Behar, Emily; Coffin, Philip O

    2016-02-01

    Opioid-related mortality continues to increase in the United States. The current study assesses demographic and behavioral predictors of perceived overdose risk among individuals who use opioids illicitly. By examining these correlates in the context of established overdose risk factors, we aim to assess whether characteristics and behaviors that have been associated with actual overdose risk translate to higher perception of risk. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 172 adult illicit opioid users in San Francisco, CA and used multivariable logistic regression to identify predictors of perception of high risk for opioid overdose. Age (aOR=0.96, 95%CI=0.93-1.00) and number of injection days per month (0.91, 0.86-0.97) were associated with a lower odds of perceived high overdose risk. There was no independent association between use of opioid analgesics, concurrent use of opioids and benzodiazepines or cocaine, or HIV status and overdose risk perception. Opioid users who injected more frequently and those who were older were less likely to perceive themselves as being at risk of overdose, notwithstanding that those who inject more are at higher risk of overdose and those who are older are at higher risk overdose mortality. In addition, despite being established overdose risk factors, there was no relationship between use of opioid analgesics, concurrent use of opioids and cocaine or benzodiazepines, or self-reported HIV status and overdose risk perception. These findings highlight key populations of opioid users and established risk factors that may merit focused attention as part of education-based overdose prevention and opioid management strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Food risks and consumer trust : European governance of Avian influenza

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krom, de M.P.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    During the 1990s, many European countries faced one or more food crises, such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), E. coli, dioxin residues, and foot-and-mouth disease. These crises were marked by a growing public recognition of food-related risks and the changing nature of these risks, and

  9. Food risks and consumer trust : European governance of Avian influenza

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krom, de M.P.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    During the 1990s, many European countries faced one or more food crises, such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), E. coli, dioxin residues, and foot-and-mouth disease. These crises were marked by a growing public recognition of food-related risks and the changing nature of these risks, and te

  10. Food risks and consumer trust : European governance of Avian influenza

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krom, de M.P.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    During the 1990s, many European countries faced one or more food crises, such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), E. coli, dioxin residues, and foot-and-mouth disease. These crises were marked by a growing public recognition of food-related risks and the changing nature of these risks, and te

  11. Mapping spatial patterns of people's risk perception of landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, Christian; Pedoth, Lydia; Elzbieta Stawinoga, Agnieszka; Schneiderbauer, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    The resilience of communities against natural hazards is largely influenced by how the individuals perceive risk. A good understanding of people's risk perception, awareness and hazard knowledge is crucial for developing and improving risk management and communication strategies between authorities and the affected population. A lot of research has been done in investigating the social aspects of risks to natural hazards by means of interviews or questionnaires. However, there is still a lack of research in the investigation of the influence of the spatial distance to a hazard event on peoples risk perception. While the spatial dimension of a natural hazard event is always assessed in works with a natural science approach, it is often neglected in works on social aspects of natural hazards. In the present study, we aimed to overcome these gaps by combining methods from different disciplines and assessing and mapping the spatial pattern of risk perception through multivariate statistical approaches based on empirical data from questionnaires. We will present results from a case study carried out in Badia, located in the Province of South Tyrol- Italy, where in December 2012 a landslide destroyed four residential buildings and led to the evacuation of 36 people. By means of questionnaires distributed to all adults living in the case study area we assessed people's risk perception and asked respondents to allocate their place of residence on a map of the case study area subdivided in 7 zones. Based on the data of the questionnaire results we developed a risk perception factor in order to express various assessed aspects linked to risk perception with one metric. We analyzed and mapped this factor according to the different zones reflecting the spatial distance to the event. Furthermore, a cluster analysis identified various risk behavior profiles within the population. We also investigated the spatial patterns of these risk profiles. We revealed that the residential

  12. Risk Perception and Terrorism: Applying the Psychometric Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkin, Clinton M.

    2006-01-01

    This article appeared in Homeland Security Affairs (July 2006), v.2 no.2 While expert risk analyses are based on calculations of probability and damage, public estimates of risk are more often based on qualitative factors. It is important to understand how the public, not just homeland security experts, perceive and react to the threat of terrorism. Risk perception research in general, and the psychometric paradigm in particular, offer a basis for empirically examining attitudes toward pot...

  13. Channel Contract Behavior: the Role of Risk Attitudes, Risk Perceptions, and Channel Members' Market Structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, J.M.E.; Wansink, B.

    2004-01-01

    By integrating elements of both marketing and finance, we show how risk influences channel contract behavior. We model risk behavior as the interaction between risk attitude and risk perception (IRAP). An analysis of the joint channel decisions of 208 producers, wholesalers, and processors provides

  14. Urban Residents’ Consumption Risk Perception about the Dairy Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoxia DONG; Zhemin LI; Shiwei XU; Chao ZHANG

    2016-01-01

    Based on the continuous downturn puzzle of Chinese dairy consumption,with the perception of consumption risk as a starting point,the paper deeply analyzes the main factors which cause the downturn of dairy product consumption of Chinese residents. The results show that the income elasticity of dairy consumption of Chinese urban residents is still notable; the occurrence of dairy safety incidents improves the perception of consumption risk,and accordingly it reduces the promoting role of income to the dairy consumption; the safety incident is the key factor which leads to the fall of dairy consumption of urban residents in recent years,and the perception of consumption risk of lower income group is clearly higher than that of higher income group.

  15. Risk perception of food safety by school food-handlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Maria Grossi; Monego, Estelamaris Tronco; Campos, Maria Raquel Hidalgo

    2014-03-01

    An exploratory descriptive study was conducted with a qualitative approach that used focus groups. The objective of this study was to identify the risk perception of food safety by school food-handlers. The results indicated that the food production process has certain inadequacies, including the weak risk perception by the food-handlers regarding the student's health. The students, the pedagogical team, and the principal contribute to this behaviour, which can affect the quality of the final product--the served meal. The social devaluation of the food-handlers is also discussed. It is necessary to improve the food-handlers' training sessions, with the purpose of modifying risk perception and to allow the school community to be involved in healthy and safe feeding practices.

  16. Mapping risk of avian influenza transmission at the interface of domestic poultry and wild birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, Diann J.; Hungerford, Laura L.; Erwin, R. Michael; Ottinger, Mary Ann; Takekawa, John Y.; Ellis, Erle C.

    2013-01-01

    Emergence of avian influenza viruses with high lethality to humans, such as the currently circulating highly pathogenic A(H5N1) (emerged in 1996) and A(H7N9) cause serious concern for the global economic and public health sectors. Understanding the spatial and temporal interface between wild and domestic populations, from which these viruses emerge, is fundamental to taking action. This information, however, is rarely considered in influenza risk models, partly due to a lack of data. We aim to identify areas of high transmission risk between domestic poultry and wild waterfowl in China, the epicenter of both viruses. Two levels of models were developed: one that predicts hotspots of novel virus emergence between domestic and wild birds, and one that incorporates H5N1 risk factors, for which input data exists. Models were produced at 1 and 30 km spatial resolution, and two temporal seasons. Patterns of risk varied between seasons with higher risk in the northeast, central-east, and western regions of China during spring and summer, and in the central and southeastern regions during winter. Monte-Carlo uncertainty analyses indicated varying levels of model confidence, with lowest errors in the densely populated regions of eastern and southern China. Applications and limitations of the models are discussed within.

  17. Risk perception and communication in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodoo, Alexander; Hugman, Bruce

    2012-11-01

    In this narrative review, a brief summary of theoretical approaches to risk perception is followed by an analysis of some of the special factors influencing risk perception and risk communication in sub-Saharan Africa. Examples of recent and emergent local medicines and vaccine controversies in several countries are given along with evidence and analysis of how they were managed. These demonstrate, among other things, the extent to which ethnic, religious and cultural issues influence popular perception, and the power of rumour and anecdote in shaping public opinion and official responses to events. Where safety monitoring systems exist, they are in their infancy, with limited capacity for data collection, credible scientific review, effective public communication and robust crisis management. Although increasing democratic freedoms, including less restricted media, and evolving health systems are addressing the challenges and give hope for further progress, there are still deep and intractable issues that inhibit transparent and effective risk communication and stand in the way of African populations comprehending medicines and their risks in safer and more balanced ways. Some proposals for future change and action are offered, including the pursuit of a deeper understanding of local and national values, assumptions and beliefs that drive risk perception; tailoring public health planning and communications to specifically-targeted regions and populations; strengthening of safety surveillance and data-collection systems; giving higher priority to medicines safety issues in healthcare training and public education.

  18. [Spanish adolescents' low perception of risk in alcohol consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Relinque, Cristian; Arroyo, Gonzalo Del Moral; Ferrer, Belén Martínez; Ochoa, Gonzalo Musitu

    2017-08-07

    According to recent studies, Spanish adolescents show low perception of risk in alcohol consumption. The current study aims to analyze the factors that favor this low perception based on the opinion of a group of 32 professional experts on adolescence, family, school, mass media, and local policies. A qualitative methodology was used, based on Grounded Theory, using information from 5 focus groups guided by semi-structured interviews. Twelve factors or subcategories were identified, grouped in 4 general categories: short-term risk, immediacy, and perception of invulnerability ("adolescent thinking" category); benevolent view of alcohol, normalization of consumption, and alcohol-entertainment binomial ("social norms" category); parents' habitual consumption, verbal/non-verbal inconsistency in parental model, risk-free consumption depicted in the mass media, consumption with positive results in the media ("social models" category); and excessive health content, long-term risk ("preventive discourse" category). After discussing the results in the context of the current scientific literature, the article offers various proposals for increasing risk perception in adolescents: stronger impact of contents on short-term risks of alcohol; educational strategies targeted to adolescents to include agents of socialization, especially parents; and policies centered on the substance and reduction of supply.

  19. Impact of home environment interventions on the risk of influenza-associated ARI in Andean children: observations from a prospective household-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J Budge

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Respiratory Infections in Andean Peruvian Children (RESPIRA-PERU study enrolled children who participated in a community-cluster randomized trial of improved stoves, solar water disinfection, and kitchen sinks (IHIP trial and children from additional Andean households. We quantified the burden of influenza-associated acute respiratory illness (ARI in this household-based cohort. METHODS: From May 2009 to September 2011, we conducted active weekly ARI surveillance in 892 children age <3 years, of whom 272 (30.5% had participated in the IHIP trial. We collected nasal swabs during ARI, tested for influenza and other respiratory viruses by RT-PCR, and determined influenza incidence and risk factors using mixed-effects regression models. RESULTS: The overall incidence of influenza-associated ARI was 36.6/100 child-years; incidence of influenza A, B, and C was 20.5, 8.7, and 5.2/100 child-years, respectively. Influenza C was associated with fewer days of subjective fever (median 1 vs. 2 and malaise (median 0 vs. 2 compared to influenza A. Non-influenza ARI also resulted in fewer days of fever and malaise, and fewer healthcare visits than influenza A-associated ARI. Influenza incidence varied by calendar year (80% occurred in the 2010 season and IHIP trial participation. Among households that participated in the IHIP trial, influenza-associated ARI incidence was significantly lower in intervention than in control households (RR 0.40, 95% CI: 0.20-0.82. CONCLUSIONS: Influenza burden is high among Andean children. ARI associated with influenza A and B had longer symptom duration and higher healthcare utilization than influenza C-associated ARI or non-influenza ARI. Environmental community interventions may reduce influenza morbidity.

  20. Impact of home environment interventions on the risk of influenza-associated ARI in Andean children: observations from a prospective household-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budge, Philip J; Griffin, Marie R; Edwards, Kathryn M; Williams, John V; Verastegui, Hector; Hartinger, Stella M; Mäusezahl, Daniel; Johnson, Monika; Klemenc, Jennifer M; Zhu, Yuwei; Gil, Ana I; Lanata, Claudio F; Grigalva, Carlos G

    2014-01-01

    The Respiratory Infections in Andean Peruvian Children (RESPIRA-PERU) study enrolled children who participated in a community-cluster randomized trial of improved stoves, solar water disinfection, and kitchen sinks (IHIP trial) and children from additional Andean households. We quantified the burden of influenza-associated acute respiratory illness (ARI) in this household-based cohort. From May 2009 to September 2011, we conducted active weekly ARI surveillance in 892 children age <3 years, of whom 272 (30.5%) had participated in the IHIP trial. We collected nasal swabs during ARI, tested for influenza and other respiratory viruses by RT-PCR, and determined influenza incidence and risk factors using mixed-effects regression models. The overall incidence of influenza-associated ARI was 36.6/100 child-years; incidence of influenza A, B, and C was 20.5, 8.7, and 5.2/100 child-years, respectively. Influenza C was associated with fewer days of subjective fever (median 1 vs. 2) and malaise (median 0 vs. 2) compared to influenza A. Non-influenza ARI also resulted in fewer days of fever and malaise, and fewer healthcare visits than influenza A-associated ARI. Influenza incidence varied by calendar year (80% occurred in the 2010 season) and IHIP trial participation. Among households that participated in the IHIP trial, influenza-associated ARI incidence was significantly lower in intervention than in control households (RR 0.40, 95% CI: 0.20-0.82). Influenza burden is high among Andean children. ARI associated with influenza A and B had longer symptom duration and higher healthcare utilization than influenza C-associated ARI or non-influenza ARI. Environmental community interventions may reduce influenza morbidity.

  1. Online versus conventional shopping: consumers' risk perception and regulatory focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Noort, Guda; Kerkhof, Peter; Fennis, Bob M

    2007-10-01

    In two experiments, the impact of shopping context on consumers' risk perceptions and regulatory focus was examined. We predicted that individuals perceive an online (vs. conventional) shopping environment as more risky and that an online shopping environment, by its risky nature, primes a prevention focus. The findings in Study 1 demonstrate these effects by using self-report measures for risk perception and prevention focus. In Study 2, we replicated these findings and demonstrated that the effect of an online shopping environment carries over to behavior in a domain unrelated to shopping.

  2. Safety and tolerability of cell culture-derived and egg-derived trivalent influenza vaccines in 3 to <18-year-old children and adolescents at risk of influenza-related complications

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Diez-Domingo; Maurizio de Martino; Jose Garcia-Sicilia Lopez; Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti; Giancarlo Icardi; Alberto Villani; David Moreno-Perez; María Méndez Hernández; Javier Álvarez Aldeán; Ahmed Abdul Mateen; Igwebuike Enweonye; Richard de Rooij; Richa Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Background: This descriptive, non-comparative, phase III study evaluated the safety and tolerability of cell culture-derived (TIVc) and egg-derived (TIV) seasonal influenza vaccines in children at risk of influenza-related complications. Methods: Four hundred and thirty subjects were randomized 2:1 to TIVc or TIV. Subjects aged 3 to

  3. Risk factors for poor immune response to influenza vaccination in elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.C.J. Bellei

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Influenza vaccination of elderly people is efficacious and cost effective for the prevention of influenza and its complications. Some studies have pointed out low immunogenicity in this group. Health status has been poorly investigated as a risk factor that may influence the immune response to influenza vaccine. We established an immunization response study of a highly-matched elderly population in a nursing home. One-hundred-twenty subjects of Ashkenazian origin had their vaccine-induced antibody response assessed. Good response was obtained in 30.8% (37/120, and 31.7% (38/120 did not react. A lack of good response was found to be associated with dementia (P=0.016 in a multivariate analysis. In addition to dementia, malnutrition was frequently observed among poor responders, suggesting that these factors should be considered in vaccination studies. Chemoprophylaxis in addition to vaccination for elderly presenting dementia should be considered, particularly for those people living nursing homes.

  4. Customer perceptions of agency risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, A; Chen, Y C

    1996-04-01

    A government agency commissioned a baseline study of how its customers view the agency's risk information. The 70% response rate to a mail survey allows analysis by subgroups representing customers' primary interests. Although this agency traditionally has been responsible for ensuring plant and animal health at the farm gate (or where imported), responses emphasized emerging customer concerns about the environment and human health. Customers think many risk communication activities are important, but that the agency is not especially effective in conducting those activities. Customers are moderately satisfied with much of the risk information they receive, although many have little contact from or interaction with the agency. Customers identified other sources they use, which suggest potentially effective channels for this agency's risk messages. The study provides a baseline for measuring change in the agency's risk communication effectiveness. It also can be a model when other organizations plan their own risk communication evaluations.

  5. Workers' perception of chemical risks: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambach, Ramona; Mairiaux, Philippe; François, Guido; Braeckman, Lutgart; Balsat, Alain; Van Hal, Guido; Vandoorne, Chantal; Van Royen, Paul; van Sprundel, Marc

    2011-02-01

    Workers' perceptions with respect to health and safety at work are rarely taken into account when considering the development of prevention programs. The aim of this study was to explore workers' perceptions of chemical risks at the workplace, in order to investigate the prerequisites for a workplace health program. A qualitative study was conducted involving seven focus groups of 5-10 participants (blue-collar workers) each. All groups were homogeneous in terms of sex, work status, language, and company membership. Results showed that several factors have an important influence on workers' perception of chemical risks. Workers assess risks by means of both sensory and empirical diagnosis and are concerned about the long-term health consequences. They perceive the threat of chemical risks as high. Despite this, they are resigned to accepting the risks. Existing formal sources of information are rarely consulted because they are judged to be difficult to understand and not user friendly. Instead, workers tend to obtain information from informal sources. Communication problems with and lack of trust in prevention advisers and hierarchy are frequently mentioned. Workers feel that their specific knowledge of their working conditions and their proposals for practical, cost-effective solutions to improve health and safety at the workplace are insufficiently taken into account. The use of focus groups yielded a useful insight into workers' perceptions of chemical risks. Our findings suggest that training programs for prevention advisers should include topics such as understanding of workers' perceptions, usefulness of a participatory approach, and communication and education skills. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  6. How investor perceptions drive actual trading and risk-taking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, A.O.I.; Post, T.; Pennings, J.M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent work in behavioral finance showed how investors' perceptions (i.e., return expectations, risk tolerance, and risk perception) affect hypothetical trading and risk-taking behavior. However, are such perceptions also capable of explaining actual trading and risk-taking behavior? To answer this

  7. Emotional Intelligence as a Predictor of Adolescent Risk Behavior Participation and Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaar, Nicole R.; Williams, John E.

    2012-01-01

    The current study aimed to investigate emotional intelligence as a predictor of adolescent risk participation and risk perception. While research has suggested that certain personality traits relate to adolescent risk behavior and perception, the extent to which emotional intelligence relates to risk behavior participation and perception is…

  8. How investor perceptions drive actual trading and risk-taking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, A.O.I.; Post, T.; Pennings, J.M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent work in behavioral finance showed how investors' perceptions (i.e., return expectations, risk tolerance, and risk perception) affect hypothetical trading and risk-taking behavior. However, are such perceptions also capable of explaining actual trading and risk-taking behavior? To answer this

  9. Risk Maps for the Spread of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boender, Gert Jan; Hagenaars, Thomas J; Bouma, Annemarie; Nodelijk, Gonnie; Elbers, Armin R. W; de Jong, Mart C. M; van Boven, Michiel

    2007-01-01

    Devastating epidemics of highly contagious animal diseases such as avian influenza, classical swine fever, and foot-and-mouth disease underline the need for improved understanding of the factors promoting the spread of these pathogens. Here the authors present a spatial analysis of the between-farm transmission of a highly pathogenic H7N7 avian influenza virus that caused a large epidemic in The Netherlands in 2003. The authors developed a method to estimate key parameters determining the spread of highly transmissible animal diseases between farms based on outbreak data. The method allows for the identification of high-risk areas for propagating spread in an epidemiologically underpinned manner. A central concept is the transmission kernel, which determines the probability of pathogen transmission from infected to uninfected farms as a function of interfarm distance. The authors show how an estimate of the transmission kernel naturally provides estimates of the critical farm density and local reproduction numbers, which allows one to evaluate the effectiveness of control strategies. For avian influenza, the analyses show that there are two poultry-dense areas in The Netherlands where epidemic spread is possible, and in which local control measures are unlikely to be able to halt an unfolding epidemic. In these regions an epidemic can only be brought to an end by the depletion of susceptible farms by infection or massive culling. The analyses provide an estimate of the spatial range over which highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses spread between farms, and emphasize that control measures aimed at controlling such outbreaks need to take into account the local density of farms. PMID:17447838

  10. Can risk and illness perceptions predict breast cancer worry in healthy women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Andrea; Groarke, AnnMarie

    2016-09-01

    Predictors of breast cancer worry in healthy women remain unclear. Healthy women less than 50 years (N = 857) completed measures of family history, anxiety, absolute and comparative risk perceptions, illness perceptions, and breast cancer worry. Regression analyses revealed that having a family history of breast cancer, greater anxiety, higher absolute risk perceptions and negative illness perceptions predicted 45 per cent of the variance in breast cancer worry. Risk perceptions also partially mediated the relationship between illness perceptions and worry. This study provides novel evidence that both illness and risk perceptions are predictors of breast cancer worry in younger women from the community.

  11. Perception of injury risk among amateur Muay Thai fighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strotmeyer, Stephen; Lystad, Reidar P

    2017-12-01

    Muay Thai is a style of kickboxing that allows full-contact blows to an unprotected head, torso and legs, and, as in any combat sport, there is an inherent risk of injury. Previous observational studies have shown there is a substantial risk of injury in competitive kickboxing. None of these studies, however, have investigated the potential role of psychological risk factors and, consequently, little is known about the perception of injury risk among these athletes. Notwithstanding the important role risk perception may play in the occurrence and prevention of sports injuries, there is very limited empirical data pertaining to athletes in full-contact combat sports such as Muay Thai. Because the development and successful implementation of effective injury prevention policies for combat sports are likely to benefit from an increased understanding of the perception of injury risk and sport safety attitudes and behavior of its participants, further study is warranted. Muay Thai fighters were invited to complete an online survey in which they rated the perceived risk of injury in a range of different sports, including Muay Thai kickboxing. Perceived comparative risk was obtained indirectly by subtracting perceived risk of injury to oneself from perceived risk of injury to a peer. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, comparison of means, and ordinal logistic regression. Contrary to the best available epidemiological evidence, Muay Thai fighters perceived the risk of injury in their own sport to be average and significantly lower than that in other collision and contact sports, including popular combat sports such as boxing and mixed martial arts. On average, Muay Thai fighters perceived their own risk injury to be significantly lower compared to their peers (p < 0.001). There appears to be a mismatch between injury risk perception and actual risk among Muay Thai fighters. Moreover, these athletes also exhibit a slight degree comparative optimism or

  12. Parents' Perception and their Decision on their Children's Vaccination Against Seasonal Influenza in Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei He; Qiu-Yan Liao; You-Qi Huang; Shuo Feng; Xiao-Ming Zhuang

    2015-01-01

    Background:Seasonal influenza epidemic occurs every year in Guangzhou,which can affect all age groups.Young children are the most susceptible targets.Parents can decide whether to vaccinate their children or not based on their own consideration in China.The aim of this study was to identify factors that are important for parental decisions on vaccinating their children against seasonal influenza based on a modified health belief model (HBM).Methods:A cross-sectional study was conducted in Guangzhou,China.A total of 335 parents who had at least on child aged between 6 months and 3 years were recruited from women and children's hospital in Guangzhou,China.Each eligible subject was invited for a face-to-face interview based on a standardized questionnaire.Results:Uptake of seasonal influenza within the preceding 12 months among the target children who aged between 6 months and 36 months was 47.7%.Around 62.4% parents indicated as being "likely/very likely" to take their children for seasonal influenza vaccination in the next 12 months.The hierarchical logistic regression model showed that children's age (odds ratio [OR] =2.59,95% confidence interval [CI]:1.44-4.68),social norm (OR =2.08,95% CI:1.06-4.06) and perceived control (OR =2.96,95% CI:1.60-5.50) were significantly and positively associated with children's vaccination uptake within the preceding 12 months; children with a history of taking seasonal influenza vaccine (OR =2.50,95% CI:1.31-4.76),perceived children's health status (OR =3.36,95% CI:1.68-6.74),worry/anxious about their children influenza infection (OR =2.31,95% CI:1.19-4.48) and perceived control (OR =3.21,95% CI:1.65-6.22) were positively association with parental intention to vaccinate their children in the future 12 months.However,anticipated more regret about taking children for the vaccination was associated with less likely to vaccinate children within the preceding 12 months (OR =0.21,95% CI:0.08-0.52).Conclusions

  13. Effects of risk communication on natural hazards on real estate owners' risk perception and risk behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchecker, M.; Maidl, E.

    2012-04-01

    In the last decade, in most of the European countries risk maps on natural hazards have been elaborated but there is so far little experience how to efficiently communicate these maps to the public. Recently, the public authorities of Zurich informed the owners of buildings located within the hazard zone on urban flood risks The owners received official letters containing information on potential danger, the probability of flood events, constructional safety measures, and guidelines for appropriate actions in case of an immediate flood. In the cover letter they were also encouraged to achieve more detailed information about the particular risks for their building using an online accessible risk map within a geographic information system (GIS). This risk communication campaign was based on the expectation that informing citizens increases their risk awareness and that citizens aware of risks are more likely to undertake actions to protect themselves and their property. There is, however, little empirical evidence that these expected outcomes can be achieved by written forms of risk communication. With this project we aim to find out to which degree a campaign of written risk communication can shape land owners risk perception and risk behaviour, and which other factors (e.g. trust in authorities, risk, risk zone category of the building) contributed to these outcomes... In collaboration with public authorities we conducted a survey among 1500 owners of buildings in the hazard zones in Zurich (50 % in blue zone, 50 % in yellow and yellow-white zone), that is 14% of all persons who were addressed by the authorities of the city. The standardized questionnaire comprises in particular items measuring respondents' evaluation of the virtual and physical information material, the time they spent for studying the information material, the dimensions of their risk perception, their acceptability of risks and their preparedness to implement constructional and other safety

  14. Do we see how they perceive risk? An integrated analysis of risk perception and its effect on workplace safety behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Nini; Wang, Xueqing; Griffin, Mark A; Wu, Chunlin; Liu, Bingsheng

    2017-06-20

    While risk perception is a key factor influencing safety behavior, the academia lacks specific attention to the ways that workers perceive risk, and thus little is known about the mechanisms through which different risk perceptions influence safety behavior. Most previous research in the workplace safety domain argues that people tend to perceive risk based on rational formulations of risk criticality. However, individuals' emotions can be also useful in understanding their perceptions. Therefore, this research employs an integrated analysis concerning the rational and emotional perspectives. Specifically, it was expected that the identified three rational ways of perceiving risk, i.e., perceived probability, severity, and negative utility, would influence the direct emotional risk perception. Furthermore, these four risk perceptions were all expected to positively but differently influence safety behavior. The hypotheses were tested using a sample of 120 construction workers. It was found that all the three rational risk perceptions significantly influenced workers' direct perception of risk that is mainly based on emotions. Furthermore, safety behavior among workers relied mainly on emotional perception but not rational calculations of risk. This research contributes to workplace safety research by highlighting the importance of integrating the emotional assessment of risk, especially when workers' risk perception and behavior are concerned. Suggested avenues for improving safety behavior through improvement in risk perception include being aware of the possibility of different ways of perceiving risk, promoting experience sharing and accident simulation, and uncovering risk information. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Whose reality counts? Factors affecting the perception of volcanic risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Katharine; Barclay, Jenni; Pidgeon, Nick

    2008-05-01

    Understanding how people perceive risk has become increasingly important for improving risk communication and reducing risk associated conflicts. This paper builds upon findings, methodologies and lessons learned from other fields to help understand differences between scientists, authorities and the public. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to analyse underlying attitudes and judgements during an ongoing volcanic crisis on the Caribbean Island of Montserrat. Specific differences between the public, authorities and scientists were found to have been responsible for misunderstandings and misinterpretations of information and roles, resulting in differing perceptions of acceptable risk. Difficulties in the articulation and understanding of uncertainties pertaining to the volcanic risk led to a situation in which the roles of hazard monitoring, risk communication and public protection became confused. In addition, social, economic and political forces were found to have distorted risk messages, leading to a public reliance upon informal information networks. The implications of these findings for volcanic risk management and communication are discussed.

  16. Public knowledge, risk perception, attitudes and practices in relation to the swine flu pandemic: A cross sectional questionnaire-based survey in Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam Janahi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Objectives: On 10 August 2010 World Health Organization announced that H1N1 influenza virus had moved into the post-pandemic period and hence it is time for countries to evaluate their response to the pandemic. Many studies have been done about the public perception and behaviours toward H1N1 influenza in the western world; however none has been done so far in the Gulf countries. Therefore, this paper investigates the general public knowledge, risk perception, preventive behaviours and practices during the H1N1 pandemic in Kingdom of Bahrain, as a model for the Gulf countries.Methods: The study was conducted using a cross-sectional questionnaire based survey on 771 Bahraini individuals.Results: Despite that the public showed strong adherence to the personal protective hygiene measures, most of them underestimated the threat of H1N1 pandemic as evident in their knowledge of previous pandemics or in their susceptibility perception. Furthermore, misconceptions and wrong beliefs were common, which indicates a gap in the knowledge and practice of the public. For example, most of the public were against taking H1N1 Influenza vaccine and their negative intension was based on the alleged side effects of the vaccine.Conclusion: This study provides a baseline for an ongoing surveillance programme to help the local authorities in improving their pandemic preparatory plans, especially the governmental educational and media campaign.

  17. Retraction: Risks of avian influenza (H5) in duck farms in the Ayeyarwaddy Delta Region, Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    The following article from Zoonoses and Public Health, 'Risks of Avian Influenza (H5) in Duck Farms in the Ayeyarwaddy Delta Region, Myanmar' by H. H. Win, C. C. Su Mon, K. M. Aung, K. N. Oo, K. Sunn, T. Htun, T. Tiensin, M. Maclean, W. Kalpravidh and A. Amonsin published online on 09 August 2013 on Wiley Online Library (http://onlinelibrary.wiley. com/) has been retracted by the journal Editor-in-Chief, Mary Torrence, the Authors, and Blackwell Verlag GmbH, as the article has already been published in the Myanmar Veterinary Journal [Myanmar Veterinary Journal 2013, Vol. 15, No. 1, 43–50].

  18. Criminal Victimization and Crime Risk Perception: A Multilevel Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Silvia; Roccato, Michele; Vieno, Alessio

    2013-01-01

    In a national sample of the Italian population, surveyed four times between October 2002 and January 2007 (N = 2,008), we performed a multilevel longitudinal study aimed at predicting the increase in crime risk perception as a function of three families of independent variables, respectively lying at the within individual level (direct…

  19. Food and Drug Administration Evaluation and Cigarette Smoking Risk Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Annette R.; Waters, Erika A.; Parascandola, Mark; Augustson, Erik M.; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Hyland, Andrew; Cummings, K. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the relationship between a belief about Food and Drug Administration (FDA) safety evaluation of cigarettes and smoking risk perceptions. Methods: A nationally representative, random-digit-dialed telephone survey of 1046 adult current cigarette smokers. Results: Smokers reporting that the FDA does not evaluate cigarettes for…

  20. Online versus Conventional Shopping: Consumers' Risk Perception and Regulatory Focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noort, Guda; Kerkhof, Peter; Fennis, B.M.

    2007-01-01

    In two experiments, the impact of shopping context on consumers' risk perceptions and regulatory focus was examined. We predicted that individuals perceive an online (vs. conventional) shopping environment as more risky and that an online shopping environment, by its risky nature, primes a

  1. Online versus Conventional Shopping: Consumers' Risk Perception and Regulatory Focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, van Guda; Kerkhof, Peter; Fennis, Bob M.

    2007-01-01

    In two experiments, the impact of shopping context on consumers' risk perceptions and regulatory focus was examined. We predicted that individuals perceive an online (vs. conventional) shopping environment as more risky and that an online shopping environment, by its risky nature, primes a preventio

  2. Health risk behaviours of high school learners and their perceptions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health risk behaviours of high school learners and their perceptions of preventive services offered by general ... Journal Home > Vol 51, No 3 (2009) > ... and the use of alcohol, tobacco and other drugs (ATOD use). ... Furthermore, the NAFCI initiative does not involve the general practitioner (GP) in the private sector.

  3. Online versus Conventional Shopping: Consumers' Risk Perception and Regulatory Focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noort, Guda; Kerkhof, Peter; Fennis, B.M.

    2007-01-01

    In two experiments, the impact of shopping context on consumers' risk perceptions and regulatory focus was examined. We predicted that individuals perceive an online (vs. conventional) shopping environment as more risky and that an online shopping environment, by its risky nature, primes a preventio

  4. A Research into Evaluation of Basketball Athletes' Risk Perception Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Ozgur

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the risk perception levels of Basketball athletes in Turkish League teams according to some variables. In this research the "general screening model," which is one of the descriptive screening methods, was used. While the population of the study consists of athletes actively engaged in the Turkish…

  5. Risk perception of festival audience: an application of psychometric paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Ahi, Julide Ceren

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceived risk level indicated by audiences for six contemporary hazards in an open door music festival, seeing as it is an overlooked issue in the literature. In order to measure the risk perceptions of participants The Psychometric Paradigm Model was utilized together with the perceived controllability arguments of Optimism Bias Theory. The data was collected from 230 participants of Landstreff 2013 Stavanger through online survey in coope...

  6. Buying Behavior Of Organic Vegetables Product The Effects Of Perceptions Of Quality And Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doni Purnama Alamsyah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Consumer behaviors are more important in the study of Green Marketing. This studied aims to examined buying behavior of consumers on organic products which is formed by perception of quality and perception of risk. The research model with three hypotheses to explained the relationship and influenced between the constructs that perception of quality perception of risk and purchase decision. In these empirical studied treated 366 respondents from customer of retail supermarkets in West Java - Indonesia. Results of research founded a significant negative relationship between perception of quality and perception of risk. As well as the behavior of perception of quality and the perception of risk has a significant influenced on purchase decision. Retail self-service needs to improve the perception of quality and reduces the risk perception of the consumers if purchasing behavior of consumers want increase on organic products. This studied was useful in raising awareness of self-service retail and consumers for environmentally friendly products.

  7. Risk Perception and Risk-Taking Behaviour during Adolescence: The Influence of Personality and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reniers, Renate L E P; Murphy, Laura; Lin, Ashleigh; Bartolomé, Sandra Para; Wood, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of personality characteristics and gender on adolescents' perception of risk and their risk-taking behaviour. Male and female participants (157 females: 116 males, aged 13-20) completed self-report measures on risk perception, risk-taking and personality. Male participants perceived behaviours as less risky, reportedly took more risks, were less sensitive to negative outcomes and less socially anxious than female participants. Path analysis identified a model in which age, behavioural inhibition and impulsiveness directly influenced risk perception, while age, social anxiety, impulsiveness, sensitivity to reward, behavioural inhibition and risk perception itself were directly or indirectly associated with risk-taking behaviour. Age and behavioural inhibition had direct relationships with social anxiety, and reward sensitivity was associated with impulsiveness. The model was representative for the whole sample and male and female groups separately. The observed relationship between age and social anxiety and the influence this may have on risk-taking behaviour could be key for reducing adolescent risk-taking behaviour. Even though adolescents may understand the riskiness of their behaviour and estimate their vulnerability to risk at a similar level to adults, factors such as anxiety regarding social situations, sensitivity to reward and impulsiveness may exert their influence and make these individuals prone to taking risks. If these associations are proven causal, these factors are, and will continue to be, important targets in prevention and intervention efforts.

  8. Methodology of organizational learning in risk management : A method of organizational risk perception by the stakeholders

    OpenAIRE

    Van Wassenhove, Wim; Wybo, Jean-Luc

    2003-01-01

    International audience; This article presents the development of a risk perception and identification method and a risk analysis method for organizational risks applied to the management of sanitary alerts by the General Directorate for Food (DGAl) and the Departmental Veterinary Services (DDSV) within the framework of organizational learning in risk management. For this, organizational risks in the system of sanitary control are defined. Then, the formalism of the experience reflection metho...

  9. Perception of risk of HIV and sexual risk behaviors among University students: implication for planning interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiferaw, Yitayal; Alemu, Abebe; Assefa, Abate; Tesfaye, Berihun; Gibermedhin, Etsegenet; Amare, Misiker

    2014-03-19

    The university environment offers great opportunity for HIV high-risk behaviors, including unsafe sex and multiple partnerships. Despite recently gained decline of the overall incidence of HIV infection, still significant proportion of youth population are at high risk of HIV infection. The aims of this study were to assess the perception of HIV risk and factors associated with risk perception among students at University of Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia. A cross sectional study was conducted between February and April, 2012 among health science students. A total of 384 students were involved in the study using stratified sampling technique. Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were employed. P-value perception of HIV risk were observed. Attention has to be given on the role of alcohol and/or drug abuse in the participation of HIV risk behaviors in the design and implementation of HIV prevention for university students.

  10. Risk perception and the economic crisis: a longitudinal study of the trajectory of perceived risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, William J; Peters, Ellen; Slovic, Paul

    2012-04-01

    We conducted a longitudinal survey of public response to the economic crisis to understand the trajectory of risk perception amidst an ongoing crisis. A nation-wide panel responded to seven surveys beginning in late September 2008 at the peak of the crisis and concluded in October 2009. At least 600 respondents participated in each survey, with 413 completing all seven surveys. Our online survey focused on perceptions of risk (savings, investments, retirement, job), negative emotions toward the financial crisis (sadness, anxiety, fear, anger, worry, stress), confidence in national leaders to manage the crisis (President Obama, Congress, Treasury Secretary, business leaders), and belief in one's ability to realize personal objectives despite the crisis. We employed latent growth curve modeling to analyze change in risk perception throughout the crisis. Our results suggest that, in general, people's perceptions of risk appear to decrease most rapidly during the initial phase of a crisis and then begin to level off. Negative emotion about the crisis was the most predictive of increased risk perception, supporting the notion of risk as feelings. Belief in one's ability to realize personal objectives was also predictive. Confidence in national leaders, however, was not predictive of perceived risk. Finally, our results demonstrate that groups may experience a crisis differently depending on a combination of personal characteristics such as gender, income, numeracy, and political attitude. Risk management and communication should work in sync with these mechanisms and differences across groups.

  11. Quantifying the risk of pandemic influenza virus evolution by mutation and re-assortment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reperant, Leslie A; Grenfell, Bryan T; Osterhaus, Albert D M E

    2015-12-01

    Large outbreaks of zoonotic influenza A virus (IAV) infections may presage an influenza pandemic. However, the likelihood that an airborne-transmissible variant evolves upon zoonotic infection or co-infection with zoonotic and seasonal IAVs remains poorly understood, as does the relative importance of accumulating mutations versus re-assortment in this process. Using discrete-time probabilistic models, we determined quantitative probability ranges that transmissible variants with 1-5 mutations and transmissible re-assortants evolve after a given number of zoonotic IAV infections. The systematic exploration of a large population of model parameter values was designed to account for uncertainty and variability in influenza virus infection, epidemiological and evolutionary processes. The models suggested that immunocompromised individuals are at high risk of generating IAV variants with pandemic potential by accumulation of mutations. Yet, both immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals could generate high viral loads of single and double mutants, which may facilitate their onward transmission and the subsequent accumulation of additional 1-2 mutations in newly-infected individuals. This may result in the evolution of a full transmissible genotype along short chains of contact transmission. Although co-infection with zoonotic and seasonal IAVs was shown to be a rare event, it consistently resulted in high viral loads of re-assortants, which may facilitate their onward transmission among humans. The prevention or limitation of zoonotic IAV infection in immunocompromised and contact individuals, including health care workers, as well as vaccination against seasonal IAVs-limiting the risk of co-infection-should be considered fundamental tools to thwart the evolution of a novel pandemic IAV by accumulation of mutations and re-assortment.

  12. Parents’ and students’ perceptions of college alcohol risk: The role of parental risk perception in intentions to communicate about alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    Napper, Lucy E.; Grimaldi, Elizabeth M.; LaBrie, Joseph W.

    2014-01-01

    The current study aims to examine discrepancies in parents’ and college students’ perceptions of alcohol risk and the role of perceived risk in predicting parents’ intentions to discuss alcohol with their child. In total, 246 college student-parent dyads (56.1% female students, 77.2% mothers) were recruited from a mid-size university. Participants completed measures of absolute likelihood, comparative likelihood, and severity of alcohol consequences. In comparison to students, parents perceiv...

  13. Parental perceptions of school-based influenza immunisation in Ontario, Canada: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    MacDougall, Donna; Crowe, Lois; Jennifer A Pereira; Kwong, Jeffrey C.; Quach, Susan; Wormsbecker, Anne E; Ramsay, Hilary; Salvadori, Marina I; Russell, Margaret L; ,

    2014-01-01

    Objective To understand the perspectives of Ontario parents regarding the advantages and disadvantages of adding influenza immunisation to the currently existing Ontario school-based immunisation programmes. Design Descriptive qualitative study. Participants Parents of school-age children in Ontario, Canada, who were recruited using a variety of electronic strategies (social media, emails and media releases), and identified as eligible (Ontario resident, parent of one or more school-age child...

  14. Why do I need it? I am not at risk! Public perceptions towards the pandemic (H1N1 2009 vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Kirsten F

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background On the 30th September 2009, the pandemic (H1N1 2009 influenza vaccine was made available to adults and children aged 10 years and over, in Australia. Acceptance of a novel vaccine is influenced by perceptions of risk including risk of infection, risk of death or severe illness and risk of serious vaccine side-effects. We surveyed a sample of residents from Sydney, Australia to ascertain their risk perception, attitudes towards the pandemic and willingness to accept the pandemic (H1N1 2009 influenza vaccine. Methods We sampled residents using a cross-sectional intercept design during the WHO Phase 6. Members of the public were approached in shopping and pedestrian malls to undertake the survey during September and October 2009. The survey measured perceived risk, seriousness of disease, recent behavioural changes, likely acceptance of the pandemic (H1N1 2009 vaccine and issues relating to uptake and perceived safety. Results Of the 627 respondents, the majority felt that they had a "very low to low" (332/627, 52.9% risk of acquiring H1N1. 24.5% (154/627 of respondents believed that the disease would "very seriously or extremely" affect their health. Nearly half (305/627, 48.6% reported that in response to the "swine flu" outbreak they had undertaken one or more of the investigated behavioural changes. Overall, the self-reported likelihood of accepting vaccination against novel H1N1 was 54.7% (343/627. Conclusions While, most participants did not believe they were at high risk of acquiring pandemic H1N1 2009, over half of the sample indicated that they would accept the vaccine. Participants who were vaccinated against the seasonal influenza were more likely to receive the H1N1 vaccine. Concerns about safety, the possibility of side effects and the vaccine development process need to be addressed.

  15. How Investor Perceptions Drive Actual Trading and Risk-Taking Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, A.O.I.; Post, T.; Pennings, J.M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent work in behavioral finance showed how investors’ perceptions (i.e., return expectations, risk tolerance, and risk perception) affect hypothetical trading and risk-taking behavior. However, are such perceptions also capable of explaining actual trading and risktaking behavior? To answer this q

  16. How Investor Perceptions Drive Actual Trading and Risk-Taking Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, A.O.I.; Post, T.; Pennings, J.M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent work in behavioral finance showed how investors’ perceptions (i.e., return expectations, risk tolerance, and risk perception) affect hypothetical trading and risk-taking behavior. However, are such perceptions also capable of explaining actual trading and risktaking behavior? To answer this

  17. Factors Influencing Cancer Risk Perception in High Risk Populations: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilburt Jon C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients at higher than average risk of heritable cancer may process risk information differently than the general population. However, little is known about clinical, demographic, or psychosocial predictors that may impact risk perception in these groups. The objective of this study was to characterize factors associated with perceived risk of developing cancer in groups at high risk for cancer based on genetics or family history. Methods We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, Ovid PsycInfo, and Scopus from inception through April 2009 for English-language, original investigations in humans using core concepts of "risk" and "cancer." We abstracted key information and then further restricted articles dealing with perceived risk of developing cancer due to inherited risk. Results Of 1028 titles identified, 53 articles met our criteria. Most (92% used an observational design and focused on women (70% with a family history of or contemplating genetic testing for breast cancer. Of the 53 studies, 36 focused on patients who had not had genetic testing for cancer risk, 17 included studies of patients who had undergone genetic testing for cancer risk. Family history of cancer, previous prophylactic tests and treatments, and younger age were associated with cancer risk perception. In addition, beliefs about the preventability and severity of cancer, personality factors such as "monitoring" personality, the ability to process numerical information, as well as distress/worry also were associated with cancer risk perception. Few studies addressed non-breast cancer or risk perception in specific demographic groups (e.g. elderly or minority groups and few employed theory-driven analytic strategies to decipher interrelationships of factors. Conclusions Several factors influence cancer risk perception in patients at elevated risk for cancer. The science of characterizing and improving risk perception in cancer for high risk groups, although

  18. Survey of Australian equine veterinarians evaluating their biosecurity training and perceptions and opinions about the management of the 2007 equine influenza outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schemann, K; Toribio, J-A L M L; Taylor, M R; Ward, M P; Dhand, N K

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the level of biosecurity training among Australian equine veterinarians and to assess their perceptions of biosecurity and infectious disease risk and their opinions about the management of the 2007 equine influenza (EI) outbreak. Cross-sectional study. A survey was conducted among equine veterinarians attending the 2010 annual conference of the Equine Veterinarians Australia (EVA) in New South Wales, Australia. Data were collected using a self-completed questionnaire and analysed using Fisher's exact tests to assess veterinarians' levels of biosecurity training, their perceptions of infectious disease and views regarding the 2007 EI outbreak management. A total of 46 of the 196 (23.5%) attending veterinarians completed the questionnaire. Significantly greater proportions of recently graduated veterinarians received theoretical and practical biosecurity training at veterinary schools than their older counterparts. The majority of respondents considered their likelihood of spreading infectious diseases from one client's horse to another to be low (84%). More than half (58%) of the veterinarians considered that hand-washing/wearing gloves was very effective in preventing disease spread. However, around one-quarter (27%) reported a degree of reservation about the practicality of performing general biosecurity practices in everyday working life. Overall, veterinarians were satisfied with the EI outbreak response, but had mixed opinions about the control measures and communications used. Levels of biosecurity training and the frequency of biosecurity advice provided by veterinarians have increased over time, although the practicality of biosecurity practices is a concern for some veterinarians. Further investigations of the barriers to the use of various biosecurity practices are required in order to inform training programs. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  19. The development of poultry farms risk assessment tool for avian influenza in Imo State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obinani, Chidi; Onweagba, Anthony; Lloyd, Linda; Ross, Micheal; Troisi, Cathrine; Ohazurika, Nathaniel; Chukwu, Andrew O

    2014-09-01

    This study validated the content of a questionnaire that will be used for risk stratification in poultry farms in Imo State, Nigeria. The questionnaire was developed from avian influenza risk domains peculiar to poultry farms in Nigeria. The questionnaire was verified and modified by a group of five experts with research interest in Nigeria's poultry industry and avian influenza prevention. The questionnaire was distributed to 30 poultry farms selected from Imo State, Nigeria. The same poultry farms were visited one week after they completed the questionnaires for on-site observation. Agreement between survey and observation results was analyzed using the kappa statistic and rated as poor, fair, moderate, substantial, or nearly perfect; internal consistency of the survey was also computed. The mean kappa statistic for agreement between the survey and observations (validation) ranged from 0.06 to 1, poor to nearly perfect agreement. Eight questions showed poor agreement, four had a fair agreement, two items had moderate agreement, nineteen survey questions had substantial agreement and ten questions had nearly perfect agreement. Out of the 43 items in the questionnaire, 32 items were considered validated with coefficient alpha >0.70.

  20. How is the older road users’ perception of risk constructed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siren, Anu Kristiina; Kjær, Marlene Rishøj

    2011-01-01

    with Danish senior citizens. The material is analysed with qualitative methods. The findings of the study indicate that older persons in this study tended to perceive risk as something external (e.g., bad infrastructure) that can sometimes be managed by internal means (e.g., skills). The results also indicate...... to external factors. The present study offers a better understanding of the way older drivers perceive traffic risks and gives methodological openings for studying the risk perception and mobility choices of older people....

  1. Environmental risks: scientific concepts and social perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vineis, P

    1995-06-01

    Using the example of air pollution, I criticize a restricted utilitarian view of environmental risks. It is likely that damage to health due to environmental pollution in Western countries is relatively modest in quantitative terms (especially when considering cancer and comparing such damage to the effects of some life-style exposures). However, a strictly quantitative approach, which ranks priorities according to the burden of disease attributable to single causes, is questionable because it does not consider such aspects as inequalities in the distribution of risks. Secondly, the ability of epidemiological research to identify some health effects is limited. Third, the environment has symbolic and aesthetic components that overcome a strict evaluation of damage based on the impairment of human health. It is not acceptable that priorities be set just balancing the burden of disease caused by pollution in the environment against economic constraints. As an example of a computation that inherently includes economic analysis, I refer to the proposal of an estimator of mortality in coal mining, i.e., a rate which puts deaths in the numerator and tons of coal extracted in the denominator. According to this estimator, mortality due to accidents decreased from 1.15 to 0.42 in the period 1950-1970 in the United States, for each million tons of coal extracted. However, considering the steep decline in the workforce in the same period, the traditional mortality rate (deaths over persons-time) actually increased. The proposal of a measure of mortality based on the amount of coal extracted is just one example of the attempts to influence decisions by including an economic element (productivity) in risk assessment. This paper has three purposes: One, to describe empirical research concerning the health effects of environmental pollutants; two, to discuss the scientific principles and methods used in the identification of environmental hazards; and three, to critically discuss

  2. Risk factors for avian influenza and Newcastle disease in smallholder farming systems, Madagascar highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasamoelina Andriamanivo, H; Lancelot, R; Maminiaina, O F; Rakotondrafara, T F; Jourdan, M; Renard, J F; Gil, P; Servan de Almeida, R; Albina, E; Martinez, D; Tillard, E; Rakotondravao, R; Chevalier, V

    2012-04-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) and avian influenza (AI) are issues of interest to avian producers in Madagascar. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is the major constraint for village aviculture, and avian influenza viruses type A (AIAV) are known to circulate in bird flocks. This study aims at classifying smallholder poultry farms, according to the combination of risk factors potentially associated with NDV and AIAV transmission and to assess the level of infection for each farm class. Two study sites, Lake Alaotra and Grand Antananarivo, were chosen with respect to their differences in terms of agro-ecological features and poultry productions. A typology survey involving 526 farms was performed to identify possible risk factors for (i) within-village, and (ii) between-village virus transmission. A cross-sectional serological study was also carried out in 270 farms to assess sero-prevalences of NDV and AIAV for each farm class and the link between them and risk factor patterns. For within-village transmission, four classes of farms were identified in Grand Antananarivo and five in Lake Alaotra. For between-village virus transmission, four classes of farms were identified for each site. In both sites, NDV sero-prevalence was higher than for AIAV. There was no evidence of the presence of H5 or H7 subtypes of AIAV. Sero-prevalences were significantly higher in Lake Alaotra than in Grand Antananarivo for both viruses (OR=2.4, p=0.02 for NDV, and OR=9.6, prisk of virus transmission between the different farm classes. In Grand Antananarivo, farm visits by collectors or animal health workers, and farm contacts with several markets were identified as potential risk factors for NDV transmission. Further studies are needed to identify the circulating virus genotypes, model their transmission risk, and provide adapted control measures.

  3. Technological stigmatism, risk perception, and truth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrick, B.John

    1998-01-01

    Technological stigmas can be a source of confusion and misunderstandings of the effect on public health and safety of technological activities. The result can be a gross waste of national resources to fix the 'stigma' rather than the real problem. Fueling technological stigmas has become a visible activity, especially among non-technical professionals. Further, it is not clear that these same critics are accountable for their influence on policy and practices that may adversely affect people's lives and financial resources. Their bad news of alleged high risk and incompetent technologists is more appealing to the press than the more technical and apparently boring news of finding engineering solutions to real problems. The issue of technological stigma is especially visible in relation to the environmental and safety effects of the nuclear and chemical industries. These industries are in an extremely defensive position because the stigmatizes put much more emphasis on their risks than on their benefits to society. There is the genuine threat of the denial of important technologies in the nuclear and chemical fields and a resulting loss of lives and resources. The actions required to better tell the whole cost-risk-benefit story of specific technologies have to come from all of the groups involved. The critics and stigmatizers need to be more accountable for their assertions, the technologists need to involve the public more in their consideration of technological solutions to environmental and safety issues, and the press needs to present all of the facts rather than just the sensational or 'outrage' part of the story.

  4. Weight perceptions of parents with children at risk for diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Eva M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The growing epidemic of obesity and diabetes among African American, Latino American, and Native American children in the United States has led to increasing focus on strategies for prevention. However, little is known about the perceptions toward weight, nutrition, and physical activity among these youth. This pilot study explored the perceptions of body weight among overweight and obese children and their parents. Results Thirty eight children, ages 8-16 years who were enrolled in a diabetes prevention study were surveyed to assess their perception of their weight. Nearly all (84% of the children were obese. When asked whether they considered themselves to be overweight, African-American children were less likely to report that they were overweight than other children (33% vs. 80% of other children, p = 0.01. The parents of these children (n = 29 were also surveyed to assess their perception of their child's weight. The parents of two-thirds (65% of the children reported that the child was overweight, while the rest reported their child was underweight or the right weight. African-American parents were less likely to report that their child's weight was unhealthy compared to other parents (46% vs. 77%, p = 0.069. Conclusions This study's findings indicate that future intervention efforts should assess children's and parents' awareness of obesity and diabetes risk and these factors should be considered when developing prevention interventions for families with youth at risk for diabetes in underserved communities.

  5. Risk Perception and the Psychology of Natural Hazard Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, K. J.; Weber, E. U.

    2014-12-01

    In the preparedness phase of the disaster cycle, willingness to invest resources in prevention and mitigation doesn't depend only on quantitative judgments of the probability of a disaster. People also evaluate the risks of situations in qualitative ways. Psychological studies of risk perception have shown that risk attitudes toward everyday technologies and activities (e.g., electric power, air travel, smoking) can be mapped onto two orthogonal dimensions: how unknown the risks seem, and how dread or severe they feel. Previously, this psychometric approach to risk perception has focused mostly on man-made risks (e.g., Fischhoff et al. 1978, Slovic 1987). In this paper we examine how natural hazards fit into the established unknown/dread risk space. Hazards that are high on the unknown dimension of risk tend to be perceived as having effects that are unknown to science and to the exposed, uncontrollable, and new. Hazards that rank high on the dread/severity dimension are seen as immediate, catastrophic, highly dreaded on a gut level, new, and likely to be fatal. Perceived risk tends to be highest for hazards that are both high on the dread dimension and low on the unknown dimension. We find that weather-related hazards rank lowest on both dimensions: blizzards, heat waves, hailstorms, fog, and ice storms are all feel very known and not particularly dread. The exception for this group is hurricanes and tornadoes, which are viewed as more similar to geophysical hazards and mass movements: high on dread, though not particularly unknown. Two notable outliers are climate change and sea-level rise, which are both considered very unknown (higher than any other natural hazard save sinkholes), and not at all dread (less dread even than fog and dust storms). But when compared with perceptions of technological hazards, nearly every natural hazard ranks as more dread than any technology or activity, including nuclear power. Man-made hazards fall with technologies, rather than

  6. Time will tell: changes in risk perception and the processing of risk information about the Y2K-risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuttschreuter, M.; Gutteling, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    A field study was performed on the perceived risks related to the Y2K-problem. Two cross-sectional surveys were executed to study whether risk perception regarding the Y2K-problem, the perceived societal and personal capabilities to mitigate the risks, the attitude toward computers and the attitude

  7. Rural Community Disaster Preparedness and Risk Perception in Trujillo, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Matthew; Grahmann, Bridget; Fillmore, Ariel; Benson, L Scott

    2017-08-01

    Introduction Disasters will continue to occur throughout the world and it is the responsibility of the government, health care systems, and communities to adequately prepare for potential catastrophic scenarios. Unfortunately, low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs) are especially vulnerable following a disaster. By understanding disaster preparedness and risk perception, interventions can be developed to improve community preparedness and avoid unnecessary mortality and morbidity following a natural disaster. Problem The purpose of this study was to assess disaster preparedness and risk perception in communities surrounding Trujillo, Peru. After designing a novel disaster preparedness and risk perception survey based on guidelines from the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC; Geneva, Switzerland), investigators performed a cross-sectional survey of potentially vulnerable communities surrounding Trujillo, Peru. Data were entered and analyzed utilizing the Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap; Harvard Catalyst; Boston, Massachusetts USA) database. A total of 230 study participants were surveyed, composed of 37% males, 63% females, with ages ranging from 18-85 years old. Those surveyed who had previously experienced a disaster (41%) had a higher perception of future disaster occurrence and potential disaster impact on their community. Overall, the study participants consistently perceived that earthquakes and infection had the highest potential impact of all disasters. Twenty-six percent of participants had an emergency supply of food, 24% had an emergency water plan, 24% had a first aid kit at home, and only 20% of the study participants had an established family evacuation plan. Natural and man-made disasters will remain a threat to the safety and health of communities in all parts of the world, especially within vulnerable communities in LMICs; however, little research has been done to identify disaster perception

  8. Risk perception of nuclear energy and the effect of information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Caroline

    2000-08-01

    Results from 4 studies are reported. A mixture of survey, experimental and quasi-experimental designs and a variety of samples (undergraduates, postgraduates and graduates of Nottingham University, visitors to Sellafield and a random national UK sample) were used to examine risk perceptions of nuclear energy. The roles of risk, benefit, preference, knowledge, control, trust, attitudes, intentions to act and personality, in relation to nuclear energy, were examined. A survey study examined and explored the above-mentioned variables. Then experimental and quasi-experimental studies were devised using a BNFL video advert, a BNFL written newspaper advert and BNFL's Sellafield Visitors' Centre (SVC), to test the effectiveness of information on these variables. Through pre-post experimental and quasi-experimental studies, it was shown that levels of knowledge could be increased through information. This increase was also seen to be sustained over time, especially when people engaged in their learning environment (reading a newspaper or going to Sellafield). Regarding levels of knowledge, passively watching a video had a significant but very small effect. Changes in attitudes were also recorded, although these were only sustained over time for the Visitors' Centre. Concerning the other variables in question, changes in perceived risk, perceived benefit and preference were also recorded for the samples, although these results either could not be attributed to the different types of information, were not sustained or were no different to observations in the control groups. Some changes were recorded for aspects of control in the advert study although none were seen in the SVC study. No changes were found in trust for any of the different types of information. The main, consistent finding, was that sustained changes were recorded for knowledge and attitudes. These were both found to be linked to many of the variables under investigation, including risk

  9. Psychological aspects of food safety risk perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim

    Most consumers are not microbiologists and spend little time worrying about food safety. Evolution and civilisation have provided us with abilities to avoid the more serious risks, and in practice we tend to use these abilities quite well. However, there are certain conditions under which...... problematic food safety behaviours are likely to occur. The presentation will begin with an overview of the relevant psychological mechanisms that regulate approach and avoidance behaviour with respect to potentially hazardous foods. Learned representations of familiarity and reward value act as safety......: pleasure is tied to approach, surprise to orientation, disgust to avoidance. These mechanisms operate permanently and in an almost automatic manner. Problematic food safety behaviours often result when (a) easily detectable cues for spoilage or contamination do not exist, (b) when the diagnosticity...

  10. The Perception Gap: Recognizing and managing the risks that arise when we get risk wrong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropeik, David

    2012-05-01

    Many in the academic, science, and business communities are frustrated at how people perceive and respond to risk, lamenting that the lay public is sometimes more afraid of some threats than the evidence warrants, and less afraid of some dangers than the evidence warns. This is often ascribed to the alarmist way the news media cover risk-related subjects. That criticism is simplistic and unproductive, and ignores or dismisses the large body of research that finds that the perception of risk is not, and can never be, perfectly rational. Risk perception among members of the public, the media, and members of the academic, scientific, and business communities, is ultimately subjective. The gap between our fears and the evidence is not simply the product of alarmist media reporting. This 'Perception Gap' poses significant risks in and of itself, influencing the choices we make as individuals and as a society. The roots of the Perception Gap must be understood if we are to recognize the dangers that can arise when we sometimes get risk wrong, and in order that we may more wisely manage those risks as actively as we manage toxicological or food or other risks with which we are more familiar.

  11. Cardiovascular Risk Factors among College Students: Knowledge, Perception, and Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dieu-My T.; Zimmerman, Lani M.; Kupzyk, Kevin A.; Shurmur, Scott W.; Pullen, Carol H.; Yates, Bernice C.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To assess college students' knowledge and perception of cardiovascular risk factors and to screen for their cardiovascular risks. Participants: The final sample that responded to recruitment consisted of 158 college students from a midwestern university. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was performed using convenience…

  12. Patients’ Perceptions of Cholesterol, Cardiovascular Disease Risk, and Risk Communication Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Goldman, Roberta E.; Parker, Donna R.; Eaton, Charles B.; Borkan, Jeffrey M.; Gramling, Robert; Cover, Rebecca T.; Ahern, David K.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE Despite some recent improvement in knowledge about cholesterol in the United States, patient adherence to cholesterol treatment recommendations remains suboptimal. We undertook a qualitative study that explored patients’ perceptions of cholesterol and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and their reactions to 3 strategies for communicating CVD risk.

  13. GPs' Perceptions of Cardiovascular Risk and Views on Patient Compliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfoed, Benedicte Marie Lind; Jarbøl, Dorte Ejg; Paulsen, Maja Skov

    2015-01-01

    Objective. General practitioners' (GPs') perception of risk is a cornerstone of preventive care. The aims of this interview study were to explore GPs' professional and personal attitudes and experiences regarding treatment with lipid-lowering drugs and their views on patient compliance. Methods. ...... guidelines. The impact on daily clinical practice, personal consultation style, and patient behaviour with regard to prevention is worth studying further.......Objective. General practitioners' (GPs') perception of risk is a cornerstone of preventive care. The aims of this interview study were to explore GPs' professional and personal attitudes and experiences regarding treatment with lipid-lowering drugs and their views on patient compliance. Methods....... The material was drawn from semistructured qualitative interviews. We sampled GPs purposively from ten selected practices, ensuring diversity of demographic, professional, and personal characteristics. The GPs were encouraged to describe examples from their own practices and reflect on them and were informed...

  14. Personal Protective Equipment and Risk for Avian Influenza (H7N3)

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Oliver; Kuhne, Mirjam; Nair, Pat; Verlander, Neville Q.; Preece, Richard; McDougal, Marianne; Zambon, Maria; Reacher, Mark

    2009-01-01

    An outbreak of avian influenza (H7N3) among poultry resulted in laboratory-confirmed disease in 1 of 103 exposed persons. Incomplete use of personal protective equipment (PPE) was associated with conjunctivitis and influenza-like symptoms. Rigorous use of PPE by persons managing avian influenza outbreaks may reduce exposure to potentially hazardous infected poultry materials.

  15. Current features on risk perception and risk communication of radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusama, Tomoko [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1997-03-01

    Health effects and risks of radiation and radionuclides are being misunderstood by many members of general public. Many peoples have fear and anxieties for radiation. So far, the health effects from radiation at low dose and low dose rate have not been cleared on biological aspects. Then, we have quantitatively estimated health risks of low-dose radiation on the basis of linear dose response relationship without threshold from the viewpoints of radiation protection by using both epidemiological data, such as atomic bomb survivors, and some models and assumptions. It is important for researchers and relevant persons in radiation protection to understand the process of risk estimation of radiation and to communicate an exact knowledge of radiation risks of the public members. (author)

  16. International collaboration to assess the risk of Guillain Barré Syndrome following Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Dodd (Caitlin); S.A. Romio (Silvana); S. Black (Steve); C. Vellozzi (Claudia); N.J. Andrews (Nick); M.C.J.M. Sturkenboom (Miriam); P. Zuber (Patrick); W. Hua (Wei); J. Bonhoeffer (Jan); J. Buttery (Jim); N. Crawford (Nigel); G. Deceuninck (Genevieve); C.S. de Vries (Corinne); P. de Wals (Philippe); D. Gimeno (David); H. Heijbel (Harald); H. Hughes (Hayley); K. Hur (Kwan); A. Hviid (Anders); J. Kelman (Jeffrey); T. Kilpi (Tehri); S.K. Chuang (S.); T. Macartney (Thomas); M. Rett (Melisa); V.R. Lopez-Callada (Vesta Richardson); D. Salmon (Daniel); F.G. Sanchez (Francisco Gimenez); N. Sanz (Nuria); B. Silverman (Bernard); J. Storsaeter (Jann); U. Thirugnanam (Umapathi); N.A.T. van der Maas (Nicoline); K. Yih (Katherine); T. Zhang (Teng Fei); H.S. Izurieta (Hector); B.J. Addis; A. Akhtar (Aysha); J. Cope (Judith); R.L. Davis (Robert); P. Gargiullo (Paul); X. Kurz (Xavier); B. Law (Barbara); I. Sahinovic (Isabelle); J. Tokars (Jerry); P. Serrano (Pedro); A. Cheng (Aixin); N.J. Andrews (Nick); P. Charles (Pat); H. Clothier (Hazel); B. Day (Bruce); T. Day (Timothy); P. Gates (Peter); R. MacDonnell (Richard); L. Roberts (Les); V. Rodriguez-Casero (Vic-toria); T. Wijeratne (Tissa); H.A.L. Kiers (Henk); C. Blyth (Christopher); R. Booy (Robert); E. Elliott (Elizabeth); M.R. Gold (Michael); H. Marshall; P. McIntyre (Peter); P. Richmond (Peter); J. Royle (Jenny); N.W. Wood (Nicholas); Y. Zurynski (Yvonne); G. Calvo (Gonzalo); M. Campins (Magda); N. Corominas (Nuria); F. Torres (Ferran); V. Valls; A. Vilella (Ángels); A. Dutra (Amalia); A. Eick-Cost (Angelia); H.M. Jackson (Henry); K. Garman (Katherine); Z. Hu (Zheng); J. Rigo; J. Badoo (Judith); D Cho (David); L.L. Polakowski (Laura); S.K. Sandhu (Sukhminder); G. Sun (Guoying); H.-S.S. Chan (Hoi-Shan Sophelia); K.-Y. Chan (Kwok-Yin); R. Cheung (Raymond); Y-F. Cheung (Yuk-Fai); S. Cherk (Sharon); S.K Chuang (S.); D. Fok (Dennis); B.-H. Fung (Bun-Hey); K.-F. Ko (Kwai-Fu); K.W. Lau (Ka Wing); K.-K. Lau (Kwok-Kwong); P. Li (Pulin); H.-T. Liu (Hui-Tung); S.-H. Liu (Shao-Haei); K. Mok (Kin); J. So (Joanna); W. Wong (Winnie); S.-P. Wu (Shun-Ping); V. Avagyan (Vardan); R. Ball (Robert); D. Burwen (Dale); R.L. Franks (Riley); J.M. Gibbs (Jonathan); R.E. Kliman (Rebecca); S. Kropp (Silke); T.E. MaCurdy (Thomas); D.B. Martin (David); S.-D.K. Sandhu (Sukhmin-Der); B.B. Worrall (Bradford B.); D.E.F. Fuentes (Dra. Elvira Fuentes); P.C.O. González (Paola Carolina Ojeda); V.F. Reyna (Valerie ); M. Kulldorff (Martin); G. Lee (Grace); T.A. Lieu (Tracy); S. Platt; G.D. Serres (Gaston De); K. Jabin (Kamilah); B.L.S. Soh (Bee Leng Sally); L. Arnheim-Dahlström (Lisen); A. Castot (Anne); H.E. de Melker (Hester); J.P. Dieleman (Jeanne); J. Hallgren (Jonal); B.C. Jacobs (Bart); K. Johansen (Kari); P Kramarz (Piotr); M. Lapeyre (Maryse); T. Leino (Tuija); D. Mølgaard-Nielsen (Ditte); M. Mosseveld (Mees); H.K. Olberg (Henning K); C.-M. Sammon (Cor-Mac); C. Saussier (Christel); M.J. Schuemie (Martijn); A. Sommet (Agnès); P. Sparen (Pär); H. Svanström (Henrik); A.M. Vanrolleghem (Ann M.); D.M. Weibel (Daniel); J.D. Domingo (Javier Diez); J.L. Esparza (José LuísMicó); R.M.O. Lucas (Rafael M. Ortí); J.B.M. Maseres (Juan B. Mollar); J.L.A. Sánchez (José Luís Alfonso); M.G. Sánchez (Mercedes Garcés); V.Z. Viguer (Vicente Zanón); F. Cunningham (Francesca); B. Thakkar (Bharat); R. Zhang (Rongping)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The global spread of the 2009 novel pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus led to the accelerated production and distribution of monovalent 2009 Influenza A (H1N1) vaccines (pH1N1). This pandemic provided the opportunity to evaluate the risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), which

  17. International collaboration to assess the risk of Guillain Barré Syndrome following Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Dodd (Caitlin); S.A. Romio (Silvana); S. Black (Steve); C. Vellozzi (Claudia); N.J. Andrews (Nick); M.C.J.M. Sturkenboom (Miriam); P. Zuber (Patrick); W. Hua (Wei); J. Bonhoeffer (Jan); J. Buttery (Jim); N. Crawford (Nigel); G. Deceuninck (Genevieve); C.S. de Vries (Corinne); P. de Wals (Philippe); D. Gimeno (David); H. Heijbel (Harald); H. Hughes (Hayley); K. Hur (Kwan); A. Hviid (Anders); J. Kelman (Jeffrey); T. Kilpi (Tehri); S.K. Chuang (S.); T. Macartney (Thomas); M. Rett (Melisa); V.R. Lopez-Callada (Vesta Richardson); D. Salmon (Daniel); F.G. Sanchez (Francisco Gimenez); N. Sanz (Nuria); B. Silverman (Bernard); J. Storsaeter (Jann); U. Thirugnanam (Umapathi); N.A.T. van der Maas (Nicoline); K. Yih (Katherine); T. Zhang (Teng Fei); H.S. Izurieta (Hector); B.J. Addis; A. Akhtar (Aysha); J. Cope (Judith); R.L. Davis (Robert); P. Gargiullo (Paul); X. Kurz (Xavier); B. Law (Barbara); I. Sahinovic (Isabelle); J. Tokars (Jerry); P. Serrano (Pedro); A. Cheng (Aixin); N.J. Andrews (Nick); P. Charles (Pat); H. Clothier (Hazel); B. Day (Bruce); T. Day (Timothy); P. Gates (Peter); R. MacDonnell (Richard); L. Roberts (Les); V. Rodriguez-Casero (Vic-toria); T. Wijeratne (Tissa); H.A.L. Kiers (Henk); C. Blyth (Christopher); R. Booy (Robert); E. Elliott (Elizabeth); M.R. Gold (Michael); H. Marshall; P. McIntyre (Peter); P. Richmond (Peter); J. Royle (Jenny); N.W. Wood (Nicholas); Y. Zurynski (Yvonne); G. Calvo (Gonzalo); M. Campins (Magda); N. Corominas (Nuria); F. Torres (Ferran); V. Valls; A. Vilella (Ángels); A. Dutra (Amalia); A. Eick-Cost (Angelia); H.M. Jackson (Henry); K. Garman (Katherine); Z. Hu (Zheng); J. Rigo; J. Badoo (Judith); D Cho (David); L.L. Polakowski (Laura); S.K. Sandhu (Sukhminder); G. Sun (Guoying); H.-S.S. Chan (Hoi-Shan Sophelia); K.-Y. Chan (Kwok-Yin); R. Cheung (Raymond); Y-F. Cheung (Yuk-Fai); S. Cherk (Sharon); S.K Chuang (S.); D. Fok (Dennis); B.-H. Fung (Bun-Hey); K.-F. Ko (Kwai-Fu); K.W. Lau (Ka Wing); K.-K. Lau (Kwok-Kwong); P. Li (Pulin); H.-T. Liu (Hui-Tung); S.-H. Liu (Shao-Haei); K. Mok (Kin); J. So (Joanna); W. Wong (Winnie); S.-P. Wu (Shun-Ping); V. Avagyan (Vardan); R. Ball (Robert); D. Burwen (Dale); R.L. Franks (Riley); J.M. Gibbs (Jonathan); R.E. Kliman (Rebecca); S. Kropp (Silke); T.E. MaCurdy (Thomas); D.B. Martin (David); S.-D.K. Sandhu (Sukhmin-Der); B.B. Worrall (Bradford B.); D.E.F. Fuentes (Dra. Elvira Fuentes); P.C.O. González (Paola Carolina Ojeda); V.F. Reyna (Valerie ); M. Kulldorff (Martin); G. Lee (Grace); T.A. Lieu (Tracy); S. Platt; G.D. Serres (Gaston De); K. Jabin (Kamilah); B.L.S. Soh (Bee Leng Sally); L. Arnheim-Dahlström (Lisen); A. Castot (Anne); H.E. de Melker (Hester); J.P. Dieleman (Jeanne); J. Hallgren (Jonal); B.C. Jacobs (Bart); K. Johansen (Kari); P Kramarz (Piotr); M. Lapeyre (Maryse); T. Leino (Tuija); D. Mølgaard-Nielsen (Ditte); M. Mosseveld (Mees); H.K. Olberg (Henning K); C.-M. Sammon (Cor-Mac); C. Saussier (Christel); M.J. Schuemie (Martijn); A. Sommet (Agnès); P. Sparen (Pär); H. Svanström (Henrik); A.M. Vanrolleghem (Ann M.); D.M. Weibel (Daniel); J.D. Domingo (Javier Diez); J.L. Esparza (José LuísMicó); R.M.O. Lucas (Rafael M. Ortí); J.B.M. Maseres (Juan B. Mollar); J.L.A. Sánchez (José Luís Alfonso); M.G. Sánchez (Mercedes Garcés); V.Z. Viguer (Vicente Zanón); F. Cunningham (Francesca); B. Thakkar (Bharat); R. Zhang (Rongping)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The global spread of the 2009 novel pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus led to the accelerated production and distribution of monovalent 2009 Influenza A (H1N1) vaccines (pH1N1). This pandemic provided the opportunity to evaluate the risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), which

  18. The perception of flood risk and water nuisance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terpstra, T; Gutteling, J M; Geldof, G D; Kappe, L J

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we applied the psychometric paradigm to validate a questionnaire that assesses the risk perception characteristics of flooding and water nuisance. The state-trait anxiety inventory was used as a bench mark to determine whether perceptions are related to anxiety characteristics. A focus group was used to further validate the questionnaire. Factor analyses of 49 questionnaires identified eight flooding factors (explained variance 74%) and three water nuisance factors (explained variance 62%). Internal consistencies of the obtained scales were moderate to high. Like in the perception of external safety risks, "dread" seems to be the most important concept binding different characteristics. Although dread towards both flooding and water nuisance is rather low, it seems more present in the latter case. Furthermore, the extent of dread for water nuisance seems related to someone's state anxiety. In both cases awareness of "increasing risks" is clearly present, and we find the characteristics "(no) dread", "(un)controllable situation" and "does not affect me" to be related.

  19. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND DISASTER RISK PERCEPTION CORRELATION AT BANTUL REGENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryanto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the correlation between vulnerable areas and resident's risk perception. For such purpose, it uses descriptive and correlation analysis. The mapping of the vulnerable area is based on the vulnerability levels, which were analyzed with the Geographical Information System (GIS. The GIS and correlation analysis show that education level and income rate of the respondents have negative correlations with level of vulnerability in the area. The perception index has a positive correlation with level of vulnerable in the area. These results are different from the degree of the risk averse variable that does not significantly correlate with the level of hazardous area. Keywords: earthquake risk perception, economic valuation, GISJEL Classification Numbers: Q54, R29AbstrakMakalah ini menganalisis korelasi antara daerah yang rentan bencana dan persepsi mereka terhadap risiko.Penelitian ini menggunakan metode analisis deskriptif dan korelasi. Pemetaan daerah rawan didasarkan pada tingkat kerentanan, yang dianalisis dengan Sistem Informasi Geografis (SIG. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa tingkat pendidikan dan tingkat pendapatan responden memiliki korelasi negatif dengan tingkat kerentanan di daerah. Indeks Persepsi memiliki korelasi positif dengan tingkat kerentanan suatu daerah. Hasil ini berbeda dengan tingkat risiko variabel yang tidak signifikan berkorelasi dengan tingkat daerah bahaya.Keywords: Persepsi risiko gempa bumi, penilaian ekonomi, SIGJEL Classification Numbers: Q54, R29

  20. Risk Perception and the Public Acceptance of Drones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clothier, Reece A; Greer, Dominique A; Greer, Duncan G; Mehta, Amisha M

    2015-06-01

    Unmanned aircraft, or drones, are a rapidly emerging sector of the aviation industry. There has been limited substantive research, however, into the public perception and acceptance of drones. This article presents the results from two surveys of the Australian public designed to investigate (1) whether the public perceive drones to be riskier than existing manned aviation, (2) whether the terminology used to describe the technology influences public perception, and (3) what the broader concerns are that may influence public acceptance of the technology. We find that the Australian public currently hold a relatively neutral attitude toward drones. Respondents did not consider the technology to be overly unsafe, risky, beneficial, or threatening. Drones are largely viewed as being of comparable risk to that of existing manned aviation. Furthermore, terminology had a minimal effect on the perception of the risks or acceptability of the technology. The neutral response is likely due to a lack of knowledge about the technology, which was also identified as the most prevalent public concern as opposed to the risks associated with its use. Privacy, military use, and misuse (e.g., terrorism) were also significant public concerns. The results suggest that society is yet to form an opinion of drones. As public knowledge increases, the current position is likely to change. Industry communication and media coverage will likely influence the ultimate position adopted by the public, which can be difficult to change once established.

  1. Incidence and risk factors for influenza-like-illness in the UK: online surveillance using Flusurvey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Influenza and Influenza-like-illness (ILI) represents a substantial public health problem, but it is difficult to measure the overall burden as many cases do not access health care. Community cohorts have the advantage of not requiring individuals to present at hospitals and surgeries and therefore can potentially monitor a wider variety of cases. This study reports on the incidence and risk factors for ILI in the UK as measured using Flusurvey, an internet-based open community cohort. Methods Upon initial online registration participants were asked background characteristics, and every week were asked to complete a symptoms survey. We compared the representativeness of our sample to the overall population. We used two case definitions of ILI, which differed in whether fever/chills was essential. We calculated ILI incidence week by week throughout the season, and investigated risk factors associated with ever reporting ILI over the course of the season. Risk factor analysis was conducted using binomial regression. Results 5943 participants joined the survey, and 4532 completed the symptoms survey at least twice. Participants who filled in symptoms surveys at least twice filled in a median of nine symptoms surveys over the course of the study. 46.1% of participants reported at least one episode of ILI, and 6.0% of all reports were positive for ILI. Females had slightly higher incidence, and individuals over 65 had the lowest incidence. Incidence peaked just before Christmas and declined dramatically during school holidays. Multivariate regression showed that, for both definitions of ILI considered, being female, unvaccinated, having underlying health issues, having contact with children, being aged between 35 and 64, and being a smoker were associated with the highest risk of reporting an ILI. The use of public transport was not associated with an increased risk of ILI. Conclusions Our results show that internet based surveillance can be used to measure

  2. Perception on the Risk of the Sonora River Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Ignacio Aragonés; César Tapia-Fonllem; Lucía Poggio; Blanca Fraijo-Sing

    2017-01-01

    This study applies the “psychometric paradigm” of risk perception to the heavy mineral spill in the Sonora River (Mexico). A total of 241 inhabitants of the polluted area with a mean age of 46.3 years participated in the study, completing an interview questionnaire at the onset of the disaster. The results allow us to establish a profile of the 18 characteristics comprising the model and a multiple regression analysis shows that some characteristics of the dimensions of dread risk and unknown...

  3. Modeling perceptions of climatic risk in crop production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinmuth, Evelyn; Parker, Phillip; Aurbacher, Joachim; Högy, Petra; Dabbert, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    In agricultural production, land-use decisions are components of economic planning that result in the strategic allocation of fields. Climate variability represents an uncertainty factor in crop production. Considering yield impact, climatic influence is perceived during and evaluated at the end of crop production cycles. In practice, this information is then incorporated into planning for the upcoming season. This process contributes to attitudes toward climate-induced risk in crop production. In the literature, however, the subjective valuation of risk is modeled as a risk attitude toward variations in (monetary) outcomes. Consequently, climatic influence may be obscured by political and market influences so that risk perceptions during the production process are neglected. We present a utility concept that allows the inclusion of annual risk scores based on mid-season risk perceptions that are incorporated into field-planning decisions. This approach is exemplified and implemented for winter wheat production in the Kraichgau, a region in Southwest Germany, using the integrated bio-economic simulation model FarmActor and empirical data from the region. Survey results indicate that a profitability threshold for this crop, the level of "still-good yield" (sgy), is 69 dt ha-1 (regional mean Kraichgau sample) for a given season. This threshold governs the monitoring process and risk estimators. We tested the modeled estimators against simulation results using ten projected future weather time series for winter wheat production. The mid-season estimators generally proved to be effective. This approach can be used to improve the modeling of planning decisions by providing a more comprehensive evaluation of field-crop response to climatic changes from an economic risk point of view. The methodology further provides economic insight in an agrometeorological context where prices for crops or inputs are lacking, but farmer attitudes toward risk should still be included in

  4. The evolution of risk perceptions related to bovine spongiform encephalopathy--Canadian consumer and producer behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Goddard, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    In this study the dynamics of risk perceptions related to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) held by Canadian consumers and cow-calf producers were evaluated. Since the first domestic case of BSE in 2003, Canadian consumers and cow-calf producers have needed to make decisions on whether or not their purchasing/production behavior should change. Such changes in their behavior may relate to their levels of risk perceptions about BSE, risk perceptions that may be evolving over time and be affected by BSE media information available. An econometric analysis of the behavior of consumers and cow-calf producers might identify the impacts of evolving BSE risk perceptions. Risk perceptions related to BSE are evaluated through observed market behavior, an approach that differs from traditional stated preference approaches to eliciting risk perceptions at a particular point in time. BSE risk perceptions may be specified following a Social Amplification of Risk Framework (SARF) derived from sociology, psychology, and economics. Based on the SARF, various quality and quantity indices related to BSE media information are used as explanatory variables in risk perception equations. Risk perceptions are approximated using a predictive difference approach as defined by Liu et al. (1998). Results showed that Canadian consumer and cow-calf producer risk perceptions related to BSE have been amplified or attenuated by both quantity and quality of BSE media information. Government policies on risk communications need to address the different roles of BSE information in Canadian consumers' and cow-calf producers' behavior.

  5. Urban community gardeners' knowledge and perceptions of soil contaminant risks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent F Kim

    Full Text Available Although urban community gardening can offer health, social, environmental, and economic benefits, these benefits must be weighed against the potential health risks stemming from exposure to contaminants such as heavy metals and organic chemicals that may be present in urban soils. Individuals who garden at or eat food grown in contaminated urban garden sites may be at risk of exposure to such contaminants. Gardeners may be unaware of these risks and how to manage them. We used a mixed quantitative/qualitative research approach to characterize urban community gardeners' knowledge and perceptions of risks related to soil contaminant exposure. We conducted surveys with 70 gardeners from 15 community gardens in Baltimore, Maryland, and semi-structured interviews with 18 key informants knowledgeable about community gardening and soil contamination in Baltimore. We identified a range of factors, challenges, and needs related to Baltimore community gardeners' perceptions of risk related to soil contamination, including low levels of concern and inconsistent levels of knowledge about heavy metal and organic chemical contaminants, barriers to investigating a garden site's history and conducting soil tests, limited knowledge of best practices for reducing exposure, and a need for clear and concise information on how best to prevent and manage soil contamination. Key informants discussed various strategies for developing and disseminating educational materials to gardeners. For some challenges, such as barriers to conducting site history and soil tests, some informants recommended city-wide interventions that bypass the need for gardener knowledge altogether.

  6. The future of nuclear power: value orientations and risk perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Stephen C; Rosa, Eugene A; Dan, Amy; Dietz, Thomas

    2009-03-01

    Since the turn of the 21st century, there has been a revival of interest in nuclear power. Two decades ago, the expansion of nuclear power in the United States was halted by widespread public opposition as well as rising costs and less than projected increases in demand for electricity. Can the renewed enthusiasm for nuclear power overcome its history of public resistance that has persisted for decades? We propose that attitudes toward nuclear power are a function of perceived risk, and that both attitudes and risk perceptions are a function of values, beliefs, and trust in the institutions that influence nuclear policy. Applying structural equation models to data from a U.S. national survey, we find that increased trust in the nuclear governance institutions reduces perceived risk of nuclear power and together higher trust and lower risk perceptions predict positive attitudes toward nuclear power. Trust in environmental institutions and perceived risks from global environmental problems do not predict attitudes toward nuclear power. Values do predict attitudes: individuals with traditional values have greater support for, while those with altruistic values have greater opposition to, nuclear power. Nuclear attitudes do not vary by gender, age, education, income, or political orientation, though nonwhites are more supportive than whites. These findings are consistent with, and provide an explanation for, a long series of public opinion polls showing public ambivalence toward nuclear power that persists even in the face of renewed interest for nuclear power in policy circles.

  7. Urban community gardeners' knowledge and perceptions of soil contaminant risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Brent F; Poulsen, Melissa N; Margulies, Jared D; Dix, Katie L; Palmer, Anne M; Nachman, Keeve E

    2014-01-01

    Although urban community gardening can offer health, social, environmental, and economic benefits, these benefits must be weighed against the potential health risks stemming from exposure to contaminants such as heavy metals and organic chemicals that may be present in urban soils. Individuals who garden at or eat food grown in contaminated urban garden sites may be at risk of exposure to such contaminants. Gardeners may be unaware of these risks and how to manage them. We used a mixed quantitative/qualitative research approach to characterize urban community gardeners' knowledge and perceptions of risks related to soil contaminant exposure. We conducted surveys with 70 gardeners from 15 community gardens in Baltimore, Maryland, and semi-structured interviews with 18 key informants knowledgeable about community gardening and soil contamination in Baltimore. We identified a range of factors, challenges, and needs related to Baltimore community gardeners' perceptions of risk related to soil contamination, including low levels of concern and inconsistent levels of knowledge about heavy metal and organic chemical contaminants, barriers to investigating a garden site's history and conducting soil tests, limited knowledge of best practices for reducing exposure, and a need for clear and concise information on how best to prevent and manage soil contamination. Key informants discussed various strategies for developing and disseminating educational materials to gardeners. For some challenges, such as barriers to conducting site history and soil tests, some informants recommended city-wide interventions that bypass the need for gardener knowledge altogether.

  8. Risk for Low Pathogenicity Avian Influenza Virus on Poultry Farms, the Netherlands, 2007-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwstra, Ruth; Gonzales, Jose L; de Wit, Sjaak; Stahl, Julia; Fouchier, Ron A M; Elbers, Armin R W

    2017-09-01

    Using annual serologic surveillance data from all poultry farms in the Netherlands during 2007-2013, we quantified the risk for the introduction of low pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) in different types of poultry production farms and putative spatial-environmental risk factors: distance from poultry farms to clay soil, waterways, and wild waterfowl areas. Outdoor-layer, turkey (meat and breeder), and duck (meat and breeder) farms had a significantly higher risk for LPAIV introduction than did indoor-layer farms. Except for outdoor-layer, all poultry types (i.e., broilers, chicken breeders, ducks, and turkeys) are kept indoors. For all production types, LPAIV risk decreased significantly with increasing distance to medium-sized waterways and with increasing distance to areas with defined wild waterfowl, but only for outdoor-layer and turkey farms. Future research should focus not only on production types but also on distance to waterways and wild bird areas. In addition, settlement of new poultry farms in high-risk areas should be discouraged.

  9. A study on the risk perception of light pollution and the process of social amplification of risk in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Hee; Choi, Jae Wook; Lee, Eunil; Cho, Yong Min; Ahn, Hyung Rae

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the risk perception level of each light pollution type was analyzed, and the effects of the variables (e.g., psychometric paradigm factor, trust in the government, etc.) on the process of the increase in the risk perception were analyzed. For the sample population (1096 persons) in Korea, the risk perception levels of each light pollution type and other environmental and health risk factors were compared, and the relative magnitude was examined. In addition, to test which variables affect the group with high-risk perception of each light pollution type, a logistic regression analysis was performed. For the group with highest risk perception of light pollution, the odds ratios (OR) of all psychometric paradigms (excluding controllability) increased compared to those of the group with low-risk perception. Additionally, the level showing the acquisition of information from the media and the recollection level of media criticism on each light pollution type showed a statistically significant increase. Especially, the risk perception of light trespass increased as trust in the government decreased. The significance of this study includes the finding that the public's risk perception of light pollution was significantly affected by the psychometric paradigm factors. Moreover, this study analyzed the differences of the variables that affect the increase in the risk perception of each light pollution type and provided a theoretical framework that can practically reflect the strategy for the risk communication of light pollution.

  10. An analysis of the public perception of flood risk on the Belgian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellens, Wim; Zaalberg, Ruud; Neutens, Tijs; Vanneuville, Wouter; De Maeyer, Philippe

    2011-07-01

    In recent years, perception of flood risks has become an important topic to policy makers concerned with risk management and safety issues. Knowledge of the public risk perception is considered a crucial aspect in modern flood risk management as it steers the development of effective and efficient flood mitigation strategies. This study aimed at gaining insight into the perception of flood risks along the Belgian coast. Given the importance of the tourism industry on the Belgian coast, the survey considered both inhabitants and residential tourists. Based on actual expert's risk assessments, a high and a low risk area were selected for the study. Risk perception was assessed on the basis of scaled items regarding storm surges and coastal flood risks. In addition, various personal and residence characteristics were measured. Using multiple regression analysis, risk perception was found to be primarily influenced by actual flood risk estimates, age, gender, and experience with previous flood hazards.

  11. Cleaning products, environmental awareness and risk perception in Merida, Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Magnolia Martínez-Peña

    Full Text Available Cleaning products are associated with many health and environmental problems. Contamination of water resources by cleaning products is more likely to occur with septic tanks as sewage treatment systems especially in karstic terrains. We explored women's ideas about water sources and the risk cleaning products pose to health and sewage in Mérida, a city in the Yucatán peninsula of Mexico. Women were unaware of the city's water management system. We found a positive and statistically significant association between risk perception and environmental awareness, education level and employment status. We suggest developing education and risk communication strategies to inform residents about the hydro-geological features in the Yucatán, the vulnerability of its karstic aquifer and the health and environmental risks associated with cleaning agents.

  12. Space Debris - Evaluation of risk perception and countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belviso, L.

    The problem of Space Debris not only belongs to purely technical domain Although the main effort is to establish legal background to handle with possible accident caused by space debris as well as finding countermeasures another relevant problem is the perception of risk by both general public and space operators The main objective of this paper concerns the analysis and comparison of real and perceived risk related to space debris in order to gives useful outputs for decision makers in both public and private sector of space operators A correct evaluation of the real risk deriving from space debris will be particularly useful in the next years to correctly evaluate launch and operational phases of commercial satellites as well as possible countermeasures to avoid or limitate damages In the public sector a correct evaluation of risk will represents an extremely useful tool to handle crisis management and promote correct information on space

  13. Sociodemographic differences in myocardial infarction risk perceptions among people with coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aalto, Anna-Mari; Weinman, John; French, David P

    2007-01-01

    This study examines sociodemographic differences in myocardial infarction (MI) risk perceptions among people with coronary heart disease (CHD) (N = 3130). Two variables for comparative risk perceptions were computed: (1) own risk compared to that of an average person; and (2) own risk compared...

  14. Individual Differences in Children's Risk Perception and Appraisals in Outdoor Play Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Helen; Wyver, Shirley

    2010-01-01

    Child characteristics including age, gender, risk-taking behaviour and sensation seeking are thought to influence children's ability to appraise risks. The present study investigated children's risk perceptions and appraisals in the context of common outdoor physical play activities. Risk perceptions and appraisal of four- and five-year olds were…

  15. Risk perceptions of offshore workers on UK oil and gas platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, M; Flin, R; Mearns, K; Gordon, R

    1998-02-01

    Knowledge of the workforce's risk perceptions and attitudes to safety is necessary for the development of a safety culture, where each person accepts responsibility for working safely. The ACSNI Human Factors report stresses the importance of assessing workforce perceptions of risk to achieve a proper safety culture. Risk perception research has been criticized for insufficient analysis of the causal relationships between risk factors and perceived risk. The present study reports some of the factors which predicted risk perception in a sample of 622 employees from six UKCS offshore oil installations who completed a 15-section questionnaire. This paper focuses on the accuracy of workers' risk perceptions and what underlying factors predict the perception of personal risk from both major and minor hazards.

  16. Why were Turks unwilling to accept the A/H1N1 influenza-pandemic vaccination? People's beliefs and perceptions about the swine flu outbreak and vaccine in the later stage of the epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaygısız, Ümmügülsüm; Gaygısız, Esma; Özkan, Türker; Lajunen, Timo

    2010-12-16

    This study investigated the acceptability of the A/H1N1 influenza vaccination and related factors among 1137 adults in the later stage of the A/H1N1 outbreak in Turkey. Having already been vaccinated or intending to get vaccinated were related to trust in the vaccine effectiveness, perceived risk of the side effects, and benefits of getting vaccinated. Perceived long term consequences of the A/H1N1 infection, perceptions of the A/H1N1 information in media, and barriers for getting vaccinated were related to intention whereas anticipated epidemic situation in Turkey, being chronically ill, and being not married were related to having already been vaccinated.

  17. Breast cancer risk perceptions of Turkish women attending primary care: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Kartal, Mehtap; Ozcakar, Nilgun; Hatipoglu, Sehnaz; Tan, Makbule Neslisah; Guldal, Azize Dilek

    2014-01-01

    Background As the risks and benefits of early detection and primary prevention strategies for breast cancer are beginning to be quantified, the risk perception of women has become increasingly important as may affect their screening behaviors. This study evaluated the women’s breast cancer risk perception and their accuracy, and determined the factors that can affect their risk perception accuracy. Methods Data was collected in a cross-sectional survey design. Questionnaire, including breast ...

  18. Buying Behavior Of Organic Vegetables Product The Effects Of Perceptions Of Quality And Risk

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doni Purnama Alamsyah; Ria Yuli Angliawati

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Consumer behaviors are more important in the study of Green Marketing. This studied aims to examined buying behavior of consumers on organic products which is formed by perception of quality and perception of risk...

  19. THE RISK PERCEPTION OF TRANSPORT–GENERATED AIR POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitta GATERSLEBEN

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a study that is part of a multidisciplinary project examining the relationship between transport, air pollution and health in Guildford, a medium sized town in the UK. Real-time air quality monitoring revealed low levels of air pollution through vehicle emissions. However, the residents of the town claim that there is an air pollution problem, perceptions reinforced by visual and sensory feedback, i.e., people see dust, feel irritations to their eyes, noses and throats and smell exhaust fumes. It is shown that the higher people believe air pollution levels to be the more responsible they feel and the less trust they have in local authorities and technological developments. Beliefs about the health consequences of air pollution are not related to responsibility and trust. The findings support other studies on risk perception that have shown that people find a risk less acceptable when they have a lower trust in risk managers. It is concluded that these findings are of importance for the environmental education of the public generally and risk communication by local authorities in particular.

  20. Diverse risks, diverse perpetrators: perceptions of risk and experiences of violence amongst street-based sex workers in New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Lynzi Armstrong

    2014-01-01

    The management of violence-related risks on the street invariably relates to individual perceptions of violence amongst street-based sex workers. This paper explores perceptions and experiences of violence amongst street-based sex workers in Wellington and Christchurch. This paper begins with an overview of how risks of violence have been conceptualised and how the diversity of these risks is reflected in the perceptions and experiences of the women interviewed. Some complexities in how these...

  1. Risk perception in a developing country: the case of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfman, Nicolás C; Cifuentes, Luis A

    2003-12-01

    In this work we characterize risk perception in Chile, based on the psychometric paradigm, exploring the difference between perceived social and personal risk. For this purpose, we conducted a survey including 54 hazards, 16 risk attributes, and 3 risk constructs. The survey, divided into four parts, was administered to 508 residents of Santiago, Chile. Using factor analysis, three main factors, which accounted for 80% of the sample's variance, were identified: factor 1, commonly called "Dread Risk" in the literature, explained 37% of variance; factor 2, "Unknown Risk," explained 28%; and factor 3, which we called "Personal Effect," explained 15% of the variance. On average, individuals perceived themselves as less exposed to risk and with more control and knowledge about them than the general population. OLS regression models were used to test the association of perceived risk with the three main factors. For social risk, factor 1 had the greatest explanatory power, while factor 2 had a negative sign. For personal risk, only factors 2 and 3 were significant, with factor 3 having the greatest explanatory power. Risk denial (defined as the difference between perceived personal and social risk) was associated with factors 1 and 2 only, with factor 2 having a negative sign. The difference between desired and actual regulation levels proved positive for all hazards, thus indicating that Chileans are dissatisfied with the current regulation level for all the hazards analyzed. The comparison of data at the aggregate and at the individual subject's level suggests that while the aggregate analysis overestimates the magnitude of the correlations it still reflects the tendency of the individual responses.

  2. Dilemmas of securitization and health risk management in the People's Republic of China: the cases of SARS and avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wishnick, Elizabeth

    2010-11-01

    Since the SARS epidemic in 2003, the international community has urged Chinese leaders to do more to address infectious diseases. This paper looks at two cases in which the Chinese government securitized infectious disease (SARS and avian influenza) and examines the pros and cons of securitization. It is argued that the reactive mobilization involved in a securitizing move runs counter to the preventive risk management strategy needed to address infectious diseases. Although the Copenhagen School favours desecuritization as a return to normal practices, in the Chinese cases desecuritizing moves proved detrimental, involving cover-ups and restrictions on activists pressing for greater information. The article begins by examining the contributions of the Copenhagen School and sociological theories of risk to conceptualizing the security challenges that pandemics pose. Although analysis of the cases of SARS and avian influenza gives credence to criticisms of this approach, securitization theory proves useful in outlining the different stages in China's reaction to epidemics involving reactive mobilization and subsequent efforts to return to politics as usual. The second section examines securitizing and desecuritizing moves in Chinese responses to SARS and avian influenza. Each case study concludes with an assessment of the consequences for health risk management in China. The reactive mobilization implicit in Chinese securitization moves in the two cases is contrasted with the preventive logic of risk management. A third section draws out the implications of these cases for theories of securitization and risk. It is argued here that when securitization has occurred, risk management has failed. Although Copenhagen School theorists see the return to politics as usual-what they call 'desecuritization'-as optimal, this turns out to be far from the case in China during SARS and avian influenza, where the process involved retribution against whistleblowers and new

  3. Cancer risk elicitation and communication: lessons from the psychology of risk perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, William M P; Stefanek, Michael E

    2007-01-01

    Cancer risk perceptions are a key predictor of risk-reduction practices, health behaviors, and processing of cancer information. Nevertheless, patients and the general public (as well as health care providers) exhibit a number of errors and biases in the way they think about risk, such that their risk perceptions and decisions deviate greatly from those prescribed by normative decision models and by experts in risk assessment. For example, people are more likely to engage in screening behaviors such as mammography when faced with loss-based messages than gain-framed messages, and they often ignore the base rate of a given disease when assessing their own risk of obtaining this disease. In this article, we review many of the psychological processes that underlie risk perception and discuss how these processes lead to such deviations. Among these processes are difficulties with use of numerical information (innumeracy), cognitive processes (eg, use of time-saving heuristics), motivational factors (eg, loss and regret aversion), and emotion. We conclude with suggestions for future research in the area, as well as implications for improving the elicitation and communication of personal cancer risk.

  4. Modeling Risk Perception in Networks with Community Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Bagnoli, Franco; Guazzini, Andrea; Massaro, Emanuele; Rudolph, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    We study the influence of global, local and community-level risk perception on the extinction probability of a disease in several models of social networks. In particular, we study the infection progression as a susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) model on several modular networks, formed by a certain number of random and scale-free communities. We find that in the scale-free networks the progression is faster than in random ones with the same average connectivity degree. For what concerns the role of perception, we find that the knowledge of the infection level in one's own neighborhood is the most effective property in stopping the spreading of a disease, but at the same time the more expensive one in terms of the quantity of required information, thus the cost/effectiveness optimum is a tradeoff between several parameters.

  5. Risks of avian influenza transmission in areas of intensive free-ranging duck production with wild waterfowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelle, Julien; Zhao, Delong; Gilbert, Marius; Nelson, Martha I; Newman, Scott H; Takekawa, John Y; Gaidet, Nicolas; Prosser, Diann J; Liu, Ying; Li, Peng; Shu, Yuelong; Xiao, Xiangming

    2014-01-01

    For decades, southern China has been considered to be an important source for emerging influenza viruses since key hosts live together in high densities in areas with intensive agriculture. However, the underlying conditions of emergence and spread of avian influenza viruses (AIV) have not been studied in detail, particularly the complex spatiotemporal interplay of viral transmission between wild and domestic ducks, two major actors of AIV epidemiology. In this synthesis, we examine the risks of avian influenza spread in Poyang Lake, an area of intensive free-ranging duck production and large numbers of wild waterfowl. Our synthesis shows that farming of free-grazing domestic ducks is intensive in this area and synchronized with wild duck migration. The presence of juvenile domestic ducks in harvested paddy fields prior to the arrival and departure of migrant ducks in the same fields may amplify the risk of AIV circulation and facilitate the transmission between wild and domestic populations. We provide evidence associating wild ducks migration with the spread of H5N1 in the spring of 2008 from southern China to South Korea, Russia, and Japan, supported by documented wild duck movements and phylogenetic analyses of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 sequences. We suggest that prevention measures based on a modification of agricultural practices may be implemented in these areas to reduce the intensity of AIV transmission between wild and domestic ducks. This would require involving all local stakeholders to discuss feasible and acceptable solutions.

  6. Development of an active risk-based surveillance strategy for avian influenza in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, E; Alfonso, P; Ippoliti, C; Abeledo, M; Calistri, P; Blanco, P; Conte, A; Sánchez, B; Fonseca, O; Percedo, M; Pérez, A; Fernández, O; Giovannini, A

    2014-09-01

    The authors designed a risk-based approach to the selection of poultry flocks to be sampled in order to further improve the sensitivity of avian influenza (AI) active surveillance programme in Cuba. The study focused on the western region of Cuba, which harbours nearly 70% of national poultry holdings and comprise several wetlands where migratory waterfowl settle (migratory waterfowl settlements - MWS). The model took into account the potential risk of commercial poultry farms in western Cuba contracting from migratory waterfowl of the orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes through dispersion for pasturing of migratory birds around the MWS. We computed spatial risk index by geographical analysis with Python scripts in ESRI(®) ArcGIS 10 on data projected in the reference system NAD 1927-UTM17. Farms located closer to MWS had the highest values for the risk indicator pj and in total 31 farms were chosen for targeted surveillance during the risk period. The authors proposed to start active surveillance in the study area 3 weeks after the onset of Anseriformes migration, with additional sampling repeated twice in the same selected poultry farms at 15 days interval (Comin et al., 2012; EFSA, 2008) to cover the whole migration season. In this way, the antibody detectability would be favoured in case of either a posterior AI introduction or enhancement of a previous seroprevalence under the sensitivity level. The model identified the areas with higher risk for AIV introduction from MW, aiming at selecting poultry premises for the application of risk-based surveillance. Given the infrequency of HPAI introduction into domestic poultry populations and the relative paucity of occurrences of LPAI epidemics, the evaluation of the effectiveness of this approach would require its application for several migration seasons to allow the collection of sufficient reliable data.

  7. The anatomy of risk: a quantitative investigation into injection drug users' taxonomy of risk attitudes and perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsch, Lisa A; Bickel, Warren K; Badger, Gary J; Quesnel, Kimberly J

    2007-04-01

    The authors report on the first study to use the systematic quantitative methods of the psychometric paradigm of risk analysis to examine risk perceptions among substance abusers. Fifty opioid-dependent injection drug users (IDUs) and 50 matched, control individuals completed a series of measures to provide quantitative representations of risk perceptions about 53 risk-laden items (including activities, substances, technologies, and diseases). Results indicated that risk perceptions of IDUs and controls were highly correlated on many items; however, IDUs perceived several items, such as hepatitis, HIV, handguns, and unprotected sex, as markedly more risky. IDUs also perceived both themselves and others as having greater risk of contracting hepatitis and HIV. IDUs wanted significantly reduced regulation of drugs, including prescription drugs, heroin, valium, and barbiturates. Factor analyses conducted to understand how risk ratings related to various characteristics that have been shown to influence risk perception revealed 3 factors that account for approximately 80% of the variability in risk perception across groups: Factor 1, related to the severity of the risk; Factor 2, related to the certainty of the risk; and Factor 3, related to the immediacy of the risk. However, IDUs more strongly associated the extent to which they were personally affected by a risk item and the extent to which the risk affected fewer or more people to Factor 1, whereas control participants more strongly associated these characteristics with Factor 2. Identifying improved methodologies for evaluating the risk perceptions of IDUs may be of considerable utility in understanding their high-risk behavior.

  8. Narcissistic personality and risk perception among Chinese aviators: The mediating role of promotion focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Chengting; Ji, Ming; Lan, Jijun; You, Xuqun

    2016-01-28

    Optimism bias is a crucial feature of risk perception that leads to increased risk-taking behaviour, which is a particularly salient issue among pilots in aviation settings due to the high-stakes nature of flight. The current study sought to address the roles of narcissism and promotion focus on optimism bias in risk perception in aviation context. Participants were 239 male flight cadets from the Civil Aviation Flight University of China who completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory-13, the Work Regulatory Focus Scale, and an indirect measure of unrealistic optimism in risk perception, which measured risk perception for the individual and the risk assumed by other individuals performing the same task. Higher narcissism increased the likelihood of underestimating personal risks, an effect that was mediated by high promotion focus motivation, such that high narcissism led to high promotion focus motivation. The findings have important implications for improving the accuracy of risk perception in aviation risks among aviators.

  9. Risk factor for phlebitis: a questionnaire study of nurses' perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Milutinović

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjectives: to assess nurses' perceptions of risk factors for the development of phlebitis, with a special focus on the perception of phlebitic potentials of some infusion medications and solutions.Method: a cross-sectional questionnaire study, which included a sample of 102 nurses.Results: Nurses recognized some factors that may reduce the incidence of phlebitis; however, more than half of the nurses were unaware that the material and diameter of the cannula can affect the incidence rate of phlebitis. Furthermore,underlying disease and high pH of medications or solutions were identified as potential risk factors, whereas low pH and low osmolality were not. Nurses identified Vancomycin and Benzylpenicillin antibiotics with the strongest phlebitic potential. Among other medications and intravenous fluids, Aminophylline, Amiodaronehydrochloride and Potassium chloride 7.4% were identified as potentially causing phlebitis.Conclusion: predisposing factors for phlebitis relating to patients and administered therapy were identified by nurses, while some cannula related risk factors, in particular its physicochemical properties and the time for cannula replacement, were not fully perceived.

  10. A framework for understanding risk perception, explored from the perspective of the water practitioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbie, Meredith Frances; Brown, Rebekah Ruth

    2014-02-01

    Sustainable urban water systems are likely to be hybrids of centralized and decentralized infrastructure, managed as an integrated system in water-sensitive cities. The technology for many of these systems is available. However, social and institutional barriers, which can be understood as deeply embedded risk perceptions, have impeded their implementation. Risk perceptions within the water sector are often unrecognized or unacknowledged, despite their role in risk management generally in informing value judgments and specifically in ranking risks to achieve management objectives. There has been very little examination of the role of these risk perceptions in advancing more sustainable water supply management through the adoption of alternative sources. To address this gap, this article presents a framework that can be used as a tool for understanding risk perceptions. The framework is built on the relational theory of risk and presents the range of human phenomena that might influence the perception of an "object at risk" in relation to a "risk object." It has been synthesized from a critical review of theoretical, conceptual, and empirical studies of perception broadly and risk perception specifically, and interpreted in relation to water practitioners. For a water practitioner, the risk object might be an alternative water system, a component, a process, or a technology, and the object at risk could be public or environmental health, profitability, or professional reputation. This framework has two important functions: to allow practitioners to understand their own and others' risk perceptions, which might differ, and to inform further empirical research.

  11. Paradoxical risk perception and behaviours related to Avian Flu outbreak and education campaign, Laos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorvongseng Somchay

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Laos, small backyard poultry systems predominate (90%. The first lethal human cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI occurred in 2007. Few studies have addressed the impact of outbreaks and education campaigns on a smallholder producer system. We evaluated awareness and behaviours related to educational campaigns and the 2007 HPAI outbreaks. Methods During a national 2-stage cross-sectional randomised survey we interviewed 1098 households using a pre-tested questionnaire in five provinces representative of the Southern to Northern strata of Laos. We used multivariate analysis (Stata, version 8; Stata Corporation, College Station, TX, USA to analyse factors affecting recollection of HPAI educational messages, awareness of HPAI, and behaviour change. Results Of the 1098 participants, 303 (27.6% received training on HPAI. The level of awareness was similar to that in 2006. The urban population considered risk to be decreased, yet unsafe behaviours persisted or increased. This contrasted with an increase in awareness and safe behaviour practices in rural areas. Reported behaviour changes in rural areas included higher rates of cessation of poultry consumption and dead poultry burial when compared to 2006. No participants reported poultry deaths to the authorities. Overall, 70% could recall an educational message but the content and accuracy differed widely depending on training exposure. Washing hands and other hygiene advice, messages given during the HPAI educational campaign, were not recalled. Trained persons were able to recall only one message while untrained participants recalled a broader range of messages. Factors associated with an awareness of a threat of AI in Laos were: having received HPAI training, literacy level, access to TV, recent information, living in rural areas. Conclusion We report a paradoxical relationship between unsafe behaviours and risk perception in urban areas, as well as exposure to

  12. Exploring Students' Ideas about Risks and Benefits of Nuclear Power Using Risk Perception Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilinc, Ahmet; Boyes, Edward; Stanisstreet, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Due to increased energy demand, Turkey is continuing to explore the possibilities of introducing nuclear power. Gaining acceptance from local populations, however, may be problematic because nuclear power has a negative image and risk perceptions are complicated by a range of psychological and cultural factors. In this study, we explore the views…

  13. Avian influenza seroprevalence and biosecurity risk factors in Maryland backyard poultry: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Jennifer M; Zimmermann, Nickolas G; Timmons, Jennifer; Tablante, Nathaniel L

    2013-01-01

    Major implications on a country's economy, food source, and public health. With recent concern over the highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreaks around the world, government agencies are carefully monitoring and inspecting live bird markets, commercial flocks, and migratory bird populations. However, there remains limited surveillance of non-commercial poultry. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was conducted in backyard poultry flocks using a convenience sampling method across three regions of Maryland from July 2011 to August 2011. The objective of this study was to develop a better understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of avian influenza by investigating the prevalence and seroprevalence in this potentially vulnerable population and by evaluating biosecurity risk factors associated with positive findings. Serum, tracheal, and cloacal swabs were randomly collected from 262 birds among 39 registered premises. Analysis indicated bird and flock seroprevalence as 4.2% (11/262) and 23.1% (9/39), respectively. Based on RT-qPCR analysis, none of the samples were found to be positive for AI RNA and evidence of AI hemagglutinin subtypes H5, H7, or H9 were not detected. Although no statistically significant biosecurity associations were identified (p≤0.05), AI seroprevalence was positively associated with exposure to waterfowl, pest control, and location. AI seropositive flocks exposed to waterfowl were 3.14 times as likely to be AI seropositive than those not exposed (p = 0.15). AI seropositive flocks that did not use pest control were 2.5 times as likely to be AI seropositive compared to those that did and AI seropositive flocks located in the Northern region of Maryland were 2.8 times as likely to be AI seropositive than those that were located elsewhere.

  14. Avian influenza seroprevalence and biosecurity risk factors in Maryland backyard poultry: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Madsen

    Full Text Available Major implications on a country's economy, food source, and public health. With recent concern over the highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreaks around the world, government agencies are carefully monitoring and inspecting live bird markets, commercial flocks, and migratory bird populations. However, there remains limited surveillance of non-commercial poultry. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was conducted in backyard poultry flocks using a convenience sampling method across three regions of Maryland from July 2011 to August 2011. The objective of this study was to develop a better understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of avian influenza by investigating the prevalence and seroprevalence in this potentially vulnerable population and by evaluating biosecurity risk factors associated with positive findings. Serum, tracheal, and cloacal swabs were randomly collected from 262 birds among 39 registered premises. Analysis indicated bird and flock seroprevalence as 4.2% (11/262 and 23.1% (9/39, respectively. Based on RT-qPCR analysis, none of the samples were found to be positive for AI RNA and evidence of AI hemagglutinin subtypes H5, H7, or H9 were not detected. Although no statistically significant biosecurity associations were identified (p≤0.05, AI seroprevalence was positively associated with exposure to waterfowl, pest control, and location. AI seropositive flocks exposed to waterfowl were 3.14 times as likely to be AI seropositive than those not exposed (p = 0.15. AI seropositive flocks that did not use pest control were 2.5 times as likely to be AI seropositive compared to those that did and AI seropositive flocks located in the Northern region of Maryland were 2.8 times as likely to be AI seropositive than those that were located elsewhere.

  15. Public risk perception of food additives and food scares. The case in Suzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Linhai; Zhong, Yingqi; Shan, Lijie; Qin, Wei

    2013-11-01

    This study examined the factors affecting public risk perception of food additive safety and possible resulting food scares using a survey conducted in Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, China. The model was proposed based on literature relating to the role of risk perception and information perception of public purchase intention under food scares. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used for data analysis. The results showed that attitude towards behavior, subjective norm and information perception exerted moderate to high effect on food scares, and the effects were also mediated by risk perceptions of additive safety. Significant covariance was observed between attitudes toward behavior, subjective norm and information perception. Establishing an effective mechanism of food safety risk communication, releasing information of government supervision on food safety in a timely manner, curbing misleading media reports on public food safety risk, and enhancing public knowledge of the food additives are key to the development and implementation of food safety risk management policies by the Chinese government.

  16. Consumer familiarity with foods and the perception of risks and benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, A.R.H.; Frewer, L.J.

    2009-01-01

    Differences in familiarity with food products may influence how information about the risks and benefits about foods is used in forming risk and benefit perceptions. In two experimental studies, the risk and benefit perceptions of student participants, for four foods (familiar or unfamiliar) were

  17. Effects of Positive Affect on Risk Perceptions in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Claudia M.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.

    2011-01-01

    Affective influences may play a key role in adolescent risk taking, but have rarely been studied. Using an audiovisual method of affect induction, two experimental studies examined the effect of positive affect on risk perceptions in adolescence and young adulthood. Outcomes were risk perceptions regarding drinking alcohol, smoking a cigarette,…

  18. Preparing for Local Adaptation: Understanding Flood Risk Perceptions in Pittsburgh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klima, K.; Wong-Parodi, G.

    2015-12-01

    The City of Pittsburgh experiences numerous floods every year. Aging and insufficient infrastructure contribute to flash floods and to over 20 billion gallons of combined sewer overflows annually, contaminating Pittsburgh's streets, basements, and waterways. Climate change is expected to further exacerbate this problem by causing more intense and more frequent extreme precipitation events in Western Pennsylvania. For a stormwater adaptation plan to be implemented effectively, the City will need informed public support. One way to achieve public understanding and support is through effective communication of the risks, benefits, and uncertainties of local flooding hazards and adaptation methods. In order to develop these communications effectively, the city and its partners will need to know what knowledge and attitudes the residents of Pittsburgh already hold about flood risks. Here we seek to (1) identify Pittsburgh residents' knowledge level, risk perception and attitudes towards flooding and storm water management, and (2) pre-test communications meant to inform and empower Pittsburghers about flood risks and adaptation strategies. We conduct a city-wide survey of 10,000 Pittsburgh renters and homeowners from four life situations: high risk, above poverty; high-risk, below poverty; low risk, above poverty; and low-risk, below poverty. Mixed media recruitment strategies (online and paper-based solicitations guided/organized by community organizations) assist in reaching all subpopulations. Preliminary results suggest participants know what stormwater runoff is, but have a weak understanding of how stormwater interacts with natural and built systems. Furthermore, although participants have a good understanding of the difference between green and gray infrastructure, this does not translate into a change in their willingness to pay for green infrastructure adaptation. This suggests additional communications about flood risks and adaptation strategies.

  19. Public Perception of Climate Risk: The Case of Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskaki, Asimina; Tsermenidis, Konstantinos

    2015-04-01

    Climate change is generally considered as one of the greatest challenges our world is facing. In the case of Greece climatic change seems to be associated with sea level rise, increase in temperature, variation in precipitation patterns, and extreme weather events. As a result of climate pattern changes a series of consequences are expected in areas involving build environment, infrastructures, health and various sectors of the economy. Even though climate change is probably going to affect Greece in terms of human welfare and economic growth, public perception and attitude do not always identify it as the most important, amongst others, environmental area of concern, or compared to various socio-economic issues. Considering that topics related to climate change involve a certain degree of uncertainty public perception seems to be important when dealing with adaptation strategies to manage or prevent risks from climate change impact and therefore people's reaction to risks seem to be an issue of great importance in future policy planning and implementation. The key issue of this paper is to investigate and analyse public perception in Greece as regards to climate change risk. Through a questionnaire survey this research investigates people's understanding, specific knowledge, opinion, awareness, emotions, behavior with regards to climate change risks and their willingness to pay in order to minimize or prevent risk. In addition, it examines people's willingness to alter current lifestyle and adapt to a changing climate. The information derived from survey data concern the topics and the perceived importance of the causes of the climate change between certain groups of people; the analysis of the data is focused on the correlation between perceived risk and knowledge about the issues involved. Rather than applying a specific technique extensively, we choose to deploy a number of methodologies with which we are able to draw different aspects from the data. To this

  20. Influenza in hospitalized children in Ireland in the pandemic period and the 2010/2011 season: risk factors for paediatric intensive-care-unit admission.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rebolledo, J

    2013-11-11

    SUMMARY Influenza causes significant morbidity and mortality in children. This study\\'s objectives were to describe influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 during the pandemic, to compare it with circulating influenza in 2010\\/2011, and to identify risk factors for severe influenza defined as requiring admission to a paediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Children hospitalized with influenza during the pandemic were older, and more likely to have received antiviral therapy than children hospitalized during the 2010\\/2011 season. In 2010\\/2011, only one child admitted to a PICU with underlying medical conditions had been vaccinated. The risk of severe illness in the pandemic was higher in females and those with underlying conditions. In 2010\\/2011, infection with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 compared to other influenza viruses was a significant risk factor for severe disease. An incremental relationship was found between the number of underlying conditions and PICU admission. These findings highlight the importance of improving low vaccination uptake and increasing the use of antivirals in vulnerable children.

  1. Impact of perioperative RSV or influenza infection on length of stay and risk of unplanned ICU admission in children: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fackler James C

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children with viral respiratory infections who undergo general anesthesia are at increased risk of respiratory complications. We investigated the impact of RSV and influenza infection on perioperative outcomes in children undergoing general anesthesia. Methods We performed a retrospective case-control study. All patients under the age of 18 years who underwent general anesthesia at our institution with confirmed RSV or influenza infection diagnosed within 24 hours following induction between October 2002 and September 2008 were identified. Controls were randomly selected and were matched by surgical procedure, age, and time of year in a ratio of three controls per case. The primary outcome was postoperative length of stay (LOS. Results Twenty-four patients with laboratory-confirmed RSV or influenza who underwent general anesthesia prior to diagnosis of viral infection were identified and matched to 72 controls. Thirteen cases had RSV and 11 had influenza. The median postoperative LOS was three days (intra-quartile range 1 to 8 days for cases and two days (intra-quartile range 1 to 5 days for controls. Patients with influenza had a longer postoperative LOS (p Conclusions Our results suggest that children with evidence of influenza infection undergoing general anesthesia, even in the absence of symptoms previously thought to be associated with a high risk of complications, may have a longer postoperative hospital LOS when compared to matched controls. RSV and influenza infection was associated with an increased risk of unplanned PICU admission.

  2. Climate Change Perceptions of NY State Farmers: The Role of Risk Perceptions and Adaptive Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Bruno; Burnham, Morey; Terracina-Hartman, Carol; Sopchak, Amanda R.; Selfa, Theresa

    2016-12-01

    Climate change is expected to severely impact agricultural practices in many important food-producing regions, including the Northeast United States. Changing climate conditions, such as increases in the amount of rainfall, will require farmers to adapt. Yet, little is known with regard to farmers' perceptions and understandings about climate change, especially in the industrialized country context. This paper aims at overcoming this research limitation, as well as determining the existing contextual, cognitive, and psychological barriers that can prevent adoption of sustainable practices of farmers in New York State. The study is framed within the adaptive capacity and risk perception literature, and is based on a qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews with farmers in 21 farms in two counties in Central New York. The results reveal diverging views about the long-term consequences of climate change. Results also reveal that past experience remains as the most important source of information that influences beliefs and perceptions about climate change, confirming previous research.

  3. Climate Change Perceptions of NY State Farmers: The Role of Risk Perceptions and Adaptive Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Bruno; Burnham, Morey; Terracina-Hartman, Carol; Sopchak, Amanda R; Selfa, Theresa

    2016-12-01

    Climate change is expected to severely impact agricultural practices in many important food-producing regions, including the Northeast United States. Changing climate conditions, such as increases in the amount of rainfall, will require farmers to adapt. Yet, little is known with regard to farmers' perceptions and understandings about climate change, especially in the industrialized country context. This paper aims at overcoming this research limitation, as well as determining the existing contextual, cognitive, and psychological barriers that can prevent adoption of sustainable practices of farmers in New York State. The study is framed within the adaptive capacity and risk perception literature, and is based on a qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews with farmers in 21 farms in two counties in Central New York. The results reveal diverging views about the long-term consequences of climate change. Results also reveal that past experience remains as the most important source of information that influences beliefs and perceptions about climate change, confirming previous research.

  4. Metabolic syndrome as an independent risk factor of hypoxaemia in influenza A (H1N1) 2009 pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijani, Behzad; Pahlevan, Ali Asghar; Qasemi-Barqi, Reza; Jahanihashemi, Hassan

    2016-06-01

    A swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) emerged as a pandemic in 2009. We investigated the association between the overweight, metabolic syndrome and the severity of disease in the confirmed cases in Qazvin province, Iran. The study sample included all patients over 12 years old with confirmed influenza A (H1N1) in the province of Qazvin, Iran, in the 2009 pandemic, excluding pregnant women. To define overweight, sex and age-specific body mass index (BMI) cutoffs recommended by the International Obesity Task Force were used. Metabolic syndrome was defined by ATP III criteria. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify statistically independent predictors of hypoxaemia. Out of 55 confirmed cases, 28 (50.9%) were overweight and 24 (45.3%) were identified as having metabolic syndrome by ATP III criteria. Twenty four patients had hypoxaemia (arterial oxygen saturation below 90%) during the course of the disease. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, pulmonary co-morbidity (OR=9.54; 95% CI, 1.36 to 66.88; p= 0.023) and the metabolic syndrome (OR=18.66; 95% CI, 1.60 to 217.47; p= 0.019) were revealed to be independent risk factors for hypoxaemia in influenza A (H1N1) pdm09. The results of the present study reveal the role of the metabolic syndrome on the severity of influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 infection.

  5. Predation Risk Perception, Food Density and Conspecific Cues Shape Foraging Decisions in a Tropical Lizard

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drakeley, Maximilian; Lapiedra, Oriol; Kolbe, Jason J

    2015-01-01

    .... We presented male lizards with foraging opportunities to test how the presence of conspecifics, predation-risk perception, the abundance of food, and interactions among these factors determines...

  6. Perception of nurses regarding risk classification in emergency care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lúcia Mottin Duro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess nurses’ perception regarding the risk classification in emergency care units. It is a descriptive study that used a qualitative approach and that was conducted with 55 nurses from emergency care units in the south of Brazil. Data were collected between July and October, 2011, through open questions, answered in writing. The data collected were submitted to the thematic analysis technique. Results indicate that the risk classification contributes to the organization of the service flow provided to patients, intervening in severe cases and preventing sequelae. Difficulties were described, such as: inadequate physical installations, overcrowding, disagreement in the definition of priorities among doctors and nurses and lack of articulation between the emergency care network and basic health care. It is highlighted the need to improve the physical structure, the quantity of human resources and the implementation of public policies to overcome these challenges.

  7. [Operational aspects of risk perception in the electromagnetic fields exposition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennarola, E; Barletta, R; Quarto, E; Pennarola, R

    2007-01-01

    The increase of electromagnetic fields exposition is being associated with the increase of risk perception in the people exposed due to the uncertainty of the biological and sanitary effects. Research is being carried out on the symptomatology shown by the 45 people living near power-lines in the Benevento area and consequently exposed to electromagnetic fields. The measure of the magnetic and electric field was in the normal range while the people showed most symptoms in the subjective and behavioural sphere. The research findings suggest that risk assessement should take into account the subjectivity of the people exposed as shown in the special questionnaires with the aim of reducing the subjective and behavioural symptomatology for developing a new environmental medicine.

  8. Perception of risks by opinion leaders 2011; 2011 Perception des risques par des leaders d'opinion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The authors report a survey made just after the Fukushima accident on a panel of opinion leaders (belonging to political, economical or media sector) in order to compare their perception of risks with that of the public. The questions addressed the perception of risks, the role of scientific experts, the usefulness and breaks on the diffusion of expertise results, the perception of pluralist bodies, and the Fukushima accident. The answers are analysed and discussed with respect to fifteen hazardous situations, to their opinion of expertise, and to their opinion on safety audit and information

  9. Information used in the decision-making process regarding influenza vaccination policy: perceptions of stakeholders in France and the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, M.L.; Perrier, L.; Paget, J.; Mosnier, A.; Buthion, V.; Cohen, J.M.; Späth, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To minimize the medical and societal impact of influenza, most WHO countries recommend seasonal vaccination in targeted populations; however, little is known about the decision-making procedures at a country-level. In Europe, the Netherlands has the highest rate of influenza vaccination

  10. Exposure Knowledge and Risk Perception of RF EMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenstein, Frederik; Wiedemann, Peter M.; Varsier, Nadège

    2015-01-01

    The presented study is part of the EU-Project Low EMF Exposure Future Networks (LEXNET), which deals among other things with the issue of whether a reduction of the radiofrequency (RF) electro-magnetic fields (EMF) exposure will result in more acceptance of wireless communication networks in the public sphere. We assume that the effects of any reduction of EMF exposure will depend on the subjective link between exposure perception and risk perception (RP). Therefore we evaluated respondents’ RP of different RF EMF sources and their subjective knowledge about various exposure characteristics with regard to their impact on potential health risks. The results show that participants are more concerned about base stations than about all other RF EMF sources. Concerning the subjective exposure knowledge the results suggest that people have a quite appropriate impact model. The question how RF EMF RP is actually affected by the knowledge about the various exposure characteristics was tested in a linear regression analysis. The regression indicates that these features – except distance – do influence people’s general RF EMF RP. In addition, we analyzed the effect of the quality of exposure knowledge on RF EMF RP of various sources. The results show a tendency that better exposure knowledge leads to higher RP, especially for mobile phones. The study provides empirical support for models of the relationships between exposure perception and RP. It is not the aim to extrapolate these findings to the whole population because the samples are not exactly representative for the general public in the participating countries. PMID:25629026

  11. Health risks occurring when color is percepted under led lighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Kaptsov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with problems of color perception under LED lighting. We revealed that inadequate perception of a signal color by a driver led to greater risks of transport accidents. We reviewed both Jung-Helmholtz three-color hypothesis and a modern one based on fiber-optical approach to functioning of "Mueller cells and cones" system. We made an attempt to explain a number of effects related to visibility curves and time delays when defining color of light signals. Our research on assessing influence exerted by LED lighting on functional state and working capacity of railway workers during which we applied occupational selection techniques revealed negative changes. We proved there was a decrease in functional resistance to color sense between red and green signals as well as longer response time for complicated sight-motor reaction and significant decrease in readiness to emergency actions (resistance to monotony in examined individuals. The article also contains data on time peculiarities which are characteristic for defining signals color in relation to red signal (650 nm. We showed that when red color LEDs with wave length much shorter than 650 nm were used in signaling devices it caused risks of inadequate color detection, longer reaction to inhibiting signals, and greater possibility of transport accidents and negative events in everyday life. These peculiarities should be taken into account when designing traffic lights and other signaling devices which provide transport safety. We also proved that signaling traffic lights for transport systems should be designed allowing for physiology of color perception by a human visual analyzer; application of LEDs with wave length shorter than 650 nm should be absolutely excluded

  12. Perception of the risk to electromagnetic RF fields in INMA-Gipuzkoa cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Gallastegi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Perception of environmental risks to the population is a priority issue for the bodies and administrations responsible for managing them. There are few studies on the perception of the risk to RF, but all of them report high levels of concern. This study describes and analyzes the RF risk perception of mothers belonging to the INMA-Gipuzkoa project.Data on perception were collected by means of two questionnaires given to mothers in two different periods. During pregnancy, 625 mothers chose the five relevant environmental issues in their place of residence from a list of 16. When their children were 8, 386 mothers rated, on a scale from 0 to 10, their perception of their levels of exposure to RF and the health risk derived from such exposure.During pregnancy, 31.8 % of mothers chose proximity to RF antennas as one of the 5 most important environmental problems. When their children were 8, 98.0 % and 90.3 % of women reported medium or high perception values (between 5 and 10 regarding exposure and health risk, respectively. A moderate correlation was found between exposure perception and risk perception (0.5. There is no association between RF exposure perception and actual levels measured inside homes.Knowing the factors associated with the perception of risks by the population will be useful to manage them properly.

  13. Risk perception and public concerns of electromagnetic waves from cellular phones in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyunghee; Kim, Hae-Joon; Song, Dae Jong; Cho, Yong Min; Choi, Jae Wook

    2014-05-01

    In this study, the difference between the risk perception of electromagnetic waves from cellular phones and the risk perception of other factors such as environment and food was analyzed. The cause of the difference in the psychological and social factors that affect the group with high risk perception of electromagnetic waves was also analyzed. A questionnaire survey on the risk perception of electromagnetic waves from cellular phones was carried out on 1001 subjects (men and women) over the age of 20. In the group with high risk perception of electromagnetic waves from cellular phones, women had higher risk perception than men. Logistic regression analysis, where the group with high risk perception of electromagnetic waves and the group with low risk perception were used as dependent variables, indicated that the risk perception of electromagnetic waves in women was 1.815 times statistically significantly higher than the risk perception of men (95% CI: 1.340-2.457). Also, high risk perception of electromagnetic waves from cellular phones was observed when the subjects considered that they had more personal knowledge (OR: 1.416, 95% CI: 1.216-1.648), that the seriousness of the risk to future generations was high (OR: 1.410, 95% CI: 1.234-1.611), and their outrage for the occurrence of accidents related to electromagnetic waves was high (OR: 1.460, 95% CI: 1.264-1.686). The results of this study need to be sufficiently considered and reflected in designing the risk communication strategies and communication methods for the preventive measures and advice on electromagnetic waves from cellular phones. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Pilots' perception of risks and hazards in general aviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hare, D

    1990-07-01

    A sample of licensed pilots completed the Aeronautical Risk Judgment Questionnaire (ARJQ) which was developed to obtain data on pilots' perceptions of their abilities, willingness to take risks, hazard awareness, and judgments of the risks of general aviation. A subset of these subjects was tested on a computerised test of flight decision-making involving a proposed VFR flight in marginal weather conditions. Results from the ARJQ indicate relatively low levels of risk and hazard awareness combined with a generally optimistic self-appraisal of abilities by this sample of general aviation pilots. Younger subjects (under 30) were found to rate the likelihood of being involved in an accident more highly than did older pilots. Experienced pilots obtained higher scores on a measure of "personal invulnerability" from factors commonly associated with accidents. This does not appear to be due simply to overconfidence in their abilities, since it was the younger and less experienced pilots who held the most unrealistically optimistic appraisals of their ability. Pilots who proceeded with the computerised flight rate themselves as having a greater willingness to take risks, and were likely to be younger and have higher total hours than those who rejected the flight. They were also found to have significantly higher scores on the measure of "personal invulnerability." The results are discussed in relation to previous epidemiological findings and possible safety prevention strategies.

  15. Accident history, risk perception and traffic safe behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngueutsa, Robert; Kouabenan, Dongo Rémi

    2017-09-01

    This study clarifies the associations between accident history, perception of the riskiness of road travel and traffic safety behaviours by taking into account the number and severity of accidents experienced. A sample of 525 road users in Cameroon answered a questionnaire comprising items on perception of risk, safe behaviour and personal accident history. Participants who reported involvement in more than three accidents or involvement in a severe accident perceived road travel as less risky and also reported behaving less safely compared with those involved in fewer, or less severe accidents. The results have practical implications for the prevention of traffic accidents. Practitioner Summary: The associations between accident history, perceived risk of road travel and safe behaviour were investigated using self-report questionnaire data. Participants involved in more than three accidents, or in severe accidents, perceived road travel as less risky and also reported more unsafe behaviour compared with those involved in fewer, or less severe accidents. Campaigns targeting people with a less serious, less extensive accident history should aim to increase awareness of hazards and the potential severity of their consequences, as well as emphasising how easy it is to take the recommended preventive actions. Campaigns targeting those involved in more frequent accidents, and survivors of serious accidents, should address feelings of invulnerability and helplessness.

  16. Zoonotic disease risk perceptions in the British veterinary profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Charlotte; Bettridge, Judy; McMaster, Fiona

    2017-01-01

    In human and veterinary medicine, reducing the risk of occupationally-acquired infections relies on effective infection prevention and control practices (IPCs). In veterinary medicine, zoonoses present a risk to practitioners, yet little is known about how these risks are understood and how this translates into health protective behaviour. This study aimed to explore risk perceptions within the British veterinary profession and identify motivators and barriers to compliance with IPCs. A cross-sectional study was conducted using veterinary practices registered with the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons. Here we demonstrate that compliance with IPCs is influenced by more than just knowledge and experience, and understanding of risk is complex and multifactorial. Out of 252 respondents, the majority were not concerned about the risk of zoonoses (57.5%); however, a considerable proportion (34.9%) was. Overall, 44.0% of respondents reported contracting a confirmed or suspected zoonoses, most frequently dermatophytosis (58.6%). In veterinary professionals who had previous experience of managing zoonotic cases, time or financial constraints and a concern for adverse animal reactions were not perceived as barriers to use of personal protective equipment (PPE). For those working in large animal practice, the most significant motivator for using PPE was concerns over liability. When assessing responses to a range of different "infection control attitudes", veterinary nurses tended to have a more positive perspective, compared with veterinary surgeons. Our results demonstrate that IPCs are not always adhered to, and factors influencing motivators and barriers to compliance are not simply based on knowledge and experience. Educating veterinary professionals may help improve compliance to a certain extent, however increased knowledge does not necessarily equate to an increase in risk-mitigating behaviour. This highlights that the construction of risk is complex and

  17. Hygiene perception changes during the influenza A H1N1 pandemic in Germany: incorporating the results of two cross-sectional telephone surveys 2008–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The federal campaign Wir gegen Viren [Us against viruses] promoted hygiene in Germany during the influenza A H1N1 pandemic in 2009. The intervention aimed to encourage people to protect themselves against respiratory infections by simple means of hygiene behaviour. Quantitative research was carried out to outline changes in hygiene perception of the population over time, and to find out whether the potential hygiene perception changes were consistent to the federal campaign about hygiene or not. Methods To determine changes in the hygiene perception of the population, two cross-sectional telephone surveys were held, each one with n = 2006 participants. The initial survey was carried out before the influenza A H1N1 pandemic in calendar week 49–51 in 2008 and the second in week 48 in 2009 directly after the peak of the pandemic in Germany. The questionnaire contained indicators about perceived hand hygiene efficacy, preference for coughing into the sleeve, propensity for presenteeism while showing symptoms of a cold and acceptance of hygiene masks. Results The proportion of people who perceive the efficacy of hand washing as “very good” increased significantly from 50.9% in 2008 to 61.1% in 2009. The proportion of people who perceive coughing into the sleeve as the best way to cough increased even more dramatically from 4.8% in 2008 to 38.3% in 2009. In contrast the propensity for presenteeism decreased significantly: The proportion of people who state that they always report to work while they show symptoms of a cold decreased from 50.8% in 2008 to 40.9% in 2009. Acceptance of hygiene masks has not changed significantly from 2008 to 2009. Conclusions The results revealed changes in hygiene perception during influenza A H1N1 pandemic in Germany. The changes we found are in accordance with the hygiene recommendations given by the federal campaign Wir gegen Viren [Us against viruses]. Results can constitute a practical benchmark for future research

  18. Hygiene perception changes during the influenza A H1N1 pandemic in Germany: incorporating the results of two cross-sectional telephone surveys 2008-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meilicke, Gerald; Riedmann, Klaus; Biederbick, Walter; Müller, Ute; Wierer, Traugott; Bartels, Cornelius

    2013-10-16

    The federal campaign Wir gegen Viren [Us against viruses] promoted hygiene in Germany during the influenza A H1N1 pandemic in 2009. The intervention aimed to encourage people to protect themselves against respiratory infections by simple means of hygiene behaviour. Quantitative research was carried out to outline changes in hygiene perception of the population over time, and to find out whether the potential hygiene perception changes were consistent to the federal campaign about hygiene or not. To determine changes in the hygiene perception of the population, two cross-sectional telephone surveys were held, each one with n = 2006 participants. The initial survey was carried out before the influenza A H1N1 pandemic in calendar week 49-51 in 2008 and the second in week 48 in 2009 directly after the peak of the pandemic in Germany. The questionnaire contained indicators about perceived hand hygiene efficacy, preference for coughing into the sleeve, propensity for presenteeism while showing symptoms of a cold and acceptance of hygiene masks. The proportion of people who perceive the efficacy of hand washing as "very good" increased significantly from 50.9% in 2008 to 61.1% in 2009. The proportion of people who perceive coughing into the sleeve as the best way to cough increased even more dramatically from 4.8% in 2008 to 38.3% in 2009. In contrast the propensity for presenteeism decreased significantly: The proportion of people who state that they always report to work while they show symptoms of a cold decreased from 50.8% in 2008 to 40.9% in 2009. Acceptance of hygiene masks has not changed significantly from 2008 to 2009. The results revealed changes in hygiene perception during influenza A H1N1 pandemic in Germany. The changes we found are in accordance with the hygiene recommendations given by the federal campaign Wir gegen Viren [Us against viruses]. Results can constitute a practical benchmark for future research about hygiene perception and hygiene promotion

  19. Surveillance of low pathogenic avian influenza in layer chickens: risk factors, transmission and early detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzales Rojas, J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIv) of H5 and H7 subtypes are able to mutate to highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIv), which are lethal for most poultry species, can cause large epidemics and are a serious threat to public health. Thus, circulation of these LPAIv in poultry is

  20. Optimal Allocation of Pandemic Influenza Vaccine Depends on Age, Risk and Timing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mylius, S.D.; Hagenaars, T.H.J.; Lugner, A.K.; Wallinga, J.

    2008-01-01

    The limited production capacity for vaccines raises the question what the best strategy is for allocating the vaccine to mitigate an influenza pandemic. We developed an age-structured model for spread of an influenza pandemic and validated it against observations from the Asian flu pandemic. Two str

  1. RISK PERCEPTION AND RISK MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES BY FARMER S IN AGRICULTURE SECTOR OF PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binesh SARWAR

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study focuses on the risk perception and risk management strategy used by Pakistani farmers in agriculture sector. Agriculture activities are the basic source of revenue and play an important role in the growth of its GDP. The sector helps to provide the gainful employment to a large percentage of population especially in Pakistan. Farmers are always operating under risky conditions. They have to face many risks and uncertainties arising from natural, economical and social environments. The more the farmers would learn about risk possibilities and risk management tools available to them, the better they will be in a situation to cope with it. The basic purpose of research is to provide the pragmatic insights that how farmers in Pakistan perceive and manage the risk. Farmers in the districts of south Punjab will be targeted through conducting detailed interviews and using questionnaires by asking questions about specific issues. Moreover, literature will be reviewed for its application in risk perception and management by farmers. Research findings can be helpful in developing an integrated risk management strategy framework, which will prove beneficial for agriculture sector in Pakistan.

  2. Psychological Vulnerability and Earthquake Risk Perception in Bucharest/Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo Cretu, Zeno; Armas, Iuliana; Stanciugelu, Irina

    2010-05-01

    The importance of studying the relationship with the natural hazard events from a psycho-social perspective is fundamental by the experience with past disasters as much as by the research in the field that proved that the people's psychologic structures may constitute a starting point for risk reduction. People's psycho-behavioural patterns contain conscious or unconscious references to the environmental risk, thus creating certain adjustment strategies and mechanisms, with a certain degree of psychological vulnerability. In modern man's case, the high level of awareness in front of natural dangers, doubled by the perception of the environment's unsafety, experienced as a lack of control, brings to attention nowadays the problematic of the analysis of natural risk perception, as a main factor in the adjustment of human communities' capacity of adapting to the natural environment's dynamics. The major objective of this present work is, based on the development of an efficient evaluation methodology, to identify specific relational patterns to seismic risk in Bucharest, function the characteristics of the urban environment, the social, economical and psychological vulnerability, with results that can be applied for disaster management. For explaining human reactions and the way in which they perceive and evaluate the psychological resources, on a daily basis, but also in risk situations (earthquakes), a multi-modal questionnaire was conceived through qualitative methods (a focus group, along with experts from the Public and Administrative Sciences National School, Risk Communication Center). The questionnaire was structured on a 49 items sequence, in which were included different type of questions (with single or multiple answers, open questions etc), and also questions using different scaling methods. The items caught cognitive elements (expectations, anticipations and negative or positive judgments regarding risk element), affective (feelings) and behavioral

  3. Mathematical modeling of postcoinfection with influenza A virus and Streptococcus pneumoniae, with implications for pneumonia and COPD-risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng YH

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Yi-Hsien Cheng,1 Shu-Han You,2 Yi-Jun Lin,3 Szu-Chieh Chen,4,5 Wei-Yu Chen,6 Wei-Chun Chou,2 Nan-Hung Hsieh,7 Chung-Min Liao3 1Institute of Computational Comparative Medicine (ICCM, Department of Anatomy and Physiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, USA; 2National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, 3Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 4Department of Public Health, 5Department of Family and Community Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, 6Department of Biomedical Science and Environmental Biology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 7Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA Background: The interaction between influenza and pneumococcus is important for understanding how coinfection may exacerbate pneumonia. Secondary pneumococcal pneumonia associated with influenza infection is more likely to increase respiratory morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to assess exacerbated inflammatory effects posed by secondary pneumococcal pneumonia, given prior influenza infection. Materials and methods: A well-derived mathematical within-host dynamic model of coinfection with influenza A virus and Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP integrated with dose–response relationships composed of previously published mouse experimental data and clinical studies was implemented to study potentially exacerbated inflammatory responses in pneumonia based on a probabilistic approach. Results: We found that TNFα is likely to be the most sensitive biomarker reflecting inflammatory response during coinfection among three explored cytokines. We showed that the worst inflammatory effects would occur at day 7 SP coinfection, with risk probability of 50% (likely to develop severe

  4. Evaluation of Risk Perception and Risk-Comparison Information Regarding Dietary Radionuclides after the 2011 Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Michio; Nakatani, Jun; Oki, Taikan

    2016-01-01

    In the wake of the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident, to facilitate evidence-based risk communication we need to understand radiation risk perception and the effectiveness of risk-comparison information. We measured and characterized perceptions of dread risks and unknown risks regarding dietary radionuclides in residents of Fukushima, Tokyo, and Osaka to identify the primary factors among location, evacuation experience, gender, age, employment status, absence/presence of spouse, children and grandchildren, educational background, humanities/science courses, smoking habits, and various types of trustworthy information sources. We then evaluated the effects of these factors and risk-comparison information on multiple outcomes, including subjective and objective understanding, perceived magnitude of risk, perceived accuracy of information, backlash against information, and risk acceptance. We also assessed how risk-comparison information affected these multiple outcomes for people with high risk perception. Online questionnaires were completed by people (n = 9249) aged from 20 to 69 years in the three prefectures approximately 5 years after the accident. We gave each participant one of 15 combinations of numerical risk data and risk-comparison information, including information on standards, smoking-associated risk, and cancer risk, in accordance with Covello's guidelines. Dread-risk perception among Fukushima residents with no experience of evacuation was much lower than that in Osaka residents, whereas evacuees had strikingly higher dread-risk perception, irrespective of whether their evacuation had been compulsory or voluntary. We identified location (distance from the nuclear power station), evacuation experience, and trust of central government as primary factors. Location (including evacuation experience) and trust of central government were significantly associated with the multiple outcomes above. Only information on "cancer risk from

  5. The affect heuristic, mortality salience, and risk: domain-specific effects of a natural disaster on risk-benefit perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Västfjäll, Daniel; Peters, Ellen; Slovic, Paul

    2014-12-01

    We examine how affect and accessible thoughts following a major natural disaster influence everyday risk perception. A survey was conducted in the months following the 2004 south Asian Tsunami in a representative sample of the Swedish population (N = 733). Respondents rated their experienced affect as well as the perceived risk and benefits of various everyday decision domains. Affect influenced risk and benefit perception in a way that could be predicted from both the affect-congruency and affect heuristic literatures (increased risk perception and stronger risk-benefit correlations). However, in some decision domains, self-regulation goals primed by the natural disaster predicted risk and benefit ratings. Together, these results show that affect, accessible thoughts and motivational states influence perceptions of risks and benefits.

  6. Novel reassortant influenza viruses between pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and other influenza viruses pose a risk to public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Weili; Wang, Feibing; Dong, Bin; Ou, Changbo; Meng, Demei; Liu, Jinhua; Fan, Zhen-Chuan

    2015-12-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) is characterized by eight single-stranded, negative sense RNA segments, which allows for gene reassortment among different IAV subtypes when they co-infect a single host cell simultaneously. Genetic reassortment is an important way to favor the evolution of influenza virus. Novel reassortant virus may pose a pandemic among humans. In history, three human pandemic influenza viruses were caused by genetic reassortment between avian, human and swine influenza viruses. Since 2009, pandemic (H1N1) 2009 (pdm/09 H1N1) influenza virus composed of two swine influenza virus genes highlighted the genetic reassortment again. Due to wide host species and high transmission of the pdm/09 H1N1 influenza virus, many different avian, human or swine influenza virus subtypes may reassert with it to generate novel reassortant viruses, which may result in a next pandemic among humans. So, it is necessary to understand the potential threat of current reassortant viruses between the pdm/09 H1N1 and other influenza viruses to public health. This study summarized the status of the reassortant viruses between the pdm/09 H1N1 and other influenza viruses of different species origins in natural and experimental conditions. The aim of this summarization is to facilitate us to further understand the potential threats of novel reassortant influenza viruses to public health and to make effective prevention and control strategies for these pathogens.

  7. HIV Risk and Perceptions of Masculinity among Young Black MSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Errol L.; Bogart, Laura M.; Smith, Katherine C.; Malebranche, David J.; Ellen, Jonathan; Schuster, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Young Black men who have sex with men (MSM) have among the highest rates of HIV infection in the US. Although reported rates of unprotected anal intercourse are similar to MSM of other racial/ethnic backgrounds, young Black MSM (YBMSM) aged 15–22 are 5 times more likely than comparably aged white MSM to be HIV-infected. We explored contextual social-environmental factors that may influence how YBMSM assess risk, choose partners, and make decisions about condom use. Methods We analyzed semi-structured interviews with 35 YBMSM (18–24) in New York City, upstate NY, and Atlanta. We used structured analytic coding based on a theoretical scheme that emerged from the data. Results Perception of masculinity was the primary contextual factor influencing partner selection, risk assessment, and condom decision-making. Four primary themes emerged: 1) greater preference for partners perceived as masculine; 2) discomfort with allowing men perceived as feminine to be the insertive partner in anal intercourse; 3) a power dynamic such that partners perceived as more masculine made condom-use decisions within the dyad; and 4) use of potential partners’ perceived masculinity to assess HIV risk. Conclusions Perceived masculinity may play a significant role in HIV risk for YBMSM and may be an important concept to consider in prevention strategies directed towards this population. PMID:22325136

  8. Perception on the Risk of the Sonora River Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ignacio Aragonés

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study applies the “psychometric paradigm” of risk perception to the heavy mineral spill in the Sonora River (Mexico. A total of 241 inhabitants of the polluted area with a mean age of 46.3 years participated in the study, completing an interview questionnaire at the onset of the disaster. The results allow us to establish a profile of the 18 characteristics comprising the model and a multiple regression analysis shows that some characteristics of the dimensions of dread risk and unknown risk explain a percentage of the magnitude of the perceived risk. In addition, the behaviors recommended by the authorities were classified by the participants according to their estimated usefulness. Significant differences were observed. Avoiding contact with the water was considered the most effective, followed by recommendations on the use of the water, with actions related to the environment and how to avoid pollution being considered the least effective. In sum, the strategy deployed allows us to observe how the victims perceive the disaster and organize the behaviors proposed by the authorities.

  9. Sound Levels and Risk Perceptions of Music Students During Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Matilde A; Amorim, Marta; Silva, Manuela V; Neves, Paula; Sousa, Aida; Inácio, Octávio

    2015-01-01

    It is well recognized that professional musicians are at risk of hearing damage due to the exposure to high sound pressure levels during music playing. However, it is important to recognize that the musicians' exposure may start early in the course of their training as students in the classroom and at home. Studies regarding sound exposure of music students and their hearing disorders are scarce and do not take into account important influencing variables. Therefore, this study aimed to describe sound level exposures of music students at different music styles, classes, and according to the instrument played. Further, this investigation attempted to analyze the perceptions of students in relation to exposure to loud music and consequent health risks, as well as to characterize preventive behaviors. The results showed that music students are exposed to high sound levels in the course of their academic activity. This exposure is potentiated by practice outside the school and other external activities. Differences were found between music style, instruments, and classes. Tinnitus, hyperacusis, diplacusis, and sound distortion were reported by the students. However, students were not entirely aware of the health risks related to exposure to high sound pressure levels. These findings reflect the importance of starting intervention in relation to noise risk reduction at an early stage, when musicians are commencing their activity as students.

  10. Which Type of Risk Information to Use for Whom? Moderating Role of Outcome-Relevant Involvement in the Effects of Statistical and Exemplified Risk Information on Risk Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Jiyeon; Jeong, Se-Hoon; Hwang, Yoori

    2017-04-01

    The extant empirical research examining the effectiveness of statistical and exemplar-based health information is largely inconsistent. Under the premise that the inconsistency may be due to an unacknowledged moderator (O'Keefe, 2002), this study examined a moderating role of outcome-relevant involvement (Johnson & Eagly, 1989) in the effects of statistical and exemplified risk information on risk perception. Consistent with predictions based on elaboration likelihood model (Petty & Cacioppo, 1984), findings from an experiment (N = 237) concerning alcohol consumption risks showed that statistical risk information predicted risk perceptions of individuals with high, rather than low, involvement, while exemplified risk information predicted risk perceptions of those with low, rather than high, involvement. Moreover, statistical risk information contributed to negative attitude toward drinking via increased risk perception only for highly involved individuals, while exemplified risk information influenced the attitude through the same mechanism only for individuals with low involvement. Theoretical and practical implications for health risk communication are discussed.

  11. Evaluation of Risk Perception and Risk-Comparison Information Regarding Dietary Radionuclides after the 2011 Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Michio; Nakatani, Jun; Oki, Taikan

    2016-01-01

    In the wake of the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident, to facilitate evidence-based risk communication we need to understand radiation risk perception and the effectiveness of risk-comparison information. We measured and characterized perceptions of dread risks and unknown risks regarding dietary radionuclides in residents of Fukushima, Tokyo, and Osaka to identify the primary factors among location, evacuation experience, gender, age, employment status, absence/presence of spouse, children and grandchildren, educational background, humanities/science courses, smoking habits, and various types of trustworthy information sources. We then evaluated the effects of these factors and risk-comparison information on multiple outcomes, including subjective and objective understanding, perceived magnitude of risk, perceived accuracy of information, backlash against information, and risk acceptance. We also assessed how risk-comparison information affected these multiple outcomes for people with high risk perception. Online questionnaires were completed by people (n = 9249) aged from 20 to 69 years in the three prefectures approximately 5 years after the accident. We gave each participant one of 15 combinations of numerical risk data and risk-comparison information, including information on standards, smoking-associated risk, and cancer risk, in accordance with Covello’s guidelines. Dread-risk perception among Fukushima residents with no experience of evacuation was much lower than that in Osaka residents, whereas evacuees had strikingly higher dread-risk perception, irrespective of whether their evacuation had been compulsory or voluntary. We identified location (distance from the nuclear power station), evacuation experience, and trust of central government as primary factors. Location (including evacuation experience) and trust of central government were significantly associated with the multiple outcomes above. Only information on “cancer risk from

  12. Perceived risk, anxiety, and behavioural responses of the general public during the early phase of the Influenza A (H1N1 pandemic in the Netherlands: results of three consecutive online surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Steenbergen Jim E

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research into risk perception and behavioural responses in case of emerging infectious diseases is still relatively new. The aim of this study was to examine perceptions and behaviours of the general public during the early phase of the Influenza A (H1N1 pandemic in the Netherlands. Methods Two cross-sectional and one follow-up online survey (survey 1, 30 April-4 May; survey 2, 15-19 June; survey 3, 11-20 August 2009. Adults aged 18 years and above participating in a representative Internet panel were invited (survey 1, n = 456; survey 2, n = 478; follow-up survey 3, n = 934. Main outcome measures were 1 time trends in risk perception, feelings of anxiety, and behavioural responses (survey 1-3 and 2 factors associated with taking preventive measures and strong intention to comply with government-advised preventive measures in the future (survey 3. Results Between May and August 2009, the level of knowledge regarding Influenza A (H1N1 increased, while perceived severity of the new flu, perceived self-efficacy, and intention to comply with preventive measures decreased. The perceived reliability of information from the government decreased from May to August (62% versus 45%. Feelings of anxiety decreased from May to June, and remained stable afterwards. From June to August 2009, perceived vulnerability increased and more respondents took preventive measures (14% versus 38%. Taking preventive measures was associated with no children in the household, high anxiety, high self-efficacy, more agreement with statements on avoidance, and paying much attention to media information regarding Influenza A (H1N1. Having a strong intention to comply with government-advised preventive measures in the future was associated with higher age, high perceived severity, high anxiety, high perceived efficacy of measures, high self-efficacy, and finding governmental information to be reliable. Conclusions Decreasing trends over time in perceived

  13. Risk perception of tsunami in the community of Arauco, Chile - a contribution of risk perception to disaster risk management at local level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubisch, M. Sc. Susanne; Edilia Jaque Castillo, Dra.; Braun, JProf. Andreas Ch., ,, Dr.

    2017-04-01

    The research was carried out in the city center of the coastal community of Arauco, Central Chile. The community of Arauco was one of the most affected communities of the tsunami in Chile, the 27th of February 2010. For the data evaluation, the affected inhabitants of the community have been surveyed via standardized questionnaires. Furthermore experts of different fields, amongst others, Disaster Risk Management (DRM), risk education, urban and regional planning, as well as geology have been consulted in form of expert interviews. The results revealed a high risk perception part of the affected community and a weakness of DRM especially at local level, which opens a gap between the evaluation and treatment of risk by experts and risk perception of the affected community. The risk perception of the affected community, here, is predominantly determined by ecological vulnerability, expressed in direct and indirect experience of a tsunami and by institutional vulnerability, expressed among others by a weakness of DRM at local level and a mistrust in responsible institutions for DRM. Due to the institutional vulnerability and the mistrust in responsible institutions we recommend a Community Based Approach (CBA) to strengthen DRM at local level and to take advantage of the high risk perception and knowledge of the affected community. Involving the community in DRM, we assume to close the gap between risk evaluation of experts and risk perception of the inhabitants and to come up with the unique necessities and conditions at local level. Especially in centralized countries, DRM is less effective, because at the one hand, decisions are made distant from the affected communities, so that measures often do not come up with the unique conditions and necessities at local level, and on the other hand measures often do not find acceptance by the affected community. Furthermore centralized DRM is often not effective and quick in response in case of emergency. Another obstacle

  14. Knowledge and Perceptions of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI among Poultry Traders in Live Bird Markets in Bali and Lombok, Indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Kurscheid

    Full Text Available Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI has been prevalent in Indonesia since 2003 causing major losses to poultry production and human deaths. Live bird markets are considered high risk areas due to the density of large numbers of mixed poultry species of unknown disease status. Understanding trader knowledge and perceptions of HPAI and biosecurity is critical to reducing transmission risk and controlling the disease. An interview-administered survey was conducted at 17 live bird markets on the islands of Bali and Lombok in 2008 and 2009. A total of 413 live poultry traders were interviewed. Respondents were mostly male (89% with a mean age of 45 years (range: 19-81. The main source of AI information was TV (78%, although personal communication was also identified to be an important source, particularly among female traders (60% and respondents from Bali (43%. More than half (58% of live poultry traders interviewed knew that infected birds can transmit HPAI viruses but were generally unaware that viruses can be introduced to markets by fomites. Cleaning cages and disposing of sick and dead birds were recognized as the most important steps to prevent the spread of disease by respondents. Two thirds (n = 277 of respondents were unwilling to report sudden or suspicious bird deaths to authorities. Bali vendors perceive biosecurity to be of higher importance than Lombok vendors and are more willing to improve biosecurity within markets than traders in Lombok. Collectors and traders selling large numbers (>214 of poultry, or selling both chickens and ducks, have better knowledge of HPAI transmission and prevention than vendors or traders selling smaller quantities or only one species of poultry. Education was strongly associated with better knowledge but did not influence positive reporting behavior. Our study reveals that most live poultry traders have limited knowledge of HPAI transmission and prevention and are generally reluctant to report bird

  15. Knowledge and Perceptions of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) among Poultry Traders in Live Bird Markets in Bali and Lombok, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurscheid, Johanna; Millar, Joanne; Abdurrahman, Muktasam; Ambarawati, I Gusti Agung Ayu; Suadnya, Wayan; Yusuf, Ria Puspa; Fenwick, Stanley; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L

    2015-01-01

    Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) has been prevalent in Indonesia since 2003 causing major losses to poultry production and human deaths. Live bird markets are considered high risk areas due to the density of large numbers of mixed poultry species of unknown disease status. Understanding trader knowledge and perceptions of HPAI and biosecurity is critical to reducing transmission risk and controlling the disease. An interview-administered survey was conducted at 17 live bird markets on the islands of Bali and Lombok in 2008 and 2009. A total of 413 live poultry traders were interviewed. Respondents were mostly male (89%) with a mean age of 45 years (range: 19-81). The main source of AI information was TV (78%), although personal communication was also identified to be an important source, particularly among female traders (60%) and respondents from Bali (43%). More than half (58%) of live poultry traders interviewed knew that infected birds can transmit HPAI viruses but were generally unaware that viruses can be introduced to markets by fomites. Cleaning cages and disposing of sick and dead birds were recognized as the most important steps to prevent the spread of disease by respondents. Two thirds (n = 277) of respondents were unwilling to report sudden or suspicious bird deaths to authorities. Bali vendors perceive biosecurity to be of higher importance than Lombok vendors and are more willing to improve biosecurity within markets than traders in Lombok. Collectors and traders selling large numbers (>214) of poultry, or selling both chickens and ducks, have better knowledge of HPAI transmission and prevention than vendors or traders selling smaller quantities or only one species of poultry. Education was strongly associated with better knowledge but did not influence positive reporting behavior. Our study reveals that most live poultry traders have limited knowledge of HPAI transmission and prevention and are generally reluctant to report bird deaths

  16. Differences in Influenza Vaccination Coverage between Adult Immigrants and Italian Citizens at Risk for Influenza-Related Complications: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiani, Massimo; Riccardo, Flavia; Di Napoli, Anteo; Gargiulo, Lidia; Declich, Silvia; Petrelli, Alessio

    2016-01-01

    Background Due to their increased vulnerability, immigrants are considered a priority group for communicable disease prevention and control in Europe. This study aims to compare influenza vaccination coverage (IVC) between regular immigrants and Italian citizens at risk for its complications and evaluate factors affecting differences. Methods Based on data collected by the National Institute of Statistics during a population-based cross-sectional survey conducted in Italy in 2012–2013, we analysed information on 42,048 adult residents (≥ 18 years) at risk for influenza-related complications and with free access to vaccination (elderly residents ≥ 65 years and residents with specific chronic diseases). We compared IVC between 885 regular immigrants and 41,163 Italian citizens using log-binomial models and stratifying immigrants by area of origin and length of stay in Italy (recent: Africa (VCR = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.28–0.85) and recent immigrants (VCR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.43–0.78) showed a significantly different IVC compared to Italian citizens. Conclusions Differences in demographic characteristics, socio-economic conditions and health-services utilization explained the reduced IVC in most long-term immigrants compared to Italian citizens. By contrast, these differences did not explain the reduced IVC in long-term immigrants from Africa and recent immigrants. This suggests that IVC in these sub-groups is affected by other informal barriers (e.g., cultural and linguistic) that need to be investigated to promote effective immunization access strategies. PMID:27832186

  17. Risk perception among women receiving genetic counseling: a population-based follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Ellen M; Sunde, Lone; Johansen, Christoffer;

    2007-01-01

    counseling, compared to a reduction of 5% (p=0.03) and 2% (p=0.01) in Reference Groups I and II, respectively. Risk communicated only in words, inaccurate risk perception at baseline, and presence of a familial mutation appeared to be predictors of inaccurate risk perception 12 months after counseling....... CONCLUSION: This population-based study of women with a family history of breast or ovarian cancer indicates that genetic counseling can help them both to reduce their perceived risk and to achieve a more realistic view of their risk of developing breast cancer. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-null......BACKGROUND: We aimed to explore the impact of genetic counseling on perceived personal lifetime risk of breast cancer, the accuracy of risk perception, and possible predictors of inaccurate risk perception 1 year following counseling. METHODS: We conducted a population-based prospective follow...

  18. Putative human and avian risk factors for avian influenza virus infections in backyard poultry in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheta, Basma M; Fuller, Trevon L; Larison, Brenda; Njabo, Kevin Y; Ahmed, Ahmed Samy; Harrigan, Ryan; Chasar, Anthony; Abdel Aziz, Soad; Khidr, Abdel-Aziz A; Elbokl, Mohamed M; Habbak, Lotfy Z; Smith, Thomas B

    2014-01-10

    Highly pathogenic influenza A virus subtype H5N1 causes significant poultry mortality in the six countries where it is endemic and can also infect humans. Egypt has reported the third highest number of poultry outbreaks (n=1084) globally. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to identify putative risk factors for H5N1 infections in backyard poultry in 16 villages in Damietta, El Gharbia, Fayoum, and Menofia governorates from 2010-2012. Cloacal and tracheal swabs and serum samples from domestic (n=1242) and wild birds (n=807) were tested for H5N1 via RT-PCR and hemagglutination inhibition, respectively. We measured poultry rearing practices with questionnaires (n=306 households) and contact rates among domestic and wild bird species with scan sampling. Domestic birds (chickens, ducks, and geese, n=51) in three governorates tested positive for H5N1 by PCR or serology. A regression model identified a significant correlation between H5N1 in poultry and the practice of disposing of dead poultry and poultry feces in the garbage (F=15.7, p<0.0001). In addition, contact between domestic and wild birds was more frequent in villages where we detected H5N1 in backyard flocks (F=29.5, p<0.0001).

  19. Putative Human and Avian Risk Factors for Avian Influenza Virus Infections in Backyard Poultry in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheta, Basma M.; Fuller, Trevon L.; Larison, Brenda; Njabo, Kevin Y.; Ahmed, Ahmed Samy; Harrigan, Ryan; Chasar, Anthony; Aziz, Soad Abdel; Khidr, Abdel-Aziz A.; Elbokl, Mohamed M.; Habbak, Lotfy Z.; Smith, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    Highly pathogenic influenza A virus subtype H5N1 causes significant poultry mortality in the six countries where it is endemic and can also infect humans. Egypt has reported the third highest number of poultry outbreaks (n=1,084) globally. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to identify putative risk factors for H5N1 infections in backyard poultry in 16 villages in Damietta, El Gharbia, Fayoum, and Menofia governorates from 2010–2012. Cloacal and tracheal swabs and serum samples from domestic (n=1242)and wild birds (n=807) were tested for H5N1 via RT-PCR and hemagglutination inhibition, respectively. We measured poultry rearing practices with questionnaires (n=306 households) and contact rates among domestic and wild bird species with scan sampling. Domestic birds (chickens, ducks, and geese, n = 51) in three governorates tested positive for H5N1 by PCR or serology. A regression model identified a significant correlation between H5N1 in poultry and the practice of disposing of dead poultry and poultry feces in the garbage (F = 15.7, p< 0.0001). In addition, contact between domestic and wild birds was more frequent in villages where we detected H5N1 in backyard flocks (F= 29.5, p< 0.0001). PMID:24315038

  20. Global Warming. Risk Perception and Risk-Mitigating Behavior in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohe, M.; Ikeda, S. [School of Policy Studies, Kwansei Gakuin University (Japan)

    2005-10-15

    Global warming is a major concern for the Japanese public. However, because the influence of global environmental risks, particularly global warming, is long-term and widespread, it seems difficult for the public to recognize it as a familiar and important problem that necessitates firm action. This study attempts to determine the causal structure promoting risk-mitigating behavior with regard to global warming, using Covariance Structure Analysis (CSA) with data from a survey of a subset of the Japanese population. There are four main stages in the process of decision-making for personal actions; concerns and values, risk perception, mitigating behavior intention, and personal actions. Support for environmental policies has three stages: concerns and values, risk perceptions, and mitigating behavior intentions. Our results suggest that improved access to information concerning the risks associated with global warming in particular, and environmental issues in general, will be sufficient to effectively accelerate the public's participation in policy decisions, by translating their intentions for risk-mitigating into practical actions. Increased knowledge through improved access to information should improve the interaction between the public and environmental policy-makers in Japan.

  1. Perceptions and behaviors related to hand hygiene for the prevention of H1N1 influenza transmission among Korean university students during the peak pandemic period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Seon-Ung

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was performed to better assess the perceptions, motivating factors, and behaviors associated with the use of hand washing to prevent H1N1 influenza transmission during the peak pandemic period in Korea. Methods A cross-sectional survey questionnaire was completed by 942 students at a university campus in Suwon, Korea, between December 1 and 8, 2009. The survey included questions regarding individual perceptions, motivating factors, and behaviors associated with hand washing for the prevention of H1N1 influenza transmission. Results Compared to one year prior, 30.3% of participants reported increasing their hand washing frequency. Female students were more likely to practice more frequent hand washing. Women also perceived the effectiveness of hand washing to be lower, and illness severity and personal susceptibility to H1N1 infection to be higher. Study participants who were female (OR: 1.79-3.90 who perceived of hand washing to be effective (OR: 1.34-12.15 and illness severity to be greater (OR: 1.00-3.12 washed their hands more frequently. Conclusions Korean students increased their frequency of hand hygiene practices during the pandemic, with significant gender differences existing in the attitudes and behaviors related to the use of hand hygiene as a means of disease prevention. Here, the factors that affected hand washing behavior were similar to those identified at the beginning of the H1N1 or SARS pandemics, suggesting that public education campaigns regarding hand hygiene are effective in altering individual hand hygiene habits during the peak periods of influenza transmission.

  2. Hazard perception, risk perception, and the need for decontamination by residents exposed to soil pollution: the role of sustainability and the limits of expert knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermoere, Frédéric

    2008-04-01

    This case study examines the hazard and risk perception and the need for decontamination according to people exposed to soil pollution. Using an ecological-symbolic approach (ESA), a multidisciplinary model is developed that draws upon psychological and sociological perspectives on risk perception and includes ecological variables by using data from experts' risk assessments. The results show that hazard perception is best predicted by objective knowledge, subjective knowledge, estimated knowledge of experts, and the assessed risks. However, experts' risk assessments induce an increase in hazard perception only when residents know the urgency of decontamination. Risk perception is best predicted by trust in the risk management. Additionally, need for decontamination relates to hazard perception, risk perception, estimated knowledge of experts, and thoughts about sustainability. In contrast to the knowledge deficit model, objective and subjective knowledge did not significantly relate to risk perception and need for decontamination. The results suggest that residents can make a distinction between hazards in terms of the seriousness of contamination on the one hand, and human health risks on the other hand. Moreover, next to the importance of social determinants of environmental risk perception, this study shows that the output of experts' risk assessments-or the objective risks-can create a hazard awareness rather than an alarming risk consciousness, despite residents' distrust of scientific knowledge.

  3. Risk perception and management in smallholder dairy farming in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebreegziabher, K.; Tadesse Woeldesenbet, T.

    2014-01-01

    Empirical studies on smallholder dairy farmers' risk perceptions and management strategies have still received little attention in agricultural research of developing countries. This study focuses on farmers' risk perception and management strategies of smallholder dairy farms in urban and peri-urba

  4. Adult and Middle School Girls' Perceptions of Risk-Taking Behavior: Implications for School Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Brett Johnson; Garibaldi, Mark

    2013-01-01

    There is an overwhelming disconnect between young adolescent girls and adults, in relationship to perceptions of middle schoolgirl risk taking. This mixed-methods study investigates the differences between adult practitioners and middle school girls' perceptions of risk taking, understanding of consequences, and needs among middle school girls.…

  5. Nutrition-Related Cancer Prevention Cognitions and Behavioral Intentions: Testing the Risk Perception Attitude Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Helen W.; Beckjord, Ellen Burke; Finney Rutten, Lila J.; Hesse, Bradford W.

    2008-01-01

    This study tested whether the risk perception attitude framework predicted nutrition-related cancer prevention cognitions and behavioral intentions. Data from the 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey were analyzed to assess respondents' reported likelihood of developing cancer (risk) and perceptions of whether they could lower their…

  6. Nutrition-Related Cancer Prevention Cognitions and Behavioral Intentions: Testing the Risk Perception Attitude Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Helen W.; Beckjord, Ellen Burke; Finney Rutten, Lila J.; Hesse, Bradford W.

    2008-01-01

    This study tested whether the risk perception attitude framework predicted nutrition-related cancer prevention cognitions and behavioral intentions. Data from the 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey were analyzed to assess respondents' reported likelihood of developing cancer (risk) and perceptions of whether they could lower their…

  7. Safety Politics and Risk Perceptions in Malaysian Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangel, Arne

    Abstract The book deals with the analysis of work hazards and safety in industrial enterprises in Peninsular Malaysia, Southeast Asia. It traces the development of this theme of conflict within the context constituted by state, labour market and labour-management relations in Malaysia. The book...... by the state from Burawoy, Beronius, and Adesina about production politics and social relations in the labour process provides an integrated perspective on individual risk perceptions, safety practices in enterprises, and government regulation. The empirical data were collected during the period 1989...... of the monitoring conducted by the authorities as well as the strategies to counter threats to their legitimacy. The third part of the book deepens the analysis of the enterprise level. Workers' statements about their experience of work hazards are the point of departure for investigating the issue of work hazards...

  8. Can Knowledge Deficit Explain Societal Perception of Climate Change Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, R.; McNeal, K.; Bondell, H.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change literacy efforts have had a rough journey in the past decade. Although scientists have become increasingly convinced about anthropological climate change, change in public opinion has been underwhelming. The unexplained gap between scientific consensus and public opinion has made this topic an important research area in the realm of public understanding of science. Recent research on climate change risk perception (CCRP) has advanced an intriguing hypothesis, namely, cultural cognition thesis (CCT), which posits that the public has adequate knowledge to understand climate change science but people tend to use this knowledge solely to promote their culturally motivated view-point of climate change. This talk provides evidence to demonstrate that despite culture playing a significant role in influencing CCRP, knowledge deficiency remains a persistent problem in our society and contributes to the aforementioned gap. However, such deficits can remain undiagnosed due to limitations of survey design.

  9. Exploring Mexican adolescents' perceptions of environmental health risks: a photographic approach to risk analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Susanne Börner; Juan Carlos Torrico Albino; Luz María Nieto Caraveo; Ana Cristina Cubillas Tejeda

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore Mexican adolescents' perceptions of environmental health risks in contaminated urban areas, and to test the environmental photography technique as a research tool for engaging adolescents in community-based health research. The study was conducted with 74 adolescents from two communities in the city of San Luis Potosi, Mexico. Participants were provided with disposable cameras and asked to take photographs of elements and situations which they believ...

  10. Impact of knowledge and misconceptions on benefit and risk perception of CCS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallquist, Lasse; Visschers, Vivianne H M; Siegrist, Michael

    2010-09-01

    Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS) is assumed to be one of the key technologies in the mitigation of climate change. Public acceptance may have a strong impact on the progress of this technology. Benefit perception and risk perception are known to be important determinants of public acceptance of CCS. In this study, the prevalence and effect of cognitive concepts underlying laypeople's risk perception and benefit perception of CCS were examined in a representative survey (N=654) in Switzerland. Results confirm findings from previous qualitative studies and show a quantification of a variety of widespread intuitive concepts that laypeople hold about storage mechanisms as well as about leakage and socioeconomic issues, which all appeared to influence risk perception and benefit perception. The perception of an overpressurized reservoir and concerns about diffuse impacts furthermore amplified risk perception. Appropriate images about storage mechanisms and climate change awareness were increasing the perception of benefits. Knowledge about CO2 seemed to lower both perceived benefits and perceived risks. Implications for risk communication and management are discussed.

  11. Hendra virus and horse owners--risk perception and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Nina; McLaughlin, Amanda; Taylor, Melanie; Moloney, Barbara; Wright, Therese; Field, Hume

    2013-01-01

    Hendra virus is a highly pathogenic novel paramyxovirus causing sporadic fatal infection in horses and humans in Australia. Species of fruit-bats (genus Pteropus), commonly known as flying-foxes, are the natural host of the virus. We undertook a survey of horse owners in the states of Queensland and New South Wales, Australia to assess the level of adoption of recommended risk management strategies and to identify impediments to adoption. Survey questionnaires were completed by 1431 respondents from the target states, and from a spectrum of industry sectors. Hendra virus knowledge varied with sector, but was generally limited, with only 13% of respondents rating their level of knowledge as high or very high. The majority of respondents (63%) had seen their state's Hendra virus information for horse owners, and a similar proportion found the information useful. Fifty-six percent of respondents thought it moderately, very or extremely likely that a Hendra virus case could occur in their area, yet only 37% said they would consider Hendra virus if their horse was sick. Only 13% of respondents stabled their horses overnight, although another 24% said it would be easy or very easy to do so, but hadn't done so. Only 13% and 15% of respondents respectively had horse feed bins and water points under solid cover. Responses varied significantly with state, likely reflecting different Hendra virus history. The survey identified inconsistent awareness and/or adoption of available knowledge, confusion in relation to Hendra virus risk perception, with both over-and under-estimation of true risk, and lag in the uptake of recommended risk minimisation strategies, even when these were readily implementable. However, we also identified frustration and potential alienation by horse owners who found the recommended strategies impractical, onerous and prohibitively expensive. The insights gained from this survey have broader application to other complex risk-management scenarios.

  12. Risk Perception for Developing Diabetes among Non-diabetic Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belkis Vicente Sánchez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: the incidence and prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus have increased in recent decades and this trend is expected to continue. Objective: to determine the risk perception for developing type 2 diabetes among non-diabetic individuals. Methods: a cross-sectional study involving non-diabetic individuals in the catchment area of the doctor-and-nurse office No.15 of the Manuel Fajardo Polyclinic in Cienfuegos was conducted between May 2013 and June 2014. The universe consisted of 1145 people, and the sample included 323 individuals of different age groups selected by sex. The variables studied were: age, sex, body mass index, nutritional assessment, and having a perceived risk when they answered 70 % of questions correctly. The arithmetic mean, standard deviation, Chi-square test, and risk estimation were calculated with a 95 % confidence interval. Results: individuals aged 25 to 34 years and females predominated. Fifty nine point two percent of the study participants knew of their risk. Eighty one point one percent understood that diabetes is preventable and 93.5 % stated that it is their responsibility to prevent its development. Thirty five point two percent of women considered normal-weight/thin fully agreed on the importance of physical activity and diabetes prevention. Eighty point five percent of women and 78.5 % of men answered positively to the question about obesity and diabetes. Conclusions: study participants knew of their risk of developing type 2 diabetes, although a large number of them attributed all responsibility for prevention to the health personnel.

  13. Hendra virus and horse owners--risk perception and management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Kung

    Full Text Available Hendra virus is a highly pathogenic novel paramyxovirus causing sporadic fatal infection in horses and humans in Australia. Species of fruit-bats (genus Pteropus, commonly known as flying-foxes, are the natural host of the virus. We undertook a survey of horse owners in the states of Queensland and New South Wales, Australia to assess the level of adoption of recommended risk management strategies and to identify impediments to adoption. Survey questionnaires were completed by 1431 respondents from the target states, and from a spectrum of industry sectors. Hendra virus knowledge varied with sector, but was generally limited, with only 13% of respondents rating their level of knowledge as high or very high. The majority of respondents (63% had seen their state's Hendra virus information for horse owners, and a similar proportion found the information useful. Fifty-six percent of respondents thought it moderately, very or extremely likely that a Hendra virus case could occur in their area, yet only 37% said they would consider Hendra virus if their horse was sick. Only 13% of respondents stabled their horses overnight, although another 24% said it would be easy or very easy to do so, but hadn't done so. Only 13% and 15% of respondents respectively had horse feed bins and water points under solid cover. Responses varied significantly with state, likely reflecting different Hendra virus history. The survey identified inconsistent awareness and/or adoption of available knowledge, confusion in relation to Hendra virus risk perception, with both over-and under-estimation of true risk, and lag in the uptake of recommended risk minimisation strategies, even when these were readily implementable. However, we also identified frustration and potential alienation by horse owners who found the recommended strategies impractical, onerous and prohibitively expensive. The insights gained from this survey have broader application to other complex risk

  14. Treating Influenza (Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treating Influenza (Flu) Information for People at High Risk for Flu Complications Do you have Asthma, Diabetes, or Chronic Heart Disease? ... risk of serious illness if you get the flu. In past flu seasons, as many as 80 ...

  15. Relative risk perception for terrorism: implications for preparedness and risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caponecchia, Carlo

    2012-09-01

    Terrorism presents a significant risk that is often approached at public policy, infrastructure, or emergency management level. Public perceptions of the likelihood of terrorist events, and how this may relate to individual preparedness, are not always extensively examined. The tendency to think that negative events are less likely to happen to oneself than to the average person is known as optimism bias. Optimism bias is relevant to perceptions of terrorism, because it is thought to be related to a reduction in precaution use. Using an online survey of 164 participants, this study aimed to determine whether Sydney residents thought they had a lower likelihood of experiencing terrorist events than other Australians. Significant optimism bias was observed for witnessing terrorist events, but not for personally experiencing terrorist events. In addition, Sydney residents tended to think that terrorist attacks were more likely to occur in Sydney than another major Australian city in the next five years. At the same time, household and workplace preparedness for terrorism was quite low, as was awareness of emergency strategies in the central business district. Perceptions of high likelihood of terrorism happening in one's own city, yet low preparedness present a challenge for risk communication and emergency management strategies. The diversity of possible terrorist targets, and the simple plans that can moderate the effects of a disaster may need to be emphasized in future anti-terrorism initiatives. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  16. Information used in the decision-making process regarding influenza vaccination policy: perceptions of stakeholders in France and the Netherlands.

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, M. L.; Perrier, L.; Paget, J.; Mosnier, A; Buthion, V.; Cohen, J. M.; Späth, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To minimize the medical and societal impact of influenza, most WHO countries recommend seasonal vaccination in targeted populations; however, little is known about the decision-making procedures at a country-level. In Europe, the Netherlands has the highest rate of influenza vaccination and France is not far behind. Our purpose was to analyze differences and similarities in the information used in the decision-making process between these two countries, according to the stakeholde...

  17. Influenza A virus infection of healthy piglets in an abattoir in Brazil: animal-human interface and risk for interspecies transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Ribeiro Amorim

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Asymptomatic influenza virus infections in pigs are frequent and the lack of measures for controlling viral spread facilitates the circulation of different virus strains between pigs. The goal of this study was to demonstrate the circulation of influenza A virus strains among asymptomatic piglets in an abattoir in Brazil and discuss the potential public health impacts. Tracheal samples (n = 330 were collected from asymptomatic animals by a veterinarian that also performed visual lung tissue examinations. No slaughtered animals presented with any noticeable macroscopic signs of influenza infection following examination of lung tissues. Samples were then analysed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction that resulted in the identification of 30 (9% influenza A positive samples. The presence of asymptomatic pig infections suggested that these animals could facilitate virus dissemination and act as a source of infection for the herd, thereby enabling the emergence of influenza outbreaks associated with significant economic losses. Furthermore, the continuous exposure of the farm and abattoir workers to the virus increases the risk for interspecies transmission. Monitoring measures of swine influenza virus infections and vaccination and monitoring of employees for influenza infection should also be considered. In addition regulatory agencies should consider the public health ramifications regarding the potential zoonotic viral transmission between humans and pigs.

  18. Farmers' motivations, risk perceptions and risk management strategies in a developing economy: Bangladesh experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahsan, D. A.

    2011-01-01

    and availability of quality shrimp seeds, exploitation by intermediaries and uncertainty about the future demand for shrimp in foreign markets are perceived as the most important sources of risk. On the other hand, prevention of disease, timely supply of shrimp seeds, elimination of middlemen from the supply chain...... and farm management training are considered among the best methods to manage the risks in the shrimp-farming business. We also observe some disparities in farmers' perceptions. For instance, farmers mentioned that removal of influence of middlemen from supply chain is essential for the betterment...

  19. The association between HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and perception of risk for infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ndugwa Kabwama, Steven; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    This systematic review tries to elucidate the association between what people know about HIV/AIDS and how they perceive their risk of infection. The initial search for articles yielded 1,595 abstracts, 16 of which met the inclusion criteria. Five studies found a positive correlation, four reported...... a negative correlation and seven found no association between knowledge and risk perception. It was found that the existing psychometrically sound measure of HIV/AIDS risk perception had not been used in any of the studies. The context in which the risk is assessed is pivotal to whether an association...... between knowledge and the perceived risk is found. Biases in judgement such as optimistic bias, psychological distancing, anchoring bias and overconfidence also explain how knowledge may fail to predict risk perception. It was concluded that the association between HIV/AIDS knowledge and risk perception...

  20. Effect of Gun Carrying on Perceptions of Risk Among Adolescent Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughran, Thomas A; Reid, Joan A; Collins, Megan Eileen; Mulvey, Edward P

    2016-02-01

    We observed how perceptions of risks, costs, crime rewards, and violence exposure change as individual gun-carrying behavior changes among high-risk adolescents. We analyzed a longitudinal study (2000-2010) of serious juvenile offenders in Maricopa County, Arizona, or Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, assessing within-person changes in risk and reward perceptions, and violence exposure as individuals initiated or ceased gun carrying. Despite being associated with heightened exposure to violence, gun carrying was linked to lower perceptions of risks and costs and higher perceived rewards of offending. Gun carrying was not time-stable, as certain individuals both started and stopped carrying during the study. Within-person changes in carrying guns were associated with shifting perceptions of risks, costs, and rewards of crime, and changes in exposure to violence in expected directions. Gun carrying reduces perceptions of risks associated with offending while increasing actual risk of violence exposure. This suggests that there is an important disconnect between perceptions and objective levels of safety among high-risk youths. Gun-carrying decisions may not only be influenced by factors of protection and self-defense, but also by perceptions of risks and reward associated with engaging in crime more generally.

  1. Exploring Mexican adolescents' perceptions of environmental health risks: a photographic approach to risk analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Börner

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to explore Mexican adolescents' perceptions of environmental health risks in contaminated urban areas, and to test the environmental photography technique as a research tool for engaging adolescents in community-based health research. The study was conducted with 74 adolescents from two communities in the city of San Luis Potosi, Mexico. Participants were provided with disposable cameras and asked to take photographs of elements and situations which they believed affected their personal health both at home and outside their homes. They were also asked to describe each photograph in writing. Photographs and written explanations were analyzed by using quantitative and qualitative content analysis. Risk perception plays a crucial role in the development of Risk Communication Programs (RCPs aimed at the improvement of community health. The photography technique opens up a promising field for environmental health research since it affords a realistic and concise impression of the perceived risks. Adolescents in both communities perceived different environmental health risks as detrimental to their well-being, e.g. waste, air pollution, and lack of hygiene. Yet, some knowledge gaps remain which need to be addressed.

  2. Risk perception, experience, and objective risk: a cross-national study with European emergency survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Daniela; Kehl, Doris; Hulse, Lynn; Schmidt, Silke

    2014-07-01

    Understanding public risk perceptions and their underlying processes is important in order to learn more about the way people interpret and respond to hazardous emergency events. Direct experience with an involuntary hazard has been found to heighten the perceived risk of experiencing the same hazard and its consequences in the future, but it remains unclear if cross-over effects are possible (i.e., experience with one hazard influencing perceived risk for other hazards also). Furthermore, the impact of objective risk and country of residence on perceived risk is not well understood. As part of the BeSeCu (Behavior, Security, and Culture) Project, a sample of 1,045 survivors of emergencies from seven European countries (i.e., Germany, the Czech Republic, Poland, Sweden, Spain, Turkey, and Italy) was drawn. Results revealed heightened perceived risk for emergency events (i.e., domestic and public fires, earthquakes, floods, and terrorist attacks) when the event had been experienced previously plus some evidence of cross-over effects, although these effects were not so strong. The largest country differences in perceived risk were observed for earthquakes, but this effect was significantly reduced by taking into account the objective earthquake risk. For fires, floods, terrorist attacks, and traffic accidents, only small country differences in perceived risk were found. Further studies including a larger number of countries are welcomed.

  3. Parents' and students' perceptions of college alcohol risk: the role of parental risk perception in intentions to communicate about alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napper, Lucy E; Grimaldi, Elizabeth M; LaBrie, Joseph W

    2015-03-01

    The current study aims to examine discrepancies in parents' and college students' perceptions of alcohol risk and the role of perceived risk in predicting parents' intentions to discuss alcohol with their child. In total, 246 college student-parent dyads (56.1% female students, 77.2% mothers) were recruited from a mid-size university. Participants completed measures of absolute likelihood, comparative likelihood, and severity of alcohol consequences. In comparison to students, parents perceived the risks of alcohol poisoning (palcohol consequences (e.g., passing out, regrettable sexual situation, throwing up) as more severe than students (all psalcohol consequences. After controlling for demographics and past alcohol communication, greater absolute likelihood (β=.20, p=.016) and less confidence in knowledge of student behavior (β=.20, p=.013) predicted greater intentions to discuss alcohol. Providing parents of college students with information about college drinking norms and the likelihood of alcohol consequences may help prompt alcohol-related communication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Risk perception and choice of place of birth in women with high risk pregnancies: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suzanne; Ayers, Susan; Holden, Des

    2016-07-01

    Objective To examine the perception of risk among a group of women with high risk pregnancies who were either planning to give birth in hospital, or at home despite medical advice to the contrary. The intention was to consider differences and similarities between the groups to examine how perception of risk relates to choice of place of birth. Design Qualitative study using semi-structured interviews. Setting Maternity department in a hospital in South East England. Participants Twenty-six women with high risk pregnancies, at least 32 weeks pregnant. Half were planning hospital births and half homebirths. Measurements and findings Semi-structured interviews to investigate women's understanding and assessment of risk. Results were analysed using thematic analysis. Five themes emerged: understanding of situation; judgement of risk; reassuring factors; impact of risk; and coping with risk. Women from both groups had some understanding of the implications of their medical/obstetric conditions. They displayed concerns about their babies' wellbeing. Women planning homebirths assessed their risks as lower and expressed less concerns than women planning hospital births. Women planning hospital births more frequently described following professional advice. Key conclusions Risk perception is individual and subjective. Women with high risk pregnancies who plan to give birth at home perceive risk differently to women who plan hospital births. Implications for practice Healthcare professionals working with women with high risk pregnancies should be aware of the potential for differences in definitions and perceptions of risk within this group.

  5. Traffic risk behavior and perceptions of Thai motorcyclists: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathurng Hongsranagon

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate Thai motorcyclists' traffic risk behavior and their perceptions of it, information of value in the design and implementation of public health policies and campaigns for the reduction of road injuries. Data was collected by a self-administered questionnaire completed by 399 motorcyclists in Muang Krabi district, Krabi province, Thailand. The questionnaire focused on the respondents' perceptions of general traffic risks and the specific risks at 3 identified hazardous sites. The results of the survey indicated that the correct fastening of helmet straps had a relationship with responsible traffic risk perceptions.

  6. Exposure Perception as a Key Indicator of Risk Perception and Acceptance of Sources of Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik Freudenstein

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented survey was conducted in six European countries as an online study. A total of 2454 subjects participated. Two main research questions were investigated: firstly, how does the cognitive, moral, and affective framing of radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF exposure perception influence RF EMF risk perception? Secondly, can the deployment of mobile phone base stations have greater acceptance with RF EMF exposure reduction? The findings with respect to the first question clearly indicated that the cognitive framed exposure perception is the main determinant of RF EMF risk perception. The concomitant sensitivity to exposure strength offers an opportunity to improve the acceptance of base stations by exposure reduction. A linear regression analysis supported this assumption: in a fictional test situation, exposure reduction improved the acceptance of base stations, operationalized as the requested distance of the base station from one’s own home. Furthermore, subjects with high RF EMF risk perception were most sensitive to exposure reduction. On average, a 70% exposure reduction reduced the requested distance from about 2000 meters to 1000 meters. The consequences for risk communication are discussed.

  7. Exposure Perception as a Key Indicator of Risk Perception and Acceptance of Sources of Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenstein, Frederik; Wiedemann, Peter M.; Brown, Tim W. C.

    2015-01-01

    The presented survey was conducted in six European countries as an online study. A total of 2454 subjects participated. Two main research questions were investigated: firstly, how does the cognitive, moral, and affective framing of radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF) exposure perception influence RF EMF risk perception? Secondly, can the deployment of mobile phone base stations have greater acceptance with RF EMF exposure reduction? The findings with respect to the first question clearly indicated that the cognitive framed exposure perception is the main determinant of RF EMF risk perception. The concomitant sensitivity to exposure strength offers an opportunity to improve the acceptance of base stations by exposure reduction. A linear regression analysis supported this assumption: in a fictional test situation, exposure reduction improved the acceptance of base stations, operationalized as the requested distance of the base station from one's own home. Furthermore, subjects with high RF EMF risk perception were most sensitive to exposure reduction. On average, a 70% exposure reduction reduced the requested distance from about 2000 meters to 1000 meters. The consequences for risk communication are discussed. PMID:26229540

  8. Exposure Perception as a Key Indicator of Risk Perception and Acceptance of Sources of Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenstein, Frederik; Wiedemann, Peter M; Brown, Tim W C

    2015-01-01

    The presented survey was conducted in six European countries as an online study. A total of 2454 subjects participated. Two main research questions were investigated: firstly, how does the cognitive, moral, and affective framing of radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF) exposure perception influence RF EMF risk perception? Secondly, can the deployment of mobile phone base stations have greater acceptance with RF EMF exposure reduction? The findings with respect to the first question clearly indicated that the cognitive framed exposure perception is the main determinant of RF EMF risk perception. The concomitant sensitivity to exposure strength offers an opportunity to improve the acceptance of base stations by exposure reduction. A linear regression analysis supported this assumption: in a fictional test situation, exposure reduction improved the acceptance of base stations, operationalized as the requested distance of the base station from one's own home. Furthermore, subjects with high RF EMF risk perception were most sensitive to exposure reduction. On average, a 70% exposure reduction reduced the requested distance from about 2000 meters to 1000 meters. The consequences for risk communication are discussed.

  9. Influenza vaccinations : who needs them and when?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hak, Eelko; Hoes, Arno W; Verheij, Theo J M

    2002-01-01

    Influenza vaccination programmes should aim at reducing the burden from influenza among those who need it most. The primary aim of this literature review is to identify who should receive priority in influenza vaccination programmes. Risk factors for severe post-influenza complications include immun

  10. An empirical study of the toxic capsule crisis in China: risk perceptions and behavioral responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tianjun; Keller, L Robin; Wu, Ping; Xu, Yifan

    2014-04-01

    The outbreak of the toxic capsule crisis during April 2012 aroused widespread public concern about the risk of chromium-contaminated capsules and drug safety in China. In this article, we develop a conceptual model to investigate risk perceptions of the pharmaceutical drug capsules and behavioral responses to the toxic capsule crisis and the relationship between associated factors and these two variables. An online survey was conducted to test the model, including questions on the measures of perceived efficacy of the countermeasures, trust in the State FDA (Food and Drug Administration), trust in the pharmaceutical companies, trust in the pharmaceutical capsule producers, risk perception, concern, need for information, information seeking, and risk avoidance. In general, participants reported higher levels of risk perception, concern, and risk avoidance, and lower levels of trust in the three different stakeholders. The results from the structural equation modeling procedure suggest that perceived efficacy of the countermeasures is a predictor of each of the three trust variables; however, only trust in the State FDA has a dampening impact on risk perception. Both risk perception and information seeking are significant determinants of risk avoidance. Risk perception is also positively related to concern. Information seeking is positively related to both concern and need for information. The theoretical and policy implications are also discussed.

  11. Risk assessment applied to Spain's prevention strategy against highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, M; Muñoz, M J; De la Torre, A; Martínez, B; Iglesias, I; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M

    2007-03-01

    Notifiable avian influenza (NAI) had never been reported in Spain, until July 2006 when a dead Great Crested Grebe (Podiceps cristatus) was found positive to the highly pathogenic H5N1 subtype as part of the active wild bird surveillance plan. The current program of the Spanish Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food (MAPA)'s strategic preventive plan against NAI is divided in the following parts: identification of risk areas and risk wild bird species, increased biosecurity measures, early detection of infection with surveillance intensification and development of rapid diagnostic tests, and other policies, which include continuing education and training to ensure early detection of the disease. In 2003 an active surveillance plan was introduced for domestic fowl; the plan was extended to wild birds in 2004. A total of 18,780 samples in poultry and 3687 samples in wild birds had been analyzed through December 2005 to detect the presence and spread of avian influenza subtypes H5 and H7. In the present work we suggest some contributions to be implemented in MAPA's action plan: 1) the identification of risks because of migratory birds, within the risk assessment of the introduction of NAI virus in Spain and 2) an interactive digital simulator of the disease developed for continuing education and training.

  12. Risk Perception and Risk Communication for Training Women Apprentice Welders: A Challenge for Public Health Nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarice Alves Bonow

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research has aimed to identify the perceptions of women apprentice welders about physical, chemical, biological, and physiological risk factors to which they are exposed and evaluate the identification of health disorders self-reported for women apprentice welders before and after implementation of a nursing socioenvironmental intervention. A quantitative study was performed with 27 women apprentice welders (first phase and before and after an intervention with 18 women (second phase in Southern Brazil in 2011. The data were analysed using SPSS 19.0. The participants identified the following risk types: physical (96.2%, chemical (96.2%, physiological (88.8%, and biological (62.9%. The results show a significant difference of the pre- and posttest averages for the musculoskeletal system and a posttest average increase for the integumentary, respiratory, and auditory system. A correlation of the women apprentices’ ages and the identification of health disorders were made. It was understood that the perception of women apprentices regarding a particular set of occupational risks is essential for public health nursing to develop an effective risk communication as a positive tool for teaching and learning.

  13. Risk Perception and Risk Communication for Training Women Apprentice Welders: A Challenge for Public Health Nursing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonow, Clarice Alves; Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; de Almeida, Marlise Capa Verde; Rocha, Laurelize Pereira; Borges, Anelise Miritz; Piexak, Diéssica Roggia; Vaz, Joana Cezar

    2013-01-01

    This research has aimed to identify the perceptions of women apprentice welders about physical, chemical, biological, and physiological risk factors to which they are exposed and evaluate the identification of health disorders self-reported for women apprentice welders before and after implementation of a nursing socioenvironmental intervention. A quantitative study was performed with 27 women apprentice welders (first phase) and before and after an intervention with 18 women (second phase) in Southern Brazil in 2011. The data were analysed using SPSS 19.0. The participants identified the following risk types: physical (96.2%), chemical (96.2%), physiological (88.8%), and biological (62.9%). The results show a significant difference of the pre- and posttest averages for the musculoskeletal system and a posttest average increase for the integumentary, respiratory, and auditory system. A correlation of the women apprentices' ages and the identification of health disorders were made. It was understood that the perception of women apprentices regarding a particular set of occupational risks is essential for public health nursing to develop an effective risk communication as a positive tool for teaching and learning. PMID:24288604

  14. Risk perceptions and subsequent sexual behaviors after HPV vaccination in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, Allison; Mullins, Tanya L Kowalczyk; Ding, Lili; Rosenthal, Susan L; Zimet, Gregory D; Morrow, Charlene; Kahn, Jessica A

    2014-03-01

    Concerns have been raised that human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination could lead to altered risk perceptions and an increase in risky sexual behaviors among adolescents. The aim of this study was to assess whether adolescent risk perceptions after the first vaccine dose predicted subsequent sexual behaviors. Young women 13 to 21 years of age (N = 339) completed questionnaires immediately after HPV vaccination, and 2 and 6 months later, assessing demographic characteristics, knowledge/attitudes about HPV vaccination, risk perceptions, and sexual behaviors. Risk perceptions were measured by using 2 5-item scales assessing: (1) perceived risk of sexually transmitted infections (STI) other than HPV, and (2) perceived need for safer sexual behaviors after HPV vaccination. We assessed associations between risk perceptions at baseline and sexual behaviors over the next 6 months by using logistic regression, stratifying participants by sexual experience at baseline and age (13-15 vs. 16-21 years). Among all sexually inexperienced participants (42.5%), baseline risk perceptions were not associated with subsequent sexual initiation; in age-stratified analyses, girls 16 to 21 years of age who reported lower perceived risk for other STI (an inappropriate perception) were less likely to initiate sex (odds ratio [OR] 0.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.03-0.69). Among all sexually experienced participants (57.5%) and in age-stratified analyses, baseline risk perceptions were not associated with subsequent number of sexual partners or condom use. Risk perceptions after HPV vaccination were not associated with riskier sexual behaviors over the subsequent 6 months in this study sample.

  15. An assessment of change in risk perception and optimistic bias for hurricanes among Gulf Coast residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbo, Craig; Meyer, Michelle A; Marlatt, Holly; Peek, Lori; Morrissey, Bridget

    2014-06-01

    This study focuses on levels of concern for hurricanes among individuals living along the Gulf Coast during the quiescent two-year period following the exceptionally destructive 2005 hurricane season. A small study of risk perception and optimistic bias was conducted immediately following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Two years later, a follow-up was done in which respondents were recontacted. This provided an opportunity to examine changes, and potential causal ordering, in risk perception and optimistic bias. The analysis uses 201 panel respondents who were matched across the two mail surveys. Measures included hurricane risk perception, optimistic bias for hurricane evacuation, past hurricane experience, and a small set of demographic variables (age, sex, income, and education). Paired t-tests were used to compare scores across time. Hurricane risk perception declined and optimistic bias increased. Cross-lagged correlations were used to test the potential causal ordering between risk perception and optimistic bias, with a weak effect suggesting the former affects the latter. Additional cross-lagged analysis using structural equation modeling was used to look more closely at the components of optimistic bias (risk to self vs. risk to others). A significant and stronger potentially causal effect from risk perception to optimistic bias was found. Analysis of the experience and demographic variables' effects on risk perception and optimistic bias, and their change, provided mixed results. The lessening of risk perception and increase in optimistic bias over the period of quiescence suggest that risk communicators and emergency managers should direct attention toward reversing these trends to increase disaster preparedness. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  16. Pandemic influenza A/H1N1pdm in Italy: age, risk and population susceptibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Merler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A common pattern emerging from several studies evaluating the impact of the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic influenza (A/H1N1pdm conducted in countries worldwide is the low attack rate observed in elderly compared to that observed in children and young adults. The biological or social mechanisms responsible for the observed age-specific risk of infection are still to be deeply investigated. METHODS: The level of immunity against the A/H1N1pdm in pre and post pandemic sera was determined using left over sera taken for diagnostic purposes or routine ascertainment obtained from clinical laboratories. The antibody titres were measured by the haemagglutination inhibition (HI assay. To investigate whether certain age groups had higher risk of infection the presence of protective antibody (≥1∶40, was calculated using exact binomial 95% CI on both pre- and post- pandemic serological data in the age groups considered. To estimate age-specific susceptibility to infection we used an age-structured SEIR model. RESULTS: By comparing pre- and post-pandemic serological data in Italy we found age- specific attack rates similar to those observed in other countries. Cumulative attack rate at the end of the first A/H1N1pdm season in Italy was estimated to be 16.3% (95% CI 9.4%-23.1%. Modeling results allow ruling out the hypothesis that only age-specific characteristics of the contact network and levels of pre-pandemic immunity are responsible for the observed age-specific risk of infection. This means that age-specific susceptibility to infection, suspected to play an important role in the pandemic, was not only determined by pre-pandemic levels of H1N1pdm antibody measured by HI. CONCLUSIONS: Our results claim for new studies to better identify the biological mechanisms, which might have determined the observed pattern of susceptibility with age. Moreover, our results highlight the need to obtain early estimates of differential susceptibility with age in

  17. Modeling Crossing Behavior of Drivers at Unsignalized Intersections with Consideration of Risk Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Miaomiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Drivers’ risk perception is vital to driving behavior and traffic safety. In the dynamic interaction of a driver-vehicle-environment system, drivers’ risk perception changes dynamically. This study focused on drivers’ risk perception at unsignalized intersections in China and analyzed drivers’ crossing behavior. Based on cognitive psychology theory and an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system, quantitative models of drivers’ risk perception were established for the crossing processes between two straight-moving vehicles from the orthogonal direction. The acceptable risk perception levels of drivers were identified using a self-developed data analysis method. Based on game theory, the relationship among the quantitative value of drivers’ risk perception, acceptable risk perception level, and vehicle motion state was analyzed. The models of drivers’ crossing behavior were then established. Finally, the behavior models were validated using data collected from real-world vehicle movements and driver decisions. The results showed that the developed behavior models had both high accuracy and good applicability. This study would provide theoretical and algorithmic references for the microscopic simulation and active safety control system of vehicles.

  18. Structural Relation Pattern between Deviant Personality Traits, Risk Perception and Treatment Motivation in People with Substance Dependency: The Mediating Role of Risk Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Basharpoor

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The current study was conducted to investigate the pattern of structural relations between deviant personality traits, risk perception and treatment motivation in people with substance dependency. Method: A descriptive- correlational method was used in this study. All the drug addicts referring to Ardabil centers of addiction treatment in second half of 2014 constituted the statistical population of this study. The number of 140 individuals from this population was selected via cluster sampling and responded to stages of change readiness and treatment eagerness scale, personality deviance scale, and cognitive appraisal of risky events (CARE questionnaire. Results: The results showed that risk perception and three components of treatment motivation are negatively correlated with hostile thoughts, denigration of others, low self-confidence, dependency, submissiveness; however, risk perception was positively associated with the three components of treatment motivation. The results of regression analyses also revealed that 53% variance of recognition, 44 % variance of ambivalence, and 47 % of variance of step taking were explained by deviant personality traits. Model fitness indexed confirmed the path of deviant personality traits to treatment motivation via the mediating role of risk perception. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that low risk perception is one of the explanatory pathways for the relationship between deviant personality traits and treatment motivation.

  19. Perception of Environmental Risk Factors Scale for the primary school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilüfer Özabacı

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop a scale to determine the effect of perception of environmental risk factors on primary school students. The participants of this study were 409 students of both low and high socio-economic level from 2 primary schools in Gaziantep. Confirmatory factor analysis and path analysis were used for scale development study. As a result of the analysis, it has been determined that the scale has a structure composed of six subscales and 55 items. Subscales of the scale are; perceptions of in school experience, perceptions of oneself, perceptions of family attitudes, perceptions of family interactions, perceptions of problems within the family, perceptions of the nearest living area. Cronbach Alpha for the scale was found to be .85.

  20. Seasonal influenza risk in hospital healthcare workers is more strongly associated with household than occupational exposures: results from a prospective cohort study in Berlin, Germany, 2006/07.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Chris J; Schweiger, Brunhilde; Diner, Genia; Gerlach, Frank; Haaman, Frank; Krause, Gérard; Nienhaus, Albert; Buchholz, Udo

    2010-01-12

    Influenza immunisation for healthcare workers is encouraged to protect their often vulnerable patients but also due to a perceived higher risk for influenza. We aimed to compare the risk of influenza infection in healthcare workers in acute hospital care with that in non-healthcare workers over the same season. We conducted a prospective, multicentre cohort study during the 2006/07 influenza season in Berlin, Germany. Recruited participants gave serum samples before and after the season, and completed questionnaires to determine their relevant exposures and possible confounding factors. The main outcome measure was serologically confirmed influenza infection (SCII), defined as a fourfold or greater rise in haemagglutination inhibition antibody titres to a circulating strain of influenza (with post-season titre at least 1:40).Weekly mobile phone text messages were used to prompt participants to report respiratory illnesses during the influenza season. A logistic regression model was used to assess the influence of potential risk factors. We recruited 250 hospital healthcare workers (mean age 35.7 years) and 486 non-healthcare workers (mean age 39.2 years) from administrative centres, blood donors and colleges.Overall SCII attack rate was 10.6%. Being a healthcare worker was not a risk factor for SCII (relative risk 1.1, p = 0.70). The final multivariate model had three significant factors: living with children (odds ratio [OR] 3.7, p = 0.005), immunization (OR 0.50, p = 0.02), and--among persons living in households without children--ownership of a car (OR 3.0, p = 0.02). Living with three or more children (OR 13.8, p risk than living with one or two children (OR 5.3, p = 0.02). 30% of participants with SCII reported no respiratory illness. Healthcare workers were at slightly higher risk of reporting any respiratory infection than controls (adjusted OR 1.3, p = 0.04, n = 850). Our results suggest that healthcare workers in hospitals do not have a higher risk of

  1. HIV knowledge, risk perception and pre-exposure prophylaxis interest among Thai university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawcharoenporn, Thana; Chunloy, Krongtip; Apisarnthanarak, Anucha

    2015-12-01

    To assess HIV risk perception and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) interest among university students, an anonymous survey was conducted among students from a large public university in Thailand. There were 641 participants; 118 (18%) were categorised into moderate or high-risk group. Of these 118 participants, 111 (94%) perceived themselves as no or low risk. Despite high levels of knowledge about HIV transmission risks, rates of consistent condom use with vaginal, oral and anal sex were all low (43%, 18% and 33%, respectively). The low rates of consistent condom use were significantly associated with false perception of low HIV risk (P perception were male gender (P perception and safe sex practices among the university students. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Ecologic risk factor investigation of clusters of avian influenza A (H5N1) virus infection in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiensin, Thanawat; Ahmed, Syed Sayeem Uddin; Rojanasthien, Suvichai; Songserm, Thaweesak; Ratanakorn, Parntep; Chaichoun, Kridsada; Kalpravidh, Wantanee; Wongkasemjit, Surapong; Patchimasiri, Tuangthong; Chanachai, Karoon; Thanapongtham, Weerapong; Chotinan, Suwit; Stegeman, Arjan; Nielen, Mirjam

    2009-06-15

    This study was conducted to investigate space and time clusters of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus infection and to determine risk factors at the subdistrict level in Thailand. Highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) was diagnosed in 1890 poultry flocks located in 953 subdistricts during 2004-2007. The ecologic risk for H5N1 virus infection was assessed on the basis of a spatial-based case-control study involving 824 case subdistricts and 3296 control subdistricts from 6 study periods. Risk factors investigated in clustered areas of H5N1 included human and animal demographic characteristics, poultry production systems, and wild birds and their habitats. Six variables remained statistically significant in the final model: flock density of backyard chickens (odds ratio [OR], 0.98), flock density of fighting cocks (OR, 1.02), low and high human density (OR, 0.60), presence of quail flocks (OR, 1.21), free-grazing duck flocks (OR, 2.17), and a poultry slaughterhouse (OR, 1.33). We observed a strong association between subdistricts with H5N1 virus-infected poultry flocks and evidence of prior and concomitant H5N1 infection in wild birds in the same subdistrict.

  3. Implicit and Explicit Processes in Risk Perception: Neural Antecedents of Perceived HIV Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmälzle, Ralf; Schupp, Harald T.; Barth, Alexander; Renner, Britta

    2011-01-01

    Field studies on HIV risk suggest that people may rely on impressions they have about the safety of their partner at the dispense of more objective risk protection strategies. In this study, ERP recordings were used to investigate the brain mechanisms that give rise to such impressions. First, in an implicit condition, participants viewed a series of photographs of unacquainted persons while performing a task that did not mention HIV risk. Second, in an explicit condition, participants estimated the HIV risk for each presented person. Dense sensor EEG was recorded during the implicit and explicit conditions. In the analysis, explicit risk ratings were used to categorize ERP data from the implicit and explicit conditions into low and high HIV risk categories. The results reveal implicit ERP differences on the basis of subsequent ratings of HIV risk. Specifically, the processing of risky individuals was associated with an early occipital negativity (240–300 ms) and a subsequent central positivity between 430 and 530 ms compared to safe. A similar ERP modulation emerged in the explicit condition for the central positivity component between 430 and 530 ms. A subsequent late positive potential component between 550 and 800 ms was specifically enhanced for risky persons in the explicit rating condition while not modulated in the implicit condition. Furthermore, ratings of HIV risk correlated substantially with ratings of trustworthiness and responsibility. Taken together, these observations provide evidence for theories of intuitive risk perception, which, in the case of HIV risk, seem to operate via appearance-based stereotypic inferences. PMID:21633492

  4. Evaluating the risk of avian influenza introduction and spread among poultry exhibition flocks in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Jover, M; Schemann, K; East, I J; Toribio, J-A L M L

    2015-01-01

    Some practices undertaken by poultry exhibitors, such as allowing wild birds to contact domestic birds, the high frequency of bird movements and the lack of appropriate isolation for incoming birds, pose a risk for disease introduction and spread. The aim of the current study was to quantitatively assess the probability of introduction of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses from wild waterfowl into poultry exhibition flocks and the subsequent spread to other poultry flocks. Exposure and consequence assessments, using scenario trees and Monte Carlo stochastic simulation modelling, were conducted to identify potential pathways of introduction and spread and calculate the probabilities of these pathways occurring. Input parameters were estimated from two recently conducted cross-sectional studies among poultry exhibitors in Australia (Dusan et al., 2010; Hernández-Jover et al., 2013) and other scientific literature. According to reported practices of poultry exhibitors and the LPAI prevalence in wild birds in Australia, this assessment estimates a median (5-95%) probability of exposure of a bird kept by a poultry exhibitor of 0.004 (0.003-0.005). Due to the higher susceptibility of infection of turkeys and waterfowl, this probability is higher in flocks keeping these bird species than in those keeping chickens or pigeons only. Similarly, once exposure has occurred, establishment of infection and subsequent spread are more likely in those flocks keeping waterfowl and turkeys than in those keeping chicken and pigeons only. Spread through movement of birds is the most likely pathway of spread, followed by contaminated fomites, wild birds and airborne spread. The median probability of LPAI spread through movement of birds in flocks keeping waterfowl and turkeys was estimated to be 0.280 (0.123-0.541) and 0.230 (0.104-0.421), respectively. A lower probability was estimated for chicken (0.087; 0.027-0.202) and pigeon (0.0003; 3.0×10(-5)-0.0008) flocks. The

  5. Law enforcement officers' risk perceptions toward on-duty motor-vehicle events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiesman, Hope M; Heick, Rebecca J; Konda, Srinivas; Hendricks, Scott

    Motor-vehicle-related events (MVEs) are the leading cause of on-duty death for law enforcement officers, yet little is known about how officers view this significant job hazard. The purpose of this paper is to explore officers' motor-vehicle risk perception and examine how prior on-duty MVEs and the death or injury of a fellow officer influences this perception. A state-wide random sample of 136 law enforcement agencies was drawn using publically accessible databases, stratified on type and size of agency. In total, 60 agencies agreed to participate and a cross-sectional questionnaire was distributed to 1,466 officers. Using six-point Likert scales, composite scores for motor-vehicle and intentional violence risk perception were derived. A linear regression multivariable model was used to examine factors affecting motor-vehicle risk perception. Motor-vehicle risk perception scores were significantly higher than intentional violence scores. A prior on-duty motor-vehicle crash, prior roadside incident, or knowledge of fellow officer's injury or death from a MVE significantly increased motor-vehicle risk perception scores. After controlling for potential confounders though, only prior on-duty crashes and roadside incidents impacted motor-vehicle risk perception. The study comprised primarily small, rural agencies and generalizability may be limited. Also, although the data were collected anonymously, reporting and response biases may affect these findings. This study involved a large and diverse cohort of officers and explored motor-vehicle risk perception. A better understanding of officers' risk perceptions will assist in the development and implementation of occupational injury prevention programs, training, and policy.

  6. Polo pony injuries: player-owner reported risk, perception, mitigation and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inness, C M; Morgan, K L

    2015-07-01

    Polo, one of the world's oldest sports, is unique in merging human skill and balance with animal agility and performance in a contact sport. These modern-day 'centaurs' offer medical, dental and veterinary scientists an unrivalled, if quirky, opportunity to collaborate. Collection of epidemiological data on injuries to UK polo riders and ponies is the first step. To measure the reported risk and risk factors for injuries to UK polo ponies, their perception and mitigation by player-owners. A retrospective cohort design and telephone interviews were used. Data on equine injuries, preseason training and risk perception were collected from a random sample of player-owners using a structured questionnaire. Injuries were defined as requiring veterinary treatment. Frequencies were represented as percentages and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Risk factors for injuries were identified by univariable and multivariable analyses. The cumulative incidence of player-owner-reported injury was 10.6% (95% CI 8.4-12.7). Tendon injuries were most common (4.3%; 95% CI 2.9-5.7), followed by wounds and splints. The only risk factor was stabling all season (odds ratio 4.79; 95% CI 1.46-15.73). Tendon injuries were perceived as the major risk and hard ground the most important risk factor. Risk mitigation practices were bandaging before exercise (45.7%; 95% CI 34.8-56.5), checking tendons (84.0%; 95% CI 76.0-91.9), cold hosing (40.7%; 95% CI 30.0-51.4), bandaging (38.3%; 95% CI 27.7-48.9) and using clays and coolants after exercise (24.7%; 15.3-34.1). Cuts and wounds were considered most frequent by only 2.5% (95% CI 0.0-3.6) of players but were the second most common injury, accounting for 21.6% of veterinary treatments. Splints accounted for 12.5% of injuries. The risk of injury to polo ponies is similar to that in the general horse population; musculoskeletal injuries, particularly tendon injuries, are most common, followed by wounds and splints. The association between stabling and

  7. Pesticide knowledge and risk perception among adolescent Latino farmworkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, L A; Sticker, D; Bryan, C; Lasarev, M R; Scherer, J A

    2002-11-01

    A substantial proportion of the agricultural production in the U.S. is dependent on the labor of Latino farmworkers. While exact figures are not known, it is estimated that adolescents make up 7% of this valuable workforce. These young workers may be at increased risk for the toxic effects of environmental exposures encountered during their work. Furthermore, language barriers and health beliefs may influence the risk perceptions of this population. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of migrant adolescent farmworkers in 1998 to investigate their work practices, health beliefs, and pesticide knowledge. The large majority of the adolescents in our sample were from Mexico, and 36.3% spoke primarily indigenous languages. Many of the adolescents (64.7%) were traveling and working in the U.S. independent of their parents. Few of the adolescents reported having received pesticide training; however, 21.6% of the sample reported that their current work involved mixing and/or applying agricultural chemicals. The scores on the pesticide knowledge questionnaire were found to significantly predict self-reported use of protection for adolescent farmworkers. The results of this study point to a need for improved pesticide training in youth agricultural workers and specialized education efforts directed toward minorities who speak indigenous dialects. Special attention is merited toward adolescent farmworkers who report that their work includes mixing or applying agricultural chemicals. As the number of adolescent farmworkers increases in the U.S. and the characteristics of the migrant stream continue to change, culturally and developmentally appropriate instruments are needed to adequately assess the health beliefs and protective practices of this population.

  8. State of the art in benefit-risk analysis: consumer perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueland, Ø; Gunnlaugsdottir, H; Holm, F; Kalogeras, N; Leino, O; Luteijn, J M; Magnússon, S H; Odekerken, G; Pohjola, M V; Tijhuis, M J; Tuomisto, J T; White, B C; Verhagen, H

    2012-01-01

    Benefit and risk perception with respect to food consumption, have been a part of human daily life from beginning of time. In today's society the food chain is long with many different types of actors and low degree of transparency. Making informed food choices where knowledge of benefits and risks is part of the decision making process are therefore complicated for consumers. Thus, to understand how consumers perceive benefits and risks of foods, their importance in relation to quality evaluations are aspects that need to be addressed. The objective of this paper is to discuss state of the art in understanding consumer perceptions of benefits and risks of foods in order to improve understanding of consumer behaviour in the food domain. Risks may be associated with both acute and long term consequences, some of which may have serious effects. Perceived risks are connected to morbidity and mortality along two dimensions relating to unknown risk, and to which extent the risk is dreaded by the consumer. Unfamiliar, uncertain, unknown, uncontrollable, and severe consequences are some factors associated with risk perception. Novel food processing techniques, for instance, score high on several of these parameters and are consequently regarded with suspicion and perceived as risky by consumers. On a daily basis, benefits of foods and food consumption are more important in most consumers' minds than risks. Benefits are often associated with food's ability to assuage hunger, and to provide pleasure through eating and socialising. In addition, two main categories of benefits that are important for acceptance of product innovations are health and environmental benefits. Benefit and risk perception of foods seem to be inversely correlated, so when something is perceived as being highly beneficial, it is correspondingly perceived as having low risk. However, slightly different paths are used in the formation of these perceptions; benefit perception is based on heuristics and

  9. Nanotechnology in Dutch science cafés: Public risk perceptions contextualised

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Anne M.; Critchley, Christine R.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding public perceptions of and attitudes to nanotechnology is important in order to understand and facilitate processes of dialogue and public participation. This research quantitatively analysed risk perceptions and attitudes of Dutch science café participants (n = 233) and compared these

  10. Consumer perceptions of the effectiveness of food risk management practices: A cross-cultural study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houghton, J.R.; Kleef, van E.; Rowe, G.; Frewer, L.J.

    2006-01-01

    Consumer perceptions of food hazards and how the associated risks are managed are likely to be an important determinant of consumer confidence in food safety. While there is a body of research that examines public perceptions of various types of food hazards, less attention has been directed to unde

  11. Determinants of Farmers’ Climate Risk Perceptions in Agriculture—A Rural Ghana Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Ndamani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the socio-economic predictors of farmers’ perceptions about climate risk in agriculture. The levels of risk perception among different farmers’ wealth groups are also investigated. A total of 100 farmers in the Lawra district of Ghana are randomly selected and interviewed. Data is obtained through the use of semi-structured questionnaires and focus group discussions. A climate risk perception index (CRPI is derived and applied to assess the degree of perceived risk among different wealth groups of farmers. The linear regression model is also used to analyze the data. The results showed that 93% of farmers have perceived climate risk while 7% are not sure if they have perceived it. Results of the CRPI showed that resource-poor farmers are concerned about climate risk on agricultural production, while resource-moderate and resource-rich farmers are concerned about risk impacts on climatic variables, and health and socio-economy, respectively. Results of the regression model showed that education, age, a perceived increase in human disease and mortality, and a decrease in food security and incomes are predictors of risk perception. The policy implication of this study is that predictors of farmers’ climate risk perception should be factored into climate change risk communication in order to boost awareness and adaptation to climate change.

  12. Brief literature review for the WHO global influenza research agenda--highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 risk in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kerkhove, Maria D

    2013-09-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5N1 viruses remain a significant health threat to humans given the continued rare occurrence of human cases with a high case fatality rate. This brief literature review summarizes available evidence of risk factors for H5N1 infection in humans and updates a recent systematic review published in early 2011. Several epidemiologic studies have been published to evaluate the risk factors for H5N1 infection in humans, including contact with poultry and poultry products and non-poultry-related contact such as from H5N1-contaminated water. While most H5N1 cases are attributed to exposure to sick poultry, it is unclear how many may be due to human-to-human transmission. The collective results of published literature suggest that transmission risk of H5N1 from poultry to humans may be highest among individuals who may have been in contact with the highest potential concentrations of virus shed by poultry. This suggests that there may be a threshold of virus concentration needed for effective transmission and that circulating H5N1 strains have not yet mutated to transmit readily from either poultry to human or from human to human. However, the mode of potential transmission can be quite varied throughout different countries and by study with exposures ranging from visiting a wet market, preparing infected poultry for consumption, to swimming or bathing in ponds frequented by poultry. Several important data gaps remain in the understanding of the epidemiology of H5N1 in humans and limit our ability to interpret the results of the available H5N1 seroepidemiologic studies.

  13. Seasonal influenza risk in hospital healthcare workers is more strongly associated with household than occupational exposures: results from a prospective cohort study in Berlin, Germany, 2006/07

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haaman Frank

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza immunisation for healthcare workers is encouraged to protect their often vulnerable patients but also due to a perceived higher risk for influenza. We aimed to compare the risk of influenza infection in healthcare workers in acute hospital care with that in non-healthcare workers over the same season. Methods We conducted a prospective, multicentre cohort study during the 2006/07 influenza season in Berlin, Germany. Recruited participants gave serum samples before and after the season, and completed questionnaires to determine their relevant exposures and possible confounding factors. The main outcome measure was serologically confirmed influenza infection (SCII, defined as a fourfold or greater rise in haemagglutination inhibition antibody titres to a circulating strain of influenza (with post-season titre at least 1:40. Weekly mobile phone text messages were used to prompt participants to report respiratory illnesses during the influenza season. A logistic regression model was used to assess the influence of potential risk factors. Results We recruited 250 hospital healthcare workers (mean age 35.7 years and 486 non-healthcare workers (mean age 39.2 years from administrative centres, blood donors and colleges. Overall SCII attack rate was 10.6%. Being a healthcare worker was not a risk factor for SCII (relative risk 1.1, p = 0.70. The final multivariate model had three significant factors: living with children (odds ratio [OR] 3.7, p = 0.005, immunization (OR 0.50, p = 0.02, and - among persons living in households without children - ownership of a car (OR 3.0, p = 0.02. Living with three or more children (OR 13.8, p Conclusions Our results suggest that healthcare workers in hospitals do not have a higher risk of influenza than non-healthcare workers, although their risk of any respiratory infection is slightly raised. Household contacts seem to be more important than exposure to patients. Car ownership is a

  14. Time and dose-dependent risk of pneumococcal pneumonia following influenza: a model for within-host interaction between influenza and Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Sourya; Foxman, Betsy; Dawid, Suzanne; Aiello, Allison E; Davis, Brian M; Berus, Joshua; Rohani, Pejman

    2013-09-06

    A significant fraction of seasonal and in particular pandemic influenza deaths are attributed to secondary bacterial infections. In animal models, influenza virus predisposes hosts to severe infection with both Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus. Despite its importance, the mechanistic nature of the interaction between influenza and pneumococci, its dependence on the timing and sequence of infections as well as the clinical and epidemiological consequences remain unclear. We explore an immune-mediated model of the viral-bacterial interaction that quantifies the timing and the intensity of the interaction. Taking advantage of the wealth of knowledge gained from animal models, and the quantitative understanding of the kinetics of pathogen-specific immunological dynamics, we formulate a mathematical model for immune-mediated interaction between influenza virus and S. pneumoniae in the lungs. We use the model to examine the pathogenic effect of inoculum size and timing of pneumococcal invasion relative to influenza infection, as well as the efficacy of antivirals in preventing severe pneumococcal disease. We find that our model is able to capture the key features of the interaction observed in animal experiments. The model predicts that introduction of pneumococcal bacteria during a 4-6 day window following influenza infection results in invasive pneumonia at significantly lower inoculum size than in hosts not infected with influenza. Furthermore, we find that antiviral treatment administered later than 4 days after influenza infection was not able to prevent invasive pneumococcal disease. This work provides a quantitative framework to study interactions between influenza and pneumococci and has the potential to accurately quantify the interactions. Such quantitative understanding can form a basis for effective clinical care, public health policies and pandemic preparedness.

  15. What is the perception of biological risk by undergraduate nursing students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Arroyo, Mª Carmen; Puig-Llobet, Montserrat; Falco-Pegueroles, Anna; Lluch-Canut, Maria Teresa; García, Irma Casas; Roldán-Merino, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to analyze undergraduate nursing students' perception of biological risk and its relationship with their prior practical training. Method: a descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among undergraduate nursing students enrolled in clinical practice courses in the academic year 2013-2014 at the School of Nursing at the University of Barcelona. Variables: sociodemographic variables, employment, training, clinical experience and other variables related to the assessment of perceived biological risk were collected. Both a newly developed tool and the Dimensional Assessment of Risk Perception at the worker level scale (Escala de Evaluación Dimensional del Riesgo Percibido por el Trabajador, EDRP-T) were used. Statistical analysis: descriptive and univariate analysis were used to identify differences between the perception of biological risk of the EDRP-T scale items and sociodemographic variables. Results: students without prior practical training had weaker perceptions of biological risk compared to students with prior practical training (p=0.05 and p=0.04, respectively). Weaker perceptions of biological risk were found among students with prior work experience. Conclusion: practical training and work experience influence the perception of biological risk among nursing students. PMID:27384468

  16. What is the perception of biological risk by undergraduate nursing students?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Carmen Moreno-Arroyo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: to analyze undergraduate nursing students' perception of biological risk and its relationship with their prior practical training. Method: a descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among undergraduate nursing students enrolled in clinical practice courses in the academic year 2013-2014 at the School of Nursing at the University of Barcelona. Variables: sociodemographic variables, employment, training, clinical experience and other variables related to the assessment of perceived biological risk were collected. Both a newly developed tool and the Dimensional Assessment of Risk Perception at the worker level scale (Escala de Evaluación Dimensional del Riesgo Percibido por el Trabajador, EDRP-T were used. Statistical analysis: descriptive and univariate analysis were used to identify differences between the perception of biological risk of the EDRP-T scale items and sociodemographic variables. Results: students without prior practical training had weaker perceptions of biological risk compared to students with prior practical training (p=0.05 and p=0.04, respectively. Weaker perceptions of biological risk were found among students with prior work experience. Conclusion: practical training and work experience influence the perception of biological risk among nursing students.

  17. Perception of earthquake risk in Taiwan: effects of gender and past earthquake experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Yi-Wen; Chen, Sue-Huei

    2012-09-01

    This study explored how individuals in Taiwan perceive the risk of earthquake and the relationship of past earthquake experience and gender to risk perception. Participants (n= 1,405), including earthquake survivors and those in the general population without prior direct earthquake exposure, were selected and interviewed through a computer-assisted telephone interviewing procedure using a random sampling and stratification method covering all 24 regions of Taiwan. A factor analysis of the interview data yielded a two-factor structure of risk perception in regard to earthquake. The first factor, "personal impact," encompassed perception of threat and fear related to earthquakes. The second factor, "controllability," encompassed a sense of efficacy of self-protection in regard to earthquakes. The findings indicated prior earthquake survivors and females reported higher scores on the personal impact factor than males and those with no prior direct earthquake experience, although there were no group differences on the controllability factor. The findings support that risk perception has multiple components, and suggest that past experience (survivor status) and gender (female) affect the perception of risk. Exploration of potential contributions of other demographic factors such as age, education, and marital status to personal impact, especially for females and survivors, is discussed. Future research on and intervention program with regard to risk perception are suggested accordingly. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. Influenza immunisation: attitudes and beliefs of UK healthcare workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedley, Julia; Poole, Jason; Waclawski, Eugene; Stevens, Anthony; Harrison, John; Watson, John; Hayward, Andrew; Coggon, David

    2007-01-01

    Aim To explore attitudes to influenza immunisation and rates of uptake among staff working in acute hospitals in the UK. Method A cross‐sectional survey of 11 670 healthcare workers in six UK hospitals was carried out using a postal questionnaire. Results Among 6302 responders (54% of those mailed), 19% had taken up influenza immunisation during winter 2002/3. Vaccination was well tolerated, with a low prevalence of side effects (13%) and associated time off work (2%). The majority of subjects who accepted vaccination (66%) were most strongly influenced by the personal benefits of protection against influenza. Prevention of sickness absence and protection of patients were the prime motivation for only 10% and 7% of subjects, respectively. Among 3967 who declined vaccination, the most common primary demotivators were concern about safety (31%) and efficacy (29%). 22% were most strongly deterred by lack of time to attend for vaccination. Free text answers indicated that 37% declined because of a perceived low ratio of personal benefits to adverse effects. Subjects said they would be persuaded to take up vaccination in future by easier access (36%), more information about personal benefit and risk (34%) and more information about effects on staff absence (24%). Conclusions These findings indicate that the uptake of influenza immunisation among UK healthcare workers remains low. There is some scope for increasing uptake by improving accessibility and encouragement from professional peers. However, the results suggest that perception of small personal benefit in relation to risk mitigates, importantly, against higher uptake of routine annual influenza vaccination. Thus, resource might better be allocated to ensuring efficient management in epidemic years. The effect of publicity about pandemic influenza on risk perception and vaccine uptake among healthcare workers during winter 2005/6 warrants further study. PMID:17182640

  19. Pharmaceutical interventions for mitigating an influenza pandemic : modeling the risks and health-economic impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Maarten J.; Milne, George; Nelson, E. Anthony S.; Pyenson, Bruce; Basili, Marcello; Coker, Richard; Oxford, John; Garrison, Louis P.

    2010-01-01

    Model-based analyses built on burden-of-disease and cost effectiveness theory predict that pharmaceutical interventions may efficiently mitigate both the epidemiologic and economic impact of an influenza pandemic. Pharmaceutical interventions typically encompass the application of (pre)pandemic infl

  20. Risk based surveillance for early detection of low pathogenic avian influenza outbreaks in layer chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzales, J.L.; Boender, G.J.; Elbers, A.R.W.; Stegeman, J.A.; Koeijer, de A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Current knowledge does not allow the prediction of when low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) of the H5 and H7 subtypes infecting poultry will mutate to their highly pathogenic phenotype (HPAIV). This mutation may already take place in the first infected flock; hence early detection of LPAIV

  1. Avian influenza trasnmission risks: analysis of biosecuritiy measures and contact structure in Dutch poultry farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ssematimba, A.; Hagenaars, T.H.J.; Wit, de J.J.; Ruiterkamp, F.; Fabri, T.H.F.; Stegeman, J.A.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    In the 2003 epidemic of highly pathogenic avian influenza in Dutch poultry, between-farm virus transmission continued for considerable time despite control measures. Gaining more insight into the mechanisms of this spread is necessary for the possible development of better control strategies. We car

  2. Transport mode preferences, risk perception and worry in a Norwegian urban population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche-Cerasi, Isabelle; Rundmo, Torbjørn; Sigurdson, Johannes Foss; Moe, Dagfinn

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to compare risk perception among Norwegians (n=512) living in the region of Oslo. This study was part of an ERANET 13 project entitled PETRIS, Perception of transport risk in France and Norway. The data collection was carried out in January 2011. The response rate was 51 percent. The results showed that respondents, divided in two groups according to their transport mode preferences, assessed differently risk perception in public and private transportation. Respondents who preferred collective transportation assessed the probability of experiencing criminality in collective transport modes as higher than those who preferred private modes. They were also more worried of experiencing accidents, criminality, and terror attacks in collective transportation. The relationship between transport mode preferences and use, risk perception and worry are discussed.

  3. Subjective risk assessment and perception in the Greek and English bakery industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexopoulos, Evangelos C; Kavadi, Zafira; Bakoyannis, Giorgos; Papantonopoulos, Sotiris

    2009-01-01

    Several factors influencing risk perception in the area of occupational health and safety are known, but there is still lack of a full understanding of the ways in which people characterize risk. This study aimed to provide an insight of employee risk assessment and perception in the bakery industry. 87 British and 64 Greek employees in two comparable bakery companies were asked to estimate and evaluate hazards at their workplace. The participants' judgments of 12 hazards-according to 7 risk aspects-were collected and analyzed. Subjective assessment on important occupational hazards included handling heavy loads, repetitiveness, high temperatures, high rate of work, stressful deadlines, and noise. Although limited in the population involved, our findings revealed strong cross-national differences in employee risk perception of specific groups of hazards in the bakery industry. Additional interviews revealed evidence that Greek employees' risk perception depends mostly on work experience while British employees were aware of risks due to company health and safety policy, recognizing that safety is the responsibility of both the management and the worker. Cross-national (cultural) factors that influence workforce risk perception and attitudes towards safety have to be taken into account by technical experts and policy makers in the designing of prevention strategies and risk communication.

  4. Racial Differences in Perceptions of Air Pollution Health Risk: Does Environmental Exposure Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayajit Chakraborty

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article extends environmental risk perception research by exploring how potential health risk from exposure to industrial and vehicular air pollutants, as well as other contextual and socio-demographic factors, influence racial/ethnic differences in air pollution health risk perception. Our study site is the Greater Houston metropolitan area, Texas, USA—a racially/ethnically diverse area facing high levels of exposure to pollutants from both industrial and transportation sources. We integrate primary household-level survey data with estimates of excess cancer risk from ambient exposure to industrial and on-road mobile source emissions of air toxics obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Statistical analysis is based on multivariate generalized estimation equation models which account for geographic clustering of surveyed households. Our results reveal significantly higher risk perceptions for non-Hispanic Black residents and those exposed to greater cancer risk from industrial pollutants, and also indicate that gender influences the relationship between race/ethnicity and air pollution risk perception. These findings highlight the need to incorporate measures of environmental health risk exposure in future analysis of social disparities in risk perception.

  5. Subjective Risk Assessment and Perception in the Greek and English Bakery Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos C. Alexopoulos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Several factors influencing risk perception in the area of occupational health and safety are known, but there is still lack of a full understanding of the ways in which people characterize risk. This study aimed to provide an insight of employee risk assessment and perception in the bakery industry. 87 British and 64 Greek employees in two comparable bakery companies were asked to estimate and evaluate hazards at their workplace. The participants' judgments of 12 hazards—according to 7 risk aspects—were collected and analyzed. Subjective assessment on important occupational hazards included handling heavy loads, repetitiveness, high temperatures, high rate of work, stressful deadlines, and noise. Although limited in the population involved, our findings revealed strong cross-national differences in employee risk perception of specific groups of hazards in the bakery industry. Additional interviews revealed evidence that Greek employees' risk perception depends mostly on work experience while British employees were aware of risks due to company health and safety policy, recognizing that safety is the responsibility of both the management and the worker. Cross-national (cultural factors that influence workforce risk perception and attitudes towards safety have to be taken into account by technical experts and policy makers in the designing of prevention strategies and risk communication.

  6. Consumer Food Safety Risk Attitudes and Perceptions Over Time: The Case of BSE Crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalogeras, N.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Ittersum, van K.

    2009-01-01

    Recent research has shown that by decoupling the risk response behaviour of consumers into the separate components of risk perception and risk attitude, a more robust conceptualization and prediction of consumers’ reactions to food safety issues is possible. Furthermore, it has been argued that the

  7. Product quality risk perceptions and decisions: contaminated pet food and lead-painted toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tianjun; Keller, L Robin; Wang, Liangyan; Wang, Yitong

    2010-10-01

    In the context of the recent recalls of contaminated pet food and lead-painted toys in the United States, we examine patterns of risk perceptions and decisions when facing consumer product-caused quality risks. Two approaches were used to explore risk perceptions of the product recalls. In the first approach, we elicited judged probabilities and found that people appear to have greatly overestimated the actual risks for both product scenarios. In the second approach, we applied the psychometric paradigm to examine risk perception dimensions concerning these two specific products through factor analysis. There was a similar risk perception pattern for both products: they are seen as unknown risks and are relatively not dread risks. This pattern was also similar to what prior research found for lead paint. Further, we studied people's potential actions to deal with the recalls of these two products. Several factors were found to be significant predictors of respondents' cautious actions for both product scenarios. Policy considerations regarding product quality risks are discussed. For example, risk communicators could reframe information messages to prompt people to consider total risks packed together from different causes, even when the risk message has been initiated due to a specific recall event.

  8. Risk Perception is not what it seems: the Psychometric Paradigm Revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoeberg, Lennart [Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm (Sweden). Center for Risk Research

    2003-10-01

    Risk perception has become an important topic to policy makers concerned with technology and the environment, and the psychological analysis of this construct has attracted much interest. Psychological research on risk perception has been dominated by the psychometric paradigm which has been fruitful in bringing up important issues in research. Yet, most of the conclusions reached in the paradigm are not sufficiently well based on empirical data and appropriate analyses. Results are presented here which show the prevalence of risk for energy attitudes, the importance of Tampering with Nature as a new risk dimension accounting for much of the perceived risk of nuclear waste, widely different levels but similar correlational structures of risk perception data for experts and the public, moderately strong correlations between perceived risk and trust (especially specific trust rather than general trust), and demand for risk mitigation being related most strongly to seriousness of consequences of a hazard, not the risk of an accident or the riskiness of the activity. Risk perception is related to conceptions of knowledge which stress the limits of science and different, New Age type, ways of knowing. Finally, interest emerged as an important predictor of demand for risk mitigation. A conceptualization of the risk perceiver, based on these results, is briefly discussed.

  9. Flood risk perceptions and spatial multi-criteria analysis: an exploratory research for hazard mitigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaijmakers, R.; Raaijmakers, Ruud; Krywkow, Jorg; van der Veen, A.

    2008-01-01

    The conventional method of risk analysis (with risk as a product of probability and consequences) does not allow for a pluralistic approach that includes the various risk perceptions of stakeholders or lay people within a given social system. This article introduces a methodology that combines the

  10. Harnessing Farmers' knowledge and perceptions for health-risk reduction in wastewater-irrigated agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keraita, Bernhard; Drechsel, Pay; Seidu, Razak;

    2010-01-01

    This chapter addresses the importance of understanding farmers’ knowledge and perceptions on health-risk and risk-reduction measures for the development of mutually acceptable risk-management strategies. Drawing on studies from different countries, the chapter shows that it is not realistic...

  11. Harnessing farmers' knowledge and perceptions for health-risk reduction in wastewater-irrigated agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keraita, Bernard; Drechsel, Pay; Seidu, Razak;

    2009-01-01

    This chapter addresses the importance of understanding farmers' knowledge and perceptions on health-risk and risk-reduction measures for the development of mutually acceptable risk-management strategies. Drawing on studies from different countries, the chapter shows that it is not realistic...

  12. Facial emotion perception differs in young persons at genetic and clinical high-risk for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Christian G; Richard, Jan A; Brensinger, Colleen M; Borgmann-Winter, Karin E; Conroy, Catherine G; Moberg, Paul J; Gur, Ruben C; Gur, Raquel E; Calkins, Monica E

    2014-05-15

    A large body of literature has documented facial emotion perception impairments in schizophrenia. More recently, emotion perception has been investigated in persons at genetic and clinical high-risk for psychosis. This study compared emotion perception abilities in groups of young persons with schizophrenia, clinical high-risk, genetic risk and healthy controls. Groups, ages 13-25, included 24 persons at clinical high-risk, 52 first-degree relatives at genetic risk, 91 persons with schizophrenia and 90 low risk persons who completed computerized testing of emotion recognition and differentiation. Groups differed by overall emotion recognition abilities and recognition of happy, sad, anger and fear expressions. Pairwise comparisons revealed comparable impairments in recognition of happy, angry, and fearful expressions for persons at clinical high-risk and schizophrenia, while genetic risk participants were less impaired, showing reduced recognition of fearful expressions. Groups also differed for differentiation of happy and sad expressions, but differences were mainly between schizophrenia and control groups. Emotion perception impairments are observable in young persons at-risk for psychosis. Preliminary results with clinical high-risk participants, when considered along findings in genetic risk relatives, suggest social cognition abilities to reflect pathophysiological processes involved in risk of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Laboratory Animal Workers’ Attitudes and Perceptions Concerning Occupational Risk and Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Steelman, Eric D; Alexander, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    Little is known regarding the risk perceptions and attitudes of laboratory animal care workers toward biologic safety. The purpose of this descriptive study was to assess the attitudes and perceptions of laboratory animal workers toward occupational and injury risk. Subscribers to the CompMed and TechLink listservs (n = 4808) were surveyed electronically, and 5.3% responded; data from 215 respondents were included in the final analysis. Primary variables of interest included AALAS certificati...

  14. Public perception of climate risk and adaptation in the UK: A review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Andrea L.; Dessai, Suraje; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi

    2014-01-01

    Like other countries, the United Kingdom faces the unavoidable challenge of adapting to a changing climate. However, public perceptions of the risk posed by climate change and support for adaptation policies vary between countries. This article provides a UK-specific review of climate change beliefs, risk perceptions regarding potential climate change impacts, and attitudes towards climate change adaptation. We report on differences between expert and public conceptualisations of climate chan...

  15. Auditors’ Perceptions of Reasonable Assurance the Effectiveness of the Audit Risk Model. Case from Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Hashem Valipour; Javad Moradi; Hajar Moazaminezhad

    2012-01-01

    Despite the definition of the concept of logical confidence in auditing standards, the results from some studies conducted indicate a meaningful difference between perceptions this basic concept, by different auditors (Law, 2008, 180). The results from some researches also indicate that auditors’ perceptions about the effectiveness of the audit risk model vary (which is based on auditing general principles on the basis of risk) (Arense, 2006, 148). In so doing, aiming at studying the proof fo...

  16. Perception of the risk of adverse reactions to analgesics: differences between medical students and residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Castillo-Guzman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Medications are not exempt from adverse drug reactions (ADR and how the physician perceives the risk of prescription drugs could influence their availability to report ADR and their prescription behavior. Methods. We assess the perception of risk and the perception of ADR associated with COX2-Inbitors, paracetamol, NSAIDs, and morphine in medical students and residents of northeast of Mexico. Results. The analgesic with the highest risk perception in both group of students was morphine, while the drug with the least risk perceived was paracetamol. Addiction and gastrointestinal bleeding were the ADR with the highest score for morphine and NSAIDs respectively. Discussion. Our findings show that medical students give higher risk scores than residents toward risk due to analgesics. Continuing training and informing physicians about ADRs is necessary since the lack of training is known to induce inadequate use of drugs.

  17. The Role of Categorical Speech Perception and Phonological Processing in Familial Risk Children with and without Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakvoort, Britt; de Bree, Elise; van der Leij, Aryan; Maassen, Ben; van Setten, Ellie; Maurits, Natasha; van Zuijen, Titia L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study assessed whether a categorical speech perception (CP) deficit is associated with dyslexia or familial risk for dyslexia, by exploring a possible cascading relation from speech perception to phonology to reading and by identifying whether speech perception distinguishes familial risk (FR) children with dyslexia (FRD) from those…

  18. The Role of Categorical Speech Perception and Phonological Processing in Familial Risk Children with and without Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakvoort, Britt; de Bree, Elise; van der Leij, Aryan; Maassen, Ben; van Setten, Ellie; Maurits, Natasha; van Zuijen, Titia L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study assessed whether a categorical speech perception (CP) deficit is associated with dyslexia or familial risk for dyslexia, by exploring a possible cascading relation from speech perception to phonology to reading and by identifying whether speech perception distinguishes familial risk (FR) children with dyslexia (FRD) from those…

  19. Heart attack risk perception biases among hypertension patients: the role of educational level and worry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Laurel M; Helweg-Larsen, Marie; Volpp, Kevin G; Kimmel, Stephen E

    2012-01-01

    Risk biases such as comparative optimism (thinking one is better off than similar others) and risk inaccuracy (misestimating one's risk compared to one's calculated risk) for health outcomes are common. Little research has investigated racial or socioeconomic differences in these risk biases. Results from a survey of individuals with poorly controlled hypertension (N=813) indicated that participants showed (1) comparative optimism for heart attack risk by underestimating their heart attack risk compared to similar others, and (2) risk inaccuracy by overestimating their heart attack risk compared to their calculated heart attack risk. More highly educated participants were more comparatively optimistic because they rated their personal risk as lower; education was not related to risk inaccuracy. Neither race nor the federal poverty level was related to risk biases. Worry partially mediated the relationship between education and personal risk. Results are discussed as they relate to the existing literature on risk perception.

  20. Association of Mothers' Perception of Neighborhood Quality and Maternal Resilience with Risk of Preterm Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Namrata; Chao, Shin Margaret; Higgins, Chandra; Patel, Suvas; Crespi, Catherine M

    2015-08-12

    We examined the associations of mothers' perception of neighborhood quality and maternal resilience with risk of preterm birth and whether maternal resilience moderated the effect of neighborhood quality perception. We analyzed data from 10,758 women with singleton births who participated in 2010-2012 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby surveys. Multilevel logistic regression models assessed the effects of mothers' perception of neighborhood quality and maternal resilience on preterm birth (yes/no), controlling for potential confounders and economic hardship index, a city-level measure of neighborhood quality. Interaction terms were assessed for moderation. Mothers' perception of neighborhood quality and maternal resilience were each uniquely associated with preterm birth, independent of potential confounders (p-values perception of neighborhood quality and resilience are associated with the risk of preterm birth. Further research should explore whether initiatives aimed at improving neighborhood quality and women's self-esteem may improve birth outcomes.

  1. Perceptions of health risks of cigarette smoking: A new measure reveals widespread misunderstanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krosnick, Jon A; Malhotra, Neil; Mo, Cecilia Hyunjung; Bruera, Eduardo F; Chang, LinChiat; Pasek, Josh; Thomas, Randall K

    2017-01-01

    Most Americans recognize that smoking causes serious diseases, yet many Americans continue to smoke. One possible explanation for this paradox is that perhaps Americans do not accurately perceive the extent to which smoking increases the probability of adverse health outcomes. This paper examines the accuracy of Americans' perceptions of the absolute risk, attributable risk, and relative risk of lung cancer, and assesses which of these beliefs drive Americans' smoking behavior. Using data from three national surveys, statistical analyses were performed by comparing means, medians, and distributions, and by employing Generalized Additive Models. Perceptions of relative risk were associated as expected with smoking onset and smoking cessation, whereas perceptions of absolute risk and attributable risk were not. Additionally, the relation of relative risk with smoking status was stronger among people who held their risk perceptions with more certainty. Most current smokers, former smokers, and never-smokers considerably underestimated the relative risk of smoking. If, as this paper suggests, people naturally think about the health consequences of smoking in terms of relative risk, smoking rates might be reduced if public understanding of the relative risks of smoking were more accurate and people held those beliefs with more confidence.

  2. Understanding Producers’ Motives for Adopting Sustainable Practices: The Role of Expected Rewards, Risk Perception, and Risk Tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofenk, D.J.B.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Trujillo Barrera, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines producers’ motives underlying the adoption of sustainable practices. In particular, we focus on expected economic, social, and personal rewards, and examine the role of producers’ risk perception and risk tolerance. Results from personal computer-guided interviews with164 hog pro

  3. Understanding producers’ motives to adopt sustainable practices: the role of expected rewards, risk perception, and risk tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofenk, D.J.B.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Trujillo Barrera, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study is to examine producers’ motives underlying the adoption of sustainable practices. In particular, we focus on expected economic, social, and personal rewards, and examine the roles of producers’ risk perception and risk tolerance. Preliminary results from a survey

  4. Improving risk models for avian influenza: the role of intensive poultry farming and flooded land during the 2004 Thailand epidemic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas P Van Boeckel

    Full Text Available Since 1996 when Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza type H5N1 first emerged in southern China, numerous studies sought risk factors and produced risk maps based on environmental and anthropogenic predictors. However little attention has been paid to the link between the level of intensification of poultry production and the risk of outbreak. This study revised H5N1 risk mapping in Central and Western Thailand during the second wave of the 2004 epidemic. Production structure was quantified using a disaggregation methodology based on the number of poultry per holding. Population densities of extensively- and intensively-raised ducks and chickens were derived both at the sub-district and at the village levels. LandSat images were used to derive another previously neglected potential predictor of HPAI H5N1 risk: the proportion of water in the landscape resulting from floods. We used Monte Carlo simulation of Boosted Regression Trees models of predictor variables to characterize the risk of HPAI H5N1. Maps of mean risk and uncertainty were derived both at the sub-district and the village levels. The overall accuracy of Boosted Regression Trees models was comparable to that of logistic regression approaches. The proportion of area flooded made the highest contribution to predicting the risk of outbreak, followed by the densities of intensively-raised ducks, extensively-raised ducks and human population. Our results showed that as little as 15% of flooded land in villages is sufficient to reach the maximum level of risk associated with this variable. The spatial pattern of predicted risk is similar to previous work: areas at risk are mainly located along the flood plain of the Chao Phraya river and to the south-east of Bangkok. Using high-resolution village-level poultry census data, rather than sub-district data, the spatial accuracy of predictions was enhanced to highlight local variations in risk. Such maps provide useful information to guide

  5. Improving risk models for avian influenza: the role of intensive poultry farming and flooded land during the 2004 Thailand epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Boeckel, Thomas P; Thanapongtharm, Weerapong; Robinson, Timothy; Biradar, Chandrashekhar M; Xiao, Xiangming; Gilbert, Marius

    2012-01-01

    Since 1996 when Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza type H5N1 first emerged in southern China, numerous studies sought risk factors and produced risk maps based on environmental and anthropogenic predictors. However little attention has been paid to the link between the level of intensification of poultry production and the risk of outbreak. This study revised H5N1 risk mapping in Central and Western Thailand during the second wave of the 2004 epidemic. Production structure was quantified using a disaggregation methodology based on the number of poultry per holding. Population densities of extensively- and intensively-raised ducks and chickens were derived both at the sub-district and at the village levels. LandSat images were used to derive another previously neglected potential predictor of HPAI H5N1 risk: the proportion of water in the landscape resulting from floods. We used Monte Carlo simulation of Boosted Regression Trees models of predictor variables to characterize the risk of HPAI H5N1. Maps of mean risk and uncertainty were derived both at the sub-district and the village levels. The overall accuracy of Boosted Regression Trees models was comparable to that of logistic regression approaches. The proportion of area flooded made the highest contribution to predicting the risk of outbreak, followed by the densities of intensively-raised ducks, extensively-raised ducks and human population. Our results showed that as little as 15% of flooded land in villages is sufficient to reach the maximum level of risk associated with this variable. The spatial pattern of predicted risk is similar to previous work: areas at risk are mainly located along the flood plain of the Chao Phraya river and to the south-east of Bangkok. Using high-resolution village-level poultry census data, rather than sub-district data, the spatial accuracy of predictions was enhanced to highlight local variations in risk. Such maps provide useful information to guide intervention.

  6. Visual and auditory perception in preschool children at risk for dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Rosario; Estévez, Adelina; Muñetón, Mercedes; Domínguez, Carolina

    2014-11-01

    Recently, there has been renewed interest in perceptive problems of dyslexics. A polemic research issue in this area has been the nature of the perception deficit. Another issue is the causal role of this deficit in dyslexia. Most studies have been carried out in adult and child literates; consequently, the observed deficits may be the result rather than the cause of dyslexia. This study addresses these issues by examining visual and auditory perception in children at risk for dyslexia. We compared children from preschool with and without risk for dyslexia in auditory and visual temporal order judgment tasks and same-different discrimination tasks. Identical visual and auditory, linguistic and nonlinguistic stimuli were presented in both tasks. The results revealed that the visual as well as the auditory perception of children at risk for dyslexia is impaired. The comparison between groups in auditory and visual perception shows that the achievement of children at risk was lower than children without risk for dyslexia in the temporal tasks. There were no differences between groups in auditory discrimination tasks. The difficulties of children at risk in visual and auditory perceptive processing affected both linguistic and nonlinguistic stimuli. Our conclusions are that children at risk for dyslexia show auditory and visual perceptive deficits for linguistic and nonlinguistic stimuli. The auditory impairment may be explained by temporal processing problems and these problems are more serious for processing language than for processing other auditory stimuli. These visual and auditory perceptive deficits are not the consequence of failing to learn to read, thus, these findings support the theory of temporal processing deficit.

  7. Volcanic risk perception in the Campi Flegrei area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, T.; Barberi, F.; Davis, M. S.; Isaia, R.; Nave, R.

    2013-03-01

    The Campi Flegrei which includes part of the city of Naples, is an active volcanic system; its last eruption occurred in 1538 AD. More recently two significant crises occurred between 1969 and 72 and 1982-84 and were accompanied by ground movements (bradyseism) and seismic activity, forcing people of the town of Pozzuoli to be evacuated. Since 1984 development of a volcanic emergency plan has been underway. In 2000 Civil Protection published a risk map which defined the Red Zone, an area highly at risk from pyroclastic flows, which would need to be evacuated before an eruption. The first study to evaluate the volcanic risk perceptions of the people living within the Campi Flegrei area was completed in spring 2006, resulting in the largest sample ever studied on this topic except for one on Vesuvio area residents by Barberi et al. (2008). A 46 item questionnaire was distributed to 2000 of the approximately 300,000 residents of the Campi Flegrei Red Zone, which includes three towns and four neighborhoods within the city of Naples. A total of 1161 questionnaires were returned, for an overall response rate of 58%. Surveys were distributed to junior high and high school students, as well as to adult members of the general population. Results indicated that unlike issues such as crime, traffic, trash, and unemployment, volcanic hazards are not spontaneously mentioned as a major problem facing their community. However, when asked specific questions about volcanic risks, respondents believe that an eruption is likely and could have serious consequences for themselves and their communities and they are quite worried about the threat. Considering the events of 1969-72 and 1982-84, it was not surprising that respondents indicated earthquakes and ground deformations as more serious threats than eruptive phenomena. Of significant importance is that only 17% of the sample knows about the existence of the Emergency Plan, announced in 2001, and 65% said that they have not received

  8. Fuel poverty increases risk of mould contamination, regardless of adult risk perception & ventilation in social housing properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Richard A; Thornton, Christopher R; Nikolaou, Vasilis; Osborne, Nicholas J

    2015-06-01

    Fuel poverty affects 2.4 million UK homes leading to poor hygrothermal conditions and risk of mould and house dust mite contaminations, which in turn increases risk of asthma exacerbation. For the first time we assess how fuel poverty, occupants' risk perception and use of mechanical ventilation mediate the risk of mould contamination in social housing. Postal questionnaires were sent to 3867 social housing properties to collect adult risk perception, and demographic and environmental information on occupants. Participant details were linked to data pertaining to the individual properties. Multiple logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and confidence intervals while allowing for clustering of individuals coming from the same housing estate. We used Structured Equation Modelling and Goodness of Fit analysis in mediation analyses to examine the role of fuel poverty, risk perception, use of ventilation and energy efficiency. Eighteen percent of our target social housing populations (671 households) were included into our study. High risk perception (score of 8-10) was associated with reduced risk of mould contamination in the bedrooms of children (OR 0.5 95% CI; 0.3-0.9) and adults (OR 0.4 95% CI; 0.3-0.7). High risk perception of living with inadequate heating and ventilation reduced the risk of mould contamination (OR 0.5 95% CI; 0.3-0.8 and OR 0.5 95% CI; 0.3-0.7, respectively). Participants living with inadequate heating and not heating due to the cost of fuel had an increased risk of mould contamination (OR 3.4 95% CI; 2.0-5.8 and OR 2.2 95% CI; 1.5-3.2, respectively). Increased risk perception and use of extractor fans did not mediate the association between fuel poverty behaviours and increased risk of mould contamination. Fuel poverty behaviours increased the risk of mould contamination, which corresponds with existing literature. For the first time we used mediation analysis to assess how this association maybe modified by occupant behaviours

  9. Perceptions of and willingness to engage in public health precautions to prevent 2009 H1N1 influenza transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlowski Lynn T

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recommendations about precautionary behaviors are a key part of public health responses to infectious disease threats such as the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Individuals' interpretation of recommendations, willingness to comply, and factors predicting willingness were examined. Methods A telephone survey of adult residents of New York State was conducted (N = 807. Respondents reported how they interpreted recommendations, willingness to engage in recommended actions, risk perceptions for H1N1 infection, and perceived efficacy of recommendations. Demographic characteristics were used to calculate sampling weights to obtain population-representative estimates. Results There was substantial variability in interpretation of preventive actions. Willingness to engage in preventive actions also varied substantially; vaccination willingness was substantially lower than other preventive actions. No pattern of demographic characteristics consistently predicted willingness. Perceived efficacy was associated with willingness for all recommendations, and perceived severity was associated with willingness for some recommendations. Conclusions Results suggest that individual interpretation of actions differ widely. The results suggest that current recommendations are not clear to laypeople and are open to different interpretations. These varying interpretations should be considered in crafting public health messages about precautionary behaviors.

  10. Randomized controlled ferret study to assess the direct impact of 2008-09 trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine on A(H1N1)pdm09 disease risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.M. Skowronski (Danuta); M.E. Hamelin (Marie Ève); G. de Serres (Gaston); N.Z. Janjua (Naveed); G. Li (Guiyun); S. Sabaiduc (Suzana); X. Bouhy (Xavier); C. Couture (Christian); A. Leung (Anders); D. Kobasa (Darwyn); C. Embury-Hyatt (Carissa); E.I. de Bruin (Esther); R. Balshaw (Robert); S. Lavigne (Sophie); M. Petric (Martin); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion); G. Boivin (Guy)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractDuring spring-summer 2009, several observational studies from Canada showed increased risk of medically-attended, laboratory-confirmed A(H1N1)pdm09 illness among prior recipients of 2008-09 trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV). Explanatory hypotheses included direct and indirect

  11. Randomized controlled ferret study to assess the direct impact of 2008-09 trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine on A(H1N1)pdm09 disease risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.M. Skowronski (Danuta); M.E. Hamelin (Marie Ève); G. de Serres (Gaston); N.Z. Janjua (Naveed); G. Li (Guiyun); S. Sabaiduc (Suzana); X. Bouhy (Xavier); C. Couture (Christian); A. Leung (Anders); D. Kobasa (Darwyn); C. Embury-Hyatt (Carissa); E.I. de Bruin (Esther); R. Balshaw (Robert); S. Lavigne (Sophie); M. Petric (Martin); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion); G. Boivin (Guy)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractDuring spring-summer 2009, several observational studies from Canada showed increased risk of medically-attended, laboratory-confirmed A(H1N1)pdm09 illness among prior recipients of 2008-09 trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV). Explanatory hypotheses included direct and indirect

  12. Predictors of public climate change awareness and risk perception around the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tien Ming; Markowitz, Ezra M.; Howe, Peter D.; Ko, Chia-Ying; Leiserowitz, Anthony A.

    2015-11-01

    Climate change is a threat to human societies and natural ecosystems, yet public opinion research finds that public awareness and concern vary greatly. Here, using an unprecedented survey of 119 countries, we determine the relative influence of socio-demographic characteristics, geography, perceived well-being, and beliefs on public climate change awareness and risk perceptions at national scales. Worldwide, educational attainment is the single strongest predictor of climate change awareness. Understanding the anthropogenic cause of climate change is the strongest predictor of climate change risk perceptions, particularly in Latin America and Europe, whereas perception of local temperature change is the strongest predictor in many African and Asian countries. However, other key factors associated with public awareness and risk perceptions highlight the need to develop tailored climate communication strategies for individual nations. The results suggest that improving basic education, climate literacy, and public understanding of the local dimensions of climate change are vital to public engagement and support for climate action.

  13. Identifying drug risk perceptions in Danish youths: Ranking exercises in focus groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob; Ravn, Signe

    2010-01-01

    and provides a relatively efficient way of investigating normative risk perceptions at a national or subcultural level. The paper develops this methodology in relation to a Danish case with 12 focus group interviews with youths aged from 17 to 22. Results: The analysis identifies five discourses articulated......Abstract: Background: This paper develops an analytical approach for understanding the perceptions of risks associated with drugs among youths in general. These perceptions are central in order to understand how certain drugs become popular, leading to increasing prevalence of use, while others do...... not. As such, this approach can become an efficient policy tool. Methods: Focus groups are used to investigate risk perceptions. We develop a specific methodology that combines a ranking exercise with discourse theory as an analytical approach. This methodology produces detailed information...

  14. Reliability and validity of the Persian (Farsi) version of the Risk Perception Survey-Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanipour, S; Heidarzadeh, A; Jafarinezhad, A

    2014-04-03

    Knowledge of patients' risk perceptions is essential for the management of chronic diseases. This study aimed to assess the reliability and validity of a Persian (Farsi) language translation of the Risk Perception Survey-Diabetes Mellitus. After forward-backward translation the RPS-DM was randomly administered to 106 adult patients with diabetes who were enrolled in a teaching referral clinic in the north of the Islamic Republic of Iran (Rasht). Internal consistency and exploratory factor analysis were applied. The minimum value for internal consistency was 0.50 for risk knowledge and the highest value was 0.88 on the optimistic bias subscale. Principal component analysis showed that the items of the composite risk score matched with the same items in the English language version, except for question numbers 16, 24 and 25. The Persian version of RPS-DM is the first standardized tool for measuring risk perception and knowledge about diabetes complications in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

  15. The effects of earthquake measurement concepts and magnitude anchoring on individuals' perceptions of earthquake risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celsi, R.; Wolfinbarger, M.; Wald, D.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore earthquake risk perceptions in California. Specifically, we examine the risk beliefs, feelings, and experiences of lay, professional, and expert individuals to explore how risk is perceived and how risk perceptions are formed relative to earthquakes. Our results indicate that individuals tend to perceptually underestimate the degree that earthquake (EQ) events may affect them. This occurs in large part because individuals' personal felt experience of EQ events are generally overestimated relative to experienced magnitudes. An important finding is that individuals engage in a process of "cognitive anchoring" of their felt EQ experience towards the reported earthquake magnitude size. The anchoring effect is moderated by the degree that individuals comprehend EQ magnitude measurement and EQ attenuation. Overall, the results of this research provide us with a deeper understanding of EQ risk perceptions, especially as they relate to individuals' understanding of EQ measurement and attenuation concepts. ?? 2005, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  16. Public perception of climate risk and adaptation in the UK: A review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L. Taylor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Like other countries, the United Kingdom faces the unavoidable challenge of adapting to a changing climate. However, public perceptions of the risk posed by climate change and support for adaptation policies vary between countries. This article provides a UK-specific review of climate change beliefs, risk perceptions regarding potential climate change impacts, and attitudes towards climate change adaptation. We report on differences between expert and public conceptualisations of climate change risks. We also examine the effects of psychological distancing, climate change awareness, and hazard experience on both concerns about climate change and perceptions of the weather-related risks posed by climate change. Additionally, we review the effects of emotion, agency, perceived responsibility, place attachment, personal values and uncertainty on the willingness of UK residents to support and engage with climate change adaptation. We outline the implications of these factors for climate risk communication and highlight key areas for future research.

  17. Spatial and temporal variation in evacuee risk perception throughout the evacuation and return-entry process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebeneck, Laura K; Cova, Thomas J

    2012-09-01

    Developing effective evacuation and return-entry plans requires understanding the spatial and temporal dimensions of risk perception experienced by evacuees throughout a disaster event. Using data gathered from the 2008 Cedar Rapids, Iowa Flood, this article explores how risk perception and location influence evacuee behavior during the evacuation and return-entry process. Three themes are discussed: (1) the spatial and temporal characteristics of risk perception throughout the evacuation and return-entry process, (2) the relationship between risk perception and household compliance with return-entry orders, and (3) the role social influences have on the timing of the return by households. The results indicate that geographic location and spatial variation of risk influenced household risk perception and compliance with return-entry plans. In addition, sociodemographic characteristics influenced the timing and characteristics of the return groups. The findings of this study advance knowledge of evacuee behavior throughout a disaster and can inform strategies used by emergency managers throughout the evacuation and return-entry process. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. Evaluating surveillance in wild birds by the application of risk assessment of avian influenza introduction into Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, M; Perez, A M; de la Torre, A; Iglesias, I; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M; Muñoz, M J

    2011-01-01

    Early detection of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in its natural reservoirs is a prerequisite for preventing disease spread to humans. The risk of introduction of H5N1 HPAI was assessed in order to design a risk-based surveillance system in Spain. Areas at highest risk for H5N1 HPAI followed a northeast-southwest direction, with two significant clusters located in the north and the southwest of the country. Most (83%) of the veterinary units (VUs) obtained fewer samples than would have been expected if samples had been collected using a risk-based design. In October 2009, a HPAI outbreak was reported for the first time in a Spanish layer farm located in a VU at high risk for HPAI, but no samples were collected. This risk-based surveillance approach will increase the cost-effectiveness of HPAI surveillance in Spain and can be easily extended to and adopted by other countries and regions throughout the world.

  19. Risk factors for highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 infection in backyard chicken farms, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Mathilde; Wongnarkpet, Sirichai; Gasqui, Patrick; Poolkhet, Chaithep; Thongratsakul, Sukanya; Ducrot, Christian; Roger, François

    2011-06-01

    To reduce the risk of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 infection in humans, the pathways by which HPAI is spread in poultry must be determined. Backyard poultry farmers are particularly vulnerable to the threat of HPAI, with both their health and livelihoods at risk. Identifying the risk factors for HPAI infection in backyard farms should allow control measures to be better targeted. To study the risk factors of HPAI H5N1 infection, we carried out a case-control study on backyard chicken farms in Thailand, analyzing 104 case farms and 382 control farms. Data on farming practices and environmental characteristics were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression models. We show that farms where owners bought live chickens from another backyard farm had a higher risk of HPAI H5N1 infection (OR 3.34, 95% CI 1.72-6.47), while those where owners used a disinfectant to clean poultry areas were exposed to lower risk (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.26-0.87). Our results highlight the important role of the trade of poultry between farms in the transmission of HPAI H5N1, in addition to farming practices and environmental characteristics. Findings from this study may help to tailor prevention measures to the local circumstances of backyard farms in different regions of the world.

  20. Making sense of perceptions of risk of diseases and vaccinations: a qualitative study combining models of health beliefs, decision-making and risk perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bond Lyndal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maintaining high levels of childhood vaccinations is important for public health. Success requires better understanding of parents' perceptions of diseases and consequent decisions about vaccinations, however few studies have considered this from the theoretical perspectives of risk perception and decision-making under uncertainty. The aim of this study was to examine the utility of subjective risk perception and decision-making theories to provide a better understanding of the differences between immunisers' and non-immunisers' health beliefs and behaviours. Methods In a qualitative study we conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with 45 Australian parents exploring their experiences and perceptions of disease severity and susceptibility. Using scenarios about 'a new strain of flu' we explored how risk information was interpreted. Results We found that concepts of dread, unfamiliarity, and uncontrollability from the subjective perception of risk and ambiguity, optimistic control and omission bias from explanatory theories of decision-making under uncertainty were useful in understanding why immunisers, incomplete immunisers and non-immunisers interpreted severity and susceptibility to diseases and vaccine risk differently. Immunisers dreaded unfamiliar diseases whilst non-immunisers dreaded unknown, long term side effects of vaccines. Participants believed that the risks of diseases and complications from diseases are not equally spread throughout the community, therefore, when listening to reports of epidemics, it is not the number of people who are affected but the familiarity or unfamiliarity of the disease and the characteristics of those who have had the disease that prompts them to take preventive action. Almost all believed they themselves would not be at serious risk of the 'new strain of flu' but were less willing to take risks with their children's health. Conclusion This study has found that health messages

  1. Context, cultural bias, and health risk perception: the "everyday" nature of pesticide policy preferences in London, Calgary, and Halifax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Rachel A; Baxter, Jamie

    2011-05-01

    Risk perception and the cultural theory of risk have often been contrasted in relation to risk-related policy making; however, the local context in which risks are experienced, an important component of everyday decision making, remains understudied. What is unclear is the extent to which localized community beliefs and behaviors depend on larger belief systems about risk (i.e., worldviews). This article reports on a study designed to understand the relative importance of health risk perceptions (threat of harm); risk-related worldviews (cultural biases); and the experiences of local context (situated risk) for predicting risk-related policy preferences regarding cosmetic pesticides. Responses to a random telephone questionnaire are used to compare residents' risk perceptions, cultural biases, and pesticide bylaw preferences in Calgary (Alberta), Halifax (Nova Scotia), and London (Ontario), Canada. Logistic regression shows that the most important determinants of pesticide bylaw preference are risk perception, lack of benefit, and pesticide "abstinence." Though perception of health risk is the best single predictor of differences in bylaw preferences, social factors such as gender and situated risk factors like conflict over chemical pesticides, are also important. Though cultural biases are not important predictors of pesticide bylaw preference, as in other studies, they are significant predictors of health risk perception. Pesticide bylaw preference is therefore more than just a health risk perception or worldview issue; it is also about how health risk becomes situated-contextually-in the experiences of residents' everyday lives. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  2. Seasonal and pandemic influenza: the role of communication and preventive strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccia, A; Di Thiene, D; De Giusti, M; La Torre, G

    2011-09-01

    Appropriate, timely, and data-driven health information is a very important issue in preventive strategies against influenza. Intuitively, a link between willingness to be vaccinated against seasonal influenza and against pandemic influenza exists, given the similarities in decision-making for this vaccine. International and national literature reviews suggest that progress has been made in order to incorporate and disseminate crisis risk communication principles into public health practice, as such investments in public health could be important for building capacity and practice which aid in the realization of countermeasures in response to a future pandemic and epidemic situation. This study emphasizes the lack of perception by Health Care Workers (HCWs) of the importance of being immunized against seasonal and pandemic influenza and the doubts concerning safety. In the future, particular efforts are needed during vaccination campaigns, to provide more information to HCWs and the general population regarding role and safety of such vaccines.

  3. The avian influenza H9N2 at avian-human interface: A possible risk for the future pandemics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaghayegh RahimiRad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The avian influenza subtype H9N2 is considered a low pathogenic virus which is endemic in domestic poultry of a majority of Asian countries. Many reports of seropositivity in occupationally poultry-exposed workers and a number of confirmed human infections with an H9N2 subtype of avian influenza have been documented up to now. Recently, the human infections with both H7N9 and H10N8 viruses highlighted that H9N2 has a great potential for taking a part in the emergence of new human-infecting viruses. This review aimed at discussing the great potential of H9N2 virus which is circulating at avian-human interface, for cross-species transmission, contribution in the production of new reassortants and emergence of new pandemic subtypes. An intensified surveillance is needed for controlling the future risks which would be created by H9N2 circulation at avian-human interfaces.

  4. Reassortment ability of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus with circulating human and avian influenza viruses: public health risk implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stincarelli, Maria; Arvia, Rosaria; De Marco, Maria Alessandra; Clausi, Valeria; Corcioli, Fabiana; Cotti, Claudia; Delogu, Mauro; Donatelli, Isabella; Azzi, Alberta; Giannecchini, Simone

    2013-08-01

    Exploring the reassortment ability of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (A/H1N1pdm09) influenza virus with other circulating human or avian influenza viruses is the main concern related to the generation of more virulent or new variants having implications for public health. After different coinfection experiments in human A549 cells, by using the A/H1N1pdm09 virus plus one of human seasonal influenza viruses of H1N1 and H3N2 subtype or one of H11, H10, H9, H7 and H1 avian influenza viruses, several reassortant viruses were obtained. Among these, the HA of H1N1 was the main segment of human seasonal influenza virus reassorted in the A/H1N1pdm09 virus backbone. Conversely, HA and each of the three polymerase segments, alone or in combination, of the avian influenza viruses mainly reassorted in the A/H1N1pdm09 virus backbone. Of note, A/H1N1pdm09 viruses that reassorted with HA of H1N1 seasonal human or H11N6 avian viruses or carried different combination of avian origin polymerase segments, exerted a higher replication effectiveness than that of the parental viruses. These results confirm that reassortment of the A/H1N1pdm09 with circulating low pathogenic avian influenza viruses should not be misjudged in the prediction of the next pandemic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. HIV sexual risk behaviors and perception of risk among college students: implications for planning interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balogun Joseph A

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The college environment offers great opportunity for HIV high-risk behaviors, including unsafe sex and multiple partnerships. While the overall incidence of HIV infection has seen some decline in recent years, rates of HIV infection among young adults have not seen a proportionate decline. As in the general population, African American young adults have been disproportionately affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. This study examined the sexual risk behaviors and perception of HIV risk of students in a predominantly African American commuter urban university in the Midwest. Methods Students enrolled in randomly selected general education courses completed a paper and pencil survey. Data were collected in Fall 2007, and univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were conducted using SPSS for Windows v.16. Results The sample included 390 students, the majority (83% of whom were never married and 87% were sexually experienced. Among males reporting male partnerships those who used marijuana (OR = 17.5, p = 0.01 and those who used alcohol along with illegal drugs (OR = 8.8, p = 0.03 were significantly more likely to report multiple partnerships. Among females reporting male partnerships, those 30 years and older were significantly less likely (OR = 0.09, p = 0.03 to report having multiple male partners. There were significant differences in condom use last sex (p = 0.01 and consistent condom use (p = 0.002 among the different age groups. Older students were less likely to report condom use. Females age 30 years and older (OR = 3.74, p = 0.05 and respondents age 20–29 years (OR = 2.41, p = 0.03 were more likely to report inconsistent condom use than those below 20 years. Marijuana use was correlated with inconsistent condom use (p = 0.02 and alcohol with not using condom last sex among females. Perception of HIV risk was generally poor with 54% of those age 30 years and older, 48.1% of 20–29 year olds, and 57.9% of those

  6. Understanding public perceptions of risk regarding outdoor pet cats to inform conservation action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramza, Ashley; Teel, Tara; VandeWoude, Susan; Crooks, Kevin

    2016-04-01

    Free-ranging domestic cats (Felis catus) incur and impose risks on ecosystems and represent a complex issue of critical importance to biodiversity conservation and cat and human health globally. Prior social science research on this topic is limited and has emphasized feral cats even though owned cats often comprise a large proportion of the outdoor cat population, particularly in urban areas. To address this gap, we examined public risk perceptions and attitudes toward outdoor pet cats across varying levels of urbanization, including along the wildland-urban interface, in Colorado (U.S.A.), through a mail survey of 1397 residents. Residents did not view all types of risks uniformly. They viewed risks of cat predation on wildlife and carnivore predation on cats as more likely than disease-related risks. Additionally, risk perceptions were related to attitudes, prior experiences with cats and cat-wildlife interactions, and cat-owner behavior. Our findings suggest that changes in risk perceptions may result in behavior change. Therefore, knowledge of cat-related risk perceptions and attitudes could be used to develop communication programs aimed at promoting risk-aversive behaviors among cat owners and cat-management strategies that are acceptable to the public and that directly advance the conservation of native species.

  7. Analysis of the Relationship between Risk Perception and Willingness to Pay for Nuclear Power Plant Risk Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirae Yun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the adoption of new technologies, more risk is introduced into modern society. Important decisions about new technologies tend to be made by specialists, which can lead to a mismatch of risk perception between citizens and specialists, resulting in high social cost. Using contingent valuation methods, this paper analyzes the relationship between willingness to pay (WTP and the factors expressed through people’s image of nuclear power plants (NPP, their perception of NPP safety, and how these can be affected by their scientific background level. Results indicate that groups with a high scientific background level tend to have low risk perception level, represented through their image and safety levels. Further, the results show that mean WTP is dependent on scientific background and image levels. It is believed that these results could help decision makers address the mismatch of trust between the public and specialists in terms of new policy.

  8. Social norms and risk perception: predictors of distracted driving behavior among novice adolescent drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Patrick M; Bingham, C Raymond; Zakrajsek, Jennifer S; Shope, Jean T; Sayer, Tina B

    2014-05-01

    Adolescent drivers are at elevated crash risk due to distracted driving behavior (DDB). Understanding parental and peer influences on adolescent DDB may aid future efforts to decrease crash risk. We examined the influence of risk perception, sensation seeking, as well as descriptive and injunctive social norms on adolescent DDB using the theory of normative social behavior. 403 adolescents (aged 16-18 years) and their parents were surveyed by telephone. Survey instruments measured self-reported sociodemographics, DDB, sensation seeking, risk perception, descriptive norms (perceived parent DDB, parent self-reported DDB, and perceived peer DDB), and injunctive norms (parent approval of DDB and peer approval of DDB). Hierarchical multiple linear regression was used to predict the influence of descriptive and injunctive social norms, risk perception, and sensation seeking on adolescent DDB. 92% of adolescents reported regularly engaging in DDB. Adolescents perceived that their parents and peers participated in DDB more frequently than themselves. Adolescent risk perception, parent DDB, perceived parent DDB, and perceived peer DDB were predictive of adolescent DDB in the regression model, but parent approval and peer approval of DDB were not predictive. Risk perception and parental DDB were stronger predictors among males, whereas perceived parental DDB was stronger for female adolescents. Adolescent risk perception and descriptive norms are important predictors of adolescent distracted driving. More study is needed to understand the role of injunctive normative influences on adolescent DDB. Effective public health interventions should address parental role modeling, parental monitoring of adolescent driving, and social marketing techniques that correct misconceptions of norms related to around driver distraction and crash risk. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Risk Distribution of Human Infections with Avian Influenza H7N9 and H5N1 virus in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin-Lou; Yang, Yang; Sun, Ye; Chen, Wan-Jun; Sun, Ruo-Xi; Liu, Kun; Ma, Mai-Juan; Liang, Song; Yao, Hong-Wu; Gray, Gregory C; Fang, Li-Qun; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2015-12-22

    It has been documented that the epidemiological characteristics of human infections with H7N9 differ significantly between H5N1. However, potential factors that may explain the different spatial distributions remain unexplored. We use boosted regression tree (BRT) models to explore the association of agro-ecological, environmental and meteorological variables with the occurrence of human cases of H7N9 and H5N1, and map the probabilities of occurrence of human cases. Live poultry markets, density of human, coverage of built-up land, relative humidity and precipitation were significant predictors for both. In addition, density of poultry, coverage of shrub and temperature played important roles for human H7N9 infection, whereas human H5N1 infection was associated with coverage of forest and water body. Based on the risks and distribution of ecological characteristics which may facilitate the circulation of the two viruses, we found Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta, along with a few spots on the southeast coastline, to be the high risk areas for H7N9 and H5N1. Additional, H5N1 risk spots were identified in eastern Sichuan and southern Yunnan Provinces. Surveillance of the two viruses needs to be enhanced in these high risk areas to reduce the risk of future epidemics of avian influenza in China.

  10. Risk perception and risk attitudes in Tokyo: A report of the first administration of DOSPERT+M in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Schwartz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Domain-Specific Risk Taking scale (DOSPERT has been used to measure risk perceptions and attitudes in several nations and cultures. Takahashi translated DOSPERT to Japanese but DOSPERT responses from Japan have never been reported. Butler et al. (2012 developed an additional medical risk domain subscale to be added to DOSPERT to form DOSPERT+M. Objective: To describe the translation of the medical risk domain subscale to Japanese and to characterize domain-specific risk attitudes in Tokyo. Methods: Members of a probability-weighted online panel representative of the Tokyo metro area were randomized to complete pairs of DOSPERT+M tasks (risk attitude, risk perception, benefit perception. We explored relationships among domains through correlational and factor analysis; we tested the hypothesis that the medical risk domain and DOSPERT's health/safety domains were uncorrelated. Participants: One hundred eighty panelists. Results: Six of the original DOSPERT items (two each in the ethics, health/safety, and financial domains are not useable in Japan according to the Japanese Marketing Research Association code because they ask about participation in illegal activities; we thus used abbreviated versions of those domains leaving out these items. The DOSPERT+M items generally did not cluster cleanly into the expected domains, although items within the same domain usually were intercorrelated. Participants demonstrated domain-specific conventional risk attitudes, although nearly half of those assessed were perceived-risk neutral in all domains. Unlike our recently reported findings in the U.S. population, DOSPERT+M medical domain scores were associated with health/safety domain scores, although they were often more strongly associated with scores in other domains, such as recreational activities. Conclusion: The DOSPERT (and DOSPERT+M instruments are problematic in Japan but Japanese citizens may also differ from those of other nations

  11. Science Instructors' Perceptions of the Risks of Biotechnology: Implications for Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Grant Ean; Jones, M. Gail

    2011-01-01

    Developing scientifically literate students who understand the socially contextualized nature of science and technology is a national focus of science education reform. Science educators' perceptions of risks and benefits of new technologies (such as biotechnology) may shape their instructional approaches. This study examined the perceived risk of…

  12. The At-Risk Student's Journey with Online Course Credit: Looking at Perceptions of Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Karis K.

    2016-01-01

    Studies addressing at-risk students' perceptions of valuable caring relationships within their unique online environment are rare. While the phrase at-risk has a variety of meanings, this study examined the term pertaining to students who were labeled due to endangerment of not graduating from high school based on their life circumstances. Through…

  13. At-Risk Students' Perceptions of Traditional Schools and a Solution-Focused Public Alternative School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagana-Riordan, Christine; Aguilar, Jemel P.; Franklin, Cynthia; Streeter, Calvin L.; Kim, Johnny S.; Tripodi, Stephen J.; Hopson, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    Recent trends in education have drawn attention to students at risk of school failure and dropout in the United States. Alternative schools are one method for preventing the severe and long-lasting consequences of underachievement and dropout. Few research studies have sought the opinions and perceptions of the at-risk students who attend…

  14. Risk perception: The social construction of spatial knowledge around climate change-related scenarios in Lima

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda Sara, L.; Jameson, S.; Pfeffer, K.; Baud, I.

    2016-01-01

    Lima's environmental sustainability is threatened by increasing water scarcity, heavy rain events and limited attention for water vulnerability and climate change scenarios. In this paper we examine how knowledge construction and risk perception on water-related disaster risks and vulnerabilities

  15. Earth, wind, and fire: Wildfire risk perceptions in a hurricane-prone environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soren M. Newman; Matthew S. Carroll; Pamela J. Jakes; Daniel R. Williams; Lorie L. Higgins

    2014-01-01

    Wildfire is one of several potential disturbances that could have extraordinary impacts on individuals and communities in fire-prone areas. In this article we describe disturbance risk perceptions from interviews with residents in three Florida communities that face significant wildfire and hurricane risk. Although they live in areas characterized by emergency managers...

  16. "System Destroys Trust?"--Regulatory Institutions and Public Perceptions of Food Risks in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Kuei-tien; Liou, Hwa-meei

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to explore public perceptions of global food risk issues and public attitudes towards government capacity to respond to concerns with technological and health uncertainties in an era of rapid economic development in newly industrialized countries. From cross-national comparative research on global food risk issues in the EU, UK,…

  17. Health Costs of Wealth Gains: Labor Migration and Perceptions of HIV/AIDS Risks in Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agadjanian, Victor; Arnaldo, Carlos; Cau, Boaventura

    2011-01-01

    The study employs survey data from rural Mozambique to examine how men's labor migration affects their non-migrating wives' perceptions of HIV/AIDS risks. Using a conceptual framework centered on tradeoffs between economic security and health risks that men's migration entails for their left-behind wives, it compares women married to migrants and…

  18. Risk perception: The social construction of spatial knowledge around climate change-related scenarios in Lima

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda Sara, L.; Jameson, S.; Pfeffer, K.; Baud, I.

    2016-01-01

    Lima's environmental sustainability is threatened by increasing water scarcity, heavy rain events and limited attention for water vulnerability and climate change scenarios. In this paper we examine how knowledge construction and risk perception on water-related disaster risks and vulnerabilities af

  19. Perceptions of food risk management among key stakeholders: Results from a cross-European study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van E.; Frewer, L.J.; Chryssochoidis, G.M.; Houghton, J.R.; Korzen-Bohr, S.; Krystallis, T.; Lassen, J.; Pfenning, U.; Rowe, G.

    2006-01-01

    In designing and implementing appropriate food risk management strategies, it is important to examine how key stakeholders perceive both the practice and effectiveness of food risk management. The objective of this study is to identify similarities and differences in perceptions of, and attitudes

  20. "System Destroys Trust?"--Regulatory Institutions and Public Perceptions of Food Risks in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Kuei-tien; Liou, Hwa-meei

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to explore public perceptions of global food risk issues and public attitudes towards government capacity to respond to concerns with technological and health uncertainties in an era of rapid economic development in newly industrialized countries. From cross-national comparative research on global food risk issues in the EU, UK,…

  1. Health Costs of Wealth Gains: Labor Migration and Perceptions of HIV/AIDS Risks in Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agadjanian, Victor; Arnaldo, Carlos; Cau, Boaventura

    2011-01-01

    The study employs survey data from rural Mozambique to examine how men's labor migration affects their non-migrating wives' perceptions of HIV/AIDS risks. Using a conceptual framework centered on tradeoffs between economic security and health risks that men's migration entails for their left-behind wives, it compares women married to migrants and…

  2. Risk and Benefit Perceptions of Mobile Phone and Base Station Technology in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van E.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Khan, M.; Frewer, L.J.

    2010-01-01

    Research in developed countries showed that many citizens perceive that radio signals transmitted by mobile phones and base stations represent potential health risks. Less research has been conducted in developing countries focused on citizen perceptions of risks and benefits, despite the recent and

  3. The Perception, Management and Performance of Risk Amongst Forest School Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Mark; Haughton, Chantelle

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates how risk perception amongst teachers within an outdoor educational initiative, Forest School, both shape and are shaped by their understandings of childhood, pedagogy and their own professional identity. Drawing on a social constructionist perspective in theorising risk and childhood, the article argues that contemporary,…

  4. Risk perception in Western Europe 10 years after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoeberg, L. [Stockholm School of Economics (Sweden). Center for Risk Research

    1999-12-01

    What have we learned about risk perception? Let me summarize a few highlights: Perceived risk is at the present highest with regard to acute economic needs, but the environment and nuclear technology are also important. Nuclear technology has a special role in being perceived as very low in 'control', i.e. if you can protect yourself from its hazards. Media do play an important role in risk perception, but it is more subtle than most often believed. Media do affect our beliefs by the information they bring us, but not necessarily by increasing the 'availability of what we already know'. Trust is not the primary factor in risk perception that it often is believed to be - it does play a role at a moderate level of power. It may be that trust is a necessary but not sufficient factor for risk 'acceptance'. In Western Europe, we have noted very large variations among countries both with regard to trust and perceived risk. Inclusion of other societies would probably have meant observation of even greater variation. The RISKPERCOM project serves as a starting point for further work on risk perception and technology. Attitudes and values need to be studied in a broader frame than merely perceived risk, as the project has shown. Future research on such acute topics as nuclear waste is called for; the project has already produced a number of results in that area but space restrictions preclude me from reviewing them here.

  5. Family history of diabetes: exploring perceptions of people at risk in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijl, M.; Henneman, L.; Claassen, E.A.M.; Detmar, S.B.; Nijpels, M.G.A.A.M.; Timmermans, D.R.M.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of causes, risk, and control with regard to diabetes and the role of family history among people at increased risk for type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Semistructured interviews were conducted among people aged 57 to 72 years with (n = 9)

  6. The effect of emotions on risk perception: Experimental evaluation of the affective tendencies framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drače Saša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the role of specific emotions on risk perception providing a more stringent experimental test of the Appraisal Tendencies Framework (ATF. Consistent with expectations, angry and happy participants made more optimistic risk estimates than participants who were made sad. As hypothesized by ATF, happiness and anger also led people to somewhat higher certainty appraisals than sadness. However, this change in perception did not mediate the impact of emotions on risk estimates. Taken together, our results provide the evidence for causal role of specific emotions in risk perception and contribute to literature showing that the effects of emotion on judgment are not solely due to the valence of the experienced emotion. However, they also suggest that the processes underlying emotion effects remain in need for further specifications.

  7. Health literacy and the perception of risk in a breast cancer family history clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, E J; Kelly, J; Lehane, E A; Livingstone, V; Cotter, B; Butt, A; O'Sullivan, M J; O Connell, F; Redmond, H P; Corrigan, M A

    2016-11-28

    Informed consent is an essential component of medical practice, and especially so in procedural based specialties which entail varying degrees of risk. Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in women, and as such is the focus of extensive research and significant media attention. Despite this, considerable misperception exists regarding the risk of developing breast cancer. This study aims to examine the accuracy of risk perception of women attending a breast cancer family history clinic, and to explore the relationship between risk perception accuracy and health literacy. A cross-sectional study of women attending a breast cancer family history clinic (n = 86) was carried out, consisting of a patient survey and a validated health literacy assessment. Patients' perception of personal and population breast cancer risk was compared to actual risk as calculated by a validated risk assessment tool. Significant discordance between real and perceived risks was observed. The majority (83.7%) of women overestimated their personal lifetime risk of developing breast cancer, as well as that of other women of the same age (89.5%). Health literacy was considered potentially inadequate in 37.2% of patients; there was a correlation between low health literacy and increased risk perception inaccuracy across both personal ten-year (rs = 0.224, p = 0.039) and general ten-year population estimations. (rs = 0.267, p = 0.013). Inaccuracy in risk perception is highly prevalent in women attending a breast cancer family history clinic. Health literacy inadequacy is significantly associated with this inaccuracy. Copyright © 2016 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Influenza vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerhus, Sven Frederick

    2015-01-01

    The Cochrane Library was systematically searched for meta-analyses regarding influenza vaccination of various populations, both healthy and sick. An effect in reducing the number of cases of influenza, influenza-like illness or complications to influenza was found in some studies, but, generally......, the quality of the studies was low, and several studies lacked hard clinical endpoints. Data on adverse effects were scarce. More randomised controlled trials investigating the effects of influenza vaccination are warranted....

  9. Human Influenza Virus Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peteranderl, Christin; Herold, Susanne; Schmoldt, Carole

    2016-08-01

    Seasonal and pandemic influenza are the two faces of respiratory infections caused by influenza viruses in humans. As seasonal influenza occurs on an annual basis, the circulating virus strains are closely monitored and a yearly updated vaccination is provided, especially to identified risk populations. Nonetheless, influenza virus infection may result in pneumonia and acute respiratory failure, frequently complicated by bacterial coinfection. Pandemics are, in contrary, unexpected rare events related to the emergence of a reassorted human-pathogenic influenza A virus (IAV) strains that often causes increased morbidity and spreads extremely rapidly in the immunologically naive human population, with huge clinical and economic impact. Accordingly, particular efforts are made to advance our knowledge on the disease biology and pathology and recent studies have brought new insights into IAV adaptation mechanisms to the human host, as well as into the key players in disease pathogenesis on the host side. Current antiviral strategies are only efficient at the early stages of the disease and are challenged by the genomic instability of the virus, highlighting the need for novel antiviral therapies targeting the pulmonary host response to improve viral clearance, reduce the risk of bacterial coinfection, and prevent or attenuate acute lung injury. This review article summarizes our current knowledge on the molecular basis of influenza infection and disease progression, the key players in pathogenesis driving severe disease and progression to lung failure, as well as available and envisioned prevention and treatment strategies against influenza virus infection.

  10. Puerperal gravid process like risk factor for the presentation of severe clinical pictures of Influenza A (H1N1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Zerquera

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available An analysis is carried out about some factors that are considered implied in the normal development of the puerperal gravid process, and that should be kept in mind at the moment to consider the pregnant and postpartum women like a group of risk to suffer severe clinical pictures of Influenza A (H1N1, in the course of the current pandemic. Such considerations are the author's points of view, based on the review of medical literature, as very recent aspects in relation with to the beginning and normal development of the pregnancy and an experience of more than thirty years as the head of medical team for the care of severe pregnant women patients.

  11. Risk Perceptions, Sexual Attitudes, and Sexual Behavior after HPV Vaccination in 11–12 Year-Old Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Tanya L. Kowalczyk; Widdice, Lea E.; Rosenthal, Susan L.; Zimet, Gregory D.; Kahn, Jessica A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Among 11–12 year-old girls who received the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, we explored, over the subsequent 30 months: 1) trajectories of knowledge about HPV/HPV vaccines and vaccine-related risk perceptions; 2) whether knowledge and risk perceptions impacted sexual attitudes and sexual experience; and 3) whether mothers, clinicians, and media influenced girls’ risk perceptions, attitudes, and behavior. Methods Girls and mothers (n=25 dyads) completed separate, semi-structured interviews within 2 days of, and 6, 18, and 30 months after, their first HPV vaccine dose. Knowledge, risk perceptions related to HPV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and attitudes about sexual behaviors were assessed. Sexual experience was assessed at girls’ 30 month interviews. Clinicians completed interviews at baseline. Transcribed interviews were analyzed using framework analysis. Results Girls’ baseline knowledge was poor but often improved with time. Most girls (n=18) developed accurate risk perceptions about HPV but only half (n=12) developed accurate risk perceptions about other STIs by 30 months. The vast majority of girls thought that safer sex was still important, regardless of knowledge, risk perceptions, or sexual experience. Girls whose HPV knowledge was high at baseline or increased over time tended to articulate accurate risk perceptions; those who were able to articulate accurate risk perceptions tended to report not having initiated sexual activity. Girls whose mothers demonstrated higher knowledge and/or communication about HPV vaccination tended to articulate accurate risk perceptions, whereas clinicians and media exposure did not appear to influence risk perceptions. Conclusions Higher knowledge about HPV vaccines among mothers and girls was linked with more accurate risk perceptions among girls. Clinicians may play an important role in providing education about HPV vaccines to mothers and girls. PMID:26116249

  12. Perceptions of food risk management among key stakeholders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Kleef, Ellen; Frewer, Lynn J.; Chryssochoidis, George M.

    2006-01-01

    In designing and implementing appropriate food risk management strategies, it is important to examine how key stakeholders perceive both the practice and effectiveness of food risk management.......In designing and implementing appropriate food risk management strategies, it is important to examine how key stakeholders perceive both the practice and effectiveness of food risk management....

  13. Iudicium: An Educational Intervention for addressing Risk Perception of Alcohol Abuse in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajac, Héctor; Feliu-Soler, Albert; Meerhoff, Diana; Latorre, Laura; Elices, Matilde

    2016-03-02

    Negative consequences of alcohol abuse during adolescence have been extensively described. Consequently, different interventions have been developed to address this issue. This article describes the implementation and evaluation of Iudicium, an educational drama-based intervention designed to increase risk perception of alcohol abuse. In this activity, high school students judge a case in which alcohol consumption had negative consequences (e.g., fights, unwanted pregnancy, and car accident). A trial is simulated and after that, a debriefing takes place during which the activity is discussed and informational materials on the effects of alcohol is provided and commented. A total of 318 students (55.7% females and 44.3% males) from five high schools participated in the study. Data regarding risk perception of alcohol abuse and adequacy of the activity was collected before and after the intervention. Results suggest that Iudicium was effective in increasing risk perception of abusive drinking, reaching a 34% of increase regarding risk perception. Participants highlighted the experiential component of Iudicium as a strength. The intervention was well-accepted, easy to understand and apparently an effective tool for increasing risk perception of alcohol abuse amongst high school students.

  14. Analysis of the formation, expression, and economic impacts of risk perceptions associated with nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, T.; Hunter, S.; Calzonetti, F.J.

    1992-10-01

    This report investigates how communities hosting nuclear facilities form and express perceptions of risk and how these risk perceptions affect local economic development. Information was collected from site visits and interviews with plant personnel, officials of local and state agencies, and community activists in the hosting communities. Six commercial nuclear fuel production facilities and five nuclear facilities operated for the US Department of Energy by private contractors were chosen for analysis. The results presented in the report indicate that the nature of risk perceptions depends on a number of factors. These factors are (1) level of communication by plant officials within the local community, (2) track record of the facility. operator, (3) process through which community and state officials receive information and form opinions, (4) level of economic links each plant has with the local community, and (15) physical characteristics of the facility itself. This report finds that in the communities studied, adverse ask perceptions have not affected business location decisions, employment levels in the local community, tourism, or agricultural development. On the basis of case-study findings, this report recommends that nuclear facility siting programs take the following observations into account when addressing perceptions of risk. First, the quality of a facility`s participation with community activists, interest groups, and state agencies helps to determine the level of perceived risk within a community. Second, the development of strong economic links between nuclear facilities and their host communities will produce a higher level of acceptance of the nuclear facilities.

  15. Effect of framing on the perception of genetic recurrence risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiloh, S; Sagi, M

    1989-05-01

    Individuals asked to evaluate genetic recurrence risks were found to be influenced by the way the risks were framed. Presenting a single risk figure resulted in overweighting of low probabilities and underweighting of high probabilities, as compared to presenting a list of sequential risks. Differences were also found between meanings attached to verbal expressions of risks when translating from verbal to numerical expressions, and vice versa. The implications of these findings for genetic counseling are discussed.

  16. Natural hazard risk perception of Italian population: case studies along national territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravina, Teresita; Tupputi Schinosa, Francesca De Luca; Zuddas, Isabella; Preto, Mattia; Marengo, Angelo; Esposito, Alessandro; Figliozzi, Emanuele; Rapinatore, Matteo

    2015-04-01

    Risk perception is judgment that people make about the characteristics and severity of risks, in last few years risk perception studies focused on provide cognitive elements to communication experts responsible in order to design citizenship information and awareness appropriate strategies. Several authors in order to determine natural hazards risk (Seismic, landslides, cyclones, flood, Volcanic) perception used questionnaires as tool for providing reliable quantitative data and permitting comparison the results with those of similar surveys. In Italy, risk perception studies based on surveys, were also carried out in order to investigate on national importance Natural risk, in particular on Somma-Vesuvio and Phlegrean Fields volcanic Risks, but lacked risk perception studies on local situation distributed on whole national territory. National importance natural hazard were frequently reported by national mass media and there were debate about emergencies civil protection plans, otherwise could be difficult to obtain information on bonded and regional nature natural hazard which were diffuses along National territory. In fact, Italian peninsula was a younger geological area subjected to endogenous phenomena (volcanoes, earthquake) and exogenous phenomena which determine land evolution and natural hazard (landslide, coastal erosion, hydrogeological instability, sinkhole) for population. For this reason we decided to investigate on natural risks perception in different Italian place were natural hazard were taken place but not reported from mass media, as were only local relevant or historical event. We carried out surveys in different Italian place interested by different types of natural Hazard (landslide, coastal erosion, hydrogeological instability, sinkhole, volcanic phenomena and earthquake) and compared results, in order to understand population perception level, awareness and civil protection exercises preparation. Our findings support that risks

  17. Life styles, anxiety, expertise: the perception of risk from electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deitinger, Patrizia; Nardella, Christian; Ronchetti, Matteo; Bonafede, Michela; Grandi, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzed the effect of expertise, by comparing the opinions of groups of "experts" and "non-experts" on the so-called "classic" risks and on the risks from exposure to electromagnetic fields. A protocol comprising personal history questionnaires, including lifestyle details, STAI-Y, and two rating scales based on the "psychometric paradigm" was administered to 48 people, 22 experts on these risks and 26 non-experts. The findings were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance, exploratory factor, correlational and bivariate regression analysis. Significant differences emerged between the perceptions of the two groups, though the underlying qualitative dimensions were similar. Bivariate regression analysis showed that both state and trait anxiety exert a statistically significant effect on some risks, both classic and related to electromagnetic fields exposure. This study displayed the role of expertise in risk perception processes, giving indications on the relationships between anxiety and risk perception. On the basis of the available data it is concluded that people prone to anxiety and individual emotional states filter the perception of risk arising from activities, technologies, substances etc. included in the present study.

  18. Practice-specific risk perceptions and self-reported food safety practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Alan S; Choinière, Conrad J; Fein, Sara B

    2008-06-01

    The relationship between risk perception and risk avoidance is typically analyzed using self-reported measures. However, in domains such as driving or food handling, the validity of responses about usual behavior is threatened because people think about the situations in which they are self-aware, such as when they encounter a hazard. Indeed, researchers have often noted a divergence between what people say about their behavior and how they actually behave. Thus, in order to draw conclusions about risk perceptions and risk avoidance from survey data, it is important to identify particular cognitive elements, such as those measured by questions about risk and safety knowledge, risk perceptions, or information search behavior, which may be effective antecedents of self-reported safety behavior. It is also important to identify and correct for potential sources of bias that may exist in the data. The authors analyze the Food and Drug Administration's 1998 Food Safety Survey to determine whether there are consistent cognitive antecedents for three types of safe food practices: preparation, eating, and cooling of foods. An assessment of measurement biases shows that endogeneity of food choices affects reports of food preparation. In addition, response bias affects reports of cooling practices as evidenced by its relation to knowledge and information search, a pattern of cognitive effects unique to cooling practices. After correcting for these biases, results show that practice-specific risk perceptions are the primary cognitive antecedents of safe food behavior, which has implications for the design of effective education messages about food safety.

  19. Predation Risk Perception, Food Density and Conspecific Cues Shape Foraging Decisions in a Tropical Lizard: e0138016

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maximilian Drakeley; Oriol Lapiedra; Jason J Kolbe

    2015-01-01

    .... We presented male lizards with foraging opportunities to test how the presence of conspecifics, predation-risk perception, the abundance of food, and interactions among these factors determines...

  20. Determinants and mapping of collective perceptions of technological risk: the case of the second nuclear power plant in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Hung-Chih; Wang, Tzu-Wen

    2011-04-01

    Nuclear power is a highly controversial and salient example of environmental risk. The siting or operating of a nuclear power plant often faces widespread public opposition. Although studies of public perceptions of nuclear power date back to 1970s, little research attempts to explain the spatial heterogeneity of risk attitude toward nuclear power among individuals or communities. This article intends to improve the knowledge about the major factors contributing to nuclear power plant risk perceptions by mapping the geographical patterns of local risk perception and examining the determinants in forming the nature and distribution of the perceived risk among potentially affected population. The analysis was conducted by a case study of the Second Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) in Taiwan by using a novel methodology that incorporates a comprehensive risk perception (CRP) model into an ethnographic approach called risk perception mapping (RPM). First, we examined the determinants of local nuclear power risk perceptions through the CRP model and multivariate regression analysis. Second, the results were integrated with the RPM approach to map and explain the spatial pattern of risk perceptions. The findings demonstrate that the respondents regard the nuclear power plant as an extremely high-risk facility, causing them to oppose the SNPP and reject the compensation payment to accept its continuing operation. Results also indicate that perceptions of nuclear power risk were mainly influenced by social trust, psychological and socioeconomic attributes, proximity, and the perceived effects of the SNPP on the quality of everyday life.

  1. Perceptions by pregnant and childbearing-age women in southern Brazil towards teratogenic risk from medicines and radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia da Silva Pons

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mistaken perception of teratogenic risk can keep pregnant women from using safe medicines. The current study analyzed women’s concepts and perceptions towards teratogenic risk from medicines and exposure to radiotherapy during pregnancy. The quantitative data resulted from interviews with 287 pregnant and non-pregnant women. Two qualitative focus groups were conducted. No significant differences were observed between the two groups in terms of perceptions of teratogenic risk. Median perceptions of non-teratogenic exposures (paracetamol and metoclopramide were close to the expected values, while higher values were found for teratogenic exposures (misoprostol and radiotherapy. The logic women used to estimate risk was classification of medicines as “strong” or “weak”. Medicines perceived as “weak” by the women do not pose any teratogenic risk, as shown by the median perceptions close to the true values. Meanwhile, “strong” medicines were viewed as dangerous, thus explaining the high median perceptions of teratogenic exposures.

  2. The Role of Categorical Speech Perception and Phonological Processing in Familial Risk Children With and Without Dyslexia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakvoort, B.; de Bree, E.; van der Leij, A.; Maassen, B.; van Setten, E.; Maurits, N.; van Zuijen, T.L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study assessed whether a categorical speech perception (CP) deficit is associated with dyslexia or familial risk for dyslexia, by exploring a possible cascading relation from speech perception to phonology to reading and by identifying whether speech perception distinguishes familial

  3. Public perception of blue-algae bloom risk in Hongze Lake of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Sun, Kai; Ban, Jie; Bi, Jun

    2010-05-01

    In this work we characterize the public perception of one kind of ecological risk-blue-algae bloom in Hongze Lake, China, based on the psychometric paradigm method. In the first survey of May 2008, 300 respondents of Sihong County adjacent to Hongze Lake were investigated, with a total of 156 questionnaires returned. Then in a second survey of July 2008, 500 respondents from the same research area were investigated, with 318 questionnaires collected. This research firstly attempted to explore the local respondents' degree of concern regarding ecological changes to Hongze Lake in the last ten years. Secondly, to explore the public perception of blue-algae bloom compared to three typical kinds of hazards including earthquake, nuclear power and public traffic. T-test was used to examine the difference of risk perception in these four hazards over time. The third part of this research, with demographic analysis and nonparametric statistical test, predicted the different groups of respondents' willingness to accept (WTA) risk of blue-algae bloom in two surveys. Using multiple linear regression analysis, the risk perception model explained 28.3% of variance in the WTA blue-algae bloom risk. The variables of Knowledge, Social effect, Benefit, Controllability and Trust in government were significantly correlated with WTA, which implied that these variables were the main influencing factors explaining the respondents' willingness to accept risk. The results would help the Chinese government to comprehend the public's risk perception of the lake ecosystem, inducing well designed communication of risks with public and making effective mitigation policies to improve people's rational risk judgment.

  4. Post-marketing safety evaluation of the intravenous anti-influenza neuraminidase inhibitor peramivir: A drug-use investigation in patients with high risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komeda, Takuji; Ishii, Shingo; Itoh, Yumiko; Sanekata, Masaki; Yoshikawa, Takayoshi; Shimada, Jingoro

    2016-10-01

    Peramivir, the only injectable anti-influenza neuraminidase inhibitor medically available in Japan at present, is considered first-line treatment in patients with high risk factors for influenza exacerbation. We conducted a drug-use investigation of peramivir in inpatients with high risk factors (old age, pregnancy, and underlying disease such as chronic respiratory disease) from January 2010 to March 2013. Data of 772 patients from 124 facilities across Japan were collected; peramivir's safety in 770 patients and effectiveness in 688 patients were examined. In total, 412 adverse events were observed in 219 patients (28.4%). Of these, 155 events were adverse drug reactions (ADRs) observed in 98 patients (12.7%). Major ADRs (≥2%) were increased aspartate aminotransferase (5.1%), increased alanine aminotransferase (3.8%) and decreased white blood cell count (2.5%). Fourteen serious ADRs were observed in 12 patients (1.6%). All serious ADRs were resolved or improved except for two events for which outcomes were unknown. Multivariate analyses revealed that ADR incidences were significantly associated with these four backgrounds of patients: medical history, no influenza vaccination, renal impairment and other infection(s). With regard to its effectiveness, the median time to alleviation of both influenza symptoms and fever was 3 days, including the first day of administration, which was the same as in other previous surveillance studies. This surveillance study indicated the safety of peramivir in the treatment of influenza inpatients with high risk factors under routine clinical settings. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. BIRD FLU (AVIAN INFLUENZA)

    OpenAIRE

    Ali ACAR; Bulent BESIRBELLIOÐLU

    2005-01-01

    Avian influenza (bird flu) is a contagious disease of animals caused by influenza A viruses. These flu viruses occur naturally among birds. Actually, humans are not infected by bird flu viruses.. However, during an outbreak of bird flu among poultry, there is a possible risk to people who have contact infect birds or surface that have been contaminated with excreations from infected birds. Symptoms of bird flu in humans have ranged from typical flu-like symptoms to eye infections, pneumonia, ...

  6. Health risk behaviours of high school learners and their perceptions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most adolescent mortality and morbidity, attributable to such health risk behaviours, .... relevant information and education, immunising at-risk individuals and providing ..... 14% of females felt that they had already been affected by pregnancy.

  7. Impact of consumers' health beliefs, involvement and risk perception of fish consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pieniak, Zuzanna; Verbeke, Wim; Scholderer, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - To investigate the impact of consumers' health beliefs, involvement, and risk perception on fish consumption in five European countries. Design/methodology/approach - Cross-sectional data were collected through the SEAFOODplus pan-European consumer survey (n=4,786) with samples...... representative for age and region in Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark, Spain and Poland. Structural equation modeling (LISREL) was used in order to simultaneously estimate the strength and direction of all relationships in our model.- Our model contributes to a better understanding of factors influencing fish......-culturally validated measures of health beliefs, involvement and risk perception to be used in further studies. Originality/value - This paper provides a unique model relating health beliefs, involvement and risk perception to fish consumption tested and validated on a pan-European large sample of consumers...

  8. Systematic review of perceptive studies on nuclear risk; Revisao sistematica de estudos perceptivos sobre risco nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Mariana Gama de

    2014-07-01

    This present work contains the study of risk perception in different areas of interaction. For it was made an analysis using methodology previously recognized and tested: a systematic review in the search for better understanding of the perception of risk in the nuclear area. Through this study it was possible to understand the potential of the systematic review as a tool for information that encompass the perception of risk as a whole. Making it possible to trace parameters to find out why the world's people have an aversion to certain matters relating to nuclear energy. Considering that if you can understand what drives the people has disgust on nuclear area, it is probably possible to create alternatives to remedy this lack of information and knowledge about the area. Causing the population to realize the benefits that nuclear power brings to people. (author)

  9. The Investigation of Relationship between Product Involvement and Consumer Risk Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Karbalaei

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study focuses on the relationship between product involvement and consumer risk perception. More specifically, the findings from the empirical study generally support the research hypotheses and the motivational process model of product involvement and consumer risk perception. The subjects were 380 of the potential buyers of cars in BGs’ (Bahman Group dealer in Tehran. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM with Lisrel software was used for the data analysis. This study present a conceptual motivational process model, explicating the processes by which involvement and consumer risk perception are caused and influence one another, as well as subsequent behavioral responses of consumer. An empirical study, carry out to test the motivational process model and hypothesized casual relationships find overall support.

  10. Research on Risk Perception and the Influence Factors Analysis of Freshwater Edible Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruixin Liu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper studied 192 consumers’ risk perception of freshwater fish and its influencing factors with Probit regression method based on the survey of Yangzhou city in Jiangsu province. Results showed that nearly 40% of consumers have a higher risk perception for the quality safety of freshwater fish and think that environmental hormone residues and antibiotic residues are main safety problems of freshwater fish. According to the influencing degree, the factors influencing consumer’s risk perception of freshwater fish are food safety concern, food safety situation, consumers' gender, knowledge of freshwater fish, the concept of healthy diet, the purchase experience, kids under the age of 18, education and price of freshwater fish in sequence.

  11. Social comparison framing in health news and its effect on perceptions of group risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigman, Cabral A

    2014-01-01

    News about health disparities often compares health risks faced by different demographic groups. Does this social comparison produce a contrast effect? It was hypothesized that when two racial groups are compared, people would perceive the relatively more at-risk group to be more, and the less at-risk group to be less, at-risk than if the same risk information was presented without the comparative reference group. Three experiments with Black and White respondents tested effects of intergroup social comparison framing (SCF) on perceptions of risk for sexually transmitted infections and skin cancer. SCF (including one White and two Black disparity frames) did not raise respondents' perceived risk regarding the more at-risk racial group, but consistently lowered respondents' risk ratings for the less at-risk racial group. The finding that the same statistic was perceived differently in comparative and noncomparative contexts underscores the importance of considering effects of communication about disparities.

  12. Perceptions of HIV transmission risk in commercial and public sex venues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Martin J

    2012-09-01

    BACKGROUND: Sexual behaviors of men who have sex with men (MSM) that occur in sexually charged venues (e.g., bathhouse, sex club, public park) are a target for research and intervention due to concerns about the role these venues may have in the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). However, these efforts often exclude how individuals perceive HIV risk in terms of sex venue use. This paper analyzes how venue-specific perceptions of HIV transmission risk differ across venues and by onsite sexual behavior. METHOD: Cross-sectional data collected using an Internet survey completed by 139 MSM who attended at least one sex venue (e.g., bathhouse, sex club, gym/health club, public park) in the past month. RESULTS: Risk perceptions were highest for bathhouses and sex clubs, though no significant differences were detected between any of the venues. With few exceptions, men who reported not engaging in sex or low-risk behaviors (i.e., masturbation or mutual masturbation) during venue attendance perceived higher risks than those who engaged in high-risk behaviors (i.e., anal sex). Interestingly, risk perceptions of public bathrooms, parks, and video/buddy booths were lower for attendees who reported unprotected oral sex with ejaculation than men who reported safer or riskier behaviors. CONCLUSION: These findings provide important insights into how MSM perceive HIV risk in sex venues and highlight a need for expanded outreach and education in locations where sexual risk taking may be underestimated.

  13. Unconventional Gas Development in the USA: Exploring the Risk Perception Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, John D; Rupp, John A; Schenk, Olga

    2015-10-01

    Unconventional gas development (UGD) is growing rapidly in the United States. Drawing on insights from risk perception and risk governance theories and recent public opinion surveys, we find that UGD is an emerging technology that is likely to be perceived as risky, even though objective risk assessments suggest that risks are low and controllable through best risk management practices. Perceived risk varies significantly depending on the state and locality but perceptions of risk appear to be increasing as the technology is used more widely in the United States and as organized opponents of the technology intensify their efforts. Risk perceptions are attenuated somewhat because of the perceived benefits of UGD and compensation schemes for individuals and communities. The types of triggering events necessary for large-scale social amplification and stigmatization have not yet occurred but awareness of UGD is growing and organized opposition has been sufficient to cause prohibitions of UGD in some U.S. states and localities. Additional directions for social science research on public reactions to UGD are recommended. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  14. Association of Mothers’ Perception of Neighborhood Quality and Maternal Resilience with Risk of Preterm Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namrata Bhatia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We examined the associations of mothers’ perception of neighborhood quality and maternal resilience with risk of preterm birth and whether maternal resilience moderated the effect of neighborhood quality perception. We analyzed data from 10,758 women with singleton births who participated in 2010–2012 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby surveys. Multilevel logistic regression models assessed the effects of mothers’ perception of neighborhood quality and maternal resilience on preterm birth (yes/no, controlling for potential confounders and economic hardship index, a city-level measure of neighborhood quality. Interaction terms were assessed for moderation. Mothers’ perception of neighborhood quality and maternal resilience were each uniquely associated with preterm birth, independent of potential confounders (p-values < 0.05. The risk of preterm birth among mothers who perceived their neighborhood as of poor quality was about 30% greater compared to mothers who perceived their neighborhood as of good quality; the risk was 12% greater among mothers with low resilience compared to those with high resilience. Effects of neighborhood quality were not modified by maternal resilience. The findings suggest that mothers’ perception of neighborhood quality and resilience are associated with the risk of preterm birth. Further research should explore whether initiatives aimed at improving neighborhood quality and women’s self-esteem may improve birth outcomes.

  15. Corporate Social Responsibility Communication and Perception: Media and Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Dincer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to examine how Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR projects are perceived from both an individual and organizational perspective. Using the framework used in studies on diffusion of innovations, the spread of CSR projects are examined. An online survey to identify individuals’ CSR and communication channel perception as well as interviews with CSR practitioners to have an organizational perspective is realized. Companies are using CSR as a tool to meet various objectives such as crisis management and recruiting talent. The CSR perception among individuals is shaped by interpersonal and mass media communication; companies are perceived as responsible if their communication is rich in information. The information sources are mostly television and radio but there is a growing part of online channels as well. The study also suggests several possibilities for future research including the role of social networks and social media platforms in the diffusion of CSR.

  16. Perceptions of farmers on health risks and risk reduction measures in wastewater-irrigated urban vegetable farming in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keraita, Bernard; Drechsel, Pay; Konradsen, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    , authorities and the general public, especially if they had some incentives. These findings demonstrate the need to involve farmers as early as possible in intervention projects especially in informal farming practices, like urban agriculture, where restrictions are difficult to implement. This will ensure......Most irrigation water used in urban vegetable farming in Ghana is contaminated with untreated wastewater. This poses health risks to farmers and consumers. As part of a study to explore options for health risk reduction, this paper summarizes farmers' perceptions on health risks and possible risk...

  17. Waterborne disease-related risk perceptions in the Sonora River basin, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morua, Agustin Robles; Halvorsen, Kathleen E; Mayer, Alex S

    2011-05-01

    Waterborne disease is estimated to cause about 10% of all diseases worldwide. However, related risk perceptions are not well understood, particularly in the developing world where waterborne disease is an enormous problem. We focus on understanding risk perceptions related to these issues in a region within northern Mexico. Our findings show how waterborne disease problems and solutions are understood in eight small communities along a highly contaminated river system. We found major differences in risk perceptions between health professionals, government officials, and lay citizens. Health professionals believed that a high level of human-waste-related risk existed within the region. Few officials and lay citizens shared this belief. In addition, few officials and lay citizens were aware of poor wastewater-management-related disease outbreaks and water contamination. Finally, aside from health professionals, a few interviewees understood the importance of basic hygiene and water treatment measures that could help to prevent disease. Our results add to the literature on environmentally-related risk perceptions in the developing world. We discuss recommendations for improving future human-wastewater-related risk communication within the region.

  18. Perceptions of disease risk: from social construction of subjective judgments to rational decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRoberts, N; Hall, C; Madden, L V; Hughes, G

    2011-06-01

    Many factors influence how people form risk perceptions. Farmers' perceptions of risk and levels of risk aversion impact on decision-making about such things as technology adoption and disease management practices. Irrespective of the underlying factors that affect risk perceptions, those perceptions can be summarized by variables capturing impact and uncertainty components of risk. We discuss a new framework that has the subjective probability of disease and the cost of decision errors as its central features, which might allow a better integration of social science and epidemiology, to the benefit of plant disease management. By focusing on the probability and cost (or impact) dimensions of risk, the framework integrates research from the social sciences, economics, decision theory, and epidemiology. In particular, we review some useful properties of expected regret and skill value, two measures of expected cost that are particularly useful in the evaluation of decision tools. We highlight decision-theoretic constraints on the usefulness of decision tools that may partly explain cases of failure of adoption. We extend this analysis by considering information-theoretic criteria that link model complexity and relative performance and which might explain why users reject forecasters that impose even moderate increases in the complexity of decision making despite improvements in performance or accept very simple decision tools that have relatively poor performance.

  19. Development and Validation of a Video Measure for Assessing Women’s Risk Perception for Alcohol-Related Sexual Assault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Kathleen A.; Levonyan-Radloff, Kristine; Dearing, Ronda L.; Hequembourg, Amy; Testa, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Objective Using an iterative process, a series of three video scenarios were developed for use as a standardized measure for assessing women’s perception of risks for alcohol-related sexual assault (SA). The videos included ambiguous and clear behavioral and environmental risk cues. Method Focus group discussions with young, female heavy drinkers (N = 42) were used to develop three videos at different risk levels (low, moderate, and high) in Study 1. Realism, reliability, and validity of the videos were assessed using multiple methods in Studies 2 and 3. One hundred-four women were used to compare differences in risk perception across the video risk level in Study 2. In Study 3 (N = 60), we assessed women’s perceptions of the low and high risk videos under conditions of no alcohol and alcohol. Results The realism and reliability of the videos were good. Women who viewed the low risk video compared to women who viewed the moderate and high risk videos perceived less risk for SA. We found an interaction between alcohol and risk perception such that, women in the alcohol condition were less likely to perceive risk when watching the high risk video. Conclusions As the video risk level increased, women’s perception of risk increased. These findings provide convergent evidence for the validity of the video measure. Given the limited number of standardized scenarios for assessing risk perception for sexual assault, our findings suggest that these videos may provide a needed standardized measure. PMID:27747131

  20. Perceptions of ecological risk associated with introduced marine species in marine protected areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L. Trenouth

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The perception of ecological risks (impact and acceptability associated with introduced marine species (IMS, what demographic variablesinfluence those perceptions, respondent’s knowledge of IMS, and people’s support for controlling introduced marine species impacts on themarine environment was explored at three locations in Western Australia: Ningaloo Reef Marine Park, Rottnest Island Marine Reserve, andHamelin Bay. Recognition that introduced marine species are an issue at state, national and international levels exists; yet often marineprotected area management plans do not reflect this recognition. Therefore, we hypothesise that there is a lack of translation of concernregarding introduced marine species as a risk into tactical objectives within marine protected area management plans. This may be due to lowstakeholder perceptions of the risk posed by introduced marine species. Survey respondents had a high level (89% of self-rated awareness ofintroduced marine species and they also indicated (93% a willingness to support management interventions to prevent, or control the spreadof introduced marine species in Western Australia.Our results also indicate that gender (males and age (18–45 age group influenced respondents’ perception of risk (impact of IMS, yet noexamined demographic variables influenced respondents acceptability of risk. Furthermore, knowledge of introduced marine species,education level, and income variables did not influence respondents’ perception of risk (impact or acceptability. Understandingdemographic characteristics that influence participants perceptions related to introduced marine species can be useful for targeted,educational initiatives to reduce the likelihood of IMS incursions. This begins to smooth the way for management to proactively develop andimplement policies that are necessary to more fully protect the Western Australian marine environment.