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Sample records for influences t1d susceptibility

  1. Identification of a T1D Susceptibility Gene

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    Grant Morahan

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available It is not known what causes type 1 diabetes (T1D, which affects over 1 million people in the U.S. alone. Each year, 30,000 young people in the U.S. develop this disease and depend on insulin injections thereafter. Because of the huge cost to the individual, the family, and to society in increased health care costs, it is important to find what makes these people susceptible. The disease process itself is clear: the individual’s immune system — T lymphocytes in particular — attack and destroy the body’s insulin-producing cells. But how and why this autoimmune process starts or proceeds unregulated is still not known.

  2. HLA class II susceptibility pattern for type 1 diabetes (T1D) in an Iranian population.

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    Kiani, J; Hajilooi, M; Furst, D; Rezaei, H; Shahryari-Hesami, S; Kowsarifard, S; Zamani, A; Solgi, G

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to determine the HLA-DRB1/HLA-DQB1 susceptibility and protection pattern for type 1 diabetes (T1D) in a population from Hamadan, north-west of Iran. A total of 133 patients with T1D were tested for HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 alleles using PCR-SSP compared to 100 ethnic-matched healthy controls. Alleles and haplotypes frequencies were compared between both groups. The most susceptible alleles for disease were HLA-DRB1*03:01, DRB1*04:02, DQB1*02:01 and DQB1*03:02, and protective alleles were HLA-DRB1*07:01, *11:01, *13:01, *14:01 and DRB1*15 and HLA-DQB1*06:01, *06:02 and *06:03. Haplotype analysis revealed that patients with T1D had higher frequencies of DRB1*03:01-DQB1*02:01 (OR = 4.86, P < 10(-7) ) and DRB1*04:02-DQB1*03:02 (OR = 9.93, P < 10(-7) ) and lower frequencies of DRB1*07:01-DQB1*02:01 (P = 0.0005), DRB1*11:01-DQB1*03:01 (P = 0.001), DRB1*13:01-DQB1*06:03 (P = 0.002) and DRB1*15-DQB1*06:01 (P = 0.001) haplotypes compared to healthy controls. Heterozygote combination of both susceptible haplotypes (DR3/DR4) confers the highest risk for T1D (RR = 18.80, P = 4 × 10(-5) ). Additionally, patients with homozygote diplotype, DR3/DR3 and DR4/DR4, showed a similar risk with less extent to heterozygote combination (P = 0.0004 and P = 0.01, respectively). Our findings not only confirm earlier reports from Iranians but also are in line with Caucasians and partly with Asians and some African patients with T1D. Remarkable differences were the identification of DRB1*04:01-DQB1*03:02, DRB1*07:01-DQB1*03:03 and DRB1*16-DQB1*05:02 as neutral and DRB1*13:01-DQB1*06:03 as the most protective haplotypes in this study.

  3. HLA and autoimmune diseases: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) as an example.

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    Gorodezky, Clara; Alaez, Carmen; Murguía, Andrea; Rodríguez, Araceli; Balladares, Sandra; Vazquez, Miriam; Flores, Hilario; Robles, Carlos

    2006-03-01

    Autoimmune diseases need to be considered at a genetic and mechanistic level. T1D is an autoimmune, chronic, multifactorial and polygenic disease characterized by the destruction of the pancreatic beta-cells associated with long term dysfunction of several organs and tissues. Mechanisms of susceptibility include epi-genetic and post-transcriptional effects that regulate transmission and expression of the inherited genes. The HLA complex, constitutes the most relevant region contributing 50% of the inherited risk for T1D. An additional 17 genes with variable but small effects have been described. In non-Caucasians, the presence of E-DRbeta1-74 and/or D-DRbeta1-57 are relevant in predisposition. The "Diabetogenic haplotypes" in Mexicans were DRB1*0301-DQA1*0501-DQB1*0201 (OR = 21.4); DRB1*0405-DQA1-*0301-DQB1*0302 (OR = 44.5) and the same DQA1/DQB1 with DRB1*0404/*0401 conferring lower risk, increasing (OR = 61.3) with an early age at onset and a heterozygote DR3/DR4 genotype. In most populations, the absence of D-57 and the presence of R-52 are important to the susceptibility, but in Hispanics, all DR4s (including the protective DRB1*0403/*0407/*0411) are in linkage disequilibrium with DQA1/DQB1 susceptibility alleles. Thus, susceptibility alleles in Latin American Mestizos are of Mediterranean ancestry whereas protective alleles are of Amerindian origin. In this review, we discuss the complexity of T1D and some aspects of prevention/intervention based on immunogenetics.

  4. Study of factors influencing susceptibility and age at onset of type 1 diabetes: A review of data from Continental Italy and Sardinia

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    Fulvia; Gloria-Bottini; Patrizia; Saccucci; Gian; Franco; Meloni; Maria; Luisa; Manca-Bitti; Luca; Coppeta; Anna; Neri; Andrea; Magrini; Bottini; Egidio

    2014-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the role of protein tyrosin phosphatase 22(PTPN22),maternal age at conception and sex on susceptibility and age at onset of type 1 diabetes(T1D)in Continental Italy and Sardinian populations.METHODS:Three hundred seventy six subjects admitted consecutively to the hospital for T1D and 1032healthy subjects as controls were studied in Continental Italy and 284 subjects admitted consecutively to the hospital for T1D and 5460 healthy newborns were studied in Sardinia.PTPN22 genotype was determined by DNA analysis.Maternal age at conception and age at onset of disease were obtained from clinical records.χ2 test of independence,student t test for differences between means and odds ratio analysis were carried out by SPSS programs.Three way contingency table analysis was carried out according to Sokal and Rohlf.RESULTS:The pattern of association between PTPN22and T1D is similar in Continental Italy and Sardinia:the proportion of*T allele carriers is 13.6%in T1D vs6.7%in controls in Continental Italy while in Sardinia is 7.3%in T1D vs 4.4%in controls.The association between T1D and maternal age at conception is much stronger in Sardinia than in Italy:the proportion of newborn from mother aging more than 32 years is89.3%in T1D vs 32.7%in consecutive newborn in Sardinia(P<10-6)while in Continental Italy is 32.2%in T1D vs 19.1%in consecutive newborns(P=0.005).This points to an important role of ethnicity.A slight prevalence of T1D males on T1D females is observed both in Continental Italy and Sardinia.PTPN22 genotype does not exert significant effect on the age at onset neither in Continental Italy nor and Sardinia.Maternal age does not influence significantly age at onset in Italy(8.2 years in T1D infants from mothers aging32 years or less vs 7.89 years in T1D infants from mothers aging more than 32 years:P=0.824)while in Sardinia a border line effect is observed(5.75 years in T1D infants from mothers aging 32 years or less vs7.54 years in T1D infants from

  5. Beyond genetics. Influence of dietary factors and gut microbiota on type 1 diabetes

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    Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Krych, Lukasz; Buschard, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    purely genetic are involved in disease development. Here we review the influence of dietary and environmental factors on T1D development in humans as well as animal models. Even though data are still inconclusive, there are strong indications that gut microbiota dysbiosis plays an important role in T1D...... development and evidence from animal models suggests that gut microbiota manipulation might prove valuable in future prevention of T1D in genetically susceptible individuals....

  6. Beyond genetics. Influence of dietary factors and gut microbiota on type 1 diabetes

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    Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Krych, Lukasz; Buschard, Karsten;

    2014-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease ultimately leading to destruction of insulin secreting β-cells in the pancreas. Genetic susceptibility plays an important role in T1D etiology, but even mono-zygotic twins only have a concordance rate of around 50%, underlining that other factors than...... purely genetic are involved in disease development. Here we review the influence of dietary and environmental factors on T1D development in humans as well as animal models. Even though data are still inconclusive, there are strong indications that gut microbiota dysbiosis plays an important role in T1D...

  7. Characterizing diabetes burnout in parents of youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D)

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    Managing type 1 diabetes (T1D) is complex and requires round-the-clock attention, much of which falls to parents. Parental stress and family conflict about diabetes are associated with suboptimal youth self-management and glycemic outcomes, yet little research has described parents' experiences with...

  8. Renegade homeostatic cytokine responses in T1D: drivers of regulatory/effector T cell imbalance.

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    Gupta, Shipra; Cerosaletti, Karen; Long, S Alice

    2014-04-01

    Homeostatic cytokines contribute to the balance between regulatory and effector T cells (Tregs and Teffs respectively) and are necessary to maintain peripheral tolerance. These cytokines include IL-2 that supports Treg and IL-7 and IL-15 that drive Teff. In overt settings of lost tolerance (i.e. graft rejection), IL-2 Treg signatures are decreased while IL-7 and IL-15 Teff signatures are often enhanced. Similar cytokine profile imbalances also occur in some autoimmune diseases. In type 1 diabetes (T1D), there are underlying defects in the IL-2 pathway and Teff cytokine blockade can prevent and treat diabetes in NOD mice. In this review, we summarize evidence of IL-2, IL-7 and IL-15 genetic and cellular alterations in T1D patients. We then discuss how the combined effect of these cytokine profiles may together contribute to altered Treg/Teff ratios and functions in T1D. Implications for combination therapies and suggestions for integrated cytokine and Treg/Teff biomarker development are then proposed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Beyond genetics. Influence of dietary factors and gut microbiota on type 1 diabetes.

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    Nielsen, Dennis S; Krych, Łukasz; Buschard, Karsten; Hansen, Camilla H F; Hansen, Axel K

    2014-11-17

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease ultimately leading to destruction of insulin secreting β-cells in the pancreas. Genetic susceptibility plays an important role in T1D etiology, but even mono-zygotic twins only have a concordance rate of around 50%, underlining that other factors than purely genetic are involved in disease development. Here we review the influence of dietary and environmental factors on T1D development in humans as well as animal models. Even though data are still inconclusive, there are strong indications that gut microbiota dysbiosis plays an important role in T1D development and evidence from animal models suggests that gut microbiota manipulation might prove valuable in future prevention of T1D in genetically susceptible individuals.

  10. Plasminogen alleles influence susceptibility to invasive aspergillosis.

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    Aimee K Zaas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Invasive aspergillosis (IA is a common and life-threatening infection in immunocompromised individuals. A number of environmental and epidemiologic risk factors for developing IA have been identified. However, genetic factors that affect risk for developing IA have not been clearly identified. We report that host genetic differences influence outcome following establishment of pulmonary aspergillosis in an exogenously immune suppressed mouse model. Computational haplotype-based genetic analysis indicated that genetic variation within the biologically plausible positional candidate gene plasminogen (Plg; Gene ID 18855 correlated with murine outcome. There was a single nonsynonymous coding change (Gly110Ser where the minor allele was found in all of the susceptible strains, but not in the resistant strains. A nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (Asp472Asn was also identified in the human homolog (PLG; Gene ID 5340. An association study within a cohort of 236 allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT recipients revealed that alleles at this SNP significantly affected the risk of developing IA after HSCT. Furthermore, we demonstrated that plasminogen directly binds to Aspergillus fumigatus. We propose that genetic variation within the plasminogen pathway influences the pathogenesis of this invasive fungal infection.

  11. Effects of GWAS-associated genetic variants on lncRNAs within IBD and T1D candidate loci

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    Mirza, Aashiq H; Kaur, Simranjeet; Brorsson, Caroline A;

    2014-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs are a new class of non-coding RNAs that are at the crosshairs in many human diseases such as cancers, cardiovascular disorders, inflammatory and autoimmune disease like Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) and Type 1 Diabetes (T1D). Nearly 90% of the phenotype-associated single......, we systemically identified all annotated IBD and T1D loci-associated lncRNAs, and mapped nominally significant GWAS/ImmunoChip SNPs for IBD and T1D within these lncRNAs. Additionally, we identified tissue-specific cis-eQTLs, and strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) signals associated with these SNPs....... We explored sequence and structure based attributes of these lncRNAs, and also predicted the structural effects of mapped SNPs within them. We also identified lncRNAs in IBD and T1D that are under recent positive selection. Our analysis identified putative lncRNA secondary structure-disruptive SNPs...

  12. Eicosanoids influence insect susceptibility to nucleopolyhedroviruses

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    Nine pharmaceutical inhibitors of eicosanoid biosynthesis (e.g., bromophenacyl bromide, clotrimazole, diclofenamic acid, esculetin, flufenamic acid, domethacin, nimesulide, sulindac, tolfenamic acid) that increased the susceptibility of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), to the nucleopolyhedrovi...

  13. Correlates of overweight and obesity in 5529 adolescents with type 1 diabetes: The T1D Exchange Clinic Registry.

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    Minges, Karl E; Whittemore, Robin; Weinzimer, Stuart A; Irwin, Melinda L; Redeker, Nancy S; Grey, Margaret

    2017-04-01

    To describe the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and to examine the associations among socio-demographic, clinical, and self-management factors by weight status. We analyzed baseline data obtained from 5529 adolescents with T1D (mean age=15.4±1.4years, 51.8% male, 77.9% white, mean HbA1c=8.7±1.8%; 72mmol/mol) from the T1D Exchange Clinic Registry. We examined correlates of weight status using multinomial logistic regression analyses. Overweight (22.9%) and obesity (13.1%) were prevalent in the overall sample and was highest among girls (40.8%) and adolescents of Hispanic/Latino race/ethnicity (46.1%). Female gender, older age, annual household income obesity. Adolescents who self-rated their health as fair/poor (vs. excellent) had the highest odds of obesity (OR 3.92, 95% CI 2.53-6.06). Overweight/obesity is prevalent among adolescents with T1D, especially among girls and those of diverse race/ethnicity. Some of these factors may be amenable to remediation and point to subgroups that can benefit from obesity prevention and management efforts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Gut microbiota translocation to the pancreatic lymph nodes triggers NOD2 activation and contributes to T1D onset

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    Costa, Frederico R.C.; Françozo, Marcela C.S.; de Oliveira, Gabriela G.; Ignacio, Aline; Castoldi, Angela; Zamboni, Dario S.; Ramos, Simone G.; Câmara, Niels O.; de Zoete, Marcel R.; Palm, Noah W.; Flavell, Richard A.; Silva, João S.

    2016-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease that is triggered by both genetic and environmental factors, resulting in the destruction of pancreatic β cells. The disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier and consequent escape of microbial products may be one of these environmental triggers. However, the immune receptors that are activated in this context remain elusive. We show here that during streptozotocin (STZ)-induced T1D, the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 2 (NOD2), but not NOD1, participates in the pathogenesis of the disease by inducing T helper 1 (Th1) and Th17 cells in the pancreatic LNs (PLNs) and pancreas. Additionally, STZ-injected wild-type (WT) diabetic mice displayed an altered gut microbiota compared with vehicle-injected WT mice, together with the translocation of bacteria to the PLNs. Interestingly, WT mice treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics (Abx) were fully protected from STZ-induced T1D, which correlated with the abrogation of bacterial translocation to the PLNs. Notably, when Abx-treated STZ-injected WT mice received the NOD2 ligand muramyl dipeptide, both hyperglycemia and the proinflammatory immune response were restored. Our results demonstrate that the recognition of bacterial products by NOD2 inside the PLNs contributes to T1D development, establishing a new putative target for intervention during the early stages of the disease. PMID:27325889

  15. Identification of T1D susceptibility genes within the MHC region by combining protein interaction networks and SNP genotyping data

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    Brorsson, C.; Hansen, Niclas Tue; Hansen, Kasper Lage;

    2009-01-01

    region were analysed in 1000 affected offspring trios generated by the Type 1 Diabetes Genetics Consortium (T1DGC). The most associated SNP in each gene was chosen and genes were mapped to ppi networks for identification of interaction partners. The association testing and resulting interacting protein...

  16. Effects of GWAS-Associated Genetic Variants on lncRNAs within IBD and T1D Candidate Loci

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    Brorsson, Caroline A.; Pociot, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs are a new class of non-coding RNAs that are at the crosshairs in many human diseases such as cancers, cardiovascular disorders, inflammatory and autoimmune disease like Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) and Type 1 Diabetes (T1D). Nearly 90% of the phenotype-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) lie outside of the protein coding regions, and map to the non-coding intervals. However, the relationship between phenotype-associated loci and the non-coding regions including the long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) is poorly understood. Here, we systemically identified all annotated IBD and T1D loci-associated lncRNAs, and mapped nominally significant GWAS/ImmunoChip SNPs for IBD and T1D within these lncRNAs. Additionally, we identified tissue-specific cis-eQTLs, and strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) signals associated with these SNPs. We explored sequence and structure based attributes of these lncRNAs, and also predicted the structural effects of mapped SNPs within them. We also identified lncRNAs in IBD and T1D that are under recent positive selection. Our analysis identified putative lncRNA secondary structure-disruptive SNPs within and in close proximity (+/−5 kb flanking regions) of IBD and T1D loci-associated candidate genes, suggesting that these RNA conformation-altering polymorphisms might be associated with diseased-phenotype. Disruption of lncRNA secondary structure due to presence of GWAS SNPs provides valuable information that could be potentially useful for future structure-function studies on lncRNAs. PMID:25144376

  17. Adolescent Susceptibility to Peer Influence in Sexual Situations.

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    Widman, Laura; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Helms, Sarah W; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2016-03-01

    One consistent predictor of adolescents' engagement in sexual risk behavior is their belief that peers are engaging in similar behavior; however, not all youth are equally susceptible to these peer influence effects. Understanding individual differences in susceptibility to peer influence is critical to identifying adolescents at risk for negative health outcomes. The purpose of this project was to identify predictors of susceptibility to peer influence using a novel performance-based measure of sexual risk taking. Participants were 300 early adolescents (Mage = 12.6 years; 53% female; 44% Caucasian) who completed (1) a pretest assessment of demographics, sexual attitudes, and hypothetical scenarios measuring the likelihood of engaging in sexual risk behavior and (2) a subsequent experimental procedure that simulated an Internet chat room in which youth believed that they were communicating with peers regarding these same hypothetical scenarios. In reality, these "peers" were computer-programmed e-confederates. Changes in responses to the sexual scenarios in the private pretest versus during the public chat room provided a performance-based measure of peer influence susceptibility. In total, 78% of youth provided more risky responses in the chat room than those in pretest. The most robust predictor of this change was gender, with boys significantly more susceptible to peer influence than girls. Significant interactions also were noted, with greater susceptibility among boys with later pubertal development and African-American boys. Results confirm that not all youth are equally susceptible to peer influence. Consistent with sexual script theory, boys evidence greater susceptibility to social pressure regarding sexual behavior than girls. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment of CD4+ T cell responses to glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 using DQ8 tetramers reveals a pathogenic role of GAD65 121-140 and GAD65 250-266 in T1D development.

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    I-Ting Chow

    Full Text Available Susceptibility to type 1 diabetes (T1D is strongly associated with MHC class II molecules, particularly HLA-DQ8 (DQ8: DQA1*03:01/DQB1*03:02. Monitoring T1D-specific T cell responses to DQ8-restricted epitopes may be key to understanding the immunopathology of the disease. In this study, we examined DQ8-restricted T cell responses to glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65 using DQ8 tetramers. We demonstrated that GAD65 121-140 and GAD65 250-266 elicited responses from DQ8+ subjects. Circulating CD4+ T cells specific for these epitopes were detected significantly more often in T1D patients than in healthy individuals after in vitro expansion. T cell clones specific for GAD65 121-140 and GAD65 250-266 carried a Th1-dominant phenotype, with some of the GAD65 121-140-specific T cell clones producing IL-17. GAD65 250-266-specific CD4+ T cells could also be detected by direct ex vivo staining. Analysis of unmanipulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs revealed that GAD65 250-266-specific T cells could be found in both healthy and diabetic individuals but the frequencies of specific T cells were higher in subjects with type 1 diabetes. Taken together, our results suggest a proinflammatory role for T cells specific for DQ8-restricted GAD65 121-140 and GAD65 250-266 epitopes and implicate their possible contribution to the progression of T1D.

  19. The socioeconomic correlates of global complication prevalence in type 1 diabetes (T1D): a multinational comparison.

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    Walsh, Michael G; Zgibor, Janice; Songer, Thomas; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Orchard, Trevor J

    2005-11-01

    We sought to determine the extent to which the geographic variation in the complications of type 1 diabetes (T1D) may reflect the socioeconomic status (SES) conditions and health care performance (HCP) of countries around the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) DiaMond complications study (DiaComp) is a multinational, cross-sectional study of complications in T1D. Information on complications was identified for 892 subjects from 14 clinical centers in 12 countries. All participants were diagnosed with diabetes in childhood (management practices and health care costs. Country-specific indicators of social and economic development were also linked to the complications data. Both diabetes complications and economic and health care factors vary widely across the DiaComp centers. Health system performance, as measured by disability adjusted life expectancy (DALE), gross national investment (GNI) per capita and purchasing power all showed strong consistent correlations with complications, and significant independent associations with complication prevalence after controlling for HbA1c and hypertension. In conclusion, health system performance, social distribution of wealth and purchasing power may play important roles in explaining the geographic variation of diabetes complications.

  20. Early-life environment influencing susceptibility to cytomegalovirus infection

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    Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Maier, A B; Slagbom, P E

    2012-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a common herpesvirus establishing lifelong persisting infection, which has been implicated in immunosenescence and mortality in the elderly. Little is known about how and when susceptibility to CMV infection is determined. We measured CMV seroprevalence in two genet......--even under continuous within-partnership exposure--appears to be more strongly influenced by early-life environment than by genetic factors and adult environment....

  1. Deciphering the Pathogenesis of Human Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) by Interrogating T Cells from the "Scene of the Crime".

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    Kent, Sally C; Mannering, Stuart I; Michels, Aaron W; Babon, Jenny Aurielle B

    2017-09-02

    Autoimmune-mediated destruction of insulin-producing β-cells within the pancreas results in type 1 diabetes (T1D), which is not yet preventable or curable. Previously, our understanding of the β-cell specific T cell repertoire was based on studies of autoreactive T cell responses in the peripheral blood of patients at risk for, or with, T1D; more recently, investigations have included immunohistochemical analysis of some T cell specificities in the pancreas from organ donors with T1D. Now, we are able to examine live, islet-infiltrating T cells from donors with T1D. Analysis of the T cell repertoire isolated directly from the pancreatic islets of donors with T1D revealed pro-inflammatory T cells with targets of known autoantigens, including proinsulin and glutamic acid decarboxylase, as well as modified autoantigens. We have assayed the islet-infiltrating T cell repertoire for autoreactivity and function directly from the inflamed islets of T1D organ donors. Design of durable treatments for prevention of or therapy for T1D requires understanding this repertoire.

  2. Susceptibility and Influence in Social Media Word-of-Mouth

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    Claussen, Jörg; Engelstätter, Benjamin; Ward, Michael R.

    Peer influence through word-of-mouth (WOM) plays an important role in many information systems but identification of causal effects is challenging. We identify causal WOM effects in the empirical setting of game adoption in a social network for gamers by exploiting differences in individuals...... and receiver side. We find that users with the most influence on others tend to be better gamers, have larger social networks, but spend less time playing. Interestingly, these are also the users who are least susceptible to WOM effects....

  3. Network Analysis of Human Genes Influencing Susceptibility to Mycobacterial Infections.

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    Ettie M Lipner

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis and nontuberculous mycobacterial infections constitute a high burden of pulmonary disease in humans, resulting in over 1.5 million deaths per year. Building on the premise that genetic factors influence the instance, progression, and defense of infectious disease, we undertook a systems biology approach to investigate relationships among genetic factors that may play a role in increased susceptibility or control of mycobacterial infections. We combined literature and database mining with network analysis and pathway enrichment analysis to examine genes, pathways, and networks, involved in the human response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and nontuberculous mycobacterial infections. This approach allowed us to examine functional relationships among reported genes, and to identify novel genes and enriched pathways that may play a role in mycobacterial susceptibility or control. Our findings suggest that the primary pathways and genes influencing mycobacterial infection control involve an interplay between innate and adaptive immune proteins and pathways. Signaling pathways involved in autoimmune disease were significantly enriched as revealed in our networks. Mycobacterial disease susceptibility networks were also examined within the context of gene-chemical relationships, in order to identify putative drugs and nutrients with potential beneficial immunomodulatory or anti-mycobacterial effects.

  4. Heart rate informed artificial pancreas system enhances glycemic control during exercise in adolescents with T1D.

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    DeBoer, Mark D; Cherñavvsky, Daniel R; Topchyan, Katarina; Kovatchev, Boris P; Francis, Gary L; Breton, Marc D

    2016-10-13

    To evaluate the safety and performance of using a heart rate (HR) monitor to inform an artificial pancreas (AP) system during exercise among adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D). In a randomized, cross-over trial, adolescents with T1D age 13 - 18 years were enrolled to receive on separate days either the unmodified UVa AP (stdAP) or an AP system connected to a portable HR monitor (AP-HR) that triggered an exercise algorithm for blood glucose (BG) control. During admissions participants underwent a structured exercise regimen. Hypoglycemic events and CGM tracings were compared between the two admissions, during exercise and for the full 24-hour period. Eighteen participants completed the trial. While number of hypoglycemic events during exercise and rest was not different between visits (0.39 AP-HR vs 0.50 stdAP), time below 70 mg dL (-1) was lower on AP-HR compared to stdAP, 0.5±2.1% vs 7.4±12.5% (P = 0.028). Time with BG within 70-180 mg dL (-1) was higher for the AP-HR admission vs stdAP during the exercise portion and overall (96% vs 87%, and 77% vs 74%), but these did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.075 and P = 0.366). Heart rate signals can safely and efficaciously be integrated in a wireless AP system to inform of physical activity. While exercise contributes to hypoglycemia among adolescents, even when using an AP system, informing the system of exercise via a HR monitor improved time <70 mg dL (-1) . Nonetheless, it did not significantly reduce the total number of hypoglycemic events, which were low in both groups. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. In vivo measurement of a new source of contrast, the dipolar relaxation time, T1D , using a modified inhomogeneous magnetization transfer (ihMT) sequence.

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    Varma, Gopal; Girard, Olivier M; Prevost, Valentin H; Grant, Aaron K; Duhamel, Guillaume; Alsop, David C

    2017-10-01

    This paper describes a technique that can be used in vivo to measure the dipolar relaxation time, T1D , of macromolecular protons contributing to magnetization transfer (MT) in tissues and to produce quantitative T1D maps. The technique builds upon the inhomogeneous MT (ihMT) technique that is particularly sensitive to tissue components with long T1D . A standard ihMT experiment was altered to introduce a variable time for switching between positive and negative offset frequencies for RF saturation. A model for the dependence of ihMT was developed and used to fit data acquired in vivo. Application of the method to images from brains of healthy volunteers produced values of T1D  = (5.9 ± 1.2) ms in gray matter and T1D  = (6.2 ± 0.4) ms in white matter regions and provided maps of the T1D parameter. The model and experiments described provide access to a new relaxation characteristic of tissue with potentially unique diagnostic information. Magn Reson Med 78:1362-1372, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  6. IL2RA/CD25 gene polymorphisms: uneven association with multiple sclerosis (MS and type 1 diabetes (T1D.

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    Antonio Alcina

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: IL-2 receptor (IL2R alpha is the specific component of the high affinity IL2R system involved in the immune response and in the control of autoimmunity. METHODS AND RESULTS: Here we perform a replication and fine mapping of the IL2RA gene region analyzing 3 SNPs previously associated with multiple sclerosis (MS and 5 SNPs associated with type 1 diabetes (T1D in a collection of 798 MS patients and 927 matched Caucasian controls from the south of Spain. We observed association with MS in 6 of 8 SNPs. The rs1570538, at the 3'- UTR extreme of the gene, previously reported to have a weak association with MS, is replicated here (P = 0.032. The most associated T1D SNP (rs41295061 was not associated with MS in the present study. However, the rs35285258, belonging to another independent group of SNPs associated with T1D, showed the maximal association in this study but different risk allele. We replicated the association of only one (rs2104286 of the two IL2RA SNPs identified in the recently performed genome-wide association study of MS. CONCLUSIONS: These findings confirm and extend the association of this gene with MS and reveal a genetic heterogeneity of the associated polymorphisms and risk alleles between MS and T1D suggesting different immunopathological roles of IL2RA in these two diseases.

  7. IL2RA/CD25 Gene Polymorphisms: Uneven Association with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Type 1 Diabetes (T1D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcina, Antonio; Fedetz, María; Ndagire, Dorothy; Fernández, Oscar; Leyva, Laura; Guerrero, Miguel; Abad-Grau, María M.; Arnal, Carmen; Delgado, Concepción; Lucas, Miguel; Izquierdo, Guillermo; Matesanz, Fuencisla

    2009-01-01

    Background IL-2 receptor (IL2R) alpha is the specific component of the high affinity IL2R system involved in the immune response and in the control of autoimmunity. Methods and Results Here we perform a replication and fine mapping of the IL2RA gene region analyzing 3 SNPs previously associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) and 5 SNPs associated with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in a collection of 798 MS patients and 927 matched Caucasian controls from the south of Spain. We observed association with MS in 6 of 8 SNPs. The rs1570538, at the 3′- UTR extreme of the gene, previously reported to have a weak association with MS, is replicated here (P = 0.032). The most associated T1D SNP (rs41295061) was not associated with MS in the present study. However, the rs35285258, belonging to another independent group of SNPs associated with T1D, showed the maximal association in this study but different risk allele. We replicated the association of only one (rs2104286) of the two IL2RA SNPs identified in the recently performed genome-wide association study of MS. Conclusions These findings confirm and extend the association of this gene with MS and reveal a genetic heterogeneity of the associated polymorphisms and risk alleles between MS and T1D suggesting different immunopathological roles of IL2RA in these two diseases. PMID:19125193

  8. Cyclooxygenase 2 genotypes influence prostate cancer susceptibility in Japanese Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugie, Satoru; Tsukino, Hiromasa; Mukai, Shoichiro; Akioka, Takahiro; Shibata, Norihiko; Nagano, Masafumi; Kamoto, Toshiyuki

    2014-03-01

    This study aims to evaluate the relationship between the cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) G1195A (rs689465) polymorphism and the risk of prostate cancer in a Japanese population and the associations between COX2 polymorphisms and clinicopathological characteristics, including Gleason grade and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) grade. We recruited 134 patients with prostate cancer and 86 healthy controls matched for age and smoking status. The COX2 G1195A polymorphism status was determined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Genotype distributions (p = 0.028) and allelic frequencies (p = 0.014) differed significantly between prostate cancer and control groups in terms of the COX2 G1195A polymorphism (Pearson's χ (2) test). Logistic regression analysis of case and control outcomes showed an odds ratio between the GG and AA genotypes of 3.15 (95% confidence interval = 1.27-8.08, p = 0.014), indicating an increased risk of prostate cancer associated with the AA genotype. Subset analysis revealed no significant associations between this polymorphism and clinicopathological characteristics of prostate cancer. This study demonstrated a relationship between the COX2 G1195A variant and prostate cancer risk. This polymorphism may merit further investigation as a potential genomic marker for the early detection of prostate cancer. Our results support the hypothesis that rs689465 influences susceptibility to prostate cancer; however, prostate cancer progression was not associated with rs689465 in a Japanese population.

  9. IL18 Gene Variants Influence the Susceptibility to Chagas Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon Rodriguez, Daniel A; Carmona, F. David; Echeverría, Luis Eduardo; González, Clara Isabel; Martin, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Chagas disease is a parasitic disorder caused by the infection with the flagellated protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. According to the World Health Organization, more than six million people are currently infected in endemic regions. Genetic factors have been proposed to influence predisposition to infection and development of severe clinical phenotypes like chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC). Interleukin 18 (IL18) encodes a proinflammatory cytokine that has been proposed to be involved in controlling T. cruzi infection. In this study, we analyzed the possible role of six IL18 gene variants (rs5744258, rs360722, rs2043055, rs187238, rs1946518 and rs360719), which cover most of the variation within the locus, in the susceptibility to infection by T. cruzi and/or CCC. In total, 1,171 individuals from a Colombian region endemic for Chagas disease, classified as seronegative (n = 595), seropositive asymptomatic (n = 175) and CCC (n = 401), were genotyped using TaqMan probes. Significant associations with T. cruzi infection were observed when comparing seronegative and seropositive individuals for rs187238 (P = 2.18E-03, OR = 0.77), rs360719 (P = 1.49E-03, OR = 0.76), rs2043055 (P = 2.52E-03, OR = 1.29), and rs1946518 (P = 0.0162, OR = 1.22). However, dependence analyses suggested that the association was mainly driven by the polymorphism rs360719. This variant is located within the promoter region of the IL18 gene, and it has been described that it creates a binding site for the transcription factor OCT-1 affecting IL-18 expression levels. In addition, no evidence of association was observed between any of the analyzed IL18 gene polymorphisms and the development of CCC. In summary, our data suggest that genetic variation within the promoter region of IL18 is directly involved in the susceptibility to infection by T. cruzi, which provides novel insight into disease pathophysiology and adds new perspectives to achieve a more effective disease control. PMID:27027876

  10. Influence of conductive additive on temperature susceptibility of asphalt binders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴少鹏; 李波; 陈筝; 黄旭

    2008-01-01

    The effects of graphite on temperature susceptibility of asphalt binders were investigated by penetration test,Ring & Ball softening point test and viscosity test.And penetration index(IP),viscosity-temperature susceptibility(SVT),and penetration-viscosity numbers(NPV) were introduced to evaluate the effects.The results show that the penetration,softening point and viscosity of asphalt binder increase with the increase of content of graphite.This means that the addition of graphite makes asphalts stiffer.The results from IP,NPV and SVT show that temperature susceptibility is reduced by the addition of graphite.

  11. Association of the WFS1 gene with disease progression in children with new onset T1D. Results from the Hvidoere study group on childhood diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L.B.; Andersen, M.L.M.; Svensson, Jannete

    2010-01-01

    variants the Wolfram syndrome. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of a common genetic variant (rs10010131) of the WFS1 gene on disease progression in a group of children newly diagnosed with T1D. Methods: The study is a multicenter longitudinal investigation with 18 participating...... paediatric centres from 15 countries. Clinical information and blood samples were collected from 275 children less than 16 years at diagnosis and at 1, 6, and 12 months after onset. Genotyping of the rs10010131 variant was done by KBioscience using an in-house KASPar assay system. Statistics: C-peptide, HbA1...... with proinsulin (est.: 1.55, P = 0.005) the first 12 month after disease onset compared to the AA genotype carriers. Conclusions: A common variant of the WFS1 gene is highly associated with better residual beta-cell function and corresponding better metabolic control during disease progression in new onset T1D...

  12. Intrapersonal variation in consumer susceptibility to normative influence: toward a better understanding of brand choice decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Ulrich R; Kahle, Lynn R

    2008-08-01

    The authors examined intrapersonal variation in consumer susceptibility to normative influence as a key mediator of wine brand choice. On the basis of a consumer sample, the authors found that individual values and social identity complexity affect consumer susceptibility to normative influence with downstream effects on (a) which brand benefits consumers desire in wine and (b) choice. Individuals higher on internal values and with more complex social identities were less susceptible to normative influence and placed less emphasis on social brand benefits. Separate examinations of consumption scenarios with and without salient reference groups showed that reference group salience interacts with personal values and social identity complexity in affecting consumer susceptibility to normative influence, which in turn affects which brand benefits consumers desire and consequently choice.

  13. Genomic Influences on Susceptibility and Severity of Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knevel, Rachel; Huizinga, Tom W J; Kurreeman, Fina

    2017-08-01

    Genetics in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has moved from the finding of HLA-shared epitope decades ago toward the understanding of the role of HLA in RA and the findings of ∼100 additional genetic risk variants for disease susceptibility as well as several risk variants for severe disease. These findings increased our understanding of RA abnormality. Still, the mechanisms by which many of the variants exhibit their effect are not yet understood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. An Evolutionary Perspective on Family Studies: Differential Susceptibility to Environmental Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Sarah; Belsky, Jay

    2016-12-01

    An evolutionary perspective of human development provides the basis for the differential-susceptibility hypothesis which stipulates that individuals should differ in their susceptibility to environmental influences, with some being more affected than others by both positive and negative developmental experiences and environmental exposures. This paper reviews evidence consistent with this claim while revealing that temperamental and genetic characteristics play a role in distinguishing more and less susceptible individuals. The differential-susceptibility framework under consideration is contrasted to the traditional diathesis-stress view that "vulnerability" traits predispose some to being disproportionately affected by (only) adverse experiences. We raise several issues stimulated by the literature that need to be clarified in further research. Lastly, we suggest that therapy may differ in its effects depending on an individual's susceptibility. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  15. Susceptibility of volcanic ash-influenced soil in northern Idaho to mechanical compaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah S. Page-Dumroese

    1993-01-01

    Timber harvesting and mechanical site preparation can reduce site productivity if they excessively disturb or compact the soil. Volcanic ash-influenced soils with low undisturbed bulk densities and rock content are particularly susceptible. This study evaluates the effects of harvesting and site preparation on changes in the bulk density of ash-influenced forest soils...

  16. Degree of host susceptibility in the initial disease outbreak influences subsequent epidemic spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severns, Paul M; Estep, Laura K; Sackett, Kathryn E; Mundt, Christopher C

    2014-12-01

    Disease epidemics typically begin as an outbreak of a relatively small, spatially explicit population of infected individuals (focus), in which disease prevalence increases and rapidly spreads into the uninfected, at-risk population. Studies of epidemic spread typically address factors influencing disease spread through the at-risk population, but the initial outbreak may strongly influence spread of the subsequent epidemic.We initiated wheat stripe rust Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici epidemics to assess the influence of the focus on final disease prevalence when the degree of disease susceptibility differed between the at-risk and focus populations.When the focus/at-risk plantings consisted of partially genetic resistant and susceptible cultivars, final disease prevalence was statistically indistinguishable from epidemics produced by the focus cultivar in monoculture. In these experimental epidemics, disease prevalence was not influenced by the transition into an at-risk population that differed in disease susceptibility. Instead, the focus appeared to exert a dominant influence on the subsequent epidemic.Final disease prevalence was not consistently attributable to either the focus or the at-risk population when focus/at-risk populations were planted in a factorial set-up with a mixture (~28% susceptible and 72% resistant) and susceptible individuals. In these experimental epidemics, spatial heterogeneity in disease susceptibility within the at-risk population appeared to counter the dominant influence of the focus.Cessation of spore production from the focus (through fungicide/glyphosate application) after 1.3 generations of stripe rust spread did not reduce final disease prevalence, indicating that the focus influence on disease spread is established early in the epidemic.Synthesis and applications. Our experiments indicated that outbreak conditions can be highly influential on epidemic spread, even when disease resistance in the at-risk population is

  17. Susceptibility and Influence in Social Media Word-of-Mouth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claussen, Jörg; Engelstätter, Benjamin; Ward, Michael R.

    Peer influence through word-of-mouth (WOM) plays an important role in many information systems but identification of causal effects is challenging. We identify causal WOM effects in the empirical setting of game adoption in a social network for gamers by exploiting differences in individuals...

  18. Experimentally measured susceptibility to peer influence and adolescent sexual behavior trajectories: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Giletta, Matteo; Widman, Laura; Cohen, Geoffrey L; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2014-09-01

    A performance-based measure of peer influence susceptibility was examined as a moderator of the longitudinal association between peer norms and trajectories of adolescents' number of sexual intercourse partners. Seventy-one 9th grade adolescents (52% female) participated in an experimental "chat room" paradigm involving "e-confederates" who endorsed sexual risk behaviors. Changes in participants' responses to risk scenarios before versus during the "chat room" were used as a performance-based measure of peer influence susceptibility. Participants reported their perceptions of popular peers' number of sexual intercourse partners at baseline and self-reported their number of sexual intercourse partners at baseline and 6, 12, and 18 months later. Susceptibility was examined as a moderator of the longitudinal association between perceptions of popular peers' number of sexual intercourse partners and trajectories of adolescents' own numbers of partners. High perceptions of the number of popular peers' sexual intercourse partners combined with high peer influence susceptibility predicted steeper longitudinal trajectories of adolescents' number of partners. Results provide novel preliminary evidence regarding the importance of peer influence susceptibility in adolescents' development of sexual behaviors.

  19. A pilot interventional study to evaluate the impact of cholecalciferol treatment on HbA1c in type 1 diabetes (T1D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Perchard

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Higher 25(OHD3 levels are associated with lower HbA1c, but there are limited UK interventional trials assessing the effect of cholecalciferol on HbA1c. Aims: (1 To assess the baseline 25(OHD3 status in a Manchester cohort of children with type 1 diabetes (T1D. (2 To determine the effect of cholecalciferol administration on HbA1c. Methods: Children with T1D attending routine clinic appointments over three months in late winter/early spring had blood samples taken with consent. Participants with a 25(OHD3 level 10 years units. HbA1c levels before and after treatment were recorded. Results: Vitamin D levels were obtained from 51 children. 35 were Caucasian, 11 South Asian and 5 from other ethnic groups. 42 were vitamin D deficient, but 2 were excluded from the analysis. All South Asian children were vitamin D deficient, with mean 25(OHD3 of 28 nmol/L. In Caucasians, there was a negative relationship between baseline 25(OHD3 level and HbA1c (r = −0.484, P < 0.01. In treated participants, there was no significant difference in mean HbA1c at 3 months (t = 1.010, P = 0.328 or at 1 year (t = −1.173, P = 0.248 before and after treatment. One-way ANCOVA, controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, BMI and diabetes duration showed no difference in Δ HbA1c level. Conclusion: We report important findings at baseline, but in children treated with a stat dose of cholecalciferol, there was no effect on HbA1c. Further studies with larger sample sizes and using maintenance therapy are required.

  20. Insulin Pump Use and Glycemic Control in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes (T1D): Predictors of Change in Method of Insulin Delivery across Two Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jenise C.; Dolan, Lawrence M.; Yang, Tony T.; Hood, Korey K.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have explored durability of insulin pump use, and none have explored the link between depression and pump discontinuation. To examine the relationship between depressive symptoms (measured by the Children’s Depression Inventory, CDI), method of insulin delivery, and A1c, mixed models were used with data from 150 adolescents with T1D and visits every 6 months for 2 years. Of the 63% who used a pump, compared to multiple daily injections (MDI) at baseline, there were higher proportions who were non-minorities, had caregivers with a college degree, private insurance, and two caregivers in the home (p≤0.01). After adjusting for time, sex, age, T1D duration, frequency of blood glucose monitoring, ethnicity, insurance, and caregiver number and education, baseline pump use was associated with −0.79% lower mean A1c (95% CI −1.48, −0.096; p=0.03). For those using a pump at baseline, but switching to MDI during the study (n=9), mean A1c was 1.38% higher (95% CI 0.68, 2.08; ppump use. Regarding the temporal relationship between CDI score and changing method of insulin delivery, prior higher CDI score was associated with switching from pump to MDI (OR=1.21; 95% CI 1.05, 1.39 p=0.007). Clinicians should be aware of the associations between depressive symptoms, change in insulin delivery method, and the effect on glycemic control. PMID:25387433

  1. The Study of Personality Types Influence on the Susceptibility to Rumors Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergeev Anatoliy Anatolyevich

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Rumors are now considered to be not only the natural communicative phenomenon, but also the effective means of informative and psychological impact. The effectiveness of psychological impact through rumors is determined by the proximity of incoming information to the structure of psychological spatial values of a person. The susceptibility is understood as a trend of convergence of the psychological space of a person and incoming information. It depends on many factors, including the dominant personality type. In our survey, the type of a person means a set of sustainable human personal manifestations (Myers – Briggs typology. The cognitive, emotional and behavioral components of impact can be distinguished on the assumption of personality traits. The survey found that most recipients of extraverted type are susceptible to the effects of cognitive and behavioral components of hearing while people of introverted type are susceptible to the influence through emotional component; recipients of dominant sensory type are susceptible to the effects of cognitive and emotional components of hearing while people of intuitive type are susceptible to the effects of cognitive and behavioral components; recipients of feeling type are susceptible to the influence of the emotional component of spreadable rumors.

  2. Obesity, externality, and susceptibility to social influence: an integrated analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, C P; Olmsted, M P; Polivy, J

    1983-10-01

    A pilot study indicated that overweight subjects are more likely to order a particular dessert in a restaurant when the waitress provides an appetizing description of that dessert and encourages the diner to order it; subjects who were not overweight were much less affected by the waitress's behavior. This effect may be interpreted in terms of the greater "externality' of overweight persons (i.e., their greater reactivity to salient food cues); alternatively, it may be seen as evidence for greater compliance by deviant (overweight) individuals. The present study examined these alternatives by separating the perceptual-cues component of the waitress's behavior from the social-influence component in a replication of the pilot study. The results indicated that both the externality and compliance interpretations were tenable. The authors suggest that these two mechanisms may be seen as facets of a more general concern on the part of overweight people to secure behavioral guidance from the external environment, physical or social.

  3. HTR1A a novel type 1 diabetes susceptibility gene on chromosome 5p13-q13

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asad, Samina; Nikamo, Pernilla; Gyllenberg, Alexandra;

    2012-01-01

    We have previously performed a genome-wide linkage study in Scandinavian Type 1 diabetes (T1D) families. In the Swedish families, we detected suggestive linkage (LOD≤2.2) to the chromosome 5p13-q13 region. The aim of our study was to investigate the linked region in search for possible T1D...... susceptibility genes....

  4. Entitlement Can Both Decrease and Increase Consumer Susceptibility to Social Influence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, Martine; Fennis, Bob; van Ittersum, Koert; Trampe, Debra; Diehl, Kristin; Yoon, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    Two studies indicate that entitlement—a sense that one deserves special treatment and is exempt from normal social demands—can both buffer and boost consumers’ proneness to social influence. Specifically, Study 1 shows that entitlement reduces susceptibility to consistency appeals. Study 2, however,

  5. Susceptibility to and impact of interpersonal influence in an investment context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, A. O. I.; Broekhuizen, T. L. J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the relevance of consumers' susceptibility to interpersonal influence (CSII) in an investment context. In Study 1, a survey of individual investors, investment-related knowledge, psycho-social risks, and social needs emerge as antecedents that explain investors' susceptibilit

  6. Influence of the IL6 Gene in Susceptibility to Systemic Sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cenit, M.C.; Simeon, C.P.; Vonk, M.C.; Callejas-Rubio, J.L.; Espinosa, G.; Carreira, P.; Blanco, F.J.; Narvaez, J.; Tolosa, C.; Roman-Ivorra, J.A.; Gomez-Garcia, I.; Garcia-Hernandez, F.J.; Gallego, M.; Garcia-Portales, R.; Egurbide, M.V.; Fonollosa, V.; Garcia de la Pena, P.; Lopez-Longo, F.J.; Gonzalez-Gay, M.A.; The Spanish Scleroderma, G.; Hesselstrand, R.; Riemekasten, G.; Witte, T.; Voskuyl, A.E.; Schuerwegh, A.J.; Madhok, R.; Fonseca, C.; Denton, C.; Nordin, A.; Palm, O.; Laar, J.M. van; Hunzelmann, N.; Distler, J.H.; Kreuter, A.; Herrick, A.; Worthington, J.; Koeleman, B.P.; Radstake, T.R.D.J.; Martin, J.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a genetically complex autoimmune disease; the genetic component has not been fully defined. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) plays a crucial role in immunity and fibrosis, both key aspects of SSc. We investigated the influence of IL6 gene in the susceptibility and phenotyp

  7. Susceptibility to and impact of interpersonal influence in an investment context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, A. O. I.; Broekhuizen, T. L. J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the relevance of consumers' susceptibility to interpersonal influence (CSII) in an investment context. In Study 1, a survey of individual investors, investment-related knowledge, psycho-social risks, and social needs emerge as antecedents that explain investors' susceptibilit

  8. Being in "Bad" Company: Power Dependence and Status in Adolescent Susceptibility to Peer Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Theories of susceptibility to peer influence have centered on the idea that lower status adolescents are likely to adopt the behaviors of high status adolescents. While status is important, social exchange theorists have shown the value of analyzing exchange relations between actors to understand differences in power. To build on status-based…

  9. Affiliation with Antisocial Peers, Susceptibility to Peer Influence, and Antisocial Behavior during the Transition to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Kathryn C.; Steinberg, Laurence; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Developmental theories suggest that affiliation with deviant peers and susceptibility to peer influence are important contributors to adolescent delinquency, but it is unclear how these variables impact antisocial behavior during the transition to adulthood, a period when most delinquent individuals decline in antisocial behavior. Using data from…

  10. Change of antibiotic susceptibility testing guidelines from CLSI to EUCAST: influence on cumulative hospital antibiograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfensberger, Aline; Sax, Hugo; Weber, Rainer; Zbinden, Reinhard; Kuster, Stefan P; Hombach, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We studied whether the change in antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) guidelines from CLSI to EUCAST influenced cumulative antibiograms in a tertiary care hospital in Switzerland. Antibiotic susceptibilities of non-duplicate isolates collected within a one-year period before (period A) and after (period B) changing AST interpretation from CLSI 2009 to EUCAST 1.3 (2011) guidelines were analysed. In addition, period B isolates were reinterpreted according to the CLSI 2009, CLSI 2013 and EUCAST 3.1 (2013) guidelines. The majority of species/drug combinations showed no differences in susceptibility rates comparing periods A and B. However, in some gram-negative bacilli, decreased susceptibility rates were observed when comparing CLSI 2009 with EUCAST 1.3 within period B: Escherichia coli / cefepime, 95.8% (CLSI 2009) vs. 93.1% (EUCAST 1.3), P=0.005; Enterobacter cloacae / cefepime, 97.0 (CLSI 2009) vs. 90.5% (EUCAST 1.3), P=0.012; Pseudomonas aeruginosa / meropenem, 88.1% (CLSI 2009) vs. 78.3% (EUCAST 1.3), P=0.002. These differences were still evident when comparing susceptibility rates according to the CLSI 2013 guideline with EUCAST 3.1 guideline. For P. aeruginosa and imipenem, a trend towards a lower antibiotic susceptibility rate in ICUs compared to general wards turned into a significant difference after the change to EUCAST: 87.9% vs. 79.8%, P=0.08 (CLSI 2009) and 86.3% vs. 76.8%, P=0.048 (EUCAST 1.3). The change of AST guidelines from CLSI to EUCAST led to a clinically relevant decrease of susceptibility rates in cumulative antibiograms for defined species/drug combinations, particularly in those with considerable differences in clinical susceptibility breakpoints between the two guidelines.

  11. Change of antibiotic susceptibility testing guidelines from CLSI to EUCAST: influence on cumulative hospital antibiograms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Wolfensberger

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We studied whether the change in antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST guidelines from CLSI to EUCAST influenced cumulative antibiograms in a tertiary care hospital in Switzerland. METHODS: Antibiotic susceptibilities of non-duplicate isolates collected within a one-year period before (period A and after (period B changing AST interpretation from CLSI 2009 to EUCAST 1.3 (2011 guidelines were analysed. In addition, period B isolates were reinterpreted according to the CLSI 2009, CLSI 2013 and EUCAST 3.1 (2013 guidelines. RESULTS: The majority of species/drug combinations showed no differences in susceptibility rates comparing periods A and B. However, in some gram-negative bacilli, decreased susceptibility rates were observed when comparing CLSI 2009 with EUCAST 1.3 within period B: Escherichia coli / cefepime, 95.8% (CLSI 2009 vs. 93.1% (EUCAST 1.3, P=0.005; Enterobacter cloacae / cefepime, 97.0 (CLSI 2009 vs. 90.5% (EUCAST 1.3, P=0.012; Pseudomonas aeruginosa / meropenem, 88.1% (CLSI 2009 vs. 78.3% (EUCAST 1.3, P=0.002. These differences were still evident when comparing susceptibility rates according to the CLSI 2013 guideline with EUCAST 3.1 guideline. For P. aeruginosa and imipenem, a trend towards a lower antibiotic susceptibility rate in ICUs compared to general wards turned into a significant difference after the change to EUCAST: 87.9% vs. 79.8%, P=0.08 (CLSI 2009 and 86.3% vs. 76.8%, P=0.048 (EUCAST 1.3. CONCLUSIONS: The change of AST guidelines from CLSI to EUCAST led to a clinically relevant decrease of susceptibility rates in cumulative antibiograms for defined species/drug combinations, particularly in those with considerable differences in clinical susceptibility breakpoints between the two guidelines.

  12. Current state of type 1 diabetes treatment in the U.S.: updated data from the T1D Exchange clinic registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kellee M; Foster, Nicole C; Beck, Roy W; Bergenstal, Richard M; DuBose, Stephanie N; DiMeglio, Linda A; Maahs, David M; Tamborlane, William V

    2015-06-01

    To examine the overall state of metabolic control and current use of advanced diabetes technologies in the U.S., we report recent data collected on individuals with type 1 diabetes participating in the T1D Exchange clinic registry. Data from 16,061 participants updated between 1 September 2013 and 1 December 2014 were compared with registry enrollment data collected from 1 September 2010 to 1 August 2012. Mean hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was assessed by year of age from 75 years. The overall average HbA1c was 8.2% (66 mmol/mol) at enrollment and 8.4% (68 mmol/mol) at the most recent update. During childhood, mean HbA1c decreased from 8.3% (67 mmol/mol) in 2-4-year-olds to 8.1% (65 mmol/mol) at 7 years of age, followed by an increase to 9.2% (77 mmol/mol) in 19-year-olds. Subsequently, mean HbA1c values decline gradually until ∼30 years of age, plateauing at 7.5-7.8% (58-62 mmol/mol) beyond age 30 until a modest drop in HbA1c below 7.5% (58 mmol/mol) in those 65 years of age. Severe hypoglycemia (SH) and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) remain all too common complications of treatment, especially in older (SH) and younger patients (DKA). Insulin pump use increased slightly from enrollment (58-62%), and use of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) did not change (7%). Although the T1D Exchange registry findings are not population based and could be biased, it is clear that there remains considerable room for improving outcomes of treatment of type 1 diabetes across all age-groups. Barriers to more effective use of current treatments need to be addressed and new therapies are needed to achieve optimal metabolic control in people with type 1 diabetes.

  13. Insulin pump use in young children in the T1D Exchange clinic registry is associated with lower hemoglobin A1c levels than injection therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Scott M; Raghinaru, Dan; Adi, Saleh; Simmons, Jill H; Ebner-Lyon, Laurie; Chase, H Peter; Tamborlane, William V; Schatz, Desmond A; Block, Jennifer M; Litton, Jean C; Raman, Vandana; Foster, Nicole C; Kollman, Craig R; DuBose, Stephanie N; Miller, Kellee M; Beck, Roy W; DiMeglio, Linda A

    2014-12-01

    Insulin delivery via injection and continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) via insulin pump were compared in a cross-sectional study (n = 669) and retrospective longitudinal study (n = 1904) of young children (pump use was observed among T1D Exchange centers even after adjusting for these factors, suggesting that prescriber preference is a substantial determinant of CSII use. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was lower in pump vs. injection users (7.9 vs. 8.5%, adjusted p pump vs. injection users (p = 0.2). Frequency of ≥1 parent-reported diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) event in the prior year was greater in pump users than injection users (10 vs. 8%, p = 0.04). No differences between pump and injection users were observed for clinic-reported DKA events. Children below 6 yr have many unique metabolic characteristics, feeding behaviors, and care needs compared with older children and adolescents. These data support the use of insulin pumps in this youngest age group, and suggest that metabolic control may be improved without increasing the frequency of SH, but care should be taken as to the possibly increased risk of DKA. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Clostridia in premature neonates' gut: incidence, antibiotic susceptibility, and perinatal determinants influencing colonization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Ferraris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although premature neonates (PN gut microbiota has been studied, data about gut clostridial colonization in PN are scarce. Few studies have reported clostridia colonization in PN whereas Bacteroides and bifidobacteria have been seldom isolated. Such aberrant gut microbiota has been suggested to be a risk factor for the development of intestinal infections. Besides, PN are often treated by broad spectrum antibiotics, but little is known about how antibiotics can influence clostridial colonization based on their susceptibility patterns. The aim of this study was to report the distribution of Clostridium species isolated in feces from PN and to determine their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Additionally, clostridial colonization perinatal determinants were analyzed. RESULTS: Of the 76 PN followed until hospital discharge in three French neonatal intensive care units (NICUs, 79% were colonized by clostridia. Clostridium sp. colonization, with a high diversity of species, increased throughout the hospitalization. Antibiotic courses had no effect on the clostridial colonization incidence although strains were found susceptible (except C. difficile to anti-anaerobe molecules tested. However, levels of colonization were decreased by either antenatal or neonatal (during more than 10 days antibiotic courses (p = 0.006 and p = 0.001, respectively. Besides, incidence of colonization was depending on the NICU (p = 0.048. CONCLUSION: This study shows that clostridia are part of the PN gut microbiota. It provides for the first time information on the status of clostridia antimicrobial susceptibility in PN showing that strains were susceptible to most antibiotic molecules. Thus, the high prevalence of this genus is not linked to a high degree of resistance to antimicrobial agents or to the use of antibiotics in NICUs. The main perinatal determinant influencing PN clostridia colonization appears to be the NICU environment.

  15. Influence of tobacco marketing and exposure to smokers on adolescent susceptibility to smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, N; Farkas, A; Gilpin, E; Berry, C; Pierce, J P

    1995-10-18

    Today the uptake of smoking is primarily an adolescent pursuit. Awareness of tobacco advertising and promotion is high, and evidence suggests that it plays a role in adolescent smoking uptake. We evaluated the influence of tobacco advertising and promotion and exposure to smokers on never-smoking adolescents' susceptibility to smoking. We used data on 3536 adolescent never smokers (those who had never even puffed on a cigarette) from the 1993 California Tobacco Survey. That survey questioned adolescents about smoking history and inclinations. For this analysis, we defined as susceptible to smoking those never smokers who said on the survey that they could not rule out independently deciding to try a cigarette soon or smoking one offered by a friend. Also for this analysis, we devised two indices: 1) a 5-point index of an individual's receptivity to tobacco advertising as determined by the number of positive responses to five survey items (recognition of advertising messages, having a favorite advertisement, naming a brand he/she might buy, owning a tobacco-related promotional item, and willingness to use a tobacco-related promotional item) and 2) an index classifying an individual's reported exposure to family and peer smoking into one of four levels. Using logistic regression, we assessed the independent importance of our indices in predicting susceptibility to smoking after adjustment for sociodemographic variables, including age, sex, and race/ethnicity, and for perceived school performance. Tests of statistical significance were two-sided. Receptivity to tobacco advertising and exposure to smokers were independently associated with susceptibility to smoking, but the relationship appeared stronger for receptivity to advertising. Adolescents exposed to family members and peers (n = 489) who smoked were 1.89 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.30-2.74) times as likely to be susceptible, whereas adolescents who scored 4 or more on the Index of Receptivity to Tobacco

  16. Influence of penicillin/amoxicillin non-susceptibility on the activity of third-generation cephalosporins against Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenoll, A; Giménez, M J; Robledo, O; Aguilar, L; Tarragó, D; Granizo, J J; Martín-Herrero, J E

    2008-01-01

    To study the influence of penicillin/amoxicillin non-susceptibility on the activity of third-generation cephalosporins, 430 consecutive penicillin non-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae 2007 isolates received in the Spanish Reference Pneumococcal Laboratory were tested. For comparative purposes, 625 penicillin-susceptible 2007 isolates were also tested. Susceptibility was determined by agar dilution using Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with 5% sheep blood. Penicillin-susceptible strains were susceptible to amoxicillin, cefotaxime and ceftriaxone, 99.8% to cefpodoxime and 99.5% to cefdinir, and were inhibited by 0.12 microg/ml of cefditoren and 4 microg/ml of cefixime. Penicillin-intermediate strains were susceptible to cefotaxime and ceftriaxone, with Penicillin-resistant strains were resistant to cefdinir and cefpodoxime, with 74.8% and 94.1% susceptibility to cefotaxime and ceftriaxone, respectively. Cefditoren MIC(50)/MIC(90) (0.5/1 microg/ml) were lower than cefotaxime and ceftriaxone. Among amoxicillin non-susceptible strains, susceptibility to cefdinir and cefpodoxime was penicillin/amoxicillin non-susceptibility, while parenteral third-generation cephalosporins exhibited higher intrinsic activity (MIC(90)=1 microg/ml for penicillin-resistant and 2 microg/ml for amoxicillin-resistant strains). Cefditoren exhibited one-dilution lower MIC(90) values for these strains, even against those of the most troublesome serotypes.

  17. Smoking among university students in Canada and South Korea: linking diffusion theory with consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavack, Anne M; Kropp, Fredric

    2003-01-01

    This research examines the relationship between consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence (CSII) and smoking diffusion patterns in Canada and South Korea. It is hypothesized that individuals with higher susceptibility to interpersonal influence are more likely to follow the dominant trend with regard to smoking behavior. Among South Korean females, smoking prevalence has been increasing and, in line with this trend, smokers were found to have a higher susceptibility to interpersonal influence than non-smokers. Among Canadians and among South Korean males, smoking has been in decline and, in line with this trend, non-smokers were found to have a higher susceptibility to interpersonal influence than smokers. Implications for social marketers and health professionals are discussed.

  18. Genetic susceptibility to family environment: BDNF Val66met and 5-HTTLPR influence depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Elizabeth D; Hammen, Constance L; Najman, Jake M; Brennan, Patricia A

    2014-12-01

    Functional genetic polymorphisms associated with Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and serotonin (5-HTTLPR) have demonstrated associations with depression in interaction with environmental stressors. In light of evidence for biological connections between BDNF and serotonin, it is prudent to consider genetic epistasis between variants in these genes in the development of depressive symptoms. The current study examined the effects of val66met, 5-HTTLPR, and family environment quality on youth depressive symptoms in adolescence and young adulthood in a longitudinal sample oversampled for maternal depression history. A differential susceptibility model was tested, comparing the effects of family environment on depression scores across different levels of a cumulative plasticity genotype, defined as presence of both, either, or neither plasticity alleles (defined here as val66met Met and 5-HTTLPR 'S'). Cumulative plasticity genotype interacted with family environment quality to predict depression among males and females at age 15. After age 15, however, the interaction of cumulative plasticity genotype and early family environment quality was only predictive of depression among females. Results supported a differential susceptibility model at age 15, such that plasticity allele presence was associated with more or less depressive symptoms depending on valence of the family environment, and a diathesis-stress model of gene-environment interaction after age 15. These findings, although preliminary because of the small sample size, support prior results indicating interactive effects of 5-HTTLPR, val66met, and environmental stress, and suggest that family environment may have a stronger influence on genetically susceptible women than men.

  19. Infection Susceptibility in Gastric Intrinsic Factor (Vitamin B12-Defective Mice Is Subject to Maternal Influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynda Mottram

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mice harboring a mutation in the gene encoding gastric intrinsic factor (Gif, a protein essential for the absorption of vitamin B12/cobalamin (Cbl, have potential as a model to explore the role of vitamins in infection. The levels of Cbl in the blood of Giftm1a/tm1a mutant mice were influenced by the maternal genotype, with offspring born to heterozygous (high Cbl, F1 mothers exhibiting a significantly higher serum Cbl level than those born to homozygous (low Cbl, F2 equivalents. Low Cbl levels correlated with susceptibility to an infectious challenge with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium or Citrobacter rodentium, and this susceptibility phenotype was moderated by Cbl administration. Transcriptional and metabolic profiling revealed that Cbl deficient mice exhibited a bioenergetic shift similar to a metabolic phenomenon commonly found in cancerous cells under hypoxic conditions known as the Warburg effect, with this metabolic effect being exacerbated further by infection. Our findings demonstrate a role for Cbl in bacterial infection, with potential general relevance to dietary deficiency and infection susceptibility.

  20. The influence of fisher knowledge on the susceptibility of reef fish aggregations to fishing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Robinson

    Full Text Available Reef fishes that exhibit predictable aggregating behaviour are often considered vulnerable to overexploitation. However, fisher knowledge of this behaviour is often heterogeneous and, coupled with socioeconomic factors that constrain demand for or access to aggregated fish, will influence susceptibility to fishing. At two case study locations in Papua New Guinea, Ahus and Karkar islands, we conducted interview-based surveys to examine how local context influenced heterogeneity in knowledge of fish aggregations. We then explored the role of fisher knowledge in conferring susceptibility to fishing relative to socioeconomic drivers of fishing effort. Local heterogeneity in knowledge of aggregating behaviour differed between our case studies. At Ahus, variable access rights among fishers and genders to the main habitats were sources of heterogeneity in knowledge. By contrast, knowledge was more homogenous at Karkar and the sole source of variation was gear type. Differences between locations in the susceptibility of aggregations to fishing depended primarily on socioeconomic drivers of fishing effort rather than catchability. While Ahus fishers were knowledgeable of fish aggregations and used more selective gears, Karkar fishers were less constrained by tenure in their access to aggregation habitat. However, fishing effort was greater at Ahus and likely related to high dependency on fishing, greater access to provincial capital markets than Karkar and a weakening of customary management. Moreover, highly efficient fishing techniques have emerged at Ahus to exploit the non-reproductive aggregating behaviour of target species. Understanding how knowledge is structured within fishing communities and its relation to socioeconomic drivers of fishing effort is important if customary practices for conservation, such as tambu areas, are to be supported. The findings of this study call for a holistic approach to assessing the risks posed to reef fish

  1. The influence of fisher knowledge on the susceptibility of reef fish aggregations to fishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jan; Cinner, Joshua E; Graham, Nicholas A J

    2014-01-01

    Reef fishes that exhibit predictable aggregating behaviour are often considered vulnerable to overexploitation. However, fisher knowledge of this behaviour is often heterogeneous and, coupled with socioeconomic factors that constrain demand for or access to aggregated fish, will influence susceptibility to fishing. At two case study locations in Papua New Guinea, Ahus and Karkar islands, we conducted interview-based surveys to examine how local context influenced heterogeneity in knowledge of fish aggregations. We then explored the role of fisher knowledge in conferring susceptibility to fishing relative to socioeconomic drivers of fishing effort. Local heterogeneity in knowledge of aggregating behaviour differed between our case studies. At Ahus, variable access rights among fishers and genders to the main habitats were sources of heterogeneity in knowledge. By contrast, knowledge was more homogenous at Karkar and the sole source of variation was gear type. Differences between locations in the susceptibility of aggregations to fishing depended primarily on socioeconomic drivers of fishing effort rather than catchability. While Ahus fishers were knowledgeable of fish aggregations and used more selective gears, Karkar fishers were less constrained by tenure in their access to aggregation habitat. However, fishing effort was greater at Ahus and likely related to high dependency on fishing, greater access to provincial capital markets than Karkar and a weakening of customary management. Moreover, highly efficient fishing techniques have emerged at Ahus to exploit the non-reproductive aggregating behaviour of target species. Understanding how knowledge is structured within fishing communities and its relation to socioeconomic drivers of fishing effort is important if customary practices for conservation, such as tambu areas, are to be supported. The findings of this study call for a holistic approach to assessing the risks posed to reef fish aggregations by fishing

  2. The Influence of Green Viral Communications on Green Purchase Intentions: The Mediating Role of Consumers’ Susceptibility to Interpersonal Influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Hsiung Chang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to incorporate the diffusion of innovation theory and conformity theory to explain consumers’ green purchase intentions. To this end, a conceptual model has been proposed and subjected to empirical verification with the use of a survey method. Using a sample of Taiwanese consumers who had the actual purchase experience of green detergents, this study employed structural equation modeling to verify the hypothesis proposed. The empirical results suggested that green viral communication was positively related to normative interpersonal influence, informational interpersonal influence and green purchase intention. Informational interpersonal influence also had a positive impact on green purchase intention. However, the relationship between consumer’s normative interpersonal influence and green purchase intention was not supported. Thus, this study concludes that green marketers must strengthen their green viral communications skills to enhance consumers’ purchase intentions. In addition, this study also contributes to the literature by stating that consumers’ susceptibility to informational interpersonal relationships is an important mediator in the green viral communication and green purchase intentions relationship. This study discusses implications of the findings and research limitations at the end of the paper.

  3. The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene variant C677T influences susceptibility to migraine with aura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundholm James

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The C677T variant in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR gene is associated with increased levels of circulating homocysteine and is a mild risk factor for vascular disease. Migraine, with and without aura (MA and MO, is a prevalent and complex neurovascular disorder that may also be affected by genetically influenced hyperhomocysteinaemia. To determine whether the C677T variant in the MTHFR gene is associated with migraine susceptibility we utilised unrelated and family-based case-control study designs. Methods A total of 652 Caucasian migraine cases were investigated in this study. The MTHFR C677T variant was genotyped in 270 unrelated migraine cases and 270 controls as well as 382 affected subjects from 92 multiplex pedigrees. Results In the unrelated case-control sample we observed an over-representation of the 677T allele in migraine patients compared to controls, specifically for the MA subtype (40% vs. 33% (χ2 = 5.70, P = 0.017. The Armitage test for trend indicated a significant dosage effect of the risk allele (T for MA (χ2 = 5.72, P = 0.017. This linear trend was also present in the independent family-based sample (χ2 = 4.25, Padjusted = 0.039. Overall, our results indicate that the T/T genotype confers a modest, yet significant, increase in risk for the MA subtype (odds ratio: 2.0 – 2.5. No increased risk for the MO subtype was observed (P > 0.05. Conclusions In Caucasians, the C677T variant in the MTHFR gene influences susceptibility to MA, but not MO. Investigation into the enzyme activity of MTHFR and the role of homocysteine in the pathophysiology of migraine is warranted.

  4. Influence of the factor V Leiden mutation on infectious disease susceptibility and outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, Thomas L; Dahl, Mortens; Nordestgaard, Borge G

    2005-01-01

    The effect of the coagulation factor V Leiden mutation on infectious disease susceptibility and outcome is controversial.......The effect of the coagulation factor V Leiden mutation on infectious disease susceptibility and outcome is controversial....

  5. Friends' drinking norms and male adolescents' alcohol consumption: The moderating role of performance-based peer influence susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teunissen, Hanneke A; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Scholte, Ron H J; Spijkerman, Renske; Prinstein, Mitchell J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2016-12-01

    This study examined whether the relationship between friends' drinking norms and male adolescents' alcohol use is moderated by performance-based peer influence susceptibility. Seventy-three male adolescents (M = 17 years) from three schools in the Netherlands were exposed to the drinking norms of "peers" (electronic confederates) in a chat room experiment. These peers were either popular or unpopular, and conveyed pro- or anti-alcohol norms. Peer influence susceptibility was defined as the change in adolescents' answers before and after exposure to the peer norms. Multilevel regression analyses indicated that the relationship between friends' drinking norms and adolescents' alcohol use (assessed during eight weekends) was moderated by susceptibility to the pro-alcohol norms of popular peers. This relationship was stronger for adolescents who were highly susceptible. These findings suggest that a behavioral measure of peer influence susceptibility could be useful in alcohol prevention programs to select adolescents at risk for negative peer socialization. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. All rights reserved.

  6. OAS1: a multiple sclerosis susceptibility gene that influences disease severity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Type 1 interferons upregulate oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS1). A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in exon 7 of OAS1 results in differential RNAseL enzyme activity, the A allele coding for a truncated form with low activity and the G conferring high activity. We hypothesized that OAS1 genotypes would influence both susceptibility to multiple sclerosis (MS) and disease activity with the AA genotype being overrepresented and the GG genotype underrepresented in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) with increased disease activity. METHODS: We examined OAS1 genotype distribution in 401 patients with MS, 394 healthy controls, and 178 patients with RRMS receiving interferon-beta (IFNbeta) assessed as 1) having no or minimal disease activity on IFNbeta, 2) having disease activity despite IFNbeta, and 3) 65 patients with RRMS with highly active disease. RESULTS: The OAS1 genotype distribution differed between patients with MS and controls (p = 0.000003), with lower frequency of GG homozygotes in patients with MS (6%) compared with controls (17%). In relation to disease severity, 34 (32%) patients with no or minimal disease activity on IFNbeta had the AA and 8 (8%) the GG genotype; of patients with disease activity despite IFNbeta, 27 (51%) were AA, while only 1 (2%) was GG (p = 0.03). Median time to first relapse on IFNbeta was 24 months in patients with RRMS with AA genotype and 33 months with AG or GG genotype (p = 0.04). The GG genotype was absent in 65 patients with highly active RRMS (p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: A functional OAS1 SNP, AA genotype, confers susceptibility to MS and the GG genotype may protect against increased disease activity.

  7. The genetic and regulatory architecture of ERBB3-type 1 diabetes susceptibility locus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur, Simranjeet; Mirza, Aashiq H; Brorsson, Caroline Anna;

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to explore the role of ERBB3 in type 1 diabetes (T1D). We examined whether genetic variation of ERBB3 (rs2292239) affects residual β-cell function in T1D cases. Furthermore, we examined the expression of ERBB3 in human islets, the effect of ERBB3 knockdown on apoptosis in insulin......-producing INS-1E cells and the genetic and regulatory architecture of the ERBB3 locus to provide insights to how rs2292239 may confer disease susceptibility. rs2292239 strongly correlated with residual β-cell function and metabolic control in children with T1D. ERBB3 locus associated lncRNA (NONHSAG011351...... regulators in the β-cells and may constitute novel targets to prevent β-cell destruction in T1D....

  8. New susceptibility loci associated with kidney disease in type 1 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niina Sandholm

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic kidney disease, or diabetic nephropathy (DN, is a major complication of diabetes and the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD that requires dialysis treatment or kidney transplantation. In addition to the decrease in the quality of life, DN accounts for a large proportion of the excess mortality associated with type 1 diabetes (T1D. Whereas the degree of glycemia plays a pivotal role in DN, a subset of individuals with poorly controlled T1D do not develop DN. Furthermore, strong familial aggregation supports genetic susceptibility to DN. However, the genes and the molecular mechanisms behind the disease remain poorly understood, and current therapeutic strategies rarely result in reversal of DN. In the GEnetics of Nephropathy: an International Effort (GENIE consortium, we have undertaken a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS of T1D DN comprising ~2.4 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs imputed in 6,691 individuals. After additional genotyping of 41 top ranked SNPs representing 24 independent signals in 5,873 individuals, combined meta-analysis revealed association of two SNPs with ESRD: rs7583877 in the AFF3 gene (P = 1.2 × 10(-8 and an intergenic SNP on chromosome 15q26 between the genes RGMA and MCTP2, rs12437854 (P = 2.0 × 10(-9. Functional data suggest that AFF3 influences renal tubule fibrosis via the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β1 pathway. The strongest association with DN as a primary phenotype was seen for an intronic SNP in the ERBB4 gene (rs7588550, P = 2.1 × 10(-7, a gene with type 2 diabetes DN differential expression and in the same intron as a variant with cis-eQTL expression of ERBB4. All these detected associations represent new signals in the pathogenesis of DN.

  9. New susceptibility loci associated with kidney disease in type 1 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niina Sandholm

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic kidney disease, or diabetic nephropathy (DN, is a major complication of diabetes and the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD that requires dialysis treatment or kidney transplantation. In addition to the decrease in the quality of life, DN accounts for a large proportion of the excess mortality associated with type 1 diabetes (T1D. Whereas the degree of glycemia plays a pivotal role in DN, a subset of individuals with poorly controlled T1D do not develop DN. Furthermore, strong familial aggregation supports genetic susceptibility to DN. However, the genes and the molecular mechanisms behind the disease remain poorly understood, and current therapeutic strategies rarely result in reversal of DN. In the GEnetics of Nephropathy: an International Effort (GENIE consortium, we have undertaken a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS of T1D DN comprising ~2.4 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs imputed in 6,691 individuals. After additional genotyping of 41 top ranked SNPs representing 24 independent signals in 5,873 individuals, combined meta-analysis revealed association of two SNPs with ESRD: rs7583877 in the AFF3 gene (P = 1.2 × 10(-8 and an intergenic SNP on chromosome 15q26 between the genes RGMA and MCTP2, rs12437854 (P = 2.0 × 10(-9. Functional data suggest that AFF3 influences renal tubule fibrosis via the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β1 pathway. The strongest association with DN as a primary phenotype was seen for an intronic SNP in the ERBB4 gene (rs7588550, P = 2.1 × 10(-7, a gene with type 2 diabetes DN differential expression and in the same intron as a variant with cis-eQTL expression of ERBB4. All these detected associations represent new signals in the pathogenesis of DN.

  10. New Susceptibility Loci Associated with Kidney Disease in Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsblom, Carol; Isakova, Tamara; McKay, Gareth J.; Williams, Winfred W.; Sadlier, Denise M.; Mäkinen, Ville-Petteri; Swan, Elizabeth J.; Palmer, Cameron; Boright, Andrew P.; Ahlqvist, Emma; Deshmukh, Harshal A.; Keller, Benjamin J.; Huang, Huateng; Ahola, Aila J.; Fagerholm, Emma; Gordin, Daniel; Harjutsalo, Valma; He, Bing; Heikkilä, Outi; Hietala, Kustaa; Kytö, Janne; Lahermo, Päivi; Lehto, Markku; Lithovius, Raija; Österholm, Anne-May; Parkkonen, Maija; Pitkäniemi, Janne; Rosengård-Bärlund, Milla; Saraheimo, Markku; Sarti, Cinzia; Söderlund, Jenny; Soro-Paavonen, Aino; Syreeni, Anna; Thorn, Lena M.; Tikkanen, Heikki; Tolonen, Nina; Tryggvason, Karl; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Wadén, Johan; Gill, Geoffrey V.; Prior, Sarah; Guiducci, Candace; Mirel, Daniel B.; Taylor, Andrew; Hosseini, S. Mohsen; Parving, Hans-Henrik; Rossing, Peter; Tarnow, Lise; Ladenvall, Claes; Alhenc-Gelas, François; Lefebvre, Pierre; Rigalleau, Vincent; Roussel, Ronan; Tregouet, David-Alexandre; Maestroni, Anna; Maestroni, Silvia; Falhammar, Henrik; Gu, Tianwei; Möllsten, Anna; Cimponeriu, Danut; Ioana, Mihai; Mota, Maria; Mota, Eugen; Serafinceanu, Cristian; Stavarachi, Monica; Hanson, Robert L.; Nelson, Robert G.; Kretzler, Matthias; Colhoun, Helen M.; Panduru, Nicolae Mircea; Gu, Harvest F.; Brismar, Kerstin; Zerbini, Gianpaolo; Hadjadj, Samy; Marre, Michel; Groop, Leif; Lajer, Maria; Bull, Shelley B.; Waggott, Daryl; Paterson, Andrew D.; Savage, David A.; Bain, Stephen C.; Martin, Finian; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Godson, Catherine; Florez, Jose C.; Groop, Per-Henrik; Maxwell, Alexander P.

    2012-01-01

    Diabetic kidney disease, or diabetic nephropathy (DN), is a major complication of diabetes and the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) that requires dialysis treatment or kidney transplantation. In addition to the decrease in the quality of life, DN accounts for a large proportion of the excess mortality associated with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Whereas the degree of glycemia plays a pivotal role in DN, a subset of individuals with poorly controlled T1D do not develop DN. Furthermore, strong familial aggregation supports genetic susceptibility to DN. However, the genes and the molecular mechanisms behind the disease remain poorly understood, and current therapeutic strategies rarely result in reversal of DN. In the GEnetics of Nephropathy: an International Effort (GENIE) consortium, we have undertaken a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of T1D DN comprising ∼2.4 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) imputed in 6,691 individuals. After additional genotyping of 41 top ranked SNPs representing 24 independent signals in 5,873 individuals, combined meta-analysis revealed association of two SNPs with ESRD: rs7583877 in the AFF3 gene (P = 1.2×10−8) and an intergenic SNP on chromosome 15q26 between the genes RGMA and MCTP2, rs12437854 (P = 2.0×10−9). Functional data suggest that AFF3 influences renal tubule fibrosis via the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β1) pathway. The strongest association with DN as a primary phenotype was seen for an intronic SNP in the ERBB4 gene (rs7588550, P = 2.1×10−7), a gene with type 2 diabetes DN differential expression and in the same intron as a variant with cis-eQTL expression of ERBB4. All these detected associations represent new signals in the pathogenesis of DN. PMID:23028342

  11. Systematic evaluation of genes and genetic variants associated with type 1 diabetes susceptibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ram, Ramesh; Mehta, Munish; Nguyen, Tri Quang

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have found >60 loci that confer genetic susceptibility to type 1 diabetes (T1D). Many of these are defined only by anonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms: the underlying causative genes, as well as the molecular bases by which they mediate susceptibility, are no...

  12. Novel susceptibility locus at 22q11 for diabetic nephropathy in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessman, Maija; Forsblom, Carol; Kaunisto, Mari A

    2011-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) affects about 30% of patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and contributes to serious morbidity and mortality. So far only the 3q21-q25 region has repeatedly been indicated as a susceptibility region for DN. The aim of this study was to search for new DN susceptibility loci...

  13. Identification of subpopulations of prairie voles differentially susceptible to peer influence to decrease high alcohol intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison M.J. Anacker

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Peer influences are critical in the decrease of alcohol (ethanol abuse and maintenance of abstinence. We previously developed an animal model of inhibitory peer influences on ethanol drinking using prairie voles and here sought to understand whether this influential behavior was due to specific changes in drinking patterns and to variation in a microsatellite sequence in the regulatory region of the vasopressin receptor 1a gene (avpr1a. Adult prairie voles’ drinking patterns were monitored in a lickometer apparatus that recorded each lick a subject exhibited during continuous access to water and 10% ethanol during periods of isolation, pair housing of high and low drinkers, and subsequent isolation. Analysis of fluid consumption confirmed previous results that high drinkers typically decrease ethanol intake when paired with low drinkers, but that a subset of voles do not decrease. Analysis of bout structure revealed differences in the number of ethanol drinking bouts in the subpopulations of high drinkers when paired with low drinkers. Lickometer drinking patterns analyzed by visual and by cross-correlation analyses demonstrated that pair housing did not increase the rate of subjects drinking in bouts occurring at the same time. The length of the avpr1a microsatellite did not predict susceptibility to peer influence or any other drinking behaviors. In summary, subpopulations of high drinkers were identified by fluid intake and number of drinking bouts, which did or did not lower their ethanol intake when paired with a low drinking peer, and these subpopulations should be explored for testing the efficacy of treatments to decrease ethanol use in groups that are likely to be responsive to different types of therapy.

  14. Influence of Packing Size of Magnetic Filter on Efficiency of Catching Impurities with Different Dispersibility and Susceptibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The paper is devoted to investigation of influence of the size of a single filter packing on efficiency of catching impurities with various dispersity and magnetic susceptibility. It is revealed that the time of transferring of the process of cluster forming to stable state depends on packing size. The results can be used to make multilevel packings of magnetic filters.

  15. The influence of amylose-LPC complex formation on the susceptibility of wheat starch to amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi-Abhari, S; Woortman, A J J; Oudhuis, A A C M; Hamer, R J; Loos, K

    2013-09-12

    This study was aimed to assess the role of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) in the development of slowly digestible starch (SDS). The influence of LPC, on the enzymatic degradation of diluted 9% wheat starch suspensions (w/w) was investigated, using an in vitro digestion method. Wheat starch suspensions containing 0.5-5% LPC (based on starch) were heated in a Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA) till 95 °C and subjected to enzyme hydrolysis by porcine pancreatic α-amylase at 37 °C for several digestion periods. In vitro digestion measurements demonstrated that complexing starch with 5% LPC leads to a 22% decrease in rate of reducing sugar compared to the reference while the samples containing 0.5% LPC showed an equal digestibility comparable to the control. A clear decrease in the formation of reducing sugars was observed in presence of 2-5% LPC, since the results after 15 min digestion imply the formation of SDS due to the formation of amylose-LPC inclusion complexes. The DSC measurements proved the presence of amylose-LPC inclusion complexes even after 240 min digestion demonstrating the low susceptibility of amylose-V complexes to amylase.

  16. Nutritional status of Carcinus maenas (Crustacea: Decapoda) influences susceptibility to contaminant exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissanayake, Awantha; Galloway, Tamara S; Jones, Malcolm B

    2008-08-11

    Using the shore crab Carcinus maenas as a model, this study tested the hypothesis that nutritional status influences susceptibility of adult crabs (>60mm carapace width (CW)) to environmental contamination. In the laboratory, crabs were either starved, given a restricted diet (fed on alternate days) or fully fed (fed each day). In addition, crabs under each feeding regime were exposed to a sublethal concentration (200microgl(-1)) of pyrene (PYR) as a model organic (PAH (polyaromatic hydrocarbon)) contaminant. Various physiological end points were measured after 7 and 14 days. Results indicated that adult shore crab physiology was relatively robust to short-term (7 days) nutritional changes as multivariate analysis (ANOSIM) showed no significant difference in shore crab physiological condition between control and pyrene-exposed crabs, irrespective of dietary feeding regime [Global R=0.018, P (%)=19.2]. After 14 days, however, starved crabs showed significant impacts to physiological condition (as revealed by multivariate analysis) [Global R=0.134, P (%)=0.1], [R=0.209, P (%)=0.1]; starved individuals had significantly lower antioxidant status (F(2,48)=5.35, Pcontrol individuals (Pcontrols (Pcontrol crabs; however, after 14 days, antioxidant status (Pbiological-effects tools in environmental monitoring.

  17. Influence of sound-conditioning on noise-induced susceptibility of distortion-product otoacoustic emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebke, Anne E; Stagner, Barden B; Martin, Glen K; Lonsbury-Martin, Brenda L

    2015-07-01

    Cochlear damage caused by loud sounds can be attenuated by "sound-conditioning" methods. The amount of adaptation for distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) measured in alert rabbits previously predicted an ear's susceptibility to a subsequent noise exposure. The present study investigated if sound-conditioning influenced the robustness of such DPOAE adaptation, and if such conditioning elicited more protection by increasing the amount of DPOAE adaptation. Toward this end, rabbits were divided into two study groups: (1) experimental animals exposed to a sound-conditioning protocol, and (2) unconditioned control animals. After base-line measures, all rabbits were exposed to an overstimulation paradigm consisting of an octave band noise, and then re-assessed 3 weeks post-exposure to determine permanent changes in DPOAEs. A major result was that prior sound-conditioning protected reductions in DPOAE levels by an average of 10-15 dB. However, DPOAE adaptation decreased with sound-conditioning, so that such conditioning was no longer related to noise-induced reductions in DPOAEs. Together, these findings suggest that sound-conditioning affected neural pathways other than those that likely mediate DPOAE adaptation (e.g., medial olivocochlear efferent and/or middle-ear muscle reflexes).

  18. Immune regulation in T1D and T2D: prospective role of Foxp3+ Treg cells in disease pathogenesis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara eKornete

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that dysregulated immune responses play key roles in the pathogenesis and complications of type 1 but also type 2 diabetes. Indeed, chronic inflammation and autoimmunity, which are salient features of type 1 diabetes, are now believed to actively contribute to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. The accumulation of activated innate and adaptive immune cells in various metabolic tissues results in the release of inflammatory mediators, which promote insulin resistance and β-cell damage. Moreover, these dysregulated immune responses can also mutually influence the prevalence of both type 1 and 2 diabetes. In this review article, we discuss the central role of immune responses in the patho-physiology and complications of type 1 and 2 diabetes, and provide evidence that regulation of these responses, particularly through the action of regulatory T cells, may be a possible therapeutic avenue for the treatment of these disease and their respective complications.

  19. The influence of land use change on landslide susceptibility zonation: the Briga catchment test site (Messina, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenbach, P; Busca, C; Mondini, A C; Rossi, M

    2014-12-01

    The spatial distribution of landslides is influenced by different climatic conditions and environmental settings including topography, morphology, hydrology, lithology, and land use. In this work, we have attempted to evaluate the influence of land use change on landslide susceptibility (LS) for a small study area located in the southern part of the Briga catchment, along the Ionian coast of Sicily (Italy). On October 1, 2009, the area was hit by an intense rainfall event that triggered abundant slope failures and resulted in widespread erosion. After the storm, an inventory map showing the distribution of pre-event and event landslides was prepared for the area. Moreover, two different land use maps were developed: the first was obtained through a semi-automatic classification of digitized aerial photographs acquired in 1954, the second through the combination of supervised classifications of two recent QuickBird images. Exploiting the two land use maps and different land use scenarios, LS zonations were prepared through multivariate statistical analyses. Differences in the susceptibility models were analyzed and quantified to evaluate the effects of land use change on the susceptibility zonation. Susceptibility maps show an increase in the areal percentage and number of slope units classified as unstable related to the increase in bare soils to the detriment of forested areas.

  20. Influence of Soil Temperature on Meloidogyne incognita Resistant and Susceptible Cotton, Gossypium hirsutum

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, William W.

    1982-01-01

    The degree of resistance by a cotton plant to Meloidogyne incognita is affected by soil temperature, particularly in moderately resistant cultivars, The total number of nematodes in the resistant and moderately resistant rools at 35 C was equal to, or greater than, the number in susceptible roots at 20, 25, or 30 C. A shift in numbers to developing and egg-bearing forms of nematodes in the susceptible cultivar as tentperature increased indicates development was affected by temperature rather ...

  1. IFNγ Influences Type I Interferon Response and Susceptibility to Theiler's Virus-Induced Demyelinating Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen, Jenna L.; Olson, Julie K.

    2013-01-01

    Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) induces a demyelinating disease in susceptible SJL mice that has similarities to multiple sclerosis in humans. TMEV infection of susceptible mice leads to a persistent virus infection of the central nervous system (CNS), which promotes the development of demyelinating disease associated with an inflammatory immune response in the CNS. TMEV infection of resistant C57BL6 mice results in viral clearance without development of demyelinating disease....

  2. Revisiting the health effects of psychological stress-its influence on susceptibility to ionizing radiation: a mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Katsube, Takanori; Begum, Nasrin; Nenoi, Mitsuru

    2016-07-01

    Both psychological stress (PS) and ionizing radiation (IR) cause varied detrimental effects on humans. There has been no direct evidence so far showing PS alone could cause cancer; however, long-lasting PS may affect our overall health and ability to cope with cancer. Due to their living conditions and occupations, some people may encounter concurrent exposure to both PS and IR to a high extent. In addition to possible health effects resulting directly from exposure to IR on these people, fear of IR exposure is also a cause of PS. The question of whether PS would influence susceptibility to IR, radiocarcinogenesis in particular, is of great concern by both the academic world and the public. Recently, investigations using animal PS models demonstrated that PS could modulate susceptibility to IR, causing increased susceptibility to radiocarcinogenesis in Trp53-heterozygous mice, hematological toxicity in peripheral blood and elevated chromosome aberration (dicentrics) frequency in splenocytes of Trp53-wild-type mice. To actively reduce health risk from exposure to IR, further studies are needed to cumulate more evidence and provide insights into the mechanisms underlying the alterations in susceptibility due to PS modulation. This mini-review gives a general overview of the significance of PS effects on humans and experimental animals, with a special focus on summarizing the latest weight-of-evidence approaches to radiobiological studies on PS-induced alterations in susceptibility in experimental animal models. The susceptibility being investigated is mainly in the context of the impact of the modulatory effect of PS on radiocarcinogenesis; we seek to improve understanding of the combined effects of exposure to both PS and IR in order to facilitate, via active intervention, strategies for radiation risk reduction. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  3. On the influence of temporal change on the validity of landslide susceptibility maps in an alpine catchment, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meusburger, K.; Alewell, C.

    2009-04-01

    Global change (as a combination of climate and land use change) poses a risk to stability of alpine soils, and may enhance landslide hazard. The occurrence of landslides depends on static catchment characteristics (e.g. geology, topography etc.), as well as triggering factors that are variable in time (dynamic factors), such as event characteristics and land use. However, in literature the effects of temporal change are still discussed controversially and most statistical landslide prediction models rely on static catchment characteristics alone. In this study, we aim to assess the additional influence of dynamic factors on landslide susceptibility and on the validity of commonly used statistical landslide models. The Urseren Valley (Central Swiss Alps) was chosen as study area due to the evidence of climate and land use change. To assess the influence of catchment characteristics on landslide susceptibility, we set up a logistic regression model using 20 static predictor variables. The additional impact of dynamic risk factors was evaluated with historic data (aerial photographs and meteorological time series). We found that geology, slope and stream density were the most significant static predictors and could explain 70% of the landslide variation. However, the area affected by landslides increased by 92% from 1959 to 2004, which highlights the crucial role of dynamic landslide triggering factors. Furthermore, more recent landslides (since 2000) could only in part be predicted, which confirmed our proposed hypothesis that the validity of statistical hazard models may worsen over time. Discrepancies between predicted susceptibility and observed landslides mainly occurred in areas that have undergone land use changes. Consequently, slopes, that have formerly been classified as only "medium" landslide susceptibility may nonetheless have a high probability to fail under changed management. Spatial information of the impact of land use on landslide susceptibility

  4. Low-temperature magnetic susceptibility of concentrated ferrofluids: The influence of polydispersity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, Alexey O., E-mail: Alexey.Ivanov@usu.ru; Elfimova, Ekaterina A.

    2015-01-15

    In this paper we address the question of theoretical explanation of extremely high low-temperature initial magnetic susceptibility of concentrated ferrofluids. These laboratory synthesized samples [A.F. Pshenichnikov, A.V. Lebedev, J. Chem. Phys. 121(11) (2004) 5455; Colloid J. 67(2) (2005) 189] demonstrated the record-breaking values χ∼120–150 at temperatures ∼ 230–240 K. The existing models predict such high susceptibility only under the assumption of unreasonably large dipolar coupling constant, which is out of the range of applicability. Here we calculate the second virial contribution to susceptibility for polydisperse ferrofluid, modeled by the dipolar hard sphere fluid. In the resulting expression there exists the parameter, which plays a part of dipolar coupling constant and which is defined in a form of double averaging of high powers of particle sizes over the granulometric distribution. For real particle size distribution this effective parameter at least twice exceeds the commonly defined polydisperse dipolar coupling constant. We show that the low-temperature magnetic susceptibility of the record-breaking ferrofluids could be explained theoretically on the basis of the first terms of the polydisperse second virial contribution in combination with the second-order modified mean field model. - Highlights: • Record-breaking magnetic susceptibility of ferrofluids at low temperatures. • Second virial contribution to magnetic susceptibility of polydisperse ferrofluids. • Interparticle dipole correlations are more pronounced in dense ferrofluids. • Presented model describes the ferrofluid susceptibility χ∼120 at temperature 240 K.

  5. Landslide Susceptibility Across the Pacific Northwest: The Heavy Influence of Transportation Inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Thomas; Kirschbaum, Dalia

    2017-04-01

    Some of the largest and best landslide databases in the United States of America describe the Pacific Northwest region. Nevertheless, these inventories are not a comprehensive listing of historic landslides. In particular, landslide dates tend to be recorded by state transportation agencies, which imposes a spatial bias upon any subsequent analysis. This reporting bias complicates not only the identification of landslide triggering conditions, but also hinders empirical calculations of landslide susceptibility. Although many strategies for bias mitigation could be employed, the simplest approach delivers generally plausible results that are most reliable in the most critical locations: along major highways and rail lines. This work tests logistic regression models that were fitted in zones with landslide reports, then applied regionally. Due to the destabilizing effects of excavation and other anthropogenic disturbances, the models may overestimate susceptibility in undeveloped areas. However, the susceptibility of developed sites should be as accurate as the modeling technique and input data allow.

  6. Genetic Based Plant Resistance and Susceptibility Traits to Herbivory Influence Needle and Root Litter Nutrient Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Classen, Aimee T [ORNL; Chapman, Samantha K. [Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, Edgewater, MD; Whitham, Thomas G [Northern Arizona University; Hart, Stephen C [Northern Arizona University; Koch, George W [Northern Arizona University

    2007-01-01

    It is generally assumed that leaf and root litter decomposition have similar drivers and that nutrient release from these substrates is synchronized. Few studies have examined these assumptions, and none has examined how plant genetics (i.e., plant susceptibility to herbivory) could affect these relationships. Here we examine the effects of herbivore susceptibility and resistance on needle and fine root litter decomposition of pi on pine, Pinus edulis. The study population consists of individual trees that are either susceptible or resistant to herbivory by the pi on needle scale, Matsucoccus acalyptus, or the stem-boring moth, Dioryctria albovittella. Genetic analyses and experimental removals and additions of these insects have identified trees that are naturally resistant and susceptible to these insects. These herbivores increase the chemical quality of litter inputs and alter soil microclimate, both of which are important decomposition drivers. Our research leads to four major conclusions: Herbivore susceptibility and resistance effects on 1) needle litter mass loss and phosphorus (P) retention in moth susceptible and resistant litter are governed by microclimate, 2) root litter nitrogen (N) and P retention, and needle litter N retention are governed by litter chemical quality, 3) net nutrient release from litter can reverse over time, 4) root and needle litter mass loss and nutrient release are determined by location (above- vs. belowground), suggesting that the regulators of needle and root decomposition differ at the local scale. Understanding of decomposition and nutrient retention in ecosystems requires consideration of herbivore effects on above- and belowground processes and how these effects may be governed by plant genotype. Because an underlying genetic component to herbivory is common to most ecosystems of the world and herbivory may increase in climatic change scenarios, it is important to evaluate the role of plant genetics in affecting carbon and

  7. Influence of doxorubicin on fluconazole susceptibility and efflux pump gene expression of Candida dubliniensis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Schulz, Bettina

    2012-05-01

    The effect of doxorubicin (DOX) on the fluconazole (FLU) susceptibility of C. dubliniensis was investigated. Isolates were exposed to DOX and FLU in a chequerboard assay and resistance gene expressions were analysed after DOX exposure. The susceptibility of the yeast to FLU was decreased in the presence of DOX in the chequerboard assay with FIC indices suggesting an antagonistic effect. Gene expression analyses showed an overexpression of CdCDR2. Hence, DOX was found to have an impact on resistance mechanisms in C. dubliniensis isolates.

  8. Internal-External Control and Others' Susceptibility to Influence as Determinants of Interpersonal Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, William L.; Taylor, Alan L.

    The relationship between internal-external control of reinforcement and attraction to others who vary in susceptibility to persuasion was investigated. Internals are defined as persons who believe that reinforcement is contingent on their behavior, while externals are those who believe that reinforcement is independent of their actions and is…

  9. Socialization Influences on Early Adolescents' Cognitive Susceptibility and Transition to Sexual Intercourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Engle, Kelly Ladin; Jackson, Christine

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between perceived socialization from parents, school, peers, and media and adolescents' cognitive susceptibility to initiating sexual intercourse and transition to intercourse 2 years later. Baseline and follow-up in-home Audio-Computer Assisted Self Interview surveys were completed by 854 Black and White male…

  10. Antigen-specific influence of GM/KM allotypes on IgG isotypes and association of GM allotypes with susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giha, Hayder A; Nasr, Amre; Iriemenam, Nnaemeka C

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum malaria is a complex disease in which genetic and environmental factors influence susceptibility. IgG isotypes are in part genetically controlled, and GM/KM allotypes are believed to be involved in this control. METHODS: In this study, 216 individuals from...... on susceptibility to uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria and antigen-dependent influence on total IgG and IgG subclasses....

  11. Influence of Soil Temperature on Meloidogyne incognita Resistant and Susceptible Cotton, Gossypium hirsutum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, W W

    1982-07-01

    The degree of resistance by a cotton plant to Meloidogyne incognita is affected by soil temperature, particularly in moderately resistant cultivars, The total number of nematodes in the resistant and moderately resistant rools at 35 C was equal to, or greater than, the number in susceptible roots at 20, 25, or 30 C. A shift in numbers to developing and egg-bearing forms of nematodes in the susceptible cultivar as tentperature increased indicates development was affected by temperature rather than by genetic resistance mechanisms. However, the nematode resistant cultivar did not support maturation of nematodes until a soil tempurature of 35 C was attained. This indicated that resistance mechanisms are partially repressed at 35 C and differences in nematode development cannot be explained in terms of accumulated heat units. The moderately resistant cultivar was significantly more sensitive to the effects of high temperature than was the resistant cultivar.

  12. Influence of Environmental Variables on the Susceptibility of Alloy 22 to Environmentally Assisted Cracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fix, D V; Estill, J C; King, K J; Day, S D; Rebak, R B

    2002-09-26

    In its current design, the high-level nuclear waste containers include an external layer of Alloy 22 (NO6022). This material was selected to provide long-term corrosion resistance since if water enters in contact with the containers, they may undergo corrosion. The model for the degradation of the containers includes three modes of corrosion, namely general corrosion, localized corrosion and environmentally assisted cracking (EAC). The objective of the current research was to quantify the susceptibility of Alloy 22 to EAC in several environmental conditions with varying solution composition, temperature and electrochemical potential. The susceptibility to EAC was evaluated using constant deformation (deflection) U-bend specimens in both the wrought and welded conditions. Results show that after more than five years exposure in the vapor and liquid phases of alkaline (PH {approx} 10) and acidic (pH {approx} 3) multi-ionic environments at 60 C and 90 C, Alloy 22 was free from EAC.

  13. Inherited coding variants at the CDKN2A locus influence susceptibility to acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Heng; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Wenjian;

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence from genome-wide association studies for a strong inherited genetic basis of susceptibility to acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in children, yet the effects of protein-coding variants on ALL risk have not been systematically evaluated. Here we show a missense variant...... of haematopoietic progenitor cells, and is preferentially retained in ALL tumour cells. Resequencing the CDKN2A-CDKN2B locus in 2,407 childhood ALL cases reveals 19 additional putative functional germline variants. These results provide direct functional evidence for the influence of inherited genetic variation...

  14. Prion protein polymorphisms in white-tailed deer influence susceptibility to chronic wasting disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Chad; Johnson, Jody; Vanderloo, Joshua P; Keane, Delwyn; Aiken, Judd M; McKenzie, Debbie

    2006-07-01

    The primary sequence of the prion protein affects susceptibility to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, or prion diseases, in mice, sheep and humans. The Prnp gene sequence of free-ranging, Wisconsin white-tailed deer was determined and the Prnp genotypes of chronic wasting disease (CWD)-positive and CWD-negative deer were compared. Six amino acid changes were identified, two of which were located in pseudogenes. Two alleles, a Q-->K polymorphism at codon 226 and a single octapeptide repeat insertion into the pseudogene, have not been reported previously. The predominant alleles--wild-type (Q95, G96 and Q226) and a G96S polymorphism--comprised almost 98% of the Prnp alleles in the Wisconsin white-tailed deer population. Comparison of the allelic frequencies in the CWD-positive and CWD-negative deer suggested that G96S and a Q95H polymorphism were linked to a reduced susceptibility to CWD. The G96S allele did not, however, provide complete resistance, as a CWD-positive G96S/G96S deer was identified. The G96S allele was also linked to slower progression of the disease in CWD-positive deer based on the deposition of PrP(CWD) in the obex region of the medulla oblongata. Although the reduced susceptibility of deer with at least one copy of the Q95H or G96S allele is insufficient to serve as a genetic barrier, the presence of these alleles may modulate the impact of CWD on white-tailed deer populations.

  15. Influence of dipolar interactions on the magnetic susceptibility spectra of ferrofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindt, Julien O.; Camp, Philip J.; Kantorovich, Sofia S.; Elfimova, Ekaterina A.; Ivanov, Alexey O.

    2016-06-01

    The frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility of a ferrofluid is calculated under the assumption that the constituent particles undergo Brownian relaxation only. Brownian-dynamics simulations are carried out in order to test the predictions of a recent theory [A. O. Ivanov, V. S. Zverev, and S. S. Kantorovich, Soft Matter 12, 3507 (2016), 10.1039/C5SM02679B] that includes the effects of interparticle dipole-dipole interactions. The theory is based on the so-called modified mean-field approach and possesses the following important characteristics: in the low-concentration, noninteracting regime, it gives the correct single-particle Debye-theory results; it yields the exact leading-order results in the zero-frequency limit; it includes particle polydispersity correctly from the outset; and it is based on firm theoretical foundations allowing, in principle, systematic extensions to treat stronger interactions and/or higher concentrations. The theory and simulations are compared in the case of a model monodisperse ferrofluid, where the effects of interactions are predicted to be more pronounced than in a polydisperse ferrofluid. The susceptibility spectra are analyzed in detail in terms of the low-frequency behavior, the position of the peak in the imaginary (out-of-phase) part, and the characteristic decay time of the magnetization autocorrelation function. It is demonstrated that the theory correctly predicts the trends in all of these properties with increasing concentration and dipolar coupling constant, the product of which is proportional to the Langevin susceptibility χL. The theory is in quantitative agreement with the simulation results as long as χL≲1 .

  16. Mediation of the link between Popularity and Peer Influence Susceptibility (SRA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gommans, Rob; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; ter Bogt, Tom F. M.

    Peer influence processes shape adolescents’ attitudes and behaviors (Sandstrom, 2011). Peer status plays an important role in this process. On one hand, adolescents are more influenced by high-status than low-status peers (Cohen & Prinstein, 2006). On the other hand, adolescents’ own status plays a

  17. Mediation of the link between Popularity and Peer Influence Susceptibility (SRA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gommans, Rob; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; ter Bogt, Tom F. M.

    2014-01-01

    Peer influence processes shape adolescents’ attitudes and behaviors (Sandstrom, 2011). Peer status plays an important role in this process. On one hand, adolescents are more influenced by high-status than low-status peers (Cohen & Prinstein, 2006). On the other hand, adolescents’ own status plays a

  18. Influence of lead and cadmium on the susceptibility of rats to bacterial challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.A.; Hoffmann, E.O.; Di Luzio, N.R.

    1975-12-01

    Intravenous administration of an acute dose of lead acetate or cadmium acetate enhanced the susceptibility of rats to intravenous challenge with E. coli by approximately 1000-fold. Since equivalent vulnerability of lead- or cadmium-treated rats to killed E. coli was observed, toxicity is probably due to the endotoxin content of the bacteria. This postulate is further supported by the observation that equal doses of the Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococci epidermidis, failed to elicit lethality in the acute lead-intoxicated rats. The synthetic glucocorticoid, methylprednisolone, prevented lethality induced by the Gram-negative bacteria in lead-treated rats. It did not, however, afford significant protection in cadmium-treated rats in the presence of E. coli. Marked alterations in hepatic morphology were apparent in both lead- and cadmium-treated rats challenged with E. coli.

  19. IFNγ influences type I interferon response and susceptibility to Theiler's virus-induced demyelinating disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Jenna L; Olson, Julie K

    2013-08-01

    Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) induces a demyelinating disease in susceptible SJL mice that has similarities to multiple sclerosis in humans. TMEV infection of susceptible mice leads to a persistent virus infection of the central nervous system (CNS), which promotes the development of demyelinating disease associated with an inflammatory immune response in the CNS. TMEV infection of resistant C57BL6 mice results in viral clearance without development of demyelinating disease. Interestingly, TMEV infection of resistant mice deficient in IFNγ leads to a persistent virus infection in the CNS and development of demyelinating disease. We have previously shown that the innate immune response affects development of TMEV- induced demyelinating disease, thus we wanted to determine the role of IFNγ during the innate immune response. TMEV-infected IFNγ-deficient mice had an altered innate immune response, including reduced expression of innate immune cytokines, especially type I interferons. Administration of type I interferons, IFNα and IFNß, to TMEV-infected IFNγ-deficient mice during the innate immune response restored the expression of innate immune cytokines. Most importantly, administration of type I interferons to IFNγ-deficient mice during the innate immune response decreased the virus load in the CNS and decreased development of demyelinating disease. Microglia are the CNS resident immune cells that express innate immune receptors. In TMEV-infected IFNγ-deficient mice, microglia had reduced expression of innate immune cytokines, and administration of type I interferons to these mice restored the innate immune response by microglia. In the absence of IFNγ, microglia from TMEV-infected mice had reduced expression of some innate immune receptors and signaling molecules, especially IRF1. These results suggest that IFNγ plays an important role in the innate immune response to TMEV by enhancing the expression of innate immune cytokines

  20. MAVS is not a Likely Susceptibility Locus for Addison's Disease and Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurawek, Magdalena; Fichna, Marta; Kazimierska, Marta; Fichna, Piotr; Dzikiewicz-Krawczyk, Agnieszka; Przybylski, Grzegorz; Ruchala, Marek; Nowak, Jerzy

    2017-06-01

    Mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) protein is an intracellular adaptor molecule, downstream of viral sensors, retinoid acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs). Impaired antiviral cell signaling might contribute to autoimmunity. Studies have recently shown variations in genes encoding RLRs as risk factors for autoimmune diseases. We investigated whether MAVS coding polymorphisms are associated with Addison's disease (AD) and type 1 diabetes (T1D) in Polish population. We genotyped 140 AD, 532 T1D patients and 600 healthy controls for MAVS rs17857295, rs7262903, rs45437096 and rs7269320. Genotyping was performed by TaqMan assays. Distribution of the MAVS genotypes and alleles did not reveal significant differences between patients and controls (p > 0.05). This analysis did not indicate the association of the MAVS locus with susceptibility to AD and T1D.

  1. IL2RA genetic heterogeneity in multiple sclerosis and type 1 diabetes susceptibility and soluble interleukin-2 receptor production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M Maier

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS and type 1 diabetes (T1D are organ-specific autoimmune disorders with significant heritability, part of which is conferred by shared alleles. For decades, the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA complex was the only known susceptibility locus for both T1D and MS, but loci outside the HLA complex harboring risk alleles have been discovered and fully replicated. A genome-wide association scan for MS risk genes and candidate gene association studies have previously described the IL2RA gene region as a shared autoimmune locus. In order to investigate whether autoimmunity risk at IL2RA was due to distinct or shared alleles, we performed a genetic association study of three IL2RA variants in a DNA collection of up to 9,407 healthy controls, 2,420 MS, and 6,425 T1D subjects as well as 1,303 MS parent/child trios. Here, we report "allelic heterogeneity" at the IL2RA region between MS and T1D. We observe an allele associated with susceptibility to one disease and risk to the other, an allele that confers susceptibility to both diseases, and an allele that may only confer susceptibility to T1D. In addition, we tested the levels of soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2RA in the serum from up to 69 healthy control subjects, 285 MS, and 1,317 T1D subjects. We demonstrate that multiple variants independently correlate with sIL-2RA levels.

  2. Influence of MX1 promoter rs2071430 G/T polymorphism on susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlFadhli, Suad; Al-Mutairi, Mashael; Al Tameemi, Bader; Nizam, Rasheeba

    2016-03-01

    The expression of interferon inducible genes are reported to be heightened in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE); nevertheless, not much is known regarding the genetic variants underlying these genes and their role in the pathogenesis of disease. Herein, we aim to explore the potential association and contribution of polymorphisms in MX1 gene (i) promoter with part of exon 1 (ii) intron 6, and (iii) their resulting haplotypes, with susceptibility to SLE. A total of 306 subjects, 152 SLE and 154 healthy controls (HC), were screened by direct sequencing method. Statistical analysis was carried out using appropriate software. The screening region of interest in MX1 revealed the existence of promoter (-123C/A, -88G/T, -20 A/C) and intron 6 (+9862G/A, +10190G/A, +9901C/G, +9920C/A, +9959C/T, +10047A/G) variants in SLE and HC. A significant association was observed between MX1 -88G/T SNP and susceptibility to SLE (χ (2) = 4.18, p = 0.04, OR = 1.89, 95 % CI 1.03-3.5). Haplotype analysis also revealed increased risk of SLE among individuals carrying CTA haplotype (-123 C, -88 T, -20 A) (χ (2) = 5.74, p = 0.017, OR = 4.28, 95 % CI 1.30-14.06). None of the other tested variants showed any significant association with SLE. The present study is the first to reveal the influence of genetic variation in MX1 gene in susceptibility to SLE.

  3. Paternally transmitted IDDM2 influences diabetes susceptibility despite biallelic expression of the insulin gene in human pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, M M; Luo, D F; She, J Y; Maclaren, N K; Muir, A; Thomson, G; She, J X

    1996-02-01

    Whereas it is well known that the insulin gene (INS) region at 11p15.5 (IDDM2) confers susceptibility to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), it is still controversial whether the parental origin of IDDM2 influences IDDM susceptibility. We have analysed the Pst I + 1127 polymorphism in 123 USA multiplex families and detected linkage only in male meioses using the affected sibpair analysis (P = 0.009). Application of the transmission/disequilibrium test (TDT) found significantly increased transmission of the IDDM-associated INS allele from fathers heterozygous for INS to their diabetic offspring (P = 0.00002), but the transmission from heterozygous mothers was not significantly different from random expectation. In non-diabetic families, the transmission from parents heterozygous for INS was not significantly different from random expectation in either paternal or maternal meioses. Maternal imprinting of the INS gene in pancreatic islets was originally considered the most favorable explanation for the observed gender-related difference. However, our study has demonstrated biallelic expression of INS in pancreatic tissues from the human fetuses and thus suggests that INS is probably not imprinted in the pancreatic islets.

  4. Immune modulation by group B Streptococcus influences host susceptibility to urinary tract infection by uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Kimberly A; Schwartz, Drew J; Gilbert, Nicole M; Hultgren, Scott J; Lewis, Amanda L

    2012-12-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is most often caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). UPEC inoculation into the female urinary tract (UT) can occur through physical activities that expose the UT to an inherently polymicrobial periurethral, vaginal, or gastrointestinal flora. We report that a common urogenital inhabitant and opportunistic pathogen, group B Streptococcus (GBS), when present at the time of UPEC exposure, undergoes rapid UPEC-dependent exclusion from the murine urinary tract, yet it influences acute UPEC-host interactions and alters host susceptibility to persistent outcomes of bladder and kidney infection. GBS presence results in increased UPEC titers in the bladder lumen during acute infection and reduced inflammatory responses of murine macrophages to live UPEC or purified lipopolysaccharide (LPS), phenotypes that require GBS mimicry of host sialic acid residues. Taken together, these studies suggest that despite low titers, the presence of GBS at the time of polymicrobial UT exposure may be an overlooked risk factor for chronic pyelonephritis and recurrent UTI in susceptible groups, even if it is outcompeted and thus absent by the time of diagnosis.

  5. Influence of MDM2 polymorphisms on squamous cell carcinoma susceptibility: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huanxin; Li, Haiyan; Zhang, Jinling; Liu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Controversial associations between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (rs2279744, rs937283, rs3730485) of the MDM2 gene and the etiology of squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) have been reported. This merits further comprehensive assessment. Materials and methods We systematically reviewed the available data and conducted an updated meta-analysis to evaluate the genetic effect of MDM2 polymorphisms in SCC susceptibility, using Stata/SE 12.0 software. Results After screening, 7,987 SCC cases and 12,954 controls from 26 eligible case–control studies were enrolled. Overall, compared with the control group, a significantly increased SCC risk was observed for the MDM2 rs2279744 polymorphism in the Asian population (test of association: odds ratio [OR] 1.12, P=0.027 for G vs T; OR 1.26, P=0.016 for GG vs TT; OR 1.25, P0.05). Conclusion Our results highlight a positive association between the GG genotype of MDM2 rs2279744 polymorphism and an increased risk of esophageal SCC in the Asian population, which needs to be clarified by more large-scale studies.

  6. Influence of Haemodialysis on Susceptibility of Red Blood Cells to Peroxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surekha B Khedkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Uremic anaemia has been the subject of several studies, since it causes serious problems. Decreased RBC production and survival seem to be due to erythropoietin deficiency combined with cell damage. Aims and Objectives: During haemodialysis, complement and leukocyte activation by contact with artificial surfaces promotes the formation of free radicals. However, the cell membrane is protected from this damaging effect by the presence of very efficient antioxidant enzyme defence mechanism. When this protective system is overwhelmed, it leads to cellular damage in the form of decreased RBC survival. It is postulated that antioxidant capacity in uremic patients is reduced, yet the exact mechanism remains unclear. In view of this data a study was undertaken to determine the activities of antioxidant enzymes to assess the oxidant damage to RBC in terms of TBARS (Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances. Materials and Methods:Blood samples were collected from patients (n=40, before and after dialysis. They were compared with age and sex matched normals (n=45, who served as controls. The activities of enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and Catalase (CAT along with glutathione reduced (GSH and malondialdehyde (MDA expressed as TBARS in the RBC of patients on haemodialysis were determined. Results: The results indicated a marginal to moderate decrease in the antioxidant enzyme activities, such as CAT and GSH-Px, and increased TBARS levels before and after dialysis. Conclusion: Our results are suggestive of an increased susceptibility of the RBC to peroxidation on haemodialysis.

  7. Candida vaginitis during contraceptive use: the influence of methods, antifungal susceptibility and virulence patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güzel, A B; Küçükgöz-Güleç, U; Aydin, M; Gümral, R; Kalkanci, A; Ilkit, M

    2013-11-01

    No consensus exists about whether contraceptives cause an increased risk of vaginitis, including vulvovaginal candidosis (VVC). We investigated 495 women (252 who used contraceptives; 243 who did not) for the presence of VVC. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed for five antifungal agents and for boric acid, and three virulence factors were also examined. We recovered 129 (26.1%) monofungal populations from vaginal samples of women with acute VVC (AVVC, n = 18), symptomatic recurrent VVC (RVVC, n = 22) and asymptomatic RVVC (n = 28), as well as of other contraceptive users who carried Candida in their vaginas (n = 61). It is important to note that the women who had VVC used the same contraceptive methods (p > 0.05). Candida albicans was the most common species isolated (45%), followed by C. glabrata (40.3%). Most of the vaginal yeast isolates exhibited low minimum inhibitory concentration levels for the five antifungals tested. However, this was not the case for boric acid. In addition, the yeast fungi that was derived from the AVVC and RVVC patients showed higher amounts of haemolytic activity than the yeast fungi found among the controls (p contraception does not predispose women to VVC (p > 0.05). Also, both host- and organism-related factors were required to achieve optimal clinical treatment for VVC.

  8. Susceptibility to bystander DNA damage is influenced by replication and transcriptional activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, Jennifer S; Baird, Brandon J; Redon, Christophe E; Avdoshina, Valeriya; Palchik, Guillermo; Wu, Junfang; Kondratyev, Alexei; Bonner, William M; Martin, Olga A

    2012-11-01

    Direct cellular DNA damage may lead to genome destabilization in unexposed, bystander, cells sharing the same milieu with directly damaged cells by means of the bystander effect. One proposed mechanism involves double strand break (DSB) formation in S phase cells at sites of single strand lesions in the DNA of replication complexes, which has a more open structure compared with neighboring DNA. The DNA in transcription complexes also has a more open structure, and hence may be susceptible to bystander DSB formation from single strand lesions. To examine whether transcription predisposes non-replicating cells to bystander effect-induced DNA DSBs, we examined two types of primary cells that exhibit high levels of transcription in the absence of replication, rat neurons and human lymphocytes. We found that non-replicating bystander cells with high transcription rates exhibited substantial levels of DNA DSBs, as monitored by γ-H2AX foci formation. Additionally, as reported in proliferating cells, TGF-β and NO were found to mimic bystander effects in cell populations lacking DNA synthesis. These results indicate that cell vulnerability to bystander DSB damage may result from transcription as well as replication. The findings offer insights into which tissues may be vulnerable to bystander genomic destabilization in vivo.

  9. Susceptibility to bystander DNA damage is influenced by replication and transcriptional activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, Jennifer S.; Baird, Brandon J.; Redon, Christophe E.; Avdoshina, Valeriya; Palchik, Guillermo; Wu, Junfang; Kondratyev, Alexei; Bonner, William M.; Martin, Olga A.

    2012-01-01

    Direct cellular DNA damage may lead to genome destabilization in unexposed, bystander, cells sharing the same milieu with directly damaged cells by means of the bystander effect. One proposed mechanism involves double strand break (DSB) formation in S phase cells at sites of single strand lesions in the DNA of replication complexes, which has a more open structure compared with neighboring DNA. The DNA in transcription complexes also has a more open structure, and hence may be susceptible to bystander DSB formation from single strand lesions. To examine whether transcription predisposes non-replicating cells to bystander effect-induced DNA DSBs, we examined two types of primary cells that exhibit high levels of transcription in the absence of replication, rat neurons and human lymphocytes. We found that non-replicating bystander cells with high transcription rates exhibited substantial levels of DNA DSBs, as monitored by γ-H2AX foci formation. Additionally, as reported in proliferating cells, TGF-β and NO were found to mimic bystander effects in cell populations lacking DNA synthesis. These results indicate that cell vulnerability to bystander DSB damage may result from transcription as well as replication. The findings offer insights into which tissues may be vulnerable to bystander genomic destabilization in vivo. PMID:22941641

  10. Depression from childhood into late adolescence: Influence of gender, development, genetic susceptibility, and peer stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankin, Benjamin L; Young, Jami F; Abela, John R Z; Smolen, Andrew; Jenness, Jessica L; Gulley, Lauren D; Technow, Jessica R; Gottlieb, Andrea Barrocas; Cohen, Joseph R; Oppenheimer, Caroline W

    2015-11-01

    Depression is a debilitating mental illness with clear developmental patterns from childhood through late adolescence. Here, we present data from the Gene Environment Mood (GEM) study, which used an accelerated longitudinal cohort design with youth (N = 665) starting in 3rd, 6th, and 9th grades, and a caretaker, who were recruited from the general community, and were then assessed repeatedly through semistructured diagnostic interviews every 6 months over 3 years (7 waves of data) to establish and then predict trajectories of depression from age 8 to 18. First, we demonstrated that overall prevalence rates of depression over time, by age, gender, and pubertal status, in the GEM study closely match those trajectories previously obtained in past developmental epidemiological research. Second, we tested whether a genetic vulnerability-stress model involving 5-HTTLPR and chronic peer stress was moderated by developmental factors. Results showed that older aged adolescents with SS/SL genotype, who experienced higher peer chronic stress over 3 years, were the most likely to be diagnosed with a depressive episode over time. Girls experiencing greater peer chronic stress were the most likely to develop depression. This study used repeated assessments of diagnostic interviewing in a moderately large sample of youth over 3 years to show that depression rates increase in middle to late adolescence, or postpubertally, and that the gender difference in depression emerges earlier in adolescence (age 12.5), or postpubertally. Additionally, genetically susceptible older adolescents who experience chronic peer stress were the most likely to become depressed over time.

  11. Heterogeneity shapes invasion: host size and environment influence susceptibility to a nonnative pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Matthew J; Jules, Erik S

    2006-02-01

    Theoretical study of invasion dynamics has suggested that spatial heterogeneity should strongly influence the rate and extent of spreading organisms. However, empirical support for this prediction is scant, and the importance of understanding heterogeneity for real-world systems has remained ambiguous. This study quantified the influence of host and environmental heterogeneity on the dynamics of a 19-year disease invasion by the exotic and fatal pathogen, Phytophthora lateralis, within a stream population of its host tree, Port Orford cedar (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana). Using dendrochronology, we reconstructed the invasion history along a 1350-m length of infected stream, which serves as the only route of pathogen dispersal. Contrary to theoretical predictions, the temporal progression of the disease invasion was not related to a host's downstream spatial position, but instead was determined by two sources of heterogeneity: host size and proximity to the stream channel. These sources of heterogeneity influenced both the epidemic and endemic dynamics of this pathogen invasion. This analysis provides empirical support for the influence of heterogeneity on the invasion dynamics of a commercially important forest pathogen and highlights the need to incorporate such natural variability into both invasion theory and methods aimed at controlling future spread.

  12. Influence of nitrogen supply on the susceptibility of wheat to Septoria tritici

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simón, M.R.; Cordo, C.A.; Perello, A.E.; Struik, P.C.

    2003-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) fertilization is required for achieving high yields in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) but may enhance the development of Septoria tritici Rob. ex Desm. A study was undertaken to investigate how N supply influences the area under disease progress curve (AUDPC). Two field experiments were c

  13. The influence of amylose-LPC complex formation on the susceptibility of wheat starch to amylase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmadi-Abhari, S.; Woortman, A.J.J.; Oudhuis, A.A.C.M.; Hamer, R.J.; Loos, K.

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed to assess the role of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) in the development of slowly digestible starch (SDS). The influence of LPC, on the enzymatic degradation of diluted 9% wheat starch suspensions (w/w) was investigated, using an in vitro digestion method. Wheat starch suspension

  14. Simultaneous influence of hydrostatic pressure and temperature on diamagnetic susceptibility of impurity doped quantum dots under the aegis of noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Surajit; Ganguly, Jayanta; Bera, Aindrila; Ghosh, Manas

    2016-11-01

    We explore the diamagnetic susceptibility (DMS) of impurity doped quantum dot (QD) in presence of Gaussian white noise and under the combined influence of hydrostatic pressure (HP) and temperature (T). Presence of noise and also its mode of application discernibly affect the DMS profile. Application of HP and T invites greater delicacies in the observed DMS profiles. However, whereas the interplay between T and noise comes out to be extremely sensitive in fabricating the DMS profile, the pressure-noise interplay appears to be not that much noticeable. Under all conditions of temperature and pressure, the presence of multiplicative noise diminishes the value of DMS in comparison with that in presence of its additive analogue. The present study renders a deep insight into the remarkable role played by the interplay between noise, hydrostatic pressure and temperature in controlling the effective confinement imposed on the system which bears unquestionable relevance.

  15. Rare exonic minisatellite alleles in MUC2 influence susceptibility to gastric carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Hee Jeong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mucins are the major components of mucus and their genes share a common, centrally-located region of sequence that encodes tandem repeats. Mucins are well known genes with respect to their specific expression levels; however, their genomic levels are unclear because of complex genomic properties. In this study, we identified eight novel minisatellites from the entire MUC2 region and investigated how allelic variation in these minisatellites may affect susceptibility to gastrointestinal cancer. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: We analyzed genomic DNA from the blood of normal healthy individuals and multi-generational family groups. Six of the eight minisatellites exhibited polymorphism and were transmitted meiotically in seven families, following Mendelian inheritance. Furthermore, a case-control study was performed that compared genomic DNA from 457 cancer-free controls with DNA from individuals with gastric (455, colon (192 and rectal (271 cancers. A statistically significant association was identified between rare exonic MUC2-MS6 alleles and the occurrence of gastric cancer: odds ratio (OR, 2.56; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.31-5.04; and p = 0.0047. We focused on an association between rare alleles and gastric cancer. Rare alleles were divided into short (40, 43 and 44 and long (47, 50 and 54, according to their TR (tandem repeats lengths. Interestingly, short rare alleles were associated with gastric cancer (OR = 5.6, 95% CI: 1.93-16.42; p = 0.00036. Moreover, hypervariable MUC2 minisatellites were analyzed in matched blood and cancer tissue from 28 patients with gastric cancer and in 4 cases of MUC2-MS2, minisatellites were found to have undergone rearrangement. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our observations suggest that the short rare MUC2-MS6 alleles could function as identifiers for risk of gastric cancer. Additionally, we suggest that minisatellite instability might be associated with MUC2 function in cancer cells.

  16. Container Type Influences the Relative Abundance, Body Size, and Susceptibility of Ochlerotatus triseriatus (Diptera: Culicidae) to La Crosse Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bara, Jeffrey J; Muturi, Ephantus J

    2015-05-01

    Ochlerotatus triseriatus (Say), the primary vector of La Crosse virus (LAC), develops in a variety of natural and artificial aquatic containers where it often co-occurs with larvae of other mosquito species. We conducted a field study at two woodlots (South Farms and Trelease Woods) in Urbana, IL, to examine how container type influences vector abundance, body size, and susceptibility to LAC. Mosquito pupae were collected from tree holes, plastic bins, and waste tires, and eclosing adults were identified to species morphologically. Oc. triseriatus and Ochlerotatus japonicus (Theobald) females were orally challenged with LAC and midgut infection rate, disseminated infection rate, and body titer were determined by reverse-transcriptase real-time PCR. Oc. triseriatus was the dominant species collected in tree holes while Oc. japonicus and Culex restuans (Theobald) were mostly dominant in artificial containers. Female Oc. triseriatus and Oc. japonicus collected from plastic bins were significantly larger than those collected from tree holes or waste tires. Oc. japonicus females from South Farms were also significantly larger than those from Trelease Woods. Oc. triseriatus females collected from plastic bins and waste tires were significantly more susceptible to LAC infection relative to females collected from tree holes. In addition, Oc. triseriatus females from waste tires had significantly higher LAC titer relative to Oc. triseriatus from tree holes. For each container type and study site, wing length was not correlated to infection or dissemination rates. These findings suggest that the container type in which Oc.triseriatus develop may contribute to the spatial and temporal dynamics of LAC transmission.

  17. Influence of infection with Renibacterium salmoninarum on susceptibility of juvenile spring chinook salmon to gas bubble trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, L.K.; Mesa, M.G.; Maule, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    During experiments in our laboratory to assess the progression and severity of gas bubble trauma (GBT) in juvenile spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, we had the opportunity to assess the influence of Renibacterium salmoninarum (Rs), the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease, on the susceptibility of salmon to GBT. We exposed fish with an established infection of Rs to 120% total dissolved gas (TDG) for 96 h and monitored severity of GBT signs in the fins and gills, Rs infection level in kidneys by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and mortality. Mortality occurred rapidly after exposure to 120% TDG, with a LT20 (time necessary to kill 20% of the population) of about 37 h, which is at a minimum about 16% earlier than other bioassays we have conducted using fish that had no apparent signs of disease. Fish that died early (from 31 to 36 h and from 49 to 52 h) had significantly higher infection levels (mean ?? SE ELISA absorbance = 1.532 ?? 0.108) than fish that survived for 96h (mean ?? SE ELISA absorbance = 0.828 ?? 0.137). Fish that died early also had a significantly greater number of gill filaments occluded with bubbles than those that survived 96 h. Conversely, fish that survived for 96 h had a significantly higher median fin severity ranking than those that died early. Our results indicate that fish with moderate to high levels of Rs infection are more vulnerable to the effects of dissolved gas supersaturation (DGS) and die sooner than fish with lower levels of Rs infection. However, there is a substantial amount of individual variation in susceptibility to the apparent cumulative effects of DGS and Rs infection. Collectively, our findings have important implications to programs designed to monitor the prevalence and severity of GBT in juvenile salmonids in areas like the Columbia River basin and perhaps elsewhere.

  18. Design features of offshore oil production platforms influence their susceptibility to biocorrosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Kathleen E; Davidova, Irene A; Nunn, Heather S; Stamps, Blake W; Stevenson, Bradley S; Souquet, Pierre J; Suflita, Joseph M

    2017-08-01

    Offshore oil-producing platforms are designed for efficient and cost-effective separation of oil from water. However, design features and operating practices may create conditions that promote the proliferation and spread of biocorrosive microorganisms. The microbial communities and their potential for metal corrosion were characterized for three oil production platforms that varied in their oil-water separation processes, fluid recycling practices, and history of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC). Microbial diversity was evaluated by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and numbers of total bacteria, archaea, and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were estimated by qPCR. The rates of (35)S sulfate reduction assay (SRA) were measured as a proxy for metal biocorrosion potential. A variety of microorganisms common to oil production facilities were found, but distinct communities were associated with the design of the platform and varied with different locations in the processing stream. Stagnant, lower temperature (oil separation train, thus promoting distribution of biocorrosive microorganisms. These findings tell us that tracking microbial sulfate-reducing activity and community composition on off-shore oil production platforms can be used to identify operational practices that inadvertently promote the proliferation, distribution, and activity of biocorrosive microorganisms.

  19. The Influence of Ambient Temperature on the Susceptibility of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) to the Pyrethroid Insecticide Permethrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiten, Shavonn R; Peterson, Robert K D

    2016-01-01

    Insecticides are the most common strategy used for the management of mosquitoes. Changes in ambient temperature can alter the toxicity of insecticides to ectothermic organisms. Studies show organophosphate insecticides exhibit a positive correlation between ambient temperature and mortality for many insect species, and carbamate insecticides exhibit a slightly negative correlation between ambient temperature and mortality. Pyrethroid insecticides exhibit a distinctly negative correlation between increasing ambient temperature and mortality for insects. However, this relationship has not been systematically studied for adult mosquitoes. Therefore, we examined the influence of temperature on the susceptibility of adult Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) when exposed to permethrin. The median lethal concentration, LC50, was estimated for adult Ae. aegypti when exposed to eight concentrations of permethrin (ranging from 0.06–0.58 ng/cm2) at each of the following temperatures—16, 23, 26, 30, 32, and 34C—for 24 h in bottle assays. The estimated LC50 for each temperature was 0.26, 0.36, 0.36, 0.45, 0.27, and 0.31 ng/cm2, respectively. Results indicated a negative correlation between temperature and mortality from 16 to 30C, a positive correlation between temperature and mortality from 30 to 32C, and a negative correlation between temperature and mortality from 32 to 34C. If mosquito populations are expanding in space and time because of increased ambient temperatures and cannot be managed as effectively with pyrethroids, the spread of mosquito-borne diseases may pose considerable additional risk to public health.

  20. CD226 rs763361 Is Associated with the Susceptibility to Type 1 Diabetes and Greater Frequency of GAD65 Autoantibody in a Brazilian Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattana, Teresa Cristina Colvara; Santos, Aritania Sousa; Fukui, Rosa Tsuneshiro; Mainardi-Novo, Debora Teixeira Oliveira; Costa, Vinícius Silva; Santos, Rosa Ferreira; Matioli, Sergio Russo; Rossi da Silva, Maria Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    CD226 rs763361 variant increases susceptibility to type 1 diabetes (T1D) in Caucasians. There is no data about CD226 variants in the very heterogeneous Brazilian population bearing a wide degree of admixture. We investigated its association with T1D susceptibility, clinical phenotypes, and autoimmune manifestations (islet and extrapancreatic autoantibodies). Casuistry. 532 T1D patients and 594 controls in a case-control study. Initially, CD226 coding regions and boundaries were sequenced in a subset of 106 T1D patients and 102 controls. In a second step, two CD226 variants, rs763361 (exon 7) and rs727088 (3′ UTR region), involved with CD226 regulation, were genotyped in the entire cohort. C-peptide and autoantibody levels were determined. No new polymorphic variant was found. The variants rs763361 and rs727088 were in strong linkage disequilibrium. The TT genotype of rs763361 was associated with TID risk (OR = 1.503;  95%  CI = 1.135–1.991; P = 0.0044), mainly in females (P = 0.0012), greater frequency of anti-GAD autoantibody (31.9% × 24.5%; OR = 1.57; CI = 1.136–2.194; P = 0.0081), and lower C-peptide levels when compared to those with TC + CC genotypes (0.41 ± 0.30 ng/dL versus 0.70 ± 0.53 ng/dL P = 0.0218). Conclusions. The rs763361 variant of CD226 gene (TT genotype) was associated with susceptibility to T1D and with the degree of aggressiveness of the disease in T1D patients from Brazil. Ancestry had no effect. PMID:24891767

  1. CD226 rs763361 Is Associated with the Susceptibility to Type 1 Diabetes and Greater Frequency of GAD65 Autoantibody in a Brazilian Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina Colvara Mattana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available CD226 rs763361 variant increases susceptibility to type 1 diabetes (T1D in Caucasians. There is no data about CD226 variants in the very heterogeneous Brazilian population bearing a wide degree of admixture. We investigated its association with T1D susceptibility, clinical phenotypes, and autoimmune manifestations (islet and extrapancreatic autoantibodies. Casuistry. 532 T1D patients and 594 controls in a case-control study. Initially, CD226 coding regions and boundaries were sequenced in a subset of 106 T1D patients and 102 controls. In a second step, two CD226 variants, rs763361 (exon 7 and rs727088 (3′ UTR region, involved with CD226 regulation, were genotyped in the entire cohort. C-peptide and autoantibody levels were determined. No new polymorphic variant was found. The variants rs763361 and rs727088 were in strong linkage disequilibrium. The TT genotype of rs763361 was associated with TID risk (OR=1.503;  95%  CI=1.135–1.991; P=0.0044, mainly in females P=0.0012, greater frequency of anti-GAD autoantibody (31.9% × 24.5%; OR=1.57; CI=1.136–2.194; P=0.0081, and lower C-peptide levels when compared to those with TC + CC genotypes (0.41±0.30 ng/dL versus 0.70±0.53 ng/dL P=0.0218. Conclusions. The rs763361 variant of CD226 gene (TT genotype was associated with susceptibility to T1D and with the degree of aggressiveness of the disease in T1D patients from Brazil. Ancestry had no effect.

  2. The CCL3L1-CCR5 genotype influences the development of AIDS, but not HIV susceptibility or the response to HAART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Tanmoy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stanton, Jennifer [NORTHWESTERN UNIV; Kim, Eun - Young [NORTHWESTERN UNIV; Kunstman, Kevin [NORTHWESTERN UNIV; Phair, John [NORTHWESTERN UNIV; Jacobson, Lisa P [JOHNS HOPKINS UNIV; Wolinsky, Steven M [NORTHWESTERN UNIV

    2008-01-01

    A selective advantage against infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS is associated with differences in the genes relevant to immunity and virus replication. The CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5), the principal coreceptor for HIV, and its chemokine ligands, including CCL3L1, influences the CD4+ target cells susceptibility to infection. The CCL3L1 gene is in a region of segmental duplication on the q-arm of human chromosome 17. Increased numbers of CCL3L1 gene copies that affect the gene expression phenotype might have substantial protective effects. Here we show that the population-specific CCL3L1 gene copy number and the CCR5 {Delta}32 protein-inactivating deletion that categorizes the CCL3L1-CCR5 genotype do not influence HIV/AIDS susceptibility or the robustness of immune recovery after the initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).

  3. Parental behaviours, but not parental smoking, influence current smoking and smoking susceptibility among 14 and 15 year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waa, Andrew; Edwards, Richard; Newcombe, Rhiannon; Zhang, Jane; Weerasekera, Deepa; Peace, Jo; McDuff, Ingrid

    2011-12-01

    To explore whether parental behaviours related to smoking socialisation and parenting are associated with smoking susceptibility and current smoking in 14-15 year old students. Data were sourced from the New Zealand 2006 Year 10 In-depth Survey, a school-based survey of 3,189 students. Outcome measures were susceptibility to smoking and current smoking. Potential determinants were second-hand smoke exposure in the home, parental smoking, parental anti-smoking expectations, anti-smoking rules, pocket money, monitoring of pocket money expenditure, general rule setting and monitoring, and concern about education. Analysis used logistic regression to adjust for potential confounding factors. Exposure to second-hand smoke and lack of parental anti-smoking expectations were independently associated with smoking susceptibility and current smoking. Parental smoking was not independently associated with current smoking or susceptibility. Receiving pocket money and an absence of monitoring of expenditure were associated with smoking susceptibility and current smoking. Lack of parental rule setting was associated with smoking susceptibility. Findings were similar whether or not one or more parents were smokers. Not allowing smoking in the home, communicating non-smoking expectations to children, monitoring pocket money, and setting rules to guide behaviour are strategies which are likely to reduce risk of smoking uptake. The study provides evidence to inform the development of parent-focused interventions to reduce the risk of smoking initiation by children. © 2011 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2011 Public Health Association of Australia.

  4. Identification of the susceptibility genes in type 1 diabets and diabetic nephropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Jun

    2007-01-01

    Genetic susceptibility plays an important role in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and diabetic nephropathy (DN). The present study aims to investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate genes and DN. Three candidate genes, the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), adiponectin (AdipoQ) and neuropeptide Y (NPY), have been selected based upon the approaches: i) from the specific chromosomal regions predicted as important ...

  5. Nanoscale influence on photoluminescence and third order nonlinear susceptibility exhibited by ion-implanted Pt nanoparticles in silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornacelli, Jhovani; Torres-Torres, Carlos; Silva-Pereyra, Héctor Gabriel; Rodríguez-Fernández, Luis; Avalos-Borja, Miguel; Cheang-Wong, Juan Carlos; Oliver, Alicia

    2017-05-09

    A systematic study has been carried out to investigate photoluminescence and third order nonlinear ultraviolet properties exhibited by platinum nanoparticles nucleated in a high-purity silica matrix. The modification in the characteristic photoluminescence spectra of the nanocomposites, ranging between 400 and 600 nm, was obtained with the assistance of a thermal annealing process that changed the average size of the platinum nanoparticles. The influence of temperature, between 200 °C-1100 °C, during the thermal treatment of the nanostructures was analyzed. UV-vis spectroscopy studies corroborated changes in the optical absorption resonances of the ion-implanted samples after annealing, which could then be correlated with the average size of the nanoparticles. The estimated average size was also corroborated by transmision electron microscopy. For temperatures below 600 °C the system is mainly composed of ultra-small photoluminescent platinum nanoparticles. Larger platinum nanoparticles were formed at higher annealing temperatures but photoluminescence quenching was observed as the typical plasmonics response of larger metal nanoparticles started to emerge. The photoluminescence emission for samples with a particle size of less than 2 nm is enhanced approximately 12 fold with respect to the samples with a particle size in the range of 3-7 nm. Differences in the resulting photoluminescence spectra were revealed by substituting the participation of argon, hydrogen or nitrogen, as environmental gases for thermal annealing. A weak PL emission, featuring 1.5 nW at a laser excitation power of 800 μW, related to larger platinum nanoparticles was observed. New emission peaks emerging from the larger platinum nanoparticles were associated with possible hydrogen adsorption on the nanoparticles' surface. Third order nonlinear ultraviolet measurements were conducted using a time-resolved two-wave mixing method with self-diffraction at 355 nm wavelength. The observed self

  6. Nanoscale influence on photoluminescence and third order nonlinear susceptibility exhibited by ion-implanted Pt nanoparticles in silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornacelli, Jhovani; Torres-Torres, Carlos; Silva-Pereyra, Héctor Gabriel; Rodríguez-Fernández, Luis; Avalos-Borja, Miguel; Cheang-Wong, Juan Carlos; Oliver, Alicia

    2017-06-01

    A systematic study has been carried out to investigate photoluminescence and third order nonlinear ultraviolet properties exhibited by platinum nanoparticles nucleated in a high-purity silica matrix. The modification in the characteristic photoluminescence spectra of the nanocomposites, ranging between 400 and 600 nm, was obtained with the assistance of a thermal annealing process that changed the average size of the platinum nanoparticles. The influence of temperature, between 200 °C-1100 °C, during the thermal treatment of the nanostructures was analyzed. UV-vis spectroscopy studies corroborated changes in the optical absorption resonances of the ion-implanted samples after annealing, which could then be correlated with the average size of the nanoparticles. The estimated average size was also corroborated by transmision electron microscopy. For temperatures below 600 °C the system is mainly composed of ultra-small photoluminescent platinum nanoparticles. Larger platinum nanoparticles were formed at higher annealing temperatures but photoluminescence quenching was observed as the typical plasmonics response of larger metal nanoparticles started to emerge. The photoluminescence emission for samples with a particle size of less than 2 nm is enhanced approximately 12 fold with respect to the samples with a particle size in the range of 3-7 nm. Differences in the resulting photoluminescence spectra were revealed by substituting the participation of argon, hydrogen or nitrogen, as environmental gases for thermal annealing. A weak PL emission, featuring 1.5 nW at a laser excitation power of 800 μW, related to larger platinum nanoparticles was observed. New emission peaks emerging from the larger platinum nanoparticles were associated with possible hydrogen adsorption on the nanoparticles’ surface. Third order nonlinear ultraviolet measurements were conducted using a time-resolved two-wave mixing method with self-diffraction at 355 nm wavelength. The observed self

  7. Genetic polymorphism of interleukin-6 influences susceptibility to HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma in a male Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shengli; Yuan, Yufeng; He, Yueming; Pan, Dingyu; Zhang, Yongxi; Liu, Yuanyuan; Liu, Quanyan; Zhang, Zhonglin; Liu, Zhisu

    2014-04-01

    As a multifunctional cytokine, interleukin-6 (IL-6) plays a key role in chronic inflammation as well as tumor growth and progression of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Recent studies have implicated that single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) -572C>G (rs1800796) located within the promoter region of IL-6 gene was associated with susceptibility to several diseases. Here, a case-control study was undertaken to investigate the association between this polymorphism and HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) susceptibility in a Chinese Han population. A total of 900 patients with chronic HBV infection, including 505 HBV-related HCC patients and 395 HBV infected patients without HCC were enrolled, and rs1800796 polymorphism was genotyped by the TaqMan method and DNA sequencing technology. The results indicated no significant association between rs1800796 polymorphism and the risk of HBV-related HCC in all subjects; however, a significant difference was identified in male subjects. Under the dominant model, male subjects with the G allele (CG/GG) have higher susceptibility to HBV-related HCC than those with CC genotype after adjusting confounding factors (P=0.012, odds ratio [OR] 1.68, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.15-2.42). Our results suggested that rs1800796 polymorphism of IL-6 gene was associated with susceptibility to HBV-related HCC in a male Chinese Han population.

  8. Time as An Important Soil-Forming Factor Influencing Modern and Ancient Magnetic Susceptibility Enhancement Along the Delaware River Valley, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchcomb, G. E.; Peppe, D. J.; Driese, S. G.

    2011-12-01

    Magnetic susceptibility is an increasingly popular low-cost method for rapidly assessing paleoclimate and paleoenvironmental impact on buried soils. The goal of this study is to determine the primary influence(s) on soil magnetic susceptibility along floodplain, terrace and upland soils in the middle Delaware River Valley, USA, using environmental magnetic, pedologic, and stratigraphic techniques. Two-hundred thirty samples were collected from age-constrained sandy, quartz-rich, floodplain, terrace, and upland soils (Entisols, Inceptisols). A Kruskal-Wallis (K-W) and post-hoc Tukey-Kramer (T-K) (α=0.05) multiple comparisons analysis on 176 mass-specific low-field susceptibility (Xlf) assays show that A and B horizons are magnetically enhanced compared to C and E horizons (p<0.0001). Results of descriptive soil micromorphology show that A and B horizons contain anywhere from 10-50% more amorphous organic matter and clay films along pores than do C and E horizons. Enhanced Xlf values also correlate positively (R^2=0.63) with the soil molecular weathering ratio of Alumina/Bases, suggesting that increased weathering likely results in the formation of pedogenic magnetic minerals and enhanced magnetic susceptibility signal. Additional K-W and T-K testing show that Xlf results, when grouped by floodplain-terrace designation (i.e., chronofunction) are significantly different (p<0.0001). The older T3 terrace and upland Xlf values (0.34±0.14 10^-6 m^3 kg^-1) are greater than the younger T2 terrace (0.18±0.06 10^-6 m^3 kg^-1) values, which are greater than modern floodplain (0.09±0.01 10^-6 m^3 kg^-1) Xlf values. These data suggest that longer intervals of soil formation enhance the Χlf value. This hypothesis is further supported when 159 Xlf values are plotted vs. age for the entire Holocene. A locally-weighted regression smoothing curve (LOESS) shows two distinct intervals of magnetic enhancement during previously established dry intervals, the early and late

  9. Review article "Remarks on factors influencing shear wave velocities and their role in evaluating susceptibilities to earthquake-triggered slope instability: case study for the Campania area (Italy"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Paoletti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Shear wave velocities have a fundamental role in connection with the mitigation of seismic hazards, as their low values are the main causes of site amplification phenomena and can significantly influence the susceptibility of a territory to seismic-induced landslides. The shear wave velocity (Vs and modulus (G of each lithological unit are influenced by factors such as the degree of fracturing and faulting, the porosity, the clay amount and the precipitation, with the latter two influencing the unit water content. In this paper we discuss how these factors can affect the Vs values and report the results of different analyses that quantify the reduction in the rock Vs and shear modulus values connected to the presence of clay and water. We also show that significant results in assessing seismic-induced slope failure susceptibility for land planning targets could be achieved through a careful evaluation, based only on literature studies, of the geo-lithological and geo-seismic features of the study area.

  10. Does Mental Health Status Influence Susceptibility to the Physiologic Effects of Air Pollution? A Population Based Study of Canadian Children

    OpenAIRE

    Dales, Robert E; Cakmak, Sabit

    2016-01-01

    Background Both air pollution exposure and the presence of mental illness are associated with an increased risk of physical illness. Objective To determine whether or not children with less favourable mental health are more susceptible to pulmonary and cardiovascular effects of ambient air pollution, compared to those who are mentally healthy. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional study of 1,883 children between the ages of 6 and 17 years of age who participated in the Canadian Health Meas...

  11. The critical influence of the intermediate category on interpretation errors in revised EUCAST and CLSI antimicrobial susceptibility testing guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hombach, M; Böttger, E C; Roos, M

    2013-02-01

    Erroneous assignments of clinical isolates to the interpretative categories susceptible, intermediate and resistant can deprive a patient of successful antimicrobial therapy. The rate of major errors (ME) and very major errors (vME) is dependent on: (i) the precision/standard deviation (σ) of the antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) method, (ii) the diameter distributions, (iii) clinical breakpoints, and (iv) the width of the intermediate zone. The European Committee on AST (EUCAST) has abandoned or decreased the intermediate zone for several drug/species combinations. This study focused on the effects of discontinuing the intermediate category on the rate of interpretation errors. In total, 10,341 non-duplicate clinical isolates were included in the study. For susceptibility testing the disc diffusion method was used. Error probabilities were calculated separately for diameter values flanking the interpretative category borders. Error probabilities were then applied to the actual numbers of clinical isolates investigated and expected rates of ME and vME were calculated. Applying EUCAST AST guidelines, significant rates of ME/vME were demonstrated for all drug/species combinations without an intermediate range. Virtually all ME/vME expected were eliminated in CLSI guidelines that retained an intermediate zone. If wild-type and resistant isolates are not clearly separated in susceptibility distributions, the retaining of an intermediate zone will decrease the number of ME and vME. An intermediate zone of 2-3 mm avoids almost all ME/vME for most species/drug combinations depending on diameter distributions. Laboratories should know their epidemiology settings to be able to detect problems of individual species/drug/clinical breakpoint combinations and take measures to improve precision of diameter measurements.

  12. The influence of flow cell geometry related shear stresses on the distribution, structure and susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa 01 biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salek, M Mehdi; Jones, Steven M; Martinuzzi, Robert J

    2009-11-01

    The effects of non-uniform hydrodynamic conditions resulting from flow cell geometry (square and rectangular cross-section) on Pseudomonas aeruginosa 01 (PAO1) biofilm formation, location, and structure were investigated for nominally similar flow conditions using a combination of confocal scanning laser microscope (CSLM) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The thickness and surface coverage of PAO1 biofilms were observed to vary depending on the location in the flow cell and thus also the local wall shear stress. The biofilm structure in a 5:1 (width to height) aspect ratio rectangular flow cell was observed to consist mainly of a layer of bacterial cells with thicker biofilm formation observed in the flow cell corners. For square cross-section (1:1 aspect ratio) flow cells, generally thicker and more uniform surface coverage biofilms were observed. Mushroom shaped structures with hollow centers and wall breaks, indicative of 'seeding' dispersal structures, were found exclusively in the square cross-section tubes. Exposure of PAO1 biofilms grown in the flow cells to gentamicin revealed a difference in susceptibility. Biofilms grown in the rectangular flow cell overall exhibited a greater susceptibility to gentamicin compared to those grown in square flow cells. However, even within a given flow cell, differences in susceptibility were observed depending on location. This study demonstrates that the spanwise shear stress distribution within the flow cells has an important impact on the location of colonization and structure of the resultant biofilm. These differences in biofilm structure have a significant impact on the susceptibility of the biofilms grown within flow channels. The impact of flow modification due to flow cell geometry should be considered when designing flow cells for laboratory investigation of bacterial biofilms.

  13. Structure, magnetic susceptibility, and specific heat of the spin-orbital-liquid candidate FeS c2S4 : Influence of Fe off-stoichiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurkan, V.; Prodan, L.; Felea, V.; Filippova, I.; Kravtsov, V.; Günther, A.; Widmann, S.; Krug von Nidda, H.-A.; Deisenhofer, J.; Loidl, A.

    2017-08-01

    We report structure, susceptibility, and specific heat studies of stoichiometric and off-stoichiometric poly- and single crystals of the A -site spinel compound FeS c2S4 . In stoichiometric samples, no long-range magnetic order is found down to 1.8 K. The magnetic susceptibility of these samples is field independent in the temperature range 10-400 K and does not show irreversible effects at low temperatures. In contrast, the magnetic susceptibility of samples with iron excess shows substantial field dependence at high temperatures and manifests a pronounced magnetic irreversibility at low temperatures with a difference between zero-field cooled (ZFC) and field cooled (FC) susceptibilities and a maximum at 10 K, reminiscent of a magnetic transition. Single-crystal x-ray diffraction of the stoichiometric samples revealed a single phase spinel structure without site inversion. In single crystalline samples with Fe excess, in addition to the main spinel phase, a second ordered single-crystal phase was detected with the diffraction pattern of a vacancy-ordered superstructure of iron sulfide, close to the 5C polytype F e9S10 . Specific heat studies reveal a broad anomaly, which evolves below 20 K in both stoichiometric and off-stoichiometric crystals. We show that the low-temperature specific heat can be well described by considering the low-lying spin-orbital electronic levels of F e2 + ions. Our results demonstrate significant influence of excess Fe ions on intrinsic magnetic behavior of FeS c2S4 and provide support for the spin-orbital liquid scenario proposed in earlier studies for the stoichiometric compound.

  14. HLA and Celiac Disease Susceptibility: New Genetic Factors Bring Open Questions about the HLA Influence and Gene-Dosage Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano, Luz María; Dema, Bárbara; López-Larios, Arturo; Maluenda, Carlos; Bodas, Andrés; López-Palacios, Natalia; Figueredo, M. Ángeles; Fernández-Arquero, Miguel; Núñez, Concepción

    2012-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder triggered after gluten ingestion in genetically susceptible individuals. The major genetic determinants are HLA-DQA1*05 and HLA-DQB1*02, which encode the DQ2 heterodimer. These alleles are commonly inherited in cis with DRB1*03∶01, which is associated with numerous immune-related disorders, in some cases contributing with a different amount of risk depending on the haplotype context. We aimed at investigating those possible differences involving DRB1*03∶01-carrying haplotypes in CD susceptibility. A family (274 trios) and a case-control sample (369 CD cases/461 controls) were analyzed. DRB1*03∶01-carrying individuals were classified according to the haplotype present (ancestral haplotype (AH) 8.1, AH 18.2 or non-conserved haplotype) after genotyping of HLA-DRB1, -DQA1, -DQB1, -B8, TNF -308, TNF -376 and the TNFa and TNFb microsatellites. We observe that the AH 8.1 confers higher risk than the remaining DRB1*03∶01-carrying haplotypes, and this effect only involves individuals possessing a single copy of DQB1*02. CD risk for these individuals is similar to the one conferred by inherit DQA1*05 and DQB1*02 in trans. It seems that an additional CD susceptibility factor is present in the AH 8.1 but not in other DRB1*03∶01-carrying haplotypes. This factor could be shared with individuals possessing DQ2.5 trans, according to the similar risk observed in those two groups of individuals. PMID:23119005

  15. Influence of borderline cefepime MIC on the outcome of cefepime-susceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia treated with a maximal cefepime dose: a hospital-based retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ting-Yi; Ye, Jung-Jr; Yang, Chien-Chang; Huang, Ching-Tai; Chia, Ju-Hsin; Lee, Ming-Hsun

    2017-07-24

    We assessed the influence of current cefepime minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) breakpoints and the maximal cefepime dose on treatment outcomes in patients with bacteremia caused by cefepime-susceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Adult patients hospitalized between July 2010 and June 2014 with a positive blood culture for cefepime-susceptible P. aeruginosa and receipt of cefepime as the primary therapy throughout the course were reviewed. Cefepime Etest(®) MICs and clinical outcomes for P. aeruginosa bacteremia were reviewed to identify the MIC breakpoint influencing treatment outcomes. Of the 90 patients enrolled, 49 (54.4%) were male (mean age = 66.8 years). The mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score was 22.01. Sixty patients (66.7%) received a maximal cefepime dose, and the 30-day crude mortality rate was 36.7%. MIC90 of cefepime for P. aeruginosa was 8 mg/L. The cumulative survival rate at 30 days revealed that a lower cefepime MIC (<4 mg/L) for P. aeruginosa was associated with a higher survival rate than a higher MIC (≥4 mg/L) (72.6% vs. 23.5%, p < 0.0001). A cefepime MIC of ≥4 mg/L and age were independent risk factors for mortality, whereas the maximal cefepime dose was the independent protective factor. The use of a maximal cefepime dose did not improve the outcomes of patients with P. aeruginosa bacteremia at a MIC of ≥4 mg/L. A cefepime MIC of 4 mg/L may predict an unfavorable outcome among patients with serious infections caused by P. aeruginosa, even the MICs still within the CLSI susceptibility breakpoint.

  16. Polymorphisms in cytokine genes IL6, TNF, IL10, IL17A and IFNG influence susceptibility to complicated skin and skin structure infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stappers, M H T; Thys, Y; Oosting, M; Plantinga, T S; Ioana, M; Reimnitz, P; Mouton, J W; Netea, M G; Joosten, L A B; Gyssens, I C

    2014-12-01

    Complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSIs) are caused by Gram-positive and Gram-negative, aerobic and anaerobic pathogens, with a polymicrobial aetiology being frequent. Recognition of invading pathogens by the immune system results in the production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, which are extremely important for intercellular communication and control of infection. This study assessed whether genetic variation in genes encoding cytokines influences the susceptibility to cSSSIs. For the association study, 318 patients with cSSSI and 328 healthy controls were genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in cytokine genes IL1A, IL1B, IL1RN, TNF, IL10, IL17A, IL17F and IFNG. For immunological validation, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 74 healthy individuals, genotyped for SNPs of interest, were stimulated with Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli and corresponding cytokine levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Polymorphisms IL6 rs1800797, TNF rs1800629, IL10 rs1800871, IL17A rs8193036 and IFNG rs2069705 influenced susceptibility to cSSSIs. No differences in cytokine responses, stratified for genotype, were detected after PBMC stimulation. No association with cSSSIs was observed for polymorphisms IL1A rs17561 and rs1800587, IL1B rs16944 and rs1143627, IL1RN rs4251961, TNF rs361525, IL10 rs1800896, IL17A rs2275913 and IL17F rs763780. In conclusion, polymorphisms in IL6, TNF, IL10, IL17A and IFNG are associated with susceptibility to cSSSIs.

  17. Influence of kiln and air drying on redistribution of low-molecular sugars and nitrogenous compounds in scots pine (`pinus sylvestris l.`) and consequences for mould susceptibility. Thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terziev, N.

    1994-12-31

    Drying of wood is linked up with the transport of free and bound water and will be of major importance for the redistribution of water soluble substances. Therefore this study treats the influence of drying on the redistribution of soluble sugars and nitrogen, including both transport- and chemical processes. Moreover the study deals with durability aspects: the influence of different kiln drying schedules and their parameters on the redistribution of low-molecular sugars and nitrogenous compounds--as a widely used method in practice air drying is also included in the study; investigation of the effect of different drying treatments on susceptibility to mold growth; and an attempt to shed light on the migration of water soluble substances above and under the fiber saturation point.

  18. Double bond stereochemistry influences the susceptibility of short-chain isoprenoids and polyprenols to decomposition by thermo-oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molińska, Ewa; Klimczak, Urszula; Komaszyło, Joanna; Derewiaka, Dorota; Obiedziński, Mieczysław; Kania, Magdalena; Danikiewicz, Witold; Swiezewska, Ewa

    2015-04-01

    Isoprenoid alcohols are common constituents of living cells. They are usually assigned a role in the adaptation of the cell to environmental stimuli, and this process might give rise to their oxidation by reactive oxygen species. Moreover, cellular isoprenoids may also undergo various chemical modifications resulting from the physico-chemical treatment of the tissues, e.g., heating during food processing. Susceptibility of isoprenoid alcohols to heat treatment has not been studied in detail so far. In this study, isoprenoid alcohols differing in the number of isoprene units and geometry of the double bonds, β-citronellol, geraniol, nerol, farnesol, solanesol and Pren-9, were subjected to thermo-oxidation at 80 °C. Thermo-oxidation resulted in the decomposition of the tested short-chain isoprenoids as well as medium-chain polyprenols with simultaneous formation of oxidized derivatives, such as hydroperoxides, monoepoxides, diepoxides and aldehydes, and possible formation of oligomeric derivatives. Oxidation products were monitored by GC-FID, GC-MS, ESI-MS and spectrophotometric methods. Interestingly, nerol, a short-chain isoprenoid with a double bond in the cis (Z) configuration, was more oxidatively stable than its trans (E) isomer, geraniol. However, the opposite effect was observed for medium-chain polyprenols, since Pren-9 (di-trans-poly-cis-prenol) was more susceptible to thermo-oxidation than its all-trans isomer, solanesol. Taken together, these results experimentally confirm that both short- and long-chain polyisoprenoid alcohols are prone to thermo-oxidation.

  19. TMEM187-IRAK1 Polymorphisms Associated with Rheumatoid Arthritis Susceptibility in Tunisian and French Female Populations: Influence of Geographic Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Nathalie; Auger, Isabelle; Roudier, Jean; Sénéchal, Audrey; Geneviève, David; Lefranc, Gérard; Mrenda, Bakridine M'Madi; Benedito, Cécilia; Pardoux, Etienne; Gagez, Anne-Laure; Jorgensen, Christian; Mahjoub, Touhami

    2017-01-01

    Polymorphisms have been identified in the Xq28 locus as risk loci for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Here, we investigated the association between three polymorphisms in the Xq28 region containing TMEM187 and IRAK1 (rs13397, rs1059703, and rs1059702) in two unstudied populations: Tunisian and French. The rs13397 G and rs1059703 T major alleles were significantly increased in RA patients (n = 408) compared with age-matched controls (n = 471) in both Tunisian and French women. These results were confirmed by a meta-analysis replication study including two independent Greek and Korean cohorts. The rs1059702 C major allele was significantly associated with RA, only with French women. In the French population, the GTC haplotype displayed a protective effect against RA, while the ATC, GCC, and GTT haplotypes conferred significant risk for RA. No association for these haplotypes was found in the Tunisian population. Our results replicated for the first time the association of the three Xq28 polymorphisms with RA risk in Tunisian and French populations and suggested that RA susceptibility is associated with TMEM187-IRAK1 polymorphisms in women. Our data further support the involvement of X chromosome in RA susceptibility and evidence ethnicities differences that might be explained by differences in the frequencies of SE HLA-DRB1 alleles between both populations. PMID:28271077

  20. DNA methylation of a novel PAK4 locus influences ototoxicity susceptibility following cisplatin and radiation therapy for pediatric embryonal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Austin L; Foster, Kayla L; Lupo, Philip J; Peckham-Gregory, Erin C; Murray, Jeffrey C; Okcu, M Fatih; Lau, Ching C; Rednam, Surya P; Chintagumpala, Murali; Scheurer, Michael E

    2017-10-01

    Ototoxicity is a common adverse side effect of platinum chemotherapy and cranial radiation therapy; however, individual susceptibility is highly variable. Therefore, our objective was to conduct an epigenome-wide association study to identify differentially methylated cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites associated with ototoxicity susceptibility among cisplatin-treated pediatric patients with embryonal tumors. Samples were collected for a discovery cohort (n = 62) and a replication cohort (n = 18) of medulloblastoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumor patients. Posttreatment audiograms were evaluated using the International Society of Paediatric Oncology (SIOP) Boston Ototoxicity Scale. Genome-wide associations between CpG methylation and ototoxicity were examined using multiple linear regression, controlling for demographic and treatment factors. The mean cumulative dose of cisplatin was 330 mg/m2 and the mean time from end of therapy to the last available audiogram was 6.9 years. In the discovery analysis of 435233 CpG sites, 6 sites were associated with ototoxicity grade (P ototoxicity severity. Methylation at cg14010619 may modify PAK4 activity, which has been implicated in cisplatin resistance in malignant cell lines.

  1. Influence of Matrix metalloproteinase 1 and 3 genetic variations on susceptibility and severity of juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Allah, Somia H; El-Shal, Amal S; Shalaby, Sally M; Pasha, Heba F; Abou El-Saoud, Amany M; Abdel Galil, Sahar M; Mahmoud, Tysser A

    2015-12-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a chronic rheumatic disease affecting children aged less than 16 years, characterized by chronic synovitis, cartilage damage, and bony erosions mediated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), mainly MMP-1 and MMP-3. The purpose of this study was to investigate MMP-1 and MMP-3 gene polymorphisms in patients with JIA, the role of genes in susceptibility to JIA, and their associations with JIA activity and prognosis. Case-control study included 100 patients diagnosed with JIA, according to the criteria of the International League of Associations for Rheumatology (ILAR), and 100 healthy children, age and sex matched, as controls. The MMP-1 (-1607 1G/2G) and MMP-3 (-1171 5A/6A) polymorphisms were screened by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The serum levels of MMP-1 and MMP 3 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. There were significant differences between patients with JIA and control groups regarding the genotype and allele frequencies distributions of both MMP-1 1G/2G and MMP-3 5A/6A polymorphisms. The haplotype 2G-6A, which carries the abnormal alleles, showed higher frequencies in patients with JIA than in controls (OD = 2.8, P = 0.002). The prevalence of MMP-1 2G and 6A allele for MMP-3 polymorphism was found to be significantly associated with persistent oligoarticular, rheumatoid factor (RF)-positive polyarthritis, and systemic JIA groups. There were significantly increased serum levels of MMP-1 and MMP-3 associated with 2G/6A haplotype in the patient group, especially with the polyarticular RF (+ve) group than in other groups and the control group. MMP-1 and MMP-3 haplotypes could be useful genetic markers for JIA susceptibility and severity in the juvenile Egyptian population. Moreover, our data further support the use of serum MMP-3 and MMP-1 as specific markers of disease activity in JIA.

  2. Host genetic variations in glutathione-S-transferases, superoxide dismutases and catalase genes influence susceptibility to malaria infection in an Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Rayzel C; Hasan, Marriyah; Gupta, Himanshu; Geetha, K; Rai, Padmalatha S; Hande, Manjunath H; D'Souza, Sydney C; Adhikari, Prabha; Brand, Angela; Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu

    2015-06-01

    Antioxidant enzymes can contribute to disease susceptibility or determine response to therapy in individuals with malaria. Genetic variations due to polymorphisms in host genes encoding antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione S-transferases-theta, mu, pi (GSTT, GSTM, GSTP), superoxide dismutases (SOD) and catalase (CAT), may therefore, influence inter-individual response to malaria pathology and propensity of infection caused by Plasmodium vivax (Pv) and Plasmodium falciparum (Pf). Therefore, using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and DNA sequencing, we investigated the association of deletions of GSTT1 and GSTM1, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of GSTP1 (rs1695), SOD1 (rs2234694), SOD2 (rs4880, rs1141718), SOD3 (rs2536512) and CAT (rs1001179) in individuals infected with Pf (n = 100) and Pv (n = 100) against healthy controls (n = 150). Our data suggest a significant role for GSTM1 deletions in complicated Pv (p = 0.0007) malaria with ODDs ratio 3.8 [with 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.9-7.4]. The results also indicated that polymorphisms present in GSTP1, SOD1 and CAT genes may be associated with malaria susceptibility (p < 0.05), whereas SOD3 polymorphism may play a role in malarial resistance (p < 0.05). In addition, we observed significant SNP-SNP interactions with synergistic genetic effects in SOD2, SOD3 and CAT genes for Pv and in SOD2 and SOD3 genes for Pf. In conclusion, our results provide convincing evidence for a relationship between polymorphisms in host antioxidant enzymes and susceptibility to malaria infection.

  3. Influence of magnetic fields on hysteretic ac losses in bulk MgB{sub 2} superconductor investigated by using Hall probe ac susceptibility method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varilci, A [Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Physics, Abant Izzet Baysal University, 14280 Bolu (Turkey)

    2007-04-15

    We report the results of an investigation of the influence of magnetic fields on hysteretic ac losses in bulk MgB{sub 2} superconductor by using Hall probe ac susceptibility. The external magnetic field in this study had an ac part with frequency 10 Hz and magnitude in the range 240-1200 A m{sup -1} and no dc part. We have measured the imaginary part of the magnetic susceptibility and analysed data by using Bean's critical state model of cylindrical geometry for four different temperature values 39.55, 39.51, 39.47 and 39.41 K. The result of this analysis indicates that Bean's model is adequate to explain the experimental findings. Calculated hysteretic ac loss versus applied magnetic field curve is given by using the critical state model. We have also measured the magnetization versus applied magnetic field and determined the first critical magnetic field of a MgB{sub 2} sample as 500 A m{sup -1} at 35 K.

  4. Anti-cytokine therapies in T1D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nepom, Gerald T; Ehlers, Mario; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    selective cytokine blockade as a component of preventative or interventional immunotherapy. The rationale and status of inhibitory therapy directed against IL-1, TNF, IL-12, IL-23, and IL-6 are discussed, towards a goal of using cytokine inhibition as a therapeutic platform to establish an in vivo milieu...

  5. Conidial germination in Scedosporium apiospermum, S. aurantiacum, S. minutisporum and Lomentospora prolificans: influence of growth conditions and antifungal susceptibility profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Pereira de Mello

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we have investigated some growth conditions capable of inducing the conidial germination in Scedosporium apiospermum, S. aurantiacum, S. minutisporum and Lomentospora prolificans. Germination in Sabouraud medium (pH 7.0, 37ºC, 5% CO2 showed to be a typically time-dependent event, reaching ~75% in S. minutisporum and > 90% in S. apiospermum, S. aurantiacum and L. prolificans after 4 h. Similar germination rate was observed when conidia were incubated under different media and pHs. Contrarily, temperature and CO2 tension modulated the germination. The isotropic conidial growth (swelling and germ tube-like projection were evidenced by microscopy and cytometry. Morphometric parameters augmented in a time-dependent fashion, evidencing changes in size and granularity of fungal cells compared with dormant 0 h conidia. In parallel, a clear increase in the mitochondrial activity was measured during the transformation of conidia-into-germinated conidia. Susceptibility profiles to itraconazole, fluconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B and caspofungin varied regarding each morphotype and each fungal species. Overall, the minimal inhibitory concentrations for hyphae were higher than conidia and germinated conidia, except for caspofungin. Collectively, our study add new data about the conidia-into-hyphae transformation in Scedosporium and Lomentospora species, which is a relevant biological process of these molds directly connected to their antifungal resistance and pathogenicity mechanisms.

  6. ABA suppresses Botrytis cinerea elicited NO production in tomato to influence H2O2 generation and increase host susceptibility

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    Anushen eSivakumaran

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abscisic acid (ABA production has emerged a susceptibility factor in plant-pathogen interactions. This work examined the interaction of ABA with NO in tomato following challenge with the ABA-synthesising pathogen, Botrytis cinerea. Trace gas detection using a quantum cascade laser detected NO production within minutes of challenge with B. cinerea whilst photoacoustic laser detection detected ethylene production – an established mediator of defence against this pathogen - occurring after 6 h. Application of the NO generation inhibitor N-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME suppressed both NO and ethylene production and resistance against B. cinerea. The tomato mutant sitiens fails to accumulate ABA (abscisic acid, shows increased resistance to B. cinerea and we noted exhibited elevated NO and ethylene production. Exogenous application of L-NAME or ABA reduced NO production in sitiens and reduced resistance to B. cinerea. Increased resistance to B. cinerea in sitiens have previously been linked to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS generation but this was reduced in both L-NAME and ABA treated sitiens. Taken together, our data suggests that ABA can decreases resistance to B. cinerea via reduction of NO production which also suppresses both ROS and ethylene production.

  7. A preliminary study of genetic factors that influence susceptibility to bovine tuberculosis in the British cattle herd.

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    Erin E Driscoll

    Full Text Available Associations between specific host genes and susceptibility to Mycobacterial infections such as tuberculosis have been reported in several species. Bovine tuberculosis (bTB impacts greatly the UK cattle industry, yet genetic predispositions have yet to be identified. We therefore used a candidate gene approach to study 384 cattle of which 160 had reacted positively to an antigenic skin test ('reactors'. Our approach was unusual in that it used microsatellite markers, embraced high breed diversity and focused particularly on detecting genes showing heterozygote advantage, a mode of action often overlooked in SNP-based studies. A panel of neutral markers was used to control for population substructure and using a general linear model-based approach we were also able to control for age. We found that substructure was surprisingly weak and identified two genomic regions that were strongly associated with reactor status, identified by markers INRA111 and BMS2753. In general the strength of association detected tended to vary depending on whether age was included in the model. At INRA111 a single genotype appears strongly protective with an overall odds ratio of 2.2, the effect being consistent across nine diverse breeds. Our results suggest that breeding strategies could be devised that would appreciably increase genetic resistance of cattle to bTB (strictly, reduce the frequency of incidence of reactors with implications for the current debate concerning badger-culling.

  8. Influence of the angle between cleavage and bedding on the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility and the degree of phyllosilicate preferred orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debacker, T. N.; Sintubin, M.

    2003-04-01

    Due to the common scarcity of strain markers and the often fine-grained lithologies, performing strain analyses in slate belts may be difficult. As an alternative, one may use methods such as phyllosilicate preferred orientation (X-ray pole figure goniometry) and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS). However, a large number of factors influence the results of these analytical methods. One of the factors is the angle between cleavage and bedding. The study area is the Brabant Massif, a single-phase deformed, low-grade slate belt in N-Belgium consisting of a steep Cambrian core surrounded by Ordovician-Silurian sequences. In the southern part of the Cambrian core, the transition between steeply plunging folds, considered typical for the steep core, and gently plunging folds, considered characteristic for the peripheral Ordovician-Silurian sequences, occurs in homogeneous mudstones of the Lower Cambrian Oisquercq Formation. In these deposits mica and chlorite show a similar degree of preferred orientation. Mica is always aligned along the cleavage, whereas chlorite is aligned along the bedding. Clear intersection pole figure patterns characterise samples with large cleavage/bedding angles, whereas flattening fabrics only become apparent for samples with small cleavage/bedding angles. For both mica and chlorite, the degree of preferred orientation is higher for samples with small cleavage/bedding angles. The magnetic fabric shows prolate susceptibility ellipsoids for samples with large cleavage/bedding angles and oblate susceptibility ellipsoids for samples with small cleavage/bedding angles (cf. Housen et al., 1993). The short axis of the susceptibility ellipsoid is generally oriented perpendicular to bedding, occasionally perpendicular to cleavage or with an intermediate orientation. The long axis of the susceptibility ellipsoid is always parallel to the cleavage/bedding intersection. The shape parameter T shows an almost linear relationship with respect to

  9. The Influence of Glycated Hemoglobin on the Cross Susceptibility Between Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and Periodontal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappin, David F; Robertson, Douglas; Hodge, Penny; Treagus, David; Awang, Raja A; Ramage, Gordon; Nile, Christopher J

    2015-11-01

    Periodontal disease is a major complication of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship between glycated hemoglobin and circulating levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 5 (CXCL5) in non-smoking patients suffering from T1DM, with and without periodontitis. In addition, to determine the effect of advanced glycation end products (AGE) in the presence and absence of Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on IL-6, IL-8, and CXCL5 expression by THP-1 monocytes and OKF6/TERT-2 cells. There were 104 participants in the study: 19 healthy volunteers, 23 patients with periodontitis, 28 patients with T1DM, and 34 patients with T1DM and periodontitis. Levels of blood glucose/glycated hemoglobin (International Federation of Clinical Chemistry [IFCC]) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Levels of IL-6, IL-8, and CXCL5 in plasma were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In vitro stimulation of OKF6/TERT-2 cells and THP-1 monocytes was performed with combinations of AGE and P. gingivalis LPS. Changes in expression of IL-6, IL-8, and CXCL5 were monitored by ELISA and real-time polymerase chain reaction. Patients with diabetes and periodontitis had higher plasma levels of IL-8 than patients with periodontitis alone. Plasma levels of IL-8 correlated significantly with IFCC units, clinical probing depth, and attachment loss. AGE and LPS, alone or in combination, stimulated IL-6, IL-8, and CXCL5 expression in both OKF6/TERT-2 cells and THP-1 monocytes. Elevated plasma levels of IL-8 potentially contribute to the cross-susceptibility between periodontitis and T1DM. P. gingivalis LPS and AGE in combination caused significantly greater expression of IL-6, IL-8, and CXCL5 from THP-1 monocytes and OKF6/TERT-2 cells than LPS alone.

  10. GSTM1 genotype influences the susceptibility of men to sperm DNA damage associated with exposure to air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubes, Jiri; Selevan, Sherry G; Sram, Radim J; Evenson, Donald P; Perreault, Sally D

    2007-12-01

    Previous studies have provided evidence for an association between exposure to high levels of air pollution and increased DNA damage in human sperm. In these studies DNA damage was measured using the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) wherein the percentage of sperm with abnormal chromatin/fragmented DNA is determined and expressed as % DNA fragmentation index (%DFI). Here we extend these observations to address the following hypothesis: men who are homozygous null for glutathione-S-transferase M1 (GSTM1-) are less able to detoxify reactive metabolites of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (c-PAHs) found in air pollution. Consequently they are more susceptible to the effects of air pollution on sperm chromatin. Using a longitudinal study design in which men provided semen samples during periods of both low (baseline) and episodically high air pollution, this study revealed a statistically significant association between GSTM1 null genotype and increased SCSA-defined %DFI (beta=0.309; 95% CI: 0.129, 0.489). Furthermore, GSTM1 null men also showed higher %DFI in response to exposure to intermittent air pollution (beta=0.487; 95% CI: 0.243, 0.731). This study thus provides novel evidence for a gene-environment interaction between GSTM1 and air pollution (presumably c-PAHs). The significance of the findings in this study with respect to fertility status is unknown. However, it is biologically plausible that increases in %DFI induced by such exposures could impact the risk of male sub/infertility, especially in men who naturally exhibit high levels of %DFI.

  11. IκBα polymorphism at promoter region (rs2233408 influences the susceptibility of gastric cancer in Chinese

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    Sung Joseph JY

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nuclear factor of kappa B inhibitor alpha (IκBα protein is implicated in regulating a variety of cellular process from inflammation to tumorigenesis. The objective of this study was to investigate the susceptibility of rs2233408 T/C genotype in the promoter region of IκBα to gastric cancer and the association of this polymorphism with clinicopathologic variables in gastric cancer patients. Methods A population-based case-control study was conducted between 1999 and 2006 in Guangdong Province, China. A total of 564 gastric cancer patients and 566 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. rs2233408 genotypes in IκBα were analyzed by TaqMan SNP genotyping assay. Results Both rs2233408 T homozygote (TT and T heterozygotes (TC and TT had significantly reduced gastric cancer risk (TT: OR = 0.250, 95% CI = 0.069-0.909, P = 0.035; TC and TT: OR = 0.721, 95% CI = 0.530-0.981, P = 0.037, compared with rs2233408 C homozygote (CC. rs2233408 T heterozygotes were significantly associated with reduced risk of intestinal-type gastric cancer with ORs of 0.648 (95% CI = 0.459-0.916, P = 0.014, but not with the diffuse or mix type of gastric cancer. The association between rs2233408 T heterozygotes and gastric cancer appeared more apparent in the older patients (age>40 (OR = 0.674, 95% CI = 0.484-0.939, P = 0.02. rs2233408 T heterozygotes was associated with non-cardiac gastric cancer (OR = 0.594, 95% CI = 0.411-0.859, P = 0.006, but not with cardiac gastric cancer. However, rs2233408 polymorphism was not associated with the prognosis of gastric cancer patients. Conclusions IκBα rs2233408 T heterozygotes were associated with reduced risk of gastric cancer, especially for the development of certain subtypes of gastric cancer in Chinese population.

  12. The influence of population stratification on genetic markers associated with type 1 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Karla Fabiana Brasil; Santos, Aritânia Sousa; Semzezem, Cintia; Correia, Márcia Regina; Brito, Luciano Abreu; Ruiz, Marcelo Ortega; Fukui, Rosa Tsuneshiro; Matioli, Sergio Russo; Passos-Bueno, Maria Rita; Silva, Maria Elizabeth Rossi da

    2017-01-01

    Ethnic admixtures may interfere with the definition of type 1 diabetes (T1D) risk determinants. The role of HLA, PTPN22, INS-VNTR, and CTLA4 in T1D predisposition was analyzed in Brazilian T1D patients (n = 915), with 81.7% self-reporting as white and 789 controls (65.6% white). The results were corrected for population stratification by genotyping 93 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) (BeadXpress platform). Ancestry composition and structural association were characterized using Structure 2.3 and STRAT. Ethnic diversity resulted in T1D determinants that were partially discordant from those reported in Caucasians and Africans. The greatest contributor to T1D was the HLA-DR3/DR4 genotype (OR = 16.5) in 23.9% of the patients, followed by -DR3/DR3 (OR = 8.9) in 8.7%, -DR4/DR4 (OR = 4.7) in 6.0% and -DR3/DR9 (OR = 4.9) in 2.6%. Correction by ancestry also confirmed that the DRB1*09-DQB1*0202 haplotype conferred susceptibility, whereas the DRB1*07-DQB1*0202 and DRB1*11-DQB1*0602 haplotypes were protective, which is similar to reports in African-American patients. By contrast, the DRB1*07-DQB1*0201 haplotype was protective in our population and in Europeans, despite conferring susceptibility to Africans. The DRB1*10-DQB1*0501 haplotype was only protective in the Brazilian population. Predisposition to T1D conferred by PTPN22 and INS-VNTR and protection against T1D conferred by the DRB1*16 allele were confirmed. Correcting for population structure is important to clarify the particular genetic variants that confer susceptibility/protection for T1D in populations with ethnic admixtures. PMID:28262800

  13. KIR gene variability in cutaneous malignant melanoma: influence of KIR2D/HLA-C pairings on disease susceptibility and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campillo, José A; Legaz, Isabel; López-Álvarez, M Rocío; Bolarín, José Miguel; Las Heras, Beatriz; Muro, Manuel; Minguela, Alfredo; Moya-Quiles, María R; Blanco-García, Rosa; Martínez-Banaclocha, Helios; García-Alonso, Ana M; Alvarez-López, M Rocío; Martínez-Escribano, Jorge A

    2013-05-01

    Natural killer and CD8(+) T cells are believed to be involved in the immune protection against melanoma. Their function may be regulated by a group of receptors defined as killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) and their cognate HLA class I ligands. In this study, we analyzed the influence of KIR genes and KIR/HLA-I combinations on melanoma susceptibility and/or prognosis in a Spanish Caucasian population. For this purpose, KIR genotyping by PCR-SSP and HLA-C genotyping by reverse PCR-SSO were performed in 187 melanoma patients and 200 matched controls. We found a significantly low frequency of KIR2DL3 in nodular melanoma (NM) patients (P = 0.001) and in ulcerated melanoma patients (P < 0.0001). Similarly, the KIR2DL3/C1 combination was significantly decreased in melanoma patients (Pc = 0.008) and in patients with sentinel lymph node (SLN) melanoma metastasis (Pc = 0.002). Multivariate logistic regression models showed that KIR2DL3 behaves as a protective marker for NM and ulcerated melanoma (P = 0.02, odds ratio (OR) = 0.14 and P = 0.04, OR = 0.28, respectively), whereas the KIR2DL3/C1 pair acts as a protective marker for melanoma (P = 0.017, OR = 0.54), particularly superficial spreading melanoma (P = 0.02, OR = 0.52), and SLN metastasis (P = 0.0004, OR = 0.14). In contrast, the KIR2DL3(-)/C1C2 genotype seems to be correlated with NM and ulceration. We also report that the KIR2DL1(+)/S1(-)/C2C2 genotype is associated with susceptibility to melanoma and SLN metastasis. Altogether, the study of KIR2D genes and HLA-C ligands may help in assessing cutaneous melanoma risk and prognosis.

  14. Macrophage ABCA5 deficiency influences cellular cholesterol efflux and increases susceptibility to atherosclerosis in female LDLr knockout mice

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    Ye, Dan, E-mail: y.dan@lacdr.leidenuniv.nl [Division of Biopharmaceutics, LACDR, Leiden University (Netherlands); Meurs, Illiana [Division of Biopharmaceutics, LACDR, Leiden University (Netherlands); Ohigashi, Megumi [Department of Cell Membrane Biology, Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University (Japan); Calpe-Berdiel, Laura; Habets, Kim L.L.; Zhao, Ying [Division of Biopharmaceutics, LACDR, Leiden University (Netherlands); Kubo, Yoshiyuki [Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University (Japan); Yamaguchi, Akihito [Department of Cell Membrane Biology, Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University (Japan); Van Berkel, Theo J.C. [Division of Biopharmaceutics, LACDR, Leiden University (Netherlands); Nishi, Tsuyoshi [Department of Cell Membrane Biology, Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University (Japan); Van Eck, Miranda [Division of Biopharmaceutics, LACDR, Leiden University (Netherlands)

    2010-05-07

    Objectives: To determine the role of macrophage ATP-binding cassette transporter A5 (ABCA5) in cellular cholesterol homeostasis and atherosclerotic lesion development. Methods and results: Chimeras with dysfunctional macrophage ABCA5 (ABCA5{sup -M/-M}) were generated by transplantation of bone marrow from ABCA5 knockout (ABCA5{sup -/-}) mice into irradiated LDLr{sup -/-} mice. In vitro, bone marrow-derived macrophages from ABCA5{sup -M/-M} chimeras exhibited a 29% (P < 0.001) decrease in cholesterol efflux to HDL, whereas a 21% (P = 0.07) increase in cholesterol efflux to apoA-I was observed. Interestingly, expression of ABCA1, but not ABCG1, was up-regulated in absence of functional ABCA5 in macrophages. To induce atherosclerosis, the transplanted LDLr{sup -/-} mice were fed a high-cholesterol Western-type diet (WTD) for 6, 10, or 18 weeks, allowing analysis of effects on initial as well as advanced lesion development. Atherosclerosis development was not affected in male ABCA5{sup -M/-M} chimeras after 6, 10, and 18 weeks WTD feeding. However, female ABCA5{sup -M/-M} chimeras did develop significantly (P < 0.05) larger aortic root lesions as compared with female controls after 6 and 10 weeks WTD feeding. Conclusions: ABCA5 influences macrophage cholesterol efflux, and selective disruption of ABCA5 in macrophages leads to increased atherosclerotic lesion development in female LDLr{sup -/-} mice.

  15. IFNG +874T/A polymorphism is not associated with American tegumentary leishmaniasis susceptibility but can influence Leishmania induced IFN-γ production

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    Sampaio Elizabeth P

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interferon-gamma is a key cytokine in the protective responses against intracellular pathogens. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP located in the first intron of the human IFN-γ gene can putatively influence the secretion of cytokine with an impact on infection outcome as demonstrated for tuberculosis and other complex diseases. Our aim was to investigate the putative association of IFNG+874T/A SNP with American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL and also the influence of this SNP in the secretion of IFN-γ in vitro. Methods Brazilian ATL patients (78 cutaneous, CL, and 58 mucosal leishmaniasis, ML and 609 healthy volunteers were evaluated. The genotype of +874 region in the IFN-γ gene was carried out by Amplification Refractory Mutational System (ARMS-PCR. Leishmania-induced IFN-γ production on peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC culture supernatants was assessed by ELISA. Results There are no differences between +874T/A SNP frequency in cases and controls or in ML versus CL patients. Cutaneous leishmaniasis cases exhibiting AA genotype produced lower levels of IFN-γ than TA/TT genotypes. In mucosal cases, high and low IFN-γ producers were clearly demonstrated but no differences in the cytokine production was observed among the IFNG +874T or A carriers. Conclusion Our results suggest that +874T/A polymorphism was not associated with either susceptibility or severity to leishmaniasis. Despite this, IFNG +874T/A SNP could be involved in the pathogenesis of leishmaniasis by influencing the amount of cytokine released by CL patients, although it could not prevent disease development. On the other hand, it is possible that in ML cases, other potential polymorphic regulatory genes such as TNF-α and IL-10 are also involved thus interfering with IFN-γ secretion.

  16. Interactions between rs5498 polymorphism in the ICAM1 gene and traditional risk factors influence susceptibility to coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarecka-Hujar, Beata; Zak, Iwona; Krauze, Jolanta

    2009-06-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) depends on multiple genetic and environmental factors. Adhesion molecules are markers of endothelium dysfunction. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) interacts with leukocyte integrins and promotes atherosclerotic process at the surface of endothelial cells. The aim of the study was to assess the association between ICAM1 rs5498 polymorphism and CAD and to establish whether there are any interactions between this polymorphism and traditional risk factors in determining the risk of CAD. We studied 191 cases with angiographically documented CAD and 203 controls with no signs of cardiovascular diseases. The ICAM1 polymorphism was genotyped using PCR-RFLP method. Data were analyzed with the STATISTICA 7.1 and EpiInfo 6 softwares. We did not observe significant differences in the distribution of genotypes and alleles of rs5498 between cases and controls. We only found a tendency to a higher prevalence of G allele carriers (AG + GG) in patients compared to controls (68 vs. 64%, P = 0.399). A synergistic effect of G allele carrier-state and smoking that had influenced the risk of CAD [synergy index multiplicative (SIM = 2.09)] was observed. Smoking carriers of G allele compared to non-smoking AA were more prevalent in CAD group (39.8%) than among controls (13.3%, P < 0.0001, OR 4.81). Moreover, there was also a synergistic effect between G allele carrier-state and an elevated level of triacylglycerols (TG) (SIM = 1.28) increasing the risk of CAD. There is a synergistic interaction between rs5498 genotype and smoking that increases the risk of CAD.

  17. Genetic variants involved in oxidative stress, base excision repair, DNA methylation, and folate metabolism pathways influence myeloid neoplasias susceptibility and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Ana Cristina; Alves, Raquel; Baldeiras, Inês; Cortesão, Emília; Carda, José Pedro; Branco, Claudia C; Oliveiros, Bárbara; Loureiro, Luísa; Pereira, Amélia; Nascimento Costa, José Manuel; Sarmento-Ribeiro, Ana Bela; Mota-Vieira, Luisa

    2017-01-01

    Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) share common features: elevated oxidative stress, DNA repair deficiency, and aberrant DNA methylation. We performed a hospital-based case-control study to evaluate the association in variants of genes involved in oxidative stress, folate metabolism, DNA repair, and DNA methylation with susceptibility and prognosis of these malignancies. To that end, 16 SNPs (one per gene: CAT, CYBA, DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B, GPX1, KEAP1, MPO, MTRR, NEIL1, NFE2F2, OGG1, SLC19A1, SOD1, SOD2, and XRCC1) were genotyped in 191 patients (101 MDS and 90 AML) and 261 controls. We also measured oxidative stress (reactive oxygen species/total antioxidant status ratio), DNA damage (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine), and DNA methylation (5-methylcytosine) in 50 subjects (40 MDS and 10 controls). Results showed that five genes (GPX1, NEIL1, NFE2L2, OGG1, and SOD2) were associated with MDS, two (DNMT3B and SLC19A1) with AML, and two (CYBA and DNMT1) with both diseases. We observed a correlation of CYBA TT, GPX1 TT, and SOD2 CC genotypes with increased oxidative stress levels, as well as NEIL1 TT and OGG1 GG genotypes with higher DNA damage. The 5-methylcytosine levels were negatively associated with DNMT1 CC, DNMT3A CC, and MTRR AA genotypes, and positively with DNMT3B CC genotype. Furthermore, DNMT3A, MTRR, NEIL1, and OGG1 variants modulated AML transformation in MDS patients. Additionally, DNMT3A, OGG1, GPX1, and KEAP1 variants influenced survival of MDS and AML patients. Altogether, data suggest that genetic variability influence predisposition and prognosis of MDS and AML patients, as well AML transformation rate in MDS patients. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Influence of human urine to antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli producing β-lactamase of different types

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    Ž. Žagar

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine the influence of human urine on the antibiotic susceptibilities of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli strains producing different types of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL. The study was performed on 26 ESBL negative strains of K. pneumoniae, 80 K. pneumoniae strains producing SHV-ESBLs (52-SHV-5, 31- SHV-2 and 7- SHV-12, 94 E. coli strains harbouring TEM- ESBLs and 14 E. coli strains possessing CTX-M group 1 β-lactamases. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of amoxycillin alone and combined with clavulanate (co-amoxilcav, cephalexin, cefuroxime, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, cefepime, gentamicin and ciprofloxacin were performed in parallel in Mueller-Hinton broth and urine by broth microdilution method. With ESBL negative strains, urine increased MIC90 of amoxycillin alone and combined with clavulanate, cephalexin, cefuroxime, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, cefepime, gentamicin and ciprofloxacin. Against SHV-5 producers, an increase in MIC90 was observed with cefotaxime, cefepime and ciprofloxacin when the test was performed in urine. SHV-2 producers showed elevated MIC90 of ceftazidime, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone and cefepime in the presence of urine, in contrast to SHV-12 producers which displayed elevated MIC90 only for cefotaxime. Urine increased MIC90 of amoxycillin/clavulanate, ceftazidime and cefepime against CTX-M producers, and of amoxycillin/clavulanate, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, cefepime and ciprofloxacin for TEM producers. According to our results the activity of antibiotics used for the treatment of urinary tract infection could be overestimated by a standard in vitro testing. However, most of antibiotics used for the treatment of urinary tract infection achieve very high concentration in urine and that could abrogate the reduction of antimicrobial activity by biological fluid.

  19. Gene dose influences cellular and calcium channel dysregulation in heterozygous and homozygous T4826I-RYR1 malignant hyperthermia-susceptible muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos, Genaro C; Feng, Wei; Truong, Kim; Matthaei, Klaus I; Yang, Tianzhong; Allen, Paul D; Lopez, José R; Pessah, Isaac N

    2012-01-20

    Malignant hyperthermia susceptibility (MHS) is primarily conferred by mutations within ryanodine receptor type 1 (RYR1). Here we address how the MHS mutation T4826I within the S4-S5 linker influences excitation-contraction coupling and resting myoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](rest)) in flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) and vastus lateralis prepared from heterozygous (Het) and homozygous (Hom) T4826I-RYR1 knock-in mice (Yuen, B. T., Boncompagni, S., Feng, W., Yang, T., Lopez, J. R., Matthaei, K. I., Goth, S. R., Protasi, F., Franzini-Armstrong, C., Allen, P. D., and Pessah, I. N. (2011) FASEB J. doi:22131268). FDB responses to electrical stimuli and acute halothane (0.1%, v/v) exposure showed a rank order of Hom ≫ Het ≫ WT. Release of Ca(2+) from the sarcoplasmic reticulum and Ca(2+) entry contributed to halothane-triggered increases in [Ca(2+)](rest) in Hom FDBs and elicited pronounced Ca(2+) oscillations in ∼30% of FDBs tested. Genotype contributed significantly elevated [Ca(2+)](rest) (Hom > Het > WT) measured in vivo using ion-selective microelectrodes. Het and Hom oxygen consumption rates measured in intact myotubes using the Seahorse Bioscience (Billerica, MA) flux analyzer and mitochondrial content measured with MitoTracker were lower than WT, whereas total cellular calpain activity was higher than WT. Muscle membranes did not differ in RYR1 expression nor in Ser(2844) phosphorylation among the genotypes. Single channel analysis showed highly divergent gating behavior with Hom and WT favoring open and closed states, respectively, whereas Het exhibited heterogeneous gating behaviors. [(3)H]Ryanodine binding analysis revealed a gene dose influence on binding density and regulation by Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and temperature. Pronounced abnormalities inherent in T4826I-RYR1 channels confer MHS and promote basal disturbances of excitation-contraction coupling, [Ca(2+)](rest), and oxygen consumption rates. Considering that both Het and Hom T4826I-RYR1 mice are

  20. Solubilization and stabilization Heat treatments influence on the susceptibility to intergranular corrosion in AISI-321 steel. Influencia de los tratamientos termicos de solubilizacion estabilizacion sobre la respuesta a la corrosion integranular del acero AISI-321

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fosca, C.; Salas, R.; Saenz, E.; Otero, E.

    1993-01-01

    The influence of heat treatments on the susceptibility to intergranular corrosion of AISI-321 steel is studied by using the EPR method (Electrochemical Potentiokinetic Reactivation). It is shown that a solubilization treatment at 1.373 K gives the material a better resistance against intergranular attach than higher temperatures treatments. A subsequent stabilization heat treatment at 1.073 K gives the best resistance against this type of corrosion to the studied steel. (Author) 12 refs.

  1. Genetic Susceptibility to Atherosclerosis

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    Sanja Kovacic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a complex multifocal arterial disease involving interactions of multiple genetic and environmental factors. Advances in techniques of molecular genetics have revealed that genetic ground significantly influences susceptibility to atherosclerotic vascular diseases. Besides further investigations of monogenetic diseases, candidate genes, genetic polymorphisms, and susceptibility loci associated with atherosclerotic diseases have been identified in recent years, and their number is rapidly increasing. This paper discusses main genetic investigations fields associated with human atherosclerotic vascular diseases. The paper concludes with a discussion of the directions and implications of future genetic research in arteriosclerosis with an emphasis on prospective prediction from an early age of individuals who are predisposed to develop premature atherosclerosis as well as to facilitate the discovery of novel drug targets.

  2. Influence of different susceptibility testing methods and media on determination of the relevant fluconazole minimum inhibitory concentrations for heavy trailing Candida isolates with low-high phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alp, Sehnaz; Sancak, Banu; Hascelik, Gulsen; Arikan, Sevtap

    2010-11-01

    We investigated the incidence of trailing growth with fluconazole in 101 clinical Candida isolates (49 C. albicans and 52 C. tropicalis) and tried to establish the convenient susceptibility testing method and medium for fluconazole minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination. MICs were determined by CLSI M27-A2 broth microdilution (BMD) and Etest methods on RPMI-1640 agar supplemented with 2% glucose (RPG) and on Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with 2% glucose and 0.5 μg ml(-1) methylene blue (GMB). BMD and Etest MICs were read at 24 and 48 h, and susceptibility categories were compared. All isolates were determined as susceptible with BMD, Etest-RPG and Etest-GMB at 24 h. While all isolates were interpreted as susceptible at 48 h on Etest-RPG and Etest-GMB, one C. albicans isolate was interpreted as susceptible-dose dependent (S-DD) and two C. tropicalis isolates were interpreted as resistant with BMD. On Etest-RPG, trailing growth caused widespread microcolonies within the inhibition zone and resulted in confusion in MIC determination. On Etest-GMB, because of the nearly absence of microcolonies within the zone of inhibition, MICs were evaluated more easily. We conclude that, for the determination of fluconazole MICs of trailing Candida isolates, the Etest method has an advantage over BMD and can be used along with this reference method. Moreover, GMB appears more beneficial than RPG for the fluconazole Etest. © 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Electoral Susceptibility

    CERN Document Server

    Levine, G C; Cerise, J E

    2012-01-01

    In the United States electoral system, a candidate is elected indirectly by winning a majority of electoral votes cast by individual states, the election usually being decided by the votes cast by a small number of "swing states" where the two candidates historically have roughly equal probabilities of winning. The effective value of a swing state in deciding the election is determined not only by the number of its electoral votes but by the frequency of its appearance in the set of winning partitions of the electoral college. Since the electoral vote values of swing states are not identical, the presence or absence of a state in a winning partition is generally correlated with the frequency of appearance of other states and, hence, their effective values. We quantify the effective value of states by an {\\sl electoral susceptibility}, $\\chi_j$, the variation of the winning probability with the "cost" of changing the probability of winning state $j$. We study $\\chi_j$ for realistic data accumulated for the 201...

  4. Chemokine MCP1/CCL2 and RANTES/CCL5 gene polymorphisms influence Henoch–Schönlein purpura susceptibility and severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Hui Yu

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: Our results support the fact that chemokines play important roles in the pathogenesis of HSP. MCP1/CCL2 gene polymorphisms were associated with susceptibility for HSP. RANTES/CCL5 gene polymorphisms may be related to disease severity and HSP nephritis.

  5. Susceptibility to anchoring effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd McElroy

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous research on anchoring has shown this heuristic to be a very robust psychological phenomenon ubiquitous across many domains of human judgment and decision-making. Despite the prevalence of anchoring effects, researchers have only recently begun to investigate the underlying factors responsible for how and in what ways a person is susceptible to them. This paper examines how one such factor, the Big-Five personality trait of openness-to-experience, influences the effect of previously presented anchors on participants' judgments. Our findings indicate that participants high in openness-to-experience were significantly more influenced by anchoring cues relative to participants low in this trait. These findings were consistent across two different types of anchoring tasks providing convergent evidence for our hypothesis.

  6. Investigation of type 1 diabetes and coeliac disease susceptibility loci for association with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinks, Anne; Martin, Paul; Flynn, Edward; Eyre, Steve; Packham, Jon; Barton, Anne; Worthington, Jane; Thomson, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    Background There is strong evidence suggesting that juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) shares many susceptibility loci with other autoimmune diseases. Objective To investigate variants robustly associated with type 1 diabetes (T1D) or coeliac disease (CD) for association with JIA. Methods Sixteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) already identified as susceptibility loci for T1D/CD were selected for genotyping in patients with JIA (n=1054) and healthy controls (n=3129). Genotype and allele frequencies were compared using the Cochrane–Armitage trend test implemented in PLINK. Results One SNP in the LPP gene, rs1464510, showed significant association with JIA (ptrend=0.002, OR=1.18, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.30). A second SNP, rs653178 in ATXN2, also showed nominal evidence for association with JIA (ptrend=0.02, OR=1.13, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.25). The SNP, rs17810546, in IL12A showed subtype-specific association with enthesitis-related arthritis (ERA) subtype (ptrend=0.005, OR=1.88, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.94). Conclusions Evidence for a novel JIA susceptibility locus, LPP, is presented. Association at the SH2B3/ATXN2 locus, previously reported to be associated with JIA in a US series, also supports this region as contributing to JIA susceptibility. In addition, a subtype-specific association of IL12A with ERA is identified. All findings will require validation in independent JIA cohorts. PMID:20647273

  7. Changes in susceptibility of beech (Fagus sylvatica) seedlings towards Phytophthora citricola under the influence of elevated atmospheric CO2 and nitrogen fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischmann, F; Raidl, S; Osswald, W F

    2010-04-01

    The growth-differentiation balance hypothesis (GDBH) predicts changes in susceptibility of plants against herbivores with changing resource availability. In the presented study we tested the validity of the GDBH for trees infected with a root pathogen. For this purpose Fagus sylvatica seedlings grown under different atmospheric CO(2)- and soil nitrogen regimes were infected with the root pathogen Phytophthora citricola. High nitrogen supply increased total biomass of beech regardless of the CO(2)-treatment, whereas elevated CO(2) enhanced biomass only in the high nitrogen treatment. The responses of beech under the different growing regimes to the Phytophthora root infection were not in line with the predictions of the GDBH. Enhanced susceptibility of beech against P. citricola was found in seedlings grown under elevated CO(2) and low nitrogen supply. Fifteen months after inoculation these plants were characterized by enhanced water use efficiency, by altered root-shoot ratios, and by enhanced specific root tip densities.

  8. Influence of clinical breakpoint changes from CLSI 2009 to EUCAST 2011 antimicrobial susceptibility testing guidelines on multidrug resistance rates of Gram-negative rods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hombach, Michael; Wolfensberger, Aline; Kuster, Stefan P; Böttger, Erik C

    2013-07-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) rates of Gram-negative rods were analyzed comparing CLSI 2009 and EUCAST 2011 antibiotic susceptibility testing guidelines. After EUCAST 2011 was applied, the MDR rates increased for Klebsiella pneumoniae (2.2%), Enterobacter cloacae (1.1%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (0.7%), and Escherichia coli (0.4%). A total of 24% of Enterobacteriaceae MDR isolates and 12% of P. aeruginosa MDR isolates were categorized as MDR due to breakpoint changes.

  9. Influence of Clinical Breakpoint Changes from CLSI 2009 to EUCAST 2011 Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Guidelines on Multidrug Resistance Rates of Gram-Negative Rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfensberger, Aline; Kuster, Stefan P.; Böttger, Erik C.

    2013-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) rates of Gram-negative rods were analyzed comparing CLSI 2009 and EUCAST 2011 antibiotic susceptibility testing guidelines. After EUCAST 2011 was applied, the MDR rates increased for Klebsiella pneumoniae (2.2%), Enterobacter cloacae (1.1%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (0.7%), and Escherichia coli (0.4%). A total of 24% of Enterobacteriaceae MDR isolates and 12% of P. aeruginosa MDR isolates were categorized as MDR due to breakpoint changes. PMID:23596246

  10. The surface protein Lmo1941 with LysM domain influences cell wall structure and susceptibility of Listeria monocytogenes to cephalosporins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk-Balska, Agata; Korsak, Dorota; Popowska, Magdalena

    2014-08-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive bacterium causing rare but dangerous cases of disease in humans and animals. The β-lactams penicillin G and ampicillin are the antibiotics of choice in the treatment of listeriosis. Recently, lmo1941, encoding a surface protein of L. monocytogenes with unknown function, was identified as a gene transcriptionally upregulated under penicillin G pressure. In this study, the effect of lmo1941 knockout on the susceptibility of L. monocytogenes to β-lactams was examined. Deletion mutant in lmo1941 was constructed and subjected to studies, which revealed that the deletion of lmo1941 had no effect on susceptibility and tolerance to penicillin G and ampicillin but resulted, however, in increased susceptibility of L. monocytogenes to several cephalosporins. Subsequently, the potential effect of lmo1941 mutation on the cell wall of L. monocytogenes was investigated. The analysis revealed quantitative changes in the muropeptide profile of peptidoglycan and a decrease in density of the high-density zone of cell wall of the mutant strain. Both these changes were observed in cells taken from the stationary phase. These results indicate that the surface protein Lmo1941 affects peptidoglycan composition and cell wall structure of L. monocytogenes in the stationary phase of growth. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Changes in susceptibility of beech (Fagus sylvatica) seedlings towards Phytophthora citricola under the influence of elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} and nitrogen fertilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleischmann, F., E-mail: fleischmann@wzw.tum.d [Phytopathology of Woody Plants, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany); Raidl, S. [Department Biology I and GeoBioCenterLMU, Systematic Mycology, Ludwig Maximilians Universitaet Muenchen, Menzinger Strasse 67, 80638 Muenchen (Germany); Osswald, W.F. [Phytopathology of Woody Plants, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    The growth-differentiation balance hypothesis (GDBH) predicts changes in susceptibility of plants against herbivores with changing resource availability. In the presented study we tested the validity of the GDBH for trees infected with a root pathogen. For this purpose Fagus sylvatica seedlings grown under different atmospheric CO{sub 2}- and soil nitrogen regimes were infected with the root pathogen Phytophthora citricola. High nitrogen supply increased total biomass of beech regardless of the CO{sub 2}-treatment, whereas elevated CO{sub 2} enhanced biomass only in the high nitrogen treatment. The responses of beech under the different growing regimes to the Phytophthora root infection were not in line with the predictions of the GDBH. Enhanced susceptibility of beech against P. citricola was found in seedlings grown under elevated CO{sub 2} and low nitrogen supply. Fifteen months after inoculation these plants were characterized by enhanced water use efficiency, by altered root-shoot ratios, and by enhanced specific root tip densities. - Susceptibility of Fagus sylvatica to the root pathogen Phytophthora citricola increased under elevated CO{sub 2}

  12. Susceptibility Genes in Thyroid Autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Ban

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD are complex diseases which are caused by an interaction between susceptibility genes and environmental triggers. Genetic susceptibility in combination with external factors (e.g. dietary iodine is believed to initiate the autoimmune response to thyroid antigens. Abundant epidemiological data, including family and twin studies, point to a strong genetic influence on the development of AITD. Various techniques have been employed to identify the genes contributing to the etiology of AITD, including candidate gene analysis and whole genome screening. These studies have enabled the identification of several loci (genetic regions that are linked with AITD, and in some of these loci, putative AITD susceptibility genes have been identified. Some of these genes/loci are unique to Graves' disease (GD and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT and some are common to both the diseases, indicating that there is a shared genetic susceptibility to GD and HT. The putative GD and HT susceptibility genes include both immune modifying genes (e.g. HLA, CTLA-4 and thyroid specific genes (e.g. TSHR, Tg. Most likely, these loci interact and their interactions may influence disease phenotype and severity.

  13. Spin susceptibility of disordered gapped graphene systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosu, I.; Biter, T. L.

    2017-02-01

    We calculate the spin susceptibility for the case of gapped graphene systems in the presence of disorder. The average single-particle density of states in gapped graphene with disorder was calculated, using the Born and the T-matrix approximations. The temperature dependence of the static spin susceptibility was analyzed. The influence of the chemical potential position and disorder is also discussed.

  14. Influence of host immunoregulatory genes, ER stress and gut microbiota on the shared pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease and Type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjymishka, Altin; Coman, Roxana M; Brusko, Todd M; Glover, Sarah C

    2013-12-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with its two distinct entities, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, and Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) are autoimmune diseases. The prevalence of these diseases continues to rapidly rise in the industrialized world. Despite the identification of several genetic loci that are associated with both IBD and T1D, thus far, there is a paucity of epidemiological data to support a clinical overlap. In an effort to better understand the underlying pathogenic mechanisms of both IBD and T1D, this review summarizes the literature about these related autoimmune diseases, describes the most recent advances in their etiopathogenesis and emphasizes the genetic and nongenetic factors that exercise a differential influence. Genome-wide association studies have identified genetic loci with a role in immune response regulation that are linked to both IBD (particularly Crohn's disease) and T1D. Some of these genetic loci (e.g., IL-18RAP) have a divergent role, conferring risk for one disease and protection for the other. Recent evidence highlights an important role of gut microbiota and cellular responses (e.g., endoplasmic reticulum stress) in the pathogenesis of both IBD and T1D.

  15. Age and prior blood feeding of Anopheles gambiae influences their susceptibility and gene expression patterns to ivermectin-containing blood meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Jonathan A; Alout, Haoues; Meyers, Jacob I; Stenglein, Mark D; Dabiré, Roch K; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Burton, Timothy A; Kuklinski, Wojtek S; Black, William C; Foy, Brian D

    2015-10-15

    Ivermectin has been proposed as a novel malaria transmission control tool based on its insecticidal properties and unique route of acquisition through human blood. To maximize ivermectin's effect and identify potential resistance/tolerance mechanisms, it is important to understand its effect on mosquito physiology and potential to shift mosquito population age-structure. We therefore investigated ivermectin susceptibility and gene expression changes in several age groups of female Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes. The effect of aging on ivermectin susceptibility was analyzed in three age groups (2, 6, and 14-days) of colonized female Anopheles gambiaemosquitoes using standard survivorship assays. Gene expression patterns were then analyzed by transcriptome sequencing on an Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform. RT-qPCR was used to validate transcriptional changes and also to examine expression in a different, colonized strain and in wild mosquitoes, both of which blood fed naturally on an ivermectin-treated person. Mosquitoes of different ages and blood meal history died at different frequencies after ingesting ivermectin. Mortality was lowest in 2-day old mosquitoes exposed on their first blood meal and highest in 6-day old mosquitoes exposed on their second blood meal. Twenty-four hours following ivermectin ingestion, 101 and 187 genes were differentially-expressed relative to control blood-fed, in 2 and 6-day groups, respectively. Transcription patterns of select genes were similar in membrane-fed, colonized, and naturally-fed wild vectors. Transcripts from several unexpected functional classes were highly up-regulated, including Niemann-Pick Type C (NPC) genes, peritrophic matrix-associated genes, and immune-response genes, and these exhibited different transcription patterns between age groups, which may explain the observed susceptibility differences. Niemann-Pick Type 2 genes were the most highly up-regulated transcripts after ivermectin ingestion (up to 160 fold) and

  16. Influence of anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) on paleomagnetic sampling in volcanic glasses: a case study on rheomorphic ignimbrites of the Yellowstone hotspot-track, southern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, D.; Coe, R. S.; Murphy, J.; Bodiford, S.; Kelly, H.; Foster, S.; Spinardi, F.; Reichow, M. K.; Knott, T.; Branney, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    Large-scale explosive volcanism, associated with the Yellowstone hotspot, occurred in the central Snake River Plain between 12.5-8 Ma. It is characterized by unusually high-temperature, intensely welded, rheomorphic rhyolitic ignimbrites, typical of what is now known as 'Snake River (SR)-type volcanism'. Individual eruption volumes likely exceed 450 km3 but are poorly known due to the difficulty of correlating units between widely spaced (50-200 km) exposures along the north and south of the plain, when some occurred too close-spaced in time for radiometric resolution. Our goal is to use a combination of paleomagnetic, petrographic, chemical and field characterization to establish robust correlations, allowing us to develop a regional stratigraphy, and constrain ignimbrite eruption volumes and frequencies. This presentation focuses on how to sample rheomorphic, SR-type ignimbrites for paleomagnetic studies given the potential effects of hot, rheomorphic deformation. Individual SR-type ignimbrite cooling-units have an upper and lower glassy margins (vitrophyre) enclosing a lithoidal (microcrystalline) zone. We have sampled dozens of ignimbrites in detail and have observed that the lithoidal interiors are preferable to the glassy margins for paleomagnetic studies. We hypothesize that the glassy margins retain an anisotropic fabric related to emplacement compaction and/or shearing that affects their ability to accurately record the magnetic field during cooling. In the lithoidal interiors this anisotropic fabric was overprinted by continued grain growth and/or alteration and, therefore, may accurately record the paleomagnetic field. Paleomagnetic samples from vitrophyres generally have a higher anisotropy in magnetic susceptibility than lithoidal samples. The remanent magnetic directions recorded in samples with high anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility are often deflected away from the site mean and closer to the plane of easy magnetic susceptibility. Since the

  17. Influence of platelet-activating factor, lyso-platelet-activating factor and edelfosine on Langmuir monolayers imitating plasma membranes of cell lines differing in susceptibility to anti-cancer treatment: the effect of plasmalogen level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flasiński, Michał; Hąc-Wydro, Katarzyna; Wydro, Paweł; Dynarowicz-Łątka, Patrycja

    2014-06-01

    Three structurally related but differing in biological activities single-chained ether phospholipids (PAF (platelet-activating factor) and lyso-PAF) and an anti-cancer drug (edelfosine (ED)) were investigated in Langmuir monolayers imitating natural membranes. The aim of the undertaken experiments was to study the influence of these lipids on monolayers mimicking plasma membranes of cell lines differing in susceptibility to the anti-cancer activity of ED, i.e. promyelocytic leukaemia cells (HL-60) and promyeloblastic leukaemia cells (K-562). As these cells differ essentially in the cholesterol/phospholipid ratio and plasmalogen concentration in the membrane, we have carried out systematic investigations in artificial systems of various compositions. The results for model leukaemia cell membrane were compared with data acquired for systems imitating normal leucocytes. Our results show that the level of plasmalogens significantly modulates the influence of the single-chained phospholipids on the investigated systems. The experiments confirmed also that the interactions of ether lipids with a model membrane of HL-60 cells (in biological tests sensitive to ED) have opposite character when compared with K-562, being resistant to ED. Moreover, the values of the parameters characterizing monolayers serving as membrane models (strength of interactions, monolayers fluidity and morphology) proved both sensitivity of these cells to ED and lack of their susceptibility towards PAF. Interestingly, it has been found that lyso-PAF, which is usually described as an inactive precursor of PAF, displays a stronger effect on HL-60 model membranes than ED.

  18. Antimicrobial susceptibility and susceptibility testing of Mycoplasma hominis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bygdeman, S M; Mårdh, P A

    1983-01-01

    The determination of the minimal growth-inhibiting concentration (MIC), the minimal metabolism-inhibiting concentration (MMC), and the minimal mycoplasmacidal concentration (MCC) of various antimicrobial compounds for Mycoplasma hominis is influenced by the pH of the test media, the inoculum size, and the incubation time, although each of these factors generally do not affect the minimal concentration more than fourfold. M. hominis is resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics, vancomycin, sulfonamides, trimethoprim, and polymyxin B. There are great differences in the susceptibility of M. hominis to various macrolide antibiotics. Thus the organism is resistant to erythromycin and oleandomycin, moderately resistant to tylosin and spiramycin, susceptible to josamycin as well as to another macrolide drug, labelled M-4365G. M. hominis is also highly susceptible to the macrolide-like compound rosaramicin and to the tetracyclines (although resistant strains occur). It is susceptible to lincomycin and clindamycin, and moderately susceptible to chloramphenicol and rifampicin. The aminoglycosides have limited activity against M. hominis.

  19. CCR5△32 mutation does not influence the susceptibility to HCV infection, severity of liver disease and response to therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ankur Goyal; PV Suneetha; GT Kumar; Deepak K Shukla; Naveen Arora; Shiv K Sarin

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study whether CCR5△32 mutation was associated with viral infection and severity of liver disease.METHODS: Two hundred and fifty two histologically proven, chronic HCV patients (mean age: 41 ± 14 years;M/F: 164/88) were genotyped. PCR based genotyping of 32 bp deletion at the CCR5 locus was done. Fourhundred and eight matched healthy controls were studied to assess susceptibility to HCV infection. To assess correlation of immune gene polymorphism with severity of HCV related liver disease, patients with chronic HCV infection were divided into those with a fibrosis score of ≤ 2 (mild) or > 2 (severe) and histological activity index (HAI) of ≤ 5 or > 5. For correlation between CCR5△32 mutations and response to therapy, 129 patients who completed therapy were evaluated.RESULTS: The majority (89.4%) of the patients were infected with genotype 3. The frequency of homozygous CCR5△32 mutants was comparable to HCV patients as compared to the healthy controls (0.7% vs 0%, P = 0.1).Further more, the frequency of CCR5△32 mutation was comparable in patients with mild or severe liver disease.(P = NS). There was also no association observed with response to therapy and CCR5△32 mutation.CONCLUSION: CCR5△32 mutation does not have a role in disease susceptibility, severity or response to therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C infection.

  20. COMT Val158Met polymorphism influences the susceptibility to framing in decision-making: OFC-amygdala functional connectivity as a mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoxue; Gong, Pingyuan; Liu, Jinting; Hu, Jie; Li, Yue; Yu, Hongbo; Gong, Xiaoliang; Xiang, Yang; Jiang, Changjun; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2016-05-01

    Individuals tend to avoid risk in a gain frame, in which options are presented in a positive way, but seek risk in a loss frame, in which the same options are presented negatively. Previous studies suggest that emotional responses play a critical role in this "framing effect." Given that the Met allele of COMT Val158Met polymorphism (rs4680) is associated with the negativity bias during emotional processing, this study investigated whether this polymorphism is associated with individual susceptibility to framing and which brain areas mediate this gene-behavior association. Participants were genotyped, scanned in resting state, and completed a monetary gambling task with options (sure vs risky) presented as potential gains or losses. The Met allele carriers showed a greater framing effect than the Val/Val homozygotes as the former gambled more than the latter in the loss frame. Moreover, the gene-behavior association was mediated by resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) between orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and bilateral amygdala. Met allele carriers showed decreased RSFC, thereby demonstrating higher susceptibility to framing than Val allele carriers. These findings demonstrate the involvement of COMT Val158Met polymorphism in the framing effect in decision-making and suggest RSFC between OFC and amygdala as a neural mediator underlying this gene-behavior association. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1880-1892, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Susceptibility to Frost-Bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal Krishna

    1966-11-01

    Full Text Available The body protects its susceptible parts e.g. hands and feet from cold injury by allowing a surge of blood to flow through them on exposure to severe cold. This occurs through alternate vasodilatation and vasoconstriction known as Lewis Hunting Reaction. This phenomenon is influenced by several factors, which indirectly may also affect individual susceptibility to cold injury. The role of nutrition, adequate insulation of the body and positive heat balance in relation to the protective mechanism have been reviewed and discussed. Available literature on various factors has been surveyed and discussed in the light of recent advances in the physiology of cold exposure. Certain tests based on the present knowledge, to be developed and standardised for screening susceptible individuals to frost-bite have been suggested.

  2. Genetic polymorphisms of IL17A and pri-microRNA-938, targeting IL17A 3'-UTR, influence susceptibility to gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arisawa, Tomiyasu; Tahara, Tomomitsu; Shiroeda, Hisakazu; Matsue, Yasuhito; Minato, Takahiro; Nomura, Tomoe; Yamada, Hideto; Hayashi, Ranji; Saito, Takashi; Matsunaga, Kazuhiro; Fukuyama, Tomoki; Hayashi, Nobuhiko; Otsuka, Toshimi; Fukumura, Atsushi; Nakamura, Masakatsu; Shibata, Tomoyuki

    2012-07-01

    We report an association between gastric cancer (GC) and polymorphisms in IL17A, rs2275913 (-197 G > A), rs3748067 (*1249 C > T), and pri-miR-938, rs2505901 (T > C). We employed the multiplex PCR-SSCP method to detect gene polymorphisms in 337 GC cases and 587 controls. The minor allele frequency of rs2275913 was significantly higher, and those of rs3748067 and rs2505901 significantly lower, in GC cases than controls. The rs2275913 AA homozygote was associated with an increased risk (OR, 2.38; 95%CI, 1.63-3.46; p pri-miR-938 contribute to cancer risk susceptibility and therefore can affect the development of gastric cancer.

  3. A barley SKP1-like protein controls abundance of the susceptibility factor RACB and influences the interaction of barley with the barley powdery mildew fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, Tina; Hoefle, Caroline; Hückelhoven, Ralph

    2016-02-01

    In an increasing number of plant-microbe interactions, it has become evident that the abundance of immunity-related proteins is controlled by the ubiquitin-26S proteasome system. In the interaction of barley with the biotrophic barley powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei (Bgh), the RAC/ROP [RAT SARCOMA-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate/RAT SARCOMA HOMOLOGUE (RHO) of plants] guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) HvRACB supports the fungus in a compatible interaction. By contrast, barley HvRBK1, a ROP-binding receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase that interacts with and can be activated by constitutively activated HvRACB, limits fungal infection success. We have identified a barley type II S-phase kinase 1-associated (SKP1)-like protein (HvSKP1-like) as a molecular interactor of HvRBK1. SKP1 proteins are subunits of the SKP1-cullin 1-F-box (SCF)-E3 ubiquitin ligase complex that acts in the specific recognition and ubiquitination of protein substrates for subsequent proteasomal degradation. Transient induced gene silencing of either HvSKP1-like or HvRBK1 increased protein abundance of constitutively activated HvRACB in barley epidermal cells, whereas abundance of dominant negative RACB only weakly increased. In addition, silencing of HvSKP1-like enhanced the susceptibility of barley to haustorium establishment by Bgh. In summary, our results suggest that HvSKP1-like, together with HvRBK1, controls the abundance of HvRACB and, at the same time, modulates the outcome of the barley-Bgh interaction. A possible feedback mechanism from RAC/ROP-activated HvRBK1 on the susceptibility factor HvRACB is discussed.

  4. Influence of mixtures of kaolin particle film and synthetic insecticides on mortality of larval obliquebanded leafrollers (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from resistant and susceptible populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirle, Michael J; Lowery, D Thomas; Zurowski, Cheryl L

    2007-12-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine potential interactions between kaolin particle film and three insecticides on neonate larvae of the obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Kaolin did not significantly affect the toxicity of azinphosmethyl or indoxacarb to an insecticide-susceptible population when applied simultaneously with either insecticide in a 7-d leaf disk bioassay. Methoxyfenozide was slightly more toxic to the same leafroller population when coapplied with kaolin. When these bioassays were repeated on a multiresistant laboratory strain of C. rosaceana, mixtures of kaolin with either azinphosmethyl or indoxacarb were significantly more toxic than the insecticides alone, 3.1- and 7.7-fold more toxic for azinphosmethyl:kaolin and indoxacarb:kaolin, respectively. Mixtures of kaolin and methoxyfenozide did not differ in toxicity to the resistant leafroller population from the toxicity of methoxyfenozide alone. Kaolin alone had no effect on leafroller mortality over the 7-d duration of the bioassay. Although the toxicities of mixtures of kaolin with azinphosmethyl or indoxacarb are only moderately higher than those of the insecticides alone, they may be high enough to provide control of leafroller populations that have become difficult to manage due to the development of insecticide resistance.

  5. Influence of oviposition preference in reduced susceptibility of Ottawa Valley white spruce (picea glauce) to spruce budmoth (zeiraphera canadensis) in New Brunswick: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quiring, D.T.; Butterworth, E.W.

    1995-12-31

    In New Brunswick, efforts to control populations of spruce budmoth by spraying adults with insecticides or pheromones have produced encouraging results. An alternative technique, the selection of less-susceptible spruce, would aid in the development of an integrated management program for this insect pest. Differences in spruce damage as revealed in previous studies could be due to oviposition choice and/or to host suitability. However, researchers must determine the distribution of eggs laid by the spruce budmoth before they can determine whether some families of spruce have low levels of damage because they are avoided by ovipositing females and/or because they are less suitable for egg and larval development. This report presents results from studies carried out to quantify the number of eggs laid on trees from different families. Investigators collected tree branch samples from plantations and a seed orchard in May, before bud burst or egg hatching commenced. They analysed variations in oviposition parameters (such as number of eggs and egg masses, number of eggs parasitized by Trichogramma minutum, and number of viable eggs) using analysis of variance. To determine whether differences in egg density were related to plant morphology, they also measured such parameters as shoot length and diameter, needle length, shot type, and needle density.

  6. Microbial interaction between a CTXM-15 -producing Escherichia coli and a susceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage: influence of cefotaxime in the dual-species biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessa, Lucinda J; Mendes, Ângelo; Gomes, Rita; Curvelo, Sara; Cravo, Sara; Sousa, Emília; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Martins da Costa, Paulo

    2015-06-01

    Two isolates, Escherichia coli ella00 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ella01, obtained from bronchoalveolar lavage, were found to be closely associated in clusters in agar medium. Escherichia coli ella00 was multidrug resistant and CTXM-15 extended-spectrum β-lactamase producer, while P. aeruginosa ella01 was susceptible to all antimicrobials tested. These observations impelled for further studies aimed to understand their microbial interaction. The P. aeruginosa ella01 biofilm-forming capacity was reduced and not affected when it was co-cultured with E. coli ella00 and E. coli ATCC 25922 respectively. Interestingly, the co-culture of ella isolates in the presence of high concentrations, such as 160 μg ml(-1) , of cefotaxime allowed the formation of more biofilm than in the absence of the antibiotic. As revealed by fluorescence in situ hybridization, in co-culture, P. aeruginosa ella01 survived and subsequently flourished when exposed to this third-generation cephalosporin at a concentration 10 × higher than its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and this was mostly due to β-lactamases production by E. coli ella00. In fact, it was demonstrated by high-performance liquid chromatography that cefotaxime was absent for the culture medium 4 h after application. In conclusion, we demonstrate that bacterial species can interact differently depending on the surrounding conditions (favourable or stressing), and that those interactions can switch from unprofitable to beneficial.

  7. Mechanism on How Susceptibility to Interpersonal Influence Works on Chinese Consumers' Need for Uniqueness%人际间影响敏感性对中国消费者独特性需求的作用机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚海峰

    2012-01-01

    以本土消费者为样本,采用实证研究方法就消费者的人际间影响敏感性与独特性需求之间的作用关系进行了分析.通过分析发现,从总体来看本土消费者对人际间影响所持有的敏感性对独特性需求产生了促进作用,这种因果关系在一定程度上解释了中国消费者在消费过程中所体现出的从众、攀比、好面子等独特现象的产生机理.%Based on the previous works, some hypotheses are put forward and the relationship between consumers' need for uniqueness and interpersonal influence is analyzed through empirical research methods by sampling local consumers. It is concluded that local consumers' susceptibility to interpersonal influence is positively related to the need for uniqueness. Accordingly, this causality makes it understandable for us to some extent many particular phenomena including conformity, keeping up with the Joneses and keeping face of Chinese consumers during the process of consumption.

  8. Bulky carcinogen-DNA adducts and exposure to environmental and occupational sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Influence of susceptibility genotypes on adduct level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabro Nielsen, P.

    1996-12-31

    PAH exposure, whether it is of occupational or environmental origin, is thought to result in an elevated risk of cancer especially in the lungs. DNA damage is considered an important step in the carcinogenic effect of PAH. Hence, methods that elucidate the steps in the carcinogenic process are important to understand the action of PAH. It may prove useful in the exposure assessment and in combination with classical epidemiological methods give better basis for risk estimation. The objective in this thesis was to evaluate the feasibility of the {sup 32}P-postlabeling method to detect carcinogen-DNA adducts for assessing exposure to DNA damaging compounds in different occupationally and environmentally exposed groups. The studies included groups, that have an elevated cancer risk due to occupational exposure to PAH. Exposure levels were supposed to be relatively low according to reports on occupational and environmental air quality programs. Another aim was to evaluate the influence of polymorphisms in metabolizing enzyme genes on DNA adduct levels. A third objective was to establish some kind of baseline DNA adduct level for individuals with supposed low exposure, and compare it to the more exposed groups. A fourth aim in these studies was to examine if biomarkers of genotoxic exposure could be useful in epidemiological studies to identify groups at risk and thereby contribute with better exposure estimates in the study of PAH related cancer risk. (EG).

  9. The LPA gene C93T polymorphism influences plasma lipoprotein(a) levels and is independently associated with susceptibility to peripheral arterial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Mariella; Cortelazzo, Adriano; Yilmaz, Yusuf; Perilli, Edoardo; Carzaniga, Gianni; Emanuele, Enzo

    2008-01-01

    Plasma lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels are mainly genetically determined. The C93T polymorphism is a naturally occurring variant of the LPA gene that may influence Lp(a) concentration. The role of Lp(a) in the pathogenesis of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) has not been firmly established. A total of 299 patients with PAD and 312 PAD-free control subjects were investigated. Genotyping of the LPA C93T polymorphism was performed by means of PCR-RFLPs. Plasma Lp(a) levels were determined by ELISA. Subjects carrying at least one LPA 93T allele had lower Lp(a) levels. The prevalence rate of the 93T allele was significantly higher in control subjects (19.5%) than in PAD patients (13.0%, P=0.012). In multivariate logistic regression analysis with covariates including traditional risk factors, the 93T allele was independently associated with a reduced risk of PAD (OR=0.75, 95% CI=0.51-0.95, P=0.031). The 93T allele of the LPA gene is associated with a reduced risk of PAD and low Lp(a) levels.

  10. Shared molecular and functional frameworks among five complex human disorders: a comparative study on interactomes linked to susceptibility genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Menon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (gwas are invaluable in revealing the common variants predisposing to complex human diseases. Yet, until now, the large volumes of data generated from such analyses have not been explored extensively enough to identify the molecular and functional framework hosting the susceptibility genes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the relationships among five neurodegenerative and/or autoimmune complex human diseases (Parkinson's disease--Park, Alzheimer's disease--Alz, multiple sclerosis--MS, rheumatoid arthritis--RA and Type 1 diabetes--T1D by characterising the interactomes linked to their gwas-genes. An initial study on the MS interactome indicated that several genes predisposing to the other autoimmune or neurodegenerative disorders may come into contact with it, suggesting that susceptibility to distinct diseases may converge towards common molecular and biological networks. In order to test this hypothesis, we performed pathway enrichment analyses on each disease interactome independently. Several issues related to immune function and growth factor signalling pathways appeared in all autoimmune diseases, and, surprisingly, in Alzheimer's disease. Furthermore, the paired analyses of disease interactomes revealed significant molecular and functional relatedness among autoimmune diseases, and, unexpectedly, between T1D and Alz. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The systems biology approach highlighted several known pathogenic processes, indicating that changes in these functions might be driven or sustained by the framework linked to genetic susceptibility. Moreover, the comparative analyses among the five genetic interactomes revealed unexpected genetic relationships, which await further biological validation. Overall, this study outlines the potential of systems biology to uncover links between genetics and pathogenesis of complex human disorders.

  11. Previous stress attenuates the susceptibility to Midazolam's disruptive effect on fear memory reconsolidation: influence of pre-reactivation D-cycloserine administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos, Silvia Gabriela; Giachero, Marcelo; Maldonado, Héctor; Molina, Víctor Alejandro

    2010-04-01

    It is well known that, under certain boundary conditions, the retrieval of a stable consolidated memory results into a labile one. During this unstable phase, memory can be vulnerable to interference by a number of pharmacological agents, including benzodiazepines. One of the goals of this study was to evaluate the vulnerability to midazolam (MDZ) after reactivation of recent and remote contextual fear memories in animals that experienced a stressful situation before learning. Animals were subjected to a restraint session and trained in a contextual fear paradigm the following day; consolidated memories were reactivated at different times after learning and different MDZ doses (1.5, 3.0 mg/kg) were administered to rats after reactivation. Our results show that MDZ did not affect memory reconsolidation in older-than-one-day memories of stressed animals, even after the administration of a higher MDZ dose and a longer reactivation session (5 min). In contrast, MDZ was effective in blocking reconsolidation at all memory ages in unstressed animals. In addition, the current research investigated whether activating NMDA sites before reactivation promotes the destabilization of resistant memories such as those of stressed animals. We tested the influence of pre-reactivation D-cycloserine (DCS), a partial NMDA agonist, on MDZ's effect on fear memory reconsolidation in stressed animals. Our findings indicate that DCS before reactivation promotes retrieval-induced lability in resistant memory traces, as MDZ-induced memory impairment in stressed rats became evident with pre-reactivation DCS but not after pre-reactivation sterile isotonic saline.

  12. The influence of glutathion S-transferase P-1 polymorphism A313G rs1695 on the susceptibility to cyclophosphamide hematologic toxicity in Indonesian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dita Hasni

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chemotherapy often causes side effects such as hematologic toxicity. The degree of toxicity is often associated with genetic polymorphism. This study aims to determine the influence of GSTP1 A313G polymorphism, an enzyme responsible for detoxifying cyclophosphamid, on incidence and severity of cyclophosphamid hematologic toxicity.Methods: 91 Indonesian females diagnosed with breast cancer at Haji Adam Malik Central General Hospital, Medan, receiving cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin/epirubicin and 5-FU were included in this retrospective cohort study. DNA was extracted from peripheral leukocytes and GSTP1 A313G genotyping was analyzed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction length fragment polymorphism (PCR-RFLP. Genotype deviation and allele frequencies were also determined by Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium. The degrees of hematologic toxicity (leucopenia and neutropenia data after chemotherapy cycles 1 and 3 were collected from the patient medical records. The data were analyzed using chi-square test.Results: 60.4% of the patients had the wildtype (A/A, while 29.7% were heterozygous (A/G, and 9.9% were homozygous mutant (G/G. There was no significant deviation of allele and genotype frequency from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium. The G allele (A/G & G/G contributes to more severe degree of leukopenia compared to patients with wild type allele (A/A  (p<0.05 after the 3rd chemotherapy cycles.Conclusion: There was association between GSTP1 polymorphism with the degree of hematologic toxicity in breast cancer patients receiving cyclophosphamide chemotherapy regimen.

  13. Selenoprotein S (SEPS1 gene -105G>A promoter polymorphism influences the susceptibility to gastric cancer in the Japanese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagasaka Mitsuo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation is a key factor in the process of carcinogenesis from chronic gastritis induced by Helicobacter pylori. Selenoprotein S (SEPS1 is involved in the control of the inflammatory response in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. Recently the -105G>A polymorphism in the promoter of SEPS1 was shown to increase pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. We examined the association between this polymorphism and the risk of gastric cancer. Methods We took stomach biopsies during endoscopies of 268 Japanese gastric cancer patients (193 males and 75 females, average age 65.3, and 306 control patients (184 males and 122 females, average age 62.7 and extracted the DNA from the biopsy specimens. All subjects provided written informed consent. For the genotyping of the SEPS1 promoter polymorphism at position -105G>A, PCR-RFLP methods were used and the PCR products were digested with PspGI. Logistic-regression analysis was used to estimate odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI, adjusting for age, sex, and H. pylori infection status. Results Among cases, the distribution of genotypes was as follows: 88.4% were GG, 11.2% were GA, and 0.4% were AA. Among controls, the distribution was as follows: 92.5% were GG, 7.2% were GA, and 0.3% were AA. Among males, carrying the A allele was associated with an increased odds of gastric cancer, compared with the GG genotype (OR: 2.0, 95% CI 1.0–4.1, p = 0.07. Compared with the GG genotype, carrying the A allele was significantly associated with increased risks of intestinal type gastric cancer (OR: 2.0, 95%CI 1.0–3.9, p Conclusion The -105G>A promoter polymorphism of SEPS1 was associated with the intestinal type of gastric cancer. This polymorphism may influence the inflammatory conditions of gastric mucosa. Larger population-based studies are needed for clarifying the relation between inflammatory responses and SEPS1 polymorphism.

  14. Anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility of gallium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankey, T.

    1960-01-01

    The bulk magnetic susceptibilities of single gallium crystals and polycrystalline gallium spheres were measured at 25??C. The following anisotropic diamagnetic susceptibilities were found: a axis (-0.119??0. 001)??10-6 emu/g, b axis (-0.416??0.002)??10 -6 emu/g, and c axis (-0.229??0.001) emu/g. The susceptibility of the polycrystalline spheres, assumed to be the average value for the bulk susceptibility of gallium, was (-0.257??0.003)??10-6 emu/g at 25??C, and (-0.299??0.003)??10-6 emu/g at -196??C. The susceptibility of liquid gallium was (0.0031??0.001) ??10-6 emu/g at 30??C and 100??C. Rotational diagrams of the susceptibilities in the three orthogonal planes of the unit cell were not sinusoidal. The anisotropy in the single crystals was presumably caused by the partial overlap of Brillouin zone boundaries by the Fermi-energy surface. The large change in susceptibility associated with the change in state was attributed to the absence of effective mass influence in the liquid state. ?? 1960 The American Institute of Physics.

  15. The role of MHC haplotypes H2d/H2b in mouse resistance/susceptibility to cyst formation is influenced by the lineage of infective Toxoplasma gondii strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne G. Resende

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii strains displaying the Type I/III genotype are associated with acquired ocular toxoplasmosis in humans. Here, we used a mice model to characterize some immunological mechanisms involved in host resistance to infection with such strains. We have chosen the Type I/III strains D8, G2 and P-Br, which cause a chronic infection in mice that resembles human toxoplamosis. Mice deficient of molecules MyD88, IFN-gamma, and IL-12 were susceptible to all three parasite strains. This finding indicates the importance of innate mechanisms in controlling infection. On the other hand, MHC haplotype did not influenced resistance/susceptibility; since mice lineages displaying a same genetic background but different MHC haplotypes (H2b or H2d developed similar mortality and cyst numbers after infection with those strains. In contrast, the C57BL/6 genetic background, and not MHC haplotype, was critical for development of intestinal inflammation caused by any of the studied strains. Finally, regarding effector mechanisms, weobserved that B and CD8+ T lymphocytes controlled survival,whereas the inducible nitric oxide synthase influenced cyst numbers in brains of mice infected with Type I/III strains. These findings are relevant to further understanding of the immunologic mechanisms involved in host protection and pathogenesis during infection with T. gondii.Cepas de Toxoplasma gondii que apresentam o genótipo I/III são associadas a toxoplasmose ocular adquirida em humanos. No presente trabalho, nós utilizamos um modelo da doença em camundongos para caracterizar mecanismos imunológicos envolvidos na resistência do hospedeiro à infecção por aquelas cepas. Escolhemos as cepas D8, G2 e P-Br, que causam infecção crônica em camundongos, semelhante à toxoplasmose humana. Camundongos deficientes em MyD88, IFN-G e IL-12 foram susceptíveis a infecções com todas as três linhagens do parasita. Esses dados indicam a importância de mecanismos

  16. The electricity sector susceptibility of European countries to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Daniel R.; Olonscheck, Mady; Walther, Carsten; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2014-05-01

    Due to the close relationship between electricity consumption, production and temperature, the electricity systems of countries are particularly susceptible to climate change. Based on a number of quantitative influencing factors, we provide a relative index for 21 European countries. This allows relevant stakeholders to identify the main influencing factors that determine the electricity system susceptibility of their country. The index was determined using 14 influencing factors that include those that increase or decrease susceptibility. This includes information on monthly mean temperature, electricity consumption, import, export and production by energy source for the period 2000-2011. Moreover, we consider the results of nine global climate models regarding future temperature changes as well as data on air conditioner prevalence by country. A quantitative relative ranked index describing the susceptibility of each country's electricity system is provided. In both Luxembourg and Greece, which top the list, the inability to meet electricity demand with inland production as well as a heavy reliance on combustible fuel electricity production explain part of the high relative susceptibility. Summer electricity consumption (another influencing factor) is expected to increase in Greece where current relatively warm temperatures, in the context of the countries included in this study, are expected to increase in the future. Comparatively, Norway was the least susceptible country based on our index. Norway is expected to benefit from rising projected temperatures, which will decrease winter electricity consumption and limit susceptibility. Furthermore, Norway's current electricity production exceeds consumption demand and is largely based on hydro, which also decreases susceptibility. The findings of this study enable policy makers, scientists and energy managers to examine the most important influencing factors that increase susceptibility and focus their adaptation

  17. The Effect of Temperature and Humidity on the Susceptibility of Flour Beetles to Organophosphorus Insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. Chadha

    1965-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the temperature and humidity on the susceptibility of Tribolium castaneum Herbst. to malathion and diazinon, has been investigated. It has been found that temperature significantly influences the susceptibility of T. castaneum to malathion though not to diazinon. Humidity, however, influences the susceptibility if the insect to both insecticides.

  18. MR susceptibility imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duyn, Jeff

    2013-04-01

    This work reviews recent developments in the use of magnetic susceptibility contrast for human MRI, with a focus on the study of brain anatomy. The increase in susceptibility contrast with modern high field scanners has led to novel applications and insights into the sources and mechanism contributing to this contrast in brain tissues. Dedicated experiments have demonstrated that in most of healthy brain, iron and myelin dominate tissue susceptibility variations, although their relative contribution varies substantially. Local variations in these compounds can affect both amplitude and frequency of the MRI signal. In white matter, the myelin sheath introduces an anisotropic susceptibility that has distinct effects on the water compartments inside the axons, between the myelin sheath, and the axonal space, and renders their signals dependent on the angle between the axon and the magnetic field. This offers opportunities to derive tissue properties specific to these cellular compartments.

  19. How Does Age at Onset Influence the Outcome of Autoimmune Diseases?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel J. Amador-Patarroyo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The age at onset refers to the time period at which an individual experiences the first symptoms of a disease. In autoimmune diseases (ADs, these symptoms can be subtle but are very relevant for diagnosis. They can appear during childhood, adulthood or late in life and may vary depending on the age at onset. Variables like mortality and morbidity and the role of genes will be reviewed with a focus on the major autoimmune disorders, namely, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, rheumatoid arthritis (RA, multiple sclerosis (MS, type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D, Sjögren's syndrome, and autoimmune thyroiditis (AITD. Early age at onset is a worst prognostic factor for some ADs (i.e., SLE and T1D, while for others it does not have a significant influence on the course of disease (i.e., SS or no unanimous consensus exists (i.e., RA and MS.

  20. Toll-like receptor 1 polymorphisms increase susceptibility to candidemia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantinga, T.S.; Johnson, M.D.; Scott, W.K.; Vosse, E. van de; Velez Edwards, D.R.; Smith, P.B.; Alexander, B.D.; Yang, J.C.; Kremer, D.; Laird, G.M.; Oosting, M.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Dissel, J.T. van; Walsh, T.J.; Perfect, J.R.; Kullberg, B.J.; Netea, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Candidemia is a severe invasive fungal infection with high mortality. Recognition of Candida species is mediated through pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs). This study assessed whether genetic variation in TLR signaling influences susceptibility to

  1. Genetic susceptibility of periodontitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laine, M.L.; Crielaard, W.; Loos, B.G.

    2012-01-01

    In this systematic review, we explore and summarize the peer-reviewed literature on putative genetic risk factors for susceptibility to aggressive and chronic periodontitis. A comprehensive literature search on the PubMed database was performed using the keywords ‘periodontitis’ or ‘periodontal dise

  2. Magnetic Susceptibility in the Vertebral Column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, F.; Nagele, T.; Lutz, O.; Pfeffer, K.; Giehl, J.

    1994-01-01

    A magnetic resonance method is described which provides good-quality field-mapping images of the spine, although the in vivo signals from red bone marrow of the vertebral bodies exhibit similar fractions of lipid and water protons with their chemical-shift difference of 3.4 ppm. The susceptibilities of bone marrow and intervertebral disks were examined in 20 cadaveric human spines, 9 healthy volunteers, and 9 patients with degenerative disk alterations. The influence of geometrical properties was studied in cylindrical spine phantoms of different size and contents with different susceptibility. The measurements reveal interindividual differences of the susceptibility of the intervertebral disks in healthy subjects. Three out of nine degenerated disks with low signal in T2-weighted spin-echo images showed irregularities of the field distribution within the nucleus pulposus.

  3. Influence of early maternal isolation stress on the susceptibility of different epilepsy models in infantile rats%早期母子隔离应激对幼鼠不同癫痫模型易感性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周浩; 梁锦平

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨早期母子隔离应激对幼鼠氯化锂-匹罗卡品和杏仁核电刺激点燃诱导癫痫模型易感性的影响.方法:66新生SD大鼠幼鼠用于实验,随机分成3组(n=22):正常对照组、母子隔离15 min组、母子隔离3h组.在生后16/18 d对3组幼鼠分别行氯化锂-匹罗卡品/杏仁核电刺激诱导的惊厥实验.结果:与正常组比较,P2~P15/17幼鼠每天母子隔离3h应激组,氯化锂-匹罗卡品诱导惊厥发作的潜伏期明显缩短(P<0.05);杏仁核点燃惊厥阈值明显降低、完全点燃所需刺激次数明显减少(P<0.05),而P2~P15/17幼鼠每天母子隔离15 min应激组与正常组幼鼠在上述几个方面比较,则差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论:早期母子隔离3h的应激可通过缩短氯化锂-匹罗卡品诱导惊厥发作的潜伏期、降低杏仁核点燃惊厥阈值、减少完全点燃所需的刺激次数,导致2种幼鼠癫痫模型的易感性增加.%Objective: To explore the influence of early maternal isolation stress on the epilepsy susceptibility of li-pilocapine and a-mygdala kindling induced-seizures models in infantile rats. Methods :Totally 66 newborn SD rat pups were enrolled and randomly divided into three groups ( n = 22) : the normal control group, the maternal separating 15 minutes group and the maternal separating 3 hows group. All rats were performed with li-pilocapine and amygdala kindling induced-seizures experiment at 16/18 days after the birth. Results:The latency period of li-pilocapine induced-seizures was obviously shortened and the convulsive threshold of amygdala kindling as well as the stimulating number needed for full kindling were markedly decreased in the maternal separating 3 hours group compared with those in the normal control group at 2 ~ 15/17 days after the separation (P0.05). Conclusion: The stress of early maternal separating for 3 hours can shorten the latency period of li-pilocapine induced-seizures, decrease the

  4. Alu Elements as Novel Regulators of Gene Expression in Type 1 Diabetes Susceptibility Genes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Simranjeet; Pociot, Flemming

    2015-07-13

    Despite numerous studies implicating Alu repeat elements in various diseases, there is sparse information available with respect to the potential functional and biological roles of the repeat elements in Type 1 diabetes (T1D). Therefore, we performed a genome-wide sequence analysis of T1D candidate genes to identify embedded Alu elements within these genes. We observed significant enrichment of Alu elements within the T1D genes (p-value genes harboring Alus revealed significant enrichment for immune-mediated processes (p-value genes harboring inverted Alus (IRAlus) within their 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) that are known to regulate the expression of host mRNAs by generating double stranded RNA duplexes. Our in silico analysis predicted the formation of duplex structures by IRAlus within the 3'UTRs of T1D genes. We propose that IRAlus might be involved in regulating the expression levels of the host T1D genes.

  5. INFLUENCE OF HIGH VERSUS LOW INTESTINAL CONCENTRATION OF GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA AND ENDOTOXIN ON THE SUSCEPTIBILITY OF MURINE MYELOPOIESIS IN BONE-MARROW AND SPLEEN TO CYTOSTATIC TREATMENT WITH ARA-C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DAENEN, S; GORIS, H; DEBOER, F; HALIE, MR; VANDERWAAIJ, D

    1992-01-01

    The haematopoietic recovery after i.v. cytarabine was studied in C3H/Law mice as a measure for stem cell susceptibility in relation to the intestinal Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) and endotoxin. Reduction or elevation of GNB and endotoxin was induced by either polymyxin or bacitracin, both

  6. Magnetic Susceptibility of Wet vs. Dry Sediment and Mass Normalized vs. Volume Normalized Magnetic Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kletetschka, G.; Hruba, J.; Nabelek, L.

    2015-12-01

    The measurement of magnetic susceptibility in sediments represents a fast and non-destructive technique that can be used to deduce the concentration of magnetic minerals [1, 2]. Magnetic minerals change their magnetic properties with temperature [3]. Heating (during a fire, laboratory, with the purpose of manufacturing a product, etc.) can modify a number of sediment properties [4, 5]. Heat-induced sediment mineralogical changes may cause irreversible changes in the sediment mineral structure and composition, and they occur at a wide range of temperature [6]. We provided measurements of magnetic susceptibility on samples from the Stara Jimka (SJ) paleo lacustrine site in the Bohemian Forest using magnetic susceptibility meter MS-30. Sediment samples of approximately 0.2 cm thickness were weighed and put into plastic containers. First, measurements of magnetic susceptibility were taken on wet samples. Then the containers were put into the oven and sediment was dried at temperature of 110°C. After drying and cooling to room temperature, measurements of magnetic susceptibility were repeated. Dry samples were also weighed. Comparison of magnetic susceptibility of dry versus wet samples showed higher values of magnetic susceptibility of dry samples. This enhancement was probably caused during oven-drying, when constituents of sediment (mainly clays) underwent heat-induced changes. We also compared volume normalized values of magnetic susceptibility with mass normalized values. Mass normalized magnetic susceptibility was burdened by greater noise. References: [1] QUIJANO, L. et al. 2001. Magnetic Susceptibilty in Topsoils and Bulk Cores of Cultivated Calcisols. [2] DEARING, J. A. 1994. Environmental Magnetic Susceptibility. [3] HANESCH, M. and SCHOLGER, R. 2005. The Influence of Soil Type on the Magnetic Susceptibility Measured throughout Soil Profiles. [4] FARWIG, V. J. et al. 2004. The Effects of Heating on Mineral Magnetic Enhancement of Soils. [5] KLETETSCHKA, G

  7. The magnetic susceptibility of European agricultural soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, K.; Reimann, C.

    2012-04-01

    The GEMAS (Geochemical mapping of agricultural soils) project, a cooperation project between EuroGeoSurveys and Eurometaux, aims at providing soil quality data for Europe. Samples of arable soil were taken during 2008 at an average density of 1 site/2500 km2 covering the member states of the European Union (except Malta and Romania) and several neighbouring countries (e.g., Norway, Serbia, Ukraine). While the primary aim of the GEMAS project is to produce REACH (Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of CHemicals - EC, 2006) consistent soil geochemistry data at the continental scale, the data set is also optimally apt to provide the first continental scale overview of magnetic properties in European soils. Soil samples from the upper 20 cm were taken as composites from 5 sites spread over a ca. 100 m2 area in a large agricultural field (Ap-sample). The samples were air dried and sieved to pass a 2 mm nylon screen. Weight normalized magnetic susceptibility of these dried samples was measured using a Sapphire Instruments SI2B susceptibility meter with dynamic background removal. The here presented maps of magnetic susceptibility in relation to geochemical composition and geological structures for the first time allow to outline the large scale influence of tectonics and climate on magnetic mineral concentration in European soils. The data set also provides the background variability for regional studies aiming to relate magnetic susceptibility of soils to local contamination sources.

  8. Nonobese diabetic mice and the genetics of diabetes susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Edward H

    2005-04-01

    The nonobese diabetic mouse spontaneously develops an autoimmune, T-cell-mediated type 1 diabetes (T1D). Common and rare alleles both within a diabetogenic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and multiple non-MHC genes combine to impair normal communication between the innate and acquired immune system, leading to loss of immune tolerance. An understanding of how variable collections of genes interact with each other and with environmental cues offers important insights as to the complexities of T1D inheritance in humans.

  9. Network susceptibilities: Theory and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manik, Debsankha; Rohden, Martin; Ronellenfitsch, Henrik; Zhang, Xiaozhu; Hallerberg, Sarah; Witthaut, Dirk; Timme, Marc

    2017-01-01

    We introduce the concept of network susceptibilities quantifying the response of the collective dynamics of a network to small parameter changes. We distinguish two types of susceptibilities: vertex susceptibilities and edge susceptibilities, measuring the responses due to changes in the properties of units and their interactions, respectively. We derive explicit forms of network susceptibilities for oscillator networks close to steady states and offer example applications for Kuramoto-type phase-oscillator models, power grid models, and generic flow models. Focusing on the role of the network topology implies that these ideas can be easily generalized to other types of networks, in particular those characterizing flow, transport, or spreading phenomena. The concept of network susceptibilities is broadly applicable and may straightforwardly be transferred to all settings where networks responses of the collective dynamics to topological changes are essential.

  10. Topological Susceptibility from Slabs

    CERN Document Server

    Bietenholz, Wolfgang; Gerber, Urs

    2015-01-01

    In quantum field theories with topological sectors, a non-perturbative quantity of interest is the topological susceptibility chi_t. In principle it seems straightforward to measure chi_t by means of Monte Carlo simulations. However, for local update algorithms and fine lattice spacings, this tends to be difficult, since the Monte Carlo history rarely changes the topological sector. Here we test a method to measure chi_t even if data from only one sector are available. It is based on the topological charges in sub-volumes, which we denote as slabs. Assuming a Gaussian distribution of these charges, this method enables the evaluation of chi_t, as we demonstrate with numerical results for non-linear sigma-models.

  11. Modeling susceptibility to periodontitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laine, M.L.; Moustakis, V.; Koumakis, L.; Potamias, G.; Loos, B.G.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory diseases like periodontitis have a complex pathogenesis and a multifactorial etiology, involving complex interactions between multiple genetic loci and infectious agents. We aimed to investigate the influence of genetic polymorphisms and bacteria on chronic periodontitis risk.

  12. Modeling susceptibility to periodontitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laine, M.L.; Moustakis, V.; Koumakis, L.; Potamias, G.; Loos, B.G.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory diseases like periodontitis have a complex pathogenesis and a multifactorial etiology, involving complex interactions between multiple genetic loci and infectious agents. We aimed to investigate the influence of genetic polymorphisms and bacteria on chronic periodontitis risk. W

  13. Alterations in Intestinal Microbiota Correlate With Susceptibility to Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkanani, Aimon K; Hara, Naoko; Gottlieb, Peter A; Ir, Diana; Robertson, Charles E; Wagner, Brandie D; Frank, Daniel N; Zipris, Danny

    2015-10-01

    We tested the hypothesis that alterations in the intestinal microbiota are linked with the progression of type 1 diabetes (T1D). Herein, we present results from a study performed in subjects with islet autoimmunity living in the U.S. High-throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes and adjustment for sex, age, autoantibody presence, and HLA indicated that the gut microbiomes of seropositive subjects differed from those of autoantibody-free first-degree relatives (FDRs) in the abundance of four taxa. Furthermore, subjects with autoantibodies, seronegative FDRs, and new-onset patients had different levels of the Firmicutes genera Lactobacillus and Staphylococcus compared with healthy control subjects with no family history of autoimmunity. Further analysis revealed trends toward increased and reduced abundances of the Bacteroidetes genera Bacteroides and Prevotella, respectively, in seropositive subjects with multiple versus one autoantibody. Canonical discriminant analysis suggested that the gut microbiomes of autoantibody-positive individuals and seronegative FDRs clustered together but separate from those of new-onset patients and unrelated healthy control subjects. Finally, no differences in biodiversity were evident in seropositive versus seronegative FDRs. These observations suggest that altered intestinal microbiota may be associated with disease susceptibility.

  14. Mitochondrial genetics and obesity: evolutionary adaptation and contemporary disease susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham-Snary, Kimberly J; Ballinger, Scott W

    2013-12-01

    Obesity is a leading risk factor for a variety of metabolic diseases including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer. Although in its simplest terms, obesity may be thought of as a consequence of excessive caloric intake and sedentary lifestyle, it is also evident that individual propensity for weight gain can vary. The etiology of individual susceptibility to obesity seems to be complex-involving a combination of environmental-genetic interactions. Herein, we suggest that the mitochondrion plays a major role in influencing individual susceptibility to this disease via mitochondrial-nuclear interaction processes and that environmentally influenced selection events for mitochondrial function that conveyed increased reproductive and survival success during the global establishment of human populations during prehistoric times can influence individual susceptibility to weight gain and obesity. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Fine mapping of type 1 diabetes susceptibility loci and evidence for colocalization of causal variants with lymphoid gene enhancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onengut-Gumuscu, Suna; Chen, Wei-Min; Burren, Oliver;

    2015-01-01

    , the Immunochip, was developed, from which we identified four new T1D-associated regions (P immune diseases showed that T1D is more similar genetically to other autoantibody-positive diseases, significantly most similar to juvenile idiopathic arthritis...

  16. [Antimicrobial susceptibility in Chile 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes-D, Marcela; Silva, Francisco; García, Patricia; Bello, Helia; Briceño, Isabel; Calvo-A, Mario; Labarca, Jaime

    2014-04-01

    Bacteria antimicrobial resistance is an uncontrolled public health problem that progressively increases its magnitude and complexity. The Grupo Colaborativo de Resistencia, formed by a join of experts that represent 39 Chilean health institutions has been concerned with bacteria antimicrobial susceptibility in our country since 2008. In this document we present in vitro bacterial susceptibility accumulated during year 2012 belonging to 28 national health institutions that represent about 36% of hospital discharges in Chile. We consider of major importance to report periodically bacteria susceptibility so to keep the medical community updated to achieve target the empirical antimicrobial therapies and the control measures and prevention of the dissemination of multiresistant strains.

  17. Serological Characterization and Antimicrobial Susceptibility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    300L Coordinator

    identified and antibiotic susceptibility test was performed using standard procedures. The total .... serotypes and their antimicrobial resistivity patterns from patients ..... the best of our knowledge). ... Testing of Bacterial Pathogens of Public.

  18. Genetic diversity and disease susceptibility.

    OpenAIRE

    Bodmer, W F

    1997-01-01

    The range of genetic diversity within human populations is enormous. Genetic susceptibility to common chronic disease is a significant part of this genetic diversity, which also includes a variety of rare clear-cut inherited diseases. Modern DNA-based genomic analysis can now routinely lead to the identification of genes involved in disease susceptibility, provides the basis for genetic counselling in affected families, and more widely for a genetically targeted approach to disease prevention...

  19. The influence of early exposure to vitamin D for development of diseases later in life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Ramune; Abrahamsen, Bo; Bauerek, Marta;

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is common among otherwise healthy pregnant women and may have consequences for them as well as the early development and long-term health of their children. However, the importance of maternal vitamin D status on offspring health later in life has not been widely studied. The....... The present study includes an in-depth examination of the influence of exposure to vitamin D early in life for development of fractures of the wrist, arm and clavicle; obesity, and type 1 diabetes (T1D) during child- and adulthood....

  20. Fatores relacionados à suscetibilidade da erosão em entressulcos sob condições de uso e manejo do solo Factors influencing susceptibility to interrill soil erosion under different land use and management conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio P. de Oliveira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram avaliados fatores relacionados com a suscetibilidade a erosão em entressulcos de um Neossolo Litólico submetido a diferentes intensidades de uso e manejo do solo. O experimento foi realizado em condições de laboratório, utilizando-se amostras deformadas de solo colocadas em parcelas experimentais (0,23 m2 e declividade de 0,09 m m-1. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos casualizados, em que foram aplicadas chuvas simuladas com intensidade de 100 mm h-1 para os seguintes tratamentos: (I solo cultivado com fumo sob preparo convencional (PC; (II solo cultivado com fumo sob plantio direto (PD e (III solo sob mata nativa (MN. Para avaliar a suscetibilidade a erosão em entressulcos utilizaram-se índices referentes à relação energia cinética total (chuva e escoamento sobre perda de solo, taxa média de desagregação e índice de estabilidade de agregados, cujos resultados mostraram que os fatores relacionados com a suscetibilidade a erosão em entressulcos estão associados não apenas com características e propriedades que conferem coesividade ao solo, mas, também, com condicionantes que afetam a hidráulica do escoamento e, consequentemente, a fase de transporte dos sedimentos.This study evaluated factors related to the suscetibility to the interrill soil erosion in an Entisol subjected to different degrees of soil use and management. The experiment was carried out under laboratory conditions using samples collected from tobacco fields and disturbed soil placed in erosion pans measuring (0.23 m2 with a slope of 0.09 m m-1. The experimental design was in randomized blocks. Simulated rainfall intensity of 100 mm h-1 was applied to the following treatments: (I conventionally tilled soil; (II no-till soil; and (III native forest soil. Total kinetic energy (rainfall and runoff to soil loss, average rate of detachment, and aggregate stability indexes were used to assess susceptibility to interrill erosion

  1. Gender stereotype susceptibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina A Pavlova

    Full Text Available Gender affects performance on a variety of cognitive tasks, and this impact may stem from socio-cultural factors such as gender stereotyping. Here we systematically manipulated gender stereotype messages on a social cognition task on which no initial gender gap has been documented. The outcome reveals: (i Stereotyping affects both females and males, with a more pronounced impact on females. Yet an explicit negative message for males elicits a striking paradoxical deterioration in performance of females. (ii Irrespective of gender and directness of message, valence of stereotype message affects performance: negative messages have stronger influence than positive ones. (iii Directness of stereotype message differentially impacts performance of females and males: females tend to be stronger affected by implicit than explicit negative messages, whereas in males this relationship is opposite. The data are discussed in the light of neural networks underlying gender stereotyping. The findings provide novel insights into the sources of gender related fluctuations in cognition and behavior.

  2. Gender stereotype susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Marina A; Weber, Susanna; Simoes, Elisabeth; Sokolov, Alexander N

    2014-01-01

    Gender affects performance on a variety of cognitive tasks, and this impact may stem from socio-cultural factors such as gender stereotyping. Here we systematically manipulated gender stereotype messages on a social cognition task on which no initial gender gap has been documented. The outcome reveals: (i) Stereotyping affects both females and males, with a more pronounced impact on females. Yet an explicit negative message for males elicits a striking paradoxical deterioration in performance of females. (ii) Irrespective of gender and directness of message, valence of stereotype message affects performance: negative messages have stronger influence than positive ones. (iii) Directness of stereotype message differentially impacts performance of females and males: females tend to be stronger affected by implicit than explicit negative messages, whereas in males this relationship is opposite. The data are discussed in the light of neural networks underlying gender stereotyping. The findings provide novel insights into the sources of gender related fluctuations in cognition and behavior.

  3. Gender Stereotype Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Marina A.; Weber, Susanna; Simoes, Elisabeth; Sokolov, Alexander N.

    2014-01-01

    Gender affects performance on a variety of cognitive tasks, and this impact may stem from socio-cultural factors such as gender stereotyping. Here we systematically manipulated gender stereotype messages on a social cognition task on which no initial gender gap has been documented. The outcome reveals: (i) Stereotyping affects both females and males, with a more pronounced impact on females. Yet an explicit negative message for males elicits a striking paradoxical deterioration in performance of females. (ii) Irrespective of gender and directness of message, valence of stereotype message affects performance: negative messages have stronger influence than positive ones. (iii) Directness of stereotype message differentially impacts performance of females and males: females tend to be stronger affected by implicit than explicit negative messages, whereas in males this relationship is opposite. The data are discussed in the light of neural networks underlying gender stereotyping. The findings provide novel insights into the sources of gender related fluctuations in cognition and behavior. PMID:25517903

  4. Effect of Anti-dots on the Magnetic Susceptibility in a Superconducting Long Prism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, C. A.; Joya, Miryam R.; Barba-Ortega, J.

    2017-02-01

    The magnetic susceptibility of a long mesoscopic superconducting square prism containing one/two (dot) anti-dots is calculated in the framework of the Ginzburg-Landau theoretical model. This magnetic susceptibility shows jumps at each of the vortex transition fields. We studied the influence of the number, size and geometry of the anti-dots on the magnetic susceptibility in a superconducting sample. We found interesting physical behavior when several kinds of materials filled into the anti-dot are considered.

  5. Differential Susceptibility to Parenting and Quality Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluess, Michael; Belsky, Jay

    2010-01-01

    Research on differential susceptibility to rearing suggests that infants with difficult temperaments are disproportionately affected by parenting and child care quality, but a major U.S. child care study raises questions as to whether quality of care influences social adjustment. One thousand three hundred sixty-four American children from…

  6. Nurses and Dietitians Differ in Food Safety Information Provided to Highly Susceptible Clients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffer, Janet; Kendall, Patricia; Medeiros, Lydia; Schroeder, Mary; Sofos, John

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine content, education channels, and motivational factors that influence what health professionals teach about safe food handling to populations who are highly susceptible for foodborne illnesses. To assess the differences in information provided by health professionals to highly susceptible populations. Design: Descriptive,…

  7. Echinocandin Susceptibility Testing of Candida spp. Using EUCAST EDef 7.1 and CLSI M27-A3 Standard Procedures: Analysis of the Influence of Bovine Serum Albumin Supplementation, Storage Time, and Drug Lots▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Rodriguez-Tudela, Juan-Luis; Park, Steven; Garcia-Effron, Guillermo; Delmas, Guillaume; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Gomez-Lopez, Alicia; Perlin, David S.

    2011-01-01

    The MICs of echinocandins against Candida isolates with fks mutations are higher than those for wild-type (WT) isolates. However, the MIC ranges for susceptible and mutant populations overlap or are poorly separated. It was recently reported that a greater separation could be achieved in the presence of serum. To more fully explore this possibility, we compared the performances of the reference microdilution methods by using standard and bovine serum albumin (BSA)-supplemented growth medium. Anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin MICs were determined according to EUCAST and CLSI methods and with 50% BSA in the medium for 93 clinical isolates, including Candida albicans (20/10 [number of isolates/number of mutants]), C. glabrata (19/10), C. dubliniensis (2/1), C. krusei (16/3), C. parapsilosis (19), and C. tropicalis (19/4) isolates. Stability of the plates was tested after storage at −80°C for 2 and 6 months, and the performance of two different lots of caspofungin was investigated. The addition of BSA to the medium resulted in higher MICs (1 to 9 2-fold dilution steps) for all isolates and compounds. The increases were greatest for anidulafungin and micafungin and, among WT isolates, for C. parapsilosis. The number of very major errors (VMEs) was reduced (24% [20/84 isolates] versus ≤7% [6/84 isolates]) using BSA-supplemented EUCAST medium but not using BSA-supplemented CLSI medium (6% versus 9%). MIC results were unchanged after 6 months of storage of test plates. The two lots of caspofungin yielded identical results. Addition of BSA to the EUCAST medium increases the ability to differentiate between WT isolates and isolates harboring resistance mutations. PMID:21245440

  8. Inherited susceptibility and radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, J.B. [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States)

    1997-03-01

    There is continuing concern that some people in the general population may have genetic makeups that place them at particularly high risk for radiation-induced cancer. The existence of such a susceptible subpopulation would have obvious implications for the estimation of risks of radiation exposure. Although it has been long known that familial aggregations of cancer do sometimes occur, recent evidence suggests that a general genetic predisposition to cancer does not exist; most cancers occur sporadically. On the other hand, nearly 10% of the known Mendelian genetic disorders are associated with cancer. A number of these involve a familial predisposition to cancer, and some are characterized by an enhanced susceptibility to the induction of cancer by various physical and chemical carcinogens, including ionizing radiation. Such increased susceptibility will depend on several factors including the frequency of the susceptibility gene in the population and its penetrance, the strength of the predisposition, and the degree to which the cancer incidence in susceptible individuals may be increased by the carcinogen. It is now known that these cancer-predisposing genes may be responsible not only for rare familial cancer syndromes, but also for a proportion of the common cancers. Although the currently known disorders can account for only a small fraction of all cancers, they serve as models for genetic predisposition to carcinogen-induced cancer in the general population. In the present report, the author describes current knowledge of those specific disorders that are associated with an enhanced predisposition to radiation-induced cancer, and discusses how this knowledge may bear on the susceptibility to radiation-induced cancer in the general population and estimates of the risk of radiation exposure.

  9. Heck's disease: diagnosis and susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Lindsey K; Hinshaw, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia, or Heck's disease, is an uncommon proliferation of oral mucosa that presents primarily in Native Central and South American populations. It presents as asymptomatic papules or nodules on the oral mucosa, gingiva, tongue, and lips. In the majority of cases, human papilloma virus 13 or 32 is detected. Factors that determine disease susceptibility are unclear, but genetics, and having the human lymphocytic antigen-DR4 (DRB1*0404) allele in particular, are thought to play a major role in disease vulnerability. We report another case of focal epithelial hyperplasia, hypothesize on disease susceptibility, and review the current understanding of this uncommon disorder.

  10. Isolation method (direct plating or enrichment) does not affect antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter from chicken carcasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine if Campylobacter isolation method influenced antimicrobial susceptibility results, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of nine antimicrobials were compared for 291 pairs of Campylobacter isolates recovered from chicken carcass rinse samples using direct plating and an enrichment...

  11. Emotional autonomy versus susceptibility to peer pressure: A case study of Hong Kong adolescent students

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kwok-wai Chan; Siu-mui Chan

    2008-01-01

      Susceptibility to peer pressure and conformity to peers may be problematic when the adolescents are influenced by one another to participate in deviant and antisocial activities such as cigarette...

  12. Genetic Susceptibility to Vitiligo: GWAS Approaches for Identifying Vitiligo Susceptibility Genes and Loci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang eShen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Vitiligo is an autoimmune disease with a strong genetic component, characterized by areas of depigmented skin resulting from loss of epidermal melanocytes. Genetic factors are known to play key roles in vitiligo through discoveries in association and family studies. Previously, vitiligo susceptibility genes were mainly revealed through linkage analysis and candidate gene studies. Our understanding of the genetic basis of vitiligo has been rapidly advancing through genome-wide association studies (GWASs. More than 40 robust susceptible loci have been identified and confirmed to be associated with vitiligo by using GWASs. Most of these associated genes participate in important pathways involved in the pathogenesis of vitiligo, such as immunoregulatory function, melanocyte regulation and so on. A number of susceptible loci with unknown functions in the pathogenesis of vitiligo have also been identified, indicating that additional molecular mechanisms may contribute to the risk of developing vitiligo. In this review, we summarize the key loci that are of genome-wide significance, which have been shown to influence vitiligo risk. These genetic loci may help build the foundation for genetic diagnosis and personalize treatment for patients with vitiligo in the future. However, substantial additional studies, including gene-targeted and functional studies, are required to confirm the causality of the genetic variants and their biological relevance in vitiligo development.

  13. Genetic Susceptibility to Vitiligo: GWAS Approaches for Identifying Vitiligo Susceptibility Genes and Loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Changbing; Gao, Jing; Sheng, Yujun; Dou, Jinfa; Zhou, Fusheng; Zheng, Xiaodong; Ko, Randy; Tang, Xianfa; Zhu, Caihong; Yin, Xianyong; Sun, Liangdan; Cui, Yong; Zhang, Xuejun

    2016-01-01

    Vitiligo is an autoimmune disease with a strong genetic component, characterized by areas of depigmented skin resulting from loss of epidermal melanocytes. Genetic factors are known to play key roles in vitiligo through discoveries in association studies and family studies. Previously, vitiligo susceptibility genes were mainly revealed through linkage analysis and candidate gene studies. Recently, our understanding of the genetic basis of vitiligo has been rapidly advancing through genome-wide association study (GWAS). More than 40 robust susceptible loci have been identified and confirmed to be associated with vitiligo by using GWAS. Most of these associated genes participate in important pathways involved in the pathogenesis of vitiligo. Many susceptible loci with unknown functions in the pathogenesis of vitiligo have also been identified, indicating that additional molecular mechanisms may contribute to the risk of developing vitiligo. In this review, we summarize the key loci that are of genome-wide significance, which have been shown to influence vitiligo risk. These genetic loci may help build the foundation for genetic diagnosis and personalize treatment for patients with vitiligo in the future. However, substantial additional studies, including gene-targeted and functional studies, are required to confirm the causality of the genetic variants and their biological relevance in the development of vitiligo.

  14. Differential Susceptibility: The Genetic Moderation of Peer Pressure on Alcohol Use

    OpenAIRE

    Griffin, Amanda M.; Cleveland, H. Harrington; Schlomer, Gabriel L.; Vandenbergh, David J; Feinberg, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    Although peer pressure can influence adolescents’ alcohol use, individual susceptibility to these pressures varies across individuals. The dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4) is a potential candidate gene that may influence adolescents’ susceptibility to their peer environment due to the role dopamine plays in reward sensation during social interaction. We hypothesized that DRD4 genotype status would moderate the impact of 7th-grade antisocial peer pressure on 12th-grade lifetime alcohol use (n ...

  15. Prion protein and scrapie susceptibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, M.A.; Bossers, A.; Schreuder, B.E.C.

    1997-01-01

    This article presents briefly current views on the role of prion protein (PrP) in Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies or prion diseases and the effect of PrP polymoryhisms on the susceptibility to these diseases, with special emphasis on sheep scrapie. The PrP genotype of sheep apears to be a

  16. Topological susceptibility from overlap fermion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    应和平; 张剑波

    2003-01-01

    We numerically calculate the topological charge of the gauge configurations on a finite lattice by the fermionic method with overlap fermions. By using the lattice index theorem, we identify the index of the massless overlap fermion operator to the topological charge of the background gauge configuration. The resulting topological susceptibility X is in good agreement with the anticipation made by Witten and Veneziano.

  17. 交互性影响敏感性对炫耀性消费偏好的作用——基于新媒体环境的量表改进%Role of Consumer Susceptibility to Interpersonal Influence on the Preference of Conspicuous Consumption—Improvement of Scale in New Media Context

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何迪

    2015-01-01

    In order to check the role of consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence on consumption reference , 274 samples of college students are selected by judgmental sampling method to improve the scale .And the new scale contains four factors named as evo-cation effect , celebrity effect , acquaintance effect and conformity effect .AMOS is used to assess the hypothesis model and the hypothe-sis is verified, which indicates that the new reference group with certain geographical distance and social distance will have significant influence on consumers ' conspicuous consumption preference .%为了验证新媒体环境下消费者的交互性影响敏感性对消费偏好的作用, 运用判断抽样方法选取了274个在校大学生样本对量表进行了改进, 新量表包括唤醒效应、 熟人效应、 名人效应及从众效应4个维度; 并运用AMOS对假设模型进行了拟合分析, 假设得到了验证, 说明具有一定地理距离、 社会距离的新型参照群体确实会对消费者的炫耀性消费偏好产生显著影响.

  18. Genetics of RA susceptibility, what comes next?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, James; Eyre, Stephen; Worthington, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Summary Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have been used to great effect to identify genetic susceptibility loci for complex disease. A series of GWAS and meta-analyses have informed the discovery of over 100 loci for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In common with findings in other autoimmune diseases the lead signals for the majority of these loci do not map to known gene sequences. In order to realise the benefit of investment in GWAS studies it is vital we determine how disease associated alleles function to influence disease processes. This is leading to rapid development in our knowledge as to the function of non-coding regions of the genome. Here we consider possible functional mechanisms for intergenic RA-associated variants which lie within lncRNA sequences. PMID:26509058

  19. Sociability and susceptibility to the common cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Sheldon; Doyle, William J; Turner, Ronald; Alper, Cuneyt M; Skoner, David P

    2003-09-01

    There is considerable evidence that social relationships can influence health, but only limited evidence on the health effects of the personality characteristics that are thought to mold people's social lives. We asked whether sociability predicts resistance to infectious disease and whether this relationship is attributable to the quality and quantity of social interactions and relationships. Three hundred thirty-four volunteers completed questionnaires assessing their sociability, social networks, and social supports, and six evening interviews assessing daily interactions. They were subsequently exposed to a virus that causes a common cold and monitored to see who developed verifiable illness. Increased sociability was associated in a linear fashion with a decreased probability of developing a cold. Although sociability was associated with more and higher-quality social interactions, it predicted disease susceptibility independently of these variables. The association between sociability and disease was also independent of baseline immunity (virus-specific antibody), demographics, emotional styles, stress hormones, and health practices.

  20. Clay mineralogy and magnetic susceptibility of Oxisols in geomorphic surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Arantes Camargo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies analyzing the variability of clay minerals and magnetic susceptibility provide data for the delineation of site-specific management areas since many of their attributes are important to agronomy and the environment. This study aimed to evaluate the spatial variability of clay minerals, magnetic susceptibility, adsorbed phosphorus and physical attributes in Oxisols of sandstones in different geomorphic surfaces. For that purpose, soil samples were collected every 25 m along a transect located within the area where the geomorphic surfaces were identified and mapped. The transect occupied the central portion of 500 ha, where it was also sampled for density purposes with one sample per six hectares. Soil samples were collected at a depth of 0.0-0.2 m. The results of the physical, chemical, mineralogical and magnetic susceptibility analyses were subjected to statistical and geostatistical analyses. The nature of the clay minerals and magnetic susceptibility was dependent on the variation of the soil parent material. High values of magnetic susceptibility were associated with the presence of maghemite and magnetite of coarse size. The spatial variability of crystallinity and the content of Fe oxides, as well as magnetic susceptibility, were dependent on the age of the geomorphic surfaces. The youngest surface had greater spatial variability of these attributes. The iron (goethite and hematite and aluminum (gibbsite oxides in the youngest geomorphic surface influenced the low values of soil density and high values of total pore volume, micropores and P adsorption. The characterization of the spatial variability of Fe oxides and susceptibility allowed for the delineation of homogeneous areas.

  1. Tobacco Marketing, E-cigarette Susceptibility, and Perceptions among Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicksic, Nicole E; Snell, L Morgan; Rudy, Alyssa K; Cobb, Caroline O; Barnes, Andrew J

    2017-09-01

    Understanding the impact of tobacco marketing on e-cigarette (EC) susceptibility and perceptions is essential to inform efforts to mitigate tobacco product burden on public health. Data were collected online in 2016 from 634 conventional cigarette (CC) smokers and 393 non-smokers using a convenience sample from Amazon Mechanical Turk. Logistic regression models, stratified by smoking status and adjusted for socio-demographics, examined the relationship among tobacco advertisements and coupons, EC and CC susceptibility, and EC perceptions. Among non-smokers, increased exposure to tobacco advertising and receiving tobacco coupons was significantly related to measures of EC and CC susceptibility (p exposure to tobacco advertising was significantly associated with the perceptions of EC not containing nicotine and being less addictive than CC among smokers (p exposure to tobacco advertising outlets could influence future EC and CC use in non-smokers and perceptions in smokers, while receiving coupons could affect EC and CC susceptibility among non-smokers. Future research is needed to determine whether policies to minimize exposure to tobacco marketing reduce EC use by decreasing susceptibility.

  2. Genetic susceptibility to non-necrotizing erysipelas/cellulitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katariina Hannula-Jouppi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bacterial non-necrotizing erysipelas and cellulitis are often recurring, diffusely spreading infections of the skin and subcutaneous tissues caused most commonly by streptococci. Host genetic factors influence infection susceptibility but no extensive studies on the genetic determinants of human erysipelas exist. METHODS: We performed genome-wide linkage with the 10,000 variant Human Mapping Array (HMA10K array on 52 Finnish families with multiple erysipelas cases followed by microsatellite fine mapping of suggestive linkage peaks. A scan with the HMA250K array was subsequently performed with a subset of cases and controls. RESULTS: Significant linkage was found at 9q34 (nonparametric multipoint linkage score (NPL(all 3.84, p=0.026, which is syntenic to a quantitative trait locus for susceptibility to group A streptococci infections on chromosome 2 in mouse. Sequencing of candidate genes in the 9q34 region did not conclusively associate any to erysipelas/cellulitis susceptibility. Suggestive linkage (NPL(all>3.0 was found at three loci: 3q22-24, 21q22, and 22q13. A subsequent denser genome scan with the HMA250K array supported the 3q22 locus, in which several SNPs in the promoter of AGTR1 (Angiotensin II receptor type I suggestively associated with erysipelas/cellulitis susceptibility. CONCLUSIONS: Specific host genetic factors may cause erysipelas/cellulitis susceptibility in humans.

  3. Epidemic extinction in a generalized susceptible-infected-susceptible model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hanshuang; Huang, Feng; Zhang, Haifeng; Li, Guofeng

    2017-01-01

    We study the extinction of epidemics in a generalized susceptible-infected-susceptible model, where a susceptible individual becomes infected at the rate λ when contacting m infective individual(s) simultaneously, and an infected individual spontaneously recovers at the rate μ. By employing the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation for the master equation, the problem is reduced to finding the zero-energy trajectories in an effective Hamiltonian system, and the mean extinction time depends exponentially on the associated action S and the size of the population N, ˜ \\exp ≤ft(NS\\right) . Because of qualitatively different bifurcation features for m  =  1 and m≥slant 2 , we derive independently the expressions of S as a function of the rescaled infection rate λ /μ . For the weak infection, S scales to the distance to the bifurcation with an exponent 2 for m  =  1 and 3/2 for m≥slant 2 . Finally, a rare-event simulation method is used to validate the theory.

  4. Biofilm susceptibility to metal toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Joe J; Ceri, Howard; Stremick, Carol A; Turner, Raymond J

    2004-12-01

    This study compared bacterial biofilm and planktonic cell susceptibility to metal toxicity by evaluating the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), the planktonic minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), and minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) using the MBEC device. In total, 17 metal cations and oxyanions, chosen to represent groups VIB to VIA of the periodic table, were each tested on biofilm and planktonic cultures of Escherichia coli JM109, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. In contrast to control antibiotic assays, where biofilm cultures were 2 to 64 times less susceptible to killing than logarithmically growing planktonic bacteria, metal compounds killed planktonic and biofilm cultures at the same concentration in the vast majority of combinations. Our data indicate that, under the conditions reported, growth in a biofilm does not provide resistance to bacteria against killing by metal cations or oxyanions.

  5. Topological susceptibility from the overlap

    CERN Document Server

    Del Debbio, L; Debbio, Luigi Del; Pica, Claudio

    2004-01-01

    The chiral symmetry at finite lattice spacing of Ginsparg-Wilson fermionic actions constrains the renormalization of the lattice operators; in particular, the topological susceptibility does not require any renormalization, when using a fermionic estimator to define the topological charge. Therefore, the overlap formalism appears as an appealing candidate to study the continuum limit of the topological susceptibility while keeping the systematic errors under theoretical control. We present results for the SU(3) pure gauge theory using the index of the overlap Dirac operator to study the topology of the gauge configurations. The topological charge is obtained from the zero modes of the overlap and using a new algorithm for the spectral flow analysis. A detailed comparison with cooling techniques is presented. Particular care is taken in assessing the systematic errors. Relatively high statistics (500 to 1000 independent configurations) yield an extrapolated continuum limit with errors that are comparable with ...

  6. Topological susceptibility from the overlap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Debbio, Luigi; Pica, Claudio

    2003-01-01

    The chiral symmetry at finite lattice spacing of Ginsparg-Wilson fermionic actions constrains the renormalization of the lattice operators; in particular, the topological susceptibility does not require any renormalization, when using a fermionic estimator to define the topological charge....... Therefore, the overlap formalism appears as an appealing candidate to study the continuum limit of the topological susceptibility while keeping the systematic errors under theoretical control. We present results for the SU(3) pure gauge theory using the index of the overlap Dirac operator to study...... the topology of the gauge configurations. The topological charge is obtained from the zero modes of the overlap and using a new algorithm for the spectral flow analysis. A detailed comparison with cooling techniques is presented. Particular care is taken in assessing the systematic errors. Relatively high...

  7. Antimycotics susceptibility testing of dermatophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsić-Arsenijević Valentina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatophytes are moulds that produce infections of the skin, hair and nails of humans and animals. The most common forms among these infections are onychomycosis and tinea pedis affecting 20% of world population. These infections are usually chronic. The treatment of dermatophytoses tends to be prolonged partly because available treatments are not very effective. Antifungal drug consumption and public health expenditure are high worldwide, as well as in Serbia. For adequate therapy, it is necessary to prove infection by isolation of dermatophytes and to test the antifungal susceptibility of isolates. Susceptibility testing is important for the resistance monitoring, epidemiological research and to compare in vitro activities of new antifungal agents. The diffusion and dilution methods of susceptibility tests are used, and technical issues of importance for the proper performance and interpretation of test results are published in the document E.DEF 9.1 (EUCAST and M38-A2 (CLSI. The aim of our paper is to promptly inform the public about technical achievements in this area, as well as the new organization of laboratory for medical mycology in our country. The formation of laboratory networks coordinated by the National Reference Laboratory for the cause of mycosis need to enable interlaboratory studies and further standardization of methods for antifungal susceptibility testing of dermatophytes, reproducibility of tests and clinical correlation monitoring (MIK values and clinical outcome of dermatophytosis. The importance of the new organization is expected efficient improvement in the dermatophytosis therapy at home, better quality of patient's life and the reduction of the cost of treatment.

  8. A New Approach for Calculating Vacuum Susceptibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宗红石; 平加伦; 顾建中

    2004-01-01

    Based on the Dyson-Schwinger approach, we propose a new method for calculating vacuum susceptibilities. As an example, the vector vacuum susceptibility is calculated. A comparison with the results of the previous approaches is presented.

  9. Enumeration, Isolation and Antibiotic Susceptibility Profile of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibiotic susceptibility testing of the isolates indicated that S. aureus species had the highest susceptibility of 14(93.3%) .... which sterile forceps were used to carefully remove the disc from its ..... micro-organisms found in public telephones.

  10. Antibiotic susceptibility of Atopobium vaginae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verschraegen Gerda

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have indicated that a recently described anaerobic bacterium, Atopobium vaginae is associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV. Thus far the four isolates of this fastidious micro-organism were found to be highly resistant to metronidazole and susceptible for clindamycin, two antibiotics preferred for the treatment of BV. Methods Nine strains of Atopobium vaginae, four strains of Gardnerella vaginalis, two strains of Lactobacillus iners and one strain each of Bifidobacterium breve, B. longum, L. crispatus, L. gasseri and L. jensenii were tested against 15 antimicrobial agents using the Etest. Results All nine strains of A. vaginae were highly resistant to nalidixic acid and colistin while being inhibited by low concentrations of clindamycin (range: G. vaginalis strains were also susceptible for clindamycin ( 256 μg/ml but susceptible to clindamycin (0.023 – 0.125 μg/ml. Conclusion Clindamycin has higher activity against G. vaginalis and A. vaginae than metronidazole, but not all A. vaginae isolates are metronidazole resistant, as seemed to be a straightforward conclusion from previous studies on a more limited number of strains.

  11. Alu Elements as Novel Regulators of Gene Expression in Type 1 Diabetes Susceptibility Genes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur, Simranjeet; Pociot, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Despite numerous studies implicating Alu repeat elements in various diseases, there is sparse information available with respect to the potential functional and biological roles of the repeat elements in Type 1 diabetes (T1D). Therefore, we performed a genome-wide sequence analysis of T1D candidate...... genes to identify embedded Alu elements within these genes. We observed significant enrichment of Alu elements within the T1D genes (p-value genes harboring Alus revealed significant enrichment for immune......-mediated processes (p-value genes harboring inverted Alus (IRAlus) within their 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) that are known to regulate the expression of host mRNAs by generating double stranded RNA duplexes. Our in silico analysis predicted the formation of duplex structures...

  12. Mechanisms of inherited cancer susceptibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shirley HODGSON

    2008-01-01

    A small proportion of many cancers are due to inherited mutations in genes, which result in a high risk to the individual of developing specific cancers. There are several classes of genes that may be involved: tumour suppressor genes, oncogenes, genes encoding proteins involved in DNA repair and cell cycle control, and genes involved in stimulating the angiogenic pathway. Alterations in susceptibility to cancer may also be due to variations in genes involved in carcinogen metabolism. This review discusses examples of some of these genes and the associated clinical conditions caused by the inheritance of mutations in such genes.

  13. Genetic susceptibility to environmental toxicants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    combined with well conducted clinical trials and epidemiological studies will greatly improve our chances of devising strategies for the reduction of harm. This symposium can, at least in part, make a contribution to our current understanding of genetic susceptibility to environmental toxicants...... to take toxicological data and both interpret and extrapolate it in a manner as to cause exaggerated concern. The challenge to the toxicologist is to explain what data means and in a way that inspires the confidence in those who have to apply data to the assessment of hazard and risk management. It seems...

  14. Polygenic susceptibility to testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Litchfield, Kevin; Mitchell, Jonathan S; Shipley, Janet

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The increasing incidence of testicular germ cell tumour (TGCT) combined with its strong heritable basis suggests that stratified screening for the early detection of TGCT may be clinically useful. We modelled the efficiency of such a personalised screening approach, based on genetic...... known TGCT susceptibility variants. The diagnostic performance of testicular biopsy and non-invasive semen analysis was also assessed, within a simulated combined screening programme. RESULTS: The area under the curve for the TGCT PRS model was 0.72 with individuals in the top 1% of the PRS having...

  15. Genetic Susceptibility to Rhodococcus equi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen, C M; Dindot, S V; Foster, M J; Cohen, N D

    2015-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi pneumonia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatal foals. Much effort has been made to identify preventative measures and new treatments for R. equi with limited success. With a growing focus in the medical community on understanding the genetic basis of disease susceptibility, investigators have begun to evaluate the interaction of the genetics of the foal with R. equi. This review describes past efforts to understand the genetic basis underlying R. equi susceptibility and tolerance. It also highlights the genetic technology available to study horses and describes the use of this technology in investigating R. equi. This review provides readers with a foundational understanding of candidate gene approaches, single nucleotide polymorphism-based, and copy number variant-based genome-wide association studies, and next generation sequencing (both DNA and RNA). Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  16. Influence of TRPV1 on diabetes-induced alterations in thermal pain sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauza Mary E

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A common complication associated with diabetes is painful or painless diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN. The mechanisms and determinants responsible for these peripheral neuropathies are poorly understood. Using both streptozotocin (STZ-induced and transgene-mediated murine models of type 1 diabetes (T1D, we demonstrate that Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1 expression varies with the neuropathic phenotype. We have found that both STZ- and transgene-mediated T1D are associated with two distinct phases of thermal pain sensitivity that parallel changes in TRPV1 as determined by paw withdrawal latency (PWL. An early phase of hyperalgesia and a late phase of hypoalgesia are evident. TRPV1-mediated whole cell currents are larger and smaller in dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons collected from hyperalgesic and hypoalgesic mice. Resiniferatoxin (RTX binding, a measure of TRPV1 expression is increased and decreased in DRG and paw skin of hyperalgesic and hypoalgesic mice, respectively. Immunohistochemical labeling of spinal cord lamina I and II, dorsal root ganglion (DRG, and paw skin from hyperalgesic and hypoalgesic mice reveal increased and decreased TRPV1 expression, respectively. A role for TRPV1 in thermal DPN is further suggested by the failure of STZ treatment to influence thermal nociception in TRPV1 deficient mice. These findings demonstrate that altered TRPV1 expression and function contribute to diabetes-induced changes in thermal perception.

  17. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility of rocks induced by experimental deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zhou

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, the influence of the rheological process on the Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS of rocks is studied experimentally. The cylindrical samples of quartz-magnetite rock undergo a process under the confining stress of 300 MPa, temperature of 500-800 °C and strain rate of 5 ´ 10-5 - 1 ´ 10-4/s. The residual deformation after the above process ranges 9-42%, depending on the experimental condition. It is found that the magnetic susceptibilities and the shapes of magnetic grains in these samples are almost isotropic before deformation. After being deformed, these samples show certain amounts of anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility and the axes of maximum principal susceptibilities deviate from the original ones more or less. Furthermore, the grains become oblate-ellipsoidal and a certain preferred orientation occurs. The grain shape anisotropy seems to be the main reason for AMS formation. It appears that there is a limitation of the piezomagnetic theory in explaining some tectonomagnetic phenomena. The results obtained in this study imply that ductile deformation at high temperature and pressure in depth during a long time-process may result in another kind of response in rock magnetism, which could be a new mechanism of tectonomagnetic variation.

  18. [Yeasts in domestic animals: species identification and susceptibility to antifungals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamal, Petr; Koukalová, Dagmar

    2010-02-01

    Yeasts frequently colonize various kinds of domestic animals, but may also cause serious diseases. The aim of this study was to identify yeast isolates collected from dogs, cows and pigs, and to determine their in vitro antifungal susceptibility. Fifty-six yeast isolates from dogs (n = 24), cows (n = 20), and pigs (n = 12) were investigated. Appearance of colonies grown on Sabouraud agar, micromorphology on rice agar, as well as assimilation and fermentation of various carbon and nitrogen sources were evaluated. Susceptibility to six antifungals (flucytosine, amphotericin B, miconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole and fluconazole) was determined semiquantitatively using the commercially available Fungitest kit (Bio-Rad Laboratories). Ten yeast species were identified in dogs with relatively even distribution. On the other hand, cow and pig were clearly dominated by Candida krusei (from 7 species) and Candida rugosa (from 5 species), respectively. Further, most of yeast isolates exhibited good susceptibility to the antifungals tested particularly to amphotericin B, ketoconazole and itraconazole. Based on results, it can be concluded that significant differences in the species spectrum and distribution were documented between groups of yeasts from dogs, cows and pigs. This is probably due to different environmental conditions and the endogenous origin of the yeast isolates. Mostly good susceptibility to systemic antifungals should positively influence the therapy of diseases caused by yeasts in veterinary medicine.

  19. Influence of bacterial interactions on the susceptibility to photodynamic inactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadya, M. H.; Tegos, G.; Hamblin, M.; Kishen, A.

    2009-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy has emerged as a possible supplement to the existing protocols for endodontic disinfection. Microbes are known to gain significant ecological advantage when they survive as coaggregates and biofilms in an infected tissue. Such microbial coaggregates and biofilms have been confirmed to play a key role in the pathogenicity of many infections. So far, not many studies have correlated the efficacy of antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation (APDI) to the different modes of bacterial growth. This study aims to evaluate the APDI of 3 strains of Enterococcus faecalis in planktonic phase, in a co-aggregated suspension and in a 4-day old biofilm. The results showed that the biofilm mode of growth offered the greatest resistance to APDI and the inclusion of an efflux pump inhibitor significantly increased the APDI of biofilm bacteria. From this study, we conclude that APDI of bacteria in biofilms is the most challenging and that the use of bacterial efflux pump inhibitors enhances its photodynamic antibiofilm efficacy.

  20. The bacterial microbiome of dermacentor andersoni ticks influences pathogen susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticks are of medical and veterinary importance due to their ability to transmit pathogens to humans and animals. The Rocky Mountain wood tick, Dermacentor andersoni, is a vector of a number of pathogens, including Anaplasma marginale, which is the most widespread tick-borne pathogen of livestock. Al...

  1. Copper Status of Exposed Microorganisms Influences Susceptibility to Metallic Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Vincent C.; Spitzmiller, Melissa R.; Hong-Hermesdorf, Anne; Kropat, Janette; Damoiseaux, Robert D.; Merchant, Sabeeha S.; Mahendra, Shaily

    2017-01-01

    Although interactions of metallic nanoparticles (NP) with various microorganisms have been previously explored, few studies have examined how metal sensitivity impacts NP toxicity. Herein, we investigated the effects of copper nanoparticles’ (Cu-NPs) exposure to the model alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, in the presence and absence of the essential micronutrient copper. The toxic ranges for Cu-NPs and the ionic control, CuCl2, were determined using a high-throughput ATP-based fluorescence assay. Cu-NPs caused similar mortality in copper-replete and copper-deplete cells (IC50: 14–16 mg/L), but were less toxic than the ionic control, CuCl2 (IC50: 7 mg/L). Using this concentration range, we assessed Cu-NP impacts to cell morphology, copper accumulation, chlorophyll content, and expression of stress genes under both copper supply states. Osmotic swelling, membrane damage, and chloroplast and organelle disintegration were observed by transmission electron microscopy at both conditions. Despite these similarities, copper-deplete cells showed greater accumulation of loosely bound and tightly bound copper after exposure to Cu-NPs. Furthermore, copper-replete cells experienced greater loss of chlorophyll content, 19 % for Cu-NPs, compared to only an 11% net decrease in copper-deplete cells. The tightly bound copper was bioavailable as assessed by reverse-transcriptase quantitative PCR analysis of CYC6, a biomarker for Cu-deficiency. The increased resistance of copper-deplete cells to Cu-NPs suggests that these cells potentially metabolize excess Cu-NPs or better manage sudden influxes of ions. Our findings recommend that toxicity assessments must account for the nutritional status of impacted organisms and use toxicity models based on estimations of the bioavailable fractions. PMID:26387648

  2. MHC Expression on Spleen Lymphocyte Subsets in Genetically Resistant and Susceptible Chickens Infected with Marek's Disease Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Tina; Bøving, Mette K.; Handberg, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Resistance and susceptibility to Marek's disease (MD) are strongly influenced by the chicken major histocompatibility complex (MHC). In this study, splenic lymphocytes from MD-resistant and MD-susceptible chickens of three MHC genotypes (B21/B21, B19/B21, and B19/B19) were analyzed by flow...

  3. Differential Susceptibility in Early Literacy Instruction through Computer Games: The Role of the Dopamine D4 Receptor Gene (DRD4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegel, Cornelia A. T.; Bus, Adriana G.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.

    2011-01-01

    Not every child seems equally susceptible to the same parental, educational, or environmental influences even if cognitive level is similar. This study is the first randomized controlled trial to apply the differential susceptibility paradigm to education in relation to children's genotype and early literacy skills. A randomized pretest-posttest…

  4. The Role of MicroRNAs in Cancer Susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Iuliano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are germline variations interspersed in the human genome. These subtle changes of DNA sequence can influence the susceptibility to various pathologies including cancer. The functional meaning of SNPs is not always clear, being, the majority of them, localized in noncoding regions. The discovery of microRNAs, tiny noncoding RNAs able to bind the 3′ untranslated region (UTR of target genes and to consequently downregulate their expression, has provided a functional explanation of how some SNPs positioned in noncoding regions contribute to cancer susceptibility. In this paper we summarize the current knowledge of the effect on cancer susceptibility of SNPs included in regions related with miRNA-dependent pathways. Hereditary cancer comes up from mutations that occur in high-penetrant predisposing tumor genes. However, a considerable part of inherited cancers arises from multiple low-penetrant predisposing gene variants that influence the behavior of cancer insurgence. Despite the established significance of such polymorphic variants in cancer predisposition, sometimes their functional role remains unknown. The discovery of a new group of genes called microRNAs (miRNAs opened an avenue for the functional interpretation of polymorphisms involved in cancer predisposition.

  5. The Research on the Impact of Consumer Susceptibility to Role-Normative Influence on Chinese's Decision Intension to Unique Brands: Taking Public Roles for Example%角色规范影响敏感性对中国消费者独特品牌决策意向的影响——以公众场合角色为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚海峰; 费鸿萍

    2011-01-01

    本文基于中国社会文化的背景对Fishbein行为意向理论的不足进行了分析,提出了新的研究设想,对涉及的消费者自信、社会规范影响等相关研究做出了比较完整的理论综述,在此基础上提出了新的理论模型及相关假设。研究采用调查法并选择角色规范中的面子规范对提出的假设进行了验证。分析结果证明,角色规范影响敏感性对中国消费者独特品牌购买行为的决策意向具有负面影响,中国消费者的个体结果自信一定程度上可以抵制角色规范影响敏感性的作用,但影响力有限。相比之下,社会结果自信在角色规范影响敏感性的影响下会对消费者的决策意向会产生负面影响。%The article analyzed in detail the drawback of the present Fishbein's theory of behavioral intention based on Chinese social context and put forward a revised theoretical construction in order to make it more perfect. On the basis of the analysis, the authors summarized the related literatures such as self-confidence and susceptibility to normative influence and advanced a theoretical model and a series of hypothesis between these constructs above. The authors adopted methods of survey and selected the norm of face to validate these assumptions. The result disclosed that susceptibility to role-normative influence would have negative impact on Chinese consumers' decision intention to unique brands. On the other hand, Chinese consumers' personal outcome self-confidence could help to resist the negative effect of susceptibility to role-normative influence to some extent. However, this force of resistance is relatively weak. Comparatively, consumers' social outcome self-confidence, when mediated by suscep- tibility to role-normative influence, would have a negative impact on their decision intentions on the contrary.

  6. Magnetic susceptibility properties of polluted soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    An investigation of magnetic properties using magnetic susceptibility (X) and frequency-dependent susceptibility (Xfd) was conducted on representative modern pollutants, which include smelted slag dust, automobile exhaust dust and coal ash. Their magnetic susceptibility values are more than 500×10-8 m3/kg, and frequency-dependent susceptibility values less than 3%, indicating that ample ferrimagnetic and scanty superparamagnetic grains occurred in the studied pollutants. Similar to the artificially synthetic polluted soils, the industrially-polluted soils display a negative relationship between magnetic susceptibility and frequency-dependent susceptibility. However, the unpolluted soils, e.g. the Quaternary loess in the Chinese Loess Plateau, show a positive relationship between them. In this note, we propose a convenient and effective approach for identifying the polluted soils.

  7. Antifungal susceptibility of 175 Aspergillus isolates from various clinical and environmental sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino, Raquel; Carolino, Elisabete; Veríssimo, Cristina; Martinez, Marife; Clemons, Karl V; Stevens, David A

    2016-10-01

    Some environmental Aspergillus spp. isolates have been described as resistant to antifungals, potentially causing an emerging medical problem. In the present work, the antifungal susceptibility profile of 41 clinical and 134 environmental isolates of Aspergillus was determined using the CLSI microdilution method. The aim of this study was to compare environmental and clinical isolates with respect to their susceptibility, and assess the potential implications for therapy of isolates encountered in different environments. To our knowledge, this is the first report comparing antifungal susceptibility profiles of Aspergillus collected from different environmental sources (poultries, swineries, beach sand, and hospital environment). Significant differences were found in the distribution of the different species sections for the different sources. Significant differences were also found in the susceptibility profile of the different Aspergillus sections recovered from the various sources. Clear differences were found between the susceptibility of clinical and environmental isolates for caspofungin, amphotericin B and posaconazole, with clinical isolates showing overall greater susceptibility, except for caspofungin. In comparison to clinical isolates, hospital environmental isolates showed significantly less susceptibility to amphotericin B and posaconazole. These data indicate that species section identity and the site from which the isolate was recovered influence the antifungal susceptibility profile, which may affect initial antifungal choices. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. On quark number susceptibilities at high temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Bazavov, A; Hegde, P; Karsch, F; Miao, C; Mukherjee, Swagato; Petreczky, P; Schmidt, C; Velytsky, A

    2013-01-01

    We calculated second and fourth order quark number susceptibilities for 2+1 flavor QCD in the high temperature region using two improved staggered fermion formulations. The calculations are performed at several lattice spacing and we show that in the continuum limit the two formulations give consistent results. We compare our continuum extrapolated results on quark number susceptibilities with recent weak coupling calculations, and find that these cannot simultaneously explain the lattice results for second and fourth order quark number susceptibilities.

  9. Accuracy of magnetic resonance based susceptibility measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdevig, Hannah E.; Russek, Stephen E.; Carnicka, Slavka; Stupic, Karl F.; Keenan, Kathryn E.

    2017-05-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is increasingly used to map the magnetic susceptibility of tissue to identify cerebral microbleeds associated with traumatic brain injury and pathological iron deposits associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. Accurate measurements of susceptibility are important for determining oxygen and iron content in blood vessels and brain tissue for use in noninvasive clinical diagnosis and treatment assessments. Induced magnetic fields with amplitude on the order of 100 nT, can be detected using MRI phase images. The induced field distributions can then be inverted to obtain quantitative susceptibility maps. The focus of this research was to determine the accuracy of MRI-based susceptibility measurements using simple phantom geometries and to compare the susceptibility measurements with magnetometry measurements where SI-traceable standards are available. The susceptibilities of paramagnetic salt solutions in cylindrical containers were measured as a function of orientation relative to the static MRI field. The observed induced fields as a function of orientation of the cylinder were in good agreement with simple models. The MRI susceptibility measurements were compared with SQUID magnetometry using NIST-traceable standards. MRI can accurately measure relative magnetic susceptibilities while SQUID magnetometry measures absolute magnetic susceptibility. Given the accuracy of moment measurements of tissue mimicking samples, and the need to look at small differences in tissue properties, the use of existing NIST standard reference materials to calibrate MRI reference structures is problematic and better reference materials are required.

  10. Genetics of innate immunity and UTI susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragnarsdóttir, Bryndís; Lutay, Nataliya; Grönberg-Hernandez, Jenny; Köves, Bela; Svanborg, Catharina

    2011-07-12

    A functional and well-balanced immune response is required to resist most infections. Slight dysfunctions in innate immunity can turn the 'friendly' host defense into an unpleasant foe and give rise to disease. Beneficial and destructive forces of innate immunity have been discovered in the urinary tract and mechanisms by which they influence the severity of urinary tract infections (UTIs) have been elucidated. By modifying specific aspects of the innate immune response to UTI, genetic variation either exaggerates the severity of acute pyelonephritis to include urosepsis and renal scarring or protects against symptomatic disease by suppressing innate immune signaling, as in asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU). Different genes are polymorphic in patients prone to acute pyelonephritis or ABU, respectively, and yet discussions of UTI susceptibility in clinical practice still focus mainly on social and behavioral factors or dysfunctional voiding. Is it not time for UTIs to enter the era of molecular medicine? Defining why certain individuals are protected from UTI while others have severe, recurrent infections has long been difficult, but progress is now being made, encouraging new approaches to risk assessment and therapy in this large and important patient group, as well as revealing promising facets of 'good' versus 'bad' inflammation.

  11. Risk of colorectal adenomas in relation to meat consumption, meat preparation, and genetic susceptibility in a Dutch population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemersma, E.W.; Voskuil, D.W.; Bunschoten, A.; Kok, F.J.; Kampman, E.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: We studied the association between meat consumption and colorectal adenomas, and potential influence of genetic susceptibility to heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCAs) formed during meat cooking at high temperatures. Methods: We studied HCA concentration in relation to preparation habits am

  12. Landslide Inventory and Susceptibility Mapping in Tropical Areas - Southern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaidzik, K.; Ramirez-Herrera, M. T.; Regmi, N. R.; Leshchinsky, B. A.

    2016-12-01

    Landslides are one of the common catastrophic phenomena in the world. In regions of humid-warm tropical climate they are triggered by extreme storms causing loss of life and economic devastation. In this study we mapped susceptibility to landslides in the tropical mountains of Guerrero (South Mexico) based on the inventory of landslide features triggered by the hurricane Manuel of September 2013. Landslide inventory was produced using interpretation of satellite images and automatic identification of landslides employing the Contour Connection Method (CCM). A map of susceptibility to landslides was developed by computing probability of landslide occurrence from statistical relationships of existing landslides using LiDAR elevation model and derived landslide-causing factors using a logistic regression method. Landslide inventory includes 419 features produced by the hurricane Manuel on the area of 22 km2, and > 1,000 older features, suggesting high landslide activity in this area. Most landslides in the region are small, but some large slides exist, such as the catastrophic landslide in La Pintada that caused 71 fatalities and destroyed a large part of the village. Our results indicate that the distance to streams, human activity, presence or absence of dense vegetation and orientation of slopes (on some areas) strongly influence the spatial distribution of landslides. Results showed high susceptibility zones encompass 30% of the study area and occur mostly along topographic convergence. Applied approach identified most of the landslides within the high susceptibility zone and suggested that it is a valid applicable method to map areas susceptible to landslides in southern Mexico but also on other humid-warm tropical regions.

  13. Common variants in CASP3 confer susceptibility to Kawasaki disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onouchi, Yoshihiro; Ozaki, Kouichi; Buns, Jane C; Shimizu, Chisato; Hamada, Hiromichi; Honda, Takafumi; Terai, Masaru; Honda, Akihito; Takeuchi, Takashi; Shibuta, Shoichi; Suenaga, Tomohiro; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Higashi, Kouji; Yasukawa, Kumi; Suzuki, Yoichi; Sasago, Kumiko; Kemmotsu, Yasushi; Takatsuki, Shinichi; Saji, Tsutomu; Yoshikawa, Tetsushi; Nagai, Toshiro; Hamamoto, Kunihiro; Kishi, Fumio; Ouchi, Kazunobu; Sato, Yoshitake; Newburger, Jane W; Baker, Annette L; Shulman, Stanford T; Rowley, Anne H; Yashiro, Mayumi; Nakamura, Yoshikazu; Wakui, Keiko; Fukushima, Yoshimitsu; Fujino, Akihiro; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Kawasaki, Tomisaku; Hata, Akira; Nakamura, Yusuke; Tanaka, Toshihiro

    2010-07-15

    Kawasaki disease (KD; OMIM 611775) is an acute vasculitis syndrome which predominantly affects small- and medium-sized arteries of infants and children. Epidemiological data suggest that host genetics underlie the disease pathogenesis. Here we report that multiple variants in the caspase-3 gene (CASP3) that are in linkage disequilibrium confer susceptibility to KD in both Japanese and US subjects of European ancestry. We found that a G to A substitution of one commonly associated SNP located in the 5' untranslated region of CASP3 (rs72689236; P = 4.2 x 10(-8) in the Japanese and P = 3.7 x 10(-3) in the European Americans) abolished binding of nuclear factor of activated T cells to the DNA sequence surrounding the SNP. Our findings suggest that altered CASP3 expression in immune effecter cells influences susceptibility to KD.

  14. Susceptibility to Stress Corrosion Cracking of 254SMO SS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Micheli Lorenzo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking (SCC of solubilized and sensitized 254SMO SS was studied in sodium chloride, and sodium fluoride solutions at 80 °C and sulfuric acid solutions in presence of sodium chloride at 25 °C. The influence of salt concentration, pH values and the addition of thiosulfate was examined. The susceptibility to SCC was evaluated by Slow Strain Rate Tests (SSRT, at 1.5 x 10-6 s-1 strain rate. The behavior of 254SMO was compared to those of AISI 316L SS and Hastelloy C276. 254SMO showed an excellent resistance to SCC in all conditions, except in the more acidic solutions (pH <= 1 where, in the sensitized conditions, intergranular stress corrosion cracking occurred.

  15. Frost susceptibility of granular subbase materials contaminated by deicing chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders Stuhr; Orlander, Tobias; Doré, Guy

    2013-01-01

    to be caused by ice segregation, but rather a volume increase by fusion caused by a small amount of pore water. The direction of the frost front could not be determined from the collected test results, and no reduction in bearing capacity or increase in frost susceptibility can be derived from the collected...... on roads and airfields enter the granular subbase materials and thereby makes the soil more frost-susceptible. In this project a series of isothermal frost heave tests has been carried out on granular subbase material from the runway at Kuujjuaq Airport, Québec, Canada. The tests have been carried out......, were used in order to determine any influence from the cooling ramp. The tests included settings that allowed the samples additional brine during freezing. Hence, the water and salinity were measured before and after the tests in order to determine the redistribution of water and salinity. The test...

  16. Pitfalls in statistical landslide susceptibility modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Boris; Vorpahl, Peter; Märker, Michael; Elsenbeer, Helmut

    2010-05-01

    The use of statistical methods is a well-established approach to predict landslide occurrence probabilities and to assess landslide susceptibility. This is achieved by applying statistical methods relating historical landslide inventories to topographic indices as predictor variables. In our contribution, we compare several new and powerful methods developed in machine learning and well-established in landscape ecology and macroecology for predicting the distribution of shallow landslides in tropical mountain rainforests in southern Ecuador (among others: boosted regression trees, multivariate adaptive regression splines, maximum entropy). Although these methods are powerful, we think it is necessary to follow a basic set of guidelines to avoid some pitfalls regarding data sampling, predictor selection, and model quality assessment, especially if a comparison of different models is contemplated. We therefore suggest to apply a novel toolbox to evaluate approaches to the statistical modelling of landslide susceptibility. Additionally, we propose some methods to open the "black box" as an inherent part of machine learning methods in order to achieve further explanatory insights into preparatory factors that control landslides. Sampling of training data should be guided by hypotheses regarding processes that lead to slope failure taking into account their respective spatial scales. This approach leads to the selection of a set of candidate predictor variables considered on adequate spatial scales. This set should be checked for multicollinearity in order to facilitate model response curve interpretation. Model quality assesses how well a model is able to reproduce independent observations of its response variable. This includes criteria to evaluate different aspects of model performance, i.e. model discrimination, model calibration, and model refinement. In order to assess a possible violation of the assumption of independency in the training samples or a possible

  17. Change of Hot Cracking Susceptibility in Welding of High Strength Aluminum Alloy AA 7075

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, M.; Hofmann, K.; Mann, V.; Hugger, F.; Roth, S.; Schmidt, M.

    High strength aluminum alloys are known as hard to weld alloys due to their high hot crack susceptibility. However, they have high potential for applications in light weight constructions of automotive industry and therefore it is needed to increase weldability. One major issue is the high hot cracking susceptibility. Vaporization during laser beam welding leads to a change of concentration of the volatile elements magnesium and zinc. Hence, solidification range of the weld and therefore hot cracking susceptibility changes. Additionally, different welding velocities lead to changed solidification conditions with certain influence on hot cracking. This paper discusses the influence of energy per unit length during laser beam welding of AA 7075 on the change of element concentration in the weld seam and the resulting influence on hot cracking susceptibility. Therefore EDS-measurements of weld seams generated with different velocities are performed to determine the change of element concentration. These quantitative data is used to numerically calculate the solidification range in order to evaluate its influence on the hot cracking susceptibility. Besides that, relative hot crack length and mechanical properties are measured. The results increase knowledge about welding of high strength aluminum alloy AA 7075 and hence support further developing of the welding process.

  18. Osseointegration in periodontitis susceptible individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchinato, Denis; Bressan, Eriberto A; Toia, Marco; Araújo, Mauricio G; Liljenberg, Birgitta; Lindhe, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine tissue integration of implants placed (i) in subjects who had lost teeth because of advanced periodontal disease or for other reasons, (ii) in the posterior maxilla exhibiting varying amounts of mineralized bone. Thirty-six subjects were enrolled; 19 had lost teeth because of advanced periodontitis (group P) while the remaining 17 subjects had suffered tooth loss from other reasons (group NP). As part of site preparation for implant placement, a 3 mm trephine drill was used to remove one or more 2 mm wide and 5-6 mm long block of hard tissue [biopsy site; Lindhe et al. (2011). Clinical of Oral Implants Research, DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0501.2011.02205.x]. Lateral to the biopsy site a twist drill (diameter 2 mm) was used to prepare the hard tissue in the posterior maxilla for the placement of a screw-shaped, self-tapping micro-implant (implant site). The implants used were 5 mm long, had a diameter of 2.2 mm. After 3 months of healing, the micro-implants with surrounding hard tissue cores were retrieved using a trephine drill. The tissue was processed for ground sectioning. The blocks were cut parallel to the long axis of the implant and reduced to a thickness of about 20 μm and stained in toluidine blue. The percentage of (i) implant surface that was in contact with mineralized bone as well as (ii) the amount of bone present within the threads of the micro-implants (percentage bone area) was determined. Healing including hard tissue formation around implants placed in the posterior maxilla was similar in periodontitis susceptible and non-susceptible subjects. Thus, the degree of bone-to-implant contact (about 59%) as well as the amount of mineralized bone within threads of the micro-implant (about 45-50%) was similar in the two groups of subjects. Pearson's coefficient disclosed that there was a weak negative correlation (-0.49; P < 0.05) between volume of fibrous tissue (biopsy sites) and the length of bone to implant

  19. Drug susceptibility testing of nontuberculous mycobacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingen, J. van; Kuijper, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    Diseases caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria are emerging in many settings. With an increased number of patients needing treatment, the role of drug susceptibility testing is again in the spotlight. This articles covers the history and methodology of drug susceptibility tests for nontuberculous

  20. Mapping markers linked to porcine salmonellosis susceptibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galina-Pantoja, L.; Siggens, K.; Schriek, van M.G.M.; Heuven, H.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify pig chromosomal regions associated with susceptibility to salmonellosis. Genomic DNA from pig reference populations with differences in susceptibility to Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis as quantified by spleen and liver bacterial colonization at day 7

  1. Search for new breast cancer susceptibility genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenburg, Rogier Abel

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the search for new high-risk breast cancer susceptibility genes by linkage analysis. To date 20-25% of familial breast cancer is explained by mutations in the high-risk BRCA1 and BRCA2 breast cancer susceptibility genes. For the remaining families the genetic etiology is unknow

  2. Search for new breast cancer susceptibility genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenburg, Rogier Abel

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the search for new high-risk breast cancer susceptibility genes by linkage analysis. To date 20-25% of familial breast cancer is explained by mutations in the high-risk BRCA1 and BRCA2 breast cancer susceptibility genes. For the remaining families the genetic etiology is

  3. Search for new breast cancer susceptibility genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenburg, Rogier Abel

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the search for new high-risk breast cancer susceptibility genes by linkage analysis. To date 20-25% of familial breast cancer is explained by mutations in the high-risk BRCA1 and BRCA2 breast cancer susceptibility genes. For the remaining families the genetic etiology is unknow

  4. Differential Susceptibility to Effects of the Home Environment on Motor Developmental Outcomes of Preschool Children: Low Birthweight Status as a Susceptibility Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jennifer Chun-Li; Chiang, Tung-liang

    2016-01-01

    Low birthweight (LBW) children tend to have higher risks of developmental problems. According to differential susceptibility hypothesis, these putatively vulnerable children may also disproportionately benefit from positive environmental exposure. This study aimed to examine whether LBW status moderates home environmental influences on…

  5. Differential Susceptibility to Effects of the Home Environment on Motor Developmental Outcomes of Preschool Children: Low Birthweight Status as a Susceptibility Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jennifer Chun-Li; Chiang, Tung-liang

    2016-01-01

    Low birthweight (LBW) children tend to have higher risks of developmental problems. According to differential susceptibility hypothesis, these putatively vulnerable children may also disproportionately benefit from positive environmental exposure. This study aimed to examine whether LBW status moderates home environmental influences on…

  6. Susceptibility genes in movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Sonja; Singleton, Andrew

    2008-05-15

    During the last years, remarkable progress in our understanding of molecular genetic mechanisms underlying movement disorders has been achieved. The successes of linkage studies, followed by positional cloning, have dominated the last decade and several genes underlying monogenic disorders have been discovered. The pathobiological understanding garnered from these mutations has laid the foundation for much of the search for genetic loci that confer risk for, rather than cause, disease. With the introduction of whole genome association studies as a novel tool to investigate genetic variation underlying common, complex diseases, a new era in neurogenomics has just begun. As the field rapidly moves forward several new challenges and critical questions in clinical care have to be addressed. In this review, we summarize recent advances in the discovery of susceptibility loci underlying major movement disorders, explain the newest methodologies and tools employed for finding and characterizing genes and discuss how insights into the molecular genetic basis of neurological disorders will impact therapeutic concepts in patient care.

  7. Metabolic polymorphisms and cancer susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G; Stanley, L A; Sim, E; Strange, R C; Wolf, C R

    1995-01-01

    The vast majority of cancers arise as a consequence of exposure to environmental agents that are toxic or mutagenic. In response to this, all higher organisms have evolved complex mechanisms by which they can protect themselves from environmental challenge. In many cases, this involves an adaptive response in which the levels of expression of enzymes active in the metabolism and detoxification of the foreign chemical are induced. The best characterized of these enzyme systems are the cytochrome P450s, the GSTs and the NATs. An unfortunate consequence of many of these reactions, however, is the creation of a toxic or mutagenic reaction product from chemicals that require metabolic activation before realizing their full carcinogenic potential. Altered expression of one or more of these drug metabolizing enzymes can therefore be predicted to have profound toxicological consequences. Genetic polymorphisms with well defined associated phenotypes have now been characterized in P450, GST and NAT genes. Indeed, many of these polymorphisms have been associated with decreased or increased metabolism of many tumour promoters and chemical carcinogens and hence offer protection against or increased susceptibility to many distinct tumour types.

  8. Echo time-dependent quantitative susceptibility mapping contains information on tissue properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Surabhi; Urriola, Javier; Reutens, David; O'Brien, Kieran; Bollmann, Steffen; Barth, Markus; Vegh, Viktor

    2017-05-01

    Magnetic susceptibility is a physical property of matter that varies depending on chemical composition and abundance of different molecular species. Interest is growing in mapping of magnetic susceptibility in the human brain using magnetic resonance imaging techniques, but the influences affecting the mapped values are not fully understood. We performed quantitative susceptibility mapping on 7 Tesla (T) multiple echo time gradient recalled echo data and evaluated the trend in 10 regions of the human brain. Temporal plots of susceptibility were performed in the caudate, pallidum, putamen, thalamus, insula, red nucleus, substantia nigra, internal capsule, corpus callosum, and fornix. We implemented an existing three compartment signal model and used optimization to fit the experimental result to assess the influences that could be responsible for our findings. The temporal trend in susceptibility is different for different brain regions, and subsegmentation of specific regions suggests that differences are likely to be attributable to variations in tissue structure and composition. Using a signal model, we verified that a nonlinear temporal behavior in experimentally computed susceptibility within imaging voxels may be the result of the heterogeneous composition of tissue properties. Decomposition of voxel constituents into meaningful parameters may lead to informative measures that reflect changes in tissue microstructure. Magn Reson Med 77:1946-1958, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  9. Cracking susceptibility of aluminum alloys during laser welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Abbaschian

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of laser parameters in welding aluminum alloys was studied in order to reduce hot cracking. The extension of cracks at the welding surface was used as a cracking susceptibility (CS index. It has been shown that the CS changes with changing welding velocity for binary Al-Cu alloys. In general, the CS index increased until a maximum velocity and then dropped to zero, generating a typical lambda-curve. This curve is due to two different mechanisms: 1 the refinement of porosities with increasing velocity and 2 the changes in the liquid fraction due to decreasing microsegregation with increasing velocities.

  10. Host susceptibility factors in mycobacterial infection. Genetics and body morphotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guide, Shireen V; Holland, Steven M

    2002-03-01

    Through identification and evaluation of mutations and polymorphisms in components of the IFN gamma response pathways, a better understanding of the mechanisms and risk factors influencing the development of mycobacterial disease is gained. This may lead the way for development of therapeutic and preventative strategies. Although conventional science has focused on identifying discrete mutations, greater awareness of the impact of subtle changes, both at the genetic (polymorphisms) and physical levels (body morphotype), may prove critical in the investigative process. There has been extraordinary progress in the understanding of mycobacterial susceptibility factors over the last few years. The recognition of characteristic phenotypes will lead to the identification of new genetic bases for disease.

  11. Differential susceptibility to hypertension is due to selection during the out-of-Africa expansion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Hunter Young

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a leading cause of stroke, heart disease, and kidney failure. The genetic basis of blood pressure variation is largely unknown but is likely to involve genes that influence renal salt handling and arterial vessel tone. Here we argue that susceptibility to hypertension is ancestral and that differential susceptibility to hypertension is due to differential exposure to selection pressures during the out-of-Africa expansion. The most important selection pressure was climate, which produced a latitudinal cline in heat adaptation and, therefore, hypertension susceptibility. Consistent with this hypothesis, we show that ecological variables, such as latitude, temperature, and rainfall, explain worldwide variation in heat adaptation as defined by seven functional alleles in five genes involved in blood pressure regulation. The latitudinal cline in heat adaptation is consistent worldwide and is largely unmatched by latitudinal clines in short tandem repeat markers, control single nucleotide polymorphisms, or non-functional single nucleotide polymorphisms within the five genes. In addition, we show that latitude and one of these alleles, GNB3 (G protein beta3 subunit 825T, account for a major portion of worldwide variation in blood pressure. These results suggest that the current epidemic of hypertension is due to exposures of the modern period interacting with ancestral susceptibility. Modern populations differ in susceptibility to these new exposures, however, such that those from hot environments are more susceptible to hypertension than populations from cold environments. This differential susceptibility is likely due to our history of adaptation to climate.

  12. Landslide susceptibility analysis using Probabilistic Certainty Factor Approach: A case study on Tevankarai stream watershed, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Evangelin Ramani Sujatha; G Victor Rajamanickam; P Kumaravel

    2012-10-01

    This paper reports the use of a GIS based Probabilistic Certainty Factor method to assess the geo-environmental factors that contribute to landslide susceptibility in Tevankarai Ar sub-watershed, Kodaikkanal. Landslide occurrences are a common phenomenon in the Tevankarai Ar sub-watershed, Kodaikkanal owing to rugged terrain at high altitude, high frequency of intense rainfall and rapidly expanding urban growth. The spatial database of the factors influencing landslides are compiled primarily from topographical maps, aerial photographs and satellite images. They are relief, slope, aspect, curvature, weathering, soil, land use, proximity to road and proximity to drainage. Certainty Factor Approach is used to study the interaction between the factors and the landslide, highlighting the importance of each factor in causing landslide. The results show that slope, aspect, soil and proximity to roads play important role in landslide susceptibility. The landslide susceptibility map is classified into five susceptible classes – low, very low, uncertain, high and very high − 93.32% of the study area falls under the stable category and 6.34% falls under the highly and very highly unstable category. The relative landslide density index (R index) is used to validate the landslide susceptibility map. R index increases with the increase in the susceptibility class. This shows that the factors selected for the study and susceptibility mapping using certainty factor are appropriate for the study area. Highly unstable zones show intense anthropogenic activities like high density settlement areas, and busy roads connecting the hill town and the plains.

  13. Health Psychological Constructs as Predictors of Doping Susceptibility in Adolescent Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Cornelia; Schobersberger, Wolfgang; Leichtfried, Veronika; Duschek, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Background Doping is a highly relevant problem in sport, even in adolescent athletes. Knowledge of the psychological factors that influence doping susceptibility in young elite athletes remains sparse. Objectives This study investigated the predictive potential of different health-psychological constructs and well-being on doping susceptibility. The main hypotheses to be tested were positive associations of fear of failure, external locus of control, and ego-oriented goal orientation as well as negative associations of confidence of success, task orientation, internal locus of control, and performance motivation with doping susceptibility. Low levels of well-being are furthermore expected to be associated with doping susceptibility. Methods Within this cross-sectional study, 1,265 Austrian junior athletes aged between 14 and 19 years responded to a paper-pencil questionnaire. Results Performance motivation was a negative, while depressive mood, self-esteem, fear of failure and ego-oriented goal orientation were positive predictors of doping susceptibility. In addition, participants who were offered performance enhancing substances in the past were particularly susceptible to doping. Conclusions The study corroborates the predictive value of classical psychological constructs in doping research, initially analyzed in view of adult athletes, also for adolescents’ doping susceptibility. PMID:28144408

  14. Bark Beetles as Significant Forest Disturbances: Estimating Susceptibility Based On Stand Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicke, J. A.; Jenkins, J. C.

    2007-12-01

    In the western United States, bark beetle outbreaks affect millions of hectares of forests. These disturbances have multiple effects on ecosystems, including modifications to biogeochemical cycles, interactions with fire, and changes in land cover type and species composition. In recent years, extensive outbreaks have occurred in multiple forest ecosystems in the West, thought to be caused by climate variability and stand structure. In this study, we focus on epidemics of mountain pine beetle. We used USDA Forest Service inventories and a model to estimate lodgepole pine susceptibility to mountain pine beetle attack in the West. The model considers stand age, stem density, and percentage of large lodgepole pine to estimate stand susceptibility. Over 150,000 trees in 4454 plots across the western United States were used to compute susceptibility at the plot scale as well as map susceptibility at the county scale. We found that regional susceptibility was high (estimated potential of losses of 34% of stand basal area) for 2.8 Mha, or 46%, of lodgepole pine forests. The highest susceptibility occurred in the Rocky Mountains, with lower susceptibility in coastal states. This study reveals that a substantial fraction of lodgepole pine forest could be subjected to bark beetle outbreaks under current climate conditions. Because climate and weather affect beetle populations, projected future warming will influence outbreak regimes. Thus, forest ecosystems in the West may experience more frequent, extensive, and/or severe disturbances than in recent decades due to current stand structure, and these disturbances may be intensified under climate change.

  15. Paternal chronic colitis causes epigenetic inheritance of susceptibility to colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschurtschenthaler, Markus; Kachroo, Priyadarshini; Heinsen, Femke-Anouska; Adolph, Timon Erik; Rühlemann, Malte Christoph; Klughammer, Johanna; Offner, Felix Albert; Ammerpohl, Ole; Krueger, Felix; Smallwood, Sébastien; Szymczak, Silke; Kaser, Arthur; Franke, Andre

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) arises by unknown environmental triggers in genetically susceptible individuals. Epigenetic regulation of gene expression may integrate internal and external influences and may thereby modulate disease susceptibility. Epigenetic modification may also affect the germ-line and in certain contexts can be inherited to offspring. This study investigates epigenetic alterations consequent to experimental murine colitis induced by dextran sodium sulphate (DSS), and their paternal transmission to offspring. Genome-wide methylome- and transcriptome-profiling of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and sperm cells of males of the F0 generation, which received either DSS and consequently developed colitis (F0DSS), or non-supplemented tap water (F0Ctrl) and hence remained healthy, and of their F1 offspring was performed using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) and RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq), respectively. Offspring of F0DSS males exhibited aberrant methylation and expression patterns of multiple genes, including Igf1r and Nr4a2, which are involved in energy metabolism. Importantly, DSS colitis in F0DSS mice was associated with decreased body weight at baseline of their F1 offspring, and these F1 mice exhibited increased susceptibility to DSS-induced colitis compared to offspring from F0Ctrl males. This study hence demonstrates epigenetic transmissibility of metabolic and inflammatory traits resulting from experimental colitis. PMID:27538787

  16. Human genetic susceptibility and infection with Leishmania peruviana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, M.A.; Davis, C.R.; Collins, A. [and others

    1995-11-01

    Racial differences, familial clustering, and murine studies are suggestive of host genetic control of Leishmania infections. Complex segregation analysis has been carried out by use of the programs POINTER and COMDS and data from a total population survey, comprising 636 nuclear families, from an L. perurviana endemic area. The data support genetic components controlling susceptibility to clinical leishmaniasis, influencing severity of disease and resistance to disease among healthy individuals. A multifactorial model is favored over a sporadic model. Two-locus models provided the best fit to the data, the optimal model being a recessive gene (frequency .57) plus a modifier locus. Individuals infected at an early age and with recurrent lesions are genetically more susceptible than those infected with a single episode of disease at a later age. Among people with no lesions, those with a positive skin-test response are genetically less susceptible than those with a negative response. The possibility of the involvement of more than one gene together with environmental effects has implications for the design of future linkage studies. 31 refs., 7 tabs.

  17. Recent advances in exploring the genetic susceptibility to diabetic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politi, Cristina; Ciccacci, Cinzia; D'Amato, Cinzia; Novelli, Giuseppe; Borgiani, Paola; Spallone, Vincenza

    2016-10-01

    Diabetic polyneuropathy and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy are common and disabling complications of diabetes. Although glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk factors are major contributory elements in its development, diabetic neuropathy recognizes a multifactorial influence and a multiplicity of pathogenetic mechanisms. Thus genetic and environmental factors may contribute to its susceptibility, each with a modest contribution, by targeting various metabolic and microvascular pathways whose alterations intervene in diabetic neuropathy pathogenesis. This review is aimed at describing major data from the available literature regarding genetic susceptibility to diabetic neuropathies. It provides an overview of the genes reported as associated with the development or progression of these complications, i.e. ACE, MTHFR, GST, GLO1, APOE, TCF7L2, VEGF, IL-4, GPX1, eNOS, ADRA2B, GFRA2, MIR146A, MIR128A. The identification of genetic susceptibility can help in both expanding the comprehension of the pathogenetic mechanisms of diabetic nerve damage and identifying biomarkers of risk prediction and response to therapeutic intervention.

  18. Genetic susceptibility to feline infectious peritonitis in Birman cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovko, Lyudmila; Lyons, Leslie A; Liu, Hongwei; Sørensen, Anne; Wehnert, Suzanne; Pedersen, Niels C

    2013-07-01

    Genetic factors are presumed to influence the incidence of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), especially among pedigreed cats. However, proof for the existence of such factors has been limited and mainly anecdotal. Therefore, we sought evidence for genetic susceptibility to FIP using feline high density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays in a genome-wide association study (GWAS). Birman cats were chosen for GWAS because they are highly inbred and suffer a high incidence of FIP. DNA from 38 Birman cats that died of FIP and 161 healthy cats from breeders in Denmark and USA were selected for genotyping using 63K SNPs distributed across the feline genome. Danish and American Birman cats were closely related and the populations were therefore combined and analyzed in two manners: (1) all cases (FIP) vs. all controls (healthy) regardless of age, and (2) cases 1½ years of age and younger (most susceptible) vs. controls 2 years of age and older (most resistant). GWAS of the second cohort was most productive in identifying significant genome-wide associations between case and control cats. Four peaks of association with FIP susceptibility were identified, with two being identified on both analyses. Five candidate genes ELMO1, RRAGA, TNFSF10, ERAP1 and ERAP2, all relevant to what is known about FIP virus pathogenesis, were identified but no single association was fully concordant with the disease phenotype. Difficulties in doing GWAS in cats and interrogating complex genetic traits were discussed.

  19. Pathway analysis of GWAS provides new insights into genetic susceptibility to 3 inflammatory diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hariklia Eleftherohorinou

    Full Text Available Although the introduction of genome-wide association studies (GWAS have greatly increased the number of genes associated with common diseases, only a small proportion of the predicted genetic contribution has so far been elucidated. Studying the cumulative variation of polymorphisms in multiple genes acting in functional pathways may provide a complementary approach to the more common single SNP association approach in understanding genetic determinants of common disease. We developed a novel pathway-based method to assess the combined contribution of multiple genetic variants acting within canonical biological pathways and applied it to data from 14,000 UK individuals with 7 common diseases. We tested inflammatory pathways for association with Crohn's disease (CD, rheumatoid arthritis (RA and type 1 diabetes (T1D with 4 non-inflammatory diseases as controls. Using a variable selection algorithm, we identified variants responsible for the pathway association and evaluated their use for disease prediction using a 10 fold cross-validation framework in order to calculate out-of-sample area under the Receiver Operating Curve (AUC. The generalisability of these predictive models was tested on an independent birth cohort from Northern Finland. Multiple canonical inflammatory pathways showed highly significant associations (p 10(-3-10(-20 with CD, T1D and RA. Variable selection identified on average a set of 205 SNPs (149 genes for T1D, 350 SNPs (189 genes for RA and 493 SNPs (277 genes for CD. The pattern of polymorphisms at these SNPS were found to be highly predictive of T1D (91% AUC and RA (85% AUC, and weakly predictive of CD (60% AUC. The predictive ability of the T1D model (without any parameter refitting had good predictive ability (79% AUC in the Finnish cohort. Our analysis suggests that genetic contribution to common inflammatory diseases operates through multiple genes interacting in functional pathways.

  20. Dissection of a Complex Disease Susceptibility Region Using a Bayesian Stochastic Search Approach to Fine Mapping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Wallace

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Identification of candidate causal variants in regions associated with risk of common diseases is complicated by linkage disequilibrium (LD and multiple association signals. Nonetheless, accurate maps of these variants are needed, both to fully exploit detailed cell specific chromatin annotation data to highlight disease causal mechanisms and cells, and for design of the functional studies that will ultimately be required to confirm causal mechanisms. We adapted a Bayesian evolutionary stochastic search algorithm to the fine mapping problem, and demonstrated its improved performance over conventional stepwise and regularised regression through simulation studies. We then applied it to fine map the established multiple sclerosis (MS and type 1 diabetes (T1D associations in the IL-2RA (CD25 gene region. For T1D, both stepwise and stochastic search approaches identified four T1D association signals, with the major effect tagged by the single nucleotide polymorphism, rs12722496. In contrast, for MS, the stochastic search found two distinct competing models: a single candidate causal variant, tagged by rs2104286 and reported previously using stepwise analysis; and a more complex model with two association signals, one of which was tagged by the major T1D associated rs12722496 and the other by rs56382813. There is low to moderate LD between rs2104286 and both rs12722496 and rs56382813 (r2 ≃ 0:3 and our two SNP model could not be recovered through a forward stepwise search after conditioning on rs2104286. Both signals in the two variant model for MS affect CD25 expression on distinct subpopulations of CD4+ T cells, which are key cells in the autoimmune process. The results support a shared causal variant for T1D and MS. Our study illustrates the benefit of using a purposely designed model search strategy for fine mapping and the advantage of combining disease and protein expression data.

  1. Temporal percolation of a susceptible adaptive network

    CERN Document Server

    Valdez, L D; Braunstein, L A

    2013-01-01

    In the last decades, due to the appearance of many diseases such as SARS and the H1N1 flu strain, many authors studied the impact of the disease spreading in the evolution of the infected individuals using the susceptible-infected-recovered model. However, few authors focused on the temporal behavior of the susceptible individuals. Recently it was found that in an epidemic spreading, the dynamic of the size of the biggest susceptible cluster can be explained by a temporal node void percolation [Valdez et al PLoS ONE 7, e44188 (2012)]. It was shown that the size of the biggest susceptible cluster is the order parameter of this temporal percolation where the control parameter can be related to the number of links between susceptible individuals at a given time. As a consequence, there is a critical time at which the biggest susceptible cluster is destroyed. In this paper, we study the susceptible-infected-recovered model in an adaptive network where an intermittent social distancing strategy is applied. In this...

  2. Emergency assessment of seismic landslide susceptibility: a case study of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake affected area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Chuan; Zhu Jing; Liang Jingtao

    2009-01-01

    The 8.0 Mw Wenchuan earthquake triggered widespread and large scale landslides in mountainous regions.An approach was used to map and assess landslide susceptibility in a given area. A numerical rating system was applied to five factors that contribute to slope instability. Factors such as lithology, topography, streams and faults have an important influence as event-controlling factors for landslide susceptibility assessment. A final map is provided to show areas of low,medium, and high landslide susceptibility. Areas identified as having high landslide susceptibility were located in the central,northeastern, and far south regions of the study area. The assessment results will help decision makers to select safe sites for emergency placement of refuges and plan for future reconstruction. The maps may also be used as a basis for landslide risk management in the study area.

  3. Repetitive immunization enhances the susceptibility of mice to peripherally administered prions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Bremer

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of humans and animals to prion infections is determined by the virulence of the infectious agent, by genetic modifiers, and by hitherto unknown host and environmental risk factors. While little is known about the latter two, the activation state of the immune system was surmised to influence prion susceptibility. Here we administered prions to mice that were repeatedly immunized by two initial injections of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides followed by repeated injections of bovine serum albumin/alum. Immunization greatly reduced the required dosage of peripherally administered prion inoculum necessary to induce scrapie in 50% of mice. No difference in susceptibility was observed following intracerebral prion challenge. Due to its profound impact onto scrapie susceptibility, the host immune status may determine disease penetrance after low-dose prion exposure, including those that may give rise to iatrogenic and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

  4. Do advanced glycation end-products play a role in malaria susceptibility?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traoré Karim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are growing data supporting the differences in susceptibility to malaria described between sympatric populations with different lifestyles. Evidence has also been growing for some time that nutritional status and the host’s metabolism are part of the complex mechanisms underlying these differences. The role of dietary advanced glycation end-products (AGEs in the modulation of immune responses (innate and adaptive responses and chronic oxidative stress has been established. But less is known about AGE implication in naturally acquired immunity and susceptibility to malaria. Since inflammatory immune responses and oxidative events have been demonstrated as the hallmark of malaria infection, it seems crucial to investigate the role of AGE in susceptibility or resistance to malaria. This review provides new insight into the relationship between nutrition, metabolic disorders, and infections, and how this may influence the mechanisms of susceptibility or resistance to malaria in endemic areas.

  5. Do advanced glycation end-products play a role in malaria susceptibility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traoré, Karim; Arama, Charles; Médebielle, Maurice; Doumbo, Ogobara; Picot, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    There are growing data supporting the differences in susceptibility to malaria described between sympatric populations with different lifestyles. Evidence has also been growing for some time that nutritional status and the host’s metabolism are part of the complex mechanisms underlying these differences. The role of dietary advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) in the modulation of immune responses (innate and adaptive responses) and chronic oxidative stress has been established. But less is known about AGE implication in naturally acquired immunity and susceptibility to malaria. Since inflammatory immune responses and oxidative events have been demonstrated as the hallmark of malaria infection, it seems crucial to investigate the role of AGE in susceptibility or resistance to malaria. This review provides new insight into the relationship between nutrition, metabolic disorders, and infections, and how this may influence the mechanisms of susceptibility or resistance to malaria in endemic areas. PMID:27012162

  6. Genetic influence on the age at onset of asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Simon Francis; Duffy, David Lorenzo; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm;

    2010-01-01

    Although the genetics of asthma susceptibility have been frequently explored, little is known about genetic factors that influence the age at onset of asthma.......Although the genetics of asthma susceptibility have been frequently explored, little is known about genetic factors that influence the age at onset of asthma....

  7. Pubertal Development and Peer Influence on Risky Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretsch, Natalie; Harden, Kathryn Paige

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents engage in more risky behavior when they are with peers and show, on average, heightened susceptibility to peer influence relative to children and adults. However, individual differences in susceptibility to peer influence are not well understood. The current study examined whether the effect of peers on adolescents' risky decision…

  8. The influence of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the promoter region of IL-6 gene on its protein expression and the susceptibility to tuberculosis%白细胞介素-6基因启动子单核苷酸多态性对其蛋白表达水平及结核易感性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国良; 文玉欣; 张明霞; 詹森林; 杨林; 王正; 陆坚; 陈心春

    2013-01-01

    目的 鉴定位于IL-6基因启动子区影响结核易感性的单核苷酸多态性(SNP)位点,探讨SNP对IL-6分泌水平的影响.方法 采用病例-对照的研究方法,借助MassARRAY飞行时间质谱技术检测研究队列(495例结核患者和358例健康对照)IL-6基因6个SNP位点(rs13306436、rs2069824、rs 1800795、rs36215814、rs1800797、rs1800796)基因型,通过x2检验比较两组人群SNP位点等位基因频率差异,并计算各种等位基因型人群发生结核的风险性.应用免疫磁珠技术从结核患者PBMC中分选CD14+单核细胞,使用结核菌裂解产物(Mtb)、19×103脂蛋白进行刺激,通过ELISA检测不同基因型CD14+单核细胞上清中IL-6分泌水平的差异.结果 健康对照人群中6个SNP位点的基因型分布均符合Hardy-Weinberg遗传平衡检验.rs 1800796位点3种基因型CC、CG和GG在结核组和对照组的频率分别为64.5%、30.7%、4.8%和56.4%、34.9%、8.7%,结核组G等位基因频率(21.3%)显著低于对照组(26.1%),差异有统计学意义(P=0.02),携带C等位基因人群患结核风险明显升高(OR=1.40,95% CI=1.11 ~1.75).其余SNP位点等位基因频率分布在两组间差异无统计学意义.在19×103脂蛋白刺激下,rs 1800796位点GG基因型单核细胞上清IL-6浓度为(490.10±55.08) pg/ml,分泌水平显著低于CC或CG基因型(P<0.05),而使用Mtb刺激组间差异无统计学意义.结论 首次在汉族人群中发现IL-6基因rs1800796位点影响结核易感性,C为易感等位基因.rs1800796位点多态性能够影响IL-6蛋白表达水平,属于功能性SNP位点.%Objective To explore the relationships between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in IL-6 gene promoter region and susceptibility to tuberculosis,and to investigate the influences of SNP on IL-6 production in various genotypes.Methods A case-control study was conducted on 495 patients with tuberculosis and 358 healthy controls.Sequenom MassARRAY system was used to

  9. Magnetic susceptibility of tetragonal titanium dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senftle, F.E.; Pankey, T.; Grant, F.A.

    1960-01-01

    Careful measurements have been made of the magnetic susceptibility of the rutile and anatase crystalline forms of titanium dioxide. The magnetic susceptibility of a single crystal of high-purity rutile was found to be (0.067??0.0015)??10-6 emu per gram, and was temperature-independent from 55??to 372??K. Difficulty was encountered in obtaining a good value of the magnetic susceptibility of anatase because of impurities. However, a value of 0.02??10-6 emu per gram was obtained as a maximum value for anatase powder. A discussion is given for the different values obtained for anatase and rutile. ?? 1960 The American Physical Society.

  10. PRNP promoter polymorphisms are associated with BSE susceptibility in Swiss and German cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziegler Ute

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-synonymous polymorphisms within the prion protein gene (PRNP influence the susceptibility and incubation time for transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE in some species such as sheep and humans. In cattle, none of the known polymorphisms within the PRNP coding region has a major influence on susceptibility to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE. Recently, however, we demonstrated an association between susceptibility to BSE and a 23 bp insertion/deletion (indel polymorphism and a 12 bp indel polymorphism within the putative PRNP promoter region using 43 German BSE cases and 48 German control cattle. The objective of this study was to extend this work by including a larger number of BSE cases and control cattle of German and Swiss origin. Results Allele, genotype and haplotype frequencies of the two indel polymorphisms were determined in 449 BSE cattle and 431 unaffected cattle from Switzerland and Germany including all 43 German BSE and 16 German control animals from the original study. When breeds with similar allele and genotype distributions were compared, the 23 bp indel polymorphism again showed a significant association with susceptibility to BSE. However, some additional breed-specific allele and genotype distributions were identified, mainly related to the Brown breeds. Conclusion Our study corroborated earlier findings that polymorphisms in the PRNP promoter region have an influence on susceptibility to BSE. However, breed-specific differences exist that need to be accounted for when analyzing such data.

  11. Exercise Training but not Curcumin Supplementation Decreases Immune Cell Infiltration in the Pancreatic Islets of a Genetically Susceptible Model of Type 1 Diabetes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oharomari, Leandro Kansuke; de Moraes, Camila; Navarro, Anderson Marliere

    2017-01-01

    .... Therefore, anti-inflammatory factors, such as the intake of bioactive compounds and a physically active lifestyle, may decrease or cease the development of autoimmune diseases. Type 1 diabetes (T1D...

  12. Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Extended Spectrum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of various bacterial pathogens including ... tests including, ESBL screening and confirmation, were carried out by disc diffusion technique ... MacConkey agar, Blood agar base, Mueller.

  13. Nasopharyngeal carriage and susceptibility patterns of Streptococcu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nasopharyngeal carriage and susceptibility patterns of Streptococcu ... poses an increasing problem in paediatrics, particularly in less developed countries. ... An effort to curtail the misuse of anitibiotics, by prescription and otherwise, may ...

  14. Original Paper Multicenter study on antibiotic susceptibility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multicenter study on antibiotic susceptibility/resistance trends in the western region of Cameroon ... This would be achieved with State support to public and private institutions. ... because of lack or insufficient knowledge on microbial life and ...

  15. Real-Time Optical Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredborg, Marlene; Andersen, Klaus R; Jørgensen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing is in highly demand in health-care fields as antimicrobial resistant bacterial strains emerge and spread. Here we describe an optical screening system (oCelloScope), which based on time-lapse imaging of 96 bacteria-antibiotic combinations at a time, introdu......Rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing is in highly demand in health-care fields as antimicrobial resistant bacterial strains emerge and spread. Here we describe an optical screening system (oCelloScope), which based on time-lapse imaging of 96 bacteria-antibiotic combinations at a time......, introduces real-time detection of bacterial growth and antimicrobial susceptibility, with imaging material to support the automatically generated graphs. Automated antibiotic susceptibility tests of a monoculture showed statistically significant antibiotic effect within 6 minutes and within 30 minutes...

  16. Bacteriuria and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of asymptomatic UTI has been previously reported to be 2% to ... cause complications such as pyelonephritis, hypertensive disease of pregnancy, .... to first-line antibiotics in Mexico City: a multicenter susceptibility analysis.

  17. LABORATORY ASSESSMENT OF THE SUSCEPTABILITY OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    observed that grain is usually susceptible to weevil damage under high moisture ... responsible for causing more than 20% weight loss of hybrid maize stored in .... seed hardness and thickness, both in the pericarp and the whole kernel by ...

  18. Landslide susceptibility map: from research to application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorucci, Federica; Reichenbach, Paola; Ardizzone, Francesca; Rossi, Mauro; Felicioni, Giulia; Antonini, Guendalina

    2014-05-01

    Susceptibility map is an important and essential tool in environmental planning, to evaluate landslide hazard and risk and for a correct and responsible management of the territory. Landslide susceptibility is the likelihood of a landslide occurring in an area on the basis of local terrain conditions. Can be expressed as the probability that any given region will be affected by landslides, i.e. an estimate of "where" landslides are likely to occur. In this work we present two examples of landslide susceptibility map prepared for the Umbria Region and for the Perugia Municipality. These two maps were realized following official request from the Regional and Municipal government to the Research Institute for the Hydrogeological Protection (CNR-IRPI). The susceptibility map prepared for the Umbria Region represents the development of previous agreements focused to prepare: i) a landslide inventory map that was included in the Urban Territorial Planning (PUT) and ii) a series of maps for the Regional Plan for Multi-risk Prevention. The activities carried out for the Umbria Region were focused to define and apply methods and techniques for landslide susceptibility zonation. Susceptibility maps were prepared exploiting a multivariate statistical model (linear discriminant analysis) for the five Civil Protection Alert Zones defined in the regional territory. The five resulting maps were tested and validated using the spatial distribution of recent landslide events that occurred in the region. The susceptibility map for the Perugia Municipality was prepared to be integrated as one of the cartographic product in the Municipal development plan (PRG - Piano Regolatore Generale) as required by the existing legislation. At strategic level, one of the main objectives of the PRG, is to establish a framework of knowledge and legal aspects for the management of geo-hydrological risk. At national level most of the susceptibility maps prepared for the PRG, were and still are obtained

  19. Harry Potter and the Susceptible Child Audience

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Kara Lynn

    2005-01-01

    Kara Lynn Andersen, in her paper "Harry Potter and the Susceptible Child Audience," argues for a rethinking of assumptions of child audiences as passive readers and viewers through an analysis of the Harry Potter phenomenon. Andersen argues that instead of categorizing children as passive and homogenous subjects of analysis, they should instead be incorporated as participants in the discourse about children's books and films. Although frequently figured as especially susceptible to the affect...

  20. Advances in Susceptibility Genetics of Intervertebral Degenerative Disc Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin'gang Zhang, Zhengming Sun, Jiangtao Liu, Xiong Guo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional view that the etiology of lumbar disc herniation is primarily due to age, gender, occupation, smoking and exposure to vehicular vibration dominated much of the last century. Recent research indicates that heredity may be largely responsible for the degeneration as well as herniation of intervertebral discs. Since 1998, genetic influences have been confirmed by the identification of several genes forms associated with disc degeneration. These researches are paving the way for a better understanding of the biologic mechanisms. Now, many researchers unanimously agree that lumbar disc herniation appears to be similar to other complex diseases, whose etiology has both environmental and hereditary influence, each with a part of contribution and relative risk. Then addressing the etiological of lumbar disc herniation, it is important to integrate heredity with the environment factors. For the purpose of this review, we have limited our discussion to several susceptibility genes associated with disc degeneration.

  1. The influence of early exposure to vitamin D for development of diseases later in life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Ramune; Abrahamsen, Bo; Bauerek, Marta Jadwiga

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is common among otherwise healthy pregnant women and may have consequences for them as well as the early development and long-term health of their children. However, the importance of maternal vitamin D status on offspring health later in life has not been widely studied. The....... The present study includes an in-depth examination of the influence of exposure to vitamin D early in life for development of fractures of the wrist, arm and clavicle; obesity, and type 1 diabetes (T1D) during child- and adulthood.......Vitamin D deficiency is common among otherwise healthy pregnant women and may have consequences for them as well as the early development and long-term health of their children. However, the importance of maternal vitamin D status on offspring health later in life has not been widely studied...

  2. Shared HLA Class II in Six Autoimmune Diseases in Latin America: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Cruz-Tapias

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and genetic susceptibility of autoimmune diseases (ADs may vary depending on latitudinal gradient and ethnicity. The aims of this study were to identify common human leukocyte antigen (HLA class II alleles that contribute to susceptibility to six ADs in Latin Americans through a meta-analysis and to review additional clinical, immunological, and genetic characteristics of those ADs sharing HLA alleles. DRB1∗03:01 (OR: 4.04; 95%CI: 1.41–11.53 was found to be a risk factor for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, Sjögren's syndrome (SS, and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D. DRB1∗04:05 (OR: 4.64; 95%CI: 2.14–10.05 influences autoimmune hepatitis (AIH, rheumatoid arthritis (RA, and T1D; DRB1∗04:01 (OR: 3.86; 95%CI: 2.32–6.42 is a susceptibility factor for RA and T1D. Opposite associations were found between multiple sclerosis (MS and T1D. DQB1∗06:02 and DRB1∗15 alleles were risk factors for MS but protective factors for T1D. Likewise, DQB1∗06:03 allele was a risk factor for AIH but a protective one for T1D. Several common autoantibodies and clinical associations as well as additional shared genes have been reported in these ADs, which are reviewed herein. These results indicate that in Latin Americans ADs share major loci and immune characteristics.

  3. Interaction of some organophosphorus compounds in susceptible and resistant houseflies (Musca domestica L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdallah, M.D.

    1963-01-01

    The effect of tri-ortho-cresylphosphate (TOCP) on poisoning by parathion and paraoxon in susceptible and resistant houseflies (Musca domestica L.) was investigated.

    TOCP influenced the penetration of parathion and paraoxon, and this could explain the contradictory results of both an anta

  4. Interleukin 1 alpha increases the susceptibility of rabbits to experimental viridans streptococcal endocarditis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Dankert; J. van der Werff; W. Joldersma; S.A.J. Zaat

    2006-01-01

    Major predisposing conditions for infective endocarditis (IE) are the presence of a cardiac platelet-fibrin vegetation and of circulating bacteria with relatively low susceptibility to microbicidal activity of blood platelets. The influence of proinflammatory conditions on development of IE is unkno

  5. Susceptibility pays off: insights into the mlo-based powdery mildew resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appiano, Michela

    2016-01-01

    Powdery mildew (PM) is a worldwide-occurring plant disease caused by ascomycete fungi of the order Erysiphales. A conspicuous number of plant species are susceptible to this disease, the occurrence of which is increasing due to the influence of climate change. Symptoms are easy to recognize by the p

  6. Susceptibility of personal computer systems to electromagnetic pulses with double exponential character

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Camp

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the susceptibility of personal computer systems to fast transient electromagnetic pulses with double exponential pulse shapes (EMP, UWB is determined. The influence of the computer generation, RAM-values, different program states and the pulse shape, as well as the destruction thresholds of single PC-components (CPU, RAM, BIOS, Mainboard have been investigated.

  7. Differential susceptibility experiments: going beyond correlational evidence: comment on beyond mental health, differential susceptibility articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

    2012-05-01

    Reviewing the studies on differential susceptibility presented in this section, we argue that the time is ripe to go beyond correlational designs to differential susceptibility experiments. In such experiments, randomization prevents hidden moderator effects on the environment and guarantees the independence of moderator and outcome, while the environment is manipulated and assessed in standard ways. Correlational studies generate a priori expectations about crucial moderators (e.g., temperament, biological sensitivity, and genetics). We discuss the differential susceptibility experiments available up until now and conclude that these experiments are feasible and contribute in unique ways to our conceptions of differential susceptibility.

  8. Shallow Landslide Susceptibility Modeling Using the Data Mining Models Artificial Neural Network and Boosted Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Joo Oh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to present some potential applications of sophisticated data mining techniques, such as artificial neural network (ANN and boosted tree (BT, for landslide susceptibility modeling in the Yongin area, Korea. Initially, landslide inventory was detected from visual interpretation using digital aerial photographic maps with a high resolution of 50 cm taken before and after the occurrence of landslides. The debris flows were randomly divided into two groups: training and validation sets with a 50:50 proportion. Additionally, 18 environmental factors related to landslide occurrence were derived from the topography, soil, and forest maps. Subsequently, the data mining techniques were applied to identify the influence of environmental factors on landslide occurrence of the training set and assess landslide susceptibility. Finally, the landslide susceptibility indexes from ANN and BT were compared with a validation set using a receiver operating characteristics curve. The slope gradient, topographic wetness index, and timber age appear to be important factors in landslide occurrence from both models. The validation result of ANN and BT showed 82.25% and 90.79%, which had reasonably good performance. The study shows the benefit of selecting optimal data mining techniques in landslide susceptibility modeling. This approach could be used as a guideline for choosing environmental factors on landslide occurrence and add influencing factors into landslide monitoring systems. Furthermore, this method can rank landslide susceptibility in urban areas, thus providing helpful information when selecting a landslide monitoring site and planning land-use.

  9. Involvement of phenolic compounds in the susceptibility of bananas to crown rot. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lassois, L.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Crown rot of bananas, caused by a fungal parasitic complex, is one of the main quality defects of exported bananas. Major variations in the susceptibility of bananas to crown rot have been observed in different production zones. The physiological state of the banana fruit at harvest is said to influence its response to pathogenic attack and thus to modulate its susceptibility to crown rot. The susceptibility of bananas to this disease, however, appears to be influenced by many pre-harvest factors, although the underlying defense mechanisms have not been clearly identified. A recent report based on molecular analyses suggests that phenolic compounds might be involved in the different variations in the susceptibility of bananas to crown rot. Results of other earlier studies point to an involvement of phenolic compounds in the defensive reactions of banana plants against various pathogens. The present paper reviews the current state of knowledge on the variations in the susceptibility of bananas to crown rot and takes stock of what is known about phenolic compounds in relation to their potential involvement in the defense mechanisms of the banana plant.

  10. The Type 1 Diabetes - HLA Susceptibility Interactome - Identification of HLA Genotype-Specific Disease Genes for Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorsson, C.; Hansen, Niclas Tue; Bergholdt, R.

    2010-01-01

    -protein interactions to elucidate risk independent of LD and to place the genetic association into a functional context. Methodology/Principal Findings: Genetic association data from 2300 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the HLA region was analysed in 2200 T1D family trios divided into six risk groups based...... and presentation. Conclusions/Significance: In this study we were able to hypothesise functional differences between individuals with T1D carrying specific DRB1 alleles. The results point at candidate proteins involved in distinct cellular processes that could not only help the understanding of the pathogenesis...

  11. Genetic susceptibility of the arterial wall is an important determinant of atherosclerosis in C57BL/6 and FVB/N mouse strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shim, Jeong; Handberg, Aase; Östergren, Eva-Britt Caroline

    2011-01-01

    How genetic variations among inbred mouse strains translate into differences in atherosclerosis susceptibility is of significant interest for the development of new therapeutic strategies. The objective of the present study was to examine whether genetically controlled arterial wall properties in...... influence atherosclerosis susceptibility in FVB/N (FVB) and C57BL/6 (B6) apolipoprotein E knockout (apoE(-/-)) mouse strains....

  12. Lack of association between rs1800795 (-174 G/C polymorphism in the promoter region of interleukin-6 gene and susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in Isfahan population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Ghavimi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: These results indicated that the rs1800795 SNP is not a susceptibility gene variant for the development of T2DM in the Isfahan population. Further studies using new data on complex transcriptional interactions between IL-6 polymorphic sites are necessary to determine IL-6 haplotype influence on susceptibility to T2DM.

  13. Is susceptibility to tuberculosis acquired or inherited?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurr, E

    2007-02-01

    Tuberculosis is an ongoing major public health problem on a global scale. One of the striking features of the disease is that only an estimated 10% of immunocompetent persons infected by the causative pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis will develop clinical signs of disease. This well-established epidemiological observation has prompted an intense search for the factors that trigger advancement of infection to disease in the small proportion of susceptible individuals. Central to this search is the questions if tuberculosis patients are inherently susceptible to the disease or if disease development is promoted by specific environmental factors. It is known that genetic and non-genetic factors of both the bacterium and the host have impact on the host response to M. tuberculosis. Yet, little is known about the interaction of these different factors and the resulting impact on disease development. Recent work suggests that in addition to common host susceptibility genes a second group of susceptibility loci exists the action of which strongly depends on the individual's clinical and exposure history. The latter genes may have a very strong effect on promoting advancement from infection to disease only in specific epidemiological settings. These findings suggest that a more detailed knowledge of gene-environment interactions in tuberculosis is necessary to understand why a small proportion of individuals are susceptible to the disease whilst the majority of humans are naturally resistant to tuberculosis.

  14. Whole brain susceptibility mapping using compressed sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bing; Li, Wei; Guidon, Arnaud; Liu, Chunlei

    2012-01-01

    The derivation of susceptibility from image phase is hampered by the ill-conditioned filter inversion in certain k-space regions. In this article, compressed sensing is used to compensate for the k-space regions where direct filter inversion is unstable. A significantly lower level of streaking artifacts is produced in the resulting susceptibility maps for both simulated and in vivo data sets compared to outcomes obtained using the direct threshold method. It is also demonstrated that the compressed sensing based method outperforms regularization based methods. The key difference between the regularized inversions and compressed sensing compensated inversions is that, in the former case, the entire k-space spectrum estimation is affected by the ill-conditioned filter inversion in certain k-space regions, whereas in the compressed sensing based method only the ill-conditioned k-space regions are estimated. In the susceptibility map calculated from the phase measurement obtained using a 3T scanner, not only are the iron-rich regions well depicted, but good contrast between white and gray matter interfaces that feature a low level of susceptibility variations are also obtained. The correlation between the iron content and the susceptibility levels in iron-rich deep nucleus regions is studied, and strong linear relationships are observed which agree with previous findings.

  15. Differential Susceptibility Experiments: Going beyond Correlational Evidence--Comment on beyond Mental Health, Differential Susceptibility Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    2012-01-01

    Reviewing the studies on differential susceptibility presented in this section, we argue that the time is ripe to go beyond correlational designs to differential susceptibility experiments. In such experiments, randomization prevents hidden moderator effects on the environment and guarantees the independence of moderator and outcome, while the…

  16. Susceptibility-weighted imaging and quantitative susceptibility mapping in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunlei; Li, Wei; Tong, Karen A; Yeom, Kristen W; Kuzminski, Samuel

    2015-07-01

    Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique that enhances image contrast by using the susceptibility differences between tissues. It is created by combining both magnitude and phase in the gradient echo data. SWI is sensitive to both paramagnetic and diamagnetic substances which generate different phase shift in MRI data. SWI images can be displayed as a minimum intensity projection that provides high resolution delineation of the cerebral venous architecture, a feature that is not available in other MRI techniques. As such, SWI has been widely applied to diagnose various venous abnormalities. SWI is especially sensitive to deoxygenated blood and intracranial mineral deposition and, for that reason, has been applied to image various pathologies including intracranial hemorrhage, traumatic brain injury, stroke, neoplasm, and multiple sclerosis. SWI, however, does not provide quantitative measures of magnetic susceptibility. This limitation is currently being addressed with the development of quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and susceptibility tensor imaging (STI). While QSM treats susceptibility as isotropic, STI treats susceptibility as generally anisotropic characterized by a tensor quantity. This article reviews the basic principles of SWI, its clinical and research applications, the mechanisms governing brain susceptibility properties, and its practical implementation, with a focus on brain imaging.

  17. Effects of Size, deGennes and Ginzburg-Landau Parameters on the Magnetic Susceptibility of an Isotropic Superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, C. A.; González, J. D.; Barba-Ortega, J.

    2016-01-01

    The magnetic signature of a nanoscopic superconductor immersed in a magnetic applied field H_e is calculated numerically. The calculated magnetic susceptibility partial M / partial H_e of a superconducting nanoprism shows discontinuities and a quasiperiodic modulation at the vortex transition fields H_T (fields for which one or several vortices enter/leave the sample). In this contribution, we studied the influence of the sample size, the Ginzburg-Landau parameter κ and the deGennes parameter b on the magnetic susceptibility in a type-II isotropic superconductor. We found distinct signatures of the magnetic susceptibility when superconducting samples of two and three dimensions are considered.

  18. Where genes meet environment-integrating the role of gut luminal contents, immunity and pancreas in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Fraser W; Pound, Lynley D; Patrick, Christopher; Eberhard, Chandra E; Crookshank, Jennifer A

    2017-01-01

    The rise in new cases of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in genetically susceptible individuals over the past half century has been attributed to numerous environmental "triggers" or promoters such as enteroviruses, diet, and most recently, gut bacteria. No single cause has been identified in humans, likely because there are several pathways by which one can develop T1D. There is renewed attention to the role of the gut and its immune system in T1D pathogenesis based largely on recent animal studies demonstrating that altering the gut microbiota affects diabetes incidence. Although T1D patients display dysbiosis in the gut microbiome, it is unclear whether this is cause or effect. The heart of this question involves several moving parts including numerous risk genes, diet, viruses, gut microbiota, timing, and loss of immune tolerance to β-cells. Most clinical trials have addressed only one aspect of this puzzle using some form of immune suppression, without much success. The key location where our genes meet and deal with the environment is the gastrointestinal tract. The influence of all of its major contents, including microbes, diet, and immune system, must be understood as part of the integrative biology of T1D before we can develop durable means of preventing, treating, or curing this disease. In the present review, we expand our previous gut-centric model based on recent developments in the field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Introduction to cancer genetic susceptibility syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Rose B; Nichols, Kim E

    2016-12-02

    The last 30 years have witnessed tremendous advances in our understanding of the cancer genetic susceptibility syndromes, including those that predispose to hematopoietic malignancies. The identification and characterization of families affected by these syndromes is enhancing our knowledge of the oncologic and nononcologic manifestations associated with predisposing germ line mutations and providing insights into the underlying disease mechanisms. Here, we provide an overview of the cancer genetic susceptibility syndromes, focusing on aspects relevant to the evaluation of patients with leukemia and lymphoma. Guidance is provided to facilitate recognition of these syndromes by hematologists/oncologists, including descriptions of the family history features, tumor genotype, and physical or developmental findings that should raise concern for an underlying cancer genetic syndrome. The clinical implications and management challenges associated with cancer susceptibility syndromes are also discussed.

  20. AC susceptibilities of grain-textured superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, N.; Fukuda, Y.; Koga, M.; Akune, T.; Khan, H. R.; Lüders, K.

    2008-09-01

    In-phase χ n‧ and out-phase χ n″ components of nth harmonics of AC susceptibility with measuring parameters of a DC magnetic field Bdc, an amplitude Ba and a frequency f of the superimposed AC magnetic fields give substantial information of the superconducting properties. In low- Tc metallic superconductors, χ1‧ shows smooth transition and χ1″ does single peak. High- Tc oxide superconductors with anisotropic and grain-textured structures show deformed complex characteristics. Double peaks in χ1″ and shoulders in χ1‧ appear in AC susceptibility of Hg-1223 superconductors. Instead of simple Bean model, a grained model, where the superconducting grains are immersed in weak superconducting matrix, are proposed. The susceptibilities numerically analyzed using the model show varied and deformed curves and are successfully compared with the measured results.

  1. Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Stephan; Deistung, Andreas; Schweser, Ferdinand; Franthal, Sebastian; Homayoon, Nina; Katschnig-Winter, Petra; Koegl-Wallner, Mariella; Pendl, Tamara; Stoegerer, Eva Maria; Wenzel, Karoline; Fazekas, Franz; Ropele, Stefan; Reichenbach, Jürgen Rainer; Schmidt, Reinhold; Schwingenschuh, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Background Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and R2* relaxation rate mapping have demonstrated increased iron deposition in the substantia nigra of patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, the findings in other subcortical deep gray matter nuclei are converse and the sensitivity of QSM and R2* for morphological changes and their relation to clinical measures of disease severity has so far been investigated only sparsely. Methods The local ethics committee approved this study and all subjects gave written informed consent. 66 patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease and 58 control subjects underwent quantitative MRI at 3T. Susceptibility and R2* maps were reconstructed from a spoiled multi-echo 3D gradient echo sequence. Mean susceptibilities and R2* rates were measured in subcortical deep gray matter nuclei and compared between patients with PD and controls as well as related to clinical variables. Results Compared to control subjects, patients with PD had increased R2* values in the substantia nigra. QSM also showed higher susceptibilities in patients with PD in substantia nigra, in the nucleus ruber, thalamus, and globus pallidus. Magnetic susceptibility of several of these structures was correlated with the levodopa-equivalent daily dose (LEDD) and clinical markers of motor and non-motor disease severity (total MDS-UPDRS, MDS-UPDRS-I and II). Disease severity as assessed by the Hoehn & Yahr scale was correlated with magnetic susceptibility in the substantia nigra. Conclusion The established finding of higher R2* rates in the substantia nigra was extended by QSM showing superior sensitivity for PD-related tissue changes in nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathways. QSM additionally reflected the levodopa-dosage and disease severity. These results suggest a more widespread pathologic involvement and QSM as a novel means for its investigation, more sensitive than current MRI techniques. PMID:27598250

  2. Gene and environment interaction: Is the differential susceptibility hypothesis relevant for obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle Molle, Roberta; Fatemi, Hajar; Dagher, Alain; Levitan, Robert D; Silveira, Patricia P; Dubé, Laurette

    2017-02-01

    The differential susceptibility model states that a given genetic variant is associated with an increased risk of pathology in negative environments but greater than average resilience in enriched ones. While this theory was first implemented in psychiatric-genetic research, it may also help us to unravel the complex ways that genes and environments interact to influence feeding behavior and obesity. We reviewed evidence on gene vs. environment interactions that influence obesity development, aiming to support the applicability of the differential susceptibility model for this condition, and propose that various environmental "layers" relevant for human development should be considered when bearing the differential susceptibility model in mind. Mother-child relationship, socioeconomic status and individual's response are important modifiers of BMI and food intake when interacting with gene variants, "for better and for worse". While only a few studies to date have investigated obesity outcomes using this approach, we propose that the differential susceptibility hypothesis is in fact highly applicable to the study of genetic and environmental influences on feeding behavior and obesity risk.

  3. [Activity of cefpodoxime and other oral beta-lactams against Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae with different susceptibilities to penicillin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenoll, A; Robledo, O; Lerma, M; Giménez, M J; Cebrián, L; Casal, J; Aguilar, L; Gómez-Lus, M L

    2006-03-01

    This study explores the influence on the intrinsic activity of different oral beta-lactams of beta-lactamase production in Haemophilus influenzae and penicillin resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Three substudies were performed: a) a general susceptibility study, analyzing 550 strains received by the Spanish Laboratorio de Referencia de Neumococos throughout February and March 2005; b) a study on the influence of penicillin resistance on the activity of beta-lactams, analyzing 251 penicillin-susceptible strains (MICor=2 mg/l) randomly chosen among those received by the Spanish Laboratorio de Referencia de Neumococos throughout 2005; and c) an H. influenzae susceptibility study analyzing 150 strains received by Instituto Valenciano de Microbiologia throughout 2005. A total of 71% of S. pneumoniae strains were susceptible to penicillin, 21% exhibited intermediate resistance and 8% strains presented full resistance. H. influenzae beta-lactamase production rate was 18.6%. Of the non-beta-lactamase-producing strains, 3% were not susceptible to ampicillin. Cefpodoxime and cefixime exhibited the highest intrinsic activity against H. influenzae, while amoxicillin and cefpodoxime were the most active compounds against S. pneumoniae. All H. influenzae strains were susceptible to oral cephalosporins and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. The increase in penicillin resistance in S. pneumoniae influenced cefixime, cefaclor and cefuroxime to a higher degree than amoxicillin and cefpodoxime.

  4. Mode matching in second order susceptibility metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Héron, Sébastien; Haïdar, Riad

    2016-01-01

    We present an effective model for a subwavelength periodically patterned metallic layer, its cavities being filled with a nonlinear dielectric material, which accounts for both the linear and second order behavior. The effective non linear susceptibility for the homogenized layer is driven by the nonlinearity of the dielectric material and by the geometrical parameters, thus leading to much higher susceptibility than existing materials. This leads to a huge enhancement of non linear processes when used together with resonances. Furthermore, multiple resonances are taking place in the metallic cavities, and we investigate the mode matching situations for frequency conversion processes and show how it enhances further their efficiency.

  5. Susceptibility of large populations of coupled oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daido, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    It is an important and interesting problem to elucidate how the degree of phase order in a large population of coupled oscillators responds to a synchronizing periodic force from the outside. Here this problem is studied analytically as well as numerically by introducing the concept of susceptibility for globally coupled phase oscillators with either nonrandom or random interactions. It is shown that the susceptibility diverges at the critical point in the nonrandom case with Widom's equality satisfied, while it exhibits a cusp in the most random case.

  6. Magnetic susceptibilities of cluster-hierarchical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Susan R.; Berker, A. Nihat

    1984-02-01

    The exact magnetic susceptibilities of hierarchical models are calculated near and away from criticality, in both the ordered and disordered phases. The mechanism and phenomenology are discussed for models with susceptibilities that are physically sensible, e.g., nondivergent away from criticality. Such models are found based upon the Niemeijer-van Leeuwen cluster renormalization. A recursion-matrix method is presented for the renormalization-group evaluation of response functions. Diagonalization of this matrix at fixed points provides simple criteria for well-behaved densities and response functions.

  7. Simultaneous effects of pressure and temperature on the binding energy and diamagnetic susceptibility of a laser dressed donor in a spherical quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaseghi, B.; Sajadi, T.

    2012-07-01

    Binding energies and diamagnetic susceptibility of an impurity in a spherical GaAs quantum dot under the simultaneous influence of static pressure, temperature and laser radiation are investigated. Pressure- and temperature-dependent dressed potential which is produced by the combined effects of laser radiation and impurity considerably change the energy spectrum and diamagnetic susceptibility of the system. It is shown that binding energies and diamagnetic susceptibility increase with increasing pressure. Moreover, laser radiation effects on the diamagnetic susceptibility are not significant in comparison with its effects on the binding energy.

  8. Simultaneous effects of pressure and temperature on the binding energy and diamagnetic susceptibility of a laser dressed donor in a spherical quantum dot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaseghi, B., E-mail: behroozv1@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, College of Sciences, Yasouj University, Yasouj 75914-353 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sajadi, T. [Department of Physics, College of Sciences, Yasouj University, Yasouj 75914-353 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    Binding energies and diamagnetic susceptibility of an impurity in a spherical GaAs quantum dot under the simultaneous influence of static pressure, temperature and laser radiation are investigated. Pressure- and temperature-dependent dressed potential which is produced by the combined effects of laser radiation and impurity considerably change the energy spectrum and diamagnetic susceptibility of the system. It is shown that binding energies and diamagnetic susceptibility increase with increasing pressure. Moreover, laser radiation effects on the diamagnetic susceptibility are not significant in comparison with its effects on the binding energy.

  9. Association between the g.296596G > A genetic variant of RELN gene and susceptibility to autism in a Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaoyan; Mei, Zhu; Sun, Lixin

    2013-12-01

    Autism is a childhood neuro-developmental disorder, and Reelin (RELN) is an important candidate gene for influencing autism. This study aimed at investigating the influence of genetic variants of the RELN gene on autism susceptibility. In this study, 205 autism patients and 210 healthy controls were recruited and the genetic variants of the RELN gene were genotyped by the created restriction site-polymerase chain reaction (CRS-PCR) method. The influence of genetic variants on autism susceptibility was analyzed by association analysis, and the g.296596G > A genetic variant in exon10 of the RELN gene was detected. The frequencies of allele/genotype in autistic patients were significantly different from those in healthy controls, and a statistically significant association was detected between this genetic variant and autism susceptibility. Our data lead to the inference that the g.296596G > A genetic variant in the RELN gene has a potential influence on autism susceptibility in the Chinese Han population.

  10. Endocarditis caused by methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Famiglietti Angela

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Staphylococcus aureus is the most common cause of acute infective endocarditis. Recent reports have described heteroresistance to vancomycin associated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. We present the first case report in Argentina of the failure of treatment with vancomycin in endocarditis caused by methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus containing subpopulations with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin. Case presentation We report the case of a 66-year-old Hispanic man with infective endocarditis complicated by septic emboli in the lumbosacral spine and the left iliopsoas muscle. This disease was caused by methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus containing subpopulations with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin. He was initially treated with cephalothin and gentamicin but developed a rash caused by beta-lactams and interstitial nephritis. For that reason, the treatment was subsequently switched to vancomycin but he failed to respond. The infection resolved after administration of vancomycin in combination with gentamicin and rifampin. Conclusion Our case report provides important evidence for the existence of subpopulations of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus that have reduced susceptibility to vancomycin which would account for treatment failure. Our case raises an alert about the existence of these strains and highlights the need to determine the vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration of Staphylococcus aureus to screen for the presence of strains that have reduced vancomycin susceptibility at different infection sites.

  11. The menstrual cycle and susceptibility to coriolis-induced sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, B; Heskin, R; Hofer, K; Gagnon, M

    2001-01-01

    Survey studies on motion sickness susceptibility suggest that females tend to report greater severity in illness and higher incidence of vomiting than males. Menstruation is said to be a contributing factor. A recent study suggested that females were least susceptible to seasickness during ovulation in a "round the world" yacht race. Sixteen subjects (18-36 years old) were exposed to Coriolis cross-coupling stimulation in the laboratory. They were tested once during permenstruation (Day 1-5), ovulation (Day 12-15) and premenstruation (Day 24-28), based on a normalized 28-day cycle, in a randomised design. Physiological measurements of motion sickness included forearm and calf cutaneous blood flow. Subjective evaluation of sickness symptoms was based on Graybiel's diagnostic criteria and Golding's rating method. Our results indicated that under controlled laboratory conditions, different phases of the menstrual cycle appear to have no influence on subjective symptoms of motion sickness or on cutaneous blood flow increase in the forearm and calf. The lack of commonality between the types and levels of hormones that are released during motion sickness and those that are involved in different menstrual phases appears to support our findings.

  12. Prioritisation and network analysis of Crohn's disease susceptibility genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Muraro

    Full Text Available Recent Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS have revealed numerous Crohn's disease susceptibility genes and a key challenge now is in understanding how risk polymorphisms in associated genes might contribute to development of this disease. For a gene to contribute to disease phenotype, its risk variant will likely adversely communicate with a variety of other gene products to result in dysregulation of common signaling pathways. A vital challenge is to elucidate pathways of potentially greatest influence on pathological behaviour, in a manner recognizing how multiple relevant genes may yield integrative effect. In this work we apply mathematical analysis of networks involving the list of recently described Crohn's susceptibility genes, to prioritise pathways in relation to their potential development of this disease. Prioritisation was performed by applying a text mining and a diffusion based method (GRAIL, GPEC. Prospective biological significance of the resulting prioritised list of proteins is highlighted by changes in their gene expression levels in Crohn's patients intestinal tissue in comparison with healthy donors.

  13. Detecting compaction disequilibrium with anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwehr, Kurt; Tauxe, Lisa; Driscoll, Neal; Lee, Homa

    2006-11-01

    In clay-rich sediment, microstructures and macrostructures influence how sediments deform when under stress. When lithology is fairly constant, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) can be a simple technique for measuring the relative consolidation state of sediment, which reflects the sediment burial history. AMS can reveal areas of high water content and apparent overconsolidation associated with unconformities where sediment overburden has been removed. Many other methods for testing consolidation and water content are destructive and invasive, whereas AMS provides a nondestructive means to focus on areas for additional geotechnical study. In zones where the magnetic minerals are undergoing diagenesis, AMS should not be used for detecting compaction state. By utilizing AMS in the Santa Barbara Basin, we were able to identify one clear unconformity and eight zones of high water content in three cores. With the addition of susceptibility, anhysteretic remanent magnetization, and isothermal remanent magnetization rock magnetic techniques, we excluded 3 out of 11 zones from being compaction disequilibria. The AMS signals for these three zones are the result of diagenesis, coring deformation, and burrows. In addition, using AMS eigenvectors, we are able to accurately show the direction of maximum compression for the accumulation zone of the Gaviota Slide.

  14. Susceptibility to distraction by social cues in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause-Utz, Annegret; Elzinga, Bernet M; Oei, Nicole Y L; Spinhoven, Philip; Bohus, Martin; Schmahl, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) are highly sensitive to social rejection and show alterations in social perception. Increased susceptibility to social cues in patients with BPD might interfere with executive functions that play an important role in goal-directed behavior. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of task-irrelevant (neutral vs. negatively arousing) social cues on working memory performance in BPD patients compared to healthy controls (HC). 28 unmedicated female BPD patients and 28 female HC (matched for age and education) performed a Sternberg item recognition task, while being distracted by neutral versus negatively arousing pictures from the International Affective Picture System (interpersonal scenes) and the Karolinska Directed Emotional Faces Set (faces). Additionally, self-ratings of aversive inner tension were assessed and correlated with task performance. Compared to HC, BPD patients showed significantly impaired accuracy after distraction by negatively arousing stimuli (both scenes and faces) and neutral faces (but not neutral scenes). Significant negative correlations between overall accuracy and self-reported aversive inner tension were observed in BPD patients. Findings of the present study suggest increased susceptibility to distracting (negatively arousing) social cues in individuals with BPD, which might interfere with cognitive functioning. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Nodal infection in Markovian susceptible-infected-susceptible and susceptible-infected-removed epidemics on networks are non-negatively correlated

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cator, E.; Van Mieghem, P.F.A.

    2014-01-01

    By invoking the famous Fortuin, Kasteleyn, and Ginibre (FKG) inequality, we prove the conjecture that the correlation of infection at the same time between any pair of nodes in a network cannot be negative for (exact) Markovian susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) and susceptible-infected-removed

  16. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles of oral pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veloo, A. C. M.; Seme, K.; Raangs, E.; Rurenga, P.; Singadji, Z.; Wekema-Mulder, G.; van Winkelhoff, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Periodontitis is a bacterial disease that can be treated with systemic antibiotics. The aim of this study was to establish the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of five periodontal pathogens to six commonly used antibiotics in periodontics. A total of 247 periodontal bacterial isolates were tested

  17. Susceptibility of pathogenic and nonpathogenic Naegleria ssp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whiteman, L.Y.

    1988-01-01

    The susceptibility of four species of Naegleria amoebae to complement-mediated lysis was determined. The amoebicidal activity of normal human serum (NHS) and normal guinea pig serum (NGPS) for Naegleria amoebae was measured by an in vitro cytotoxicity assay. Release of radioactivity from amoebae labeled with {sup 3}H-uridine and visual observation with a compound microscope were used as indices of lysis. Susceptibility or resistance to complement-mediated lysis in vitro correlated with the in vivo pathogenic potential. Nonpathogenic Naegleria amoebae were lysed at a faster rate and at higher cell concentrations than were pathogenic amoebae. Electrophoretic analysis of NHS incubated with pathogenic or nonpathogenic Naegleria spp. demonstrated that amoebae activate the complement cascade resulting in the production of C3 and C5 complement cleavage products. Treatment with papain or trypsin for 1 h, but not with sialidase, increase the susceptibility of highly pathogenic, mouse-passaged N. fowleri to lysis. Treatment with actinomycin D, cycloheximide or various protease inhibitors for 4 h did not increase susceptibility to lysis. Neither a repair process involving de novo protein synthesis nor a complement-inactivating protease appear to account for the increase resistance of N. fowleri amoebae to complement-mediated lysis. A binding study with {sup 125}I radiolabeled C9 indicated that the terminal complement component does not remain stably bound to the membrane of pathogenic amoebae.

  18. The differential susceptibility to media effects model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburg, P.M.; Peter, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this theoretical article, we introduce the Differential Susceptibility to Media Effects Model (DSMM), a new, integrative model to improve our understanding of media effects. The DSMM organizes, integrates, and extends the insights developed in earlier microlevel media-effects theories. It

  19. Mapping markers linked to porcine salmonellosis susceptibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galina-Pantoja, L.; Siggens, K.; Schriek, M.G.; Heuven, H.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    Anim Genet. 2009 Jun 3. [Epub ahead of print] Mapping markers linked to porcine salmonellosis susceptibility. Galina-Pantoja L, Siggens K, van Schriek MG, Heuven HC. PIC/Genus, 100 Bluegrass Commons Blvd, Hendersonville, TN 37075, USA. The goal of this study was to identify pig chromosomal regions a

  20. The differential susceptibility to media effects model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburg, P.M.; Peter, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this theoretical article, we introduce the Differential Susceptibility to Media Effects Model (DSMM), a new, integrative model to improve our understanding of media effects. The DSMM organizes, integrates, and extends the insights developed in earlier microlevel media-effects theories. It disting

  1. Climate change and corn susceptibility to mycotoxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maize is an essential part of the world’s grain supply, but climate change has the potential to increase maize susceptibility to mycotoxigenic fungal pathogens and reduce food security and safety. While rising atmospheric [CO2] is a driving force of climate change, our understanding of how elevated ...

  2. Ethernet susceptibility to electric fast transients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leersum, B.J.A.M.; Buesink, Frederik Johannes Karel; Bergsma, J.G.; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2013-01-01

    The effect of Electric Fast Transients (EFT) phenomena in an Ethernet interface set-up is investigated in order to get more insight in coupling and interference mechanisms, robustness and susceptibility levels of a typical Ethernet installation on board of a naval vessel. It is shown that already a

  3. Parasitism enhances tilapia susceptibility to Flavobacterium columnare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavobacterium columnare, a Gram-negative bacterium, is the causative agent of columnaris disease. Many commercially important freshwater fish worldwide are susceptible to columnaris disease that can result in high fish mortality. Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) is a protozoan parasite in many ...

  4. Nutrition affects insect susceptibility to Bt toxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deans, Carrie A.; Behmer, Spencer T.; Tessnow, Ashley E.; Tamez-Guerra, Patricia; Pusztai-Carey, Marianne; Sword, Gregory A.

    2017-01-01

    Pesticide resistance represents a major challenge to global food production. The spread of resistance alleles is the primary explanation for observations of reduced pesticide efficacy over time, but the potential for gene-by-environment interactions (plasticity) to mediate susceptibility has largely been overlooked. Here we show that nutrition is an environmental factor that affects susceptibility to Bt toxins. Protein and carbohydrates are two key macronutrients for insect herbivores, and the polyphagous pest Helicoverpa zea self-selects and performs best on diets that are protein-biased relative to carbohydrates. Despite this, most Bt bioassays employ carbohydrate-biased rearing diets. This study explored the effect of diet protein-carbohydrate content on H. zea susceptibility to Cry1Ac, a common Bt endotoxin. We detected a 100-fold increase in LC50 for larvae on optimal versus carbohydrate-biased diets, and significant diet-mediated variation in survival and performance when challenged with Cry1Ac. Our results suggest that Bt resistance bioassays that use ecologically- and physiologically-mismatched diets over-estimate susceptibility and under-estimate resistance. PMID:28045087

  5. Antibiotic Susceptibility of Potentially Probiotic Vaginal Lactobacilli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Ocaña

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study the antimicrobial susceptibility of six vaginal probiotic lactobacilli. Methods. The disc diffusion method in Müeller Hinton, LAPTg and MRS agars by the NCCLS (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards procedure was performed. Due to the absence of a Lactobacillus reference strains, the results were compared to those of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC29213. Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC with 21 different antibiotics in LAPTg agar and broth was also determined. Results. LAPTg and MRS agars are suitable media to study antimicrobial susceptibility of lactobacilli. However, the NCCLS procedure needs to be standardized for this genus. The MICs have shown that all Lactobacillus strains grew at concentrations above 10 μg/mL of chloramphenicol, aztreonam, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, streptomycin and kanamycin. Four lactobacilli were sensitive to 1 μg/mL vancomycin and all of them were resistant to 1000 μg/mL of metronidazole. Sensitivity to other antibiotics depended on each particular strain. Conclusions. The NCCLS method needs to be standardized in an appropriate medium to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of Lactobacillus. Vaginal probiotic lactobacilli do not display uniform susceptibility to antibiotics. Resistance to high concentrations of metronidazole suggests that lactobacilli could be simultaneously used with a bacterial vaginosis treatment to restore the vaginal normal flora.

  6. Nutrition affects insect susceptibility to Bt toxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deans, Carrie A.; Behmer, Spencer T.; Tessnow, Ashley E.; Tamez-Guerra, Patricia; Pusztai-Carey, Marianne; Sword, Gregory A.

    2017-01-01

    Pesticide resistance represents a major challenge to global food production. The spread of resistance alleles is the primary explanation for observations of reduced pesticide efficacy over time, but the potential for gene-by-environment interactions (plasticity) to mediate susceptibility has largely been overlooked. Here we show that nutrition is an environmental factor that affects susceptibility to Bt toxins. Protein and carbohydrates are two key macronutrients for insect herbivores, and the polyphagous pest Helicoverpa zea self-selects and performs best on diets that are protein-biased relative to carbohydrates. Despite this, most Bt bioassays employ carbohydrate-biased rearing diets. This study explored the effect of diet protein-carbohydrate content on H. zea susceptibility to Cry1Ac, a common Bt endotoxin. We detected a 100-fold increase in LC50 for larvae on optimal versus carbohydrate-biased diets, and significant diet-mediated variation in survival and performance when challenged with Cry1Ac. Our results suggest that Bt resistance bioassays that use ecologically- and physiologically-mismatched diets over-estimate susceptibility and under-estimate resistance.

  7. The differential susceptibility to media effects model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburg, P.M.; Peter, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this theoretical article, we introduce the Differential Susceptibility to Media Effects Model (DSMM), a new, integrative model to improve our understanding of media effects. The DSMM organizes, integrates, and extends the insights developed in earlier microlevel media-effects theories. It disting

  8. Ankylosing spondylitis susceptibility and severity--contribution of TNF gene promoter polymorphisms at positions -238 and -308.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Elsa; Caetano-Lopes, Joana; Pinto, Patrícia; Pimentel, Fernando; Teles, José; Canhão, Helena; Rodrigues, Ana; Resende, Catarina; Mourão, Ana Filipa; Ribeiro, Célia; Pinto, Teresa Laura; Rosa, Carlos Miranda; da Silva, José Alberto Pereira; Branco, Jaime; Ventura, Francisco; Queiroz, Mário Viana; Fonseca, João Eurico

    2009-09-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease in which genetic factors play a central role. The efficacy of TNF blockers has reoriented research in this field in order to explain the influence of TNF in AS pathogenesis. The objective of this study was to access the influence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at positions -308 and -238 of the promoter region of TNF gene on AS susceptibility and prognosis. SNPs were determined by restriction fragment length polymorphisms in patients and controls. AS patients exhibited a decreased frequency of the A allele at position -238 (10%) when compared with controls (18%), suggesting that this could be a protective factor for disease susceptibility. In addition, the -308 GA/AA genotypes were associated with later disease onset in AS patients. These results suggest that TNF gene promoter polymorphisms at positions -238 and -308 could have a small influence on AS susceptibility and prognosis.

  9. Antifungal susceptibility profile of Trichosporon isolates: correlation between CLSI and etest methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemes, Raquel M L; Lyon, Juliana P; Moreira, Leonardo M; de Resende, Maria Aparecida

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antifungal susceptibility profile of Trichosporon species isolated from different sources employing the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) method and E-test method. Thirty-four isolates of Trichosporon spp. and six CBS reference samples were tested for their susceptibility to Amphotericin B, 5-flucytosine, Fluconazole, Itraconazole, Voriconazole and Terbinafine. All species showed high Minimun Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) for Itraconazole and susceptibility to Fluconazole, The comparison among the results obtained by the CLSI method and E-test revealed larger discrepancies among 5-flucytosine and Itraconazole. The present work provides epidemiological data that could influence therapeutic choices. Furthermore, the comparison between different methodologies could help to analyze results obtained by different laboratories.

  10. Antifungal susceptibility profile of Trichosporon isolates: correlation between CLSI and etest methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemes, Raquel M.L.; Lyon, Juliana P.; Moreira, Leonardo M.; de Resende, Maria Aparecida

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antifungal susceptibility profile of Trichosporon species isolated from different sources employing the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) method and E-test method. Thirty-four isolates of Trichosporon spp. and six CBS reference samples were tested for their susceptibility to Amphotericin B, 5-flucytosine, Fluconazole, Itraconazole, Voriconazole and Terbinafine. All species showed high Minimun Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) for Itraconazole and susceptibility to Fluconazole, The comparison among the results obtained by the CLSI method and E-test revealed larger discrepancies among 5-flucytosine and Itraconazole. The present work provides epidemiological data that could influence therapeutic choices. Furthermore, the comparison between different methodologies could help to analyze results obtained by different laboratories. PMID:24031497

  11. Antifungal susceptibility profile of Trichosporon isolates: correlation between CLSI and etest methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel M.L. Lemes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antifungal susceptibility profile of Trichosporon species isolated from different sources employing the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI method and E-test method. Thirty-four isolates of Trichosporon spp. and six CBS reference samples were tested for their susceptibility to Amphotericin B, 5-flucytosine, Fluconazole, Itraconazole, Voriconazole and Terbinafine. All species showed high Minimun Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC for Itraconazole and susceptibility to Fluconazole, The comparison among the results obtained by the CLSI method and E-test revealed larger discrepancies among 5-flucytosine and Itraconazole. The present work provides epidemiological data that could influence therapeutic choices. Furthermore, the comparison between different methodologies could help to analyze results obtained by different laboratories.

  12. Tylosin susceptibility of Staphylococci from bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entorf, Monika; Feßler, Andrea T; Kadlec, Kristina; Kaspar, Heike; Mankertz, Joachim; Peters, Thomas; Schwarz, Stefan

    2014-07-16

    Although the 16-membered macrolide tylosin is commonly used for the treatment of bovine mastitis, little information is currently available about the susceptibility of mastitis pathogens to tylosin. In the present study, 112 Staphylococcus aureus and 110 coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) spp. isolates from cases of bovine mastitis were tested by broth microdilution and agar disk diffusion with 30 μg tylosin disks. Susceptibility to erythromycin was tested by broth microdilution and disk diffusion using 15 μg disks. Both test populations showed bimodal distributions of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and zone diameters with eleven S. aureus and eight CoNS isolates showing tylosin MICs of ≥ 256 μg/ml and no zones of growth inhibition around the tylosin 30 μg disks. All 19 isolates with tylosin MICs of ≥ 256 μg/ml were also resistant to erythromycin. For six additional erythromycin-resistant isolates, tylosin MICs of 1-8 μg/ml were observed. One S. aureus and two CoNS isolates showed inducible macrolide resistance. PCR analysis of the 25 erythromycin-resistant staphylococcal isolates identified the resistance genes erm(A), erm(B), erm(C), erm(T), mph(C) and msr(A) alone or in different combinations. An excellent correlation between the results of the different tylosin susceptibility tests (broth microdilution versus disk diffusion) was seen for S. aureus and CoNS isolates. Since tylosin does not induce the expression of the aforementioned erm genes, isolates with an inducible resistance phenotype may - if only tylosin is tested - be falsely classified as tylosin-susceptible. Thus, erythromycin should be tested in parallel and tylosin should only be used for the treatment of infections caused by erythromycin-susceptible staphylococci. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Genetic differential susceptibility to the effects of parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsky, Jay; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2017-06-01

    Intervention efforts aimed at remediating or preventing problems in children typically prove only moderately effective due to substantial heterogeneity in their efficacy. It thus becomes important to account for such variation in intervention efficacy. Here we summarize illustrative evidence that, due to their genetic make-up, some children benefit more from interventions targeting parenting than do others. Whereas some work documents the role of single, 'candidate' genes, other work reveals the utility of compositing multiple genes and genetic pathways. Collectively, this research extends prior observational work indicating that children most negatively affected by adverse experiences also benefit the most from supportive ones, while underscoring the need for research illuminating underlying neurobiological mechanisms that instantiate differential susceptibility to environmental influences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cardiovascular Disease Susceptibility and Resistance in Circumpolar Inuit Populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvermosegaard, Maria; Dahl-Petersen, Inger K; Nielsen, Nina Odgaard

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major public health issue in indigenous populations in the Arctic. These diseases have emerged concomitantly with profound social changes over the past 60 years. The aim of this study was to summarize the literature on CVD risk among Arctic Inuit. Literature...... CVD risk include aging of the population, genetic susceptibility, and a rapid increase in obesity, diabetes, and hypertension in parallel with decreasing physical activity and deterioration of the lipid profile. In contrast, and of great importance, there has been a decrease in smoking and alcohol...... intake (at least documented in Greenland), and contaminant levels are declining. Although there have been marked socioeconomic and dietary changes, it remains unsolved and to some extent controversial how this may have influenced cardiovascular risk among Arctic Inuit. The increase in life expectancy...

  15. Susceptible periods during embryogenesis of the heart and endocrine glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, T W

    2000-06-01

    One of the original principles of teratology states that, "Susceptibility to teratogenesis varies with the developmental stage at the time of exposure to an adverse influence" [Wilson JG. Environment and Birth Defects. New York:Academic Press, 1973]. The time of greatest sensitivity encompasses the period of organ formation during weeks 3-8 following fertilization in human gestation. At this time, stem cell populations for each organ's morphogenesis are established and inductive events for the initiation of differentiation occur. Structural defects of the heart and endocrine system are no exception to this axiom and have their origins during this time frame. Although the function and maturation of these organs may be affected at later stages, structural defects and loss of cell types usually occur during these early phases of development. Thus, to determine critical windows for studying mechanisms of teratogenesis, it is essential to understand the developmental processes that establish these organs.

  16. Genetic susceptibility to teratogens: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassina, Matteo; Salviati, Leonardo; Di Gianantonio, Elena; Clementi, Maurizio

    2012-09-01

    There is evidence that the susceptibility to the teratogenic effect of drugs within human populations varies extremely from one individual to another, even after identical exposures. One of the factors that may explain these interindividual differences is the genetic makeup in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the respective drugs. In fact, both maternal and embryonic/fetal genotypes can affect placental transport, absorption, metabolism, distribution and receptor binding of an agent, influencing its teratogenicity. We have reviewed the literature and commented on the reported correlations between genetic factors and drug-induced birth defects. There is still a clear lack of knowledge regarding this issue and the available data are often conflicting. However, the identification of specific polymorphisms associated with predisposition to teratogenesis may allow in the future the development of personalized non-teratogenic therapies for pregnant women.

  17. Enhanced susceptibility to predation in corals of compromised condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan J. Bright

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The marine gastropod, Coralliophila abbreviata, is an obligate corallivore that causes substantial mortality in Caribbean Acropora spp. Considering the imperiled status of Acropora cervicornis and A. palmata, a better understanding of ecological interactions resulting in tissue loss may enable more effective conservation strategies. We examined differences in susceptibility of A. cervicornis to C. abbreviata predation based on coral tissue condition. Coral tissue condition was a strong determinant of snail prey choice, with snails preferring A. cervicornis fragments that were diseased or mechanically damaged over healthy fragments. In addition, snails always chose fragments undergoing active predation by another snail, while showing no preference for a non-feeding snail when compared with an undisturbed prey fragment. These results indicate that the condition of A. cervicornis prey influenced foraging behavior of C. abbreviata, creating a potential feedback that may exacerbate damage from predation in coral populations compromised by other types of disturbance.

  18. Enhanced susceptibility to predation in corals of compromised condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Allan J; Cameron, Caitlin M; Miller, Margaret W

    2015-01-01

    The marine gastropod, Coralliophila abbreviata, is an obligate corallivore that causes substantial mortality in Caribbean Acropora spp. Considering the imperiled status of Acropora cervicornis and A. palmata, a better understanding of ecological interactions resulting in tissue loss may enable more effective conservation strategies. We examined differences in susceptibility of A. cervicornis to C. abbreviata predation based on coral tissue condition. Coral tissue condition was a strong determinant of snail prey choice, with snails preferring A. cervicornis fragments that were diseased or mechanically damaged over healthy fragments. In addition, snails always chose fragments undergoing active predation by another snail, while showing no preference for a non-feeding snail when compared with an undisturbed prey fragment. These results indicate that the condition of A. cervicornis prey influenced foraging behavior of C. abbreviata, creating a potential feedback that may exacerbate damage from predation in coral populations compromised by other types of disturbance.

  19. Association study of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor genes identifies a novel lung cancer susceptibility locus near CHRNA1 in African-Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Kyle M.; Christopher I Amos; Wenzlaff, Angela S.; Gorlov, Ivan P; Sison, Jennette D.; Wu, Xifeng; Spitz, Margaret R; Hansen, Helen M.; Lu, Emily Y.; Wei, Chongjuan; Zhang, Huifeng; Chen, Wei; Lloyd, Stacy M.; Frazier, Marsha L.; Paige M Bracci

    2012-01-01

    Studies in European and East Asian populations have identified lung cancer susceptibility loci in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) genes on chromosome 15q25.1 which also appear to influence smoking behaviors. We sought to determine if genetic variation in nAChR genes influences lung cancer susceptibly in African-Americans, and evaluated the association of these cancer susceptibility loci with smoking behavior. A total of 1308 African-Americans with lung cancer and 1241 African-America...

  20. Polymorphic variants of the IL2RA gene and susceptibility to type 1 diabetes in the Polish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichna, M; Zurawek, M; Fichna, P; Januszkiewicz, D; Nowak, J

    2012-03-01

    Polymorphic variants of the IL2RA gene, which encodes high-affinity alpha subunit (CD25) of the interleukin-2 receptor, were recently found to affect the risk of several autoimmune disorders. This study was aimed to investigate the association of selected IL2RA polymorphisms (rs11594656, rs3118470, rs2104286 and rs7093069) with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in a Polish cohort comprising 445 patients and 671 healthy control subjects. The minor A allele at rs11594656 was found significantly less frequently among T1D subjects, compared with the control group [P = 0.011; odds ratio (OR) = 0.77; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.629-0.942]. In contrast, the minor C allele at rs3118470 appeared to be significantly associated with the occurrence of T1D (P = 0.003; OR = 1.30; 95% CI = 1.094-1.550). Two other IL2RA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) did not show significant differences among investigated groups. In conclusion, the study confirms the association of the IL2RA locus with T1D in the Polish population.

  1. Innate Immune Activity Is Detected Prior to Seroconversion in Children With HLA-Conferred Type 1 Diabetes Susceptibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kallionpaa, Henna; Elo, Laura L.; Laajala, Essi; Mykkanen, Juha; Ricano-Ponce, Isis; Vaarma, Matti; Laajala, Teemu D.; Hyoty, Heikki; Ilonen, Jorma; Veijola, Riitta; Simell, Tuula; Wijmenga, Cisca; Knip, Mikael; Lahdesmaki, Harri; Simell, Olli; Lahesmaa, Riitta

    2014-01-01

    The insult leading to autoantibody development in children who will progress to develop type 1 diabetes (T1D) has remained elusive. To investigate the genes and molecular pathways in the pathogenesis of this disease, we performed genome-wide transcriptomics analysis on a unique series of prospective

  2. Increased susceptibility to fungal disease accompanies adaptation to drought in Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Niamh B; Rest, Joshua S; Franks, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated adaptive evolutionary responses to climate change, but little is known about how these responses may influence ecological interactions with other organisms, including natural enemies. We used a resurrection experiment in the greenhouse to examine the effect of evolutionary responses to drought on the susceptibility of Brassica rapa plants to a fungal pathogen, Alternaria brassicae. In agreement with previous studies in this population, we found an evolutionary shift to earlier flowering postdrought, which was previously shown to be adaptive. Here, we report the novel finding that postdrought descendant plants were also more susceptible to disease, indicating a rapid evolutionary shift to increased susceptibility. This was accompanied by an evolutionary shift to increased specific leaf area (thinner leaves) following drought. We found that flowering time and disease susceptibility displayed plastic responses to experimental drought treatments, but that this plasticity did not match the direction of evolution, indicating that plastic and evolutionary responses to changes in climate can be opposed. The observed evolutionary shift to increased disease susceptibility accompanying adaptation to drought provides evidence that even if populations can rapidly adapt in response to climate change, evolution in other traits may have ecological effects that could make species more vulnerable.

  3. Linking landslide susceptibility to sediment yield at regional scale: application to Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeckx, Jente; Vanmaercke, Matthias; Bălteanu, Dan; Chendeş, Viorel; Sima, Mihaela; Enciu, Petru; Poesen, Jean

    2016-09-01

    It is generally accepted that catchment sediment yield (SY, t km- 2 y- 1) can be strongly influenced by landsliding. Nevertheless, due to data requirements, only few studies investigated this effect at a regional scale. The objective of this study is therefore to explore the potential of a landslide susceptibility map for explaining the spatial variation of SY in Romania. We selected 133 catchments in Romania for which SY was measured during a period of at least 10 years. For each catchment, we derived a variety of proxies that potentially explain SY, including several indicators of landslide occurrence. The latter were derived from a published landslide susceptibility map. Results show that SY is significantly correlated with mean landslide susceptibility (r2 = 0.30). Estimates of average sheet and rill erosion rates showed a much weaker correlation with SY (r2 = 0.06). Further analyses showed that the strong correlation between SY and landslide susceptibility is mainly attributed to regional variations in lithology and seismicity. Especially the latter may play a crucial role in understanding denudation rates at regional scales, e.g. by facilitating the occurrence of landslides. Using landslide proxies that also account for sediment connectivity did not result in stronger correlations. Overall, our results show that landslide susceptibility maps can be a highly useful tool to predict SY at regional scales, provided that they incorporate all relevant factors.

  4. Eddy currents in the anisotropy of out-of-phase magnetic susceptibility measurement - A model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezek, Josef; Hrouda, Frantisek

    2016-04-01

    Analytical solutions of Maxwell equations for eddy currents caused by AC field in a conductive sphere, known from 1950s, provide a general formula for magnetic susceptibility. It contains the parameters describing the sphere (its size, conductivity and permeability), surrounding medium (permeability) and the applied field (frequency). The formula is complex and without numerical evaluation it is difficult to distinguish the real (in-phase) and imaginary (out-of-phase) part of susceptibility. Representing all the parameters by only two, relative permeability (sphere vs. medium) and skin ratio (summarizing the effect of sphere size, conductivity and permeability, and frequency of the field), we derive approximate formulas for both phases and the phase angle. These are valid for a reasonable range of parameters (from rock magnetism point of view) and enable us to study their influence. The in-phase susceptibility depends very weakly on the fourth power of the skin ratio while the out-of-phase susceptibility depends more strongly on its second power. The coefficients of the dependence are expressed by means of relative permeability. The approximations of in-phase and out-of-phase susceptibilities provide a possibility to assess possible effects of eddy currents in rocks in case of low content of conductive minerals and solve problems of the type by which size one piece of a mineral in the measured sample can produce a phase shift that is observed by measurement. Examples of magnetite and pyrrhotite are given.

  5. Earthquake-induced landslide-susceptibility mapping using an artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Evangelista, D. G.

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply and verify landslide-susceptibility analysis techniques using an artificial neural network and a Geographic Information System (GIS) applied to Baguio City, Philippines. The 16 July 1990 earthquake-induced landslides were studied. Landslide locations were identified from interpretation of aerial photographs and field survey, and a spatial database was constructed from topographic maps, geology, land cover and terrain mapping units. Factors that influence landslide occurrence, such as slope, aspect, curvature and distance from drainage were calculated from the topographic database. Lithology and distance from faults were derived from the geology database. Land cover was identified from the topographic database. Terrain map units were interpreted from aerial photographs. These factors were used with an artificial neural network to analyze landslide susceptibility. Each factor weight was determined by a back-propagation exercise. Landslide-susceptibility indices were calculated using the back-propagation weights, and susceptibility maps were constructed from GIS data. The susceptibility map was compared with known landslide locations and verified. The demonstrated prediction accuracy was 93.20%.

  6. Earthquake-induced landslide-susceptibility mapping using an artificial neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lee

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to apply and verify landslide-susceptibility analysis techniques using an artificial neural network and a Geographic Information System (GIS applied to Baguio City, Philippines. The 16 July 1990 earthquake-induced landslides were studied. Landslide locations were identified from interpretation of aerial photographs and field survey, and a spatial database was constructed from topographic maps, geology, land cover and terrain mapping units. Factors that influence landslide occurrence, such as slope, aspect, curvature and distance from drainage were calculated from the topographic database. Lithology and distance from faults were derived from the geology database. Land cover was identified from the topographic database. Terrain map units were interpreted from aerial photographs. These factors were used with an artificial neural network to analyze landslide susceptibility. Each factor weight was determined by a back-propagation exercise. Landslide-susceptibility indices were calculated using the back-propagation weights, and susceptibility maps were constructed from GIS data. The susceptibility map was compared with known landslide locations and verified. The demonstrated prediction accuracy was 93.20%.

  7. Antimicrobial susceptibility of foodborne pathogens in organic or natural production systems: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Megan E; Fox, James Trent; Reinstein, Shelby L; Nagaraja, T G

    2008-12-01

    Organic and natural food production systems are increasing in popularity, at least partially because consumers perceive that these niche markets provide healthier and safer food products. One major difference between these niche markets and conventional production systems is the use of antimicrobials. Because antimicrobial agents exert selective pressures for antimicrobial resistance, relating antimicrobial susceptibility of foodborne bacteria to niche market production systems is of interest. Other differences between production systems might also influence the susceptibility of foodborne pathogens. The objective of this review is to compare the impact of food animal production systems on the antimicrobial susceptibility of common foodborne bacterial pathogens. Studies comparing the susceptibility of such pathogens were diverse in terms of geographic location, procedures, species of bacteria, and antimicrobials evaluated; thus, it was difficult to draw conclusions. The literature is highly variable in terms of production type and practices and susceptibility associations, although few studies have compared truly organic and conventional practices. When statistical associations were found between production type and minimum inhibitory concentrations or percentage of isolates resistant for a particular pathogen, the isolates from conventionally reared animals/products were more commonly resistant than the comparison group (organic, antibiotic free, etc.). Therefore, further studies are needed to better assess public health consequences of antimicrobial resistance and food animal production systems, specifically organic or natural versus conventional.

  8. BDNF Val66Met, stress, and positive mothering: Differential susceptibility model of adolescent trait anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Yu, Jing; Liu, Yujie; Zhang, Leilei; Zhang, Jianxin

    2015-08-01

    Etiological research has indicated the gene-environment interaction (G × E) on adolescent anxiety. This study aimed to examine how the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism interacted with stressful life events and positive mothering to influence youth trait anxiety. The study sample included 780 community adolescents of Chinese Han ethnicity (M = 13.6, 51.3% females). Participants' trait anxiety, exposure to stressful life events, and mother's warmth-reasoning were assessed by self-reported questionnaires. We found that BDNF Val66Met polymorphism significantly moderated the influences of stressful life events and mother's warmth-reasoning on adolescent anxiety. The influences were significantly greater in adolescents carrying one or two Val allele than those with Met/Met genotype. Moreover, the G × E interactions were more consistent with the differential susceptibility than the diathesis-stress model. Adolescents carrying Val allele who were more susceptible to adversity were also more likely to benefit from supportive experiences. These findings provide novel evidence for the role of BDNF Val66Met as a genetic susceptibility modulating the influences of stressful life events and mother's warmth-reasoning on adolescent anxiety. We speculate that BDNF Val66Met may moderate anxious youths' responses to mindfulness-based stress reduction program and family-based treatment targeting the enhancement of positive parenting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Increased Abundance of M Cells in the Gut Epithelium Dramatically Enhances Oral Prion Disease Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, David S; Sehgal, Anuj; Rios, Daniel; Williams, Ifor R; Mabbott, Neil A

    2016-12-01

    Many natural prion diseases of humans and animals are considered to be acquired through oral consumption of contaminated food or pasture. Determining the route by which prions establish host infection will identify the important factors that influence oral prion disease susceptibility and to which intervention strategies can be developed. After exposure, the early accumulation and replication of prions within small intestinal Peyer's patches is essential for the efficient spread of disease to the brain. To replicate within Peyer's patches, the prions must first cross the gut epithelium. M cells are specialised epithelial cells within the epithelia covering Peyer's patches that transcytose particulate antigens and microorganisms. M cell-development is dependent upon RANKL-RANK-signalling, and mice in which RANK is deleted only in the gut epithelium completely lack M cells. In the specific absence of M cells in these mice, the accumulation of prions within Peyer's patches and the spread of disease to the brain was blocked, demonstrating a critical role for M cells in the initial transfer of prions across the gut epithelium in order to establish host infection. Since pathogens, inflammatory stimuli and aging can modify M cell-density in the gut, these factors may also influence oral prion disease susceptibility. Mice were therefore treated with RANKL to enhance M cell density in the gut. We show that prion uptake from the gut lumen was enhanced in RANKL-treated mice, resulting in shortened survival times and increased disease susceptibility, equivalent to a 10-fold higher infectious titre of prions. Together these data demonstrate that M cells are the critical gatekeepers of oral prion infection, whose density in the gut epithelium directly limits or enhances disease susceptibility. Our data suggest that factors which alter M cell-density in the gut epithelium may be important risk factors which influence host susceptibility to orally acquired prion diseases.

  10. EXAMINING THE ROLE OF PERCEIVED SUSCEPTIBILITY ON COLORECTAL CANCER SCREENING INTENTION AND BEHAVIOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen, Amy; Vernon, Sally W.; Rothman, Alexander J.; Norman, Gregory J.; Myers, Ronald E.; Tilley, Barbara C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Although support exists for multiple psychosocial predictors of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening, little is known about the relationships among these variables. Understanding the associations between such predictors could refine health behavior theories and inform the design of interventions. Purpose In addition to direct effects, we examined whether baseline perceived susceptibility was a moderator of, or was mediated by, changes in other psychosocial determinants of CRC screening intention and behavior. Methods Longitudinal path models were tested using data from 1001 white male automotive workers who participated in The Next Step Trial. Our sample included workers with no history of CRC who were due for CRC screening but did not complete CRC screening prior to the assessment of hypothesized mediators at year 1 follow-up. Results Perceived susceptibility interacted differently with four psychosocial constructs in models predicting CRC screening intention or behavior. Perceived susceptibility was independent of perceived benefits, moderated the change in perceived barriers and self-efficacy, and was mediated by the change in family influence. Conclusions The role of perceived susceptibility was not limited to direct effects, but involved mediating and moderating pathways of influence. PMID:20658212

  11. Examining the role of perceived susceptibility on colorectal cancer screening intention and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen, Amy; Vernon, Sally W; Rothman, Alexander J; Norman, Gregory J; Myers, Ronald E; Tilley, Barbara C

    2010-10-01

    Although support exists for multiple psychosocial predictors of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening, little is known about the relationships among these variables. Understanding the associations between such predictors could refine health behavior theories and inform the design of interventions. In addition to direct effects, we examined whether baseline perceived susceptibility was a moderator of, or was mediated by, changes in other psychosocial determinants of CRC screening intention and behavior. Longitudinal path models were tested using data from 1,001 white male automotive workers who participated in The Next Step Trial. Our sample included workers with no history of CRC who were due for CRC screening but did not complete CRC screening prior to the assessment of hypothesized mediators at year 1 follow-up. Perceived susceptibility interacted differently with four psychosocial constructs in models predicting CRC screening intention or behavior. Perceived susceptibility was independent of perceived benefits, moderated the change in perceived barriers and self-efficacy, and was mediated by the change in family influence. The role of perceived susceptibility was not limited to direct effects but involved mediating and moderating pathways of influence.

  12. Schistosoma mansoni: continuous variation in susceptibility of the vector snail of schistosomiasis, Biomphalaria tenagophila I. Self-fertilization-lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascara, D; Kawano, T; Magnanelli, A C; Silva, R P; Sant' Anna, O A; Morgante, J S

    1999-11-01

    Mascara, D., Kawano, T., Magnanelli, A. C., Silva, R. P. S., Sant' Anna, O. A., and Morgante, J. S. 1999. Schistosoma mansoni: continuous variation in susceptibility of the vector snail of schistosomiasis, Biomphalaria tenagophila I. Self-Fertilization-Lineage. Experimental Parasitology 93, 133-141. Artificial selection of Biomphalaria tenagophila snails for susceptibility to infection by Schistosoma mansoni (Brazilian SJ strain) was carried out from natural populations. After five self-fertilization generations, two lineages were isolated and were designated as SUSC (highly susceptible 93-100%) and RES (nonsusceptible 5-0%). Length of the prepatent period, cercarial production, and mortality of the hosts in postexposure were determined in all generations (F(1)-F(8)) and were analyzed as quantitative traits related to host susceptibility. Distribution patterns of frequencies were observed within snail families (samples derived from one F(0) snail), these traits showing a significant influence by selection applied to susceptibility. The multiple quantitative classes were described in terms of continuous variation. During the selection of SUSC lineage, classes with higher values of prepatent length and lower cercarial production were eliminated, and the heritability calculated for these two traits was 0.811 and 0.709, respectively. Experimental results were correlated with an increase in the level of susceptibility in the generations selected and are discussed in relation to inheritance patterns as well as the quantitative variation of susceptibility.

  13. Human genetic determinants of dengue virus susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Lark L; Mertens, Eva; Brehin, Anne-Claire; Fernandez-Garcia, Maria Dolores; Amara, Ali; Després, Philippe; Sakuntabhai, Anavaj

    2009-02-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is an emerging mosquito-borne pathogen that produces significant morbidity worldwide resulting in an estimated 50-100 million infections annually. DENV causes a spectrum of illness ranging from inapparent infection to life-threatening hemorrhagic fever and shock. The varied DENV disease outcome is determined by complex interactions between immunopathologic, viral, and human genetic factors. This review summarizes these interactions with a focus on human genetic determinants of DENV susceptibility, including human leukocyte antigens, blood type, and single nucleotide polymorphisms in immune response genes that have been associated with DENV disease. We also discuss other factors related to DENV outcome including viral genetic determinants, age, ethnicity, and nutritional status as they relate to DENV susceptibility. We emphasize the need for functional genetics studies to complement association-based data and we call for controlled study designs and standard clinical DENV disease definitions that will strengthen conclusions based on human genetic DENV studies.

  14. In vitro susceptibilities of Zygomycota to polyenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannaoui, Eric; Meis, Jacques F G M; Mouton, Johan W; Verweij, Paul E

    2002-05-01

    The in vitro activity of polyenes was determined for 36 isolates of Zygomycota including Rhizopus spp. (15), Absidia corymbifera (10), Mucor spp. (6), Rhizomucor spp. (3), Cunninghamella bertholletiae (1) and Apophysomyces elegans (1). All isolates were tested with amphotericin B, heated amphotericin B and nystatin by a broth microdilution test. There were no significant differences between heated and unheated solutions of amphotericin B in terms of their antifungal activities. The MICs of amphotericin B for most of the strains were <2 mg/L. For all isolates, nystatin was significantly less active than amphotericin B (P < 0.001). The one C. bertholletiae and one A. elegans isolates were less susceptible to amphotericin B (MICs 2 mg/L) and were also less susceptible to nystatin.

  15. Fidelity Susceptibility as Holographic PV criticality

    CERN Document Server

    Momeni, Davood; Myrzakulov, Ratbay

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the fact that the quantum entanglement entropy is dual to an area in AdS, quantities dual to a volume in the AdS have also been recently proposed. These include the holographic complexity and fidelity susceptibility of a quantum system. Even though both of them are dual to an volume in the bulk, there are some interesting difference between them. In this letter, we will explicitly compare them for an $ AdS _4$ solution, and clarify the main differences between them from thermodynamic point of the view. We will also obtain the correct and appropriate holographic dual of the thermodynamic volume of AdS blackhole, and demonstrate that to explain therodynamic in extended phase PV picture, from the AdS/CFT point of view,fidelity susceptibility is the preferred quantity in comparison to holographic complexity.

  16. Lactobacillus species: taxonomic complexity and controversial susceptibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Ellie J C; Tyrrell, Kerin L; Citron, Diane M

    2015-05-15

    The genus Lactobacillus is a taxonomically complex and is composed of over 170 species that cannot be easily differentiated phenotypically and often require molecular identification. Although they are part of the normal human gastrointestinal and vaginal flora, they can also be occasional human pathogens. They are extensively used in a variety of commercial products including probiotics. Their antimicrobial susceptibilities are poorly defined in part because of their taxonomic complexity and are compounded by the different methods recommended by Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute and International Dairy Foundation. Their use as probiotics for prevention of Clostridium difficile infection is prevalent among consumers worldwide but raises the question of will the use of any concurrent antibiotic effect their ability to survive. Lactobacillus species are generally acid resistant and are able to survive ingestion. They are generally resistant to metronidazole, aminoglycosides and ciprofloxacin with L. acidophilus being susceptible to penicillin and vancomycin, whereas L. rhamnosus and L. casei are resistant to metronidazole and vancomycin.

  17. Polymyxins: Antimicrobial susceptibility concerns and therapeutic options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Balaji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogens such as Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae poses a great challenge to the treating physicians. The paucity of newer effective antimicrobials has led to renewed interest in the polymyxin group of drugs, as a last resort for treatment of gram-negative bacterial infections. There is a dearth of information on the pharmacological properties of colistin, leading to difficulties in selecting the right dose, dosing interval, and route of administration for treatment, especially in critically-ill patients. The increasing use of colistin over the last few years necessitates the need for accurate and reliable in vitro susceptibility testing methods. Development of heteroresistant strains as a result of colistin monotherapy is also a growing concern. There is a compelling need from the clinicians to provide options for probable and possible colistin combination therapy for multidrug-resistant bacterial infections in the ICU setting. Newer combination drug synergy determination tests are being developed and reported. There are no standardized recommendations from antimicrobial susceptibility testing reference agencies for the testing and interpretation of these drug combinations. Comparison and analysis of these reported methodologies may help to understand and assist the microbiologist to choose the best method that produces accurate results at the earliest. This will help clinicians to select the appropriate combination therapy. In this era of multidrug resistance it is important for the microbiology laboratory to be prepared, by default, to provide timely synergistic susceptibility results in addition to routine susceptibility, if warranted. Not as a favour or at request, but as a responsibility.

  18. Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals and Disease Susceptibility

    OpenAIRE

    Schug, Thaddeus T; Janesick, Amanda; Blumberg, Bruce; Heindel, Jerrold J.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental chemicals have significant impacts on biological systems. Chemical exposures during early stages of development can disrupt normal patterns of development and thus dramatically alter disease susceptibility later in life. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) interfere with the body's endocrine system and produce adverse developmental, reproductive, neurological, cardiovascular, metabolic and immune effects in humans. A wide range of substances, both natural and man-made, are tho...

  19. Market Susceptibility Toward Disruptive Business Model Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Dover, Oliver; Nord, Erik

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the conditional factors indicating market susceptibility toward disruptive innovation. There is a need to separate the different forms of disruptive innovation into segments targeting; technology, product or business model disruption. The concepts are fundamentally different and the literature to date is very one sided toward disruptive technology/product innovation. A shortage of studies on disruptive business model innovation has been discovered. This study therefore pr...

  20. In vitro activities of a new lipopeptide, HMR 1043, against susceptible and resistant gram-positive isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemer, Pascale; Juvin, Marie-Emmanuelle; Bryskier, Andre; Drugeon, Henri

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the activity of HMR 1043 with those of daptomycin and teicoplanin against gram-positive isolates. Susceptibility tests were performed for 52 strains, 26 parental strains, including staphylococcal, streptococcal, enterococcal, and listerial strains, and 26 HMR 1043-resistant mutants obtained from parental strains by using the Szybalski method. Agar dilution and disk diffusion susceptibility tests were performed by the procedures outlined by the NCCLS. HMR 1043 demonstrated good activity against susceptible and resistant gram-positive bacteria. The activity of HMR 1043 in vitro was less influenced by the presence of calcium ions than that of daptomycin. Susceptibility test breakpoints were not defined because of the poor correlation coefficients obtained with the different disks tested.

  1. Social influence: compliance and conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cialdini, Robert B; Goldstein, Noah J

    2004-01-01

    This review covers recent developments in the social influence literature, focusing primarily on compliance and conformity research published between 1997 and 2002. The principles and processes underlying a target's susceptibility to outside influences are considered in light of three goals fundamental to rewarding human functioning. Specifically, targets are motivated to form accurate perceptions of reality and react accordingly, to develop and preserve meaningful social relationships, and to maintain a favorable self-concept. Consistent with the current movement in compliance and conformity research, this review emphasizes the ways in which these goals interact with external forces to engender social influence processes that are subtle, indirect, and outside of awareness.

  2. 62 original article in-vitro antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    Key words: Staphylococcus aureus, antimicrobial resistance, disc agar diffusion, antibiotic susceptibility. PROFIL DE SENSIBILITE ... parts of the world are generating serious public ... knowledge of the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of this ...

  3. Characterization and quantification of path dependency in landslide susceptibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samia, Jalal; Temme, Arnaud; Bregt, Arnold; Wallinga, Jakob; Guzzetti, Fausto; Ardizzone, Francesca; Rossi, Mauro

    2017-01-01

    Landslides cause major environmental damage, economic losses and casualties. Although susceptibility to landsliding is usually considered an exclusively location-specific phenomenon, indications exist that landslide history co-determines susceptibility to future landslides. In this contribution,

  4. Genetic architecture of intrinsic antibiotic susceptibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany S Girgis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antibiotic exposure rapidly selects for more resistant bacterial strains, and both a drug's chemical structure and a bacterium's cellular network affect the types of mutations acquired. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To better characterize the genetic determinants of antibiotic susceptibility, we exposed a transposon-mutagenized library of Escherichia coli to each of 17 antibiotics that encompass a wide range of drug classes and mechanisms of action. Propagating the library for multiple generations with drug concentrations that moderately inhibited the growth of the isogenic parental strain caused the abundance of strains with even minor fitness advantages or disadvantages to change measurably and reproducibly. Using a microarray-based genetic footprinting strategy, we then determined the quantitative contribution of each gene to E. coli's intrinsic antibiotic susceptibility. We found both loci whose removal increased general antibiotic tolerance as well as pathways whose down-regulation increased tolerance to specific drugs and drug classes. The beneficial mutations identified span multiple pathways, and we identified pairs of mutations that individually provide only minor decreases in antibiotic susceptibility but that combine to provide higher tolerance. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results illustrate that a wide-range of mutations can modulate the activity of many cellular resistance processes and demonstrate that E. coli has a large mutational target size for increasing antibiotic tolerance. Furthermore, the work suggests that clinical levels of antibiotic resistance might develop through the sequential accumulation of chromosomal mutations of small individual effect.

  5. Topological susceptibility with the asqtad action

    CERN Document Server

    Bazavov, A; Billeter, B; DeTar, C; Gottlieb, Steven; Heller, U M; Hetrick, J E; Laiho, J; Levkova, L; Oktay, B; Osborn, J; Sugar, R L; Toussaint, D; Van de Water, R S

    2010-01-01

    Chiral perturbation theory predicts that in quantum chromodynamics (QCD), light dynamical quarks suppress the gauge-field topological susceptibility of the vacuum. The degree of suppression depends on quark multiplicity and masses. It provides a strong consistency test for fermion formulations in lattice QCD. Such tests are especially important for staggered fermion formulations that lack a full chiral symmetry and use the "fourth-root" procedure to achieve the desired number of sea quarks. Over the past few years we have measured the topological susceptibility on a large database of 18 gauge field ensembles, generated in the presence of 2+1 flavors of dynamical asqtad quarks with up and down quark masses ranging from 0.05 to 1 in units of the strange quark mass and lattice spacings ranging from 0.045 fm to 0.12 fm. Our study also includes three quenched ensembles with lattice spacings ranging from 0.06 to 0.12 fm. We construct the topological susceptibility from the integrated point-to-point correlator of th...

  6. AC susceptibilities of grain-textured superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, N. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Kyushu Sangyo University, 2-3-1 Matsukadai, 813-8503 Fukuoka (Japan)], E-mail: saka@te.kyusan-u.ac.jp; Fukuda, Y.; Koga, M.; Akune, T. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Kyushu Sangyo University, 2-3-1 Matsukadai, 813-8503 Fukuoka (Japan); Khan, H.R. [Institut von Ionenstrahl und Vakuum Technologie, 73728 Esslingen (Germany); Lueders, K. [Freie Universitaet Berlin, Arnimallee, Fac.Physik, D-14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2008-09-15

    In-phase {chi}{sub n}' and out-phase {chi}{sub n}'' components of nth harmonics of AC susceptibility with measuring parameters of a DC magnetic field B{sub dc}, an amplitude B{sub a} and a frequency f of the superimposed AC magnetic fields give substantial information of the superconducting properties. In low-T{sub c} metallic superconductors, {chi}{sub 1}' shows smooth transition and {chi}{sub 1}'' does single peak. High-T{sub c} oxide superconductors with anisotropic and grain-textured structures show deformed complex characteristics. Double peaks in {chi}{sub 1}'' and shoulders in {chi}{sub 1}' appear in AC susceptibility of Hg-1223 superconductors. Instead of simple Bean model, a grained model, where the superconducting grains are immersed in weak superconducting matrix, are proposed. The susceptibilities numerically analyzed using the model show varied and deformed curves and are successfully compared with the measured results.

  7. Genetic influence on the age at onset of asthma: a twin study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Simon Francis; Duffy, David Lorenzo; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2010-01-01

    Although the genetics of asthma susceptibility have been frequently explored, little is known about genetic factors that influence the age at onset of asthma.......Although the genetics of asthma susceptibility have been frequently explored, little is known about genetic factors that influence the age at onset of asthma....

  8. Altered Competitive Fitness, Antimicrobial Susceptibility, and Cellular Morphology in a Triclosan-Induced Small-Colony Variant of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Sarah; Latimer, Joe; Bazaid, Abdulrahman; McBain, Andrew J

    2015-08-01

    Staphylococcus aureus can produce small-colony variants (SCVs) that express various phenotypes. While their significance is unclear, SCV propagation may be influenced by relative fitness, antimicrobial susceptibility, and the underlying mechanism. We have investigated triclosan-induced generation of SCVs in six S. aureus strains, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Parent strains (P0) were repeatedly passaged on concentration gradients of triclosan using a solid-state exposure system to generate P10. P10 was subsequently passaged without triclosan to generate X10. Susceptibility to triclosan and 7 antibiotics was assessed at all stages. For S. aureus ATCC 6538, SCVs were further characterized by determining microbicide susceptibility and competitive fitness. Cellular morphology was examined using electron microscopy, and protein expression was evaluated through proteomics. Triclosan susceptibility in all SCVs (which could be generated from 4/6 strains) was markedly decreased, while antibiotic susceptibility was significantly increased in the majority of cases. An SCV of S. aureus ATCC 6538 exhibited significantly increased susceptibility to all tested microbicides. Cross-wall formation was impaired in this bacterium, while expression of FabI, a target of triclosan, and IsaA, a lytic transglycosylase involved in cell division, was increased. The P10 SCV was 49% less fit than P0. In summary, triclosan exposure of S. aureus produced SCVs in 4/6 test bacteria, with decreased triclosan susceptibility but with generally increased antibiotic susceptibility. An SCV derived from S. aureus ATCC 6538 showed reduced competitive fitness, potentially due to impaired cell division. In this SCV, increased FabI expression could account for reduced triclosan susceptibility, while IsaA may be upregulated in response to cell division defects.

  9. Genetic susceptibility to progressive massive fibrosis in coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yucesoy, B.; Johnson, V.J.; Kissling, G.E.; Fluharty, K.; Kashon, M.L.; Slaven, J.; Germolec, D.; Vallyathan, V.; Luster, M.I. [NIOSH, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2008-06-15

    Progressive massive fibrosis (PMF) is a chronic interstitial lung disease with a complex aetiology that can occur after cumulative dust exposure. A case-control study was conducted to test the hypothesis that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within genes involved in inflammatory and fibrotic processes modulate the risk of PMF development. The study population consisted of 648 underground coal miners participating in the National Coal Workers Autopsy Study, of which 304 were diagnosed with PMF SNPs that influence the regulation of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, transforming growth factor-beta 1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), epidermal growth factor intercellular cell adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and matrix metalloproteinase-2 genes were determined using a 5'-nuclease real-time PCR assay. There were no significant differences in the distribution of any individual SNP or haplotype between the PMF and control groups. However, the polygenotype of VEGF +405/ICAM-1 +241/IL-6 -174 (C-A-G) conferred an increased risk for PMF (odds ratio 3.4, 95% confidence interval 1.3-8.8). The present study suggests that the examined genetic variations that help regulate inflammatory and fibrotic processes are unlikely to strongly influence susceptibility to this interstitial lung disease, although the role of vascular endothelial growth factor, intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 and interleukin-6 polymorphisms in the development of progressive massive fibrosis may require further investigation.

  10. Antibiotic susceptibility in benzalkonium chloride-resistant and -susceptible Listeria monocytogenes strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Sagrario; López, Pilar; López, Victoria; Martínez-Suárez, Joaquín V

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether Listeria monocytogenes strains with resistance to a commonly used biocide display any cross-resistance to antibiotics. Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), 29 different PFGE types were previously identified in an Iberian pig abattoir and processing plant. Only three PFGE types were resistant to benzalkonium chloride (BAC), but they represented a significant proportion of the PFGE types surviving in the plant after 4 years. In the present study, a subset of 29 strains, representing the 29 different PFGE types, underwent antibiotic susceptibility testing. Antibiotic susceptibility was assessed by Etest, utilizing 12 commonly prescribed antibiotics. All of the 29 strains were susceptible to all of the antibiotics tested. The study revealed that this group of different PFGE types of L. monocytogenes, including those resistant to BAC, possesses uniform sensitivity to antibiotics.

  11. Radiation frost susceptibility and the association between sky exposure and leaf size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Dean N; Smith, William K

    1995-07-01

    Plants growing in exposed and sheltered habitats have characteristic leaf structure and physiology that are traditionally associated with the total amount of incident sunlight. However, greater sky exposure also increases the susceptibility of leaves to radiation frost. Plants with large horizontal broadleaves are particularly susceptible to both overheating during the day and freezing at night. Moreover, the combined effects of high daytime sun-exposure and nighttime frost susceptibility could be particularly stressful to plant tissues. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of elevation and microsite exposure (i.e. net loss of longwave radiation) on frost susceptibility, as well as the corresponding intraspecific variation in leaf size in the subalpine daisy (Erigeron peregrinus). Measured decreases in upper hemisphere infrared radiation (sky IR) of 0.014 W m(-2) m(-1) occurred with increasing elevation, beyond decreases predicted due to changes in air temperature and water content, resulting in an average decrease of 0.029 W m(-2) m(-1). Previous equations of sky IR based on air temperature and humidity were improved by adding this elevational term (r (2) improved from 0.52 to 0.71). In contrast, a mean decrease of 6.5 W m(-2) m(-1) occurred with increasing sky exposure across a subalpine meadow. Leaf size in Taraxacum officinale decreased linearly with increasing elevation and a corresponding decline in sky IR. No difference in daily solar irradiance was measured across the same elevational gradient. Also, E. peregrinus had smaller leaves at high elevation microsites with greater sky exposure and decreased sky IR, while there was a much weaker association between leaf size and the amount of total daily solar irradiance. Differences in plant leaf structure and physiology traditionally associated with daytime sun-exposure may also be influenced by nighttime sky exposure and the susceptibility to radiation frosts.

  12. Genetic susceptibility variants associated with colorectal cancer prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abulí, Anna; Lozano, Juan José; Rodríguez-Soler, María; Jover, Rodrigo; Bessa, Xavier; Muñoz, Jenifer; Esteban-Jurado, Clara; Fernández-Rozadilla, Ceres; Carracedo, Angel; Ruiz-Ponte, Clara; Cubiella, Joaquín; Balaguer, Francesc; Bujanda, Luis; Reñé, Josep M; Clofent, Juan; Morillas, Juan Diego; Nicolás-Pérez, David; Xicola, Rosa M; Llor, Xavier; Piqué, Josep M; Andreu, Montserrat; Castells, Antoni; Castellví-Bel, Sergi

    2013-10-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related death among men and women in Western countries. Once a tumour develops, a differentiated prognosis could be determined by lifestyle habits or inherited and somatic genetic factors. Finding such prognostic factors will be helpful in order to identify cases with a shorter survival or at a higher risk of recurrence that may benefit from more intensive treatment and follow-up surveillance. Sixteen CRC genetic susceptibility variants were directly genotyped in a cohort of 1235 CRC patients recruited by the EPICOLON Spanish consortium. Univariate Cox and multivariate regression analyses were performed taking as primary outcomes overall survival (OS), disease-free survival and recurrence-free interval. Genetic variants rs9929218 at 16q22.1 and rs10795668 at 10p14 may have an effect on OS. The G allele of rs9929218 was linked with a better OS [GG genotype, genotypic model: hazard ratio (HR) = 0.65, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.45-0.93, P = 0.0179; GG/GA genotypes, dominant model: HR = 0.66, 95% CI 0.47-0.94, P = 0.0202]. Likewise, the G allele of rs10795668 was associated with better clinical outcome (GG genotype, genotypic model: HR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.53-1.01, P = 0.0570; GA genotype, genotypic model: HR = 0.66, 95% CI 0.47-0.92, P = 0.0137; GG/GA genotypes, dominant model: HR = 0.68, 95% CI 0.50-0.94, P = 0.0194). In conclusion, CRC susceptibility variants rs9929218 and rs10795668 may exert some influence in modulating patient's survival and they deserve to be further tested in additional CRC cohorts in order to confirm their potential as prognosis or predictive biomarkers.

  13. Susceptibility to mountain hazards in Austria - paradigms of vulnerability revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Sven

    2010-05-01

    The concept of vulnerability is pillared by multiple disciplinary theories underpinning either a technical or a social origin of the concept and resulting in a range of paradigms for either a qualitative or quantitative assessment of vulnerability. However, efforts to reduce susceptibility to hazards and to create disaster-resilient communities require intersections among these theories, since human activity cannot be seen independently from the environmental setting. Acknowledging different roots of disciplinary paradigms, issues determining structural, economic, institutional and social vulnerability are discussed with respect to mountain hazards in Austria. The underlying idea of taking such an integrative viewpoint was the cognition that human action in mountain environments affects the state of vulnerability, and the state of vulnerability in turn shapes the possibilities of human action. It is argued that structural vulnerability as originator results in considerable economic vulnerability, generated by the institutional settings of dealing with natural hazards and shaped by the overall societal framework. Hence, the vulnerability of a specific location and within a considered point of time is triggered by the hazardous event and the related physical susceptibility of structures, such as buildings located on a torrent fan. Depending on the specific institutional settings, economic vulnerability of individuals or of the society results, above all with respect to imperfect loss compensation mechanisms in the areas under investigation. While this potential for harm can be addressed as social vulnerability, the concept of institutional vulnerability has been developed with respect to the overall political settings of governmental risk management. As a result, the concept of vulnerability, as being used in natural sciences, can be extended by integration of possible reasons why such physical susceptibility of structures exists, and by integration of compensation

  14. Identification of lamb flocks susceptible and resistant against Brachiaria poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayane C. Pupin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study was designed to assess the influence of genetic resistance against brachiaria poisoning in sheep. Two groups of sheep, one identified as susceptible (formed by two ewes and one ram and the other as resistant against brachiaria poisoning (formed by three ewes and one ram were selected. Sheep considered susceptible were those that presented clinical signs of brachiaria poisoning at any time of their life; resistant sheep were those that even raised on Brachiaria spp. pastures, did not developed any sign of the poisoning during their life. The offspring of the two flocks (15 lambs from the sensitive flock and 9 lambs from the resistant flock were placed into brachiaria pasture (initially Brachiaria decumbens and B. brizantha,and only B. decumbens after weaning and followed up during two years (2013-2014. The determination of protodioscin levels in B. decumbens pasture was performed only in 2014 and revealed significant amounts of the toxic principle. Eleven lambs of the susceptible group were affected to some degree of brachiaria poisoning and six died; no lamb of the resistant group was affected. Clinical signs consisted of varying degrees of subcutaneous edema of the face and, erythema and loss of hair of the ears, crusts on the skin of ears, around the eyes and on planum nasale, scar deformation of the ears, and bilateral ocular discharge; affected lambs also sought for shadowy shelters and they were poor doers. Several sheep recovered from the condition and then relapsed. Necropsy findings in six lambs included pale mucous membranes, emaciation, dermatitis, scar deformation of the ears, large yellow livers with marked lobular pattern, and moderate infestation by Haemonchus contortus. Histologically the liver lesions were similar in all necropsied lambs but with varying degrees of severity; they were consistent with brachiaria poisoning and included architectural disruption of hepatocellular trabecula, clusters of foamy

  15. Glucose Driven Changes in Beta Cell Identity Are Important for Function and Possibly Autoimmune Vulnerability during the Progression of Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Gordon C.; Bonner-Weir, Susan

    2017-01-01

    This commentary explores the hypothesis that when autoimmunity leads to a fall of beta cell mass during the progression of type 1 diabetes (T1D), rising glucose levels cause major changes in beta cell identity. This then leads to profound changes in secretory function and less well-understood changes in beta cell susceptibility to autoimmune destruction, which may influence of rate of progression of beta cell killing. PMID:28174593

  16. TLR4 polymorphism and periodontitis susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Su-Han; Guan, Xiao-Yan; Liang, Wen-Hong; Bai, Guo-Hui; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Many primary and secondary studies reported the association between Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) polymorphism and periodontitis susceptibility, which mainly focused on TLR4–299A>G or TLR4–399C>T of Caucasian, however, these studies had different conclusions. The aim of this study was to reassess relative studies about TLR4 polymorphism and periodontitis susceptibility, and update meta-analysis. Methods: We searched the electronic database including CNKI (Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure), PubMed, Embase, and hand searched relative studies until January 4, 2016. Two authors selected studies according to inclusion and exclusion criteria, assessed studies using Newcastle-Ottawa Scale case control study (NOS), and calculated the combined effect size using STATA software, version 12.0. Results: This meta-analysis included 18 studies, containing 2453 healthy participants and 2987 patients with chronic periodontitis (CP) and 462 patients with aggressive periodontitis (AP). There was a significance between TLR4C>G (rs7873784) allele and CP in Asian, and its recessive model was also significant (for C vs G: odds ratio [OR] = 0.72, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.54–0.95, I2 = 0%; for CC + CG vs GG: OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.49–0.89, I2 = 0%). However, we did not detect any significant relevance between other TLR4 polymorphism and periodontitis susceptibility in overall and subgroup analyses. The sensitive analysis showed that dropping any single studies did not affect the pooled-analysis results. Publication bias was not detected. Conclusions: The meta-analysis found association between TLR4C>G (rs7873784) allele and CP in Asian and it may passed on to offsprings in the form of recessiveness. However, further studies about the association between TLR4C>G (rs7873784) and CP is warranted to confirm. PMID:27603404

  17. Antibiotic susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsdottir, Anna Ingibjorg; Gudjonsson, Hallgrimur; Hardardottir, Hjordis; Jonsdottir, Karen Drofn; Bjornsson, Einar Stefan

    2017-09-01

    Increasing resistance of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) to antibiotics calls for constant re-evaluation of multidrug regimens that have been used to eradicate the infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the current antibiotic susceptibility of H. pylori in an Icelandic cohort. Patients referred for gastroscopy were recruited prospectively. Those found to have a positive rapid urease test were included in the study. Susceptibility testing was conducted by the Epsilometer test (E-test) method for ampicillin, clarithromycin, levofloxacin, metronidazole and tetracycline. Results were obtained after three days of incubation in microaerophilic conditions at 37 °C, except for the metronidazole were the first 24 hours were anaerobic. Of the 613 patients who underwent gastroscopy, 138 (23%) had a positive rapid urease test. H. pylori was successfully cultured from 105 (76%) of the urease test positive patients and the isolates were tested for antibiotic susceptibility. Five patients had prior H. pylori eradication. Antibiotic resistance for ampicillin, clarithromycin, levofloxacin, metronidazole and tetracycline was 0%, 9%, 4%, 1% and 0%, respectively. If those who had previously undergone eradication treatment were excluded, the resistance was 0%, 6%, 3%, 1% and 0%, respectively. Clarithromycin resistance was higher amongst women than men, 13% vs. 5%, however, not significantly. Clarithromycin resistance was 60% amongst those who had previously received eradication treatment compared to 6% of those who had not (p pylori isolates can be considered relatively low. Therefore, in the current cohort, standard triple-drug clarithromycin-containing regimen should remain the first-line treatment against H. pylori.

  18. Materials with low DC magnetic susceptibility for sensitive magnetic measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Khatiwada, Rakshya; Kendrick, Rachel; Khosravi, Marjan; Peters, Michael; Smith, Erick; Snow, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Materials with very low DC magnetic susceptibility have many scientific applications. To our knowledge however, relatively little research has been conducted with the goal to produce a totally nonmagnetic material. This phrase in our case means after spatially averaging over macroscopic volumes, it possesses an average zero DC magnetic susceptibility. We report measurements of the DC magnetic susceptibility of three different types of nonmagnetic materials at room temperature: (I) solutions of paramagnetic salts and diamagnetic liquids, (II) liquid gallium-indium alloys and (III) pressed powder mixtures of tungsten and bismuth. The lowest measured magnetic susceptibility among these candidate materials is in the order of 10^-9 cgs volume susceptibility units, about two orders of magnitude smaller than distilled water. In all cases, the measured concentration dependence of the magnetic susceptibility is consistent with that expected for the weighted sum of the susceptibilities of the separate components within...

  19. Global stability analysis of a delayed susceptible-infected-susceptible epidemic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulhus, Calah; Wang, Xiang-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    We study a susceptible-infected-susceptible model with distributed delays. By constructing suitable Lyapunov functionals, we demonstrate that the global dynamics of this model is fully determined by the basic reproductive ratio R0. To be specific, we prove that if R0 ≤ 1, then the disease-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable. On the other hand, if R0>1, then the endemic equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable. It is remarkable that the model dynamics is independent of the probability of immunity lost.

  20. Susceptibility-weighted Imaging in Neurovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyn, Chris; Alcaide-Leon, Paula; Bharatha, Aditya; Sussman, Marshall S; Kucharczyk, Walter; Mandell, Daniel M

    2016-04-01

    Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) has become an important imaging sequence in the evaluation of patients with neurovascular disease. In this review, we provide a general overview of the physics of SWI and describe how image contrast is produced with this technique. We provide a general approach and differential diagnosis for 2 commonly encountered radiographic patterns seen with SWI in neurovascular disease. Finally, we discuss specific neurovascular applications of SWI, including its application in acute stroke, vascular malformations, venous thrombosis, and evaluation of cerebral microbleeds.

  1. Novel susceptibility genes in inflammatory bowel disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Colin Noble; Elaine Nimmo; Daniel Gaya; Richard K Russell; Jack Satsangi

    2006-01-01

    The inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, are polygenic disorders with important environmental interactions. To date, the most widely adopted approach to identifying susceptibility genes in complex diseases has involved genome wide linkage studies followed by studies of positional candidate genes in loci of interest. This review encompasses data from studies into novel candidate genes implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. Novel techniques to identify candidate genes-genome wide association studies, yeast-two hybrid screening, microarray gene expression studies and proteomic profiling,are also reviewed and their potential role in unravelling the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease are discussed.

  2. Susceptibility weighted imaging of the neonatal brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meoded, A.; Poretti, A. [Division of Pediatric Radiology and Division of Neuroradiology, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Northington, F.J. [Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Tekes, A.; Intrapiromkul, J. [Division of Pediatric Radiology and Division of Neuroradiology, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Huisman, T.A.G.M., E-mail: thuisma1@jhmi.edu [Division of Pediatric Radiology and Division of Neuroradiology, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) is a well-established magnetic resonance technique, which is highly sensitive for blood, iron, and calcium depositions in the brain and has been implemented in the routine clinical use in both children and neonates. SWI in neonates might provide valuable additional diagnostic and prognostic information for a wide spectrum of neonatal neurological disorders. To date, there are few articles available on the application of SWI in neonatal neurological disorders. The purpose of this article is to illustrate and describe the characteristic SWI findings in various typical neonatal neurological disorders.

  3. Caspofungin Etest susceptibility testing of Candida species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Pfaller, Michael A; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of caspofungin Etest and the recently revised CLSI breakpoints. A total of 497 blood isolates, of which 496 were wild-type isolates, were included. A total of 65/496 susceptible isolates (13.1%) were misclassified as intermediate (I) or re......) or resistant (R). Such misclassifications were most commonly observed for Candida krusei (73.1%) and Candida glabrata (33.1%). The revised breakpoints cannot be safely adopted for these two species....

  4. FGF receptor genes and breast cancer susceptibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, D; Pineda, S; Michailidou, K

    2014-01-01

    Background:Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women. Genome-wide association studies have identified FGFR2 as a breast cancer susceptibility gene. Common variation in other fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors might also modify risk. We tested this hypothesis by studying...... was observed for SNPs in the FGF receptor genes. The strongest evidence in European women was for rs743682 in FGFR3; the estimated per-allele odds ratio was 1.05 (95% confidence interval=1.02-1.09, P=0.0020), which is substantially lower than that observed for SNPs in FGFR2.Conclusion:Our results suggest...

  5. Macroeconomic susceptibility, inflation, and aggregate supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Raymond J.

    2017-03-01

    We unify aggregate-supply dynamics as a time-dependent susceptibility-mediated relationship between inflation and aggregate economic output. In addition to representing well various observations of inflation-output dynamics this parsimonious formalism provides a straightforward derivation of popular representations of aggregate-supply dynamics and a natural basis for economic-agent expectations as an element of inflation formation. Our formalism also illuminates questions of causality and time-correlation that challenge central banks for whom aggregate-supply dynamics is a key constraint in their goal of achieving macroeconomic stability.

  6. Tobacco use increases susceptibility to bacterial infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demuth Donald R

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Active smokers and those exposed to secondhand smoke are at increased risk of bacterial infection. Tobacco smoke exposure increases susceptibility to respiratory tract infections, including tuberculosis, pneumonia and Legionnaires disease; bacterial vaginosis and sexually transmitted diseases, such as chlamydia and gonorrhoea; Helicobacter pylori infection; periodontitis; meningitis; otitis media; and post-surgical and nosocomial infections. Tobacco smoke compromises the anti-bacterial function of leukocytes, including neutrophils, monocytes, T cells and B cells, providing a mechanistic explanation for increased infection risk. Further epidemiological, clinical and mechanistic research into this important area is warranted.

  7. Jasmonate signalling drives time-of-day differences in susceptibility of Arabidopsis to the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingle, R.A.; Stoker, C.; Stone, W.; Adams, N.; Smith, R.W.; Grant, M.; Carré, I.; Roden, L.C.; Denby, K.J.

    2015-01-01

    The circadian clock, an internal timekeeping mechanism, allows plants to anticipate regular changes in the environment, such as light and dark, and biotic challenges such as pathogens and herbivores. Here, we demonstrate that the plant circadian clock influences susceptibility to the necrotrophic fu

  8. AGING AND LIFE-STAGE SUSCEPTIBILITY: TOLUENE EFFECTS ON BRAIN OXIDATIVE STRESS PARAMETERS IN BROWN NORWAY RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental contaminants is poorly understood. The objectives of this study were to test whether oxidative stress (OS) is a potential toxicity pathway following toluene exposure and to determine if these effects are age-dependent. We ...

  9. The ontology of genetic susceptibility factors (OGSF) and its application in modeling genetic susceptibility to vaccine adverse events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu; He, Yongqun

    2014-01-01

    Due to human variations in genetic susceptibility, vaccination often triggers adverse events in a small population of vaccinees. Based on our previous work on ontological modeling of genetic susceptibility to disease, we developed an Ontology of Genetic Susceptibility Factors (OGSF), a biomedical ontology in the domain of genetic susceptibility and genetic susceptibility factors. The OGSF framework was then applied in the area of vaccine adverse events (VAEs). OGSF aligns with the Basic Formal Ontology (BFO). OGSF defines 'genetic susceptibility' as a subclass of BFO:disposition and has a material basis 'genetic susceptibility factor'. The 'genetic susceptibility to pathological bodily process' is a subclasses of 'genetic susceptibility'. A VAE is a type of pathological bodily process. OGSF represents different types of genetic susceptibility factors including various susceptibility alleles (e.g., SNP and gene). A general OGSF design pattern was developed to represent genetic susceptibility to VAE and associated genetic susceptibility factors using experimental results in genetic association studies. To test and validate the design pattern, two case studies were populated in OGSF. In the first case study, human gene allele DBR*15:01 is susceptible to influenza vaccine Pandemrix-induced Multiple Sclerosis. The second case study reports genetic susceptibility polymorphisms associated with systemic smallpox VAEs. After the data of the Case Study 2 were represented using OGSF-based axioms, SPARQL was successfully developed to retrieve the susceptibility factors stored in the populated OGSF. A network of data from the Case Study 2 was constructed by using ontology terms and individuals as nodes and ontology relations as edges. Different social network analys is (SNA) methods were then applied to verify core OGSF terms. Interestingly, a SNA hub analysis verified all susceptibility alleles of SNPs and a SNA closeness analysis verified the susceptibility genes in Case

  10. Blockade but not overexpression of the junctional adhesion molecule C influences virus-induced type 1 diabetes in mice.

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    Selina Christen

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes (T1D results from the autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing beta-cells in the pancreas. Recruitment of inflammatory cells is prerequisite to beta-cell-injury. The junctional adhesion molecule (JAM family proteins JAM-B and JAM-C are involved in polarized leukocyte transendothelial migration and are expressed by vascular endothelial cells of peripheral tissue and high endothelial venules in lympoid organs. Blocking of JAM-C efficiently attenuated cerulean-induced pancreatitis, rheumatoid arthritis or inflammation induced by ischemia and reperfusion in mice. In order to investigate the influence of JAM-C on trafficking and transmigration of antigen-specific, autoaggressive T-cells, we used transgenic mice that express a protein of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV as a target autoantigen in the β-cells of the islets of Langerhans under the rat insulin promoter (RIP. Such RIP-LCMV mice turn diabetic after infection with LCMV. We found that upon LCMV-infection JAM-C protein was upregulated around the islets in RIP-LCMV mice. JAM-C expression correlated with islet infiltration and functional beta-cell impairment. Blockade with a neutralizing anti-JAM-C antibody reduced the T1D incidence. However, JAM-C overexpression on endothelial cells did not accelerate diabetes in the RIP-LCMV model. In summary, our data suggest that JAM-C might be involved in the final steps of trafficking and transmigration of antigen-specific autoaggressive T-cells to the islets of Langerhans.

  11. Hyperglycemia Increases Susceptibility to Ischemic Necrosis

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    D. Lévigne

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic patients are at risk for spontaneous foot ulcers, chronic wounds, infections, and tissue necrosis. Current theories suggest that the development and progression of diabetic foot ulcers are mainly caused by arteriosclerosis and peripheral neuropathy. Tissue necrosis plays a primordial role in the progression of diabetic foot ulcers but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of hyperglycemia per se on the susceptibility of ischemic tissue to necrosis, using a critical ischemic hind limb animal model. We inflicted the same degree of ischemia in both euglycemic and streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemic rats by resecting the external iliac, the femoral, and the saphenous arteries. Postoperative laser Doppler flowmetry of the ischemic feet showed the same degree of reduction in skin perfusion in both hyperglycemic and euglycemic animals. Nevertheless, we found a significantly higher rate of limb necrosis in hyperglycemic rats compared to euglycemic rats (71% versus 29%, resp.. In this study, we revealed that hyperglycemia per se increases the susceptibility to limb necrosis in ischemic conditions. Our results may help to better understand the physiopathology of progressive diabetic wounds and underline the importance of strict glycemic control in patients with critical limb ischemia.

  12. Universal locality of quantum thermal susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Palma, Giacomo; De Pasquale, Antonella; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2017-05-01

    The ultimate precision of any measurement of the temperature of a quantum system is the inverse of the local quantum thermal susceptibility [A. De Pasquale et al., Nat. Commun. 7, 12782 (2016), 10.1038/ncomms12782] of the subsystem with which the thermometer interacts. If this subsystem can be described with the canonical ensemble, such quantity reduces to the variance of the local Hamiltonian, which is proportional to the heat capacity of the subsystem. However, the canonical ensemble might not apply in the presence of interactions between the subsystem and the rest of the system. In this work, we address this problem in the framework of locally interacting quantum systems. We prove that the local quantum thermal susceptibility of any subsystem is close to the variance of its local Hamiltonian, provided the volume-to-surface ratio of the subsystem is much larger than the correlation length. This result greatly simplifies the determination of the ultimate precision of any local estimate of the temperature and rigorously determines the regime where interactions can affect this precision.

  13. Tetracycline Susceptibility in Chlamydia suis Pig Isolates.

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    Manuela Donati

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to assess the prevalence of Chlamydia suis in an Italian pig herd, determine the tetracycline susceptibility of C. suis isolates, and evaluate tet(C and tetR(C gene expression. Conjunctival swabs from 20 pigs were tested for C. suis by real-time polymerase chain reaction, and 55% (11 were positive. C. suis was then isolated from 11 conjunctival swabs resampled from the same herd. All positive samples and isolates were positive for the tet(C resistance gene. The in vitro susceptibility to tetracycline of the C. suis isolates showed MIC values ranging from 0.5 to 4 μg/mL. Tet(C and tetR(C transcripts were found in all the isolates, cultured both in the absence and presence of tetracycline. This contrasts with other Gram-negative bacteria in which both genes are repressed in the absence of the drug. Further investigation into tet gene regulation in C. suis is needed.

  14. Microfluidics for Antibiotic Susceptibility and Toxicity Testing

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    Jing Dai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The recent emergence of antimicrobial resistance has become a major concern for worldwide policy makers as very few new antibiotics have been developed in the last twenty-five years. To prevent the death of millions of people worldwide, there is an urgent need for a cheap, fast and accurate set of tools and techniques that can help to discover and develop new antimicrobial drugs. In the past decade, microfluidic platforms have emerged as potential systems for conducting pharmacological studies. Recent studies have demonstrated that microfluidic platforms can perform rapid antibiotic susceptibility tests to evaluate antimicrobial drugs’ efficacy. In addition, the development of cell-on-a-chip and organ-on-a-chip platforms have enabled the early drug testing, providing more accurate insights into conventional cell cultures on the drug pharmacokinetics and toxicity, at the early and cheaper stage of drug development, i.e., prior to animal and human testing. In this review, we focus on the recent developments of microfluidic platforms for rapid antibiotics susceptibility testing, investigating bacterial persistence and non-growing but metabolically active (NGMA bacteria, evaluating antibiotic effectiveness on biofilms and combinatorial effect of antibiotics, as well as microfluidic platforms that can be used for in vitro antibiotic toxicity testing.

  15. Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns of Vibrio cholerae isolates

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    S D Shrestha

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cholera is one of the most common diarrhoeal diseases in Nepal. Etiological agent of cholera is Vibrio cholerae which removes essential body fluids, salts and vital nutrients, which are necessary for life causing dehydration and malnutrition. Emerging antimicrobial resistant is common. The aim of the present study was to determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of cholera patients in Nepal. METHODS: All the laboratory works were conducted in the bacteriology section of National Public Health Laboratory, Teku from March to September 2005. During this period a total of 340 stool samples from diarrhoeal patients were collected and processed according to the standard laboratory methods. Each patient suffering from diarrhoea was directly interviewed for his or her clinical history during sample collection. RESULTS: A total of 340 stool samples were processed and studied from both sex including all ages of patients. Among the processed sample 53 Vibrio cholerae cases were found. All isolated Vibrio cholerae O1 were El Tor, Inaba. All isolated (100% Vibrio cholerae O1 were sensitive to Ampicillin, Ciprofloxacin, Erythromycin and Tetracycline whereas all were resistant to Nalidixic acid and Cotrimoxazole. Only 15.1% cases were sensitive to Furazolidone whereas 84.9% were resistant. CONCLUSION: All V. cholerae strains isolated in this study were found resistant to Multi Drug Resistant (resistant to at least two antibiotics of different group. Ampicillin, Ciprofloxacin, Erythromycin and Tetracycline were found still more potent antibiotics against Vibrio cholerae isolated during the study. Keywords: antibiotics, susceptibility, Vibrio cholera.

  16. Organisms causing pyoderma and their susceptibility patterns

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    Baslas R

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Five hundred and seventy cases of pyoderma were studied clinically and bacteriologically. Of these, 58.8% cases were of primary pyoderma, and the rest were secondary pyoderma. Primary pyoderma consituted impetigo contagiosa (21.4%, bullous impetigo (3.3%, ecthyma (4.4%, superficial folliculitis (12.3%, chronic folliculitis of legs (8.8%; forunculosis (3.7% carbuncle (1.8%, folliculitis decalvans (0.4%, sycosis barbae (0.4% and abscess (2.5%. Secondary pyderma cases were infected scabies (23.9%, infected wound (1.1%, infectious eczematoid dermatitis (12.6%, intertrigo (0.4% and miscellaneous (3.3%. In 85 samples, no organism was isolated. Out of 485 samples, 75.9% grew a single organism and the rest (24.1% gave multiple organisms. Among the 603 strains collected, 73.6% were staphylococcus aureus, 25.0% were beta-haemolytic streptococcus and 0.7% each were alpha-haemolytic streptococcus and Gram negative bacilli. Eighty eight per cent strains of Staphylococcus aureous were susceptible to cephaloridine and 27.4% to ampicillin while 97.4% beta haemolytic streptococcus were susceptible to cephaloridine and 23.2% to pencillin.

  17. Tetracycline Susceptibility in Chlamydia suis Pig Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Manuela; Balboni, Andrea; Laroucau, Karine; Aaziz, Rachid; Vorimore, Fabien; Borel, Nicole; Morandi, Federico; Vecchio Nepita, Edoardo; Di Francesco, Antonietta

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess the prevalence of Chlamydia suis in an Italian pig herd, determine the tetracycline susceptibility of C. suis isolates, and evaluate tet(C) and tetR(C) gene expression. Conjunctival swabs from 20 pigs were tested for C. suis by real-time polymerase chain reaction, and 55% (11) were positive. C. suis was then isolated from 11 conjunctival swabs resampled from the same herd. All positive samples and isolates were positive for the tet(C) resistance gene. The in vitro susceptibility to tetracycline of the C. suis isolates showed MIC values ranging from 0.5 to 4 μg/mL. Tet(C) and tetR(C) transcripts were found in all the isolates, cultured both in the absence and presence of tetracycline. This contrasts with other Gram-negative bacteria in which both genes are repressed in the absence of the drug. Further investigation into tet gene regulation in C. suis is needed.

  18. FLOOD SUSCEPTIBILITY ASSESSMENT IN THE NIRAJ BASIN

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    SANDA ROŞCA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Flood susceptibility assessment in the Niraj basin. In the context of global warming and the increasing frequency of extreme weather events, it becomes evident that we have to face natural hazards, such as floods. In the area of Niraj basin this phenomenon is specific both in the spring, because of the snow melting and of the precipitations which come along with the season, and then in the summer because of the torrential precipitations but rarely in autumn and winter. The aim of this paper is to determinate the susceptibility of the zone and obtain a map which will take into consideration the possibility of a flooding. Defining vulnerability can help us understand this type of natural disasters and find the best ways to reduce it. For this purpose we use thematic layers, morphological characteristics (slope and depth fragmentation, hydrological characteristics, geology, pedology (permeability and soil texture, landuse, precipitation data, and human interventions because in this way we have the possibility to use data mining for this purpose. Data mining will allow us to extract new information based on the existing sets of data.The final result will be a thematic map that highlights the areas which are exposed to the flood. Therefore, this map can be used as a support decision for local government or business purposes.

  19. Multiscale/multiresolution landslides susceptibility mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grozavu, Adrian; Cătălin Stanga, Iulian; Valeriu Patriche, Cristian; Toader Juravle, Doru

    2014-05-01

    Within the European strategies, landslides are considered an important threatening that requires detailed studies to identify areas where these processes could occur in the future and to design scientific and technical plans for landslide risk mitigation. In this idea, assessing and mapping the landslide susceptibility is an important preliminary step. Generally, landslide susceptibility at small scale (for large regions) can be assessed through qualitative approach (expert judgements), based on a few variables, while studies at medium and large scale requires quantitative approach (e.g. multivariate statistics), a larger set of variables and, necessarily, the landslide inventory. Obviously, the results vary more or less from a scale to another, depending on the available input data, but also on the applied methodology. Since it is almost impossible to have a complete landslide inventory on large regions (e.g. at continental level), it is very important to verify the compatibility and the validity of results obtained at different scales, identifying the differences and fixing the inherent errors. This paper aims at assessing and mapping the landslide susceptibility at regional level through a multiscale-multiresolution approach from small scale and low resolution to large scale and high resolution of data and results, comparing the compatibility of results. While the first ones could be used for studies at european and national level, the later ones allows results validation, including through fields surveys. The test area, namely the Barlad Plateau (more than 9000 sq.km) is located in Eastern Romania, covering a region where both the natural environment and the human factor create a causal context that favor these processes. The landslide predictors were initially derived from various databases available at pan-european level and progressively completed and/or enhanced together with scale and the resolution: the topography (from SRTM at 90 meters to digital

  20. Landslide susceptibility assessment considering landslide typology. A case study in the area north of Lisbon (Portugal

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    J. L. Zêzere

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to confirm the importance of discriminate different types of slope movements for a better landslide susceptibility evaluation. The study was applied to the sample area of Calhandriz (11.3 km2 in the area North of Lisbon. Sixty shallow translational slides, 23 deeper translational movements and 19 rotational movements were selected for statistical analysis. Landslide susceptibility assessment was achieved using a data-driven approach: the Information Value Method (Yin and Yan, 1988. The method was applied both to the total set of considered landslides and to each type of slope movement, and the obtained success rates for the highest susceptibility classes are higher in the latter case. The different types of landslides are not equally conditioned by the considered instability factors. Information scores are higher for lithology, concordance between slope aspect and dip of the strata, and slope angle, respectively, for rotational movements, translational movements and shallow translational slides. The information value of the variables "presence of artificial cut (roads" and "presence of fluvial channel" is systematically high for the three types of slope movement, pointing out the importance of both anthropogenic influence and bank erosion on slope instability in the study area. Different types of landslides have neither the same magnitude nor equal damaging potential. Furthermore, technical strategies to mitigate landsliding also depend on landslide typology. These are additional reasons to discriminate between different types of slope movements when assessing landslide susceptibility and hazard.

  1. Chikungunya virus susceptibility & variation in populations of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae mosquito from India

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    Mangesh D Gokhale

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Although having immense clinical relevance, yet only a few studies have been targeted to understand the chikungunya virus (CHIKV susceptibility and growth in Aedes aegypti populations from India. This study was undertaken to investigate CHIKV susceptibility and growth kinetics in Ae. aegypti along with genetic heterogeneity of Ae. aegypti populations. Methods: Dose dependent CHIKV susceptibility and growth kinetic studies for three CHIKV strains reported from India were carried out in Ae. aegypti mosquito populations. The phenotypic variation and genetic heterogeneity in five Ae. aegypti populations were investigated using multivariate morphometrics and allozyme variation studies. Results: The dissemination and growth kinetics studies of the three CHIKV strains showed no selective advantage for a particular strain of CHIKV in Ae. aegypti. At 100 per cent infection rate, five geographic Ae. aegypti populations showed differences in dissemination to three CHIKV strains. Morphometric studies revealed phenotypic variation in all the studied populations. The allelic frequencies, F statistics, and Nei′s genetic identity values showed that genetic differences between the populations were small, but significant. Interpretation & conclusions: The results obtained in this study suggest that genetic background of the vector strongly influences the CHIKV susceptibility in Ae. aegypti.

  2. Regional flood susceptibility analysis in mountainous areas through the use of morphometric and land cover indicators

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    M. C. Rogelis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A classification of susceptibility to flooding of 106 mountain watersheds was carried out in Bogotá (Colombia through the use of an index composed of a morphometric indicator and a land cover indicator. Susceptibility was considered to increase with flashiness and the possibility of debris flows. Morphological variables recognised in literature to significantly influence flashiness and occurrence of debris flows were used to construct the morphometric indicator by applying principal component analysis. Subsequently, this indicator was compared with the results of debris flow propagation to assess its capacity in indentifying the morphological conditions of a watershed that make it able to transport debris flows. Propagation of debris flows was carried out using the Modified Single Flow Direction algorithm, following identification of source areas by applying thresholds identified in the slope-area curve of the watersheds. Results show that the morphometric variables can be grouped in four categories: size, shape, hypsometry and energy, with energy being the component that best explains the capability of a watershed to transport debris flows. However, the morphometric indicator was found to not sufficiently explain the records of past floods in the study area. Combining the morphometric indicator with land cover indicators improved the agreement, showing that even if morphometric parameters identify a high disposition to the occurrence of debris flow, improving land cover can reduce the susceptibility. On the contrary, if good morphometric conditions are present but deterioration of the land cover in the watershed takes place then the susceptibility to debris flow events increases.

  3. GIS-based landslide susceptibility mapping for the 2005 Kashmir earthquake region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp, Ulrich; Growley, Benjamin J.; Khattak, Ghazanfar A.; Owen, Lewis A.

    2008-11-01

    The Mw 7.6 October 8, 2005 Kashmir earthquake triggered several thousand landslides throughout the Himalaya of northern Pakistan and India. These were concentrated in six different geomorphic-geologic-anthropogenic settings. A spatial database, which included 2252 landslides, was developed and analyzed using ASTER satellite imagery and geographical information system (GIS) technology. A multi-criterion evaluation was applied to determine the significance of event-controlling parameters in triggering the landslides. The parameters included lithology, faults, slope gradient, slope aspect, elevation, land cover, rivers and roads. The results showed four classes of landslide susceptibility. Furthermore, they indicated that lithology had the strongest influence on landsliding, particularly when the rock is highly fractured, such as in shale, slate, clastic sediments, and limestone and dolomite. Moreover, the proximity of the landslides to faults, rivers, and roads was also an important factor in helping to initiate failures. In addition, landslides occurred particularly in moderate elevations on south facing slopes. Shrub land, grassland, and also agricultural land were highly susceptible to failures, while forested slopes had few landslides. One-third of the study area was highly or very highly susceptible to future landsliding and requires immediate mitigation action. The rest of the region had a low or moderate susceptibility to landsliding and remains relatively stable. This study supports the view that (1) earthquake-triggered landslides are concentrated in specific zones associated with event-controlling parameters; and (2) in the western Himalaya deforestation and road construction contributed significantly to landsliding during and shortly after earthquakes.

  4. Comparison of the CLSI guideline and ISO/IDF standard for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Lactobacilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrhofer, Sigrid; Zitz, Ulrike; Birru, Firew H; Gollan, Dagmar; Gołoś, Aleksandra K; Kneifel, Wolfgang; Domig, Konrad J

    2014-12-01

    Lactobacilli play a crucial role as probiotics and as starter cultures in the production of fermented foods. Although lactobacilli are a technologically useful and beneficial group of bacteria, a few members of them have been rarely correlated with bacterial infections. Correspondingly, clinicians are interested in the antimicrobial susceptibility of lactobacilli. In addition, antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) is also relevant for commercially applied lactobacilli as bacterial strains harboring transferable antibiotic resistance genes should not be used in fermented and probiotic foods. Therefore, two methods were developed by different organizations, which were compared within this study. For this purpose, 22 Lactobacillus-type strains were tested for their antimicrobial susceptibility to 16 antibiotics following the procedures of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and the International Organization of Standardization (ISO)/International Dairy Federation (IDF). Crucial discrepancies between both procedures were detected mainly due to the different AST media. Hence, half of the strains tested did not consistently grow in the CLSI medium, whereas all showed evaluable growth in the ISO/IDF medium. However, some antibiotics were influenced by the latter medium. In particular, low levels of essential agreement between both methods were obtained with seven antibiotics. Accordingly, different interpretative criteria are needed for both procedures to distinguish resistant from susceptible strains.

  5. From CLSI to EUCAST guidelines in the interpretation of antimicrobial susceptibility: What is the effect in our setting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Bautista, Antonia; Coy, Javier; García-Shimizu, Patricia; Rodríguez, Juan Carlos

    2017-05-04

    Implementation of the breakpoints established in the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) guidelines in comparison with those of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) means that the criteria for interpreting the susceptibility of some antimicrobials have been modified, resulting in changes in the reports of accumulated antibiotic susceptibility. The effect of applying EUCAST breakpoints in 10,359 clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus spp. was analysed. By applying EUCAST breakpoints, most antimicrobial susceptibility percentages did not change or changed very slightly. However, a decrease in aminoglycoside susceptibility was observed in Gram-negative bacilli, mainly for amikacin and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (23.2%), although only 5.7% were completely resistant; a notably decrease in the percentage of isolates susceptible to aztreonam was also observed. There was also a marked increase in the number of Staphylococcus aureus strains resistant to clindamycin (51.5%) and aminoglycosides (gentamicin 43.1%). Switching from CLSI to EUCAST criteria in some pathogens alters the percentages of resistance to several antimicrobials, and therefore the local epidemiology of the resistance. These changes should be implemented by a multidisciplinary group in order to analyse the influence of the new data on the empirical treatment protocols of each centre. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  6. Alterations in the transcriptome and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus grown in the presence of diclofenac

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    Nagarajan Vijayaraj

    2011-07-01

    . Conclusions The results of this study suggest that diclofenac influences antibiotic susceptibility in S. aureus, in part, by altering the expression of regulatory and structural genes associated with cell wall biosynthesis/turnover and transport.

  7. Exploring discrepancies between quantitative validation results and the geomorphic plausibility of statistical landslide susceptibility maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steger, Stefan; Brenning, Alexander; Bell, Rainer; Petschko, Helene; Glade, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Empirical models are frequently applied to produce landslide susceptibility maps for large areas. Subsequent quantitative validation results are routinely used as the primary criteria to infer the validity and applicability of the final maps or to select one of several models. This study hypothesizes that such direct deductions can be misleading. The main objective was to explore discrepancies between the predictive performance of a landslide susceptibility model and the geomorphic plausibility of subsequent landslide susceptibility maps while a particular emphasis was placed on the influence of incomplete landslide inventories on modelling and validation results. The study was conducted within the Flysch Zone of Lower Austria (1,354 km2) which is known to be highly susceptible to landslides of the slide-type movement. Sixteen susceptibility models were generated by applying two statistical classifiers (logistic regression and generalized additive model) and two machine learning techniques (random forest and support vector machine) separately for two landslide inventories of differing completeness and two predictor sets. The results were validated quantitatively by estimating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) with single holdout and spatial cross-validation technique. The heuristic evaluation of the geomorphic plausibility of the final results was supported by findings of an exploratory data analysis, an estimation of odds ratios and an evaluation of the spatial structure of the final maps. The results showed that maps generated by different inventories, classifiers and predictors appeared differently while holdout validation revealed similar high predictive performances. Spatial cross-validation proved useful to expose spatially varying inconsistencies of the modelling results while additionally providing evidence for slightly overfitted machine learning-based models. However, the highest predictive performances were obtained for

  8. Comparison of susceptibility patterns using commercially available susceptibility testing methods performed on prevalent Candida spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cretella, David; Barber, Katie E; King, S Travis; Stover, Kayla R

    2016-12-01

    The rising rates of invasive fungal infections caused by non-albicans Candida and the increasing emergence of antifungal resistance complicate the management of invasive candidiasis. Accurate and timely antifungal susceptibility testing is critical to targeting antifungal therapy. The purpose of this study was to compare commercially available susceptibility testing methods using prospectively collected Candida isolates. Susceptibility testing was performed on 74 Candida isolates collected from July 2014 to March 2015 using broth microdilution according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute method, Etest, Vitek 2 (YS-05) and Sensititre. Essential agreement and categorical agreement (CA) were assessed using the reference method. Of the 34 total blood isolates collected, Candida albicans comprised only 38 % (13) of the Candida spp. with Candidaglabrata being nearly as prevalent (29 %, 10). CA using Etest was 86 % for fluconazole, 72 % for caspofungin, 98 % for micafungin and 97 % for anidulafungin. Vitek 2 CA was 90 % for fluconazole and 98 % for caspofungin. Sensititre CA was 93 % for fluconazole, 98 % for caspofungin, 98 % for micafungin and 100 % for anidulafungin. Although our study tested a small population of Candida isolates, our results were variable by method. When implementing antifungal susceptibility testing, clinicians should be aware of the strengths and limitations of each testing method.

  9. The mediational pathway among parenting styles, attachment styles and self-regulation with addiction susceptibility of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeinali, Ali; Sharifi, Hassanpasha; Enayati, Mirsalahadine; Asgari, Parviz; Pasha, Gohlamreza

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of present study was to create and test a model that illustrates variables that influence the development of addiction susceptibility and determine how different styles of parenting may indirectly influence the addiction susceptibility of children through the mediators of attachment style and self-regulation. Using random cluster sampling, 508 adolescent high school boys and girls aged 14-19 years were enrolled. Data were analyzed using structural equations modeling (path analysis). The results showed that authoritative and permissive parenting styles were associated with secure attachment whereas authoritarian and neglectful parenting styles were associated with insecure attachment. Insecure attachment was associated with a low level of self-regulation whereas secure attachment was associated with a high level of self-regulation. We found that a low level of self-regulation increased the adolescent's addiction susceptibility whereas a high level of self-regulation decreased their addiction susceptibility. The findings of present study suggest the authoritative and permissive parenting styles as the most efficient styles and authoritarian and neglectful parenting styles as the most inefficient styles in terms of addiction susceptibility. Accordingly, efficient parenting style training to parents should be the main goal of drug demand reduction program.

  10. Ertapenem susceptibility of extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing organisms

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    Selby Edward B

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infections caused by multiply drug resistant organisms such as extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae are increasing. Carbapenems (imipenem and meropenem are the antibiotics commonly used to treat these agents. There is limited clinical data regarding the efficacy of the newest carbapenem, ertapenem, against these organisms. Ertapenem susceptibility of ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae clinical isolates were evaluated and compared to imipenem to determine if imipenem susceptibility could be used as a surrogate for ertapenem susceptibility. Methods 100 ESBL isolates (n = 34 E. coli and n = 66 K. pneumoniae collected from 2005–2006 clinical specimens at WRAMC were identified and tested for susceptibility by Vitek Legacy [bioMerieux, Durham, NC]. Ertapenem susceptibility was performed via epsilometer test (E-test [AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden]. Results 100% of ESBL isolates tested were susceptible to ertapenem. 100% of the same isolates were also susceptible to imipenem. Conclusion These results, based on 100% susceptibility, suggest that ertapenem may be an alternative to other carbapenems for the treatment of infections caused by ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae. Clinical outcomes studies are needed to determine if ertapenem is effective for the treatment of infection caused by these organisms. However, due to lack of resistant isolates, we are unable to conclude whether imipenem susceptibility accurately predicts ertapenem susceptibility.

  11. Susceptibility of Porphyromonas gingivalis in biofilms to amoxicillin, doxycycline and metronidazole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, T.

    2002-01-01

    Biofilm, Porphyromonas gingivalis, susceptibility testing, amoxicillin, doxycycline, metronidazole......Biofilm, Porphyromonas gingivalis, susceptibility testing, amoxicillin, doxycycline, metronidazole...

  12. Candida and candidaemia. Susceptibility and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling

    2013-11-01

    In our part of the world invasive fungal infections include invasive yeast infections with Candida as the absolutely dominating pathogen and invasive mould infections with Aspergillus as the main organism. Yeasts are part of our normal micro-flora and invasive infections arise only when barrier leakage or impaired immune function occurs. On the contrary, moulds are ubiquitous in the nature and environment and their conidia inhaled at a daily basis. Hence invasive mould infections typically arise from the airways whereas invasive yeast infections typically enter the bloodstream causing fungaemia. Candida is by far the most common fungal blood stream pathogen; hence this genus has been the main focus of this thesis. As neither the Danish epidemiology nor the susceptibility of fungal pathogens was well described when we initiated our studies we initially wanted to be able to include animal models in our work. Therefore, a comprehensive animal study was undertaken comparing the virulence in a haematogenous mouse model of eight different Candida species including the five most common ones in human infections (C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis and in addition three rarer species C. guilliermondii, C. lusitaniae and C. kefyr). We found remarkable differences in the virulence among these species and were able to group the species according to decreasing virulence in three groups I: C. albicans and C. tropicalis, II: C. glabrata, C. lusitaniae and C. kefyr, and III: C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and C. guilliermondii. Apart from being necessary for our subsequent animal experiments exploring in vivo antifungal susceptibility, these findings also helped us understand at least part of the reason for the differences in the epidemiology and the pitfalls associated with the establishment of genus rather than species specific breakpoints. In example, it was less surprising that C. albicans has been the dominant pathogen and associated with a

  13. Ripening-regulated susceptibility of tomato fruit to Botrytis cinerea requires NOR but not RIN or ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, Dario; Blanco-Ulate, Barbara; Yang, Liya; Labavitch, John M; Bennett, Alan B; Powell, Ann L T

    2009-07-01

    Fruit ripening is a developmental process that is associated with increased susceptibility to the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Histochemical observations demonstrate that unripe tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit activate pathogen defense responses, but these responses are attenuated in ripe fruit infected by B. cinerea. Tomato fruit ripening is regulated independently and cooperatively by ethylene and transcription factors, including NON-RIPENING (NOR) and RIPENING-INHIBITOR (RIN). Mutations in NOR or RIN or interference with ethylene perception prevent fruit from ripening and, thereby, would be expected to influence susceptibility. We show, however, that the susceptibility of ripe fruit is dependent on NOR but not on RIN and only partially on ethylene perception, leading to the conclusion that not all of the pathways and events that constitute ripening render fruit susceptible. Additionally, on unripe fruit, B. cinerea induces the expression of genes also expressed as uninfected fruit ripen. Among the ripening-associated genes induced by B. cinerea are LePG (for polygalacturonase) and LeExp1 (for expansin), which encode cell wall-modifying proteins and have been shown to facilitate susceptibility. LePG and LeExp1 are induced only in susceptible rin fruit and not in resistant nor fruit. Thus, to infect fruit, B. cinerea relies on some of the processes and events that occur during ripening, and the fungus induces these pathways in unripe fruit, suggesting that the pathogen itself can initiate the induction of susceptibility by exploiting endogenous developmental programs. These results demonstrate the developmental plasticity of plant responses to the fungus and indicate how known regulators of fruit ripening participate in regulating ripening-associated pathogen susceptibility.

  14. Landslide susceptibility and risk assessment: specificities for road networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicani, Roberta; Argentiero, Ilenia; Parisi, Alessandro; Spilotro, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    A regional-scale assessment of landslide susceptibility and risk along the main road corridors crossing the provincial territory of Matera (Basilicata Region, Southern Italy) was carried out. The entire provincial road network extends for about 1,320 km through a territory, of which represents the main connection infrastructure among thirty-one municipalities due to the lack of an efficient integrated transportation system through the whole regional territory. For this reason, the strategic importance of these roads consists in their uniqueness in connecting every urban center with the socio-economic surrounding context. These roads and their vehicular traffic are continuously exposed to instability processes (about the 40% of the total length is disrupted by landslides), characterized both by high intensity and low frequency and by low intensity and high frequency. This last typology, consisting in small shallow landslides, is particularly hazardous for the roads since it is widespread along the road network, its occurrence is connected to rainfalls and determines high vulnerability conditions for the road in terms of interruption of vehicular traffic. A GIS-based heuristic-bivariate statistical predictive model was performed to assess and map the landslide susceptibility in the study area, by using a polynomial function of eight predisposing factors, weighted according to their influence on the landslide phenomena, recognized and collected in an inventory. Susceptibility associated to small shallow phenomena was assessed by using a polynomial function of specific factors, such as slope angle and aspect, lithological outcrops, rainfalls, etc. In absence of detailed input data, the spatial distribution of landslide risk along the road corridors was assessed and mapped using a qualitative hazard-consequence matrix approach, by which risk is obtained by combining hazard categories with consequence classes pairwise in a two-dimensional table or matrix. Landslide

  15. Loss of Sex and Age Driven Differences in the Gut Microbiome Characterize Arthritis-Susceptible *0401 Mice but Not Arthritis-Resistant *0402 Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Andres Gomez; David Luckey; Yeoman, Carl J.; Marietta, Eric V.; Margret E. Berg Miller; Joseph A Murray; White, Bryan A.; Veena Taneja

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: HLA-DRB1 0401 is associated with susceptibility, while HLA-DRB1 0402 is associated with resistance to developing rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and collagen-induced arthritis in humans and transgenic mice respectively. The influence of gut-joint axis has been suggested in RA, though not yet proven. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have used HLA transgenic mice carrying arthritis susceptible and -resistant HLA-DR genes to explore if genetic factors and their interaction with gut flora...

  16. Spatial prediction of flood susceptible areas using rule based decision tree (DT) and a novel ensemble bivariate and multivariate statistical models in GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehrany, Mahyat Shafapour; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Jebur, Mustafa Neamah

    2013-11-01

    Decision tree (DT) machine learning algorithm was used to map the flood susceptible areas in Kelantan, Malaysia.We used an ensemble frequency ratio (FR) and logistic regression (LR) model in order to overcome weak points of the LR.Combined method of FR and LR was used to map the susceptible areas in Kelantan, Malaysia.Results of both methods were compared and their efficiency was assessed.Most influencing conditioning factors on flooding were recognized.

  17. Comparative susceptibility to permethrin of two Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations from Southern Benin, regarding mosquito sex, physiological status, and mosquito age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazaire Aïzoun

    2014-04-01

    Conclusions: The resistance is a hereditary and dynamic phenomenon which can be due to metabolic mechanisms like overproduction of detoxifying enzymes activity. Many factors influence vector susceptibility to insecticide. Among these factors, there are mosquito sex, mosquito age, its physiological status. Therefore, it is useful to respect the World Health Organization criteria in the assessment of insecticide susceptibility tests in malaria vectors. Otherwise, susceptibility testing is conducted using unfed female mosquitoes aged 3-5 days old. Tests should also be carried out at (25±2 °C and (80±10% relative humidity.

  18. Susceptibility of chemostat-grown Yersinia enterocolitica and Klebsiella pneumoniae to chlorine dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harakeh, M S; Berg, J D; Hoff, J C; Matin, A

    1985-01-01

    The resistance of bacteria to antimicrobial agents could be influenced by growth environment. The susceptibility of two enteric bacteria, Yersinia enterocolitica and Klebsiella pneumoniae, to chlorine dioxide was investigated. These organisms were grown in a defined medium in a chemostat and the influence of growth rate, temperature, and cell density on the susceptibility was studied. All inactivation experiments were conducted with a dose of 0.25 mg of chlorine dioxide per liter in phosphate-buffered saline at pH 7.0 and 23 degrees C. The results indicated that populations grown under conditions that more closely approximate natural aquatic environments, e.g., low temperatures and growth at submaximal rates caused by nutrient limitation, were most resistant. The conclusion from this study is that antecedent growth conditions have a profound effect on the susceptibility of bacteria to disinfectants, and it is more appropriate to use the chemostat-grown bacteria as test organisms to evaluate the efficacy of a certain disinfectant. PMID:3883899

  19. Fidelity susceptibility and geometric phase in critical phenomenon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Li-Jun; Zhu Chang-Qing; Zhang Hong-Biao; Qin Li-Guo

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by recent developments in quantum fidelity and fidelity susceptibility, we study relations among Lie algebra, fidelity susceptibility and quantum phase transition for a two-state system and the Lipkin-Meshkov-click model. We obtain the fidelity susceptibilities for SU(2)and SU(1, 1)algebraic structure models. From this relation,the validity of the fidelity susceptibility to signal for the quantum phase transition is also verified in these two systems.At the same time, we obtain the geometric phases in these two systems by calculating the fidelity susceptibility. In addition, the new method of calculating fidelity susceptibility is used to explore the two-dimensional XXZ model and the Bose-Einstein condensate(BEC).

  20. EXTREMELY LOW FREQUENCY MAGNETIC FIELD SUSCEPTIBILITY OF VISUAL DISPLAY UNITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic field susceptibility is an index of visual display unit (VDU) quality and performance. This paper provided field measured data on the susceptibility for a large variety of VDUs. A test rig was built to study the susceptibility of VDUs to magnetic fields at fundamental and third harmonic frequencies. It was found that the susceptibility level is largely dependent on refresh rate of the VDU and the orientation of the external ELF field. It was also found that the VDU susceptibility is significantly increased in the presence of harmonic frequency magnetic fields. About 30% of the tested samples have susceptibility levels higher than that stated in IEC 1000-4-8 standard.

  1. Lectin staining shows no evidence of involvement of glycocalyx/mucous layer carbohydrate structures in development of celiac disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft-Hansen, Henrik; Nielsen, Christian; Biagini, Matteo

    2013-01-01

    The presence of unique carbohydrate structures in the glycocalyx/mucous layer of the intestine may be involved in a susceptibility to celiac disease (CD) by serving as attachment sites for bacteria. This host-microbiota interaction may influence the development of CD and possibly other diseases...... with autoimmune components. We examined duodenal biopsies from a total of 30 children, of which 10 had both celiac disease (CD) and type 1 diabetes (T1D); 10 had CD alone; and 10 were suspected of having gastrointestinal disease, but had normal duodenal histology (non-CD controls). Patients with both CD and T1D...... showed no significant differences. Based on our material, we found no indication that the presence of Gal-β(1,3)-GalNAc or Fucα1-2Gal-R is involved in the susceptibility to CD, or that the disease process affects the expression of these carbohydrates....

  2. Defense response of susceptible and resistant Biomphalaria alexandrina snails against Schistosoma mansoni infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman F. Abou-El-Naga

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In Egypt, Biomphalaria alexandrina is the intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni. The fates of Schistosoma miracidia in the snails varies between different species of Biomphalaria. The internal defense system is one of the factors that influence the susceptibility pattern of the snails. The interaction between Biomphalaria snails and S. mansoni needs to be identified for each species, and even between the members of the same species with different degrees of susceptibility. In the present study, the first generation of susceptible and resistant parents of B. alexandrina was examined histologically at the 30th day post exposure. The study includes the characterization of the immune response, as expressed by tissue reactions, of susceptible and resistant B. alexandrina snails against S. mansoni. It was also designed to determine the impact of the resistance increase in parent snails, on the mechanisms of interaction of their offspring against infection. The results showed that the infection rate of the offspring from the susceptible parents was 92%. No susceptible offspring was produced from the resistant parents. When the parents were of equal number of susceptible and resistant snails, they gave an offspring with an infection rate of 20%. Susceptible snails that had susceptible parents showed a higher degree of susceptibility than those that had both susceptible and resistant parents. A common feature of the resistant snails was the absence of any viable parasites. The tissue reactions of the resistant snails having only resistant parents occurred at the site of miracidial penetration. In resistant snails for which susceptible ones were included in their parents, the reactions occurred in the deep tissues. These results characterized the immune response of B. alexandrina snails against Schistosoma infection which was found to occur by two different mechanisms. One type of defense occurs in highly resistant snails, and employs direct

  3. Susceptibility to an inoculum of infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) in three batches of whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeusvannamei (Boone, 1931).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo-Bonilla, César Marcial; Rangel, José Luis Ibarra

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluated the susceptibility of three different batches of whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeusvannamei from Mexico to an inoculum of infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV). Each of the three shrimp batches came from a different hatchery. Because of their origin, it was possible that the genetic makeup of these batches was different among each other. The three batches tested showed differences in IHHNV susceptibility. Here, susceptibility is defined as the capacity of the host to become infected, and it can be measured by the infectivity titer. Susceptibility to IHHNV was observed in decreasing order in shrimp from batch 1 (hatchery from El Rosario, Sinaloa), batch 3 (hatchery from Nayarit) and batch 2 (hatchery from El Walamo, Sinaloa), respectively. The largest susceptibility difference between batches was 5012 times, and that between early and late juveniles from the same batch was 25 times. These results indicate that within a species, susceptibility to a pathogen such as IHHNV can have large differences. Susceptibility to pathogens is an important trait to consider before performing studies on pathogenesis. It may influence virological parameters such as speed of replication, pathogenicity and virus titer. In order to evaluate the potential use of IHHNV as a natural control agent against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), it is necessary to know host susceptibility and the kinetics of IHHNV infection. These features can help to determine the conditions in which IHHNV could be used as antagonist in a WSSV infection.

  4. Susceptibility to an inoculum of infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV in three batches of whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Marcial Escobedo-Bonilla

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the susceptibility of three different batches of whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei from Mexico to an inoculum of infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV. Each of the three shrimp batches came from a different hatchery. Because of their origin, it was possible that the genetic makeup of these batches was different among each other. The three batches tested showed differences in IHHNV susceptibility. Here, susceptibility is defined as the capacity of the host to become infected, and it can be measured by the infectivity titer. Susceptibility to IHHNV was observed in decreasing order in shrimp from batch 1 (hatchery from El Rosario, Sinaloa, batch 3 (hatchery from Nayarit and batch 2 (hatchery from El Walamo, Sinaloa, respectively. The largest susceptibility difference between batches was 5012 times, and that between early and late juveniles from the same batch was 25 times. These results indicate that within a species, susceptibility to a pathogen such as IHHNV can have large differences. Susceptibility to pathogens is an important trait to consider before performing studies on pathogenesis. It may influence virological parameters such as speed of replication, pathogenicity and virus titer. In order to evaluate the potential use of IHHNV as a natural control agent against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV, it is necessary to know host susceptibility and the kinetics of IHHNV infection. These features can help to determine the conditions in which IHHNV could be used as antagonist in a WSSV infection.

  5. Automated sliding susceptibility mapping of rock slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Günther

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a suite of extensions for ARCVIEW GIS™ (ESRI that allows to map the spatial distribution of first-order mechanical slope-properties in hard rock terrain, e.g. for large slope areas like water reservoir slopes. Besides digital elevation data, this expert-system includes regional continuous grid-based data on geological structures that might act as potential sliding or cutoff planes for rockslides. The system allows rapid automated mapping of geometrical and kinematical slope properties in hard rock, providing the basis for spatially distributed deterministic sliding-susceptibility evaluations on a pixel base. Changing hydrostatic slope conditions and rock mechanical parameters can be implemented and used for simple predictive static stability calculations. Application is demonstrated for a study area in the Harz Mts., Germany.

  6. Susceptibility to calcium dysregulation during brain aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Calcium (Ca2+ is a highly versatile intracellular signaling molecule that is essential for regulating a variety of cellular and physiological processes ranging from fertilization to programmed cell death. Research has provided ample evidence that brain aging is associated with altered Ca2+ homeostasis. Much of the work has focused on the hippocampus, a brain region critically involved in learning and memory, which is particularly susceptible to dysfunction during senescence. The current review takes a broader perspective, assessing age-related changes in Ca2+ sources, Ca2+ sequestration, and Ca2+ binding proteins throughout the nervous system. The nature of altered Ca2+ homeostasis is cell specific and may represent a deficit or a compensatory mechanism, producing complex patterns of impaired cellular function. Incorporating the knowledge of the complexity of age-related alterations in Ca2+ homeostasis will positively shape the development of highly effective therapeutics to treat brain disorders.

  7. In vitro susceptibility of Malassezia furfur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, A; Rühl-Hörster, B

    1996-04-01

    Malassezia (M.) furfur is an anthropophilic fungus with complex growth requirements. Apart from its physiological appearance on human skin it is the causative agent of several skin disorders. A method for in vitro antifungal susceptibility testing of M. furfur in a microtiter plate assay has been developed. Read-out was performed colorimetrically in modified Leeming-Notman medium after incubation with alamarBlue. Twenty-two strains of M. furfur were tested, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined for climbazole, piroctone-olamine, selenium disulfide, zinc pyrithione. These substances are of common use in topical therapy of M. furfur-associated skin conditions. For climbazole, the range of MICs was between climbazole against M. furfur, followed by zinc pyrithione. Selenium disulfide and piroctone-olamine were less active.

  8. Pathways: Strategies for Susceptibility Genes in SLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, James M.; Edberg, Jeffrey C.; Kimberly, Robert P.

    2010-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disorder marked by an inappropriate immune response to nuclear antigens. Recent whole genome association and more focused studies have revealed numerous genes implicated in this disease process, including ITGAM, Fc gamma receptors, complement components, C-reactive protein, and others. One common feature of these molecules is their involvement in the immune opsonins pathway and phagocytic clearing of nuclear antigens and apoptotic debris which provide excessive exposure of lupus-related antigens to immune cells. Analysis of gene-gene interactions in the opsonin pathway and its relationship to SLE may provide a systems-based approach to identify additional candidate genes associated with disease able to account for a larger part of lupus susceptibility. PMID:20144911

  9. Epidermodysplasia Verruciformis and Susceptibility to HPV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejas Patel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of review: Epidermodysplasia verruciformis has been addressed in depth in the recent literature despite its rarity. The disease is characterized by a persistence in human papillomavirus infections and development of cutaneous malignancies, usually happening more frequently and at a younger age than in the general population. Because of the role of immunodeficiency to viral antigens eventually leading to cancer, EV has become a model for understanding a viral role in cutaneous oncogenesis. Susceptibility loci for EV have been mapped and encoded protein functions are becoming better understood. Discoveries of novel mutations and further study of EV-associated HPV serotypes in lesional and nonlesional skin of affected patients and the general population may help generate a cohesive theory regarding the true role of a defective immune barrier in oncogenesis.

  10. Genetic changes associated with testicular cancer susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, Louise C; Nathanson, Katherine L

    2016-10-01

    Testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) is a highly heritable cancer primarily affecting young white men. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been particularly effective in identifying multiple common variants with strong contribution to TGCT risk. These loci identified through association studies have implicated multiple genes as associated with TGCT predisposition, many of which are unique among cancer types, and regulate processes such as pluripotency, sex specification, and microtubule assembly. Together these biologically plausible genes converge on pathways involved in male germ cell development and maturation, and suggest that perturbation of them confers susceptibility to TGCT, as a developmental defect of germ cell differentiation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Susceptibility of laboratory rodents to Trichinella papuae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadaow, Lakkhana; Intapan, Pewpan M; Boonmars, Thidarut; Morakote, Nimit; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2013-12-01

    Members of the genus Trichinella are small nematodes that can infect a wide range of animal hosts. However, their infectivity varies depending on the parasite and host species combination. In this study, we examined the susceptibility of 4 species of laboratory rodents, i.e., mice, rats, hamsters, and gerbils to Trichinella papuae, an emerging non-encapsulated Trichinella species. Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella pseudospiralis were also included in this study for comparison. Fifteen animals of each rodent species were infected orally with 100 muscle larvae of each Trichinella species. Intestinal worm burden was determined at day 6 and 10 post-inoculation (PI). The numbers of muscle larvae were examined at day 45 PI. The reproductive capacity index (RCI) of the 3 Trichinella species in different rodent hosts was determined. By day 6 PI, 33.2-69.6% of the inoculated larvae of the 3 Trichinella species became adult worms in the small intestines of the host animals. However, in rats, more than 96% of adult worms of all 3 Trichinella species were expelled from the gut by day 10 PI. In gerbils, only 4.8-18.1% of adult worms were expelled by day 10 PI. In accordance with the intestinal worm burden and the persistence of adults, the RCI was the highest in gerbils with values of 241.5±41.0 for T. papuae, 432.6±48 for T. pseudospiralis, and 528.6±20.6 for T. spiralis. Hamsters ranked second and mice ranked third in susceptibility in terms of the RCI, Rats yielded the lowest parasite RCI for all 3 Trichinella species. Gerbils may be an alternative laboratory animal for isolation and maintenance of Trichinella spp.

  12. Nonlinear susceptibility magnitude imaging of magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ficko, Bradley W., E-mail: Bradley.W.Ficko@Dartmouth.edu; Giacometti, Paolo; Diamond, Solomon G.

    2015-03-15

    This study demonstrates a method for improving the resolution of susceptibility magnitude imaging (SMI) using spatial information that arises from the nonlinear magnetization characteristics of magnetic nanoparticles (mNPs). In this proof-of-concept study of nonlinear SMI, a pair of drive coils and several permanent magnets generate applied magnetic fields and a coil is used as a magnetic field sensor. Sinusoidal alternating current (AC) in the drive coils results in linear mNP magnetization responses at primary frequencies, and nonlinear responses at harmonic frequencies and intermodulation frequencies. The spatial information content of the nonlinear responses is evaluated by reconstructing tomographic images with sequentially increasing voxel counts using the combined linear and nonlinear data. Using the linear data alone it is not possible to accurately reconstruct more than 2 voxels with a pair of drive coils and a single sensor. However, nonlinear SMI is found to accurately reconstruct 12 voxels (R{sup 2}=0.99, CNR=84.9) using the same physical configuration. Several time-multiplexing methods are then explored to determine if additional spatial information can be obtained by varying the amplitude, phase and frequency of the applied magnetic fields from the two drive coils. Asynchronous phase modulation, amplitude modulation, intermodulation phase modulation, and frequency modulation all resulted in accurate reconstruction of 6 voxels (R{sup 2}>0.9) indicating that time multiplexing is a valid approach to further increase the resolution of nonlinear SMI. The spatial information content of nonlinear mNP responses and the potential for resolution enhancement with time multiplexing demonstrate the concept and advantages of nonlinear SMI. - Highlights: • Development of a nonlinear susceptibility magnitude imaging model • Demonstration of nonlinear SMI with primary and harmonic frequencies • Demonstration of nonlinear SMI with primary and intermodulation

  13. Evaluation of susceptibility of high strength steels to delayed fracture by using cyclic corrosion test and slow strain rate test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Songjie [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, No. 30 Xueyuan Road, Hidian Zone, Beijing 100083 (China); Structural Metals Center, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Zhang Zuogui [Structural Metals Center, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Akiyama, Eiji [Structural Metals Center, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)], E-mail: AKIYAMA.Eiji@nims.go.jp; Tsuzaki, Kaneaki [Structural Metals Center, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Zhang Boping [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, No. 30 Xueyuan Road, Hidian Zone, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2010-05-15

    To evaluate susceptibilities of high strength steels to delayed fracture, slow strain rate tests (SSRT) of notched bar specimens of AISI 4135 with tensile strengths of 1300 and 1500 MPa and boron-bearing steel with 1300 MPa have been performed after cyclic corrosion test (CCT). During SSRT the humidity around the specimen was kept high to keep absorbed diffusible hydrogen. The fracture stresses of AISI 4135 steels decreased with increment of diffusible hydrogen content which increased with CCT cycles. Their delayed fracture susceptibilities could be successfully evaluated in consideration of both influence of hydrogen content on mechanical property and hydrogen entry.

  14. Antimicrobial resistance and susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetz, Audrey N

    2014-09-01

    Infections due to anaerobic bacteria can be severe and life-threatening. Susceptibility testing of anaerobes is not frequently performed in laboratories, but such testing is important to direct appropriate therapy. Anaerobic resistance is increasing globally, and resistance trends vary by geographic region. An overview of a variety of susceptibility testing methods for anaerobes is provided, and the advantages and disadvantages of each method are reviewed. Specific clinical situations warranting anaerobic susceptibility testing are discussed.

  15. Unquenching the topological susceptibility with an overlap action

    CERN Document Server

    Kovács, T G

    2002-01-01

    We estimate the quark-mass dependence of the topological susceptibility with dynamical overlap and clover fermions. Unquenching effects on the susceptibility turn out to be well approximated by a reweighting of a quenched ensemble with a low-eigenmode truncation of the fermionic determinant. We find that it is most likely due to the explicit chiral symmetry breaking of the fermion action that present day dynamical simulations do not show the expected suppression of the topological susceptibility.

  16. Susceptibility to Infectious Diseases Based on Antimicrobial Peptide Production▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Santiago, Bruno; Serrano, Carmen J.; Enciso-Moreno, J. Antonio

    2009-01-01

    In the last few years, the great impact of antimicrobial peptides on infectious disease susceptibility and natural resistance has been reported. In some cases, susceptibility to diseases is related to antimicrobial peptide polymorphisms and gene copy numbers, but for the vast majority of infectious diseases, these phenomena need to be elucidated. This review is focused on the current knowledge about susceptibility and resistance conferred by genetic variations in antimicrobial peptide expression in infectious diseases. PMID:19703980

  17. Susceptibility to infectious diseases based on antimicrobial peptide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Santiago, Bruno; Serrano, Carmen J; Enciso-Moreno, J Antonio

    2009-11-01

    In the last few years, the great impact of antimicrobial peptides on infectious disease susceptibility and natural resistance has been reported. In some cases, susceptibility to diseases is related to antimicrobial peptide polymorphisms and gene copy numbers, but for the vast majority of infectious diseases, these phenomena need to be elucidated. This review is focused on the current knowledge about susceptibility and resistance conferred by genetic variations in antimicrobial peptide expression in infectious diseases.

  18. Quark Number Susceptibilities with Domain-Wall Fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Hegde, Prasad; Schmidt, Christian

    2008-01-01

    We present results from calculations of different quark number and hadronic susceptibilities on 2+1-flavor dynamical domain wall ensembles. We find that the iso-spin and electric charge susceptibilities are especially well suited to determine the transition temperature, as these quantities show only small statistical errors. Moreover, the transition values of the coupling obtained from iso-spin and electrical charge susceptibilities are in good agreement with the one obtained from the chiral condensate.

  19. Simulation of Electromagnetic-Environment Susceptibility to Jamming Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Simulation of Electromagnetic-Environment Susceptibility to Jamming Systems by Berenice Verdin and Patrick Debroux ARL-TR-7170 January...Range, NM 88002-5513 ARL-TR-7170 January 2015 Simulation of Electromagnetic-Environment Susceptibility to Jamming Systems Berenice Verdin...Environment Susceptibility to Jamming Systems 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Berenice Verdin and

  20. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Bacillus anthracis strains from Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Sulyok, Kinga Mária; Makrai, László; Rónai, Zsuzsanna; Fodor, László; Jánosi, Szilárd; Gyuranecz, Miklós

    2016-06-01

    The susceptibility of 29 Bacillus anthracis strains, collected in Hungary between 1933 and 2014, was tested to 10 antibiotics with commercially available minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) test strips. All strains were susceptible to amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, doxycycline, gentamicin, penicillin, rifampicin, and vancomycin. Intermediate susceptibility to erythromycin and cefotaxime was detected in 17.2% (5/29) and 58.6% (17/29) of the strains, respectively. Correlations were not observed between the isolation date, location, host species, genotype, and antibiotic susceptibility profile of strains.

  1. BSAC standardized disc susceptibility testing method (version 11).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, R A; Andrews, J M

    2012-12-01

    This article highlights key amendments incorporated into version 11 of the BSAC standardized disc susceptibility testing method, available as Supplementary data at JAC Online (http://jac.oxfordjournals.org/) and on the BSAC web site (http://bsac.org.uk/susceptibility/guidelines-standardized-disc-susceptibility-testing-method/). The basic disc susceptibility testing method remains unchanged, but there have been a number of alterations to the interpretive criteria for certain organism/drug combinations due to continuing harmonization with the EUCAST MIC breakpoints and constant efforts to improve the reliability and clinical applicability of the guidance.

  2. Air Pollution and Mortality in Chile: Susceptibility among the Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, Sabit; Dales, Robert E.; Vidal, Claudia Blanco

    2007-01-01

    Objective The estimated mortality rate associated with ambient air pollution based on general population studies may not be representative of the effects on certain subgroups. The objective of the present study was to determine the influence of relatively high concentrations of air pollution on mortality in a general population sample and in the very elderly. Study design Daily time-series analyses tested the association between daily air pollution and daily mortality in seven Chilean urban centers during 1997–2003. Results were adjusted for day of the week and humidex. Results Daily averaged particulate matter with aerodynamic matter 85 years. Respective values were 4.96 (1.17) and 8.56 (2.02) for O3; 4.77 (2.50) and 7.92 (3.23) for SO2; and 4.10 (2.52) and 8.58 (4.45) for CO. Conclusion Our results suggest that the very elderly are particularly susceptible to dying from air pollution. Concentrations deemed acceptable for the general population may not adequately protect the very elderly. PMID:17450219

  3. Hydrological - pathological interactions: disease susceptibility, tree decline and ecohydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, S. E.; Levin, S. A.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.; Gilligan, C.

    2010-12-01

    Changing frequencies and altered ranges of plant disease are highlighted as a major risk associated with global climate change. The role of changing temperature in driving changes in disease risk has been well highlighted, but the influence of variability in rainfall has received less attention, despite the importance of surface moisture for spread of foliar pathogens, of soil moisture for the increase of root rots, and the role of drought and plant water potential in predisposing plants to stem-disease. Here we present a simple stochastic approach to link ecohydrological predictions of soil- and plant-water potentials to the risk of pathogen disease and resulting plant stress. The approach is applicable both to pathogens which require high soil moisture content to grow within their hosts, and to host plants whose susceptibility to pathogens increases during periods of drought. The results offer a framework to link climatic and edaphic drivers to the risk of disease, and highlight the complexity of interrelationships between climatic and pathogenic drivers of tree decline.

  4. Genetic Variability in Susceptibility to Occupational Respiratory Sensitization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berran Yucesoy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory sensitization can be caused by a variety of substances at workplaces, and the health and economic burden linked to allergic respiratory diseases continues to increase. Although the main factors that affect the onset of the symptoms are the types and intensity of allergen exposure, there is a wide range of interindividual variation in susceptibility to occupational/environmental sensitizers. A number of gene variants have been reported to be associated with various occupational allergic respiratory diseases. Examples of genes include, but are not limited to, genes involved in immune/inflammatory regulation, antioxidant defenses, and fibrotic processes. Most of these variants act in combination with other genes and environmental factors to modify disease progression, severity, or resolution after exposure to allergens. Therefore, understanding the role of genetic variability and the interaction between genetic and environmental/occupational factors provides new insights into disease etiology and may lead to the development of novel preventive and therapeutic strategies. This paper will focus on the current state of knowledge regarding genetic influences on allergic respiratory diseases, with specific emphasis on diisocyanate-induced asthma and chronic beryllium disease.

  5. Developmental Trajectory of McGurk Effect Susceptibility in Children and Adults With Amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narinesingh, Cindy; Goltz, Herbert C; Raashid, Rana Arham; Wong, Agnes M F

    2015-03-05

    The McGurk effect is an audiovisual illusion that involves the concurrent presentation of a phoneme (auditory syllable) and an incongruent viseme (visual syllable). Adults with amblyopia show less susceptibility to this illusion than visually normal controls, even when viewing binocularly. The present study investigated the developmental trajectory of McGurk effect susceptibility in adults, older children (10-17 years), and younger children (4-9 years) with amblyopia. A total of 62 participants with amblyopia (22 adults, 12 older children, 28 younger children) and 66 visually normal controls (25 adults, 17 older children, 24 younger children) viewed videos that combined phonemes and visemes, and were asked to report what they heard. Videos with congruent (auditory and visual matching) and incongruent (auditory and visual not matching) stimuli were presented. Incorrect responses on incongruent trials correspond to high McGurk effect susceptibility, indicating that the viseme influenced the phoneme. Participants with amblyopia (28.0% ± 3.3%) demonstrated a less consistent McGurk effect than visually normal controls (15.2% ± 2.3%) across all age groups (P = 0.0024). Effect susceptibility increased with age (P = 0.0003) for amblyopic participants and controls. Both groups showed a similar response pattern to different speakers and syllables, but amblyopic participants invariably demonstrated a less consistent effect. Amblyopia is associated with reduced McGurk effect susceptibility in children and adults. Our findings indicate that the differences do not simply indicate delayed development in children with amblyopia; rather, they represent permanent alterations that persist into adulthood. Copyright 2015 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  6. Antifungal susceptibility and virulence factors of clinically isolated dermatophytes in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Afshari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Dermatophytes possess a wide array of virulence factors and various antifungal susceptibility patterns which influence their pathogenesis in humans and animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate antifungal suscep- tibility and keratinase and proteinase activity of 49 dermatophyte strains from the genera Microsporum, Trichophyton and Epidermophyton which were isolated from human cases of dermatophytosis.Materials and Methods: Forty-nine dermatophyte strains isolated from clinical samples were cultured on general and spe- cific culture media. Keratinase and proteinase activity was screened on solid mineral media and confirmed in liquid cultures. Drug susceptibility toward azoles (fluconazole, ketoconazole and itraconazole, griseofulvin and terbinafine was evaluated using disk diffusion method on Mueller-Hinton agar and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs were determined using microbroth dilution assay according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI guidelines.Results: Our results indicated that clinically isolated dermatophytes from 7 major species produced keratinase and protein- ase at different extents. The mean keratinase and proteinase activity was reported as 6.69 ± 0.31 (U/ml and 2.10 ± 0.22 (U/ ml respectively. Disk diffusion and microbroth dilution (MIC results of antifungal susceptibility testing showed that ke- toconazole was the most effective drug against Epidermophyton floccosum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, itraconazole against T. rubrum and E. floccosum, and griseofulvin and terbinafine against Trichophyton verrucosum. Our results showed that all dermatophyte isolates were resistant to fluconazole. Overall, ketoconazole and itraconazole were the most effective drugs for all dermatophyte species tested.Conclusion: Our results showed that antifungal susceptibility testing is an urgent need to select drugs of choice for treatment of different types of dermatophytosis and

  7. Diabetes Mellitus and Increased Tuberculosis Susceptibility: The Role of Short-Chain Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachmandas, Ekta; van den Heuvel, Corina N A M; Damen, Michelle S M A; Cleophas, Maartje C P; Netea, Mihai G; van Crevel, Reinout

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus confers a threefold increased risk for tuberculosis, but the underlying immunological mechanisms are still largely unknown. Possible mediators of this increased susceptibility are short-chain fatty acids, levels of which have been shown to be altered in individuals with diabetes. We examined the influence of physiological concentrations of butyrate on cytokine responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Butyrate decreased Mtb-induced proinflammatory cytokine responses, while it increased production of IL-10. This anti-inflammatory effect was independent of butyrate's well-characterised inhibition of HDAC activity and was not accompanied by changes in Toll-like receptor signalling pathways, the eicosanoid pathway, or cellular metabolism. In contrast blocking IL-10 activity reversed the effects of butyrate on Mtb-induced inflammation. Alteration of the gut microbiota, thereby increasing butyrate concentrations, can reduce insulin resistance and obesity, but further studies are needed to determine how this affects susceptibility to tuberculosis.

  8. EFFECTS OF VITAMIN D RECEPTOR GENE POLYMORPHISMS ON SUSCEPTIBILITY TO TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influence of vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms on susceptibility to type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in the Chinese Han population.Method One hundred and thirty-six Chinese Han people, including 54 T1DM patients and 82 unrelated healthy subjects as control were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism for three restriction sites in the VDR gene, which were ApaI, TaqI, and BamI.Results The frequency of B allele of BsmI site in VDR gene was significantly higher in T1DM patients than in healthy subjects (P=0.033) while no difference was found between the two groups in the distribution of ApaI and TaqI polymorphisms.Conclusion The BsmI polymorphism of VDR gene may be associated with the susceptibility to T1DM in the Chinese Hah population of Beijing.

  9. Nodal infection in Markovian susceptible-infected-susceptible and susceptible-infected-removed epidemics on networks are non-negatively correlated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cator, E.; Van Mieghem, P.

    2014-05-01

    By invoking the famous Fortuin, Kasteleyn, and Ginibre (FKG) inequality, we prove the conjecture that the correlation of infection at the same time between any pair of nodes in a network cannot be negative for (exact) Markovian susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) and susceptible-infected-removed (SIR) epidemics on networks. The truth of the conjecture establishes that the N-intertwined mean-field approximation (NIMFA) upper bounds the infection probability in any graph so that network design based on NIMFA always leads to safe protections against malware spread. However, when the infection or/and curing are not Poisson processes, the infection correlation between two nodes can be negative.

  10. Strong ties promote the epidemic prevalence in susceptible-infected-susceptible spreading dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Cui, Ai-Xiang; Zhou, Tao

    2013-01-01

    Understanding spreading dynamics will benefit society as a whole in better preventing and controlling diseases, as well as facilitating the socially responsible information while depressing destructive rumors. In network-based spreading dynamics, edges with different weights may play far different roles: a friend from afar usually brings novel stories, and an intimate relationship is highly risky for a flu epidemic. In this article, we propose a weighted susceptible-infected-susceptible model on complex networks, where the weight of an edge is defined by the topological proximity of the two associated nodes. Each infected individual is allowed to select limited number of neighbors to contact, and a tunable parameter is introduced to control the preference to contact through high-weight or low-weight edges. Experimental results on six real networks show that the epidemic prevalence can be largely promoted when strong ties are favored in the spreading process. By comparing with two statistical null models respe...

  11. Griffiths effects of the susceptible-infected-susceptible epidemic model on random power-law networks

    CERN Document Server

    Cota, Wesley F C; Ódor, Géza

    2015-01-01

    We provide numerical evidence for slow dynamics of the susceptible-infected-susceptible model evolving on finite-size random networks with power-law degree distributions. Extensive simulations were done by averaging the activity density over many realizations of networks. We investigated the effects of outliers in both highly fluctuating (natural cutoff) and non-fluctuating (hard cutoff) most connected vertices. Logarithmic and power-law decays in time were found for natural and hard cutoffs, respectively. This happens in extended regions of the control parameter space $\\lambda_1<\\lambda<\\lambda_2$, suggesting Griffiths effects, induced by the topological inhomogeneities. Optimal fluctuation theory considering sample-to-sample fluctuations of the pseudo thresholds is presented to explain the observed slow dynamics. A quasistationary analysis shows that response functions remain bounded at $\\lambda_2$. We argue these to be signals of a smeared transition. However, in the thermodynamic limit the Griffiths...

  12. Solving the Dynamic Correlation Problem of the Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible Model on Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Chao-Ran; Chen, Michael Z Q; Holme, Petter; Guan, Jian-Yue

    2016-01-01

    The Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible model is a canonical model for emerging disease outbreaks. Such outbreaks are naturally modeled as taking place on networks. A theoretical challenge in network epidemiology is the dynamic correlations coming from that if one node is occupied, or infected (for disease spreading models), then its neighbors are likely to be occupied. By combining two theoretical approaches---the heterogeneous mean-field theory and the effective degree method---we are able to include these correlations in an analytical solution of the SIS model. We derive accurate expressions for the average prevalence (fraction of infected) and epidemic threshold. We also discuss how to generalize the approach to a larger class of stochastic population models.

  13. Temporal interactions facilitate endemicity in the susceptible-infected-susceptible epidemic model

    CERN Document Server

    Speidel, Leo; Eguíluz, Víctor M; Masuda, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Data of physical contacts and face-to-face communications suggest temporally varying networks as the media on which infections take place among humans and animals. Epidemic processes on temporal networks are complicated by complexity of both network structure and temporal dimensions. Theoretical approaches are much needed for identifying key factors that affect dynamics of epidemics. In particular, what factors make some temporal networks stronger media of infection than other temporal networks is under debate. We develop a theory to understand the susceptible-infected-susceptible epidemic model on arbitrary temporal networks, where each contact is used for a finite duration. We show that temporality of networks always lessens the epidemic threshold such that infections are easier to persist in temporal networks than in the static counterparts. We further show that the Lie commutator bracket of the adjacency matrices at different times is a key determinant of the epidemic threshold in temporal networks. The e...

  14. Epidemic Threshold of Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible Model on Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Hyun Keun; Noh, Jae Dong

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that the susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) model on complex networks can have an inactive Griffiths phase characterized by a slow relaxation dynamics. It contrasts with the mean field theoretical prediction that the SIS model on complex networks is active at any nonzero infection rate. The dynamic fluctuation of infected nodes, ignored in the mean field approach, is responsible for the inactive phase. It is proposed that the question whether the epidemic threshold of the SIS model on complex networks is zero or not can be resolved by the percolation threshold in a model where nodes are occupied in the degree-descending order. Our arguments are supported by the numerical studies on scale-free network models.

  15. The Accuracy of Mean-Field Approximation for Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible Epidemic Spreading

    CERN Document Server

    Qu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    The epidemic spreading has been studied for years by applying the mean-field approach in both homogeneous case, where each node may get infected by an infected neighbor with the same rate, and heterogeneous case, where the infection rates between different pairs of nodes are different. Researchers have discussed whether the mean-field approaches could accurately describe the epidemic spreading for the homogeneous cases but not for the heterogeneous cases. In this paper, we explore under what conditions the mean-field approach could perform well when the infection rates are heterogeneous. In particular, we employ the Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible (SIS) model and compare the average fraction of infected nodes in the metastable state obtained by the continuous-time simulation and the mean-field approximation. We concentrate on an individual-based mean-field approximation called the N-intertwined Mean Field Approximation (NIMFA), which is an advanced approach considered the underlying network topology. Moreove...

  16. Multiple phase transitions of the susceptible-infected-susceptible epidemic model on complex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mata, Angélica S

    2014-01-01

    We show that the susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) epidemic dynamics running on the top of networks with a power law degree distribution can exhibit multiple phase transitions. Three main transitions involving different mechanisms responsible by sustaining the epidemics are identified: A short-term epidemics concentrated around the most connected vertex; a long-term (asymptotically stable) localized epidemics with a vanishing threshold; and an endemic phase occurring at a finite threshold. The different transitions are suited through different mean-field approaches. We finally show that the multiple transitions are due to the activations of different domains of the network that are observed in rapid (singular) variations of both stationary density of infected vertices and the participation ratio against the infection rate.

  17. Mapping of murine radiation-induced acute myeloid leukaemia susceptibility loci

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darakhshan, F

    2001-01-01

    Studies on radiation-induced AML have shown characteristic phenotypic variation in susceptibility amongst inbred mouse strains, suggesting the involvement of genetic factors in determining the development of AML post-irradiation exposure. The main objective of the present study therefore was to identify and map markers in linkage disequilibrium with gene variants associated with influencing susceptibility to radiation induced AML in mice. Given Chr 2 abnormalities are characteristic of AML in mice, this feature was exploited in an effort to overcome the long latency for AML development. Analysis of Chr 2 aberrations at 24 and 48 h following irradiation established a positive correlation between Chr 2 radiosensitivity and radiation-AML susceptibility thus validating the choice of substitute assay. The analysis also resulted in the identification of a further trait, additional to Chr 2 radiosensitivity, termed overall chromosome radiosensitivity. Genetic mapping of Chr 2 radiosensitivity using public domain microsatellite database information resulted in the definition of cluster regions on 7 different chromosomes. Further genotyping reduced the candidate regions to 3 specific regions of interest. A test of allelic association could not ascertain a conclusive link between markers at these regions and the Chr 2 radiosensitivity/radiation-AML susceptibility phenotype. However, a region on Chr 4 around D4Mit221 appears to be most strongly associated. Similar studies identified three chromosomal regions of interest (on Chrs 4, 8 and 16) associated with overall chromosome radiosensitivity trait. An independent mapping strategy using F3 RCS confirmed the likely involvement of two of the candidate Chr 2 radiosensitivity regions identified by the inbred analysis including that on Chr 4 and also highlighted phenotypic heterogeneity amongst resistant RC strains, suggesting the influence of multiple alleles in specific phenotypes. RFLP analysis of candidate genes, localised on

  18. Genetic Susceptibility to Vitiligo: GWAS Approaches for Identifying Vitiligo Susceptibility Genes and Loci

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Changbing; Gao, Jing; Sheng, Yujun; Dou, Jinfa; Zhou, Fusheng; Zheng, Xiaodong; Ko, Randy; Tang, Xianfa; Zhu, Caihong; Yin, Xianyong; Sun, Liangdan; Cui, Yong; Zhang, Xuejun

    2016-01-01

    Vitiligo is an autoimmune disease with a strong genetic component, characterized by areas of depigmented skin resulting from loss of epidermal melanocytes. Genetic factors are known to play key roles in vitiligo through discoveries in association studies and family studies. Previously, vitiligo susceptibility genes were mainly revealed through linkage analysis and candidate gene studies. Recently, our understanding of the genetic basis of vitiligo has been rapidly advancing through genome-wid...

  19. Genetic Susceptibility to Vitiligo: GWAS Approaches for Identifying Vitiligo Susceptibility Genes and Loci

    OpenAIRE

    Chang eShen; Jing eGao; Yu Jun Sheng; Jinfa eDou; Fusheng eZhou; Xiaodong eZheng; Randy eKo; Xianfa eTang; Caihong Hong Zhu; Xianyong Yong Yin; Liangdan Dan Sun; Yong eCui; Xue Jun Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Vitiligo is an autoimmune disease with a strong genetic component, characterized by areas of depigmented skin resulting from loss of epidermal melanocytes. Genetic factors are known to play key roles in vitiligo through discoveries in association and family studies. Previously, vitiligo susceptibility genes were mainly revealed through linkage analysis and candidate gene studies. Our understanding of the genetic basis of vitiligo has been rapidly advancing through genome-wide association stud...

  20. Family influences on the career life cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Beauregard, T. Alexandra

    2007-01-01

    This chapter examines the myriad ways in which one’s family and personal life can impact an individual’s career. A review of some of the key research literature reveals that career choice is influenced by an individual’s values, attitudes, and expectations concerning how work should be balanced with the rest of life. Individuals are also susceptible to influence from their families of origin with regard to occupational choice and prioritizing work over family, or vice versa. Career opportunit...