WorldWideScience

Sample records for influence post-war industrialization

  1. Building-up influence: post-war industrialization in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A. Haddad

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the post-War industrialization process in the Brazilian State of Minas Gerais, focusing on one of its desirable outcomes, namely the capacity to generate growth through the impact of strong input-output linkages. This process is placed into historical perspective considering the ideas that permeate the economic development debate throughout the period of analysis. Changes in the regional economic structure are assessed through the use of three input-output tables for the years of 1953, 1980 and 1995. By adopting the fields of influence methodology as the analytical core, it is shown that the efforts towards the creation of a more integrated regional economy have generated stronger influence of the targeted sectors (metal products, transportation equipment, chemical, and services. However, structural changes also contributed to strengthen leakage in the system originated in traditional economic activities.

  2. Aggregate productivity in the post-war British coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvie, D.

    1996-02-01

    An economic model, using OLS regression, of aggregate productivity in the post-war British coal industry is presented. Some of the methods used by Weisskopf, Bowles and Gordon (1983) in their `social model` of aggregate productivity in the US economy are drawn upon; however, all `social` variables included in this coal productivity model are found not to be significant. The results suggest that pit closures have been an important source of aggregate productivity growth throughout the period; this does not imply, however, that `unproductive`, or `uneconomic`, pits are intrinsically so, rather their status as such may be the result of a political process. Average colliery size and the industry`s capital stock were also found to be important explanatory variables. Attention was paid to the effects of the national miners` strikes during the period; these were found to be structurally insignificant. 45 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. International competition and strategic response in the Dundee jute industry during the inter-war (1919-1939) and post-war (1945-1960s) period : the case of jute industries, Buist Spinning, Craiks and Scott & Fyfe

    OpenAIRE

    Masrani, Swapnesh

    2008-01-01

    This research uses the ‘demand-side thesis’ to examine the decline of the Dundee jute industry. In particular, it examines the effect of international competition and the strategic response of the industry during the inter-war (1919-1939) and the post-war (1945-1960s) period to counter this challenge. The strategic response is studied by examining strategies employed at the firm and the industry level. Strategy at the firm level is studied in the form of capability development usi...

  4. The structural rationalization of post-warJapanese automobile industry and its significance for China%战后日本汽车工业的产业组织合理化及其借鉴

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾昭诚; 成志明

    2001-01-01

    本文在详细分析日本汽车工业产业组织合理化经验的基础上,分析了我国汽车工业的产业组织现状,对我国汽车工业产业组织合理化的目标、步骤及其形式作了一些探讨。%The government's Guideline for China's Automobile Industry issued in 1994 sets the target ofdeveloping China's automobile industry into one of the major industries of this country by the year 2010.Over the past five years the industry has developed to some extent and its structure has simultaneouslybeen improved; however, the achievements are far from adequate. A close analysis of the experience ofJapan's rationalization of the structure of its post-war automobile industry is beneficial for designing thetarget, steps and form of the rationalization of the structure of China's automobile industry.

  5. The organizational set as the replenishment of the labour force for industrial enterprises of Donbass in the post-war period

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    N. F. Shypik

    2014-12-01

    Serious problems that emerged in the organizational set were – failure to plan, high turnover of recruited through poor living conditions, poor work organization and roughness from direct management. In 40-es of the twentieth century, the organizational set only worked to replenish the labor force of the region. In the early 50-es, with the gradual saturation of the workforce of the industrial objects were created Stalin and Voroshilovgrad oblast recruitment office, which began to perform tasks on the organizational set for enterprises of the Urals and the Far East. Some hope in their implementation depended on the category of the amnestied people. At the same time there was a shift away from labour law of wartime.

  6. Collectivity and the Post-war European Shopping Centre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosseye, J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper puts forth the hypothesis that notions such as ‘collectivity’, ‘play’ and ‘community’ – buzz words of the post-war discourse on architecture and urbanism – were often important elements in the design and conceptualization of post-war shopping centres in Western Europe. To investigate this

  7. Informality, Inequality and Social Reintegration in Post-War Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Bojicic-Dzelilovic

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to reconceptualize the notion of informality in the post-war context in order to investigate the neglected aspect of inequality which is associated with this kind of practice. It locates the problem of widespread informality in the social transformation triggered by a war that has been sustained by the post-war elite accommodation. Inequities created by a routine resort to informal arrangements in accessing assets and resources generate mistrust at the interpersonal, inter-group and institutional levels, sharpen a sense of discrimination and social injustice, and in the end, undermine post-war social reintegration. The argument draws on observations from Bosnia-Herzegovina.

  8. 'People Love Player's': Cigarette Advertising and the Teenage Consumer in Post-war Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    This article explores the background, creation and reception of a prominent cigarette advertising campaign from the early 1960s. The advertisements featured young couples falling in love as they shared Player's Medium cigarettes together. As such, the advertisements reflected the central place of the teenager within post-war British consumer culture. The campaign was built upon the insights of market research, particularly that carried out by Mark Abrams and his research organization Research Services Limited. Historians have played down the significance of Abrams's work, but it is argued here that the studies and reports Abrams produced rendered the teenage consumer knowable in a powerful way. Advertisers and manufacturers now had detailed knowledge about young people's consumption habits and their motivations. Such research helped the British tobacco industry formulate a controversial marketing strategy-the need to 'recruit' young people to the smoking habit-and the People Love Player's campaign was created with this in mind. The representations of love and gender included in the advertisements gave the campaign an emotional pull which was designed to resonate with young people. The advertisements were widely criticized and this drove the British tobacco industry to remove from its advertising appeals which might influence the young, such as love. © The Author [2017]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. History Culture and Banal Nationalism in post-War Bosnia

    OpenAIRE

    Torsti, Pilvi

    2004-01-01

    This article analyses post-war history culture in Bosnia and Herzegovina using the concept of banal nationalism. Through a description of Bosnia’s post-war history culture – that part of public culture where people face the past in their daily lives, i.e. books, films, monuments, museums, buildings, pictures, photographs, plays and so forth – the article demonstrates the division of Bosnian history culture into three variants and analyzes the main characteristics of...

  10. Lebanese Youth Narratives: A Bleak Post-War Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaf, Roseanne Saad

    2014-01-01

    To identify the themes that define the lives of a generation living in a conflict-ridden post-war society, I explore the changing views of Lebanese students through an analysis of the personal narrative texts that they created during my creative writing workshops over a 16-year period (1997-2012). Increasingly, young Lebanese feel trapped in a…

  11. Moral Education and Post-War Societies: The Peruvian Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisancho, Susana; Reategui, Felix

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses the unique challenges and needs of moral and citizenship education in post-war Peruvian society. It assumes the explanation of the roots, the facts and the enduring negative consequences of violence as described in the final report of the Comision de la Verdad y Reconciliacion (CVR) [Truth and Reconciliation Commission]…

  12. Moral Education and Post-War Societies: The Peruvian Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisancho, Susana; Reategui, Felix

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses the unique challenges and needs of moral and citizenship education in post-war Peruvian society. It assumes the explanation of the roots, the facts and the enduring negative consequences of violence as described in the final report of the Comision de la Verdad y Reconciliacion (CVR) [Truth and Reconciliation Commission]…

  13. Commemorating the future in post-war Chernivtsi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frunchak, Svetlana

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the Second World War and the post-war period, the city of Chernivtsi was transformed from a multiethnic and borderland urban microcosm into a culturally uniform Soviet socialist city. As the Soviets finally took power in this onetime capital of a Hapsburg province in 1944, they not only sponsored further large-scale population transfers but also "repopulated" its history, creating a new urban myth of cultural uniformity. This article examines the connection between war commemoration in Chernivtsi in the era of post-war, state-sponsored anti-Semitism and the formation of collective memory and identities of the city's post-war population. The images of homogeneously Ukrainian Chernivtsi and Bukovina were created through the art of monumental propaganda, promoting public remembrance of certain events and personalities while making sure that others were doomed to oblivion. Selective commemoration of the wartime events was an important tool of drawing the borders of Ukrainian national identity, making it exclusivist and ethnic-based. Through an investigation of the origins of the post-war collective memory in the region, this article addresses the problem of perceived discontinuity between all things Soviet and post-Soviet in Ukraine. It demonstrates that it is, on the contrary, the continuity between Soviet and post-Soviet eras that defines today's dominant culture and state ideology in Ukraine and particularly in its borderlands.

  14. Jews and Jewishness in Post-war Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Kovács

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of a seemingly harmonic symbiosis between Hungarian majority and Jewish minority in 19th century Hungary was a unique phenomenon in a European country where the proportion of Jews was close to 5 percent of the total population, and about 20 percent of the capital city, Budapest. However, after the shocking experience of the persecution in 1944 it was to expect that the factor –unlimited readiness for assimilation in the belief of the unlimited readiness of the majority for accepting it- that made the uniqueness of the Hungarian Jewry will cease to exist. Since quite a large group of the Hungarian Jews survived the Shoah it was not purely a theoretical question that what sort of identity strategies would emerge among the Jewish population of the country. How did the Jews react to the dramatic political changes that occurred in the decades following the Shoah, what kind of identity strategies they developed in the search for their place in the post-war Hungarian society? After a historical introduction the article discusses the changing socio-demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the post-war Hungarian Jews, Jewish politics in the decades of communist rule and finally the identity problems emerged in the post-war decades.

  15. The role of medicine in the decline of post-War infant mortality in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Tanihara, Shinichi; Inoue, Sachiko; Takao, Soshi; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2011-11-01

    The infant mortality rate (IMR) in Japan declined dramatically in the immediate post-War period (1947-60) in Japan. We compared the time trends in Growth Domestic Product (GDP) in Japan against declines in IMR. We then conducted a prefecture-level ecological analysis of the rate of decline in IMR and post-neonatal mortality from 1947 to 1960, focusing on variations in medical resources and public health strategies. IMR in Japan started to decline after World War II, even before the era of rapid economic growth and the introduction of a universal health insurance system in the 1960s. The mortality rates per 1000 infants in 2009 were 2.38 for IMR, 1.17 for neonatal mortality and 1.21 for post-neonatal mortality. The rate of decline in IMR and preventable IMR (PIMR) during the post-War period was strongly correlated with prefectural variations in medical resources (per capita physicians, nurses, and proportion of in-hospital births). The correlation coefficients comparing the number of physicians in 1955 with the declines in IMR and PIMR from 1947 to 1960 were 0.46 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.19, 0.66] and 0.39 [95% CI 0.11, 0.61], respectively. By contrast, indicators of public health strategies were not associated with IMR decline. The IMR in Japan has been decreasing and seems to be entering a new era characterised by lower neonatal compared with post-neonatal mortality. Furthermore, the post-War history of Japan illustrates that improvement in infant mortality is attributable to the influence of medical care, even in the absence of rapid economic development.

  16. [Cigarette and advertising poster: history of a dangerous connection in the post-war economic boom].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Jacques

    2013-11-27

    The advertising poster's main characteristic is the ability to convey a commercial message quickly and publicly thanks to its straightforward image and text. The young people, being the tobacco industry's principal target, are particularly exposed to these messages. This kind of advertisement becomes a mean of counterstroke as soon as the cigarette's harmfulness is acknowledged. Some of the cigarette industry's strategies can be revealed by the historical analysis of a 253 posters corpus selected among the main cigarette manufacturers in Switzerland at the time of the post-war economic boom. With the misuse of sport's theme, the overvaluation of the filter's efficiency, the use of a vocabulary that implies lightness and by erasing the image of smoke in its advertisement, the industry tries to reassure the smoker wrongly.

  17. Post-War Migration Flows and Disparities in Mortality from Age 50 Years Onwards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarulli, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    Compositional changes due to internal migration can modify the distribution of health outcomes, death rates, and socio-economic characteristics of a specific geographical area. Migration flows may affect patterns of socio-economic inequalities in mortality as well. However, despite...... these inequalities being an important social and geopolitical feature of an area, there is still little empirical evidence on this effect. This paper contributes to deepening the knowledge about this phenomenon by investigating whether post-war internal migration in Italy affected the pattern of mortality inequality...... by socio-economic status, from age 50 years onwards, in Turin, one of the main industrial areas of the country, to which many low-educated individuals from the southern regions migrated, seeking jobs in the car factories. Migrants might be selected in terms of robustness because of the healthy migrant...

  18. Reconstruction versus Transformation: Post-War Education and the Struggle for Gender Equity in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclure, Richard; Denov, Myriam

    2009-01-01

    In post-war contexts, education is widely regarded as essential not only for civic reconciliation, but also as a key force for gender equity. In Sierra Leone, however, despite enhanced educational opportunities for girls, much of the emphasis on post-war educational reconstruction is unlikely to rectify gender inequities that remain entrenched…

  19. The Role of Military as an Instrument of Soft Power in Post-War Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apsara Karunaratne

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Soft Power is a relatively new term that has emerged in international relations. Coined by Joseph S. Nye in the 1990s, it emphasizes on power embedded in culture and exerting influence through non-coercive forms. Soft power, however, defines power predominantly in terms of power relations among states and gives little or no significance to power relations within a state. Furthermore, even though considerable literature has been written on the role of the military in inter-state relations, there is little research on the internal exercise of soft power through military means. Taking a step further, this paper seeks to analyze the internal soft power of the military in post-war Sri Lanka by opening a new window to look at the often criticized development interventions of the armed forces in the aftermath of the conflict between the Government of Sri Lanka and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam.

  20. Environmental influences on industrial relations

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    L. J. Ferndale

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the extent of the influence of the external environment on industrial relations. It was found that economical, political and social environments are inextricably linked and that they may influence industrial relations regatively. It was concluded that companies should take cognisance of the impact of the external environment when formulating their industrial relations strategies. Opsomming Die doel van hierdie studie was om die omvang van die invloed van die eksterne omgewing op arbeidsverhoudinge te ondersoek. Daar is bevind dat die ekonomiese, politieke en maatskaplike omgewings onlosmaaklik gekoppel is en grootliks 'n negatiewe invloed op arbeidsverhoudinge kan uitoefen. Daar is tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat ondernemings hulself van die invloed van die eksterne omgewing meet vergewds by die formulering van hul arbeidsverhoudinge strategiee.

  1. Planning London for the Post-War Era 1945-1960

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marmaras, Emmanuel V

    2015-01-01

    The book deals with the formation of the post-Second World War reconstruction and planning machinery in Great Britain and with the re-planning efforts undertaken in post-war London and in particular...

  2. Spaces of imagination : associational life and the state in post-war, urban Liberia

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This ethnography explores social imaginaries in post-war, urban Liberia – a physical and social context dominated by intricacies of past oligarchic rule, dictatorship, brutal civil war and post-war reconstruction. Against this challenging backdrop, this thesis asks: How do Liberians imagine the social to be and how do such imaginaries translate into social practice? Embedded in a political anthropology of the state and conceptually drawing on agency as defined by the interrelated temporal-str...

  3. The Birmingham Burn Centre archive: A photographic history of post-war burn care in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwicke, Joseph; Kohlhardt, Angus; Moiemen, Naiem

    2015-06-01

    The Medical Research Council Burns and Industrial Injuries Unit at the Birmingham Accident Hospital pioneered civilian burn care and research in the United Kingdom during the post-war years. A photographic archive has been discovered that documents this period from 1945 to 1975. The aim of this project was to sort, digitize and archive the images in a secure format for future reference. The photographs detail the management of burns patients, from injury causation and surgical intervention, to nursing care, rehabilitation and long-term follow-up. A total of 2650 images files were collected from over 600 patients. Many novel surgical, nursing, dressing and rehabilitation strategies are documented and discussed. We have chosen to report part of the archive under the sections of (1) aseptic and antimicrobial burn care; (2) burn excision and wound closure; (3) rehabilitation, reconstruction and long-term outcomes; (4) accident prevention; and (5) response to a major burns incident. The Birmingham collection gives us a valuable insight into the approach to civilian burn care in the post-war years, and we present a case from the archive to the modern day, the longest clinical photographic follow-up to date.

  4. AUTHENTICITY, IDENTITY AND SUSTAINABILITY IN POST-WAR IRAQ: Reshaping the Urban Form of Erbil City

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    Rebwar Ibrahim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Issues of authenticity and identity are particularly significant in cities where social and cultural change is shaping active transformation of its urban fabric and structure in the post-war condition. In search of sustainable future, Iraqi cities are stretched between the two ends of the spectrum, authentic quarters with its traditional fabric and modern districts with their global sense of living. This paper interrogates the reciprocal influences and distinct qualities and sustainable performance of both authentic and modern quarters of Erbil, the capital of the Iraqi province of Kurdistan, as factors in shaping sustainable urban forms for Iraqi cities. In doing so, the paper, firstly, seeks to highlight the urban identity as an effective factor in relation to sustainable urban form. Secondly, the city of Erbil in Iraq has been chosen as a field study, due to its regional, social, political and historical role in the region. Thirdly, the study emphasises the dynamic activities and performance of residential projects according to rational sustainable criteria. The research concludes that urban identity and the sense of place in traditional and historical places should inform design strategies in order to achieve a more sustainable urban context.

  5. Challenges facing post-war tourism development: the case of Iran

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    Jamal Mohammadi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an empirical investigation to study the post-war tourism in sought west region of Iran. This region is the host of many Iranian who wish remember the events of War between Iran and Iraq. Many high school or university students travel to the region through cultural as well as religious communities. This paper tries to analyze the challenges facing these people when they travel to province of Khozestan, Iran. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among some randomly selected people who visited the region. The implementation of Pearson correlation test has determined that “Weakness of tourism infrastructure facilities and services” is to be blamed the most followed by “Underdevelopment of decision making centers”. Moreover, path analysis has been implemented to detect direct and indirect effects of different factors on development of tourism in the region. In our survey, marketing, culture and weakness in infrastructures have been determined the most important factors influencing on development of the region.

  6. Science for Architecture: Designing Architectural Research in Post-War Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frida Rosenberg

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available How did architectural research in Sweden become scientific in its approach rather than artistic, as architecture education in the post-war period was primarily influenced by the Bauhaus pedagogy?
Via the American Bauhaus pedagogical developments taking place at the IIT and the GSD, Swedish architecture education adopted the artistic ‘learning by doing’ approach.The most interesting structure signifying this was a permanent exhibition of building materials located in the foreground of the 1957 KTH architecture school. When the new KTH architecture school was completed its architecture illustrated another image: that of the new architecture curriculum, A68, put into practice the same year as the building was designed. 
A68 reorganized architecture education and put more focus on environmental studies and building function analysis.The new curriculum included the subjects Formlära, Design Principles, and Byggnadsfunktionslära, Building Function Analysis, which were technical in their approach of using empirical research. As a result, the 1969 KTH architecture building included a laboratory for testing technical problems in air-conditioned spaces as well as a laboratory for testing acoustics. The 1961 LTH architecture building included a full-scale-laboratory where studies were directed by Carin Boalt, the first female professor at a technical university.

  7. People's Palaces: Architecture, culture and democracy in two European post-war cultural centres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grafe, C.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is an investigation of the relationship between cultural politics and architecture in the context of the welfare state in post-war Western Europe. The book focusses on two case studies, the London South Bank and the Stockholm Kulturhus, and examines the discourses informing their institu

  8. Industrial processes influenced by gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrach, Simon

    1988-01-01

    In considering new directions for low gravity research with particular regard to broadening the number and types of industrial involvements, it is noted that transport phenomena play a vital role in diverse processes in the chemical, pharmaceutical, food, and biotech industries. Relatively little attention has been given to the role of gravity in such processes. Accordingly, numerous industrial processes and phenomena are identified which involve gravity and/or surface tension forces. Phase separations and mixing are examples that will be significantly different in low gravity conditions. A basis is presented for expanding the scope of the low gravity research program and the potential benefits of such research is indicated.

  9. Partition and Post-War Violence: Case Study of Moldova and Pridnestrovie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Johnson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Partition advocates argue that ethnic groups must be separated completely in order to prevent renewed violence but Moldova is an exception with its large “stay-behind” minority and a lack of renewed violence. This chapter uses Moldova to develop partition theory, presenting an institutionalist explanation that focuses on the interaction between state-building and minority collaboration in a post-war context. The chapter argues that strong state institutions create an incentive for ethnic minorities to collaborate with the state, regardless of minority preferences, and this helps maintain peace. The case of Moldova reinforces the importance of state-strength in avoiding interethnic conflict renewal. Both Pridnestrovie/Transnistria and Moldova were a relatively strong state, which is unusual in a post-war, post-partition situation, and these relative strengths reduced the likelihood of conflict recurrence.

  10. Swedish post-war economic development. The role of age structure in a welfare state.

    OpenAIRE

    Lindh, Thomas; Malmberg, Bo

    2002-01-01

    There are strong life cycle patterns in practically all human behavior as well as in resources and capabilities. Variations in the age structure therefore affect all aspects of the aggregate economy. Swedish post-war development exhibit patterns of age structure effects on saving, growth, investment, current account, budget balance and inflation consistent with the dynamics of these variables in historic cycles. The deviations of actual time series from the model predictions arise with identi...

  11. Patrick Abercrombie and the Post-war Town Planning in Hong Kong%艾伯克隆比与香港战后城市规划

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李百浩; 邹涵

    2012-01-01

    英国城市规划师艾伯克隆比为英国战后城市重建做了大量城市规划工作,尤以“大伦敦规划”最为著名.之后,他又被邀为香港拟备“香港初步城市规划报告”.该报告作为香港首部战略性城市规划,使英国城市规划理论与实践延续到其远东殖民地,使香港成为西方文化与技术在东方的中转站.该文横向比较艾伯克隆比的“大伦敦规划”与“香港规划报告”,以追溯城市规划思想的源流与演变;纵向比较“香港规划报告”的“高密度发展与疏散、城市人口与工业布局、城市规划立法、新市镇建设”等城市发展提议与香港战后城市规划与建设的实践.通过分析该报告对香港城市规划的影响和贡献,以及探寻香港近现代城市规划理论和体制形成的因素,对进一步完善香港近代城市史学研究,并为内地城市制订战略性城市规划提供历史借鉴.%The British town planner Patrick Abererombie is famous for his great contribution to the post-war urban reconstruction and renewal, especially the work of 'Greater London Plan'. He was later invited to Hong Kong to draft the 'Hong Kong Preliminary Planning Report'. As the first strategic town planning in Hong Kong, this report introduced the theories and practices of British town planning into its Far East colony, and it also made Hong Kong a transfer station of western culture and technology into the East. This article compares Abercrombie's 'Greater London Plan' with his 'Hong Kong Preliminary Planning Report' to trace the origin and development of early town planning thought. It also historically compares the urban development proposals of 'Hong Kong Preliminary Planning Report', in particular, the proposals of 'high density development and decentralization', 'population and industrial location', 'Statutory Scheme', and "New Territories development' etc, with the post-war practices of town planning and urban construction

  12. Intimate partner violence in the post-war context: Women’s experiences and community leaders’ perceptions in the Eastern Province of Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guruge, Sepali; Ford-Gilboe, Marilyn; Varcoe, Colleen; Jayasuriya-Illesinghe, Vathsala; Ganesan, Mahesan; Sivayogan, Sivagurunathan; Kanthasamy, Parvathy; Shanmugalingam, Pushparani; Vithanarachchi, Hemamala

    2017-01-01

    findings revealed the need for more research about IPV in post-war contexts. Women’s experiences in such contexts are influenced and may be masked by a complex set of factors that intersect to produce IPV and entrap women in violence. A more nuanced understanding of the context-specific issues that shape women’s experiences of IPV- and community responses to it—is needed to develop more comprehensive solutions that are relevant to the local context. PMID:28362862

  13. The International Space of the Danish Testing Community in the Post-war Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Karen Egedal; Ydesen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    International forums and organizations, as well as non-governmental organizations, have played a considerable role in societal developments since the end of World War II. Many changes in post-war Danish public schools like standardized educational testing were formed in dialogue with or initiated...... in such forums or organizations. This contribution explores the importance of these connections by focussing on the period from 1945 to around 1990, i.e., from the end of World War II when Danish education was characterized by a high degree of national unity as a contrast to the strife of the inter-war years...

  14. Youth crime and preventive policing in post-war Scotland (c.1945-71).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartie, Angela; Jackson, Louise A

    2011-01-01

    This article explores debates concerning the methods and styles used by the police service in its dealings with children and young people in post-war Scotland (in comparison with England). Study of the implementation of Police Juvenile Liaison Schemes is used to consider shifting points of tension as well as cooperation between the police and other occupational groups engaged in work at the nexus of youth justice-welfare. Whilst often characterized as contradictory tendencies, the article demonstrates that a social welfare ethic and a criminal justice ethic were coexistent within the rhetoric and practice of policing, but that they operated in a state of flux. It also argues that styles of policing were subject to change, particularly as the use of discretionary and informal methods was increasingly challenged, as physical violence was increasingly seen as an outmoded recourse for the institutions of criminal justice, and as the policing of youth was increasingly politicized. The post-war period can be characterized in terms of greater levels of public scrutiny, the formalization of processes previously undertaken through informal or semi-formal mechanisms, and attempts (not always successful) to systematize procedures nationally in terms of the Scottish state.

  15. Social relationships and social support among post-war youth in Northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nutte, Leen; Okello, James; Derluyn, Ilse

    2017-08-01

    Although social relationships and social support are salient factors for post-war adolescents' psychosocial coping and adjustment, there is only limited information regarding war-affected adolescents' views on social support and the relationships within which social support is provided. This study therefore explored both elements among a clinical sample of 20 adolescents living in post-war Northern Uganda. Following Braun and Clarke's thematic analysis, we found a prominent role of the biological mother and other primary biological family members in the upbringing of our participants. Spiritual and material support were perceived to be the most important type of support, respectively, while the adolescents were growing up and in their current lives. These findings provide support for the perception that caregiving systems are adaptable to particular sociocultural contexts. Further, the importance of particular functions of social support could signify a potentially selective buffering effect of these functions in adverse contexts. Because of the importance of the primary biological family and the salient role of parent-child relationships in the face of adversity, future research needs to focus on this particular kind of social relationship in contexts of prolonged collective violence. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  16. Two experiments focusing on de-escalation oriented coverage of post-war conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelm Kempf

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available War coverage has a strong bias towards the promotion of conflict escalation and - though less pronounced - this bias often survives in post-war coverage as well. Even after the end of war, only a minority of journalists frame conflict in a firmly de-escalation oriented way. Do they have a chance to reach the public? Will their reports be respected by the audience as more balanced and unbiased? Will they have an impact on the audience's mental models of the conflict? Or will the audience continue to cling to its prejudices and reject news articles which do not affirm the enemy images that emerged during wartime? The present paper investigates these questions by means of two experimental studies. In the first experiment, news articles on three events in former Yugoslavia after the fall of Milosevic were presented to a total of n = 128 subjects, representative of the readership of the German quality press: (1 violent conflicts in Southern Serbia (December 2000, (2 the extradition of Milosevic to The Hague (June, 2001 and (3 the treaty between Serbia and Montenegro (March 2003. For each of the events, four different types of articles were used: moderately escalation oriented articles from prestigious German newspapers (Die Welt, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, Süddeutsche Zeitung and three variants of these articles, (a with increased escalation-oriented framing, (b with moderate de-escalation oriented framing and (c with more strongly de-escalation oriented framing of the events. Each subject was asked to read one article on each of the three events in chronological order and after each article (a to narrate the reported events in their own words and (b to fill out a questionnaire designed to measure the acceptance of the articles as unbiased, well-balanced, interesting, etc. The subjects' mental models of the reported events were inferred from their narratives by means of quantitative content analysis. The second experiment measured the

  17. 'Made Up People': An Interdisciplinary Approach to Labelling and the Construction of People in Post-War History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Crane

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The overarching theme of this one-day conference was to situate labelling theory, as conceptualised by Professor Hacking, in the study of post-war history. The post-war period witnessed the emergence of numerous new categories and classifications of people, through the development of labels including 'schizophrenic', 'gambler', and 'adolescent'. This conference drew together speakers and delegates from a range of disciplines in order to raise a set of questions about these 'made up people'. The conference aimed to facilitate a workshop-style atmosphere, with a key note speech by Professor Hacking, several panel sessions, and a roundtable discussion. Image: Andrey Maximov (flikr

  18. The effects of class voting in post-war western industrialized countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwbeerta, P.; Graaf, N.D. de; Ultee, W.C.

    2000-01-01

    Classic studies in political sociology argued that differences in countries' patterns of mobility are responsible for variations in levels of class voting in these countries. In this paper the tenability of this classic claim is examined using survey data from 14 long-standing Western democracies ov

  19. Yogurt's flexible image during its rise in popularity in post-war Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verriet, Jon; Leroy, Frédéric

    2017-01-01

    The consumption of yogurt in Western countries has risen for over a century, first slowly, then more rapidly. The purpose of the present study was to investigate this prolonged phase of growth, by examining the popularity and the projected image of yogurt. A particular focus was on the way these aspects were reflected in consumption patterns and media representations. The data showed how during its period of rapid popularization, yogurt's visibility in the media greatly increased. It was concluded that the product's image was highly flexible in post-war decades, evidenced by the multi-pronged approach taken by marketers. Yogurt was not only advertised as both tasty and healthy, but also as natural and convenient, a strategy that appears to have been informed by consumers' preferences and existing cultural values. This demonstrates how a high degree of product differentiation and diversification during a product's growth stage can result in a heterogeneous image, allowing for a broad range of marketing strategies.

  20. Young people navigating political engagement through post-war instability and mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzenevica, Marina

    2016-01-01

    The everyday politics of rural young people who live in post-war settings in the Global South is poorly explored. In the aftermath of a recent civil war in Nepal (1996-2006), villages have been operating without elected bodies, and poorly functioning local governance has been concentrated around...... party patronage networks and community development. In the lives of many young people, the aspirations and practices of educational and labour mobility have been dominant. Based on fieldwork carried out in the Panchthar District, this article discusses how ordinary young people nevertheless engage...... activists balance their daily lives, mobility and household obligations with involvement in party and local development politics? By exploring their motivations and engagement, I come to two conclusions. Firstly, young men navigate party politics by juggling the legacy of patronage and rejecting parties...

  1. Inhaling Democracy: Cigarette Advertising and Health Education in Post-war West Germany, 1950s–1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    In the late 1960s and early 1970s, the West German government was faced with the challenge of addressing a damaging health behaviour, smoking, in the context of an emerging late modern democracy, when the precedent for addressing that behaviour was set in the Nazi past. This paper details the two-pronged approach which the government took: seeking restrictions on cigarette advertising, whilst educating young people to adopt positive health behaviours in the face of pressure to smoke. This approach can be understood in the social and economic context of the time: an economic commitment to the social market economy worked against restrictions on the sale of cigarettes; whilst concerns about past authoritarian structures prompted the health authorities to seek novel ways of addressing smoking, emphasising choice. In a nuanced way, post-war anti-smoking strategies were a response to West Germany's National Socialist past, but more importantly, a signal of an increasingly international outlook. PMID:26217071

  2. The public administration reform in post-war Bosnia and Herzegovina: a reform process embedded in a sovereignty paradox

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milovich, L.; Ossewaarde, M.R.R.

    2013-01-01

    As the post-war Bosnia and Herzegovina has turned its interest towards a European Union membership, it has entered an accession process requiring it, among other things, to reform its public administration system. The European Union's involvement within the reform has been placed under critique, as

  3. The public administration reform in post-war Bosnia and Herzegovina: a reform process embedded in a sovereignty paradox

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milovich, L.; Ossewaarde, Marinus R.R.

    2013-01-01

    As the post-war Bosnia and Herzegovina has turned its interest towards a European Union membership, it has entered an accession process requiring it, among other things, to reform its public administration system. The European Union's involvement within the reform has been placed under critique, as

  4. Educating for Peace: The Role and Impact of International Organisations in Interwar and Post-War Danish School Experiments, 1918–1975

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Egedal Andreasen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the aftermath of the two world wars, strong international networks and organisations manifested themselves with promotion of peace through education on their agenda. Danish pedagogical experiments and experimental schools were strongly influenced by these trends and played a role in subsequent school practices and policies. Drawing on the notions of “the transnational” and “trading spaces” as well as the theoretical concepts of transfer, translation, and transformation, this article addresses the following research question: How were international ideas, knowledge and practice of promoting peace through education transferred, translated, and transformed in Danish school experiments in interwar and post-war scenarios? In exploring this question, the article uses transnational and Danish archival sources as well as journals and reports linked to the Danish progressive education movement. Thus, the article contributes to our understanding of the entanglements of educational ideas and to how trends of internationalisation and globalisation work.

  5. Muslims in Post-War Sri Lanka: An Opportunity Lost for Conflict Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Imtiyaz Abdul Razak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the post-war Sri Lankan conditions among Sri Lanka Muslims, also known as Moors. The article will attempt to argue that state concessions to Muslim political leaders who supported the successive Sri Lanka’s ruling classes from independence through the defeat of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE in 2009, have meant an isolation of the community from the other two main ethnic communities. The concessions that the Muslim community has won actively helped the Muslim community to be proactive in their religious practices and thus paved the way for exclusive social and political choices. The rise of Islamic movements and mosques in the post-1977 period galvanized Muslims. In time this isolation has been reinforced by socio-religious revival among Muslims whose ethnic identity has been constructed along the lines of the Islamic faith by Muslim elites. Despite this revival it has been clear that the Muslim community has been reluctant to use Islamic traditions and principles for peace building, which could have helped to ease tensions, brought about by the 30 year old ethnic conflict. On the other hand this paper will briefly discuss some reactions from the majority Sinhalese to Islamic revival as well as some issues between the Tamils and Muslims and the reintegration of Muslims in the North. Finally, some pragmatic ways to ease tensions between Muslims and non-Muslims in the greater discipline of conflict resolution are explored using traditions within Islam.

  6. Localising the Global: Landscape Architecture and Post-War Recovery in South Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jala Makhzoumi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The scale of devastation following the July 2006 war in Lebanon resulted in a rush of international aid to address immediate needs and secure funding for reconstruction, while nationally, architects, urban designers and planners, among many others, volunteered to reclaim shelter and rebuild settlements. This paper investigates whether and in what ways landscape architecture, an emerging profession in Lebanon, can play a role in post-war recovery. A senior design studio project in the war-devastated village of El Qlaile in South Lebanon serves as a case study to elaborate method and outcome. Landscape architects, the case study demonstrates, are likely to contribute recovery narratives that integrate social, economic and environmental objectives and respond to place and everyday living needs and aspirations of local communities in rural Lebanon. The multifunctional community landscapes proposed prioritise livelihoods, valorise rural heritage and reaffirm village identity and pride in place. This in turn enables the local community to negotiate recovery priorities and offer their own agenda for future development.

  7. Post-War Research on Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Part I. Research before 1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Krzysztof; Dembińska, Edyta

    2016-10-31

    The paper presents the post-war history of post-traumatic research conducted at the Department of Psychiatry of the Jagiellonian University and the analysis of the main research approaches and selected publications. The time after World War II passed in Poland in two directions: coping with the finished war trauma and simultaneously the experience of communist persecution trauma. First scientific publications appeared in the fifties and were focused on the research of former concentration camps prisoners (KZ-Syndrome). Between 1962 and 1989 a special edition of Przegląd Lekarski, which concentrated entirely on war trauma research, was published. The journal was nominated for the Peace Nobel Prize twice. The research team from the Department of Psychiatry headed by Professor Antoni Kępiński made a very extensive description of KZ-Syndrome issues. The paper summarizes the most important contemporary research findings on psychopathology of KZ-Syndrome (Szymusik), reaction dynamics (Teutsch), after camp adjustment (Orwid), paroxysmal hypermnesia (Półtawska), somatic changes (Gatarski, Witusik). The result of the study was the basis for the development of a methodology and a new look at the classification of the consequences of post-traumatic stress disorder, as well as the development of ethical attitudes towards patients.

  8. [Madness is Conforming to One's Own Norms, and No Others: Psychiatry in Post-war Quebec].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perreault, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    In the early 1950s, both the publication of the first Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-I) and the advent of psychopharmacology - particularly the development of chlorpromazine (Thorazine - RP4650) - set the stage for models of psychiatric thought, research and practice that remain dominant today. It was during this pivotal period, in 1955, that the Département de psychiatrie de l'Université de Montréal was founded by a cohort of young researchers newly arrived from well-known universities in France and the northeastern United States. This influential group quickly became staunch critics of the province's religion-based asylum system and lobbied for a government review that culminated into the 1962 Commission d'étude des hôpitaux psychiatriques (popularly known as the Bédard Report). What followed in Quebec between 1965 and 1975 was the secularization of psychiatric institutions and widespread deinstitutionalization. This paper illuminates cultural changes and intellectual shifts that have been overlooked in historical studies of post-war psychiatry by exploring the expansion of such "anti-psychiatry" schools of thought in Quebec in this period.

  9. Good grief: Lord of the Flies as a post-war rewriting of salvation history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. van Vuuren

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Golding’s Lord of the Flies, first published in 1954, reflects a bleak sense of post-war pessimism. But with undue attention focused on its portrayal of original sin and the problem of evil, readings have often remained reductive. In this article it is argued that the novel’s symbolic narrative is polysemic and, when it is read as anagogic myth, may be seen to span Judaeo-Christian Heilsgeschichte or salvation history, rewriting its chapters of creation, Fall, the problem of evil, the failure of law, the hope of salvation, the mission of a messianic figure, and – in the clearest departure from the Biblical narrative – an ambiguous representation of his return. This study examines the novel’s often paradoxical symbolism using Frye’s phases of anagogic myth, with its poles of apocalyptic and demonic imagery. It traces the relation of symbols to their counterparts in Biblical narratives, drawn in particular from the symbolic writings of the origin and end of humanity, to elucidate Golding’s bleak but certainly not hopeless rewriting of the salvation story for a post-faith readership.

  10. Handling postpartum haemorrhage- obstetrics between tradition and modernity in post-war Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräuer, Miriam Dorothea; Antón, Jorge; George, Peter Matthew; Kuntner, Liselotte; Wacker, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    How traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in post-war Sierra Leone explain, handle and prevent postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) and their potential role in a better management of PPH to reduce maternal mortality in this low resource setting. Semi-quantitative interviews about knowledge and measures in PPH and participant observation with 140 Sierra Leonean birth attendants, divided in three groups: (A) TBAs who never attended any official training course (n = 82); (B) TBAs who attended at least one official training course (n = 48); and (C) officially trained birth attendants (n = 10). There are several observable gaps in the knowledge of TBAs about PPH compared to modern obstetrics, however similar procedures exist. Herbal medicine is applied; metaphysical convictions about PPH remain present. Training courses show an impact. Officially trained birth attendants demonstrate knowledge deficiencies and lack resources and infrastructure to manage PPH adequately. Morbidity and mortality of PPH in Sierra Leone is related to several factors and not solely to the ignorance of TBAs. TBAs still play an important role for many women there. Hence improvement of the formal health sector should be combined with life-saving programmes integrating TBAs in the care for the pregnant, delivering and breastfeeding mothers. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  11. Haunted Encounters: Exile and Holocaust Literature in German and Austrian Post-war Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Lang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In an essay titled ‘The Exiled Tongue’ (2002, Nobel Prize winner Imre Kertész develops a genealogy of Holocaust and émigré writing, in which the German language plays an important, albeit contradictory, role. While the German language signified intellectual independence and freedom of self-definition (against one’s roots for Kertész before the Holocaust, he notes (based on his engagement with fellow writer Jean Améry that writing in German created severe difficulties in the post-war era. Using the examples of Hilde Spiel and Friedrich Torberg, this article explores this notion and asks how the loss of language experienced by Holocaust survivors impacted on these two Austrian-Jewish writers. The article argues that, while the works of Spiel and Torberg are haunted by the Shoah, the two writers do not write in the post-Auschwitz language that Kertész delineates in his essays, but are instead shaped by the exile experience of both writers. At the same time though, Kertész’ concept seems to be haunted by exile, as his reception of Jean Améry’s works, which form the basis of his linguistic genealogies, shows an inability to integrate the experience of exile.

  12. Engaging Military in Post-War Reconciliation: A Case Study of Implications for the Consolidation of Democracy in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    to many countries transitioned from authoritarian regimes to democracies like Bangladesh , Indonesia, Philippine, Pakistan, South Korea, Taiwan, and...by the military in the post war reconciliation process in Sri Lanka. During the last stages of the war, over 12000 LTTE cadres—including 594 child ...contribute labor to the management of farm lands in reviving the north and east after the war—which has provided a comprehensive source of income

  13. Neorealist landscapes. Habitat and collective housing in Italy and Spain in the post- war years. 1943-1963

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colella, Federico

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Starting point for this research is the analysis of relationship between Italian and Spanish culture in the post-war era, especially in the field of cinematography, in order to describe possible correspondences or differences in the contemporary architectural and urban production, especially in social housing. Neorealism is the artistic movement that characterizes these years, in which economic, social and political problems weigh on these countries: it was born in Italy and influenced cinematography of different European countries, including Spain. Through comparison between some films, we can define a common urban landscape, with the aim to represent context in which the architecture of Italy and Spain, as in the neorealist cinema, seek new references and a more sensitive look on reality. El Punto de partida de este trabajo de investigación es el análisis de las similitudes existentes entre la cultura Italiana y la Española de la época de la posguerra, sobre todo en el campo de la cinematografía, con el fin de fijar posibles analogías y diferencias en la producción contemporánea arquitectónica y urbanística, especialmente de vivienda social. El Neorrealismo, es la corriente artística que mejor define estos años, en los cuales las grandes dificultades en el panorama económico, social y político, marcan la situación de los dos países: se trata de una expresión cultural que nace en Italia y que influenció distintas cinematografías europeas, entre las cuales la española. A través la comparación de algunas películas, es posible definir un paisaje urbano común, que representa el contexto en el cual se desarrolla la arquitectura de los dos países que, como en el cinema neorrealista, tratará de buscar nuevas referencias y de plantear una mirada más sensible hacia la realidad de la época.

  14. [Eda Kalmre. The human sausage factory : a study of post-war rumour in Tartu] / Véronique Vincent-Campion

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vincent-Campion, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    Arvustus: Kalmre, Eda. The human sausage factory : a study of post-war rumour in Tartu. Amsterdam ; New York : Rodopi, 2013. (On the boundary of two worlds : identity, freedom, and moral imagination in the Baltics, 1570-7121 ; 34)

  15. [Eda Kalmre. The human sausage factory : a study of post-war rumour in Tartu] / Véronique Vincent-Campion

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vincent-Campion, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    Arvustus: Kalmre, Eda. The human sausage factory : a study of post-war rumour in Tartu. Amsterdam ; New York : Rodopi, 2013. (On the boundary of two worlds : identity, freedom, and moral imagination in the Baltics, 1570-7121 ; 34)

  16. Influence of Japan Earthquake Upon Shipbuilding Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Jianmiao

    2011-01-01

    On March 11,the strong earthquake of 9.0 magnitude and the tsunami in Japan made its entire social life,production and communication systems into chaos.As the world third largest economy.Japan is also a large trade,shipbuilding and marine equipment manufacturing country.The earthquake has not only greatly affected the Japanese shipbuilding industry,but also the international shipping industry and Chinese shipbuilding industry.

  17. Influence of Social Reform Ideologies on Industrial/Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireh, Maduakolam

    2016-01-01

    The founding of industrial/technology education in Ameria represents the convergence of many influences dating back to the pre-industrial revolution era. Social reform movement, one of these influences, set out to change conditions considered to be causes of poverty and other social problems through active engagements in political, educational,…

  18. The alcohol industry, charities and policy influence in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Charities exist to pursue a public benefit, whereas corporations serve the interests of their shareholders. The alcohol industry uses corporate social responsibility activities to further its interests in influencing alcohol policy. Many charities also seek to influence alcohol and other policy. The aim of this study was to explore relationships between the alcohol industry and charities in the UK and whether these relationships may be used as a method of influencing alcohol polic...

  19. ASHRAE Standard 62: tobacco industry's influence over national ventilation standards

    OpenAIRE

    Bialous, S.; Glantz, S

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To describe the role of the tobacco industry in the development of ventilation standards for indoor air quality by influencing the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE).

  20. Physicians under the influence: social psychology and industry marketing strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, Sunita; Fugh-Berman, Adriane

    2013-01-01

    Pharmaceutical and medical device companies apply social psychology to influence physicians' prescribing behavior and decision making. Physicians fail to recognize their vulnerability to commercial influences due to self-serving bias, rationalization, and cognitive dissonance. Professionalism offers little protection; even the most conscious and genuine commitment to ethical behavior cannot eliminate unintentional, subconscious bias. Six principles of influence - reciprocation, commitment, social proof, liking, authority, and scarcity - are key to the industry's routine marketing strategies, which rely on the illusion that the industry is a generous avuncular partner to physicians. In order to resist industry influence, physicians must accept that they are vulnerable to subconscious bias and have both the motivation and means to resist industry influence. A culture in which accepting industry gifts engenders shame rather than gratitude will reduce conflicts of interest. If greater academic prestige accrues to distant rather than close relationships with industry, then a new social norm may emerge that promotes patient care and scientific integrity. In addition to educating faculty and students about the social psychology underlying sophisticated but potentially manipulative marketing and about how to resist it, academic medical institutions should develop strong organizational policies to counteract the medical profession's improper dependence on industry. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  1. War experiences and psychotic symptoms among former child soldiers in Northern Uganda: the mediating role of post-war hardships – the WAYS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amone-P’Olak, Kennedy; Otim, Balaam Nyeko; Opio, George; Ovuga, Emilio; Meiser-Stedman, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Psychotic symptoms have been associated with post-traumatic stress disorder and war experiences. However, the relationships between types of war experiences, the onset and course of psychotic symptoms, and post-war hardships in child soldiers have not been investigated. This study assessed whether various types of war experiences contribute to psychotic symptoms differently and whether post-war hardships mediated the relationship between war experiences and later psychotic symptoms. In an ongoing longitudinal cohort study (the War-Affected Youths Survey), 539 (61% male) former child soldiers were assessed for psychotic symptoms, post-war hardships, and previous war experiences. Regression analyses were used to assess the contribution of different types of war experiences on psychotic symptoms and the mediating role of post-war hardships in the relations between previous war experiences and psychotic symptoms. The findings yielded ‘witnessing violence’, ‘deaths and bereavement’, ‘involvement in hostilities’, and ‘sexual abuse’ as types of war experiences that significantly and independently predict psychotic symptoms. Exposure to war experiences was related to psychotic symptoms through post-war hardships (β = .18, 95% confidence interval = [0.10, 0.25]) accounting for 50% of the variance in their relationship. The direct relation between previous war experiences and psychotic symptoms attenuated but remained significant (β = .18, 95% confidence interval = [0.12, 0.26]). Types of war experiences should be considered when evaluating risks for psychotic symptoms in the course of providing emergency humanitarian services in post-conflict settings. Interventions should consider post-war hardships as key determinants of psychotic symptoms among war-affected youths. PMID:24718435

  2. [Influence of smoking and industrial air pollutants on respiratory health of nickel industry workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilov, V V; Siurin, S A

    2015-01-01

    Studies covered respiratory health of 1530 workers of nickel industry, among which were 796 (52.0%) smokers. Findings are that tobacco smoke combined with nickel industry hazards cause potentized negative effects in respiratory organs, with earlier and more frequent chronic bronchitis. For isolated influence of these factors, chronic bronchitis risk is higher from exposure to tobacco smoke vs. occupational hazards (OR = 2.48; DI 1.49-4.13). Chronic obstructive lung disease development in nickel industry workers is caused by smoking. Industrial air pollutants appeared to have no potentizing effect on COLD formation, as well as on toxic pneumosclerosis formation.

  3. Peculiarities of Social Insurance of Workers of the Middle Volga Steamship Line During the Post-War Restoration Period (1945-1946

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomanenko Olesya Aleksandrovna

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available During the post-war restoration the work on social insurance in river transport was intensified. It were trade unions including councils of social insurance that dealt with social problems in the Volga Steamship Lines. Trade unions exercised control over the budget of social insurance, over labor safety, etc. In the Middle Volga Steamship Line (SVRP 15 councils for social insurance functioned. They included 140 insurance agents. Their task was to decrease incidence, traumatism, and also to improve the conditions of work and life of river transport workers. Tasks of councils of a social insurance included systematic supervision over a sanitary condition of shops and territories of the industrial enterprises of the steamship line. Financial support was allocated to families of veterans with many children and families in need. Insurance delegates together with a doctor of the health center in workshops registered workers needing additional food for health reasons. Insurance delegates gave social help to patients at home and in hospital. After the end of the war comprehensive plans of improving actions were put through. Financial and food position of river transport workers improved. However in 1946 in SVRP there was a small growth of incidence again. Those who needed treatment, and also the best workers were provided with permits in sanatorium. Managements of Volga Steamship lines showed care of children of river transport workers. During thewinter period camps were decorated with New Year trees, in summer – rest was arranged. On the accounting of the trade-union organizations of the Middle Volga basin families of the lost soldiers, the military personnel, disabled veterans and demobilized consisted. As for labor protection, that, despite increase in allocations for safety measures and labor protection in 1946 at the SVRP enterprises occurred increase in accidents. So, all efforts were directed on further improvement of financial and social

  4. Ambivalent horizons: competing narratives of self in Irish women's memories of pre-marriage years post-war England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazley, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Over the past-20-years research into the experiences of Irish female migrants in twentieth century Britain has been steadily accumulating. Based largely on the use of oral history, this work has been important in shedding light on various aspects of women's experiences, including how young women negotiated unfamiliar urban spaces and asserted an 'ethnic' identity in England. The dynamics shaping the re/construction of such experiences, and what they can tell us about the fashioning of gendered migrant selves, has, by contrast, received relatively little attention. Based on an in-depth analysis of the personal migration narratives of three women who migrated from southern Ireland to England between 1945-69, this article aims to provide insight into how migrants' early experiences of settlement in post-war England were conditioned by the consumption and internalization of a number of competing constructions of femininity circulating within British and Irish culture during the post-1945 period. While these constructions made available a number of different frameworks on which women could draw to order their experiences and fashion an identity, tensions within and between them could also create problems for the process of self-construction. As well as the particular circumstances of each individual's encounter with their new environment, the distinctive character of women's negotiation of these tensions alludes to the different ways women sought to construct a preferred version of their past in post-war England, raising questions about the ways past and present, public and private, interact in the production of migrant histories.

  5. Same strategy different industry: corporate influence on public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelley, Donna; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Elbel, Brian

    2014-04-01

    In March 2013 a state judge invalidated New York City's proposal to ban sales of sugar-sweetened beverages larger than 16 ounces; the case is under appeal. This setback was attributable in part to opposition from the beverage industry and racial/ethnic minority organizations they support. We provide lessons from similar tobacco industry efforts to block policies that reduced smoking prevalence. We offer recommendations that draw on the tobacco control movement's success in thwarting industry influence and promoting public health policies that hold promise to improve population health.

  6. Hooked on a New Technology: The Automation Pioneers in Post-War Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stig Kvaal

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the initial activities in servo engineering in Norway originating in the early 1950s based on contacts at the Massachusets Institute of Technology. The activities were initiated by a small group of servo enthusiasts who, through the Feedback Control Committee in the research council, managed to coordinate national activities and establish strong research groups in Trondheim, Bergen and Oslo. After the initial phase of establishing the research groups, there was a continuous strong focus on connections with industry and industrial applications. In the mid-1960s the committee was strengthened and became the Automation and Data Processing Committee. The initial group of automation pioneers have left a lasting impact on the academic and industrial fields of servo engineering and automation in Norway.

  7. Macrolevel factors of influence on industry competitiveness of Ukrainian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Tkach

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to identify processes and phenomena of macro level, which form current conditions of the industry competitiveness of Ukraine for working out practical recommendations of its innovation increasing. The results of the analysis. The influence of macro-environment on the industry competitiveness is shown. The main factors of industry competitiveness influence which issue on the national level (political, legal, economic, institutional, commercial, etc. are outlined. These factors are synergistically intertwined and form conditions of the industry competitiveness of regions. Considering the analysis of the results of international competitiveness rankings the author found out the following factors of lowering the competitive position of Ukraine: corruption, problematic access to business finance, inflation, political instability, tax burden, inefficient government bureaucracy and unstable exchange rate. On the basis of this, the trends of factors are explored over the past five years (2011-2015 and reasons of them are identified. The particular attention is paid to institutional factors as public-private partnership, state support of industrial development, features of the development of industrial parks in Ukraine and others. Moreover, the features of foreign policy of Ukraine and structure of exports of industrial goods are explored. The study demonstrated key macro threats in Ukraine. Practical recommendations of industry competitiveness increasing are given. Conclusions and directions of further researches. The development of Ukraine for the past five years (2011-2015 characterized by dynamic changes in all spheres of life. This affected the competitiveness of the country in general and its industry in particular. Macro-level influencing factors, which created unfavorable conditions for the formation of industrial competitiveness, are: macroeconomic instability and high levels of bureaucracy, corruption, lack of

  8. Globalisation of tobacco industry influence and new global responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yach, D.; Bettcher, D.

    2000-01-01

    The globalisation of tobacco marketing, trade, research, and industry influence represents a major threat to public health worldwide. Drawing upon tobacco industry strategy documents prepared over several decades, this paper will demonstrate how the tobacco industry operates as a global force, regarding the world as its operating market by planning, developing, and marketing its products on a global scale. The industry has used a wide range of methods to buy influence and power, and penetrate markets across the world. It has an annual turnover of almost US$400 billion. In contrast, until recently tobacco control lacked global leadership and strategic direction and had been severely underfunded. As part of moving towards a more sustainable form of globalisation, a global enabling environment linked to local actions should focus on the following strategies: global information management; development of nationally and locally grounded action; global regulation, legal instruments, and foreign policy; and establishment of strong partnerships with purpose. As the vector of the tobacco epidemic, the tobacco industry's actions fall far outside of the boundaries of global corporate responsibility. Therefore, global and local actions should not provide the tobacco industry with the two things that it needs to ensure its long term profitability: respectability and predictability.


Keywords: globalisation of tobacco marketing PMID:10841858

  9. ASHRAE Standard 62: tobacco industry's influence over national ventilation standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialous, S Aguinaga; Glantz, S A

    2002-12-01

    To describe the role of the tobacco industry in the development of ventilation standards for indoor air quality by influencing the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). Review of tobacco industry documents available on the internet between January 2001 and March 2002. Search terms included "ASHRAE", "ventilation", "minutes", "memo", and the names of key players and organisations as identified in the initial searches. Analysis of ASHRAE and other relevant documents publicly available and the personal files of a Standard 62 committee member; interviews of a selected number of ASHRAE players; observation of an ASHRAE meeting. The tobacco industry has been involved in the development of ventilation standards for over 20 years. It has successfully influenced the standard and continues to attempt to change the standard from a smoke-free framework into an "accommodation" framework. The industry acts directly and through consultants and allies. The major health groups have been largely absent and the health interests have been poorly represented in standard development. While concentrated in the USA, ASHRAE standards are adopted worldwide. The tobacco industry determined that allowing smoking in ventilation standards for indoor air quality was a high priority and dedicated significant human and financial resources to ensure that its interests were represented. The health groups, until recently, have largely ignored the policy implications for tobacco control of standard development. This situation is changing, but unless health groups maintain high visibility within ASHRAE, the tobacco industry may succeed in creating a standard that ignores the dangers of secondhand smoke.

  10. Globalisation of tobacco industry influence and new global responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yach, D; Bettcher, D

    2000-06-01

    The globalisation of tobacco marketing, trade, research, and industry influence represents a major threat to public health worldwide. Drawing upon tobacco industry strategy documents prepared over several decades, this paper will demonstrate how the tobacco industry operates as a global force, regarding the world as its operating market by planning, developing, and marketing its products on a global scale. The industry has used a wide range of methods to buy influence and power, and penetrate markets across the world. It has an annual turnover of almost US$400 billion. In contrast, until recently tobacco control lacked global leadership and strategic direction and had been severely underfunded. As part of moving towards a more sustainable form of globalisation, a global enabling environment linked to local actions should focus on the following strategies: global information management; development of nationally and locally grounded action; global regulation, legal instruments, and foreign policy; and establishment of strong partnerships with purpose. As the vector of the tobacco epidemic, the tobacco industry's actions fall far outside of the boundaries of global corporate responsibility. Therefore, global and local actions should not provide the tobacco industry with the two things that it needs to ensure its long term profitability: respectability and predictability.

  11. The fifties and the feminine mystery : female representation in post-war melodrama

    OpenAIRE

    Westby, Ellen

    2007-01-01

    The American 1950s have long been regarded as perhaps the most conformist decade of the 20th century. The leading female ideology was filled with mixed messages about what women should and should not do, and what they could and could not be. While one image insisted on women’s equality, the other insisted on total subordination. More than any other medium, the Hollywood industry fostered American ideals and images of modern womanhood and manhood. Overall, this thesis will investigate how ...

  12. Evolution of Post-war Agricultural Support Policies in China’s Taiwan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng; GU

    2014-01-01

    This paper revised the key agricultural support polices in China’s Taiwan after World War II,and examined the effects of policies on agricultural production and the farmers’ income. The research results showed that the support policies had a positive effect on agriculture development and contributed to the accomplishment of industrialization. China’s Mainland and Taiwan have similar agricultural production environment and share the same culture. Recommendations on agricultural support policy making in China’s Mainland were proposed.

  13. Industrial influences on R&D transfer to China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Peder Veng

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to open a new research frontier concerning industry factors influencing R&D transfer to emerging markets within Western multinational companies (MNCs). Design/methodology/approach – The paper presents a framework based on knowledge transfer, knowledge creation...... for innovation performance. Findings – The framework and empirical research suggest that R&D transfer to new R&D units in emerging markets is less challenging for companies within industries characterized by slow technological development. This is due to dynamics, which result in codification and diffusion...... – positively impacting innovation performance. Originality/value – The paper addresses the gap in knowledge transfer theory concerning industrial R&D transfer differences. The paper provides a framework for innovation related industrial contingencies on R&D transfer concerning emerging markets, and it advances...

  14. Factor Influencing Creative Industries Development in Kenjeran Surabaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswanto, V. K.; Santoso, E. B.

    2017-07-01

    Indonesia needs to improve the competitiveness of local products to optimize its contribution to the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) for the welfare of the population. This can be done by improving the development of creative industries. Kenjeran Sub District is one of the coastal villages in the city of Surabaya, which has a large number of poor people. The potential of the creative industries is still not visible in efforts to increase public welfare. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the factors that influence the development of creative industries in Kenjeran. This study using in-depth interview were analysed using content analysis and Cartesian diagram to determine the important factors that affect the development of creative industries in Sub district of Kenjeran. By using five respondents from the government shows that the factors that have a high level of importance and advantages are low among other regulatory factors of raw materials, import and export, extortion, and administrative procedures.

  15. Reading, Writing and Radicalism: Right-Wing Women and Education in the Post-War Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benowitz, June Melby

    2009-01-01

    The headlines "Who's Trying to Ruin Our Schools?" and "Danger's Ahead in the Public Schools" grabbed the attention of the American public during the early 1950s as mainstream publications reacted to efforts by right-wing organizations to influence the curricula of America's elementary and secondary schools. "A bewildering disease that threatens to…

  16. Reading, Writing and Radicalism: Right-Wing Women and Education in the Post-War Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benowitz, June Melby

    2009-01-01

    The headlines "Who's Trying to Ruin Our Schools?" and "Danger's Ahead in the Public Schools" grabbed the attention of the American public during the early 1950s as mainstream publications reacted to efforts by right-wing organizations to influence the curricula of America's elementary and secondary schools. "A bewildering disease that threatens to…

  17. Post war migration flows and disparities in mortality from age 50 onwards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarulli, Virginia

    Compositional changes due to internal migration can modify the distribution of health outcomes, death rates and socioeconomic characteristics of a specific geographical area. Migration flows may affect patterns of socioeconomic inequalities in mortality as well. However, despite these inequalities...... status, from age 50 onwards, in Turin, one of the main industrial areas of the country, where many low educated individuals from the southern regions migrated to Turin with seeking jobs in the car factories. Migrants might be selected in terms of robustness because of the healthy migrant effect. However......, lowly educated individuals are employed in heavier and riskier jobs. They thus undergo a faster health selection due to exposure to higher mortality risk that selects the most robust individuals. This paper hypothesized that the interplay of these mechanisms might have produced a homogenization process...

  18. Some reflections on madness and culture in the post-war world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scull, Andrew

    2014-12-01

    This article examines the treatment of madness as a theme in drama, opera and films, concentrating its attention for the most part on the period between World War II and the 1980s. These were the years in which psychoanalysis dominated psychiatry in the USA, and so Freud's influence in the broader culture forms the central though not the sole focus of the analysis. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. The consequences of judicial obligations as a politics of transition in post-war Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljanovska Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the idea of victimhood from the individual to societal level within the context of transitional justice and reconciliation. The idea of justice and truth has gained considerable prevalence within post-war states in the Balkan region. The reform of the state has required the regeneration of society based on particular legal interpretations of the political violence. As a result, an era of judicial obligations has come to frame how society regenerates, reforms and rehabilitates. Therefore the paper discusses the consequences of wartime victimization in terms of local responses to how ‘the past is processed’ through Transitional Justice institutions like the International Criminal Tribunal of Yugoslavia (ICTY, and associated ad-hoc mechanisms, like outreach programs. The establishment of such judicial processes have set off particular questions like can society be seen as victim? How is society victim? Using a socio-political approach, such questions are problematised through a political defeat paradigm to reveal a particular political anxiety that underwrites the new societies and their politics. This is where the idea of “state anxiety” and “political defeat” are used to discuss what has locally formed out of such politics of transition.

  20. From youth protection to individual responsibility: addressing smoking among young people in post-war West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Rosemary

    2010-01-01

    This article draws on health education material produced on smoking in the 1950s and 1960s in West Germany to question the extent to which smoking and health disappeared from the agenda in the post war decades, following the experience of anti-smoking propaganda during the Third Reich. It suggests that continuities can be seen in anti-smoking literature and campaigns both before and after the Third Reich around the notion of youth protection. In the early 1960s, there was a more decisive break with the past with the foundation of the Ministry of Health and a growing determination to make health education a federal responsibility. There was an evident shift towards notions of individual responsibility and rational choice, informed by a growing body of international epidemiological evidence on smoking and health. There were also some attempts to engage with youth culture in the 1960s, rather than seeing youth culture as a threat to the social order, as had been the case in older youth protection arguments against smoking.

  1. [The two (and more) cultures of the "clone". Utopia and fiction in post-war discourses of life sciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Christina

    2009-01-01

    Since the late 1950s, "two cultures" has become a catch phrase for describing a deep divide between science and literature. When Charles P. Snow, who initiated this discussion, introduced the notion of "two cultures" in a lecture at the University in Cambridge in 1959, he referred to an incompatibility of scientific and literary worldviews in Western Societies. His thesis of two contradicting cultures immediately received a huge variety of different responses from philosophers, scientists, novelists and literary scholars. However, this article argues that this widespread debate was part of a broader post-war discourse on the impact of modern science on society, in which especially the idea of "scientific progress" was at stake. Central to this debate was the question of how scientific and technological progress could affect the notion of the "human" itself. The paper analyses the emerging discourse on cloning against this background. The constitutive role of fiction and imagination in both fields, science and literature, is explored by tracing the scientific, utopian and literary cultures in which figures of human clones have taken different shapes since the 1960s. At that time, scientists developed utopian views in which the "clone" became a metaphor for future possibilities of transcending and reshaping the human nature. Science fiction writers reacted to this by portraying the human clone as an individual and by depicting human clone figures in a psychological way

  2. Integration of dance-movement therapy and music therapy methods for children with special needs in the post-war area

    OpenAIRE

    Jarc, Katja

    2012-01-01

    In this specialist work I explored the effects of integrative group dance-movement and music therapy methods on improvement of mental health of children with special needs in post war environment. The research was accomplished along with the international volunteer humanitarian project of Arts Therapies in Sarajevo. The main goal of research was to establish how dance-movement and music therapy methods can stimulate verbal and non-verbal communication, creativity, self-expression and increase...

  3. Industrial sustainable development level in China and its influencing factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjian Cao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to set up a comprehensive index system to evaluate the sustainable development level of the industrial sector in China and to determine the key influencing factors that hinder the sector’s sustainable development. To achieve these research goals, we build a theoretical model with 26 indexes selected from resource, environment, economy, and society subsystems. An empirical analysis is conducted through Principal Component Analysis and Structural Equation Modeling. Results indicate that the sustainable development level of China’s industrial sector became positive in 2007 and peaked in 2012. The environment subsystem has the largest effect on the sustainable development level. The sustainable development level is also greatly influenced by solid wastes, production of non-renewable resources, energy consumption per unit of gross domestic product (GDP, and industrial research and development (R&D expenditure. The basic conclusion is that the sustainable development level of the industrial sector in China can be enhanced through improving the utilization efficiency of resources, increasing the contribution of technology progress to GDP, and developing renewable resources.

  4. MICE INDUSTRY INFLUENCE ON ACTIVISATION OF BUSINESS ACTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    N. N. Smagina

    2014-01-01

    Global tourism market exposed the internationalization is forced to produce modern strategies, offering consumers innovative forms of tourism. Issues of the business communications, requirement of the continuous of business participants’ interaction, formed a new ways of thinking in the tourism industry evolution: business tourism development. The article reveals the concept of international business tourism. Influence on the factors determining the international business travel market trends...

  5. The expertise of participation: mass housing and urban planning in post-war France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupers, Kenny

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses the advent of participation in French planning as the historical touchstone of a larger shift in urban thinking. It investigates how the interactions between inhabitants, developers, state officials and social scientific experts in the production of large-scale modern housing areas and new towns helped bring about user participation as a category of action and discourse. The article argues that the transformation of inhabitants into active participants entails the development of legitimate 'user knowledge' and therefore - perhaps paradoxically - the continuing involvement of experts. The first part of the article examines how the turn towards mass housing production during the 1950s prompted the question of the user and established the ground for debates about participation. The second part of the article explores the relationship between inhabitant contestation and changing urban planning and policy-making during the 1960s. The focus here is on Sarcelles, which served both as a national urban model, a key object of sociological study, and the main target of national public outcry, and helps to reveal relations between local contestation, national policy and shifts in urban thinking. The last part of the article looks at the concrete influence of ideas of participation on subsequent urban policies during the 1970s.

  6. Role of Central Bank in the Establishment and the Development of Financial System in Post-War Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdin MALOKU

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The financial sector in Kosovo after 1999 was almost non-existent. At that time there were no banks functioning. On the 15 November on the same year has been established the Central Bank of Kosovo entitled as the Banking and Payment Authority of Kosovo (BPK. Now there are ten years past from the establishment of the Central Bank of the Republic of Kosovo and the initial functioning of Kosovo financial system. With the development of Kosovo economical environment in general and its financial system development in particular, the need for enlargement of objectives and functions of this institution showed up. As a result of this on August 24 of year 2006, BPK was transformed into Central Banking Authority of Kosovo – CBAK, throughwhich functions were increased, contemporaneous governing was applied and “Kosovarization” process was made possible on CBAK governance. After the declaration of independence on the 17 February, by entering into force of the Kosovo Constitution on the 15 June 2008, the law on Kosovo Central Bank of Republic of Kosovo became effective, by ensuring full functional, operational, financial and personnel autonomy, by having one of the main objectives: Foster the soundness, solvency and efficient functioning of a stable market based financial system, encouraging market emergence of safe financial instruments. The objective of this paper is to explain the role of the CentralBank of the Republic of Kosovo in the establishment and the development of the ten year old post-war Kosovo financial system, how and what should be the mission and vision of CBK in function of further development of Kosovo financial system.

  7. Mideast Oil and Petrochem Industrial Influence on China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The petroleum and petrochemical industry in the Middle East region is exerting influence on the Chinese market because the Middle East has become an important option for China to import crude. In 2003, China imported 91.12 million tons of crude, of which the Middle East accounted for 50.7 percent. China imported 15.18 million tons of crude from Saudi Arabia in 2003, 16.7 percent of the nation's total import,and 12.39 million tons of crude from Iran, 13.6percent of the total.

  8. 试析战后日本围绕“战后体制”的斗争%An Analysis of the Struggle for Postwar Regime in the Post-war Era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔世广

    2015-01-01

    战后70年来,日本的战后体制一直受到统治阶级和保守势力的挑战,前后产生过三次大的企图否定战后体制、终结“战后”的动向,并引发了围绕战后体制的激烈斗争。第一次否定战后体制所追求的目标是“独立自主”,第二次追求的目标是“政治大国”,第三次追求的目标则是在坚持日美同盟前提下的“军事大国”。因此,战后日本围绕“战后体制”的斗争,实质上是日本要走一条什么样的道路的斗争。%In 70 years after the end of World War II, the ruling class and the conservative force have always been challenging the post-war regime. As a result, it has formed three obvious trends that attempt to deny post-war regime and end the post-war era, and triggered fierce struggles around the post-war regime. The first goal pursued is Japan as an independent country, the second goal is Japan as a political giant, and the third one is Japan as a military power that should be under the premise of the Japan-US Alliance. The struggle for the post-war regime in post-war era means essentially the fight against Japan’s development direction. The post-war era which Japan has gone through for 70 years, now is facing great challenges.

  9. [Influence of industrial and traffic pollution on reproduction of spermatophytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solntseva, M P; Glazunova, K P

    2010-01-01

    A review of studies conducted, primarily, in Europe in last 30 years that deal with influence of anthropogenic environmental pollution on functioning of reproductive and, by comparison, vegetative organs of spermatophytes is presented. In the papers considered the impacts of typical industrial and traffic pollutants (compounds of iron, zinc, copper, lead, chromium, cadmium, as well as sulfur dioxide, ozone, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) on plants via soil, water, air, and precipitation have been studied. Special attention is paid to effects of heavy metals on embryological structures and processes in staminate and pistillate reproductive spheres of plants (archesporium, meiosis, sporogenesis, gametophytogenesis, morphology and functioning of gametophyte, endospermogenesis, embryogenesis). Detrimental effects of anthropogenic pollution on reproductive sphere of spermatophytes are manifested through disorder in processes of cells fission and differentiation, abnormality in structures development at early stages of morphogenesis, broadening of anomalies spectrum, decrease in pollen fertility, derangement of seed-bearing and germination.

  10. An exploration study on factors influencing Iranian food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Hosseinzadeh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The proposed study of this paper present an empirical investigation to detect important factors impacting on food market using factor analysis. The proposed study designed a questionnaire, distributed among 207 customers who were regular customers of two food chains in city of Tehran, Iran named Shahrvand and Hyperstar. The results of our survey indicate that six major factors including brand loyalty, physical characteristics, pricing effects, performance characteristics, brand relationship and brand position influence food industry, significantly. In terms of the first factor, brand loyalty, “Trust”, “Packaging design characteristics”, “Competitive pricing strategy”, “Stability in quality”, “External relationships” and “Meeting expectations” are important factors in different categories.

  11. Contemporary Ideas in a Traditional Mind-Set: The Nature Conservation Movement in Post War West-Germany (1945-1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Mignon Kirchhof

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In winter 1947 the Association for the Protection of the German Forest wasfounded to prevent the eradication of the forest across Germany after sufferingwartime destruction, overuse and firewood logging. Especially the occupyingforces faced harsh criticism from the German people for their widespreaddeforestation even though it seems that the Allied Powers used the woodresources quite responsibly. This article argues that the uproar by natureconservationists, politicians and “normal people” reflected a German sense ofpowerlessness, and revealed images and convictions of the forest as a nationalsymbol that was supposedly endangered in post-war Germany. These post-wardiscussions referred back to the discourse of the 19th century, when Germanintellectuals declared the forest to be the myth of the German people anddeveloped a notion of “Heimat” that saw a close connection between nation andnature. The post-war discussions involved many of those images andconvictions. Nevertheless, the discussions were not only retrospective: they alsoreacted to the contemporary political situation and adapted their answers andsolutions accordingly.

  12. The Journal as a European Space in Post-War Paris: the Fédération des étudiants nationalistes and Cahiers universitaires, 1961-1963

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh McDonnell

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the Fédération des étudiants nationalistes (FEN and its journal Cahiers universitaires between 1961 and 1963 in the context of post-war Parisian political and intellectual life. These dates encompass the launch of the journal and the loss of French Algeria - a fundamental preoccupation of the group. The group's militancy on behalf of the maintenance of France's three North African départements was interwoven with its far right political orientation and its striking conceptualisation of Europe. This article analyses five strands of discourse about Europe that recur in the journal: a Europe of nationalism, a Europe of imperialism, a Europe of hierarchy, a Europe defined against materialism, and a Europe of youth. I will argue that these different conceptions of Europe are closely interconnected.

  13. Anti-Muslim Sentiments and Violence: A Major Threat to Ethnic Reconciliation and Ethnic Harmony in Post-War Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athambawa Sarjoon

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Following the military defeat of LTTE terrorism in May 2009, the relationship between ethnic and religious groups in Sri Lanka became seriously fragmented as a result of intensified anti-minority sentiments and violence. Consequently, the ethnic Muslims (Moors became the major target in this conflict. The major objective of this study is to critically evaluate the nature and the impact of the anti-Muslim sentiments expressed and violence committed by the extreme nationalist forces during the process of ethnic reconciliation in post-war Sri Lanka. The findings of the study reveal that, with the end of civil war, Muslims have become “another other” and also the target of ethno-religious hatred and violence from the vigilante right-wing ethno-nationalist forces that claim to be protecting the Sinhala-Buddhist nation, race, and culture in Sri Lanka. These acts are perpetrated as part of their tactics aimed to consolidate a strong Sinhala-Buddhist nation—and motivated by the state. Furthermore, the recourse deficit and lack of autonomy within the organizational hierarchy of the Buddhist clergy have motivated the nationalist monks to engage in politics and promote a radical anti-minority rhetoric. This study recommends institutional and procedural reforms to guide and monitor the activities of religious organizations, parties, and movements, together with the teaching of religious tolerance, as the preconditions for ethnic reconciliation and ethnic harmony in post-war Sri Lanka. This study has used only secondary data, which are analyzed in a descriptive and interpretive manner.

  14. Competing Explanations in the Evolution of the Danish Furniture Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    This article assesses the credibility and relative economic importance of the many real and proposed unique development events in the Post-War evolution of the Danish furniture industry by means of available trade and production time series. It finds first, that the Danish industry experienced its...... only exceptional growth event compared to other developed country furniture industries in the 1950s. It is argued that this establishes as the leading causal candidates for the Danish economic specialisation in furniture; subsidised export marketing of Danish Modern style in the US and the War......-undamaged Danish industry’s opportunistic exploitation of recovering European Post-War furniture markets. Second, the apparent prominence of particle board manufacture in today’s industry is a Danish specialisation with its origin in the 1950s growth event. Third, while there is much evidence that IKEA became...

  15. MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS INFLUENCING TRAINING: EMPLOYEES' PARADIGM IN THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    G Arutchelvi; D K Tripati

    2016-01-01

      The prospects for the hotel industry in India are very bright. Thanks to the revival in global economy and increase in the inflow of international tourist, be it to attend sports events or trade fairs...

  16. The Influence of the Economy on Hospitality Industry in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ... In theory, many people patronize the hospitality industry when the economy is buoyant, ... Lag variables were introduced in order to safe guard against autocorrelation while ...

  17. Improving human performance: Industry factors influencing the ability to perform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güera Massyn Romo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Learning interventions and new technologies that aim to improve human performance must take cognisance of industry factors inhibiting human performance. The dynamic and fast pace nature of the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT and the engineering industries do not lend themselves to proper skills planning and management. These industries experience real skills gaps, to some of which they contribute by themselves. This study reports on these performance-inhibiting factors such as the underutilisation of available skills, tolerance for individual preferences, and dynamically, and informally refining a role objective while an employee is occupying a certain role. The important professional skills required by individuals to cope with these real life factors are also explored in the skills gaps management context. Moreover, these industries need a profile they refer to as Special Forces, which denotes a high calibre of worker that possesses well-developed professional skills whilst having advanced technical expertise and sufficient experience. This resource profile is required largely due to the poor management of human resource processes in practice and the current reported lack of adequate skills. Furthermore, this study refers to the recent lack of a working definition for these Special Forces leading to the omitted active development of these profiles in industry today, which appears to become a key human performance inhibiting factor.

  18. Influence of agroclimatic conditions on content of main cannabinoids in industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikora Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In a six-year field experiment eight industrial hemp varieties were examined for ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC and cannabidiol (CBD contents. The study analyzed the influence of growing degree days (GDD, soil temperature at 5 cm, air humidity, and growing season precipitation on the levels of the main cannabinoids in this crop. Agroclimatic conditions do not influence THC and CBD contents in industrial hemp in the same way. THC synthesis and accumulation are under the significant positive influence of GDD and air humidity and under the negative influence of precipitation, while soil temperature at 5 cm has no significant effect on it. Soil temperature at 5 cm has a significant positive effect on the CBD content, as do GDD. Precipitation has a negative influence on the CBD content of industrial hemp, while air humidity has no influence on it.

  19. The Relationship between Innovation Influence and Customer Loyalty: An Empirical Study of an Experience Economy Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Taylor A.

    2014-01-01

    2014 dissertation for MSc in International Business Management. Selected by academic staff as a good example of a masters level dissertation. Good customer experience is a driver to increased customer satisfaction,\\ud leading to customer loyalty. This is prominent in the context of experience\\ud economy industries, an industry where the main purchase is an experience.\\ud Previous conflicting theory depicts innovation as a positive influencer and\\ud non-influencer of customer satisfaction. To ...

  20. Integrating Life Cycle Energy into the Design of Façade Refurbishment for a Post-War Residential Building in The Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paressa Loussos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The existing building stock has been in the focus of European Union policies for energy savings. Nevertheless, energy certification schemes refer mostly to operational energy and usually do not consider aspects related to the life cycle of the building. To look at the overall energy cost during the lifespan of a building, the energy used to produce and assemble the building materials also needs to be included. This paper develops a design methodology for existing residential buildings that aims at decreasing the life cycle energy use as much as possible. This approach was applied on a case study of an existing post-war residential building in Utrecht, The Netherlands. The main focus of this study is to find a design solution for façade retrofitting that considers both embodied and operational energy. The design approach is based on comparing different strategies for the use of façade materials. This design methodology can be replicated in other projects, as the conclusions and recommendations can also be used for future refurbishment projects for which a low operational energy and materials with a low embodied energy are desired.

  1. Ethnological Analysis of the Process of the Post-War Migration of Slovaks from Hungary to Czechoslovakia in the Years 1946-1948

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paríková Magdaléna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the application of the possibilities of collecting narratives and their analysis in the reconstruction process of migration of people to the new country - in Slovakia. The analysis of the particular data gained by fieldwork research using the oral history method comparative with the historical and statistic dates. These facts offer not only relevant information documenting the real process of the migration, but also create the network of microprobes (case study on the basis of specific experienced events of the direct participants of migration, as well as the reflection in memory of the resettled. Fieldwork research was in the region of South Slovakia - around Nové Zámky and Komárno cities. The aim of this approach is to interpret individually experience “small history” of the context of “big history”, specifically, one post-war phase of migration, which occurred in this area of Central Europe in the period from 1946 to 1948.

  2. 关于二战之后日本赔偿的几点思考%Opinion of the Japanese post-war compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鹏军

    2012-01-01

    The Japanese foreign punitive compensation after WWII, a special case in the history of international relation, matched the American Cold War. That contravened the Allies' decision made in the initial stage after the war and resulted in the evolution of the American policy in East Asia. The amount of compensation to a Japanese victim being several times bigger than that to a foreign one, the compensation was not complete and perfect with a great difference at home and abroad. That kind of compensa-tion produced a negative effect on the Japanese post-war self-reflection.%二战之后日本的对外赔偿作为国际关系史上的特例,配合了美国"冷战"遏制战略的开展,违反了战后初期盟国的决议,是美国东亚政策演变的结果之一;战后赔偿是不彻底和不完善的,日本政府内外有别,对本国受害者的赔偿是对外战争赔款的数倍,未能起到战争赔款的作用,对日本战后战争反省的态度影响深远。

  3. Experiences of institutions and political attitudes in post-war society | Percepciones de las instituciones y actitudes políticas de la sociedad en la posguerra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Gómez Roda

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Political attitudes and public opinion in post-war Spain are becoming the focus of increasing attention by historians. This article examines their development through ordinary people’s perceptions of Francoist institutions. Mainly based on material from the Communist Party archive concerning the situation in the province of Valencia, the main focus of the article is on the experience of the working and urban middle classes. | Las actitudes y la opinión de los españoles en la posguerra son motivo de una creciente atención por la historiografía. En este artículo se realiza una aproximación a su concreción en las percepciones de la gente común sobre las instituciones del franquismo. La documentación utilizada procede fundamentalmente del archivo histórico del Partido Comunista y el marco geográfico es la provincia de Valencia. Se presta una atención preferente a la percepción de trabajadores y clases medias urbanas.

  4. Figurations of the Spiritual Squalid in Allen Ginsberg's Indian Journals: Transformation of India in Post-War Beat and American Imagination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayathri Prabhu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the impact that India had on Beat imagination with specific emphasis on Ginsberg's under-studied Indian Journals, written during his travels in India in 1962-63, and published in 1970. The earlier American literary view of India was dominated by the notion of the spiritual East, and was evoked in the high prose of Emerson and Whitman. In the new context and historical time of post-war counterculture, India came to constitute a different kind of repertoire: 1 the trope of physical travel (unlike the earlier literary forebears who had never actually visited India and its sense of encounter with the un-transcendable physical 'dirt' of India; 2 India as a new realm of the sexual (in contrast with the more traditional dominant trend of India as 'ascetic spiritual' and the intertwining of the sexual and spiritual; and 3 Experimenting with drugs to explore the spaces between pilgrimage and tourism wherein India as a whole and in itself offers alternate states of bodily being. Moving away from conventional postcolonial notions of 'representation' in modes that might still be seen as quasi-Orientalist, I read the Ginsberg's text as creating a new kind of literary and aesthetic density, mixing genres of travelogue, diary, poetry, confession, doodle, photography. Further, in contrast to the entirely uni-directional notions of Orientalist representation, I argue that this encounter re-defined Beat notions of space, sexuality, and alternate consciousness.

  5. [Suicides in Bjelovar-Bilogora County in the war period, pre-war and post-war period, and the period of the economic expansion and recession].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catipović, Vinko; Koić, Elvira; Sklebar, Duška

    2014-01-01

    In the sample of 1134 suicides committed in the period 1988-2011 in Bjelovar-Bilogora County, we have analyzed the number of suicides, methods, scene and time of committing, gender, age and probable motives, comparing results from the Homeland war period, pre-war and post-war period, and the period of the economic expansion and recession. The study results show increase in the suicide rate in wartime and stagnation in the period of the recession. Age-standardized suicide rates for all ages are higher than the Croatian average. Men commit suicides more than women, and 3.53% of the total number of suicides are committed by minors. The most frequent method of performing suicide was by hanging, most suicides were committed in the morning hours, in the spring months, in closed buildings (houses, outbuildings), the most probable motive for suicide is a disease. Seen by periods, suicide rate is the highest in the wartime, with an increase in the percentage of suicides committed by firearms and explosives, and outdoor committed suicides. During the period of the expansion and the recession, we note a shift of suicides toward people in their fifties. The ratio of male and female suicides is the highest in the periods of crisis.

  6. The Third Man: comparative analysis of a science autobiography and a cinema classic as windows into post-war life sciences research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, Hub

    2015-12-01

    In 2003, biophysicist and Nobel Laureate Maurice Wilkins published his autobiography entitled The Third Man. In the preface, he diffidently points out that the title (which presents him as the 'third' man credited with the co-discovery of the structure of DNA, besides Watson and Crick) was chosen by his publisher, as a reference to the famous 1949 movie no doubt, featuring Orson Welles in his classical role as penicillin racketeer Harry Lime. In this paper I intend to show that there is much more to this title than merely its familiar ring. If subjected to a (psychoanalytically inspired) comparative analysis, multiple correspondences between movie and memoirs can be brought to the fore. Taken together, these documents shed an intriguing light on the vicissitudes of budding life sciences research during the post-war era. I will focus my comparative analysis on issues still relevant today, such as dual use, the handling of sensitive scientific information (in a moral setting defined by the tension between collaboration and competition) and, finally, on the interwovenness of science and warfare (i.e. the 'militarisation' of research and the relationship between beauty and destruction). Thus, I will explain how science autobiographies on the one hand and genres of the imagination (such as novels and movies) on the other may deepen our comprehension of tensions and dilemmas of life sciences research then and now. For that reason, science autobiographies can provide valuable input (case material) for teaching philosophy and history of science to science students.

  7. Influence of firm related factors and industrial policy regime on technology based capacity utilization in sugar industry in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Akpan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzed the technology based capacity utilization rate in sugar industry in Nigeria in the period 1970 to 2010. Data used in the study were obtained from the sugar firms, publications of the Central Bank of Nigeria and National Bureau of Statistics. Augmented Dicker Fuller unit root test was conducted on the specified data to ascertain their stationarity and order of integration. The result reveals that some variables were stationary at level while some were stationary at first difference. The diagnostic statistics from the multiple log linear regression on the specified variables confirmed the reliability of the model. The empirical result reveals that sugar cane price and sugar industry’s real energy consumption have significant negative relationship with the technology based capacity utilization in the sugar industry in Nigeria. On the other hand, the wage rate of skill workers, industry’s, real research expenditure, human capital and period of import substitution have significant positive influenced on the technology based capacity utilization rate in the industry. Our findings suggest that policy measures aim at expanding the hectares of industrial sugarcane and increase production of refined petroleum fuel in the country will promote capacity utilization in the industry. Also policies targeted on the intensification of research and improved worker’s remuneration in the sub-sector is strongly advocated.

  8. How does the alcohol industry attempt to influence marketing regulations? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savell, Emily; Fooks, Gary; Gilmore, Anna B

    2016-01-01

    To systematically review, using a qualitative, narrative synthesis approach, papers examining alcohol industry efforts to influence alcohol marketing policy, and compare with those used by the tobacco industry. Literature searches were conducted between April and July 2011, and updated in March 2013. Papers were included if they: made reference to alcohol industry efforts to influence (a) policy debates concerning marketing regulations, (b) new specific marketing policies or (c) broad alcohol policy which included marketing regulations; were written in English; and concerned the period 1990-2013. Alcohol industry political activity was categorized into strategies/tactics and frames/arguments. Data extraction was undertaken by the lead author and 100% of the papers were fully second-reviewed. Seventeen papers met the review criteria. Five main political strategies and five main frames were identified. The alcohol industry argues against marketing regulation by emphasizing industry responsibility and the effectiveness of self-regulation, questioning the effectiveness of statutory regulation and by focusing on individual responsibility. Arguments relating to industry responsibility are often reinforced through corporate social responsibility activities. The industry primarily conveys its arguments through manipulating the evidence base and by promoting ineffective voluntary codes and non-regulatory initiatives. The alcohol industry's political activity is more varied than existing models of corporate political activity suggest. The industry's opposition to marketing regulation centres on claims that the industry is responsible and that self regulation is effective. There are considerable commonalities between tobacco and alcohol industry political activity, with differences due potentially to differences in policy contexts and perceived industry legitimacy. © 2015 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of

  9. Spatial Pattern and Influencing Factor of County-level Industrial Development in Liaoning Province of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Xiaona; MA Yanji

    2008-01-01

    County-level industrial development and structure upgrade is one of the most important issues of revitaliz-ing old industrial base of China. ARer the cluster analysis on GDP per capita and GDP per area of each county inLiaoning Province, this paper finds the similarity of population size, land use intensity, and economic development ofeach county. Location quotient reflects the specialization intensity of industries in each county, and it also reflects thespatial differences of county-level industrial development. Economic development level is higher in the southeast thanin the northwest of Liaoning, and the industry driving effect on county-level economy is apparent. The main influenc-ing factors include location, industrial foundation and economic system reform, capital input level, knowledge andtechnology dissemination, conditions of domestic and overseas markets, population and labor force transfer. Industri-alization is an important approach to urbanization for the counties in Liaoning Province. The proportion of agricultureis much higher in the northwest than in the southeast of Liaoning, so it will be take longer time for counties in thenorthwest of Liaoning to make industrialization, urbanization and modernization.

  10. Youth Advocates’ Perceptions of Tobacco Industry Marketing Influences on Adolescent Smoking: Can They See the Signs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinda Douglas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Point-of-sale (POS advertising at retail stores is one of the key marketing avenues used by the tobacco industry. The United States Surgeon General urges actions to eliminate POS tobacco advertisements because of their influence on youth smoking. Many youth empowerment programs are implemented to address tobacco industry marketing influences, including POS tobacco advertisements. While youth are asked to take on such collective action, little is known regarding their perceptions and understanding of tobacco industry marketing influences and related advocacy activities. This mixed methods study examined Oklahoma’s tobacco control youth empowerment program members’ perceptions of tobacco industry marketing influences. Four focus groups were held with active program members from rural and urban areas. Overall, the focus group participants viewed the program as purposeful, as an avenue to help others, and as a way to make a difference. Specifically, the older participants (median age = 18 years identified tobacco industry marketing influences such as POS, movies, and magazine advertisements and reported participating in activities that counter POS tobacco advertisements at retail stores. Likewise younger participants (median age = 16 years, identified similar tobacco industry marketing influences, but also included tobacco use by friends and family as tobacco industry marketing influences. Moreover, the younger participants did not report engaging in activities that addressed POS tobacco advertisements. The study results suggest that the empowerment program should tailor its programming, training, materials, and activities with input from youth of various ages. Thoughtfully developed messages and specific activities can truly empower youth and maximize their contribution as change agents who address POS or other initiatives at the retail environments to prevent chronic diseases.

  11. MODELS OF NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN POST-WAR GERMANY, FRANCE, THE UK, THE US AND CANADA WITH GROWING IMMIGRATION INFLUX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenia Zaika

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents immigration models of Germany, France, Great Britain, the US and Canada. North-American states differ from the ‘classic-nationalist’ European states in that they have considered immigration an important factor in their development from the very beginning of their political existence. Although political culture in these countries (the US and Canada was formed under certain influence, the idea of an ‘ethno-cultural core’ is foreign to them. One of the biggest problems of immigrant integration in Western countries is that immigrants insist on having cultural rights within the public sphere of the receiving country and expect to see them respected. The difference in political culture between immigrant countries of North America and ‘nation states’ of Europe determine the two ways cultural rights are institutionalized in those countries and consequently the exact type of integration problems the countries face. 

  12. How does the tobacco industry attempt to influence marketing regulations? A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Savell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control makes a number of recommendations aimed at restricting the marketing of tobacco products. Tobacco industry political activity has been identified as an obstacle to Parties' development and implementation of these provisions. This study systematically reviews the existing literature on tobacco industry efforts to influence marketing regulations and develops taxonomies of 1 industry strategies and tactics and 2 industry frames and arguments. METHODS: Searches were conducted between April-July 2011, and updated in March 2013. Articles were included if they made reference to tobacco industry efforts to influence marketing regulations; supported claims with verifiable evidence; were written in English; and concerned the period 1990-2013. 48 articles met the review criteria. Narrative synthesis was used to combine the evidence. RESULTS: 56% of articles focused on activity in North America, Europe or Australasia, the rest focusing on Asia (17%, South America, Africa or transnational activity. Six main political strategies and four main frames were identified. The tobacco industry frequently claims that the proposed policy will have negative unintended consequences, that there are legal barriers to regulation, and that the regulation is unnecessary because, for example, industry does not market to youth or adheres to a voluntary code. The industry primarily conveys these arguments through direct and indirect lobbying, the promotion of voluntary codes and alternative policies, and the formation of alliances with other industrial sectors. The majority of tactics and arguments were used in multiple jurisdictions. CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco industry political activity is far more diverse than suggested by existing taxonomies of corporate political activity. Tactics and arguments are repeated across jurisdictions, suggesting that the taxonomies of industry tactics and arguments developed in this paper are

  13. The social nature of the mother's tie to her child: John Bowlby's theory of attachment in post-war America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicedo, Marga

    2011-09-01

    This paper examines the development of British psychiatrist and psychoanalyst John Bowlby's views and their scientific and social reception in the United States during the 1950s. In a 1951 report for the World Health Organization Bowlby contended that the mother is the child's psychic organizer, as observational studies of children worldwide showed that absence of mother love had disastrous consequences for children's emotional health. By the end of the decade Bowlby had moved from observational studies of children in hospitals to animal research in order to support his thesis that mother love is a biological need. I examine the development of Bowlby's views and their scientific and social reception in the United States during the 1950s, a central period in the evolution of his views and in debates about the social implications of his work. I argue that Bowlby's view that mother love was a biological need for children influenced discussions about the desirability of mothers working outside the home during the early Cold War. By claiming that the future of a child's mind is determined by her mother's heart, Bowlby's argument exerted an unusually strong emotional demand on mothers and had powerful implications for the moral valuation of maternal care and love.

  14. INFLUENCE OF PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRY ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS ON ANIMAL OVARIAN CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Sirotkin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our studies was to examine (1 the effect of environmental contaminants (benzene, toluene and xylen on basic ovarian cell functions (proliferation, apoptosis, secretory activity in different animal species (rabbit, pig, cow, and (2 whether gonadotropic hormone (FSH and plant molecules (quercetin, resveratrol or extract of yucca can affect these functions and modify effect of environmental contaminants. It was observed, that the culture of either porcine or bovine ovarian cells with benzene, toluene or xylen promote apoptosis (accumulation of apoptosis markers bax and p53 and proliferation (accumulation of PCNA. Furthermore, additions of these contaminants were able either up- or down-regulate the release of progesterone, oxytocin, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I and prostaglandin F by cultured porcine, rabbit and bovine ovarian cells and their response to addition of FSH. FSH additions promoted proliferation, apoptosis and release of molecules listed above by porcine granulosa cells. Moreover, FSH was able to modify and to prevent. Some effects of BTEX on these cells. The effects of either quercetin or resveratrol on basic porcine ovarian cell functions were observed, but these plant molecules were not able to prevent BTEX effect. Feeding of rabbits with yucca extract caused changes in release of progesterone, IGF-I and prostaglandin F by their ovarian cells, as well as to modify and prevent the influence of benzene on ovarian hormone release. The obtained data suggest that (1 the negative effect of BTEX on reproduction can be due to their influence on ovarian cell apoptosis, proliferation, turnover and release of peptide and steroid hormones and growth factors, and that (2 FSH and plant molecules can regulate ovarian cell functions and prevent some effects of BTEX on these cells.

  15. Geographical Detector Model for Influencing Factors of Industrial Sector Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Wu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Studying the influencing factors of carbon dioxide emissions is not only practically but also theoretically crucial for establishing regional carbon-reduction policies, developing low-carbon economy and solving the climate problems. Therefore, we used a geographical detector model which is consists of four parts, i.e., risk detector, factor detector, ecological detector and interaction detector to analyze the effect of these social economic factors, i.e., GDP, industrial structure, urbanization rate, economic growth rate, population and road density on the increase of energy consumption carbon dioxide emissions in industrial sector in Inner Mongolia northeast of China. Thus, combining with the result of four detectors, we found that GDP and population more influence than economic growth rate, industrial structure, urbanization rate and road density. The interactive effect of any two influencing factors enhances the increase of the carbon dioxide emissions. The findings of this research have significant policy implications for regions like Inner Mongolia.

  16. Post-War Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Kruijt

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available – Terror in the Countryside. Campesino Responses to Political Violence in Guatemala, 1954-1985, by Rachel A. May. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Center for International Studies/Research in International Studies/Latin America Series #35, 2001. – La guerrilla fue mi camino. Epitafio para César Montes, by Julio César Macías. Guatemala: Piedra Santa/Colección Afluentes de Modernidad, 1999. – Testigo de conciencia (Periodismo de Opinión Documentado, by Marco A. Mérida. Guatemala: ARCASAVI, 2000. – Centroamérica 2002. Un nuevo modelo de desarrollo regional, edited by Klaus Bodemer and Eduardo Gamarra. Caracas: Nueva Sociedad, 2002. – Who Governs? Guatemala Five years After the Peace Accords, by Rachel Sieder, Megan Thomas, George Vickers and Jack Spence. Cambridge, Mass.: Hemispheric Initiatives/Washington Office on Latin America (WOLA, January 2002. – Pasos hacia una nueva convivencia: Democracia y participación en Centroamérica, edited by Ricardo Córdova Macías, Günther Maihold and Sabina Kurtenbach. San Salvador: FUNDAUNGO, Instituto de Estudios Iberoamericanos de Hamburgo and Instituto Iberoamericano de Berlin, 2001. – Los desafíos de la democracia en Centroamérica, by René Poitevin and Alexander Sequén-Mónchez. Guatemala: FLACSO, 2002. – Más allá de las elecciones: Diez años después de los acuerdos de paz, edited by Hector Dada Hirezi. San Salvador: FLACSO, 2002. – Guatemala, un proyecto inconcluso: La multiculturalidad, un paso hacia la democracia, by Hugo Cayzac. Guatemala: FLACSO, 2001. – La violencia en el contexto del posconflicto, según la percepción de comunidades urbanas pobres de Guatemala, by Caroline Moser and Cathy McIlwaine. Washington/Bogotá: Banco Mundial-Región de Latinoamérica y el Caribe/Tercer Mundo Editores, 2001. – El lado oscuro de la eterna primavera. Violencia, criminalidad y delincuencia en la postguerra, by Manolo Vela, Alexander Sequén-Mónchez and Hugo Antonio Solares. Guatemala: FLACSO, 2001.

  17. Research on Collective Learning Mechanism and Influencing Factors of Industrial Cluster Innovation Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Wang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to contribute to the cluster innovation literature by adding the collective learning perspective and propose an analytical framework on collective learning of cluster. Industrial cluster is viewed as a prevalent mode for technology innovation in knowledge-based economy. Collective learning outlines how local innovation network and spatial proximity between actors influence the sharing and creation of skills and knowledge in cluster. Firstly, this study discusses the structure and character of innovation network within industrial cluster. Secondly, it analyzes the collective learning mechanism of industrial cluster, which is involves in three dimensions: horizontal learning, vertical learning and multi-angle learning. Then, it focuses on some influencing factors of collective learning within innovation network. Finally, this study analyzes the role of global-local linkages in the dynamic capability of cluster innovation network.

  18. An analysis of how developments in the packaging industry will influence the dimensions of freight carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Niels; Jansen, Jan; Pieters, Reinder; Weijers, Stef; Woodburn, Allan

    2011-01-01

    To what extent will trends in the packaging industry determine or influence the future dimensions of freight carriers? In this study we have identified these trends and studied the possible impact on the sizes of the truck of the future. It was part of a dissertation for the MSc programme in Logisti

  19. Tobacco industry influence on the definition of tobacco related disorders by the American Psychiatric Association

    OpenAIRE

    Neuman, M; Bitton, A.; Glantz, S

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, third edition (DSM-III), published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) in 1980, included the first official definitions by the APA of tobacco dependence and tobacco withdrawal. Tobacco industry efforts to influence the DSM-III were investigated.

  20. The effect of social influence on market inequalities in the motion picture industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delre, S.A.; Broekhuizen, T.L.J.; Jager, W.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the degree to which two social influences, namely imitation and coordinated consumption, effectuate inequalities in the motion picture industry. We develop an agent-based model based on micro movie visitors' decision-making that generates the observed macro market outcom

  1. The effect of social influence on market inequalities in the motion picture industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delre, S.A.; Broekhuizen, T.L.J.; Jager, W.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the degree to which two social influences, namely imitation and coordinated consumption, effectuate inequalities in the motion picture industry. We develop an agent-based model based on micro movie visitors' decision-making that generates the observed macro market outcom

  2. Tobacco industry influence on the definition of tobacco related disorders by the American Psychiatric Association

    OpenAIRE

    Neuman, M; Bitton, A; Glantz, S

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, third edition (DSM-III), published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) in 1980, included the first official definitions by the APA of tobacco dependence and tobacco withdrawal. Tobacco industry efforts to influence the DSM-III were investigated.

  3. An analysis of how developments in the packaging industry will influence the dimensions of freight carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jan Jansen; Reinder Pieters; Allan Woodburn; Niels Meijer; Stef Weijers

    2011-01-01

    To what extent will trends in the packaging industry determine or influence the future dimensions of freight carriers? In this study we have identified these trends and studied the possible impact on the sizes of the truck of the future. It was part of a dissertation for the MSc programme in

  4. Measuring the influence of industry sector membership on supply chain disruption reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcantara, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The global Supply Chain Resilience Survey by the Business Continuity Institute and Zurich Insurance is a comprehensive study on the state of supply chains in different organisations worldwide. As a benchmarking tool, it also contains data about business continuity arrangements in place to ensure supply chain resilience. Given this study's historically qualitative approach to reporting, this paper aims to introduce quantitative analysis. In this paper, responses that report membership in Standard Industrial Classification 2007 industry sectors from the 2013 Supply Chain Resilience Survey were disaggregated and related to supply chain disruption reporting. A chi-square test of independence reveals that membership in a particular industry sector influences reporting of supply chain disruption. Nonetheless, the relationship between these variables is weak. This study demonstrates interesting differences between industry sectors in terms of supply chain resilience. Further research is required in terms of other variables in order to provide granularity and relevant findings to supply chain planners.

  5. Undue industry influences that distort healthcare research, strategy, expenditure and practice: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Weiler, Richard; Ioannidis, John P A

    2013-05-01

    Expenditure on industry products (mostly drugs and devices) has spiraled over the last 15 years and accounts for substantial part of healthcare expenditure. The enormous financial interests involved in the development and marketing of drugs and devices may have given excessive power to these industries to influence medical research, policy, and practice. Review of the literature and analysis of the multiple pathways through which the industry has directly or indirectly infiltrated the broader healthcare systems. We present the analysis of the industry influences at the following levels: (i) evidence base production, (ii) evidence synthesis, (iii) understanding of safety and harms issues, (iv) cost-effectiveness evaluation, (v) clinical practice guidelines formation, (vi) healthcare professional education, (vii) healthcare practice, (viii) healthcare consumer's decisions. We located abundance of consistent evidence demonstrating that the industry has created means to intervene in all steps of the processes that determine healthcare research, strategy, expenditure, practice and education. As a result of these interferences, the benefits of drugs and other products are often exaggerated and their potential harms are downplayed, and clinical guidelines, medical practice, and healthcare expenditure decisions are biased. To serve its interests, the industry masterfully influences evidence base production, evidence synthesis, understanding of harms issues, cost-effectiveness evaluations, clinical practice guidelines and healthcare professional education and also exerts direct influences on professional decisions and health consumers. There is an urgent need for regulation and other action towards redefining the mission of medicine towards a more objective and patient-, population- and society-benefit direction that is free from conflict of interests. © 2013 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Growth and decline of shoreline industry in Sydney estuary (Australia) and influence on adjacent estuarine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, G F; Lean, J; Gunns, T

    2015-06-01

    Sydney estuary (Australia), like many urbanised waterways, is degraded due to an extended history of anthropogenic activity. Two major sources of contamination to this estuary are discharge by former shoreline industries and historic and contemporary catchment stormwater. The objectives of the present study were to document changes in shoreline land use from European settlement to the present day and determine the influence of this trend on the metal content of adjacent estuarine sediments. Temporal analysis of land use for seven time horizons between 1788 and 2010 showed rapid expansion of industry along much of the Sydney estuary foreshore soon after European settlement due to the benefits of easy and inexpensive access and readily available water for cooling and power. Shoreline industry attained maximum development in 1978 (32-km length) and declined rapidly to the present-day (9-km length) through redevelopment of industrial sites into medium- to high-density, high-value residential housing. Cores taken adjacent to 11 long-term industrial sites showed that past industrial practices contributed significantly to contamination of estuarine sediment. Subsurface metal concentrations were up to 35 times that of present-day surface sediment and over 100 times greater than natural background concentrations. Sedimentation rates for areas adjacent to shoreline industry were between 0.6 and 2.5 cm/year, and relaxation times were estimated at 50 to 100 years. Natural relaxation and non-disturbance of sediments may be the best management practice in most locations.

  7. Key Factors Influencing Sustainable Development of a Green Energy Industry in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chih Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper was to apply the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP approach to explore key factors influencing the sustainable development of a green energy industry in Taiwan. Based on the literature and experts' opinions, a hierarchical structure with five assessment aspects and fifteen development factors was first constructed, and a FAHP algorithm model was then proposed. Finally, based on the AHP experts' questionnaires, we used the FAHP approach to evaluate the key factors. The results showed the following. (1 “Technology” is the most important aspect influencing sustainable development of green energy industry in Taiwan. (2 In order of relative importance, the top six key factors influencing sustainable development of green energy industry in Taiwan are “establishment of key technological capabilities,” “degree of integration of relevant laws and regulations,” “establishment of an industry chain,” “key raw materials and production equipment,” “protection of intellectual property,” and “preferential purchase price rates and various subsidies,” respectively.

  8. The preface by João Cabral de Melo Neto to Em Va Fer Joan Brossa: Theory and practice of realism in two poets from the post-war.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melcion Mateu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1951, the book Em va fer Joan Brossa [Joan Brossa  Made me] was published in Barcelona, with a preface by João Cabral de Melo Neto. It is a useful text to better understand Brossa as well as Cabral; it is a significant text in order to grasp the individual response of these poets to the problem of returning to realism for the early post-war period. A translation of João Cabral de Melo Neto's preface, previously unpublished in Portuguese, is presented here.

  9. Influence of China’s Grain Industrial Market Structure over Grain Pricing Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    From the point of view of industrial market structure,we analyze the influence of market structure on grain production,circulation,and processing,and on the grain pricing power of entities along China’s grain industrial chain.Through analysis,it is indicated that different features of market structure play a significant role in pricing power of such microeconomic entities as farmers and grain enterprises in grain production and transaction.And the market structure determines welfare distribution model of consumers’ surplus and producers’ surplus at the market.

  10. Analysis of the Evolution and Influence on the Industrial Value Chain in Telecommunications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-ming; LI Shi-ming; TAN Yang

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the evolution of telecommunication industrial value chain(TIVC), analyzes the influence of technical innovation and customer demand on TIVC, and establishes the model. The appearance of the circuit switching technology and packet switching technology together with the diversity of the demand of customers change the structure of TIVC,causing vibration in value creation and distribution systems. With changes of the TIVC,enterprises in the chain will accordingly alter their business models, products (services) and the internal organizational structures. All these changes will lead to the reconstruction and optimization of the TIVC, and consequently, promote the development of the telecommunication industry.

  11. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  12. Vinyl chloride industry in the courtroom and corporate influences on the scientific literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedeli, Ugo; Mastroangelo, Giuseppe

    2011-06-01

    Pressure from the vinyl chloride (VC) industry on researchers involved in industry-sponsored studies and on regulatory agencies has been documented since 1970s. This commentary describes the influence of a lawsuit pursued by workers of an Italian VC plant on the recent scientific debate on VC exposure and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Original studies carried out by consultants of the public prosecutors and by independent researchers supported the above association. VC-industry consultants published two reviews during the lawsuit, claiming that liver angiosarcoma was the only VC-related cancer. The judges concluded that the evidence of the association between HCC and VC was still not convincing. After the trial, the risk of HCC was confirmed by a re-assessment of VC carcinogenicity from the International Agency for Research on Cancer, but other subsequent industry-funded reviews criticized the new evidence. Industry-funded authors cited each other, and rarely disclosed conflicts of interest. Based on a network of collaborating researchers, industrial interests can shape the literature enhancing the background noise surrounding the scientific evidence.

  13. The Influence of Corporate Governance Perception Index, Profit Management, and Industrial Type To Environmental Disclosure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Chrysanti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Thisresearchaims to empirically analyze the influence ofCorporate Governance Perception Index, earnings management,and industry type on environmental disclosure. Environmental Disclosure is the dependent variables in this research were measured by scoring technique based on GRI3.1 Guidelines. For the independent variables in this research, using Corporate Governance Perception Index were measured by CGPI index score, earnings management were measured by discretionary accruals, and industry type were measured bycategorial. This research uses secondary data which population are companies entered Corporate Governance Perception Index in 2009-2012. While the sampling method used was purposive sampling method which is overall 44 sample choose. This research uses multiple regression method to test the hypothesis with SPSS computer program. From the analysis performed in this research, it can be concluded that Corporate Governance Perception Index has positively and significant influence to environmental disclosure. The other hand earnings management has no significant influence to environmental disclosure. The last one industry type has negatively and significant influence to environmental disclosure.

  14. The Influence of Working Capital Management on the Food Industry Enterprises Profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bieniasz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of working capital management efficiency in the food industry in Poland and selected countries of the Eurozone. The research was conducted on the basis of the unpublished data by the Polish Central Statistical Office in the trade structure and dimension of food industry enterprises in Poland in the period of 2005-2009, and comparatively, in respect of the food sector in selected Eurozone countries. The working capital management efficiency was assessed by means of the inventory, accounts receivables, current liabilities turnover cycles, cash conversion cycle, and in respect of the obtained rates of return from non-financial assets. The research proved that in the food industry sectors with the shortest working capital cycles, relatively higher rates of profitability were obtained. A favorable influence of working capital cycles reduction of the profitability was also verified by means of a multiple regression analysis.

  15. An exploration study on factors influencing on market orientation: A case study of tourism industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Bagheri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available During the past two decades, tourism industry has become popular among many researchers in developing countries. Tourism is able to attract substantial amount of investment to some areas where many investors are normally unwilling to invest in. This paper, presents important factors influencing market orientation in tourism industry based on the implementation of factor analysis. The proposed study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 267 experts who are involved in tourism industry. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.873, which validates the overall questionnaire. The results of factor analysis have indicated that six factors of market oriented, limiting rules and regulations, strategic competition, marketing planning culture, financial figures and top management.

  16. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    Second World era international system (1945-1990) may not have done any good to ... wedge between the capitalist and socialist blocs, not only blurred Third World .... Politics and the Stages of Economic Growth, Cambridge: Cambridge ... complex industries producing mainly for export, but also producing for local.

  17. AREAS OF ECONOMIC INFLUENCE OF SUGARCANE INDUSTRY IN MATO GROSSO, 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladimir Colman de Azevedo Junior

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Macroeconomic data reveals the increase of sugarcane chain relevance to Mato Grosso economy, however does not exist studies that evaluate the scope of regional impacts. This research has as the main objective the identification of the territory extension of the sugarcane industry influence in Mato Grosso during 2010, characterizing relationships between industrial plants and the regions where they acting. Was used the gravitational model developed by Isard (1956 to estimate this interrelation commerce patterns of the chain in the state, to find the sugarcane regional centers, as well as, to set up their potential areas of influence. As results has the identification of the 13 cane regions, three cities in first level, seven in the second level and three sub-centers. The relations between this centers and the respective regions has different specifications and their complete understanding allows destination of private investments and public politics. Keywords: Gravitational Model. Cane Sugar Suply Chain. Mato Grosso.

  18. Influencing Factors of Catering and Food Service Industry Based on Principal Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi Tang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Scientific analysis of influencing factors is of great importance for the healthy development of catering and food service industry. This study attempts to present a set of critical indicators for evaluating the contribution of influencing factors to catering and food service industry in the particular context of Harbin City, Northeast China. Ten indicators that correlate closely with catering and food service industry were identified and performed by the principal component analysis method using panel data collected from 2000 to 2011. The result showed that three principal components were extracted out of ten indicators, which can be synthesized respectively as comprehensive strength of catering and food service industry, development of social and economy and residents’ consumption willingness to catering services. Additionally, among ten indicators, five relatively important indicators were prioritized as Revenue from principal business of above designated size, Profits of principal business, Cost of principal business, Total investment in fixed assets in hotel and catering services and Retail sales of hotel and catering services.

  19. Pharmaceutical industry financial support for medical education: benefit, or undue influence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Howard

    2009-01-01

    Presently, the pharmaceutical industry funds about half of the costs of continuing medical education (CME) programs in the U.S. This contributes to the ethical problems that pervade the relationship between medicine and the pharmaceutical industry: trustworthiness and conflicts of interest. The problems are exacerbated by rationalizations prevalent on both sides that deny the ethical concerns. Commercialism and commercial bias are highly visible at large CME gatherings, and available data, while scanty, back up the view that physician attendees' subsequent prescribing practices are influenced by the commercial message. The industry believes that it will recoup $3.56 in increased sales for every dollar that it invests in CME. New guidelines instituted by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) in 2004 may succeed in reducing excessive commercial influence, especially since the Department of Health and Human Services has also warned the industry of possible anti-kickback violations if firewalls are not erected between CME funding and marketing of drugs. Critics counter that early indicators of improvement are lacking.

  20. THE MINER INDUSTRY FROM JIU VALLEY – ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL INFLUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BĂDĂU ADRIAN-BOGDAN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Situated in the middle of the MERIDIONAL CARPATHIENS, the DEPRESSION OF JIU VALLEY represents the main pitcoal basin of Romania. In the last century, the extraction activity had a major influence on the developement of the region.The influences and the effects of the miner industry can be classified in two big groups: positive effects which means the acceleration of the economical developement, of the means of communication and the increase of the population and negative effects being the main source of pollution of the region.

  1. Factors influencing customer retention, satisfaction and loyalty in the South African banking industry

    OpenAIRE

    Craucamp, Frederik Willem

    2012-01-01

    Customer retention, loyalty and satisfaction are extremely important elements in any company’s strategy, especially in the highly competitive South African banking industry. Understanding the various factors that could influence these constructs is therefore critical to organizational success. Several studies showed the impact of these measures on profitability and shareholder value, but there has been little effort to access the factors that might lead to higher levels of retention, loyal...

  2. Factors influencing customer retention, satisfaction and loyalty in the South African banking industry

    OpenAIRE

    Craucamp, Frederik Willem

    2012-01-01

    Customer retention, loyalty and satisfaction are extremely important elements in any company’s strategy, especially in the highly competitive South African banking industry. Understanding the various factors that could influence these constructs is therefore critical to organizational success. Several studies showed the impact of these measures on profitability and shareholder value, but there has been little effort to access the factors that might lead to higher levels of retention, loyal...

  3. Factors influencing e-Procurement adoption in the Nigerian building industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eziyi Offia Ibem

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Against the backdrop of increasing adoption of e-Procurement in supply chain management, there is a need for adequate knowledge of the factors that influence the decision by organizations in the building industry to use e-Procurement. This study aims to fill the knowledge gap through investigating the factors influencing e-Procurement adoption based on the data sourced in a questionnaire survey involving 213 organizations in the building industry. The survey was conducted between June and November 2015 in Nigeria. Descriptive statistics, factor and categorical regression analyses were used to analyze the data. The results show that the three most important factors influencing the adoption of e-Procurement amongst the participants, in order of importance, were: the benefits of e-Procurement in enhancing efficiency in project delivery; eliminating geographic barriers and effective communication among project team members. The 29 factors were investigated in seven different dimensions - the benefits of e-Procurement use; level of awareness on e-Procurement in construction; and the availability and cost of e-Procurement applications emerged as the three most significant predictors of e-Procurement adoption in the survey. The study concludes by identifying strategies that should be engaged in increasing the uptake and maximizing the benefits of e-Procurement in the Nigerian building industry.

  4. Technical Progress of Domestic Iron & Steel Industry and Its Influence on the Development of Refractories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XINGShouwei; LIUJiehua

    2001-01-01

    The quick increase of domestic iron and steel output,the great improvement of steel quality and variety,the improtation of advanced equipment and the diminution and elimination of some backward technology and facilities have brought about great influence on the development of refracetories.In order to meet the technical progress of iron and steel industry,domestic refractories industry has,in the last industry,domestic refractories industry has,in the last decades ,concentrated its efforts on the development and production of new Sialon bonded SiC bricks and micropore carbon blocks for giant blast furnaces;new refractories for coke oven and non-coke iron making furnaces;MgO-C bricks for converters and electric conductive refractories for UHP EAF;refractories for slag splashing technology;and the highy technology-intensive refractories for continuous casting facilities.The paper reviews the great change occurred in the industries of iron-and steel-making and refratories during the last decaldes.

  5. [Organization and management of nationalized pharmaceutical industry in Slovakia from 1945 to 1948].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senček, Richard R

    2013-02-01

    The paper discusses a short but important period in the history of pharmaceutical industry with regard to Slovakia. The complicated post-war situation required peremptory interventions from the state, which attempted to secure the operation of strategic firms by means of National Administration Boards and nationalization. The firms which were nationalized by this measure were managed by the Ministry of Industry. They included also the pharmaceutical firms nationalized in Slovakia. The situation which produced contradictory responses in society and political scene culminated in the communist coup detat and nationalization of virtually all industries.Key words: nationalization pharmaceutical industry Ministry of Industry.

  6. The Influences of Humorous Advertising on Brand Popularity and Advertising Effects in the Tourism Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Yu Chang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available With a diversity of promotional channels and ever-increasing numbers of participants, the tourism industry in Taiwan faces keen competition. Along with the direct cross-strait flights policy, groups like Eastern Multimedia Group, Tsann Kuen Enterprise Company Limited and Want Want China Times Group have founded travel agencies for the purpose of increasing their market share in the tourism industry. Therefore, the formulation of marketing strategies has become a critical issue for all travel agencies that wish to ensure their prominence in the market. The frequent use of humorous materials and appeals has been the main tendency in advertising. However, no consistent conclusions regarding the actual effects of humorous advertising have been determined. The subjects of the current study were users of the Lion Travel website. Online questionnaires were sent to and collected from random respondents. One hundred questionnaires were delivered, and 512 valid questionnaires were collected. Each collected questionnaire represented a valid sample. The study generated the following five results: (1 humorous advertisements may partially influence brand awareness; (2 humorous elements may partially influence advertising effects; (3 brand awareness has significant positive effects on the advertising attitude of advertising effects; (4 brand awareness has significant positive effects on the brand attitude of advertising effects; (5 brand awareness has significant positive effects on the purchasing intention of advertising effects. Eventually, it is anticipated that the results of this study can serve as a reference and provide suggestions for humorous advertising strategies in the tourism industry.

  7. Influence of agricultural activities, forest fires and agro-industries on air quality in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phairuang, Worradorn; Hata, Mitsuhiko; Furuuchi, Masami

    2017-02-01

    Annual and monthly-based emission inventories in northern, central and north-eastern provinces in Thailand, where agriculture and related agro-industries are very intensive, were estimated to evaluate the contribution of agricultural activity, including crop residue burning, forest fires and related agro-industries on air quality monitored in corresponding provinces. The monthly-based emission inventories of air pollutants, or, particulate matter (PM), NOx and SO2, for various agricultural crops were estimated based on information on the level of production of typical crops: rice, corn, sugarcane, cassava, soybeans and potatoes using emission factors and other parameters related to country-specific values taking into account crop type and the local residue burning period. The estimated monthly emission inventory was compared with air monitoring data obtained at monitoring stations operated by the Pollution Control Department, Thailand (PCD) for validating the estimated emission inventory. The agro-industry that has the greatest impact on the regions being evaluated, is the sugar processing industry, which uses sugarcane as a raw material and its residue as fuel for the boiler. The backward trajectory analysis of the air mass arriving at the PCD station was calculated to confirm this influence. For the provinces being evaluated which are located in the upper northern, lower northern and northeast in Thailand, agricultural activities and forest fires were shown to be closely correlated to the ambient PM concentration while their contribution to the production of gaseous pollutants is much less.

  8. Diagnosis the Obstacles Influencing the Integration of the NICT in the Industrial Companies (Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RACHIDI Abdelhafid

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available —According to the technological development and the race of competitiveness which involves the search of the total quality and the cost cutting, the industrial world evolved to a flexible and virtual world which removes the concepts of time and dimension. The exploitation of the NICT (New Information & Communication Technologies in the various services of the company has a positive impact on the performance of the productivity of the company. In this paper, we present a study on the use of the NICT in the Tangier Free Zone (TFZ, then we present various projects NICT established in the area, and the future projects, also the impact of these technologies on improving industrial performance, while locating the main obstacles that influence the start as the integration of the NICT projects in different companies located in the TFZ.

  9. The Boardroom Perspective: How Does Energy Efficiency Policy Influence Decision Making in Industry?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This report delves into the major factors or driving forces that decision makers within a large industrial company take into account when deciding to make new investments - the so-called {sup b}oardroom perspective{sup .} The rationale for an individual company making an investment that will reduce energy consumption varies considerably and depends on a range of factors. This report explores those factors that influence companies to invest in energy savings and proposes a methodology to evaluate the effectiveness of a country's energy efficiency and greenhouse gas mitigation policies mix from this boardroom perspective. This paper is the product of collaboration between the IEA and the Institute of Industrial Productivity (IIP).

  10. An exploration study to detect important factors influencing internet marketing: A case study of food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadan Vahabzadeh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Internet marketing plays an important role on profitability of organizations, it can build a bridge between customers and business owners and anyone could purchase products and services through internet. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to detect important factors influencing internet marketing on Iranian food industry, named Shahrvand. The proposed study selects 280 out of 1040 managers who were involved in this industry during the year of 2012. Structural equation modeling has been performed to detect important factors including internal/external factors, ease of use and electronic marketing. Cronbach alphas have been calculated for these four items were mostly above 0.80, which validated the overall questionnaire of the survey. The results indicate that among internal factors, knowledge management, organizational culture and resources influence on acceptance of internet marketing, while these factors do not show any meaningful impact on ease of use. In addition, external factors including trend on market growth, competition and infrastructure influence on ease of use and acceptance of internet marketing but infrastructure and competition do not impact on ease of internet marketing.

  11. Changes in the lichen flora influenced by the Bełchatów Industrial Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Czyżewska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of our study, i.e.. before opening the Bełchatów brown coal mine and the power station 155 species of lichens were registered in the period 1970-1985. A preliminary estimation of the influence of the Bełchatów Industrial Region (BIR on the lichen flora has been performed. More than 1% of the lichen flora has entirely disappcared, about 43% of the species have shown partial devastation of their localities and numerous localities of more than 35% of taxa have been threatened.

  12. Biogeochemical features technogenic pollution of soils under the influence chemical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuraeva I.V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The physico-chemical properties of soil (pH, organic matter content, cation exchange capacity. The regularities of the distribution of total and mobile forms of heavy metals in soil sediments in the territory of Shostka Sumy region under the influence of the chemical industry and in the background areas. Biogeochemical indicators obtained content of microscopic fungi and their species, the most characteristic of the study of soils, which can be used as an additional criterion for ecological and geochemical studies.

  13. The Influence of Perceived Value on Customer Loyalty in Slovenian Hotel Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeja Krasna

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Perceived value has an enormous influence on customer behavior, because it influences his decisions on product choice, purchase intentions and repeat purchasing. Most frequently it appears in connection with quality and customer satisfaction. The purpose of this article is to present the role of perceived values as marketing tool for assuring customer loyalty in Slovenian hotel industry, where knowing a guest and understanding his wishes and expectations plays an essential part. By means of qualitative marketing research it was ascertained that the offer of Slovenian hoteliers does not differ in general from the offer of other hoteliers; this is why they are trying to expose characteristics which are most appreciated by guests. They are laying great emphasis on culinary art, creation of homelike feeling and integrated experience.

  14. Torrefaction of cedarwood in a pilot scale rotary kiln and the influence of industrial flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yanyang; Liu, Rujie; Yang, Qing; Yang, Haiping; Shao, Jingai; Draper, Christopher; Zhang, Shihong; Chen, Hanping

    2015-02-01

    Torrefaction of cedarwood was performed in a pilot-scale rotary kiln at various temperatures (200, 230, 260 and 290°C). The torrefaction properties, the influence on the grindability and hydroscopicity of the torrefied biomass were investigated in detail as well as the combustion performance. It turned out that, compared with raw biomass, the grindability and the hydrophobicity of the torrefied biomass were significantly improved, and the increasing torrefaction temperature resulted in a decrease in grinding energy consumption and an increase in the proportion of smaller-sized particles. The use of industrial flue gas had a significant influence on the behavior of cedarwood during torrefaction and the properties of the resultant solid products. To optimize the energy density and energy yield, the temperature of torrefaction using flue gas should be controlled within 260°C. Additionally, the combustion of torrefied samples was mainly the combustion of chars, with similar combustion characteristics to lignite.

  15. On the Political Reasons for the Impact of Post-war Japan Policy toward China%影响战后日本对华政策的政治原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廉德瑰

    2016-01-01

    There are three political reasons that affected Japan's post-war policy towards China:The Japan-U.S.alliance,the faction-politics and the interact between China and Japan.The Japan-U.S.alliance is the constructive cause of Japan's policy towards China and basic background.It affected Japan's policy to-wards China in post-war from hostility to peace and friendship,then to cooperation,and final to keep a lookout and to opposition.It is the precondition of Japan's policy towards China.The faction-politics is the political cause of Japan's policy towards China in post-war,is also the internal cause.It determined the post-war Japan's China policy due to the different factions in power and the phenomenon of frequent swing, and is the important cause of Japan's policy towards China.The interaction between China and Japan is the different action of the two countries at dispute point.This reaction is positive some time and then is negative other time.Positive reaction made Japan's policy towards China reasonable,and negative reaction made Japan's policy towards China appear rigid.It is the important factor when analyzing Japan's policy towards China.%影响战后日本对华政策的政治原因有三:日美同盟、派阀政治和中日互动。日美同盟是影响战后日本对华政策的结构性原因,也是基本的国际背景,它决定了战后日本对华政策由敌视变为和平友好,再进入合作,最后出现防范和对立的过程,是日本对华政策制定的前提。自民党的派阀政治是战后日本对华政策的国内政治原因,亦即内在原因,它决定了战后日本对华政策由于不同的派阀执政而经常出现摇摆的现象,是日本对华政策变化的内因。中日互动是由两国围绕争端焦点而表现的不同反应所引起的相互作用,这种作用有时是良性的,有时是恶性的,良性互动使得日本对华政策比较理性,恶性互动则使得日本对华政策比较僵硬

  16. Brief Discussion on Tao Jingsun's Social Criticism of Post-war Japan%浅谈陶晶孙对战后日本的社会批评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌燕

    2011-01-01

    Tao Jingsnn, the modern Chinese writer, his impact in Japan was greater than in China. In view of the "ambiguous" manner to the war crime of the post-war Japanese literature and .society, Tao Jingsun pointed out the Japanese "ambiguous" complex, brief and to the point, in a book named Last Words for Japan, criticizing the Japanese national's innate badness, which made Japanese academic circle vigilant and blush with shame. Ito Toramaru appraised Tao as a respectable and trust-worthy person in Japan and that Tao's criticism was "the entire ponder" to the post-war Japan from the root of culture.%陶晶孙,中国现代文学家,其在日本的影响胜于中国。针对日本战后文学及社会对战争罪责的“暧昧”态度,陶晶孙在一本《给日本的遗书》中,一针见血地指出日本社会中的“暧昧”情结,批判了日本国民的劣根性,让日本学界汗颜和警醒。伊藤虎丸评价陶晶孙,说他的批评是从文化根底上,对战后日本进行的“全方面的思考”,是值得日本学界尊敬和信服的。

  17. Influence of Industrial Washing and Cyclic Fatigue on Slippage of Linen Fabric Threads along the Seam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina KORUNČAK

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available All seams of garments shall withstand the established force effect in the longitudinal and transverse directions. Resistance to thread slippage along the seam is a major property of fabrics that is regulated by strict guidelines. In many research works, lining fabrics are chosen as the object of research as thread slippage is the most typical of them. What concerns the reports exploring slippage of linen fabric threads along the seam, just very few papers are available. Studies dealing with the influence made by industrial washing and cyclic load on the defect under investigation, thereby taking into account operational properties of garments are not readily available at all. The objective of the paper is to define the influence of industrial washing and cyclic tensile on slippage of linen fabric threads along the seam. For the research, five 100 % linen fabrics of plain weave have been selected. Control test specimens, unwashed and processed with different washing methods, have been analysed. Cyclic tensile of the test specimens has been carried out by a tensile machine “Tinius Olsen” at tensile force P = 20 N, tensile speed of 12.55 mm/s, number of cycles of 100. The carried-out testing has demonstrated that industrial washing decreased resistance of linen fabrics to thread slippage along the seam in the most cases. Analysis of the results obtained has shown that cyclic tensile led to particularly significant increase in the seam gap. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.1.2486

  18. The Role and Influence of the Tourism Industry of the Crimean Region on Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Shсhipanova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the aim of the article is the role and influence of tourism on the development of the economy at all levels of the economic system (example: Republic of Crimea. The article considers the methodology for analyzing the indices of social and economic growth in the branch of the Republic of Crimea. The role and influence of tourism on the economy is considered. Tasks of the article: analysis of the works of foreign and domestic scientists on the role and influence of tourism on the development of the economy; to conduct an analysis of the sectoral structure of the gross value added of the Russian Federation; describe the growth of socio-economic indicators; identify the stages of the methodology for analyzing the indicators of the social and economic growth of the tourist industry; to give an analysis of indicators characterizing the socioeconomic growth of the tourist industry of the Republic of Crimea; construct the dependence of the amount of declared amounts of investment projects on the number of tourists who visited the Republic of Crimea. Methods: the dialectical method of scientific cognition was applied in studying the role and influence of tourism on the development of the economy, calculation and analytical methods for monitoring, measuring, analyzing and comparing indicators that characterize the social and economic growth of the tourist industry of the Republic of Crimea. Results: in modern conditions, the development of the tourism sector, as a source of sustainable development of the state economy, acquires priority development. The tourism industry has a huge impact on the economy of the region, being the locomotive of the development of many other branches of management and providing non-raw budget receipts. The analysis of the works of foreign and domestic scientists makes it possible to talk about the integrated mechanism of the role and influence of tourism on the development of the economy at all levels of the economic

  19. The possible influence of noise frequency components on the health of exposed industrial workers - A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K V Mahendra Prashanth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise is a common occupational health hazard in most industrial settings. An assessment of noise and its adverse health effects based on noise intensity is inadequate. For an efficient evaluation of noise effects, frequency spectrum analysis should also be included. This paper aims to substantiate the importance of studying the contribution of noise frequencies in evaluating health effects and their association with physiological behavior within human body. Additionally, a review of studies published between 1988 and 2009 that investigate the impact of industrial/occupational noise on auditory and non-auditory effects and the probable association and contribution of noise frequency components to these effects is presented. The relevant studies in English were identified in Medknow, Medline, Wiley, Elsevier, and Springer publications. Data were extracted from the studies that fulfilled the following criteria: title and/or abstract of the given study that involved industrial/occupational noise exposure in relation to auditory and non-auditory effects or health effects. Significant data on the study characteristics, including noise frequency characteristics, for assessment were considered in the study. It is demonstrated that only a few studies have considered the frequency contributions in their investigations to study auditory effects and not non-auditory effects. The data suggest that significant adverse health effects due to industrial noise include auditory and heart-related problems. The study provides a strong evidence for the claims that noise with a major frequency characteristic of around 4 kHz has auditory effects and being deficient in data fails to show any influence of noise frequency components on non-auditory effects. Furthermore, specific noise levels and frequencies predicting the corresponding health impacts have not yet been validated. There is a need for advance research to clarify the importance of the dominant noise frequency

  20. On the Influence of the Industrialization Genesis on Modern Strategy of Industrial Policy in Russia: History and Economic Analisys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina G. Vaskina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors examine the industrialization process in Russia for more than a hundred years, the duration and quality parameters associated with its institutional features. The authors also focus on the relevance of the chosen theme because of the formation of new industrial policy institutions. The hypothesis of the study is based on identifying a set of basis factors of building effective institutions: system, decentralization mechanism, clustering, given a set of groups of interests of subjects of industrial policy implementation. Institutions of new industrial policy implementation in contemporary Russia are focused on achieving multifaceted tasks on a temporary basis, the level of implementation, the degree of relevance, therefore, the conclusion regarding the effective implementation of the strategy of economic development of modern Russia, which should include the following institutions: government programs, effective transparent public procurement, institutional design through the creation of specialized, diversified institutions of industrial-innovative development. Named structural elements must be systematically subordinated to the interests of macro-, meso- and micro levels of economic system. Special importance must have experience of building the institutional system of the new industrial policy, which gives effective results on the social-economic development.

  1. International experience in controlling pharmaceutical expenditure: influencing patients and providers and regulating industry - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Iyn-Hyang; Bloor, Karen; Hewitt, Catherine; Maynard, Alan

    2015-01-01

    To review international policies to control expenditure on pharmaceuticals by influencing the behaviour of patients and providers and regulating the pharmaceutical industry. Systematic review of experimental and quasi-experimental studies. Published studies were identified with an electronic search strategy using MEDLINE and EMBASE from 1980 to May 2012. Studies were eligible if they assessed the effect of policies aimed at influencing the behaviour of patients and providers, and regulating the pharmaceutical industry. Outcome measures included pharmaceutical expenditure, prices or utilization; other resource use relating to pharmaceuticals; and health outcomes and patients' or providers' behaviour relating to pharmaceutical use. Quality assessment criteria for each study design were developed based on the standard criteria recommended by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) group. The review includes studies based on randomized controlled trials and rigorous quasi-experimental designs (interrupted time-series and controlled before-and-after studies). Studies were excluded if they were conducted within a single hospital or practice; related to pharmaceutical care services or disease management; had less than 6 months of follow-up period (or less than 12 months overall for interrupted time series); if data in controlled before-and-after studies were not collected contemporaneously or if no rationale was stated for the choice of control group; or if relevant and interpretable data were not presented. A total of 255 studies met the inclusion criteria for this review. The majority of the studies relating to patients evaluated cost sharing interventions such as user charges (52 studies). User charges do reduce utilization of pharmaceuticals, and reduce public expenditure by shifting costs to patients. But they reduce the use of essential as well as non-essential drugs, and without adequate exemptions they affect vulnerable groups

  2. Studing the Influence of Six Main Industrial Losses on Overall Equipment Effectiveness in Cold Rolling Unit of Mobarakeh Steel Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    seyed Akbar Nilipour Tabatabaei

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE is a key indicator and a basis for evaluating the effectiveness of equipments as well as assessing the effectiveness of the Total Productive Maintenance (TPM system. This indicator together with overall equipment performance can be used in production lines such as steel production. The aim of this article is to study the influence of six main industrial losses on the OEE indicator . For this purpose, the OEE has been calculated in the cold rolling production lines of Mobarakeh Steel Complex the gap between production lines and the global industrial standards has been studied the causes of production system inefficiency has been investigated and the effectiveness of TPM system, equipments' bottlenecks and the influence of the main industry losses on OEE have been studied. The findings imply that the influence of the variation of availability and performance rates on OEE is high, while the influence of the variation of quality rate on OEE is not considerable.

  3. An investigation of how the Australian brewing industry influence consumers on Twitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torgeir Aleti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we develop and test hypotheses around organisations’ behaviour on social media and its effect on consumers’ responses. We draw on the notion of the market maven to underpin the research and suggest that organisations on social media need to focus on acting in a maven-like manner in order to influence audiences in Twitter. We collected data from the Twitter accounts of the entire brewing industry in Australia, analysing organisational postings and their impact on influence (follower numbers, retweets of their respective Twitter accounts. In particular, we look at message formulation and language, native platform behaviour, reciprocity and persistency variables. Findings suggest that establishing a larger follower base requires an interactive, one-to-one and reciprocal approach. In order to influence audiences to retweet organisations need to speak the ‘native platform language’ and employ a soft-sell strategy. Maven-like behaviour tends to reside in the small independent craft breweries. We offer the conclusion that these craft breweries have realised that, on social media, a different approach to marketing is required: the organisations must act in a maven-like manner.

  4. Changing nature of industrial chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, D.S.

    1978-03-06

    Trends in industrial chemistry are traced through three eras: (1) a pre-World War II period of free expansion; (2) a post-war period when good products impacted all sectors, emphasis was on market exploitation, and the entry-level costs of research and development increased significantly; and (3) the present period of resource supply and husbandry that began during the 1973 oil embargo. Attention has since been focused on resource depletion, the substitution of materials and energy sources, and market limits. This will be associated with a decoupling of technology development and economic growth, with chemistry's role more clearly defined and mission-oriented. A fourth period of science push may develop in the next century. Chemical opportunities for the present period are in the areas of economy and efficiency, material and fuel substitutions, the relationship of multinational companies with developing countries, and a general partnership of chemists with all levels of society.

  5. Through the Past Decade: How Advanced Energy Design Guides have influenced the Design Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Bing; Athalye, Rahul A.

    2015-07-31

    Advanced Energy Design Guides (AEDGs) were originally developed intended to provide a simple approach to building professionals seeking energy efficient building designs better than ASHRAE Standard 90.1. Since its first book was released in 2004, the AEDG series provided inspiration for the design industry and were seen by designers as a starting point for buildings that wished to go beyond minimum codes and standards. In addition, U.S. Department of Energy’s successful Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) program leveraged many of the recommendations from the AEDGs to achieve 50% energy savings over ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004 for prototypical designs of large commercial entities in the retail, banking and lodging sectors. Low-energy technologies and strategies developed during the CBP process have been applied by commercial partners throughout their national portfolio of buildings. Later, the AEDGs served as the perfect platform for both Standard 90.1 and ASHRAE’s high performance buildings standard, Standard 189.1. What was high performance a few years ago, however, has become minimum code today. Indeed, most of the prescriptive envelope component requirements in ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 are values recommended in the 50% AEDGs several years ago. Similarly, AEDG strategies and recommendations have penetrated the lighting and HVAC sections of both Standard 189.1 and Standard 90.1. Finally, as we look to the future of codes and standards, the AEDGs are serving as a blueprint for how minimum code requirements could be expressed. By customizing codes to specific building types, design strategies tailored for individual buildings could be prescribed as minimum code, just like in the AEDGs. This paper describes the impact that AEDGs have had over the last decade on the design industry and how they continue to influence the future of codes and Standards. From design professionals to code officials, everyone in the building industry has been affected by the AEDGs.

  6. Reviewing The Influence Of IT Applications Such As Implementing Online Distribution Channels In Hotel Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdy FARZANEH

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This research aims to study the influence of information technology applications, particularly electronic distribution channels, on success and failure factors that have been devoted to the handling of routine operational problems in the hotel industry.Design/methodology/approach: Reviewing personal interviews and surveys of structured questionnaires done by senior level managers of hotels. The collected data has been analyzed to generate the findings of this research.Findings: According to this analysis, IT applications were not used merely to replace the paper work and the traditional manual system but also to improve customer service and enhance management power. The results emphasize that the growing of online distribution channels have affected the ability of hotels to support employees, enhance the quality of service, improve communication and efficiencies, gain competitive advantage, maintain relationship with customers and increase profitability.Research limitations: Most of the findings in this study are based upon the data and interviews gathered by other fellow researchers. There is no testing for accuracy of these findings. The surveys and interviews used for this analysis were performed on selected hotel (rated three stars and above in selected locations, which are not inclusive of all the hotels in one particular country; therefore the results may not be extensively applicable. In some of interviews there isn’t clear cut differentiate between online distribution channels and travel agents that makes hard to bring out clear results from them.Originality/value: This research attempts to contribute to the knowledge of hotel owners and managers in relation to the decision-making processes for the implementation of IT infrastructures such as “online distribution channels” in the context of hotel industry and facilitate hoteliers to incorporate IT into their efforts to remain competitive in the industry.

  7. The influence of costs and benefits' analysis on service strategy formulation: Learnings from the shipping industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagoropoulos, Aris; Kjær, Louise Laumann; Andersen, Jakob Axel Bejbro

    2017-01-01

    Although servitization as a transformation process is being recognized by an increasing number of firms as a source of competitive advantage, the role of economic evaluations in service strategy formulation has so far attracted limited attention–and predominantly from the manufacturer perspective....... This paper assesses how the analysis of costs and benefits of Product-Service Systems (PSS) as servitized offerings influences the formulation of service strategies in the shipping industry. The study examines both the manufacturer and customer perspectives using two case studies from the shipping sector...... manufacturers and customers. For both case studies the LCC revealed that, while the PSS resulted in a decrease in life cycle costs and a possible revenue opportunity, there was also a lack of fundamental demand for PSS that could complicate the formulation of service strategies. Towards formulating service...

  8. The influence of micro economic factors on the default risk of leasing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Farsad Amanollahi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to establish a framework for measuring and managing credit risk for fifteen leasing companies in Iran. An analysis on the influence of internal factors on credit performance will then be performed. This will enable a leasing industry to progress towards its goals and objectives in the most direct and effective way. Credit risk consists of probability of non-return. This may be in the form of bankruptcy or a decrease in financial and credit situation of the lessee. We can assume a correlated market and credit risk. The variables are extracted from the Central Bank of Kanoon Leasing Association in Iran. Numerical analysis reveals that lessee credit risk can have a substantial impact on a lease term structure.

  9. Littering dynamics in a coastal industrial setting: the influence of non-resident populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Marnie L; Paterson de Heer, Chloe; Kinslow, Amber

    2014-03-15

    We examined if there is truth to the preconceptions that non-resident workers (including FIFO/DIDO's) detract from communities. We used marine debris to test this, specifically focussing on littering behaviour and evidence of awareness of local environmental programs that focus on marine debris. Littering was most common at recreational areas, then beaches and whilst boating. Twenty-five percent of respondents that admit to littering, reported no associated guilt with their actions. Younger respondents litter more frequently. Thus, non-resident workers litter at the same rate as permanent residents, visitors and tourists in this region, within this study. Few respondents are aware of the environmental programs that operate in their local region. Awareness was influenced by a respondent's residency (non-residents are less aware), age, and level of education. To address this failure we recommend that industries, that use non-resident workers, should develop inductions that expose new workers to the environmental programs in their region.

  10. Influence of industrial heavy metal pollution on soil free-living nematode population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pen-Mouratov, Stanislav; Shukurov, Nosir; Steinberger, Yosef

    2008-03-01

    The effect of distance from a heavy metal pollution source on the soil nematode community (trophic structure, sex structure, and taxa composition) was investigated along a 15-km transect originating at the Almalyk Industrial Complex, Uzbekistan (pollution source). The soil nematode community was exposed to heavy metal influence both directly and through soil properties changes. Pollution effect on the density and biomass of soil free-living nematodes was found to be highest at pollution source, with fungivores and plant parasites dominating at the upper and deeper soil layers next to the pollution source. These groups decreased along the transect, yielding domination to bacteria- and fungi-feeders. The sex ratio of nematode communities was found to be dependent on heavy metal pollution levels, with the juveniles being the most sensitive nematode group. The Maturity and modified Maturity Indices, reflecting the degree of disturbance of the soil ecosystem, were found to be the most sensitive indices.

  11. Scales of influence on the settling velocities of synthetic, industrial and natural particles in grid turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobs, Corrine; Jendrassak, Marek; Limpasuvan, Varavut; Gurka, Roi; Hackett, Erin E

    2015-01-01

    The settling velocities of natural, synthetic, and industrial particles were measured in a grid turbulence facility using optical measurement techniques. Particle Image Velocimetry and 2D Particle Tracking were used to measure the instantaneous velocities of the flow and the particles' trajectories simultaneously. We find that for particles examined in this study (Rep = 0.4 - 123), settling velocity is either enhanced or unchanged relative to stagnant flow for the range of investigated turbulence conditions. The smallest particles scaled best with a Kolmogorov-based Stokes number indicating the dissipative scales influence their dynamics. In contrast, the mid-sized particles scaled better with a Stokes number based on the integral time scale. The largest particles were largely unaffected by the flow conditions. Using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD), the flow pattern scales are compared to particle trajectory curvature to complement results obtained through dimensional analysis using Stokes numbers. The ...

  12. An empirical investigation on factors influencing on work stress: Evidence from banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Davoudzadeh Moghaddam

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An individual with a career faced with various career challenges may experience work-related stress. Work related stress is a factor that threatens employees’ health. The most common negative consequences of stress are particularly the deterioration of performance and efficiency, decrease in productivity and quality of customer’s services, which results in health problems. Work-related stress is a global issue, and banks are no exception. This paper presents a survey to investigate the influencing factors on work stress in banking industry. The study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 200 randomly selected bank department managers in city of Tehran, Iran. Using principle component analysis, the study has detected five factors including organizational characteristics, external environment, work content, personal characteristics and top management.

  13. "Does organizational culture influence the ethical behavior in the pharmaceutical industry?".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashekhara, Molugulu; Agil, Syed Omar Syed

    2011-12-01

    Study of ethical behavior among medical representatives in the profession is an under-portrayed component that deserves further perusal in the pharmaceutical industry. The purpose of this study is to find out the influence of organizational culture on ethical behavior of medical representatives. Medical representatives working for both domestic and multinational companies constitutes the sample (n=300). Data is collected using a simple random and cluster sampling through a structured questionnaire. The research design is hypothesis testing. It is a cross-sectional and correlational study, conducted under non-contrived settings. Chi-square tests were shows that there is an association between the organizational culture and ethical behavior of medical representatives. In addition, the strength of the association is measured which report to Cramer's V of 63.1% and Phi Value of 2.749. Results indicate that multinational company medical reps are more ethical compared to domestic company medical representatives vast difference in both variance and in t test results. Through better organizational culture, pharmaceutical companies can create the most desirable behavior among their employees. Authors conclude that apart from organizational culture, the study of additional organizational, individual and external factors are imperative for better understanding of ethical behavior of medical representatives in the pharmaceutical industry in India.

  14. Factors influencing quality decision-making: regulatory and pharmaceutical industry perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donelan, Ronan; Walker, Stuart; Salek, Sam

    2015-03-01

    Currently, there is no qualified understanding of the influences, behaviours and other factors that impact the decision-making of individuals and organisations involved in the development of new medicines. The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate and identify the important issues that influence quality decision-making. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 29 senior decision-makers from the pharmaceutical industry and regulatory authorities. The study participants were invited to discuss and review their perception of decision-making within their organisation, its role in drug development and the regulatory review and their awareness and use of decision-making techniques and the impact and monitoring of decisions. The analyses (using NVivo 8(©) software) resulted in the identification of 32 major and 97 sub-themes that were consolidated into 19 overarching themes. These included items such as quality and validity of data, time considerations, organisational and cultural influences, analytical and logical approach, qualification and experience, subjective and personal considerations, political influences, precedents for similar previous decisions, understanding of the decision in question, impact analyses, audit trail, education and awareness, individual versus corporate decision-making and frameworks. Relationships between themes were identified. The 19 overarching decision-making themes were integrated into a framework for quality decision-making. This study has achieved its aim of exploring decision-making from the perspective of the individual and the organisation working in drug development and the regulatory review and has identified issues and considerations relating to making good quality decisions and allowed for the generation of a framework to aid quality decision-making. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. 战争后应激障碍与认知功能障碍及睡眠质量关系的研究%The Relationship between Post-war Stress Disorder and Cognitive Dysfunction and Sleep Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冬; 陶永; 蒋晓江; 严家川

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of post-war psychological stress disorder on sleep quality and cognitive function of war participants. Methods A total of 47 PLA retired officers, who had taken part in the war at the southwest border in the 1970s, were selected as the research group, while 49 military retired officers who did not take part in the war were selected as control group. The levels of mental status in the two groups were evaluated with the symptom checklist-90 (SCL-90);the relationships between mental symptoms and cognitive function [measured with mini-mental state examination ( MMSE) ] , encephalic white matter lesions [ evaluated with brain magnetic resonance ( MR) ] as well as sleep disorders [ measured with Pittsburgh sleep quality index ( PSQI) ] in the research group were also analyzed. Re-sults In the research group, the positive mental symptom was found in 13 cadres (27. 7%) measured by SCL-90, and scores of somatization, obsessive-compulsive, depression, anxiety, terror and psychotic factors and the total score were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0. 05). In the research group, the ratio of positive mental symp-tom officers with cognitive decline was significantly higher ( P<0. 05 ) , while the total score of MMSE was significantly lower than those with negative mental symptom officers (P<0. 05);the incidence rate of encephalic white matter lesions of positive mental symptom officers was significantly higher compared with those of negative mental symptom officers ( P<0. 05);the incidence rate of officers with sleep disorders of positive mental symptom officers was significantly higher than that of negative mental symptom officers ( P<0. 05 ) , and the scores of sleep quality, time of falling sleep, hours of sleep, sleep efficiency, sleep disorder, daytime dysfunction factors and total score of PSQI of positive mental symptom of-ficers were significantly higher than those of negative mental symptom officers ( P<0. 05

  16. Influence of Psychological Factors on Product Development. Lessons from Aerospace and other Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, E. S.

    2002-10-01

    Product development is a major determinant of quality and cost as companies throughout the world struggle to optimize product development processes. Engineering tasks are usually implicitly assumed to be a primarily technical activity, but in reality they feature numerous nontechnical factors as well. This book focuses on the interrelationships of social, technical, and organizational aspects of the product development process. Cases observed in industry and research laboratories are presented and interpreted based on the socio-technical system approach (Emery / Trist) of examining the reciprocal relationship between the technical and the social subsystems. This book is primarily intended for engineering and quality professionals who want to know the limitations of current methods used in product development, to examine the so-called soft factors by means of grounded studies of their effect on R&D performance, not only to acknowledge the influence of soft factors but to actively consider their potential to improve the work environment. Academic researchers of the topic will also find many references and material for advanced courses on project and quality management. In addition to numerous cases from the aerospace industry, its general solution concepts are generalizable to other industries in which the high degree of product complexity necessitates effective interaction among different disciplines. The historical evaluation is neither intended for introductory purposes nor to propose a return to the past, but as a survey of the relevant factors to be applied in present and future projects. The author holds a degree in Electronics Engineering from the Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronautica, Brazil, as well as a PhD in Administration Sciences from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich, Switzerland. He draws on profound academic research as well as a wealth of practical experience in avionics, telecommunications, systems control, and the space industry

  17. How leadership attributes influence employee loyalty in the aerospace industry: An exploratory qualitative inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Marriel

    The influence leaders have on employee loyalty in the aerospace industry was examined through exploratory, qualitative inquiry. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted to ascertain the influence of six leadership attributes on loyalty. These specific leadership attributes were addressed based on key themes from the scholarly leadership research and included communication, trust, accountability, understanding, compassion, and recognition. Data were analyzed to identify common themes and patterns among the 21 study participants. Based on the study findings, the majority of participants expressed that they want leaders to communicate--and to do so often and concisely. Participants also voiced that communication was a central component in resolving many of the problems associated with loyalty, such as clarity of direction or sense of inclusion in the organization. The central themes derived from the research include the following: (a) employee loyalty no longer exists when organizational leadership fails to challenge or empower employees or create an opportunity for growth, (b) effective leaders inspire employees by sharing the vision of an organization and including employees in the decision-making process, and (c) organizational culture, values, and effective leadership play an integral role in employee loyalty and long-term commitment to the organization.

  18. A survey on important factors influencing brand equity: A case study of banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Sehhat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important issues in increasing customers' needs is to increase the quality of services through providing better quality services. Customer satisfaction is one of the primary requirements to meet people's needs and to have an efficient customer relationship management (CRM we need to detect the most important factors influencing efficiency and effectiveness in banking industry. In this paper, we present an empirical study to detect these factors in one of private banks in Iran. The proposed study of this paper tries to reach three objectives. We first detect important factors, which build customers' perception towards CRM, then we detect all influencing factors, which impact CRM, and finally, we evaluate the impact of CRM towards brand equity. The proposed study first designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 386 customers. Using structural equation modeling and certified factor analysis, we analyze the results. The results indicate that three factors including information, employee job behavior and suggestions and other factor have meaningful impact on customer brand equity. However, the impact of equipment on customer brand equity was not meaningful.

  19. Under the Influence: The Interplay among Industry, Publishing, and Drug Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, Lisa; Vannoy, Steven; Mintzes, Barbara; Shaughnessy, Allen F

    2016-01-01

    The relationships among academe, publishing, and industry can facilitate commercial bias in how drug efficacy and safety data are obtained, interpreted, and presented to regulatory bodies and prescribers. Through a critique of published and unpublished trials submitted to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) for approval of a new antidepressant, vortioxetine, we present a case study of the "ghost management" of the information delivery process. We argue that currently accepted practices undermine regulatory safeguards aimed at protecting the public from unsafe or ineffective medicines. The economies of influence that may intentionally and unintentionally produce evidence-biased-rather than evidence-based-medicine are identified. This is not a simple story of author financial conflicts of interest, but rather a complex tale of ghost management of the entire process of bringing a drug to market. This case study shows how weak regulatory policies allow for design choices and reporting strategies that can make marginal products look novel, more effective, and safer than they are, and how the selective and imbalanced reporting of clinical trial data in medical journals results in the marketing of expensive "me-too" drugs with questionable risk/benefit profiles. We offer solutions for neutralizing these economies of influence.

  20. [Water supply for civilian populations in crisis and post-war situations: example of Mitrovica city (Kosovo) in 1999-2000].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandevelde, T

    2002-01-01

    After reviewing the effects of water shortage on sanitation, the author describes minimum water requirement in terms of both quantity and quality during emergency situations and recovery periods. This article also gives general guidelines for water treatment to cover vital needs and provide adequate sanitation to the victimized community. To illustrate his point, the author cites the water management program implemented by the humanitarian action branch of an industrial group in Mitrovica, Kosovo in 1999 and 2000.

  1. REVISITING PUBLIC SPACE IN POST-WAR SOCIAL HOUSING IN GREAT BRITAIN / Repensando el espacio público de las viviendas sociales de post-guerra en Gran Bretaña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Sendra

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY This paper addresses the issue of the urban obsolescence of public space of social housing neighbourhoods built during the post-war period in Great Britain. Great Britain has been chosen because of the active role played by modern architects in the construction of the welfare state advocated by post-war governments, which involved building large areas of social housing. The aims of this paper are to understand the context in which these neighbourhoods were built as well as their evolution and the complexity of their obsolescence. To achieve these objectives, it first looks at the causes that prompted the slum clearance process, at its implementation during the post-war reconstruction and at the effects that this process has had on contemporary cities. Secondly, it is illustrated through a detailed analysis of a case study, Loughborough Estate in Brixton, London, looking at the initial conditions of the council estate when it was built, investigating its evolution over the past five decades and factors that may have contributed to the obsolescence of its public space and to its social problems. The paper concludes with a warning that a generalist critique of modern architecture does not solve the problems of such neighbourhoods, but a substantial intervention on the public space is needed to bring them to life. These interventions should focus on the spatial configuration of public space and its design and maintenance.RESUMEN Este artículo aborda la cuestión de la obsolescencia urbana del espacio público en las barriadas de viviendas sociales construidas durante el periodo de post-guerra en Gran Bretaña. Se ha escogido el caso de Gran Bretaña debido al papel tan activo que tuvieron los arquitectos del movimiento moderno en la construcción del estado del bienestar, por la que abogaron los gobiernos de post-guerra y la cual implicó la construcción de una gran cantidad de viviendas. Los objetivos de este artículo son comprender el

  2. An analysis of the factors influencing demand-side management activity in the electric utility industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Mark Joseph

    Demand-side management (DSM), defined as the "planning, implementation, and monitoring of utility activities designed to encourage consumers to modify their pattern of electricity usage, including the timing and level of electricity demand," is a relatively new concept in the U.S. electric power industry. Nevertheless, in twenty years since it was first introduced, utility expenditures on DSM programs, as well as the number of such programs, have grown rapidly. At first glance, it may seem peculiar that a firm would actively attempt to reduce demand for its primary product. There are two primary explanations as to why a utility might pursue DSM: regulatory mandate, and self-interest. The purpose of this dissertation is to determine the impact these influences have on the amount of DSM undertaken by utilities. This research is important for two reasons. First, it provides insight into whether DSM will continue to exist as competition becomes more prevalent in the industry. Secondly, it is important because no one has taken a comprehensive look at firm-level DSM activity on an industry-wide basis. The primary data set used in this dissertation is the U.S. Department of Energy's Annual Electric Utility Report, Form EIA-861, which represents the most comprehensive data set available for analyzing DSM activity in the U.S. There are four measures of DSM activity in this data set: (1) utility expenditures on DSM programs; (2) energy savings by DSM program participants; and (3) the actual and (4) the potential reductions in peak load resulting from utility DSM measures. Each is used as the dependent variable in an econometric analysis where independent variables include various utility characteristics, regulatory characteristics, and service territory and customer characteristics. In general, the results from the econometric analysis suggest that in 1993, DSM activity was primarily the result of regulatory pressure. All of the evidence suggests that if DSM continues to

  3. Customer familiarity with new industrial product technology and its influence on adoption: The case of De Beers diamond extraction equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabbie, A.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was conducted into the influence of industry customers familiarity with new technology on their decisions when purchasing discontinuous industrial products. This was done in the context where the supplier and customer organisations are entities in the same company. Even in this favourable context, continuous products remained successful despite a better solution being available. Literature on this close type of relationship is sparse, mostly because information on such internal processes is generally regarded as competitive. The case investigated was the DebTech division of De Beers, and their experience with products that they design and manufacture for the global diamond mining industry. Product developer and customer data from applicable projects was analysed, and interviews and observations were conducted. The results indicate that familiarity with the product technology favourably influences perceptions of newness, safety, and the ease of integration of a product. Familiarity increases customers propensity to recommend and purchase new-technology products.

  4. Influence of grid of industrial fluidized bed furnace. Influencia del distribuidor de gas en un lecho fluidizado industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez Orrantia, M.E.; Gutierrez-Canas Mateo, C.; Pozo Linares, E. (Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales de Ingenieros de Telecomunicacion de Bilbao, Bilbao (Spain))

    1994-01-01

    As a consequence of the development and parametrization of a model ad hoc for a fluidized bed industrial furnace for arsenical pyrites roasting, it has been necessary to study the particularities of the grid region. It has been supposed a jet gas flow pre-heating the feed air, to use in the global modelling of the roaster. Being the supposed diameter of the distributor orifice 9.2 . 10''3 m, and as the first estimation in the variables initialization, it has been established that the gas starts the reaction at 350 degree centigree and at 8.42 . 10''2 m above the distributor. (Author) 30 refs.

  5. An Analysis on the Influence of FDI on Shaanxi Industrial Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙铭; 张金峰

    2010-01-01

    Using the method of regression,the paper analyzes FDI and the industrial structure issue in Shaanxi Province.Research results show that FDI has effect on the growth of three industries added value in Shaanxi Province,and FDI has obviously positive effect on the upgrading of industrial structure.

  6. Gas composition influence on ion energy distribution functions in an industrial ICP reactor with biased cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, David; Shannon, Steven; Coumou, David; White, Scott

    2016-09-01

    An industrial ICP reactor consisting of a top planar coil and RF biased lower electrode has been characterized using a hairpin resonator probe and gridded ion energy analyzer to measure electron density in the bulk plasma and ion energy distribution function (IEDF) at the surface of the biased cathode. Argon and oxygen were run at constant total flow with 20mTorr downstream pressure control with varying flow ratios between the two gases ranging from 0% to 100% oxygen content. ICP and bias power were adjusted to maintain constant electron density and sheath bias over this mixing matrix at four different setpoints reflecting high density / high bias, high density / low bias, low density / high bias, and low density / low bias. Although the fundamental parameters governing RF sheath behavior were held constant, several trends in ion energy distribution are observed with respect to gas composition (aside from the obvious influence of ion mass) that show considerable variation in measured IEDF particularly that can be attributed to ion collisions in the sheath as well as gas heating variation due to gas composition.

  7. Influence of Big Data on Manufacturing Industry and Strategies of Enterprises: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with the rapid development of information technologies, such as cloud computing, mobile internet and internet of things, and the promotion of IT application, all kinds of data are generated and accumulated rapidly in various ways, big data era is coming, in which enterprises are faced with both opportunities and unprecedented challenges. Various processes, from decision making to operation and from designing to marketing, are being influenced by big data in manufacturing industry. This paper, according to the nature and features of big data, analyzes and extends a classical model of organizational change, Leavitt’s model of organizational change, in order to explore the ways for enterprises to cope with challenges and seize chances of development in big data era. Then, using the extended Leavitt’s model, opportunities and challenges derive from big data are combed, and approaches to making use of big data and coping with big data are generalized from five perspectives, including task, structure, people, technology and environment.

  8. Phase partitioning of trace metals in a contaminated estuary influenced by industrial effluent discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenhao; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2016-07-01

    Severe trace metal pollution due to industrial effluents releases was found in Jiulong River Estuary, Southern China. In this study, water samples were collected during effluent release events to study the dynamic changes of environmental conditions and metal partitioning among dissolved, particulate and colloidal phases controlled by estuarine mixing. Intermittent effluent discharges during low tide caused decreasing pH and dissolved oxygen, and induced numerous suspended particulate materials and dissolved organic carbon to the estuary. Different behaviors of Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr and Pb in the dissolved fraction against the conservative index salinity indicated different sources, e.g., dissolved Ni from the intermittent effluent. Although total metal concentrations increased markedly following effluent discharges, Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb were predominated by the particulate fraction. Enhanced adsorption onto particulates in the mixing process resulted in elevated partitioning coefficient (Kd) values for Cu and Zn, and the particle concentration effect was not obvious under such anthropogenic impacts. Colloidal proportion of these metals (especially Cu and Zn) showed positive correlations with dissolved or colloidal organic carbon, suggesting the metal-organic complexation. However, the calculated colloidal partitioning coefficients were relatively constant, indicating the excess binding capacity. Overall, the intermittent effluent discharge altered the particulate/dissolved and colloidal/soluble phase partitioning process and may further influence the bioavailability and potential toxicity to aquatic organisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Local versus landscape spatial influence on biodiversity: a case study across five European industrialized areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piano, E; Isaia, M; Falasco, E; La Morgia, V; Soldato, G; Bona, F

    2017-03-01

    Land use change-mostly habitat loss and fragmentation-has been recognized as one of the major drivers of biodiversity loss worldwide. According to the habitat amount hypothesis, these phenomena are mostly driven by the habitat area effect. As a result, species richness is a function of both the extent of suitable habitats and their availability in the surrounding landscape, irrespective of the dimension and isolation of patches of suitable habitat. In this context, we tested how the extent of natural areas, selected as proxies of suitable habitats for biodiversity, influences species richness in highly anthropogenic landscapes. We defined five circular sampling areas of 5 km radius, including both natural reserves and anthropogenic land uses, centred in five major industrial sites in France, Italy and Germany. We monitored different biodiversity indicators for both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, including breeding birds, diurnal butterflies, grassland vegetation, odonata, amphibians, aquatic plants and benthic diatoms. We studied the response of the different indicators to the extent of natural land uses in the sampling area (local effect) and in the surrounding landscape (landscape effect), identified as a peripheral ring encircling the sampling area. Results showed a positive response of five out of seven biodiversity indicators, with aquatic plants and odonata responding positively to the local effect, while birds, vegetation and diatoms showed a positive response to the landscape effect. Diatoms also showed a significant combined response to both effects. We conclude that surrounding landscapes act as important biodiversity sources, increasing the local biodiversity in highly anthropogenic contexts.

  10. Enrichment of arsenic in the Quaternary sediments from Ankaleshwar industrial area, Gujarat, India: an anthropogenic influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirke, K D; Pawar, N J

    2015-09-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination of sediments and waters is known from Bengal and other parts of eastern and central India. However, there is paucity of reports that document occurrence of As in Quaternary sediments from western India. In this paper, we report the enrichment of As in the Quaternary sediments of Ankaleshwar area in the western Indian state of Gujarat. Twenty-five surface and five profile samples were analyzed that indicated spatial and vertical distribution of As in the sediments. The As content of fine size fractions (63 μm) compared with upper continental crust (UCC) and standard shale indicates anomalous As enrichment that is supported by moderate to high geo-accumulation index (Igeo) as well as pollution index (Pi). Enrichment of As is seen in surface sediments from the industrial and urban land use regions, followed by oil field and agricultural land suggesting strong influence of anthropogenic factors. Although the arsenic concentration decreases with depth, the relatively higher values of As coupled with Igeo and Pi index values suggest downward migration of metal that is likely to contaminate groundwater. This calls for urgent remediation so that the ill effects of As contamination can be minimized.

  11. Women in battle / Women in fashion: Clothing practices in the post-war period in socialist Yugoslavia in the case of journals “Women in Battle” and “Our Fashion”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Čuljak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The research is based on the reviewing the ideological construction of the concept of saving up in the context of the struggle for women’s emancipation in early socialism of the post-war period. AFŽ (Antifašistička fronta žena – women’s antifascist front as the main platform of women’s emancipation, promoted the New woman (emancipated, a political and socially aware worker through direct propaganda in the magazine Žena u borbi (Woman in battle. At the same time, the AFŽ published a very popular magazine called Naša moda (Our fashion. It was a magazine which constructed a completely different media model of women whose interests are tied to fashion and family, emphasizing the role of the woman as housewife, mother and frivolous consumer. This dichotomy is important for the further reading of the public and media construction of modest/economic dressing which was seemingly embodied by the new woman, seeing as there as a simultaneous emergence of an opposite tendency and an alternative everyday practice. Faced with the ideological construction of emancipation, women continue performing the role of housewife who is now forced to rationalize her dressing practices and adapt to new political and economic conditions.

  12. From Projectile Points to Microprocessors - The Influence of Some Industrial Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Rhonda

    2007-01-01

    In the language of economic geology, Earth materials are classified as metallic ores, fuel minerals, gemstones, and industrial minerals. Most people know that metallic ores yield shiny, conductive, ductile elements such as copper, iron, or gold. Most understand that energy-producing coals constitute a fuel mineral. Likewise, dazzling rubies and rare sapphires are universally recognized as gemstones. The fourth group, industrial minerals, is largely unknown to the general public, even though industrial minerals are as essential to daily life as metals and fuel minerals. This report examines the occurrence and practical uses of nine important industrial minerals - constituting just a few of the more than 50 industrial minerals that shape human culture.

  13. The influence of model resolution on ozone in industrial volatile organic compound plumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Barron H; Jeffries, Harvey E; Kim, Byeong-Uk; Vizuete, William G

    2010-09-01

    Regions with concentrated petrochemical industrial activity (e.g., Houston or Baton Rouge) frequently experience large, localized releases of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Aircraft measurements suggest these released VOCs create plumes with ozone (O3) production rates 2-5 times higher than typical urban conditions. Modeling studies found that simulating high O3 productions requires superfine (1-km) horizontal grid cell size. Compared with fine modeling (4-kmin), the superfine resolution increases the peak O3 concentration by as much as 46%. To understand this drastic O3 change, this study quantifies model processes for O3 and "odd oxygen" (Ox) in both resolutions. For the entire plume, the superfine resolution increases the maximum O3 concentration 3% but only decreases the maximum Ox concentration 0.2%. The two grid sizes produce approximately equal Ox mass but by different reaction pathways. Derived sensitivity to oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and VOC emissions suggests resolution-specific sensitivity to NOx and VOC emissions. Different sensitivity to emissions will result in different O3 responses to subsequently encountered emissions (within the city or downwind). Sensitivity of O3 to emission changes also results in different simulated O3 responses to the same control strategies. Sensitivity of O3 to NOx and VOC emission changes is attributed to finer resolved Eulerian grid and finer resolved NOx emissions. Urban NOx concentration gradients are often caused by roadway mobile sources that would not typically be addressed with Plume-in-Grid models. This study shows that grid cell size (an artifact of modeling) influences simulated control strategies and could bias regulatory decisions. Understanding the dynamics of VOC plume dependence on grid size is the first step toward providing more detailed guidance for resolution. These results underscore VOC and NOx resolution interdependencies best addressed by finer resolution. On the basis of these results, the

  14. Influence of ozonation and biodegradation on toxicity of industrial textile wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paździor, Katarzyna; Wrębiak, Julita; Klepacz-Smółka, Anna; Gmurek, Marta; Bilińska, Lucyna; Kos, Lech; Sójka-Ledakowicz, Jadwiga; Ledakowicz, Stanisław

    2017-06-15

    The textile industry demands huge volumes of high quality water which converts into wastewater contaminated by wide spectrum of chemicals. Estimation of textile wastewater influence on the aquatic systems is a very important issue. Therefore, closing of the water cycle within the factories is a promising method of decreasing its environmental impact as well as operational costs. Taking both reasons into account, the aim of this work was to establish the acute toxicity of the textile wastewater before and after separate chemical, biological as well as combined chemical-biological treatment. For the first time the effects of three different combinations of chemical and biological methods were investigated. The acute toxicity analysis were evaluated using the Microtox(®) toxicity test. Ozonation in two reactors of working volume 1 dm(3) (stirred cell) and 20 dm(3) (bubble column) were tested as chemical process, while biodegradation was conducted in two, different systems - Sequence Batch Reactors (SBR; working volume 1.5 dm(3)) and Horizontal Continuous Flow Bioreactor (HCFB; working volume 12 dm(3)). The untreated wastewater had the highest toxicity (EC50 value in range: 3-6%). Ozonation caused lower reduction of the toxicity than biodegradation. In the system with SBR the best results were obtained for the biodegradation followed by the ozonation and additional biodegradation - 96% of the toxicity removal. In the second system (with HCFB) two-stage treatment (biodegradation followed by the ozonation) led to the highest toxicity reduction (98%). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Demystifying the Role of Chinese Commercial Actors in Shaping China’s Foreign Assistance: The Case of Post-war Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao'ou Zhu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Hedging against its potential exclusion from the Trans-Pacific Partnership and other mega trading agreements, China embarked on its 21st Century Maritime Silk Road agenda to generate growth through supply chain integration and infrastructure construction in South Asian economies. However, the characteristics of China’s business-led and elite-oriented overseas development practices created policy gaps in high-risk countries. Based on interviews and fieldwork focused on Chinese State-Owned-Enterprises (SOEs in Sri Lanka, this paper explores how globalization changed the nature of these SOEs: from policy executor to both policy maker and market actor in host countries and in China. However, these changes in nature and influence of key Chinese economic actors in host countries are actually not reflected by, and are in fact out of step with, the 1994 regulation that lays down the principle of non-interventionism in foreign assistance. Such a mismatch between expansionist business and restrained regulation leads to a new paradigm where businesses, especially SOEs, serve as a bridge between the host country and Beijing to identify areas where business interest and development needs intersect, thereby shaping development financing distribution in a way that facilitates SOEs’ ascension of the global value chain. However, the exclusion of the local private sector from expressing the most pressing needs makes the new paradigm insufficient to integrate the local supply chain. This, in turn, implies the new paradigm is less able to address debt sustainability problems, and geopolitical and ethnic tension in high-risk regions. In order to redress this imbalance, this paper proposes the inclusion of the private sector and civil society into China’s mainly business-led overseas development paradigm.

  16. THE PROFITABILITY AND LIQUIDITY UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF THE FINANCING POLICY IN THE METALLURGICAL INDUSTRY OF EU 28

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOBROTĂ GABRIELA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the problems of the economic system, the use of the capital and his structure represent important elements in the process of the financial decisions. The aim of this paper is to identify the influence of funding policy on rentability in metallurgical industry, dimensioned with the help of a set of relevant indicators, determined on the base of some aggregated data for a significant sample of very large firms from EU 28. Also, the paper present the situation of liquidity, reflected through the cash- flow and liquidity ratio, in the metallurgical industry of EU 28, being used dates for the period 2004 – 2013, for the mentioned sample. The conclusion of the realised study is that a funding policy well-founded, correlated with the efficient management of expenses and proactive risk management can positively influence the profitability and liquidity.

  17. 会计社会责任探究%The Analysis of Influencing Factors to Financial Industry Cluster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈沉

    2012-01-01

    企业社会责任成为诸多专家学者的研究焦点,企业作为经济活动的载体,承担着社会责任,会计在披露企业社会责任中扮演着越来越重要的角色,会计人员提供的会计信息质量,直接关系到相关利益者的经济利益以及社会资源的有效配置。基于此种原因,本文着重探讨会计社会责任的一些基本问题。%In recent years, financial industry cluster has flourished, promoting economic growth in these areas. This arti- cle first studies the emerging background of financial industry cluster, then concludes that five factors influence financial indus- try cluster, which are geographic location, economic effect, trading needs, government support and base installation. So we use 2000--2009 panel data of 31 provinces ( cities), adopt fixed effect model to examine the five factors' effect on financial indus- try cluster. The paper concludes that geographic location, economic effect, trading needs and government support have positive influence on financial industry cluster. Finally, we put forwards several pieces of suggestion to develop financial industry clus- ter in China.

  18. Factors Influencing Sustainable Entrepreneurship in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Iran: A Case Study of Food Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamhossein Hosseininia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to establish the social and environmental factors that influence sustainable entrepreneurship (SE in Small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs. It also attempted to identify whether the demographic background of the entrepreneur influences the SE in SMEs of the Iranian food industry. A mixed method approach, employing the use of questionnaires and interviews from a sample size of approximately 130 participants and 12 owner-managers of SMEs in food industry, was used to collect data. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and several inferential analyses. Findings showed that certain characteristics of the entrepreneur, including work experience and education, have a significant impact on SE. Furthermore, out of the eight identified factors, according to the participants’ perception, the most important factors towards sustainable performance of SMEs in food industry are social factors, including customer orientation, as well as human resources and environmental factors, including recycling and the future of Earth. This research paper concludes that considering the social and environmental aspects of sustainability and employing experienced staff would majorly contribute to the pursuit of SE in SMEs of food industry.

  19. [Influence of industrial pollution with mercury on levels of its accumulation in populated area objects and foods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amreeva, K E; Teryokhin, S P; Krashanovskaya, T R

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with results of study covering influence of industrial pollution with mercury on its accumulation level in populated area objects and foods. Mercury content was measured in ambient air, snow, water, bed silt and regional foods of vegetable and animal origin--that is a potential health hazard for Central Kazakhstan population. The data obtained prove that high levels of mercury were detected in all the studied objects.

  20. ASSESSMENT OF THE INFLUENCE OF PROCESSING CONDITIONS ON THE ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF EXTRACTS OBTAINED FROM OLIVE OIL INDUSTRY BYPRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad-Qasem Mateo, Margarita Hussam

    2015-01-01

    [EN] The main goal of this Thesis was to determine the influence of the main processing stages involved in obtaining natural extracts with high antioxidant potential from byproducts originating in the olive oil industry. Firstly, the effect of freezing and/or the drying methods applied to olive oil byproducts on the polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity of the extracts subsequently obtained was addressed. For this purpose, two byproducts were considered: olive leaves and olive pomace...

  1. The Influence Of Globalisation And Modern Technological Changes On Manufacturing Industries In Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuri M. Triki

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation and new technologies are having an intense impact on the manufacturing industries. This is affecting business global and might demand new strategies and policies for manufacturing companies. Libya like several other countries in the Middle East and also is among the few developing African economies has been facing problems related to its productivity in industrial sector. Manufacturing industries in Libya was reared to offer better products and services as part of the government plans to reconstruct their economy and improve its industrial companies. So as to face these problems manufacturing sectors need to increase their production and they also require a clear strategy and policies towards an efficient supply chain about modern technology. A new technology is one of the improvement initiatives that can be used to enhance industrial performance competitiveness and decrease its costs by eliminating of waste and increasing added value activities. The significance of new technology and modern systems in the industrial world has enhanced in this decade because of the benefits that they bring to the factories and companies. The aims of this research is to investigate new technology strategies that will enable the Libyan manufacturing industries to shift towards an increase production and reduce its costs as well as to quantify the modern technological changes and the role of globalisation in addition to declaration of its effect on the growth additionally development of the Libyan industrial sector and competitiveness lastly moreover this survey make a recommendations to establish systems that improve the emergent needs of the national industrial sector.

  2. Factors Influencing the Spatial Distribution of Organochlorine Pesticides in Soils surrounding Chemical Industrial Parks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, G.; Lu, Y.L.; Wang, T.Y.; Zhang, X.; Han, J.Y.; Luo, W.; Shi, Y.J.; Li, J.; Jiao, W.T.

    2009-01-01

    Topsoil samples (n = 105) were collected to Study the distribution of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) residues in the vicinity of chemical industrial parks in Tianjin, China. The occurrence and distribution of target organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were mapped

  3. Exploring factors that influence customer loyalty among Generation Y for the fast food industry in Malaysia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kwek Choon Ling; Yeong Wai Mun; Hiew Mee Ling

    2011-01-01

      The consumption of western fast foods has been on the upward trend. As such, it is vital to identify the determinants of the customer loyalty among Generation Y in Malaysia, especially in the western fast food industry...

  4. The Influences of Humorous Advertising on Brand Popularity and Advertising Effects in the Tourism Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chang, Wan; Chang, I

    2014-01-01

    ... for the purpose of increasing their market share in the tourism industry. Therefore, the formulation of marketing strategies has become a critical issue for all travel agencies that wish to ensure their prominence in the market...

  5. Factors Influencing the Spatial Distribution of Organochlorine Pesticides in Soils surrounding Chemical Industrial Parks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, G.; Lu, Y.L.; Wang, T.Y.; Zhang, X.; Han, J.Y.; Luo, W.; Shi, Y.J.; Li, J.; Jiao, W.T.

    2009-01-01

    Topsoil samples (n = 105) were collected to Study the distribution of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) residues in the vicinity of chemical industrial parks in Tianjin, China. The occurrence and distribution of target organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were mapped

  6. STRUCTURAL CHANGES OF THE HUNGARIAN MEAT PROCESSING INDUSTRY INFLUENCING THE QUALITY STRATEGY OF THE PIG SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga NAGYNÉ PÉRCSI

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hungarian company structure in the meat industry is very different from the structures in the major meat industrial EU countries. While in the latter ones the concentration and specialization have strengthened, in Hungary these processes did not happen or in just a limited way. Therefore the Hungarian companies face handicaps concerning economies of scale and specialization compared to the EU companies.

  7. The Influences of Humorous Advertising on Brand Popularity and Advertising Effects in the Tourism Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Wan Yu Chang; I Ying Chang

    2014-01-01

    With a diversity of promotional channels and ever-increasing numbers of participants, the tourism industry in Taiwan faces keen competition. Along with the direct cross-strait flights policy, groups like Eastern Multimedia Group, Tsann Kuen Enterprise Company Limited and Want Want China Times Group have founded travel agencies for the purpose of increasing their market share in the tourism industry. Therefore, the formulation of marketing strategies has become a critical issue for all travel ...

  8. Competing Explanations in the Evolution of the Danish Furniture Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    an important buyer for Danish furniture in the 1960-1992 period and credibly aided the attainment of economies of scale in some furniture suppliers, there is no evidence that IKEA demand aided either the growth of the industry or particle board furniture manufacture in Denmark. Fourth, given the high growth...... only exceptional growth event compared to other developed country furniture industries in the 1950s. It is argued that this establishes as the leading causal candidates for the Danish economic specialisation in furniture; subsidised export marketing of Danish Modern style in the US and the War......-undamaged Danish industry’s opportunistic exploitation of recovering European Post-War furniture markets. Second, the apparent prominence of particle board manufacture in today’s industry is a Danish specialisation with its origin in the 1950s growth event. Third, while there is much evidence that IKEA became...

  9. A study on important factors influencing innovation in service: A case study of hotel industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koorosh Kohyari Haghighat

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Hotel industry plays important role on developing tourism industry and having better services in this industry always help increase market share. The proposed study of this paper considers the effects of four variables including collaboration with staff, collaboration with customers, collaboration with partners and business owners and finally mechanism of integration of knowledge on innovation on service. The population of this survey includes 259 hotels where we send our questionnaire to 179 and manage to collect 170 ones. Cronbach alpha for four variables including collaboration with staff, collaboration with customers, collaboration with partners and business owners and finally mechanism of integration of knowledge were calculated as 0.78, 0.865, 0.743 and 0.890, respectively. The proposed study uses structural equation modeling to study the relationship between independent variables and dependent variable and the effects of four variables are confirmed when the level of significance is five percent.

  10. Exploration of Factors Influencing the Customers’ Motivation in Buyer-supplier Relationships on Industrial Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Markus Zunk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To gain a competitive advantage on industrial markets, suppliers need to understand what motivates their customers to collaborate in long-term buyer-supplier relationships. Therefore, this paper presents (i a literature-based model of a 12-part industrial customers’ motivation profile, and (ii empirical findings from an explorative survey of 118 decision makers in the purchasing departments of firms in the technology sector. The results indicate that, “the optimum value for money”, “the holistic problem-solving capability of the suppliers and their high degree of performance” and “the good assistance in economically hard times in the past, which has led to a feeling of gratefulness” are all of great importance to industrial customers for building and maintaining relationships.

  11. America's post-war immigration policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterson, R F

    1984-01-01

    This article provides a historical perspective on immigration policy in the US after World War II and assesses the present situation. US immigration and refugee policy has undergone significant change since World War II. The McCarran-Walter Act of 1952, which instituted a system of proportional quotas based on national origins, was discarded in 1965 following years of criticism that it discriminated against nonwhites. Third World immigrants, especially from Asia and the Americas, have benefited from the immigration laws. However, the problems resulting from unrestricted and undifferentiated immigration are now becoming apparent, even to liberal critics of previous national origins policies. During the 1970s, there was a 61% increase in the number of Mexican nationals in the US and Mexicans currently comprise over 20% of the population in 40 Congressional districts in 8 states. 83.3% of legal immigrants, and all illegal immigrants, are of non-European descent--a fact that may retard their assimilation and intensify ethnic tensions. There is a danger that the concept of national borders may become superfluous. The theoreticval liberalism of the 1950s and 1960s is, in the 1970s, being confronted with the reality of large numbers of immigrants unable and unwilling to be absorbed into a previously European-dominated country. It is concluded that the enforced application of the concept of equality in matters of immigration has not been the panacea that its liberal proponents envisioned.

  12. The Influence of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Rewards on Employee Results: An Empirical Analysis in Turkish Manufacturing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Ozutku

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The study discussed in this article questions whether certain reward practices used by organizations are better than others when comparing the employee results based on TQM. We first examine reward systems and TQM relevant literature. After related literature review, reward practices have been handled in two groups as intrinsic rewards and extrinsic rewards. In the sample, which consists of 217 businesses that operate in Turkish manufacturing industry and apply TQM, intrinsic and extrinsic reward practices of firms on people results have been analyzed. The results of this survey are analyzed through descriptive analysis, ANOVA and MANOVA analyses. As the main finding of the research, it has been determined that application level of intrinsic and extrinsic rewards in Turkish manufacturing industry is not high. It has been identified that intrinsic rewards have a significant influence on employee results; however extrinsic rewards do not have a significant influence on employee results in Turkish manufacturing industry. This study highlighted the importance of the intrinsic reward system for implementing TQM.

  13. Influence of genetic background of engineered xylose-fermenting industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for ethanol production from lignocellulosic hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Daiane Dias; Rosa, Carlos Augusto; Hector, Ronald E; Dien, Bruce S; Mertens, Jeffrey A; Ayub, Marco Antônio Záchia

    2017-09-11

    An industrial ethanol-producing Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain with genes of fungal oxido-reductive pathway needed for xylose fermentation integrated into its genome (YRH1415) was used to obtain haploids and diploid isogenic strains. The isogenic strains were more effective in metabolizing xylose than YRH1415 strain and able to co-ferment glucose and xylose in the presence of high concentrations of inhibitors resulting from the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass (switchgrass). The rate of xylose consumption did not appear to be affected by the ploidy of strains or the presence of two copies of the xylose fermentation genes but by heterozygosity of alleles for xylose metabolism in YRH1415. Furthermore, inhibitor tolerance was influenced by the heterozygous genome of the industrial strain, which also showed a marked influenced on tolerance to increasing concentrations of toxic compounds, such as furfural. In this work, selection of haploid derivatives was found to be a useful strategy to develop efficient xylose-fermenting industrial yeast strains.

  14. Tender rules and trust influence on cooperation in the building industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ussing, Lene Faber; Wandahl, Søren

    2012-01-01

    The building industry has for many years been criticized for not having as efficient and effective co-operation as other industries. Some parties in the building sector try to use a new form of collaboration as i.a. partnering. In a big part of those partnering projects a good working relationship...... exists, the building owner is satisfied, the involved companies earn money and the project finish in time. A lot of projects do not use partnering or other new forms of collaboration. In these projects the general impression is that the parties in the building sector are fighting instead of co...

  15. Australian influences on Elton Mayo: the construct of Revery in industrial society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Mark A; Landy, Frank J; Mayocchi, Lisa

    2002-11-01

    Elton Mayo was born in Australia and spent most of his first 42 years living in that country. This article explores the Australian context in which he developed his views views of Australia compared with that of the United States during the time that Mayo developed his approach to psychology and the role of workers in industry. In addition, the social context in which Mayo established his career was shaped by significant political events in Australia. The construct of revery, which describes a specific state of consciousness, is central to Mayo's early theorizing and was developed by Mayo partly in reaction to political and industrial conflict occurring in Australia.

  16. Public policies influencing innovation in the agrochemical, biotechnology and seed industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijman, J.; Tait, J.

    2002-01-01

    The development and marketing of new products by the agrochemical, biotechnology and seed industries is strongly regulated by government policies. Relevant policies include those on science, technology and innovation, the environment and public health, and farm support. This survey of policies likel

  17. EVALUATION OF THE EFFICIENCY OF INDUSTRIAL FLARES: INFLUENCE OF GAS COMPOSITION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a pilot-scale evaluation of the efficiency of industrial flares. The work (1) evaluated the effects of additional gas mixtures on flare stability and efficiency with and without pilot assist and (2) correlated flame stability for the different gas mixt...

  18. How social and human capital influence opportunity recognition and resource mobilization in India's handloom industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhagavatula, S.; Elfring, T.; Tilburg, van A.; Bunt, G.T.

    2010-01-01

    Small-scale firms in rural areas play an extremely important role in the development of any country, and especially in developing countries. To understand entrepreneurs who operate in a low-technology industry, we rely on the network perspective on entrepreneurship. In this paper, we investigate how

  19. Do Transaction Costs and Risk Preferences Influence Marketing Arrangements in the Illinois Hog Industry?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken, J.R.V.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Garcia, P.

    2009-01-01

    Risk reduction and transaction costs are often used to explain contracting in the U.S. hog industry with little empirical support. Using a unified conceptual framework that draws from risk behavior and transaction cost theories, in combination with unique survey and accounting data, we demonstrate

  20. Public policies influencing innovation in the agrochemical, biotechnology and seed industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijman, J.; Tait, J.

    2002-01-01

    The development and marketing of new products by the agrochemical, biotechnology and seed industries is strongly regulated by government policies. Relevant policies include those on science, technology and innovation, the environment and public health, and farm support. This survey of policies

  1. How Do Social Networks Influence Learning Outcomes? A Case Study in an Industrial Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglajlic, Seid; Helic, Denis

    2012-01-01

    and Purpose: The purpose of this research is to shed light on the impact of implicit social networks to the learning outcome of e-learning participants in an industrial setting. Design/methodology/approach: The paper presents a theoretical framework that allows the authors to measure correlation coefficients between the different affiliations that…

  2. Influence of heat treatment on magnesium alloys meant to automotive industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popescu, G.; Moldovan, P.; Bojin, D.; Sillekens, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a study concerning the heat treatment realized on magnesium alloys, from AZ80 and ZK60 class. These alloys are destined to replace the conventional ferrous and aluminum alloys in automotive industry. It was realized the heat treatment, T5 - artificially aging, and it were

  3. The Influence of Technology Transfers on the Development of Innovations in the Process Industry of Croatia (Istrian County Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinko Škare

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the influence of technology transfers on the development of innovations in the process industry in Croatia (Istrian County case. The technological regime identifies characteristics of the learning processes, sources of knowledge and the nature of knowledge bases linked to the innovative process in the company happening as part of production activities. The research supports Schumpeter’s standpoint in his theory of creative destruction. When a new and more efficient design for the production of a commodity is created, the enterprise that first starts using the new design conquer a part of its competitors’ market. The competition reacts either by introducing the same design or one even newer or completely loses the market, as this is the case in the process industry in Croatia.

  4. Conflicts of interest at medical journals: the influence of industry-supported randomised trials on journal impact factors and revenue - cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundh, Andreas; Barbateskovic, Marija; Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn;

    2010-01-01

    transparency in reporting of conflict of interest is an increasingly important aspect of publication in medical journals. Publication of large industry-supported trials may generate many citations and journal income through reprint sales and thereby be a source of conflicts of interest for journals....... We investigated industry-supported trials' influence on journal impact factors and revenue....

  5. The competitive status of the U.S. fibers, textiles and apparel complex: a study of the influences of technology in determining international industrial competitive advantage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Technology and International Economic and Trade Issues

    1983-01-01

    ... of the Influences of Technology in Determining International Industrial Competitive Advantage Prepared by the Fibers, Textiles, and Apparel Industry Panel, Committee on Technology and International Economic and Trade Issues of the Office of the Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering and the Commission on Engineering and Technical...

  6. A study on influencing factors on brand loyalty: A case study of Mobile industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Dehestani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Brand loyalty plays essential role on product development especially in mobile industry. In this paper, we present an empirical survey to study the effects of different factors including brand associate, brand awareness, distribution intensity and quality perception on brand loyalty. The proposed model of this paper is examined by designing a questionnaire consists of 16 questions in Likert scale and distributing it among 200 people who use a particular brand in mobile industry called Nokia. The results are analyzed using structural equation modeling where Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.84. The results indicate that there is a positive relationship between perception quality as well as brand awareness and brand loyalty. In addition, there is a positive relationship between brand awareness and perception quality.

  7. Tender rules and trust influence on cooperation in the building industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ussing, Lene Faber; Wandahl, Søren

    2012-01-01

    The building industry has for many years been criticized for not having as efficient and effective co-operation as other industries. Some parties in the building sector try to use a new form of collaboration as i.a. partnering. In a big part of those partnering projects a good working relationship...... exists, the building owner is satisfied, the involved companies earn money and the project finish in time. A lot of projects do not use partnering or other new forms of collaboration. In these projects the general impression is that the parties in the building sector are fighting instead of co......-operating. A questionnaire survey including building owners, contractors, suppliers, architects, engineers and client design advisor has been accomplished. The survey shows that the problem with co-operation among others is the way the tendering rules normally are used, where the normal assignment criterion is the lowest...

  8. Influence of heavy metals pollution in borehole water collected within abandoned battery industry, Essien Udim, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Uffia, I. Dan; Etim D. E

    2013-01-01

    Physico-chemical and heavy metals analyses of water samples from three boreholes located within abandoned battery company in Essien Udim LGA, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria was carried out to ascertain the impact of pollution from battery industry on groundwater quality. Borehole locations were at different distances of 0km, 2km, and 5km (X1, X11 and X111) respectively away from the abandoned battery vicinity. The parameters determined included; turbidity, temperature, pH, Dissolved oxygen (DO), ...

  9. A study on different factors influencing customer satisfaction on industrial market

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Shirani; Habibollah Danaei; Anahita Shirvani

    2014-01-01

    Customer satisfaction plays essential role on the success of industrial products such as milk in todays’ marketing planning. In this paper, we present a conceptual model to measure the relative impact of various factors on customer satisfaction. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire and distributes it among managers of a dairy producer named Pegah in city of Esfahan, Iran. Using Pearson correlation ratio as well as stepwise regression technique, the study has found positive...

  10. Alcohol industry influence on UK alcohol policy: A new research agenda for public health

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    : The British government has been criticised for according industry interests too much weight in alcohol policy-making. Consequently, it has been argued that alcohol strategy in the UK is built around policies for which the evidence base is weak. This has clear implications for public health. The purpose of this commentary is to map recent developments in UK alcohol policy and related debates within the alcohol policy literature, thus laying the foundations for a systematic examination of the...

  11. Stakeholders’ environmental influence. An empirical analysis in the Spanish hotel industry

    OpenAIRE

    Céspedes Lorente, José Joaquín; Burgos Jiménez, Jerónimo de; Álvarez Gil, María José

    2003-01-01

    We draw on the insights of stakeholder theory to explore the extent to which environmental management practices are driven by (i) an attempt to enhance a firm’s legitimacy, and (ii) a response to pressures arising from powerful stakeholders. The material for this investigation has been gathered from a sample of 279 Spanish hotels. The hotel industry which is only marginally affected by environmental regulation and is thus a widely neglected setting in this context, could be a particularly int...

  12. Influence of transport infrastructure on the industrial development of the Russian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizaveta Eduardovna Kolchinskaya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to build a model describing the relationship between the level of transport infrastructure development of the region and the level of industrial development in the region. Methods calculation of the integral indicators of a particular industry development regression analysis method of the production function constructing. For regression analysis the paper uses panel data models with random and fixed effects and the pooled panel data model. To check the quality of the regression model the Fisher and Student ttests were used. To test the model for heteroskedastic properties tests by Park Glazer GoldfeldQuandt and White were applied. Results models of linear and logarithmic specifications with random and fixed effects were built as well as pooled panel data models. Significant coefficients of transport infrastructure indicators were obtained in both cases only in the pooled panel data models. The model which considered the railway density index as one of the characteristics of the transport infrastructure of the region showed the negative coefficient of this variable. Scientific novelty for the first time on the basis of Russian regions statistics using regression models of panel data the dependence has been studied between the level of transport development in the region and the dynamics of industrial production in it. As the characteristic of transport infrastructure development the specially designed integral indicator was used i.e. the transport enterprises and communications functioning in the region summarizing several characteristics of enterprises in the industry. Practical value the obtained results can be used to predict effects of adopting decisions on improving the transport infrastructure in the Russian Federation regions. The results and conclusion can serve as a basis for further research on this topic and be applied in the characterization of the Russian economy. In addition the results can be used in the educational

  13. How Do Choice of Major and Industrial Structure Influence College Graduates' Unemployment Rate In China

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Xiuwen

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the higher education market is developing very fast, and China’s universities and colleges are increasing their enrollment. More and more college graduates with higher education backgrounds enter the labor market and the college graduates have to face higher unemployment pressure when they find jobs. For the college graduates’ unemployment problem, many literatures and research are focusing on over-enrollment problem, the influence of the major differences, and the influence of the ...

  14. INFLUENCE OF CUSTOMER SATISFACTION ON LOYALTY: A STUDY ON MOBILE TELECOMMUNICATION INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Motaher Hossain; Nusrat Jahan Suchy

    2013-01-01

    The mobile telecommunication companies uphold their service quality and change their marketing core strategies to retain their existing customers by enhancing and optimizing the customer loyalty. Therefore, it becomes significant for telecom companies to identify factors of services that influence customer loyalty and in turn creates loyal customers by satisfying them. This present study aims to explore the influence of customer satisfaction on customer loyalty in the context of Bangladesh. T...

  15. Influence of heavy metals pollution in borehole water collected within abandoned battery industry, Essien Udim, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uffia, I. Dan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Physico-chemical and heavy metals analyses of water samples from three boreholes located within abandoned battery company in Essien Udim LGA, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria was carried out to ascertain the impact of pollution from battery industry on groundwater quality. Borehole locations were at different distances of 0km, 2km, and 5km (X1, X11 and X111 respectively away from the abandoned battery vicinity. The parameters determined included; turbidity, temperature, pH, Dissolved oxygen (DO, total dissolved solids (TDS, Nitrate, Chloride, Calcium and heavy metals such as Iron, Zinc, Manganese, Chromium, Lead and Cadmium using conventional equipment and standard laboratory procedures. Most of these parameters indicated traceable pollution but were below the World Health Organization (WHO and Nigerian Standard for Drinking water quality (NSDWQ limits for consumption. The pH value in sample position 0km ( X1 was 5.5 indicating toxic pollution in the vicinity within the abandoned battery industry. Turbidity and temperature in sample position 0km (X1 were 6.7 NTU and 27.60 respectively. Concentrations of heavy metals in borehole water within abandoned battery industry were above the WHO permissible level. The results showed that borehole water in sample position 0km (X1 was strongly polluted and require urgently certain levels of treatment before use.

  16. CORPORATE REPUTATION INFLUENCES CONSUMER SATISFACTION AND LOYALTY: EVIDENCE FROM CELLULAR INDUSTRY OF PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IMRAN ALI

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Research suggests that it takes five times more expenses to attract new customer than to retain existing consumer. The growing concern of corporations in today’s competitive environment is to retain consumers. As a result, plenty of researches have been conducted to identify the approaches to satisfy and retain consumers. The current study examines the affects of corporate reputation on consumer satisfaction and consumer loyalty. The primary data has been collected from the consumers of cellular industry in Pakistan. The rationale behind selecting respondents from cellular industry is the intense competition, which is enduring in the cellular companies of Pakistan. The study used SPSS and AMOS to analyze the data. The correlation analysis, regression analysis, reliability analysis and model fit index analysis has been used to test hypotheses and interpret some interesting results. The study found significantly positive associations of corporate reputation on consumer satisfaction and consumer loyalty. The study also found strongly positive affects of consumer satisfaction on consumer loyalty for the case of cellular industry of Pakistan. The study proposes some useful recommendations for policy makers in the area.

  17. INNOVATIONS AS AN IMPORTANT FACTOR INFLUENCING LABOUR PRODUCTIVITY IN THE MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Bušelić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic science has long recognized labour productivity as an important factor of economic growth. In the uncertain conditions of increasingly fierce and complex competition, it becomes one of the key prerequisites for an adequate response to global challenges. The development of labour productivity has to be observed as a multi-dimensional process including numerous interconnected quantitative and qualitative factors, in particular human factors and technological advancement realized through investments in research and development (innovations. The analysis of labour productivity in the manufacturing industry of the selected countries, Germany and China, is performed in the context of an important influential factor – innovations, and interdependently with the economic growth of the selected countries. The research results and the conducted regression analyses indicate a superiority of German labour productivity in the manufacturing industry, which is strongly affected by considerable investments in research and development. However, the technological convergence of China as the upcoming power is increasingly important, which shows that the gap in labour productivity is decreasing, making developed countries face new challenges posed by globalization. The analysis of the interdependence of economic growth (GDP and labour productivity in the manufacturing industry points to a positive link and the conclusion that the elasticity of the GDP to changes in labour productivity is greater in China than in Germany.

  18. The influence of external factors on the credit risk in leasing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Farsad Amanollahi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Credit risk consists of probability of non-return, which may be in the form of bankruptcy or a decrease in financial and credit situation of the lessee. The variables are extracted from the Central Bank. In this study the independent variables are measured with six factors that are called external factors. The external factors are size of leasing, ownership interest rate, foreign exchange, inflation, and Gross Domestic Product (GDP. The present study uses related observations from 31 leasing companies from 2008 to 2013 to find out the determinants of the credit risk. The combined evidences suggest that internal factors such as upfront prepayment, credit insurance contract, security deposits, time and period contract, collateral and guarantees, contract amount, as well as external factors such as interest rate, inflation, foreign exchange, Gross Domestic Product infrastructure, and credit risk are determinants in the policy-making process involving the industrial leasing. Furthermore, the empirical results indicate the size of leasing and ownership are not the significant determinants of credit risk. The results of this dissertation provide several implications for policy-makers in the leasing industry. Policy-makers will be better off employing different procedures for leasing activities in the leasing industry.

  19. Influence of controlled inoculation of malolactic fermentation on the sensory properties of industrial cider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Ainoa; de Revel, Gilles; Antalick, Guillaume; Herrero, Mónica; García, Luis A; Díaz, Mario

    2014-05-01

    Given the lack of research in the traditional cider making field when compared to the efforts devoted to winemaking, this work focused on the effects of controlled inoculation of the malolactic fermentation (MLF) on the sensory properties of cider. MLF develops spontaneously in cider making at industrial level. In this work, industrial cider samples were inoculated with selected indigenous Oenococcus oeni strains and the benefits on the aroma and flavour in cider production compared to non-inoculated ciders were evaluated. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA PCR was used to monitor strain colonization ability, outnumbering the indigenous microbiota, after completion of the alcoholic fermentation at industrial scale (20,000 l). Aroma-active compounds of experimentally inoculated ciders were analysed by HPLC and GC-MS, and sensory profiles were determined by fractioning aroma extracts using reversed-phase HPLC. Principal component analysis allowed the identification of relationships and differences among ciders with or without inoculation, including several highly appreciated commercial ones obtained under spontaneous conditions. Under controlled inoculation conditions, not only could MLF be shortened by half but, interestingly, enhancement of aroma complexity and flavour resulted in ciders enriched with a higher fruity note. In addition, important aromatic groups analysed here had not been previously described, thus affording deeper knowledge on aroma characterization of apple cider.

  20. From cultural industries to creative economy: The popular culture within the public policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomka Goran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lately, creative industries have become an extremely popular concept in cultural policies across the globe. For many, it came as a surprise. However, the idea of merging culture and arts with industrial production has been slowly evolving during the 20th century, thus there is not much space for a surprise. The aim of this paper is to position creative industries in a broader historical and theoretical framework. The paper is looking at the interplay of popular culture and public (cultural policies: from the post-war critical theory of the Frankfurt school and UNESCO's early debate on cultural industries to the recent policies and theories on creative economy and creative industries.

  1. Influence of material and gear parameters on the safety of gearing in metallurgical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Medvecká - Beňová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the appropriate choice of parameters to obtain the desired level of safety of gears in a gearbox to drive the conveyor in the metallurgical industry under increased load. Steel with surface hardness up to 350 HBW, or heat treated steel with hardness of 500 - 650 HBW are used. As a final heat treatment are used surface hardening, cementation and hardening, nitridation. Good properties of heat-treated steels are at the correct thickness of the heat-treated layer of the tooth. Results are presented for dual-ratio gearbox with spur gears from operation of an integrated steel company.

  2. Considerations regarding the influence of the Clawback Tax in the development of the Romanian pharmaceutical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doina Margaritti

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Clawback is a special tax applied to the pharmaceutical industry, that implies the contribution of all drug producers, to finance the public health system with a sum of money, which may vary between 5% and 11%, sum paid out of their income made from selling drugs.This tax provision was introduced in Romania in October 2009 and it suffered a series of modifications, following administrative obstructions and due to the numerous controversies that appeared between the drug producer’s representatives and the Regulation Authorities.

  3. A study on different factors influencing customer satisfaction on industrial market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Shirani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Customer satisfaction plays essential role on the success of industrial products such as milk in todays’ marketing planning. In this paper, we present a conceptual model to measure the relative impact of various factors on customer satisfaction. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire and distributes it among managers of a dairy producer named Pegah in city of Esfahan, Iran. Using Pearson correlation ratio as well as stepwise regression technique, the study has found positive and meaningful relationship between customer satisfaction and price, quality of product, distribution and compatibility with customer expectation. In addition, the study detects a negative and meaningful relationship between conflict and customer satisfaction.

  4. Influence of wastewater characteristics on methane potential in food-processing industry wastewaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maya Altamira, Larisa; Baun, Anders; Angelidaki, Irini;

    2008-01-01

    ) were compared to the theoretical methane yields (Bo,th) in order to evaluate the biodegradability of the tested wastewaters and the influence of their physico-chemical characteristics. The analytical method applied to quantify the wastewaters’ organic content proved to influence the estimation...... yields; on the other hand, it was found that they were affected positively by concentrations of total inorganic carbon when wastewaters were 25% and 50% diluted and affected negatively by concentrations of total acetate when wastewaters were undiluted. Carbohydrate and protein concentrations affected...

  5. NO2 pollution of the atmosphere and the influence of industrial processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kula Petr

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Among nitrogen oxides in atmosphere, the concentration of N2O is the highest (about 306 ppm and due to the high global warming potential (GWP = 320 nitrous oxide belongs to important greenhouse gases. Moreover, N2O contributes also to the ozone layer depletion. Nitrous oxide is produced by both natural processes and anthropogenic activities, where combustion plays an important role. Two analytical methods ( IR spectrophotometry and gas chromatography have been used for the analysis of N2O emissions from various industrial sources. Carbon monooxide at the concentration above 500 ppm interferes the IR analysis. The emission factors for combustion processes typical for Czech Republic have been calculated. Emission concentrations depend on the type of the combustion process (the highest is for the fluid-bed combustion as well as on the output of the combustion unit. In an identical unit, the emission factor increases when the output decreases. A high concentration of nitrous oxide have been found in emissions from the chemical industry where catalytic denitrification is used.

  6. The possible influence of noise frequency components on the health of exposed industrial workers--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendra Prashanth, K V; Venugopalachar, Sridhar

    2011-01-01

    Noise is a common occupational health hazard in most industrial settings. An assessment of noise and its adverse health effects based on noise intensity is inadequate. For an efficient evaluation of noise effects, frequency spectrum analysis should also be included. This paper aims to substantiate the importance of studying the contribution of noise frequencies in evaluating health effects and their association with physiological behavior within human body. Additionally, a review of studies published between 1988 and 2009 that investigate the impact of industrial/occupational noise on auditory and non-auditory effects and the probable association and contribution of noise frequency components to these effects is presented. The relevant studies in English were identified in Medknow, Medline, Wiley, Elsevier, and Springer publications. Data were extracted from the studies that fulfilled the following criteria: title and/or abstract of the given study that involved industrial/occupational noise exposure in relation to auditory and non-auditory effects or health effects. Significant data on the study characteristics, including noise frequency characteristics, for assessment were considered in the study. It is demonstrated that only a few studies have considered the frequency contributions in their investigations to study auditory effects and not non-auditory effects. The data suggest that significant adverse health effects due to industrial noise include auditory and heart-related problems. The study provides a strong evidence for the claims that noise with a major frequency characteristic of around 4 kHz has auditory effects and being deficient in data fails to show any influence of noise frequency components on non-auditory effects. Furthermore, specific noise levels and frequencies predicting the corresponding health impacts have not yet been validated. There is a need for advance research to clarify the importance of the dominant noise frequency contribution in

  7. Factors Influencing Industry Uptake of Marketing & Supply Chain Innovations within the Australian Seafood Cooperative Research Centre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dentoni, D.; English, F.

    2012-01-01

    This study identifies factors influencing the Australian seafood industry’s adoption of marketing and supply chain innovations created from public-private funded research and development (R&D). A grounded theory approach was followed by comparing and contrasting the evidence from 35 projects fun

  8. In-situ evaluation of the degradable carbon influence for industrial waste water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayomi, O. S. I.; Olukanni, D. O.; Fayomi, G. U.; Joseph, O. O.; Popoola, A. P. I.

    2016-07-01

    A photochemical investigation and synergetic blend for wastewater purification was carried out. Blends of different peels: Potato-, Apple and Pineapples-peals (PAP-peals) were impregnated with aqueous solutions of ZnCl2 following the variant of the incipient wetness method for activation of activated carbon (AC). Different concentrations were used to produce impregnation ratios. Activation was carried out in a tube furnace by heating to 700°C with 1 hour soaking time. Scanning Electron Microscopic with attached energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM/EDS), Atomic Adsorption Spectrometry (AAS) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometer (FTIS) equipments were used for the characterization of the AC produced. The result shows that PAP-peals derived activated carbons had micro porous characteristics. The study revealed that these new combined adsorbents materials are inexpensive, easily available and they have applications for the removal of Cu, Pb and Cr contained in industrial effluents.

  9. Influence of surface chemistry on the hygienic status of industrial stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulange-Petermann, L; Jullien, C; Dubois, P E; Benezech, T; Faille, C

    2004-02-01

    Coupons of fourteen different stainless steels were investigated in terms of surface chemistry and ease of cleaning. Steel surfaces were exposed to Bacillus cereus spores in static saline solution for 2 h. Surfaces were rinsed and then covered with whole milk and allowed to dry. Surfaces were then cleaned in an experimental flow system that mimics an industrial application. After cleaning, remaining spores were released by sonication, spores cultured and colony forming units determined. Surfaces with higher levels of Fe in the outer surface of the passive film cleaned more easily. There was a relation between the polar component and ease of cleaning. The higher the polar component the more easily the surface cleaned. The cleaning mechanism involves dissolution of Fe enriched hydroxide films on the surface.

  10. Influence of Transformational Leadership on Organizational Innovation in Telecommunication Industry in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Majid Khan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the relationship between Transformational leadership and Organizational Innovation. This relationship is mediated through an intervening variable like Employee Creativity. Using the sample of 250 including supervisors and their respective subordinates of Telecommunication industry of Pakistan. This is purely quantitative research and a survey was designed to collect data from supervisors and subordinates to reduce the common method biasness. This study supports the “Transformational theory, LMX theory and Social learning theory” Data was analyzed by using SPSS and AMOS. The results of this study confirms the results of previous studies showing the significant relationship of Transformational leadership style, Employee Creativity and Organizational Innovation with each other, but in previous studies no indication was found about the cause of organizational Innovation through Employee creativity in Telecommunication sector of Pakistan. So the findings of current study have explicit practical considerations for leadership practice, particularly in the situation where both followers and leaders interact with each other.

  11. Investigating success factors influencing in e-CRM adoption: Evidence from banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariz Taherikia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the effects of technology adoption and quality of websites on customer satisfaction as well as customer loyalty in banking industry. It also investigates the effect of electronic customer satisfaction on customer loyalty and the effect of electronic customer satisfaction on customer loyalty on e-CRM. The study is accomplished among managers of bank Sepah in city of Qom, Iran. Using structural equation modeling, the study has confirmed that there was a positive and meaningful relationship between the effects of technology adoption and quality of web services on electronic customer satisfaction and customer loyalty. The results also confirm the positive effect of customer satisfaction on customer loyalty, electronic customer satisfaction as well as electronic customer loyalty on e-CRM.

  12. In-situ evaluation of the degradable carbon influence for industrial waste water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayomi, O. S. I., E-mail: ojo.fayomi@covenantuniversity.edu.ng, E-mail: fayomio@tut.ac.za, E-mail: ojosundayfayomi3@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Covenant University, Ota, Ogun State (Nigeria); Department of Chemical, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, P.M.B. X680, Pretoria (South Africa); Olukanni, D. O. [Department of Civil Engineering, Covenant University, P.M.B. 1023, Ota, Ogun State (Nigeria); Fayomi, G. U. [Department of Environmental Management, Centre for Environmental and Science Education, Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos State (Nigeria); Joseph, O. O. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Covenant University, Ota, Ogun State (Nigeria); Popoola, A. P. I. [Department of Chemical, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, P.M.B. X680, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2016-07-25

    A photochemical investigation and synergetic blend for wastewater purification was carried out. Blends of different peels: Potato-, Apple and Pineapples-peals (PAP-peals) were impregnated with aqueous solutions of ZnCl{sub 2} following the variant of the incipient wetness method for activation of activated carbon (AC). Different concentrations were used to produce impregnation ratios. Activation was carried out in a tube furnace by heating to 700°C with 1 hour soaking time. Scanning Electron Microscopic with attached energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM/EDS), Atomic Adsorption Spectrometry (AAS) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometer (FTIS) equipments were used for the characterization of the AC produced. The result shows that PAP-peals derived activated carbons had micro porous characteristics. The study revealed that these new combined adsorbents materials are inexpensive, easily available and they have applications for the removal of Cu, Pb and Cr contained in industrial effluents.

  13. An Influence Diagram-Based Approach for Estimating Staff Training in Software Industry

    CERN Document Server

    Jeet, Kawal; Prasad, Bhanu; Minhas, Rajinder Singh

    2010-01-01

    The successful completion of a software development process depends on the analytical capability and foresightedness of the project manager. For the project manager, the main intriguing task is to manage the risk factors as they adversely influence the completion deadline. One such key risk factor is staff training. The risk of this factor can be avoided by pre-judging the amount of training required by the staff. So, a procedure is required to help the project manager make this decision. This paper presents a system that uses influence diagrams to implement the risk model to aid decision making. The system also considers the cost of conducting the training, based on various risk factors such as, (i) Lack of experience with project software; (ii) Newly appointed staff; (iii) Staff not well versed with the required quality standards; and (iv) Lack of experience with project environment. The system provides estimated requirement details for staff training at the beginning of a software development project.

  14. Influence of physical culture and sports on health status of pupils of industrial city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapranov S.V.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to study in the city with large enterprises of ferrous metallurgy and coke health of schoolchildren under the influence of physical education and sports. The research of blood pressure and heart rate (HR were 295 pupils aged 15-17 years, 390 - anthropometric study of body length, body weight, chest circumference and head, while the 584 teenagers - the prevalence of dental caries. HR assessment is made by comparing with the age norms, and indicators of physical development of pupils - centile method. It is shown that under the influence of employment morning gymnastics school students marked normalization of their heart rate. Waiver of physical exercise leads to a decrease in students in body length and circumference of the chest. Classes in morning exercises and sports are the factors antirisk caries among high school students. Proposed preventive recommendations.

  15. INFLUENCE OF CUSTOMER SATISFACTION ON LOYALTY: A STUDY ON MOBILE TELECOMMUNICATION INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Motaher Hossain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The mobile telecommunication companies uphold their service quality and change their marketing core strategies to retain their existing customers by enhancing and optimizing the customer loyalty. Therefore, it becomes significant for telecom companies to identify factors of services that influence customer loyalty and in turn creates loyal customers by satisfying them. This present study aims to explore the influence of customer satisfaction on customer loyalty in the context of Bangladesh. This study focused on six factors such as communication, price structure, value-added service, convenience, sales-promotions and customer service. Both primary and secondary information were collected to test the pre-set hypotheses. Descriptive statistics and simple linear regression were employed to analyze the data. Result shows that five factors: communication, price structure, value-added services, convenience and customer service/care have positive correlations with customer loyalty.

  16. A study on effective factors influencing on equity risk in banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khodaei Valahzaghard

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the effects of various factors influencing on risk of return in banking system plays essential role on making managerial decisions. This paper investigates the effects of seven factors including equities, leverage, dividend, size, growth domestic products, bank concentration and market return on risk of return in selected banks listed on Tehran Stock Exchange. The study selects the necessary data through financial statements announced on exchange as well as macro-economic figures reported by central bank of Iran to examine the hypotheses of the survey. Using some regression technique, the study has determined that only bank size and growth domestic product influence significantly on risk of return on Tehran Stock Exchange.

  17. A study on how CRM influences marketing planning in telecommunication industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Customer relationship management (CRM plays an important role on marketing planning. In this paper, we re-examine the effect of having efficient CRM on efficiency of a telecommunication company. The proposed study considers three hypotheses. The first hypothesis examines whether implementation of CRM could improve customer’s perception in terms of customer retention, satisfaction, loyalty and awareness. The second hypothesis examines whether implementation of CRM influences on market performance in terms of reduction on customer complaints, quality improvement, improving customer perception, access to services and increase in market share. Finally, the third hypothesis considers the effect of CRM on financial figures in terms of sales growth, profit growth, earnings per share and productivity. The results of our survey have confirmed the first hypothesis and rejected the third hypothesis. In other words, while CRM improves customer perception it does not influence financial figures in most cases (P<0.01.

  18. Transaminases activity in the sand lizard’s serum under influence of industrial pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Y. Klymenko

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Influence of the environmental pollution on the alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activity in the blood serum of the sand lizard has been studied. Aminotransferases (ALT and AST are similar by the mechanism of action. These enzymes take part in the amino acids metabolism. The increase of the transaminases activities under conditions of the pollution is found. It may be a proof of a damage of relevant organs: namely, the liver.

  19. Transaminases activity in the sand lizard’s serum under influence of industrial pollution

    OpenAIRE

    O. Y. Klymenko; V. Y. Gasso

    2009-01-01

    Influence of the environmental pollution on the alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activity in the blood serum of the sand lizard has been studied. Aminotransferases (ALT and AST) are similar by the mechanism of action. These enzymes take part in the amino acids metabolism. The increase of the transaminases activities under conditions of the pollution is found. It may be a proof of a damage of relevant organs: namely, the liver.

  20. The Influence of Trust on Project Management Practice within the Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Strahorn

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Given that any construction project is inherently a human endeavour, it follows that issues of trust are significant in terms of the stakeholder interactions that deliver eventual project outcomes.  Previous research indicates that the relational basis upon which projects are undertaken are intended to influence the likelihood of trusting relationships between stakeholders.  Thus, experiences of trust in a construction project environment are likely to be influenced by the contextual specifics of respective transactional and relational contracting (RC procurement mechanisms, given the divergent theoretical principles upon which they are founded.  The influence of trust has therefore been examined through the lived experiences of construction practitioners.  A phenomenological interview study consisting of thirty-five (35 participants was conducted with sensitivity to the procurement of experiences being recounted. Issues of trust were shown to be integral to stakeholder experiences in both procurement environments, with the benefits of trust acknowledged in many instances.  However, little understanding was evident regarding methods for building and maintaining trust, nor for repairing trust when problems arose. Importantly, despite the differing principles that underpin transactional and relational procurement, and particularly the contention that relational procurement would increase trust between trading partners, this was not evident; with individual personalities and appropriate risk apportionment shown to be greater influences upon the likelihood of trusting relationships.  It is reasonable to conjecture that relational contracts actually diminish the need for trust, given that the objective is to reduce uncertainty through formulaic approaches to risk distribution and reward; the absence of risk negates the need for trust.  Ultimately, the potential to deliver improved project outcomes as a result of proactive approaches to

  1. Influence of Brand Loyalty on Fast Food Industry - Consumer buying behavior of India.

    OpenAIRE

    Tandon, Manav

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine how consumers are influenced by factors of brand loyalty towards fast food brands. The research was conducted in Delhi with Indian consumers. People who filled the questionnaire are adults who are working or are looking for job. This research was adopted based on seven factor of brand loyalty. The seven factors of brand loyalty are brand name, product quality, price, style, promotion, and service quality and restaurant environment. Brand name has sho...

  2. Women and work after the Second World War: a case study of the jute industry, circa 1945-1954.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Carlo; Tomlinson, Jim

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the attempts by the Dundee jute industry to recruit women workers in the years circa 1945-1954. It locates its discussion of these attempts in the literature on the impact of the Second World War on the participation of women in the British labour market more generally, and the forces determining that participation. It stresses the peculiarities of jute as a traditional major employer of women operating in very specific market conditions, but suggests that this case study throws light on the broader argument about the impact of war and early post-war conditions on women's participation in paid work.

  3. 对战后初期美国转变对日政策原因的再审视%Revaluation of Causes for Changes in US Policy towards Japan in Early Post-war Period of WWⅡ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张经纬

    2016-01-01

    The changes in the relations between US and Japan after WWII had been the major element af-fecting the stability of Eastern Asian region.The focus of United State’s policy towards Japan at the early post-war period of WWII experienced a transition process from transforming to supporting.The transition had a complicated historical background and reason,went through a tortuous transformation process.The direct result set a base for the following US-Japan relationship and now has a major effect upon changes in the international political structure of Eastern Asian region.Those elements affected US to change its policy towards Japan in the early years after WWII are not so important as analyzed by those Chinese and foreign scholars,but all of which have a logical connections,some coming first,other following afterwards,or some being primary and other being secondary and finally leading to the formation of the “San Francisco Sys-tem”.In the process of changes in US policy towards Japan,disputes in ideology and gambles on national interests between US and the Soviet Union interacted honestly and straightforwardly,sometimes agreed with each other,sometimes departed from each other,aiming at their own individual national interests.All of these are important references for predicting the trends of the current international political structure of Eastern Asian region,and for the fundamental key and policies in correctly dealing with international af-fairs of that region.%战后美日关系的变动,始终是影响东亚地区稳定的重要因素。战后初期美国对日政策的重心经历了从改造到扶持的转变过程。这一转变有着复杂的历史背景和原因,经历了曲折的转变过程,转变的直接结果奠定了之后的美日关系,且至今仍对东亚地区国际政治格局的变化存在着重要影响。战后初期影响美国转变对日政策的诸因素,并非先前中外学者所分析的平行并重,而是有先有

  4. Metal concentrations in aquatic environments of Puebla River basin, Mexico: natural and industrial influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-García, S S; Rodríguez-Espinosa, P F; Shruti, V C; Jonathan, M P; Martínez-Tavera, E

    2017-01-01

    The rapid urban expansion and presence of volcanoes in the premises of Puebla River basin in central Mexico exert significant influences over its aquatic environments. Twenty surface sediment samples from Puebla River basin consisting of R. Alseseca, R. Atoyac, and Valsequillo dam were collected during September 2009 and analyzed for major (Al, Fe, Mg, Ba, Ca, and K) and trace elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, V, and Zn) in order to identify the metal concentrations and their enrichment. R. Atoyac sediments presented higher concentrations of Ba (1193.8 μg g(-1)) and Pb (27.1 μg g(-1)) in comparison with the local reference sample values. All the metal concentrations except Sr for R. Alseseca sediments were within the range of local reference sample values indicating no significant external influence, whereas Valsequillo dam sediments had elevated concentrations of all the metals suggesting both natural and external influences in the study region. The magnitude of metal contamination was assessed using several indices such as geoaccumulation index (I geo), enrichment factor (EF), degree of contamination (C d ), and pollution load index (PLI). The results suggest that As, Pb, and Zn were predominantly enriched in the Puebla River basin sediments. Comparing with sediment quality guidelines and ecotoxicological values, it is revealed that Cd, Cr, Cu, and Ni have possible harmful effects on the biological community. The present study provides an outlook of metal enrichment in Puebla River basin sediments, highlighting the necessity to conserve this river ecosystem for the near future.

  5. Macro-economic factors influencing the architectural business model shift in the pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierks, Raphaela Marie Louisa; Bruyère, Olivier; Reginster, Jean-Yves; Richy, Florent-Frederic

    2016-10-01

    Technological innovations, new regulations, increasing costs of drug productions and new demands are only few key drivers of a projected alternation in the pharmaceutical industry. The purpose of this review is to understand the macro economic factors responsible for the business model revolution to possess a competitive advantage over market players. Areas covered: Existing literature on macro-economic factors changing the pharmaceutical landscape has been reviewed to present a clear image of the current market environment. Expert commentary: Literature shows that pharmaceutical companies are facing an architectural alteration, however the evidence on the rationale driving the transformation is outstanding. Merger & Acquisitions (M&A) deals and collaborations are headlining the papers. Q1 2016 did show a major slowdown in M&A deals by volume since 2013 (with deal cancellations of Pfizer and Allergan, or the downfall of Valeant), but pharmaceutical analysts remain confident that this shortfall was a consequence of the equity market volatility. It seems likely that the shift to an M&A model will become apparent during the remainder of 2016, with deal announcements of Abbott Laboratories, AbbVie and Sanofi worth USD 45billion showing the appetite of big pharma companies to shift from the fully vertical integrated business model to more horizontal business models.

  6. Regional Variations of Public Perception on Contaminated Industrial Sites in China and Its Influencing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaonuo; Jiao, Wentao; Xiao, Rongbo; Chen, Weiping; Bai, Yanying

    2016-04-08

    Public involvement is critical in sustainable contaminated site management. It is important for China to improve public knowledge and participation, foster dialogue between urban managers and laypeople, and accelerate the remediation and redevelopment processes in contaminated site management. In this study, we collected 1812 questionnaires from nine cities around China through face-to-face interviews and statistically analyzed the perception of residents concerning contaminated sites. The results show that respondents' concern about soil pollution was lower than for other environmental issues and their knowledge of soil contamination was limited. The risks posed by contaminated industrial sites were well recognized by respondents, but they were unsatisfied with the performance of local agencies regarding information disclosure, publicity and education and public participation. Respondents believed that local governments and polluters should take the primary responsibility for contaminated site remediation. Most of them were unwilling to pay for contaminated site remediation and preferred recreational or public service redevelopment. Moreover, our research indicated that public perception varied among different cities. This variation was mainly determined by implementations of policy instruments and additionally affected by remediation technology, pollutant type, regional policy response and living distance.

  7. Does employee safety influence customer satisfaction? Evidence from the electric utility industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, P Geoffrey; Brown, Karen A; Prussia, Gregory E

    2012-12-01

    Research on workplace safety has not examined implications for business performance outcomes such as customer satisfaction. In a U.S. electric utility company, we surveyed 821 employees in 20 work groups, and also had access to archival safety data and the results of a customer satisfaction survey (n=341). In geographically-based work units where there were more employee injuries (based on archival records), customers were less satisfied with the service they received. Safety climate, mediated by safety citizenship behaviors (SCBs), added to the predictive power of the group-level model, but these two constructs exerted their influence independently from actual injuries. In combination, two safety-related predictor paths (injuries and climate/SCB) explained 53% of the variance in customer satisfaction. Results offer preliminary evidence that workplace safety influences customer satisfaction, suggesting that there are likely spillover effects between the safety environment and the service environment. Additional research will be needed to assess the specific mechanisms that convert employee injuries into palpable results for customers. Better safety climate and reductions in employee injuries have the potential to offer payoffs in terms of what customers experience. Copyright © 2012 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Influence of English Communication Ability on Income in Tourist Industry Frontline Employees of Siem Reap, Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Stewart Morrow

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Siem Reap, Cambodia’s tourism growth has been remarkable. Since most tourists are native English speakers, tourist industry (TI employees need high levels of English communication ability (ECA to handle tasks effectively, but data in Cambodia has been difficult to find. To fill this gap, the author wanted to collect employees’ general and English education information during interviews in six TI related businesses, to assess their ECA, and to statistically examine interactions of English variables with income. The author created an English assessment test loosely based on the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR. Statistical analysis found direct positive influence from English ability on income. Findings also showed that employees who have advanced levels of English ability earn USD200 per month, double the salary of garment workers. This type of research can be used profitably over the Internet in many research situations.

  9. Study of the sonophotocatalytic degradation of basic blue 9 industrial textile dye over slurry titanium dioxide and influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Antonia Sandoval; Martínez, Susana Silva

    2008-09-01

    The sonophotocatalytic degradation of basic blue 9 industrial textile dye has been studied in the presence of ultrasound (20 kHz) over a TiO(2) slurry employing an UV lamp (15 W, 352 nm). It was observed that the color removal efficiency was influenced by the pH of the solution, initial dye concentration and TiO(2) amount. It was found that the dye degradation followed apparent first order kinetics. The rate constant increased by decreasing dye concentration and was affected by the pH of the solution with the highest degradation obtained at pH 7. The first order rate constants obtained with sonophotocatalysis were twofold and tenfold than those obtained under photocatalysis and sonolysis, respectively. The chemical oxygen demand was abated over 80%.

  10. Genotype and harvest time influence the phytochemical quality of Fino lemon juice (Citrus limon (L.) Burm. F.) for industrial use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Molina, Elena; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2008-03-12

    Two clonal selections of lemon tree (Citrus limon Burm. f. cv. Fino), named Fino-49-5 and Fino-95, were studied to ascertain the influence of genetic (clone) and environmental (season) factors on the human-health bioactive compounds of lemon juice (vitamin C and flavonoids) and the possible relationship between composition and in vitro antioxidant capacity (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), and ferric reducing antioxidant power) of the juice. The cultivar Fino-49-5 performed better in terms of flavonoid and vitamin C contents. Variability in the weather conditions determined, at least in part, differences in the content of lemon juice bioactives more importantly than the genetic background did. Therefore, the food industry would have phytochemically rich and nutritive lemons with practically complete independence of the harvest time and the selected cultivar.

  11. Influence of Organisational Culture on Total Quality Management Implementation and Firm Performance: Evidence from the Vietnamese Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panuwatwanich Kriengsak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between organisational culture (OC and Total Quality Management (TQM, and the influence of TQM implementation on organisational performance improvement within the context of the Vietnamese construction industry. A survey was conducted with 104 respondents from Vietnamese construction firms, using validated survey instruments developed in past research. Analysis techniques include cluster analysis and Structural Equation Modelling. Findings showed that Vietnamese construction firms are dominated by clan and hierarchy cultures rather than adhocracy and market cultures according to Competing Value Framework (CVF of OC classification. Furthermore, it was found that organisations dominated by either clan or adhocracy cultures could provide a favourable environment for successful TQM implementation, whereas this is not the case for those dominated by both market and hierarchy cultures. This study also confirmed the significant and positive relationship between TQM implementation and organisational performance improvement.

  12. Influence of safety motivation and climate on safety behaviour and outcomes: evidence from the Saudi Arabian construction industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panuwatwanich, Kriengsak; Al-Haadir, Saeed; Stewart, Rodney A

    2017-03-01

    Over the last three decades, safety literature has focused on safety climate and its role in forecasting injuries and accidents. However, research findings regarding the relationships between safety climate and other key outcome constructs are somewhat inconsistent. Recent safety climate literature suggests that examining the role of safety motivation may help provide a better explanation of such relationships. The research presented in this article aimed to empirically analyse the relationships among safety motivation, safety climate, safety behaviour and safety outcomes within the context of the Saudi Arabian construction industry. A conceptual model was developed to examine the relationships among four main constructs: safety motivation, safety climate, safety behaviour and safety outcomes. Based on the survey data collected in Saudi Arabia from site engineers and project managers (n = 295), statistical analyses were carried out, including confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis, and structural equation modelling to assess the model and test the hypotheses. The main results indicated that safety motivation could positively influence safety behaviour through safety climate, which plays a mediating role for this mechanism. The results also confirmed that safety behaviour could predict safety outcomes within the context of the Saudi Arabian construction industry.

  13. Factors Influencing Blood Cadmium and Mercury Concentrations in Residents of Agro-Industries along Nam Phong River, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wannanapa Srathonghon

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional analytical study aimed to determine the blood levels of cadmium (B-Cd and mercury (B-Hg and identify the factors influencing heavy metal accumulation in residents of Agro-Industries along the Nam Phong River. Quantitative data were collected, and systematic random sampling was used to obtain 420 samples for questionnaire interview and serum heavy metal testing for B-Cd and B-Hg. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify factors influencing the accumulation of heavy metals in the population and report mean differences, 95% confidence intervals and p-values. The results indicated that B-Cd levels were within the recommended safety limits for human health (5 µg/dL. However, 4.29% of respondents had Hg levels higher than the recommended safety limits for human health (10 µg/dL. Factors influencing Cd levels included sex (mean difference=0.13 µg/L, 95% CI: 0.03-0.24, p-value=0.02 and smoking (mean difference=0.14 µg/L, 95% CI: 0.09-0.19, p-value<0.001. Factors influencing Hg levels included smoking (mean difference=1.06 µg/L, 95% CI: 0.52-1.61, p-value<0.001, fish consumption (mean difference=1.11 µg/L, 95% CI: 0.22-2.01, p-value=0.01 and river snail consumption (mean difference=0.56 µg/L, 95% CI: 0.03-0.19, p-value=0.03.

  14. An exploration study on factors influencing acceptance of electronic banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to detect important factors influencing on electronic banking adoption using factor analysis. The proposed study designed a questionnaire, distributed among 210 customers who were regular customers of four banks in city of Tehran, Iran named Saderat, Eghtesad Novin, Melli and Mellat. The questionnaire consists of 42 questions and since factor analysis is sensitive on skewness of data, we have decided to remove some of the questions and summarize it into 17 questions. Cronbach alpha was calculated as 0.80, which is well above the minimum acceptable limit and validates the results. The results of our survey indicate that four major factors including consistency, facilities, cost control and feasibility.

  15. Investigating important factors influencing customer relationship management: A case study from banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sedigh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper performs an investigation on measuring the effect of different factors on customer relationship management (CRM for different branches of an Iranian banks located in various regions of city of Tehran, Iran. The proposed study selects a sample of 275 managers and using structural equation modeling examines the effects of five variables including CRM knowledge, employment’s information technology skills, specialty, strategic use, CRM performance on the performance of CRM. Cronbach alpha has been calculated for the questionnaire as 0.881, which is well above the minimum acceptable level. The survey has concluded that there were meaningful relationships between all four mentioned variables and performance of CRM. In other words, knowledge and information technology influence on improving employments’ skills, which increase strategic use of CRM components and this would improve CRM performance.

  16. Influence of particle size distribution on inhalation doses to workers in the Florida phosphate industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang Pyo; Wu, Chang-Yu; Birky, Brian K; Bolch, Wesley E

    2006-07-01

    Previous studies have indicated that inhalation exposures to TENORM aerosols are potentially a major contributor to the annual total effective dose to workers in the Florida phosphate industry. Further research was deemed necessary to characterize the particle size distribution of these aerosols containing various radionuclides of the U decay series. In the present study, individualized assessments of worker committed effective doses are reported in which detailed information is used on the particle size distribution, particle density, particle shape, and radioactivity concentrations from sampled aerosols at 6 different phosphate facilities and at various worker areas within these facilities. Inhalation dose assessments are calculated using the ICRP 66 human respiratory tract model as implemented within the LUDEP and IMBA computer codes. Under the least conservative assumptions of radionuclide-specific lung solubility, the annual total effective doses are shown to be 0.31+/-0.12, 0.27+/-0.07, and 0.22+/-0.02 mSv at granulator, storage, and shipping areas, respectively, and thus all annual doses are below the annual limits to the members of the general public (1 mSv y). In contrast, the most conservative assumptions of lung solubility by radionuclide yield annual total effective doses of 2.24+/-2.53 mSv at granulator areas, 1.26+/-1.19 mSv at storage areas, and 0.56+/-0.36 mSv at shipping areas. In this later case, some 44%, 31%, and 15% of individual dose assessments yield worker doses above the annual dose limit. The study thus demonstrates the importance of facility- and area-specific particle solubility data in dose assessments for regulatory compliance and for making decisions regarding worker respiratory protection.

  17. Simulation of the Mechanism between Construction Industry and Building Materials Industry and Its Influence Degree%建筑业与建材业发展的互动机理及效应仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁神军; 张云波; 丁烈云

    2011-01-01

    采用系统动力学原理和方法,从投人与产出角度提出了建筑业与建材业发展的动力机制和动力模型.根据我国1992年至2005年建筑业、建材业及宏观经济发展的数据,模拟和预测了我国建筑业、建材业发展现状及发展趋势;改变建筑业投资,模拟并预测其对建筑业、建材业的影响效应.设定金融危机对建筑业和建材业的影响参数,模拟并预测其对建筑业和建材业的影响程度;在此基础上,设定建筑业增加3万多亿投资的参数,模拟金融危机情形下增加建筑业投资对建筑业和建材业的拉动效应.研究结果表明,建筑业与建材业发展互动影响效应明显;在金融危机的情形下,对建筑业增加投资,能有效促进建筑业及建材业等关联产业的持续增长,促进GDP的持续上涨.%On the basal idea of Input-Output mode, the interior mechanism and dynamical model between construction industry and building materials industry was proposed with System Dynamics. Collecting and analyzing the history data of construction industry, building materials industry and macro-economy, the current situation and tendency of construction industry and building materials industry were monitored with the dynamical model. Computing the parameters of the dynamical model on the situation of Financial Crisis 2008,the influence degree of construction industry and building materials industry was analyzed. The pulling effect of construction industry and building materials industry by the countermeasure of increasing 3 trillion of investment plans was also investigated. The research results indicate that the interior mechanism between construction industry and building materials industry is very obvious, and increasing investment plans is an effective method to expand domestic demand to promote economic growth of construction industry, building materials industry, even other related industries.

  18. Intertidal Concentrations of Microplastics and Their Influence on Ammonium Cycling as Related to the Shellfish Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluzard, Melanie; Kazmiruk, Tamara N; Kazmiruk, Vasily D; Bendell, L I

    2015-10-01

    Microplastics are ubiquitous within the marine environment. The last 10 years have seen research directed at understanding the fate and effect of microplastics within the marine environment; however, no studies have yet addressed how concentrations of these particles could affect sedimentary processes such as nutrient cycling. Herein we first determine the concentration and spatial distribution of microplastics within Baynes Sound, a key shellfish-growing area within coastal British Columbia (BC). We also determined sediment grain size and % organic matter (OM) such that we could relate spatial patterns in sediment microplastic concentrations to sedimentary processes that determine zones of accretion and erosion. Using field-determined concentrations of microplastics, we applied laboratory microcosms studies, which manipulated sediment concentrations of microplastics, OM, and bivalves to determine the influence of sediment microplastics on ammonium cycling within intertidal sediments. Concentrations of microplastics determined within the intertidal sediment varied spatially and were similar to those found in other coastal regions of high urban use. Concentrations were independent of grain size and OM suggesting that physical processes other than those that govern natural sediment components determine the fate of microplastics within sediments. Under laboratory conditions, concentrations of ammonium were significantly greater in the overlying water of treatments with microplastics, clams, and OM compared with treatments without microplastics. These preliminary studies suggest that high concentrations of microplastics have the potential to alter key sedimentary processes such as ammonium flux. This could have serious implications, for example, contributing to eutrophication events in regions of the coast that are highly urbanized.

  19. Does Industry-Driven Alcohol Marketing Influence Adolescent Drinking Behaviour? A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Stephanie; Muirhead, Colin; Shucksmith, Janet; Tyrrell, Rachel; Kaner, Eileen

    2017-01-01

    Aim To systematically review evidence on the influence of specific marketing components (Price, Promotion, Product attributes and Place of sale/availability) on key drinking outcomes (initiation, continuation, frequency and intensity) in young people aged 9–17. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCOPUS, PsychINFO, CINAHL and ProQuest were searched from inception to July 2015, supplemented with searches of Google Scholar, hand searches of key journals and backward and forward citation searches of reference lists of identified papers. Results Forty-eight papers covering 35 unique studies met inclusion criteria. Authors tended to report that greater exposure to alcohol marketing impacted on drinking initiation, continuation, frequency and intensity during adolescence. Nevertheless, 23 (66%) studies reported null results or negative associations, often in combination with positive associations, resulting in mixed findings within and across studies. Heterogeneity in study design, content and outcomes prevented estimation of effect sizes or exploration of variation between countries or age subgroups. The strength of the evidence base differed according to type of marketing exposure and drinking outcome studied, with support for an association between alcohol promotion (mainly advertising) and drinking outcomes in adolescence, whilst only two studies examined the relationship between alcohol price and the drinking behaviour of those under the age of 18. Conclusion Despite the volume of work, evidence is inconclusive in all four areas of marketing but strongest for promotional activity. Future research with standardized measures is needed to build on this work and better inform interventions and policy responses. PMID:27864186

  20. Influence of Crucible Thermal Conductivity on Crystal Growth in an Industrial Directional Solidification Process for Silicon Ingots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaoyang Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We carried out transient global simulations of heating, melting, growing, annealing, and cooling stages for an industrial directional solidification (DS process for silicon ingots. The crucible thermal conductivity is varied in a reasonable range to investigate its influence on the global heat transfer and silicon crystal growth. It is found that the crucible plays an important role in heat transfer, and therefore its thermal conductivity can influence the crystal growth significantly in the entire DS process. Increasing the crucible thermal conductivity can shorten the time for melting of silicon feedstock and growing of silicon crystal significantly, and therefore large thermal conductivity is helpful in saving both production time and power energy. However, the high temperature gradient in the silicon ingots and the locally concave melt-crystal interface shape for large crucible thermal conductivity indicate that high thermal stress and dislocation propagation are likely to occur during both growing and annealing stages. Based on the numerical simulations, some discussions on designing and choosing the crucible thermal conductivity are presented.

  1. Meteorological-gaseous influences on seasonal PM2.5 variability in the Klang Valley urban-industrial environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amil, N.; Latif, M. T.; Khan, M. F.; Mohamad, M.

    2015-09-01

    This study attempts to investigate the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) variability in the Klang Valley urban-industrial environment. In total, 94 daily PM2.5 samples were collected during a one-year campaign from August 2011 to July 2012, covering all four seasons. The samples were analysed for various inorganic components and black carbon. The chemical compositions were statistically analysed and the aerosol pattern was characterised using descriptive analysis, correlation matrices, enrichment factors (EF), stoichiometric analysis and chemical mass closure (CMC). For source apportionment purposes, a combination of positive matrix factorisation (PMF) and multi-linear regression (MLR) was employed. Further, meteorological-gaseous parameters were incorporated into each analysis for improved assessment. The results showed that PM2.5 mass averaged at 28 ± 18 μg m-3, 2.8 fold higher than the World Health Organisation (WHO) annual guideline. On a daily basis, the PM2.5 mass ranged between 6 and 118 μg m-3 with 43 % exceedance of the daily WHO guideline. The North-East monsoon (NE) was the only season with 2.5μm) and less so the fine particles at the site. Chemical composition showed that both primary and secondary pollutants of PM2.5 are equally important, albeit with seasonal variability. The CMC components identified were: black carbon (BC) > secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA) > dust > trace elements (TE) > sea salt > K+. The EF analysis distinguished two groups of trace elements: those with anthropogenic sources (Pb, Se, Zn, Cd, As, Bi, Ba, Cu, Rb, V and Ni) and those with a crustal source (Sr, Mn, Co and Li). The five identified factors resulting from PMF 5.0 were: (1) combustion of engine oil; (2) mineral dust; (3) mixed SIA and biomass burning; (4) mixed traffic and industrial; and (5) sea salt. Each of these sources had an annual mean contribution of 17, 14, 42, 10 and 17 %, respectively. The dominance of each identified source largely varied with changing

  2. Does Industry-Driven Alcohol Marketing Influence Adolescent Drinking Behaviour? A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Stephanie; Muirhead, Colin; Shucksmith, Janet; Tyrrell, Rachel; Kaner, Eileen

    2017-01-01

    To systematically review evidence on the influence of specific marketing components (Price, Promotion, Product attributes and Place of sale/availability) on key drinking outcomes (initiation, continuation, frequency and intensity) in young people aged 9-17. MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCOPUS, PsychINFO, CINAHL and ProQuest were searched from inception to July 2015, supplemented with searches of Google Scholar, hand searches of key journals and backward and forward citation searches of reference lists of identified papers. Forty-eight papers covering 35 unique studies met inclusion criteria. Authors tended to report that greater exposure to alcohol marketing impacted on drinking initiation, continuation, frequency and intensity during adolescence. Nevertheless, 23 (66%) studies reported null results or negative associations, often in combination with positive associations, resulting in mixed findings within and across studies. Heterogeneity in study design, content and outcomes prevented estimation of effect sizes or exploration of variation between countries or age subgroups. The strength of the evidence base differed according to type of marketing exposure and drinking outcome studied, with support for an association between alcohol promotion (mainly advertising) and drinking outcomes in adolescence, whilst only two studies examined the relationship between alcohol price and the drinking behaviour of those under the age of 18. Despite the volume of work, evidence is inconclusive in all four areas of marketing but strongest for promotional activity. Future research with standardized measures is needed to build on this work and better inform interventions and policy responses. © The Author 2016. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press.

  3. Meteorological-gaseous influences on seasonal PM2.5 variability in the Klang Valley urban-industrial environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Amil

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to investigate the fine particulate matter (PM2.5 variability in the Klang Valley urban-industrial environment. In total, 94 daily PM2.5 samples were collected during a one-year campaign from August 2011 to July 2012, covering all four seasons. The samples were analysed for various inorganic components and black carbon. The chemical compositions were statistically analysed and the aerosol pattern was characterised using descriptive analysis, correlation matrices, enrichment factors (EF, stoichiometric analysis and chemical mass closure (CMC. For source apportionment purposes, a combination of positive matrix factorisation (PMF and multi-linear regression (MLR was employed. Further, meteorological-gaseous parameters were incorporated into each analysis for improved assessment. The results showed that PM2.5 mass averaged at 28 ± 18 μg m−3, 2.8 fold higher than the World Health Organisation (WHO annual guideline. On a daily basis, the PM2.5 mass ranged between 6 and 118 μg m−3 with 43 % exceedance of the daily WHO guideline. The North-East monsoon (NE was the only season with 2.5 mass correlated positively with temperature (T and wind speed (WS but negatively with relative humidity (RH. With the exception of NOx, the gases analysed (CO, NO2, NO and SO2 were found to significantly influence the PM2.5 mass. Seasonal variability unexpectedly showed that rainfall, WS and wind direction (WD did not significantly correlate with PM2.5 mass. Further analysis on the PM2.5 / PM10, PM2.5 / TSP and PM10 / TSP ratios reveal that meteorological parameters only greatly influenced the coarse particles (PM > 2.5μm and less so the fine particles at the site. Chemical composition showed that both primary and secondary pollutants of PM2.5 are equally important, albeit with seasonal variability. The CMC components identified were: black carbon (BC > secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA > dust > trace elements (TE > sea salt > K+. The EF

  4. Analysis of the key influence factors on brand of higher education organizations. Feature of the fashion industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Hardabkhadze

    2013-03-01

    gradual phased optimization allows reduce the interdependence of factors sequentially, stage by stage, and increase the granularity of the model by taking into account more factors of influence.It is shown that the estimation of the brand of educational services of specialization fashion design of the fashion industry is highly sensitive to the choice of indicator systems, as it depends on fast-moving processes of the fashion industry and needs of harmonization with advanced management tools of fashion-design branding. Student participation in such events the fashion industry, as the Ukrainian Fashion Week (Ukrainian Fashion Week, UFW, in competitions of young designers, in festivals and fashion shows of local and national importance, should be taken into account in the preparationof system of indicators for evaluating such factors as university tradition, loyalty of alumni, qualityof student life. As a special indicators in the direction of the business processes of the fashion industry can be offered the number of participants of festivals and competitions, divided by total number of students in the relevant specialization, the number of prize-holders and winners in other events of fashion industry.Conclusions and directions of further researches. To enhance the abilities of practical application of the multi-component system brand management of universities is required to solve the problem of finding an effective suite of indicators for each direction of estimation. In this case, the specific features of knowledge sphere and specialization must be taken into account.

  5. The Influence Of Leadership Role Competencies On Organisation Change Outcome In The Manufacturing Industry In South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Smit

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the influence leadership role congruence has on organisation change within three South African organisations in the manufacturing industry. The research was done in two phases. Phase I investigated the utilisation of leaders in specific leadership change roles. Four leadership change roles (Initiator, Shaper, Monitor, and Assessor were identified, each for which a set of competencies (competence cluster was developed. A questionnaire (Leadership Role Competence Questionnaire measuring the perceived level of competence for each role was designed. Phase II investigated the influence of the congruence results on organisational change outcome. A questionnaire (Change Outcome Questionnaire measuring the soft dimensions of organisation change was developed. All three respondent organisations’ leaders involved with their organisations’ change initiatives were selected for Phase I. A random sample of 120 employees per organisation was used for Phase II. The main findings were that congruence existed for two roles (Initiator and Assessor. In addition to this it was found that role congruence for the Initiator and Assessor roles influenced change outcome positively, and that a lack of congruence for the Shaper and Monitor roles had a negative influence on change outcome. OpsommingHierdie artikel fokus op die invloed wat rolkongruensie het op organisasieverandering binne drie Suid Afrikaanse maatskappye in die vervaardigingsektor. Die navorsing is gedoen in twee fases. Fase I het die aanwending van leiers in spesifieke leierskapsveranderingsrolle ondersoek. Vier leierskapsveranderingsrolle (Inisieerder, Vormer, Moniteerder, en Assessor was geïdentifiseer waarvoor vir elk ’n stel vaardighede (vaardigheidsbondel ontwikkel is. ’n Vraelys (Leierskaps-Rol-Vaardigheid Vraelys wat die waargenome vlak van vaardigheid in elke rol meet, is ontwikkel. Fase II het die invloed wat die kongruensieresultate op die

  6. Influence of Environmentally Friendly and High-Efficiency Composite Additives on Pulverized Coal Combustion in Cement Industry

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    4 kinds of chemical reagents and 3 kinds of industrial wastes were selected as burning additives for 2 kinds of coals in cement industry. The work focused on the replacement of partial chemical reagents by industrial wastes, which not only reduced the cost and took full advantage of industrial wastes, but also guaranteed the high combustion efficiency and removed the NOX and SO2 simultaneously. The experiments were carried out in DTF. The combustion residues were analyzed by SEM and XRD. The ...

  7. 'Manage and mitigate punitive regulatory measures, enhance the corporate image, influence public policy': industry efforts to shape understanding of tobacco-attributable deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kelley; Carrillo Botero, Natalia; Novotny, Thomas

    2016-09-20

    further its interests, and increased scrutiny of tobacco industry efforts to influence environmental policy.

  8. The Competitive status of the U.S. auto industry: a study of the influences of technology in determining international industrial competitive advantage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Automobile Panel of the Committee on Technology; National Research Council Staff

    ... International Industrial Competitive Advantage Prepared by the Automobile Panel, Committee on Technology and International Economic and Trade Issues of the Office of the Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering and the Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems, National Research Council William J. Abernathy, Chairman Kim Clar...

  9. INVESTIGATING THE LEVEL OF BURNOUT AND INFLUENCING FACTORS ON IT AMONG THE WORKERS: CASE STUDY THE PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRIES NATIONAL COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan DARVISH

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is done with the purpose of investigation the level of burnout andinfluencing factors on it. The method used is measuring or filed-finding,descriptive studies type and the statistic society is made of the entire officialand non-official workers in the petrochemical industries national company inthe year (2009 including 6901people in the main office and 12 subsidiarycompanies who are working. The estimation of the sample volume is madeusing the cochran formula by the volume of 1742 people and the accidentalclass and the domesticated form of the Maslach Burn Out Inventory has beenused for gathering the dependant variant data of the study. In this study therelevance or effect of 20 independent variables on the burnout and itsconstituents was investigated. In the two variable tests, the emotionalcommitment had a reverse relation with burnout. So that with the increase ofthe interest and bind of the workers to the organization, the level of burnoutdecreased. In analyzing the step by step regression of the burnout accordingto the expected variables, 41percent of the explained burnout (R 2 =41%,and ranking the amount of the standard coefficient, the main elements likethe nature of the job, emotional commitment, work environment, job security,coworkers, education, job type, salary and the premium and jobindependence in the remaining regression equation and on the burnoutvariable have been influencing.

  10. Influence of spatial resolution on SiC industrial foams structural parameters obtained by X-ray microtomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, Rodrigo; Appoloni, Carlos R.; Marques, Leonardo C.; Fernandes, Jaquiel S. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Full text: X-rays microtomography is a non-destructive technique that generates digital images of samples internal structure by attenuation of an X-rays beam. The samples structural parameters are obtained from these images by specific software analysis. This means that the image quality is essential to perform a suitable structural characterization. The spatial resolution is one of the main parameters that contribute to image quality. In this work the influence of spatial resolution for industrial SiC ceramic foams analysis was evaluated. The samples pore density was 60 pores per inch (ppi). This kind of foam can operate at high temperatures, which allow them to be used as liquid metal filters, heat exchangers or composite of rocket nozzles, for example. The measurements were performed with a Sky Scan micro tomograph, model 1172. It was operated at 50 kV and 60 kV high tension for measurements with 24.8 mum and 2.5 mum spatial resolution, respectively. The total porosity and the pore size distribution were the structural parameters studied. They were obtained by Imago software. The total porosity results were statistically equivalent for both resolutions, but the comparison of the micro tomographic images datasets and pore size distributions of both resolutions showed differences that enhances the importance of the spatial resolution for a complete characterization of the sample internal microstructure. (author)

  11. The Influence of Information Market on the Development of Information Service Industry in China%信息市场对我国信息服务业发展的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关晓红

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses the influence d information market on information service industry.The analysis is made from 2 aspects: the present market condition d information service industry and the circulating mechanism d informa-tion market. In this way, the author wants to point out that it is important for information service industry to lxfild a perfect market mechanism.

  12. Conflicts of interest at medical journals: the influence of industry-supported randomised trials on journal impact factors and revenue - cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lundh

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: transparency in reporting of conflict of interest is an increasingly important aspect of publication in medical journals. Publication of large industry-supported trials may generate many citations and journal income through reprint sales and thereby be a source of conflicts of interest for journals. We investigated industry-supported trials' influence on journal impact factors and revenue. METHODS AND FINDINGS: we sampled six major medical journals (Annals of Internal Medicine, Archives of Internal Medicine, BMJ, JAMA, The Lancet, and New England Journal of Medicine [NEJM]. For each journal, we identified randomised trials published in 1996-1997 and 2005-2006 using PubMed, and categorized the type of financial support. Using Web of Science, we investigated citations of industry-supported trials and the influence on journal impact factors over a ten-year period. We contacted journal editors and retrieved tax information on income from industry sources. The proportion of trials with sole industry support varied between journals, from 7% in BMJ to 32% in NEJM in 2005-2006. Industry-supported trials were more frequently cited than trials with other types of support, and omitting them from the impact factor calculation decreased journal impact factors. The decrease varied considerably between journals, with 1% for BMJ to 15% for NEJM in 2007. For the two journals disclosing data, income from the sales of reprints contributed to 3% and 41% of the total income for BMJ and The Lancet in 2005-2006. CONCLUSIONS: publication of industry-supported trials was associated with an increase in journal impact factors. Sales of reprints may provide a substantial income. We suggest that journals disclose financial information in the same way that they require them from their authors, so that readers can assess the potential effect of different types of papers on journals' revenue and impact.

  13. Empirical Study of Industrial Cluster's Influence on Enterprise Performance%产业集群对企业绩效的实证影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    As a form of industrial organization between enterprise and market,industrial cluster plays an important role in regional development and enterprise.Thus,many scholars, research institutions and government departments pay great attention to the effect of industrial cluster.Based on the mechanism of industrial cluster′s influence on enterprise performance,this paper constructs index systems of industrial cluster and enterprise performance and sets corresponding research hypothesis.Meanwhile,this paper builds the model of industrial cluster′s influence on enterprise performance with structural equation.The empirical analysis focuses on Shanghai pharmaceutical manufacturing industry,and the results demonstrate the rationality of research hypothesis.%作为一种介于企业和市场之间的产业组织形式,产业集群不但对区域发展起着至关重要的作用,而且对区域内企业的影响作用也非常显著.因此,国内外众多学者、研究机构和政府部门对产业集群的影响作用都给予了极大的关注.以产业集群对企业绩效的影响机理为基础,构建了描述产业集群和企业绩效的指标体系,并设定了相应的研究假设.同时,以结构方程为核心研究工具,构建了产业集群对企业绩效的影响模型,并选取上海医药制造业进行实证分析,从而对研究假设的合理性进行了论证.

  14. Quantifying the influence of tobacco industry on EU governance: automated content analysis of the EU Tobacco Products Directive.

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, H.(Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique, IRFU, Saclay, France); Gilmore, AB; Peeters, S; McKee, M; Stuckler, D

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The tobacco industry spends large sums lobbying the European Union (EU) institutions, yet whether such lobbying significantly affects tobacco policy is not well understood. We used novel quantitative text mining techniques to evaluate the impact of industry pressure on the contested EU Tobacco Products Directive revision. DESIGN: Policy positions of 18 stakeholders including the tobacco industry, health NGOs and tobacco retailers were evaluated using their text submissions to EU co...

  15. Does network topology influence systemic risk contribution? A perspective from the industry indices in Chinese stock market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Haiming; Zhang, Ji; Tang, Nengyu

    2017-01-01

    This study considers the effect of an industry's network topology on its systemic risk contribution to the stock market using data from the CSI 300 two-tier industry indices from the Chinese stock market. We first measure industry's conditional-value-at-risk (CoVaR) and the systemic risk contribution (ΔCoVaR) using the fitted time-varying t-copula function. The network of the stock industry is established based on dynamic conditional correlations with the minimum spanning tree. Then, we investigate the connection characteristics and topology of the network. Finally, we utilize seemingly unrelated regression estimation (SUR) of panel data to analyze the relationship between network topology of the stock industry and the industry's systemic risk contribution. The results show that the systemic risk contribution of small-scale industries such as real estate, food and beverage, software services, and durable goods and clothing, is higher than that of large-scale industries, such as banking, insurance and energy. Industries with large betweenness centrality, closeness centrality, and clustering coefficient and small node occupancy layer are associated with greater systemic risk contribution. In addition, further analysis using a threshold model confirms that the results are robust.

  16. Influence of agricultural, industrial, and anthropogenic stresses on the distribution and diversity of macroinvertebrates in Juru River Basin, Penang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shami, Salman A; Md Rawi, Che Salmah; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Abdul Hamid, Suhaila; Mohd Nor, Siti Azizah

    2011-07-01

    Abundance and diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates as well as physico-chemical parameters were investigated in five rivers of the Juru River Basin in northern Peninsula Malaysia: Ceruk Tok Kun River (CTKR), Pasir River (PR), Permatang Rawa River (PRR), Kilang Ubi River (KUR), and Juru River (JR). The physico-chemical parameters and calculated water quality index (WQI) were significantly different among the investigated rivers (ANOVA, Ppolluted). However, PRR and KUR fell into class IV (polluted). High diversity and abundance of macroinvertebrates, especially the intolerant taxa, Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera, were observed in the least polluted river, CTKR. Decreasing abundance of macroinvertebrates followed the deterioration of river water quality with the least number of the most tolerant taxa collected from PR. On the basis of composition and sensitivity of macroinvertebrates to pollutants in each river, the highest Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP) index score of 93 was reported in CTKR (good water quality). BMWP scores in PRR and JR were 38.7 and 20.1, respectively, classifying both of them into "moderate water quality" category. Poor water quality was reported in PR and KUR. The outcome of the multivariate analysis (CCA) was highly satisfactory, explaining 43.32% of the variance for the assemblages of macroinvertebrates as influenced by 19 physical and chemical variables. According to the CCA model, we assert that there were three levels of stresses on macroinvertebrate communities in the investigated rivers: Level 1, characterized of undisturbed or slightly polluted as in the case of CTKR; Level 2, characterized by a lower habitat quality (the JR) compared to the CTKR; and Level 3 showed severe environmental stresses (PRR, PR, and KUR) primarily contributed by agricultural, industrial, and municipal discharges.

  17. Autonomy, special offers and routines: a Q methodological study of industry-driven marketing influences on young people's drinking behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Stephanie; Baker, Rachel; Shucksmith, Janet; Kaner, Eileen

    2014-11-01

    To identify shared patterns of views in young people relating to the influence of industry-driven alcohol marketing (price, promotion, product and place of purchase/consumption) on their reported drinking behaviour. Q methodology harnessed qualitative and quantitative data to generate distinct clusters of opinions as follows: 39 opinion statements were derived from earlier in-depth qualitative interviews with 31 young people; by-person factor analysis was carried out on 28 participants' (six previous interviewees and 22 new recruits) rank orderings of these statements (most-to-least agreement); interpretation of the factor arrays was aided by 10-15-minute debriefing interviews held immediately following each Q-sort. Northeast England Young people aged 14-17 years purposively recruited from high schools, higher education colleges, youth centres and youth offending teams. Centroid factor extraction and varimax rotation of factors generated three distinct accounts: factor one ('autonomous, sophisticated consumers') illustrated a self-defined sense of individuality and autonomy in alcohol choices; factor two ('price-driven consumers') appeared price-led, choosing to drink what was most accessible or cheapest; and factor three ('context-focused consumers') described drinking practices where products were chosen to serve specific functions such as being easy to carry while dancing. Considering young people's views on alcohol marketing, different perspectives can be identified. These include perceived imperviousness to maketing, responsiveness to price and affordability and responsiveness to marketing focusing on youth lifestyles. © 2014 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. Does growing up with a physician influence the ethics of medical students' relationships with the pharmaceutical industry? The cases of the US and Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowska, Marta

    2017-08-10

    Medical schools have a major impact on future doctors' ethics and their attitudes towards cooperation with the pharmaceutical industry. From childhood, medical students who are related to a physician are exposed to the characteristics of a medical career and learn its professional ethics not only in school but also in the family setting. The present paper sought to answer the research question: 'How does growing up with a physician influence medical students' perceptions of conflicts of interest in their relationships with industry?' An anonymous questionnaire was completed by 451 medical students from four Philadelphia medical schools and 554 medical students from Warsaw Medical University during 2013. Medical schools in these two cities were chosen because they are both university cities with similar population sizes. Students who had and who did not have a family member working as a physician were compared using chi-square analysis. Data were analysed for each country separately. For both the US and Poland, there were statistically significant differences (p pharmaceutical industry. In both groups, this difference occurred for three important dimensions: students' relationship with the pharmaceutical industry; students' views on physicians' rights to cooperate with the pharmaceutical industry; trust in the pharmaceutical industry. In the US, students related to a doctor were characterized by more restrictive opinions on all three dimensions than other students (e.g., 27.8% of the former students vs. 31.4% of the latter students thought doctors had unrestricted rights to cooperate with the industry). However, the contrary was observed in Poland: students with a physician in the family had less strict views than their colleagues (e.g., 56.8% of the former vs. 39.7% of the latter thought that doctors should have unrestricted rights of cooperation). In Poland, a former communist country, physicians transmit a more liberal approach towards collaboration with the

  19. Influence of Controlling in the Generation of information for the process of Management of Costs Of forniture industries of Francisco Beltrão – PR Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmarina Pedro Garcia Garcia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of the Controller is connected to the need to improve company management. One way that the controller finds to ensure the continuity of the company is reducing costs and expenses, in order to make the product more competitive to their competitors. To do this, managers now have the controller as an important tool to aid in decision making. This study demonstrates some benefits of controlling; in order to reach this objective a descriptive, qualitative and quantitative survey was made in ten small and medium-sized furniture industries. The main goal of the research is to show the influence of controlling in generating information for the process of cost management of furniture industry in Francisco Beltrão, a city in the state of Paraná, Brazil. The study showed that the controlling influences in reducing costs through reliable information, generated by agile tools, compiled by the controllers and forwarded to managers, assists decision making.

  20. Never stationary: examining the influence of creative destruction in the work of Jack Kerouac and Gary Snyder

    OpenAIRE

    Madsen, Freyja

    2013-01-01

    In this research I examine the influence that creative destruction had upon the work of Jack Kerouac and Gary Snyder. My research aims to extend the work done by Philip Fisher in Still the New World: American Literature in a Culture of Creative Destruction, by interrogating how Kerouac and Snyder’s work was influenced by creative destruction in the post-war American economic climate. I will suggest that both the form and the content of Kerouac’s prose replicate these economic patterns, reflec...

  1. Never stationary: examining the influence of creative destruction in the work of Jack Kerouac and Gary Snyder

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    In this research I examine the influence that creative destruction had upon the work of Jack Kerouac and Gary Snyder. My research aims to extend the work done by Philip Fisher in Still the New World: American Literature in a Culture of Creative Destruction, by interrogating how Kerouac and Snyder’s work was influenced by creative destruction in the post-war American economic climate. I will suggest that both the form and the content of Kerouac’s prose replicate these economic patterns, reflec...

  2. Beyond Food Promotion: A Systematic Review on the Influence of the Food Industry on Obesity-Related Dietary Behaviour among Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Sonntag

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available An increased consumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor food and beverages as a result of a changing obesogenic environment contributes substantially to the increasing prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity. This paper reviews the nature and extent of food industry influences which expose children to commercial influences and thus might affect unhealthy dietary behaviour and finally contributes to obesity. A systematic search of nine electronic databases (including PubMed, PsycINFO, EconLit and reference lists of original studies and reviews using key search terms identified 1900 articles. Of these only thirty-six articles met the inclusion and quality criteria. A narrative synthesis of the reviewed studies revealed six key obesogenic environments by which the food industry possibly influences obesity-related dietary behaviours in young children. These were schools, retailers, mass media “television”, mass media “internet”, home and promotional campaigns. Identifying these obesogenic environments is critical for monitoring and controlling the food industry, the development of effective environmental-level interventions to prevent childhood overweight and obesity and to identify knowledge gaps to be addressed in future research to support informed decisions of policy makers.

  3. Beyond Food Promotion: A Systematic Review on the Influence of the Food Industry on Obesity-Related Dietary Behaviour among Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonntag, Diana; Schneider, Sarah; Mdege, Noreen; Ali, Shehzad; Schmidt, Burkhard

    2015-10-16

    An increased consumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor food and beverages as a result of a changing obesogenic environment contributes substantially to the increasing prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity. This paper reviews the nature and extent of food industry influences which expose children to commercial influences and thus might affect unhealthy dietary behaviour and finally contributes to obesity. A systematic search of nine electronic databases (including PubMed, PsycINFO, EconLit) and reference lists of original studies and reviews using key search terms identified 1900 articles. Of these only thirty-six articles met the inclusion and quality criteria. A narrative synthesis of the reviewed studies revealed six key obesogenic environments by which the food industry possibly influences obesity-related dietary behaviours in young children. These were schools, retailers, mass media "television", mass media "internet", home and promotional campaigns. Identifying these obesogenic environments is critical for monitoring and controlling the food industry, the development of effective environmental-level interventions to prevent childhood overweight and obesity and to identify knowledge gaps to be addressed in future research to support informed decisions of policy makers.

  4. Amorphous Silica Particles Relevant in Food Industry Influence Cellular Growth and Associated Signaling Pathways in Human Gastric Carcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Wittig

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured silica particles are commonly used in biomedical and biotechnical fields, as well as, in cosmetics and food industry. Thus, their environmental and health impacts are of great interest and effects after oral uptake are only rarely investigated. In the present study, the toxicological effects of commercially available nano-scaled silica with a nominal primary diameter of 12 nm were investigated on the human gastric carcinoma cell line GXF251L. Besides the analysis of cytotoxic and proliferative effects and the comparison with effects of particles with a nominal primary diameter of 200 nm, emphasis was also given to their influence on the cellular epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK signaling pathways—both of them deeply involved in the regulation of cellular processes like cell cycle progression, differentiation or proliferation. The investigated silica nanoparticles (NPs were found to stimulate cell proliferation as measured by microscopy and the sulforhodamine B assay. In accordance, the nuclear level of the proliferation marker Ki-67 was enhanced in a concentration-dependent manner. At high particle concentrations also necrosis was induced. Finally, silica NPs affected the EGFR and MAPK pathways at various levels dependent on concentration and time. However, classical activation of the EGFR, to be reflected by enhanced levels of phosphorylation, could be excluded as major trigger of the proliferative stimulus. After 45 min of incubation the level of phosphorylated EGFR did not increase, whereas enhanced levels of total EGFR protein were observed. These results indicate interference with the complex homeostasis of the EGFR protein, whereby up to 24 h no impact on the transcription level was detected. In addition, downstream on the level of the MAP kinases ERK1/2 short term incubation appeared to affect total protein levels without clear increase in phosphorylation. Depending on the

  5. Amorphous Silica Particles Relevant in Food Industry Influence Cellular Growth and Associated Signaling Pathways in Human Gastric Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittig, Anja; Gehrke, Helge; Del Favero, Giorgia; Fritz, Eva-Maria; Al-Rawi, Marco; Diabaté, Silvia; Weiss, Carsten; Sami, Haider; Ogris, Manfred; Marko, Doris

    2017-01-13

    Nanostructured silica particles are commonly used in biomedical and biotechnical fields, as well as, in cosmetics and food industry. Thus, their environmental and health impacts are of great interest and effects after oral uptake are only rarely investigated. In the present study, the toxicological effects of commercially available nano-scaled silica with a nominal primary diameter of 12 nm were investigated on the human gastric carcinoma cell line GXF251L. Besides the analysis of cytotoxic and proliferative effects and the comparison with effects of particles with a nominal primary diameter of 200 nm, emphasis was also given to their influence on the cellular epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathways-both of them deeply involved in the regulation of cellular processes like cell cycle progression, differentiation or proliferation. The investigated silica nanoparticles (NPs) were found to stimulate cell proliferation as measured by microscopy and the sulforhodamine B assay. In accordance, the nuclear level of the proliferation marker Ki-67 was enhanced in a concentration-dependent manner. At high particle concentrations also necrosis was induced. Finally, silica NPs affected the EGFR and MAPK pathways at various levels dependent on concentration and time. However, classical activation of the EGFR, to be reflected by enhanced levels of phosphorylation, could be excluded as major trigger of the proliferative stimulus. After 45 min of incubation the level of phosphorylated EGFR did not increase, whereas enhanced levels of total EGFR protein were observed. These results indicate interference with the complex homeostasis of the EGFR protein, whereby up to 24 h no impact on the transcription level was detected. In addition, downstream on the level of the MAP kinases ERK1/2 short term incubation appeared to affect total protein levels without clear increase in phosphorylation. Depending on the concentration

  6. Influence of the application of two types of industrial waste on the chemical properties of soil planted with coffea Arabica

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Natiélia Oliveira Nogueira; Marcelo Antônio Tomaz; Felipe Vaz Andrade; Edvaldo Fialho dos Reis; Sebastião Vinícius Batista Brinate

    2012-01-01

      The large amount of industrial waste which currently causes serious environmental problems has demonstrated the need for the appropriate use of those materials which not only reduce environmental...

  7. Exploring the Fitness Centre Industry in Malaysia; What Factors Influence Joining and Retention and Prevents People from Joining

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Helen B

    2008-01-01

    Malaysia’s fitness centre industry has seen rapid growth over the last 6 years with the opening of more than 25 international chain outlets of which the majority is owned by California Fitness, Celebrity Fitness, Fitness First and True Fitness. An increasing population and year on year GDP growth, together with the support of the Malaysian government, contribute to further the growth of the industry. The purpose of the study is to explore, investigate and reveal information about the growth a...

  8. Influence of Environmentally Friendly and High-Efficiency Composite Additives on Pulverized Coal Combustion in Cement Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available 4 kinds of chemical reagents and 3 kinds of industrial wastes were selected as burning additives for 2 kinds of coals in cement industry. The work focused on the replacement of partial chemical reagents by industrial wastes, which not only reduced the cost and took full advantage of industrial wastes, but also guaranteed the high combustion efficiency and removed the NOX and SO2 simultaneously. The experiments were carried out in DTF. The combustion residues were analyzed by SEM and XRD. The results showed that the burnout rate was increased after adding the additives; meanwhile, the NOX and SO2 release concentration were reduced, but the degree of action varied for different additives and coals. The substitute of chemical reagents by industrial wastes was very effective; overall, the cold-rolled iron oxide worked better than others; the particles surface was tougher and the peaks of crystalline phase were lower than raw coal, which indicated that the additives played good roles in combustion process.

  9. A study on the effects of different factors influencing on customer loyalty, profitability and word of mouth advertisement for gaining competitive advantage in tourism industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of various factors influencing on customer loyalty, profitability and word of mouth advertisement for gaining competitive advantage in tourism industry. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among a random sample of 500 people who purchased some tours from travel agencies. Using structural equation modeling, the study has determined a positive and meaningful impact of pricing strategy, amenity, tourism services, content of trip, marketing mix elements, brand equity, competitive advantage and being exclusive on gaining competitive advantage. In addition, being exclusive and value creation influence positively on word of mouth advertisement. Finally, value creation influences on profitability, positively.

  10. SIZE ENTERPRISES’ INFLUENCE FOR INNOVATION ACTIVITY IN REGIONAL INDUSTRIAL SYSTEM IN POMORSKIE REGION IN 2009-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Świadek

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In transition countries, company’s size has a big impact on economy processes, including innovation activity in industry. The main objective of the study was to search for the impact of class size of enterprises on their innovation activity within the regional industrial system in Pomorskie region, and consequently determine the boundary conditions for the model structure of regional innovation networks, which take into account the specificity of region, allowing a skillful creation of innovation policy. Methodological part of the study was based on probit modeling (probability theory.

  11. Beneficiation of feldspar ore for application in the ceramic industry: Influence of composition on the physical characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Gaied

    2015-03-01

    Experimental studies indicate that an acceptable concentrate for industrial application can be obtained from these rocks. The feldspar yield was used to evaluate the process efficiency. Besides, the cone shrinkage, water absorption, degree of vitrification, mechanical properties (flexural strength and dielectric behaviour were used to monitor the quality of the recovered feldspars.

  12. Hygienic characteristics of working conditions and their influence on biological age of women occupied in modern wallpaper industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pichugina N.N.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a complex sanitary characteristic of working conditions of women involved in wallpaper production. The main favorable factors of industrial environment have been determined. It is shown that working conditions in wallpaper production factories cause an increase in indices of biological age

  13. The influence of organizational culture on negative work-home interference among highly educated employees in the hospitality industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blomme, R.J.; Sok, J.; Tromp, D.M.

    2013-01-01

    An issue which has recently come to the fore in studies conducted among hospitality industry employees is the effect of negative work-home interference on the turnover of highly educated employees. This article examines the role of organizational culture with regard to negative work-home

  14. The influence of organizational culture on negative work-home interference among highly educated employees in the hospitality industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blomme, R.J.; Sok, J.; Tromp, D.M.

    2013-01-01

    An issue which has recently come to the fore in studies conducted among hospitality industry employees is the effect of negative work-home interference on the turnover of highly educated employees. This article examines the role of organizational culture with regard to negative work-home interferenc

  15. THE INFLUENCE IN ROMANIAN HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY OF SMALL MEDIUM-SIZED FIRMS AND THEIR SPECIFIC MEANS TO IMPROVE PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baltescu Codruta Adina

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available SMEs play an important role in fostering variety, self-fulfillment, and independence in society as well as essentially contributing to social and local integration. Because the tourism sector, especially the hospitality industry, in Europe is dominated by

  16. [The influence of smoking and occupational factors on the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in oil industry workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullaev, A Iu

    2012-01-01

    The influence of smoking and occupational factors on the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in employees of a sea oil and gas company is considered. The primary role of smoking in pathogenesis of COPD is confirmed Direct and indirect influence of smoking is enhanced by occupational and climatic factors leading to the development of persistent disturbances of ventilation.

  17. Analysis of Influence of Supply Chain Finance on TPL Industry%供应链金融对第三方物流业的影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王燕; 孙江斌

    2013-01-01

    在分析供应链金融概念及其在我国发展状况的基础上,对国内外第三方物流企业供应链金融业务的差别进行了归纳,重点从技术发展、管理水平提升和行业整合三方面论述了供应链金融对第三方物流业的影响。%In this paper, on the basis of an analysis of the concept and current developmental status of supply chain finance in China, we summarized the difference between the supply chain finance businesses of TPL enterprises from China and the ones from overseas and then discussed the influence supply chain finance had on the third party logistics industry from the aspects of technical development, management level and industrial integration.

  18. Culture as metaphor: company culture and business strategy at Raleigh Industries, c. 1945-60.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Jones, R; Lewis, M J; Eason, M

    1999-01-01

    This study of Raleigh Industries, one of the leading bicycle manufactures in the world in the immediate post-war years, argues that its business strategy was in part shaped by a managerial commitment to a dominant company culture which was deeply embedded in Raleigh's history. Using the notion of culture as metaphor, the paper examines the way that core values in the company acted as a guide in the setting of organisational goals and, intended or unintended, impinged upon company performance. In many respects, the culture guided the company well, but our study shows a number of ambiguities, tensions and contradictions between culture and strategy which had negative effects on company behaviour. Thus, Raleigh's attachment to personal capitalism constrained its capacity expansion programme, and, while it adopted what appeared to be a progressive education and training policy, it in effect trained workers for the past rather than the future.

  19. Influence of foreign drug patent policy on pharmaceutical industry%国外药品专利政策对制药业的影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪娜; 刁天喜; 王磊; 赵晓宇

    2011-01-01

    通过研究美国、日本和印度三个具有代表性的国家的药品专利政策,分析了药品专利政策对制药业的影响,分别阐述了近期美国的专利法改革及其他药品相关法案中药品专利政策对制药业的影响,对运用专利战略非常成功的日本专利制度改革进行了分析,比较了印度旧专利法和新专利法中药品相关专利政策对印度生物制药业的影响.最后分析了典型国家专利政策对我国的启示.%The contents of this paper included drug patent policy of the developed countries such as USA and Japan and developing countries like India, and analysis of the foreign experiences. The first part introduced the influence of the reform of USA patent law on pharmaceutical industries. The cases of most important drug patents were analyzed. The second part analyzed the drug patent policy reform of Japan, in which the patent strategy is very successful. According to the four stages of development in pharmaceutical industry, this part examined the Japanese drug patent policy reform and the influences on industry. The third part introduced the Indian drug patent policy and the influences of patent laws, and also presented the strategies of some Indian medicine companies. Finally the last part gave recommendations on strategies of drug patent policy to improve the protection of patent.

  20. Ameba influence and meat industry%“阿米巴”效应与肉类工业

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭锡铎

    2012-01-01

    阐述了阿米巴经营的概念、原理,以及在肉类工业管理中应用的思路和技巧。目前,在我国肉类工业尚未普及阿米巴经营,很有必要学习与借鉴,以提高和改善经营管理水平。%In this paper, the concept and the principles of Ameba operating were introduced, as well as the ideas and techniques in the application of meat industry management. At present, Ameba Management has not yet been popularized in China's meat industry, and it is necessary to study and draw lessons from it, so as to enhance and improve the management level

  1. SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS BY ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK (ANN) OF VARIABLES THAT INFLUENCE THE DIAGONAL TWIST IN A PAPERBOARD INDUSTRIAL MACHINE

    OpenAIRE

    Guinter Neutzling Schneid; Rubens Chaves de Oliveira; Osvaldo Vieira

    2016-01-01

    The dimensional stability of the paper may change due to middle exchange moisture, releasing the latent stress acquired into the manufacturing process. One result of this tension release is the diagonal curl. This study aims to conduct a sensitivity analysis of the different input’s variables of an industrial paper machine, along with some laboratory measurements, in order to identify the importance in production of paperboard quality control and relate to the property of the paper called...

  2. The Influence of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Rewards on Employee Results: An Empirical Analysis in Turkish Manufacturing Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hatice Ozutku

    2012-01-01

    The study discussed in this article questions whether certain reward practices used by organizations are better than others when comparing the employee results based on TQM. We first examine reward systems and TQM relevant literature. After related literature review, reward practices have been handled in two groups as intrinsic rewards and extrinsic rewards. In the sample, which consists of 217 businesses that operate in Turkish manufacturing industry and apply TQM, intrinsic and extrinsic re...

  3. The Influence of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Rewards on Employee Results: An Empirical Analysis in Turkish Manufacturing Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hatice Ozutku

    2012-01-01

    The study discussed in this article questions whether certain reward practices used by organizations are better than others when comparing the employee results based on TQM. We first examine reward systems and TQM relevant literature. After related literature review, reward practices have been handled in two groups as intrinsic rewards and extrinsic rewards. In the sample, which consists of 217 businesses that operate in Turkish manufacturing industry and apply TQM, intrinsic and extrinsic re...

  4. O capitalismo coordenado alemão: do boom do pós-guerra à Agenda 2010 The German coordinated capitalism: from the post war boom to Agenda 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Queiroz Guimarães

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available No pós-guerra constituiu-se na Alemanha um modelo de capitalismo coordenado, em que os sindicatos e as associações empresariais assumiram papel central. Constituíram-se várias formas de regulação via networks, presentes nas relações internas às firmas, nas formas de colaboração entre as empresas e na interação mais próxima entre bancos e empresas. Os bons resultados em termos de competitividade foram combinados com excelentes indicadores sociais. Entretanto, as transformações recentes, relacionadas à maior internacionalização produtiva e financeira, têm colocado em xeque o capitalismo socialmente coordenado. Em face aos desafios econômicos, a Alemanha vem reagindo, procurando reformas que tornem o modelo mais flexível. Mas aspectos centrais do modelo têm se conservado, com destaque para as relações de trabalho e os mecanismos de cidadania social.The reconstruction of German political economy after the Second World War was marked by the consolidation of many forms of regulation via networks. Those networks, present in many areas of the economy, stimulated the cooperation among the actors, having critical implications for the performance of the model. The outstanding results in terms of competitivity combined with outstanding social indicators. In recent years, international transformations, including financial liberalisation and internationalisation of production, have putting the social coordinated capitalism in check. In face of the economic challenges, Germany has been adopting a range of reforms in the attempt to make the model more flexible. Nevertheless, central aspects of the coordinated capitalism have been preserved, including the system of industrial relations and the mechanisms of social citizenship.

  5. Management and control of microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) in the oil and gas industry-Overview and a North Sea case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovhus, Torben Lund; Eckert, Richard B; Rodrigues, Edgar

    2017-08-20

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is the terminology applied where the actions of microorganisms influence the corrosion process. In literature, terms such as microbial corrosion, biocorrosion, microbially influenced/induced corrosion, and biodegradation are often applied. MIC research in the oil and gas industry has seen a revolution over the past decade, with the introduction of molecular microbiological methods: (MMM) as well as new industry standards and procedures of sampling biofilm and corrosion products from the process system. This review aims to capture the most important trends the oil and gas industry has seen regarding MIC research over the past decade. The paper starts out with an overview of where in the process stream MIC occurs - from the oil reservoir to the consumer. Both biotic and abiotic corrosion mechanisms are explained in the context of managing MIC using a structured corrosion management (CM) approach. The corrosion management approach employs the elements of a management system to ensure that essential corrosion control activities are carried out in an effective, sustainable, well-planned and properly executed manner. The 3-phase corrosion management approach covering of both biotic and abiotic internal corrosion mechanisms consists of 1) corrosion assessment, 2) corrosion mitigation and 3) corrosion monitoring. Each of the three phases are described in detail with links to recent field cases, methods, industry standards and sampling protocols. In order to manage the corrosion threat, operators commonly use models to support decision making. The models use qualitative, semi-quantitative or quantitative measures to help assess the rate of degradation caused by MIC. The paper reviews four existing models for MIC Threat Assessment and describe a new model that links the threat of MIC in the oil processing system located on an offshore platform with a Risk Based Inspection (RBI) approach. A recent field case highlights and explains

  6. 海南省旅游业集聚的影响因素探讨%Probing into Henan province tourism industry gathering's influence factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑芳; 侯迎

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of Hainan tourism agglomeration in whole industry,tourism elements and regional difference field,we refer to previous research results and meanwhile integrate Hainan's current situation,at last we draw some important conclusions.Influencing factors of Hainan tourism agglomeration are as follows: tourism resources endowment,tourism industrial characteristics,geographic and economical locations,governmental policies,and local development level and infrastructure foundation special for tourism development,etc.This study extends research for each influencing factor and makes certain Hainan tourism agglomeration patterns for areas of different spatial scales.%在海南省旅游业总体集聚、要素集聚及区域对比的基础上,结合海南省实际,总结出海南省旅游空间集聚的影响因素,主要包括旅游资源、旅游产业自身属性、区位条件、政府政策、经济发展水平及旅游基础条件等,并针对各影响因素进行分析,在此基础上对海南旅游空间集聚模式做了初步研究。

  7. Factors influencing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) emissions and control in major industrial sectors: case evidence from Shandong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Lu, Yonglong; He, Guizhen; Mol, Arthur P J; Wang, Tieyu; Gosens, Jorrit; Ni, Kun

    2014-07-01

    Analyzing determinants that influence polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) emissions is helpful for decision-makers to find effective and efficient ways to mitigate PCDD/F emissions. The PCDD/F emissions and the contributions of the scale effect, structure effect and technology effect to emissions from eight main industrial sectors in 2006, 2008 and 2010 in Shandong Province, were calculated in this article. Total PCDD/F emissions in Shandong increased by 52.8% in 2008 (614.1g I-TEQ) and 49.7% in 2010 (601.8 g I-TEQ) based on 2006 (401.9 g I-TEQ). According to the decomposition method, the largest influencing factor on PCDD/F emission changes was the composition effect (contributed 43.4% in 2008 and 120.6% in 2010 based on 2006), which was also an emission-increasing factor. In this case, the present industrial restructuring policy should be adjusted to control the proportion of production capacities with high emission factors, such as iron ore sintering and steel making and the secondary non-ferrous metal sector. The scale effect increased the emissions in 2008 (contributed 21.9%) and decreased the emissions in 2010 (contributed -28.0%). However, as a source control measure, the excess capacity control policy indeed had a significant role in emission reduction. The main reason for the technology effect (contributed 34.7% in 2008 and 7.4% in 2010 based on 2006) having an emission-increasing role was the weakness in implementing policies for restricting industries with outdated facilities. Some specific suggestions were proposed on PCDD/F reduction for local administrators at the end.

  8. Mycotoxin analysis of industrial beers from Brazil: The influence of fumonisin B1 and deoxynivalenol in beer quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentini, Karim C; Rocha, Liliana O; Fontes, Lívia C; Carnielli, Lorena; Reis, Tatiana A; Corrêa, Benedito

    2017-03-01

    Worldwide, barley is the main source of carbohydrate in the brewing process. However, corn is often used as an adjunct to improve and accelerate the fermentation process. Considering that, these two substrates are susceptible to fungal contamination as well as mycotoxins. The objective of the current study is to determine the incidence of the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) in industrial beers. The method applied for mycotoxin analyses included high performance liquid chromatography. The mean levels for recovery experiments were 89.6% for DON and 93.3% for FB1. DON was not detected in any of the analyzed samples whereas FB1 was found in 49% of the 114 samples. The current survey demonstrated levels of FB1 contamination in industrial beer, possibly due to the addition of contaminated adjuncts. It is necessary to establish maximum levels of mycotoxins in beer in Brazil and other countries in order to reduce health risks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Influence of Industrial Air Pollution Forest Lichens at Tomaszów Mazowiecki Region (Central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Czyżewska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of mixed gases pollution (SO2, H2S and CS2 on epiphytic and epixylic lichens growing on Pinus sylvestris in the nature conditions is the matter of consideration. In the case of some lichens, e.g. Lecanora conizaeoides, Scoliciosporum chlorococcum and Thelocarpon laureri the toxitolerant to the air pollution is proved by the authoress.

  10. Mixing states of aerosols over four environmentally distinct atmospheric regimes in Asia: coastal, urban, and industrial locations influenced by dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, S; Srivastava, Rohit

    2016-06-01

    Mixing can influence the optical, physical, and chemical characteristics of aerosols, which in turn can modify their life cycle and radiative effects. Assumptions on the mixing state can lead to uncertain estimates of aerosol radiative effects. To examine the effect of mixing on the aerosol characteristics, and their influence on radiative effects, aerosol mixing states are determined over four environmentally distinct locations (Karachi, Gwangju, Osaka, and Singapore) in Asia, an aerosol hot spot region, using measured spectral aerosol optical properties and optical properties model. Aerosol optical depth (AOD), single scattering albedo (SSA), and asymmetry parameter (g) exhibit spectral, spatial, and temporal variations. Aerosol mixing states exhibit large spatial and temporal variations consistent with aerosol characteristics and aerosol type over each location. External mixing of aerosol species is unable to reproduce measured SSA over Asia, thus providing a strong evidence that aerosols exist in mixed state. Mineral dust (MD) (core)-Black carbon (BC) (shell) is one of the most preferred aerosol mixing states. Over locations influenced by biomass burning aerosols, BC (core)-water soluble (WS, shell) is a preferred mixing state, while dust gets coated by anthropogenic aerosols (BC, WS) over urban regions influenced by dust. MD (core)-sea salt (shell) mixing is found over Gwangju corroborating the observations. Aerosol radiative forcing exhibits large seasonal and spatial variations consistent with features seen in aerosol optical properties and mixing states. TOA forcing is less negative/positive for external mixing scenario because of lower SSA. Aerosol radiative forcing in Karachi is a factor of 2 higher when compared to Gwangju, Osaka, and Singapore. The influence of g on aerosol radiative forcing is insignificant. Results emphasize that rather than prescribing one single aerosol mixing state in global climate models regionally and temporally varying aerosol

  11. The influence of heat treatment on properties of cold rolled alloyed steel and nickel superalloys sheets used in aircraft industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaba, K.; Dul, I.; Puchlerska, S.

    2017-02-01

    Superalloys based on nickel and selected steels are widely used in the aerospace industry, because of their excellent mechanical properties, heat resistance and creep resistance. Metal sheets of these materials are plastically deformed and applied, inter alia, to critical components of aircraft engines. Due to their chemical composition these materials are hardly deformable. There are various methods to improve the formability of these materials, including plastic deformation at an elevated or high temperature, or a suitable heat treatment before forming process. The paper presents results of the metal sheets testing after heat treatment. For the research, sheets of two types of nickel superalloys type Inconel and of three types of steel were chosen. The materials were subjected to multivariate heat treatment at different temperature range and time. After this step, mechanical properties were examined according to the metal sheet rolling direction. The results were compared and the optimal type of pre-trial softening heat treatment for each of the materials was determined.

  12. Microwave-assisted preparation and adsorption performance of activated carbon from biodiesel industry solid reside: influence of operational parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, K Y; Hameed, B H

    2012-01-01

    Preparation of activated carbon has been attempted using KOH as activating agent by microwave heating from biodiesel industry solid residue, oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFBAC). The significance of chemical impregnation ratio (IR), microwave power and activation time on the properties of activated carbon were investigated. The optimum condition has been identified at the IR of 1.0, microwave power of 600 W and activation time of 7 min. EFBAC was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nitrogen adsorption isotherm. The surface chemistry was examined by zeta potential measurement, determination of surface acidity/basicity, while the adsorptive property was quantified using methylene blue as dye model compound. The optimum conditions resulted in activated carbon with a monolayer adsorption capacity of 395.30 mg/g and carbon yield of 73.78%, while the BET surface area and total pore volume were corresponding to 1372 m2/g and 0.76 cm3/g, respectively.

  13. In Service for Sharing: Leadership and Leader - Follower Relationship Factors as Influencers of Tacit Knowledge Sharing in the IT Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billy Whisnant

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tacit knowledge is an organizational resource that is difficult to cultivate. It requires that responsible agents in the organization take an active role in encouraging trust and the development of relationships where individuals feel that their voice will be heard and that there will be a benefit from them passing knowledge onto someone else. In knowledge work tacit knowledge is especially important. This research found that servant leadership is an important factor in influencing tacit knowledge sharing, however leader-member exchange is a factor that will strongly support the sharing of tacit knowledge. If there is a dearth in servant leadership, then leader-member exchange quality is able to act as an influencer of tacit knowledge sharing. This indicates the conclusion that while servant leadership has its virtues, it is possible that other leadership constructs will be useful in encouraging tacit knowledge sharing.

  14. Seasonal variations in the water quality, diversity and population ecology of intertidal macrofauna at an industrially influenced coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaghela, A; Bhadja, P; Ramoliya, J; Patel, N; Kundu, R

    2010-01-01

    Present communication reports the physico-chemical and biological quality of seawater and status of benthos of a highly industrialized shore of the north-western coastline of India. The coastal area considered for the present study, encircled by a variety of industries, was divided into two sampling sites and monitored for two consecutive years. Results of the water quality suggest that the obtained values of the physical and chemical parameters of seawater were comparable with data reported earlier. However, data obtained in the biological parameters of the seawater showed a declining trend. Results of the intertidal macrofaunal diversity studies revealed that the muddy upper littoral zones were represented by few species of coelenterata, porifera, arthropoda and mollusca. In the rocky-muddy middle littoral zones, gastropods, stars fishes, corallites, crabs, polychetes and tubeworms were present, whereas, predominantly rocky lower littoral zones were comparatively rich in macrofaunal diversity with small patches of coral colonies. However, when the results obtained in the present study was compared with that of earlier reported data, it was clear that the macrofaunal diversity indeed declined considerably over the years. This may be due to habitat destruction and habitat alteration in the coastline caused by increased anthropogenic activities in the area. Seasonal variations in the population density and abundance were observed in most of the faunal groups except in sessile corals and sponges. This may be due to local migration of the faunal groups towards deeper regions of the Gulf, as supported by the analysis of similarity, to avoid influx of freshwater during monsoon, and high temperature during summer and post monsoon seasons. The overall assessment of different parameters of this study revealed that though the physico- chemical characteristics of the seawater did not varied much from the earlier reported status, the biological characteristics of the seawater

  15. Modelling the Influence of Climate on the Performance of the Organic Rankine Cycle for Industrial Waste Heat Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Korolija

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a study of the relative influences of different system design decisions upon the performance of an organic Rankine cycle (ORC used to generate electricity from foundry waste heat. The design choices included concern the working fluid, whether to use a regenerator and the type of condenser. The novelty of the research lies in its inclusion of the influence of both the ORC location and the auxiliary electricity used by the pumps and fans in the ORC power system. Working fluids suitable for high temperature applications are compared, including three cyclic siloxanes, four linear siloxanes and three aromatic fluids. The ORC is modelled from first principles and simulation runs carried out using weather data for 106 European locations and a heat input profile that was derived from empirical data. The impact of design decisions upon ORC nominal efficiency is reported followed by the impact upon annual system efficiency in which variations in heat input and the condition of outdoor air over a year are considered. The main conclusion is that the location can have a significant impact upon the efficiency of ORC systems due to the influence of climate upon the condenser and auxiliary electricity requirements.

  16. Violencia y democratización en Centroamérica: el impacto del crimen en la legitimidad de los regímenes de posguerra Violence and democratization in Central America: the impact of crime in the legitimacy of post-war regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel CRUZ

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available

    El propósito fundamental del artículo es mostrar que los elevados niveles de la violencia común y de la delincuencia que afectan en la actualidad a los países latinoamericanos, especialmente a los países centroamericanos de posguerra, constituye un obstáculo y una amenaza para los procesos de democratización. Esto porque la violencia criminal erosiona el apoyo ciudadano a los regímenes surgidos de las transiciones políticas y resta legitimidad al sistema político. El artículo parte de los resultados de una serie de encuestas llevadas a cabo con más de 6.700 ciudadanos en países centroamericanos en situación de posguerra (Guatemala, El Salvador y Nicaragua en 1999 y se analiza la vinculación entre los niveles de victimización y de percepción de inseguridad pública con el nivel de apoyo político para el sistema.

    The main purpose of this article is to show that the high levels of common violence and crime, which currently affect Latin American countries, especially post-war Central American ones, represent a threat and obstacle to democratization processes. This is so, because common violence erodes the citizens’ support to the regimes emerged from the political transitions and deteriorates the legitimacy of the political system. The article is based on the results of a series of surveys conducted with more than 6.700 citizens who live in post-war Central American

  17. 工业化排放物对中国沿海气候的影响%The Influence of Industrialization Emissions on Coastal Climate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童永彭; 朱志鹏; 吴正新

    2015-01-01

    As a result of global warming, precipitation is likely to increase at high latitudes. However, the mechanisms by which human activity influences global climate change are far from completely understood. Industrialization has had an undeniable impact on the global ecosystem, of particular significance to the issue of global warming, the flow of industrial by-products into the ocean can upset the marine ecological balance, which in turn can have a significant affect on climate. We try to analyze the relationship between industrial pollution, phytoplankton biomass and climate signature by Chinese industrialization progresses. It can be concluded that Chinese industrialization has led to changes in the marine food chain of coastal areas. The resulting increase in the biomass of phytoplankton causes an increase in the seawater evaporation rate which then contributes to a rise in the humidity in surrounding cities, which in turn can lead to increased intensity and volume of precipitation. However, it is well known that all pollutants in water will decrease the water vapour pressure according to Raoult's law. So industrial emissions may have two competing effects: one is to promote the growth of phytoplankton and then causing higher seawater evaporation rates and precipitation; another is to decrease water vapour pressure which then reduces the seawater evaporation rate and precipitation. In China, precipitation is becoming more concentrated in some seasons and some areas with higher biomass of phytoplankton. The temperature in seriously polluted costal cities (with below-fourth-class seawater) with less biomass of phytoplankton will increase quickly and the surrounding humidity and precipitation will decrease as industrialization progresses. Regional climate change also increases the frequency of typhoon formation in the recent years. The total influence on climate of industrialization progresses in china is that annual average temperature after industrialization is

  18. SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS BY ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK (ANN OF VARIABLES THAT INFLUENCE THE DIAGONAL TWIST IN A PAPERBOARD INDUSTRIAL MACHINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guinter Neutzling Schneid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The dimensional stability of the paper may change due to middle exchange moisture, releasing the latent stress acquired into the manufacturing process. One result of this tension release is the diagonal curl. This study aims to conduct a sensitivity analysis of the different input’s variables of an industrial paper machine, along with some laboratory measurements, in order to identify the importance in production of paperboard quality control and relate to the property of the paper called twist. A survey was made of the production history, relating to 2012, to observe the products with the highest quality losses. From this, they were correlated with the critical points of measurement profile in the machine cross direction and consequently with the paper. It was found some changes once the variables correlated with twist, referring to the three analyzes of the profile (tender side, middle and drive side. It was revealed, from the sensitivity analysis, that the most important and sensitive variables, respectively for the tender side, middle and drive side, were total flow from the top layer, vapor pressure in the 6th group of drying cylinders and mass flow side of the bottom layer of the formation of paperboard.

  19. Prioritizing the Factors Influencing the Success of Technology Transfer by Reverse Engineering Case Study: Aviation Engines Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Shahriari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the basic purposes in developing countries had been reduction of their technological gap in different eras. So, technology transfer in developing countries has become one of the key factors of economic growth. But technology transfer is a difficult and complex process, so it can be unsuccessful and may waste time and money or undermine the national technology if performed without enough considering and study. Therefore, according to high ability of interior experts and scientists and country's condition to have a successful technology transfer, Reverse Engineering is used as an effective factor. In this paper supporting 15 experts and using Fuzzy Delphi Method, the effective factors on success of technology transfer by reverse engineering in aviation engines industry will be recognized and then prioritized by members of statistical sample and Analytical Network Process (ANP. Finally, we will have three components, technical knowledge for redesign, technical knowledge for producing, and organizational association with original country that are the most important among the other ten selected components.

  20. The role of amenities and other factors in influencing the location of nonmanufacturing industry in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, T. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment and Information Sciences Div.; Calzonetti, F.J. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geography

    1990-07-01

    Consumer and producer services, the latter in particular, are expected to become an important means of diversification and employment growth to the economy of Nevada. It has been suggested that the siting of the nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, will lead to a significant reduction in the amenity value of the state and, consequently, the ability of the state to attract these nonmanufacturing industries. This report reviews the literature dealing with factors important to the location of services, with an emphasis on producer services, to determine whether amenities, which have been shown to be an important locational consideration for some manufacturing firms, similarly affect the location of services. The report finds little substantive evidence to link amenities with the location of service firms, although the process by which these firms` locations are chosen is not well understood. Research in this area is comparatively recent, and although a number of theories of service location have been developed, the majority of research is exploratory in scope.

  1. Influence of different safety shoes on gait and plantar pressure: a standardized examination of workers in the automotive industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochsmann, Elke; Noll, Ulrike; Ellegast, Rolf; Hermanns, Ingo; Kraus, Thomas

    2016-09-30

    Working conditions, such as walking and standing on hard surfaces, can increase the development of musculoskeletal complaints. At the interface between flooring and musculoskeletal system, safety shoes may play an important role in the well-being of employees. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different safety shoes on gait and plantar pressure distributions on industrial flooring. Twenty automotive workers were individually fitted out with three different pairs of safety shoes ( "normal" shoes, cushioned shoes, and midfoot bearing shoes). They walked at a given speed of 1.5 m/s. The CUELA measuring system and shoe insoles were used for gait analysis and plantar pressure measurements, respectively. Statistical analysis was conducted by ANOVA analysis for repeated measures. Walking with cushioned safety shoes or a midfoot bearing safety shoe led to a significant decrease of the average trunk inclination (pindustrial accident, but in addition, safety shoes could be a long-term preventive instrument for maintaining health of the employees' musculoskeletal system, as they are able to affect gait parameters. Further research needs to focus on safety shoes in working situations.

  2. Influence of the operating parameters on the flux during microfiltration of the steepwater in the starch industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šereš Zita I.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the work is the possibility of applying microfiltration through a ceramic tubular membrane with 100 nm pore sizes to the steepwater obtained in the production process of corn starch. The dry matter content should be reduced in the steepwater permeate. Thus the consumption of the process water would be reduced, the nutrients from the steepwater could be exploited as feed and the wastewater problem would consequently be solved. The objective of the work was to examine the influence of the operating parameters on the permeate flux during steepwater microfiltration. The parameters that vary in the course of microfiltration, were the transmembrane pressur and flow rate, while the permeate flux and dry matter content of the permeate and retentate were the dependent parameters, constantly monitored during the process. Another objective of this study was to investigate the influence of static turbulence promoter on the permeate flux during steepwater microfiltration. Static mixers enhance permeate flux, thus the microfiltration can be performed longer. As a result of the statistical analysis, the optimal conditions for steepwater microfiltration were determined. The maximum value of the permeate flux without mixer (25 lm-2h-1 was achieved at a pressure of 2 bars and a flow rate around 100 lh-1. With the use of static mixer the flux is 2,5 times higher compared to the one obtained without the mixer. The dry matter content of the permeat after 2.5 hours of mucrofiltration was lowered by 40%.

  3. An investigation of forecast horizon and observation fit’s influence on an econometric rate forecast model in the liner shipping industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter; Jiang, Liping; Rytter, Niels Gorm Malý

    2014-01-01

    This paper evaluates the influence of forecast horizon and observation fit on the robustness and performance of a specific freight rate forecast model used in the liner shipping industry. In the first stage of the research, a forecast model used to predict container freight rate development...... of the forecast horizon and observation fit and their interactions on the forecast model's performance. The results underline the complicated nature of creating a suitable forecast model by balancing business needs, a desire to fit a good model and achieve high accuracy. There is strong empirical evidence from...... this study; that a robust model is preferable, that overfitting is a true danger, and that a balance must be achieved between forecast horizon and the number of observations used to fit the model. In addition, methodological guidance has also been provided on how to test, design, and choose the superior...

  4. Influence of kidney disease on drug disposition: An assessment of industry studies submitted to the FDA for new chemical entities 1999-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzke, Gary R; Dowling, Thomas C; Marks, Samantha A; Murphy, John E

    2016-04-01

    In 1998, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) released the first guidance for industry regarding pharmacokinetic (PK) studies in renally impaired patients. This study aimed to determine if the FDA renal PK guidance influenced the frequency and rigor of renal studies conducted for new chemical entities (NCEs). FDA-approved package inserts (APIs) and clinical pharmacology review documents were analyzed for 194 NCEs approved from 1999 to 2010. Renal studies were conducted in 71.6% of NCEs approved from 1999 to 2010, a significant increase over the 56.3% conducted from 1996 to 1997 (P = .0242). Renal studies were more likely to be completed in highly renally excreted drugs (fe ≥ 30%) compared with drugs with low renal excretion, fe FDA guidance has resulted in improved availability of PK and drug-dosing recommendations, particularly for high fe drugs.

  5. Influence of dioctyl phthalate (DOP) on the mechanical, optical and thermal properties of formulations for the industrial manufacture of radiation sterilizable medical disposables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shamshad; Mehmood, Mazhar; Iqbal, Rashid

    2010-03-01

    Shelf life of the formulations designed for the industrial manufacture of radiation sterilizable syringes and other medical disposables is a very important issue world over. Radiation compatible formulations were developed earlier in the laboratory by the incorporation of primary and secondary antioxidants along with processing stabilizers in a random polypropylene copolymer. It has been reported in literature that the mobilizing agents namely hydrocarbons, greases, wax and the plasticizer, dioctyl phthalate (DOP) impart radiation resistance to the polypropylene by providing free volume. It was envisaged that the addition of DOP to the afore-mentioned formulation might favorably influence the mechanical, optical and thermal properties of our formulation. To study the influence of addition of DOP on the afore-mentioned properties, the addition of 1%, 2% and 3% of the mobilizer was made, followed by the irradiation of resulting heat pressed sheets to the industrial standard dose of 25 kGy. Two important characteristic mechanical properties to determine the suitability of the radiation sterilized materials comprise angle of breakage and the haze percent. After irradiation and even on accelerated ageing of the irradiated material, the angle of breakage of heat press sheets of formulations containing 1%, 2% and 3% of DOP was found to be 180°, demonstrating the role of DOP, in imparting additional radiation stability. In case of the irradiated control sample, the angle of breakage was much lower. In the heat pressed sheets containing the DOP, a remarkable retention in the tensile strength, percentage elongation at break, along with improved thermal stability was observed. The formulation devoid of DOP demonstrated poor retention of the afore-mentioned characteristic properties .The observed improvement in thermal stability of the formulations containing DOP hints at the likely possibility of reuse of these materials by autoclaving which is considered an additional

  6. Microstructure of industrially produced reduced and low fat Turkish white cheese as influenced by the homogenization of cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karaman, A. D.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The microstructure and fat globule distribution of reduced and low fat Turkish white cheese were evaluated. Reduced and low fat cheeses were manufactured from 1.5% and 0.75% fat milk respectively which were standardized unhomogenized and homogenized cream in a dairy plant. Homogenized and non-homogenized creams and cheese whey were analyzed for fat globule distribution and cheese samples were also analyzed for microstructure characteristics. According to the results, the homogenization of cream decreased the size of fat globules; and showed that a large number of fat particles were dispersed in the in matrix and improved the lubrication of cheese microstructure. According to the micrographs for the fat, which was not removed, they exhibited a more extended matrix with a few small fat globules compared to the defatted micrographs. Homogenization of cream produces small fat globules and unclustured fat globules were found in the resulting whey. These results are important for dairy processors for using cream homogenization as a processing tool at the industrial level.

    Se estudia la microestructura y distribución de los glóbulos de grasa de quesos blancos turcos bajos en grasa. Quesos con reducida y baja cantidad en grasa fueron fabricados conteniendo entre el 1,5% y 0,75% de grasa de leche, respectivamente, y con cremas homogeneizadas y no homogeneizadas, en una planta de lácteos. Las cremas homogeneizadas y no homogeneizadas y el suero de los quesos se analizaron para determinar la distribución de los glóbulos de grasa y también se analizaron las características de la microestructura de muestras de queso. De acuerdo con los resultados, la homogeneización de la crema reduce el tamaño de los glóbulos de grasa, mostrando un gran número de partículas de grasa dispersa en la matriz de caseína que mejoró la lubricación de la microestructura del queso. De acuerdo con las micrografías de la grasa que no se elimina, estas exhiben

  7. Yield and phosphorus-uptake by crops as influenced by chemical fertilizer and integrated use of industrial by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mohsin Iqbal

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the best combination of P fertilizer for obtaining higher P fertilizer efficiency, industrial by-products i.e. filter cake (FC, poultry waste (PW and di-calcium phosphates (DCP were integrated in different proportions so as to supply 75 mg P kg-1 soil and evaluated against mineral P fertilizer i.e. single super phosphate (SSP for growing maize and wheat in pots. The organic and inorganic fertilizers were thoroughly mixed with soil before sowing of maize and wheat while the effect of residual P on the yield and P-uptake on the following crop was assessed by growing rice in the same pots. Maize was harvested after 40 days of growth while wheat and rice were harvested at maturity. The results showed that irrespective to the source or combination, application of P increased the dry matter yield (DMY of maize over control. Integration of PW and DCP in 2:1 P ratio gave maximum DMY and the highest P-uptake. Integrated use of FC, PW and DCP in 1:1:1 P ratio produced 95% of the maximum dry matter yield and 93% of the maximum P-uptake. Application of P through chemical source (SSP produced 79 and 61% of maximum DMY and PORIGINAL uptake, respectively and resulted in lowest P fertilizer efficiency (PFE compared to all other combinations. For wheat integrated use of waste in all tested combinations except (FC+DCP significantly increased total P-uptake and the grain yield of wheat over SSP. Highest grain yield as well as maximum P-uptake were recorded for DCP+PW combination. However, PW+DCP and FC+PW+DCP combinations also produced grain yields equivalent to DCP+PW combination. Integrated use of wastes increased wheat grain yield ranging from 15-42% and the PFE from 9-65% over SSP, respectively. Assessment of the residual P effect showed that integrated use of fertilizers resulted in 5-30% more grain yield than SSP alone. Thus for improved P fertilizer efficiency and sustainable crop yields, integrated use of PW and DCP in 2:1 P ratio was the best

  8. 人寿保险行业市场结构及影响因素研究%Research on Market Structure and Influence Factors of Life Insurance Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋才芳; 杨俣涛; 陈收

    2015-01-01

    准入退出壁垒、市场集中度、规模经济和范围经济以及产品差异化等是影响人寿保险业市场结构的主要因素。中国保险市场准入、退出的行政性政策壁垒较高,市场集中度较高,属于寡占 III 型市场结构;寿险业保费规模、保险密度、保险深度、保险资产总额占 GDP 的比重、保险资产总额占整个金融资产的比重较低;寿险产品同质化现象较严重。鉴此,应降低市场进入壁垒,建立市场退出机制,达到优化市场结构,提高资源配置效率目的。%Entry & exit barriar,industry market concentration,economy of scale,economy of scope,product differentiation are the main influencing factors of the market structure of the life insurance access and exit mechanism.The study found that:the administrative policies and barri-ers of China's insurance market entry and exit is also high;China's life insurance industry market concentration gradually decreased,but compared with the developed countries,China's life insur-ance industry is of a high degree of market concentration,market structure is oligopolistic type III;China's life insurance premium scale,insurance density,insurance depth,total insurance as-sets accounted for the proportion of GDP,total insurance assets accounted for the proportion of financial assets is relatively low;life insurance products homogenization phenomenon is serious, participating insurance products become the focus and trend of development of the life insurance company;reducing the insurance market entry barriers,and the establishment of the delisting mechanism properly is conducive to optimizing the structure of life insurance market,and impro-ving the allocation efficiency of the life insurance industry resources.

  9. 基于ISM的中国核电产业自主化发展影响因素分析%Analysis on the Influencing Factors of the Independent Development of Chinese Nuclear Power Industry Based on ISM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹长城

    2011-01-01

    针对核电产业的特点,应用ISM方法建立系统结构模型,对影响中国核电产业自主化发展的主要因素进行分析,探讨中国核电产业自主化发展必须解决的关键问题.%This paper treats the independent development of nuclear power industry of China as a big compIex system,which consists of interactive factors with specific functions. According to Porter's theory of international competitiveness of industry and the characteristics of nuclear power industry, a struqural model based on ISM is build to systematically analyze the main factors influencing the independent development of nuclear power industry and explore key problems to be solved in the independent development of Chinese nuclear power industry.

  10. Volatile organic compounds speciation and their influence on ozone formation potential in an industrialized urban area in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, Elson Silva; Santos, Jane Meri; Reis Junior, Neyval Costa; Stuetz, Richard Michael

    2016-09-01

    Speciation and the influence on the ozone formation potential (OFP) from volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been studied between February June 2013 in Vitória, ES, Brazil. Passive samplers were installed at three air-quality monitoring stations and a total of 96 samplings were collected. A total of 78 VOCs were characterized by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. The predominant group was organic acids, followed by alcohols and substituted aromatics and 14 precursor species were quantified. An analysis correlating concentrations with wind direction was conducted to identify possible sources. The OFP was calculated applying the scale of maximum incremental reactivity proposed by Carter.[ 23 ] Ozone precursors with the greatest OFP such as undecane, toluene, ethylbenzene and m, p-xylene compounds were the most abundant with means of 0.855, 0.365, 0.259 and 0.289 µg m(-3), respectively. The benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) group was found below the limits considered harmful to the health of the population living in Vitória. The OFP calculated for the precursors group was 22.55 µg m(-3) for the rainy season and 32.11 µg m(-3) for the dry season. The VOC/NOx ratio in Vitória is approximately 1.71, indicating that the region has a VOC-limiting condition for the production of ozone.

  11. Psychological Needs of Post-War Children in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Ester; Brown, Robert S.

    2002-01-01

    Students (N=182) and teachers (N=33) in six Kosovar schools were surveyed to assess conditions, evaluate local resources, and determine suitability of implementing a mental health program following the trauma of war. Children (ages 10-12) showed strong coping skills and resiliency despite adversity. Teachers reported significant data about student…

  12. The youth and post-war recovery in southern Sudan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    youth and access their potential in Southern Sudan, post-conflict recovery will have limited success. ... Whatever the method used, children ended up armed with .... Long-term effects of war on children have been documented. Levy and.

  13. Some aspects of the post-war conflict

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    displaced persons (l.D.Ps) resulting from three decades of armed conflict. Millions of ... people, mostly women and children, trek to the cities and towns, which are considered safer .... The impact oft/var, urbanisation and poverty on gender roles.

  14. In the army hands: violence and post war in guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    ESPARZA, MARCIA

    2007-01-01

    La guerra muchas veces de carácter fraticida entre sectores de la población maya en Guatemala (1962-1996) ha dejado secuelas impresas en el tejido social. En mi investigación, que incluye el trabajo de campo para la Comisión de la Verdad auspiciada por las Naciones Unidas en ese país (1997-1998), fui testiga de la destrucción de lazos de confianza y solidaridad, componentes clave en el soporte de la identidad comunal indígena. Mi estudio muestra cómo la persistente militarización produce que ...

  15. Women Contribute to Post War Sino-Japanese Relationship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JANE SHAW

    1994-01-01

    Before the 1995 World Conference on Women is held in Beijing, I’d like to introduce four women who played active roles in promoting SinoJapanese relationships after World War II. They are Bing Xin and Li Dequan from China, and Koya Tomi and Matsuyama Kiko from Japan.

  16. Shaping the National Guard in a Post-War Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    to Monterey for another in- residence session. Thanks to Holly Shenefelt, who spent hours poring over my paper, and only asked for Starbucks in return...predictability for deployments, with an emphasis on AC/RC integration.81 In short, the reserve component has become a critical part of national strategy and...Joint Publication 1-02 as “The ability of U.S. military forces to fight and meet the demands of the National Military Strategy . Readiness is the

  17. Diplomats, Politicians and Foreign Policy In Post-War Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Lenzi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El papel de la diplomacia en la política exterior italiana de pos-guerra aumentó a medida que la política italiana se fue polarizando alrededor de dos partidos políticos, los democristianos y los comunistas, que seguían respectivamente directivas de Washington (y el Vaticano y de Moscú. Se puede hablar de una “conspiración doméstica”, destinada a preservar una serie de principios con respecto a los políticos italianos, que tanto desde el gobierno como desde la oposición, reaccionaban de una manera más bien mecánica e indiferente, a medio camino entre el mero pragmatismo y un noble idealismo. Incapaz de expresar fuertes convicciones nacionales y contraria a tomar posturas claras, Italia mostraba una inclinación por los foros multilaterales; mientras se mantenía firmemente asida a sus apoyos internacionales, se permitía divergencias ocasionales, siempre evitando la necesidad de declarar sus intereses vitales. Aun con instrucciones vagas (y a veces contradictorias, la diplomacia italiana lograba actuar con bastante efectividad y credibilidad tanto en las Comunidades Europeas, la OTAN y hacia el “tercer mundo”, logrando una visibilidad superior a la que le habría otorgado su verdadera influencia a nivel mundial. Tras la Guerra Fría, la estructura misma de la política de partidos se desintegró y la política exterior quedó relegada a un segundo plano, justo en el momento en el que los sucesos se aceleraban drásticamente. Hoy en día Italia se encuentra con en la casilla de salida., y esta vez ello sin el tipo de seguridad que la OTAN o la UE proveen. Difíciles decisiones se le presentan a un país súbitamente carente de claros referentes internacionales. Afortunadamente por fin la política exterior se ha convertido en un tema de carácter bi-partisano. A los 919 diplomáticos de carrera se les asignaron tareas diplomáticas más creativas y proactivas que la “diplomacia económica” que es lo que en la actualidad se les está pidiendo (apoyados financieramente con solo 0.23 % del presupuesto nacional, es decir, el 0.11 % del PIB. El Secretario General del Ministerio de Exteriores, el Embajador Massolo, mantiene que “con la mezcla apropiada de realismo y visión a largo plazo, la diplomacia italiana puede “lograr una inclusión estable de nuestro país en las nuevas ecuaciones que se están consolidando a nivel global”, avisando sin embargo que para estar en Europa, debemos estar igualmente bien estructurados a nivel nacional.

  18. An Analysis of the Influencing Factors of Customer Retention in Tourism Resort Industry: A Case Study of Lingnan Impression Park, Guangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The customer retention is an important factor in today’s increasingly tourism competitive markets which should be concerned seriously. At present, many academic customer retention researches mostly focused on the business market research in the hotel industry. In view of the tourism resort, especially the urban cultural themes attraction, analyzing the influencing factors of customer retention in such resort has its special significance. The aim of this study is to empirically explore the relationship among the cultural attractive, attraction operation, promotion strategy and tourist costs on customer retention in the urban cultural themes attraction. A quantitative research method was adopted to collect empirical data from the case study of Lingnan Impression Park, Guangzhou, China and the analysis of the influencing factors base on the integrated research approach for the urban cultural themes resort. The results indicate what extent these individual factors can have an impact on customer retention is beneficial for the resort marketing practices and several strategies are suggested about improving the degree of the customer retention to the urban cultural themes resorts in China.

  19. Identification and weighting factors influencing the establishment of a single minute exchange of dies in plastic injection industry using VIKOR and Shannon Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Reza Hashemzadeh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Single minute exchange of dies (SMED is one of the most important tools to achieve lean production system. The main idea of this system is to provide methods and to use creative and innovative solutions for continuous improvement. Due to the importance of this issue and its effect on reducing waste during the production process, this study presents a method to identify and to weight factors in the establishment of a single minute exchange of dies in 14 plastic injection factories. In this study, fourteen factories in injection industry were chosen and the factors influencing the implementation of single minute exchange of dies were identified. Following data collection, decision matrix was formed and the weight of each factor was determined by using Shannon Entropy. Then, in order to determine the readiness of factories, VIKOR method was used to rank companies. The results indicate priorities of the following factors in establishing SMED that include: Senior management support, technical capabilities, technical knowledge of staff and consultants, knowledge of mold design, manufacturing infrastructure, team work, combination of the project team work, benchmarking, training, clear understanding of project objectives, rewards and motivation, proper management expectation, project management, teamwork and organizational culture. Practical implications: Due to the factors, Top manager can make the best decision for implementing of SMED technique. This study develops factors influencing on SMED implementation based on Shannon and VIKOR methods for ranking parameters and plants.

  20. The Factors Influencing the Development of Radio Frequency Identification Technology in E-Supply Chain Management (Case study: Iran Khodro Industrial Group (IKCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sanayei

    2011-07-01

    The application of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID for the purpose of tracking each single part in the automotive supply chain management has become very crucial in recent years. In this study, the factors influencing the development of RFID in Iran Khodro Industrial Group as well as their weight and ranking are evaluated. It is notewothy that the Lin framework factors have been used as the basis of this research. The Fuzzy Delphi, Delphi, and Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP methods were applied for the research three stages. In the first stage, three of the Lin framework factors were rejected and replaced with seven more new factors. In the second stage, after three times performance of Delphi method, the dimension of each of the new seven factors was recognized, and finally in the third stage, the weight and ranking of factors and dimensions which influence the RFID development in supply chain management in our case study, Iran Khodro Company, was calculated. The results of the research have shown that the International Standard and Specification dimension has the highest weight among other influential dimensions. Also, the dimensions of Security, Cost, Infrastructure, Technology, and other factors have respectively the next highest weight after the International Standard and Specification dimension

  1. Industrial diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    An overview of the industrial diamond industry is provided. More than 90 percent of the industrial diamond consumed in the U.S. and the rest of the world is manufactured diamond. Ireland, Japan, Russia, and the U.S. produce 75 percent of the global industrial diamond output. In 2000, the U.S. was the largest market for industrial diamond. Industrial diamond applications, prices for industrial diamonds, imports and exports of industrial diamonds, the National Defense Stockpile of industrial diamonds, and the outlook for the industrial diamond market are discussed.

  2. Dispersion of iron oxide particles in industrial waters. The influence of polymer structure, ionic charge, and molecular weight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amjad, Z. [Goodrich (B.F.) Co., Brecksville, OH (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This paper deals with studies on the influence of polymeric and non-polymeric materials on the dispersion of iron oxide particles in aqueous system. The aim of the work was to evaluate the performance of a variety of additives as iron oxide dispersants. The polymers investigated include homopolymers of acrylamide, vinylpyrrolidone, actylic acid, maleic acid, 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid, and acrylic acid based copolymers containing a variety of functional groups. It has been found that the addition of low levels of copolymers to the iron oxide suspension has a marked effect in dispersing iron oxide particles. The dispersancy data of several polymers indicate that the performance of the polymer depends upon the functional group, molecular weight, composition, and the ionic charge of the polymer. The results on non-polymeric materials such as polyphosphates, phosphonates, and surfactants show that these additives, compared to copolymers are ineffective as iron oxide dispersants. (orig.) [Deutsch] In dieser Arbeit wird der Einfluss von polymeren und nichtpolymeren Stoffen auf die Dispergierung von Eisenoxidpartikeln in waessrigen Systemen untersucht. Ziel dieser Arbeit war es, die Wirkung verschiedener Additive als Eisenoxiddispergatoren zu bewerten. Die untersuchten Polymere waren homopolymeres Acrylamid, Vinylpyrrolidon, Acrylsaeure, Maleinsaeure, 2-Acrylamido-2-Methylpropansulfonsaeure und Copolymere auf Acrylsaeurebasis mit verschiedenen fuktionellen Gruppen. Die Zugabe von geringen Mengen Copolymeren zur Eisenoxidsuspension hat einen deutlichen Einfluss auf die Dispergierung dieser Partikel. Die Daten zum Dispergierverhalten einiger Polymere zeigen, dass die Wirkung eines Polymers von der fuktionellen Gruppe, dem Molgewicht, der Zusammensetzung und der Ionenladung des Polymers abhaengt. Ergebnisse, die mit nichtpolymeren Substanzen wie Polyphosphaten, Phosphonaten und Tensiden erhalten wurden, zeigen, dass sich diese Additive nicht so gut als

  3. Assessment of marine and urban-industrial environments influence on built heritage sandstone using X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and complementary techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillas, Héctor; García-Galan, Javier; Maguregui, Maite; Marcaida, Iker; García-Florentino, Cristina; Carrero, Jose Antonio; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2016-09-01

    The sandstone used in the construction of the tower of La Galea Fortress (Getxo, north of Spain) shows a very bad conservation state and a high percentage of sandstone has been lost. The fortress is located just on a cliff and close to the sea, and it experiments the direct influence of marine aerosol and also the impact of acid gases (SOx and NOx) coming from the surrounding industry and maritime traffic. This environment seems to be very harmful for the preservation of the sandstone used in it, promoting different pathologies (disintegration, alveolization, cracking or erosion blistering, salts crystallization on the pores, efflorescences etc.). In this work, a multianalytical methodology based on a preliminary in-situ screening of the affected sandstone using a handheld energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (HH-ED-XRF) and a subsequent characterization of extracted sample in the laboratory using elemental (μ-ED-XRF, Scanning Electron Microscope coupled to an X-Max Energy-Dispersive (SEM-EDS) and Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)) and molecular techniques (micro-Raman spectroscopy (μ-RS) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD)) was applied in order to characterize the original composition of this kind of stone and related deterioration products. With the whole methodology, it was possible to assess that the sandstone contain a notable percentage of calcite. The sulfation and nitration of this carbonate detected in the stone led to the dissolution process of the sandstone, promoting the observed material loss. Additionally, the presence of salts related with the influence of marine aerosol confirms that this kind of environment have influence on the conservation state of the sandstone building.

  4. Digitization in Maritime Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Constantiou, Ioanna; Shollo, Arisa; Kreiner, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    Digitization in the maritime industry is expected to transform businesses. The recently introduced mobile technologies in inter-organizational processes is an example of digitization in an industry which moves very slowly towards digital transformation. We focus on the influence of mobile...

  5. Buckley Sgraffito: a study of a 17th century pottery industry in North Wales, its production techniques and design influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Longworth

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The area around Buckley in north Wales has been associated with the production of pottery since the 13th or 14th centuries. Nineteen different pottery sites have been identified, producing a wide range of ceramic wares in the six-hundred year period up to the mid-20th century. In the 17th and 18th centuries, many of the wares produced were of high quality, on a par with Staffordshire wares of the same date. In the early 17th century, the technique of sgraffito decoration spread to north Devon and Somerset from mainland Europe. Buckley is the only known site to produce early sgraffito wares in northern Britain. This article aims to establish the date of the production and range of early sgraffito wares at Buckley and to examine the derivation of the designs and illustrations on the vessels. An illustrated catalogue has been produced and a comparative study made of sgraffito wares elsewhere to place Buckley into a national and international context. The results show that early sgraffito production at Brookhill pottery, Buckley, was between 1640-1720. Of the excavated pieces, 62% were made between 1640-1680, and the number of sherds by vessel number is also greater within that date range. All the vessels are dishes. The form and designs on the remainder of the sherds, dated up to 1720, are no different from those dated to 1640-1680, which suggests a continuous period of production. The most common themes on the pots – tulips, leaves, mottoes, animals and birds – relate very closely to the designs featured on other objects made in the same period such as textiles, wallpaper, furniture and manuscripts. Some of the designs were available in pattern books for particular groups of objects, for example needlework and pastry decoration. There is an interesting sub-group of pieces with animal and bird motifs and mottoes on the rims. It is possible that the influence for these came from a resurgence of interest in the medieval bestiary texts and

  6. "Working the system"--British American tobacco's influence on the European union treaty and its implications for policy: an analysis of internal tobacco industry documents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E Smith

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Impact assessment (IA of all major European Union (EU policies is now mandatory. The form of IA used has been criticised for favouring corporate interests by overemphasising economic impacts and failing to adequately assess health impacts. Our study sought to assess how, why, and in what ways corporations, and particularly the tobacco industry, influenced the EU's approach to IA. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In order to identify whether industry played a role in promoting this system of IA within the EU, we analysed internal documents from British American Tobacco (BAT that were disclosed following a series of litigation cases in the United States. We combined this analysis with one of related literature and interviews with key informants. Our analysis demonstrates that from 1995 onwards BAT actively worked with other corporate actors to successfully promote a business-oriented form of IA that favoured large corporations. It appears that BAT favoured this form of IA because it could advance the company's European interests by establishing ground rules for policymaking that would: (i provide an economic framework for evaluating all policy decisions, implicitly prioritising costs to businesses; (ii secure early corporate involvement in policy discussions; (iii bestow the corporate sector with a long-term advantage over other actors by increasing policymakers' dependence on information they supplied; and (iv provide businesses with a persuasive means of challenging potential and existing legislation. The data reveal that an ensuing lobbying campaign, largely driven by BAT, helped secure binding changes to the EU Treaty via the Treaty of Amsterdam that required EU policymakers to minimise legislative burdens on businesses. Efforts subsequently focused on ensuring that these Treaty changes were translated into the application of a business orientated form of IA (cost-benefit analysis [CBA] within EU policymaking procedures. Both the tobacco and

  7. Study on Influencing Factors of Carbon Emissions in Chinese Old Industrial Bases%我国老工业基地碳排放影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙建; 王胜; 代春艳; 毛明明

    2015-01-01

    By using the data of 37 industrial industries of China’ s 48 old industrial bases during 2006⁃2012, the carbon emission amount and its changing trend are calculated, the influencing factors of the carbon emission are analyzed from such two levels as regions and industries by using LMDI method, and the research finds that coal is the main energy consumption in old industrial bases, that the mainly driving factor affecting the carbon emission is industrial scale and energy structure from the perspective of regional level, that the important restriction factor affecting the carbon emission is industrial structure and industrial energy intensity, and that industrial scale has driving effect on the carbon emission of 37 industries while energy intensity has driving effect on the carbon emission of 7 industries and while energy structure has driving effect on the carbon emission of 28 industries. China should moderately control industrial industry scale, optimize industrial structure and energy consumption structure and accelerate technical progress.%采用我国48个老工业基地37个工业行业2006—2012年的数据,核算其碳排放量及变化趋势,并运用LMDI方法从区域和行业两个层面分析碳排放的影响因素,研究发现:老工业基地能源消费还是以煤炭消费为主;从地区层面看,行业规模和能源结构是影响碳排放的主要拉动因素,行业结构和行业能源强度是影响碳排放的重要制约因素;从行业层面看,行业规模对37个行业的碳排放均表现出拉动作用,能源强度对7个行业的碳排放起到拉动作用,能源结构对28个行业的碳排放量具有拉动作用。应适度控制工业行业规模,优化行业结构及能源消费结构,加快技术进步。

  8. Assessment of the Influence of Just in Time (JIT delivery of Materials in Managing Cost Levels in the Pharmaceutical Industry in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony Muse Ouma

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article assesses the influence of Just in time (JIT delivery of materials in managing cost levels in the pharmaceutical industry in Kenya. Non - probability sampling technique under the category of purposive sampling was used. The population of interest was composed of twenty three pharmaceutical manufacturing firms located in Nairobi, registered in the Kenya Fact book 16th Edition, 2001 & The Kenya Telephone Directory 2004 and nine pharmaceutical companies , 23 employees in manufacturing, finance, procurement, warehousing were selected out of the target population of 28. The research instrument was a questionnaire. Analysis of the data was done using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics .The study affirmed by 63.2% that JIT production strategy and 62.4% respondents affirmed that JIT vendor strategy had a statistically significant association with the cost level management hence the relationship between the variables was not due to chance. The study recommends that pharmaceutical companies in Kenya should fully adopt lean manufacturing in order to manage its cost levels hence give the firm a competitive advantage.

  9. The influence of industrial-scale canning on cadmium and lead levels in sardines and anchovies from commercial fishing centres of the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galitsopoulou, Augoustina; Georgantelis, Dimitrios; Kontominas, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The current study encompassed a survey on the levels of toxic trace elements in two highly consumed fish species in commercial fishing centres of western, central and eastern Mediterranean Sea. A Zeeman GTA-AAS graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry system was used throughout the study. Toxicological evaluation of the samples revealed a low Cd content in the raw samples, ranging between 0.003 and 0.027 mg kg⁻¹. Pb presented significantly higher values, from 0.037 to 0.297 mg kg⁻¹, occasionally reaching the limit of 0.3 mg kg⁻¹. Heavy metal levels were particularly higher in bones, thus raising queries about the safe consumption of fish intended to be eaten as a whole, a very common practice for small fish and canned products. The influence of industrial-scale canning showed that canning enhanced heavy metal levels by 35%-80%. The effect of canning depended on metal type and reduction of moisture loss after the steam-roasting step of the canning procedure.

  10. Global Commodity Chains and the Spatial-Temporal Dimensions of Labor Control: Lessons from Colombia’s Coffee and Banana Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Hough

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author seeks to explain the trajectories of local labor regime dynamics in Colombia’s coffee and banana industries from the post war developmental decades until the present. In order to explain these dynamics, the author first develops a neo-Gramscian ideal-typical schema to highlight the full range of labor regime dynamics emergent in Colombia, including “hegemonic,” “despotic,” and “crisis” regimes. The author then develops a theory of local labor regime types that draws from Giovanni Arrighi’s work on commodity chains. Finally, using comparative and world-historical methods, the author finds that the shifting trajectories of labor regimes in Colombia are affected by the nodal location of these regimes within their respective commodity chains.

  11. Assortative mating by occupational status during early industrialization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijdeman, R.L.; Maas, I.

    2010-01-01

    According to the logic of industrialism thesis during industrialization, the influence of, achieved characteristics on mate selection increased, while the influence of ascribed, characteristics decreased. Other processes that accompanied industrialization, such as, the development of mass communicat

  12. Assortative mating by occupational status during early industrialization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijdeman, R.L.; Maas, I.

    2010-01-01

    According to the logic of industrialism thesis during industrialization, the influence of, achieved characteristics on mate selection increased, while the influence of ascribed, characteristics decreased. Other processes that accompanied industrialization, such as, the development of mass

  13. Industry Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article illustrates projected employment change by industry and industry sector over 2010-20 decade. Workers are grouped into an industry according to the type of good produced or service provided by the establishment for which they work. Industry employment projections are shown in terms of numeric change (growth or decline in the total…

  14. Empirical Analysis on Agglomeration Level and Influencing Factors of Cultural Industry in Jiangsu Province%江苏省文化产业集聚水平及影响因素实证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖燕

    2015-01-01

    文化产业作为21世纪的朝阳产业,在大多数发达国家已经得到快速的发展。文化产业具有强关联性的特征,产业的集聚发展能够在最大限度上实现资源的充分利用。江苏省地处我国东部沿海,为发展文化产业集聚提供了丰富的历史、地理、人文方面的资源优势。文章介绍了文化产业集聚的概念,实证分析了江苏省文化产业集聚的发展水平,并从六个方面探究江苏省文化产业集聚的影响因素,进而提出江苏省发展文化产业集聚的对策建议。%As a sunrise industry in the 21st century, the cultural industry has gained rapid development in most developed countries. The cultural industry has the characteristic of strong relevancy with other indus-tries, so the agglomeration development of industry will maximize the efficiency of utilization of the re-source. Jiangsu province is located in Chinese eastern coast, it has provided rich history, geography and humanistic resources advantage for the development of cultural industry. The paper simply intro-duces the concept of cultural industry agglomeration, then analyses the developmental level of cultural industry agglomeration of Jiangsu province, therewith from six aspects explores the influencing factors of cultural industry agglomeration, finally the paper puts forward some suggestions.

  15. Industrial Chain: Industrial Vertical Definition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YifeiDu; GuojunJiang; ShimingLi

    2004-01-01

    Like value chain and supply chain, “industrial chain” becomes the focus of attention. The implication of “industrial chain” has gained a large range of extension. It not only expresses the industrial “chain” structure and relationship of “back and forward”in order or “up and down” in direction, but also it represents a cluster of large scale of firms in an area or colony. It is a network, or a community. Consequently, we conclude that “industrial chain” is a synthesis of industrial chain, industrial cluster, or industrial network.In this article, firstly we will distinguish industry chain from industry. An industry is the collection of firms that have the same attribute, so an industry can be defined by firm collection of certain attribute. We indicate that industrial chain is a kind of vertical and orderly industrial link. It is defined according to a series of specific product or service created. Secondly we analyze the vertical orderly defiinition process from the aspects of social division of labor and requirement division, self-organization system, and value analysis.Non-symmetry and depending on system or community of large scale of industrial units lead to entire industry to “orderly” structure. On the other hand, the draught of diversity and complexity of requirement simultaneously lead to entire industry to be more “orderly”. Along with processes of self-organization, industrial will appi'oach the state of more orderly and steady, and constantly make industrial chain upgrade. Each firm or unit, who will gain the value, has to establish channels of value, which we called “industrial value chain”. Lastly,we discuss the consequence of vertical and orderly definition, which is exhibited by a certain relationship body. The typical forms of industrial chain include industrial cluster, strategy alliance and vertical integration etc.

  16. The Influence of Industrial Structure Evolution on Atmospheric Environment -Based on the Panel Data of Industries in Chongqing%重庆市产业结构演变对大气环境的影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅强; 陈雪娇

    2011-01-01

    产业结构转型在促进经济增长的同时,也对大气环境产生了影响.本文根据结构效应、规模效应及技术效应建立模型,利用重庆市1999-2008年22个工业行业的相关面板数据进行了实证分析.结果表明,工业结构效应对于工业二氧化硫、工业烟尘、工业粉尘所起到的影响有限,大气污染物排放量的降低主要归功于政府环境政策强度,技术进步所带来的大气环境的改善逐渐显现.重庆市应重点加强非金属矿物制品业、化学原料及化学制品制造业、黑色金属冶炼及压延加工业与电力、燃气及水的生产和供应业等高污染排放行业的治理及技术创新.%While industrial structure transformation promotes economic growth, it might also have a negative impact on the atmospheric environment. This paper uses the panel data of 22 industries from 1999 to 2008 in Chongqing. This paper does an empirical analysis through establishing a model based on structural effect, scale effect and technical effect. The conclusion shows that the impact of industrial structure effect on industrial sulfur dioxide, industrial smoke and industrial dust is limited and environment-protection policies of the government and technological progress play a major role in reduction of atmospheric pollutants emission. The paper proposes that Chongqing should focus on management and technological innovation of high pollution industries such as the non-metallic mineral products industry, chemical materials and chemical products manufacturing industry, ferrous metal smelting and rolling processing industry and in production and supply of electricity, gas and water.

  17. Factors Influencing the Optimization of Regional Equipment Manufacturing Industrial Structure%区域装备制造业产业结构优化影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王威

    2014-01-01

    装备制造业是一个国家或地区工业化水平与经济科技总体实力的标志,其产业结构的优劣决定了一个国家或地区经济发展质量和水平。对区域装备制造业产业结构优化进行理论分析显示,影响产业结构的主要因素是供给结构和需求结构。供给结构下资源禀赋、技术进步有助于实现产业结构的优化;需求结构下消费需求的变化以及投资需求的比例对装备制造业产业结构优化有一定的影响。在经济全球化背景下,外商带来的先进技术,进出口贸易的兴起加速产业结构的优化。政府经济政策和市场也是影响因素。因而要充分利用有利因素促进产业结构的优化。%Equipment manufacturing industry is a sign of industrialization level and comprehensive strength of the economy and technolo-gy in a nation or a region, the development standard of which is determined by the industrial structure of the industry. Theoretical analysis of the optimization of industrial structure of regional equipment manufacturing industry has shown that factors influencing the structure are supply and demand structures. In a supply structure, resource endowment and technology progress are conducive to industrial structure optimization. In a demand structure, change of consumption need and the ratio of investment need exert influence to the structure opti-mization to some extent. In the context of globalization, the industrial structure upgrade is accelerated by overseas advanced technology and the boom of import and export trade. Apart from the above factors, governmental policy and market are also influencing factors. All the fa-vorable factors should be used in facilitating industrial structure optimization.

  18. Influence of tobacco industry advertisements and promotions on tobacco use in India: findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, D N; Palipudi, K M; Oswal, K; Gupta, P C; Andes, L J; Asma, S

    2014-12-01

    The developing world, including countries like India, has become a major target for the tobacco industry to market its products. This study examines the influence of the marketing (advertising and promotion) of tobacco products on the use of tobacco by adults (ages 15 and over) in India. Data from Global Adult Tobacco Survey 2009-2010 was analyzed using methods for complex (clustered) sample designs. Multivariate logistic regression was employed to predict the use of different tobacco products by level of exposure to tobacco marketing using adults who have never used tobacco as the reference category. Odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for education, gender, age, state of residence, wealth index, and place of residence (urban/rural). Adults in India were almost twice as likely to be current smokers (versus never users) when they were exposed to a moderate level of bidi or cigarette marketing. For bidis, among adults with high exposure, the OR for current use was 4.57 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.6, 13.0). Adults were more likely to be current users of smokeless tobacco (SLT) with even a low level of exposure to SLT marketing (OR = 1.24 [95% CI: 1.1, 1.4]). For SLT, the ORs showed an increasing trend (P for trend marketing (minimum, OR = 1.25 [1.1-1.4]; moderate, OR = 1.38 [1.1-1.8]; and high, OR = 2.73 [1.8-4.2]), with the trend highly significant (P marketing of tobacco products, which may take the form of advertising at the point of sale, sales or a discounted price, free coupons, free samples, surrogate advertisements, or any of several other modalities, increased prevalence of tobacco use among adults. An increasing level of exposure to direct and indirect advertisement and promotion is associated with an increased likelihood of tobacco use.

  19. Influence of feeding Mediterranean food industry by-products and forages to Awassi sheep on physicochemical properties of milk, yoghurt and cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbeddou, Souheila; Rischkowsky, Barbara; Hilali, Muhi El-Dine; Hess, Hans Dieter; Kreuzer, Michael

    2011-11-01

    Feeding agro-industrial by-products and unconventional forages, rich in potentially anti-nutritional factors, may influence the quality of the raw milk and the dairy products prepared therefrom. The aim of the present study was to determine side-effects on physicochemical properties of milk, yoghurt and cheese of feeding diets where one third were feeds either rich in lipids (tomato pomace and olive cake) or phenols (olive leaves and lentil straw) or electrolytes (Atriplex leaves). The diets, including a control diet, were designed to be isoenergetic and isonitrogenous. They were fed in amounts of 25 kg dry matter/day per head during 50 days to 6×10 multiparous fat-tailed Awassi ewes. Milk samples were analysed for various physicochemical traits and fatty acid composition on days 0, 24, 36 and 48. Three times, milk pooled by group was processed to yoghurt and non-aged farmer-type cheese, which were analysed for their gross and fatty acid composition and texture, and were subjected to sensory evaluation. Feeding olive cake and tomato pomace reduced milk casein, but increased proportions of monounsaturated fatty acids. There were some variations in minerals among test diets but, contrary to expectations, Atriplex did not increase milk sodium. The nutritional composition of yoghurt and cheese was not varied much by the test feeds, except for some changes in fatty acid profile similar to the milk. Yoghurt firmness declined with all test diets, but texture score tended to be lower only for olive cake and leaf diets relative to control. Cheese firmness was increased by feeding the Atriplex leaf and olive cake diets which was also reflected in the texture scores. No off-flavours were reported. Possible reasons for effects on the dairy products are discussed. In conclusion, the feeds investigated had certain effects on the physicochemical properties of dairy products, but these were neither very systematic nor large thus not prohibiting their use in Mediterranean sheep

  20. Pharmacist-industry relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Keene; O'Connor, Bonnie; Fugh-Berman, Adriane

    2017-01-18

    The purpose of this study was to document, in their own words, beliefs and attitudes that American pharmacists have towards the pharmaceutical industry and pharmacists' interactions with industry. An ethnographic-style qualitative study was conducted utilizing open-ended interviews with four hospital pharmacists, two independent pharmacists, two retail pharmacists and one administrative pharmacist in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area to elicit descriptions of and attitudes towards pharmacists' relationships with industry. Analysis of the qualitative material followed established ethnographic conventions of narrative thematic analysis. All pharmacists reported interactions with pharmaceutical company representatives. Most had received free resources or services from industry, including educational courses. Respondents uniformly believed that industry promotional efforts are primarily directed towards physicians. Although respondents felt strongly that drug prices were excessive and that 'me-too' drugs were of limited use, they generally had a neutral-to-positive view of industry-funded adherence/compliance programmes, coupons, vouchers, and copay payment programmes. Interviewees viewed direct-to-consumer advertising negatively, but had a generally positive view of industry-funded drug information. Pharmacists may represent a hitherto under-identified cohort of health professionals who are targeted for industry influence; expanding roles for pharmacists may make them even more attractive targets for future industry attention. Pharmacy schools should ensure that students learn to rely on unbiased information sources and should teach students about conflicts of interest and the risks of interacting with industry. Further research should be conducted on the extent to which pharmacists' attitudes towards their duties and towards drug assessment and recommendation are influenced by the pharmaceutical industry. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  1. Estimation of Influencing Factors and Policy Advice to Guangdong High - tech Industry Development%广东省高新技术产业发展的影响因素测度及政策建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾铁城

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the development status of high - lech industry in Guangdong, and makes use of single - e-quation econometric model to analyze the quantitative influence of high - tech industry development which is imposed by capital, manpower and technology. At last, this paper gives policy advice to promote the development of high - tech industry in Cuangdong.%在分析广东省高新技术产业发展现状的基础上,利用单方程计量经济模型,就资金、人才和技术这三要素对广东高新技术产业发展的影响进行定量分析,并提出促进广东省高新技术产业发展的对策建议.

  2. Industrial Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer

    2015-01-01

    Industrial engineering is a discipline that is concerned with increasing the effectiveness of (primarily) manufacturing and (occasionally).......Industrial engineering is a discipline that is concerned with increasing the effectiveness of (primarily) manufacturing and (occasionally)....

  3. Industrial applications of nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, W J; Stoessel, P R; Wohlleben, W; Hafner, A

    2015-08-21

    Research efforts in the past two decades have resulted in thousands of potential application areas for nanoparticles - which materials have become industrially relevant? Where are sustainable applications of nanoparticles replacing traditional processing and materials? This tutorial review starts with a brief analysis on what makes nanoparticles attractive to chemical product design. The article highlights established industrial applications of nanoparticles and then moves to rapidly emerging applications in the chemical industry and discusses future research directions. Contributions from large companies, academia and high-tech start-ups are used to elucidate where academic nanoparticle research has revolutionized industry practice. A nanomaterial-focused analysis discusses new trends, such as particles with an identity, and the influence of modern instrument advances in the development of novel industrial products.

  4. Sugar industry influence on the scientific agenda of the National Institute of Dental Research's 1971 National Caries Program: a historical analysis of internal documents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristin E Kearns

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1966, the National Institute of Dental Research (NIDR began planning a targeted research program to identify interventions for widespread application to eradicate dental caries (tooth decay within a decade. In 1971, the NIDR launched the National Caries Program (NCP. The objective of this paper is to explore the sugar industry's interaction with the NIDR to alter the research priorities of the NIDR NCP.We used internal cane and beet sugar industry documents from 1959 to 1971 to analyze industry actions related to setting research priorities for the NCP. The sugar industry could not deny the role of sucrose in dental caries given the scientific evidence. They therefore adopted a strategy to deflect attention to public health interventions that would reduce the harms of sugar consumption rather than restricting intake. Industry tactics included the following: funding research in collaboration with allied food industries on enzymes to break up dental plaque and a vaccine against tooth decay with questionable potential for widespread application, cultivation of relationships with the NIDR leadership, consulting of members on an NIDR expert panel, and submission of a report to the NIDR that became the foundation of the first request for proposals issued for the NCP. Seventy-eight percent of the sugar industry submission was incorporated into the NIDR's call for research applications. Research that could have been harmful to sugar industry interests was omitted from priorities identified at the launch of the NCP. Limitations are that this analysis relies on one source of sugar industry documents and that we could not interview key actors.The NCP was a missed opportunity to develop a scientific understanding of how to restrict sugar consumption to prevent tooth decay. A key factor was the alignment of research agendas between the NIDR and the sugar industry. This historical example illustrates how industry protects itself from potentially damaging

  5. Sugar Industry Influence on the Scientific Agenda of the National Institute of Dental Research’s 1971 National Caries Program: A Historical Analysis of Internal Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Cristin E.; Glantz, Stanton A.; Schmidt, Laura A.

    2015-01-01

    Background In 1966, the National Institute of Dental Research (NIDR) began planning a targeted research program to identify interventions for widespread application to eradicate dental caries (tooth decay) within a decade. In 1971, the NIDR launched the National Caries Program (NCP). The objective of this paper is to explore the sugar industry’s interaction with the NIDR to alter the research priorities of the NIDR NCP. Methods and Findings We used internal cane and beet sugar industry documents from 1959 to 1971 to analyze industry actions related to setting research priorities for the NCP. The sugar industry could not deny the role of sucrose in dental caries given the scientific evidence. They therefore adopted a strategy to deflect attention to public health interventions that would reduce the harms of sugar consumption rather than restricting intake. Industry tactics included the following: funding research in collaboration with allied food industries on enzymes to break up dental plaque and a vaccine against tooth decay with questionable potential for widespread application, cultivation of relationships with the NIDR leadership, consulting of members on an NIDR expert panel, and submission of a report to the NIDR that became the foundation of the first request for proposals issued for the NCP. Seventy-eight percent of the sugar industry submission was incorporated into the NIDR’s call for research applications. Research that could have been harmful to sugar industry interests was omitted from priorities identified at the launch of the NCP. Limitations are that this analysis relies on one source of sugar industry documents and that we could not interview key actors. Conclusions The NCP was a missed opportunity to develop a scientific understanding of how to restrict sugar consumption to prevent tooth decay. A key factor was the alignment of research agendas between the NIDR and the sugar industry. This historical example illustrates how industry protects

  6. Use of public pension scheme and industrial statistics data for supplement of company records in Denmark and influence on cohort mortality pattern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, E; Juel, K

    1987-01-01

    statistics questionnaires are of equal value in Denmark. The authors report on a cohort study from a chemical plant, where cohort members were identified from company records, which were checked against ATP and industrial statistics data. The mortality analysis shows employees known only from the ATP data......Completeness of company records is a crucial point in interpretation of follow-up studies of industrial cohorts. The Employers Quarterly Reports on Earnings (EQRE) are valuable for control of company records in the United States. The public Supplementary Pension Scheme (ATP) and the industrial...

  7. 基于鱼骨图和AHP的产业集群知识创新能力影响因素研究%Research on Influence Factor of Industrial Clusters Knowledge Innovation Ability Based on Fishbone Diagram and AHP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谈甄; 储节旺; 李丽娟

    2012-01-01

    This paper brings forward the approach of combining quantitative with qualitative to make analysis the industrial clusters knowledge innovation ability influence factors. Firstly, we use the approach of fishbone diagram tO tease out industrial clusters knowledge innovation ability influence factors, then importing them into the model of AHP. Through subjective evaluation and experts evaluation we constructed the determine matrix, Calculated relative to the target of various factors of the importance of weight. Finally, by sequencing to identify the key influencing factors, and to improve the knowledge innovation capability of industrial clusters offer some constructive advice.%采用定量和定性相结合的方法分析产业集群知识创新能力的影响因素,首先用鱼骨图法梳理出产业集群知识创新能力影响因素,然后导入AHP模型中,通过主观评价、专家评判和综合分析构造判断矩阵,计算各个影响因素相对于目标问题的重要性权重,最后通过排序找出关键影响因素,并为提高产业集群知识创新能力提供一些建设性意见。

  8. Influence of tobacco industry advertisements and promotions on tobacco use in India: Findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey 2009-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D N Sinha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The developing world, including countries like India, has become a major target for the tobacco industry to market its products. This study examines the influence of the marketing (advertising and promotion of tobacco products on the use of tobacco by adults (ages 15 and over in India. Method: Data from Global Adult Tobacco Survey 2009-2010 was analyzed using methods for complex (clustered sample designs. Multivariate logistic regression was employed to predict the use of different tobacco products by level of exposure to tobacco marketing using adults who have never used tobacco as the reference category. Odds ratios (ORs were adjusted for education, gender, age, state of residence, wealth index, and place of residence (urban/rural. Results: Adults in India were almost twice as likely to be current smokers (versus never users when they were exposed to a moderate level of bidi or cigarette marketing. For bidis, among adults with high exposure, the OR for current use was 4.57 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.6, 13.0. Adults were more likely to be current users of smokeless tobacco (SLT with even a low level of exposure to SLT marketing (OR = 1.24 [95% CI: 1.1, 1.4]. For SLT, the ORs showed an increasing trend (P for trend < 0.001 with greater level of exposure (moderate, OR = 1.55 [95% CI: 1.1, 2.2]; high, OR = 2.05 [95% CI: 0.8, 5.1]. The risk of any current tobacco use rose with increasing level of exposure to any marketing (minimum, OR = 1.25 [1.1-1.4]; moderate, OR = 1.38 [1.1-1.8]; and high, OR = 2.73 [1.8-4.2], with the trend highly significant (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Exposure to the marketing of tobacco products, which may take the form of advertising at the point of sale, sales or a discounted price, free coupons, free samples, surrogate advertisements, or any of several other modalities, increased prevalence of tobacco use among adults. An increasing level of exposure to direct and indirect advertisement and promotion is

  9. Industrial Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Industrial waste is waste from industrial production and manufacturing. Industry covers many industrial sectors and within each sector large variations are found in terms of which raw materials are used, which production technology is used and which products are produced. Available data on unit...... generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing industrial waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. In addition part...... of the industrial waste may in periods, depending on market opportunities and prices, be traded as secondary rawmaterials. Production-specificwaste from primary production, for example steel slag, is not included in the current presentation. In some countries industries must be approved or licensed and as part...

  10. Industrial Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    of the system industry has to inform at the planning stage and afterwards in yearly reports on their waste arising and how the waste is managed. If available such information is very helpful in obtaining information about that specific industry. However, in many countries there is very little information......Industrial waste is waste from industrial production and manufacturing. Industry covers many industrial sectors and within each sector large variations are found in terms of which raw materials are used, which production technology is used and which products are produced. Available data on unit...... generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing industrial waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. In addition part...

  11. 新能源产业金融支持影响因素实证研究%An Empirical Study of the Influencing Factors on the Financial Support of New Energy Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹肖妮; 王国红; 冯晓慧

    2015-01-01

    随着国际能源危机的加重,新能源发展受到了广泛关注,发展新能源产业需要大量的资金投入和良好的金融支持体系。本文从金融信贷、资本市场和风险投资等方面分析了中国新能源产业金融支持的现状,利用2000~2013年的时间序列数据,通过计量模型对影响新能源产业金融支持的金融规模、金融结构和金融效率3个主要因素进行了实证分析。实证结果显示中国的金融规模、金融结构和金融效率均与新能源产业发展存在正相关关系,其中金融规模和金融效率是新能源产业发展的Granger原因;金融规模对新能源产业发展具有较显著的影响,而金融结构对新能源产业发展的促进作用不明显。%〔Abstract〕 With the deterioration of the international energy crisis , the development of new energy has received widespread atten-tion . The development of new energy industry needs a lot of capital and good financial support system . In this thesis , we analyze the pre-sent situation of the financial support of new energy industry in China from the aspects of financial credit , capital market and risk invest-ment . Based on the time series data of 2000 to 2013 , an empirical study is conducted on the financial scale , financial structure and finan-cial efficiency , three factors that have an influence on the financial support of new energy industry . The results indicate that the three fac-tors are positively related with the development of new energy industry . The financial scale and financial efficiency are the Granger reason for the development of new energy industry . Compared with the financial scale , which has a significant influence on the development of new energy industry , the influence of the financial structure on new energy industry is not significant .

  12. Evaluation of oil and grease removal by adsorptive polymeric resins in semi-industrial scale: influence of temperature; Avaliacao da remocao de oleos e graxas por resinas polimericas adsorventes em escala semi-industrial: influencia da temperatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luis F.S. de; Silva, Carla M.F. da; Queiros, Yure G.C.; Lucas, Elizabete F. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Macromoleculas, Laboratorio de Macromoleculas e Coloides na Industria de Petroleo, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: elucas@ima.ufrj.br

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of polymeric resins packed in a fixed bed eluted in semi-industrial scale for oil and greases removal disposed in synthetic oily water in different temperature conditions. For this work, columns packed with vinyl and acryl polymer-base were tested and their efficiency of oil removal was evaluated by fluorimetry technique in two different temperatures: 25 and 60 deg C, in a flow rate condition of 200 mL/min. The experimental results were very good: the removal efficiencies were above 98% in both cases. At 60 deg C, the system keep the efficiency for a longer time: no significant loss in the efficiency was observed after eluting 1,000 times of the column bed volume at 25 deg C and 2,000, at 60 deg C. This result characterizes a great potential of application in the industry. (author)

  13. FDI溢出效应对我国工业碳排放强度的影响%Empirical Analysis on the Spillover Effects of FDI Influence on Industrial Carbon Emission Intensity of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕克新; 杨朝均

    2012-01-01

    对于处在经济成长期的我国来讲,降低工业碳排放强度是实现碳减排目标的有效途径,而FDI的溢出效应是促进我国工业碳排放强度降低的重要手段之一。本文采用我国23个工业行业2003~2009年的面板数据,实证分析了FDI溢出效应对我国工业碳排放强度的影响。结果表明,FDI的水平溢出效应、前向关联溢出效应和后向关联溢出效应均对我国工业碳排放强度的降低产生了积极影响。其中,前向关联溢出效应的影响相对较为明显。此外,资本投入、劳动力投入和研发投入显著地降低了我国工业的碳排放强度。%As the main motivating force of the current economic growth in China, the industries play an important role in the rapid development of China' s economy. However, the denotative development mode of those industries mainly pursues scale, resulted in rapid economy expansion with high speed of energy consumption and the increase of carbon emission. To decrease the industrial carbon emissions has been one of the primary tasks for China's industries. For China in the economy development period, the most important and effective way to lower carbon emissions is to reduce the industrial carbon emission intensity. The foreign direct investment, known as FDI, not only provides the impetus on China' s economy development, but also has powerful influence on the industrial carbon emissions as well. Therefore, panel data of twenty three industries from 2003 to 2009 were adopted to analyze the spillover effect of FDI on the industrial carbon emission intensity in China, using the methodology of Fixed-effect Model. The carbon dioxide is considered as an unexpected output for the production process, and it is a bad output. The generation of carbon dioxide accords with Douglas production functions, the econometric model for this research is constructed according to the Douglas production functions to test how elements

  14. 建筑行业人员职业倦怠影响因素的调查研究%Survey and Research on the Factors Influencing the Job Burnout of Workers for the Construction Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴穷; 潘烨妍

    2015-01-01

    本文随机选取建筑行业人员159人,使用职业倦怠量表进行问卷调查,以探讨建筑行业人员职业倦怠的特点及其影响因素。研究结果表明:(1)建筑行业人员职业倦怠水平不高,工作状态良好;(2)建筑行业人员职业倦怠性别差异显著,女性职业倦怠水平高于男性,女性职业成就感低于男性;(3)工作年限对建筑行业人员职业倦怠有显著影响,建筑行业人员工作时间越长,工作职务越低职业倦怠越明显。%We randomly selected 159 workers for the construction industry and used job burnout scale to conduct a questionnaire survey on them, in order to explore the characteristics and influ-encing factors of the job burnout of workers for the construction industry. The research result shows that: (1) the level of job burnout of workers for the construction industry is low and their working conditions are positive; (2) the gender difference is sig-nificant in the job burnout of workers for the construction indus-try, with women's job burnout higher than that of men, and wom-en's sense of job achievement lower than that of men;(3) working life significantly influences the job burnout of workers for the construction industry, and more specifically, the longer the work-ing life is and the lower the working position is, the more signifi-cant job burnout is.

  15. 基于因子分析的合肥新型城镇化对物流业的影响研究%Influence of New Type Urbanization on the Logistics Industry in Hefei Based on Factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁雯; 凌珊

    2014-01-01

    2000-2012 time series data in Hefei was analyzed in this paper,via the factor analysis,corre-lation analysis and regression analysis,some empirical analysis were made for the relationship between the added value of logistics and the new type urbanization level. It showed that there wasn′t a good coordina-tion between the new type urbanization and the logistics industry. The common factors of new type urbani-zation′s influence factors have different influence degree on logistics industry. The decision makers should consider the factors with larger influence coefficient, but the weaknesses are more important when they promote the new type urbanization and the development of logistics industry,so as to make coordinated de-velopment between the new type urbanization and the logistics industry.%通过合肥市2000-2012年的时间序列数据,利用因子分析、相关分析、回归分析等方法,对人均物流增加值和新型城镇化水平之间的关系进行实证分析。研究表明,新型城镇化和物流业之间还没有形成良好的协调作用,新型城镇化影响因素中的几个公共因子对物流业的影响程度各有不同,决策者在推动新型城镇化和促进物流业发展时既要考虑影响系数大的因素,更要找出其中的薄弱之处,从而使新型城镇化能与物流业协调发展。

  16. Differitial network investigated influences of financial crises on industries%差分网络研究金融危机对行业的冲击∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱路; 贾天明; 杨会杰

    2016-01-01

    links between the entities. Then we calculate the defferential networks, namely, the difference between the adjacency matrices corresponding to the scenarios before and in crisis durations, to measure quantitatively the structural changes of the entities network. By using this method we consider the shocks of a total of 5 financial crises occurring in the period from 1994 to 2013. A total of 30 stocks that are used to construct the Do Jones index are considered. Interestingly, the influences of the financial crises share some features, for example in the crises the entities are tightly linked into dense clusters. At the same time, the influence of each financial crisis has its own features. For instance, the global financial crisis in 2008 led to the significant changes in the raw material related industries, in which the top three entities were the Aluminum Company of America, Exxon Mobil Corporation, and Chevron Corporation. While in the European Debt crisis in August 2011, the significantly shocked entities belong to the financial and banking industries, in which the entities Citygroup Inc. , Bank of America, and JPMorgan Chase&Coare were listed as the top three. There exist various complex systems in diverse research fields. A complex system contains generally many elements that are networked by their complicated relationships. Monitoring the dynamical process of the elements and the edges produces a multivariate time series. Hence, reconstructing the network of the variables and monitoring the evolution of the network are the preliminary step to investigate the evolutionary behaviors of complex systems. Our procedure can be extended straightforwardly to the investigation of this problem.

  17. Longshoring Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    a)(1). (5) ANSI Z-89.1-1986, Personnel Protection-Protective Headwear for Industrial Workers-Requirements; IBR approved for 1917.93(b). (6) ANSI Z-41... Headwear for Industrial Workers-Requirements.” (c) Protective hats previously worn shall be cleaned and disinfected before issuance by the employer to... Headwear for Industrial Workers-Requirements; IBR approved for §1918.103(b). (6) ANSI Z-41-1991, American National Standard for Personal Protection

  18. Biotechnology Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Countries Growing GMO , 2007). Herbicide and insect resistance traits will continue to be pursued since 25% of food crops are lost each year to insect...daily lives from the clothing we wear, the fuel we use, the food we eat, and the medicines we take. From the earliest days, humans have used the...industry is very broad and includes health care, food , agriculture, industrial, and environmental industries. It is one of the fastest growing sciences

  19. 城市道路交通对汽车产业的影响%The Influence of Urban Road Traffic on Auto Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏秉瑞

    2014-01-01

    This article mainly discusses the development current situation of urban road traffic, the promotion of auto industry for the development urban road traffic and the pro-motion of urban road traffic for auto industry, and compreh-ensive analyzes and forecasts the effects of urban road traffic on the auto industry.%本文围绕我国城市道路交通发展现状、汽车产业对于城市交通道路发展的促进作用、城市交通道路对汽车产业的促进作用三大方面展开讨论,对城市道路交通对汽车产业的影响进行了全面地分析和预测。

  20. Influence of biofuels on exhaust gas and noise emissions of small industrial diesel engines; Einfluss von Biokraftstoffen auf die Abgas- und Geraeuschemission kleiner Industriedieselmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spessert, B.M. [Fachhochschule Jena (Germany). Fachgebiet Kraft- und Arbeitsmaschinen; Schleicher, A. [Fachhochschule Jena (Germany). Fachgebiet Umweltmesstechnik

    2007-03-15

    At small industrial diesel engines, as they were brought in oftentimes on building sites, in the farming and forest industry and on boats, biofuels are increasingly used. In a research project of the University of Applied Sciences Jena, Germany, thus the changes of the exhaust gas pollutant and noise emissions of these diesel engines were investigated. Test fuels were diesel fuel, and also biofuels as biodiesel (RME), rape seed oil and sun flower oil. Depending on the operating point these biofuels increased or reduced the emissions of exhaust gas and noise of the investigated engines clearly. (orig.)

  1. 水泥对工业大麻秆纤维板性能的影响%Influence of Concrete on the Properties of Industrial Hemp Stalk Based Fiberboard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖瑞; 龚迎春; 李晓平; 吴章康

    2014-01-01

    利用工业大麻秆制备纤维板,分析不同水泥添加量和工业大麻秆不同部位对其制备纤维板性能的影响。结果表明:随着水泥添加量的增加,工业大麻秆纤维板的内结合强度(IB )、静曲强度(MOR)、弹性模量(MOE )均降低,而吸水厚度膨胀率(TS )得到较大改善;大麻秆芯制备的纤维板力学性能优于大麻秆皮部。%The hemp stalk based fiberboard panels were manufacturing and the influence of different concrete additive amount and the different parts of industrial hemp stalk on the properties of industrial hemp stalk based fi-berboard panels was studied.The results showed that,as increasing of concrete additive amount,the mechanical properties including IB、MOR、MOE of industrial hemp stalk based fiberboard were decreased,while the TS of in-dustrial hemp fiberboard were greatly improved.Moreover,the properties of hemp stalk core based fiberboard pan-els were better than those of the hemp bast fiber based fiberboard panels.

  2. Industrial Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Dan

    Intended for seniors planning a career in industry as skilled laborers, this specialized course in Industrial Communications offers the student basic communications skills which he will need in his work and in his daily life. Since class activities center around short, factual oral reports, class size will be limited to 20, providing a maximum of…

  3. Industry honoured

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    CERN has organised a day to thank industry for its exceptional contributions to the LHC project. Lucio Rossi addresses CERN’s industrial partners in the Main Auditorium.The LHC inauguration provided an opportunity for CERN to thank all those who have contributed to transforming this technological dream into reality. Industry has been a major player in this adventure. Over the last decade it has lent its support to CERN’s teams and participating institutes in developing, building and assembling the machine, its experiments and the computing infrastructure. CERN involved its industrial partners in the LHC inauguration by organising a special industry prize-giving day on 20 October. Over 70 firms accepted the invitation. The firms not only made fundamental contributions to the project, but some have also supported LHC events in 2008 and the inauguration ceremony through generous donations, which have been coordinated by Carmen Dell’Erba, who is responsible for secu...

  4. Economic Globalization and Industrial Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Li; Ying Ruiyao

    2008-01-01

    In order to study the relationship between economic globalization and industrial pollution, this paper developed the theoretical framework and used simultaneous equations. The result shows that economic globalization has influences on the industrial pollution mainly by the direct effect of scale, structure and technology as well as the indirect effect of income and policy. Considering all the factors, economic globalization, especially foreign direct investment (FDI), will reduce industrial pollution, in which technology spillover effect plays an important role.

  5. The Influence of Problems Faced during Internships on Interns' Views of Their Profession and Their Intention to Work in the Tourism Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasli, Mehmet; Ilban, Mehmet Oguzhan

    2013-01-01

    Problem Statement: The problem of this research is identifying the difficulties that undergraduate students experience during their internships and assessing their future intention to work in the tourism industry. Purpose of Study: This research aims to identify the problems undergraduate students encounter as interns in tourism programs and to…

  6. Conflicts of interest at medical journals: the influence of industry-supported randomised trials on journal impact factors and revenue - cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundh, Andreas; Barbateskovic, Marija; Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn

    2010-01-01

    transparency in reporting of conflict of interest is an increasingly important aspect of publication in medical journals. Publication of large industry-supported trials may generate many citations and journal income through reprint sales and thereby be a source of conflicts of interest for journals...

  7. Educational Borrowing as Negotiation: Re-Examining the Influence of the American Black Industrial Education Model on British Colonial Education in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shoko

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the extent to which American educational ideas made an impact on policy-making and practice of education in British African colonies between the two World Wars. The analysis re-examines the apparent "borrowing" of American black industrial education models for application in Africa. It is argued that, while the view…

  8. Temporal variations of heavy metals in coral Porites lutea from Guangdong Province, China: Influences from industrial pollution,climate and economic factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Zicheng; LIU Junhua; ZHOU Chenglin; NIE Baofu; CHEN Tegu

    2006-01-01

    The eight heavy metals Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb have been determined in samples of coral Porites lutea collected from Dafangji Island waters (21°21' N, 111°11' E), Dianbai County, Guangdong Province, China, by the ICP-MS method. The samples represent the growth of coral in the period of 1982-2001. The results showed that the waters were polluted by the heavy metals Cu, Ni, Zn,and Pb in certain years, but not by other metals. The contamination may have come from industrial sources, including electroplating, metallurgy, mining, and aquatic industries in the coastal areas.The correlation coefficients among the metals and climatic and economic factors indicate that the metals Ni, Zn, and Cd behave similarly. Copper and Mn are positively correlated, and cobalt is negatively correlated with Cr, Ni, Zn, and Cd. Lead is not correlated with any other metals but is correlated with sea surface water temperature, air temperature, GDP and industrial-agricultural production in Dianbai County.Lead in corals is related to the enhanced pollution level of ocean waters as a result of increased industrial activities.

  9. Educational Borrowing as Negotiation: Re-Examining the Influence of the American Black Industrial Education Model on British Colonial Education in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shoko

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the extent to which American educational ideas made an impact on policy-making and practice of education in British African colonies between the two World Wars. The analysis re-examines the apparent "borrowing" of American black industrial education models for application in Africa. It is argued that, while the view that…

  10. 外商直接投资如何影响中国工业环境规制%How Does FDI Influence China's Industrial Environmental Regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪庆

    2015-01-01

    Based on the panel data from 28 provinces during 2002-2011,35 industrial sectors during 2002-2011,this article examines the impacts of FDI on industrial environmental regulation empirically. Research from the provinces show that,FDI significantly improve the industrial environmental regulation,the positive impact is mainly reflected in pollution treatment,the impact on pollution control investment is not obvious. Research from industrial show that, there is significant difference between the impacts of FDI on various pollution regulation indexes;moreover,through FDI spillover channels,the positive impacts from competitive effects,demonstration effects are more significant than the impacts from mobility effects;only industries' R&D investment, while foreign investment degree reaches a high level, the positive impact of FDI on industrial environmental regulation will be relatively significant. Therefore, how to optimize the utilization of foreign direct investment in order to enhance industrial environmental regulation is a important issue in our future foreign investment and environmental policy.%利用2002-2011年我国28个省区和2002-2011年35个工业行业的面板数据,实证考察了FDI对中国工业环境规制的影响. 省区研究表明,FDI显著提升了工业环境规制,但此种积极影响更多反映在治污处理方面,对治污投资的提升并不明显. 行业研究表明,FDI对不同污染处理规制的影响也存在显著差异,且FDI示范、竞争溢出的积极影响比人员流动溢出更加显著;只有当行业研发投入、外资进入度达到较高水平时,FDI对工业环境规制的积极影响才会比较显著. 因此,如何优化外资利用以提升工业环境规制水平,是未来我国制定外资和环保政策时应当考虑的重要问题.

  11. Influence of foreign dumping to Chinese oil industry%倾销对我国油料产业的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈新华; 刘洁; 方凯

    2012-01-01

    With the background of the foreign oil product dumping in China, Chinese oil industry had been affected as analyzed in this paper, in order to provide adequate theoretical basis to overcome the foreign dumping. Generalized matrix method of estimation (GMM) was adopted to estimatie the causal rela-tionship simultaneous equations between the dumping and simplified system of industrial injury indicators. The results showed that the foreign of dumping oil products was the major harmful reason to the Chinese oil industry. The appropriate anti-dumping measures should be strengthen to supported the domestic oil industry, with which protect the security of oil industry.%在国外油料产品倾销和我国油料产业遭受损害已成事实的背景下,文章着重分析了主要油料出口国的倾销行为与我国油料产业损害的因果关系,旨在为我国脆弱的油料产业反倾销措施的实施提供理论依据.通过运用广义矩阵估计法(Generalized matrix method of estimation, GMM),对倾销与损害之间因果关系的联立方程组进行模拟,实证分析结果显示,国外油料产品的倾销行为是造成我国油料产业受损的主要原因.同时提出了我国应积极采取适当的反倾销措施,加强对国内油料产业发展的支持力度,以维护国家油料供给安全.

  12. Patents in the pharmaceutical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Slobodanka

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The pharmaceutical industry is characterized by dynamic development, the existence of big multinational companies and a global market. Such development of the pharmaceutical industry was highly influenced by the introduction of patent protection and compliance with intellectual property regulations. One of the most important international obligations is the TRIPS Agreement.

  13. Patents in the pharmaceutical industry

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanović Slobodanka

    2003-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry is characterized by dynamic development, the existence of big multinational companies and a global market. Such development of the pharmaceutical industry was highly influenced by the introduction of patent protection and compliance with intellectual property regulations. One of the most important international obligations is the TRIPS Agreement.

  14. 大数据背景下制造业物流需求变化对物流业的影响研究%Research on the Influence Mechanism from Changing Logistics Demand of Manufacturing Industry to the Logistics Industry Based on the Big Data Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩早; 李新媛; 张塘群; 陈思

    2015-01-01

    With the development of big data.By comparing and analyzing changes of logistics demand of manufacturing industry under the background of traditional data and big data.we propose the idea of manufacturing production itself Strategic awareness and the changing trends of job flow.Meanwhile according to these trends and influence caused by these trends.we come up with manufacturing industries demand toward new type of logistics factions.Even the whole logistics industries with development of big data.we offer basis for future logistics service and the development of logistics industry as well.%在大数据发展的大背景下,通过对传统数据背景与大数据背景下的制造业物流需求变化的比较分析,提出了现今制造业自身生产观念、战略意识以及作业流转变的趋势。并通过对这些趋势的产生及影响分析整理出大数据背景下制造业对于新型的物流功能乃至整个物流行业发展的新需求态势,为未来物流服务及物流业的发展提供依据。

  15. The Influence of the Replacing BT with VAT on Sports Service Industry%营业税改征增值税对体育服务业的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卿平

    2016-01-01

    industry in the third industry ,sports service industry not only has the common charac‐teristics of the general service industry ,but also has its unique characteristics ,w hich is bound to be influenced deeply by the tax reform .This paper focuses on the analysis of the different tax burden effects of small scale taxpayers and ordinary taxpayers .Government policies and partner management ,flexible business strategy ,standard financial accounting will ensure the better development of the sports service industry .

  16. Writers“electric shock”and the influence of industry awareness%作家“触电”与产业意识的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯岭

    2014-01-01

    随着市场经济和产业发展的步伐加快,作家“触电”现象日益频繁,作家对自身与电影的关联互动以及由此生发的相关认知、意识和观念,也在逐渐变化,最意味深长的是有的作家在“触电”中逐渐具有了影视文化的产业意识和产业思维,并为平衡文学艺术水准与影视生产规律之间的关系做不懈地努力。作家与影视产业之间互动具有重要意义和必要性,以达到最终创造双赢互利局面的目的。%With the pace of the market economy and the acceleration of industrial development, the writer“shock”phenomenon increasingly frequent .Writer associated with the interaction of their own films and related cognition, consciousness and thus germinal idea, is gradually changing.The most meaningful,some writers are in“shock”gradually with the film industry, cultural industry awareness and thinking, and to balance the relationship between literature and film and television production and artistic standards among law for their tireless efforts. Significance and necessity of interaction between the writer and the film and television industry, in order to achieve the purpose of ultimately creating a win-win and mutually beneficial situation.

  17. Solar industrial process heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumsdaine, E.

    1981-04-01

    The aim of the assessment reported is to candidly examine the contribution that solar industrial process heat (SIPH) is realistically able to make in the near and long-term energy futures of the United States. The performance history of government and privately funded SIPH demonstration programs, 15 of which are briefly summarized, and the present status of SIPH technology are discussed. The technical and performance characteristics of solar industrial process heat plants and equipment are reviewed, as well as evaluating how the operating experience of over a dozen SIPH demonstration projects is influencing institutional acceptance and economoc projections. Implications for domestic energy policy and international implications are briefly discussed. (LEW)

  18. SEM and AES Analysis of Corrosion in Steel Cans of Meat and Poultry Food Industry Influenced by Microorganisms Affecting the Competitiveness in Northwest of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Sánchez Ocampo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The food industry of meat and poultry food is very important activity in the economy of the northwest of Mexico where the Sonora state (with Hermosillo and Santa Ana cities as arid and semiarid zones and Guaymas as marine regions and Baja California state (Mexicali as arid zone and Tijuana as marine region are located. The meat and poultry industries produce meat, milk, and eggs, which are recommended for their nutritive properties. An evaluation of micro- and nanocorrosion was made with an optical sensor used to detect microorganisms (MO inside of the steel cans. The techniques applied to evaluate the deterioration were the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and the Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES, to obtain the morphology of microorganisms formed in the internal area of the metallic containers. Also the chemical composition to identify and determine the conditions for growth of microorganisms was obtained with respect to moisture and temperature in each region analyzed. The sulfur was the principal pollutant agent in arid and semiarid zones and chloride in marine zones that promoted the corrosion process. The presence of corrosion in the food industry decreases their competitiveness.

  19. Industrial pioneers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassink, J.

    2014-01-01

    With their knowledge of metallurgy, mechanics and thermodynamics, mechanical engineers had to give shape to the industrial revolution in the Netherlands 150 years ago. This revolution only slowly gathered momentum, however, especially in comparison with England.

  20. Industrial Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumprecht, Donald L.; Thrasher, Joseph S.

    1990-01-01

    Described is a course designed to better prepare students for employment in chemical industries. A course schedule for this interim course and a list of sources of speakers and speaker credentials is provided. (CW)

  1. Electronics Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    companies to begin listing stock options as expenses on financial reports (Chappell, 2005). The industry had used stock options extensively to help... stock options (Chappell, 2005). Industry representatives interviewed by the group argued against the requirement since they predict U.S. companies...may be less inclined now to offer stock options , and subsequently talent may be lost to aggressive foreign competition (Anonymous interviews, 2006

  2. Analysis on Influence Factors of Port-vicinity Industry Based on ISM%基于解释结构模型(ISM)的临港产业发展分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘松先; 高崇华

    2011-01-01

    The vigorous development of port-vicinity industry has become the main trend in the coastal economic development.By exploring the connotation and characteristics of port-vicinity industry,this paper points out that the port-vicinity industry whose formation and development are influenced by many related factors is a complex system and the relationship among those factors are complicated as well.All the elements of influencing port-vicinity industry development are determined through the systematic engineering idea and the links between those factors are further analyzed;Then the connected factors is logically operated by systematic modeling technology of ISM and computer;Finally,a multilevel hierarchic interpretive structural system which affects port-vicinity industry development is clearly established;According to the results of classified model of interpretative structure,this paper analyzes the most immediate and the most critical factor which affects port-vicinity industry development,and puts forward some suggestions to promote the development of port-vicinity industry,and emphasizes that it is the cornerstone of the continuous,healthy and quick development,taking industries,ports and urban interactions of port-vicinity industry development in port competitive advantage as characteristics.%临港产业的蓬勃发展,已经成为沿海经济发展的主流趋势。通过对临港产业的内涵和特性的分析,认为临港产业是个复杂系统,其形成和发展受到诸多相关因素影响,各影响因素之间的关系复杂;运用系统工程的思想确定临港产业发展的影响因素,进一步分析了各个因素之间的联系;利用解释结构模型(ISM)系统化建模技术和计算机工具对诸要素的相互联系进行了逻辑运算,建立了影响临港产业发展的清晰的多级递阶解释结构系统;并且根据解释结构分级模型的结果,分析了影响临港产业发展的最直接和最根本的因素,提出了

  3. The Profit Ability Analysis of Influencing Factors in the Pharmaceutical Industry Listing Corporation%制药行业上市公司盈利能力影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彬

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, China's pharmaceutical industry, as an important part of the national economy, obtained the rapid de-velopment. In the"12th five-year plan" released by Chinese government, biological medicine industry has been treated as a strategic e-merging industry. Also, medical reform also makes medicine industry become a hot social issue. The article researches the pharmaceuti-cal industry's profit ability influencing factors based on the panel data of 140 pharmaceutical industry listing corporation from 2007 to 2010, combined with the industry characteristics of pharmaceutical enterprises, the company size, ownership structure and technical innovation. By constructing multivariate regression model to order the correlation of influencing factors, study finds, ownership concen-tration, the size of the company, technology innovation and profitability have significant positive correlation, the legal person share and profitability are related, and the proportion of state-owned shares has no effect on the profit ability. Finally, the suggestions of improv-ing the profit ability in pharmaceutical industry are given through three aspects: ownership structure, technical innovation and industry concentration.%  近年来,我国医药产业作为国民经济的重要组成部分,得到了迅猛的发展。我国的“十二五”规划中,将医药产业中的生物医药作为战略性新兴产业来扶持,而医疗改革也使得医药产业成为社会关注的热点。以2007-2010年期间的140家制药行业上市公司的面板数据为样本,结合制药公司的行业特点,对公司规模、股权结构、技术创新等影响因素对于该行业上市公司的盈利能力进行实证研究。通过构建多元回归模型对影响因素的相关性进行排列,研究发现,股权集中度、公司规模、技术创新与盈利能力存在显著的正相关;法人股比例与盈利能力存在正相关;而国有股比例与盈利能

  4. 浙江省工业用水的节水潜力及影响因素分析%Analysis on the water-saving potential and influence factors of industry in Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宁; 张媛媛

    2011-01-01

    对浙江省工业用水的资源配置效率进行了分析,在此基础上,以工业用水效率最高的地级市舟山市为参照,分析了浙江省其他地级市工业用水的节水潜力,以工业用水效率为因变量,对影响工业用水效率的因素进行回归分析,根据分析结果对浙江省工业用水效率的提高提出建议.结果表明:目前浙江省工业用水的资源配置偏离了效率原则,各地级市的工业用水有较大的节水潜力;对工业用水效率有显著影响的因素包括人均GDP、工业增值率、工业用水价格、外商及港澳台商投资规模以及人均教育费用等.各地级市应根据本地实际情况制定节水目标,采取相应政策措施提高该地区的工业用水效率,以保持经济、社会稳定健康地发展.%This paper analyzed the water resource distribution efficiency of industry in Zhejiang Province. Based on this analysis, taking the highest industry water utilization efficient prefecture-level city- Zhoushan City as reference, this paper analyzed the water-saving potential of other prefecture-level cities in Zhejiang Province; meanwhile, taking the industry water utilization efficiency as induced variable, a regression analysis was carried out on the influence factors on industry water utilization efficiency; finally, according to the analysis results, the suggestion about improving Zhejiang Province industry water utilization efficiency was brought forward. The results showed; currently the water resource distribution in Zhejiang Province industry departure from efficiency principle, and there was still high water-saving potential in other prefecture-level cities; the obvious influence factors on water-saving efficiency included per capita GDP, industry increase rate, industrial use water price, scale of foreign capital and capital from Hong Kong, Macao, and Taiwan, and per capita education cost. Every prefecture-level city should decide the water-saving goal

  5. The Influence of Industrial Processing on the Physico-Chemical Characteristics and Lipid and Antioxidant Contents of Rice Bran; Influencia del procesado industrial sobre las caracteristicas quimico-fisicas y contenido en lipidos y antioxidantes del salvado de arroz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pestana, V. R.; Zambiazi, R.; Mendonca, C. R. B.; Bruscatto, M. H.; Ramis-Ramos, G.

    2009-07-01

    A comparative study of the physico-chemical characteristics of rice bran during the successive steps of its industrial processing was carried out and included white and parboiled rice brans and pelletized and defatted rice brans. Moisture, acidity and peroxide index were determined. Using extracts in petroleum ether and gas chromatography, the total fat contents and the profiles of the fatty acids were established. The tocopherols and {gamma}-oryzanol were determined using high performance liquid chromatography. The bran of parboiled rice showed the largest fat content and the lowest acidity, indicating that parboiling is the most effective process for bran stabilization. Oleic, linoleic and palmitic acids predominated in all the samples. Pelletization did not produce a loss in lipids, tocopherols or {gamma}-oryzanol. All the samples showed higher contents of {alpha}-tocopherol, intermediate contents of {gamma}-tocopherol and much lower concentrations of {delta}-tocopherol. Nine components of {gamma}- oryzanol were detected, with a major proportion of the component that eluted in the fourth position, probably ferulate of 24-methylene cycloartenol. Pelletized rice bran showed the highest tocopherol content, whereas parboiled rice bran yielded the largest {gamma}-oryzanol content. (Author) 31 refs.

  6. 新食品经济的发展趋势及其对食品产业的影响%Development Trends of New Food Economy and Its Influence on Food Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志刚; 黄圣男; 曾亿兰

    2012-01-01

    With the development of information and communication technology, its application is being expand to other areas, and its application in the food industry has changed the traditional commercial operation model, which led to the new food economy. Market as the guidance, consumers as the center, the information network as the medium, the new food economy reduced the cost of information ex- change, and had significant influences on the food industry and related policies and regulations, which could promote development of the food industry to higher-technology, higher-quality and higher-efficiency.%随着信息与通信技术的发展,其应用不断扩展到其它领域,食品行业的应用改变了传统的商业经营模式,催生了“新食品经济”。新食品经济以市场为导向,以消费者为中心,以信息网络为媒介,缩减了信息交换成本,对食品行业及其相关政策法规产生了重大影响,推动食品行业向高技术、高质量、高效率发展。

  7. Industrial diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, D.W.

    2013-01-01

    Estimated 2012 world production of natural and synthetic industrial diamond was about 4.45 billion carats. During 2012, natural industrial diamonds were produced in at least 20 countries, and synthetic industrial diamond was produced in at least 12 countries. About 99 percent of the combined natural and synthetic global output was produced in Belarus, China, Ireland, Japan, Russia, South Africa and the United States. During 2012, China was the world’s leading producer of synthetic industrial diamond followed by the United States and Russia. In 2012, the two U.S. synthetic producers, one in Pennsylvania and the other in Ohio, had an estimated output of 103 million carats, valued at about $70.6 million. This was an estimated 43.7 million carats of synthetic diamond bort, grit, and dust and powder with a value of $14.5 million combined with an estimated 59.7 million carats of synthetic diamond stone with a value of $56.1 million. Also in 2012, nine U.S. firms manufactured polycrystalline diamond (PCD) from synthetic diamond grit and powder. The United States government does not collect or maintain data for either domestic PCD producers or domestic chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond producers for quantity or value of annual production. Current trade and consumption quantity data are not available for PCD or for CVD diamond. For these reasons, PCD and CVD diamond are not included in the industrial diamond quantitative data reported here.

  8. The Mediterranean solar plan: the momentum and challenges of a project of cooperation in politics, industry and energy;Le plan solaire mediterraneen: la dynamique d'un projet de cooperation politique, energetique et industrielle en mediterranee et les defis a relever

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorec, Ph. [Ministere de l' Ecologie, de l' Energie du Developpement Durable et de la Mer, Dir. general, en charge du PSM, Dir. generale de l' Energie et du Climat (MEEDDM), 92 - La Defense (France); Schramm, Ch. [Ministere de l' Ecologie, de l' Energie du Developpement Durable et de la Mer, Bureau des energies renouvelables, Dir. generale de l' Energie et du Climat (MEEDDM), 92 - La Defense (France)

    2009-11-15

    Launched by the French President on 13 July 2008, the Union for the Mediterranean (UfM) seeks to inaugurate an era of cooperation between lands to the north, south and east of the Mediterranean by carrying out concrete projects in response to the challenges that this region must address. The UfM applies, we might say, the 'Monnet method' to the Mediterranean Basin. In this region as in post-war Europe, energy is a major issue that, if left unsettled, might generate major risks but that, if addressed for the sake of a new political and economic partnership, could represent a major opportunity. The Mediterranean Solar Plan has this precise objective. It seeks to activate the de facto solidarity between lands around the Mediterranean and to bring them to cooperate on energy, industrial, economic and social projects. (authors)

  9. Planning Change of the Type of Economic Development of Enterprises of the Dairy Industry with Consideration of Influence of the Competitive Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulynych Yuriy M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article justifies a necessity of transition of dairy industry enterprises to the intensive type of economic development. It offers a mathematical model of transition to the intensive type of development. The model is build on the basis of the well-known methods. The author offers two variants of formation of the intensive type of development during the period of planning. Pursuant to the first variant, it is planned to increase expenditures of an enterprise during the period of planning, pursuant to the second – to reduce expenditures of the period of planning compared to the basic one. The author considers and analyses the essence of the innovation strategy of dairy enterprises and offers a model of formation of such a strategy at an enterprise. The article considers main problems that suppress investment activity in the country. The author focuses, in particular, on the following: inconsistent investment policy of the state in the food sphere, poorly developed innovation infrastructure, monopoly of reporcessors in the dairy products markets and low level of profitability of dairy enterprises. In conclusion the author offers measures on formation of investment attractiveness of the dairy industry.

  10. An Empirical Study of the Factors Influencing the Development of Cultural Industry in Gansu Province%甘肃省文化产业发展影响因素的实证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兴江; 樊帆

    2014-01-01

    在对甘肃省文化产业发展的影响因素进行定性描述的基础上,本文通过主成分分析方法,对影响甘肃省文化产业的各个指标进行主成分提取,进行回归分析。结果表明,除文化科技科研机构数、文化市场经营机构数和文化市场行政管理机构数的系数较小之外,其他变量均对文化产业增加值存在相对较大的影响。说明甘肃省文化产业正处于初级阶段,还有很多方面需要改善。%Firstly, in this paper, there is a qualitative description of the factors influencing the develop-ment of cultural industry in Gansu Province .Then the PCA method is applied to extract the principle components of various factors , what a further quantitative analysis .The result shows that each variable except the number of cultural and scientific research institutions , the number of cultural institutions in cultural market and the number of administrative bodies in cultural market , has a relatively greater impact on the cultural industry , which indicates that in the development of the cultural industry , Gansu Province is still in a fairly early stage .Therefore, there are many things to do to get a greater room for improvement of the cultural industry in Gansu Province .

  11. Factors influencing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) emissions and control in major industrial sectors: Case evidence from Shandong Province, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, L.; Lu, Y.; He, G.; Mol, A.P.J.; Wang, T.; Gosens, J.; Ni, K.

    2014-01-01

    Analyzing determinants that influence polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) emissions is helpful for decision-makers to find effective and efficient ways to mitigate PCDD/F emissions. The PCDD/F emissions and the contributions of the scale effect, structure effec

  12. Hospitality Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Ionel

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of accommodation, as basic services offered to tourists, led to the creation of a genuine hospitality industry. Currently, the hospitality industry is no longer just the accommodation service itself but also requires an atmosphere that ensures leisure tourists in the hotel. Thus, hospitable unit manager offers its service in addition to accommodation and catering services, leisure services, treatment services, business services required.. The existence of factors such as revenue growth, increasing leisure time, the development of transport services, the emergence of new tourist attractions have caused increasing international flows of tourists, with consequent development of units hospitable, and therefore a strong hospitality industry. In Romania, after 1990, the tourism sector experienced a true expansion, both through the development of the hotel sector, but also by developing rural hospitality units.

  13. Fiabilidad industrial

    OpenAIRE

    Griful Ponsati, Eulàlia

    2001-01-01

    El presente libro ha sido escrito y editado para los estudios de segundo ciclo de Ingeniería de Organización Industrial que se imparten en la ETSEIT de la UPC. La materia de fiabilidad que se imparte en este texto es una introducción a las técnicas estadísticas para resolver cuestiones de fiabilidad industrial. Se estudian distintos modelos probabilísticos del tiempo de vida y se presentan distintas formas de recabar información y de estimar, en cada caso, la fiabilidad de los componentes y s...

  14. Industrial Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer

    2015-01-01

    the focus of operations management from managing the own organization to continuously developing and managing a network of external and internal resources forming a production system. This perspective may be called managing an “extraprise” rather than an “enterprise.” It should be noted that “an industrial...... network” should not be seen as an organizational form but as a perspective that can be used to enrich one's understanding of organizations. The industrial network perspective has three basic building blocks: actors, resources, and activities. The three building blocks and their relations constitute...

  15. 基于行业视角的中国对外反倾销影响因素研究%An Analysis of factors influencing the anti - dumping Behavior in China---based on industry perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓云; 药朝诚

    2012-01-01

    本文利用1999年-2009年中国对外反倾销申诉数据,运用logit模型和经典线性模型测量了行业企业单位数、全部从业人员年平均数、总资产贡献率、资本密集度、工业成本费用利润率、竞争力指数、进口渗透率对中国对外反倾销行为在发起阶段的影响程度。结果表明行业企业单位数、总资产密集度和进口渗透率是发起反倾销申诉的重要影响因素,进口渗透率和全部从业人员年平均是影响申诉频率的主要因素。本文结论对中国反倾销理论分析和实践有参考价值。%This paper studies the anti -dumping data from 1999 -2009 and analyses several influencing factors' impact on China' anti -dumping actions in the initial stage. Those factors are number of enterprises, annual average employed persons, ratio of total assets to industrial output value, total capital intensity, ratio of profit to industry cost, compete index, import penetration ratio. The empirical results found the annual average employed persons, total capital intensity and import penetration ratio are the main factors influencing whether china would initiate a anti -dumping action against trade partner. Import penetration ratio and annual average employed persons are the main factors influencing the anti - dumping frequency. Relevant conclusions have a certain reference value for theoretical analysis and practice of anti - dumping.

  16. Policy Effects of Service Industry and Its Influencing Factors in China (2006-2010):A Perspective of Cognition and Experience of Service Enterprises%中国服务业政策效应及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周侃; 申玉铭; 任旺兵

    2011-01-01

    Under the constraints of special system background and industrial structure in China, the industrial policy of the government can exert a substantial effect on the industry. The policy of service industry has become an important force in promoting the development of service industry in China's transitional economy. However, the existing researches generally adopt a perspective of government institutions. Based on economic statistical analysis or experience judgment, there are relatively few researches on the performance evaluation of service policies from the perspective of service enterprises. To some extent, the enterprises' demands are most effective to scale the policy effects of service industry, because enterprises are the ultimate recipients of various industrial policies, and they are confronted with multifarious changes of policy and market environment directly. By the questionnaire survey of nearly 4000 service enterprises in 31 provinces, 256 cities and 927 counties in China, this paper, in the perspective of cognition and experience of service enterprises, provides the comprehensive evaluation of policy effects and analyzes its influencing factors during the 11th Five-Year Plan period (2006-2010), and then the interaction of policies and service enterprises is discussed tentatively. Finally, some suggestions are made concerning the adjustment and optimization of service industry policies. The result are shown as follows. 1) Policy cognition of China's service enterprises is slightly on the low side during the period 2006-2010, and the low-grade trend is more prominent in western China. The policy cognition degree is significantly affected by annual turnover of enterprises, labor quality, industrial category, industrial status and policy making. 2) Service enterprises are relatively satisfied with the policy of service industry in China, and the satisfaction degree is under the considerable influence of policy cognition, employees quantity, benefit

  17. Testing and modeling the influence of reclamation and control methods for reducing nonpoint mercury emissions associated with industrial open pit gold mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthieu B; Gustin, Mae S

    2013-06-01

    Industrial gold mining is a significant source of mercury (Hg) emission to the atmosphere. To investigate ways to reduce these emissions, reclamation and dust and mercury control methods used at open pit gold mining operations in Nevada were studied in a laboratory setting. Using this information along with field data, and building off previous work, total annual Hg emissions were estimated for two active gold mines in northern Nevada. Results showed that capping mining waste materials with a low-Hg substrate can reduce Hg emissions from 50 to nearly 100%. The spraying of typical dust control solutions often results in higher Hg emissions, especially as materials dry after application. The concentrated application of a dithiocarbamate Hg control reagent appears to reduce Hg emissions, but further testing mimicking the actual distribution of this chemical within an active leach solution is needed to make a more definitive assessment.

  18. Influence of polymer bases on the synergistic effects obtained from mixtures of additives in the petroleum industry. Performance and residue formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinelli, Luciana S.; Aquino, Aline S.; Pires, Renata V.; Barboza, Elaine M.; Lucas, Elizabete F. [Institute of Macromolecules/Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, IMA/UFRJ, Cidade Universitaria, Centro de Tecnologia, Bloco J, Ilha do Fundao 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Louvisse, Ana Maria T. [Petrobras Research Center/CENPES - Q. 7 - Cidade Universitaria, Ilha do Fundao 21949-900, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2007-08-15

    Undesirable residue formation and lower performance can be observed during the use of polymer-based chemical additives in the petroleum industry when such compounds are mixed during a number of operations, such as oil production. In this work a demulsifier, a flocculant and a scale inhibitor and their respective polymeric bases were tested. These were evaluated through specific performance tests for each additive and a solubility test to assess residue formation. By correlating the performance of commercial additives and the respective polymeric bases, we can conclude that the polymeric base is responsible for the positive synergistic effects on demulsifier performance in the presence of other additives and for the negative synergistic effects on scale-inhibiting performance, also in the presence of other additives. Moreover, we found that the polymeric base can be responsible for the residue formation from the scale inhibitor and flocculant mixture, although it is not be responsible for the residue formation of the flocculant alone. (author)

  19. [The influence of the oil and gas industry on environmental safety and population health in the Khanty-Mansiĭskiĭ Region - Iugra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samutin, N M; Vorob'ev, V O; Butorin, N N

    2013-01-01

    Production activities of oil and gas industry plants are related to technogenic impact on the environment, which has a high environmental risk. This is associated with low levels of environmental orientation of sheer technological processes of exploration and exploitation of hydrocarbons and also used in this technical means, materials and chemical reagents. The main pollutants that deteriorate the toxic characteristics of drilling waste, are the most likely drilling fluids, mud flush agents and chemicals, which enter into their composition. Existing methods of disposal of drilling wastes are not effective, the technology of their use is often violated. Dumping drilling waste into water bodies and burying toxic waste in water protection areas under the guise of processed waste has been observed. In the region there are significantly exceeded the national average values rate of morbidity of allergic, cardiovascular, pulmonary and cancer diseases, mediated by environmental factors and new monofactorial and multifactorial diseases appear.

  20. Fermentation Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, C. P. L., Jr.; Grady, J. K.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from the fermentation industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review focuses on: (1) alcoholic beverage production; (2) pharmaceuticals and biochemicals production; and (3) biomass production. A list of 62 references is also presented. (HM)

  1. Fermentation Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, C. P. L., Jr.; Grady, J. K.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from the fermentation industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review focuses on: (1) alcoholic beverage production; (2) pharmaceuticals and biochemicals production; and (3) biomass production. A list of 62 references is also presented. (HM)

  2. Shifting Industries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Coastal city Beihai aspires to revive its economy by developing its electronic information industry Against a clear sky,the blue sea hums along a shining beach,with villas in the distance.This beautiful scene is in Beihai,in south China’s Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region.

  3. IT行业视屏作业人员眼疾患病情况及影响因素%The prevalence and influencing factors of eye diseases for IT industry video operation workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵亮亮; 余艳艳; 俞文兰; 徐铭; 曹文东; 张红兵; 韩磊; 张恒东

    2013-01-01

    目的 调查IT行业视屏作业人员视屏接触情况和眼疾患病情况,分析影响因素,为制定保护视屏作业人员的眼健康策略提供依据.方法 采用随机整群抽样法抽取江苏省某市IT行业视屏作业人员190人,通过问卷调查和眼科健康检查分析视屏接触与眼部疾病的关系.结果 视屏作业人员每工作日视屏接触时间为6.0~16.0 h,平均(10.1±1.8)h;调查者中有151人(79.5%)佩戴近视镜眼镜;35.8%的人视屏作业过程中会定时休息;14.2%的人眼部不适时会使用防护产品.104例视屏作业者(54.7%)双眼泪膜破裂时间检查(BUT)检查结果均正常(≥10s),86例(45.3%)至少有1只眼睛BUT不正常 <10s);110例(57.9%)泪液分泌试验(SIT)检查结果正常(≥10 mm),80例(42.1%)至少有1只眼睛不正常 <10mm).广义线性模型分析表明,平均每日视频接触时间、眼睛与显示器距离、休息频率、眼部不适时是否使用眼部防护用品、显示器类型和每日看电视时间6项因素对视力有影响(P<0.05).是否定时休息、性别、角膜透明情况、瞳孔形状、父亲远视史和不适时是否使用防护用品6项影响因素对BUT结果有影响(P<0.05).计算机类型、性别、瞳孔形状、晶状体透明情况、显示屏-视线角度,显示器类型和操作台高度7项因素对SIT结果的影响有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 IT行业视屏作业人员眼健康状况不容乐观,防护意识不足;需针对其影响因素加强宣教力度,提高该行业的眼病防治水平.%Objective To investigate the situation of video-contact and eye diseases for IT industry video operation workers,and to analyze the influencing factors,providing scientific evidence for the make of health-strategy for IT industry video operation workers.Methods We take the random cluster sampling method to choose 190 IT industry video operation workers in a city of Jiangsu province,analyzing the relations

  4. Global Challenges in the Domestic Appliances Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Dusan Gosnik

    2009-01-01

    The domestic appliances industry is a mature industry. Changes in the business environment such as political, law, cultural, social, ecological and technological influences have an effect on the future development of this industry. Challenges to producers in this industry are oriented towards the further globalisation of the business, managing processes, new product and innovations development, and towards establishing and empowerment of the product brands. Global trends in the use of some na...

  5. Technical change in US industry: A cross-industry analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, R. R. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    The nature of the public policies which have influenced the pace and pattern of technical progress in a number of American industries is studied with the view of assessing the broad effects of these policies. The industries studied are agriculture, pharmaceuticals, semiconductors, computers, civil aircraft, automobiles and residential construction. The policies considered include research and development funding as well as government procurement, education, information dissemination, patent protection, licensing, regulations, and anti-trust policies.

  6. Empirical analysis of industrial operations in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galić Jelena

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the starting process of transition, industrial production in Montenegro has been faced with serious problems and its share in GDP is constantly decreasing. Global financial crises had in large extent negatively influenced industry. Analysis of financial indicators showed that industry had significant losses, problem of undercapitalisation and liquidity problems. If we look by industry sectors, than situation is more favourable in the production of electricity, gas and water compared to extracting industry and mining. In paper is proposed measures of economic policy in order to improve situation in industry.

  7. Determinant factors of industrial symbiosis: greening Pasir Gudang industrial park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, B. T.; Ho, C. S.; Matsuoka, Y.; Chau, L. W.; Gomi, K.

    2014-02-01

    Green industry has been identified as an important element in attaining greater sustainability. It calls for harmonizing robust economic growth with environment protection. Industries, particularly in developing and transitional nations such as Malaysia, are in need of a reform. Many experts and international organizations suggest the concept of industrial symbiosis. Mainly, there are successful cases of industrial symbiosis practices around the world. However, there are numerous cases of failure too. As industrial symbiosis is an emerging new approach, with a short history of two decades, a lot of researches are generally focused on narrow context and technical details. There is a lack of concerted efforts to look into the drivers and barriers of industrial symbiosis across different cases. This paper aims to examine the factors influencing the development of industrial symbiosis from various countries to supports such networks to evolve in Pasir Gudang. The findings show institution, law and regulation, finance, awareness and capacity building, technology, research and development, information, collaboration, market, geography proximity, environmental issues and industry structure affect the formation of industrial symbiosis.

  8. An Assessment of the Influence of the Industry Distribution Chain on the Oxygen Levels in Commercial Modified Atmosphere Packaged Cheddar Cheese Using Non-Destructive Oxygen Sensor Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen A.M. O’ Callaghan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The establishment and control of oxygen levels in packs of oxygen-sensitive food products such as cheese is imperative in order to maintain product quality over a determined shelf life. Oxygen sensors quantify oxygen concentrations within packaging using a reversible optical measurement process, and this non-destructive nature ensures the entire supply chain can be monitored and can assist in pinpointing negative issues pertaining to product packaging. This study was carried out in a commercial cheese packaging plant and involved the insertion of 768 sensors into 384 flow-wrapped cheese packs (two sensors per pack that were flushed with 100% carbon dioxide prior to sealing. The cheese blocks were randomly assigned to two different storage groups to assess the effects of package quality, packaging process efficiency, and handling and distribution on package containment. Results demonstrated that oxygen levels increased in both experimental groups examined over the 30-day assessment period. The group subjected to a simulated industrial distribution route and handling procedures of commercial retailed cheese exhibited the highest level of oxygen detected on every day examined and experienced the highest rate of package failure. The study concluded that fluctuating storage conditions, product movement associated with distribution activities, and the possible presence of cheese-derived contaminants such as calcium lactate crystals were chief contributors to package failure.

  9. An Assessment of the Influence of the Industry Distribution Chain on the Oxygen Levels in Commercial Modified Atmosphere Packaged Cheddar Cheese Using Non-Destructive Oxygen Sensor Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O' Callaghan, Karen A M; Papkovsky, Dmitri B; Kerry, Joseph P

    2016-06-20

    The establishment and control of oxygen levels in packs of oxygen-sensitive food products such as cheese is imperative in order to maintain product quality over a determined shelf life. Oxygen sensors quantify oxygen concentrations within packaging using a reversible optical measurement process, and this non-destructive nature ensures the entire supply chain can be monitored and can assist in pinpointing negative issues pertaining to product packaging. This study was carried out in a commercial cheese packaging plant and involved the insertion of 768 sensors into 384 flow-wrapped cheese packs (two sensors per pack) that were flushed with 100% carbon dioxide prior to sealing. The cheese blocks were randomly assigned to two different storage groups to assess the effects of package quality, packaging process efficiency, and handling and distribution on package containment. Results demonstrated that oxygen levels increased in both experimental groups examined over the 30-day assessment period. The group subjected to a simulated industrial distribution route and handling procedures of commercial retailed cheese exhibited the highest level of oxygen detected on every day examined and experienced the highest rate of package failure. The study concluded that fluctuating storage conditions, product movement associated with distribution activities, and the possible presence of cheese-derived contaminants such as calcium lactate crystals were chief contributors to package failure.

  10. The influence of industrial and agricultural waste on water quality in the Água Boa stream (Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha, Monyque Palagano; Dourado, Priscila Leocadia Rosa; de Souza Rodrigues, Mayara; Raposo, Jorge Luiz; Grisolia, Alexeia Barufatti; de Oliveira, Kelly Mari Pires

    2015-07-01

    Water quality monitoring is used to determine the impact of human activities on the environment. We evaluated water quality in the Água Boa stream, located within the municipality of Dourados, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, by analyzing physico-chemical, chemical, and microbiological parameters, as well as chlorophyll concentrations. Five sets of water samples were collected between December 2012 and November 2013 from three locations within the stream. The results showed the presence of Escherichia coli and antibiotic-resistant Pseudomonas spp. strains and high concentrations of organic matter (total dissolved solids), inorganic species (Mg, Ca, and Fe), and agrochemical residues (thiamethoxam). The main stream water contaminants are derived from urban, industrial, and agricultural activities within the watershed. Given the presence of contaminants, it is important that such findings are disseminated in order to highlight the risks that contact with this water may pose to human health. To preserve the environment and improve site conditions, people would need to participate by demanding that normative national and international standards be respected and that the situation be supervised by the competent governmental agencies; this would make it possible to reverse or minimize contamination problems within the Água Boa stream.

  11. Assessment of the accuracy of infrared and electromagnetic navigation using an industrial robot: Which factors are influencing the accuracy of navigation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liodakis, Emmanouil; Chu, Kongfai; Westphal, Ralf; Krettek, Christian; Citak, Musa; Gosling, Thomas; Kenawey, Mohamed

    2011-10-01

    Our objectives were to detect factors that influence the accuracy of surgical navigation (magnitude of deformity, plane of deformity, position of the navigation bases) and compare the accuracy of infrared with electromagnetic navigation. Human cadaveric femora were used. A robot connected with a computer moved one of the bony fragments in a desired direction. The bases of the infrared navigation (BrainLab) and the receivers of the electromagnetic device (Fastrak-Pohlemus) were attached to the proximal and distal parts of the bone. For the first part of the study, deformities were classified in eight groups (e.g., 0 to 5(°)). For the second part, the bases were initially placed near the osteotomy and then far away. The mean absolute differences between both navigation system measurements and the robotic angles were significantly affected by the magnitude of angulation with better accuracy for smaller angulations (p navigation was significantly better in the frontal and sagittal plane. Changing the position of the navigation bases near and far away from the deformity apex had no significant effect on the accuracy of infrared navigation; however, it influenced the accuracy of electromagnetic navigation in the frontal plane (p navigation systems for corrections of small angulation-deformities in the frontal or sagittal plane provides the most accurate results, irrespectively from the positioning of the navigation bases.

  12. Influence of powdered activated carbon addition on water quality, sludge properties, and microbial characteristics in the biological treatment of commingled industrial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qing-Yuan; Li, Meng; Wang, Can; Ji, Min

    2015-09-15

    A powdered activated carbon-activated sludge (PAC-AS) system, a traditional activated sludge (AS) system, and a powdered activated carbon (PAC) system were operated to examine the insights into the influence of PAC addition on biological treatment. The average COD removal efficiencies of the PAC-AS system (39%) were nearly double that of the AS system (20%). Compared with the average efficiencies of the PAC system (7%), COD removal by biodegradation in the PAC-AS system was remarkably higher than that in the AS system. The analysis of the influence of PAC on water quality and sludge properties showed that PAC facilitated the removal of hydrophobic matter and metabolic acidic products, and also enhanced the biomass accumulation, sludge settleability, and specific oxygen uptake rate inside the biological system. The microbial community structures in the PAC-AS and AS systems were monitored. The results showed that the average well color development in the PAC-AS system was higher than that in the AS system. The utilization of various substrates by microorganisms in the two systems did not differ. The dissimilarity index was far less than one; thus, showing that the microbial community structures of the two systems were the same. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Analyzing the Influence on Decoupling Relationship between Carbon Emissions and GDP in China's Industrial Sector%中国工业部门碳排放与GDP脱钩因素影响力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任洁; 陈东景

    2012-01-01

    Tapio decoupling method is used in this paper to quantitatively study how the decoupling relationship between carbon emissions and energy consumption, as well as the decoupling relationship between energy consumption and GDP, influence that between carbon emissions and GDP in China' s industrial sector from 2000 to 2008. The results of the analysis are as follows: first of all, in recent years China' s industrial sector has made certain progress in decoupling carbon emissions and GDP; secondly, energy decoupling has a positive influence on the average, as the lessening of energy consumption driven by GDP growth made a significant contribution to decoupling carbon emissions and GDP in China' s industrial sector; thirdly, emissions decoupling holds a negative influence on the average, since the carbon emissions were more significantly driven by energy consumption and thus against the decoupling between carbon emissions and GDP. To help China' s industrial sector gain better results in deeoupling carbon emissions and GDP, positive influence of the decoup|ing between energy consumption and GDP should be increased on the one hand, while on the other hand, the government should strongly support low-carbon and zero-carbon technology R&D and their implications, like the use and storage of carbon capture, gradually improving the overall state that carbon emissions are coupled with the energy consumption.%基于Tapio脱钩模型,对2000.2008年间中国工业部门碳排放与能耗脱钩、能耗与GDP脱钩对碳排放与GDP脱钩影响力进行了实证研究。结果表明:中国工业部门在实现碳排放与GDP脱钩上取得比较显著的成绩;能耗脱钩影响力均值为正,能耗受经济驱动较小对碳排放与GDP脱钩做出了相当的贡献;排放脱钩影响力均值为负,碳排放受能耗驱动力较为明显,对工业部门碳排放与GDP脱钩产生了负向影响。为使中国工业部门在碳排放与GDP脱钩上

  14. Emulsified industrial oils recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabris, T.

    1982-04-01

    The industrial lubricant market has been analyzed with emphasis on current and/or developing recycling and re-refining technologies. This task has been performed for the United States and other industrialized countries, specifically France, West Germany, Italy and Japan. Attention has been focused at emulsion-type fluids regardless of the industrial application involved. It was found that emulsion-type fluids in the United States represent a much higher percentage of the total fluids used than in other industrialized countries. While recycling is an active matter explored by the industry, re-refining is rather a result of other issues than the mere fact that oil can be regenerated from a used industrial emulsion. To extend the longevity of an emulsion is a logical step to keep expenses down by using the emulsion as long as possible. There is, however, another important factor influencing this issue: regulations governing the disposal of such fluids. The ecological question, the respect for nature and the natural balances, is often seen now as everybody's task. Regulations forbid dumping used emulsions in the environment without prior treatment of the water phase and separation of the oil phase. This is a costly procedure, so recycling is attractive since it postpones the problem. It is questionable whether re-refining of these emulsions - as a business - could stand on its own if these emulsions did not have to be taken apart for disposal purposes. Once the emulsion is separated into a water and an oil phase, however, re-refining of the oil does become economical.

  15. 服装行业微博病毒营销的传播意愿影响因素研究%Research on Influencing Factors of Transmission Will of Micro-blog Viral Marketing in Clothing Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周莎; 罗戎蕾

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses and conducts a quantitative analysis on factors influencing the transmission will of micro-blog viral marketing of clothing enterprises in the form of questionnaire inquiry from the perspective of audiences based on technology acceptance model and diffusion of innovation theory in combination with features of micro-blog viral marketing with audiences between 18 and 35 as research subjects. The research result shows that individual innovation, perceived usefulness, product factor and clothing industry factor have significance positive influence on micro-blog viral marketing of clothing enterprises and perceived risk and website factor have no significance influence on it. Clothing industry factor has the greatest influence on micro-blog viral marketing, indicating that audiences pay most attention to various factors of the enterprise itself when forwarding related micro-blog of a clothing enterprise.%从受众的角度出发,在技术接受模型和创新扩散理论的基础上,结合微博病毒营销的特点,以18 ~35岁受众为研究主体,以问卷调研的形式进行影响服装企业微博病毒营销传播意愿因素的探讨和定量分析.研究结果显示:个体创新性、感知有用、产品因素与服装企业因素对服装企业微博病毒营销有显著的正向影响,感知风险和网站因素对服装企业微博病毒营销没有显著影响.服装企业自身因素对其开展微博病毒营销影响最为强烈,说明受众在转发服装企业相关微博时,最为看重的是该企业自身的各方面因素.

  16. 员工绩效内在影响因素研究--以石油行业为例%Research of Internal Factors Influencing Employee Performance of Oil Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丹; 赵文娟; 余磊

    2016-01-01

    利用结构方程模型,基于石油行业员工的224份调研问卷,探究石油行业员工绩效内在影响因素。结果显示:工作态度、工作满意度、综合能力是影响石油行业员工绩效的三个主要内在因素,效应系数分别为0.796、0.663和0.651。积极工作态度的培养主要依赖于工作满意度的提升,效应系数为0.833。对于石油行业而言,工作动机对员工绩效的影响作用并不明显,这点有悖于以往的研究结果,值得进一步讨论。%Based on the survey questionnaires of 244 oil workers, structural equation model was built to explore internal factors which influence employee performance of oil industry. The results show that the three main internal factors are work attitude, job satisfaction and ability, and the effect coefficients are 0. 796, 0. 663 and 0. 651 respectively. The cultivation of a positive work attitude is mainly dependent on the enhancement of job satisfaction, and the effect coefficient is 0. 833. For oil industry, however, the influence of motivation to work on employee performance is not obvious. This is contrary to previous studies and deserves further discussion.

  17. Industrial Design and Ecological Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-Horia Chinda

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the direct link between the Industrial Production process of prodfucts ad the Ecological disaster we are witnessing today. The main contribution is the definition of the industrial designer's role in this process and the multiple ways the designer can influence and avoid the ecological imbalance. From the design concept to materials and processing, from packing and recycling to transportation, the author clearly defines the designer's complex involvement and offers solutions.

  18. The Influence of Environmental Management Practices and Supply Chain Integration on Technological Innovation Performance—Evidence from China’s Manufacturing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiehui Yang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available How to effectively implement environmental management practices and supply chain integration to enhance technological innovation performance has become crucial in both research and practice. Based on resource-based view (RBV theory, a theoretical model to determine the relationship between environmental management practices, supply chain integration, supply chain knowledge sharing, and technological innovation performance was proposed. Based on data collected from one hundred and twelve Chinese manufacturing enterprises, the empirical results show that environmental management practices have a significantly positive influence on technological innovation performance, and supply chain integration plays a moderating role on the relationship. In addition, the results indicate that supply chain integration is also a predictive variable of technological innovation performance and supply chain knowledge sharing. Our findings suggest that practitioners should couple environmental management practices with supply chain integration to improve technological innovation performance in addition to environmental performance, which has been substantiated in literature.

  19. The charge of ergonomics--a model according to the influence of ergonomic workplace design for economical and efficient indicators of the automotive industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubert, Nicole; Bruder, Ralph; Toledo, Begoña

    2012-01-01

    The importance of ergonomic workplace design has been rising incredibly. The knowledge of the interaction with a view to many indicators (e.g. operators' health, quality, productivity etc.) in the automotive assembly shop pushed into another thinking of ergonomics and an increasing awareness of economic possibilities relating to benefits and cost savings aligned with ergonomics. The paper discusses exemplary the various indicators and factors which could be influenced by ergonomic workplace design. These factors are linked each other and support the statement of ergonomic efficiency. Thus, the aim of this paper is to present a model which describes that investments in ergonomic work placement acts with preventive measurements, minimization of losses (refinishing operations, compensation money etc.) and extensive economies on the whole company.

  20. 中西部地区承接产业转移的影响因素研究%Study on Influencing Factors of Undertaking Industrial Transfer in the Midwest of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾兴梅; 刘俊杰

    2015-01-01

    将中西部地区划分为东北、中部、西北、西南4个区域,采用1995—2013年的相关数据,分析各区域在承接东部发达地区产业转移过程中的主要影响因素。选取的影响因素包括资本存量、经济规模、劳动力成本、人力资源和路径效应。结果发现:4个区域的路径效应、资本存量与产业转移承接地均存在显著正相关关系;人力资源与产业转移承接地存在正相关关系,但东北、西北地区不显著;劳动力成本与产业转移承接地存在负相关关系,但对东北地区不显著;除中部地区外,经济规模与产业转移承接地并不存在显著相关关系。中西部区域地方政府和企业家在促进产业转移进程中应充分发挥比较优势,根据不同影响要素制定宏观政策与微观引资策略。%The Midwest of China is divided into four regions:the northeast, central, northwest, southwest.U-sing data from 1995 to 2013 , we analyzed influencing factors in the undertaking industrial transfer process of four regions, and the selected factors includes capital stock, the size of the economy, labor costs, human resources, and path effects.The results show that:①path effects and capital stock of the four regions to undertaking industri-al transfer have a significant positive correlation;②human resources to undertaking industrial transfer have a posi-tive correlation, but significantly difference in the various regions;③labor costs to undertaking industrial transfer have a negative correlation, but not significant in northeast region.In addition to the central region, the economic scale to undertaking industrial transfer has no correlation.To promote industrial transfer, local government and en-trepreneurs of Midwest should give full play to the comparative advantage, and according to the different impacting elements, formulated macroeconomic policies and micro investment attract strategy.

  1. Aerosol pollution in urban and industrialized area under marine influence: physical-chemistry of particles; Les aerosols de pollution en zone urbaine et industrielle sous influence marine: physico-chimie des particules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimetz, J

    2007-12-15

    Harbors for trade are known as highly urbanized and industrialized areas with important maritime, railway and road traffic. Industries are mainly represented by steel, cement works, and oil refineries. The maritime sector is becoming an even larger source of air pollution. Atmospheric NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3} levels and chemical analysis of airborne particulate matter were monitored in Dunkerque conurbation in 2005 and 2006. This study was included in the IRENI program. In low-pressure conditions, local pollutants are spread out far away the agglomeration, whereas, in high-pressure regimes, the atmospheric stability and sea-breezes allow an accumulation of pollutants over the urban zone. Size-resolved chemical analyses of particulate matter collected as function of the aerodynamic diameter (D{sub a}) were performed. Ions (Na{sup +}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, Cl{sup -}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}), metals (Fe, Zn, Pb, Cd,...) and organic fraction (EC, OC) are associated with sub- or/and super-micron particles. The size, morphology and chemical species of individual particles collected selectively in the 12O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, PbO,... containing particles emitted in the Dunkerque harbour area and aged sea-salt aerosol particles (NaCl, NaNO{sub 3},...) from long range transport of air masses. Thin organic coatings from natural and anthropogenic origin are observed on the particles by ToF-SIMS imaging. (author)

  2. New Development Trend of Edible Fungus Industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    We elaborate support system of edible fungus industry from outlook on ecological economic development, legislation and standardization of variety approval, multiple-function innovation platform of industrial development research, and perfect talent cultivation and education system. Besides, we analyze the development trend of edible fungus industry from competitive advantages, position and role in national food security, industrial development trend driven by internal demand, diversified industrial development model, division of labor within the industry, and expansion of industrial chain. Then, from the point of zoning and planning of edible fungus industry, we put forward suggestions that it should start from modern industrial system and take the industrial cluster development and optimization as guidance. In addition, we present technical innovation direction of industrial development. It is proposed to strengthen propaganda, build industrial cultural atmosphere, and expand social cognition degree of edible fungus industry to promote its redevelopment. Finally, it is expected to promote international influence of edible fungus industry through experts appealing for policy support.

  3. The examination of the seasonal influence on the efficiency in oil and fats removal through primary treatment from the wastewater of edible oil industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolin Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the influence of the seasonal change of the air temperature, chemical oxygen demand as well as efficiency of suspended matter removal on the efficiency of oil and fats removal (h, % during primary treatment. The parameters are monitored in the period of time from 2006 to 2011. The efficiency of oil and fats removal in the first and in the fourth quartal is proportional to the efficiency of the removal of suspended matter and of total organic matter, measured as chemical oxygen demand (COD. The measured values for oil and fat are: η (IV quartal = 0.96 % - 50.8 % and η (I quartal = 5.06 % - 95.97 %. The efficiency of oil and fats removal in the second and third quartal is proportional to air temperature so the measured efficiency of fat and oil removal are, η (II quartal = 3.93 % - 82.86 % and η (III quartal = 6.82% - 71.51%. The results of investigation have shown the existence of the correlation between the air temperature during various seasons and the efficiency of the oil and fats removal (h, % as well as the removal of the suspended matter and chemical oxygen demand (COD.

  4. Influence of Electronic Commerce on the Traditional Chemical Industry%电子商务对传统化工产业的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳拴全

    2011-01-01

    目前,电子商务已经成为化工企业商务活动的主导形式,在化工企业运营中发挥着重要作用。介绍了电子商务的作用、化工企业开展电子商务方法、影响电子商务发展的因素,提出了完善中小化工企业电子商务应用的方法以及加快电子商务发展的主要措施。%Currently,electronic commerce(e-commerce) has been becoming the dominant form in the business activities of chemical enterprises,and plays an important role in the operation of these companies.To introduce the function,ways and of e-commerce,influence factors,and put forward the methods which may completes the application of the e-com-merce in the small and medium enterprises and the measures that accelerate development.

  5. Industrial chemistry engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-01-15

    This book on industrial chemistry engineering is divided in two parts. The first part deals with industrial chemistry, inorganic industrial chemistry, organic industrial chemistry, analytical chemistry and practical questions. The last parts explain the chemical industry, a unit parts and thermodynamics in chemical industry and reference. It reveals the test subjects for the industrial chemistry engineering with a written examination and practical skill.

  6. 专利司法诉讼对手机产业的影响%Influence of Patent Judicial Litigation on Mobile Phone Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾学东

    2016-01-01

    自2010年起,全球开始大量涌现有关智能手机或无线技术的诉讼案。在经历了40多起诉讼案后,有关智能手机专利的诉讼至今丝毫没有停止的迹象,甚至愈演愈烈。国内手机企业想要打破发展瓶颈,走向海外、进入高端市场,在未来的竞争中遭遇专利诉讼的挑战是家常便饭。对重庆11家具有代表性的手机企业进行调研可以发现:相比广东等沿海地区的手机企业,重庆本土企业起步较晚,大多处于产业链中下游,核心专利保有量不足。要发展本土企业,提高本土企业的市场竞争力,就必须实行“行政管理部门、立法机构、企业”三者联动机制。政府要有所作为,加大政策、资金、税收等方面的引导和扶持。立法上可借鉴美国的做法,为企业发展保驾护航。企业要加强知识产权管理和重视知识产权战略运用。%Since 2010,cases on smart phones and wireless technology have emerged in large number.After more than 40 cases,with no signs of letting up,the litigation on patents of smart phones even became increasingly fierce.Expecting to break the development bottleneck,march to overseas market,and get access to high-end market,the domestic enterpri-ses will frequently encounter patent litigation in the future competition.Through investigation of 11 typical Chongqing mo-bile phone enterprises,compared with those in Guangdong and other coastal regions,the enterprises of Chongqing were found to start relatively late,take positions in the middle and lower reaches of industry chain,and lack of core patents. In order to develop the local companies and enhance their market competitiveness,the linkage mechanism among admin-istrative departments,legislatures,and companies should be implemented.The government should take measures to strengthen the aspects including policy-making,funds,and taxes.Legislation can promote a better development of com

  7. Studies on the impact, detection, and control of microbiology influenced corrosion related to pitting failures in the Russian oil and gas industry. Final CRADA report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehst, D.

    2006-09-30

    The objectives of the Project are: (1) to design effective anti-corrosion preparations (biocides, inhibitors, penetrants and their combinations) for gas- and oil-exploration industries; (2) to study a possibility of development of environmentally beneficial ('green') biocides and inhibitors of the new generation; (3) to develop chemical and microbiological methods of monitoring of sites at risk of corrosion; and (4) to evaluate potentialities in terms of technology, raw materials and material and technical basis to set up a production of effective anti-corrosion preparations of new generation in Russia. During the four years of the project 228 compounds and formulations were synthesized and studied in respect to their corrosion inhibiting activity. A series of compounds which were according to the Bubble tests more efficient (by a factor of 10-100) than the reference inhibitor SXT-1102, some possessing the similar activity or slightly better activity than new inhibitor ??-1154? (company ONDEO/Nalco). Two synthetic routes for the synthesis of mercaptopyrimidines as perspective corrosion inhibitors were developed. Mercaptopyrimidine derivatives can be obtained in one or two steps from cheap and easily available precursors. The cost for their synthesis is not high and can be further reduced after the optimization of the production processes. A new approach for lignin utilization was proposed. Water-soluble derivative of lignin can by transformed to corrosion protective layer by its electropolymerization on a steel surface. Varying lignosulfonates from different sources, as well as conditions of electrooxidation we proved, that drop in current at high anodic potentials is due to electropolymerization of lignin derivative at steel electrode surface. The electropolymerization potential can be sufficiently decreased by an increase in ionic strength of the growing solution. The lignosulfonate electropolymerization led to the considerable corrosion protection

  8. Study on International Competitiveness and Its Influence Factors of Chinese Cashmere Industry%中国羊绒产业国际竞争力及影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋美娟; 孙致陆; 丁丽娜; 肖海峰

    2013-01-01

    This paper calculates the international competitiveness of Chinese cashmere industry by using revealed comparative advantage index, world trade competitiveness index, and market share, and further analyses its influence factors. The results show that, raw cashmere output has absolute advantage but doesn't have international competitiveness; dehaired cashmere has strong international competitiveness but tends to decrease in recent years; cashmere sweater always has very strong international competitiveness. Cost and price, production factors, production capacity, brand and marketing, industrial concentration, market demand, and government supporting policies are the factors which effect the international competitiveness of Chinese cashmere industry. At last, this paper proposes related policy recommendations to promote the enhancement of international competitiveness of Chinese cashmere industry, which include strengthening grassland ecological environment instruction, speeding up feed industry development, strengthening breed cultivation and technology research and development, regulating market order, adjusting and improving industry structure, fostering consumer demand and strengthening government support.%本文采用显示性竞争优势指数、贸易竞争力指数和国际市场占有率对中国羊绒产业国际竞争力进行了测算和分析,并进一步研究了中国羊绒产业国际竞争力影响因素.研究表明,中国原绒产量具有绝对优势,但却不具有国际竞争力,近年来,原绒的竞争劣势进一步显现;无毛绒具有较强的国际竞争力,但近年来有所下降;羊绒衫一直具有很强的国际竞争力;成本与价格、生产要素、生产能力、产品质量、品牌与营销、产业集中度、市场需求、政府扶持政策等都是影响中国羊绒产业国际竞争力的因素.最后,本文提出了加强草原生态环境建设、加快饲料工业发展、加强良种培育和技术研发、规范

  9. Characterization and influencing factors of visit-to-visit blood pressure variability of the population in a northern Chinese industrial city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Huijun; Wu Shouling; Li Shuqiang; Zhao Haiyan; Ruan Chunyu; Wu Yuntao; Xing Aijun

    2014-01-01

    Background Blood pressure variability (BPV) is a reliable prognostic factor for cardiovascular events.Currently there is a worldwide lack of large sample size studies in visit-to-visit BPV.Based on the Kailuan Study,we analyzed the visit-to-visit BPV of patients to investigate the range and influencing factors of BPV.Methods In 11 hospitals in the Kailuan Company,4 441 patients received routine health checkups.Physical examination measured blood pressure (BP),body height,body weight,and waist circumference,and body mass index was calculated.Blood samples were analyzed for plasma total cholesterol (TC),triglyceride (TG),high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C),low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C),fasting blood glucose (FBG),and high-sensitivity c-reactive protein (hs-CRP).Results The effect of gender on systolic BPV was investigated.The average systolic BPV was 10.35 mmHg (1 mmHg=0.133 kPa) overall,10.54 mmHg in males and 10.06 mmHg in females.Multivariate Logistic regression analysis revealed that the age (RR=1.022),systolic BP (SBP,RR=1.007),LDL-C (RR=1.098),and history of hypertension (RR=-1.273) were significant risk factors for higher systolic BPV.We found that aging (RR=1.022),increased SBP (RR=1.007),and a history of hypertension (RR=1.394) were determinants of systolic BPV in males.The risk factors for systolic BPV of females were aging (RR=1.017),increased SBP (RR=1.009),increased LDL (RR=1.136),and increased TG (RR=1.157).Conclusion Our findings indicated that the systolic BPV is closely associated with age,SBP and history of hypertension.

  10. 我国财产保险公司多元化经营影响因素的实证分析%Empirical Analysis on the Influence Factors of Diversification in China's Property Insurance Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张强春

    2014-01-01

    本文以我国34家主要财产保险公司2006-2012年面板数据进行实证分析,研究发现:保险公司产品多元化经营受到追求盈利、扩张规模、分散风险、内部资本配置、公司治理等方面因素的影响。总体上,多元化经营主要受盈利驱动,但随着经营时间的延长,规模扩张的影响在增强。具体的,险种的赔付率、产业集中度、市场规模、业务增速等特征,以及公司的资产收益率、区域多元化、自担风险能力、中外资公司、集团公司、国有公司等因素的影响具有显著性。%With the 2006-2012 panel data of 34 major property insurance companies , this paper analyzes the influence factors of business diversification .The results show that the diversification degree of insurance companies is influenced by such factors as profit pursuit, scale expansion, risk diversification, capital allocation, and management control.Generally, ROA rather than market share and business growth has a significant influence on degree of diversification .Specifically, features like loss ratio, industry concentration , relative size, and growth rate of the insurance business , and factors like regional diversifica-tion, funds investment rate, risk-handling capacity, foreign company, conglomeration, firm size, set up time, state-owned company, ownership concentration and others show significant impact on the diversification of insurance companies .

  11. Defense Industry Clusters in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Alpaslan Demir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available All countries strive for a capable national defense supported by a strong national defense industry. Supporting national defense with imported defense systems has many limitations and risks because the terms of arms trade agreements between countries may easily be influenced by the political climate of the signatories. As a result, establishing an independent national defense requires a strong national defense industry. Furthermore, exporting defense systems may be an important source of national income. National defense industries mostly consist of large-scale defense firms that have the resources required for big defense contracts. However, small to medium enterprises (SMEs do not have the necessary resources, therefore they are at a disadvantage. To overcome this handicap and be part of the business, defense industry clusters mostly consisting of SMEs are being established. Provided that there is good national planning and support in this area, defense clusters consisting of SMEs may play a significant role in industry. SMEs have a chance to offer specialized services, special or customized products when needed. As a result, large defense firms subcontract certain portions of defense projects to SMEs. Since 2010, Turkey has shown signs of continuous improvement in defense industry clustering. In parallel with these developments, this study discusses the importance of clustering in the defense industry, briefly presents the state of the Turkish defense industry as highlighted by national statistics, and presents the current status of defense clusters in Turkey. The novelty of this article consists in its assessment of Turkish defense clusters.

  12. Industrial relationship marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schellinck, T.; Marriott, H. [Focal Research Consultants Ltd., Halifax, NS (Canada)

    1995-11-01

    A survey was conducted to establish a process for analyzing electrical utility/industrial customer relations. The information was used to help the utility companies in decision making and customer-oriented action. Data was collected by mail with two surveys. One hundred and thirteen companies were used in the development and analysis of key customer indicators. Factors which influence the relationship measures of customer satisfaction and customer commitment were identified. The report can be used as a basis on which utilities can build customer information for decision making in the development of marketing strategy. tabs., figs.

  13. Studies on the impact, detection, and control of microbiology influenced corrosion related to pitting failures in the Russian oil and gas industry. Final CRADA report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehst, D.

    2006-09-30

    The objectives of the Project are: (1) to design effective anti-corrosion preparations (biocides, inhibitors, penetrants and their combinations) for gas- and oil-exploration industries; (2) to study a possibility of development of environmentally beneficial ('green') biocides and inhibitors of the new generation; (3) to develop chemical and microbiological methods of monitoring of sites at risk of corrosion; and (4) to evaluate potentialities in terms of technology, raw materials and material and technical basis to set up a production of effective anti-corrosion preparations of new generation in Russia. During the four years of the project 228 compounds and formulations were synthesized and studied in respect to their corrosion inhibiting activity. A series of compounds which were according to the Bubble tests more efficient (by a factor of 10-100) than the reference inhibitor SXT-1102, some possessing the similar activity or slightly better activity than new inhibitor ??-1154? (company ONDEO/Nalco). Two synthetic routes for the synthesis of mercaptopyrimidines as perspective corrosion inhibitors were developed. Mercaptopyrimidine derivatives can be obtained in one or two steps from cheap and easily available precursors. The cost for their synthesis is not high and can be further reduced after the optimization of the production processes. A new approach for lignin utilization was proposed. Water-soluble derivative of lignin can by transformed to corrosion protective layer by its electropolymerization on a steel surface. Varying lignosulfonates from different sources, as well as conditions of electrooxidation we proved, that drop in current at high anodic potentials is due to electropolymerization of lignin derivative at steel electrode surface. The electropolymerization potential can be sufficiently decreased by an increase in ionic strength of the growing solution. The lignosulfonate electropolymerization led to the considerable corrosion protection

  14. Regional industrial structure analysis based on weighted influence coefficient model: A case of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China%基于加权影响力系数模型的区域产业结构分析——以新疆为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文彪; 杨德刚; 刘云同; 张新焕

    2013-01-01

    Traditional industrial structure analysis usually regards influence coefficient as a positive factor in choice of leading industry. However for industrial sectors in a recession, higher influence coefficient often means severe obstruction to the development of regional economy and awkward social problem. Moreover influence coefficient could not measure practical impact of a certain industry accurately due to the neglecting of scale of industry. Thus the factor of influence coefficient should be treated cautiously. New method is discussed to weight influence coefficient by proportion of added value of industrial sector in regional economy by which actual influence of industry on total economy could be measured more accurately. Base on it a modeling is introduced to analyze each sector of regional industry combined by both weighed influence coefficients and speed of development with the method of quadrants. Thus the modeling could measure the impact of both influence and development rate of industries. A case study of Xinjiang Autonomous Uygur Region is taken using 42 sector input-output table of Xinjiang. Results show that 5 industrial sectors including Extraction of Petroleum and Natural Gas and Raw Chemical Material and Chemical Products are high influence-high growth industries. These sectors have stronger driving effects to regional economy. 4 industrial sectors including agriculture and construction are high influence-low growth industries. These sectors have severe obstruction to regional economy and likely to cause series of social-economic problems. 12 industrial sectors including Manufacture of Telecom Equipment, Computer and Other Electronic Equipment are low influence-high growth industries. These industries are expected to become new leading industries. The new modeling of industrial analysis overcomes disadvantages of traditional methods of influence coefficients. The application in industrial instruction of Xinjiang gives conceive conclusions and

  15. Industrious Landscaping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brichet, Nathalia Sofie; Hastrup, Frida

    2017-01-01

    This article offers a history of landscaping at Søby brown coal beds – a former mining site in western Denmark. Exploring this industrial landscape through a series of projects that have made different natural resources appear, we argue that what is even recognized as resources shifts over time...... according to radically different and unpredictable agendas. Natural resources emerge as feats of particular political and historical landscape configurations, rather than fixed dormant sediments waiting to be exploited. This indicates that the Søby landscape is fundamentally volatile, as its resourcefulness...... such as Søby both natural resources and historical developments are made through particular ad hoc perspectives, somehow providing their own argument on the basis of the ends they are seen to meet.. This view of natural resources and development processes as perspectival accomplishments calls for a detailed...

  16. 重庆市金融服务业对国民经济的影响分析——基于投入产出表的视角%Analysis of the Influence of Chongqing Financial Service Industry on National Economy mAnalysis Based on Input-output Table

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢伦慧; 陈相臻

    2012-01-01

    The input-output table of 42 sectors of Chongqing in 2007 is used to reintegrate and calculate into the input-output table of 14 industrial sectors. This paper uses input-output theory analysis method to make industrial correlation analysis and industrial spillover effect analysis for Chongqing financial service industry, analyzes the correlation between Chongqing financial service industry and other industries, studies the influence of Chongqing financial service industry on national economy and puts forward policy suggestions for accelerating the development of Chongqing financial service industry.%利用重庆市2007年42部门投入产出表,重新整合计算得到14个产业部门的投入产出表;利用投入产出的理论方法对重庆金融服务业做产业关联分析和产业波及效果分析;并分析了重庆市金融服务业与其他产业的关联关系;研究了重庆市金融服务业对国民经济的影响;提出加快发展我市金融服务业的政策建议。

  17. 2008 Industrial Technologies Market Report, May 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Energetics; DOE

    2009-07-01

    The industrial sector is a critical component of the U.S. economy, providing an array of consumer, transportation, and national defense-related goods we rely on every day. Unlike many other economic sectors, however, the industrial sector must compete globally for raw materials, production, and sales. Though our homes, stores, hospitals, and vehicles are located within our borders, elements of our goods-producing industries could potentially be moved offshore. Keeping U.S. industry competitive is essential to maintaining and growing the U.S. economy. This report begins with an overview of trends in industrial sector energy use. The next section of the report focuses on some of the largest and most energy-intensive industrial subsectors. The report also highlights several emerging technologies that could transform key segments of industry. Finally, the report presents policies, incentives, and drivers that can influence the competitiveness of U.S. industrial firms.

  18. Zinc complexing ligands in rivers in pristine peatland areas in Borneo, and rivers with agricultural and industrial anthropogenic influence in Tropical South East Asia: Elucidating the connection to oceanic regional and global distributions of Zinc ligands and bioavailable Zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, G. G.; Chen, M.

    2016-02-01

    Organic complexing ligands dominate the chemical speciation of Zn in seawater globally, affecting its bioavailability and regulating its micronutrient role. We have shown that intermediate water masses in the West Pacific indicate a connection between point sources related to marginal seas, riverine matter, benthic fluxes, and continental shelves, with ligand concentrations and binding strengths evolving along water mass trajectories. Here we will present results from recent studies in tropical South East Asia that explore rivers in pristine peatland areas in Borneo, and rivers near and around agricultural and industrial anthropogenic influence in Borneo, Singapore and Malaysia, with the aim of elucidating the importance of relatively fresh natural and agricultural land-based plant material and industrial anthropogenic material in the organic matter mix that the ligands are a part of. These results track the ligand concentration and binding strength of different sources of Zn complexing ligands obtained using ASV and modern comprehensive mathematical methods We will compare records of humic substances from coral cores near the mouth of these rivers, with the goal of ascertaining a possible link of humic substance concentrations and metal complexing ligands in the region. We will compare the results from these large sources of organic matter with the ligands observed in continental shelves, where the organic matter has suffered biochemical processes, with ligands observed in the West Pacific, after decades of bacterial respiration while travelling along water masses. We aim to compare these ligand in order to assess the relevance of these sources of complexing ligands to regulate regional and global distribution of Zn ligands and its bioavailable concentrations.

  19. Post-war public housing in trouble: Papers presented at the Congress 'Post-war Public Housing in trouble', Delft, the Netherlands, October 4-5, 1984

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prak, N.L.; Priemus, H.

    1985-01-01

    In a number of countries the social housing sector was given serious food for thought when some relatively new housing estates had to be demolished: Pruitt Igoe (St. Louis), Quarry Hills (Leeds), la Démocratie (Lyon), Linnaeusstraat (Leeuwarden, NL). The management of many other estates proves to be

  20. Post-war public housing in trouble: Papers presented at the Congress 'Post-war Public Housing in trouble', Delft, the Netherlands, October 4-5, 1984

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prak, N.L.; Priemus, H.

    1985-01-01

    In a number of countries the social housing sector was given serious food for thought when some relatively new housing estates had to be demolished: Pruitt Igoe (St. Louis), Quarry Hills (Leeds), la Démocratie (Lyon), Linnaeusstraat (Leeuwarden, NL). The management of many other estates proves to be

  1. The Empirical Research of the Service Quality about Wuhan Express Industry Influenced on Customer Satisfaction%顾客满意度对武汉快递行业服务质量影响的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张予川; 戴承

    2016-01-01

    In recent years,with the rapid development of Chinese electronic commerce,the express delivery industry taking on the offline logistics is rapidly growing up with an average annual growth rate of 20%.While the rapid developing of the express delivery industry,as a Courier core of operation and the development of an enterprise's service quality showed a lot of problems, such as the poor self-regulation of the whole industry,low lever technical and so on,these problems seriously influence the development of the express delivery enterprises even the prospect of the whole express delivery industry.This article embarks from the customer satisfaction of the quality of service,set up service industry value evaluation system,conducts a survey on the express delivery industry’s current development situation in Wuhan,and then using SPSS software,the application of factor analysis method to analyze survey data,finally find out the specific problems of the service,and according to a targeted research to find out the suggestions of the problems.In this paper,the research to evaluate and improve the quality of express service,provides a new train of thought.%最近几年,随着中国电子商务迅猛的发展,承担线下物流的快递业则以年均20%以上的增长速度快速地成长。在行业快速发展的同时,作为快递企业运作的核心和其发展根本的服务质量显现出了不少问题,如行业自律能力差、专业技术水平低等,这些问题严重影响快递企业的发展甚至整个快递行业的前景。文中从顾客对服务质量的满意度出发,建立快递行业服务价值评价体系,对武汉市快递行业的服务质量现状进行问卷调查,然后利用SPSS软件,应用因子分析法对调查数据进行分析,最终找出其服务存在的具体问题,并有针对性地进行探讨,最终给出提升武汉快递行业服务质量的建议。文中的研究为评价和改善快递服务质量提供了新的思路。

  2. The Influence Factors,Opportunities and Obstacles of Business Model Innovation in the New Energy Industry%新能源产业商业模式创新的影响因素、机会与障碍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢相军

    2014-01-01

    The influence factors of business model innovation in the new energy industry include both the external and internal factors. The external factors include such factors as market demand,policy orientation,technological drivers and the characteristics of target groups;while the internal factors include such factors as industrial features,the current situation of profit earning,and entrepreneurs’quality. The integration process of enterprises and the environment,the restructuring of value chain and the reorganization of enterprises’internal unit are the opportunities for the business model innovation in the new energy industry. The enterprises should correctly identify the opportunities and obstacles in the process of business innovation,adapt to the development trend of economic globalization and informationization to contribute to the sustainable social and economic development of China.%新能源产业商业模式创新的影响因素包括外部因素和内部因素,市场需求、政策导向、技术驱动和目标群体特征是外部影响因素的主要内容,而行业特征、盈利现状、企业家素质则是其内部影响因素;企业与所处环境的融合过程,与供应商、客户、合作伙伴价值链的重构以及企业内部单元的调整重组构成了新能源产业商业模式创新的机会。企业应正确识别商业模式创新过程中的机会和障碍,适应经济全球化和信息化的发展趋势,为我国社会与经济的持续发展作出贡献。

  3. Industry 4.0 and the New Simulation Modelling Paradigm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blaž Rodič

    2017-01-01

    ... R&D cases involving academia and industry. Design: We introduce the Industry 4.0 paradigm, presents its background, current state of development and its influence on the development of the simulation modelling paradigm...

  4. Industrial radiographies

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The Radiation Protection group wishes to remind CERN staff responsible for contractors performing X-ray inspections on the CERN sites that the firms must apply the legislation in force in their country of origin, in particular with regard to the prevention of risks relating to ionizing radiation. Industrial radiography firms called on to work on the CERN sites must also comply with the rules laid down in CERN's Radiation Safety Manual and be registered in the relevant CERN database. Since CERN is responsible for safety on its own site, a number of additional rules have been laid down for this kind of work, as set out in Radiation Protection Procedure PRP30 https://edms.cern.ch/file/346848/LAST_RELEASED/PRP30.pdf The CERN Staff Member responsible for the contract shall register the company and issue notification that an X-ray inspection is to be performed via the web interface at the following address: http://cern.ch/rp-radio

  5. 平朔东露天煤矿工业场地地下水位变化影响因素分析%Analysis of influencing factors of groundwater level variation at Donglutian coal industrial ground of Pingshuo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林杜军; 宫守才; 张银洲

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of study for three-dimensional flow numerical model , The author analyzed influencing factor of variation in water level at Donglutian coal industrial ground by the parameter sensitivity analysis method. The results showed that there are several factors influence the change of ground-water level by filling , there were infiltrate performance of highly weathered sandstone, filling areas of precipitation infiltration recharge ability and blind drainage ability. In response to these main factors, author studied the permeability coefficient of all kinds of soil and rock layers, provided strong basis for improvement of surface drainage system and control quality of blind ditch. All of these approaches were to control the rise of ground water lever.%在地下水三维流数值模型研究的基础上,采用参数灵敏度分析的方法,对东露天煤矿工业场地地下水位变化影响因素进行定量分析.结果表明,场地内强风化砂泥岩的渗透性能、填土区大气降水补给能力、盲沟排水能力对工业场地因填土引起的地下水位变化有显著影响.针对这些主要影响因素,进行工业场地各地层渗透系数研究,为完善地面排水系统,控制盲沟质量等提供有力依据,控制工业场地的地下水位上升.

  6. Faturamento de novos produtos na indústria do estado de São Paulo: análise dos fatores de influência New product revenue in São Paulo state industry: analysis of influencing factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Pacagnella Junior

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversos estudos têm sido realizados no intuito de analisar os impactos da inovação tecnológica no desempenho comercial das empresas. Com isso, este estudo visa analisar os fatores de influência sobre o percentual do faturamento com a venda de novos produtos na indústria do Estado de São Paulo. Trata-se de uma pesquisa com características descritivas e explicativas, cuja abordagem é quantitativa, utilizando dados secundários provindos da Pesquisa de Atividade Econômica Paulista (PAEP, realizada pela Fundação SEADE. Os resultados mostram que os fatores de influência sobre o faturamento provindo de novos produtos são: a origem do capital controlador; a empresa pertencer a um grupo empresarial; o total de pessoal em pesquisa e desenvolvimento; o pessoal alocado diretamente na produção; as fontes de informação para atividades inovativas; e o apoio governamental para a inovação tecnológica.Several studies have been conducted to analyze the impacts of technological innovation on the trade performance of enterprises. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to investigate the factors that influence the percentage of sales revenue derived from new products in São Paulo State industry. This is a descriptive and explanatory research that uses a quantitative approach. It used secondary data from the PAEP, Survey of Economic Activity in the State of São Paulo, which was conducted by SEADE (State Data Analysis System foundation. The results obtained show that the factors that influence new product revenue are: controlling shareholder nationality, being part of an entrepreneurial group, the number of people involved in research and development, the number of employees working directly in manufacturing operations, information sources for innovation activities, and the government support for technological innovation.

  7. Advertising, Entry Deterrence, and Industry Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Shi Qi

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies how advertising influences firms’ incentives to invest in R&D. The link between advertising and industry innovation is important, not only because advertising can spur R&D by spreading product knowledge, but also because advertising can discourage new innovative firms from entering the industry. This paper finds that a worse advertising technology can result in local improvements in industry innovation rates. Globally, however, a complete ban on advertising always reduce in...

  8. Oil Price Fluctuations and Industry Stock Return

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Tahmoorespour; Marjan Rezvani; Meysam Safari; Elias Randjbarand

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of oil price variation on 14 industries in six markets, including Canada, China, France, India, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Panel weekly data were collected from June 1998 to December 2011. The results indicate that price fluctuations primarily affect the Oil and Gas as well as the Mining industries and have the least influence on the Food and Beverage industry. Furthermore, in three out of six of these countries (Canada, France, and the U.K.)...

  9. Insights in Public Health: Protecting Public Health Through Governmental Transparency: How the Hawai'i Department of Health's New "Stoplight" Placarding Program is Attempting to Influence Behavioral Change in Hawai'i's Food Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshiro, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Reducing the occurrence of and influencing the rapid correction of food illness risk factors is a common goal for all governmental food regulatory programs nationwide. Foodborne illness in the United States is a major cause of personal distress, preventable illness, and death. To improve public health outcomes, additional workforce was required due to long standing staffing shortages and was obtained partially through consolidation of the Hawai'i Department of Health's (HDOH) two food safety programs, the Sanitation Branch, and the Food & Drug Branch in July 2012, and through legislation that amended existing statutes governing the use of food establishment permit fees. Additionally, a more transparent food establishment grading system was developed after extensive work with industry partners based on three possible placards issued after routine inspections: green, yellow, and red. From late July 2014 to May 2015, there were 6,559 food establishments inspected statewide using the placard system with 79% receiving a green, 21% receiving a yellow, and no red placards issued. Sufficient workforce to allow timely inspections, continued governmental transparency, and use of new technologies are important to improve food safety for the public.

  10. A Trial Analysis on the Solution of Japan's Post-war Reparations to Southeast Asian Nations in the Middle and Late 1950s%试析20世纪50年代中后期日本与东南亚各国战后赔偿问题的解决

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    湛贵成

    2004-01-01

    After the war, the negotiation of Japan's war reparations to the Southeast Asian nations was procrastinated or even suspended for a long time. Then in the middle and late 1950s, the problem was solved through negotiation. Superficially,the main factor that owes to the solution to that issue is that Japan recovered and developed in its economy and had the economic power to compensate those countries. Yet there are several reasons behind it to promote that solution. One reason is that Japan urgently needed to occupy Southeast Asian market to further develop its own economy. The second reason is that the United States, aiming at containing socialist influence during the Cold War, secretly made great efforts to support Japan and the third one is the Southeast Asian nations faced many specific and practical problems, so they had to make some concessions. Therefore,under such historical conditions, the nature for the so called reparations has changed and the reparation has become a tool for Japan to expand its force in that region.

  11. Companies in the Energy Industry in Sweden 2007-2011; Foeretag i Energibranschen i Sverige 2007-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroemgren, Samuel

    2013-06-15

    This is a comprehensive analysis of the energy industry in Sweden. More than 3000 companies have been analysed one by one. The companies have been categorised and systematised in a database that includes financial data, number of employees, geographic distribution, R and D- and environmental aspects as well as other industry specific characteristics. The data has then been analysed from a number of perspectives. The study is one in a series of analyses of industrial structure and strategic areas for innovation and renewal in various branches of industry that VINNOVA has initiated. Within the project, companies that work with energy, bringing energy to users as well as companies contributing to energy efficiency in industry, real estate and services and transportation have been identified. Twelve key companies as well as two trade organizations have been interviewed from a labour market perspective, in order to clarify the challenges regarding the future provision of skills facing the industry. The energy industry includes 1121 companies with 71105 employees at 2383 workplaces. In total, the companies had net revenues of 547 billion SEK. The energy industry is a major contributor to Swedish export. The energy industry has over the period been a stable labour market. When several other industries experienced cyclical fluctuations in 2007-2011 the energy sector showed a positive annual growth, 7 % over the studied five-year period. The energy industry's century-old is closely linked to the electrification and post war industrial development in Sweden, which together with the Swedish climate has contributed to the emergence and presence of global energy companies. An example is historical development of ASEA, that has led to a clear concentration of energy competence in some Swedish regions. The energy industry in general has a wide geographic spread of workplaces and infrastructure in Sweden. With a few exceptions, companies are found in all of Sweden's 290

  12. AN EMPIRICAL TEST ON CHINESE HIGH-TECH INDUSTRY PRODUCTIVITY INFLUENCING FACTORS%中国高技术产业生产率影响因素实证检验∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗来军; 李军林; 姚东旻

    2015-01-01

    本文使用微观层面的企业数据,对中国高技术产业生产率的影响因素进行实证检验,发现资产增长、人力资本、企业利润、企业规模对生产率具有显著的促进作用,而资本劳动比、企业存货起明显的负向作用,外国直接投资等变量几乎不起作用。研发投入、银行贷款与政府补贴的实证结论与人们的正常预期不同,研发投入对生产率要么不起作用、要么起负向作用,银行贷款与政府补贴对生产率起着扭曲与阻碍作用,中国的一些特殊情况导致了上述结论。%This paper uses enterprise data to empirically test the influencing factors of Chinese high-tech industry productivity,and concludes that the growth of assets,human capital,corporate profits,and enterprise scale have significant effect on productivity.Government subsidies,capital labor ratio,and in-ventory play negative roles.Foreign direct investment,trade credit,sales cost,market concentration,and industrial chain status have little effect.Different from the normal expectation of people,R&D investment on productivity may not work or play a negative role.This paradoxical conclusion reflects the special cir-cumstances in China.The motive of many enterprises’R&D investment is to rent for an access to govern-ment subsidies and monopoly interests.Lack of protection for intellectual property rights makes many en-terprises unwilling to put a lot of money in the use of technology research and development.Bank loans and government subsidies seriously distort and impede productivity.This paper suggests that the problems arise in Chinese financing system and government funded system,which not only fails to promote enter-prise efficiency,but also inhibits the development of enterprise efficiency.

  13. Mineralogical analysis of attic dust samples for contamination source identification in an industrial area, Ajka, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völgyesi, Péter; Jordan, Gyozo; Gosar, Mateja; Szabó, Csaba; Miler, Miloš; Kónya, Péter; Bartha, András

    2013-04-01

    The post-war centrally directed economy forced massive heavy industry in Hungary, producing huge amount of wastes and pollution. Long-term airborne emissions from mining, coal-fired power plants and alumina industry have left the legacy of widely distributed contamination around industrial areas and nearby settlements in the Ajka region. Recent research suggests that significant amount of airborne pollutants, deposited in the urban environment, can be efficiently studied by attic dust analysis. The sampling strategy followed a grid-based stratified random sampling design and 30 samples were collected in 27 houses (at least 30 years old) in a 8x8 grid of the 64 km2 project area. In order to determine the pollution potential of attic dust samples, geochemical and mineralogical analyses were performed. The main aim of the mineralogical analyses was to study the phase composition of the dust particles and to identify potential anthropogenic sources. The total concentrations of the toxic elements (As, Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn) were measured with ICP-OES and mercury content was analyzed with atomic absorption spectrometry. Phase analyses of the samples were carried out by the means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-Ray diffraction (XRD) methods. Laser particle size analyzer was used to measure the grain size of attic dust particles. Results showed that the studied attic dust in the Ajka urban area was contaminated mostly by Hg, Pb and Zn with contents ranging between 0.1-2 ppm, 42.5-881 ppm and 90.2-954 ppm, respectively. However, the study of extreme data values (statistical outliers) has shown that at certain points airborne dust can be extremely contaminated also with Cd (0.4-11.7 ppm). The size of the attic dust particles varied between 0.2 and 113 µm. Based on the SEM/EDS and XRD analysis, the most frequently identified mineralogical phases were quartz, calcite, gypsum and Fe- and Al-bearing phases. Fe

  14. Chemicals Industry Vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1996-12-01

    Chemical industry leaders articulated a long-term vision for the industry, its markets, and its technology in the groundbreaking 1996 document Technology Vision 2020 - The U.S. Chemical Industry. (PDF 310 KB).

  15. Boosting Cultural Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2009-01-01

    @@ On July 22 of 2009, the State Council released the Revitalization Plan of Cultural Industry, which is the 11th revitalization plan for an industry following plans for steel, auto, textile, equipment manufacturing, ship-making, IT and other industries.

  16. Trajectory for Industrial Upgrade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU YUNYUN

    2010-01-01

    @@ The Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT) ordered the closure of outdated production lines in 18 industries as part of the country's plan to upgrade its industrial structure and move up the value chain.

  17. World War II and other historical influences on the formation of the Ergonomics Research Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterson, Patrick

    2011-12-01

    Little has been written about wartime ergonomics and the role this played in prompting the need for a society dedicated to ergonomics within the UK, namely the formation of the Ergonomics Research Society (ERS) in early 1950. This article aims to fill this gap in our understanding of the history of ergonomics in the UK and provide further details of the types of research undertaken by wartime research groups and committees such as the Institute of Aviation Medicine, Medical Research Council Applied Psychology Unit and the Flying Personnel Research Committee. In addition, the role of societal developments such as wartime links with the USA, the post-war drive to increase productivity and collaboration with industry and the recommendations of government committees in stimulating the work of the ERS are described in detail. This article also offers some reflection on present-day ergonomics in the UK and how this contrasts with the past. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This article will provide practitioners with a historical perspective on the development of ergonomics from its roots in the Second World War. These developments shed light on current trends and challenges within the discipline as a whole.

  18. Offshore Supply Industry Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roslyng Olesen, Thomas

    The value chains for offshore oil and gas and offshore wind are both basically driven by the demand for energy. This is heavily dependent on a number of factors including the price of various energy sources and the policy making of the states which influence legislation, indirect subsidies...... and direct investments. At the center of both value chains are the energy companies. The energy companies have a number of suppliers and sub suppliers which provide a range of equipment and services to the offshore operations. The supply industry is characterized by horizontal cooperation (between suppliers...... of services including includes legal advice, financing, insurance etc. The two value chains have a number of activities in common. Both include (1) a tender and concession phase where the energy company obtains the right to explore and produce energy from the authorities. (2) An exploration phase where...

  19. Monitoramento atmosférico passivo de SO2, NO2 e O3 em áreas urbanas e de influência industrial como prática de química ambiental para alunos de graduação Atmospheric passive monitoring of SO2, NO2 and O3 in urban areas and in those under industrial influence as an environmental chemistry experiment for undergraduate students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia P. Campos

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is a result of undergraduate student participation in the Environmental Chemistry discipline provided by the Chemistry Institute/UFBA. The students were involved in the development of passive samplers, a project of the LAQUAM (Environmental Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The students' residences and other neighborhoods were used to create a passive sampling network, allowing the measurement of atmospheric levels of pollutants in urban areas and in those under industrial influence. The assembly of the passive samplers, including impregnation of filters and chemical analysis were part of the students' practice tasks. The results were analyzed taking into consideration the Brazilian legislation.

  20. The future steelmaking industry and its technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruehan, R.J.; Paxton, H.W.; Giarratani, F.; Lave, L. [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)]|[Pittsburgh Univ., PA (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this report is to develop a vision of the future steelmaking industry including its general characteristics and technologies. In addition, the technical obstacles and research and development opportunities for commercialization of these technologies are identified. The report is being prepared by the Sloan Steel Industry Competitiveness Study with extensive input from the industry. Industry input has been through AISI (American Iron and Steel Institute), SMA (Steel Manufacturers Association) and contacts with individual company executives and technical leaders. The report identifies the major industry drivers which will influence technological developments in the industry for the next 5--25 years. Initially, the role of past drivers in shaping the current industry was examined to help understand the future developments. Whereas this report concentrates on future technologies other major factors such as national and international competition, human resource management and capital concerns are examined to determine their influence on the future industry. The future industry vision does not specify specific technologies but rather their general characteristics. Finally, the technical obstacles and the corresponding research and development required for commercialization are detailed.