WorldWideScience

Sample records for influence post-war industrialization

  1. Building-up influence: post-war industrialization in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A. Haddad

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the post-War industrialization process in the Brazilian State of Minas Gerais, focusing on one of its desirable outcomes, namely the capacity to generate growth through the impact of strong input-output linkages. This process is placed into historical perspective considering the ideas that permeate the economic development debate throughout the period of analysis. Changes in the regional economic structure are assessed through the use of three input-output tables for the years of 1953, 1980 and 1995. By adopting the fields of influence methodology as the analytical core, it is shown that the efforts towards the creation of a more integrated regional economy have generated stronger influence of the targeted sectors (metal products, transportation equipment, chemical, and services. However, structural changes also contributed to strengthen leakage in the system originated in traditional economic activities.

  2. Malnutrition and Associated Factors Influencing Nutrition of Children in Post War Resettlement Areas in the Northern Province of Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Silva, Angela; Senarath, Upul; Mbuya, Nkosinathi; Navaratne, Kumari

    2014-01-01

    dietary practices and feeding behaviours indicated that 66.7 % were exclusively breastfed and majority of mothers breastfed their infant within one hour of birth. 73% were introduced to solid, semi-solid or soft foods at 8 months. Among 6-23 month children, 48.5% achieved minimum dietary diversity, 65.2% achieved minimum meal frequency and only 35.5% achieved a minimum acceptable diet. Almost 50% of care-givers restricted foods when their children were ill. 58 % of mothers shared the supplementary cereal given to children with MAM, with family members. Mothers’ knowledge in basic nutritional values of foods was poor but, 80 % availed themselves of growth monitoring and promotion activities provided by the healthcare delivery programme. Conclusions: This survey provides comprehensive data on nutrition status and associated factors influencing nutrition in a post-war population. Prevalence of acute malnutrition was high and was associated with infection, inadequate quantity and quality of diet and poor socio economic status. Nutrition knowledge and feeding behaviours of mothers was inadequate. The JSDF interventions, consisting of filling gaps in service delivery, promotion of better feeding behaviours and community involvement in growth monitoring and promotion through formation of mothers clubs would have a significant impact on malnutrition. (author)

  3. Revisiting Import-Substituting Industrialisation in Post-War Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Colistete, Renato P.

    2010-01-01

    This article reassesses the classic period of Import-Substituting Industrialisation (ISI) in Brazil between 1945 and 1979. New data presented here show that Brazilian industry achieved significant labour productivity growth during the post-war years and became more technologically sophisticated, when measured by manufacturing exports and evidence of specific industries and firms. We also found that Brazil’s labour productivity growth lagged behind what was achieved in other industrialising an...

  4. Language Situation in Post-War Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiek, Ahmed Gumaa

    2010-01-01

    The theme behind this paper is to review the language policy and language planning in the Sudan, after the institutionalization of peace; by exploring the recent policy of political factions in the North and the South towards languages in post-war Sudan. This effort aims at encouraging non-Arabic speaking-ethnic-groups to accept the Arabic…

  5. 'People Love Player's': Cigarette Advertising and the Teenage Consumer in Post-war Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    This article explores the background, creation and reception of a prominent cigarette advertising campaign from the early 1960s. The advertisements featured young couples falling in love as they shared Player's Medium cigarettes together. As such, the advertisements reflected the central place of the teenager within post-war British consumer culture. The campaign was built upon the insights of market research, particularly that carried out by Mark Abrams and his research organization Research Services Limited. Historians have played down the significance of Abrams's work, but it is argued here that the studies and reports Abrams produced rendered the teenage consumer knowable in a powerful way. Advertisers and manufacturers now had detailed knowledge about young people's consumption habits and their motivations. Such research helped the British tobacco industry formulate a controversial marketing strategy-the need to 'recruit' young people to the smoking habit-and the People Love Player's campaign was created with this in mind. The representations of love and gender included in the advertisements gave the campaign an emotional pull which was designed to resonate with young people. The advertisements were widely criticized and this drove the British tobacco industry to remove from its advertising appeals which might influence the young, such as love. © The Author [2017]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Encouraging participatory post-war transitions | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-21

    Jun 21, 2016 ... For peacebuilding processes to be sustainable, post-war security transitions must be carefully planned and participatory. These transitions often involve a reconfiguration of the entire security architecture, and include reintegrating former combatants and restructuring the military and police.

  7. Identifying Post-War Growth and Economic Opportunities for Women ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    After suffering through the 30-year civil war that ended in 2009, women ... programs available to women - Analyze the post-war development programs in the north ... addressing barriers to women's economic empowerment and gender gaps in ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open.

  8. Moral Education and Post-War Societies: The Peruvian Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisancho, Susana; Reategui, Felix

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses the unique challenges and needs of moral and citizenship education in post-war Peruvian society. It assumes the explanation of the roots, the facts and the enduring negative consequences of violence as described in the final report of the Comision de la Verdad y Reconciliacion (CVR) [Truth and Reconciliation Commission]…

  9. Commemorating the future in post-war Chernivtsi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frunchak, Svetlana

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the Second World War and the post-war period, the city of Chernivtsi was transformed from a multiethnic and borderland urban microcosm into a culturally uniform Soviet socialist city. As the Soviets finally took power in this onetime capital of a Hapsburg province in 1944, they not only sponsored further large-scale population transfers but also "repopulated" its history, creating a new urban myth of cultural uniformity. This article examines the connection between war commemoration in Chernivtsi in the era of post-war, state-sponsored anti-Semitism and the formation of collective memory and identities of the city's post-war population. The images of homogeneously Ukrainian Chernivtsi and Bukovina were created through the art of monumental propaganda, promoting public remembrance of certain events and personalities while making sure that others were doomed to oblivion. Selective commemoration of the wartime events was an important tool of drawing the borders of Ukrainian national identity, making it exclusivist and ethnic-based. Through an investigation of the origins of the post-war collective memory in the region, this article addresses the problem of perceived discontinuity between all things Soviet and post-Soviet in Ukraine. It demonstrates that it is, on the contrary, the continuity between Soviet and post-Soviet eras that defines today's dominant culture and state ideology in Ukraine and particularly in its borderlands.

  10. Post war migration flows and disparities in mortality from age 50 onwards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarulli, Virginia

    are an important social and geopolitical feature of an area, there is still little empirical evidence on this effect. This paper contributes to deepen the knowledge about this phenomenon by investigating whether post-war internal migration in Italy affected the pattern of mortality inequality by socioeconomic...... status, from age 50 onwards, in Turin, one of the main industrial areas of the country, where many low educated individuals from the southern regions migrated to Turin with seeking jobs in the car factories. Migrants might be selected in terms of robustness because of the healthy migrant effect. However...

  11. Jews and Jewishness in Post-war Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Kovács

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of a seemingly harmonic symbiosis between Hungarian majority and Jewish minority in 19th century Hungary was a unique phenomenon in a European country where the proportion of Jews was close to 5 percent of the total population, and about 20 percent of the capital city, Budapest. However, after the shocking experience of the persecution in 1944 it was to expect that the factor –unlimited readiness for assimilation in the belief of the unlimited readiness of the majority for accepting it- that made the uniqueness of the Hungarian Jewry will cease to exist. Since quite a large group of the Hungarian Jews survived the Shoah it was not purely a theoretical question that what sort of identity strategies would emerge among the Jewish population of the country. How did the Jews react to the dramatic political changes that occurred in the decades following the Shoah, what kind of identity strategies they developed in the search for their place in the post-war Hungarian society? After a historical introduction the article discusses the changing socio-demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the post-war Hungarian Jews, Jewish politics in the decades of communist rule and finally the identity problems emerged in the post-war decades.

  12. The International Space of the Danish Testing Community in the Post-war Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Karen Egedal; Ydesen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    International forums and organizations, as well as non-governmental organizations, have played a considerable role in societal developments since the end of World War II. Many changes in post-war Danish public schools like standardized educational testing were formed in dialogue with or initiated......, and up to the end of the Cold War. Exploring the transnational angle is a highly relevant and interesting research topic because it contributes to a deeper understanding of the origin, development and design of Danish school policy and school practice, and the influence from transnational spaces....

  13. [Cigarette and advertising poster: history of a dangerous connection in the post-war economic boom].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Jacques

    2013-11-27

    The advertising poster's main characteristic is the ability to convey a commercial message quickly and publicly thanks to its straightforward image and text. The young people, being the tobacco industry's principal target, are particularly exposed to these messages. This kind of advertisement becomes a mean of counterstroke as soon as the cigarette's harmfulness is acknowledged. Some of the cigarette industry's strategies can be revealed by the historical analysis of a 253 posters corpus selected among the main cigarette manufacturers in Switzerland at the time of the post-war economic boom. With the misuse of sport's theme, the overvaluation of the filter's efficiency, the use of a vocabulary that implies lightness and by erasing the image of smoke in its advertisement, the industry tries to reassure the smoker wrongly.

  14. Solid state physics and physicists of the post war Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakis, J.

    2003-01-01

    In Latvia during the so-called post war period (1944-1991) fields that promoted the research activities were nuclear research and semiconductor electronics. Being considered as classified the researches in these fields were separated from the universities and transferred to the institutes of recently founded Latvian Academy of Sciences. The institutes related to the so-called sector management ministries performed the most of research in semiconductor physics. Research activities at the University of Latvia were mainly in the basic solid state physics (ionic crystals, Ferro ceramics). Despite of being controlled research activities in solid-state physics in Latvia were on relatively high level recognized both nationally and internationally

  15. Academic model of trauma healing in post-war societies

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    Amra Delić

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this paper is to examine the implications for healing in a contemporary Balkan post-war context, and to provide a bridge-building model of trauma transformation, reconciliation and recovery through academic reconstruction and cross-border dialogue. Post-war societies are marked by the effects of massive, large group traumatization, and if not properly dealt with, long-term rehabilitation and social recovery cannot be expected. Unprocessed cumulative trauma that has become deeply embedded in the collective memory of the Balkan peoples over centuries, „chosen trauma“, its trans-generational transmission and periodical reactivations across the Balkan have often been addressed in recent literature, in ethno-psychology, psychoanalysis, psychiatry, sociology and anthropology. In order to deepen our understanding of the roots of collective (social trauma and the specific traumatic experiences of different groups, and to offer different perspectives and information on how trauma can be dealt with, the “Trauma Trust Memory” multinational interdisciplinary research network is being established, and a groundbreaking workshop was held in May 2013 in Tuzla, Bosnia-Herzegovina. Conclusion. The Tuzla Workshop showed that the active participation of affected groups in adequate coping with the past is required for post-conflict reconstruction, trauma healing and peacebuilding in the long run.

  16. Academic model of trauma healing in post-war societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delić, Amra; Hasanović, Mevludin; Avdibegović, Esmina; Dimitrijević, Aleksandar; Hancheva, Camellia; Scher, Carmen; Stefanović-Stanojević, Tatjana; Streeck-Fischer, Annette; Hamburger, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the implications for healing in a contemporary Balkan post-war context, and to provide a bridge-building model of trauma transformation, reconciliation and recovery through academic reconstruction and cross-border dialogue. Post-war societies are marked by the effects of massive, large group traumatization, and if not properly dealt with, long-term rehabilitation and social recovery cannot be expected. Unprocessed cumulative trauma that has become deeply embedded in the collective memory of the Balkan peoples over centuries, "chosen trauma", its trans-generational transmission and periodical reactivations across the Balkan have often been addressed in recent literature, in ethno-psychology, psychoanalysis, psychiatry, sociology and anthropology. In order to deepen our understanding of the roots of collective (social) trauma and the specific traumatic experiences of different groups, and to offer different perspectives and information on how trauma can be dealt with, the "Trauma Trust Memory" multinational interdisciplinary research network is being established, and a groundbreaking workshop was held in May 2013 in Tuzla, Bosnia-Herzegovina. The Tuzla Workshop showed that the active participation of affected groups in adequate coping with the past is required for post-conflict reconstruction, trauma healing and peacebuilding in the long run. Copyright © 2014 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  17. Reconstruction versus Transformation: Post-War Education and the Struggle for Gender Equity in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclure, Richard; Denov, Myriam

    2009-01-01

    In post-war contexts, education is widely regarded as essential not only for civic reconciliation, but also as a key force for gender equity. In Sierra Leone, however, despite enhanced educational opportunities for girls, much of the emphasis on post-war educational reconstruction is unlikely to rectify gender inequities that remain entrenched…

  18. Suicide mortality and agricultural rationalization in post-war Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik; Stickley, Andrew

    2006-06-01

    The relationship between agricultural rationalization and suicide mortality has been little researched. On the basis of the hypothesis that agricultural rationalization leads to more suicide, this study investigated whether a general relationship could be found between structural change in agriculture and suicide mortality in post-war Europe. Due to the expected small size of the effect, the data were deliberately collected so as to maximize the variation in the independent variable. Annual national-level data on suicide mortality, the percentage of the work force in agricultural employment, and the unemployment level were collected from those countries and 10-year periods where the structural changes (reductions in employment) in agriculture between 1950 and 1995 had been most and least pronounced. In order to avoid confounders, the annual changes in the variables' values were correlated with each other, adding a control for the level of unemployment, and allowing for lagged effects. The annual changes in the levels of agricultural employment and those of suicide mortality did not covary at all. Controlling for unemployment levels did not change this, nor could any lagged effects be found. At the most general level, no causal relation between agricultural rationalization and suicide mortality was detected. This lack of a universal relation does not, however, preclude the possibility of the relationship existing given certain socio-historical circumstances.

  19. Econometric modeling of electricity consumption in post-war Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasr, G.E.; Badr, E.A.; Dibeh, G.

    2000-01-01

    This paper applies econometric models to investigate determinants of electrical energy consumption in post-war Lebanon. The impact of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), proxied by total imports (TI), and degree days (DD) on electricity consumption is investigated over different time spans covering the period from 1993 to 1997. The time spans are chosen according to the rationing level of electricity supply. For the 1993-1994 time span, TI is found to be a significant determinant of energy consumption, whereas, DD has a negative correlation. This inconsistency might be attributed to an extensive rationing policy followed during this period. For the 1995-1997 time span which includes reduced rationing period (1995), all electrical energy consumption determinants are found to be significant at the 5% significance level. Analysis results for the rationing free 1996-1997 time span also show the significance of TI and DD at the 5% level. Furthermore, cointegration analysis for the 1995-1997 and 1996-1997 subsets reveals the existence of a long-run relationship between all variables. In addition, error correction models for both subsets are developed to predict short-run dynamics. Finally, statistical performance measures such as mean square error, mean average deviation and mean average percentage error are presented for all models

  20. Nuclear power plants in post-war thought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toya, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    This paper overviews how nuclear power plants have been talked about in the post-war thought. Science and technology sometimes significantly change the thinking way of humans, and nuclear power generation is an extreme technology. This paper overviews how nuclear power plants and humans are correlated. The following three points are discussed as the major issues of contemporary thought over nuclear power plants. First, on the danger of nuclear power plants, the risk of destructive power that nuclear energy has, and the danger of unreasoning development in science and technology civilization are discussed. Second, on the ethics issues surrounding nuclear power plants, the ethics that are based on unbalanced power relations, and democratic responsibility ethics based on discussion ethics are discussed. Third, on the issues of nuclear power plants and imagination, the limitations of democratic discussion surrounding nuclear power plants, the formation of imagination commensurate with the destructive power of nuclear power plants, and the formation of imagination that can represent the distant future are discussed. (A.O.)

  1. ‘As snug as a bug in a rug’: post-war housing, homes and coal fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynda Nead

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the layers of meaning and value attached to the image of the open coal fireside in the years immediately following the end of the Second World War. Although the open fire has a much longer economic, social and cultural history, it is argued here that after 1945 it took on new, emergent meanings that tapped into pressing contemporary debates concerning the nature of the modern British nation, the home and the family. Whilst writers often evoked the experience of the open fire as a timeless comfort, addressing basic human needs, the fireside of post-war British journalism and illustration was a very modern thing indeed, able to express specific debates arising from the requirements of reconstruction and modernisation. The almost folkloric associations of the open fire made it harder in the 1950s to legislate against domestic smoke than it was to regulate industrial pollution. Vested interests drew on the powerful rhetoric of the coal fire to combat the smoke pollution reports of the early 1950s and the growing inevitability of legislation. The coal fire was part of a post-war chain of being that started with the domestic hearth and progressed to the nuclear family, the self-contained home, the nation, and ultimately to the Commonwealth.

  2. AUTHENTICITY, IDENTITY AND SUSTAINABILITY IN POST-WAR IRAQ: Reshaping the Urban Form of Erbil City

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    Rebwar Ibrahim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Issues of authenticity and identity are particularly significant in cities where social and cultural change is shaping active transformation of its urban fabric and structure in the post-war condition. In search of sustainable future, Iraqi cities are stretched between the two ends of the spectrum, authentic quarters with its traditional fabric and modern districts with their global sense of living. This paper interrogates the reciprocal influences and distinct qualities and sustainable performance of both authentic and modern quarters of Erbil, the capital of the Iraqi province of Kurdistan, as factors in shaping sustainable urban forms for Iraqi cities. In doing so, the paper, firstly, seeks to highlight the urban identity as an effective factor in relation to sustainable urban form. Secondly, the city of Erbil in Iraq has been chosen as a field study, due to its regional, social, political and historical role in the region. Thirdly, the study emphasises the dynamic activities and performance of residential projects according to rational sustainable criteria. The research concludes that urban identity and the sense of place in traditional and historical places should inform design strategies in order to achieve a more sustainable urban context.

  3. Challenges facing post-war tourism development: the case of Iran

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    Jamal Mohammadi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an empirical investigation to study the post-war tourism in sought west region of Iran. This region is the host of many Iranian who wish remember the events of War between Iran and Iraq. Many high school or university students travel to the region through cultural as well as religious communities. This paper tries to analyze the challenges facing these people when they travel to province of Khozestan, Iran. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among some randomly selected people who visited the region. The implementation of Pearson correlation test has determined that “Weakness of tourism infrastructure facilities and services” is to be blamed the most followed by “Underdevelopment of decision making centers”. Moreover, path analysis has been implemented to detect direct and indirect effects of different factors on development of tourism in the region. In our survey, marketing, culture and weakness in infrastructures have been determined the most important factors influencing on development of the region.

  4. Telling Stories about Post-war Britain: Popular Individualism and the 'Crisis' of the 1970s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Emily; Schofield, Camilla; Sutcliffe-Braithwaite, Florence; Thomlinson, Natalie

    2017-06-01

    This article argues that, by the 1970s, people in Britain were increasingly insistent about defining and claiming their individual rights, identities and perspectives. Using individual narratives and testimonies, we show that many were expressing desires for greater personal autonomy and self-determination. We suggest that this was an important trend across the post-war decades, and of particular importance to understanding the 1970s. This popular individualism was not the result of Thatcher; if anything, it was a cause of Thatcherism. But this individualism had multiple political and cultural valences; desires for greater individual self-determination, and anger with the 'establishment' for withholding it, did not lead inexorably to Thatcherism. There were, in fact, some sources for, and potential outlets for, popular individualism on the left-outlets that explicitly challenged class, gender and racial inequalities. With this, we suggest the possibility of a new meta-narrative of post-war Britain, cutting across the political narrative that organizes post-war British history into three periods: social democracy, 'crisis' and the triumph of 'neoliberalism'. The 1970s was a key moment in the spread of a popular, aspirational form of individualism in post-war Britain, and this development is critical to our understanding of the history of the post-war years. © The Author [2017]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. The Post-war International Food Order: The Case of Agriculture in Colombia

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    Carlos Felipe Gaviria Garcés

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the post-war period, Colombian agriculture has been reshaped mainly by international measures. The post-war international food order (called food regime over time has exacerbated Colombian rural problems linked to land issues. Emphasizing in five groups of crops (Cereals, Fruits, Pulses, Roots and Tubers, and Vegetables this article found how Colombia has turned from being a self-sufficient producer into a net importer. Consequently, the food regime has reshaped agricultural structures where policies have favored certain groups rather than solving land issues. Bio-fuel crop policies are following the same direction, jeopardizing food sovereignty and deepening rural Colombian problems.

  6. Civil Society Organizations in Post-War Liberia: The Role of Education and Training in Strengthening Organizational Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duo, Samuel N.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the role of non-formal education and training in the organizational change process of Civil society organizations (CSOs) in post war Liberia. CSOs are the local foundation for democracy and development in Liberia, and serve a wide range of roles in local communities. For example, in post-war Liberia,…

  7. People's Palaces : Architecture, culture and democracy in two European post-war cultural centres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grafe, C.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is an investigation of the relationship between cultural politics and architecture in the context of the welfare state in post-war Western Europe. The book focusses on two case studies, the London South Bank and the Stockholm Kulturhus, and examines the discourses informing their

  8. Germans or Jews? German-Speaking Jews in Post-War Europe: An Introduction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čapková, Kateřina; Rechter, D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 62, November (2017), s. 69-74 ISSN 0075-8744 Institutional support: RVO:68378114 Keywords : Jews * Germans * post- war period Subject RIV: AB - History OBOR OECD: History (history of science and technology to be 6.3, history of specific sciences to be under the respective headings) https://academic.oup.com/leobaeck/issue/volume/62?browseBy=volume

  9. Comedy of the Impossible: The Power of Play in Post-War European Drama

    OpenAIRE

    Street, Anna

    2016-01-01

    By tracing the development of theories of comedy within Western philosophy, this thesis claims that anti-comic prejudices prevented comedy from being recognized as a serious genre. Comedy's inferior status for over two thousand years is shown to correspond to an ethical model that distinguishes the real from the Ideal and affirms a Neo-Platonic vision of existence. Through numerous examples taken from a particular phenomenon of post-war European theatre comprising five different playwrights, ...

  10. Germans or Jews? German-Speaking Jews in Post-War Europe: An Introduction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čapková, Kateřina; Rechter, D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 62, November (2017), s. 69-74 ISSN 0075-8744 Institutional support: RVO:68378114 Keywords : Jews * Germans * post-war period Subject RIV: AB - History OBOR OECD: History (history of science and technology to be 6.3, history of specific sciences to be under the respective headings) https://academic.oup.com/leobaeck/issue/volume/62?browseBy=volume

  11. The Welfare Effects of Farm Household Activity Choices in Post-War Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Brück, Tilman

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses the effects of activity choices on farm household income and consumption in a war-affected developing country. The study uses household survey data from Mozambique and controls for the endogeneity of activity choices with instrumental variables. War-time activity choices (such as subsistence farming) are shown to enhance welfare in the post-war period. Market and social exchange induce only limited welfare gains. Cotton adoption reduces household welfare, which contradicts...

  12. Intimate partner violence in the post-war context: Women's experiences and community leaders' perceptions in the Eastern Province of Sri Lanka.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepali Guruge

    more research about IPV in post-war contexts. Women's experiences in such contexts are influenced and may be masked by a complex set of factors that intersect to produce IPV and entrap women in violence. A more nuanced understanding of the context-specific issues that shape women's experiences of IPV- and community responses to it-is needed to develop more comprehensive solutions that are relevant to the local context.

  13. Intimate partner violence in the post-war context: Women's experiences and community leaders' perceptions in the Eastern Province of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guruge, Sepali; Ford-Gilboe, Marilyn; Varcoe, Colleen; Jayasuriya-Illesinghe, Vathsala; Ganesan, Mahesan; Sivayogan, Sivagurunathan; Kanthasamy, Parvathy; Shanmugalingam, Pushparani; Vithanarachchi, Hemamala

    2017-01-01

    about IPV in post-war contexts. Women's experiences in such contexts are influenced and may be masked by a complex set of factors that intersect to produce IPV and entrap women in violence. A more nuanced understanding of the context-specific issues that shape women's experiences of IPV- and community responses to it-is needed to develop more comprehensive solutions that are relevant to the local context.

  14. Post-War Development of Housing Estates in the Sorela Style Joint with the Boom of Mining and Metallurgy in the Ostrava-Karviná Coal District and their Current Significance for Geotourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraj, Miloš; Cheng, Xianfeng; Niemiec, Dominik; Arencibia Montero, Orlando; Koleňák, Petr

    2017-10-01

    The post-war Czechoslovakia needed to deal with a complex and urgent problem of rebuilding the destroyed industry after the Second World War. The complicated circumstances shortly after the war divided Europe into two antagonistic units. The former Czechoslovakia fell under the influence of the Soviet Union. Apart from the political and many other changes, the influence of this power also affected the style of the contemporary architecture. A new style called social realism (sorela) evolved and dominated also the culture and arts. The initial ornateness and exaggerated grandeur of the buildings gradually faded out due to economic reasons. The classical ornamental sorela is irregularly represented in many localities of the former Czechoslovakia. It takes form of discrete buildings or whole blocks. Among the most interesting and extensive units to house tens of thousands of citizens employed in mining and metallurgy, there are the buildings in Ostrava-Poruba and Havířov. The localities are nowadays conservation zones due to their significance.

  15. Post-War Migration Flows and Disparities in Mortality from Age 50 Years Onwards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarulli, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    these inequalities being an important social and geopolitical feature of an area, there is still little empirical evidence on this effect. This paper contributes to deepening the knowledge about this phenomenon by investigating whether post-war internal migration in Italy affected the pattern of mortality inequality...... effect. However, low-educated individuals are employed in heavier and riskier jobs. They thus undergo a faster health selection due to exposure to a higher mortality risk that selects the most robust individuals. This paper hypothesised that the interplay of these mechanisms might have produced...

  16. Social relationships and social support among post-war youth in Northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nutte, Leen; Okello, James; Derluyn, Ilse

    2017-08-01

    Although social relationships and social support are salient factors for post-war adolescents' psychosocial coping and adjustment, there is only limited information regarding war-affected adolescents' views on social support and the relationships within which social support is provided. This study therefore explored both elements among a clinical sample of 20 adolescents living in post-war Northern Uganda. Following Braun and Clarke's thematic analysis, we found a prominent role of the biological mother and other primary biological family members in the upbringing of our participants. Spiritual and material support were perceived to be the most important type of support, respectively, while the adolescents were growing up and in their current lives. These findings provide support for the perception that caregiving systems are adaptable to particular sociocultural contexts. Further, the importance of particular functions of social support could signify a potentially selective buffering effect of these functions in adverse contexts. Because of the importance of the primary biological family and the salient role of parent-child relationships in the face of adversity, future research needs to focus on this particular kind of social relationship in contexts of prolonged collective violence. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  17. Building peace in Bosnia-Herzegovina: Challenges, limits and opportunities in post-war rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raül Romeva i Rueda

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the way in which international society, through its institutions, has managed the conflict in Bosnia-Herzegovina from its pre-war phase to the current post-war phase. The article brings out two main ideas. The first is that internationalbehaviour in the pre-war and war phases was often based on erroneous or even false analyses of the situation leaving major obstacles for the construction of peace since the war. The second idea, related to the first, is that, while the implementation of the 1995 Dayton Accords is rapidly advancing, the fact that Bosnia is still a fragile state, burdened by a serious economic crisis and significant corruption and possessed of only weak public institutions and a weak civil society, makes it strongly dependent on international aid, a de-facto protectorate rather than a state based on the rule of law. It appears, then, that the implementation of the Dayton Peace Accords will be a necessary, but not a sufficient, condition for post-war rehabilitation and the construction of peace in Bosnia.

  18. Two experiments focusing on de-escalation oriented coverage of post-war conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelm Kempf

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available War coverage has a strong bias towards the promotion of conflict escalation and - though less pronounced - this bias often survives in post-war coverage as well. Even after the end of war, only a minority of journalists frame conflict in a firmly de-escalation oriented way. Do they have a chance to reach the public? Will their reports be respected by the audience as more balanced and unbiased? Will they have an impact on the audience's mental models of the conflict? Or will the audience continue to cling to its prejudices and reject news articles which do not affirm the enemy images that emerged during wartime? The present paper investigates these questions by means of two experimental studies. In the first experiment, news articles on three events in former Yugoslavia after the fall of Milosevic were presented to a total of n = 128 subjects, representative of the readership of the German quality press: (1 violent conflicts in Southern Serbia (December 2000, (2 the extradition of Milosevic to The Hague (June, 2001 and (3 the treaty between Serbia and Montenegro (March 2003. For each of the events, four different types of articles were used: moderately escalation oriented articles from prestigious German newspapers (Die Welt, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, Süddeutsche Zeitung and three variants of these articles, (a with increased escalation-oriented framing, (b with moderate de-escalation oriented framing and (c with more strongly de-escalation oriented framing of the events. Each subject was asked to read one article on each of the three events in chronological order and after each article (a to narrate the reported events in their own words and (b to fill out a questionnaire designed to measure the acceptance of the articles as unbiased, well-balanced, interesting, etc. The subjects' mental models of the reported events were inferred from their narratives by means of quantitative content analysis. The second experiment measured the

  19. 'Made Up People': An Interdisciplinary Approach to Labelling and the Construction of People in Post-War History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Crane

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The overarching theme of this one-day conference was to situate labelling theory, as conceptualised by Professor Hacking, in the study of post-war history. The post-war period witnessed the emergence of numerous new categories and classifications of people, through the development of labels including 'schizophrenic', 'gambler', and 'adolescent'. This conference drew together speakers and delegates from a range of disciplines in order to raise a set of questions about these 'made up people'. The conference aimed to facilitate a workshop-style atmosphere, with a key note speech by Professor Hacking, several panel sessions, and a roundtable discussion.   Image: Andrey Maximov (flikr

  20. Industrial influences on an accelerator control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westervelt, R.

    1992-01-01

    Industrial applications of a control system package have extended from industrial research to process control. While the requirements of these applications have much in common with accelerator controls, there are always extensions, different emphases, and additional requirements. These often add to the applicability of the software in all fields and certainly keep the development team challenged. This paper discusses some of the influences that industrial applications such as power distribution monitoring, casting and rolling mills, and aircraft engine testing have on software originally designed for scientific research. We also discuss some of the differences in the software development process between development for in-house use and development for sales and industrial use. (Author) ref., fig

  1. Altered Rhythms. Urban façades in post-war Milan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Mària Serrano

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Urban façades are the outward manifestation of the character of a city, and are composed of elements that respond to rhythmic sequences in consonance with the internal order of the rooms behind them. In post-war Milan, façades were used as a field of experimentation by a group of architects, some of whom were also artists and designers, who saw themselves and can be seen as ambassadors for the future modernity of a city devastated by war. This article explains how the urban façades of Milan, based as they were on the themes drawn from the Italian compositional tradition, offer a wide variety of elements, figures and rhythms, altering and transgressing the compositional canons through the use of mechanisms that in some cases are closer to painting or sculpture than to architecture.

  2. Young people navigating political engagement through post-war instability and mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzenevica, Marina

    2016-01-01

    The everyday politics of rural young people who live in post-war settings in the Global South is poorly explored. In the aftermath of a recent civil war in Nepal (1996-2006), villages have been operating without elected bodies, and poorly functioning local governance has been concentrated around ......, as well as by involving themselves in disruptive events and seeking personal benefit from them. Secondly, young men and women negotiate their political motivations in community development politics primarily through household dynamics adjusted to their mobile lifestyle....... activists balance their daily lives, mobility and household obligations with involvement in party and local development politics? By exploring their motivations and engagement, I come to two conclusions. Firstly, young men navigate party politics by juggling the legacy of patronage and rejecting parties...

  3. The Specifics of Post-War Canadian Immigration Policy (1945–1957

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariia Burtseva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Immigration plays a significant role in various areas of the society’s life and the international policy. Investigating the Canadian experience of immigration is one of the major elements for understanding different aspects of actual mass relocation. The principal objective of this study is to investigate the specifics of Canadian immigration policy following the Second World War. The research is based on analyzing legislation regulations that established Canadian immigration policy from 1945 to 1957. The findings indicated that there were multilateral causes for the after-war immigration changes. And that in reality, Canadian immigration policy in the post-war decade was quite ambiguous because of enacting liberal and discriminatory legislation at the same time.

  4. Social Foundations of Public-Private Partnerships in Education: The Historical Cases of Post-War Singapore and Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ting-Hong

    2015-01-01

    This paper compares public-private partnerships (PPPs) in education in post-war Singapore and Hong Kong. After the Second World War the Singapore government shied away from PPPs, while the state in Hong Kong collaborated extensively with the non-state sector in education. Singapore was a small city-state flanked by two Muslim nations, and its…

  5. Reclaiming Reconciliation through Community Education for the Muslims and Tamils of Post-War Jaffna, Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Ross; Cardozo, Mieke Lopes

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the possibilities and challenges for ethno-religious reconciliation through secondary school education in post-war Sri Lanka, with a specific focus on the Muslim and Tamil communities in the Northern city of Jaffna. In doing so, we position our paper within the growing field of "education, conflict and emergencies" of…

  6. Educating for Peace: The Role and Impact of International Organisations in Interwar and Post-War Danish School Experiments, 1918–1975

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Egedal Andreasen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the aftermath of the two world wars, strong international networks and organisations manifested themselves with promotion of peace through education on their agenda. Danish pedagogical experiments and experimental schools were strongly influenced by these trends and played a role in subsequent school practices and policies. Drawing on the notions of “the transnational” and “trading spaces” as well as the theoretical concepts of transfer, translation, and transformation, this article addresses the following research question: How were international ideas, knowledge and practice of promoting peace through education transferred, translated, and transformed in Danish school experiments in interwar and post-war scenarios? In exploring this question, the article uses transnational and Danish archival sources as well as journals and reports linked to the Danish progressive education movement. Thus, the article contributes to our understanding of the entanglements of educational ideas and to how trends of internationalisation and globalisation work.

  7. Yogurt's flexible image during its rise in popularity in post-war Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verriet, Jon; Leroy, Frédéric

    2017-01-01

    The consumption of yogurt in Western countries has risen for over a century, first slowly, then more rapidly. The purpose of the present study was to investigate this prolonged phase of growth, by examining the popularity and the projected image of yogurt. A particular focus was on the way these aspects were reflected in consumption patterns and media representations. The data showed how during its period of rapid popularization, yogurt's visibility in the media greatly increased. It was concluded that the product's image was highly flexible in post-war decades, evidenced by the multi-pronged approach taken by marketers. Yogurt was not only advertised as both tasty and healthy, but also as natural and convenient, a strategy that appears to have been informed by consumers' preferences and existing cultural values. This demonstrates how a high degree of product differentiation and diversification during a product's growth stage can result in a heterogeneous image, allowing for a broad range of marketing strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Post-War Research on Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Part I. Research before 1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Krzysztof; Dembińska, Edyta

    2016-10-31

    The paper presents the post-war history of post-traumatic research conducted at the Department of Psychiatry of the Jagiellonian University and the analysis of the main research approaches and selected publications. The time after World War II passed in Poland in two directions: coping with the finished war trauma and simultaneously the experience of communist persecution trauma. First scientific publications appeared in the fifties and were focused on the research of former concentration camps prisoners (KZ-Syndrome). Between 1962 and 1989 a special edition of Przegląd Lekarski, which concentrated entirely on war trauma research, was published. The journal was nominated for the Peace Nobel Prize twice. The research team from the Department of Psychiatry headed by Professor Antoni Kępiński made a very extensive description of KZ-Syndrome issues. The paper summarizes the most important contemporary research findings on psychopathology of KZ-Syndrome (Szymusik), reaction dynamics (Teutsch), after camp adjustment (Orwid), paroxysmal hypermnesia (Półtawska), somatic changes (Gatarski, Witusik). The result of the study was the basis for the development of a methodology and a new look at the classification of the consequences of post-traumatic stress disorder, as well as the development of ethical attitudes towards patients.

  9. Good grief: Lord of the Flies as a post-war rewriting of salvation history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. van Vuuren

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Golding’s Lord of the Flies, first published in 1954, reflects a bleak sense of post-war pessimism. But with undue attention focused on its portrayal of original sin and the problem of evil, readings have often remained reductive. In this article it is argued that the novel’s symbolic narrative is polysemic and, when it is read as anagogic myth, may be seen to span Judaeo-Christian Heilsgeschichte or salvation history, rewriting its chapters of creation, Fall, the problem of evil, the failure of law, the hope of salvation, the mission of a messianic figure, and – in the clearest departure from the Biblical narrative – an ambiguous representation of his return. This study examines the novel’s often paradoxical symbolism using Frye’s phases of anagogic myth, with its poles of apocalyptic and demonic imagery. It traces the relation of symbols to their counterparts in Biblical narratives, drawn in particular from the symbolic writings of the origin and end of humanity, to elucidate Golding’s bleak but certainly not hopeless rewriting of the salvation story for a post-faith readership.

  10. The National Astronomical Observatory of Japan and Post-war Japanese Optical Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Toshiyuki

    This paper depicts some aspects of the formative process of the Japanese optical and infrared astronomical community in the post-war period, featuring the transition of the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan(NAOJ). We take up three cases of telescope construction, examining their background and their contribution to the Japanese astronomical community. Through these cases, the characteristics of traditions and cultures of optical and infrared astronomy in Japan are considered. Although the Tokyo Astronomical Observatory (TAO) of the University of Tokyo, the predecessor of NAOJ, was originally founded as an agency for practical astronomical observation such as time and almanac service, it has become an international centre for all types of astrophysical research. Research and development of telescopes and observational instruments have become an important part of the astronomers' practice. Now, however, a number of Japanese universities are planning to have their own large to middle-sized telescopes, and a new style of astronomical research is emerging involving astrophysical studies utilising data acquired from the Virtual Observatory, so there is a distinct possibility that the status of the NAOJ will change even further in the future.

  11. Activities of the Wendlingen community of orthodox refugees in the post-war Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornilov Aleksandr

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Displaced persons camps with significant activities of the Russian Orthodox clergy were established and developed after the World War II. The Orthodox community in the Wurttemberg land of Germany was one of the centers for the War refugees. The father superior of the community was priest Adrian Rymarenko future Archbishop of Rockland Andrew, who served as the dean of the Berlin Cathedral in 1943–1945. The article deals with peculiarities of the Wendlingen community founding and developing process. Father Adrian’s letters to the Archpriest of the German Diocese, Metropolitan Seraphim (Ljade, as well as other unknown documents from the German Diocese Archive of the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad and the Novo-Diveyevo Convent (New York have been for the first time published. The author of the article has shown that this small Orthodox community overcame the post-War troubles and hardship, restored the Church services’ circle and became a Christian missionary center. The author analyses the guidelines of community activities. Metropolitan Seraphim advisedly gave a special status to the community for not only the support a Church service but also organization of a Church manufactory. The author investigated archives sources and found the list of Community members. He discovered among them outstanding clergymen of the Russian Church in Exile and future clerics of the Orthodox Church of America.

  12. Muslim and Western Influences on School Curriculum in Post-War Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Adele M. E.

    2007-01-01

    In Afghanistan, education has largely been destroyed, partly in the name of Islam, by the wars fought on its behalf, or by different ethnic groups vying for control of this Islamic country. Similarly, curriculum has been used to promote political and/or religious viewpoints and to strengthen positions of power. War dominated the language of…

  13. How to Dispel the Fog over the Past? Post-War Children, Their Fathers-Soldiers and Consequences of the Second World War

    OpenAIRE

    Ekaterina S. Lyubomirova

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to the new aspects in the study of the history of post-war Germany, revealed in the book written by Sabine Bode «Post-war children - born in the 1950s, and their fathers-soldiers». It discusses the contribution made by Bode in the study of mental and psycho-emotional consequences of the Second World War and the «exclusion of the past», which is reflected in the fate of the post-war children and continues to have an impact on the socio-political life of the Federal Repub...

  14. Neorealist landscapes. Habitat and collective housing in Italy and Spain in the post- war years. 1943-1963

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colella, Federico

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Starting point for this research is the analysis of relationship between Italian and Spanish culture in the post-war era, especially in the field of cinematography, in order to describe possible correspondences or differences in the contemporary architectural and urban production, especially in social housing. Neorealism is the artistic movement that characterizes these years, in which economic, social and political problems weigh on these countries: it was born in Italy and influenced cinematography of different European countries, including Spain. Through comparison between some films, we can define a common urban landscape, with the aim to represent context in which the architecture of Italy and Spain, as in the neorealist cinema, seek new references and a more sensitive look on reality. El Punto de partida de este trabajo de investigación es el análisis de las similitudes existentes entre la cultura Italiana y la Española de la época de la posguerra, sobre todo en el campo de la cinematografía, con el fin de fijar posibles analogías y diferencias en la producción contemporánea arquitectónica y urbanística, especialmente de vivienda social. El Neorrealismo, es la corriente artística que mejor define estos años, en los cuales las grandes dificultades en el panorama económico, social y político, marcan la situación de los dos países: se trata de una expresión cultural que nace en Italia y que influenció distintas cinematografías europeas, entre las cuales la española. A través la comparación de algunas películas, es posible definir un paisaje urbano común, que representa el contexto en el cual se desarrolla la arquitectura de los dos países que, como en el cinema neorrealista, tratará de buscar nuevas referencias y de plantear una mirada más sensible hacia la realidad de la época.

  15. [Eda Kalmre. The human sausage factory : a study of post-war rumour in Tartu] / Véronique Vincent-Campion

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vincent-Campion, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    Arvustus: Kalmre, Eda. The human sausage factory : a study of post-war rumour in Tartu. Amsterdam ; New York : Rodopi, 2013. (On the boundary of two worlds : identity, freedom, and moral imagination in the Baltics, 1570-7121 ; 34)

  16. Influence of void on image quality of industrial SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J G; Jung, S H; Kim, J B; Moon, J; Kim, C H

    2013-01-01

    Industrial single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a promising technique to determine the dynamic behavior of industrial process media and has been developed in the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. The present study evaluated the influence of a void, which is presence in multiphase reactors of industrial process, on the image quality of an industrial SPECT. The results are very encouraging; that is, the performance of the industrial SPECT system is little influenced by the presence of a void, which means that industrial SPECT is an appropriate tool to estimate the dynamic characteristics of the process media in a water-air phase bubble column with a static gas sparger

  17. Epidemiological study on life-expectancy and mortality of persons employed in the Joachimthal uranium mines during the post-war years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, H.U.

    1982-01-01

    A group of 477 former prisoners of war and internees who were forced to work in the Joachimthal uranium mines underground or in ore dressing and partially in isotope research during the post-war years, was statistically studied concerning the causes of their deaths in dependence from exposure to Rn and Rn daughters at that time. Death causes were registered and the acquired data were evaluated using an EDP facility. Studies focussed on multiple occurrence of radiation-induced neoplasias which were possibly triggered by exposure to Rn or Rn daughters, particularly those of the respiratory tract. The death causes of the uranium miners studied were compared with the mortality of an analogous age group from the population of Bavaria covering the years 1960, 1971 and 1979. This showed a markedly increased rate for all neoplasias that had occurred, as well as for the other death causes. It is not possible to make a statement on the influence of smoking as a 'co-factor' since there are no reliable data on possible smoking habits available. Concerning pulmonary and bronchial cascinomas, for instance, a neoplasia rate increased by a factor of 3.3 was found. The effect of prisonership as a 'co-factor' cannot be determined beyond doubt; however, acquired data suggest that it had a strong positive influence on cancer incidence. (orig./MG) [de

  18. American ways and their meaning: Edith Wharton’s post-war fiction and American history, ideology, and national identity

    OpenAIRE

    Jenny Lynn Glennon

    2011-01-01

    This thesis argues that Edith Wharton’s assessment of American ways and their meaning in her post-war fiction has been widely misread. Its title derives from French Ways and Their Meaning (1919), which she wrote to educate her countrymen about French culture and society. Making sense of America was as great a challenge to Wharton. Much of her later fiction was for a long time dismissed by critics on the grounds that she had failed to ‘make sense’ of America. Wharton was troubled by American m...

  19. Neighbourship and Friendship among Returnees and Immigrants in the Pre-War, Wartime and Post-War Social Setting of the Brod-Posavina County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragutin Babić

    2000-06-01

    migrants were queried: refugees-immigrants, returnees-Croats and returnees-Serbs. A comparison was made of their attitudes in regard to neighbourship and friendship between Croats and Serbs in the pre-war, wartime and post-war periods. Their responses indicated a favourable or mostly favourable level of social interaction between Croats and Serbs in the pre-war period. Amiable coexistence was a very much value in parts of Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Even during the war, although there was different and also aggressive behaviour among friends and neighbours of the other ethnicity (Croats or Serbs, primary social interaction continued to function at least in small segments. Friends, somewhat more often than neighbours, protected persons of the other ethnicity during the war. Primary social relationships were not destroyed even during the worst war periods. It would be expected that this would be an alleviating factor during the post-war (reconstruction of primary social structures. Yet the post-war situation is burdened with problems. Apart from material and financial difficulties, the most grievous ones are psychological. Memories of the war, of the dead and wounded, aggravate communication or make it impossible. Nevertheless, despite even this, difficult circumstances, communication between the three groups of respondents (especially between Croats and Serbs exists, at least in a nuclear form. Thus, if favourable macro-circumstances prevail (primarily a democratic state policy, one can expect a gradual, although slow, regeneration of primary relationship networks in the local community.

  20. Influence of Social Reform Ideologies on Industrial/Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireh, Maduakolam

    2016-01-01

    The founding of industrial/technology education in Ameria represents the convergence of many influences dating back to the pre-industrial revolution era. Social reform movement, one of these influences, set out to change conditions considered to be causes of poverty and other social problems through active engagements in political, educational,…

  1. Anatomy in Cologne--Institutional development and body supply from the Weimar Republic to the early post-war period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Stephanie; Gross, Dominik

    2015-07-01

    The Anatomical Institute of the University of Cologne was founded in 1925. This paper highlights its institutional development and the sources from which it procured bodies for dissection. A comparison is drawn between the first years of the institute's existence during the Weimar Republic (1925-1932) and its rebuilding after war damage in the early post-war period (1947-1954). The institute and its procurement of bodies have not previously been investigated for these two time periods. The Third Reich, for which a detailed study already exists, will be mentioned as well to allow better evaluation of the periods before and after National Socialism. Based on newly evaluated archival material and body journals which will be examined both quantitatively and qualitatively, it becomes apparent that the Cologne institute experienced a chronic shortage of bodies both during the Weimar Republic and the first post-war decade (even though the delivery facilities were mostly the same). However, the situation of the institute in terms of structure, organization and personnel as well as body supply in the aftermath of World War II proved much more challenging than during the time of the Weimar Republic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Medical science in the light of the Holocaust: Departing from a post-war paper by Ludwik Fleck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedfors, Eva

    2008-04-01

    In scholarly debates, Ludwik Fleck's post-war paper 'Problemy naukoznawstwa [Problems of the Science of Science]', published in 1946, has been taken unanimously to illustrate the epistemology expounded in his monograph Genesis and Development of a Scientific Fact. The paper has also been seen to support parts of the received view of Fleck, notably that he manufactured an anti-typhus vaccine while imprisoned in Buchenwald. However, a different narrative emerges when comparing Fleck's paper with other accounts, also published in 1946 and written by other prisoners alluded to by Fleck in his paper. The situation is further complicated by four papers, published in prestigious scientific journals between 1942 and 1945, by the German medical leader of the typhus studies accounted for by Fleck. In addition, a thus-far neglected paper by Fleck, published in 1946 and summarizing his observations on typhus, discloses his role in the Buchenwald studies. Despite the obvious difficulties with tracing the history behind these works, notably the one on Nazi science, the contention is that what was attempted in Buchenwald in the name of science amounted to pseudoscience. This conclusion is amply supported not only by the accounts given by Fleck's fellow prisoners, but also by his own post-war paper on typhus. Based on the above findings, it is suggested that the mythology about Fleck, established in the 1980s, has been accomplished by a selective reading of his papers and also that the role played by Fleck was more complex than has so far been contemplated.

  3. How to Dispel the Fog over the Past? Post-War Children, Their Fathers-Soldiers and Consequences of the Second World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina S. Lyubomirova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the new aspects in the study of the history of post-war Germany, revealed in the book written by Sabine Bode «Post-war children - born in the 1950s, and their fathers-soldiers». It discusses the contribution made by Bode in the study of mental and psycho-emotional consequences of the Second World War and the «exclusion of the past», which is reflected in the fate of the post-war children and continues to have an impact on the socio-political life of the Federal Republic of Germany up to the present day. Nevertheless the article criticizes an excessive preoccupation of the monograph with the descriptions of the individual biographies to the detriment of analysis.

  4. War experiences and psychotic symptoms among former child soldiers in Northern Uganda: the mediating role of post-war hardships – the WAYS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amone-P’Olak, Kennedy; Otim, Balaam Nyeko; Opio, George; Ovuga, Emilio; Meiser-Stedman, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Psychotic symptoms have been associated with post-traumatic stress disorder and war experiences. However, the relationships between types of war experiences, the onset and course of psychotic symptoms, and post-war hardships in child soldiers have not been investigated. This study assessed whether various types of war experiences contribute to psychotic symptoms differently and whether post-war hardships mediated the relationship between war experiences and later psychotic symptoms. In an ongoing longitudinal cohort study (the War-Affected Youths Survey), 539 (61% male) former child soldiers were assessed for psychotic symptoms, post-war hardships, and previous war experiences. Regression analyses were used to assess the contribution of different types of war experiences on psychotic symptoms and the mediating role of post-war hardships in the relations between previous war experiences and psychotic symptoms. The findings yielded ‘witnessing violence’, ‘deaths and bereavement’, ‘involvement in hostilities’, and ‘sexual abuse’ as types of war experiences that significantly and independently predict psychotic symptoms. Exposure to war experiences was related to psychotic symptoms through post-war hardships (β = .18, 95% confidence interval = [0.10, 0.25]) accounting for 50% of the variance in their relationship. The direct relation between previous war experiences and psychotic symptoms attenuated but remained significant (β = .18, 95% confidence interval = [0.12, 0.26]). Types of war experiences should be considered when evaluating risks for psychotic symptoms in the course of providing emergency humanitarian services in post-conflict settings. Interventions should consider post-war hardships as key determinants of psychotic symptoms among war-affected youths. PMID:24718435

  5. Wheat Industry: Which Factors Influence Innovation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Francisco Dalla Corte

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A change in the profile of food consumption is occurring because of the new context of demographic growth, the increase of income in developing economies, and urbanization. In Brazil, consumption patterns have trended from fresh to processed food and internal and external growth in demand has led to opportunities that require new and higher levels of technological innovation and associated managerial skill. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of innovation on a key Brazilian food industry: wheat product markets. Results showed that while most firms did not innovate in the past year, new investments in R&D were important for innovation to occur compared to other factors such as the size of the company, the integration in supply chain, and the age of the company. These results demonstrate that innovation is not a random or unpredictable process, but a complex and diverse process that may be specific to each industry.

  6. The Influence of the Economy on Hospitality Industry in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Influence of the Economy on Hospitality Industry in Nigeria. ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ... contributions of the hospitality industry (represented by Hotels and Restaurants) to the Nigerian economy (represented by the Gross Domestic Products – GDP) and the GDP itself from 1980 ...

  7. Physicians under the influence: social psychology and industry marketing strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, Sunita; Fugh-Berman, Adriane

    2013-01-01

    Pharmaceutical and medical device companies apply social psychology to influence physicians' prescribing behavior and decision making. Physicians fail to recognize their vulnerability to commercial influences due to self-serving bias, rationalization, and cognitive dissonance. Professionalism offers little protection; even the most conscious and genuine commitment to ethical behavior cannot eliminate unintentional, subconscious bias. Six principles of influence - reciprocation, commitment, social proof, liking, authority, and scarcity - are key to the industry's routine marketing strategies, which rely on the illusion that the industry is a generous avuncular partner to physicians. In order to resist industry influence, physicians must accept that they are vulnerable to subconscious bias and have both the motivation and means to resist industry influence. A culture in which accepting industry gifts engenders shame rather than gratitude will reduce conflicts of interest. If greater academic prestige accrues to distant rather than close relationships with industry, then a new social norm may emerge that promotes patient care and scientific integrity. In addition to educating faculty and students about the social psychology underlying sophisticated but potentially manipulative marketing and about how to resist it, academic medical institutions should develop strong organizational policies to counteract the medical profession's improper dependence on industry. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  8. Debating Sex: Education Films and Sexual Morality for the Young in Post-War Germany, 1945-1955.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Anita

    2015-01-01

    After 1945 rapidly climbing figures of venereal disease infections menaced the health of the war-ridden German population. Physicians sought to gain control over this epidemic and initiated large-scale sex education campaigns to inform people about identification, causes and treatment of VD and advised them on appropriate moral sexual behaviour as a prophylactic measure. Film played a crucial role in these campaigns. As mass medium it was believed film could reach out to large parts of society and quickly disseminate sexual knowledge and moral codes of conduct amongst the population. This essay discusses the transition of the initial central role of sex education films in the fight against venereal disease in the immediate post-war years towards a more critical stance as to the effects of cinematographic education of the young in an East and West German context.

  9. Peculiarities of Social Insurance of Workers of the Middle Volga Steamship Line During the Post-War Restoration Period (1945-1946

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomanenko Olesya Aleksandrovna

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available During the post-war restoration the work on social insurance in river transport was intensified. It were trade unions including councils of social insurance that dealt with social problems in the Volga Steamship Lines. Trade unions exercised control over the budget of social insurance, over labor safety, etc. In the Middle Volga Steamship Line (SVRP 15 councils for social insurance functioned. They included 140 insurance agents. Their task was to decrease incidence, traumatism, and also to improve the conditions of work and life of river transport workers. Tasks of councils of a social insurance included systematic supervision over a sanitary condition of shops and territories of the industrial enterprises of the steamship line. Financial support was allocated to families of veterans with many children and families in need. Insurance delegates together with a doctor of the health center in workshops registered workers needing additional food for health reasons. Insurance delegates gave social help to patients at home and in hospital. After the end of the war comprehensive plans of improving actions were put through. Financial and food position of river transport workers improved. However in 1946 in SVRP there was a small growth of incidence again. Those who needed treatment, and also the best workers were provided with permits in sanatorium. Managements of Volga Steamship lines showed care of children of river transport workers. During thewinter period camps were decorated with New Year trees, in summer – rest was arranged. On the accounting of the trade-union organizations of the Middle Volga basin families of the lost soldiers, the military personnel, disabled veterans and demobilized consisted. As for labor protection, that, despite increase in allocations for safety measures and labor protection in 1946 at the SVRP enterprises occurred increase in accidents. So, all efforts were directed on further improvement of financial and social

  10. The alcohol industry, charities and policy influence in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyness, Sarah M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Charities exist to pursue a public benefit, whereas corporations serve the interests of their shareholders. The alcohol industry uses corporate social responsibility activities to further its interests in influencing alcohol policy. Many charities also seek to influence alcohol and other policy. The aim of this study was to explore relationships between the alcohol industry and charities in the UK and whether these relationships may be used as a method of influencing alcohol policy. Methods: The charity regulator websites for England and Wales and for Scotland were the main data sources used to identify charities involved in UK alcohol policy making processes and/or funded by the alcohol industry. Results: Five charities were identified that both receive alcohol industry funding and are active in UK alcohol policy processes: Drinkaware; the Robertson Trust; British Institute of Innkeeping; Mentor UK and Addaction. The latter two are the sole remaining non-industry non-governmental members of the controversial responsibility deal alcohol network, from which all other public health interests have resigned. Conclusion: This study raises questions about the extent to which the alcohol industry is using UK charities as vehicles to further their own interests in UK alcohol policy. Mechanisms of industry influence in alcohol policy making globally is an important target for further investigations designed to assist the implementation of evidenced-based policies. PMID:24913316

  11. Influence of industrial air pollution on crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spierings, F H.F.G.

    1957-01-01

    In an industrial area several varieties of tulips were injured by gases; other varieties were injured to a much lesser extent. This experience in the field has been tested in fumigation chambers with HF and SO2. The air in the chambers (+/- 280 cubic feet) was replaced every one or two minutes. It was found that Parrot-tulips, injured by the gases in that industrial area, were also injured by a very low concentration of HF in the chambers, whereas another variety (Preludium), which was less sensitive to the gases in the field, was not injured in the same experiments with HF. Fumigating with SO2 resulted in the same sensitivity to SO2 of both varieties of tulips. The sensitivity of these tulip varieties has been compared with that of tomato and cucumber plants; at 13 ppb (0.013 ppm) Hf in 7 hours the Parrot-tulip was the only one which was injured (injury 1 cm down from the tip). With a higher concentration (0.2 ppm in 6 hours) Preludium was also injured, tomato and cucumber plants were not. In some areas, where the possibility of gas damage to crops exists, indicator plants for HF injury (Snowprincess-gladiolus), and indicator plants for SO2 injury (alfalfa) were used in experimental fields at different distances from the factories. Near some of these fields a HF and a SO2 absorption apparatus were placed, which absorb the HF resp. SO2 from the air. After one month exposure to the air the absorbent from each apparatus is replaced, and the HF- resp. SO2 content of the absorbent analyzed in the laboratory. Together with the analysis of the leaf samples from the trial plots for HF and SO2 content and the extent of injury of the gladiolus and alfalfa on the different fields it gives an impression of the contamination of the air with HF or SO2.

  12. The implementation of the neighbourhood unit concept in the Western Garden Cities in Amsterdam in the early post-war period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mens, E.H.M.; Hein, Carola

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses the way the General Expansion Plan for Amsterdam was modified after 1945 to accommodate the principles of the neighborhood unit concept, using the Western Garden Cities as a case study. The purpose is to evaluate continuities and discontinuities between per-war and post-war

  13. Learning Peace (and Conflict): The Role of Primary Learning Materials in Peacebuilding in Post-War Afghanistan, South Sudan and Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanner, Catherine; Akseer, Spogmai; Kovinthan, Thursica

    2017-01-01

    Post-war education is usually considered a positive contributor to peacebuilding; however, it can also reinforce divisive perspectives. Textbooks and learning materials can be instrumental in maintaining or exacerbating existing inequalities. This paper uses case study literature reviews of Afghanistan, South Sudan and Sri Lanka to explore the…

  14. Hooked on a New Technology: The Automation Pioneers in Post-War Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stig Kvaal

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the initial activities in servo engineering in Norway originating in the early 1950s based on contacts at the Massachusets Institute of Technology. The activities were initiated by a small group of servo enthusiasts who, through the Feedback Control Committee in the research council, managed to coordinate national activities and establish strong research groups in Trondheim, Bergen and Oslo. After the initial phase of establishing the research groups, there was a continuous strong focus on connections with industry and industrial applications. In the mid-1960s the committee was strengthened and became the Automation and Data Processing Committee. The initial group of automation pioneers have left a lasting impact on the academic and industrial fields of servo engineering and automation in Norway.

  15. Canada's Post-war Manufacturing Performance : A Comparison with the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, Gjalt

    1996-01-01

    This study uses the ‘industry of origin’ approach to calculate 200 unit value ratios for the benchmark year 1987 which are used to convert the output value in Canada and the United States into a common currency.In 1987, Canada's comparative labor productivity was 77.4 per cent, measured in persons

  16. Nuclear Energy Futures: the Appropriation of the 'Atomic Age' in post-war Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, F.

    2015-01-01

    While recent scholarship in Science and Technology Studies and Science and Technology Policy carved out that techno-scientific developments take distinct national styles and shapes, less attention has been payed to such differences in the scholarship on nuclear history in Austria. In the context of the struggles over the non-commissioning of the already completed nuclear power plant at Zwentendorf (1978) and in the aftermath of the reactor explosion in Chernobyl (1986) the formation of a specific technopolitical identity, revolving around the sociotechnical imaginary of keeping nuclear technologies out of Austrian territory, has been observed. At the backdrop of this imaginary the history of nuclear enthusiasm in Austria is only present in narratives about how 'the people' have resisted and rejected the implementation of nuclear technologies in Austria and thus overcome u nreasonable promises of the so called atomic age . On the other hand historical scholarship shows that Austria has a long history of nuclear research and nuclear (power) policy that was hardly questioned until the early 1970s. Departing from this discrepancy this master thesis investigates the appropriation of the 'atomic age' in Austria in the mid 1950s. When US President Dwight D. Eisenhower gave his famous Atoms for Peace address in front of the UN General Assembly in late 1953 global nuclear enthusiasm in the immediate post--war era reached a new highpoint. Analyzing the following developments in Austria until late 1955 - of which the formation of an Austrian Commission on Atomic Energy and the participation in the UN Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy are to be considered milestones - thus enables me to observe how the appropriation of the 'atomic age' was deeply entangled with imaginations of national collectivity and different forms of imagining the future. In reference to the broader frameworks of 'appropriating' science and technology

  17. Industrial influences on R&D transfer to China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Peder Veng

    2010-01-01

    , and innovation theory, which is illustrated in two cases from globally leading MNCs from different industries and technological fields which have established R&D units in China. It addresses the issue of industrial influences on R&D transfer to emerging markets, and the importance of complementary assets...... the argument that complementary assets are important for R&D in emerging markets. Implications for management in China are outlined. The term captive knowledge transfer is coined....

  18. Rebuilding community resilience in a post-war context: developing insight and recommendations - a qualitative study in Northern Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somasundaram, Daya; Sivayokan, Sambasivamoorthy

    2013-01-11

    Individuals, families and communities in Northern Sri Lanka have undergone three decades of war trauma, multiple displacements, and loss of family, kin, friends, homes, employment and other valued resources. The objective of the study was understanding common psychosocial problems faced by families and communities, and the associated risk and protective factors, so that practical and effective community based interventions can be recommended to rebuild strengths, adaptation, coping strategies and resilience. This qualitative, ecological study is a psychosocial ethnography in post-war Northern Sri Lanka obtained through participant observation; case studies; key- informant interviews; and focus groups discussions with mental health and psychosocial community workers as well as literature survey of media and organizational reports. Qualitative analysis of the data used ethnography, case studies, phenomenology, grounded theory, hermeneutics and symbolic interactionism techniques. Quantitative data on suicide was collected for Jaffna and Killinochchi districts. Complex mental health and psychosocial problems at the individual, family and community levels in a post-war context were found to impair recovery. These included unresolved grief; individual and collective trauma; insecurity, self-harm and suicides; poverty and unemployment; teenage and unwanted pregnancies; alcoholism; child abuse and neglect; gender based violence and vulnerability including domestic violence, widows and female headed-household, family conflict and separation; physical injuries and handicap; problems specific for children and elderly; abuse and/or neglect of elderly and disabled; anti-social and socially irresponsible behaviour; distrust, hopelessness, and powerlessness. Protective factors included families; female leadership and engagement; cultural and traditional beliefs, practices and rituals; and creative potential in narratives, drama and other arts. Risk factors that were impeding

  19. Rebuilding community resilience in a post-war context: developing insight and recommendations - a qualitative study in Northern Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Individuals, families and communities in Northern Sri Lanka have undergone three decades of war trauma, multiple displacements, and loss of family, kin, friends, homes, employment and other valued resources. The objective of the study was understanding common psychosocial problems faced by families and communities, and the associated risk and protective factors, so that practical and effective community based interventions can be recommended to rebuild strengths, adaptation, coping strategies and resilience. Methods This qualitative, ecological study is a psychosocial ethnography in post-war Northern Sri Lanka obtained through participant observation; case studies; key- informant interviews; and focus groups discussions with mental health and psychosocial community workers as well as literature survey of media and organizational reports. Qualitative analysis of the data used ethnography, case studies, phenomenology, grounded theory, hermeneutics and symbolic interactionism techniques. Quantitative data on suicide was collected for Jaffna and Killinochchi districts. Results Complex mental health and psychosocial problems at the individual, family and community levels in a post-war context were found to impair recovery. These included unresolved grief; individual and collective trauma; insecurity, self-harm and suicides; poverty and unemployment; teenage and unwanted pregnancies; alcoholism; child abuse and neglect; gender based violence and vulnerability including domestic violence, widows and female headed-household, family conflict and separation; physical injuries and handicap; problems specific for children and elderly; abuse and/or neglect of elderly and disabled; anti-social and socially irresponsible behaviour; distrust, hopelessness, and powerlessness. Protective factors included families; female leadership and engagement; cultural and traditional beliefs, practices and rituals; and creative potential in narratives, drama and other arts. Risk

  20. Same strategy different industry: corporate influence on public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelley, Donna; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Elbel, Brian

    2014-04-01

    In March 2013 a state judge invalidated New York City's proposal to ban sales of sugar-sweetened beverages larger than 16 ounces; the case is under appeal. This setback was attributable in part to opposition from the beverage industry and racial/ethnic minority organizations they support. We provide lessons from similar tobacco industry efforts to block policies that reduced smoking prevalence. We offer recommendations that draw on the tobacco control movement's success in thwarting industry influence and promoting public health policies that hold promise to improve population health.

  1. Reading, Writing and Radicalism: Right-Wing Women and Education in the Post-War Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benowitz, June Melby

    2009-01-01

    The headlines "Who's Trying to Ruin Our Schools?" and "Danger's Ahead in the Public Schools" grabbed the attention of the American public during the early 1950s as mainstream publications reacted to efforts by right-wing organizations to influence the curricula of America's elementary and secondary schools. "A bewildering disease that threatens to…

  2. Depleted uranium. A post-war disaster for environment and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, P.; Fahey, D.; Bertell, R.; Robicheau, D.; Bristow, R.; Arbuthnot, F.; Van der Keur, H.

    1999-05-01

    In the course of the preparations for the The Hague Appeal for Peace '99 conference in the Netherlands, Laka decided to make a brochure about the use of depleted uranium in conventional weaponry and its consequences. The idea was born because of the short time reserved during the session for the presentation of all details about depleted uranium (DU). Although the word 'depleted uranium' may suggest no harmful impact from radiation, this brochure will clarify the real radiotoxic (and chemotoxic) properties of DU. Laka asked several 'insiders' to take part in the completion of the brochure. Thanks to their efforts, we have been able to present well-documented articles for activists, scientists, scholars and students to share with them valuable information about the hazardous impact of DU contamination and its consequences on human health and the environment. Taking notice of the growing military use of DU, we must consider not only the increased threats of radioactive battlefields but also the whole dirty cycle in the uranium industry connected with the DU technology and its impact on health and the environment in the surroundings of test areas and in the uranium industry itself. The contents of all the contributions are under the responsibility of the authors.The titles of the contributions are (1) Depleted uranium. A by-product of the nuclear chain; (2) Depleted uranium weapons. Lessons from the 1991 Gulf War; (3) Gulf War veterans and depleted uranium; (4) The next testing site for depleted uranium weaponry; (5) Depleted uranium. The thoughts of the first British Gulf War veteran to be tested for, and found to be poisoned with depleted uranium; (6) The health of the Iraqi people; (7) Uranium pollution from the amsterdam 1992 plane crash; and (8) an overview od organizations involved in campaigns against depleted uranium. refs

  3. An exploration of reminiscence and post-war European immigrants living in a multicultural aged-care setting in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Cherie; Schmidt, Rachael

    2009-01-01

    This phenomenological study explores the experiences and perceptions of the telling of life stories of four post-war immigrants living in a multicultural residential aged-care setting in Australia. This study aims to shed light on what participants feel about life stories, and the prospect of involvement in the documentation of their life story in order to provide insight and understanding for optimum programme facilitation and better resident care.Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the four participants. Data were audiotaped and transcribed. Phenomenological methods were used to explicate data.Three main themes emerged: diminution of guilt, social sharing - common bonds and, the urge to 'feel' the past to 'fill' the present. It is apparent that aged survivors of war, and displacement to a new country, feel residual guilt regarding the leaving of their homeland. The prospect of documenting their life stories offers an opportunity to provide an explanation for their decision.Immersion in life stories allows the re-experiencing and sharing of past emotions and sensations. Engagement in occupational reminiscence enhances understanding a person's lived life experience, which adds meaning to one's life. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. [The two (and more) cultures of the "clone". Utopia and fiction in post-war discourses of life sciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Christina

    2009-01-01

    Since the late 1950s, "two cultures" has become a catch phrase for describing a deep divide between science and literature. When Charles P. Snow, who initiated this discussion, introduced the notion of "two cultures" in a lecture at the University in Cambridge in 1959, he referred to an incompatibility of scientific and literary worldviews in Western Societies. His thesis of two contradicting cultures immediately received a huge variety of different responses from philosophers, scientists, novelists and literary scholars. However, this article argues that this widespread debate was part of a broader post-war discourse on the impact of modern science on society, in which especially the idea of "scientific progress" was at stake. Central to this debate was the question of how scientific and technological progress could affect the notion of the "human" itself. The paper analyses the emerging discourse on cloning against this background. The constitutive role of fiction and imagination in both fields, science and literature, is explored by tracing the scientific, utopian and literary cultures in which figures of human clones have taken different shapes since the 1960s. At that time, scientists developed utopian views in which the "clone" became a metaphor for future possibilities of transcending and reshaping the human nature. Science fiction writers reacted to this by portraying the human clone as an individual and by depicting human clone figures in a psychological way

  5. Generation Gap in the Plays of the First Post-war Years in West and East Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anzhela Rafizovna Lisenko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author deals with dramatic art of West and East Germany in the first post-war years and studies the issue of fathers and sons in works “The Man Outside” (“Draußen vor der Tür” by W. Borchert (1947, West Germany and “Wie Tiere des Waldes” by F. Wolf (1948, East Germany. The main topic of both plays is the war issue, the motive of guilt and responsibility growing into a generation gap. The representatives of the younger generation try to find out how their “fathers” could let fascism and war happen, why the “children” who had gone to war were forced to kill and to be killed. In the setting of the main conflict the one with authorities and God in both plays arises, there is an issue of depreciation of human life, a madness issue. As a result of comparison of plays the author comes to a conclusion that despite the common topic and the main conflict of plays the resolution becomes different. The play of East German F. Wolf has a more optimistic nature. The total hopelessness of a situation is observed in the work of Borchert. It is probably connected with the fact that optimism and belief in better future were important components of the socialist ideology and the principle of a socialist realism dominating in East Germany.

  6. Globalisation of tobacco industry influence and new global responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yach, D.; Bettcher, D.

    2000-01-01

    The globalisation of tobacco marketing, trade, research, and industry influence represents a major threat to public health worldwide. Drawing upon tobacco industry strategy documents prepared over several decades, this paper will demonstrate how the tobacco industry operates as a global force, regarding the world as its operating market by planning, developing, and marketing its products on a global scale. The industry has used a wide range of methods to buy influence and power, and penetrate markets across the world. It has an annual turnover of almost US$400 billion. In contrast, until recently tobacco control lacked global leadership and strategic direction and had been severely underfunded. As part of moving towards a more sustainable form of globalisation, a global enabling environment linked to local actions should focus on the following strategies: global information management; development of nationally and locally grounded action; global regulation, legal instruments, and foreign policy; and establishment of strong partnerships with purpose. As the vector of the tobacco epidemic, the tobacco industry's actions fall far outside of the boundaries of global corporate responsibility. Therefore, global and local actions should not provide the tobacco industry with the two things that it needs to ensure its long term profitability: respectability and predictability.


Keywords: globalisation of tobacco marketing PMID:10841858

  7. Source position error influence on industry CT image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cong Peng; Li Zhipeng; Wu Haifeng

    2004-01-01

    Based on the emulational exercise, the influence of source position error on industry CT (ICT) image quality was studied and the valuable parameters were obtained for the design of ICT. The vivid container CT image was also acquired from the CT testing system. (authors)

  8. Factor Influencing Creative Industries Development in Kenjeran Surabaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswanto, V. K.; Santoso, E. B.

    2017-07-01

    Indonesia needs to improve the competitiveness of local products to optimize its contribution to the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) for the welfare of the population. This can be done by improving the development of creative industries. Kenjeran Sub District is one of the coastal villages in the city of Surabaya, which has a large number of poor people. The potential of the creative industries is still not visible in efforts to increase public welfare. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the factors that influence the development of creative industries in Kenjeran. This study using in-depth interview were analysed using content analysis and Cartesian diagram to determine the important factors that affect the development of creative industries in Sub district of Kenjeran. By using five respondents from the government shows that the factors that have a high level of importance and advantages are low among other regulatory factors of raw materials, import and export, extortion, and administrative procedures.

  9. World War II, post-war reconstruction and British women chemists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrocks, Sally

    2011-07-01

    This paper draws on evidence from a range of sources to consider the extent to which World War II served as a turning point in the employment opportunities open to women chemists in Britain. It argues that wartime conditions expanded women's access to some areas of employment, but that these opportunities represented, in many ways, an expansion of existing openings rather than wholly new ones, and not all of them proved permanent. Instead, women chemists benefited more permanently from increased state expenditure on higher education and on research and development after the war. This enabled some women to remain in what had originally been temporary wartime posts and others to secure employment in wholly new positions. Women were most successful in securing positions created by the expansion of state welfare and support for agriculture, but also found new employment opportunities as a result of the heavy investment in weapons development that accelerated with the advent of the Cold War. In higher education, an initial expansion of openings was not sustained, and the proportion of women in university chemistry departments actually fell during the second half of the 1950s. Industry presents a rather ambiguous picture, with many firms continuing to refuse to employ women chemists, whereas elsewhere they enjoyed enhanced opportunities and better salaries than those offered before the war. This did not mean, however, that women chemists received equal treatment to their male colleagues, and, despite the changes, they remained concentrated in subordinate positions and were expected to concentrate on routine work. Prospects in the 1950s were certainly better than they had been during the 1930s, but they remained strongly gendered.

  10. Housing the Citizen-Consumer in Post-war Britain: The Parker Morris Report, Affluence and the Even Briefer Life of Social Democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefford, Alistair

    2018-06-01

    This article examines debates about the design and provision of post-war housing within the papers and report of the Parker Morris committee. It does so to show how the models of citizens' rights and expectations which underpinned post-war welfare provision were transformed by mass affluence and the dynamic sphere of commercial consumption. Parker Morris's deliberations demonstrate that, as early as the 1950s, the citizen-subject was reimagined as a consuming individual, with requirements based on their expressive needs and consuming desires, and that this had far-reaching consequences for social democratic systems of universal welfare provision. The introduction of consumerist imperatives into publicly defined models of citizens' needs enhanced the political and cultural authority of the commercial domain, prompted a heightened role for commercial experts and market logics within public governance, and served to devalue socialized forms of provision in favour of consumer choice in the private market. The article thus engages with the growing scholarship on the politics of mass consumerism by showing how the material and emotional comforts of post-war affluence came to be constructed as critical to social democratic citizenship and selfhood. Situating this uneasy entanglement of social democratic rights with consumer satisfaction as part of a wider trajectory of political change, the piece suggests that Parker Morris marks an early but significant moment in the transition from post-war welfarism and social democracy to the consumer- and market-oriented forms of governance which came to dominate British politics and society in the latter part of the twentieth century.

  11. Apostolate of the laity: a re-discovery of holistic post-war missiology in Scotland, with reference to the ministry of Tom Allan

    OpenAIRE

    Forsyth, Alexander Craig

    2014-01-01

    This thesis offers principles for Christian mission in the present Western milieu derived from a retrieval of the missiology in post-war Scotland of Tom Allan. Allan was a minister, evangelist and theologian of particular public prominence in Scotland and beyond in the period from 1946 to 1964. His missiology focused upon the ‘apostolate of the laity’ through the ‘contextualisation’ of Christianity and Church. It was drawn from diverse, rich sources in Scottish and European theolo...

  12. Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC) in the Oil and Gas Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovhus, Torben Lund; Eckert, Rickard

    2015-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is a serious corrosion threat that impacts the operating integrity and reliability of assets in the oil and gas, maritime, power generation, and other industries. Yet MIC is also commonly misunderstood, leading to ineffective mitigation programs, wasted...... and implement improved mitigation strategies and thereby reduce operating risk. Our experts provide guidance in applying the latest state-of-the-art molecular microbiological methods (MMM) and industry standards to properly diagnose MIC in operating assets and on failed components. With this understanding, MIC...... can be effectively addressed as part of the overall Corrosion Management System (CMS)....

  13. Anti-Halal and Anti-Animal Slaughtering Campaigns and Their Impact in Post-War Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Agus Yusoff

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the overall impact of anti-halal and anti-slaughtering campaigns in the context of post-war Sri Lanka. The reemergence of majoritarian ethno-religious anti-minority nationalist forces and their intensified anti-minority hatred and violence have made it challenging for ethno-religious minorities in Sri Lanka to engage in religious norms and duties. This is especially true for the Muslim community. Numerous Islamic fundamentals have been criticized and opposed. Muslims have had to endure threats and acts of violence. These campaigns and violent oppositions, imposed by the Buddhist-nationalist forces, have caused concern for Muslims performing their obligatory religious duties and norms. In Sri Lanka, the Muslim community has been allowed to produce halal food and slaughter animals for human consumption and religious rituals for a long period without disturbance. Unfortunately, retaliation and hatred in the post-civil war era in the country have threatened these rights. Thus, it has become imperative to investigate the motivating factors of the anti-halal and anti-animal slaughtering campaigns and violence, as well as their related impact, which is lacking in the existing literature on ethno-religious politics in the context of Sri Lanka. This study found that the anti-halal and anti-animal slaughtering campaigns and oppositions that have been intensified by the Buddhist nationalist forces were part of anti-Muslim sentiments intended to sabotage the economic pride of Muslims and undermine their religious renaissance. The study also found that these campaigns have been facilitated by the state and that continuous facilitation of the anti-Muslim sentiments and campaigns, including the anti-halal and anti-animal slaughter campaigns, would challenge the country’s economic prosperity and the rebuilding of ethno-religious harmony.

  14. Intergenerational transmission of historical memories and social-distance attitudes in post-war second-generation Croatians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svob, Connie; Brown, Norman R; Takšić, Vladimir; Katulić, Katarina; Žauhar, Valnea

    2016-08-01

    Intergenerational transmission of memory is a process by which biographical knowledge contributes to the construction of collective memory (representation of a shared past). We investigated the intergenerational transmission of war-related memories and social-distance attitudes in second-generation post-war Croatians. We compared 2 groups of young adults from (1) Eastern Croatia (extensively affected by the war) and (2) Western Croatia (affected relatively less by the war). Participants were asked to (a) recall the 10 most important events that occurred in one of their parents' lives, (b) estimate the calendar years of each, and (c) provide scale ratings on them. Additionally, (d) all participants completed a modified Bogardus Social Distance scale, as well as an (e) War Events Checklist for their parents' lives. There were several findings. First, approximately two-thirds of Eastern Croatians and one-half of Western Croatians reported war-related events from their parents' lives. Second, war-related memories impacted the second-generation's identity to a greater extent than did non-war-related memories; this effect was significantly greater in Eastern Croatians than in Western Croatians. Third, war-related events displayed markedly different mnemonic characteristics than non-war-related events. Fourth, the temporal distribution of events surrounding the war produced an upheaval bump, suggesting major transitions (e.g., war) contribute to the way collective memory is formed. And, finally, outright social ostracism and aggression toward out-groups were rarely expressed, independent of region. Nonetheless, social-distance scores were notably higher in Eastern Croatia than in Western Croatia.

  15. The influence of industrial applications on a control system toolbox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clout, P.

    1992-01-01

    Vsystem is as an open, advanced software application toolbox for rapidly creating fast, efficient and cost-effective control and data-acquisition systems. Vsystem's modular architecture is designed for single computers, networked computers and workstations running under VAX/VMS or VAX/ELN. At the heart of Vsystem lies Vaccess, a user extendible real-time database and library of access routines. The application database provides the link to the hardware of the application and can be organized as one database or separate database installed in different computers on the network. Vsystem has found application in charged-particle accelerator control, tokamak control, and industrial research, as well as its more recent industrial applications. This paper describes the broad feature of Vsystem and the influence that recent industrial applications have had on the software. (author)

  16. INFLUENCE OF MINING AND METAL INDUSTRY ON PHYSCIA LICHENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kachinskaya V.V.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The comparative analysis of lichens Physcia. Рopulation at different levels of aerotechnogenic pollution of industrial mining – metallurgical complex of Krivyi Rig Basin. In the highway area there was found the worsening living conditions of thallus at the lichens Physcia, manifested in the reduction of a projective cover and reducing of the size of thallus with the increasing of the degree of their damage. It is set that specific composition and conformities to law of distribution of cladinas is determined the type of the industrial loading. Predominance at the lichens of crustaceous cladinas, insignificant participation of fissile cladinas and complete absence of bushy forms is the possible consequence of industrial influence. We registered some 3 species of epiphytic lichens, namely Phaeophyscia nigricans, Physcia tenella, Physcia adscendens in a residential zone, while on conditional control area we found Physcia orbicularis. The dominant species was scum-like shape Phaeophyscia nigricans, Physcia adscendens, Physcia tenella, while on conditional control region we marked predominance of Physcia orbicularis and did not registered bushy lichens form. We also divided the lichens into two groups according to the resistance towards air pollution - moderate (2 species, Phaeophyscia nigricans, Physcia tenella and toxic-resistant (2 species, Physcia orbicularis, Physcia adscendens. Epiphytic lichens in terms of residential areas compared to conventionally control area characterized by a decrease of morphometric parameters of the melt. Key results can be used to predict the state of ecosystems using lichenoindication in terms of industrial regions of Ukraine.

  17. Contemporary Ideas in a Traditional Mind-Set: The Nature Conservation Movement in Post War West-Germany (1945-1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Mignon Kirchhof

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In winter 1947 the Association for the Protection of the German Forest wasfounded to prevent the eradication of the forest across Germany after sufferingwartime destruction, overuse and firewood logging. Especially the occupyingforces faced harsh criticism from the German people for their widespreaddeforestation even though it seems that the Allied Powers used the woodresources quite responsibly. This article argues that the uproar by natureconservationists, politicians and “normal people” reflected a German sense ofpowerlessness, and revealed images and convictions of the forest as a nationalsymbol that was supposedly endangered in post-war Germany. These post-wardiscussions referred back to the discourse of the 19th century, when Germanintellectuals declared the forest to be the myth of the German people anddeveloped a notion of “Heimat” that saw a close connection between nation andnature. The post-war discussions involved many of those images andconvictions. Nevertheless, the discussions were not only retrospective: they alsoreacted to the contemporary political situation and adapted their answers andsolutions accordingly.

  18. Differential roles of childhood adversities and stressful war experiences in the development of mental health symptoms in post-war adolescents in northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okello, James; De Schryver, Maarten; Musisi, Seggane; Broekaert, Eric; Derluyn, Ilse

    2014-09-09

    Previous studies have shown a relationship between stressful war experiences and mental health symptoms in children and adolescents. To date, no comprehensive studies on the role of childhood adversities have been conducted with war-exposed adolescents living in post-war, low-resource settings in Sub-Saharan Africa. A cross-sectional study of 551 school-going adolescents aged 13-21 years old was undertaken four years post-war in northern Uganda. Participants completed self-administered questionnaires assessing demographics, stressful war experiences, childhood adversities, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety symptoms. Our analyses revealed a main effect of gender on all mental health outcomes except avoidance symptoms, with girls reporting higher scores than boys. Stressful war experiences were associated with all mental health symptoms, after adjusting for potential confounders. Childhood adversity was independently associated with depression symptoms but not PTSD, anxiety, and PTSD cluster symptoms. However, in situations of high childhood adversity, our analyses showed that stressful war experiences were less associated with vulnerability to avoidance symptoms than in situations of low childhood adversity. Both stressful war experiences and childhood adversities are risk factors for mental health symptoms among war-affected adolescents. Adolescents with histories of high childhood adversities may be less likely to develop avoidance symptoms in situations of high stressful war experiences. Further exploration of the differential roles of childhood adversities and stressful war experiences is needed.

  19. An exploration study on factors influencing Iranian food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Hosseinzadeh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The proposed study of this paper present an empirical investigation to detect important factors impacting on food market using factor analysis. The proposed study designed a questionnaire, distributed among 207 customers who were regular customers of two food chains in city of Tehran, Iran named Shahrvand and Hyperstar. The results of our survey indicate that six major factors including brand loyalty, physical characteristics, pricing effects, performance characteristics, brand relationship and brand position influence food industry, significantly. In terms of the first factor, brand loyalty, “Trust”, “Packaging design characteristics”, “Competitive pricing strategy”, “Stability in quality”, “External relationships” and “Meeting expectations” are important factors in different categories.

  20. An examination of the variables influencing the fuel retail industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sartorius

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose/objectives: The objective of the study is to contribute to a better understanding of the key variables that influence the profitability of this sector, as well as to develop a reliable model to predict retail fuel sales volumes in an urban setting. Problem investigated: South African fuel retail outlets are confronted by a wide range of variables that constrain profit and a significant number of outlets are not profitable. In the event of further deregulation, it is conceivable that many fuel stations will go out of business. Methodology: A combination of a quantitative and a case study methodology, in conjunction with a literature review, was used to test the principal research questions. Findings/implications: The results suggest that location significantly influences urban retail fuel sales volumes whilst fuel station size and the fuel price play a lesser role. Other significant factors, however, also influence fuel station profitability. The demand for petrol appears to be relatively inelastic in the short term and more elastic over the long term. Conversely, the demand for diesel appears to be completely inelastic. Value: The article promotes a better understanding of the cost dynamics of the fuel industry. In this regard, the model constructed to predict urban fuel station turnover indicated high levels of reliability. Furthermore, few comparable studies have been published in accounting journals. Conclusion: The study concludes that urban petrol stations selling more than 370 000 liters of fuel per month are likely to be profitable and that location is a key variable influencing sales. In the event of deregulation, many operators are likely to be eliminated because of high levels of competition and low profit margins. An even greater number of fuel stations, therefore, will be reliant on non forecourt activities to survive.

  1. How clients influence building projects - a comparison of the construction industry and the petroleum industry in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Evju, Mads; Mai, Nam Bao Nguyen

    2014-01-01

    Master's thesis in Industrial economics Several studies indicate the need for competence and quality improvement in the Norwegian construction industry. Findings show that diversity in client groups can lead to different levels of competence. This poses many challenges to the industry and those involved, all of which will be highlighted in this thesis. The objective of this thesis is to provide an understanding of how clients’ levels of competence and focus can influence the final resu...

  2. Industrial Policy Formulation and its Impact on Foreign Investment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Second World War turned industrial capital outwards in the United States and the scientific and technological changes in the post-war period led to the expansion of American private capital investment particularly in the Third World countries. The private sector in the United States became a vital sector for the expansion ...

  3. The Canadian refining Industry : The circle of influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, W.R.

    1998-01-01

    Examples of how the downstream petroleum industry is influenced by events in the upstream petroleum sector were presented. In order to survive, Canadian refiners (downstream petroleum) must remain competitive with their domestic counterparts, with the U.S. and with offshore refiners who can import products into key Eastern markets. The downstream sector has little choice but to focus on crude costs and flexibility to try to improve the profitability of its operations. In Canada, the supply of both conventional and bitumen crude oil has increased significantly. This change in the supply and demand balance has had a definite impact on prices. Ample Canadian heavy crude supply has caused refiners to adjust their operations to take advantage of lower-cost crude oil. The result has been the announcement of several large-scale projects, such as for example Shell Oil's construction of an upgrader at their Scotsford plant. The North American pipeline system is the link between the upstream supply and the downstream demand. New pipeline projects have allowed increased supplies of Canadian heavy crude to gain access to new markets. It was emphasized that the downstream sector provides feedback to the upstream sector that influences producers when they plan their exploration, development and production activities. The picture in light crude production is the reverse of heavy crude oil production, i.e. Canadian light crude supply declined 4 per cent in 1996 from the average of the previous three years. This decline has given synthetic crude oil facilities like Syncrude and GCOS the chance to expand their production to offset a portion of the inland crude supply shortfall. 5 figs

  4. The Journal as a European Space in Post-War Paris: the Fédération des étudiants nationalistes and Cahiers universitaires, 1961-1963

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh McDonnell

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the Fédération des étudiants nationalistes (FEN and its journal Cahiers universitaires between 1961 and 1963 in the context of post-war Parisian political and intellectual life. These dates encompass the launch of the journal and the loss of French Algeria - a fundamental preoccupation of the group. The group's militancy on behalf of the maintenance of France's three North African départements was interwoven with its far right political orientation and its striking conceptualisation of Europe. This article analyses five strands of discourse about Europe that recur in the journal: a Europe of nationalism, a Europe of imperialism, a Europe of hierarchy, a Europe defined against materialism, and a Europe of youth. I will argue that these different conceptions of Europe are closely interconnected.

  5. Anti-Muslim Sentiments and Violence: A Major Threat to Ethnic Reconciliation and Ethnic Harmony in Post-War Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athambawa Sarjoon

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Following the military defeat of LTTE terrorism in May 2009, the relationship between ethnic and religious groups in Sri Lanka became seriously fragmented as a result of intensified anti-minority sentiments and violence. Consequently, the ethnic Muslims (Moors became the major target in this conflict. The major objective of this study is to critically evaluate the nature and the impact of the anti-Muslim sentiments expressed and violence committed by the extreme nationalist forces during the process of ethnic reconciliation in post-war Sri Lanka. The findings of the study reveal that, with the end of civil war, Muslims have become “another other” and also the target of ethno-religious hatred and violence from the vigilante right-wing ethno-nationalist forces that claim to be protecting the Sinhala-Buddhist nation, race, and culture in Sri Lanka. These acts are perpetrated as part of their tactics aimed to consolidate a strong Sinhala-Buddhist nation—and motivated by the state. Furthermore, the recourse deficit and lack of autonomy within the organizational hierarchy of the Buddhist clergy have motivated the nationalist monks to engage in politics and promote a radical anti-minority rhetoric. This study recommends institutional and procedural reforms to guide and monitor the activities of religious organizations, parties, and movements, together with the teaching of religious tolerance, as the preconditions for ethnic reconciliation and ethnic harmony in post-war Sri Lanka. This study has used only secondary data, which are analyzed in a descriptive and interpretive manner.

  6. ["They are enjoying their first holiday ever"--working with the elderly, from the post-war years up to the early 1970s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matron, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    While, in the post-war years and into the 1950s, the building of old people's and care homes and the allocation of home places in those homes was seen as the main task of municipal care institutions for the elderly in Frankfurt am Main, in the decade that followed their main task shifted towards increasing the possibilities of providing care in people's own homes, delaying the move into old people's homes and breaking through the loneliness that elderly people were presumed to experience. Supported by the state, community housing was provided with flats for elderly people and with carers to look after their needs. The "warm rooms" of the post-war period changed into clubs, where members met and received guidance. In the late 1960s the clubs were extended into day-care centres, offering a range of consultation services, organized day trips and recreational holidays for the elderly. It was hoped that "meals-on-wheels" in combination with age-appropriate living conditions would delay the move into a home. But these plans were not adequately developed in the 1960s and often it was not clear who would pay the bills. The same was true of outpatient medical care which had traditionally been the task of community nurses, but was now increasingly carried out by local authority carers, who also provided household assistance. This kind of care could only ever be given for a limited period of time and, while it was able to delay the move into an old people's home, it could not replace it.

  7. Improving human performance: Industry factors influencing the ability to perform

    OpenAIRE

    Güera Massyn Romo

    2013-01-01

    Learning interventions and new technologies that aim to improve human performance must take cognisance of industry factors inhibiting human performance. The dynamic and fast pace nature of the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and the engineering industries do not lend themselves to proper skills planning and management. These industries experience real skills gaps, to some of which they contribute by themselves. This study reports on these performance-inhibiting factors such a...

  8. [25 Years After Re-Unification of Germany: An Overview on Eastern German Psychiatry. Part 1: Post-War Era, Pavlovization, Psychopharmacological Era and Social Psychiatric Reform Movement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, H

    2016-04-01

    This is the first of a 2-part study on the history of psychiatry in Eastern Germany, i. e. the Soviet Occupied Zone and later German Democratic Republic. It mainly covers the years post World War II up until the beginning of the 1970s. The first post-war years were determined by the new power holders' attempts to overcome National Socialist (Nazi) heritage and to re-organize mental health and care in general. The doctrine of a strict denazifization in East Germany must, however, be regarded as a myth. Promoted by centralized organization, there was an increase in communist party-ideological influence and harassment as well as aligning scientific views and research with Soviet paradigms (Pavlovization) during the 1950s and early 1960s. This, however, led to an enormous rise in exodus of skilled labor to West Germany, which in turn further increased the notorious lack of staff. After the erection of the inner-German wall, this problem was mitigated, yet never fully solved over the 40 years of the existence of the GDR. Despite adverse conditions, East German psychiatrists made major original contributions to the development of psychiatry in general, at least up until the 1960s. Academic psychiatry was mainly based on biological concepts that were further promoted by new somatic and psychopharmacological therapeutic options. In the 1960s, social psychiatric reformist forces emerged, primarily in the large psychiatric hospitals. The improvements achieved by these forces, however, were not implemented on a nation-wide scale, but mainly restricted to one particular or several institutions. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. (Un)Told Stories of Post-War Prostitution: Challenging Hegemonic Narratives on Human Trafficking and Peacekeeping in Kosovo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wildt, R.

    2018-01-01

    Sex industries worldwide tend to flourish during United Nations (UN) peacekeeping missions. The hegemonic discourse claims that women engaged in prostitution in the context of peacekeeping missions are singular victims of trafficking who meet the demand of peacekeepers. The suggestion that UN

  10. Influencing Factors of Catering and Food Service Industry Based on Principal Component Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zi Tang

    2014-01-01

    Scientific analysis of influencing factors is of great importance for the healthy development of catering and food service industry. This study attempts to present a set of critical indicators for evaluating the contribution of influencing factors to catering and food service industry in the particular context of Harbin City, Northeast China. Ten indicators that correlate closely with catering and food service industry were identified and performed by the principal component analysis method u...

  11. Tobacco industry sociological programs to influence public beliefs about smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landman, Anne; Cortese, Daniel K; Glantz, Stanton

    2008-02-01

    The multinational tobacco companies responded to arguments about the social costs of smoking and hazards of secondhand smoke by quietly implementing the Social Costs/Social Values project (1979-1989), which relied upon the knowledge and authoritative power of social scientists to construct an alternate cultural repertoire of smoking. Social scientists created and disseminated non-health based, pro-tobacco arguments without fully acknowledging their relationship with the industry. After the US Surgeon General concluded that nicotine was addictive in 1988, the industry responded by forming "Associates for Research in the Science of Enjoyment" (c.1988-1999), whose members toured the world promoting the health benefits of the use of legal substances, including tobacco, for stress relief and relaxation, without acknowledging the industry's role. In this paper we draw on previously secret tobacco industry documents, now available on the Internet to show how both of these programs utilized academic sociologists, political scientists, anthropologists, psychologists, philosophers and economists, and allowed the industry to develop and widely disseminate friendly research through credible channels. Strategies included creating favorable surveys and opinions, infusing them into the lay press and media through press releases, articles and conferences, publishing, promoting and disseminating books, commissioning and placing favorable book reviews, providing media training for book authors and organizing media tours. These programs allowed the tobacco industry to affect public and academic discourse on the social acceptability of smoking.

  12. Improving human performance: Industry factors influencing the ability to perform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güera Massyn Romo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Learning interventions and new technologies that aim to improve human performance must take cognisance of industry factors inhibiting human performance. The dynamic and fast pace nature of the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT and the engineering industries do not lend themselves to proper skills planning and management. These industries experience real skills gaps, to some of which they contribute by themselves. This study reports on these performance-inhibiting factors such as the underutilisation of available skills, tolerance for individual preferences, and dynamically, and informally refining a role objective while an employee is occupying a certain role. The important professional skills required by individuals to cope with these real life factors are also explored in the skills gaps management context. Moreover, these industries need a profile they refer to as Special Forces, which denotes a high calibre of worker that possesses well-developed professional skills whilst having advanced technical expertise and sufficient experience. This resource profile is required largely due to the poor management of human resource processes in practice and the current reported lack of adequate skills. Furthermore, this study refers to the recent lack of a working definition for these Special Forces leading to the omitted active development of these profiles in industry today, which appears to become a key human performance inhibiting factor.

  13. \tFactors Influencing Growth of Cottage Industry in Punjab, Pakistan: Cottage Industry Owners’ Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Hussain Haider

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author has tried to highlight the factors, which determine growth of cottage industry in province of the Punjab. A questionnaire has been developed to check the significance of different variables that have already been examined in different prior studies on the matter in different countries. The respondents were owners of cottage industries selected randomly, from rural and urban areas of the Punjab. The findings of the study will help the government of Pakistan to take necessary actions to protect cottage industry of Pakistan. The study will also help the owners of cottage industry to identify the factors, they must focus to promote their business. Thus, the research findings have its implications in twofold; primarily for the policy makers to help the cottage industry for its survival and growth and secondly for the owners of cottage industry to stress only on the most relevant factors. On the basis of data collected it has been observed that five variables have significant impact over the growth of cottage industry of Pakistan.

  14. Tobacco industry strategies for influencing European Community tobacco advertising legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Mark; Bitton, Asaf; Glantz, Stanton

    2002-04-13

    Restrictions on tobacco company advertising and sponsorship are effective parts of tobacco control programmes worldwide. Through Council Directive 98/43/EC, the European Community (EC) sought to end all tobacco advertising and sponsorship in EC member states by 2006. Initially proposed in 1989, the directive was adopted in 1998, and was annulled by the European Court of Justice in 2000 following a protracted lobbying campaign against the directive by a number of interested organisations including European tobacco companies. A new advertising directive was proposed in May, 2001. We reviewed online collections of tobacco industry documents from US tobacco companies made public under the US Master Settlement Agreement of 1998. Documents reviewed dated from 1978 to 1994 and came from Philip Morris, R J Reynolds, and Brown and Williamson (British American Tobacco) collections. We also obtained approximately 15,000 pages of paper records related to British American Tobacco from its documents' depository in Guildford, UK. This information was supplemented with information in the published literature and consultations with European tobacco control experts. The tobacco industry lobbied against Directive 98/43/EC at the level of EC member state governments as well as on a pan-European level. The industry sought to prevent passage of the directive within the EC legislature, to substitute industry-authored proposals in place of the original directive, and if necessary to use litigation to prevent implementation of the directive after its passage. The tobacco industry sought to delay, and eventually defeat, the EC directive on tobacco advertising and sponsorship by seeking to enlist the aid of figures at the highest levels of European politics while at times attempting to conceal the industry's role. An understanding of these proposed strategies can help European health advocates to pass and implement effective future tobacco control legislation.

  15. Influences of VSAT network on the economical and industrial development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancrenon, B.; Lorent, P.

    1990-10-01

    The adaptable, rapidly assembled and operational VSAT (very small aperature terminal) satellite network is a tool which rapidly provides essential digital infrastructure for business communication networks in order to support and stimulate the development of modern industry. A market analysis is given for VSATs, discussing such topics as applications of the product, retail and distribution, banking finance, and manufacturing industry. The centralized booking of the tourism transport sector is also investigated. The network including the earth stations, the satellite, the systems aspects, and the network management is described in detail and diagrams are provided. Some estimates of space channel cost per year are given.

  16. Competing Explanations in the Evolution of the Danish Furniture Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    This article assesses the credibility and relative economic importance of the many real and proposed unique development events in the Post-War evolution of the Danish furniture industry by means of available trade and production time series. It finds first, that the Danish industry experienced its...... only exceptional growth event compared to other developed country furniture industries in the 1950s. It is argued that this establishes as the leading causal candidates for the Danish economic specialisation in furniture; subsidised export marketing of Danish Modern style in the US and the War......-undamaged Danish industry’s opportunistic exploitation of recovering European Post-War furniture markets. Second, the apparent prominence of particle board manufacture in today’s industry is a Danish specialisation with its origin in the 1950s growth event. Third, while there is much evidence that IKEA became...

  17. Integrating Life Cycle Energy into the Design of Façade Refurbishment for a Post-War Residential Building in The Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paressa Loussos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The existing building stock has been in the focus of European Union policies for energy savings. Nevertheless, energy certification schemes refer mostly to operational energy and usually do not consider aspects related to the life cycle of the building. To look at the overall energy cost during the lifespan of a building, the energy used to produce and assemble the building materials also needs to be included. This paper develops a design methodology for existing residential buildings that aims at decreasing the life cycle energy use as much as possible. This approach was applied on a case study of an existing post-war residential building in Utrecht, The Netherlands. The main focus of this study is to find a design solution for façade retrofitting that considers both embodied and operational energy. The design approach is based on comparing different strategies for the use of façade materials. This design methodology can be replicated in other projects, as the conclusions and recommendations can also be used for future refurbishment projects for which a low operational energy and materials with a low embodied energy are desired.

  18. Economic evaluation of a bio-psycho-social intervention for comorbid disorders in a traumatized population in post-war Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei-Lun; Andersen, Carit Jacques; Berisha, Besa Shatri; Estrup, Olena; Wang, Shr-Jie

    2018-05-08

    Post-hoc economic evaluation of a bio-psycho-social intervention in post-war Kosovo from a societal perspective. Cost-effectiveness analysis, cost-utility analysis, and partial cost-benefit analysis using data from a randomized controlled trial. Thirty-four torture/war victims with comorbid conditions enrolled in 2012-2013. Participants were randomly assigned to an "intervention" and a "waiting-list" group. Changes in mental, emotional and physical health and functional impairment were assessed before and after treatment, along with increase in labour income as a proxy for productivity gain. The cost of an extra unit of effectiveness and an additional quality-adjusted life year were calculated. The total cost per participant was €1,322 including, or €1,019 excluding, research costs. Wide variations in costs of changes in mental, emotional and physical effectiveness were demonstrated. Multidisciplinary intervention resulted in functional improvement at a cost of €10,508 per quality-adjusted life year gained. With a mean monthly income increase to €133 (18%) after intervention, the intervention cost per participant would be equal to the total increase in monthly income after 4-5 years, assuming the increased level is maintained. Socio-economic benefit associated with quality-adjusted life year gain is shown, although the cost of an additional quality-adjusted life year is above the World Health Organization cost-effectiveness threshold.

  19. Economic evaluation of a bio-psycho-social intervention for comorbid disorders in a traumatized population in post-war Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Lun Chang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Post-hoc economic evaluation of a bio-psycho-social intervention in post-war Kosovo from a societal perspective. Design: Cost-effectiveness analysis, cost-utility analysis, and partial cost-benefit analysis using data from a randomized controlled trial. Patients: Thirty-four torture/war victims with comorbid conditions enrolled in 2012–2013. Methods: Participants were randomly assigned to an “intervention” and a “waiting-list” group. Changes in mental, emotional and physical health and functional impairment were assessed before and after treatment, along with increase in labour income as a proxy for productivity gain. The cost of an extra unit of effectiveness and an additional quality-adjusted life year were calculated. Results: The total cost per participant was €1,322 including, or €1,019 excluding, research costs. Wide variations in costs of changes in mental, emotional and physical effectiveness were demonstrated. Multidisciplinary intervention resulted in functional improvement at a cost of €10,508 per quality-adjusted life year gained. With a mean monthly income increase to €133 (18% after intervention, the intervention cost per participant would be equal to the total increase in monthly income after 4–5 years, assuming the increased level is maintained. Conclusion: Socio-economic benefit associated with quality-adjusted life year gain is shown, although the cost of an additional quality-adjusted life year is above the World Health Organization cost-effectiveness threshold.

  20. The Third Man: comparative analysis of a science autobiography and a cinema classic as windows into post-war life sciences research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, Hub

    2015-12-01

    In 2003, biophysicist and Nobel Laureate Maurice Wilkins published his autobiography entitled The Third Man. In the preface, he diffidently points out that the title (which presents him as the 'third' man credited with the co-discovery of the structure of DNA, besides Watson and Crick) was chosen by his publisher, as a reference to the famous 1949 movie no doubt, featuring Orson Welles in his classical role as penicillin racketeer Harry Lime. In this paper I intend to show that there is much more to this title than merely its familiar ring. If subjected to a (psychoanalytically inspired) comparative analysis, multiple correspondences between movie and memoirs can be brought to the fore. Taken together, these documents shed an intriguing light on the vicissitudes of budding life sciences research during the post-war era. I will focus my comparative analysis on issues still relevant today, such as dual use, the handling of sensitive scientific information (in a moral setting defined by the tension between collaboration and competition) and, finally, on the interwovenness of science and warfare (i.e. the 'militarisation' of research and the relationship between beauty and destruction). Thus, I will explain how science autobiographies on the one hand and genres of the imagination (such as novels and movies) on the other may deepen our comprehension of tensions and dilemmas of life sciences research then and now. For that reason, science autobiographies can provide valuable input (case material) for teaching philosophy and history of science to science students.

  1. Experiences of institutions and political attitudes in post-war society | Percepciones de las instituciones y actitudes políticas de la sociedad en la posguerra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Gómez Roda

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Political attitudes and public opinion in post-war Spain are becoming the focus of increasing attention by historians. This article examines their development through ordinary people’s perceptions of Francoist institutions. Mainly based on material from the Communist Party archive concerning the situation in the province of Valencia, the main focus of the article is on the experience of the working and urban middle classes. | Las actitudes y la opinión de los españoles en la posguerra son motivo de una creciente atención por la historiografía. En este artículo se realiza una aproximación a su concreción en las percepciones de la gente común sobre las instituciones del franquismo. La documentación utilizada procede fundamentalmente del archivo histórico del Partido Comunista y el marco geográfico es la provincia de Valencia. Se presta una atención preferente a la percepción de trabajadores y clases medias urbanas.

  2. Influence of agroclimatic conditions on content of main cannabinoids in industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikora Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In a six-year field experiment eight industrial hemp varieties were examined for ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC and cannabidiol (CBD contents. The study analyzed the influence of growing degree days (GDD, soil temperature at 5 cm, air humidity, and growing season precipitation on the levels of the main cannabinoids in this crop. Agroclimatic conditions do not influence THC and CBD contents in industrial hemp in the same way. THC synthesis and accumulation are under the significant positive influence of GDD and air humidity and under the negative influence of precipitation, while soil temperature at 5 cm has no significant effect on it. Soil temperature at 5 cm has a significant positive effect on the CBD content, as do GDD. Precipitation has a negative influence on the CBD content of industrial hemp, while air humidity has no influence on it.

  3. Industrial grade versus scientific pure: Influence on melt properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, I.; Hembree, W.; Yang, F.; Busch, R.; Meyer, A.

    2018-04-01

    Viscosity, density, and the undercooling ability of the Zr-based bulk glass forming melt, which was manufactured in two different degrees of purity, have been studied. Investigations have been carried out by means of Couette rheometry and electrostatic and electromagnetic levitation with the latter under microgravity conditions. We found that oxygen and impurities present in industrial grade metals do not significantly alter the melt viscosity and density, while they clearly affect the undercooling ability. Comparing container based and containerless results showed that Couette rheometry can be applied in the temperature range between 1150 K and 1375 K, where it provides reliable data, but only at a rather low oxygen content. Higher oxygen contents, as in the case of the industrial grade alloy, cause measurement artefacts. In the case of Zr59.3Cu28.8Al10.4Nb1.5 alloys, these findings allow a better localization of the key factors dominating the glass forming ability.

  4. Factors Influencing Productivity Change in the Forest Products Industry,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-01

    y Calificaciones. Una . Prueba De La Hipotesis de Hirschman Para La Industria 1 39 . * Lationoamericana. El Trimestre Economico XLVTI(3):613-650...Association federale des Syndicates de Producterus de Papiers, Cartons et Celluloses. 1958. Organization et Productivite dans les Industries du Papier, du...Carton et de la Cellulose. Summary in: - Productivity Measurement Review 13:41-46. Atkinson, R. C. 1980. Tax Incentives and Research. Science 208:449

  5. Coping with post-war mental health problems among survivors of violence in Northern Uganda: Findings from the WAYS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amone-P'Olak, Kennedy; Omech, Bernard

    2018-05-01

    Cognitive emotion regulation strategies and mental health problems were assessed in a sample of war-affected youth in Northern Uganda. Univariable and multivariable regression models were fitted to assess the influence of CERS on mental health problems. Maladaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategies (e.g., rumination) were significantly associated with more mental health problems while adaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategies (e.g., putting into perspective) were associated with reporting fewer symptoms of mental health problems. The youth with significant scores on mental health problems (scores ≥ 85th percentile) reported more frequent use of maladaptive than adaptive strategies. Interventions to reduce mental health problems should focus on enhancing the use of adaptive strategies.

  6. The social nature of the mother's tie to her child: John Bowlby's theory of attachment in post-war America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicedo, Marga

    2011-09-01

    This paper examines the development of British psychiatrist and psychoanalyst John Bowlby's views and their scientific and social reception in the United States during the 1950s. In a 1951 report for the World Health Organization Bowlby contended that the mother is the child's psychic organizer, as observational studies of children worldwide showed that absence of mother love had disastrous consequences for children's emotional health. By the end of the decade Bowlby had moved from observational studies of children in hospitals to animal research in order to support his thesis that mother love is a biological need. I examine the development of Bowlby's views and their scientific and social reception in the United States during the 1950s, a central period in the evolution of his views and in debates about the social implications of his work. I argue that Bowlby's view that mother love was a biological need for children influenced discussions about the desirability of mothers working outside the home during the early Cold War. By claiming that the future of a child's mind is determined by her mother's heart, Bowlby's argument exerted an unusually strong emotional demand on mothers and had powerful implications for the moral valuation of maternal care and love.

  7. Factors influencing CO2 emissions in China's power industry: Co-integration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Xiaoli; Ma, Qian; Yang, Rui

    2013-01-01

    More than 40% of China's total CO 2 emissions originate from the power industry. The realization of energy saving and emission reduction within China's power industry is therefore crucial in order to achieve CO 2 emissions reduction in this country. This paper applies the autoregressive-distributed lag (ARDL) co-integration model to study the major factors which have influenced CO 2 emissions within China's power industry from 1980 to 2010. Results have shown that CO 2 emissions from China's power industry have been increasing rapidly. From 1980 to 2010, the average annual growth rate was 8.5%, and the average growth rate since 2002 has amounted to 10.5%. Secondly, the equipment utilization hour (as an indicator of the power demand) has the greatest influence on CO 2 emissions within China's power industry. In addition, the impact of the industrial added value of the power sector on CO 2 emissions is also positive from a short-term perspective. Thirdly, the Granger causality results imply that one of the important motivators behind China's technological progress, within the power industry, originates from the pressures created by a desire for CO 2 emissions reduction. Finally, this paper provides policy recommendations for energy saving and emission reduction for China's power industry. - Highlights: ► We study the major factors influencing China's power industry CO 2 emissions. ► The average annual growth rate of CO 2 emission from power industry is calculated. ► Installed capacity has the greatest influence on power industry CO 2 emission. ► The Granger causality between CO 2 emission and its effecting factors is analyzed

  8. The Influence of Emerging Markets on the Pharmaceutical Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannoury, Maya; Attieh, Zouhair

    2017-01-01

    Emerging markets represent an exceptional opportunity for the pharmaceutical industry. Although a precise definition is not yet available, economists define emerging markets as developing prosperous countries in which investment is expected to result in higher income despite high risks. Qualifying a market as emerging is not merely based on the economic status of the country, but also on several criteria that render the definition applicable to each country. Jim O'Neil, retired chairman of asset management at Goldman Sachs, identified leading economies of emerging markets: Brazil, Russia, India, and China (BRIC) and later Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa (BRICS) and then Mexico, Indonesia, South Korea, and Turkey (MIST), which followed years later as the second tier of nations. Sales of the pharmaceutical markets in BRICS and MIST countries doubled in 5 years, reaching a market share of approximately 20%. The shift toward these new markets has been attributed to the large populations, growing prosperity, and increasing life expectancy in BRICS and MIST countries. In addition, companies are experiencing flattened growth of developed markets, expiration of patents leading to the up-selling of less expensive generic drugs, and tight regulations enforced in mature markets. Particular attention must therefore be given to these emerging markets. The strategies adopted by pharmaceutical companies that want to expand in these markets must be tailored to the pace of development of each country. These countries need drugs against infectious diseases and communicable diseases such as sexually transmitted diseases. They are readily exploitable territories for the innovative products of pharmaceuticals. Nevertheless, with the increase in wealth and longevity, a change of lifestyle is occurring. These changes accompany a shift in disease patterns. A disproportionally fast rise in the incidence of noncommunicable diseases such as cardiovascular illnesses, diabetes

  9. Physicochemical characteristics, mutagenicity and genotoxicity of airborne particles under industrial and rural influences in Northern Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melki, Pamela N; Ledoux, Frédéric; Aouad, Samer; Billet, Sylvain; El Khoury, Bilal; Landkocz, Yann; Abdel-Massih, Roula M; Courcot, Dominique

    2017-08-01

    In this work, the main objectives were to assess the mutagenic and genotoxic effects of fine particulate matter collected in an industrial influenced site in comparison with a non-industrial influenced one (rural site) and to relate the particulate matter (PM) composition to the observed genotoxic effects. At the industrial influenced site, higher concentrations of phosphates, trace metals, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in particles could be related to the contributions of quarries, fertilizer producer, cement plants, and tires burning. Gasoline and diesel combustion contributions were evidenced in particles collected at both sites. Particles collected under industrial influence showed a higher mutagenic potential on three tested strains of Salmonella typhimurium (TA98, YG1041, and TA102), and especially on the YG1041, compared to particles from the rural site. Furthermore, only particles collected in the vicinity of the industrial site showed a tendency to activate the SOS responses in Escherichia coli PQ37, which is indicative of DNA damage as a result of exposure of the bacteria cells to the action of mutagenic samples. The mutagenicity and genotoxicity of the industrial PM 2.5-0.3 particulates may be attributed to its composition especially in organic compounds. This study showed that proximity of industries can affect local PM composition as well as PM genotoxic and mutagenic potential.

  10. Tobacco industry use of judicial seminars to influence rulings in products liability litigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, L C

    2006-01-01

    Objectives This paper examines the tobacco industry's efforts to influence litigation by sponsoring judicial seminars. Methods Thousands of internal tobacco documents were examined, including memos, reports, presentations, and newsletters. Connections to outside organisations were corroborated by examining tobacco industry financial records, budgets, and letters pledging funds. Facts about outside organisations were triangulated through examining their websites and publicly‐filed financial records, and verifying facts through their representatives' statements in newspaper and law review articles. Results There are direct financial ties between the tobacco industry and groups that organise judicial seminars in an effort to influence jurisprudence, and judges who attend these seminars may be breaching judicial ethics either by not inquiring about the source of funding or by ignoring funding by potential litigants. Conclusions The tobacco industry's attempts to clandestinely influence judges' decisions in cases to which they are a party endangers the integrity of the judiciary. PMID:16565460

  11. A large cross-sectional study of health attitudes, knowledge, behaviour and risks in the post-war Croatian population (the First Croatian Health Project).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turek, S; Rudan, I; Smolej-Narancić, N; Szirovicza, L; Cubrilo-Turek, M; Zerjavić-Hrabak, V; Rak-Kaić, A; Vrhovski-Hebrang, D; Prebeg, Z; Ljubicić, M; Janićijević, B; Rudan, P

    2001-06-01

    As the liberation of occupied Croatian territories ended the war in the country in 1995, the Ministry of Health and Croatian Health Insurance Institute have agreed to create the new framework for developing a long-term strategy of public health planning, prevention and intervention. They provided financial resources to develop the First Croatian Health Project, the rest of the support coming from the World Bank loan and the National Institute of Public Health. A large cross-sectional study was designed aiming to assess health attitudes, knowledge, behaviour and risks in the post-war Croatian population. The large field study was carried out by the Institute for Anthropological Research with technical support from the National Institute of Public Health. The field study was completed between 1995-1997. It included about 10,000 adult volunteers from all 21 Croatian counties. The geographic distribution of the sample covered both coastal and continental areas of Croatia and included rural and urban environments. The specific measurements included antropometry (body mass index and blood pressure). From each examinee a blood sample was collected from which the levels of total plasma cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), HDL-cholesterol (High Density Lipoprotein), LDL-cholesterol (Low Density Lipoprotein), lipoprotein Lp(a), and haemostatic risk factor fibrinogen (F) were determined. The detailed data were collected on the general knowledge and attitudes on health issues, followed by specific investigation of smoking history, alcohol consumption, nutrition habits, physical activity, family history of chronic non-communicable diseases and occupational exposures. From the initial database a targeted sample of 5,840 persons of both sexes, aged 18-65, was created corresponding by age, sex and geographic distribution to the general Croatian population. This paper summarises and discusses the main findings of the project within this representative sample of Croatian population.

  12. How does the alcohol industry attempt to influence marketing regulations? A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fooks, Gary; Gilmore, Anna B.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aim To systematically review, using a qualitative, narrative synthesis approach, papers examining alcohol industry efforts to influence alcohol marketing policy, and compare with those used by the tobacco industry. Methods Literature searches were conducted between April and July 2011, and updated in March 2013. Papers were included if they: made reference to alcohol industry efforts to influence (a) policy debates concerning marketing regulations, (b) new specific marketing policies or (c) broad alcohol policy which included marketing regulations; were written in English; and concerned the period 1990–2013. Alcohol industry political activity was categorized into strategies/tactics and frames/arguments. Data extraction was undertaken by the lead author and 100% of the papers were fully second‐reviewed. Seventeen papers met the review criteria. Results Five main political strategies and five main frames were identified. The alcohol industry argues against marketing regulation by emphasizing industry responsibility and the effectiveness of self‐regulation, questioning the effectiveness of statutory regulation and by focusing on individual responsibility. Arguments relating to industry responsibility are often reinforced through corporate social responsibility activities. The industry primarily conveys its arguments through manipulating the evidence base and by promoting ineffective voluntary codes and non‐regulatory initiatives. Conclusions The alcohol industry's political activity is more varied than existing models of corporate political activity suggest. The industry's opposition to marketing regulation centres on claims that the industry is responsible and that self regulation is effective. There are considerable commonalities between tobacco and alcohol industry political activity, with differences due potentially to differences in policy contexts and perceived industry legitimacy. PMID:26173765

  13. How does the alcohol industry attempt to influence marketing regulations? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savell, Emily; Fooks, Gary; Gilmore, Anna B

    2016-01-01

    To systematically review, using a qualitative, narrative synthesis approach, papers examining alcohol industry efforts to influence alcohol marketing policy, and compare with those used by the tobacco industry. Literature searches were conducted between April and July 2011, and updated in March 2013. Papers were included if they: made reference to alcohol industry efforts to influence (a) policy debates concerning marketing regulations, (b) new specific marketing policies or (c) broad alcohol policy which included marketing regulations; were written in English; and concerned the period 1990-2013. Alcohol industry political activity was categorized into strategies/tactics and frames/arguments. Data extraction was undertaken by the lead author and 100% of the papers were fully second-reviewed. Seventeen papers met the review criteria. Five main political strategies and five main frames were identified. The alcohol industry argues against marketing regulation by emphasizing industry responsibility and the effectiveness of self-regulation, questioning the effectiveness of statutory regulation and by focusing on individual responsibility. Arguments relating to industry responsibility are often reinforced through corporate social responsibility activities. The industry primarily conveys its arguments through manipulating the evidence base and by promoting ineffective voluntary codes and non-regulatory initiatives. The alcohol industry's political activity is more varied than existing models of corporate political activity suggest. The industry's opposition to marketing regulation centres on claims that the industry is responsible and that self regulation is effective. There are considerable commonalities between tobacco and alcohol industry political activity, with differences due potentially to differences in policy contexts and perceived industry legitimacy. © 2015 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of

  14. Youth Advocates’ Perceptions of Tobacco Industry Marketing Influences on Adolescent Smoking: Can They See the Signs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinda Douglas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Point-of-sale (POS advertising at retail stores is one of the key marketing avenues used by the tobacco industry. The United States Surgeon General urges actions to eliminate POS tobacco advertisements because of their influence on youth smoking. Many youth empowerment programs are implemented to address tobacco industry marketing influences, including POS tobacco advertisements. While youth are asked to take on such collective action, little is known regarding their perceptions and understanding of tobacco industry marketing influences and related advocacy activities. This mixed methods study examined Oklahoma’s tobacco control youth empowerment program members’ perceptions of tobacco industry marketing influences. Four focus groups were held with active program members from rural and urban areas. Overall, the focus group participants viewed the program as purposeful, as an avenue to help others, and as a way to make a difference. Specifically, the older participants (median age = 18 years identified tobacco industry marketing influences such as POS, movies, and magazine advertisements and reported participating in activities that counter POS tobacco advertisements at retail stores. Likewise younger participants (median age = 16 years, identified similar tobacco industry marketing influences, but also included tobacco use by friends and family as tobacco industry marketing influences. Moreover, the younger participants did not report engaging in activities that addressed POS tobacco advertisements. The study results suggest that the empowerment program should tailor its programming, training, materials, and activities with input from youth of various ages. Thoughtfully developed messages and specific activities can truly empower youth and maximize their contribution as change agents who address POS or other initiatives at the retail environments to prevent chronic diseases.

  15. Youth Advocates' Perceptions of Tobacco Industry Marketing Influences on Adolescent Smoking: Can They See the Signs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Malinda; Chan, Andie; Sampilo, Marilyn

    2016-01-01

    Point-of-sale (POS) advertising at retail stores is one of the key marketing avenues used by the tobacco industry. The United States Surgeon General urges actions to eliminate POS tobacco advertisements because of their influence on youth smoking. Many youth empowerment programs are implemented to address tobacco industry marketing influences, including POS tobacco advertisements. While youth are asked to take on such collective action, little is known regarding their perceptions and understanding of tobacco industry marketing influences and related advocacy activities. This mixed methods study examined Oklahoma's tobacco control youth empowerment program members' perceptions of tobacco industry marketing influences. Four focus groups were held with active program members from rural and urban areas. Overall, the focus group participants viewed the program as purposeful, as an avenue to help others, and as a way to make a difference. Specifically, the older participants (median age = 18 years) identified tobacco industry marketing influences such as POS, movies, and magazine advertisements and reported participating in activities that counter POS tobacco advertisements at retail stores. Likewise younger participants (median age = 16 years), identified similar tobacco industry marketing influences, but also included tobacco use by friends and family as tobacco industry marketing influences. Moreover, the younger participants did not report engaging in activities that addressed POS tobacco advertisements. The study results suggest that the empowerment program should tailor its programming, training, materials, and activities with input from youth of various ages. Thoughtfully developed messages and specific activities can truly empower youth and maximize their contribution as change agents who address POS or other initiatives at the retail environments to prevent chronic diseases.

  16. INFLUENCE OF PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRY ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS ON ANIMAL OVARIAN CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Sirotkin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our studies was to examine (1 the effect of environmental contaminants (benzene, toluene and xylen on basic ovarian cell functions (proliferation, apoptosis, secretory activity in different animal species (rabbit, pig, cow, and (2 whether gonadotropic hormone (FSH and plant molecules (quercetin, resveratrol or extract of yucca can affect these functions and modify effect of environmental contaminants. It was observed, that the culture of either porcine or bovine ovarian cells with benzene, toluene or xylen promote apoptosis (accumulation of apoptosis markers bax and p53 and proliferation (accumulation of PCNA. Furthermore, additions of these contaminants were able either up- or down-regulate the release of progesterone, oxytocin, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I and prostaglandin F by cultured porcine, rabbit and bovine ovarian cells and their response to addition of FSH. FSH additions promoted proliferation, apoptosis and release of molecules listed above by porcine granulosa cells. Moreover, FSH was able to modify and to prevent. Some effects of BTEX on these cells. The effects of either quercetin or resveratrol on basic porcine ovarian cell functions were observed, but these plant molecules were not able to prevent BTEX effect. Feeding of rabbits with yucca extract caused changes in release of progesterone, IGF-I and prostaglandin F by their ovarian cells, as well as to modify and prevent the influence of benzene on ovarian hormone release. The obtained data suggest that (1 the negative effect of BTEX on reproduction can be due to their influence on ovarian cell apoptosis, proliferation, turnover and release of peptide and steroid hormones and growth factors, and that (2 FSH and plant molecules can regulate ovarian cell functions and prevent some effects of BTEX on these cells.

  17. How does the tobacco industry attempt to influence marketing regulations? A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Savell

    Full Text Available The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control makes a number of recommendations aimed at restricting the marketing of tobacco products. Tobacco industry political activity has been identified as an obstacle to Parties' development and implementation of these provisions. This study systematically reviews the existing literature on tobacco industry efforts to influence marketing regulations and develops taxonomies of 1 industry strategies and tactics and 2 industry frames and arguments.Searches were conducted between April-July 2011, and updated in March 2013. Articles were included if they made reference to tobacco industry efforts to influence marketing regulations; supported claims with verifiable evidence; were written in English; and concerned the period 1990-2013. 48 articles met the review criteria. Narrative synthesis was used to combine the evidence.56% of articles focused on activity in North America, Europe or Australasia, the rest focusing on Asia (17%, South America, Africa or transnational activity. Six main political strategies and four main frames were identified. The tobacco industry frequently claims that the proposed policy will have negative unintended consequences, that there are legal barriers to regulation, and that the regulation is unnecessary because, for example, industry does not market to youth or adheres to a voluntary code. The industry primarily conveys these arguments through direct and indirect lobbying, the promotion of voluntary codes and alternative policies, and the formation of alliances with other industrial sectors. The majority of tactics and arguments were used in multiple jurisdictions.Tobacco industry political activity is far more diverse than suggested by existing taxonomies of corporate political activity. Tactics and arguments are repeated across jurisdictions, suggesting that the taxonomies of industry tactics and arguments developed in this paper are generalisable to multiple jurisdictions and can

  18. Advertising and the Evolution of Market Structure in the US Car Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Geroski, Paul A; Mazzucato, Mariana

    2001-01-01

    This paper focuses on a single simple stylized fact which stands out from the post-war history of the US car industry, namely that industry concentration fell just at the same time as industry advertising expenditures rose sharply. Since both events were almost certainly caused by the entry and market penetration of (largely) foreign owned car producers, this stylized fact raises interesting questions about whether – and if so, how – advertising affects entry. We use a model of consumer switc...

  19. Post-War Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Kruijt

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available – Terror in the Countryside. Campesino Responses to Political Violence in Guatemala, 1954-1985, by Rachel A. May. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Center for International Studies/Research in International Studies/Latin America Series #35, 2001. – La guerrilla fue mi camino. Epitafio para César Montes, by Julio César Macías. Guatemala: Piedra Santa/Colección Afluentes de Modernidad, 1999. – Testigo de conciencia (Periodismo de Opinión Documentado, by Marco A. Mérida. Guatemala: ARCASAVI, 2000. – Centroamérica 2002. Un nuevo modelo de desarrollo regional, edited by Klaus Bodemer and Eduardo Gamarra. Caracas: Nueva Sociedad, 2002. – Who Governs? Guatemala Five years After the Peace Accords, by Rachel Sieder, Megan Thomas, George Vickers and Jack Spence. Cambridge, Mass.: Hemispheric Initiatives/Washington Office on Latin America (WOLA, January 2002. – Pasos hacia una nueva convivencia: Democracia y participación en Centroamérica, edited by Ricardo Córdova Macías, Günther Maihold and Sabina Kurtenbach. San Salvador: FUNDAUNGO, Instituto de Estudios Iberoamericanos de Hamburgo and Instituto Iberoamericano de Berlin, 2001. – Los desafíos de la democracia en Centroamérica, by René Poitevin and Alexander Sequén-Mónchez. Guatemala: FLACSO, 2002. – Más allá de las elecciones: Diez años después de los acuerdos de paz, edited by Hector Dada Hirezi. San Salvador: FLACSO, 2002. – Guatemala, un proyecto inconcluso: La multiculturalidad, un paso hacia la democracia, by Hugo Cayzac. Guatemala: FLACSO, 2001. – La violencia en el contexto del posconflicto, según la percepción de comunidades urbanas pobres de Guatemala, by Caroline Moser and Cathy McIlwaine. Washington/Bogotá: Banco Mundial-Región de Latinoamérica y el Caribe/Tercer Mundo Editores, 2001. – El lado oscuro de la eterna primavera. Violencia, criminalidad y delincuencia en la postguerra, by Manolo Vela, Alexander Sequén-Mónchez and Hugo Antonio Solares. Guatemala: FLACSO, 2001.

  20. The Perceived Influence of Industry-Sponsored Credentials on the Recruitment Process in the Information Technology Industry: Employer and Employee Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Kenneth R.; Horwitz, Sujin K.; Ipe, Minu; Liu, Yuwen

    2005-01-01

    The increase in the number of industry-sponsored credential programs raises many questions for career and technical education. This study investigated the perceived influence of industry-sponsored credentials on the recruitment process in the information technology (IT) field. Influence is examined from the perspective of Human Resource (HR)…

  1. THE INFLUENCE OF INNOVATIONS SUSTAINABLE IN DECISION PURCHASE OF INDUSTRIES THIRD GENERATION PETROCHEMICAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Madureira Domingues

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to understand how sustainable innovation influences the decision of industrial purchases. Much has been said about the organizational buying behavior, but little is said about how the industrial buyers consider sustainable innovation in their purchasing procedures. This work aims to contribute to the constructs involving this type of purchase behavior. Therefore, a qualitative survey was conducted with non-probabilistic sample , composed of six companies of different sizes , which make up the chain of the petrochemical industry , more specifically , the third generation of this chain . Data were collected via semi-structured interview guide, and studied by means of categorization by content analysis. The analysis revealed that sustainable innovations not influence the purchasing decisions of the petrochemical industry , since the companies surveyed are strongly linked to criteria such as price , time and quality and do not realize sustainable innovation as an important factor in purchasing decisions .

  2. Geographical Detector Model for Influencing Factors of Industrial Sector Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Wu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Studying the influencing factors of carbon dioxide emissions is not only practically but also theoretically crucial for establishing regional carbon-reduction policies, developing low-carbon economy and solving the climate problems. Therefore, we used a geographical detector model which is consists of four parts, i.e., risk detector, factor detector, ecological detector and interaction detector to analyze the effect of these social economic factors, i.e., GDP, industrial structure, urbanization rate, economic growth rate, population and road density on the increase of energy consumption carbon dioxide emissions in industrial sector in Inner Mongolia northeast of China. Thus, combining with the result of four detectors, we found that GDP and population more influence than economic growth rate, industrial structure, urbanization rate and road density. The interactive effect of any two influencing factors enhances the increase of the carbon dioxide emissions. The findings of this research have significant policy implications for regions like Inner Mongolia.

  3. Influence of industrial solid waste addition on properties of soil-cement bricks

    OpenAIRE

    Siqueira, F. B.; Amaral, M. C.; Bou-Issa, R. A.; Holanda, J. N. F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The reuse of pollutant solid wastes produced in distinct industrial activities (avian eggshell waste and welding flux slag waste) as a source of alternative raw material for producing soil-cement bricks for civil construction was investigated. Soil-cement bricks containing up to 30 wt% of industrial solid waste were uniaxially pressed and cured for 28 days. Special emphasis is given on the influence of solid waste addition on the technical properties (as such volumetric shrinkage, wa...

  4. INFLUENCE MOTIVATION, ABILITY, AND DISCIPLINE ON PERFORMACE EMPLOYEE DEPARTMENT SALES DAN MARKETING PT PIONIRBETON INDUSTRY JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okiy Hartato

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research are to: 1 Test empirically influence of working motivation on performance employee, 2 Test empirically influence of working ability on performance employee, 3 Test empirically influence of working discipline on performance employee, 4 Test empirically influence of working motivation, ability, discipline on performance employee. This study used multiple regression analysis. The research was conducted in Sales and Marketing Department of PT Pionirbeton Industry with population of 43 workers, while the data collecting technique used questionnaire and SPSS version 20.0 for data processing. The result show a significant influence of working motivation on performance employee, working ability on performance employee, working discipline on performance employee. Working motivation, working ability, and working discipline on performance employee, The study found that a of the performance employee as dependent variable is influenced by motivation, ability, and discipline.

  5. Variations of influence quantities in industrial irradiators and their effect on dosimetry performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, R.D.H.

    1999-01-01

    Many environmental factors, including irradiation temperature, post-irradiation storage temperature, dose rate, relative humidity, oxygen content and the energy spectrum may affect the response of dosimetry systems used in industrial radiation processing. Although the effects of individual influence quantities have been extensively studied, the variations of these influence quantities in production irradiators and the complex relationships between the effects of different influence quantities make it difficult to assess the overall effect on the measurement uncertainty. In the development of new dosimetry systems it is important to know the effect of each influence quantity and developers of new dosimetry systems should perform studies over a wide range of irradiation conditions. Analysis parameters and manufacturing specifications should be chosen to minimize the effect of influence quantities in the environments where the dosimeters will be used. Because of possible relationships between different influence quantities, care must be taken to ensure that the response function determined in the calibration of the dosimetry system is applicable for the conditions in which the dosimeters will be used. Reference standard dosimetry systems which have been thoroughly studied and have known relationships between dose response and influence quantities should be used to verify the calibration of routine dosimetry systems under the actual conditions of use. Better understanding of the variations in influence quantities in industrial irradiators may be obtained by modeling or direct measurements and may provide improvements in the calibration of routine dosimetry system and reduction of the overall measurement uncertainty. (author)

  6. The influence of nuclear risk sense to atomic industry's public relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biryukova, P.; Kazakevich, Yu.

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this report is estimation of the influence of sensing of nuclear risk to atomic industry's public relation. In this report the reasons of the negative relation to nuclear energetic owing to inadequate sensing of the risk dealing with this fields have been represented. (authors)

  7. Tobacco industry influence on the definition of tobacco related disorders by the American Psychiatric Association

    OpenAIRE

    Neuman, M; Bitton, A; Glantz, S

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, third edition (DSM-III), published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) in 1980, included the first official definitions by the APA of tobacco dependence and tobacco withdrawal. Tobacco industry efforts to influence the DSM-III were investigated.

  8. Determining the Influence of Heterogeneity in Graduate Institutions on University-Industry Collaboration Policy in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Hung-Jen; Chang, Dian-Fu

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we assumed that organizational heterogeneity is a key factor influencing the effects of university-industry cooperation policy in higher education institutes. Gender difference, faculty position, faculty member nationality, and diversity in academic expertise were considered as the indicators of heterogeneity. One-hundred graduate…

  9. How design-inclusive UXR influenced the integration of project activities. Three design cases from industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kollenburg, J.W.M.; Bogers, S.J.A.; Deckers, E.J.L.; Frens, J.W.; Hummels, C.C.M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss how the implementation of design-inclusive User Experience Research (UXR) has influenced the composition of UXR and design activities in the industrial setting of Philips Design. We present three design case studies that were executed in a time span of three years: a baby

  10. Influence of demographic characteristics on production practices within the Ohio maple syrup industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary W. Graham; P. Charles Goebel; Randall B. Heiligmann; Matthew S. Bumgardner

    2007-01-01

    Maple syrup production contributes approximately $5 million annually to Ohio's economy and provides supplemental nontimber forest product income for forestland owners. To better understand the factors that influence this important nontimber forest industry in Ohio, including producer heritage, producer age, sap collection methods, size of maple operation, and...

  11. An analysis of how developments in the packaging industry will influence the dimensions of freight carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niels Meijer; Stef Weijers; Reinder Pieters; Jan Jansen; Allan Woodburn

    2011-01-01

    To what extent will trends in the packaging industry determine or influence the future dimensions of freight carriers? In this study we have identified these trends and studied the possible impact on the sizes of the truck of the future. It was part of a dissertation for the MSc programme in

  12. The preface by João Cabral de Melo Neto to Em Va Fer Joan Brossa: Theory and practice of realism in two poets from the post-war.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melcion Mateu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1951, the book Em va fer Joan Brossa [Joan Brossa  Made me] was published in Barcelona, with a preface by João Cabral de Melo Neto. It is a useful text to better understand Brossa as well as Cabral; it is a significant text in order to grasp the individual response of these poets to the problem of returning to realism for the early post-war period. A translation of João Cabral de Melo Neto's preface, previously unpublished in Portuguese, is presented here.

  13. Undue industry influences that distort healthcare research, strategy, expenditure and practice: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Weiler, Richard; Ioannidis, John P A

    2013-05-01

    Expenditure on industry products (mostly drugs and devices) has spiraled over the last 15 years and accounts for substantial part of healthcare expenditure. The enormous financial interests involved in the development and marketing of drugs and devices may have given excessive power to these industries to influence medical research, policy, and practice. Review of the literature and analysis of the multiple pathways through which the industry has directly or indirectly infiltrated the broader healthcare systems. We present the analysis of the industry influences at the following levels: (i) evidence base production, (ii) evidence synthesis, (iii) understanding of safety and harms issues, (iv) cost-effectiveness evaluation, (v) clinical practice guidelines formation, (vi) healthcare professional education, (vii) healthcare practice, (viii) healthcare consumer's decisions. We located abundance of consistent evidence demonstrating that the industry has created means to intervene in all steps of the processes that determine healthcare research, strategy, expenditure, practice and education. As a result of these interferences, the benefits of drugs and other products are often exaggerated and their potential harms are downplayed, and clinical guidelines, medical practice, and healthcare expenditure decisions are biased. To serve its interests, the industry masterfully influences evidence base production, evidence synthesis, understanding of harms issues, cost-effectiveness evaluations, clinical practice guidelines and healthcare professional education and also exerts direct influences on professional decisions and health consumers. There is an urgent need for regulation and other action towards redefining the mission of medicine towards a more objective and patient-, population- and society-benefit direction that is free from conflict of interests. © 2013 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Measuring the influence of industry sector membership on supply chain disruption reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcantara, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The global Supply Chain Resilience Survey by the Business Continuity Institute and Zurich Insurance is a comprehensive study on the state of supply chains in different organisations worldwide. As a benchmarking tool, it also contains data about business continuity arrangements in place to ensure supply chain resilience. Given this study's historically qualitative approach to reporting, this paper aims to introduce quantitative analysis. In this paper, responses that report membership in Standard Industrial Classification 2007 industry sectors from the 2013 Supply Chain Resilience Survey were disaggregated and related to supply chain disruption reporting. A chi-square test of independence reveals that membership in a particular industry sector influences reporting of supply chain disruption. Nonetheless, the relationship between these variables is weak. This study demonstrates interesting differences between industry sectors in terms of supply chain resilience. Further research is required in terms of other variables in order to provide granularity and relevant findings to supply chain planners.

  15. Tobacco and transition: an overview of industry investments, impact and influence in the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, A B; McKee, M

    2004-06-01

    To quantify the contribution the tobacco industry has made to foreign direct investment (FDI) in the former Soviet Union (FSU) as an indicator of its political and economic leverage; to explore the impact this has had on production capacity and tobacco control in the region. Data on industry investment and its impact on cigarette production capacity were collated from industry journals, reports, and websites. Data on total FDI were obtained from the European Bank of Reconstruction and Development. By the end of 2000, transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) had invested over 2.7 billion US dollars in 10 countries of the FSU. Tobacco money as a proportion of FDI varies from 1% to over 30% in Uzbekistan. Cigarette production capacity in the factories receiving investments tripled from 146 to 416 billion cigarettes per annum and the TTCs' market share has increased from nothing to between 50-100% in the markets in which they invested. Findings suggest that the effectiveness of national tobacco control measures corresponds broadly to the nature of the political and economic transition in each country and the size of industry investment, which is determined in part by the political context. Thus more effective measures tend to be seen in democratic states with smaller or no industry investments while the least effective measures are seen in highly centralised, one party states with high levels of industry investment or those with limited governmental capacity. The entry of the TTCs at a time of major political and economic change left the FSU particularly vulnerable to industry influence. This influence was enhanced by the industry's significant contribution to FDI, their ability to take over existing state monopolies in all but the largest countries, and the lack of democratic opposition.

  16. Tobacco and transition: an overview of industry investments, impact and influence in the former Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, A; McKee, M

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To quantify the contribution the tobacco industry has made to foreign direct investment (FDI) in the former Soviet Union (FSU) as an indicator of its political and economic leverage; to explore the impact this has had on production capacity and tobacco control in the region. Design: Data on industry investment and its impact on cigarette production capacity were collated from industry journals, reports, and websites. Data on total FDI were obtained from the European Bank of Reconstruction and Development. Results: By the end of 2000, transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) had invested over US$2.7 billion in 10 countries of the FSU. Tobacco money as a proportion of FDI varies from 1% to over 30% in Uzbekistan. Cigarette production capacity in the factories receiving investments tripled from 146 to 416 billion cigarettes per annum and the TTCs' market share has increased from nothing to between 50–100% in the markets in which they invested. Findings suggest that the effectiveness of national tobacco control measures corresponds broadly to the nature of the political and economic transition in each country and the size of industry investment, which is determined in part by the political context. Thus more effective measures tend to be seen in democratic states with smaller or no industry investments while the least effective measures are seen in highly centralised, one party states with high levels of industry investment or those with limited governmental capacity. Conclusions: The entry of the TTCs at a time of major political and economic change left the FSU particularly vulnerable to industry influence. This influence was enhanced by the industry's significant contribution to FDI, their ability to take over existing state monopolies in all but the largest countries, and the lack of democratic opposition. PMID:15175530

  17. Growth and decline of shoreline industry in Sydney estuary (Australia) and influence on adjacent estuarine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, G F; Lean, J; Gunns, T

    2015-06-01

    Sydney estuary (Australia), like many urbanised waterways, is degraded due to an extended history of anthropogenic activity. Two major sources of contamination to this estuary are discharge by former shoreline industries and historic and contemporary catchment stormwater. The objectives of the present study were to document changes in shoreline land use from European settlement to the present day and determine the influence of this trend on the metal content of adjacent estuarine sediments. Temporal analysis of land use for seven time horizons between 1788 and 2010 showed rapid expansion of industry along much of the Sydney estuary foreshore soon after European settlement due to the benefits of easy and inexpensive access and readily available water for cooling and power. Shoreline industry attained maximum development in 1978 (32-km length) and declined rapidly to the present-day (9-km length) through redevelopment of industrial sites into medium- to high-density, high-value residential housing. Cores taken adjacent to 11 long-term industrial sites showed that past industrial practices contributed significantly to contamination of estuarine sediment. Subsurface metal concentrations were up to 35 times that of present-day surface sediment and over 100 times greater than natural background concentrations. Sedimentation rates for areas adjacent to shoreline industry were between 0.6 and 2.5 cm/year, and relaxation times were estimated at 50 to 100 years. Natural relaxation and non-disturbance of sediments may be the best management practice in most locations.

  18. Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, I.; Wiesenberger, H.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of the industry in Austria. It gives a review of the structure and types of the industry, the legal framework and environmental policy of industrial relevance. The environmental situation of the industry in Austria is analyzed in detail, concerning air pollution (SO 2 , NO x , CO 2 , CO, CH 4 , N 2 O, NH 3 , Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxin, furans), waste water, waste management and deposit, energy and water consumption. The state of the art in respect of the IPPC-directives (European Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Bureau) concerning the best available techniques of the different industry sectors is outlined. The application of European laws and regulations in the Austrian industry is described. (a.n.)

  19. Tobacco industry influence on the definition of tobacco related disorders by the American Psychiatric Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, M D; Bitton, A; Glantz, S A

    2005-10-01

    The Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, third edition (DSM-III), published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) in 1980, included the first official definitions by the APA of tobacco dependence and tobacco withdrawal. Tobacco industry efforts to influence the DSM-III were investigated. Searches of previously secret tobacco industry documents, primarily the University of California San Francisco Legacy Tobacco Documents Library and British American Tobacco collections. Additional information was collected through discussions with editors of DSM-III, and library and general internet searches. The tobacco companies regarded the inclusion of tobacco dependence as a diagnosis in DSM-III as an adverse event. It worked to influence the content of the DSM-III and its impact following publication. These efforts included public statements and private lobbying of DSM-III editors and high ranking APA officers by prominent US psychiatrists with undisclosed ties to the tobacco industry. Following publication of DSM-III, tobacco companies contracted with two US professors of psychiatry to organise a conference and publish a monograph detailing controversies surrounding DSM-III. The tobacco industry and its allies lobbied to narrow the definition of tobacco dependence in serial revisions of DSM-III. Following publication of DSM-III, the industry took steps to try to mitigate its impact. These actions mirror industry tactics to influence medical research and policy in various contexts worldwide. Such tactics slow the spread of a professional and public understanding of smoking and health that otherwise would reduce smoking, smoking induced disease, and tobacco company profits.

  20. The Competitive status of the U.S. civil aviation manufacturing industry: a study of the influences of technology in determining international industrial competitive advantage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seitz, Frederick; Steele, Lowell W

    1985-01-01

    ... A Study of the Influences of Technology in Determining International Industrial Competitive Advantage Prepared by the U.S. Civil Aviation Manufacturing Industry Panel, Committee on Technology and International Economic and Trade Issues of the Office of the Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering and the Commission on Engineering and Techni...

  1. The Influence of Corporate Governance Perception Index, Profit Management, and Industrial Type To Environmental Disclosure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Chrysanti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Thisresearchaims to empirically analyze the influence ofCorporate Governance Perception Index, earnings management,and industry type on environmental disclosure. Environmental Disclosure is the dependent variables in this research were measured by scoring technique based on GRI3.1 Guidelines. For the independent variables in this research, using Corporate Governance Perception Index were measured by CGPI index score, earnings management were measured by discretionary accruals, and industry type were measured bycategorial. This research uses secondary data which population are companies entered Corporate Governance Perception Index in 2009-2012. While the sampling method used was purposive sampling method which is overall 44 sample choose. This research uses multiple regression method to test the hypothesis with SPSS computer program. From the analysis performed in this research, it can be concluded that Corporate Governance Perception Index has positively and significant influence to environmental disclosure. The other hand earnings management has no significant influence to environmental disclosure. The last one industry type has negatively and significant influence to environmental disclosure.

  2. AREAS OF ECONOMIC INFLUENCE OF SUGARCANE INDUSTRY IN MATO GROSSO, 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladimir Colman de Azevedo Junior

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Macroeconomic data reveals the increase of sugarcane chain relevance to Mato Grosso economy, however does not exist studies that evaluate the scope of regional impacts. This research has as the main objective the identification of the territory extension of the sugarcane industry influence in Mato Grosso during 2010, characterizing relationships between industrial plants and the regions where they acting. Was used the gravitational model developed by Isard (1956 to estimate this interrelation commerce patterns of the chain in the state, to find the sugarcane regional centers, as well as, to set up their potential areas of influence. As results has the identification of the 13 cane regions, three cities in first level, seven in the second level and three sub-centers. The relations between this centers and the respective regions has different specifications and their complete understanding allows destination of private investments and public politics. Keywords: Gravitational Model. Cane Sugar Suply Chain. Mato Grosso.

  3. [Influencing factors for reproductive health of female workers in petrochemical industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Z X; Wang, S L; Chen, Z L; He, Y H; Yu, W L; Mei, L Y; Zhang, H D

    2018-02-20

    Objective: To investigate the reproductive health status of female workers in petrochemical industry, and to provide a reference for improving reproductive health status and developing preventive and control measures for female workers in petrochemical industry. Methods: A face-to-face questionnaire survey was performed from January to October, 2016. The Questionnaire on Women's Reproductive Health was used to investigate the reproductive health of female workers in petrochemical industry. The multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify the influencing factors for reproductive health of female workers in petrochemical industry. Results: Among the 7485 female workers, 1 268 (40.9%) had abnormal menstrual period, 1 437 (46.4%) had abnormal menstrual volume, 177 (28.5%) had hyperplasia of mammary glands, and 1 807 (24.6%) had gynecological inflammation. The reproductive system diseases in female workers in petrochemical industry were associated with the factors including age, marital status, education level, unhealthy living habits, abortion, overtime work, work shift, workload, video operation, occupational exposure, positive events, and negative events, and among these factors, negative events (odds ratio[ OR ]= 1.856) , unhealthy living habits ( OR =1.542) , and positive events ( OR =1.516) had greater impact on reproductive system diseases. Conclusion: Many chemical substances in the occupational environment of petrochemical industry can cause damage to the reproductive system, which not only affects the health of the female workers, but also poses potential threats to the health of their offspring. Occupational exposure, unhealthy living habits, overtime work, and work shift have great influence on reproductive system diseases in female workers.

  4. “Does Organizational Culture Influence the Ethical Behavior in the Pharmaceutical Industry?”

    OpenAIRE

    Nagashekhara, Molugulu; Agil, Syed Omar Syed

    2012-01-01

    Study of ethical behavior among medical representatives in the profession is an under-portrayed component that deserves further perusal in the pharmaceutical industry. The purpose of this study is to find out the influence of organizational culture on ethical behavior of medical representatives. Medical representatives working for both domestic and multinational companies constitutes the sample (n=300). Data is collected using a simple random and cluster sampling through a structured question...

  5. Factors influencing customer retention, satisfaction and loyalty in the South African banking industry

    OpenAIRE

    Craucamp, Frederik Willem

    2012-01-01

    Customer retention, loyalty and satisfaction are extremely important elements in any company’s strategy, especially in the highly competitive South African banking industry. Understanding the various factors that could influence these constructs is therefore critical to organizational success. Several studies showed the impact of these measures on profitability and shareholder value, but there has been little effort to access the factors that might lead to higher levels of retention, loyal...

  6. Analysis of Factors Influencing Activity-Based Costing Applications in the Hospitality Industry in Yenagoa, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Appah, Ebimobowei; Bariweni Binaebi

    2013-01-01

    This research examines the factors influencing activity-based costing application in the hospitality industry in Yenagoa, Nigeria. To achieve this objective, primary and secondary data were used. The secondary data include books, journals, periodicals, unpublished research materials and the internet and the primary data include interview and a well structured questionnaire administered to one hundred and 165 respondents in the 50 hotels sampled from the population. The data collected from the...

  7. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    . African states as ... regarded as the most important ingredients that went to add value to land and labour in order for countries ... B. Sutcliffe Industry and Underdevelopment (Massachusetts Addison – Wesley Publishing Company. 1971), pp.

  8. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    scholar, Walt W. Rostow presented and supported this line of thought in his analysis of ... A Brief Historical Background of Industrialization in Africa ... indicative) The western model allowed for the political economy to be shaped by market.

  9. Factors influencing e-Procurement adoption in the Nigerian building industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eziyi Offia Ibem

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Against the backdrop of increasing adoption of e-Procurement in supply chain management, there is a need for adequate knowledge of the factors that influence the decision by organizations in the building industry to use e-Procurement. This study aims to fill the knowledge gap through investigating the factors influencing e-Procurement adoption based on the data sourced in a questionnaire survey involving 213 organizations in the building industry. The survey was conducted between June and November 2015 in Nigeria. Descriptive statistics, factor and categorical regression analyses were used to analyze the data. The results show that the three most important factors influencing the adoption of e-Procurement amongst the participants, in order of importance, were: the benefits of e-Procurement in enhancing efficiency in project delivery; eliminating geographic barriers and effective communication among project team members. The 29 factors were investigated in seven different dimensions - the benefits of e-Procurement use; level of awareness on e-Procurement in construction; and the availability and cost of e-Procurement applications emerged as the three most significant predictors of e-Procurement adoption in the survey. The study concludes by identifying strategies that should be engaged in increasing the uptake and maximizing the benefits of e-Procurement in the Nigerian building industry.

  10. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  11. The Influence of Industry Characteristics and Dynamic Capabilities on Firms’ Profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Pervan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to explore one of the most intriguing dimensions of every firm’s business—its performance. Aside from analysing the influence of industry’s characteristics on the firm’s performance, the authors addressed the characteristics of dynamic capabilities and their role in contribution to the firm’s ultimate success. The analysis was conducted on a sample of 118 small Croatian manufacturing companies. The application of the Structural Equation Modelling (SEM approach revealed a statistically significant influence of both the industry’s characteristics (represented by Porter’s five forces framework and dynamic capabilities (based on Teece’s theory on the firm’s performance, where the influence of dynamic capabilities is proven to be larger than that of the industry.

  12. The Influences of Humorous Advertising on Brand Popularity and Advertising Effects in the Tourism Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Yu Chang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available With a diversity of promotional channels and ever-increasing numbers of participants, the tourism industry in Taiwan faces keen competition. Along with the direct cross-strait flights policy, groups like Eastern Multimedia Group, Tsann Kuen Enterprise Company Limited and Want Want China Times Group have founded travel agencies for the purpose of increasing their market share in the tourism industry. Therefore, the formulation of marketing strategies has become a critical issue for all travel agencies that wish to ensure their prominence in the market. The frequent use of humorous materials and appeals has been the main tendency in advertising. However, no consistent conclusions regarding the actual effects of humorous advertising have been determined. The subjects of the current study were users of the Lion Travel website. Online questionnaires were sent to and collected from random respondents. One hundred questionnaires were delivered, and 512 valid questionnaires were collected. Each collected questionnaire represented a valid sample. The study generated the following five results: (1 humorous advertisements may partially influence brand awareness; (2 humorous elements may partially influence advertising effects; (3 brand awareness has significant positive effects on the advertising attitude of advertising effects; (4 brand awareness has significant positive effects on the brand attitude of advertising effects; (5 brand awareness has significant positive effects on the purchasing intention of advertising effects. Eventually, it is anticipated that the results of this study can serve as a reference and provide suggestions for humorous advertising strategies in the tourism industry.

  13. Influence of the atomic industry branches' on the Kazakhstan environment status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibraev, R.; Tugel'baev, S.S.

    2001-01-01

    In the paper an the atomic industry branches' influence on the Kazakhstan environment status is considered. It is noted that Kazakhstan in only country in the world where nuclear strategic programs (USSR and CIS) were carried out without control, any limits, wide-scaly and in a full cycle. This is mine, reprocessing of strategic ores, preparation (partial), testing and use of nuclear and thermonuclear warheads in both military and peaceful aims, radioactive wastes disposal. Due to non-observance by industry branches of the principal normative requirements of radiation safety (were in existence and present ones) in the republic there is not territorial delimitation of the special objects with control area that caused negative influence of these objected were exposed vast regions both out-side and inter-sites area. So Kazakhstan nature scale-wide contamination is the existing reality. It is stressed, that mining and reprocessing uranium enterprises have negative contribution in the bio-geo-media. In this case it is especially hazard the underground sulfuric leaching technology is applying in the uranium mine industry. The technology is much cheaper but it ecologically in dozen times danger in comparison with applied in other countries the carbonate leaching method

  14. Alcohol industry influence on UK alcohol policy: A new research agenda for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Benjamin; Holden, Chris; McCambridge, Jim

    2012-09-01

    The British government has been criticised for according industry interests too much weight in alcohol policy-making. Consequently, it has been argued that alcohol strategy in the UK is built around policies for which the evidence base is weak. This has clear implications for public health. The purpose of this commentary is to map recent developments in UK alcohol policy and related debates within the alcohol policy literature, thus laying the foundations for a systematic examination of the influence of the alcohol industry on alcohol policy. It highlights the changing structure of the industry and summarises what is known about the positions and strategies of industry actors towards alcohol policy. In so doing, it aims to contribute not just to debates about alcohol policy, but to a broader understanding of health policy processes and the relationships between government and other stakeholders. It advances a new research agenda focused on the role of corporate actors in the field of alcohol policy and public health more broadly.

  15. Influence of agricultural activities, forest fires and agro-industries on air quality in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phairuang, Worradorn; Hata, Mitsuhiko; Furuuchi, Masami

    2017-02-01

    Annual and monthly-based emission inventories in northern, central and north-eastern provinces in Thailand, where agriculture and related agro-industries are very intensive, were estimated to evaluate the contribution of agricultural activity, including crop residue burning, forest fires and related agro-industries on air quality monitored in corresponding provinces. The monthly-based emission inventories of air pollutants, or, particulate matter (PM), NOx and SO 2 , for various agricultural crops were estimated based on information on the level of production of typical crops: rice, corn, sugarcane, cassava, soybeans and potatoes using emission factors and other parameters related to country-specific values taking into account crop type and the local residue burning period. The estimated monthly emission inventory was compared with air monitoring data obtained at monitoring stations operated by the Pollution Control Department, Thailand (PCD) for validating the estimated emission inventory. The agro-industry that has the greatest impact on the regions being evaluated, is the sugar processing industry, which uses sugarcane as a raw material and its residue as fuel for the boiler. The backward trajectory analysis of the air mass arriving at the PCD station was calculated to confirm this influence. For the provinces being evaluated which are located in the upper northern, lower northern and northeast in Thailand, agricultural activities and forest fires were shown to be closely correlated to the ambient PM concentration while their contribution to the production of gaseous pollutants is much less. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. An exploration study to detect important factors influencing internet marketing: A case study of food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadan Vahabzadeh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Internet marketing plays an important role on profitability of organizations, it can build a bridge between customers and business owners and anyone could purchase products and services through internet. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to detect important factors influencing internet marketing on Iranian food industry, named Shahrvand. The proposed study selects 280 out of 1040 managers who were involved in this industry during the year of 2012. Structural equation modeling has been performed to detect important factors including internal/external factors, ease of use and electronic marketing. Cronbach alphas have been calculated for these four items were mostly above 0.80, which validated the overall questionnaire of the survey. The results indicate that among internal factors, knowledge management, organizational culture and resources influence on acceptance of internet marketing, while these factors do not show any meaningful impact on ease of use. In addition, external factors including trend on market growth, competition and infrastructure influence on ease of use and acceptance of internet marketing but infrastructure and competition do not impact on ease of internet marketing.

  17. The Boardroom Perspective: How Does Energy Efficiency Policy Influence Decision Making in Industry?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This report delves into the major factors or driving forces that decision makers within a large industrial company take into account when deciding to make new investments - the so-called {sup b}oardroom perspective{sup .} The rationale for an individual company making an investment that will reduce energy consumption varies considerably and depends on a range of factors. This report explores those factors that influence companies to invest in energy savings and proposes a methodology to evaluate the effectiveness of a country's energy efficiency and greenhouse gas mitigation policies mix from this boardroom perspective. This paper is the product of collaboration between the IEA and the Institute of Industrial Productivity (IIP).

  18. Influence of vegetation and gravel mesh on the tertiary treatment of wastewater from a cosmetics industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlyssides, Apostolos G; Mai, Sofia T H; Barampouti, Elli Maria P; Loukakis, Haralampos N

    2009-07-01

    To estimate the influence of gravel mesh (fine and coarse) and vegetation (Phragmites and Arundo) on the efficiency of a reed bed, a pilot plant was included after the wastewater treatment plant of a cosmetic industry treatment system according to a 22 factorial experimental design. The maximum biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total phosphorous (TP) reduction was observed in the reactor, where Phragmites and fine gravel were used. In the reactor with Phragmites and coarse gravel, the maximum total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) and total suspended solids (TSS) reduction was observed. The maximum total solids reduction was measured in the reed bed, which was filled with Arundo and coarse gravel. Conclusively, the treatment of a cosmetic industry's wastewater by reed beds as a tertiary treatment method is quite effective.

  19. ANALYSIS OF THE EXTERNAL FACTORS OF INFLUENCE ON INNOVATION ACTIVITY OF AN INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Salikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. For successful functioning and development of the enterprise is a need to strive as possible deeper and more dynamic influence on parameters and objects OK-environmental management, primarily due to increase their innovation activity. Innovative activity of enterprises influenced by many factors. They can be classified on the factors of direct influence (micro and factors of indirect impacts (macro. Factors of direct impact of the influence on the pace and scale of development of the enterprise, on its effectiveness, because the whole spectrum of these factors acts as a limiter. Macro factors create the General conditions of existence of the enterprise in the external environment. To analyses these factors approach was used to SNW-analysis. As a result of analysis, factors of micro and macro-were classified on: stimulating, it minesweepers and dissuasive. Also studied were the degree of influence of these factors on the innovative activity of the enterprise. Reviewed rating factors hindering the development of innovation activity of industrial enterprise in Russia. In the result of which identified factors that hinder the development of innovative activity, and justified in the direction of overcoming them. It should be noted that the distinction between enabling and constraining factors is rather thin and conditional. So, the factors initially restraining innovation, at a certain point can be transformed into a stimulus for its development. Accounting for these factors, creation of necessary conditions and introduction of innovations in various aspects of the functioning of industrial enterprises will allow them to provide competitor-term benefits and sustainable development in a rapidly changing environment and the external environment.

  20. Dreams and needs: The applications of isotopes to industry in Spain in the 1960s

    OpenAIRE

    Barca-Salom, Francesc X.

    2009-01-01

    The efforts to change the bleak image of the atom bomb galvanised the discourse on the peaceful applications of nuclear energy. This contributed to a utopian vision of nuclear energy, especially of the uses of radioactive isotopes in the immediate post-war period. Desire for peace engendered dreams of a better future based on the use of radioactivity. These dreams were first converted into reality using isotopes in medicine. These advances were subsequently applied to industry and agriculture...

  1. Biogeochemical features technogenic pollution of soils under the influence chemical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuraeva I.V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The physico-chemical properties of soil (pH, organic matter content, cation exchange capacity. The regularities of the distribution of total and mobile forms of heavy metals in soil sediments in the territory of Shostka Sumy region under the influence of the chemical industry and in the background areas. Biogeochemical indicators obtained content of microscopic fungi and their species, the most characteristic of the study of soils, which can be used as an additional criterion for ecological and geochemical studies.

  2. Changes in the lichen flora influenced by the Bełchatów Industrial Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Czyżewska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of our study, i.e.. before opening the Bełchatów brown coal mine and the power station 155 species of lichens were registered in the period 1970-1985. A preliminary estimation of the influence of the Bełchatów Industrial Region (BIR on the lichen flora has been performed. More than 1% of the lichen flora has entirely disappcared, about 43% of the species have shown partial devastation of their localities and numerous localities of more than 35% of taxa have been threatened.

  3. The influence of costs and benefits' analysis on service strategy formulation: Learnings from the shipping industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagoropoulos, Aris; Kjær, Louise Laumann; Andersen, Jakob Axel Bejbro

    2017-01-01

    . This paper assesses how the analysis of costs and benefits of Product-Service Systems (PSS) as servitized offerings influences the formulation of service strategies in the shipping industry. The study examines both the manufacturer and customer perspectives using two case studies from the shipping sector....... Life Cycle Costing (LCC) was used as a tool to assess the associated costs and benefits of two proposed PSS. Based on the results of the LCC, the drivers and barriers of the actual transformation processes were explored through workshops and interviews served to map the perspectives of both...

  4. Measuring the Level of Industrial Green Development and Exploring Its Influencing Factors: Empirical Evidence from China’s 30 Provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaofan Chen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, with the green economy becoming mainstream in the world, an industrial revolution as the core of green development has emerged. Based on the empirical evidence from China’s 30 provinces, this study establishes an evaluation index system of China’s industrial green development and applies the analytic hierarchy process to determine the indices’ weights and properties to measure the level of industrial green development in China’s 30 provinces. Then, an empirical study is conducted to explore the relevant factors influencing China’s industrial green development by using the dynamic panel data model and a panel threshold test. The results show that China’s level of industrial green development has the characteristic of typical regional differentiation with a ladder-like distribution from the east and middle to the west, and the eastern region has the highest level on industrial green output, industrial green efficiency and industrial green innovation. Technological progress and innovation can stimulate industrial green development. The impact of environmental regulation and foreign investment on industrial green development presents a nonlinear “N”-type trend, and the positive effects are mainly observed in eastern China. Capital deepening, heavy chemical industries and an unreasonable energy structure are not effective in industrial green development. There is no direct relation between the enterprise scale and industrial green development.

  5. The Influence of Perceived Value on Customer Loyalty in Slovenian Hotel Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeja Krasna

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Perceived value has an enormous influence on customer behavior, because it influences his decisions on product choice, purchase intentions and repeat purchasing. Most frequently it appears in connection with quality and customer satisfaction. The purpose of this article is to present the role of perceived values as marketing tool for assuring customer loyalty in Slovenian hotel industry, where knowing a guest and understanding his wishes and expectations plays an essential part. By means of qualitative marketing research it was ascertained that the offer of Slovenian hoteliers does not differ in general from the offer of other hoteliers; this is why they are trying to expose characteristics which are most appreciated by guests. They are laying great emphasis on culinary art, creation of homelike feeling and integrated experience.

  6. Pattern of Duplicate Presentations at National Hematology-Oncology Meetings: Influence of the Pharmaceutical Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramchandren, Radhakrishnan; Schiffer, Charles A

    2016-03-01

    The major large US hematology-oncology meetings sponsored by the American Society of Hematology (ASH) and American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) have specific guidelines in place discouraging submission of scientific information presented previously at other meetings. Nonetheless, duplicate submissions are frequent. The incidence and motivations for duplicate hematologic presentations and the influence of the pharmaceutical industry on this process have not been thoroughly analyzed. Therefore, were viewed four consecutive ASH and ASCO meetings to assess the frequency of duplicate abstract presentations. All abstracts presented at ASCO2010 in the area of malignant hematology were compared with abstracts from ASCO and ASH 2009 and ASH 2010, and funding sources were reviewed. More than half (54%) of all abstracts submitted to ASCO 2010 acknowledged pharmaceutical company support. Almost one third (31%) of ASCO 2010 abstracts were resubmitted in the 2-year time period, and it was notable that a high fraction (75%) of these duplicate abstracts had pharmaceutical industry sponsorship, compared with 42% of the abstracts that were submitted only once. Despite current guidelines prohibiting duplicate abstract presentation, a substantial proportion (31%) of abstracts at large international hematology-oncology meetings are duplicative, with potential negative consequences. In addition, a disproportionate percentage of the duplicate abstracts rely on pharmaceutical industry support (75%), suggesting that marketing strategies may be a motivation for some of these repetitive submissions.

  7. Influence of industrial solid waste addition on properties of soil-cement bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. B. Siqueira

    Full Text Available Abstract The reuse of pollutant solid wastes produced in distinct industrial activities (avian eggshell waste and welding flux slag waste as a source of alternative raw material for producing soil-cement bricks for civil construction was investigated. Soil-cement bricks containing up to 30 wt% of industrial solid waste were uniaxially pressed and cured for 28 days. Special emphasis is given on the influence of solid waste addition on the technical properties (as such volumetric shrinkage, water absorption, bulk density, durability, and compressive strength, microstructure and mineral phases of soil-cement bricks. Microstructural evolution was evaluated via confocal microscopy. The experimental results showed that the solid wastes behave as charge material and influenced both technical properties and microstructure of the soil-cement bricks. It was found that up to 15 wt% of welding flux slag waste and up to 30 wt% of avian eggshell waste could be added into the soil-cement bricks for use as building material.

  8. The Role and Influence of the Tourism Industry of the Crimean Region on Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Shсhipanova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the aim of the article is the role and influence of tourism on the development of the economy at all levels of the economic system (example: Republic of Crimea. The article considers the methodology for analyzing the indices of social and economic growth in the branch of the Republic of Crimea. The role and influence of tourism on the economy is considered. Tasks of the article: analysis of the works of foreign and domestic scientists on the role and influence of tourism on the development of the economy; to conduct an analysis of the sectoral structure of the gross value added of the Russian Federation; describe the growth of socio-economic indicators; identify the stages of the methodology for analyzing the indicators of the social and economic growth of the tourist industry; to give an analysis of indicators characterizing the socioeconomic growth of the tourist industry of the Republic of Crimea; construct the dependence of the amount of declared amounts of investment projects on the number of tourists who visited the Republic of Crimea. Methods: the dialectical method of scientific cognition was applied in studying the role and influence of tourism on the development of the economy, calculation and analytical methods for monitoring, measuring, analyzing and comparing indicators that characterize the social and economic growth of the tourist industry of the Republic of Crimea. Results: in modern conditions, the development of the tourism sector, as a source of sustainable development of the state economy, acquires priority development. The tourism industry has a huge impact on the economy of the region, being the locomotive of the development of many other branches of management and providing non-raw budget receipts. The analysis of the works of foreign and domestic scientists makes it possible to talk about the integrated mechanism of the role and influence of tourism on the development of the economy at all levels of the economic

  9. Influence of Industrial Washing and Cyclic Fatigue on Slippage of Linen Fabric Threads along the Seam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina KORUNČAK

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available All seams of garments shall withstand the established force effect in the longitudinal and transverse directions. Resistance to thread slippage along the seam is a major property of fabrics that is regulated by strict guidelines. In many research works, lining fabrics are chosen as the object of research as thread slippage is the most typical of them. What concerns the reports exploring slippage of linen fabric threads along the seam, just very few papers are available. Studies dealing with the influence made by industrial washing and cyclic load on the defect under investigation, thereby taking into account operational properties of garments are not readily available at all. The objective of the paper is to define the influence of industrial washing and cyclic tensile on slippage of linen fabric threads along the seam. For the research, five 100 % linen fabrics of plain weave have been selected. Control test specimens, unwashed and processed with different washing methods, have been analysed. Cyclic tensile of the test specimens has been carried out by a tensile machine “Tinius Olsen” at tensile force P = 20 N, tensile speed of 12.55 mm/s, number of cycles of 100. The carried-out testing has demonstrated that industrial washing decreased resistance of linen fabrics to thread slippage along the seam in the most cases. Analysis of the results obtained has shown that cyclic tensile led to particularly significant increase in the seam gap. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.1.2486

  10. The possible influence of noise frequency components on the health of exposed industrial workers - A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K V Mahendra Prashanth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise is a common occupational health hazard in most industrial settings. An assessment of noise and its adverse health effects based on noise intensity is inadequate. For an efficient evaluation of noise effects, frequency spectrum analysis should also be included. This paper aims to substantiate the importance of studying the contribution of noise frequencies in evaluating health effects and their association with physiological behavior within human body. Additionally, a review of studies published between 1988 and 2009 that investigate the impact of industrial/occupational noise on auditory and non-auditory effects and the probable association and contribution of noise frequency components to these effects is presented. The relevant studies in English were identified in Medknow, Medline, Wiley, Elsevier, and Springer publications. Data were extracted from the studies that fulfilled the following criteria: title and/or abstract of the given study that involved industrial/occupational noise exposure in relation to auditory and non-auditory effects or health effects. Significant data on the study characteristics, including noise frequency characteristics, for assessment were considered in the study. It is demonstrated that only a few studies have considered the frequency contributions in their investigations to study auditory effects and not non-auditory effects. The data suggest that significant adverse health effects due to industrial noise include auditory and heart-related problems. The study provides a strong evidence for the claims that noise with a major frequency characteristic of around 4 kHz has auditory effects and being deficient in data fails to show any influence of noise frequency components on non-auditory effects. Furthermore, specific noise levels and frequencies predicting the corresponding health impacts have not yet been validated. There is a need for advance research to clarify the importance of the dominant noise frequency

  11. How did the Global Financial Crisis Influence the Automobile Industry: Comparison between the US and Japanese Auto Industry

    OpenAIRE

    SUN, YAN

    2013-01-01

    The 2008 global financial crisis was the worst one in seventy-five years and had great negative impact on the economy worldwide. Automobile industry, the pillar to the economic development, was hit most by the recession among the sectors. The purpose of this study is to analyze the financial crisis impacts on the automobile industry and find out strategies to decrease the occurrence rate and the loss if a similar crisis occurs. The study, firstly, describes the impact of financial crisis...

  12. On the Influence of the Industrialization Genesis on Modern Strategy of Industrial Policy in Russia: History and Economic Analisys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina G. Vaskina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors examine the industrialization process in Russia for more than a hundred years, the duration and quality parameters associated with its institutional features. The authors also focus on the relevance of the chosen theme because of the formation of new industrial policy institutions. The hypothesis of the study is based on identifying a set of basis factors of building effective institutions: system, decentralization mechanism, clustering, given a set of groups of interests of subjects of industrial policy implementation. Institutions of new industrial policy implementation in contemporary Russia are focused on achieving multifaceted tasks on a temporary basis, the level of implementation, the degree of relevance, therefore, the conclusion regarding the effective implementation of the strategy of economic development of modern Russia, which should include the following institutions: government programs, effective transparent public procurement, institutional design through the creation of specialized, diversified institutions of industrial-innovative development. Named structural elements must be systematically subordinated to the interests of macro-, meso- and micro levels of economic system. Special importance must have experience of building the institutional system of the new industrial policy, which gives effective results on the social-economic development.

  13. Analysis of catalyst wetting efficiency influence on performances of industrial TBR for hydro desulfurization and hydro de aromatization reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijatović Ivana M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many industrial scale trickle bed reactors (TBR operate at lower liquid superficial velocities (<0.5 cm/s at which the catalyst particle are not completely wetted. This phenomenon of incomplete wetting has therefore received significant attention and numerous studies have addressed the influence of wetting on the overall rate, conversion/selectivity behavior, and heat effects in TBR. The incomplete wetting conditions correspond to stagnant liquid pockets due to lower liquid superficial velocity which could cause significant influence on reactor performances. In this paper, several models for wetting efficiency in TBR on industrial level are examined and influence on reaction rate and reactor performance is discussed.

  14. An investigation of how the Australian brewing industry influence consumers on Twitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torgeir Aleti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we develop and test hypotheses around organisations’ behaviour on social media and its effect on consumers’ responses. We draw on the notion of the market maven to underpin the research and suggest that organisations on social media need to focus on acting in a maven-like manner in order to influence audiences in Twitter. We collected data from the Twitter accounts of the entire brewing industry in Australia, analysing organisational postings and their impact on influence (follower numbers, retweets of their respective Twitter accounts. In particular, we look at message formulation and language, native platform behaviour, reciprocity and persistency variables. Findings suggest that establishing a larger follower base requires an interactive, one-to-one and reciprocal approach. In order to influence audiences to retweet organisations need to speak the ‘native platform language’ and employ a soft-sell strategy. Maven-like behaviour tends to reside in the small independent craft breweries. We offer the conclusion that these craft breweries have realised that, on social media, a different approach to marketing is required: the organisations must act in a maven-like manner.

  15. The Liability of Corporate Social Influence in Brand Image: A Study in Brazilian Cosmetics Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Ribeiro da Fonseca

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluate the influence of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR in brand image (BI and corporate reputation (CR analyzing Brazilian companies in the cosmetics industry. The empirical investigation explores the perception of two large Brazilian brand cosmetic companies interviewing undergraduate students belonging to highincome classes. The objective was to compare the perceptions and the differences between the two companies that publish social reports with GRI methodology. The development of this study occurred in two stages: the first stage involved a literature review, verifying theories and published research on corporate social responsibility, IM and CR. The second stage involved collecting data through a survey. The results demonstrate that the CSR has a positive influence on the IM, but such effect demonstrated only significant for one of the brands studied, and moderately to the second. Among the contributions of this work are to review the literature on the subject, identified the influence of variables of CSR in BI and RC and the differences in consumer perception for each of the brands studied, as well recommendations for future studies.

  16. The Influence of Overhead Cranes in the Seismic Performance of Industrial Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Belleri

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the influence of overhead cranes with a hanging mass under earthquake type loading, considering the Emilia 2012 seismic sequence. The structural layout of precast concrete industrial buildings typical of the Italian territory is considered. The equations of motion describing the behavior of the hoist load are derived, and a sensitivity analysis is carried out on simplified 3 degrees of freedom systems by solving the governing differential equations. The influence of various parameters on the roof displacement and on the horizontal load transferred by the hanging mass is addressed. The considered parameters are the relative damping of the hanging mass, the length of the hoist ropes, the earthquake record, the hysteretic type of the plastic hinges at the column base, and the behavior factor of the structural system. The results show that for a horizontal component of the considered seismic sequence the structural displacements are amplified in the case of a behavior factor greater than 2.5. A simplified modeling strategy considering small displacements is also investigated. Such model is suitable for response-spectrum analyses. Finally, a three-dimensional case study is analyzed by means of non-linear time history analyses. The results show the influence of the overhead crane on the local performance of some structural and non-structural elements, such as columns and cladding panels, especially when the assumption of rigid roof diaphragm does not apply.

  17. Studing the Influence of Six Main Industrial Losses on Overall Equipment Effectiveness in Cold Rolling Unit of Mobarakeh Steel Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    seyed Akbar Nilipour Tabatabaei

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE is a key indicator and a basis for evaluating the effectiveness of equipments as well as assessing the effectiveness of the Total Productive Maintenance (TPM system. This indicator together with overall equipment performance can be used in production lines such as steel production. The aim of this article is to study the influence of six main industrial losses on the OEE indicator . For this purpose, the OEE has been calculated in the cold rolling production lines of Mobarakeh Steel Complex the gap between production lines and the global industrial standards has been studied the causes of production system inefficiency has been investigated and the effectiveness of TPM system, equipments' bottlenecks and the influence of the main industry losses on OEE have been studied. The findings imply that the influence of the variation of availability and performance rates on OEE is high, while the influence of the variation of quality rate on OEE is not considerable.

  18. The influence of micro economic factors on the default risk of leasing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Farsad Amanollahi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to establish a framework for measuring and managing credit risk for fifteen leasing companies in Iran. An analysis on the influence of internal factors on credit performance will then be performed. This will enable a leasing industry to progress towards its goals and objectives in the most direct and effective way. Credit risk consists of probability of non-return. This may be in the form of bankruptcy or a decrease in financial and credit situation of the lessee. We can assume a correlated market and credit risk. The variables are extracted from the Central Bank of Kanoon Leasing Association in Iran. Numerical analysis reveals that lessee credit risk can have a substantial impact on a lease term structure.

  19. An exploration study to find important factors influencing on brand in rubber industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnaz Moshkelati

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Building a distinguished brand often makes it possible to have sustainable growth in competitive market. It also helps us sell products with higher price; attract reliable customers for long term relationships. This paper presents an empirical investigation to find important factors influencing rubber industry. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale consists of 20 questions, distributes it among 300 people and collects 265 filled ones. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.756. In addition, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Approx. Chi-Square are 0.75 and 1292.573, respectively. Based on the results of our survey, we have derived six factors including brand transparency, expected quality, brand promises, brand support and brand sustainability.

  20. How e-business influences on time customer delivery: An empirical investigation on insurance industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, e-business has revolutionized insurance industry and it has become as one of the most important techniques to reach global market. This paper presents an empirical investigation to find important factors influencing on time delivery to customers. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire consists of 28 items in Likert scale, which was reduced to 24 and using principle component analysis, the study finds different important factors. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.94. In addition, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Approx. Chi-Square are 0.882 and 2462, respectively. The study determines four important factors including dynamic organization, environment opportunities, flexible structure and customer relationship management.

  1. An empirical investigation on factors influencing on work stress: Evidence from banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Davoudzadeh Moghaddam

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An individual with a career faced with various career challenges may experience work-related stress. Work related stress is a factor that threatens employees’ health. The most common negative consequences of stress are particularly the deterioration of performance and efficiency, decrease in productivity and quality of customer’s services, which results in health problems. Work-related stress is a global issue, and banks are no exception. This paper presents a survey to investigate the influencing factors on work stress in banking industry. The study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 200 randomly selected bank department managers in city of Tehran, Iran. Using principle component analysis, the study has detected five factors including organizational characteristics, external environment, work content, personal characteristics and top management.

  2. Influence of Rust Permeability on Corrosion of E690 Steel in Industrial and Non-industrial Marine Splash Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mindong; Pang, Kun; Liu, Zhiyong; Wu, Junsheng; Li, Xiaogang

    2018-05-01

    The corrosion behaviour of E690 steel in industrial and non-industrial marine splash environments was studied by environmental testing, morphology analysis, electrochemical measurements, and scanning Kelvin probe microscopy. Chloride and sulphide anions were found to diffuse across the rust layer following the evaporation of seawater splashed on the steel's surface. The cation-selective permeability of the rust layer resulted in an anion concentration gradient across the rust layer, which was more significant in the presence of sulphur dioxide. In addition, sulphur dioxide enhanced the formation of α-FeOOH, which led to the formation of distinct anode and cathode areas at the rust/steel interface.

  3. REVISITING PUBLIC SPACE IN POST-WAR SOCIAL HOUSING IN GREAT BRITAIN / Repensando el espacio público de las viviendas sociales de post-guerra en Gran Bretaña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Sendra

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY This paper addresses the issue of the urban obsolescence of public space of social housing neighbourhoods built during the post-war period in Great Britain. Great Britain has been chosen because of the active role played by modern architects in the construction of the welfare state advocated by post-war governments, which involved building large areas of social housing. The aims of this paper are to understand the context in which these neighbourhoods were built as well as their evolution and the complexity of their obsolescence. To achieve these objectives, it first looks at the causes that prompted the slum clearance process, at its implementation during the post-war reconstruction and at the effects that this process has had on contemporary cities. Secondly, it is illustrated through a detailed analysis of a case study, Loughborough Estate in Brixton, London, looking at the initial conditions of the council estate when it was built, investigating its evolution over the past five decades and factors that may have contributed to the obsolescence of its public space and to its social problems. The paper concludes with a warning that a generalist critique of modern architecture does not solve the problems of such neighbourhoods, but a substantial intervention on the public space is needed to bring them to life. These interventions should focus on the spatial configuration of public space and its design and maintenance.RESUMEN Este artículo aborda la cuestión de la obsolescencia urbana del espacio público en las barriadas de viviendas sociales construidas durante el periodo de post-guerra en Gran Bretaña. Se ha escogido el caso de Gran Bretaña debido al papel tan activo que tuvieron los arquitectos del movimiento moderno en la construcción del estado del bienestar, por la que abogaron los gobiernos de post-guerra y la cual implicó la construcción de una gran cantidad de viviendas. Los objetivos de este artículo son comprender el

  4. Influence of industrial heavy metal pollution on soil free-living nematode population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pen-Mouratov, Stanislav; Shukurov, Nosir; Steinberger, Yosef

    2008-01-01

    The effect of distance from a heavy metal pollution source on the soil nematode community (trophic structure, sex structure, and taxa composition) was investigated along a 15-km transect originating at the Almalyk Industrial Complex, Uzbekistan (pollution source). The soil nematode community was exposed to heavy metal influence both directly and through soil properties changes. Pollution effect on the density and biomass of soil free-living nematodes was found to be highest at pollution source, with fungivores and plant parasites dominating at the upper and deeper soil layers next to the pollution source. These groups decreased along the transect, yielding domination to bacteria- and fungi-feeders. The sex ratio of nematode communities was found to be dependent on heavy metal pollution levels, with the juveniles being the most sensitive nematode group. The Maturity and modified Maturity Indices, reflecting the degree of disturbance of the soil ecosystem, were found to be the most sensitive indices. - Trophic structure and sex ratio of soil nematode population are sensitive tools for monitoring industrial pollution

  5. Influence of N-rich material in valorization of industrial eggshell by co-composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Micaela A R; Quina, Margarida J; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa

    2016-11-01

    Industrial eggshell (ES) is an animal by-product (ABP) involving some risk if not properly managed. Composting is a possible treatment approved for its safe use. This study aims to assess the influence of using N-rich material (grass clippings (GC)) to improve co-composting of ES mixtures for reaching sanitizing temperatures imposed by the ABP regulation from the European Union. Two sets of mixtures (M1 and M2) were investigated, each containing industrial potato peel waste, GC and rice husks at 3:1.9:1 and 3:0:1 ratios by wet weight. In each set, ES composition ranged from 0% to 30% (w/w). Co-composting trials were performed in self-heating reactors for 25 days, followed by maturation in piles. Results showed that only M1 trials attained temperatures higher than 70°C for nine consecutive hours, but N-losses by stripping on average were four- to five-fold higher than M2. In the absence of N-rich material, biodegradability of mixtures was 'low' to 'moderate' and organic matter conversion was impaired. Physical, chemical and phytotoxic properties of finished composts were suitable for soil improvement, but M1 took 54 more days to achieve maturity. In conclusion, co-composting ES with N-rich materials is important to assure the fulfilment of sanitizing requirements, avoiding any additional thermal treatment.

  6. "Does organizational culture influence the ethical behavior in the pharmaceutical industry?".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashekhara, Molugulu; Agil, Syed Omar Syed

    2011-12-01

    Study of ethical behavior among medical representatives in the profession is an under-portrayed component that deserves further perusal in the pharmaceutical industry. The purpose of this study is to find out the influence of organizational culture on ethical behavior of medical representatives. Medical representatives working for both domestic and multinational companies constitutes the sample (n=300). Data is collected using a simple random and cluster sampling through a structured questionnaire. The research design is hypothesis testing. It is a cross-sectional and correlational study, conducted under non-contrived settings. Chi-square tests were shows that there is an association between the organizational culture and ethical behavior of medical representatives. In addition, the strength of the association is measured which report to Cramer's V of 63.1% and Phi Value of 2.749. Results indicate that multinational company medical reps are more ethical compared to domestic company medical representatives vast difference in both variance and in t test results. Through better organizational culture, pharmaceutical companies can create the most desirable behavior among their employees. Authors conclude that apart from organizational culture, the study of additional organizational, individual and external factors are imperative for better understanding of ethical behavior of medical representatives in the pharmaceutical industry in India.

  7. Influence of industrial heavy metal pollution on soil free-living nematode population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pen-Mouratov, Stanislav [The Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel); Shukurov, Nosir [Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Academy of Sciences, Tashkent 700041 (Uzbekistan); Steinberger, Yosef [The Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel)], E-mail: steinby@mail.biu.ac.il

    2008-03-15

    The effect of distance from a heavy metal pollution source on the soil nematode community (trophic structure, sex structure, and taxa composition) was investigated along a 15-km transect originating at the Almalyk Industrial Complex, Uzbekistan (pollution source). The soil nematode community was exposed to heavy metal influence both directly and through soil properties changes. Pollution effect on the density and biomass of soil free-living nematodes was found to be highest at pollution source, with fungivores and plant parasites dominating at the upper and deeper soil layers next to the pollution source. These groups decreased along the transect, yielding domination to bacteria- and fungi-feeders. The sex ratio of nematode communities was found to be dependent on heavy metal pollution levels, with the juveniles being the most sensitive nematode group. The Maturity and modified Maturity Indices, reflecting the degree of disturbance of the soil ecosystem, were found to be the most sensitive indices. - Trophic structure and sex ratio of soil nematode population are sensitive tools for monitoring industrial pollution.

  8. Issues on the energy industry under the yen appreciation; Endakaka ni okeru energy sangyo no kadai. Yoyakuban

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    A tendency toward the rapid yen appreciation since spring 1995 has affected various fields of the economic society of Japan. From a broader view, it is discussed whether the Japanese economic system itself is right or wrong, and that the post-war economic system and regulation system should be largely reviewed. In a short term, the yen appreciation largely affects the export industry and is markedly influential to macro economy. At present, the yen is not as high as that in 1995, but a lot of economists assume a tendency toward medium- and long-term yen appreciation. Therefore, this paper analyzed what kinds of influences the exchange fluctuation brings to the Japanese economy and energy supply/demand. It was clarified what kinds of problems will appear in the energy industry, in particular, on the assumption that the yen will keep high in medium- and long-term. The report consists of parts 1 and 2. Described were `Simulational analysis of yen appreciation` in Part 1 and `Yen appreciation and international issues` in Part 2. 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Influence of Psychological Factors on Product Development. Lessons from Aerospace and other Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, E. S.

    2002-10-01

    Product development is a major determinant of quality and cost as companies throughout the world struggle to optimize product development processes. Engineering tasks are usually implicitly assumed to be a primarily technical activity, but in reality they feature numerous nontechnical factors as well. This book focuses on the interrelationships of social, technical, and organizational aspects of the product development process. Cases observed in industry and research laboratories are presented and interpreted based on the socio-technical system approach (Emery / Trist) of examining the reciprocal relationship between the technical and the social subsystems. This book is primarily intended for engineering and quality professionals who want to know the limitations of current methods used in product development, to examine the so-called soft factors by means of grounded studies of their effect on R&D performance, not only to acknowledge the influence of soft factors but to actively consider their potential to improve the work environment. Academic researchers of the topic will also find many references and material for advanced courses on project and quality management. In addition to numerous cases from the aerospace industry, its general solution concepts are generalizable to other industries in which the high degree of product complexity necessitates effective interaction among different disciplines. The historical evaluation is neither intended for introductory purposes nor to propose a return to the past, but as a survey of the relevant factors to be applied in present and future projects. The author holds a degree in Electronics Engineering from the Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronautica, Brazil, as well as a PhD in Administration Sciences from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich, Switzerland. He draws on profound academic research as well as a wealth of practical experience in avionics, telecommunications, systems control, and the space industry

  10. How leadership attributes influence employee loyalty in the aerospace industry: An exploratory qualitative inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Marriel

    The influence leaders have on employee loyalty in the aerospace industry was examined through exploratory, qualitative inquiry. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted to ascertain the influence of six leadership attributes on loyalty. These specific leadership attributes were addressed based on key themes from the scholarly leadership research and included communication, trust, accountability, understanding, compassion, and recognition. Data were analyzed to identify common themes and patterns among the 21 study participants. Based on the study findings, the majority of participants expressed that they want leaders to communicate--and to do so often and concisely. Participants also voiced that communication was a central component in resolving many of the problems associated with loyalty, such as clarity of direction or sense of inclusion in the organization. The central themes derived from the research include the following: (a) employee loyalty no longer exists when organizational leadership fails to challenge or empower employees or create an opportunity for growth, (b) effective leaders inspire employees by sharing the vision of an organization and including employees in the decision-making process, and (c) organizational culture, values, and effective leadership play an integral role in employee loyalty and long-term commitment to the organization.

  11. Torrefaction of cedarwood in a pilot scale rotary kiln and the influence of industrial flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yanyang; Liu, Rujie; Yang, Qing; Yang, Haiping; Shao, Jingai; Draper, Christopher; Zhang, Shihong; Chen, Hanping

    2015-02-01

    Torrefaction of cedarwood was performed in a pilot-scale rotary kiln at various temperatures (200, 230, 260 and 290°C). The torrefaction properties, the influence on the grindability and hydroscopicity of the torrefied biomass were investigated in detail as well as the combustion performance. It turned out that, compared with raw biomass, the grindability and the hydrophobicity of the torrefied biomass were significantly improved, and the increasing torrefaction temperature resulted in a decrease in grinding energy consumption and an increase in the proportion of smaller-sized particles. The use of industrial flue gas had a significant influence on the behavior of cedarwood during torrefaction and the properties of the resultant solid products. To optimize the energy density and energy yield, the temperature of torrefaction using flue gas should be controlled within 260°C. Additionally, the combustion of torrefied samples was mainly the combustion of chars, with similar combustion characteristics to lignite. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Under the Influence: The Interplay among Industry, Publishing, and Drug Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, Lisa; Vannoy, Steven; Mintzes, Barbara; Shaughnessy, Allen F

    2016-01-01

    The relationships among academe, publishing, and industry can facilitate commercial bias in how drug efficacy and safety data are obtained, interpreted, and presented to regulatory bodies and prescribers. Through a critique of published and unpublished trials submitted to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) for approval of a new antidepressant, vortioxetine, we present a case study of the "ghost management" of the information delivery process. We argue that currently accepted practices undermine regulatory safeguards aimed at protecting the public from unsafe or ineffective medicines. The economies of influence that may intentionally and unintentionally produce evidence-biased-rather than evidence-based-medicine are identified. This is not a simple story of author financial conflicts of interest, but rather a complex tale of ghost management of the entire process of bringing a drug to market. This case study shows how weak regulatory policies allow for design choices and reporting strategies that can make marginal products look novel, more effective, and safer than they are, and how the selective and imbalanced reporting of clinical trial data in medical journals results in the marketing of expensive "me-too" drugs with questionable risk/benefit profiles. We offer solutions for neutralizing these economies of influence.

  13. A survey on important factors influencing brand equity: A case study of banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Sehhat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important issues in increasing customers' needs is to increase the quality of services through providing better quality services. Customer satisfaction is one of the primary requirements to meet people's needs and to have an efficient customer relationship management (CRM we need to detect the most important factors influencing efficiency and effectiveness in banking industry. In this paper, we present an empirical study to detect these factors in one of private banks in Iran. The proposed study of this paper tries to reach three objectives. We first detect important factors, which build customers' perception towards CRM, then we detect all influencing factors, which impact CRM, and finally, we evaluate the impact of CRM towards brand equity. The proposed study first designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 386 customers. Using structural equation modeling and certified factor analysis, we analyze the results. The results indicate that three factors including information, employee job behavior and suggestions and other factor have meaningful impact on customer brand equity. However, the impact of equipment on customer brand equity was not meaningful.

  14. Advances in the application of molecular microbiological methods in the oil and gas industry and links to microbiologically influenced corrosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckert, Rickard; Skovhus, Torben Lund

    2018-01-01

    While the oil and gas industry has witnessed increased applications of molecular microbiological methods (MMMs) for diagnosing and managing microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) in the past decade, the process for establishing clear links between microbiological conditions and corrosion...... mechanisms is still emerging. Different MMMs provide various types of information about microbial diversity, abundance, activity and function, all of which are quite different from the culture-based results that are familiar to oil and gas industry corrosion professionals. In addition, a multidisciplinary...

  15. MODELING OF THE INFLUENCE OF OPERATING INCOME ON THE VALUE OF INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Kaluzhskikh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of the key factors in the cost of industrial enterprise is an important tool not only for the valuation of the newly acquired companies, but also in assessing the choice of the best of the alternative strategies for the development of existing companies, since it allows to evaluate the performance of the enterprise in terms of maximizing its value. The authors study the mechanisms of allocating such factors on the basis of the indicator of added economic value, and on the basis of assessing the influence of the key factors on the cost of the business.The components forming the indicator of added economic value are presented as secondorder factors. Third-order factors reflect the influence of certain indicators of revenues and operating expenses of invested capital i.e. the elements of control by senior managers. The article highlights the performance of the third order, affecting the value of the business: operating profit (EBIT; cost of equity (Кs; value of shareholders’ equity (S; cost of debt (Кd; value of the borrowed capital (D. The article highlights the key value drivers of the company, which are interrelated parameters, which allow to valuate business and to manage its development efficiently. To form the economic and mathematical model of assessing key factors of company’s valuation, the authors used the mathematical apparatus of assessing the company’s value sensitivity to the mentioned factors. As a result, the authors developed a model assessing the influence of operating profit factor on the value of the enterprise.

  16. Textual analysis of sugar industry influence on the World Health Organization’s 2015 sugars intake guideline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Aaron; Loopstra, Rachel; McKee, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine whether sugar industry-related organizations influenced textual changes between the draft and final versions of the World Health Organization’s (WHO’s) 2015 guideline Sugars intake for adults and children. Methods Stakeholder consultation submissions on the draft guideline from seven sugar industry-related and 10 public health organizations were assessed using the Wordscores program. Document scores were rescaled using the Martin–Vanberg transformation to improve comparability. Draft and final guidelines were compared to identify changes influenced by the sugar industry and public health organizations. Findings There was a small shift in transformed Wordscores score between the draft and final guidelines, from 0.25 to 0.24, towards the industry position. The change was linked to increased use of the word “low” to describe the quality of the evidence, consistent with industry arguments. There was also a shift from use of the word “consumption” to “intake”, irrespective of policy position. Scores for World Sugar Research Organisation and Sugar Nutrition UK submissions ( 0.11 and 0.18, respectively) represented strong pro-industry positions and scores for European Public Health Alliance and Wemos submissions (1.00 and 0.88, respectively) represented the strongest public health positions. Industry tactics included challenging the quality of the evidence, distinguishing between different types of sugar and advocating harm reduction. Conclusion There was little change between draft and final versions of the WHO sugars intake guideline 2015, following industry consultation. The main change was linked to emphasizing the low quality of the evidence on sugar’s adverse effects. Guideline development appeared relatively resistant to industry influence at the stakeholder consultation stage. PMID:27516634

  17. [Famous figures of the Poznań orthopaedics of the period of the occupation and post-war years. Coryphees of Polish orthopaedics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcikowski, Władysław

    2008-01-01

    In this article author presents, from a perspective of own memories is portraying persons which he met in his professional activity. They participated in forming the orthopaedics in Poznań and different nooks of Poland. He resembles their, often very dramatic, fates and the influence they had on Polish medicine reviving after the II world war. With the special attention he is reminding one of most well-known and valued celebrities of the Polish orthopaedics professor Wiktor Dega.

  18. Influence of firm related factors and industrial policy regime on technology based capacity utilization in sugar industry in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Akpan, Sunday Brownson; Udo, U.J.; Essien, Ubon A.

    2011-01-01

    The study analyzed the technology based capacity utilization rate in sugar industry in Nigeria in the period 1970 to 2010. Data used in the study were obtained from the sugar firms, publications of the Central Bank of Nigeria and National Bureau of Statistics. Augmented Dicker Fuller unit root test was conducted on the specified data to ascertain their stationarity and order of integration. The result reveals that some variables were stationary at level while some were stationary at first dif...

  19. [Coercive Measures in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Post-war Germany, Using the Example of the "Pflege- und Beobachtungsstation" in the State Psychiatric Hospital Weissenau (1951-1966)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afschar-Hamdi, Sima; Schepker, Klaus

    2017-09-01

    Coercive Measures in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Post-war Germany, Using the Example of the "Pflege- und Beobachtungsstation" in the State Psychiatric Hospital Weissenau (1951-1966) The patient admissions at the children's ward of the State Psychiatric Hospital Weissenau in the years 1951, 1956, 1961 and 1966 were analyzed regarding documented coercive measures. Shortage of staff, mainly inadequately skilled personnel, a mixing of age groups in the patient cohort, neurological and psychiatric disorders and of patients who were in need of nursing and of those who needed treatment constituted the general work environment. Coercive measures against patients, mostly disproportionate isolations, were a constant part of daily life on the ward. This affected in particular patients who had to stay longer at the hospital and whose stay was financed by public authority. The uselessness of such measures was known, which can be seen e. g. in the Caretaker's Handbook of that time and the comments in the patient files. The situation still escalated in some cases (for example by transfer to an adult ward). For a long time, coercive measures against patients were part of everyday life at the children's ward of the Weissenau; the actual figures are suspected to be much higher.

  20. American nuclear physicists in campaign. The media coverage of the nuclear risk during the immediate post-war years in the USA (1945-1946)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinault, Michel

    2005-01-01

    In the aftermath of Hiroshima, American nuclear scientists won access to the mass media. Conscious that science had become part of the Cold War, they lobbied for a better-informed public and a peace policy for the US. They demanded, among other, the establishment of permanent international scientific organisations and a permanent representation for the scientific community near the head of government. Initially successful, the influence of their movement decreased, efforts at mobilising public opinion proved ineffective and negotiations at the UN's Atomic Energy Commission reached an impasse

  1. Bali Membangun kembali Industri Pariwisata: 1950-an

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Vickers

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The period of nation-building following Indonesia’sindependence is still little documented. The creationof Bali’s tourist industry during the colonial period isbetter documented that the re-creation of the industry inthe post-War period. This period is important because itwas Balinese who became the main agents of the rebornindustry. The industry was built on three main pillars, theprovision of accommodation, the creation of souvenirsthrough the “Artshops”, and the creation of itineraries.Building on the remnants of the colonial period, Balineseresponded to interactions with a number of key Westernfigures, using them as guides to Western tastes and needs.Although the strategy of “Cultural Tourism” is usuallyascribed to the Suharto era, it was a product of Balineseagency in the period between 1950 and 1971.

  2. An analysis of the factors influencing demand-side management activity in the electric utility industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Mark Joseph

    Demand-side management (DSM), defined as the "planning, implementation, and monitoring of utility activities designed to encourage consumers to modify their pattern of electricity usage, including the timing and level of electricity demand," is a relatively new concept in the U.S. electric power industry. Nevertheless, in twenty years since it was first introduced, utility expenditures on DSM programs, as well as the number of such programs, have grown rapidly. At first glance, it may seem peculiar that a firm would actively attempt to reduce demand for its primary product. There are two primary explanations as to why a utility might pursue DSM: regulatory mandate, and self-interest. The purpose of this dissertation is to determine the impact these influences have on the amount of DSM undertaken by utilities. This research is important for two reasons. First, it provides insight into whether DSM will continue to exist as competition becomes more prevalent in the industry. Secondly, it is important because no one has taken a comprehensive look at firm-level DSM activity on an industry-wide basis. The primary data set used in this dissertation is the U.S. Department of Energy's Annual Electric Utility Report, Form EIA-861, which represents the most comprehensive data set available for analyzing DSM activity in the U.S. There are four measures of DSM activity in this data set: (1) utility expenditures on DSM programs; (2) energy savings by DSM program participants; and (3) the actual and (4) the potential reductions in peak load resulting from utility DSM measures. Each is used as the dependent variable in an econometric analysis where independent variables include various utility characteristics, regulatory characteristics, and service territory and customer characteristics. In general, the results from the econometric analysis suggest that in 1993, DSM activity was primarily the result of regulatory pressure. All of the evidence suggests that if DSM continues to

  3. The influence of structural changes to the tourist industry in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adžić Slavica

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of transition on the society has reflected on the entire social-economic circumstances in Montenegro. This complex and long process has changed the stability of economic growth and the development of the national economy and has effectuated the structural changes in the economy of Montenegro. Beside transition, the war in the surroundings, international isolation and numerous other problems, which have changed flows of the social and economic development, have affected the condition of the economy system. On the example of other surrounding countries, Montenegro has persevered to provide, through the process of structural reforms, more rational and efficient company market business dealings. This paper investigates to which extent and in which manner the structural changes have reflected onto the tourist industry and which results have been achieved on the basis of reforms which should provide for the joining with the flows of European and World development. By changing the company's state-legal status, the state has strived to provide a greater level of economical activity, productivity growth, degree of participation in the social product, national revenue and employment. According to national economy aggregate indicators, the structural changes have not yet provided the balance of the entire economy to a sufficient extent. Social, economic and political stability are the assumptions for tourism development which is very sensitive to numerous changes in economy and in the society.

  4. Influence of Big Data on Manufacturing Industry and Strategies of Enterprises: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with the rapid development of information technologies, such as cloud computing, mobile internet and internet of things, and the promotion of IT application, all kinds of data are generated and accumulated rapidly in various ways, big data era is coming, in which enterprises are faced with both opportunities and unprecedented challenges. Various processes, from decision making to operation and from designing to marketing, are being influenced by big data in manufacturing industry. This paper, according to the nature and features of big data, analyzes and extends a classical model of organizational change, Leavitt’s model of organizational change, in order to explore the ways for enterprises to cope with challenges and seize chances of development in big data era. Then, using the extended Leavitt’s model, opportunities and challenges derive from big data are combed, and approaches to making use of big data and coping with big data are generalized from five perspectives, including task, structure, people, technology and environment.

  5. [Current status of hearing loss and related influencing factors in workers with noise exposure in refining and chemical industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S S; Yu, J N; He, C H; Mu, H X; Wang, C; Zhang, Y; Zhang, C Y; Yu, S F; Li, X L

    2016-12-20

    Objective: To investigate the current status of hearing loss and related influencing factors in workers with noise exposure in refining and chemical industry. Methods: From August 2015 to March 2016, the investigation method of collecting the data of past occupational health examinations and measuring noise in working environment was used to enroll 8 672 male workers. Results: Of all workers, 11.6% were diagnosed with hearing loss. There were significant differences in the distribution of hearing impairment among workers exposed to noise at different ages, device types and types of work (χ(2)=17.80, 77.80 and 30.53, all P hearing loss in workers with noise exposure in refining and chemical industry. Conclusion: The level of noise exposure and working years with noise exposure are main influencing factors for hearing loss in workers with noise exposure in refining and chemical industry.

  6. Customer familiarity with new industrial product technology and its influence on adoption: The case of De Beers diamond extraction equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabbie, A.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was conducted into the influence of industry customers familiarity with new technology on their decisions when purchasing discontinuous industrial products. This was done in the context where the supplier and customer organisations are entities in the same company. Even in this favourable context, continuous products remained successful despite a better solution being available. Literature on this close type of relationship is sparse, mostly because information on such internal processes is generally regarded as competitive. The case investigated was the DebTech division of De Beers, and their experience with products that they design and manufacture for the global diamond mining industry. Product developer and customer data from applicable projects was analysed, and interviews and observations were conducted. The results indicate that familiarity with the product technology favourably influences perceptions of newness, safety, and the ease of integration of a product. Familiarity increases customers propensity to recommend and purchase new-technology products.

  7. Influence of industrial dust of uranium ore on rats' lung tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jumasheva, R.T.

    2010-01-01

    Under the conditions of radiotoxic influence of uranium ore dust (UOD), the respiratory organs are the main system specifically responsible for adaptation to this factor. At the same time, there are not sufficient studies regarding the morphological aspects of structural lung distortions due to inhalational influence by UOD. To identify the nature of morphological changes in the animals' lung tissue at the cellular and subcellular levels under the influence of industrial dust of uranium ore in a dose of 50 MPC. Experimental studies were conducted on 80 white rats (tom) with a body mass of 120-180 g. The experimental animals were subjected to chronic inhalation of UOD in a dose of 50 MPC (107.75 mg/m 3 ). The animals that were kept in similar chambers but that were not exposed to UOD served as control animals. Material from the animals for research was withdrawn in 3, 7, 30 and 60 days after the beginning of the experiment. The animals were withdrawn from the experiment by decapitation after a brief ether anesthesia. The lung tissue was subjected to conventional histological processing. Sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin according to van Gieson's method. For electronic microscopic examination the lung tissue slices were fixed and embedded by conventional methods. Obtained blocks were used to prepare ultrathin sections. An impact of UOD in a dose of 50 MPC was accompanied by the development of acute focal serous inflammation in the wall of the small bronchi and lung parenchyma in the early stages of the experiment (3-7 days), pneumonic foci of fibrosis, and the development of marked sclerotic changes in the peribronchial lymphoid tissue by the 30-th day. By the 60-th day, an increase of sclerotic changes in the bronchial wall accompanied by inhibition of the reaction on the part of interstitial macrophages and bronchus associated lymphoid tissue were reported. These indicate the intense course of the compensatory processes. Conducted electron

  8. Demystifying the Role of Chinese Commercial Actors in Shaping China’s Foreign Assistance: The Case of Post-war Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao'ou Zhu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Hedging against its potential exclusion from the Trans-Pacific Partnership and other mega trading agreements, China embarked on its 21st Century Maritime Silk Road agenda to generate growth through supply chain integration and infrastructure construction in South Asian economies. However, the characteristics of China’s business-led and elite-oriented overseas development practices created policy gaps in high-risk countries. Based on interviews and fieldwork focused on Chinese State-Owned-Enterprises (SOEs in Sri Lanka, this paper explores how globalization changed the nature of these SOEs: from policy executor to both policy maker and market actor in host countries and in China. However, these changes in nature and influence of key Chinese economic actors in host countries are actually not reflected by, and are in fact out of step with, the 1994 regulation that lays down the principle of non-interventionism in foreign assistance. Such a mismatch between expansionist business and restrained regulation leads to a new paradigm where businesses, especially SOEs, serve as a bridge between the host country and Beijing to identify areas where business interest and development needs intersect, thereby shaping development financing distribution in a way that facilitates SOEs’ ascension of the global value chain. However, the exclusion of the local private sector from expressing the most pressing needs makes the new paradigm insufficient to integrate the local supply chain. This, in turn, implies the new paradigm is less able to address debt sustainability problems, and geopolitical and ethnic tension in high-risk regions. In order to redress this imbalance, this paper proposes the inclusion of the private sector and civil society into China’s mainly business-led overseas development paradigm.

  9. The influence of model resolution on ozone in industrial volatile organic compound plumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Barron H; Jeffries, Harvey E; Kim, Byeong-Uk; Vizuete, William G

    2010-09-01

    Regions with concentrated petrochemical industrial activity (e.g., Houston or Baton Rouge) frequently experience large, localized releases of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Aircraft measurements suggest these released VOCs create plumes with ozone (O3) production rates 2-5 times higher than typical urban conditions. Modeling studies found that simulating high O3 productions requires superfine (1-km) horizontal grid cell size. Compared with fine modeling (4-kmin), the superfine resolution increases the peak O3 concentration by as much as 46%. To understand this drastic O3 change, this study quantifies model processes for O3 and "odd oxygen" (Ox) in both resolutions. For the entire plume, the superfine resolution increases the maximum O3 concentration 3% but only decreases the maximum Ox concentration 0.2%. The two grid sizes produce approximately equal Ox mass but by different reaction pathways. Derived sensitivity to oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and VOC emissions suggests resolution-specific sensitivity to NOx and VOC emissions. Different sensitivity to emissions will result in different O3 responses to subsequently encountered emissions (within the city or downwind). Sensitivity of O3 to emission changes also results in different simulated O3 responses to the same control strategies. Sensitivity of O3 to NOx and VOC emission changes is attributed to finer resolved Eulerian grid and finer resolved NOx emissions. Urban NOx concentration gradients are often caused by roadway mobile sources that would not typically be addressed with Plume-in-Grid models. This study shows that grid cell size (an artifact of modeling) influences simulated control strategies and could bias regulatory decisions. Understanding the dynamics of VOC plume dependence on grid size is the first step toward providing more detailed guidance for resolution. These results underscore VOC and NOx resolution interdependencies best addressed by finer resolution. On the basis of these results, the

  10. The Influence Of Business Partnership And Competitive Strategy On Business Performance Of Recreation Park Services Industry In West Java Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurniawan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recreational parks services industry in West Java have problems due to low business performance caused by the difficulty of companies to compete whereas tourism services right now are yet offered unique characteristics products due to the product is relatively similar with competitors. Based on that background the research aims to obtain a study on the influence of business partnerships and competitive strategy on business performance in recreation park service industries in West Java. Research conducted using an explanatory survey. In this study the target population is a company incorporated in the tourism service industry in West Java. Time horizon is a cross-sectional which research is done in one time simultaneously. The data analyzed through verification. Hypothesis is tested using partial least square PLS. The research findings reveal that there is a simultaneous and partial influence of business partnerships and competitive strategy on business performance. The influence of competitive strategy is more dominant than business partnership in improving business performance the rest influenced by other factors not examined in this study. Based on that it would need to the management of recreation park services companies in West Java to increase the competitive strategy as the first priority in efforts to improve business performance.

  11. The post-war Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tempest, P.

    1992-01-01

    The Middle East remains today the global energy fulcrum. One year after the Persian Gulf war, the region is in greater turmoil and political uncertainty than it has known in modern times. The Iraqi invasion of Kuwait and subsequent external military intervention forced neighboring states to question the need for a foreign military presence in the future. The rift between the secular revolutionary states in the region led by Iraq, Libya, Yemen, Algeria, and Syria and the traditional monarchy of Saudi Arabia and the emirates of the gulf has widened. Egypt provides, at present, an uncomfortable bridge. The balance of political forces may be shifting. This paper attempts to answer the following questions: Where will we see the new leadership in the Middle East? Will it again play a role through the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries and determination of the oil price in shaping the structure of global energy supply and demand?

  12. THE PROFITABILITY AND LIQUIDITY UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF THE FINANCING POLICY IN THE METALLURGICAL INDUSTRY OF EU 28

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOBROTĂ GABRIELA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the problems of the economic system, the use of the capital and his structure represent important elements in the process of the financial decisions. The aim of this paper is to identify the influence of funding policy on rentability in metallurgical industry, dimensioned with the help of a set of relevant indicators, determined on the base of some aggregated data for a significant sample of very large firms from EU 28. Also, the paper present the situation of liquidity, reflected through the cash- flow and liquidity ratio, in the metallurgical industry of EU 28, being used dates for the period 2004 – 2013, for the mentioned sample. The conclusion of the realised study is that a funding policy well-founded, correlated with the efficient management of expenses and proactive risk management can positively influence the profitability and liquidity.

  13. The influence of industry actions on the availability of alcoholic beverages in the African region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babor, Thomas F; Robaina, Katherine; Jernigan, David

    2015-04-01

    The alcohol beverage industry has been expanding its corporate social responsibility and other business activities in sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effects of these activities on the physical, economic, psychological and social availability of alcohol in the region. Narrative review. Source materials came from the business press, industry sources (websites, annual reports, press releases, conference proceedings) and the scientific literature published since 2000. The alcohol industry has intensified its activities in the African region, through their funding of social aspect organizations, technical publications, policy workshops and other corporate social responsibility activities. Marketing campaigns, new product designs and the development of industry-civil society partnerships have increased. There is evidence that the alcohol industry also engages in lobbying, information dissemination and legal action to thwart effective public health measures. The corporate social responsibility activities of the global alcohol industry have provided a vehicle to promote industry-favorable policies and increase the physical, economic, social and psychological availability of alcohol. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. The Influence Of Globalisation And Modern Technological Changes On Manufacturing Industries In Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuri M. Triki

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation and new technologies are having an intense impact on the manufacturing industries. This is affecting business global and might demand new strategies and policies for manufacturing companies. Libya like several other countries in the Middle East and also is among the few developing African economies has been facing problems related to its productivity in industrial sector. Manufacturing industries in Libya was reared to offer better products and services as part of the government plans to reconstruct their economy and improve its industrial companies. So as to face these problems manufacturing sectors need to increase their production and they also require a clear strategy and policies towards an efficient supply chain about modern technology. A new technology is one of the improvement initiatives that can be used to enhance industrial performance competitiveness and decrease its costs by eliminating of waste and increasing added value activities. The significance of new technology and modern systems in the industrial world has enhanced in this decade because of the benefits that they bring to the factories and companies. The aims of this research is to investigate new technology strategies that will enable the Libyan manufacturing industries to shift towards an increase production and reduce its costs as well as to quantify the modern technological changes and the role of globalisation in addition to declaration of its effect on the growth additionally development of the Libyan industrial sector and competitiveness lastly moreover this survey make a recommendations to establish systems that improve the emergent needs of the national industrial sector.

  15. Modernisation of production as a factor of influence on economic stability of the industrial enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varkova N.Yu.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article considers key problems of modernising production process at industrial enterprises, also referred to as reengineering, in modern conditions of Russian economics. Having analysed factors that affect operation of business, the author presents the model of interdependence between modernisation of production and sustainable development of the enterprise. Based upon analysis of Russian and foreign sources there were formulated fundamentals of the modernisation process and presented an algorithmic mechanism of enabling modernisation at the industrial enterprise. The said mechanism takes into account main aspects of sustainable development of the industrial enterprise and evaluation parameters as to the modernisation efficiency.

  16. Influence of Economic Value and Fundamental Analysis Toward Stock Market (Studies on the Retail Trade Industry Sector)

    OpenAIRE

    Widyatmini, Widyatmini; Damanik, Michael Valentino

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this research is to measure the influence of economics value added and fundamental analysis toward stock price on retail industry. Data which was deployed on this research are company financial report and stock price. Further, data was analyzed using regression method by deploying SPSS software. Research result shows that all independent variables proposed (economics value added, current ratio, quick ratio, total asset turnover ratio, inventory turnover ratio, gross profit ma...

  17. Factors Influencing Sustainable Entrepreneurship in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Iran: A Case Study of Food Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamhossein Hosseininia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to establish the social and environmental factors that influence sustainable entrepreneurship (SE in Small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs. It also attempted to identify whether the demographic background of the entrepreneur influences the SE in SMEs of the Iranian food industry. A mixed method approach, employing the use of questionnaires and interviews from a sample size of approximately 130 participants and 12 owner-managers of SMEs in food industry, was used to collect data. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and several inferential analyses. Findings showed that certain characteristics of the entrepreneur, including work experience and education, have a significant impact on SE. Furthermore, out of the eight identified factors, according to the participants’ perception, the most important factors towards sustainable performance of SMEs in food industry are social factors, including customer orientation, as well as human resources and environmental factors, including recycling and the future of Earth. This research paper concludes that considering the social and environmental aspects of sustainability and employing experienced staff would majorly contribute to the pursuit of SE in SMEs of food industry.

  18. Factors Influencing the Spatial Distribution of Organochlorine Pesticides in Soils surrounding Chemical Industrial Parks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, G.; Lu, Y.L.; Wang, T.Y.; Zhang, X.; Han, J.Y.; Luo, W.; Shi, Y.J.; Li, J.; Jiao, W.T.

    2009-01-01

    Topsoil samples (n = 105) were collected to Study the distribution of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) residues in the vicinity of chemical industrial parks in Tianjin, China. The occurrence and distribution of target organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were mapped

  19. Tobacco Industry Political Power and Influence in Florida From 1979 to 1999

    OpenAIRE

    Givel, Michael S. Ph.D.; Glantz, Stanton A. Ph.D.

    1999-01-01

    The tobacco industry is a major political and legal force in Florida through campaign contributions, public relations efforts, lobbying and litigation, which at least from the late 1970s, has had a centralized political organization in Florida that defends and promotes its political and economic interests at the local and state levels of government. Although the industry has operated in the open in some political campaigns, it has also operated quietly behind the scenes, often through front g...

  20. The Influences of Humorous Advertising on Brand Popularity and Advertising Effects in the Tourism Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Wan; Chang, I

    2014-01-01

    With a diversity of promotional channels and ever-increasing numbers of participants, the tourism industry in Taiwan faces keen competition. Along with the direct cross-strait flights policy, groups like Eastern Multimedia Group, Tsann Kuen Enterprise Company Limited and Want Want China Times Group have founded travel agencies for the purpose of increasing their market share in the tourism industry. Therefore, the formulation of marketing strategies has become a critical issue for all travel ...

  1. Algumas reflexões sobre a qualificação do trabalho a partir da sociologia francesa do pós-guerra Reflections on work qualification from the post-war french sociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Lobo Baptista Pereira Tartuce

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo procura refletir sobre a pertinência histórica e analítica do conceito de "qualificação do trabalho", em um contexto social que tem demandado a sua substituição pela noção de "competência". Para isso, busca compreendê-lo do ponto de vista teórico, tendo por base o pensamento de Georges Friedmann e Pierre Naville (especialmente o deste último, os pais da sociologia do trabalho na França, no pós-guerra. É nesse país e nesse período que a qualificação começa a adquirir centralidade: ela se torna não apenas um aspecto da prática política e social como, também - e talvez por isso mesmo -, o objeto por excelência da disciplina nascente. Isso significa que a qualificação tem uma história social e interpretativa, e é só por meio dela que se pode decretar ou não o fim de sua vigência analítica. O texto argumenta que as contribuições de Naville, como precursor da chamada visão "relativista" da qualificação - aquela que a concebe como socialmente construída -, são fundamentais para se pensar o debate "qualificação" versus "competência".This paper undertakes a reflection on the historical and analytical pertinence of the concept of work qualification, in a social context that has replaced it by the notion of skill. It thus tries to understand it from the theoretical point of view, based on the thought of Georges Friedmann and Pierre Naville (especially that of the latter, the fathers of sociology of work in post-war France. Qualification began to become central in this country and in this period: it became not only an aspect of the political and social practice but also - and maybe for this very reason -, the object par excellence of this arising subject matter. This means that qualification has a social and interpretative history, and only through it may we decree or not the end of its analytical operationality. The text arguments that the contributions of Naville, the precursor of the so

  2. Influence of relative humidity and temperature on quantity of electric charge of static protective clothing used in petrochemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yunpeng; Liu, Quanzhen; Liu, Baoquan; Li, Yipeng; Zhang, Tingting

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the working principle of static protective clothing and its testing method of quantity of electric charge are introduced, and the influence of temperature and relative humidity on the quantity of electric charge (q e ) of static protective clothing is studied by measuring q e of different clothing samples. The result shows that temperature and relative humidity can influence q e of static protective clothing to some extent and the influence of relative humidity is bigger than that of temperature. According to experimental results, the relationship of q e and relative humidity and temperature was analysed, and the safety boundary of quantity of electric charge is discussed. In order to reduce the occurrence of electrostatic accidents and ensure safe production and operation of petrochemical industry, some suggestions on choosing and using of static protective clothing are given for guaranteeing its static protective performance.

  3. Influence of relative humidity and temperature on quantity of electric charge of static protective clothing used in petrochemical industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunpeng; Liu, Quanzhen; Liu, Baoquan; Li, Yipeng; Zhang, Tingting

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, the working principle of static protective clothing and its testing method of quantity of electric charge are introduced, and the influence of temperature and relative humidity on the quantity of electric charge (qe) of static protective clothing is studied by measuring qe of different clothing samples. The result shows that temperature and relative humidity can influence qe of static protective clothing to some extent and the influence of relative humidity is bigger than that of temperature. According to experimental results, the relationship of qe and relative humidity and temperature was analysed, and the safety boundary of quantity of electric charge is discussed. In order to reduce the occurrence of electrostatic accidents and ensure safe production and operation of petrochemical industry, some suggestions on choosing and using of static protective clothing are given for guaranteeing its static protective performance.

  4. A study on important factors influencing innovation in service: A case study of hotel industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koorosh Kohyari Haghighat

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Hotel industry plays important role on developing tourism industry and having better services in this industry always help increase market share. The proposed study of this paper considers the effects of four variables including collaboration with staff, collaboration with customers, collaboration with partners and business owners and finally mechanism of integration of knowledge on innovation on service. The population of this survey includes 259 hotels where we send our questionnaire to 179 and manage to collect 170 ones. Cronbach alpha for four variables including collaboration with staff, collaboration with customers, collaboration with partners and business owners and finally mechanism of integration of knowledge were calculated as 0.78, 0.865, 0.743 and 0.890, respectively. The proposed study uses structural equation modeling to study the relationship between independent variables and dependent variable and the effects of four variables are confirmed when the level of significance is five percent.

  5. A review of the federal guidelines that inform and influence relationships between physicians and industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkhahn, Robert H; Jauch, Edward; Kramer, David A; Nowak, Richard M; Raja, Ali S; Summers, Richard L; Weber, Jim Edward; Diercks, Deborah B

    2009-08-01

    The effective delivery and continued advancement of health care is critically dependent on the relationship between physicians and industry. The private sector accounts for 60% of the funding for clinical research and more than 50% of the funding sources for physician education. The nature of the physician-industry relationship and the role of the physician as a gatekeeper for health care make this association vulnerable to abuse if certain safeguards are not observed. This article will review the current federal guidelines that affect the physician-industry relationship and highlight several illustrative cases to show how the potential for abuse can subvert this relationship. The recommendations and "safe harbors" that have been designed to guide business relationships in health care are discussed.

  6. The influence of agro-industrial effluents on River Nile pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayeda M. Ali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The major agro-industrial effluents of sugarcane and starch industries pose a serious threat to surface waters. Their disposal in the River Nile around Cairo city transitionally affected the microbial load. In situ bacterial enrichment (50–180% was reported and gradually diminished downstream; the lateral not vertical effect of the effluent disposal was evident. Disposed effluents increased BOD and COD, and then progressively decreased downstream. Ammoniacal N was elevated, indicating active biological ammonification and in situ biodegradability of the effluents. In vitro, the nitrogen-fixing rhizobacteria Crysomonas luteola, Azospirillum spp., Azomonas spp. and K. pneumoniae successfully grew in batch cultures prepared from the crude effluents. This was supported by adequate growth parameters and organic matter decomposition. Therefore, such biodegradability of the tested agro-industrial effluents strongly recommends their use for microbial biomass necessary for the production of bio-preparates.

  7. Exploration of Factors Influencing the Customers’ Motivation in Buyer-supplier Relationships on Industrial Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Markus Zunk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To gain a competitive advantage on industrial markets, suppliers need to understand what motivates their customers to collaborate in long-term buyer-supplier relationships. Therefore, this paper presents (i a literature-based model of a 12-part industrial customers’ motivation profile, and (ii empirical findings from an explorative survey of 118 decision makers in the purchasing departments of firms in the technology sector. The results indicate that, “the optimum value for money”, “the holistic problem-solving capability of the suppliers and their high degree of performance” and “the good assistance in economically hard times in the past, which has led to a feeling of gratefulness” are all of great importance to industrial customers for building and maintaining relationships.

  8. Business Conflict and Risk Regulation: Understanding the Influence of the Pesticide Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Kees

    2017-01-01

    Despite the criticism, frequent in the literature, of business influence on the formulation of pesticide risk regulation, there has been remarkably little systematic study of this practice. This article discusses Costa Rica pesticide producers’ business influence on global and national efforts to

  9. Influence of wastewater characteristics on handling food-processing industry wastewaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maya Altamira, Larisa

    fem sammensatte spildevandsprøver fra fire industrier viste at et vist indhold af acetat medførte hæmning af den hydrolytiske og methanogene aktivitet i spildevand fra grøntsags- og produktion af vegetabilske olier. Dette spildevand indeholdt bemærkelsesværdigt nok ikke nogen lipider, og når det blev...

  10. How Do Social Networks Influence Learning Outcomes? A Case Study in an Industrial Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglajlic, Seid; Helic, Denis

    2012-01-01

    and Purpose: The purpose of this research is to shed light on the impact of implicit social networks to the learning outcome of e-learning participants in an industrial setting. Design/methodology/approach: The paper presents a theoretical framework that allows the authors to measure correlation coefficients between the different affiliations that…

  11. Public policies influencing innovation in the agrochemical, biotechnology and seed industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijman, J.; Tait, J.

    2002-01-01

    The development and marketing of new products by the agrochemical, biotechnology and seed industries is strongly regulated by government policies. Relevant policies include those on science, technology and innovation, the environment and public health, and farm support. This survey of policies

  12. Do Transaction Costs and Risk Preferences Influence Marketing Arrangements in the Illinois Hog Industry?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken, J.R.V.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Garcia, P.

    2008-01-01

    Studies of hog industry structure often invoke risk reduction and transaction costs explanations for empirical observations but fail to directly examine the core concepts of risk behavior and transaction costs theories. Using a more unified conceptual framework and unique survey and accounting data,

  13. Hydrocarbon Source Signatures in Houston, Texas: Influence of the Petrochemical Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jobson, B Tom T; Berkowitz, Carl M; Kuster, W C; Goldan, P D; Williams, E J; Fesenfeld, F; Apel, Eric; Karl, Thomas G; Lonneman, William A; Riemer, D

    2004-12-22

    Observations of C1-C10 hydrocarbon mixing ratios measured by in-situ instrumentation at the La Porte super site during the TexAQS 2000 field experiment are reported. The La Porte data were compared to a roadway vehicle exhaust signature obtained from canister samples collected in the Houston Washburn tunnel during the same summer to better understand the impact of petrochemical emissions of hydrocarbons at the site. It is shown that the abundance of ethene, propene, 1-butene, C2-C4 alkanes, hexane, cyclohexane, methylcyclohexane, isopropylbenzene, and styrene at La Porte were systematically impacted by petrochemical industry emissions. Coherent power law relationships between frequency distribution widths of hydrocarbon mixing ratios and their local lifetimes clearly identify two major source groups, roadway vehicle emissions and industrial emissions. Distributions of most aromatics and long chain alkanes were consistent with roadway vehicle emissions as the dominant source. Airmass reactivity was generally dominated by C1-C3 aldehydes. Propene and ethene sometimes dominated air mass reactivity with HO loss frequencies often greater than 10 s-1. Ozone mixing ratios near 200 ppbv were observed on two separate occasions and these air masses appear to have been impacted by industrial emissions of alkenes from the Houston Ship Channel. The La Porte data provide evidence of the importance of industrial emissions of ethene and propene on air masses reactivity and ozone formation in Houston.

  14. Influence of heat treatment on magnesium alloys meant to automotive industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popescu, G.; Moldovan, P.; Bojin, D.; Sillekens, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a study concerning the heat treatment realized on magnesium alloys, from AZ80 and ZK60 class. These alloys are destined to replace the conventional ferrous and aluminum alloys in automotive industry. It was realized the heat treatment, T5 - artificially aging, and it were

  15. Medications development for substance-use disorders: contextual influences (dis)incentivizing pharmaceutical-industry positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janero, David R

    2014-11-01

    The significant contribution of substance-use disorders (SUDs) to the global-disease burden and associated unmet medical needs has not engendered a commensurate level of pharma-industry research and development (R&D) for novel SUD therapeutics invention. Analysis of contextual factors shaping this position suggests potential routes toward incentivizing R&D commitment for that purpose. This article considers multiple primary factors that have consorted to disincentivize pharma industry's operating in the SUD space: ill-understood pathology; variegated treatments and patient profiles; involved clinical trials; and - with particular reference to SUDs-negative cultural/business stigmas and shallow commercial precedent. Industry incentivization for SUD drug innovation requires progress on several fronts, including: translational experimental data and systems; personalized, holistic SUD treatment approaches; interactions among pharma, nonindustry constituencies, and the medical profession with vested interests in countering negative stereotypes and expanding SUD treatment options; and public-private alliances focused on improving SUD pharmacotherapy. Given the well-entrenched business stance whereby the prospect of future profits in major markets largely determines drug-company R&D investment trajectory, strategic initiatives offering substantial reductions in the risks and opportunity (i.e., time and money) costs associated with SUD drug discovery are likely to be the most potent drivers for encouraging mainstream industry positioning in this therapeutic area. Such initiatives could originate from front-loaded R&D operational and back-loaded patent, regulatory, marketing and health-care policy reforms. These may be too involved and protracted for the turbulent pharmaceutical industry to entertain amid its recent retrenchment from psychiatric/CNS diseases and intense pressures to increase productivity and shareholder value.

  16. Influence of wastewater characteristics on methane potential in food-processing industry wastewaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maya Altamira, Larisa; Baun, Anders; Angelidaki, Irini

    2008-01-01

    ) were compared to the theoretical methane yields (Bo,th) in order to evaluate the biodegradability of the tested wastewaters and the influence of their physico-chemical characteristics. The analytical method applied to quantify the wastewaters’ organic content proved to influence the estimation...... of their theoretical yields. The substrate:inoculum ratio as well as the dilution factor of the wastewaters influenced the ultimate practical methane yields differently in each of the wastewaters assessed. Substrate chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations did not present any influence on ultimate practical methane...... yields; on the other hand, it was found that they were affected positively by concentrations of total inorganic carbon when wastewaters were 25% and 50% diluted and affected negatively by concentrations of total acetate when wastewaters were undiluted. Carbohydrate and protein concentrations affected...

  17. The Influence of Trust on Project Management Practice within the Construction Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Strahorn, Scott; Brewer, Graham; Gajendran, Thayaparan

    2017-01-01

    Given that any construction project is inherently a human endeavour, it follows that issues of trust are significant in terms of the stakeholder interactions that deliver eventual project outcomes.  Previous research indicates that the relational basis upon which projects are undertaken are intended to influence the likelihood of trusting relationships between stakeholders.  Thus, experiences of trust in a construction project environment are likely to be influenced by the contextual specific...

  18. Research report of innovation of industrial technology in FY 1996; 1996 nendo sangyo gijutsu no innovation chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Remarkable innovations of the Japanese industry in various fields have been extracted and evaluated during the 50 post-war years. In this report, a method of capturing the innovations of industrial technology is examined. It is essential to clarify the social role of industrial technology, and the original views of this research are indicated by focusing on the innovation process in order to clarify the connections between those of mutual industry, technical management, man-power, and unique Japanese technology. The innovations achieved by the Japanese industry during post-war 50 years are classified into eight categories, i.e., automobiles, iron, aero-space/railways, machines, national land/energy, chemicals/fine ceramics, electronics/information/communication, and life, to clarify the technological progress in each field. In Japan, the industrial technology has been developed with learning from fundamental researches in Europe and the USA. In the future, it is necessary to independently develop industrial frontier. 4 figs., 47 tabs.

  19. An empirical examination of the influence of industry and firm drivers on the rate of internationalization by firms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elango, B.

    A gradual shift in U.S. firms' 'center of gravity' toward international markets is taking place. This study seeks to explain which drivers are related to this push toward international markets by U.S. firms. In addressing internationalization, previous research has not focused on various drivers that influence the rate of internationalization. Drivers refer to forces, both within and outside the firm, that impact (both positively and negatively) a firm's extent of internationalization. The role of these drivers on the rate of internationalization, though acknowledged in the literature, is yet to be validated through empirical research. This research seeks to narrow the gap in the literature by testing the various relationships among industry drivers, firm drivers, and the rate of internationalization. The objectives of this study are: (A) To develop a conceptual framework that takes into account various forces that influence the internationalization strategy of a firm; (B) To examine empirically (a) the influence of industry drivers on the rate of internationalization pursued by firms; and, (b) the influence of firm drivers on the rate of internationalization by firms. The sample for this study consists of 158 large U.S.- based multinational firms drawn from seven different industries. Data for the study is gathered from a variety of sources including the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis; COMPUSTAT; and WORLDSCOPE databases. Set-wise regression models were used for data analysis. This study found that global market growth rate, domestic market growth rate, relative size of domestic market to international market, employee productivity, administrative investments, as well as new plant and equipment influences the international strategy of firms. This study explains about 24 percent of the variance of the rate of internationalization. This research finding is contributory to our existing understanding of internationalization in many ways

  20. Tender rules and trust influence on cooperation in the building industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ussing, Lene Faber; Wandahl, Søren

    2012-01-01

    The building industry has for many years been criticized for not having as efficient and effective co-operation as other industries. Some parties in the building sector try to use a new form of collaboration as i.a. partnering. In a big part of those partnering projects a good working relationship...... exists, the building owner is satisfied, the involved companies earn money and the project finish in time. A lot of projects do not use partnering or other new forms of collaboration. In these projects the general impression is that the parties in the building sector are fighting instead of co......-operating. A questionnaire survey including building owners, contractors, suppliers, architects, engineers and client design advisor has been accomplished. The survey shows that the problem with co-operation among others is the way the tendering rules normally are used, where the normal assignment criterion is the lowest...

  1. Influence of fungal morphology on the performance of industrial fermentation processes for enzyme production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintanilla Hernandez, Daniela Alejandra

    Production of industrial enzymes is usually carried out as submerged aerobic fermentations. Filamentous microorganisms are widely used as hosts in these processes due to multiple advantages. Nevertheless, they also present major drawbacks, due to the unavoidable oxygen transfer limitations...... in this work, along with its correlation to viscosity and other process variables. Considerable research work has been conducted through the years to study fungal morphology and its relation to productivity. However, the work reported in the literature lacks relevant industrial data. In this work, a platform...... was developed which was able to produce high enzyme titers in comparison with what has been reported thus far in fed-batch fermentation using a soluble inducer (lactose). Different nitrogen sources were compared, and it was found that soy meal allowed for higher enzyme titers compared to what has been reported...

  2. A study on influencing factors on brand loyalty: A case study of Mobile industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Dehestani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Brand loyalty plays essential role on product development especially in mobile industry. In this paper, we present an empirical survey to study the effects of different factors including brand associate, brand awareness, distribution intensity and quality perception on brand loyalty. The proposed model of this paper is examined by designing a questionnaire consists of 16 questions in Likert scale and distributing it among 200 people who use a particular brand in mobile industry called Nokia. The results are analyzed using structural equation modeling where Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.84. The results indicate that there is a positive relationship between perception quality as well as brand awareness and brand loyalty. In addition, there is a positive relationship between brand awareness and perception quality.

  3. FACTORS INFLUENCING ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE IN THE FOOD MANUFACTURING, CHEMICAL, AGRICULTURAL WHOLESALING AND BIOTECHNOLOGY INDUSTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Maude Roucan-Kane

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to identify factors determining a business investment strategy (i.e., the choice of investment commitment and form of organizational structure) in the food manufacturing, chemical, agricultural wholesaling and biotechnology industries. Propositions regarding strategic alliance theories are tested on over 400 inter-firm collaborative agreements using secondary data from major US and European companies for the 1994-97 period. Results suggest that transactions with...

  4. The Influence of Size on Corporate Culture and Organizational Effectiveness in the Nigerian Banking Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Edwinah Amah; C. A. Nwuche

    2013-01-01

    The paper examined the effect of size on corporate culture and organizational effectiveness in the Nigerian banking industry. A total of 388 managers were randomly drawn from a population of 13,339 managers of all the 24 banks in Nigeria. The instruments used for data collection were questionnaire and oral interview. A total of 320 copies of the questionnaire were retrieved and analyzed. Spearman¡¯s Rank Correlation Statistical tool was used to test the hypotheses. The findings revealed that ...

  5. Much Ado about Nothing?- The Influence of Functional Food on Profitability of German Food Industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Wittkopp, Antje

    2002-01-01

    Product innovation is a competitive strategy in food industry. Successful product development management is a key determinant of a firm?s performance. In recent years functional foods, which are innovative food products that provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition, have become increasingly important in Germany. Using the structure-conductperformance approach it can be argued that product innovation raises barriers to entry and thus improve profitability. This study examines the effect ...

  6. Influence of transport infrastructure on the industrial development of the Russian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizaveta Eduardovna Kolchinskaya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to build a model describing the relationship between the level of transport infrastructure development of the region and the level of industrial development in the region. Methods calculation of the integral indicators of a particular industry development regression analysis method of the production function constructing. For regression analysis the paper uses panel data models with random and fixed effects and the pooled panel data model. To check the quality of the regression model the Fisher and Student ttests were used. To test the model for heteroskedastic properties tests by Park Glazer GoldfeldQuandt and White were applied. Results models of linear and logarithmic specifications with random and fixed effects were built as well as pooled panel data models. Significant coefficients of transport infrastructure indicators were obtained in both cases only in the pooled panel data models. The model which considered the railway density index as one of the characteristics of the transport infrastructure of the region showed the negative coefficient of this variable. Scientific novelty for the first time on the basis of Russian regions statistics using regression models of panel data the dependence has been studied between the level of transport development in the region and the dynamics of industrial production in it. As the characteristic of transport infrastructure development the specially designed integral indicator was used i.e. the transport enterprises and communications functioning in the region summarizing several characteristics of enterprises in the industry. Practical value the obtained results can be used to predict effects of adopting decisions on improving the transport infrastructure in the Russian Federation regions. The results and conclusion can serve as a basis for further research on this topic and be applied in the characterization of the Russian economy. In addition the results can be used in the educational

  7. Investigating different factors influencing job satisfaction: A case study of cement industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mina Shirvani; Asghar Mohammadi; Mohammad Reza Iravani; Saeed Yousef Pour; Allahyar Arabmomeni; Shirin Mirhaj; Akram Fakhri Fakhramini

    2013-01-01

    Job satisfaction plays an important role on increasing business productivity and efficiency. This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the relationship between job satisfaction and employees’ personal characteristics including gender, marital status, etc. The proposed study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 244 out of 800 employees who worked for cement industry in Iran. The data are analyzed using different statistical tests such as t-student and analysis of vari...

  8. Economic governance in the Chinese PV industry: Structural and individual factors influencing market development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruss, Laura

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the new millennium, the global production of photovoltaic (PV modules has been experiencing a rapid growth. In 2008, China already had 50 times more producers than in 2001 and three Chinese companies ranked amongst the top 10 PV producers worldwide. However, overcapacities and international trade disputes have challenged the success story of the Chinese PV industry. In order to try to tackle the mechanisms which have fostered the overall development of the Chinese PV industry since the 2000s, I have conducted a qualitative case study on Chinese PV modules producers. Following the logic of a qualitative research design, theories on cluster development have been used as an analytical device for structuring the causal narrative. In a circular research process design, structural factors, such as local growth fetishism and rebalancing, as well as individual factors, such as herd behaviour and wishful thinking, have been identified as drivers along the line of the life cycle of clusters. In this respect, this paper contests the still popular idea of the Chinese central government as the omnipotent and rational director of the Chinese economy and takes the consequences of past decentralization policies as well as bounded rationality into consideration. Since the political emphasis of regional development for global competitiveness had similar policy effects in different countries, the findings call for a context sensitive comparison between industries and countries.

  9. CORPORATE REPUTATION INFLUENCES CONSUMER SATISFACTION AND LOYALTY: EVIDENCE FROM CELLULAR INDUSTRY OF PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IMRAN ALI

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Research suggests that it takes five times more expenses to attract new customer than to retain existing consumer. The growing concern of corporations in today’s competitive environment is to retain consumers. As a result, plenty of researches have been conducted to identify the approaches to satisfy and retain consumers. The current study examines the affects of corporate reputation on consumer satisfaction and consumer loyalty. The primary data has been collected from the consumers of cellular industry in Pakistan. The rationale behind selecting respondents from cellular industry is the intense competition, which is enduring in the cellular companies of Pakistan. The study used SPSS and AMOS to analyze the data. The correlation analysis, regression analysis, reliability analysis and model fit index analysis has been used to test hypotheses and interpret some interesting results. The study found significantly positive associations of corporate reputation on consumer satisfaction and consumer loyalty. The study also found strongly positive affects of consumer satisfaction on consumer loyalty for the case of cellular industry of Pakistan. The study proposes some useful recommendations for policy makers in the area.

  10. INNOVATIONS AS AN IMPORTANT FACTOR INFLUENCING LABOUR PRODUCTIVITY IN THE MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Bušelić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic science has long recognized labour productivity as an important factor of economic growth. In the uncertain conditions of increasingly fierce and complex competition, it becomes one of the key prerequisites for an adequate response to global challenges. The development of labour productivity has to be observed as a multi-dimensional process including numerous interconnected quantitative and qualitative factors, in particular human factors and technological advancement realized through investments in research and development (innovations. The analysis of labour productivity in the manufacturing industry of the selected countries, Germany and China, is performed in the context of an important influential factor – innovations, and interdependently with the economic growth of the selected countries. The research results and the conducted regression analyses indicate a superiority of German labour productivity in the manufacturing industry, which is strongly affected by considerable investments in research and development. However, the technological convergence of China as the upcoming power is increasingly important, which shows that the gap in labour productivity is decreasing, making developed countries face new challenges posed by globalization. The analysis of the interdependence of economic growth (GDP and labour productivity in the manufacturing industry points to a positive link and the conclusion that the elasticity of the GDP to changes in labour productivity is greater in China than in Germany.

  11. Digital intermediaries and cultural industries: the developing influence of distribution platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Guignard

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The last few years have seen the generalization of a communicative device which is technical and organizational integration of a terminal, an operating system, a network connection, an online platform to access applications (contents and services. Indeed, smartphones, connected TVs, tablet computers and game consoles are structured by this model which develops itself thanks to the rise of computer performance and capacity telecommunication networks. Single technical interface for users, they show, for industrial actors involved, a mode of organization cannot be reduced to a commercial intermediation. So at the heart of this configuration are the "platforms" which are a new form of goods and services distribution and carry out the renewal of uses and related practices and a change in the value chain which are in the depths of effective change, hopes and fears aroused by the devices presented in our contribution.    Our paper aims at exposing the evolution of these devices in several fields of cultural industries especially mobile and audiovisual sectors with a focus on smartphone and connected TV industry. It intends thereby to question the double dialectic in these sectors in reconfiguration (integration / disintegration activities on the one hand and disintermediation / re-intermediation on the other hand.

  12. The influence of external factors on the credit risk in leasing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Farsad Amanollahi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Credit risk consists of probability of non-return, which may be in the form of bankruptcy or a decrease in financial and credit situation of the lessee. The variables are extracted from the Central Bank. In this study the independent variables are measured with six factors that are called external factors. The external factors are size of leasing, ownership interest rate, foreign exchange, inflation, and Gross Domestic Product (GDP. The present study uses related observations from 31 leasing companies from 2008 to 2013 to find out the determinants of the credit risk. The combined evidences suggest that internal factors such as upfront prepayment, credit insurance contract, security deposits, time and period contract, collateral and guarantees, contract amount, as well as external factors such as interest rate, inflation, foreign exchange, Gross Domestic Product infrastructure, and credit risk are determinants in the policy-making process involving the industrial leasing. Furthermore, the empirical results indicate the size of leasing and ownership are not the significant determinants of credit risk. The results of this dissertation provide several implications for policy-makers in the leasing industry. Policy-makers will be better off employing different procedures for leasing activities in the leasing industry.

  13. Influence of material and gear parameters on the safety of gearing in metallurgical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Medvecká - Beňová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the appropriate choice of parameters to obtain the desired level of safety of gears in a gearbox to drive the conveyor in the metallurgical industry under increased load. Steel with surface hardness up to 350 HBW, or heat treated steel with hardness of 500 - 650 HBW are used. As a final heat treatment are used surface hardening, cementation and hardening, nitridation. Good properties of heat-treated steels are at the correct thickness of the heat-treated layer of the tooth. Results are presented for dual-ratio gearbox with spur gears from operation of an integrated steel company.

  14. A study on different factors influencing customer satisfaction on industrial market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Shirani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Customer satisfaction plays essential role on the success of industrial products such as milk in todays’ marketing planning. In this paper, we present a conceptual model to measure the relative impact of various factors on customer satisfaction. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire and distributes it among managers of a dairy producer named Pegah in city of Esfahan, Iran. Using Pearson correlation ratio as well as stepwise regression technique, the study has found positive and meaningful relationship between customer satisfaction and price, quality of product, distribution and compatibility with customer expectation. In addition, the study detects a negative and meaningful relationship between conflict and customer satisfaction.

  15. Influence of the counter-pressure casting on the macrostructure of high nitrogen steel industrial blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, N.; Rashev, Ts.

    1999-01-01

    The problem of high nitrogen steel (HNS) sheets production has not yet been solved. Sheets represent 90% of the world output of stainless and other steels, but there are no published data about HNS technologies and production of sheets on an industrial scale. The big steel bath (BSB) method and the counter-pressure casting (CPC) have proved the possibility of producing highly homogeneous ingots (1.3 and 10 tons) with all alloying elements, including nitrogen. In this way, the BSB and CPC methods have proved themselves to be universal ones for the production of shaped castings, HNS electrodes for remelting and sort, as well as, of sheets. (orig.)

  16. The decision concerning the nuclear investment: influence of the industrial structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillerminet, M.L.

    2000-10-01

    This report aims to analyze the investment behavior of an enterprise producing nuclear origin electric power in an european market opening to the competition. In this context, the industrial structure controlled by the governor decides the investment in a marginal equipment: either an integrated monopole structure which leads to a regulation at the cost price rate of return; or a pool structure in which the governor intervene to fix the cost price at the marginal cost level given by the main technology of the gas combined cycles. (A.L.B.)

  17. Investigating different factors influencing job satisfaction: A case study of cement industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Shirvani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Job satisfaction plays an important role on increasing business productivity and efficiency. This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the relationship between job satisfaction and employees’ personal characteristics including gender, marital status, etc. The proposed study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 244 out of 800 employees who worked for cement industry in Iran. The data are analyzed using different statistical tests such as t-student and analysis of variance. The results indicate that while there was not any meaningful relationship between gender and job satisfaction there was some meaningful relationship between marital status and job satisfaction.

  18. Patterns of and Influences on Elementary School Attendance in Early Victorian Industrial Monmouthshire 1839-1865

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, David C.; Davies, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Issues associated with school absenteeism have attracted considerable attention and have long been one of the focal points of government strategies for school improvement. Pupil non-attendance is not a new phenomenon and featured prominently in Her Majesty's Inspectors' reports from 1839. This paper outlines the patterns of and influences on…

  19. Factors Influencing Industry Uptake of Marketing & Supply Chain Innovations within the Australian Seafood Cooperative Research Centre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dentoni, D.; English, F.

    2012-01-01

    This study identifies factors influencing the Australian seafood industry’s adoption of marketing and supply chain innovations created from public-private funded research and development (R&D). A grounded theory approach was followed by comparing and contrasting the evidence from 35 projects

  20. Analyzing the systematic risk of logistics service providers : The influence of market, industry and company effects

    OpenAIRE

    Lampe, Kerstin; Hofmann, Erik

    2013-01-01

    With this paper we want to find out which factors influence beta coefficient of logistics service providers. The systematic risk (beta coefficient, ?) of LSPs becomes more and more important for strategic decision making of LSPs, as it helps calculating the cost of capital. The cost of capital is an important factor when assessing LSPs' (future) investments, strategies and performance.

  1. The Influencing Factors, Regional Difference and Temporal Variation of Industrial Technology Innovation: Evidence with the FOA-GRNN Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongli Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Technology innovation is a motivating force for sustainable development. The recognition and measurement of influencing factors are a basic prerequisite of technology innovation research. In response to the gaps and shortages of existing theories and methods, this paper builds the impact indicators of technology innovation, the proposed FOA-GRNN model, and analyzes the influencing factors, regional differences and temporal variations of technology innovation based on industrial above-scale enterprises of 31 provinces in China from 2008 to 2015. The empirical results show that innovation investment is a determinant of technology innovation in China, and is more and more significant; meanwhile a wide gap of innovation resource between Eastern China and Western China exists. In general, the enterprise scale has a negative effect: with enlargement of enterprise in China, the innovation efficiency of enterprise will decline, while the effect has regional disparity, with positive influence in Central and Western China, and negative influence in Eastern China. Government support has negative effects on technology innovation: indirect equity investment contributes more to technology innovation than direct fund support. Innovation environment has positive and weak effects on technology innovation, but it is the biggest obstacle in Western China, and the innovation environment in China has improved continuously. This paper provides new evidence that can shine some light on determining the factors affecting technology innovation, and also presents a novel approach, which comprises characteristics of nonlinear function approximation, high accuracy and a small sample.

  2. The Eco-Innovation Variables which Influence the Performance of Creative Industries Center of Natural Stone Crafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murti Astuti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the eco-innovation variable which has the significant effecton creative industries center’s performance of marble and natural stone craft sector in Tulungagung, Indonesia. The object of the study is the creative industries center with the non-renewable raw material. Mostly, the companies are in form of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs which is ‘passive eco-innovator’ and their eco-innovation variables have not been investigated before in terms of their influenceon their performance. The respondents were 81 craftsmen taken from the population. The data were collected through questionnaires which were tested, processed and analyzed by using Consistent Partial Least Square (PLSc. The eco-innovation variables which significantly effecton innovative performance are eco-organizational innovation and eco-product innovation. Eco-process innovation and eco-marketing innovation don’t directly affecton innovative performance, but its significant effecton eco-product innovation may influence innovative performance. Improving innovative performance will impact on financial performance through improvement of production performance, but market performance does not significantly affect financial performance. The findings of this study could be a reference for creative industries center’s of marble and natural stone craft sector to prioritize which type of eco-innovation should be improved so that its impact on performance is more significant

  3. Characterisation of volatile organic compounds in an urban atmosphere influenced by industrial emissions: from identification to contribution of sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badol, C.

    2005-04-01

    Continuous hourly measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from C 2 to C 10 were performed in Dunkerque, northern France from August 2002 to September 2003. The receptor site was chosen to be influenced by both urban and industrial VOC emissions. First the analysis of concentrations according to the wind direction has allowed to prove this double influence for benzene and octane whereas seasonal and daily time series have only permitted to formulate hypotheses. Secondly the scatter plots of compounds versus acetylene, a traffic exhaust tracer, have confirmed this double origin for the two compounds. Then a simple regression analysis has allowed to reach the hydrocarbon/acetylene ratio characterizing the traffic exhaust source. Finally this traffic exhaust ratio has been used to achieve the traffic exhaust contribution to individual hydrocarbon levels. The industrial contribution in benzene and octane ambient levels could reach 80% for some wind directions, showing the role of meteorological conditions. This observation must be taken cautiously because of the weak frequency of the concerned wind directions. (author)

  4. NO2 pollution of the atmosphere and the influence of industrial processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kula Petr

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Among nitrogen oxides in atmosphere, the concentration of N2O is the highest (about 306 ppm and due to the high global warming potential (GWP = 320 nitrous oxide belongs to important greenhouse gases. Moreover, N2O contributes also to the ozone layer depletion. Nitrous oxide is produced by both natural processes and anthropogenic activities, where combustion plays an important role. Two analytical methods ( IR spectrophotometry and gas chromatography have been used for the analysis of N2O emissions from various industrial sources. Carbon monooxide at the concentration above 500 ppm interferes the IR analysis. The emission factors for combustion processes typical for Czech Republic have been calculated. Emission concentrations depend on the type of the combustion process (the highest is for the fluid-bed combustion as well as on the output of the combustion unit. In an identical unit, the emission factor increases when the output decreases. A high concentration of nitrous oxide have been found in emissions from the chemical industry where catalytic denitrification is used.

  5. Aerosol pollution in urban and industrialized area under marine influence: physical-chemistry of particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimetz, J.

    2007-12-01

    Harbors for trade are known as highly urbanized and industrialized areas with important maritime, railway and road traffic. Industries are mainly represented by steel, cement works, and oil refineries. The maritime sector is becoming an even larger source of air pollution. Atmospheric NO x , SO 2 , O 3 levels and chemical analysis of airborne particulate matter were monitored in Dunkerque conurbation in 2005 and 2006. This study was included in the IRENI program. In low-pressure conditions, local pollutants are spread out far away the agglomeration, whereas, in high-pressure regimes, the atmospheric stability and sea-breezes allow an accumulation of pollutants over the urban zone. Size-resolved chemical analyses of particulate matter collected as function of the aerodynamic diameter (D a ) were performed. Ions (Na + , NH 4 + , Cl - , NO 3 - , SO 4 2- ), metals (Fe, Zn, Pb, Cd,...) and organic fraction (EC, OC) are associated with sub- or/and super-micron particles. The size, morphology and chemical species of individual particles collected selectively in the 12O 3 , Fe 3 O 4 , PbO,... containing particles emitted in the Dunkerque harbour area and aged sea-salt aerosol particles (NaCl, NaNO 3 ,...) from long range transport of air masses. Thin organic coatings from natural and anthropogenic origin are observed on the particles by ToF-SIMS imaging. (author)

  6. A study on how CRM influences marketing planning in telecommunication industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Customer relationship management (CRM plays an important role on marketing planning. In this paper, we re-examine the effect of having efficient CRM on efficiency of a telecommunication company. The proposed study considers three hypotheses. The first hypothesis examines whether implementation of CRM could improve customer’s perception in terms of customer retention, satisfaction, loyalty and awareness. The second hypothesis examines whether implementation of CRM influences on market performance in terms of reduction on customer complaints, quality improvement, improving customer perception, access to services and increase in market share. Finally, the third hypothesis considers the effect of CRM on financial figures in terms of sales growth, profit growth, earnings per share and productivity. The results of our survey have confirmed the first hypothesis and rejected the third hypothesis. In other words, while CRM improves customer perception it does not influence financial figures in most cases (P<0.01.

  7. Influence of physical culture and sports on health status of pupils of industrial city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapranov S.V.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to study in the city with large enterprises of ferrous metallurgy and coke health of schoolchildren under the influence of physical education and sports. The research of blood pressure and heart rate (HR were 295 pupils aged 15-17 years, 390 - anthropometric study of body length, body weight, chest circumference and head, while the 584 teenagers - the prevalence of dental caries. HR assessment is made by comparing with the age norms, and indicators of physical development of pupils - centile method. It is shown that under the influence of employment morning gymnastics school students marked normalization of their heart rate. Waiver of physical exercise leads to a decrease in students in body length and circumference of the chest. Classes in morning exercises and sports are the factors antirisk caries among high school students. Proposed preventive recommendations.

  8. A study on effective factors influencing on equity risk in banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khodaei Valahzaghard

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the effects of various factors influencing on risk of return in banking system plays essential role on making managerial decisions. This paper investigates the effects of seven factors including equities, leverage, dividend, size, growth domestic products, bank concentration and market return on risk of return in selected banks listed on Tehran Stock Exchange. The study selects the necessary data through financial statements announced on exchange as well as macro-economic figures reported by central bank of Iran to examine the hypotheses of the survey. Using some regression technique, the study has determined that only bank size and growth domestic product influence significantly on risk of return on Tehran Stock Exchange.

  9. The Influence of Trust on Project Management Practice within the Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Strahorn

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Given that any construction project is inherently a human endeavour, it follows that issues of trust are significant in terms of the stakeholder interactions that deliver eventual project outcomes.  Previous research indicates that the relational basis upon which projects are undertaken are intended to influence the likelihood of trusting relationships between stakeholders.  Thus, experiences of trust in a construction project environment are likely to be influenced by the contextual specifics of respective transactional and relational contracting (RC procurement mechanisms, given the divergent theoretical principles upon which they are founded.  The influence of trust has therefore been examined through the lived experiences of construction practitioners.  A phenomenological interview study consisting of thirty-five (35 participants was conducted with sensitivity to the procurement of experiences being recounted. Issues of trust were shown to be integral to stakeholder experiences in both procurement environments, with the benefits of trust acknowledged in many instances.  However, little understanding was evident regarding methods for building and maintaining trust, nor for repairing trust when problems arose. Importantly, despite the differing principles that underpin transactional and relational procurement, and particularly the contention that relational procurement would increase trust between trading partners, this was not evident; with individual personalities and appropriate risk apportionment shown to be greater influences upon the likelihood of trusting relationships.  It is reasonable to conjecture that relational contracts actually diminish the need for trust, given that the objective is to reduce uncertainty through formulaic approaches to risk distribution and reward; the absence of risk negates the need for trust.  Ultimately, the potential to deliver improved project outcomes as a result of proactive approaches to

  10. Influence of Brand Loyalty on Fast Food Industry - Consumer buying behavior of India.

    OpenAIRE

    Tandon, Manav

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine how consumers are influenced by factors of brand loyalty towards fast food brands. The research was conducted in Delhi with Indian consumers. People who filled the questionnaire are adults who are working or are looking for job. This research was adopted based on seven factor of brand loyalty. The seven factors of brand loyalty are brand name, product quality, price, style, promotion, and service quality and restaurant environment. Brand name has sho...

  11. Influence Factor of Tertiary Students’ Employability Awareness Adjust Industry 4.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Mei Chou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the correlation (N=621 among tertiary students’ career planning, erecruiting adoption acceptance, and employability awareness in Taiwan. Tertiary students’ perceived career planning includes four factors, namely, self-appraisal, job expectancy, goal selection, and problem solving. E-recruiting adoption acceptance includes four factors, namely, playfulness, ease of use, effectiveness, and usefulness. Employability awareness includes four factors, namely, personal adaptability, employability ambition, career identity, and labour market. Participants responded to a 5-point Likert-type scale for each factor. Analysis was conducted using the structural equation modeling (SEM, and a good model fit was found for both the measurement and structural models. Research findings demonstrate that tertiary students’ career planning significantly and directly influences employability awareness. Career planning significantly and indirectly influences employability awareness by e-recruiting adoption acceptance. Tertiary students’ career planning and e-recruiting adoption acceptance fit the influence model and empirical data of employability awareness. Implications of this study, including the value of student self-assessment of their skills and utility of the e-recruiting to underpin personal career development planning and inform graduate recruitment processes, are discussed and recommendations made.

  12. The influence of wind speed on airflow and fine particle transport within different building layouts of an industrial city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Dan; Wen, Meng; Xu, Xuemei; Zhu, Yuzheng; Xing, Futang

    2018-04-20

    In atmospheric environment, the layout difference of urban buildings has a powerful influence on accelerating or inhibiting the dispersion of particle matters (PM). In industrial cities, buildings of variable heights can obstruct the diffusion of PM from industrial stacks. In this study, PM dispersed within building groups was simulated by Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations coupled Lagrangian approach. Four typical street building arrangements were used: (a) a low-rise building block with Height/base H/b = 1 (b = 20 m); (b) step-up building layout (H/b = 1, 2, 3, 4); (c) step-down building layout (H/b = 4, 3, 2, 1); (d) high-rise building block (H/b = 5). Profiles of stream functions and turbulence intensity were used to examine the effect of various building layouts on atmospheric airflow. Here, concepts of particle suspension fraction and concentration distribution were used to evaluate the effect of wind speed on fine particle transport. These parameters showed that step-up building layouts accelerated top airflow and diffused more particles into street canyons, likely having adverse effects on resident health. In renewal old industry areas, the step-down building arrangement which can hinder PM dispersion from high-level stacks should be constructed preferentially. High turbulent intensity results in formation of a strong vortex that hinders particles into the street canyons. It is found that an increase in wind speed enhanced particle transport and reduced local particle concentrations, however, it did not affect the relative location of high particle concentration zones, which are related to building height and layout. This study has demonstrated the height variation and layout of urban architecture affect the local concentration distribution of particulate matter (PM) in the atmosphere and for the first time that wind velocity has particular effects on PM transport in various building groups. The findings may have general implications in optimization

  13. Environmental influence on the usage of adhesive single lap joints in nuclear industry applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorim, Felipe do C.; Reis, João M.L. dos; Souza, João F.B. de; Costa, Gilberto T. de P.; Moura, Jorge C. de; Universidade Federal Fluminense; Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear

    2017-01-01

    Despite of some polymeric compounds vulnerability to different types of radiation, high polymer, as epoxy adhesives, had prospered in the nuclear industry because their mechanical properties to high doses of ionizing radiation is maintained. Because of this, epoxy adhesives are widely used in nuclear applications: nuclear power plants, aerospace components, radioactive sealed sources to medicine, radioactive waste immobilization. In the present work, the performance of a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol ether A (DGEBA) was analyzed. Tensile tests of adhesive single lap joints bonded with epoxy were performed. The environmental effect of ultraviolet (UV) exposure was observed in the mechanical reaction of PolyAnchor 4100 HT. In particular, maximum load decreases slightly in aggressive environment. It is possible to conclude the material is proper to use in internal and external areas, mainly due to the easy application when compared to welded joints with similar strength. The easy application reduces the workers exposure time to ionizing radiation. (author)

  14. Impurities in sugar cane and their influence on industrial processing evaluated by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacchi, M.A.; Fernandes, E.A.N.; Ferraz, E.S.B.

    1990-01-01

    During the cutting and loading operations, impurities, mainly soil, are added to sugar cane in amounts that can impair industrial processing due to excessive wear of metallic members and contamination of juice and bagasse. Mechanization of loading operation has showed a considerable enhancement of the impurity content, leading to the improvement of cane washing technology. Nevertheless, for a correct understanding of the problem and the process optimization, it is necessary and exact and fast quantification of these impurities as well as of its consequences. Nuclear techniques, in special neutron activation analysis, have been proved to be appropriate for estimating soil level in sugar cane, washing process efficiency and wearing of cases and moving parts. (author)

  15. Influence of solids concentration on the sedimentation rate of the mud in the aggregate industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benigno Leyva-de la Cruz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this investigation is to determine, for the mud resulting from the wash process in the Jobo community arid industry in Sagua de Tánamo, the impact of solids percent on the theoretical sedimentation velocity that is predicted by the Stokes velocity Law. Samples of the discharge pipeline and the mud sedimentation area were analyzed from granulometric, density and solids concentration points of view. The solids percentage variable (S was analyzed in four scenarios (4, 12, 20 and 28 % and time (t was evaluated at intervals of 20 minutes for 5 hours. The behavior of mud sedimentation was characterized through the sedimentation velocity. The results indicate that the Stokes velocity law does not apply for estimating the mud sedimentation velocity with a 95% confidence. Therefore, a correction function is obtained for the Stokes velocity law expressed through the polynomial mathematical model of second degree.

  16. In-situ evaluation of the degradable carbon influence for industrial waste water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayomi, O. S. I., E-mail: ojo.fayomi@covenantuniversity.edu.ng, E-mail: fayomio@tut.ac.za, E-mail: ojosundayfayomi3@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Covenant University, Ota, Ogun State (Nigeria); Department of Chemical, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, P.M.B. X680, Pretoria (South Africa); Olukanni, D. O. [Department of Civil Engineering, Covenant University, P.M.B. 1023, Ota, Ogun State (Nigeria); Fayomi, G. U. [Department of Environmental Management, Centre for Environmental and Science Education, Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos State (Nigeria); Joseph, O. O. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Covenant University, Ota, Ogun State (Nigeria); Popoola, A. P. I. [Department of Chemical, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, P.M.B. X680, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2016-07-25

    A photochemical investigation and synergetic blend for wastewater purification was carried out. Blends of different peels: Potato-, Apple and Pineapples-peals (PAP-peals) were impregnated with aqueous solutions of ZnCl{sub 2} following the variant of the incipient wetness method for activation of activated carbon (AC). Different concentrations were used to produce impregnation ratios. Activation was carried out in a tube furnace by heating to 700°C with 1 hour soaking time. Scanning Electron Microscopic with attached energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM/EDS), Atomic Adsorption Spectrometry (AAS) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometer (FTIS) equipments were used for the characterization of the AC produced. The result shows that PAP-peals derived activated carbons had micro porous characteristics. The study revealed that these new combined adsorbents materials are inexpensive, easily available and they have applications for the removal of Cu, Pb and Cr contained in industrial effluents.

  17. Environmental influence on the usage of adhesive single lap joints in nuclear industry applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Felipe do C.; Reis, João M.L. dos; Souza, João F.B. de; Costa, Gilberto T. de P.; Moura, Jorge C. de, E-mail: felipe.amorim@cefet-rj.br, E-mail: jreis@id.uff.br, E-mail: joaofellipe@id.uff.br, E-mail: gilberto.costa@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: jcmoura@cnen.gov.br [Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica Celso Suckow da Fonseca (CEFET-RJ), Itaguai, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica; Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Laboratorio de Mecania Teorica e Aplicada; Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Divisão de Controle de Rejeitos e Transporte de Materiais Radioativos

    2017-07-01

    Despite of some polymeric compounds vulnerability to different types of radiation, high polymer, as epoxy adhesives, had prospered in the nuclear industry because their mechanical properties to high doses of ionizing radiation is maintained. Because of this, epoxy adhesives are widely used in nuclear applications: nuclear power plants, aerospace components, radioactive sealed sources to medicine, radioactive waste immobilization. In the present work, the performance of a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol ether A (DGEBA) was analyzed. Tensile tests of adhesive single lap joints bonded with epoxy were performed. The environmental effect of ultraviolet (UV) exposure was observed in the mechanical reaction of PolyAnchor 4100 HT. In particular, maximum load decreases slightly in aggressive environment. It is possible to conclude the material is proper to use in internal and external areas, mainly due to the easy application when compared to welded joints with similar strength. The easy application reduces the workers exposure time to ionizing radiation. (author)

  18. Safety-Culture Exploration in Taiwan’s Metal Industries: Identifying the Workers’ Background Influence on Safety Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Chiang Lin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to assess the safety-climate level in Taiwan’s metal industries, as well as to identify the influence of workers’ backgrounds on the safety climate. An earlier report showed that a poor safety culture was related to the cause of accidents in Taiwan’s traditional manufacturing industries. This study surveyed a total of 839 workers who voluntarily participated and completed the safety-culture questionnaires. These workers were from a Taiwanese metal company and its five satellite companies. Three safety-climate factors, namely safety perception, safety communication and safety-management systems, were assessed. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was conducted by developing structural equation modeling to ensure the questionnaire’s validity. The influence of workers’ backgrounds on the safety climate was identified by using one-way ANOVA. The reliability result of the questionnaire was above the acceptable level. The overall safety-climate score was 4.22 out of a five-point scale for safety perception, 4.23 for safety-management systems and 3.97 for safety communication. The scores indicate a good level of safety climate, with room for improvement in safety communication. Additionally, the influence of workers’ backgrounds on the safety climate was confirmed. Based on the validity test, it was also found that the questionnaire could be improved by reconstructing its questions in its development process in order to increase the safety-climate model’s reliability and validity, as well as its model fit.

  19. Does employee safety influence customer satisfaction? Evidence from the electric utility industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, P Geoffrey; Brown, Karen A; Prussia, Gregory E

    2012-12-01

    Research on workplace safety has not examined implications for business performance outcomes such as customer satisfaction. In a U.S. electric utility company, we surveyed 821 employees in 20 work groups, and also had access to archival safety data and the results of a customer satisfaction survey (n=341). In geographically-based work units where there were more employee injuries (based on archival records), customers were less satisfied with the service they received. Safety climate, mediated by safety citizenship behaviors (SCBs), added to the predictive power of the group-level model, but these two constructs exerted their influence independently from actual injuries. In combination, two safety-related predictor paths (injuries and climate/SCB) explained 53% of the variance in customer satisfaction. Results offer preliminary evidence that workplace safety influences customer satisfaction, suggesting that there are likely spillover effects between the safety environment and the service environment. Additional research will be needed to assess the specific mechanisms that convert employee injuries into palpable results for customers. Better safety climate and reductions in employee injuries have the potential to offer payoffs in terms of what customers experience. Copyright © 2012 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Factors influencing the Zn and Mn extraction from pyrometallurgical sludge in the steel manufacturing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocellin, J; Mercier, G; Morel, J L; Blais, J F; Simonnot, M O

    2015-08-01

    In this laboratory study, a process has been developed for selectively leaching zinc and manganese from pyrometallurgical sludge produced in the steel manufacturing industry. In the first part, the yield of Zn extraction was studied using four factors and four levels of the Box-Behnken response surface design. The optimum conditions for the step of Zn leaching were determined to be a sulfuric acid concentration of 0.25 mol/L, a pulp density of 10%, an extraction temperature of 20 °C, and three stages of leaching. Under such conditions, 75% of the Zn should be leached. For Mn leaching, the optimum conditions were determined to be a sulfuric acid concentration of 0.25 mol/L, a Na2S2O5/Mn stoichiometry of 1, a leaching time of 120 min and two leaching steps. In this case, 100% of the Mn should be leached. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Regional Variations of Public Perception on Contaminated Industrial Sites in China and Its Influencing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaonuo; Jiao, Wentao; Xiao, Rongbo; Chen, Weiping; Bai, Yanying

    2016-04-08

    Public involvement is critical in sustainable contaminated site management. It is important for China to improve public knowledge and participation, foster dialogue between urban managers and laypeople, and accelerate the remediation and redevelopment processes in contaminated site management. In this study, we collected 1812 questionnaires from nine cities around China through face-to-face interviews and statistically analyzed the perception of residents concerning contaminated sites. The results show that respondents' concern about soil pollution was lower than for other environmental issues and their knowledge of soil contamination was limited. The risks posed by contaminated industrial sites were well recognized by respondents, but they were unsatisfied with the performance of local agencies regarding information disclosure, publicity and education and public participation. Respondents believed that local governments and polluters should take the primary responsibility for contaminated site remediation. Most of them were unwilling to pay for contaminated site remediation and preferred recreational or public service redevelopment. Moreover, our research indicated that public perception varied among different cities. This variation was mainly determined by implementations of policy instruments and additionally affected by remediation technology, pollutant type, regional policy response and living distance.

  2. Macro-economic factors influencing the architectural business model shift in the pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierks, Raphaela Marie Louisa; Bruyère, Olivier; Reginster, Jean-Yves; Richy, Florent-Frederic

    2016-10-01

    Technological innovations, new regulations, increasing costs of drug productions and new demands are only few key drivers of a projected alternation in the pharmaceutical industry. The purpose of this review is to understand the macro economic factors responsible for the business model revolution to possess a competitive advantage over market players. Areas covered: Existing literature on macro-economic factors changing the pharmaceutical landscape has been reviewed to present a clear image of the current market environment. Expert commentary: Literature shows that pharmaceutical companies are facing an architectural alteration, however the evidence on the rationale driving the transformation is outstanding. Merger & Acquisitions (M&A) deals and collaborations are headlining the papers. Q1 2016 did show a major slowdown in M&A deals by volume since 2013 (with deal cancellations of Pfizer and Allergan, or the downfall of Valeant), but pharmaceutical analysts remain confident that this shortfall was a consequence of the equity market volatility. It seems likely that the shift to an M&A model will become apparent during the remainder of 2016, with deal announcements of Abbott Laboratories, AbbVie and Sanofi worth USD 45billion showing the appetite of big pharma companies to shift from the fully vertical integrated business model to more horizontal business models.

  3. Protozooplankton in the Deep Oligotrophic Traunsee (Austria) Influenced by Discharges of Soda and Salt Industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonntag, Bettina; Posch, Thomas; Klammer, Susanne; Griebler, Christian; Psenner, Roland

    2002-01-01

    Traunsee is a deep oligotrophic lake in Austria characterised by an artificial enrichment of chloride in the hypolimnion (up to 170 mg L -1 ) caused by waste disposal of soda and salt industries. Protists were collected monthly over one year, observed alive and after Quantitative Protargol Staining (ciliates) or via epifluorescence microscopy (heterotrophic flagellates). Three sites within the lake (0-40 m depths) were compared to deeper water layers from 60-160 m depths where chloride concentrations and conductivity were increased. In addition, we observed the protozooplankton of two neighbouring lakes, i.e. reference systems, during one sampling occasion. In Traunsee the abundance of ciliates was low (200-36 600 cells L -1 ) in contrast to high species diversity (at least 60 different species; H S = 2.6) throughout the year. The main pelagic species in terms of abundance were small oligotrichs and prostomatids like Rimostrombidium brachykinetum/hyalinum, Balanion planctonicum and Urotricha spp. throughout the investigation period. Among free-living heterotrophic flagellates, which occurred at densities of 40-2800 cells mL -1 , small morphotypes dominated in the pelagial. No differences at the community level between the three lakes could be observed and pelagic ciliates and flagellates seemed not to be affected by increased chloride concentrations or by enhanced conductivity

  4. Protozooplankton in the Deep Oligotrophic Traunsee (Austria) Influenced by Discharges of Soda and Salt Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonntag, Bettina, E-mail: bettina.sonntag@uibk.ac.at; Posch, Thomas [University of Innsbruck, Institute of Zoology and Limnology (Austria); Klammer, Susanne [University of Innsbruck, Institute of Microbiology (Austria); Griebler, Christian [University of Tuebingen, Centre for Applied Earth Science (Germany); Psenner, Roland [University of Innsbruck, Institute of Zoology and Limnology (Austria)

    2002-07-15

    Traunsee is a deep oligotrophic lake in Austria characterised by an artificial enrichment of chloride in the hypolimnion (up to 170 mg L{sup -1}) caused by waste disposal of soda and salt industries. Protists were collected monthly over one year, observed alive and after Quantitative Protargol Staining (ciliates) or via epifluorescence microscopy (heterotrophic flagellates). Three sites within the lake (0-40 m depths) were compared to deeper water layers from 60-160 m depths where chloride concentrations and conductivity were increased. In addition, we observed the protozooplankton of two neighbouring lakes, i.e. reference systems, during one sampling occasion. In Traunsee the abundance of ciliates was low (200-36 600 cells L{sup -1}) in contrast to high species diversity (at least 60 different species; H{sub S} = 2.6) throughout the year. The main pelagic species in terms of abundance were small oligotrichs and prostomatids like Rimostrombidium brachykinetum/hyalinum, Balanion planctonicum and Urotricha spp. throughout the investigation period. Among free-living heterotrophic flagellates, which occurred at densities of 40-2800 cells mL{sup -1}, small morphotypes dominated in the pelagial. No differences at the community level between the three lakes could be observed and pelagic ciliates and flagellates seemed not to be affected by increased chloride concentrations or by enhanced conductivity.

  5. Influence of frequently used industrial solvents and monomers of plastics on xenobiotic metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gut, I. (Institut Hygieny a Epidemiologie, Prague (Czechoslovakia))

    1983-11-01

    In male Wistar rats, inhalation of benzene, toluene, or styrene induced a dose-dependent increase of the in vitro hepatic microsomal metabolism of benzene, but toluene metabolism and microsomal cytochrome P-450 level were little affected. In phenobarbital pretreated rats the solvents induced increased biotransformation of benzene metabolism toluene, but relatively less than in controls, and benzene and toluene inhalation actually caused an apparent destruction of cytochrome P-450. In vivo rates of metabolism of toluene and styrene were in good agreement with the in vitro hepatic microsomal biotransformation of benzene or toluene, but benzene metabolism not due to inhibition of benzene metabolism in vivo caused by benzene metabolites. In simultaneously administered two solvents, toluene, styrene or xylene markedly inhibited metabolism of benzene-/sup 14/C, but toluene-/sup 14/C metabolsim was little affected by coadministered benzene, styrene or xylene. Various industrial solvents inhibited metabolism of acrylonitrile along the oxidative pathway leading to thiocyanate, but actually increased the rate of the conjugative pathway beginning with cyanoethylation of glutathion and the final products. Various derivatives of benzene had low inhibiting effect on antipyrine metabolism and clinical significance of such effect is of little significance. Inhibition of benzene metabolism by toluene followed in significantly decreased myelotoxicity of benzene, but the modification of acrylonitrile metabolism and pharmacokinetics by organic solvents given at low doses markedly increased lethal effects of acrylonitrile. The prediction of in vivo rates of metabolism based on the in vitro rates of hepatic microsomal metabolism is therefore possible, provided the inhibiting potency of the xenobiotic and/or its metabolites, self-induction of their metabolism, as well as differences in their pharmacokinetics are considered.

  6. Influence of Some Pesticides on Humoral and Cellular Immunity of Exposed Workers in Pesticides Industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osely, E.Sh.M.

    2010-01-01

    Pesticide poisoning is a major public health problem in developing countries. In most of these countries organophosphate pesticides constitute the most widely used pesticides. The main toxicity of OPs is neurotoxicity, which is caused by the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. OPs also affect the immune response, including effects on cellular and humoral immunity. Our study examined the effect of organophosphorus compounds on humoral and cellular immunity of exposed workers in pesticides industries. The study was conducted into 40 subjects. They were 2 groups; 20 exposed workers from Gharbeia and Kafr Elsheikh at 2008 and 2009 and 20 unexposed individuals as a control group at the same period of time. We examined some immune parameters; pseudocholinesterase, WBCs count, CD4%, CD8%, CD4/CD8, CD56%, Interleukin 2, IgG and IgM. Also we take history and clinical examination for them. We reported a highly significant decrease in pseudo cholinesterase level among the exposed group in comparison to the control group, highly significant increase in percentage of CD8 in the exposed group in comparison to control group, highly significant decrease in CD4 / CD8 ratio in the exposed group in comparison to control group, highly significant decrease in percentage of CD56 in the exposed group in comparison to control group and a highly significant increase in IgG level in the exposed group in comparison to control group. On the other hand, we reported no significant change in white blood cells count between the exposed and control groups, no significant change in percentage of CD4 among the exposed and control group, no significant change in Interleukin 2 level among the exposed and control group and no significant change in IgM level among the exposed and control group. We concluded that pesticides extensively affect the humoral and cellular immune system of occupationally exposed workers.

  7. Influence of nanoparticles on filterability of fruit-juice industry wastewater using submerged membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirkol, Guler Turkoglu; Dizge, Nadir; Acar, Turkan Ormanci; Salmanli, Oyku Mutlu; Tufekci, Nese

    2017-07-01

    In this study, polyethersulfone (PES) ultrafiltration membrane surface was modified with nano-sized zinc oxide (nZnO) and silver (nAg) to improve the membrane filterability of the mixed liquor and used to treat fruit-juice industry wastewater in a submerged membrane bioreactor (MBR). The nAg was synthesized using three different methods. In the first method, named as nAg-M1, PES membrane was placed on the membrane module and nAg solution was passed through the membrane for 24 h at 25 ± 1 °C. In the second method, named as nAg-M2, PES membrane was placed in a glass container and it was shaken for 24 h at 150 rpm at 25 ± 1 °C. In the third method, named as nAg-M3, Ag nanoparticles were loaded onto PES membrane in L-ascorbic acid solution (0.1 mol/L) at pH 2 for 24 h at 150 rpm at 25 ± 1 °C. For the preparation of nZnO coated membrane, nZnO nanoparticles solution was passed through the membrane for 24 h at 25 ± 1 °C. Anti-fouling performance of pristine and coated membranes was examined using the submerged MBR. The results showed that nZnO and nAg-M3 membranes showed lower flux decline compared with pristine membrane. Moreover, pristine and coated PES membranes were characterized using a permeation test, contact angle goniometer, and scanning electron microscopy.

  8. Air pollution and urban climate in the Rhine--Westphalian industrial area and their influence on lichen growth on trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domroes, M

    1966-01-01

    Lichens on tree boles were examined on 25,114 trees along streets and areas in the central part of the Ruhr District and related to air pollution concentrations. The lichens were studied with regard to physiognomy, density, and exposition, and in relation to bark characteristics of tree species. Lichens were classified into the following areas: Lichen desert, transitional zone, or area of normal distribution. The lichens were sensitive to air pollution, especially sulfur dioxide emissions. The damaging influence of the town climate, especially aridity, was taken into consideration. Lichens were missing in all areas with a high degree of air pollution. These were areas of high density housing and of lower humidity than open country. Areas which had lower housing density and lower humidity also had increased lichen damage. Lichens were missing in the immediate neighborhood of factories or industrial areas outside towns. Lichen growth was reduced along busy roads.

  9. Influence of Organisational Culture on Total Quality Management Implementation and Firm Performance: Evidence from the Vietnamese Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panuwatwanich Kriengsak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between organisational culture (OC and Total Quality Management (TQM, and the influence of TQM implementation on organisational performance improvement within the context of the Vietnamese construction industry. A survey was conducted with 104 respondents from Vietnamese construction firms, using validated survey instruments developed in past research. Analysis techniques include cluster analysis and Structural Equation Modelling. Findings showed that Vietnamese construction firms are dominated by clan and hierarchy cultures rather than adhocracy and market cultures according to Competing Value Framework (CVF of OC classification. Furthermore, it was found that organisations dominated by either clan or adhocracy cultures could provide a favourable environment for successful TQM implementation, whereas this is not the case for those dominated by both market and hierarchy cultures. This study also confirmed the significant and positive relationship between TQM implementation and organisational performance improvement.

  10. The Influence of English Communication Ability on Income in Tourist Industry Frontline Employees of Siem Reap, Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Stewart Morrow

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Siem Reap, Cambodia’s tourism growth has been remarkable. Since most tourists are native English speakers, tourist industry (TI employees need high levels of English communication ability (ECA to handle tasks effectively, but data in Cambodia has been difficult to find. To fill this gap, the author wanted to collect employees’ general and English education information during interviews in six TI related businesses, to assess their ECA, and to statistically examine interactions of English variables with income. The author created an English assessment test loosely based on the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR. Statistical analysis found direct positive influence from English ability on income. Findings also showed that employees who have advanced levels of English ability earn USD200 per month, double the salary of garment workers. This type of research can be used profitably over the Internet in many research situations.

  11. Factors Influencing Blood Cadmium and Mercury Concentrations in Residents of Agro-Industries along Nam Phong River, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wannanapa Srathonghon

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional analytical study aimed to determine the blood levels of cadmium (B-Cd and mercury (B-Hg and identify the factors influencing heavy metal accumulation in residents of Agro-Industries along the Nam Phong River. Quantitative data were collected, and systematic random sampling was used to obtain 420 samples for questionnaire interview and serum heavy metal testing for B-Cd and B-Hg. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify factors influencing the accumulation of heavy metals in the population and report mean differences, 95% confidence intervals and p-values. The results indicated that B-Cd levels were within the recommended safety limits for human health (5 µg/dL. However, 4.29% of respondents had Hg levels higher than the recommended safety limits for human health (10 µg/dL. Factors influencing Cd levels included sex (mean difference=0.13 µg/L, 95% CI: 0.03-0.24, p-value=0.02 and smoking (mean difference=0.14 µg/L, 95% CI: 0.09-0.19, p-value<0.001. Factors influencing Hg levels included smoking (mean difference=1.06 µg/L, 95% CI: 0.52-1.61, p-value<0.001, fish consumption (mean difference=1.11 µg/L, 95% CI: 0.22-2.01, p-value=0.01 and river snail consumption (mean difference=0.56 µg/L, 95% CI: 0.03-0.19, p-value=0.03.

  12. Influence of the Human Resources Practices on the Employees Attachment. Empirical Study within the Companies in the Processing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu ILIES

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to show a series of results obtained during a research whose objective was the elaboration of an analysis and assessment model of human resources management practices in order to identify the factors that determine the performance of the management system for the purpose of perfecting it, within the organizations in the processing industry in Romania. The study aims to show the importance of the influence that the human resources practices have on the employees attachment towards the organizations they are a part of. The research has as base quantitative methods of analysis, therefore, as a tool for gathering data was used the survey based on questionnaire, composed of sets of simple questions, using a measurement scale of the agreement of Likert type, from 1 to 5 (1 = total disagreement - 5 = total agreement. The study is based on questioning a number of 463 employees within 27 companies in the processing industry in Romania. Among the main conclusions obtained, we mention that, the perception of the questioned employees on the human resources practices within the analyzed organizations is relatively good, respectively the attachment of the employees towards the organizations is also relatively good. We have identified that there is a strong and positive association between the human resources practices and the employees attachment, therefore, the organizations questioned need to make efforts in order to improve the human resources practices for consolidating the employees attachment.

  13. Investigation of the influence of pretreatment parameters on the surface characteristics of amorphous metal for use in power industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieroda, Jolanta; Rybak, Andrzej; Kmita, Grzegorz; Sitarz, Maciej

    2018-05-01

    Metallic glasses are metallic materials, which exhibit an amorphous structure. These are mostly three or more component alloys, and some of them are magnetic metals. Materials of this kind are characterized by high electrical resistivity and at the same time exhibit very good magnetic properties (e.g. low-magnetization loss). The above mentioned properties are very useful in electrical engineering industry and this material is more and more popular as a substance for high-efficiency electrical devices production. This industry area is still evolving, and thus even higher efficiency of apparatus based on amorphous material is expected. A raw material must be carefully investigated and characterized before the main production process is started. Presented work contains results of complementary examination of amorphous metal Metglas 2605. Studies involve two ways to obtain clean and oxidized surface with high reactivity, namely degreasing followed by annealing process and plasma treatment. The amorphous metal parameters were examined by means of several techniques: surface free energy (SFE) measurements by sessile drop method, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), and both ex situ and in situ Raman spectroscopy. Additionally, influence of plasma parameters on wetting properties were optimized in systematic way with Design of Experiments (DOE) method. A wide range of used methods allow to fully investigate the amorphous metal material during preliminary preparation of surface. Obtained results provide information about appropriate parameters that should be applied in order to obtain highly reactive surface with functional oxide layer on it.

  14. To disclose or not to disclose: How global competition for foreign direct investment influences transparency reforms in extractive industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Öge, Kerem

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) has grown in both popularity and influence. The ascendance of EITI is surprising because traditionally, leaders of resource-rich states prefer to tightly control their extractive industries. This paper investigates the underlying causes of EITI membership in order to understand its acceptance, even among some of the most authoritarian regimes. The paper argues that leaders of resource-rich countries use the EITI to consolidate their international prestige as eager reformers, which serves to both maintain and lure foreign investment. The cross-national and interrupted time series analyses reveal that EITI members not only have higher FDI levels compared to non-members, but these investments increase once countries join the initiative. - Highlights: • I investigate the underlying causes of EITI membership. • I argue that leaders use the EITI to both maintain and lure foreign investment. • EITI members have higher FDI levels compared to non-members. • FDI levels increase once countries join the EITI. • The results highlight a utilitarian use of the EITI by corrupt governments.

  15. Influence of new environmental state policy on gas industry activities in countries of economy in transition. Case of Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steczko, K.; Rachwalski, J.; Fronski, A.

    1997-01-01

    Political and economical changes in Poland are accompanied by substantial transition of ecological policy of the state. A first sign of that policy is new law defining responsibilities of companies in minimising the environmental impacts of new investments and duties concerning waste management and disposal as well as pollutant emission reduction. These more stringent environmental rules influence force the Polish gas industry to fulfill new ecological requirements and, because of high ecological value of gas, they give it promising prospects of development. Since environmental condition improvement in Poland can not be achieved without the change in primary energy consumption structure the Gas Development Programme has been established. It assumes more than double increase in gas consumption up to 2010. Gas industry duties connected with environmental requirements have been presented and activities taken in order to meet ecological law rules have been specified for all stages of gas fuel chain from exploration to gas usage. Some measures taken to prevent environment damages have been discussed like ecological evaluation of drilling materials and wastes, elaborated strategy for water protection and Environmental Impact Assessment procedure. The problem of methane emissions from Polish gas system has also been discussed. (au)

  16. Institutional influences on business model choice by new ventures in the microgenerated energy industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Provance, Mike, E-mail: mprovanc@odu.edu [Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529 (United States); Donnelly, Richard G.; Carayannis, Elias G. [George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Business model choice plays an important source of competitive advantage for new ventures in the microgeneration sector. Yet, existing literature focuses on strategic management of internal resources as the constraints in this choice process. In the energy sector, external factors may be at least as influential in shaping these business models. This paper examines the roles of politico-institutional and socio-institutional dynamics in the choice of business models for microgeneration ventures. Business models have traditionally been viewed as constructions of the internal values, strategies, and resources of organizations. But, this perspective overlooks the role that external forces have on these models, particularly in more highly institutionalized contexts like microgeneration. When these factors are introduced into the existing framework for business model choice, the business model based less on firm decision-making and more about variables that exist within national innovation systems and political structure, local socio-technological conditions, and cognitive abilities of the entrepreneur and corresponding stakeholders. - Highlights: > This work provides theoretical foundation for variation in microgeneration business models. > Explores institutional influences on strategic view of business model choice. > Compares the nature of microgeneration across geo-political contexts.

  17. Intertidal Concentrations of Microplastics and Their Influence on Ammonium Cycling as Related to the Shellfish Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluzard, Melanie; Kazmiruk, Tamara N; Kazmiruk, Vasily D; Bendell, L I

    2015-10-01

    Microplastics are ubiquitous within the marine environment. The last 10 years have seen research directed at understanding the fate and effect of microplastics within the marine environment; however, no studies have yet addressed how concentrations of these particles could affect sedimentary processes such as nutrient cycling. Herein we first determine the concentration and spatial distribution of microplastics within Baynes Sound, a key shellfish-growing area within coastal British Columbia (BC). We also determined sediment grain size and % organic matter (OM) such that we could relate spatial patterns in sediment microplastic concentrations to sedimentary processes that determine zones of accretion and erosion. Using field-determined concentrations of microplastics, we applied laboratory microcosms studies, which manipulated sediment concentrations of microplastics, OM, and bivalves to determine the influence of sediment microplastics on ammonium cycling within intertidal sediments. Concentrations of microplastics determined within the intertidal sediment varied spatially and were similar to those found in other coastal regions of high urban use. Concentrations were independent of grain size and OM suggesting that physical processes other than those that govern natural sediment components determine the fate of microplastics within sediments. Under laboratory conditions, concentrations of ammonium were significantly greater in the overlying water of treatments with microplastics, clams, and OM compared with treatments without microplastics. These preliminary studies suggest that high concentrations of microplastics have the potential to alter key sedimentary processes such as ammonium flux. This could have serious implications, for example, contributing to eutrophication events in regions of the coast that are highly urbanized.

  18. Institutional influences on business model choice by new ventures in the microgenerated energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provance, Mike; Donnelly, Richard G.; Carayannis, Elias G.

    2011-01-01

    Business model choice plays an important source of competitive advantage for new ventures in the microgeneration sector. Yet, existing literature focuses on strategic management of internal resources as the constraints in this choice process. In the energy sector, external factors may be at least as influential in shaping these business models. This paper examines the roles of politico-institutional and socio-institutional dynamics in the choice of business models for microgeneration ventures. Business models have traditionally been viewed as constructions of the internal values, strategies, and resources of organizations. But, this perspective overlooks the role that external forces have on these models, particularly in more highly institutionalized contexts like microgeneration. When these factors are introduced into the existing framework for business model choice, the business model based less on firm decision-making and more about variables that exist within national innovation systems and political structure, local socio-technological conditions, and cognitive abilities of the entrepreneur and corresponding stakeholders. - Highlights: → This work provides theoretical foundation for variation in microgeneration business models. → Explores institutional influences on strategic view of business model choice. → Compares the nature of microgeneration across geo-political contexts.

  19. Does Industry-Driven Alcohol Marketing Influence Adolescent Drinking Behaviour? A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Stephanie; Muirhead, Colin; Shucksmith, Janet; Tyrrell, Rachel; Kaner, Eileen

    2017-01-01

    Aim To systematically review evidence on the influence of specific marketing components (Price, Promotion, Product attributes and Place of sale/availability) on key drinking outcomes (initiation, continuation, frequency and intensity) in young people aged 9–17. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCOPUS, PsychINFO, CINAHL and ProQuest were searched from inception to July 2015, supplemented with searches of Google Scholar, hand searches of key journals and backward and forward citation searches of reference lists of identified papers. Results Forty-eight papers covering 35 unique studies met inclusion criteria. Authors tended to report that greater exposure to alcohol marketing impacted on drinking initiation, continuation, frequency and intensity during adolescence. Nevertheless, 23 (66%) studies reported null results or negative associations, often in combination with positive associations, resulting in mixed findings within and across studies. Heterogeneity in study design, content and outcomes prevented estimation of effect sizes or exploration of variation between countries or age subgroups. The strength of the evidence base differed according to type of marketing exposure and drinking outcome studied, with support for an association between alcohol promotion (mainly advertising) and drinking outcomes in adolescence, whilst only two studies examined the relationship between alcohol price and the drinking behaviour of those under the age of 18. Conclusion Despite the volume of work, evidence is inconclusive in all four areas of marketing but strongest for promotional activity. Future research with standardized measures is needed to build on this work and better inform interventions and policy responses. PMID:27864186

  20. Evaluating the Influence of Criteria to Attract Foreign Direct Investment (FDI to Develop Supporting Industries in Vietnam by Utilizing Fuzzy Preference Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tien-Chin Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the early 2000s, Vietnam’s government concentrated on the promotion of supporting industries which can be seen as a “key” solution to sustaining economic growth, thereby improving the national welfare. However, Vietnam’s supporting industries still exhibit lower development and competitive weakness. The main reason for this condition is due to a lack of capital, technological innovation, and necessary management skills for development. Therefore, attracting foreign direct investment (FDI for developing supporting industries offers the best strategy to realize this solution. However, attracting FDI to develop supporting industries represents a weakness which lies in both the quantity (total capital and projects and quality of investment. So which factors are effective to attract FDI for developing supporting industries in Vietnam? This investigation establishes an analytical hierarchy framework available to the Vietnamese government and to policymakers in order to evaluate the influence of criteria needed to attract FDI for developing supporting industries based on eight main criteria. They include legal and institutional criteria, the market size of supporting industries, human resources, infrastructure facilities, technological development and innovation, domestic supply capacity, international cooperation and competition, and other criteria. This paper uses fuzzy preference relations (FPR to evaluate the influence of criteria necessary to attract FDI for developing supporting industries, and these analytical results demonstrate that legal and institutional criteria, domestic supply capacity, human resources, technology development and innovation are all major considerations for attracting FDI.

  1. Does Industry-Driven Alcohol Marketing Influence Adolescent Drinking Behaviour? A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Stephanie; Muirhead, Colin; Shucksmith, Janet; Tyrrell, Rachel; Kaner, Eileen

    2017-01-01

    To systematically review evidence on the influence of specific marketing components (Price, Promotion, Product attributes and Place of sale/availability) on key drinking outcomes (initiation, continuation, frequency and intensity) in young people aged 9-17. MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCOPUS, PsychINFO, CINAHL and ProQuest were searched from inception to July 2015, supplemented with searches of Google Scholar, hand searches of key journals and backward and forward citation searches of reference lists of identified papers. Forty-eight papers covering 35 unique studies met inclusion criteria. Authors tended to report that greater exposure to alcohol marketing impacted on drinking initiation, continuation, frequency and intensity during adolescence. Nevertheless, 23 (66%) studies reported null results or negative associations, often in combination with positive associations, resulting in mixed findings within and across studies. Heterogeneity in study design, content and outcomes prevented estimation of effect sizes or exploration of variation between countries or age subgroups. The strength of the evidence base differed according to type of marketing exposure and drinking outcome studied, with support for an association between alcohol promotion (mainly advertising) and drinking outcomes in adolescence, whilst only two studies examined the relationship between alcohol price and the drinking behaviour of those under the age of 18. Despite the volume of work, evidence is inconclusive in all four areas of marketing but strongest for promotional activity. Future research with standardized measures is needed to build on this work and better inform interventions and policy responses. © The Author 2016. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press.

  2. The Influence of Ozonization For DO, BOD and Bacterial Growth in The Liquid Waste From Tanning Leather Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M-Yazid; Aris-Bastianudin; Widdi-Usada

    2007-01-01

    The research of ozonization influence of dissolved oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand (BOD) and the bacterial growth in the liquid waste from tanning leather industry has been done. The objectives of this research was to studied the influence of ozonization for decomposition process of the organic compound in these waste by indicator of BOD decreased, increased of DO and decomposer bacterial growth. The ozonization was carried out by time variation 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105, 120, 135, 150, 165, 180, 195 and 210 minutes. Each samples of the waste has been ozonized keep in the sterile reaction tube for isolated of bacterial and the other keep in the bottle for BOD and DO measurement. These research results show that ozonization with 16.243 x 10 -4 mg/second debit for 3 hours can decreased of BOD were 19.61 %, and ozonization for 3.5 hours can increased of DO were 82.5%. The other hand, 3 hours ozonization can decreased of kind of bacterial growth were 80 %. (author)

  3. Influence of Crucible Thermal Conductivity on Crystal Growth in an Industrial Directional Solidification Process for Silicon Ingots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaoyang Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We carried out transient global simulations of heating, melting, growing, annealing, and cooling stages for an industrial directional solidification (DS process for silicon ingots. The crucible thermal conductivity is varied in a reasonable range to investigate its influence on the global heat transfer and silicon crystal growth. It is found that the crucible plays an important role in heat transfer, and therefore its thermal conductivity can influence the crystal growth significantly in the entire DS process. Increasing the crucible thermal conductivity can shorten the time for melting of silicon feedstock and growing of silicon crystal significantly, and therefore large thermal conductivity is helpful in saving both production time and power energy. However, the high temperature gradient in the silicon ingots and the locally concave melt-crystal interface shape for large crucible thermal conductivity indicate that high thermal stress and dislocation propagation are likely to occur during both growing and annealing stages. Based on the numerical simulations, some discussions on designing and choosing the crucible thermal conductivity are presented.

  4. Co-digestion of ruminal content and blood from slaughterhouse industries: influence of solid concentration and ammonium generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, I; Passeggi, M; Borzacconi, L

    2006-01-01

    At the present time, organic solid wastes from industries and agricultural activities are considered to be promising substrates for biogas production via anaerobic digestion. Moreover solids stabilisation is required before reutilization or disposal. Slaughterhouses are among the most important industries in Uruguay and produce 150,000 tons of ruminal content (RC) and 30,000 tons of blood per year. In order to determine the influence of the solids and blood contents, the ammonia inhibition and the inoculum adaptation co-digestion batch tests were performed. A set of experiences with TS concentration of 2.5%, 5% and 7.5% and different ratios of RC/blood were carried out using an inoculum from an UASB reactor. In all experiences fast blood hydrolisation was observed. A higher methane production was detected in the experiences with higher TS content. However, the fraction of solids degradation was lower in these experiences. A plateau in the biogas production was found. The free ammonia level, which was above the reported inhibitory levels, could explain this behaviour. After the inhibition period the biogas production restarted probably due to the biomass acclimatisation to the ammonia. In order to determine the inoculum adaptation a new experiment was performed. The inoculum used was the sludge coming from the first set of experiences. Based upon batch tests a 3.5 m3 pilot reactor was designed and started up. Ammonia inhibition was avoided by the start-up strategy and in two weeks the biogas production was 3.5 m3/d. The VS stabilisation with a solid retention time of 20 days was of 43%. The pilot reactor working at steady state had a TS concentration of 3-4% with a ratio of RC/blood of 10:1 at the entrance.

  5. INVESTIGATING THE LEVEL OF BURNOUT AND INFLUENCING FACTORS ON IT AMONG THE WORKERS: CASE STUDY THE PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRIES NATIONAL COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan DARVISH

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is done with the purpose of investigation the level of burnout andinfluencing factors on it. The method used is measuring or filed-finding,descriptive studies type and the statistic society is made of the entire officialand non-official workers in the petrochemical industries national company inthe year (2009 including 6901people in the main office and 12 subsidiarycompanies who are working. The estimation of the sample volume is madeusing the cochran formula by the volume of 1742 people and the accidentalclass and the domesticated form of the Maslach Burn Out Inventory has beenused for gathering the dependant variant data of the study. In this study therelevance or effect of 20 independent variables on the burnout and itsconstituents was investigated. In the two variable tests, the emotionalcommitment had a reverse relation with burnout. So that with the increase ofthe interest and bind of the workers to the organization, the level of burnoutdecreased. In analyzing the step by step regression of the burnout accordingto the expected variables, 41percent of the explained burnout (R 2 =41%,and ranking the amount of the standard coefficient, the main elements likethe nature of the job, emotional commitment, work environment, job security,coworkers, education, job type, salary and the premium and jobindependence in the remaining regression equation and on the burnoutvariable have been influencing.

  6. Influence of unit operations on the levels of polyacetylenes in minimally processed carrots and parsnips: An industrial trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koidis, Anastasios; Rawson, Ashish; Tuohy, Maria; Brunton, Nigel

    2012-06-01

    Carrots and parsnips are often consumed as minimally processed ready-to-eat convenient foods and contain in minor quantities, bioactive aliphatic C17-polyacetylenes (falcarinol, falcarindiol, falcarindiol-3-acetate). Their retention during minimal processing in an industrial trial was evaluated. Carrot and parsnips were prepared in four different forms (disc cutting, baton cutting, cubing and shredding) and samples were taken in every point of their processing line. The unit operations were: peeling, cutting and washing with chlorinated water and also retention during 7days storage was evaluated. The results showed that the initial unit operations (mainly peeling) influence the polyacetylene retention. This was attributed to the high polyacetylene content of their peels. In most cases, when washing was performed after cutting, less retention was observed possibly due to leakage during tissue damage occurred in the cutting step. The relatively high retention during storage indicates high plant matrix stability. Comparing the behaviour of polyacetylenes in the two vegetables during storage, the results showed that they were slightly more retained in parsnips than in carrots. Unit operations and especially abrasive peeling might need further optimisation to make them gentler and minimise bioactive losses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Spatial econometric analysis of China’s province-level industrial carbon productivity and its influencing factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, Ruyin; Shao, Tianxiang; Chen, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We evaluate the industrial carbon productivity of China’s provinces. • The regional disparity and clustering features exist simultaneously. • There is evident spatial dependence in regional industrial carbon productivity. • We employ spatial panel data models to examine the impact factors. • Spatial effects are found to be important in understanding industrial CO_2 emissions. - Abstract: This study measured the industrial carbon productivity of 30 provinces in China from 2005 to 2012 and examined the space–time characteristics and the main factors of China’s industrial carbon productivity using Moran’s I index and spatial panel data models. The empirical results indicate that there is significant positive spatial dependence and clustering characteristics in China’s province-level industrial carbon productivity. The spatial dependence may create biased estimated parameters in an ordinary least squares framework; according to the analysis of our spatial panel models, industrial energy efficiency, the opening degree, technological progress, and the industrial scale structure have significantly positive effects on industrial carbon productivity whereas per-capita GDP, the industrial energy consumption structure, and the industrial ownership structure exert a negative effect on industrial carbon productivity.

  8. The Competitive status of the U.S. auto industry: a study of the influences of technology in determining international industrial competitive advantage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Automobile Panel of the Committee on Technology; National Research Council Staff

    ... International Industrial Competitive Advantage Prepared by the Automobile Panel, Committee on Technology and International Economic and Trade Issues of the Office of the Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering and the Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems, National Research Council William J. Abernathy, Chairman Kim Clar...

  9. 'Manage and mitigate punitive regulatory measures, enhance the corporate image, influence public policy': industry efforts to shape understanding of tobacco-attributable deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kelley; Carrillo Botero, Natalia; Novotny, Thomas

    2016-09-20

    further its interests, and increased scrutiny of tobacco industry efforts to influence environmental policy.

  10. The emergence of innovation policy as a field: The international context and the Danish experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Lindgaard; Fagerberg, Jan

    2018-01-01

    This chapter traces the development of scholarly interest in innovation and innovation policy in the Western world in general and in Denmark in particular, ranging from the early post-war period to the early years of the new millennium. In the early post-war world, innovation was commonly identif...... of innovation and innovation policy instruments in Denmark gradually evolved under the influence of similar developments elsewhere, and as a response to policy needs and lessons from earlier (industrial) policies....

  11. Autonomy, special offers and routines: a Q methodological study of industry-driven marketing influences on young people's drinking behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Stephanie; Baker, Rachel; Shucksmith, Janet; Kaner, Eileen

    2014-11-01

    To identify shared patterns of views in young people relating to the influence of industry-driven alcohol marketing (price, promotion, product and place of purchase/consumption) on their reported drinking behaviour. Q methodology harnessed qualitative and quantitative data to generate distinct clusters of opinions as follows: 39 opinion statements were derived from earlier in-depth qualitative interviews with 31 young people; by-person factor analysis was carried out on 28 participants' (six previous interviewees and 22 new recruits) rank orderings of these statements (most-to-least agreement); interpretation of the factor arrays was aided by 10-15-minute debriefing interviews held immediately following each Q-sort. Northeast England Young people aged 14-17 years purposively recruited from high schools, higher education colleges, youth centres and youth offending teams. Centroid factor extraction and varimax rotation of factors generated three distinct accounts: factor one ('autonomous, sophisticated consumers') illustrated a self-defined sense of individuality and autonomy in alcohol choices; factor two ('price-driven consumers') appeared price-led, choosing to drink what was most accessible or cheapest; and factor three ('context-focused consumers') described drinking practices where products were chosen to serve specific functions such as being easy to carry while dancing. Considering young people's views on alcohol marketing, different perspectives can be identified. These include perceived imperviousness to maketing, responsiveness to price and affordability and responsiveness to marketing focusing on youth lifestyles. © 2014 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  12. Does network topology influence systemic risk contribution? A perspective from the industry indices in Chinese stock market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Haiming; Zhang, Ji; Tang, Nengyu

    2017-01-01

    This study considers the effect of an industry's network topology on its systemic risk contribution to the stock market using data from the CSI 300 two-tier industry indices from the Chinese stock market. We first measure industry's conditional-value-at-risk (CoVaR) and the systemic risk contribution (ΔCoVaR) using the fitted time-varying t-copula function. The network of the stock industry is established based on dynamic conditional correlations with the minimum spanning tree. Then, we investigate the connection characteristics and topology of the network. Finally, we utilize seemingly unrelated regression estimation (SUR) of panel data to analyze the relationship between network topology of the stock industry and the industry's systemic risk contribution. The results show that the systemic risk contribution of small-scale industries such as real estate, food and beverage, software services, and durable goods and clothing, is higher than that of large-scale industries, such as banking, insurance and energy. Industries with large betweenness centrality, closeness centrality, and clustering coefficient and small node occupancy layer are associated with greater systemic risk contribution. In addition, further analysis using a threshold model confirms that the results are robust.

  13. Does network topology influence systemic risk contribution? A perspective from the industry indices in Chinese stock market.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiming Long

    Full Text Available This study considers the effect of an industry's network topology on its systemic risk contribution to the stock market using data from the CSI 300 two-tier industry indices from the Chinese stock market. We first measure industry's conditional-value-at-risk (CoVaR and the systemic risk contribution (ΔCoVaR using the fitted time-varying t-copula function. The network of the stock industry is established based on dynamic conditional correlations with the minimum spanning tree. Then, we investigate the connection characteristics and topology of the network. Finally, we utilize seemingly unrelated regression estimation (SUR of panel data to analyze the relationship between network topology of the stock industry and the industry's systemic risk contribution. The results show that the systemic risk contribution of small-scale industries such as real estate, food and beverage, software services, and durable goods and clothing, is higher than that of large-scale industries, such as banking, insurance and energy. Industries with large betweenness centrality, closeness centrality, and clustering coefficient and small node occupancy layer are associated with greater systemic risk contribution. In addition, further analysis using a threshold model confirms that the results are robust.

  14. Conflicts of interest at medical journals: the influence of industry-supported randomised trials on journal impact factors and revenue - cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundh, Andreas; Barbateskovic, Marija; Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2010-10-26

    transparency in reporting of conflict of interest is an increasingly important aspect of publication in medical journals. Publication of large industry-supported trials may generate many citations and journal income through reprint sales and thereby be a source of conflicts of interest for journals. We investigated industry-supported trials' influence on journal impact factors and revenue. we sampled six major medical journals (Annals of Internal Medicine, Archives of Internal Medicine, BMJ, JAMA, The Lancet, and New England Journal of Medicine [NEJM]). For each journal, we identified randomised trials published in 1996-1997 and 2005-2006 using PubMed, and categorized the type of financial support. Using Web of Science, we investigated citations of industry-supported trials and the influence on journal impact factors over a ten-year period. We contacted journal editors and retrieved tax information on income from industry sources. The proportion of trials with sole industry support varied between journals, from 7% in BMJ to 32% in NEJM in 2005-2006. Industry-supported trials were more frequently cited than trials with other types of support, and omitting them from the impact factor calculation decreased journal impact factors. The decrease varied considerably between journals, with 1% for BMJ to 15% for NEJM in 2007. For the two journals disclosing data, income from the sales of reprints contributed to 3% and 41% of the total income for BMJ and The Lancet in 2005-2006. publication of industry-supported trials was associated with an increase in journal impact factors. Sales of reprints may provide a substantial income. We suggest that journals disclose financial information in the same way that they require them from their authors, so that readers can assess the potential effect of different types of papers on journals' revenue and impact.

  15. Conflicts of interest at medical journals: the influence of industry-supported randomised trials on journal impact factors and revenue - cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lundh

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: transparency in reporting of conflict of interest is an increasingly important aspect of publication in medical journals. Publication of large industry-supported trials may generate many citations and journal income through reprint sales and thereby be a source of conflicts of interest for journals. We investigated industry-supported trials' influence on journal impact factors and revenue. METHODS AND FINDINGS: we sampled six major medical journals (Annals of Internal Medicine, Archives of Internal Medicine, BMJ, JAMA, The Lancet, and New England Journal of Medicine [NEJM]. For each journal, we identified randomised trials published in 1996-1997 and 2005-2006 using PubMed, and categorized the type of financial support. Using Web of Science, we investigated citations of industry-supported trials and the influence on journal impact factors over a ten-year period. We contacted journal editors and retrieved tax information on income from industry sources. The proportion of trials with sole industry support varied between journals, from 7% in BMJ to 32% in NEJM in 2005-2006. Industry-supported trials were more frequently cited than trials with other types of support, and omitting them from the impact factor calculation decreased journal impact factors. The decrease varied considerably between journals, with 1% for BMJ to 15% for NEJM in 2007. For the two journals disclosing data, income from the sales of reprints contributed to 3% and 41% of the total income for BMJ and The Lancet in 2005-2006. CONCLUSIONS: publication of industry-supported trials was associated with an increase in journal impact factors. Sales of reprints may provide a substantial income. We suggest that journals disclose financial information in the same way that they require them from their authors, so that readers can assess the potential effect of different types of papers on journals' revenue and impact.

  16. Research on the influencing factors of financing efficiency of big data industry based on panel data model--Empirical evidence from Guizhou province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenggang; Feng, Yujia

    2018-03-01

    This paper mainly studies the influence factors of financing efficiency of Guizhou big data industry, and selects the financial and macro data of 20 Guizhou big data enterprises from 2010 to 2016. Using the DEA model to obtain the financing efficiency of Guizhou big data enterprises. A panel data model is constructed to select the six macro and micro influencing factors for panel data analysis. The results show that the external economic environment, the turnover rate of the total assets of the enterprises, the increase of operating income, the increase of the revenue per share of each share of the business income have positive impact on the financing efficiency of of the big data industry in Guizhou. The key to improve the financing efficiency of Guizhou big data enterprises is to improve.

  17. Influence of Controlling in the Generation of information for the process of Management of Costs Of forniture industries of Francisco Beltrão – PR Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmarina Pedro Garcia Garcia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of the Controller is connected to the need to improve company management. One way that the controller finds to ensure the continuity of the company is reducing costs and expenses, in order to make the product more competitive to their competitors. To do this, managers now have the controller as an important tool to aid in decision making. This study demonstrates some benefits of controlling; in order to reach this objective a descriptive, qualitative and quantitative survey was made in ten small and medium-sized furniture industries. The main goal of the research is to show the influence of controlling in generating information for the process of cost management of furniture industry in Francisco Beltrão, a city in the state of Paraná, Brazil. The study showed that the controlling influences in reducing costs through reliable information, generated by agile tools, compiled by the controllers and forwarded to managers, assists decision making.

  18. Amorphous Silica Particles Relevant in Food Industry Influence Cellular Growth and Associated Signaling Pathways in Human Gastric Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittig, Anja; Gehrke, Helge; Del Favero, Giorgia; Fritz, Eva-Maria; Al-Rawi, Marco; Diabaté, Silvia; Weiss, Carsten; Sami, Haider; Ogris, Manfred; Marko, Doris

    2017-01-13

    Nanostructured silica particles are commonly used in biomedical and biotechnical fields, as well as, in cosmetics and food industry. Thus, their environmental and health impacts are of great interest and effects after oral uptake are only rarely investigated. In the present study, the toxicological effects of commercially available nano-scaled silica with a nominal primary diameter of 12 nm were investigated on the human gastric carcinoma cell line GXF251L. Besides the analysis of cytotoxic and proliferative effects and the comparison with effects of particles with a nominal primary diameter of 200 nm, emphasis was also given to their influence on the cellular epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathways-both of them deeply involved in the regulation of cellular processes like cell cycle progression, differentiation or proliferation. The investigated silica nanoparticles (NPs) were found to stimulate cell proliferation as measured by microscopy and the sulforhodamine B assay. In accordance, the nuclear level of the proliferation marker Ki-67 was enhanced in a concentration-dependent manner. At high particle concentrations also necrosis was induced. Finally, silica NPs affected the EGFR and MAPK pathways at various levels dependent on concentration and time. However, classical activation of the EGFR, to be reflected by enhanced levels of phosphorylation, could be excluded as major trigger of the proliferative stimulus. After 45 min of incubation the level of phosphorylated EGFR did not increase, whereas enhanced levels of total EGFR protein were observed. These results indicate interference with the complex homeostasis of the EGFR protein, whereby up to 24 h no impact on the transcription level was detected. In addition, downstream on the level of the MAP kinases ERK1/2 short term incubation appeared to affect total protein levels without clear increase in phosphorylation. Depending on the concentration

  19. Amorphous Silica Particles Relevant in Food Industry Influence Cellular Growth and Associated Signaling Pathways in Human Gastric Carcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Wittig

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured silica particles are commonly used in biomedical and biotechnical fields, as well as, in cosmetics and food industry. Thus, their environmental and health impacts are of great interest and effects after oral uptake are only rarely investigated. In the present study, the toxicological effects of commercially available nano-scaled silica with a nominal primary diameter of 12 nm were investigated on the human gastric carcinoma cell line GXF251L. Besides the analysis of cytotoxic and proliferative effects and the comparison with effects of particles with a nominal primary diameter of 200 nm, emphasis was also given to their influence on the cellular epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK signaling pathways—both of them deeply involved in the regulation of cellular processes like cell cycle progression, differentiation or proliferation. The investigated silica nanoparticles (NPs were found to stimulate cell proliferation as measured by microscopy and the sulforhodamine B assay. In accordance, the nuclear level of the proliferation marker Ki-67 was enhanced in a concentration-dependent manner. At high particle concentrations also necrosis was induced. Finally, silica NPs affected the EGFR and MAPK pathways at various levels dependent on concentration and time. However, classical activation of the EGFR, to be reflected by enhanced levels of phosphorylation, could be excluded as major trigger of the proliferative stimulus. After 45 min of incubation the level of phosphorylated EGFR did not increase, whereas enhanced levels of total EGFR protein were observed. These results indicate interference with the complex homeostasis of the EGFR protein, whereby up to 24 h no impact on the transcription level was detected. In addition, downstream on the level of the MAP kinases ERK1/2 short term incubation appeared to affect total protein levels without clear increase in phosphorylation. Depending on the

  20. Beyond Food Promotion: A Systematic Review on the Influence of the Food Industry on Obesity-Related Dietary Behaviour among Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonntag, Diana; Schneider, Sarah; Mdege, Noreen; Ali, Shehzad; Schmidt, Burkhard

    2015-10-16

    An increased consumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor food and beverages as a result of a changing obesogenic environment contributes substantially to the increasing prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity. This paper reviews the nature and extent of food industry influences which expose children to commercial influences and thus might affect unhealthy dietary behaviour and finally contributes to obesity. A systematic search of nine electronic databases (including PubMed, PsycINFO, EconLit) and reference lists of original studies and reviews using key search terms identified 1900 articles. Of these only thirty-six articles met the inclusion and quality criteria. A narrative synthesis of the reviewed studies revealed six key obesogenic environments by which the food industry possibly influences obesity-related dietary behaviours in young children. These were schools, retailers, mass media "television", mass media "internet", home and promotional campaigns. Identifying these obesogenic environments is critical for monitoring and controlling the food industry, the development of effective environmental-level interventions to prevent childhood overweight and obesity and to identify knowledge gaps to be addressed in future research to support informed decisions of policy makers.

  1. Beyond Food Promotion: A Systematic Review on the Influence of the Food Industry on Obesity-Related Dietary Behaviour among Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Sonntag

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available An increased consumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor food and beverages as a result of a changing obesogenic environment contributes substantially to the increasing prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity. This paper reviews the nature and extent of food industry influences which expose children to commercial influences and thus might affect unhealthy dietary behaviour and finally contributes to obesity. A systematic search of nine electronic databases (including PubMed, PsycINFO, EconLit and reference lists of original studies and reviews using key search terms identified 1900 articles. Of these only thirty-six articles met the inclusion and quality criteria. A narrative synthesis of the reviewed studies revealed six key obesogenic environments by which the food industry possibly influences obesity-related dietary behaviours in young children. These were schools, retailers, mass media “television”, mass media “internet”, home and promotional campaigns. Identifying these obesogenic environments is critical for monitoring and controlling the food industry, the development of effective environmental-level interventions to prevent childhood overweight and obesity and to identify knowledge gaps to be addressed in future research to support informed decisions of policy makers.

  2. Short-term influences and long-term fundamentals: stabilizing and destabilizing effects in the energy industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Silvan [Royal Inst. of International Affairs, London (United Kingdom)

    1992-10-01

    The ideology of the market economy has become dominant in all walks of economic life and the energy industries are no exception. In the oil business, the stabilizing structures of the international majors and of long-term prices have been replaced by industrial fragmentation and market price mechanisms. Monopolies in other energy industries are being progressively dismantled. This live experiment is being conducted on an industry which historically has suffered from feast and famine economics and has tried to protect itself through various forms of cartelization. The short-term effects of this open market have so far tended to improve flexibility and consumer choice. The price instability has proved manageable. The danger is that cash flow compression will reduced investments in the future and an ability to make very long lead time shifts in the energy mix. For this some government intervention in markets is necessary. (author).

  3. Exploring the Fitness Centre Industry in Malaysia; What Factors Influence Joining and Retention and Prevents People from Joining

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Helen B

    2008-01-01

    Malaysia’s fitness centre industry has seen rapid growth over the last 6 years with the opening of more than 25 international chain outlets of which the majority is owned by California Fitness, Celebrity Fitness, Fitness First and True Fitness. An increasing population and year on year GDP growth, together with the support of the Malaysian government, contribute to further the growth of the industry. The purpose of the study is to explore, investigate and reveal information about the growth a...

  4. Influence of Environmentally Friendly and High-Efficiency Composite Additives on Pulverized Coal Combustion in Cement Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available 4 kinds of chemical reagents and 3 kinds of industrial wastes were selected as burning additives for 2 kinds of coals in cement industry. The work focused on the replacement of partial chemical reagents by industrial wastes, which not only reduced the cost and took full advantage of industrial wastes, but also guaranteed the high combustion efficiency and removed the NOX and SO2 simultaneously. The experiments were carried out in DTF. The combustion residues were analyzed by SEM and XRD. The results showed that the burnout rate was increased after adding the additives; meanwhile, the NOX and SO2 release concentration were reduced, but the degree of action varied for different additives and coals. The substitute of chemical reagents by industrial wastes was very effective; overall, the cold-rolled iron oxide worked better than others; the particles surface was tougher and the peaks of crystalline phase were lower than raw coal, which indicated that the additives played good roles in combustion process.

  5. A study on the effects of different factors influencing on customer loyalty, profitability and word of mouth advertisement for gaining competitive advantage in tourism industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of various factors influencing on customer loyalty, profitability and word of mouth advertisement for gaining competitive advantage in tourism industry. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among a random sample of 500 people who purchased some tours from travel agencies. Using structural equation modeling, the study has determined a positive and meaningful impact of pricing strategy, amenity, tourism services, content of trip, marketing mix elements, brand equity, competitive advantage and being exclusive on gaining competitive advantage. In addition, being exclusive and value creation influence positively on word of mouth advertisement. Finally, value creation influences on profitability, positively.

  6. CSR in the Fast Moving Consumer Goods Retail Industry of Brunei Darussalam and its Influence on Supply Chain Management

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Suria, Siti Fatimah Masayu

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation is on the subject of corporate social responsibility (CSR), specifically looking at CSR in one of Brunei Darussalam's industries, to shed some light on the state of CSR in the country. The Fast moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) retail industry is chosen and three of the largest local firms are involve in the study. The main objective of the study is to find out the extent of CSR in these companies and to see if CSR has permeated into their supply chain management. A qualitative m...

  7. Personal Influence Model of Public Relations: A Case Study in Indonesia’s Mining Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregoria Arum Yudarwati

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Studi kasus di industri pertambangan Indonesia dipilih sebagai jendela untuk memahami fungsi public relations (PR di era paska Suharto. Partisipan memandang era reformasi yang memungkinkan kebebasan berpendapat dan sistem desentralisasi sebagai pemicu untuk menyusun strategi public relations (PR yang baru dalam menjalin hubungan dengan publik. Personal relationship model of PR ditemukan sebagai model PR yang dominan di industri pertambangan Indonesia. Model ini dipilih sebagai strategi untuk membangun hubungan baik dengan orangorang kunci di komunitas yang dipahami sebagai masyarakat kolektif. Temuan ini mendukung proposisi yang menyatakan adanya pengaruh budaya setempat dan nilai-nilai lokal terhadap paktekPR.

  8. Influence of genetic background of engineered xylose-fermenting industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for ethanol production from lignocellulosic hydrolysates

    Science.gov (United States)

    An industrial ethanol-producing Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain with genes needed for xylose-fermentation integrated into its genome was used to obtain haploids and diploid isogenic strains. The isogenic strains were more effective in metabolizing xylose than their parental strain (p < 0.05) and abl...

  9. The influence of organizational culture on negative work-home interference among highly educated employees in the hospitality industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blomme, R.J.; Sok, J.; Tromp, D.M.

    2013-01-01

    An issue which has recently come to the fore in studies conducted among hospitality industry employees is the effect of negative work-home interference on the turnover of highly educated employees. This article examines the role of organizational culture with regard to negative work-home

  10. Hygienic characteristics of working conditions and their influence on biological age of women occupied in modern wallpaper industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pichugina N.N.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a complex sanitary characteristic of working conditions of women involved in wallpaper production. The main favorable factors of industrial environment have been determined. It is shown that working conditions in wallpaper production factories cause an increase in indices of biological age

  11. Beneficiation of feldspar ore for application in the ceramic industry: Influence of composition on the physical characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Gaied

    2015-03-01

    Experimental studies indicate that an acceptable concentrate for industrial application can be obtained from these rocks. The feldspar yield was used to evaluate the process efficiency. Besides, the cone shrinkage, water absorption, degree of vitrification, mechanical properties (flexural strength and dielectric behaviour were used to monitor the quality of the recovered feldspars.

  12. Influence of direct reduced iron on the energy balance of the electric arc furnace in steel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirschen, Marcus; Badr, Karim; Pfeifer, Herbert

    2011-01-01

    A model of the EAF energy efficiency was developed based on a closed mass and energy balance of the EAF melting process. This model was applied to industrial EAFs in steel industry charged with scrap or with mixes of scrap and DRI. Complex mass and energy conversion in the EAF was simplified with the introduction of mass and energy conversion efficiencies for the conversion of oxygen and the energy conversion of electrical energy in the electric arcs, chemical energy from the oxidation reactions in the melt and energy from the combustion of burner gas. It turned out that close agreement with observed process parameters from 16 EAFs is obtained by slight variations of the efficiency values. Especially the sensitivity of the steel temperature from the energy conversion efficiency of the electric arc energy indicates the importance of efficient foaming slag operation in EAF steel making. Characteristics and process parameters of DRI charged EAFs are discussed. Model results for a series of case studies illustrate the correlations between DRI chemical composition, DRI portion, oxygen consumption, etc. with electrical energy demand in order to indentify cost-effective EAF process conditions. -- Highlights: → Energy demand and carbon dioxide emission figures of EAF steelmaking processes based on steel scrap and DRI. → Complete energy balance of the EAF process using various input materials. → Application of the model to industrial EAF in steel industry in 4 case studies and discussion of model results. → Comparison with other models, critical discussion.

  13. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ELECTRIC POWER INDUSTRY AFTER THE OCTOBER REVOLUTION OF 1917: ORIGINS, PROSPECTS AND PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Gibadullin

    2018-01-01

    implementation of the plans ahead of schedule. In the post-war period, from 1950–1985, there was an increase in the construction of production capacities, The development of the electric power industry after the October Revolution of 1917: origins, prospects and problems  at the same time, both heat and hydro and nuclear power plants were built, thereby increasing the installed capacity by more than 10 times in thirty years. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, there has been a halt in the pace of development of the Russian electric power industry, and now the deprecation of the fixed assets increase, the degradation of energy equipment, the aging of power generation technologies, the fall in investment attractiveness and the efficiency of management of generating capacities, which can lead to mass failure equipment and emergency consequences.The conclusion. Based on the results of the study, we have the following conclusions in the need to search for new mechanisms to improve the sustainability of the electricity industry in the absence of financial resources. In the author's opinion, it is advisable to implement them on three interrelated mechanisms: revising production capacities, eliminating potentially worn-out fixed assets; the formation of common programs for the development of the electric power industry within the framework of the General Electricity Market of the Eurasian Economic Union; the construction of power plants in the border areas, due to which several national states will provide electric power. 

  14. O capitalismo coordenado alemão: do boom do pós-guerra à Agenda 2010 The German coordinated capitalism: from the post war boom to Agenda 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Queiroz Guimarães

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available No pós-guerra constituiu-se na Alemanha um modelo de capitalismo coordenado, em que os sindicatos e as associações empresariais assumiram papel central. Constituíram-se várias formas de regulação via networks, presentes nas relações internas às firmas, nas formas de colaboração entre as empresas e na interação mais próxima entre bancos e empresas. Os bons resultados em termos de competitividade foram combinados com excelentes indicadores sociais. Entretanto, as transformações recentes, relacionadas à maior internacionalização produtiva e financeira, têm colocado em xeque o capitalismo socialmente coordenado. Em face aos desafios econômicos, a Alemanha vem reagindo, procurando reformas que tornem o modelo mais flexível. Mas aspectos centrais do modelo têm se conservado, com destaque para as relações de trabalho e os mecanismos de cidadania social.The reconstruction of German political economy after the Second World War was marked by the consolidation of many forms of regulation via networks. Those networks, present in many areas of the economy, stimulated the cooperation among the actors, having critical implications for the performance of the model. The outstanding results in terms of competitivity combined with outstanding social indicators. In recent years, international transformations, including financial liberalisation and internationalisation of production, have putting the social coordinated capitalism in check. In face of the economic challenges, Germany has been adopting a range of reforms in the attempt to make the model more flexible. Nevertheless, central aspects of the coordinated capitalism have been preserved, including the system of industrial relations and the mechanisms of social citizenship.

  15. Does growing up with a physician influence the ethics of medical students' relationships with the pharmaceutical industry? The cases of the US and Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowska, Marta

    2017-08-10

    Medical schools have a major impact on future doctors' ethics and their attitudes towards cooperation with the pharmaceutical industry. From childhood, medical students who are related to a physician are exposed to the characteristics of a medical career and learn its professional ethics not only in school but also in the family setting. The present paper sought to answer the research question: 'How does growing up with a physician influence medical students' perceptions of conflicts of interest in their relationships with industry?' An anonymous questionnaire was completed by 451 medical students from four Philadelphia medical schools and 554 medical students from Warsaw Medical University during 2013. Medical schools in these two cities were chosen because they are both university cities with similar population sizes. Students who had and who did not have a family member working as a physician were compared using chi-square analysis. Data were analysed for each country separately. For both the US and Poland, there were statistically significant differences (p < .05) between medical students with a physician as a family member and other students with respect to views regarding relationship with the pharmaceutical industry. In both groups, this difference occurred for three important dimensions: students' relationship with the pharmaceutical industry; students' views on physicians' rights to cooperate with the pharmaceutical industry; trust in the pharmaceutical industry. In the US, students related to a doctor were characterized by more restrictive opinions on all three dimensions than other students (e.g., 27.8% of the former students vs. 31.4% of the latter students thought doctors had unrestricted rights to cooperate with the industry). However, the contrary was observed in Poland: students with a physician in the family had less strict views than their colleagues (e.g., 56.8% of the former vs. 39.7% of the latter thought that doctors should have unrestricted

  16. The decision concerning the nuclear investment: influence of the industrial structure; La decision d'investissement nucleaire: l'influence de la structure industrielle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillerminet, M.L

    2000-10-01

    This report aims to analyze the investment behavior of an enterprise producing nuclear origin electric power in an european market opening to the competition. In this context, the industrial structure controlled by the governor decides the investment in a marginal equipment: either an integrated monopole structure which leads to a regulation at the cost price rate of return; or a pool structure in which the governor intervene to fix the cost price at the marginal cost level given by the main technology of the gas combined cycles. (A.L.B.)

  17. The influence of mobile internet on advertising to consumers in the short–term insurance industry / by Shandukani A. Davhana

    OpenAIRE

    Davhana, Shandukani Albert

    2009-01-01

    Marketing and advertisement activities are transforming as new digital media streams emerge. It is believed that the first major digital transition took place when broadcast media such as television and cinema, also called first screen, to the PC Internet, referred to as the second screen, entered the media industry. The last couple of years saw an expanding transition into the third screen, which is the mobile handset, commonly known as cellphones in South Africa. The rapid explosion of m...

  18. INVESTIGATING ``MARKETING ORIENTATION `` INFLUENCES ON ACHIEVING COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE –WITHIN JORDANIAN MOBILE TELECOMMUNICATION INDUSTRY (BEHAVIOURAL- ATTITUDINAL PERSPECTIVE)

    OpenAIRE

    Ashour, Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Several previous studies emphasised the importance of marketing orientation in achieving firms` competitive position, and many efforts have been focused on investigating Marketing Orientation-organizational performance relationship. However, the majority of previous researches have been conducted in Western cultures and within industrial contexts. This research is an attempt to achieve a comprehensive understanding of the adopted levels of Marketing Orientation (MO) for each mobile telecommun...

  19. The Influence of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Rewards on Employee Results: An Empirical Analysis in Turkish Manufacturing Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ozutku, Hatice

    2012-01-01

    The study discussed in this article questions whether certain reward practices used by organizations are better than others when comparing the employee results based on TQM. We first examine reward systems and TQM relevant literature. After related literature review, reward practices have been handled in two groups as intrinsic rewards and extrinsic rewards. In the sample, which consists of 217 businesses that operate in Turkish manufacturing industry and apply TQM, intrinsic and extrinsic re...

  20. Influence of different safety shoes on gait and plantar pressure: a standardized examination of workers in the automotive industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ochsmann, Elke; Noll, Ulrike; Ellegast, Rolf; Hermanns, Ingo; Kraus, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Working conditions, such as walking and standing on hard surfaces, can increase the development of musculoskeletal complaints. At the interface between flooring and musculoskeletal system, safety shoes may play an important role in the well-being of employees. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different safety shoes on gait and plantar pressure distributions on industrial flooring. Methods: Twenty automotive workers were individually fitted out with three differe...

  1. An approach to industrial application: influence of black liquor and pH on xylanase efficiency in bleaching of eucalyptus kraft pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Fillat Latorre, Úrsula; Roncero Vivero, María Blanca; Bassa, Alexandre; Sacón, Vera Maria

    2010-01-01

    To obtain a more realistic appraisal of the potential efficiency of xylanases in the industrial bleaching, the influence of pH and the presence of black liquor (measured as COD) on the bleaching efficiency of two commercial xylanases was studied at high temperature. These pH’s, CODs, and temperatures are close to those used in the storage tower of the B fiber line in Jacareı´ unit of Fibria (Brazil). The pulp samples obtained after each bleaching stage were analyzed for kappa number, brigh...

  2. Opportunities to improve the private capital in Brazilian electricity supply industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, R.A. de.

    1993-08-01

    The Brazilian electricity supply industry has passed substantial changes in the last fifty years. In the 50's was almost completely controlled by foreign companies. In the 70's, it turned to be almost exclusively ruled by Federal and State Enterprises. In the 80's the electricity supply sector started a financial and institutional crises. Some changes, already in course, indicate new changes of it for the next years. This study give emphasis to: the reasons that lead to a fast and well succeeded State intervention in the post-war; the multiple reasons of the recent crisis in sector, trying to insert it in the general context of the country; the alternative that have being formulated to overcome the obstacles created by the crisis; and the main factors for an efficient re-structure of the Brazilian electricity sector for the next years, included privatisation. (author)

  3. Culture as metaphor: company culture and business strategy at Raleigh Industries, c. 1945-60.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Jones, R; Lewis, M J; Eason, M

    1999-01-01

    This study of Raleigh Industries, one of the leading bicycle manufactures in the world in the immediate post-war years, argues that its business strategy was in part shaped by a managerial commitment to a dominant company culture which was deeply embedded in Raleigh's history. Using the notion of culture as metaphor, the paper examines the way that core values in the company acted as a guide in the setting of organisational goals and, intended or unintended, impinged upon company performance. In many respects, the culture guided the company well, but our study shows a number of ambiguities, tensions and contradictions between culture and strategy which had negative effects on company behaviour. Thus, Raleigh's attachment to personal capitalism constrained its capacity expansion programme, and, while it adopted what appeared to be a progressive education and training policy, it in effect trained workers for the past rather than the future.

  4. The Influence of Industrial Air Pollution Forest Lichens at Tomaszów Mazowiecki Region (Central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Czyżewska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of mixed gases pollution (SO2, H2S and CS2 on epiphytic and epixylic lichens growing on Pinus sylvestris in the nature conditions is the matter of consideration. In the case of some lichens, e.g. Lecanora conizaeoides, Scoliciosporum chlorococcum and Thelocarpon laureri the toxitolerant to the air pollution is proved by the authoress.

  5. Mixing states of aerosols over four environmentally distinct atmospheric regimes in Asia: coastal, urban, and industrial locations influenced by dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, S; Srivastava, Rohit

    2016-06-01

    Mixing can influence the optical, physical, and chemical characteristics of aerosols, which in turn can modify their life cycle and radiative effects. Assumptions on the mixing state can lead to uncertain estimates of aerosol radiative effects. To examine the effect of mixing on the aerosol characteristics, and their influence on radiative effects, aerosol mixing states are determined over four environmentally distinct locations (Karachi, Gwangju, Osaka, and Singapore) in Asia, an aerosol hot spot region, using measured spectral aerosol optical properties and optical properties model. Aerosol optical depth (AOD), single scattering albedo (SSA), and asymmetry parameter (g) exhibit spectral, spatial, and temporal variations. Aerosol mixing states exhibit large spatial and temporal variations consistent with aerosol characteristics and aerosol type over each location. External mixing of aerosol species is unable to reproduce measured SSA over Asia, thus providing a strong evidence that aerosols exist in mixed state. Mineral dust (MD) (core)-Black carbon (BC) (shell) is one of the most preferred aerosol mixing states. Over locations influenced by biomass burning aerosols, BC (core)-water soluble (WS, shell) is a preferred mixing state, while dust gets coated by anthropogenic aerosols (BC, WS) over urban regions influenced by dust. MD (core)-sea salt (shell) mixing is found over Gwangju corroborating the observations. Aerosol radiative forcing exhibits large seasonal and spatial variations consistent with features seen in aerosol optical properties and mixing states. TOA forcing is less negative/positive for external mixing scenario because of lower SSA. Aerosol radiative forcing in Karachi is a factor of 2 higher when compared to Gwangju, Osaka, and Singapore. The influence of g on aerosol radiative forcing is insignificant. Results emphasize that rather than prescribing one single aerosol mixing state in global climate models regionally and temporally varying aerosol

  6. Influence of Czech textile-makers on development of textile industry in Serbia from the beginning to the second half of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menković Mirjana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main topic of this study is influence of Czech nationals, primarily as immigrants, with capital invested in production of textile and textile products or with expert knowledge and entrepreneurship ability contributing to certain special features of Yugoslav and Serbian textile industry during the period of its development between the two World Wars. In this period the first industrial businesses for ready-to-wear and knitwear clothes have appeared, due to availability of locally manufactured woven and knit fabric, mostly produced from imported thread material. Both their initial establishment and later development were crucially influenced by foreign investments and immigrant workforce, hand-in-hand with craft workshops and communal manufactures specializing in finishing the pre-made products and creating the recognizable brand products. In addition to the predominant foreign capital from Austria, primarily Vienna, the next most important share was that of capital from Czechia, only distantly followed by that from England and Italy, with a significant contribution by the Jewish community from several European countries. At the same time, most of the qualified workforce immigrated from Czechia, including both ethnic Germans and ethnic Czech.

  7. Management and control of microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) in the oil and gas industry-Overview and a North Sea case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovhus, Torben Lund; Eckert, Richard B; Rodrigues, Edgar

    2017-08-20

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is the terminology applied where the actions of microorganisms influence the corrosion process. In literature, terms such as microbial corrosion, biocorrosion, microbially influenced/induced corrosion, and biodegradation are often applied. MIC research in the oil and gas industry has seen a revolution over the past decade, with the introduction of molecular microbiological methods: (MMM) as well as new industry standards and procedures of sampling biofilm and corrosion products from the process system. This review aims to capture the most important trends the oil and gas industry has seen regarding MIC research over the past decade. The paper starts out with an overview of where in the process stream MIC occurs - from the oil reservoir to the consumer. Both biotic and abiotic corrosion mechanisms are explained in the context of managing MIC using a structured corrosion management (CM) approach. The corrosion management approach employs the elements of a management system to ensure that essential corrosion control activities are carried out in an effective, sustainable, well-planned and properly executed manner. The 3-phase corrosion management approach covering of both biotic and abiotic internal corrosion mechanisms consists of 1) corrosion assessment, 2) corrosion mitigation and 3) corrosion monitoring. Each of the three phases are described in detail with links to recent field cases, methods, industry standards and sampling protocols. In order to manage the corrosion threat, operators commonly use models to support decision making. The models use qualitative, semi-quantitative or quantitative measures to help assess the rate of degradation caused by MIC. The paper reviews four existing models for MIC Threat Assessment and describe a new model that links the threat of MIC in the oil processing system located on an offshore platform with a Risk Based Inspection (RBI) approach. A recent field case highlights and explains

  8. Mycotoxin analysis of industrial beers from Brazil: The influence of fumonisin B1 and deoxynivalenol in beer quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentini, Karim C; Rocha, Liliana O; Fontes, Lívia C; Carnielli, Lorena; Reis, Tatiana A; Corrêa, Benedito

    2017-03-01

    Worldwide, barley is the main source of carbohydrate in the brewing process. However, corn is often used as an adjunct to improve and accelerate the fermentation process. Considering that, these two substrates are susceptible to fungal contamination as well as mycotoxins. The objective of the current study is to determine the incidence of the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisin B 1 (FB 1 ) in industrial beers. The method applied for mycotoxin analyses included high performance liquid chromatography . The mean levels for recovery experiments were 89.6% for DON and 93.3% for FB 1 . DON was not detected in any of the analyzed samples whereas FB 1 was found in 49% of the 114 samples. The current survey demonstrated levels of FB 1 contamination in industrial beer, possibly due to the addition of contaminated adjuncts. It is necessary to establish maximum levels of mycotoxins in beer in Brazil and other countries in order to reduce health risks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Perfluoroalkyl acids in surface waters and tapwater in the Qiantang River watershed-Influences from paper, textile, and leather industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guo-Hui; Gai, Nan; Zhang, Peng; Piao, Hai-Tao; Chen, Shu; Wang, Xiao-Chun; Jiao, Xing-Chun; Yin, Xiao-Cai; Tan, Ke-Yan; Yang, Yong-Liang

    2017-10-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are widely used as multi-purpose surfactants or water/oil repellents. In order to understand the contamination level and compositional profiles of PFAAs in aqueous environment in textile, leather, and paper making industrial areas, surface waters and tap waters were collected along the watershed of the Qiantang River where China's largest textile, leather, and paper making industrial bases are located. For comparison, surface water and tapwater samples were also collected in Hangzhou and its adjacent areas. 17 PFAAs were analyzed by solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The results show that the total concentrations of PFAAs (ΣPFAAs) in the Qiantang River waters ranged from 106.1 to 322.9 ng/L, averaging 164.2 ng/L. The contamination levels have been found to be extremely high, comparable to the levels of the most serious PFAA contamination in surface waters of China. The PFAA composition profiles were characterized by the dominant PFOA (average 58.1% of the total PFAAs), and PFHxA (average 18.8%). The ΣPFAAs in tap water ranged from 9.5 to 174.8 ng/L, showing PFAA compositional pattern similar to the surface waters. Good correlations between PFAA composition profiles in tap waters and the surface waters were observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of industry on pollution of the environment and human population with natural radionuclides and heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaworowski, Z.

    1982-01-01

    The rate of fallout of 226 Ra depending on the distance from industrial emission sources has been evaluated. Contamination of soil with natural radionuclides in industrial and rural regions of Poland has been compared with the concentration of radionuclides in ash of aerophytic plants. An increase of airborne pollutants in precipitation in Southern Poland has been compared with an increase of the concentration of pollutants in pine trees. Samples of human bones from Southern Poland have been checked for contents of lead. It has been found that in 20th century concentration of lead decreased to a level not much higher than natural. The level of 226 Ra in Polish population had been decreasing during the last 100 years. This points to the conclusion that human skeleton is well protected as the level of radionuclides was not related to the level of environmental pollution. The concentration of 226 Ra in air is steadily increasing and an upward transport leads to its wide distribution. (E.G.M.)

  11. Home composting versus industrial composting: influence of composting system on compost quality with focus on compost stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrena, Raquel; Font, Xavier; Gabarrell, Xavier; Sánchez, Antoni

    2014-07-01

    Stability is one of the most important properties of compost obtained from the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes. This property is essential for the application of compost to land to avoid further field degradation and emissions of odors, among others. In this study, a massive characterization of compost samples from both home producers and industrial facilities is presented. Results are analyzed in terms of chemical and respiration characterizations, the latter representing the stability of the compost. Results are also analyzed in terms of statistical validation. The main conclusion from this work is that home composting, when properly conducted, can achieve excellent levels of stability, whereas industrial compost produced in the studied facilities can also present a high stability, although an important dispersion is found in these composts. The study also highlights the importance of respiration techniques to have a reliable characterization of compost quality, while the chemical characterization does not provide enough information to have a complete picture of a compost sample. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of different safety shoes on gait and plantar pressure: a standardized examination of workers in the automotive industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochsmann, Elke; Noll, Ulrike; Ellegast, Rolf; Hermanns, Ingo; Kraus, Thomas

    2016-09-30

    Working conditions, such as walking and standing on hard surfaces, can increase the development of musculoskeletal complaints. At the interface between flooring and musculoskeletal system, safety shoes may play an important role in the well-being of employees. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different safety shoes on gait and plantar pressure distributions on industrial flooring. Twenty automotive workers were individually fitted out with three different pairs of safety shoes ( "normal" shoes, cushioned shoes, and midfoot bearing shoes). They walked at a given speed of 1.5 m/s. The CUELA measuring system and shoe insoles were used for gait analysis and plantar pressure measurements, respectively. Statistical analysis was conducted by ANOVA analysis for repeated measures. Walking with cushioned safety shoes or a midfoot bearing safety shoe led to a significant decrease of the average trunk inclination (pshoes as well as midfoot bearing shoes (pshoes. As expected, plantar pressure distributions varied significantly between cushioned or midfoot bearing shoes and shoes without ergonomic components. The overall function of safety shoes is the avoidance of injury in case of an industrial accident, but in addition, safety shoes could be a long-term preventive instrument for maintaining health of the employees' musculoskeletal system, as they are able to affect gait parameters. Further research needs to focus on safety shoes in working situations.

  13. Risk assessment of influence factors on occupational hearing loss in noise – exposed workers in typical metal industry

    OpenAIRE

    Farhadian Maryam; Aliabadi Mohsen; Shahidi Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background & Objectives : Worker exposure conditions such as noise level, exposure duration, use of hearing protection devices and health behaviors are commonly related to noise induced hearing loss. The objective of this study was risk assessment of influence factors on occupational hearing loss in noise exposed workers in typical noisy process . Methods : Information about occupational exposure of seventy workers employed in a noisy press workshop was gathered using the standard quest...

  14. Influence of Service and Product Quality towards Customer Satisfaction: A Case Study at the Staff Cafeteria in the Hotel Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Dayang Nailul Munna Abang Abdullah; Francine Rozario

    2009-01-01

    The main objectives of this study were to identify attributes that influence customer satisfaction and determine their relationships with customer satisfaction. The variables included in this research are place/ambience, food quality and service quality as independent variables and customer satisfaction as the dependent variable. A survey questionnaire which consisted of three parts to measure demographic factors, independent variables, and dependent variables was constru...

  15. Modelling the Influence of Climate on the Performance of the Organic Rankine Cycle for Industrial Waste Heat Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Korolija

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a study of the relative influences of different system design decisions upon the performance of an organic Rankine cycle (ORC used to generate electricity from foundry waste heat. The design choices included concern the working fluid, whether to use a regenerator and the type of condenser. The novelty of the research lies in its inclusion of the influence of both the ORC location and the auxiliary electricity used by the pumps and fans in the ORC power system. Working fluids suitable for high temperature applications are compared, including three cyclic siloxanes, four linear siloxanes and three aromatic fluids. The ORC is modelled from first principles and simulation runs carried out using weather data for 106 European locations and a heat input profile that was derived from empirical data. The impact of design decisions upon ORC nominal efficiency is reported followed by the impact upon annual system efficiency in which variations in heat input and the condition of outdoor air over a year are considered. The main conclusion is that the location can have a significant impact upon the efficiency of ORC systems due to the influence of climate upon the condenser and auxiliary electricity requirements.

  16. The Influence of Industry Funding and Other Financial Conflicts of Interest on the Outcomes and Quality of Systematic Reviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Camilla; Lundh, Andreas; Rasmussen, Kristine

    design that investigated samples of systematic reviews with and without industry funding or other financial conflicts of interest, published up to November 2016. For studies to be eligible, they had to investigate at least 1 of our outcomes: effect size estimates, statistically favorable results......, favorable conclusions, and methodological quality. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias in relation to study inclusion, data extraction, and comparability of the investigated systematic reviews. We reported our findings on effect size estimates qualitatively. We...... size estimates and frequency of statistically favorable results were similar between systematic reviews with and without financial conflicts of interest (Table). Systematic reviews with financial conflicts of interest more often had favorable conclusions compared with systematic reviews without...

  17. Community-Level Exposure to the Rural Mining Industry: The Potential Influence on Early Adolescent Alcohol and Tobacco Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Christopher; Clements-Nolle, Kristen; Packham, John; Ackerman, Gerald; Lensch, Taylor; Yang, Wei

    2018-01-31

    Rural youth have higher rates of alcohol and tobacco use compared to their urban counterparts. However, the economic dependence of rural communities may differentially influence risk behaviors. While research has shown that adults working in mining have elevated rates of alcohol and tobacco use, the influence of living in a mining community on early adolescent substance use is unknown. Using data from a representative sample of 4,535 middle school students in a state with heavy reliance on mining, we conducted weighted logistic regression to investigate whether community-level mining economic dependence influences rural-urban differences in adolescent alcohol and tobacco use. All models adjusted for sociodemographics, military family involvement, parental monitoring, and length of residence. Over one quarter of the sampled students lived in rural counties and approximately half of these counties met the USDA mining economic typology. After stratifying rural counties by mining and nonmining economic dependence, students in rural mining counties had significantly higher odds of all measures of alcohol use (AORs ranged from 1.83 to 3.99) and tobacco use (AORs ranged from 1.61 to 5.05) compared to students in urban counties. Only use of smokeless tobacco was higher among students in rural nonmining counties. Our findings demonstrate rural-urban disparities in adolescent substance use that are particularly pronounced among youth living in counties with economic dependence on mining. Future research on this subject should include a wider range of community-level factors that may have specific relevance in rural settings to inform the development of population-level interventions. © 2018 National Rural Health Association.

  18. Influence of biomass acclimation on the performance of a partial nitritation-anammox reactor treating industrial saline effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giustinianovich, Elisa A; Campos, José-Luis; Roeckel, Marlene D; Estrada, Alejandro J; Mosquera-Corral, Anuska; Val Del Río, Ángeles

    2018-03-01

    The performance of the partial nitritation/anammox processes was evaluated for the treatment of fish canning effluents. A sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was fed with industrial wastewater, with variable salt and total ammonium nitrogen (TAN) concentrations in the range of 1.75-18.00 g-NaCl L -1 and 112 - 267 mg-TAN L -1 . The SBR operation was divided into two experiments: (A) progressive increase of salt concentrations from 1.75 to 18.33 g-NaCl L -1 ; (B) direct application of high salt concentration (18 g-NaCl L -1 ). The progressive increase of NaCl concentration provoked the inhibition of the anammox biomass by up to 94% when 18 g-NaCl L -1 were added. The stable operation of the processes was achieved after 154 days when the nitrogen removal rate was 0.021 ± 0.007 g N/L·d (corresponding to 30% of removal efficiency). To avoid the development of NOB activity at low salt concentrations and to stabilize the performance of the processes dissolved oxygen was supplied by intermittent aeration. A greater removal rate of 0.029 ± 0.017 g-N L -1 d -1 was obtained with direct exposure of the inoculum to 18 g-NaCl L -1 in less than 40 days. Also, higher specific activities than those from the inoculum were achieved for salt concentrations of 15 and 20 g-NaCl L -1 after 39 days of operation. This first study of the performance of the partial nitritation/anammox processes, to treat saline wastewaters, indicates that the acclimation period can be avoided to shorten the start-up period for industrial application purposes. Nevertheless, further experiments are needed in order to improve the efficiency of the processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of the operating parameters on the flux during microfiltration of the steepwater in the starch industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šereš Zita I.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the work is the possibility of applying microfiltration through a ceramic tubular membrane with 100 nm pore sizes to the steepwater obtained in the production process of corn starch. The dry matter content should be reduced in the steepwater permeate. Thus the consumption of the process water would be reduced, the nutrients from the steepwater could be exploited as feed and the wastewater problem would consequently be solved. The objective of the work was to examine the influence of the operating parameters on the permeate flux during steepwater microfiltration. The parameters that vary in the course of microfiltration, were the transmembrane pressur and flow rate, while the permeate flux and dry matter content of the permeate and retentate were the dependent parameters, constantly monitored during the process. Another objective of this study was to investigate the influence of static turbulence promoter on the permeate flux during steepwater microfiltration. Static mixers enhance permeate flux, thus the microfiltration can be performed longer. As a result of the statistical analysis, the optimal conditions for steepwater microfiltration were determined. The maximum value of the permeate flux without mixer (25 lm-2h-1 was achieved at a pressure of 2 bars and a flow rate around 100 lh-1. With the use of static mixer the flux is 2,5 times higher compared to the one obtained without the mixer. The dry matter content of the permeat after 2.5 hours of mucrofiltration was lowered by 40%.

  20. Shaping the National Guard in a Post-War Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    the duties of superintending the common defense, and of watching over the internal peace of the Confederacy. –Alexander Hamilton, Federalist No...armed Nike Missile launcher sites during the Cold War, and in the late 1990s, the NG formed civil support teams capable of an early response to...as “ market states” vs. “nation-states,”84 anti-terrorism/counterinsurgency/asymmetrical operations seem much more likely for the future of the U.S

  1. Liberia's Post-War Recovery: Key Issues and Developments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cook, Nicolas

    2007-01-01

    ...), against two armed anti-Taylor rebel groups. It also destabilized neighboring states, which accepted Liberian refugees and, in some cases, hosted anti-Taylor forces and became targets of the Taylor regime...

  2. Liberia's Post-War Recovery: Key Issues and Developments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cook, Nicolas

    2005-01-01

    This report describes recent developments in Liberia, a small, poor West African country that is undergoing a post-conflict transition and peace-building process after its second civil war in a decade...

  3. Jews and Jewishness in Post-war Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    András Kovács

    2010-01-01

    The emergence of a seemingly harmonic symbiosis between Hungarian majority and Jewish minority in 19th century Hungary was a unique phenomenon in a European country where the proportion of Jews was close to 5 percent of the total population, and about 20 percent of the capital city, Budapest. However, after the shocking experience of the persecution in 1944 it was to expect that the factor –unlimited readiness for assimilation in the belief of the unlimited readiness of the majority for accep...

  4. Liberia's Post-War Recovery: Key Issues and Developments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cook, Nicolas

    2006-01-01

    .... It held elections in October 2005, with a presidential run-off vote in November -- a key step in a post-conflict transition and peace-building process that began following its second civil war in a decade...

  5. Oil and politics: the post-war Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, P.

    1992-01-01

    This report considers the path of international crude oil prices for the remainder of the decade. The report intends to concentrate on the role of the main Gulf oil producing states. Specifically, it seeks to consider the impact of the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait and its aftermath on the Gulf's role in the oil price equation. The report begins by developing an analytical framework which allows the relevant driving forces to be placed in context. From this framework, three issues will emerge central to the Gulf's role in the determination of oil prices: the size and distribution of any excess capacity to produce crude oil; the pricing objectives of those who control that excess capacity; and finally the cohesion of those who control the excess capacity. (author)

  6. Conflict, displacement, and post-war recovery: the case of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-11-20

    Nov 20, 2015 ... ... challenges communities face in a post-conflict environment. ... Read the working paper (PDF, 2.36 MB ). ... Discover how IDRC supports research to make cities safer through our partnership – Safe and Inclusive Cities ...

  7. Young Women's Political Participation in Post-War Sierra Leone ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The end of the civil war in Sierra Leone in 2002 was facilitated in many ways by women through women's pro-democracy movements. These movements will continue to be pivotal in the gradual strengthening of democratic governance structures. Irrespective of the immense barriers that they face, women of all ages have ...

  8. The youth and post-war recovery in southern Sudan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sudan to improve the situation through the creation of new livelihood options ... or pulled from their classrooms by armed people, leaving them with memories that will remain ... 1 See the movie 'Blood Diamonds' directed by Edward Zwick.

  9. Diplomats, Politicians and Foreign Policy In Post-War Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Lenzi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El papel de la diplomacia en la política exterior italiana de pos-guerra aumentó a medida que la política italiana se fue polarizando alrededor de dos partidos políticos, los democristianos y los comunistas, que seguían respectivamente directivas de Washington (y el Vaticano y de Moscú. Se puede hablar de una “conspiración doméstica”, destinada a preservar una serie de principios con respecto a los políticos italianos, que tanto desde el gobierno como desde la oposición, reaccionaban de una manera más bien mecánica e indiferente, a medio camino entre el mero pragmatismo y un noble idealismo. Incapaz de expresar fuertes convicciones nacionales y contraria a tomar posturas claras, Italia mostraba una inclinación por los foros multilaterales; mientras se mantenía firmemente asida a sus apoyos internacionales, se permitía divergencias ocasionales, siempre evitando la necesidad de declarar sus intereses vitales. Aun con instrucciones vagas (y a veces contradictorias, la diplomacia italiana lograba actuar con bastante efectividad y credibilidad tanto en las Comunidades Europeas, la OTAN y hacia el “tercer mundo”, logrando una visibilidad superior a la que le habría otorgado su verdadera influencia a nivel mundial. Tras la Guerra Fría, la estructura misma de la política de partidos se desintegró y la política exterior quedó relegada a un segundo plano, justo en el momento en el que los sucesos se aceleraban drásticamente. Hoy en día Italia se encuentra con en la casilla de salida., y esta vez ello sin el tipo de seguridad que la OTAN o la UE proveen. Difíciles decisiones se le presentan a un país súbitamente carente de claros referentes internacionales. Afortunadamente por fin la política exterior se ha convertido en un tema de carácter bi-partisano. A los 919 diplomáticos de carrera se les asignaron tareas diplomáticas más creativas y proactivas que la “diplomacia económica” que es lo que en la actualidad se les está pidiendo (apoyados financieramente con solo 0.23 % del presupuesto nacional, es decir, el 0.11 % del PIB. El Secretario General del Ministerio de Exteriores, el Embajador Massolo, mantiene que “con la mezcla apropiada de realismo y visión a largo plazo, la diplomacia italiana puede “lograr una inclusión estable de nuestro país en las nuevas ecuaciones que se están consolidando a nivel global”, avisando sin embargo que para estar en Europa, debemos estar igualmente bien estructurados a nivel nacional.

  10. Vera Brittain: feminism and pacifism in post-war Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Sánchez, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Trabajo de fin de Grado. Grado en Estudios Ingleses. Curso académico 2015-2016 [EN]This paper deals with Vera Brittain's Testament of Youth as an example of war narrative to establish the importance of the female voice in the complete treatment of a story, as well as the importance of a feminist and pacifist ideology in a modern world. Vera Brittain thus becomes a relevant figure in these fields, considering several aspects of her life: her autobiography, her experience as ...

  11. Mental distress among shift workers in Norwegian offshore petroleum industry--relative influence of individual and psychosocial work factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljoså, Cathrine Haugene; Tyssen, Reidar; Lau, Bjørn

    2011-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association between individual and psychosocial work factors and mental distress among offshore shift workers in the Norwegian petroleum industry. All 2406 employees of a large Norwegian oil and gas company, who worked offshore during a two-week period in August 2006, were invited to participate in the web-based survey. Completed questionnaires were received from 1336 employees (56% response rate). The outcome variable was mental distress, assessed with a shortened version of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL-5). The following individual factors were adjusted for: age, gender, marital status, and shift work locus of control. Psychosocial work factors included: night work, demands, control and support, and shift work-home interference. The level of mental distress was higher among men than women. In the adjusted regression model, the following were associated with mental distress: (i) high scores on quantitative demands, (ii) low level of support, and (iii) high level of shift work-home interference. Psychosocial work factors explained 76% of the total explained variance (adjusted R (²)=0.21) in the final adjusted model. Psychosocial work factors, such as quantitative demands, support, and shift work-home interference were independently associated with mental distress. Shift schedules were only univariately associated with mental distress.

  12. The influence of simultaneous or sequential test conditions in the properties of industrial polymers, submitted to PWR accident simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlin, F.; Alba, C.; Chenion, J.; Gaussens, G.; Henry, J.Y.

    1986-10-01

    The effect of PWR plant normal and accident operating conditions on polymers forms the basis of nuclear qualification of safety-related containment equipment. This study was carried out on the request of safety organizations. Its purpose was to check whether accident simulations carried out sequentially during equipment qualification tests would lead to the same deterioration as that caused by an accident involving simultaneous irradiation and thermodynamic effects. The IPSN, DAS and the United States NRC have collaborated in preparing this study. The work carried out by ORIS Company as well as the results obtained from measurement of the mechanical properties of 8 industrial polymers are described in this report. The results are given in the conclusion. They tend to show that, overall, the most suitable test cycle for simulating accident operating conditions would be one which included irradiation and consecutive thermodynamic shock. The results of this study and the results obtained in a previous study, which included the same test cycles, except for more severe thermo-ageing, have been compared. This comparison, which was made on three elastomers, shows that ageing after the accident has a different effect on each material [fr

  13. SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS BY ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK (ANN OF VARIABLES THAT INFLUENCE THE DIAGONAL TWIST IN A PAPERBOARD INDUSTRIAL MACHINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guinter Neutzling Schneid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The dimensional stability of the paper may change due to middle exchange moisture, releasing the latent stress acquired into the manufacturing process. One result of this tension release is the diagonal curl. This study aims to conduct a sensitivity analysis of the different input’s variables of an industrial paper machine, along with some laboratory measurements, in order to identify the importance in production of paperboard quality control and relate to the property of the paper called twist. A survey was made of the production history, relating to 2012, to observe the products with the highest quality losses. From this, they were correlated with the critical points of measurement profile in the machine cross direction and consequently with the paper. It was found some changes once the variables correlated with twist, referring to the three analyzes of the profile (tender side, middle and drive side. It was revealed, from the sensitivity analysis, that the most important and sensitive variables, respectively for the tender side, middle and drive side, were total flow from the top layer, vapor pressure in the 6th group of drying cylinders and mass flow side of the bottom layer of the formation of paperboard.

  14. The role of amenities and other factors in influencing the location of nonmanufacturing industry in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, T. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment and Information Sciences Div.; Calzonetti, F.J. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geography

    1990-07-01

    Consumer and producer services, the latter in particular, are expected to become an important means of diversification and employment growth to the economy of Nevada. It has been suggested that the siting of the nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, will lead to a significant reduction in the amenity value of the state and, consequently, the ability of the state to attract these nonmanufacturing industries. This report reviews the literature dealing with factors important to the location of services, with an emphasis on producer services, to determine whether amenities, which have been shown to be an important locational consideration for some manufacturing firms, similarly affect the location of services. The report finds little substantive evidence to link amenities with the location of service firms, although the process by which these firms` locations are chosen is not well understood. Research in this area is comparatively recent, and although a number of theories of service location have been developed, the majority of research is exploratory in scope.

  15. The Influence of Industrial Waste on Pesticide and Heavy Metal Conetnts in Cipinang-Sunter River Water Jakarta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulfa, T S; Mellawati, J; Sofni, M C

    1996-01-01

    The measurement of pesticide and heavy metal contents of river water in upperstream (around some factories), and downstream (housing area), along Cipinang-Sunter river Jakarta, on February-June 1996 had been done. The aim of the measurement was to get information about the influence of factories waste on pesticide and heavy metal contents in the Cipinang river water. Gas and liquid chromatographis were used to measure the pesticide content and X-ray fluorecence spectrometry was used to measure the heavy metals content. Result of the measurements showed that Cipinang river water has contained some organochlorin pesticides, i.e., BHC, a and b endosulfan, dieldrin, pp-DDE, and heavy metals, i.e., Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb

  16. Microstructure of industrially produced reduced and low fat Turkish white cheese as influenced by the homogenization of cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karaman, A. D.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The microstructure and fat globule distribution of reduced and low fat Turkish white cheese were evaluated. Reduced and low fat cheeses were manufactured from 1.5% and 0.75% fat milk respectively which were standardized unhomogenized and homogenized cream in a dairy plant. Homogenized and non-homogenized creams and cheese whey were analyzed for fat globule distribution and cheese samples were also analyzed for microstructure characteristics. According to the results, the homogenization of cream decreased the size of fat globules; and showed that a large number of fat particles were dispersed in the in matrix and improved the lubrication of cheese microstructure. According to the micrographs for the fat, which was not removed, they exhibited a more extended matrix with a few small fat globules compared to the defatted micrographs. Homogenization of cream produces small fat globules and unclustured fat globules were found in the resulting whey. These results are important for dairy processors for using cream homogenization as a processing tool at the industrial level.

    Se estudia la microestructura y distribución de los glóbulos de grasa de quesos blancos turcos bajos en grasa. Quesos con reducida y baja cantidad en grasa fueron fabricados conteniendo entre el 1,5% y 0,75% de grasa de leche, respectivamente, y con cremas homogeneizadas y no homogeneizadas, en una planta de lácteos. Las cremas homogeneizadas y no homogeneizadas y el suero de los quesos se analizaron para determinar la distribución de los glóbulos de grasa y también se analizaron las características de la microestructura de muestras de queso. De acuerdo con los resultados, la homogeneización de la crema reduce el tamaño de los glóbulos de grasa, mostrando un gran número de partículas de grasa dispersa en la matriz de caseína que mejoró la lubricación de la microestructura del queso. De acuerdo con las micrografías de la grasa que no se elimina, estas exhiben

  17. Mutual influences of rated currents, short circuit levels, fault durations and integrated protective schemes for industrial distribution MV switchgears

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaidano, G. (FIAT Engineering, Torino, Italy); Lionetto, P.F.; Pelizza, C.; Tommazzolli, F.

    1979-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of integrated and coordinated design of distribution systems, as regards the definition of system structure and parameters together with protection criteria and schemes. Advantages in system operation, dynamic response, heavier loads with reduced machinery rating margins and overall cost reduction, can be achieved. It must be noted that MV switchgears installed in industrial main distribution substations are the vital nodes of the distribution system. Very large amounts of power (up to 100 MW and more) are conveyed through MV busbars, coming from Utility and from in-plant generators and outgoing to subdistribution substations, to step-down transformers and to main concentrated loads (big drivers, furnaces etc.). Criteria and methods already studied and applied to public distribution are examined to assess service continuity and economics by means of the reduction of thermal stresses, minimization of disturbances and improvement of system stability. The life of network components depends on sizing, on fault energy levels and on probability of fault occurrence. Constructional measures and protection schemes, which reduce probability and duration of faults, are the most important tools to improve overall reliability. The introduction of advanced techniques, mainly based on computer application, not only allows drastic reduction of fault duration, but also permits the system to operate, under any possible contingency, in the optimal conditions, as the computer provides adaptive control. This mode of system management makes it possible to size network components with reference to the true magnitude of system quantities, avoiding expensive oversizing connected to the unflexibility of conventional protection and control schemes.

  18. An investigation of forecast horizon and observation fit’s influence on an econometric rate forecast model in the liner shipping industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter; Jiang, Liping; Rytter, Niels Gorm Malý

    2014-01-01

    This paper evaluates the influence of forecast horizon and observation fit on the robustness and performance of a specific freight rate forecast model used in the liner shipping industry. In the first stage of the research, a forecast model used to predict container freight rate development...... of the forecast horizon and observation fit and their interactions on the forecast model's performance. The results underline the complicated nature of creating a suitable forecast model by balancing business needs, a desire to fit a good model and achieve high accuracy. There is strong empirical evidence from...... this study; that a robust model is preferable, that overfitting is a true danger, and that a balance must be achieved between forecast horizon and the number of observations used to fit the model. In addition, methodological guidance has also been provided on how to test, design, and choose the superior...

  19. Influence of dioctyl phthalate (DOP) on the mechanical, optical and thermal properties of formulations for the industrial manufacture of radiation sterilizable medical disposables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Shamshad; Mehmood, Mazhar; Iqbal, Rashid

    2010-01-01

    Shelf life of the formulations designed for the industrial manufacture of radiation sterilizable syringes and other medical disposables is a very important issue world over. Radiation compatible formulations were developed earlier in the laboratory by the incorporation of primary and secondary antioxidants along with processing stabilizers in a random polypropylene copolymer. It has been reported in literature that the mobilizing agents namely hydrocarbons, greases, wax and the plasticizer, dioctyl phthalate (DOP) impart radiation resistance to the polypropylene by providing free volume. It was envisaged that the addition of DOP to the afore-mentioned formulation might favorably influence the mechanical, optical and thermal properties of our formulation. To study the influence of addition of DOP on the afore-mentioned properties, the addition of 1%, 2% and 3% of the mobilizer was made, followed by the irradiation of resulting heat pressed sheets to the industrial standard dose of 25 kGy. Two important characteristic mechanical properties to determine the suitability of the radiation sterilized materials comprise angle of breakage and the haze percent. After irradiation and even on accelerated ageing of the irradiated material, the angle of breakage of heat press sheets of formulations containing 1%, 2% and 3% of DOP was found to be 180 deg, demonstrating the role of DOP, in imparting additional radiation stability. In case of the irradiated control sample, the angle of breakage was much lower. In the heat pressed sheets containing the DOP, a remarkable retention in the tensile strength, percentage elongation at break, along with improved thermal stability was observed. The formulation devoid of DOP demonstrated poor retention of the afore-mentioned characteristic properties .The observed improvement in thermal stability of the formulations containing DOP hints at the likely possibility of reuse of these materials by autoclaving which is considered an additional

  20. Influence of dioctyl phthalate (DOP) on the mechanical, optical and thermal properties of formulations for the industrial manufacture of radiation sterilizable medical disposables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shamshad; Mehmood, Mazhar; Iqbal, Rashid

    2010-03-01

    Shelf life of the formulations designed for the industrial manufacture of radiation sterilizable syringes and other medical disposables is a very important issue world over. Radiation compatible formulations were developed earlier in the laboratory by the incorporation of primary and secondary antioxidants along with processing stabilizers in a random polypropylene copolymer. It has been reported in literature that the mobilizing agents namely hydrocarbons, greases, wax and the plasticizer, dioctyl phthalate (DOP) impart radiation resistance to the polypropylene by providing free volume. It was envisaged that the addition of DOP to the afore-mentioned formulation might favorably influence the mechanical, optical and thermal properties of our formulation. To study the influence of addition of DOP on the afore-mentioned properties, the addition of 1%, 2% and 3% of the mobilizer was made, followed by the irradiation of resulting heat pressed sheets to the industrial standard dose of 25 kGy. Two important characteristic mechanical properties to determine the suitability of the radiation sterilized materials comprise angle of breakage and the haze percent. After irradiation and even on accelerated ageing of the irradiated material, the angle of breakage of heat press sheets of formulations containing 1%, 2% and 3% of DOP was found to be 180°, demonstrating the role of DOP, in imparting additional radiation stability. In case of the irradiated control sample, the angle of breakage was much lower. In the heat pressed sheets containing the DOP, a remarkable retention in the tensile strength, percentage elongation at break, along with improved thermal stability was observed. The formulation devoid of DOP demonstrated poor retention of the afore-mentioned characteristic properties .The observed improvement in thermal stability of the formulations containing DOP hints at the likely possibility of reuse of these materials by autoclaving which is considered an additional

  1. Study of chronic pain and its associated risk factors among Japanese industry workers: the Quality of Working Life Influenced by Chronic pain (QWLIC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Keiko; Wakaizumi, Kenta; Fukai, Kyosuke; Iso, Hiroyasu; Sobue, Tomotaka; Shibata, Masahiko; Matsudaira, Ko

    2017-10-05

    This study was performed to identify the prevalence, influence, and risk factors associated with chronic pain among Japanese industry workers. We investigated 2,544 participants working at a manufacturing company A, a manufacturing company B, and 16 branch shops of a retail chain company C. The participants responded to self-administered questionnaires related to pain. Furthermore, data obtained from the lifestyle interview sheet of an annual health screening examination and those obtained from the questionnaires were merged. We analyzed the association between lifestyles, psychosocial factors, and chronic pain. Age- and sex-adjusted odds ratios were calculated with a 95% confidence interval using the logistic regression model. Of 2,544 participants, 1,914 (1,224 men and 690 women) completed the questionnaire, and the response rate was 75.2%. The prevalence of chronic pain over 3 months was 42.7% and that of chronic pain with work disability was 11.3%. A higher proportion of obesity, smoking habit, insomnia, psychological stress, depressive state, workaholic nature, low social support from supervisors and coworkers, high job demand, low job control, and job dissatisfaction was observed in workers with chronic pain than in workers without pain. Several risk factors of chronic pain in Japanese industry workers were found. Obesity, smoking habits, sleep disorders, workplace environment, and mental state should be taken into account as risk factors associated with chronic pain issues and general occupational health.

  2. Influence of the feed pipe position of an industrial scale two-phase decanter on extraction efficiency and chemical-sensory characteristics of virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caponio, Francesco; Squeo, Giacomo; Brunetti, Lucio; Pasqualone, Antonella; Summo, Carmine; Paradiso, Vito M; Catalano, Pasquale; Bianchi, Biagio

    2018-02-10

    Nowadays, olive oil extraction is basically achieved by means of two-phase decanters, which allow a reduction of water consumption and the leaching of phenolic compounds. Despite this, most of the working settings derive from studies carried out on three-phase decanters. Hence, the aim of the present study was to assess the influence of two-phase decanter feed pipe position (FP) on the extraction efficiency and chemical-sensory characteristics of virgin olive oil. Three different positions were considered: at 825 mm (FP1), 610 mm (FP2) and 520 mm (FP3) from the outlet of the oily phase. Position FP3 allowed the highest oil recovery (up to 10%), the lowest percentage of oil in the olive pomace and, in general, a regular trend in terms of oil extraction efficiency. However, the oily must that came out of the decanter was not completely clean in terms of residual content of solid sediment and water. The feeding position partially affected the profile of antioxidant compounds. In two-phase decanters, loading the olive paste close to the outlet of the oily phase is recommended to increase the extraction efficiency without jeopardizing the chemical-sensory characteristics of virgin olive oil. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Volatile organic compounds speciation and their influence on ozone formation potential in an industrialized urban area in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, Elson Silva; Santos, Jane Meri; Reis Junior, Neyval Costa; Stuetz, Richard Michael

    2016-09-01

    Speciation and the influence on the ozone formation potential (OFP) from volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been studied between February June 2013 in Vitória, ES, Brazil. Passive samplers were installed at three air-quality monitoring stations and a total of 96 samplings were collected. A total of 78 VOCs were characterized by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. The predominant group was organic acids, followed by alcohols and substituted aromatics and 14 precursor species were quantified. An analysis correlating concentrations with wind direction was conducted to identify possible sources. The OFP was calculated applying the scale of maximum incremental reactivity proposed by Carter.[ 23 ] Ozone precursors with the greatest OFP such as undecane, toluene, ethylbenzene and m, p-xylene compounds were the most abundant with means of 0.855, 0.365, 0.259 and 0.289 µg m(-3), respectively. The benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) group was found below the limits considered harmful to the health of the population living in Vitória. The OFP calculated for the precursors group was 22.55 µg m(-3) for the rainy season and 32.11 µg m(-3) for the dry season. The VOC/NOx ratio in Vitória is approximately 1.71, indicating that the region has a VOC-limiting condition for the production of ozone.

  4. Risk assessment of influence factors on occupational hearing loss in noise – exposed workers in typical metal industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhadian Maryam

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives : Worker exposure conditions such as noise level, exposure duration, use of hearing protection devices and health behaviors are commonly related to noise induced hearing loss. The objective of this study was risk assessment of influence factors on occupational hearing loss in noise exposed workers in typical noisy process . Methods : Information about occupational exposure of seventy workers employed in a noisy press workshop was gathered using the standard questionnaire. Audiometery test was performed using the screening audiometer (Model-Mevox. Afterward, the collected data was analyzed by using the Cox model in SPSS software. Results : Based on results of the developed model, the job type and using status of HPD were most important features to induce hearing loss among workers. The risk of hearing loss among workers with the intermittent use of hearing protection was 3.1 times more than workers used their devices continuously. Relative risk of hearing loss among smoker workers compared with non-smoker was 1.1. Conclusion : The developed model could determine the effects of workers’ exposure conditions on risk of occupational hearing loss. This systematic approach can be considered as a helpful tool for determination the effectiveness of hearing conservation program and provide useful information for the managers and professionals in order to revise the existing health programs.

  5. Identification and weighting factors influencing the establishment of a single minute exchange of dies in plastic injection industry using VIKOR and Shannon Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Reza Hashemzadeh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Single minute exchange of dies (SMED is one of the most important tools to achieve lean production system. The main idea of this system is to provide methods and to use creative and innovative solutions for continuous improvement. Due to the importance of this issue and its effect on reducing waste during the production process, this study presents a method to identify and to weight factors in the establishment of a single minute exchange of dies in 14 plastic injection factories. In this study, fourteen factories in injection industry were chosen and the factors influencing the implementation of single minute exchange of dies were identified. Following data collection, decision matrix was formed and the weight of each factor was determined by using Shannon Entropy. Then, in order to determine the readiness of factories, VIKOR method was used to rank companies. The results indicate priorities of the following factors in establishing SMED that include: Senior management support, technical capabilities, technical knowledge of staff and consultants, knowledge of mold design, manufacturing infrastructure, team work, combination of the project team work, benchmarking, training, clear understanding of project objectives, rewards and motivation, proper management expectation, project management, teamwork and organizational culture. Practical implications: Due to the factors, Top manager can make the best decision for implementing of SMED technique. This study develops factors influencing on SMED implementation based on Shannon and VIKOR methods for ranking parameters and plants.

  6. An Analysis of the Influencing Factors of Customer Retention in Tourism Resort Industry: A Case Study of Lingnan Impression Park, Guangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The customer retention is an important factor in today’s increasingly tourism competitive markets which should be concerned seriously. At present, many academic customer retention researches mostly focused on the business market research in the hotel industry. In view of the tourism resort, especially the urban cultural themes attraction, analyzing the influencing factors of customer retention in such resort has its special significance. The aim of this study is to empirically explore the relationship among the cultural attractive, attraction operation, promotion strategy and tourist costs on customer retention in the urban cultural themes attraction. A quantitative research method was adopted to collect empirical data from the case study of Lingnan Impression Park, Guangzhou, China and the analysis of the influencing factors base on the integrated research approach for the urban cultural themes resort. The results indicate what extent these individual factors can have an impact on customer retention is beneficial for the resort marketing practices and several strategies are suggested about improving the degree of the customer retention to the urban cultural themes resorts in China.

  7. The Mediterranean solar plan: the momentum and challenges of a project of cooperation in politics, industry and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorec, Ph.; Schramm, Ch.

    2009-01-01

    Launched by the French President on 13 July 2008, the Union for the Mediterranean (UfM) seeks to inaugurate an era of cooperation between lands to the north, south and east of the Mediterranean by carrying out concrete projects in response to the challenges that this region must address. The UfM applies, we might say, the 'Monnet method' to the Mediterranean Basin. In this region as in post-war Europe, energy is a major issue that, if left unsettled, might generate major risks but that, if addressed for the sake of a new political and economic partnership, could represent a major opportunity. The Mediterranean Solar Plan has this precise objective. It seeks to activate the de facto solidarity between lands around the Mediterranean and to bring them to cooperate on energy, industrial, economic and social projects. (authors)

  8. Assessment of marine and urban-industrial environments influence on built heritage sandstone using X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and complementary techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillas, Héctor; García-Galan, Javier; Maguregui, Maite; Marcaida, Iker; García-Florentino, Cristina; Carrero, Jose Antonio; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2016-09-01

    The sandstone used in the construction of the tower of La Galea Fortress (Getxo, north of Spain) shows a very bad conservation state and a high percentage of sandstone has been lost. The fortress is located just on a cliff and close to the sea, and it experiments the direct influence of marine aerosol and also the impact of acid gases (SOx and NOx) coming from the surrounding industry and maritime traffic. This environment seems to be very harmful for the preservation of the sandstone used in it, promoting different pathologies (disintegration, alveolization, cracking or erosion blistering, salts crystallization on the pores, efflorescences etc.). In this work, a multianalytical methodology based on a preliminary in-situ screening of the affected sandstone using a handheld energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (HH-ED-XRF) and a subsequent characterization of extracted sample in the laboratory using elemental (μ-ED-XRF, Scanning Electron Microscope coupled to an X-Max Energy-Dispersive (SEM-EDS) and Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)) and molecular techniques (micro-Raman spectroscopy (μ-RS) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD)) was applied in order to characterize the original composition of this kind of stone and related deterioration products. With the whole methodology, it was possible to assess that the sandstone contain a notable percentage of calcite. The sulfation and nitration of this carbonate detected in the stone led to the dissolution process of the sandstone, promoting the observed material loss. Additionally, the presence of salts related with the influence of marine aerosol confirms that this kind of environment have influence on the conservation state of the sandstone building.

  9. Buckley Sgraffito: a study of a 17th century pottery industry in North Wales, its production techniques and design influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Longworth

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The area around Buckley in north Wales has been associated with the production of pottery since the 13th or 14th centuries. Nineteen different pottery sites have been identified, producing a wide range of ceramic wares in the six-hundred year period up to the mid-20th century. In the 17th and 18th centuries, many of the wares produced were of high quality, on a par with Staffordshire wares of the same date. In the early 17th century, the technique of sgraffito decoration spread to north Devon and Somerset from mainland Europe. Buckley is the only known site to produce early sgraffito wares in northern Britain. This article aims to establish the date of the production and range of early sgraffito wares at Buckley and to examine the derivation of the designs and illustrations on the vessels. An illustrated catalogue has been produced and a comparative study made of sgraffito wares elsewhere to place Buckley into a national and international context. The results show that early sgraffito production at Brookhill pottery, Buckley, was between 1640-1720. Of the excavated pieces, 62% were made between 1640-1680, and the number of sherds by vessel number is also greater within that date range. All the vessels are dishes. The form and designs on the remainder of the sherds, dated up to 1720, are no different from those dated to 1640-1680, which suggests a continuous period of production. The most common themes on the pots – tulips, leaves, mottoes, animals and birds – relate very closely to the designs featured on other objects made in the same period such as textiles, wallpaper, furniture and manuscripts. Some of the designs were available in pattern books for particular groups of objects, for example needlework and pastry decoration. There is an interesting sub-group of pieces with animal and bird motifs and mottoes on the rims. It is possible that the influence for these came from a resurgence of interest in the medieval bestiary texts and

  10. Influence of SEBS-MA and SBS compatibilizers on properties and morphology of blends of polystyrene/rubber residue (SBRr from the footwear industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Bruno Barreto Luna

    Full Text Available Abstract The reuse of rubber waste is very important today, both to reduce the harmful effects on the environment, and to reduce the cost of new material development. Considering that most of the studies reported in literature refer to the reuse of tire waste, this article aims to evaluate the influence of styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS and styrene-(ethylene-butylene-styrene grafted with maleic anhydride (SEBS-MA compatibilizers on the blend performance of polystyrene (PS/styrene-butadiene rubber residue (SBRr, which come from the footwear industry. The blends were prepared in a co-rotating twin screw extruder and then were molded by injection. They were analyzed by impact and tensile tests, heat deflection temperature (HDT, ductile-brittle transition temperature, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The results evidenced that the use of any of the compatibilizers on the PS/SBRr blend significantly increased the impact strength, while the tensile properties and HDT were lower when compared to the polymer matrix. The ductile-brittle transition temperature remains at approximately 25°C range for all the blends. In general, it has been proved that the SBS was the most effective compatibilization process in the PS/SBRr system. The DMTA test shows the presence of two distinct temperature peaks. The morphologies obtained by TEM of binary and ternary blends were quite different and typical of immiscible blend. The results show a good perspective regarding the use of industrial waste (SBRr, since it may enhance a material that would be discarded.

  11. "Working the system"--British American tobacco's influence on the European union treaty and its implications for policy: an analysis of internal tobacco industry documents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E Smith

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Impact assessment (IA of all major European Union (EU policies is now mandatory. The form of IA used has been criticised for favouring corporate interests by overemphasising economic impacts and failing to adequately assess health impacts. Our study sought to assess how, why, and in what ways corporations, and particularly the tobacco industry, influenced the EU's approach to IA.In order to identify whether industry played a role in promoting this system of IA within the EU, we analysed internal documents from British American Tobacco (BAT that were disclosed following a series of litigation cases in the United States. We combined this analysis with one of related literature and interviews with key informants. Our analysis demonstrates that from 1995 onwards BAT actively worked with other corporate actors to successfully promote a business-oriented form of IA that favoured large corporations. It appears that BAT favoured this form of IA because it could advance the company's European interests by establishing ground rules for policymaking that would: (i provide an economic framework for evaluating all policy decisions, implicitly prioritising costs to businesses; (ii secure early corporate involvement in policy discussions; (iii bestow the corporate sector with a long-term advantage over other actors by increasing policymakers' dependence on information they supplied; and (iv provide businesses with a persuasive means of challenging potential and existing legislation. The data reveal that an ensuing lobbying campaign, largely driven by BAT, helped secure binding changes to the EU Treaty via the Treaty of Amsterdam that required EU policymakers to minimise legislative burdens on businesses. Efforts subsequently focused on ensuring that these Treaty changes were translated into the application of a business orientated form of IA (cost-benefit analysis [CBA] within EU policymaking procedures. Both the tobacco and chemical industries have since

  12. Building “with the Systems” vs. Building “in the System” of IMS Open Technology of Prefabricated Construction: Challenges for New “Infill” Industry for Massive Housing Retrofitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Nikolic

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Post-war industrialized housing between 1955 and 1985 in Belgrade and its special form of integrated prefabrication has been analyzed with a strong interest in transformation capacity of industrialized building model (IBM on different technical levels. Research field is massive housing up to 23 floors, 400 dwellings per building and different housing layouts—to be evaluated for potential retrofitting at the dwelling level. IBM for massive housing built with IMS construction technology represents an integration of systems’ components into hierarchy assemblies by simple joints. IMS Building Technology by IMS Institute is the system for high-rise structures with prefabricated elements of the skeleton. In order to assess the current situation regarding the selection and implementation of energy savings measures and the role of industrialized technology in supporting the rehabilitation of post-war housing in Belgrade—building configuration model and IMS construction technology has been analyzed, providing in-depth information on the way building components and systems are put together into IBM. In which way retrofit may be approached? IBM is represented with graph model (GM diagram to describe a number of value-added processes according to independent systems/components and flexible connections. This paper highlights the technological aspects of “open” prefabrication industry and building with the systems that should be assessed in the future retrofitting of massive housing based on industrialization and energy efficiency. The paper proposes an IBM that provides concrete description of massive housing buildings, the requirements for information to be provided to approving refurbishment processes. The research also addresses both: challenges as well as opportunities for advancing Building Information Modeling (BIM standards in off-site re-construction of massive housing with new “infill” industry.

  13. Unpacking policy formulation and industry influence: the case of the draft control of marketing of alcoholic beverages bill in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertscher, Adam; London, Leslie; Orgill, Marsha

    2018-06-21

    Alcohol is a major contributor to the Non-Communicable Disease burden in South Africa. In 2000, 7.1% of all deaths and 7% of total disability-adjusted life years were ascribed to alcohol-related harm in the country. Regulations proposed to restrict alcohol advertising in South Africa present an evidence-based upstream intervention. Research on policy formulation in low- and middle-income countries is limited. This study aims to describe and explore the policy formulation process of the 2013 draft Control of Marketing of Alcoholic Beverages Bill in South Africa between March 2011 and May 2017. Recognising the centrality of affected actors in policy-making processes, the study focused on the alcohol industry as a central actor affected by the policy, to understand how they-together with other actors-may influence the policy formulation process. A qualitative case study approach was used, involving a stakeholder mapping, 10 in-depth interviews, and review of approximately 240 documents. A policy formulation conceptual framework was successfully applied as a lens to describe a complex policy formulation process. Key factors shaping policy formulation included: (1) competing and shared values-different stakeholders promote conflicting ideals for policymaking; (2) inter-department jostling-different government departments seek to protect their own functions, hindering policy development; (3) stakeholder consultation in democratic policymaking-policy formulation requires consultations even with those opposed to regulation and (4) battle for evidence-evidence is used strategically by all parties to shape perceptions and leverage positions. This research (1) contributes to building an integrated body of knowledge on policy formulation in low- and middle-income countries; (2) shows that achieving policy coherence across government departments poses a major challenge to achieving effective health policy formulation and (3) shows that networks of actors with commercial and

  14. The influence of participation in extracurricular activities to the employability of Industrial Engineering graduates of one Private University in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlene Joy E. Chua

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Filipinos have been regarding education as the leading avenue of success. Having the system patterned from the American Education structure, education in the country provides basic learning needs and a foundation on which successive learning can be based on. Aside from traditional learning inside the classroom, extracurricular activities (ECAs are also provided for students, which basically have the same goal as that of courses in a curriculum. These activities however, let the students have experiences not included in formal education. Moreover, ECAs are being promoted in some college institutions considering that it benefits students in ways that would prepare them for their future. Certain companies focus on investing on leadership development of their employees to make them globally competitive. This paper focused on determining the degree or extent of influence of ECAs to the employability of the University of Santo Tomas (UST Industrial Engineering graduates of Batches 2013, 2014, and 2015. A survey was administered to 43 sampled graduates. Logistic regression was used in determining the influence of participation in ECAs to the employability of the graduates. Correlational analysis showed that there exists a significant relationship between and among independent variables of number of jobs, number of initial interview, level of participation and soft skills developed through ECAs. Meanwhile, Paired Sample Means Test exhibited that at 95% level of significance, there exists no relationship between the soft skills possessed by the graduates and as expected by the company with which they are employed. Recommendations were provided to enhance the activities offered in UST towards increasing employability rate of graduate students.

  15. The influence of industrial-scale canning on cadmium and lead levels in sardines and anchovies from commercial fishing centres of the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galitsopoulou, Augoustina; Georgantelis, Dimitrios; Kontominas, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The current study encompassed a survey on the levels of toxic trace elements in two highly consumed fish species in commercial fishing centres of western, central and eastern Mediterranean Sea. A Zeeman GTA-AAS graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry system was used throughout the study. Toxicological evaluation of the samples revealed a low Cd content in the raw samples, ranging between 0.003 and 0.027 mg kg⁻¹. Pb presented significantly higher values, from 0.037 to 0.297 mg kg⁻¹, occasionally reaching the limit of 0.3 mg kg⁻¹. Heavy metal levels were particularly higher in bones, thus raising queries about the safe consumption of fish intended to be eaten as a whole, a very common practice for small fish and canned products. The influence of industrial-scale canning showed that canning enhanced heavy metal levels by 35%-80%. The effect of canning depended on metal type and reduction of moisture loss after the steam-roasting step of the canning procedure.

  16. Influence of pre-fermentation cold maceration treatment on aroma compounds of Cabernet Sauvignon wines fermented in different industrial scale fermenters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jian; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Wang, Yun-He; Lu, Lin; Lan, Yi-Bin; Reeves, Malcolm J; Duan, Chang-Qing

    2014-07-01

    The influence of pre-fermentation cold maceration (CM) on Cabernet Sauvignon wines fermented in two different industrial-scale fermenters was studied. CM treatment had different effects on wine aroma depending on the types of fermenter, being more effective for automatic pumping-over tank (PO-tank) than automatic punching-down tank (PD-tank). When PO-tank was used, CM-treated wine showed a decrease in some fusel alcohols (isobutanol and isopentanol) and an increase in some esters (especially acetate esters). However, no significant changes were detected in these compounds when PD-tank was used. Ethyl 2-hexenoate and diethyl succinate were decreased, while geranylacetone was increased by the CM treatment in both fermenters. β-Damascenone was increased by the CM treatment in PO-tank fermented wines but decreased in PD-tank fermented wines. The fruity, caramel and floral aroma series were enhanced while chemical series were decreased by the CM treatment in PO-tank fermented wines. The content of (Z)-6-nonen-1-ol in the final wines was positively correlated to CM treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of Solution Treatment Duration on Microstructural Features of an Industrial Forged UNS S32750/1.4410/F53 Super Duplex Stainless Steel (SDSS) Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cojocaru, Vasile Dănuţ; Răducanu, Doina; Angelescu, Mariana Lucia; Vintilă, Adrian Nicolae; Şerban, Nicolae; Dan, Ioan; Cojocaru, Elisabeta Mirela; Cinca, Ion

    2017-08-01

    The microstructural changes induced by solution treatment of an industrial forged F53 Super Duplex Stainless Steel alloy were studied, in order to emphasize how component phases are influenced by heat treatment temperature and duration. The solution treatment was done at a temperature of 1100°C, with variable holding times: 0.6 ks (10 min), 3.6 ks (60 min) and 10.8 ks (180 min). Scanning electron microscopy-electron backscattered diffraction was used as main characterization technique, to obtain and analyse data referring to microstructural features, such as: nature and morphology of constituent phases, average grain-size and grain misorientation. It was shown that in all studied cases the microstructure consisted of a mixture of about 45% δ-Fe (ferrite) and 55% γ-Fe (austenite). Besides δ-Fe and γ-Fe phases, other phases were also identified, such as τ-phase (chromium-iron carbide), σ-phase (chromium-iron) and δ-(Cr-Fe) (ferrite).

  18. Fashion in the golden age of Yugoslavian 20th century textile and clothing industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorović, T.; Pavko-Čuden, A.

    2017-10-01

    The development of fashion seems to have occurred in societies which were changing, where that change is valued by some group within the society, and social mobility was possible. Fashion is not possible in totally egalitarian society nor in a rigid hierarchy. The paper presents Slovenian/Yugoslavian fashion design based on local industrial and educational capacities in the golden age of the textile and clothing branch. The paradox of Western style fashion in the frame of socialistic political system in commented. In the late 1940s, Yugoslav modernity transmitted through fashionable dress was mainly representational, since industry was unable to deliver fashionable dresses due to post-war poverty and backwardness. Yugoslavia’s different path toward socialism was mirrored in its different symbolic and material production of dress in comparison to that of other Eastern European countries. Although factories had been nationalised, attacks on Western fashion were never intense, and the Yugoslav regime did not establish a central dress institution to politically direct the design, production and distribution of clothes as it was the case in most Eastern European countries. The restoration and the development of the textile industry evoked a need for new jobs, specifically in textile and fashion design. The fashion scene in Slovenia/Yugoslavia started to differ from other Eastern countries. In the golden age of the national textile and clothing industry fashion collections have gone hand in hand with the European fashion.

  19. Influence of tobacco industry advertisements and promotions on tobacco use in India: findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, D N; Palipudi, K M; Oswal, K; Gupta, P C; Andes, L J; Asma, S

    2014-12-01

    The developing world, including countries like India, has become a major target for the tobacco industry to market its products. This study examines the influence of the marketing (advertising and promotion) of tobacco products on the use of tobacco by adults (ages 15 and over) in India. Data from Global Adult Tobacco Survey 2009-2010 was analyzed using methods for complex (clustered) sample designs. Multivariate logistic regression was employed to predict the use of different tobacco products by level of exposure to tobacco marketing using adults who have never used tobacco as the reference category. Odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for education, gender, age, state of residence, wealth index, and place of residence (urban/rural). Adults in India were almost twice as likely to be current smokers (versus never users) when they were exposed to a moderate level of bidi or cigarette marketing. For bidis, among adults with high exposure, the OR for current use was 4.57 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.6, 13.0). Adults were more likely to be current users of smokeless tobacco (SLT) with even a low level of exposure to SLT marketing (OR = 1.24 [95% CI: 1.1, 1.4]). For SLT, the ORs showed an increasing trend (P for trend marketing (minimum, OR = 1.25 [1.1-1.4]; moderate, OR = 1.38 [1.1-1.8]; and high, OR = 2.73 [1.8-4.2]), with the trend highly significant (P marketing of tobacco products, which may take the form of advertising at the point of sale, sales or a discounted price, free coupons, free samples, surrogate advertisements, or any of several other modalities, increased prevalence of tobacco use among adults. An increasing level of exposure to direct and indirect advertisement and promotion is associated with an increased likelihood of tobacco use.

  20. Global Commodity Chains and the Spatial-Temporal Dimensions of Labor Control: Lessons from Colombia’s Coffee and Banana Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Hough

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author seeks to explain the trajectories of local labor regime dynamics in Colombia’s coffee and banana industries from the post war developmental decades until the present. In order to explain these dynamics, the author first develops a neo-Gramscian ideal-typical schema to highlight the full range of labor regime dynamics emergent in Colombia, including “hegemonic,” “despotic,” and “crisis” regimes. The author then develops a theory of local labor regime types that draws from Giovanni Arrighi’s work on commodity chains. Finally, using comparative and world-historical methods, the author finds that the shifting trajectories of labor regimes in Colombia are affected by the nodal location of these regimes within their respective commodity chains.

  1. Influence of Problem-Based Learning Strategy on Enhancing Student's Industrial Oriented Competences Learned: An Action Research on Learning Weblog Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Pansy; Yeh, Ron Chuen; Chen, Yi-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    In order to respond to the ever-changing global economic environment, the technological and vocational education system in Taiwan needs to be dramatically reformed to the changing needs of the domestic industrial structure. Integrating practical talents with practical industrial experiences and competences can help avoid discrepancy and close the…

  2. Sugar Industry Influence on the Scientific Agenda of the National Institute of Dental Research’s 1971 National Caries Program: A Historical Analysis of Internal Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Cristin E.; Glantz, Stanton A.; Schmidt, Laura A.

    2015-01-01

    Background In 1966, the National Institute of Dental Research (NIDR) began planning a targeted research program to identify interventions for widespread application to eradicate dental caries (tooth decay) within a decade. In 1971, the NIDR launched the National Caries Program (NCP). The objective of this paper is to explore the sugar industry’s interaction with the NIDR to alter the research priorities of the NIDR NCP. Methods and Findings We used internal cane and beet sugar industry documents from 1959 to 1971 to analyze industry actions related to setting research priorities for the NCP. The sugar industry could not deny the role of sucrose in dental caries given the scientific evidence. They therefore adopted a strategy to deflect attention to public health interventions that would reduce the harms of sugar consumption rather than restricting intake. Industry tactics included the following: funding research in collaboration with allied food industries on enzymes to break up dental plaque and a vaccine against tooth decay with questionable potential for widespread application, cultivation of relationships with the NIDR leadership, consulting of members on an NIDR expert panel, and submission of a report to the NIDR that became the foundation of the first request for proposals issued for the NCP. Seventy-eight percent of the sugar industry submission was incorporated into the NIDR’s call for research applications. Research that could have been harmful to sugar industry interests was omitted from priorities identified at the launch of the NCP. Limitations are that this analysis relies on one source of sugar industry documents and that we could not interview key actors. Conclusions The NCP was a missed opportunity to develop a scientific understanding of how to restrict sugar consumption to prevent tooth decay. A key factor was the alignment of research agendas between the NIDR and the sugar industry. This historical example illustrates how industry protects

  3. AN INSIGHT INTO CHINESE CONSUMER BEHAVIOR IN HOME FURNISHINGS INDUSTRY : A QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH ON HOW “MIANZI” FACTOR INFLUENCE CHINESE CONSUMERS BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    JIA, MO; GAO, Yuan Xin

    2014-01-01

    With the continuous exploration of Chinese market’s potential, this promising and enormous market is becoming more and more crowded no matter in which industry. For example, in home furnishing industry, although the world leader - IKEA strived to implement its differentiation and cost leadership strategies that had brought tremendous success in the other markets worldwide, the company’s performance in this distinctive developing country had not progressed much, unlike other parts of the world...

  4. The Influence Of Business Partnership And Competitive Strategy On Business PerformanceA Survey On Footwear Industry In The Province Of Banten Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Winarjono; Sucherly; Surachman Sumawihardja

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The footwear industry in Banten Province is facing the issues of low business performance in the last five years caused by an inappropriate competitive strategy and business partnership that is not close yet. This research aims to study about business partnerships and competitive strategy on business performance of footwear industry in the Province of Banten. The study is conducted by descriptive and explanatory survey methods. The unit of analysis are companies of footwear indus...

  5. Pharmacist-industry relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Keene; O'Connor, Bonnie; Fugh-Berman, Adriane

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to document, in their own words, beliefs and attitudes that American pharmacists have towards the pharmaceutical industry and pharmacists' interactions with industry. An ethnographic-style qualitative study was conducted utilizing open-ended interviews with four hospital pharmacists, two independent pharmacists, two retail pharmacists and one administrative pharmacist in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area to elicit descriptions of and attitudes towards pharmacists' relationships with industry. Analysis of the qualitative material followed established ethnographic conventions of narrative thematic analysis. All pharmacists reported interactions with pharmaceutical company representatives. Most had received free resources or services from industry, including educational courses. Respondents uniformly believed that industry promotional efforts are primarily directed towards physicians. Although respondents felt strongly that drug prices were excessive and that 'me-too' drugs were of limited use, they generally had a neutral-to-positive view of industry-funded adherence/compliance programmes, coupons, vouchers, and copay payment programmes. Interviewees viewed direct-to-consumer advertising negatively, but had a generally positive view of industry-funded drug information. Pharmacists may represent a hitherto under-identified cohort of health professionals who are targeted for industry influence; expanding roles for pharmacists may make them even more attractive targets for future industry attention. Pharmacy schools should ensure that students learn to rely on unbiased information sources and should teach students about conflicts of interest and the risks of interacting with industry. Further research should be conducted on the extent to which pharmacists' attitudes towards their duties and towards drug assessment and recommendation are influenced by the pharmaceutical industry. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  6. Evaluation of oil and grease removal by adsorptive polymeric resins in semi-industrial scale: influence of temperature; Avaliacao da remocao de oleos e graxas por resinas polimericas adsorventes em escala semi-industrial: influencia da temperatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luis F.S. de; Silva, Carla M.F. da; Queiros, Yure G.C.; Lucas, Elizabete F. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Macromoleculas, Laboratorio de Macromoleculas e Coloides na Industria de Petroleo, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: elucas@ima.ufrj.br

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of polymeric resins packed in a fixed bed eluted in semi-industrial scale for oil and greases removal disposed in synthetic oily water in different temperature conditions. For this work, columns packed with vinyl and acryl polymer-base were tested and their efficiency of oil removal was evaluated by fluorimetry technique in two different temperatures: 25 and 60 deg C, in a flow rate condition of 200 mL/min. The experimental results were very good: the removal efficiencies were above 98% in both cases. At 60 deg C, the system keep the efficiency for a longer time: no significant loss in the efficiency was observed after eluting 1,000 times of the column bed volume at 25 deg C and 2,000, at 60 deg C. This result characterizes a great potential of application in the industry. (author)

  7. Industrial Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer

    2015-01-01

    Industrial engineering is a discipline that is concerned with increasing the effectiveness of (primarily) manufacturing and (occasionally).......Industrial engineering is a discipline that is concerned with increasing the effectiveness of (primarily) manufacturing and (occasionally)....

  8. Farmaceutische industrie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ros JPM; van der Poel P; Etman EJ; Montfoort JA; LAE

    1995-01-01

    Dit rapport over de farmaceutische industrie is gepubliceerd binnen het Samenwerkingsproject Procesbeschrijvingen Industrie Nederland (SPIN). In het kader van dit project is informatie verzameld over industriele bedrijven of industriele processen ter ondersteuning van het overheidsbeleid op het

  9. The Internationalization of the Meetings - Incentives - Conventions - and Exhibitions - (MICE industry: Its Influences on the Actors in the Tourism Business Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Smagina

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is aimed to analyze the link between internationalization and Meetings-, Incentives-, Conventions- and Exhibitions (MICE industry which is refer to the destination development. A comprehensive review of the totality of the processes associated with the regional market of business tourism, allowed to develop a number of actual tools that make it possible to obtain important practical results. One of these tools is a so called public-private partnership (PPP, to strengthen the trust between government and business representatives on regional level. This article reveals the cooperation process between foreign private companies and the local government in organizing the development of the industry connected to MICE. This vision may help all parties connected to the MICE industry to achieve a new level of understanding of the business tourism destination as a result of internationalization processes.

  10. Use of public pension scheme and industrial statistics data for supplement of company records in Denmark and influence on cohort mortality pattern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, E; Juel, K

    1987-01-01

    Completeness of company records is a crucial point in interpretation of follow-up studies of industrial cohorts. The Employers Quarterly Reports on Earnings (EQRE) are valuable for control of company records in the United States. The public Supplementary Pension Scheme (ATP) and the industrial...... statistics questionnaires are of equal value in Denmark. The authors report on a cohort study from a chemical plant, where cohort members were identified from company records, which were checked against ATP and industrial statistics data. The mortality analysis shows employees known only from the ATP data...... to have an excess mortality, relative risk (RR) = 1.45. Inclusion in the cohort of these additional employees only changed the relative risk in overall mortality from 1.01 to 1.04, but turned out to be decisive in the study of a rare disease....

  11. Influence of biofuels on exhaust gas and noise emissions of small industrial diesel engines; Einfluss von Biokraftstoffen auf die Abgas- und Geraeuschemission kleiner Industriedieselmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spessert, B.M. [Fachhochschule Jena (Germany). Fachgebiet Kraft- und Arbeitsmaschinen; Schleicher, A. [Fachhochschule Jena (Germany). Fachgebiet Umweltmesstechnik

    2007-03-15

    At small industrial diesel engines, as they were brought in oftentimes on building sites, in the farming and forest industry and on boats, biofuels are increasingly used. In a research project of the University of Applied Sciences Jena, Germany, thus the changes of the exhaust gas pollutant and noise emissions of these diesel engines were investigated. Test fuels were diesel fuel, and also biofuels as biodiesel (RME), rape seed oil and sun flower oil. Depending on the operating point these biofuels increased or reduced the emissions of exhaust gas and noise of the investigated engines clearly. (orig.)

  12. Temporal variations of heavy metals in coral Porites lutea from Guangdong Province, China: Influences from industrial pollution, climate and economic factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Z.; Liu, J.; Zhou, C.; Nie, B.; Chen, T.

    2006-01-01

    The eight heavy metals Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb have been determined in samples of coral Porites lutea collected from Dafangji Island waters (21°21′N, 111°11′E), Dianbai County, Guangdong Province, China, by the ICP-MS method. The samples represent the growth of coral in the period of 1982–2001. The results showed that the waters were polluted by the heavy metals Cu, Ni, Zn, and Pb in certain years, but not by other metals. The contamination may have come from industrial sources, including electroplating, metallurgy, mining, and aquatic industries in the coastal areas.

  13. Industrial electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melvin, J.G.

    1983-03-01

    The technical and economic scope for industrial process electrification in Canada is assessed in the light of increasing costs of combustion fuels relative to electricity. It is concluded that electricity is capable of providing an increasing share of industrial energy, eventually aproaching 100 percent. The relatively low cost of electricity in Canada offers industry the opportunity of a head start in process electrification with consequent advantages in world markets both for industrial products and for electrical process equipment and technology. A method is described to promote the necessary innovation by providing access to technology and financing. The potential growth of electricity demand due to industrial electrification is estimated

  14. Conflicts of interest at medical journals: the influence of industry-supported randomised trials on journal impact factors and revenue - cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundh, Andreas; Barbateskovic, Marija; Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn

    2010-01-01

    transparency in reporting of conflict of interest is an increasingly important aspect of publication in medical journals. Publication of large industry-supported trials may generate many citations and journal income through reprint sales and thereby be a source of conflicts of interest for journals...

  15. The Influence of Problems Faced during Internships on Interns' Views of Their Profession and Their Intention to Work in the Tourism Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasli, Mehmet; Ilban, Mehmet Oguzhan

    2013-01-01

    Problem Statement: The problem of this research is identifying the difficulties that undergraduate students experience during their internships and assessing their future intention to work in the tourism industry. Purpose of Study: This research aims to identify the problems undergraduate students encounter as interns in tourism programs and to…

  16. The influence of knowledge flow on sustainable innovation in a project-based industry : From demonstration to limited adoption of eco-innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossink, Bart

    2018-01-01

    The effect of the flow of knowledge on sustainable innovation in project-based firms in project-based industries is the subject of in-depth research in this paper. It studies the simultaneous functioning and effects of knowledge flow mechanisms on sustainable innovation in project-based firms in

  17. The Influence of After-Sales Service Determinants on Brand Loyalty Within the Premium Automotive Industry: An Empirical Comparison of Three Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Hünecke; Marjaana Gunkel

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the influence of after-sales service determinants on brand loyalty in the premium automotive sector. Reflective and formative variables were measured using partial least-squares path modeling. The model was tested by telephone interviews among 1,500 automobile after-sales customers in three countries: France, Italy, and Spain. The results show that after-sales service satisfaction does not have a direct influence on brand loyalty; however, an indirect effect mediated by se...

  18. Energy Markets in the United States: The Influence of Politics, Regulations, and Markets on Energy Development in the Oil and Gas and Wind Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Karen Kay

    2011-12-01

    My dissertation focuses on the influence of politics, policies, and markets in determining oil and natural gas and wind energy development. In the first chapter, I examine the role of federal elected political influence and market factors in determining the acres of oil and natural gas leases issued on Bureau of Management (BLM) lands in the western United States between 1978 and 2008. I seek to determine if the political party and ideology of the federal political environment influence the number of acres that are leased and if there is disparate federal political influence in states that have a large amount of federal lands. Using a random effects Tobit model for a 17-state sample of the westernmost states in the contiguous United States, I find that more conservative federal political influence leads to additional leasing. The results are consistent across Senate committee leaders, Senate majority leadership, and the President's office. The further found that the influence of politics on leasing is not stronger in states with more federal lands. In the second chapter, I analyze the influence of state and federal political party changes and market factors on state oil and natural gas permitting. My findings, using a first-differenced empirical model for two samples, a 19-state sample, from 1990--2007, and a 14-state sample, from 1977--2007, indicate that the influence of state political party changes are trumped by economic factors. Oil and gas prices are the main drivers of permitting changes, while the state political party changes for the state legislatures and Governor's office are consistently not significant. In the third chapter I focus on the role of electricity markets and renewable energy regulation in wind development across the United States. My findings, using a random effects Tobit model with a 25-state sample, from 1994--2008, indicate that the implementation of state Renewables Portfolio Standards (RPS), the Federal Production Tax Credit (PTC

  19. Influence of trees and shrubs on microclimate and sanitary state of air layers close to the ground surface at industrial sites of metallurgical works

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reva, M L; Filatova, R Ya

    1976-01-01

    The effect of trees and shrubs on working conditions was investigated at metallurgical works in the Ukraine. Indices used included air temperature and humidity, sulfuric anhydride, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide content. Indices were measured at varying distances from the sources of the industrial waste. In areas with trees and shrubs, air temperature was 3 to 5 degrees lower and relative humidity 8 to 10 degrees higher than out in the open. The level of industrial waste given off as gas was consistently less prevalent in areas with trees and shrubs than out in the open. Trees and shrubs were concluded to be essential for the health and well-being of the workers.

  20. Process industry properties in nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Hualing

    2005-01-01

    In this article the writer has described the definition of process industry, expounded the fact classifying nuclear industry as process industry, compared the differences between process industry and discrete industry, analysed process industry properties in nuclear industry and their important impact, and proposed enhancing research work on regularity of process industry in nuclear industry. (authors)

  1. The Influence of Industrial Processing on the Physico-Chemical Characteristics and Lipid and Antioxidant Contents of Rice Bran; Influencia del procesado industrial sobre las caracteristicas quimico-fisicas y contenido en lipidos y antioxidantes del salvado de arroz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pestana, V. R.; Zambiazi, R.; Mendonca, C. R. B.; Bruscatto, M. H.; Ramis-Ramos, G.

    2009-07-01

    A comparative study of the physico-chemical characteristics of rice bran during the successive steps of its industrial processing was carried out and included white and parboiled rice brans and pelletized and defatted rice brans. Moisture, acidity and peroxide index were determined. Using extracts in petroleum ether and gas chromatography, the total fat contents and the profiles of the fatty acids were established. The tocopherols and {gamma}-oryzanol were determined using high performance liquid chromatography. The bran of parboiled rice showed the largest fat content and the lowest acidity, indicating that parboiling is the most effective process for bran stabilization. Oleic, linoleic and palmitic acids predominated in all the samples. Pelletization did not produce a loss in lipids, tocopherols or {gamma}-oryzanol. All the samples showed higher contents of {alpha}-tocopherol, intermediate contents of {gamma}-tocopherol and much lower concentrations of {delta}-tocopherol. Nine components of {gamma}- oryzanol were detected, with a major proportion of the component that eluted in the fourth position, probably ferulate of 24-methylene cycloartenol. Pelletized rice bran showed the highest tocopherol content, whereas parboiled rice bran yielded the largest {gamma}-oryzanol content. (Author) 31 refs.

  2. Implikasi Yuridis Penyelesaian Perselisihati Hubungan Industrial Melalul Pengadllan Hubungan Industrial

    OpenAIRE

    Adi, Mila Karmila

    2016-01-01

    The Industrial Relationship Dispute Resolution Law Number2 Year 2004, has a bolished the existence of The Labor Dispute Committee and replaced by the  Industrial Relation ship Court. The existence of the Industrial Relation ship Court can influence the relation ships here between worker and employer in the future and subtractthe government intervention in labordispute resolution. Although the Court is notexistyet until 2006, but the resolution process will be questioned whether it will give m...

  3. Implikasi Yuridis Penyelesaian Perselisihati Hubungan Industrial Melalul Pengadllan Hubungan Industrial

    OpenAIRE

    Adi, Mila Karmila

    2004-01-01

    The Industrial Relationship Dispute Resolution Law Number2 Year 2004, has a bolished the existence of The Labor Dispute Committee and replaced by the Industrial Relation ship Court. The existence of the Industrial Relation ship Court can influence the relation ships here between worker and employer in the future and subtractthe government intervention in labordispute resolution. Although the Court is notexistyet until 2006, but the resolution process will be questioned whether it will give m...

  4. Using a source-receptor approach to characterise VOC behaviour in a French urban area influenced by industrial emissions. Part II: source contribution assessment using the Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badol, Caroline; Locoge, Nadine; Galloo, Jean-Claude

    2008-01-25

    In Part I of this study (Badol C, Locoge N, Leonardis T, Gallo JC. Using a source-receptor approach to characterise VOC behaviour in a French urban area influenced by industrial emissions, Part I: Study area description, data set acquisition and qualitative data analysis of the data set. Sci Total Environ 2007; submitted as companion manuscript.) the study area, acquisition of the one-year data set and qualitative analysis of the data set have been described. In Part II a source profile has been established for each activity present in the study area: 6 profiles (urban heating, solvent use, natural gas leakage, biogenic emissions, gasoline evaporation and vehicle exhaust) have been extracted from literature to characterise urban sources, 7 industrial profiles have been established via canister sampling around industrial plants (hydrocarbon cracking, oil refinery, hydrocarbon storage, lubricant storage, lubricant refinery, surface treatment and metallurgy). The CMB model is briefly described and its implementation is discussed through the selection of source profiles and fitting species. Main results of CMB modellings for the Dunkerque area are presented. (1) The daily evolution of source contributions for the urban wind sector shows that the vehicle exhaust source contribution varies between 40 and 55% and its relative increase at traffic rush hours is hardly perceptible. (2) The relative contribution of vehicle exhaust varies from 55% in winter down to 30% in summer. This decrease is due to the increase of the relative contribution of hydrocarbon storage source reaching up to 20% in summer. (3) The evolution of source contributions with wind directions has confirmed that in urban wind sectors the contribution of vehicle exhaust dominate with around 45-55%. For the other wind sectors that include some industrial plants, the contribution of industrial sources is around 60% and could reach 80% for the sector 280-310 degrees , which corresponds to the most dense

  5. Industrial Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Dean; Harden, Thomas K.

    Robots are mechanical devices that can be programmed to perform some task of manipulation or locomotion under automatic control. This paper discusses: (1) early developments of the robotics industry in the United States; (2) the present structure of the industry; (3) noneconomic factors related to the use of robots; (4) labor considerations…

  6. Industrial symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sacchi, Romain; Remmen, Arne

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the development of industrial symbiosis through a practical model for physical, organizational, and social interactions in six different cases from around the world. The results provide a framework that can be used by industrial symbiosis practitioners to facilitate the creation...

  7. 2001 Industry Studies: Services Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cervone, Michael

    2001-01-01

    .... has maintained its economic strength in traditional services industries such as transportation, tourism, public utilities, finance and insurance, accounting, engineering, architecture, medical, legal...

  8. Industrial garnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, D.W.

    2000-01-01

    The state of the global industrial garnet industry in 1999 is discussed. Industrial garnet mined in the U.S., which accounts for approximately one-third of the world's total, is usually a solid-solution of almandine and pyrope. The U.S. is the largest consumer of industrial garnet, using an estimated 47,800 st in 1999 as an abrasive and as a filtration medium in the petroleum industry, filtration plants, aircraft and motor vehicle manufacture, shipbuilding, wood furniture finishing operations, electronic component manufacture, ceramics manufacture, and glass production. Prices for crude concentrates ranged from approximately $50 to $110/st and refined garnet from $50 to $215/st in 1999, depending on type, source, quantity purchased, quality, and application.

  9. Industry honoured

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    CERN has organised a day to thank industry for its exceptional contributions to the LHC project. Lucio Rossi addresses CERN’s industrial partners in the Main Auditorium.The LHC inauguration provided an opportunity for CERN to thank all those who have contributed to transforming this technological dream into reality. Industry has been a major player in this adventure. Over the last decade it has lent its support to CERN’s teams and participating institutes in developing, building and assembling the machine, its experiments and the computing infrastructure. CERN involved its industrial partners in the LHC inauguration by organising a special industry prize-giving day on 20 October. Over 70 firms accepted the invitation. The firms not only made fundamental contributions to the project, but some have also supported LHC events in 2008 and the inauguration ceremony through generous donations, which have been coordinated by Carmen Dell’Erba, who is responsible for secu...

  10. Industrial Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing industrial waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. In addition part...... of the industrial waste may in periods, depending on market opportunities and prices, be traded as secondary rawmaterials. Production-specificwaste from primary production, for example steel slag, is not included in the current presentation. In some countries industries must be approved or licensed and as part...... of the system industry has to inform at the planning stage and afterwards in yearly reports on their waste arising and how the waste is managed. If available such information is very helpful in obtaining information about that specific industry. However, in many countries there is very little information...

  11. Influence of industrial exhalations on the fertility of ground and on the yields of agricultural plants: a recapitulation of the attained results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozel, J; Maly, V

    1964-01-01

    Deposition of dust and ambient concentrations of SO2 were measured around industrial areas in Czechoslovakia in 1961 and 1962. The amount of surface-adhered material and the SO3 content of plant ashes was also measured. Chemical analyses of soils in the areas were also carried out. Dimunition of agricultural productivity was documented. Maize and beans were the crops most affected by air pollution, followed by sugar beets, cereals, (wheat, oats and barley) in order of decreasing effect. 24 references, 4 figures, 5 tables.

  12. Management and control of microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) in the oil and gas industry - Overview and a North Sea case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovhus, Torben Lund; Eckert, Richard B; Rodrigues, Edgar

    2017-01-01

    the oil and gas industry has seen regarding MIC research over the past decade. The paper starts out with an overview of where in the process stream MIC occurs - from the oil reservoir to the consumer. Both biotic and abiotic corrosion mechanisms are explained in the context of managing MIC using...... to manage the corrosion threat, operators commonly use models to support decision making. The models use qualitative, semi-quantitative or quantitative measures to help assess the rate of degradation caused by MIC. The paper reviews four existing models for MIC Threat Assessment and describe a new model...

  13. Influence of atmospheric 14CO2 on determination of the ratio of biogenic carbon to fossil one in exhaust gases using accelerator mass spectrometry. Experimental evaluation for industrial flue gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yunoki, Shunji; Saito, Masaaki; Nagakawa, Yoshiyasu

    2012-01-01

    The influence of atmospheric 14 CO 2 was evaluated on the determination of biogenic carbon ratios in industrial flue gases using accelerated mass spectrometry(AMS). Bioethanol, n-hexane, and their mixtures were combusted with a four-stroke engine, and 14 CO 2 in exhaust gases was analyzed by AMS. The experimental biogenic carbon ratio determined by ASTM D6866 method was 1.2 times higher than the theoretical value of mixed fuel containing 3.18% biogenic carbons. In general, the influence of atmospheric 14 CO 2 taken in combustion gases is neglected. It seems that the error cannot be neglected under international trading of emission allowances, where a large amount of carbons in the fuel were evaluated. The experimental value became to be the theoretical value by subtracting the amount of atmospheric 14 C from that of the samples. As the contents of biofuel increased, the experimental biogenic carbon ratios reached the theoretical values and the influence of atmospheric 14 CO 2 decreased. We recommend that the influence of atmospheric 14 CO 2 should be corrected when fuel samples contain low amounts of 14 C. (author)

  14. Planning Change of the Type of Economic Development of Enterprises of the Dairy Industry with Consideration of Influence of the Competitive Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulynych Yuriy M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article justifies a necessity of transition of dairy industry enterprises to the intensive type of economic development. It offers a mathematical model of transition to the intensive type of development. The model is build on the basis of the well-known methods. The author offers two variants of formation of the intensive type of development during the period of planning. Pursuant to the first variant, it is planned to increase expenditures of an enterprise during the period of planning, pursuant to the second – to reduce expenditures of the period of planning compared to the basic one. The author considers and analyses the essence of the innovation strategy of dairy enterprises and offers a model of formation of such a strategy at an enterprise. The article considers main problems that suppress investment activity in the country. The author focuses, in particular, on the following: inconsistent investment policy of the state in the food sphere, poorly developed innovation infrastructure, monopoly of reporcessors in the dairy products markets and low level of profitability of dairy enterprises. In conclusion the author offers measures on formation of investment attractiveness of the dairy industry.

  15. Over a barrel: Government influence and mergers and acquisitions in the petroleum industry. The case of Sun Oil Company, 1938-1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, W.P. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    This dissertation examines the nature of government business relations, as perceived by the owners and managers of the Sun Oil Company, a large integrated oil and gas producer, transporter, refiner, and marketer. Sun has had a long and profitable career in the oil industry, success which came despite a complex, often bitter relationship with government in its regulatory and antitrust capacity. The founding Pew family has historically been quite outspoken in its opposition to what they perceived to be the government's chronic, unwelcome intrusion into the affairs of business. Sun's almost one hundred year history can be readily divided into two distinct phases. The first, the period from 1938-1947, could best be characterized as the time when Sun Company officials fought bitterly against what they thought to be excessive government domination over their industry, fearing either the government's outright takeover, or its imposition of burdensome restrictions. After freeing themselves from the government's oppression, Sun management then set out to build a growing, profitable oil concern. From 1938 to the present, Sun has undertaken several transactions that have established the firm as a highly successful petroleum company, including a merger, an aborted takeover, and a successful acquisition. Sun's survival in an endeavor where many perish, either purchased or driven out, provides the focus of this dissertation.

  16. Dynamic cyclical comovements of oil prices with industrial production, consumer prices, unemployment, and stock prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, Bradley T.; Thompson, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the empirical relationship between oil prices and several key macroeconomic variables. In particular, we investigate the cyclical comovements of crude oil prices with output, consumer prices, unemployment, and stock prices. The methodology involves the use of the Hodrick-Prescott [Hodrick, R.J., Prescott, E.C., 1980. Post-War US Business Cycles: An Empirical Investigation. Working Paper, Carnegie Mellon University] and Baxter-King [Baxter, M., King, R.G., 1999. Measuring business cycles: approximate band-pass filters for economic time series. Review of Economics and Statistics 81, 575-593] filters, as well as the recently developed full-sample asymmetric Christiano-Fitzgerald [Christiano, L.J., Fitzgerald, T.J., 2003. The band pass filter. International Economic Review 44, 435-465] band-pass filter. Contemporaneous and cross-correlation estimates are made using the stationary cyclical components of the time series to make inference about the degree to which oil prices move with the cycle. Besides documenting a number of important cyclical relationships using three different time series filtering methods, the results suggest that crude oil prices are procyclical and lag industrial production. Additionally, we find that oil prices lead consumer prices. (author)

  17. The Sector Players’ Perception on the Influence of Sugarcane Environmental Protocol in Corporate Environmental Management Process: A Study of Industry Managers in the Middle Region of Assis-SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edenis César Oliveira

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian agriculture has undergone an unprecedented environmental crisis. In this scenario, it is the agribusiness and sugarcane suppliers, working in the sugarcane industry, which have had a strong growth, with significant economic, social and environmental impacts. Studies have shown that the inclusion of environmental concerns in corporate management can bring competitiveness gains for organizations, as well as improve their image before their stakeholders. The social demand for a cleaner environment, coupled with increasing environmental regulation, have forced companies in this sector to perform and participate in extensive programmes for prevention and mitigation of environmental impacts. In this design, the Agro-environmental Protocol for the Paulista sugarcane industry has arisen, consisting of a cooperation agreement signed in June 2007 between the government of the State of São Paulo, represented by the Secretaries of State for the Environment; Agriculture and Supply; Industry Union of cane sugar; and the Sugar Cane Growers Organization's South-Central Region. The research presented here aimed to investigate the perception of managers of agribusinesses and suppliers located in the middle region of Assis-SP on the influence of the Agro-environmental Protocol in corporate environmental management process. Nineteen semi-structured interviews with the environmental managers of each signatory organization were applied. The results showed strong influence of the Agro-environmental Protocol in environmental management processes of organizations, especially with the implementation and enforcement actions to meet the directive techniques of the Agro-environmental Protocol, which has contributed to organizations internalize environmental issues and moving towards a more proactive stance.

  18. Effective Social Media Marketing and Content Marketing Influence Customer Awareness and Interest in Bakery Industry The Case Study of Royal Bakery

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Bich

    2013-01-01

    The study attempts to gain insight into the social media and content marketing, which can influence a brand’s presence among social community and methods that can increase customer awareness. As the end result, the author is proposing valuable recommendations on utilizing social media and determining content idea types effectively to the case company. For raising customer awareness, the case company’s online channels are not comprehended properly to utilize their potential effectivel...

  19. Industrial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, C K

    1992-01-01

    Industrial ecology addresses issues that will impact future production, use, and disposal technologies; proper use of the concept should reduce significantly the resources devoted to potential remediation in the future. This cradle-to-reincarnation production philosophy includes industrial processes that are environmentally sound and products that are environmentally safe during use and economically recyclable after use without adverse impact on the environment or on the net cost to society. This will require an industry-university-government round table to set the strategy and agenda for progress. PMID:11607254

  20. Testing and modeling the influence of reclamation and control methods for reducing nonpoint mercury emissions associated with industrial open pit gold mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthieu B; Gustin, Mae S

    2013-06-01

    Industrial gold mining is a significant source of mercury (Hg) emission to the atmosphere. To investigate ways to reduce these emissions, reclamation and dust and mercury control methods used at open pit gold mining operations in Nevada were studied in a laboratory setting. Using this information along with field data, and building off previous work, total annual Hg emissions were estimated for two active gold mines in northern Nevada. Results showed that capping mining waste materials with a low-Hg substrate can reduce Hg emissions from 50 to nearly 100%. The spraying of typical dust control solutions often results in higher Hg emissions, especially as materials dry after application. The concentrated application of a dithiocarbamate Hg control reagent appears to reduce Hg emissions, but further testing mimicking the actual distribution of this chemical within an active leach solution is needed to make a more definitive assessment.

  1. Influence of radiation on predictive accuracy in numerical simulations of the thermal environment in industrial buildings with buoyancy-driven natural ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Xiaojing; Wang, Yi; Liu, Tiening; Xing, Xiao; Cao, Yingxue; Zhao, Jiangping

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The effects of radiation on predictive accuracy in numerical simulations were studied. • A scaled experimental model with a high-temperature heat source was set up. • Simulation results were discussed considering with and without radiation model. • The buoyancy force and the ventilation rate were investigated. - Abstract: This paper investigates the effects of radiation on predictive accuracy in the numerical simulations of industrial buildings. A scaled experimental model with a high-temperature heat source is set up and the buoyancy-driven natural ventilation performance is presented. Besides predicting ventilation performance in an industrial building, the scaled model in this paper is also used to generate data to validate the numerical simulations. The simulation results show good agreement with the experiment data. The effects of radiation on predictive accuracy in the numerical simulations are studied for both pure convection model and combined convection and radiation model. Detailed results are discussed regarding the temperature and velocity distribution, the buoyancy force and the ventilation rate. The temperature and velocity distributions through the middle plane are presented for the pure convection model and the combined convection and radiation model. It is observed that the overall temperature and velocity magnitude predicted by the simulations for pure convection were significantly greater than those for the combined convection and radiation model. In addition, the Grashof number and the ventilation rate are investigated. The results show that the Grashof number and the ventilation rate are greater for the pure convection model than for the combined convection and radiation model.

  2. Operational synergy in the US electric utility industry under an influence of deregulation policy: A linkage to financial performance and corporate value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sueyoshi, Toshiyuki; Goto, Mika

    2011-01-01

    have examined a synergy effect between electricity and gas services in the US electric utility industry. They have compared electricity-specialized firms with diversified utility firms in their financial performance and corporate value. A problem of their study is that it has not empirically measured the operational performance of the electric utility firms. As an extension of the preceding study, this research investigates the operational performance of 104 US electric utility firms (1990-2004) by fully utilizing DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis). This study finds the three new policy implications. First, the synergy effect has not existed in the operational performance of diversified utility firms before and after the deregulation on the US electricity markets. Thus, core business concentration is more effective for electric utility firms than corporate diversification to enhance their operational performance under the current US deregulation policy. Second, the operational performance has had an increasing trend until 1996 and a decreasing trend after 1996. Thus, the US deregulation policy has been influential on their operational performance. Third, the enhancement in operational performance of electric utility firms has improved their financial performance. The improvement in financial performance has increased their corporate value. Thus, this study finds the business causality among operational performance, financial performance and corporate value in the US electric utility industry. - Research Highlights: →The synergy effect has not existed in the operational performance of diversified utility firms before and after the deregulation on the US electricity markets. →Core business concentration is more effective for electric utility firms than corporate diversification to enhance their operational performance under the current US deregulation policy. →The operational performance has had an increasing trend until 1996 and a decreasing trend after 1996.

  3. Digitization in Maritime Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Constantiou, Ioanna; Shollo, Arisa; Kreiner, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    Digitization in the maritime industry is expected to transform businesses. The recently introduced mobile technologies in inter-organizational processes is an example of digitization in an industry which moves very slowly towards digital transformation. We focus on the influence of mobile...... technologies on control practices in inter-organizational processes related to coping with an engine failure. We collected qualitative data from in depth interviews with representatives of the involved parties. We identify organizational and behavioural challenges hindering information sharing during problem...... technologies increase information sharing and thus the efficiency of inter-organizational processes when coping with an engine failure....

  4. Industrial practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasquez Torrez, Patricia Irma

    1999-01-01

    This document reports the industrial practices carried out by the author viewing the requirements fulfilled for obtention the academic degree in chemical engineering of the San Andres University - Bolivia

  5. Electronics Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ginter, Michael J; Andersen, James L; Becker, John A; Belliveau, Gerald E; Eppich, Frank J; Awai, Herman T; Hanko, David J; Hughes, Bob; Jones, Douglas; Larson, Kelly J

    2007-01-01

    .... area, New York State, Silicon Valley (California), Taiwan, and China. This approach provides a wide range of perspectives from which to examine the selected industry's current condition, outlook, and challenges...

  6. Industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This Health and Safety Executive Information Sheet on industrial radiography aims to inform directors and managers of industrial radiography companies on the safety precautions necessary to ensure that their personnel do not exceed dose guidelines for exposure to ionizing radiation. The Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985 (IRR85) require that exposure doses for radiographers are kept as low reasonably practicable. Equipment maintenance, and the employment of proper emergency procedures will help to ensure personnel safety. (UK)

  7. Industrial ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mengelle, Ch.

    1999-04-01

    After having given the definition of the term 'ceramics', the author describes the different manufacturing processes of these compounds. These materials are particularly used in the fields of 1)petroleum industry (in primary and secondary reforming units, in carbon black reactors and ethylene furnaces). 2)nuclear industry (for instance UO 2 and PuO 2 as fuels; SiC for encapsulation; boron carbides for control systems..)

  8. Influence of Solution Treatment Temperature on Microstructural Properties of an Industrially Forged UNS S32750/1.4410/F53 Super Duplex Stainless Steel (SDSS Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Dănuț Cojocaru

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this present study, the influence of solution annealing temperature on microstructural properties of a forged Super Duplex Stainless Steel (SDSS was investigated by SEM-BSE (Scanning Electron Microscopy-Backscattered Electrons and SEM-EBSD (Scanning Electron Microscopy-Electron Backscatter Diffraction techniques. A brief solution treatment was applied to the forged super duplex alloy, at different temperatures between 800 °C and 1100 °C, with a constant holding time of 0.6 ks (10 min. Microstructural characteristics such as nature, weight fraction, distribution and morphology of constituent phases, average grain-size and grain misorientation were analysed in relation to the solution annealing temperature. Experimental results have shown that the constituent phases in the SDSS alloy are δ-Fe, γ-Fe and σ (Cr-Fe and that their properties are influenced by the solution treatment temperature. SEM examinations revealed microstructural modifications induced by the Cr rich precipitates along the δ/γ and δ/δ grain boundaries, which may significantly affect the toughness and the corrosion resistance of the alloy. Solution annealing at 1100 °C led to complete dissolution of σ (Cr-Fe phase, the microstructure being formed of primary δ-Fe and γ-Fe. The orientation relationship between δ/δ, γ/γ and δ/γ grains was determined by electron back scattering diffraction (EBSD. Both primary constituent phase’s microhardness and global microhardness were determined.

  9. Influence of uneven distribution of coupling mass on locomotive wheel pairs, its tractive power, straight and curved sections of industrial rail tracks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keropyan, A. M.; Kantovich, L. I.; Voronin, B. V.; Kuziev, D. A.; Zotov, V. V.

    2017-10-01

    This article deals with the problems of unloading the axes of wheel sets of locomotives of industrial railway transport by the example of exploitation in conditions of open chasing works. Studies have established that the displacement of the center of mass of an open-pit locomotive depends primarily on the height of the center of gravity, the height of the location of the hook of the locomotive coupling over the rails and the slope of the track. Therefore, to increase the coefficient of utilization of the adhesive weight and to ensure rational operating conditions, it is necessary to provide an adjustable displacement of the locomotive’s center of mass taking into account the actual operating conditions, including when driving on rectilinear and curvilinear sections of the track. Analysis of calculation results showed that for the traction unit OPE1 when driving in traction mode in close to the extreme operating conditions, it is necessary to provide a constructive solution for displacement of the center of mass of the locomotive up to 0.5 m in the course of movement of the locomotive’s center of mass.

  10. Does FDI influence renewable energy consumption? An analysis of sectoral FDI impact on renewable and non-renewable industrial energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doytch, Nadia; Narayan, Seema

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the link between foreign direct investment (FDI) and energy demand. FDI is a source of financing that allows businesses to grow. At the same time, FDI can be a source of innovation that promotes energy efficiency. Existing evidence on the impact of aggregate FDI inflows on energy consumption is scarce and inconclusive. In the current study, we disaggregate FDI inflows into mining, manufacturing, total services, and financial services components and examine the impact of these FDI flows on renewable – and non-renewable industrial energy – sources for 74 countries for the period 1985–2012. We employ a Blundell–Bond dynamic panel estimator to control for endogeneity and omitted variable biases in our panels. The results point broadly to an energy consumption-reducing effect with respect to non-renewable sources of energy and an energy consumption-augmenting effects with respect to renewable energy. We find that these effects vary in magnitude and significance by sectoral FDI. - Highlights: • FDI generally discourages the use of unclean energy. • Economic growth promotes non-renewable energy consumption. • Service FDI save energy and encourage the switch to renewable energy. • Mining FDI to low and lower middle-income panels save energy. • These results are mainly consistent with the FDI halo effect.

  11. On the influence of the European trade barrier on the chinese pv industry: Is the solution to the solar-dispute “successful”?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, Killian J.

    2016-01-01

    In July 2013 the European Union (EU) imposed restrictions on Chinese solar photovoltaic (PV) manufacturers, looking to exporting to the EU. In this paper, we consider the impact of this trade barrier, using a sample of 454 stock-listed PV producing firms. We find that the trade barrier erased US$ 8,19 million off the value of the average European PV manufacturers and US$ 247.03 million off the value of the average Chinese PV manufacturers. We also find that while the trade barrier reduced the willingness of the industry to reorganise, it stimulates Chinese manufacturers to reorganise both their domestic and their international operations. The latter, we warn, is likely an attempt by Chinese manufacturers to ‘tariff jump’. We conclude, therefore, that the trade barrier was both inefficient, in that it both hurt the companies it aimed to protect, and ineffective, as those it sought to punish may have circumvented it. - Highlights: • Consider the impact of EU trade restrictions on 454 PV producing firms. • Show that the regulation wiped $8 m off the average European PV manufacturer. • Show that the regulation wiped US$247 m off the value of the average Chinese PV manufacturers. • Show that the regulation stimulated Chinese firms to circumvent the barrier. • Conclude that the trade barrier was inefficient and ineffective.

  12. Nontarget analysis of polar contaminants in freshwater sediments influenced by pharmaceutical industry using ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terzic, Senka; Ahel, Marijan

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive analytical procedure for a reliable identification of nontarget polar contaminants in aquatic sediments was developed, based on the application of ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOFMS). The procedure was applied for the analysis of freshwater sediment that was highly impacted by wastewater discharges from the pharmaceutical industry. A number of different contaminants were successfully identified owing to the high mass accuracy of the QTOFMS system, used in combination with high chromatographic resolution of UHPLC. The major compounds, identified in investigated sediment, included a series of polypropylene glycols (n = 3-16), alkylbenzene sulfonate and benzalkonium surfactants as well as a number of various pharmaceuticals (chlorthalidone, warfarin, terbinafine, torsemide, zolpidem and macrolide antibiotics). The particular advantage of the applied technique is its capability to detect less known pharmaceutical intermediates and/or transformation products, which have not been previously reported in freshwater sediments. - Research highlights: → UHPLC-QTOFMS coupling was applied for nontarget analysis of polar contaminants. → Wide spectrum of polar contaminants was identified in polluted sediments. → Pharmaceuticals and their intermediates were present in high concentrations. - Comprehensive analysis of freshwater sediments by UPLC/QTOF indicated importance of pharmaceutically-derived polar contaminants.

  13. Nontarget analysis of polar contaminants in freshwater sediments influenced by pharmaceutical industry using ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terzic, Senka, E-mail: terzic@irb.h [Division of Marine and Environmental Research, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Ahel, Marijan [Division of Marine and Environmental Research, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2011-02-15

    A comprehensive analytical procedure for a reliable identification of nontarget polar contaminants in aquatic sediments was developed, based on the application of ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOFMS). The procedure was applied for the analysis of freshwater sediment that was highly impacted by wastewater discharges from the pharmaceutical industry. A number of different contaminants were successfully identified owing to the high mass accuracy of the QTOFMS system, used in combination with high chromatographic resolution of UHPLC. The major compounds, identified in investigated sediment, included a series of polypropylene glycols (n = 3-16), alkylbenzene sulfonate and benzalkonium surfactants as well as a number of various pharmaceuticals (chlorthalidone, warfarin, terbinafine, torsemide, zolpidem and macrolide antibiotics). The particular advantage of the applied technique is its capability to detect less known pharmaceutical intermediates and/or transformation products, which have not been previously reported in freshwater sediments. - Research highlights: UHPLC-QTOFMS coupling was applied for nontarget analysis of polar contaminants. Wide spectrum of polar contaminants was identified in polluted sediments. Pharmaceuticals and their intermediates were present in high concentrations. - Comprehensive analysis of freshwater sediments by UPLC/QTOF indicated importance of pharmaceutically-derived polar contaminants.

  14. Industrial gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, D.; Jackson, D.; Coeyman, M.

    1993-01-01

    Industrial gas companies have fought hard to boost sales and hold margins in the tough economic climate, and investments are well down from their 1989-'91 peak. But 'our industry is still very strong long term' says Alain Joly, CEO of industry leader L'Air Liquide (AL). By 1994, if a European and Japanese recovery follows through on one in the U.S., 'we could see major [investment] commitments starting again,' he says. 'Noncryogenic production technology is lowering the cost of gas-making possible new applications, oxygen is getting plenty of attention in the environmental area, and hydrogen also fits into the environmental thrust,' says Bob Lovett, executive v.p./gases and equipment with Air Products ampersand Chemicals (AP). Through the 1990's, 'Industrial gases could grow even faster than in the past decade,' he says. Virtually a new generation of new gases applications should become reality by the mid-1990s, says John Campbell, of industry consultants J.R. Campbell ampersand Associates (Lexington, MA). Big new oxygen volumes will be required for powder coal injection in blast furnaces-boosting a steel mill's requirement as much as 40% and coal gasification/combined cycle (CGCC). Increased oil refinery hydroprocessing needs promise hydrogen requirements

  15. Changes in activity of industrial enzyme preparations irradiated with sterilizing doses. Part of a coordinated programme on factors influencing the utilization of food irradiation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachman, S.

    1984-03-01

    Experiments were carried out to investigate the efficacy of irradiation to sterilize enzyme preparations. Irradiation doses up to 25 kGy caused no changes in basic organoleptic properties of commercial rennin preparations. Dose rate (from 0.5 to 13.5 kGy/hr) has no influence on the changes in enzyme activity during the storage period of 3 months. Doses ranging from 8 to 12 kGy are sufficient to sterilize commercial enzyme preparations. Non-purified, crude rennin preparations appear to be more resistant to radiation than purified samples. Rennin preparations purified by dialysis and treated with 25 kGy resulted in a reduction of activity of 20%. The activity of preparations purified by gel filtration was reduced to 50% when treated with the same dose

  16. The charge of ergonomics--a model according to the influence of ergonomic workplace design for economical and efficient indicators of the automotive industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubert, Nicole; Bruder, Ralph; Toledo, Begoña

    2012-01-01

    The importance of ergonomic workplace design has been rising incredibly. The knowledge of the interaction with a view to many indicators (e.g. operators' health, quality, productivity etc.) in the automotive assembly shop pushed into another thinking of ergonomics and an increasing awareness of economic possibilities relating to benefits and cost savings aligned with ergonomics. The paper discusses exemplary the various indicators and factors which could be influenced by ergonomic workplace design. These factors are linked each other and support the statement of ergonomic efficiency. Thus, the aim of this paper is to present a model which describes that investments in ergonomic work placement acts with preventive measurements, minimization of losses (refinishing operations, compensation money etc.) and extensive economies on the whole company.

  17. Energy industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staszak, Katarzyna; Wieszczycka, Karolina

    2018-04-01

    The potential sources of metals from energy industries are discussed. The discussion is organized based on two main metal-contains wastes from power plants: ashes, slags from combustion process and spent catalysts from selective catalytic NOx reduction process with ammonia, known as SCR. The compositions, methods of metals recovery, based mainly on leaching process, and their further application are presented. Solid coal combustion wastes are sources of various compounds such as silica, alumina, iron oxide, and calcium. In the case of the spent SCR catalysts mainly two metals are considered: vanadium and tungsten - basic components of industrial ones.

  18. Industrial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainul Hayati Daud; Hazmimi Kasim

    2010-01-01

    The industrial sector is categorized as related to among others, the provision of technical and engineering services, supply of products, testing and troubleshooting of parts, systems and industrial plants, quality control and assurance as well as manufacturing and processing. A total of 161 entities comprising 47 public agencies and 114 private companies were selected for the study in this sector. The majority of the public agencies, 87 %, operate in Peninsular Malaysia. The remainders were located in Sabah and Sarawak. The findings of the study on both public agencies and private companies are presented in subsequent sections of this chapter. (author)

  19. The examination of the seasonal influence on the efficiency in oil and fats removal through primary treatment from the wastewater of edible oil industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolin Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the influence of the seasonal change of the air temperature, chemical oxygen demand as well as efficiency of suspended matter removal on the efficiency of oil and fats removal (h, % during primary treatment. The parameters are monitored in the period of time from 2006 to 2011. The efficiency of oil and fats removal in the first and in the fourth quartal is proportional to the efficiency of the removal of suspended matter and of total organic matter, measured as chemical oxygen demand (COD. The measured values for oil and fat are: η (IV quartal = 0.96 % - 50.8 % and η (I quartal = 5.06 % - 95.97 %. The efficiency of oil and fats removal in the second and third quartal is proportional to air temperature so the measured efficiency of fat and oil removal are, η (II quartal = 3.93 % - 82.86 % and η (III quartal = 6.82% - 71.51%. The results of investigation have shown the existence of the correlation between the air temperature during various seasons and the efficiency of the oil and fats removal (h, % as well as the removal of the suspended matter and chemical oxygen demand (COD.

  20. Fermentation Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, C. P. L., Jr.; Grady, J. K.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from the fermentation industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review focuses on: (1) alcoholic beverage production; (2) pharmaceuticals and biochemicals production; and (3) biomass production. A list of 62 references is also presented. (HM)

  1. Industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloni, A.; Magal, O.

    1992-02-01

    This publication is meant to be a manual for industrial radiography. As such the manual concentrates on the practical aspects, presenting existing radiographic system and techniques of operation to satisfy specified quality requirements. The manual also reviews the safety aspect of performing radiographic work. (author) systems

  2. Education Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    themes: No Child Left Behind Act reauthorization, international competitiveness, and recruiting and retention of quality teachers. The US education ...industry stakeholders and require difficult choices. A more centralized education system has many advantages , and the US should move in that direction...between math and science skills, innovation and creativity, and international education , as all these areas are integral to future success. Finally

  3. Industrial garnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, D.W.

    2013-01-01

    Garnet has been used as a gemstone since the Bronze Age. However, garnet’s angular fractures, relatively high hardness and specific gravity, chemical inertness and nontoxicity make it ideal for many industrial applications. It is also free of crystalline silica and can be recycled.

  4. Post-war public housing in trouble : Papers presented at the Congress 'Post-war Public Housing in trouble', Delft, the Netherlands, October 4-5, 1984

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prak, N.L.; Priemus, H.

    1985-01-01

    In a number of countries the social housing sector was given serious food for thought when some relatively new housing estates had to be demolished: Pruitt Igoe (St. Louis), Quarry Hills (Leeds), la Démocratie (Lyon), Linnaeusstraat (Leeuwarden, NL). The management of many other estates proves to be

  5. Toxicological Impact of Air Pollution Particulate Matter PM 2.5 Collected under Urban Industrial or Rural Influence Occurrence of Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Reaction in BEAS 2B Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells Corrected Version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dergham, M.; Billet, S; Verdin, A.; Courcot, D.; Cazier, F.; Pirouz, Sh.; Garcon, G.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to air pollution Particulate Matter (PM) is one of the risk factors involved in the high incidence of respiratory and cardio-vascular diseases. In this work, to integrate inter-seasonal and inter-site variations, fine particle (PM2.5) samples have been collected in spring-summer 2008) and autumn 2008-winter 2009, in Dunkerque (France) under urban or industrial influence, and in Rubrouck (France), under rural influence. Attention was paid to characterize their physico-chemical characteristics, and to determine their ability to induce oxidative stress and inflammatory response in a human bronchial epithelial cell model (BEAS-2B cell line). Physico-chemical characterization of the six PM samples showed their heterogeneities and complexities depending upon their respective natural and/or anthropogenic emission sources. Lung cytotoxicity of these air pollution PM2.5 samples, as shown in BEAS-2B cells, might rely on the induction of oxidative stress conditions and particularly on the excessive inflammatory response. (author)

  6. Finance and Industrial Dynamics (In French)

    OpenAIRE

    Claude DUPUY (GREThA UMR CNRS 5113); Matthieu MONTALBAN (GREThA UMR CNRS 5113); Sylvain MOURA (GREThA UMR CNRS 5113)

    2009-01-01

    The transformations of the finance sector linked to the emergence of new actors (pension funds, mutual funds, hedge funds…) and its globalization have changed the rules of corporate governance and the competitive context of industrial companies. The theme of the influence between finance and industry is not new in the economic literature. The first thesis of the influence of finance on industry born in the United States (with the Veblen thesis) and Europe (Hilferding, 1910) with the developme...

  7. Studies on the impact, detection, and control of microbiology influenced corrosion related to pitting failures in the Russian oil and gas industry. Final CRADA report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehst, D.

    2006-09-30

    The objectives of the Project are: (1) to design effective anti-corrosion preparations (biocides, inhibitors, penetrants and their combinations) for gas- and oil-exploration industries; (2) to study a possibility of development of environmentally beneficial ('green') biocides and inhibitors of the new generation; (3) to develop chemical and microbiological methods of monitoring of sites at risk of corrosion; and (4) to evaluate potentialities in terms of technology, raw materials and material and technical basis to set up a production of effective anti-corrosion preparations of new generation in Russia. During the four years of the project 228 compounds and formulations were synthesized and studied in respect to their corrosion inhibiting activity. A series of compounds which were according to the Bubble tests more efficient (by a factor of 10-100) than the reference inhibitor SXT-1102, some possessing the similar activity or slightly better activity than new inhibitor ??-1154? (company ONDEO/Nalco). Two synthetic routes for the synthesis of mercaptopyrimidines as perspective corrosion inhibitors were developed. Mercaptopyrimidine derivatives can be obtained in one or two steps from cheap and easily available precursors. The cost for their synthesis is not high and can be further reduced after the optimization of the production processes. A new approach for lignin utilization was proposed. Water-soluble derivative of lignin can by transformed to corrosion protective layer by its electropolymerization on a steel surface. Varying lignosulfonates from different sources, as well as conditions of electrooxidation we proved, that drop in current at high anodic potentials is due to electropolymerization of lignin derivative at steel electrode surface. The electropolymerization potential can be sufficiently decreased by an increase in ionic strength of the growing solution. The lignosulfonate electropolymerization led to the considerable corrosion protection

  8. Rubber industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staszak, Maciej

    2018-03-01

    Following chapter presents short introductory description of rubber and rubber industry. The main problem of rubber industry is the way of the usage of spent tires. Furthermore very important group of problems arise considering the metal and nonmetal additives which are significant component of the vulcanized rubber. The key attention is dedicated to typical ways of rubber usage in utilization and recovery of metals from spent rubber materials concentrating specifically on used tires processing. The method of recovery of rare metals from rubber tires was described. The rubber debris finds widest use in the field of waste metal solutions processing. The environmental pollution caused by metals poses serious threat to humans. Several applications of the use of waste rubber debris to remove metals from environmental waters were described. Moreover, the agriculture usage of waste tire rubber debris is described, presenting systems where the rubber material can be useful as a soil replacement.

  9. Industry Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Angie Ngoc; Jeppesen, Søren

    2018-01-01

    This chapter draws on a study investigating what corporate social responsibility (CSR) means to Vietnam’s small- and medium-size enterprise (SME) owner/managers and workers, using Scott’s three-pillar (norms, regulation, cognition) institutional framework. The findings are based on factory visits...... and interviews with 40 managers/owners and 218 workers conducted in two sectors—textile/garment/footwear (TGF) and food/beverage processing (FBP)—around Ho Chi Minh City in 2011. Scott’s framework is useful in highlighting similarities and differences between these two sectors. We found more stringent state...... regulation and greater industry pressure with regard to quality and safety of products than to labour standards in both sectors. Most factories in the TGF sector assembled products for global supply chains and were under pressure by industry norms, while most companies in the FBP sector produced...

  10. Industrious Landscaping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brichet, Nathalia Sofie; Hastrup, Frida

    2018-01-01

    This article has a twofold ambition. It offers a history of landscaping at Søby brown coal beds—a former mining site in western Denmark—and a methodological discussion of how to write such a study. Exploring this specific industrial landscape through a series of projects that have made different...... natural resources appear, we show that even what is recognized as resources shifts over time according to radically different and unpredictable agendas. This indicates that the Søby landscape is fundamentally volatile, as its resourcefulness has been seen interchangeably to shift between the brown coal...... business, inexpensive estates for practically savvy people, pasture for grazing, and recreational forest, among other things. We discuss these rifts in landscape history, motivated by what we refer to as industriousness, to show that, at sites such as Søby, both natural resources and historical...

  11. Industrial vision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Ole

    1998-01-01

    This dissertation is concerned with the introduction of vision-based application s in the ship building industry. The industrial research project is divided into a natural seq uence of developments, from basic theoretical projective image generation via CAD and subpixel analysis to a description...... is present ed, and the variability of the parameters is examined and described. The concept of using CAD together with vision information is based on the fact that all items processed at OSS have an associated complete 3D CAD model that is accessible at all production states. This concept gives numerous...... possibilities for using vision in applications which otherwise would be very difficult to automate. The requirement for low tolerances in production is, despite the huge dimensions of the items involved, extreme. This fact makes great demands on the ability to do robust sub pixel estimation. A new method based...

  12. Technical change in US industry: A cross-industry analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, R. R. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    The nature of the public policies which have influenced the pace and pattern of technical progress in a number of American industries is studied with the view of assessing the broad effects of these policies. The industries studied are agriculture, pharmaceuticals, semiconductors, computers, civil aircraft, automobiles and residential construction. The policies considered include research and development funding as well as government procurement, education, information dissemination, patent protection, licensing, regulations, and anti-trust policies.

  13. Industry trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This section discusses the US energy supply and demand situation including projections for energy use, the clean coal industry (constraints of regulation on investment in new technologies, technology trends, and current pollution control efficiency), opportunities in clean coal technology (Phase 2 requirements of Title 4 of the Clean Air Act, scrubber demand for lime and limestone, and demand for low sulfur coal), and the international market of clean coal technologies

  14. Industrial melanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, E B

    1969-01-01

    Certain species of Lepidoptera have undergone a mutation in pigment color from white to black in order to be more concealing when in soot discolored environments in polluted industrial areas in England. In less polluted areas the original white variety continues to prosper. The two forms result from alleles of a color-controlling gene. The black variety is inconspicuous to insects when it settles on trees and rocks which are covered with soot.

  15. Agribusiness Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    sheer enormity of this ultra modernized industry. Hybridized or biotech corn seeds are now nearly impervious to pesticides and herbicides. From...efficient routes of commerce of many thousands of miles - a fresh head of broccoli and lettuce lands in the chilled and computer controlled misting...cumulatively, seemingly minor and insignificant changes in food production methods (i.e. packaged precut lettuce ), society (desire for convenience foods

  16. Industrial garnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, D.W.

    2007-01-01

    World production of industrial garnet was about 326 kt in 2006, with the U.S. producing about 11 percent of this total. U.S. consumption, imports, and exports were estimated at 74.3 kt, 52.3 kt, and 13.2 kt, respectively. The most important exporters are Australia, China, and India. Although demand is expected to rise over the next 5 years, prices are expected to remain low in the short term.

  17. Determinant factors of industrial symbiosis: greening Pasir Gudang industrial park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teh, B T; Ho, C S; Chau, L W; Matsuoka, Y; Gomi, K

    2014-01-01

    Green industry has been identified as an important element in attaining greater sustainability. It calls for harmonizing robust economic growth with environment protection. Industries, particularly in developing and transitional nations such as Malaysia, are in need of a reform. Many experts and international organizations suggest the concept of industrial symbiosis. Mainly, there are successful cases of industrial symbiosis practices around the world. However, there are numerous cases of failure too. As industrial symbiosis is an emerging new approach, with a short history of two decades, a lot of researches are generally focused on narrow context and technical details. There is a lack of concerted efforts to look into the drivers and barriers of industrial symbiosis across different cases. This paper aims to examine the factors influencing the development of industrial symbiosis from various countries to supports such networks to evolve in Pasir Gudang. The findings show institution, law and regulation, finance, awareness and capacity building, technology, research and development, information, collaboration, market, geography proximity, environmental issues and industry structure affect the formation of industrial symbiosis

  18. Determinant factors of industrial symbiosis: greening Pasir Gudang industrial park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, B. T.; Ho, C. S.; Matsuoka, Y.; Chau, L. W.; Gomi, K.

    2014-02-01

    Green industry has been identified as an important element in attaining greater sustainability. It calls for harmonizing robust economic growth with environment protection. Industries, particularly in developing and transitional nations such as Malaysia, are in need of a reform. Many experts and international organizations suggest the concept of industrial symbiosis. Mainly, there are successful cases of industrial symbiosis practices around the world. However, there are numerous cases of failure too. As industrial symbiosis is an emerging new approach, with a short history of two decades, a lot of researches are generally focused on narrow context and technical details. There is a lack of concerted efforts to look into the drivers and barriers of industrial symbiosis across different cases. This paper aims to examine the factors influencing the development of industrial symbiosis from various countries to supports such networks to evolve in Pasir Gudang. The findings show institution, law and regulation, finance, awareness and capacity building, technology, research and development, information, collaboration, market, geography proximity, environmental issues and industry structure affect the formation of industrial symbiosis.

  19. Empirical analysis of industrial operations in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galić Jelena

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the starting process of transition, industrial production in Montenegro has been faced with serious problems and its share in GDP is constantly decreasing. Global financial crises had in large extent negatively influenced industry. Analysis of financial indicators showed that industry had significant losses, problem of undercapitalisation and liquidity problems. If we look by industry sectors, than situation is more favourable in the production of electricity, gas and water compared to extracting industry and mining. In paper is proposed measures of economic policy in order to improve situation in industry.

  20. Emulsified industrial oils recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabris, T.

    1982-04-01

    The industrial lubricant market has been analyzed with emphasis on current and/or developing recycling and re-refining technologies. This task has been performed for the United States and other industrialized countries, specifically France, West Germany, Italy and Japan. Attention has been focused at emulsion-type fluids regardless of the industrial application involved. It was found that emulsion-type fluids in the United States represent a much higher percentage of the total fluids used than in other industrialized countries. While recycling is an active matter explored by the industry, re-refining is rather a result of other issues than the mere fact that oil can be regenerated from a used industrial emulsion. To extend the longevity of an emulsion is a logical step to keep expenses down by using the emulsion as long as possible. There is, however, another important factor influencing this issue: regulations governing the disposal of such fluids. The ecological question, the respect for nature and the natural balances, is often seen now as everybody's task. Regulations forbid dumping used emulsions in the environment without prior treatment of the water phase and separation of the oil phase. This is a costly procedure, so recycling is attractive since it postpones the problem. It is questionable whether re-refining of these emulsions - as a business - could stand on its own if these emulsions did not have to be taken apart for disposal purposes. Once the emulsion is separated into a water and an oil phase, however, re-refining of the oil does become economical.