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Sample records for inferential styles 5-httlpr

  1. Children's inferential styles, 5-HTTLPR genotype, and maternal expressed emotion-criticism: An integrated model for the intergenerational transmission of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Brandon E; Uhrlass, Dorothy J; Grassia, Marie; Benas, Jessica S; McGeary, John

    2009-11-01

    The authors tested a model for the intergenerational transmission of depression integrating specific genetic (5-HTTLPR), cognitive (inferential style), and environmental (mother depressive symptoms and expressed-emotion criticism [EE-Crit]) risk factors. Supporting the hypothesis that maternal depression is associated with elevated levels of stress in children's lives, mothers with a history of major depressive disorder (MDD) exhibited higher depressive symptoms across a 6-month multiwave follow-up than mothers with no depression history. In addition, partially supporting our hypothesis, levels of maternal criticism during the follow-up were significantly related to mothers' current depressive symptoms but not to history of MDD. Finally, the authors found support for an integrated Gene x Cognition x Environment model of risk. Specifically, among children with negative inferential styles regarding their self-characteristics, there was a clear dose response of 5-HTTLPR genotype moderating the relation between maternal criticism and children's depressive symptoms, with the highest depressive symptoms during the follow-up observed among children carrying 2 copies of the 5-HTTLPR lower expressing alleles (short [S] or long [LG]) who also exhibited negative inferential styles for self-characteristics and who experienced high levels of EE-Crit. In contrast, children with positive inferential styles exhibited low depressive symptoms regardless of 5-HTTLPR genotype or level of maternal criticism. PsycINFO Database Record 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. The serotonin transporter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) and personality: response style as a new endophenotype for anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plieger, Thomas; Montag, Christian; Felten, Andrea; Reuter, Martin

    2014-06-01

    Although the serotonin transporter length polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) polymorphism is an extensively-investigated genetic marker of anxiety related personality traits (neuroticism and harm avoidance) and affective disorders, effect sizes in meta-analyses are small, if present at all, and all available primary studies to date lack mandatory statistical power. Moreover, questionnaire data is prone to confounding by variables such as social desirability. Therefore, extreme response style (ERS) is suggested as a new approach to elucidate the relationship between 5-HTTLPR and negative emotionality, as it is more implicit and of high reliability. N = 1075 healthy subjects were genotyped for 5-HTTLPR and a flanking polymorphism (rs25531) and filled out the NEO Five Factor Inventory and the Temperament Character Inventory. As dependent variable the number of extreme responses across all items was calculated. Using the common genotype or the triallelic approach (including rs25531) the meta-analytic findings could not be replicated. However, there was a significant association between 5-HTTLPR and extreme response style. Carriers of the L-allele or the L'-allele, respectively, had a significantly higher number of extreme responses than homozygous SS carriers across all items of the NEO Five Factor Inventory. This finding could be replicated in an alternative personality questionnaire (Affective Neuroscience Personality Scales, ANPS). There is a long tradition in psychological assessment indicating that ERS is an implicit measure of personality. Given the positive findings of the present study, ERS qualifies as a promising endophenotype in future genetic association studies on personality and affective disorders.

  3. Inferential Style, School Teachers, and Depressive Symptoms in College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline M. Pittard,

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Depressive symptoms affect around half of students at some point during college. According to the hopelessness theory of depression, making negative inferences about stressful events is a vulnerability for developing depression. Negative and socioemotional teaching behavior can be stressors that are associated with depression in school students. First-time college freshmen completed the Cognitive Style Questionnaire (CSQ, Teaching Behavior Questionnaire (TBQ, and Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D. While completing the TBQ, participants reported on a teacher from prior education to college. Multiple regression analysis found significant effects of the independent variables (four teaching behavior types, inferential style, and interactions between the four teaching behavior types and inferential style on the dependent variable (depressive symptoms. More specifically, negative and socio-emotional teaching behavior were positively associated with depressive symptoms and instructional and organizational teaching behavior were negatively associated with depressive symptoms. Both organizational and negative teaching behavior interacted significantly with inferential style. Organizational and negative teaching behavior shared different relationships with depressive symptoms depending upon an individual‟s level of inferential style. Promotion of instructional and organizational teaching behavior in school as well as the reduction of negative teaching behavior may be useful in reducing students‟ depressive symptoms.

  4. Negative inferential style, emotional clarity, and life stress: integrating vulnerabilities to depression in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stange, Jonathan P; Alloy, Lauren B; Flynn, Megan; Abramson, Lyn Y

    2013-01-01

    Negative inferential style and deficits in emotional clarity have been identified as vulnerability factors for depression in adolescence, particularly when individuals experience high levels of life stress. However, previous research has not integrated these characteristics when evaluating vulnerability to depression. In the present study, a racially diverse community sample of 256 early adolescents (ages 12 and 13) completed a baseline visit and a follow-up visit 9 months later. Inferential style, emotional clarity, and depressive symptoms were assessed at baseline, and intervening life events and depressive symptoms were assessed at follow-up. Hierarchical linear regressions indicated that there was a significant three-way interaction between adolescents' weakest-link negative inferential style, emotional clarity, and intervening life stress predicting depressive symptoms at follow-up, controlling for initial depressive symptoms. Adolescents with low emotional clarity and high negative inferential styles experienced the greatest increases in depressive symptoms following life stress. Emotional clarity buffered against the impact of life stress on depressive symptoms among adolescents with negative inferential styles. Similarly, negative inferential styles exacerbated the impact of life stress on depressive symptoms among adolescents with low emotional clarity. These results provide evidence of the utility of integrating inferential style and emotional clarity as constructs of vulnerability in combination with life stress in the identification of adolescents at risk for depression. They also suggest the enhancement of emotional clarity as a potential intervention technique to protect against the effects of negative inferential styles and life stress on depression in early adolescence.

  5. 5-HTTLPR differentially predicts brain network responses to emotional faces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisher, Patrick M; Grady, Cheryl L; Madsen, Martin K

    2015-01-01

    The effects of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism on neural responses to emotionally salient faces have been studied extensively, focusing on amygdala reactivity and amygdala-prefrontal interactions. Despite compelling evidence that emotional face paradigms engage a distributed network of brain regions...... to fearful faces was significantly greater in S' carriers compared to LA LA individuals. These findings provide novel evidence for emotion-specific 5-HTTLPR effects on the response of a distributed set of brain regions including areas responsive to emotionally salient stimuli and critical components...... involved in emotion, cognitive and visual processing, less is known about 5-HTTLPR effects on broader network responses. To address this, we evaluated 5-HTTLPR differences in the whole-brain response to an emotional faces paradigm including neutral, angry and fearful faces using functional magnetic...

  6. Serotonin Transporter Genotype (5-HTTLPR) Predicts Utilitarian Moral Judgments

    OpenAIRE

    Marsh, Abigail A.; Crowe, Samantha L.; Yu, Henry H.; Gorodetsky, Elena K.; Goldman, David; Blair, R. J. R.

    2011-01-01

    Background The psychological and neurobiological processes underlying moral judgment have been the focus of extensive recent research. Here we show that serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) genotype predicts responses to moral dilemmas featuring foreseen harm to an innocent. Methodology/Principal Findings Participants in this study judged the acceptability of actions that would unintentionally or intentionally harm an innocent victim in order to save others' lives. An analysis of variance reveale...

  7. 5-HTTLPR Polymorphism: Analysis in South African Autistic Individuals

    KAUST Repository

    Arieff, Zainunisha

    2010-06-01

    The serotonin transporter promoter length polymorphism (5-hydroxytryptamine transporter length polymorphism; 5-HTTLPR) has long been implicated in autism and other psychiatric disorders. The use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) has a positive effect on treating some symptoms of autism. The effects of these drugs vary in individuals because of the presence of the S or L allele of 5-HTTLPR. Studies performed on various autistic populations have found different allele frequencies for the L and S alleles. Allele frequencies and genotypes of the South African autistic populations (African, mixed, and Caucasian) were compared with matching South African ethnic control populations. The *S/*S genotype was found to be highly significantly associated with all the South African autistic ethnic populations. In the South African African population the *S/*S genotype was present in 7 (33%) of the autistic individuals but in none of the control subjects, yielding infinitely large odds of developing autism. The odds of developing autism with the *S/*S genotype compared to the *L/*L genotype increased 10.15-fold in the South African mixed group and 2.74-fold in the South African Caucasian population. The allele frequency of the South African autistic population was also compared with studies of other autistic populations around the world, and highly significant differences were found with the Japanese, Korean, and Indian population groups. The difference was not significant for the French, German, Israeli, Portuguese, and American groups. This is the first South African study of autistic individuals of different ethnic backgrounds that shows significant differences in allele and genotype frequencies of 5-HTTLPR. The results of this study open new avenues for investigating the role of transmission of the L and S alleles in families with autism in South Africa.

  8. 5-HTTLPR Polymorphism: Analysis in South African Autistic Individuals

    KAUST Repository

    Arieff, Zainunisha; Kaur, Mandeep; Gameeldien, Hajirah; van der Merwe, Lize; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2010-01-01

    The serotonin transporter promoter length polymorphism (5-hydroxytryptamine transporter length polymorphism; 5-HTTLPR) has long been implicated in autism and other psychiatric disorders. The use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) has a positive effect on treating some symptoms of autism. The effects of these drugs vary in individuals because of the presence of the S or L allele of 5-HTTLPR. Studies performed on various autistic populations have found different allele frequencies for the L and S alleles. Allele frequencies and genotypes of the South African autistic populations (African, mixed, and Caucasian) were compared with matching South African ethnic control populations. The *S/*S genotype was found to be highly significantly associated with all the South African autistic ethnic populations. In the South African African population the *S/*S genotype was present in 7 (33%) of the autistic individuals but in none of the control subjects, yielding infinitely large odds of developing autism. The odds of developing autism with the *S/*S genotype compared to the *L/*L genotype increased 10.15-fold in the South African mixed group and 2.74-fold in the South African Caucasian population. The allele frequency of the South African autistic population was also compared with studies of other autistic populations around the world, and highly significant differences were found with the Japanese, Korean, and Indian population groups. The difference was not significant for the French, German, Israeli, Portuguese, and American groups. This is the first South African study of autistic individuals of different ethnic backgrounds that shows significant differences in allele and genotype frequencies of 5-HTTLPR. The results of this study open new avenues for investigating the role of transmission of the L and S alleles in families with autism in South Africa.

  9. 5-HTTLPR polymorphism: analysis in South African autistic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arieff, Zainunisha; Kaur, Mandeep; Gameeldien, Hajirah; van der Merwe, Lize; Bajic, Vladimir B

    2010-06-01

    The serotonin transporter promoter length polymorphism (5-hydroxytryptamine transporter length polymorphism; 5-HTTLPR) has long been implicated in autism and other psychiatric disorders. The use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) has a positive effect on treating some symptoms of autism. The effects of these drugs vary in individuals because of the presence of the S or L allele of 5-HTTLPR. Studies performed on various autistic populations have found different allele frequencies for the L and S alleles. Allele frequencies and genotypes of the South African autistic populations (African, mixed, and Caucasian) were compared with matching South African ethnic control populations. The *S/*S genotype was found to be highly significantly associated with all the South African autistic ethnic populations. In the South African African population the *S/*S genotype was present in 7 (33%) of the autistic individuals but in none of the control subjects, yielding infinitely large odds of developing autism. The odds of developing autism with the *S/*S genotype compared to the *L/*L genotype increased 10.15-fold in the South African mixed group and 2.74-fold in the South African Caucasian population. The allele frequency of the South African autistic population was also compared with studies of other autistic populations around the world, and highly significant differences were found with the Japanese, Korean, and Indian population groups. The difference was not significant for the French, German, Israeli, Portuguese, and American groups. This is the first South African study of autistic individuals of different ethnic backgrounds that shows significant differences in allele and genotype frequencies of 5-HTTLPR. The results of this study open new avenues for investigating the role of transmission of the L and S alleles in families with autism in South Africa.

  10. Variations in 5-HTTLPR: relation to familiar risk of affective disorder, life events, neuroticism and cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Mellerup, Erling; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Variations in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) and stressful life events are associated with affective disorders. AIM: To investigate whether the distribution of the alleles of the 5-HTTLPR is associated with a genetic predisposition to affective disorder and whether these va...

  11. Gene by cognition interaction on stress-induced attention bias for food: Effects of 5-HTTLPR and ruminative thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepers, Robbie; Markus, C Rob

    2017-09-01

    Stress is often found to increase the preference and intake of high caloric foods. This effect is known as emotional eating and is influenced by cognitive as well as biological stress vulnerabilities. An S-allele of the 5-HTTLPR gene has been linked to decreased (brain) serotonin efficiency, leading to decreased stress resilience and increased risks for negative affect and eating related disturbances. Recently it has been proposed that a cognitive ruminative thinking style can further exacerbate the effect of this gene by prolonging the already increased stress response, thereby potentially increasing the risk of compensating by overeating high palatable foods. This study was aimed at investigating whether there is an increased risk for emotional eating in high ruminative S/S-allele carriers reflected by an increased attention bias for high caloric foods during stress. From a large (N=827) DNA database, participants (N=100) were selected based on genotype (S/S or L/L) and ruminative thinking style and performed an eye-tracking visual food-picture probe task before and after acute stress exposure. A significant Genotype x Rumination x Stress-interaction was found on attention bias for savory food; indicating that a stress-induced attention bias for specifically high-caloric foods is moderated by a gene x cognitive risk factor. Both a genetic (5-HTTLPR) and cognitive (ruminative thinking) stress vulnerability may mutually increase the risk for stress-related abnormal eating patterns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Gene-environment correlations in the cross-generational transmission of parenting: Grandparenting moderates the effect of child 5-HTTLPR genotype on mothers' parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C; Hayden, Elizabeth P; Singh, Shiva M; Sheikh, Haroon I; Kryski, Katie R; Klein, Daniel N

    2017-11-01

    Evidence suggests that parenting is associated cross-generationally and that children's genes may elicit specific parenting styles (evocative gene-environment correlation). This study examined whether the effect of children's genotype, specifically 5-HTTLPR, on mothers' parenting behaviors was moderated by her own parenting experiences from her mother. Two independent samples of three-year-olds (N = 476 and 405) were genotyped for the serotonin transporter gene, and observational measures of parenting were collected. Mothers completed measures of the parenting they received as children. The child having a short allele on 5-HTTLPR was associated with more maternal hostility (sample 1 and 2) and with less maternal support (sample 1), but only if the mother reported lower quality grandmothers' parenting (abuse and indifference in Sample 1 and lower levels of grandmother care in Sample 2). Results support the possibility of a moderated evocative gene-environment correlation.

  13. Gene-environment correlations in the cross-generational transmission of parenting: Grandparenting moderates the effect of child 5-HTTLPR genotype on mothers’ parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C.; Hayden, Elizabeth P.; Singh, Shiva M.; Sheikh, Haroon I.; Kryski, Katie R.; Klein, Daniel N.

    2017-01-01

    Evidence suggests that parenting is associated cross-generationally and that children’s genes may elicit specific parenting styles (evocative gene-environment correlation). This study examined whether the effect of children’s genotype, specifically 5-HTTLPR, on mothers’ parenting behaviors was moderated by her own parenting experiences from her mother. Two independent samples of three-year-olds (N = 476 and 405) were genotyped for the serotonin transporter gene, and observational measures of parenting were collected. Mothers completed measures of the parenting they received as children. The child having a short allele on 5-HTTLPR was associated with more maternal hostility (sample 1 and 2) and with less maternal support (sample 1), but only if the mother reported lower quality grandmothers’ parenting (abuse and indifference in Sample 1 and lower levels of grandmother care in Sample 2). Results support the possibility of a moderated evocative gene-environment correlation. PMID:29628626

  14. Modulation of Human Serotonin Transporter Expression by 5-HTTLPR in Colon Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tewin Tencomnao

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Serotonin (5-HT is a monoamine neurotransmitter and plays important roles in several of the human body’s systems. Known as a primary target for psychoactive drug development, the 5-HT transporter (5-HTT, SERT plays a critical role in the regulation of serotonergic function by reuptaking 5-HT. The allelic variation of 5-HTT expression is caused by functional gene promoter polymorphism with two principal variant alleles, 5-HTT gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR. It has been demonstrated that 5-HTTLPR is associated with numerous neuropsychiatric disorders. The functional roles of 5-HTTLPR have been reported in human choriocarcinoma (JAR, lymphoblast and raphe cells. To date, the significance of 5-HTTLPR in gastrointestinal tract-derived cells has never been elucidated. Thus, the impact of 5-HTTLPR on 5-HTT transcription was studied in SW480 human colon carcinoma cells, which were shown to express 5-HTT. We found 42-bp fragment in long (L allele as compared to short (S allele, and this allelic difference resulted in 2-fold higher transcriptional efficiency of L allele (P < 0.05 as demonstrated using a functional reporter gene assay. Nevertheless, the transcriptional effect of estrogen and glucocorticoid on 5-HTT expression via 5-HTTLPR was not found in this cell line. Our study was the first to demonstrate the molecular role of this allelic variation in gastrointestinal tract cells.

  15. On inferentialism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Luis

    2017-12-01

    This article is a critical commentary on inferentialism in mathematics education. In the first part, I comment on some of the major shortcomings that inferentialists see in the theoretical underpinnings of representationalist, empiricist, and socioconstructivist mathematics education theories. I discuss in particular the criticism that inferentialism makes of the social dimension as conceptualized by socioconstructivism and the question related to the objectivity of knowledge. In the second part, I discuss some of the theoretical foundations of inferentialism in mathematics education and try to answer the question of whether or not inferentialism overcomes the individual-social divide. In the third part, I speculate on what I think inferentialism accomplishes and what I think it does not.

  16. 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and anxious preoccupation in early breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schillani, Giulia; Era, Daniel; Cristante, Tania; Mustacchi, Giorgio; Richiardi, Martina; Grassi, Luigi; Giraldi, Tullio

    2012-01-01

    Difficulties in coping with cancer, and the accompanying anxious and depressive symptoms, have been shown to affect the mood and the quality of life in breast cancer patients. 5-Hydroxytryptamine Transporter Gene-linked Polymorphic Region (5-HTTLPR) functional polymorphism of serotonin transporter has been shown to influence the adaptation to stressful life events. The aim of this prospective study was therefore to examine the association of 5-HTTLPR with the mental adaptation to cancer diagnosis and treatment. Forty eight consecutive patients with early mammary carcinoma were evaluated at enrolment and at follow up after one and three months. The patients were characterized psychometrically using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale (Mini-MAC); 5-HTTLPR allelic variants were determined using PCR-based techniques. In women with early breast cancer, the mental adaptation to the disease was associated with high scores of avoidance and anxious preoccupation of Mini-MAC, which decreased with time at follow up. Anxious preoccupation decreased with time less in patients with the S/S and S/L genetic variant of 5-HTTLPR as compared with the L/L carriers (p=0.023), indicating gene - environment interactions. These results indicate that the characterization of 5-HTTLPR allows the identification of breast cancer patients in greater risk of mental suffering, for which specific intervention may be focused; in case of drug therapy, they provide indications for the choice of most appropriate agent in a pharmacogenetic perspective

  17. 5-HTTLPR polymorphism is associated with nostalgia proneness: The role of neuroticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yu L L; Welker, Keith M; Way, Baldwin; DeWall, Nathan; Bushman, Brad J; Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine

    2017-12-12

    Nostalgia, a sentimental longing for the past, is a self-relevant and social emotion. Nostalgia proneness is associated with alleviation of distress or instability (e.g., neuroticism). Although nostalgia proneness is heritable, the specific molecular contributors to this heritability are unknown. We focused on a polymorphism in the promoter of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) as a possible biological basis of nostalgia proneness, because the serotonin system has been associated with sensitivity to negative experience. Participants (N = 397 adults) who had reported levels of nostalgia proneness were genotyped. A subsample also completed a measure of neuroticism. Participants with the 5-HTTLPR short allele were higher on nostalgia proneness than those without this allele. Neuroticism mediated the relation between 5-HTTLPR and nostalgia proneness. These findings enrich our understanding of the genetic and personality underpinnings of nostalgia.

  18. Amygdala response to anticipation of dyspnea is modulated by 5-HTTLPR genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeckel, M Cornelia; Esser, Roland W; Gamer, Matthias; Kalisch, Raffael; Büchel, Christian; von Leupoldt, Andreas

    2015-07-01

    Dyspnea anticipation and perception varies largely between individuals. To investigate whether genetic factors related to negative affect such as the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism impact this variability, we investigated healthy, 5-HTTLPR stratified volunteers using resistive load induced dyspnea together with fMRI. Alternating blocks of severe and mild dyspnea ("perception") were differentially cued ("anticipation") and followed by intensity and unpleasantness ratings. In addition, volunteers indicated their anticipatory fear during the anticipation periods. There were no genotype-based group differences concerning dyspnea intensity and unpleasantness or brain activation during perception of severe vs. mild dyspnea. However, in risk allele carriers, higher anticipatory fear was paralleled by stronger amygdala activation during anticipation of severe vs. mild dyspnea. These results suggest a role of the 5-HTTLPR genotype in fearful dyspnea anticipation. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  19. Short alleles, bigger smiles? The effect of 5-HTTLPR on positive emotional expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Claudia M; Beermann, Ursula; Saslow, Laura R; Shiota, Michelle N; Saturn, Sarina R; Lwi, Sandy J; Casey, James J; Nguyen, Nguyen K; Whalen, Patrick K; Keltner, Dacher; Levenson, Robert W

    2015-08-01

    The present research examined the effect of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene on objectively coded positive emotional expressions (i.e., laughing and smiling behavior objectively coded using the Facial Action Coding System). Three studies with independent samples of participants were conducted. Study 1 examined young adults watching still cartoons. Study 2 examined young, middle-aged, and older adults watching a thematically ambiguous yet subtly amusing film clip. Study 3 examined middle-aged and older spouses discussing an area of marital conflict (that typically produces both positive and negative emotion). Aggregating data across studies, results showed that the short allele of 5-HTTLPR predicted heightened positive emotional expressions. Results remained stable when controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, and depressive symptoms. These findings are consistent with the notion that the short allele of 5-HTTLPR functions as an emotion amplifier, which may confer heightened susceptibility to environmental conditions. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. A pilot study exploring the association of morphological changes with 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in OCD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Shinichi; Nakao, Tomohiro; Mitsuyasu, Hiroshi; Okada, Kayo; Gotoh, Leo; Tomita, Mayumi; Sanematsu, Hirokuni; Murayama, Keitaro; Ikari, Keisuke; Kuwano, Masumi; Yoshiura, Takashi; Kawasaki, Hiroaki; Kanba, Shigenobu

    2017-01-01

    Clinical and pharmacological studies of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have suggested that the serotonergic systems are involved in the pathogenesis, while structural imaging studies have found some neuroanatomical abnormalities in OCD patients. In the etiopathogenesis of OCD, few studies have performed concurrent assessment of genetic and neuroanatomical variables. We carried out a two-way ANOVA between a variable number of tandem repeat polymorphisms (5-HTTLPR) in the serotonin transporter gene and gray matter (GM) volumes in 40 OCD patients and 40 healthy controls (HCs). We found that relative to the HCs, the OCD patients showed significant decreased GM volume in the right hippocampus, and increased GM volume in the left precentral gyrus. 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in OCD patients had a statistical tendency of stronger effects on the right frontal pole than those in HCs. Our results showed that the neuroanatomical changes of specific GM regions could be endophenotypes of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in OCD.

  1. Association between a serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism (5HTTLPR) and personality disorder traits in a community sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Rianne M.; Samuels, Jack F.; Riddle, Mark A.; Joseph Bienvenu, O.; Grados, Marco A.; Reti, Irving M.; Eaton, William W.; Liang, Kung-Yee; Nestadt, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) polymorphism (5HTTLPR) has been reported to be associated with several psychiatric conditions. Specific personality disorders could be intermediate factors in the known relationship between 5HTTLPR and psychiatric disorders. This is the first study to test the

  2. Interaction of 5-HTTLPR and Idiographic Stressors Predicts Prospective Depressive Symptoms Specifically among Youth in a Multiwave Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankin, Benjamin L.; Jenness, Jessica; Abela, John R. Z.; Smolen, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    5-HTTLPR, episodic stressors, depressive and anxious symptoms were assessed prospectively (child and parent report) every 3 months over 1 year (5 waves of data) among community youth ages 9 to 15 (n = 220). Lagged hierarchical linear modeling analyses showed 5-HTTLPR interacted with idiographic stressors (increases relative to the child's own…

  3. Anticipated outcomes from introduction of 5-HTTLPR genotyping for depressed patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Svetlana; Møldrup, C

    2010-01-01

    rates with genotyping at first sight do not appear to be superior to existing practice, i.e. without genotyping. It is anticipated that a combination of 5-HTTLPR testing with other genomic variables, which have yet to be determined, and compliance measurements can improve clinical outcomes in the future...

  4. 5-HTTLPR X Stress in Adolescent Depression: Moderation by MAOA and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priess-Groben, Heather A.; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2013-01-01

    Depression surges in adolescence, especially among girls. Most evidence indicates that the short allele of a polymorphism in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) interacts with stress to influence the onset of depression. This effect appears to be less robust in adolescents, particularly among boys, and may be moderated…

  5. Interaction between 5-HTTLPR and BDNF Val66Met polymorphisms on HPA axis reactivity in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Lea R; Klein, Daniel N; Congdon, Eliza; Canli, Turhan; Hayden, Elizabeth P

    2010-02-01

    This study examined whether the interaction between the serotonin transporter promoter region (5-HTTLPR) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphisms was associated with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity to stress. A community sample of 144 preschool-aged children was genotyped and exposed to stress-inducing laboratory tasks. Salivary cortisol was obtained at four time points during a standardized laboratory assessment before and after stressors involving separation from a parent and frustrating tasks. Children homozygous for the short-5-HTTLPR allele and carrying the Met-BDNF allele evidenced a significantly lower initial level of cortisol, followed by a positive increase in cortisol in response to the laboratory stressors. In contrast, children who were homozygous for the short-5-HTTLPR and the Val-BDNF alleles evidenced a greater decline in cortisol in response to the laboratory stressors. Findings indicated that the BDNF gene moderated the association between 5-HTTLPR and children's biological stress responses, suggesting that epistatic effects play a role in individual differences in stress regulation, and possibly genetic vulnerability to stress-related disorders. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Face and emotion expression processing and the serotonin transporter polymorphism 5-HTTLPR/rs22531.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, A; Kiy, A; Reuter, M; Sommer, W; Wilhelm, O

    2016-06-01

    Face cognition, including face identity and facial expression processing, is a crucial component of socio-emotional abilities, characterizing humans as highest developed social beings. However, for these trait domains molecular genetic studies investigating gene-behavior associations based on well-founded phenotype definitions are still rare. We examined the relationship between 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 polymorphisms - related to serotonin-reuptake - and the ability to perceive and recognize faces and emotional expressions in human faces. For this aim we conducted structural equation modeling on data from 230 young adults, obtained by using a comprehensive, multivariate task battery with maximal effort tasks. By additionally modeling fluid intelligence and immediate and delayed memory factors, we aimed to address the discriminant relationships of the 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 polymorphisms with socio-emotional abilities. We found a robust association between the 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 polymorphism and facial emotion perception. Carriers of two long (L) alleles outperformed carriers of one or two S alleles. Weaker associations were present for face identity perception and memory for emotional facial expressions. There was no association between the 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 polymorphism and non-social abilities, demonstrating discriminant validity of the relationships. We discuss the implications and possible neural mechanisms underlying these novel findings. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  7. Children's Attentional Biases and "5-HTTLPR" Genotype: Potential Mechanisms Linking Mother and Child Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Brandon E.; Benas, Jessica S.; Grassia, Marie; McGeary, John

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we examined the roles of specific cognitive (attentional bias) and genetic ("5-HTTLPR") risk factors in the intergenerational transmission of depression. Focusing first on the link between maternal history of major depressive disorder (MDD) and children's attentional biases, we found that children of mothers with a history…

  8. Polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) in major depressive disorder patients in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed Saini, Suriati; Muhamad Radzi, Azizah; Abdul Rahman, Abdul Hamid

    2012-06-01

    The serotonin transporter promoter (5-HTTLPR) is a potential susceptibility locus in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder. However, data from Malaysia is lacking. The present study aimed to determine the association between the homozygous short variant of the serotonin transporter promoter gene (5-HTTLPR) with major depressive disorder. This is a candidate gene case-control association study. The sample consists of 55 major depressive disorder probands and 66 controls. They were Malaysian descents and were unrelated. The Axis I diagnosis was determined using Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.). The control group comprised healthy volunteers without personal psychiatric history and family history of mood disorders. Participants' blood was sent to the Institute Medical Research for genotyping. The present study failed to detect an association between 5-HTTLPR ss genotype with major depressive disorder (χ(2)  = 3.67, d.f. = 1, P = 0.055, odds ratio 0.25, 95% confidence interval = 0.07-1.94). Sub-analysis revealed that the frequency of l allele in healthy controls was higher (78.0%) than that of Caucasian and East Asian population. However, in view of the small sample size this study may be prone to type II error (and type I error). This preliminary study suggests that the homozygous short variant of the 5-HTTLPR did not appear to be a risk factor for increasing susceptibility to major depressive disorder. Copyright © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. The serotonin transporter promoter variant (5-HTTLPR) and childhood adversity are associated with the personality trait openness to experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Shafiqur; Guban, Peter; Wang, Mei; Melas, Philippe A; Forsell, Yvonne; Lavebratt, Catharina

    2017-11-01

    There is evidence supporting an association between the serotonin-transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and the Five Factor Model (FFM) of human personality. 5-HTTLPR has also been found to interact with stressful life events to increase risk of psychopathology. In the present study, by taking into account stressful life events in the form of childhood adversity, we examined the association between 5-HTTLPR and FFM traits using an adult Swedish cohort (N = 3112). We found that 5-HTTLPR was significantly associated with openness (to experience). Specifically, homozygote carriers of the short allele had lower levels of openness compared to carriers of the long allele. In addition, childhood adversity was found to influence openness. These findings support a previously reported association of 5-HTTLPR with openness in a younger cohort and may provide insights into the neurobiological basis of human personality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The 5-HTTLPR polymorphism, impulsivity and suicide behavior in euthymic bipolar patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy-Diniz, Leandro Fernandes; Neves, Fernando Silva; de Moraes, Paulo Henrique Paiva; De Marco, Luiz Armando; Romano-Silva, Marco Aurélio; Krebs, Marie-Odile; Corrêa, Humberto

    2011-09-01

    Suicide behavior is very frequent in Bipolar Disorder (BD) and they are both closely associated with impulsivity. Furthermore they are, impulsivity, BD and suicide behavior, associated with serotonergic function, at least partially, under genetic determinism and somewhat associated with the serotonin transporter gene polymorphism, the 5-HTTLPR. We aimed to assess different impulsivity components in BD sub-grouped by suicidal attempt and healthy controls. We hypothesized that the non-planning/cognitive impulsivity, could be more closely associated with suicidal behavior. We further associated 5-HTTLPR genotypes with neuropsychological results to test the hypothesis that this polymorphism is associated with cognitive impulsivity. We assessed 95 euthymic bipolar patients sub-grouped by suicidal attempt history in comparison with 94 healthy controls. All subjects underwent a laboratory assessment of impulsivity (Continuous Performance Test and Iowa Gambling Test). Furthermore the genotyping of 5-HTTLPR was performed in all subjects. We found that bipolar patients are more impulsive than healthy controls in all impulsivity dimensions we studied. Furthermore bipolar patients with a suicide attempt history have a greater cognitive impulsivity when compared to both bipolar patients without such a history as well when compared to healthy controls. No association was found between 5-HTTLPR genotypes and neuropsychological measures of impulsive behavior. The sample studied can be considered small and a potentially confounding variable - medication status - was not controlled. A lifetime suicide attempt seems associated with cognitive impulsivity independently of the socio-demographic and clinical variables studied as well with 5-HTTLPR genotype. Further studies in larger samples are necessary. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Inferentializing Semantics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peregrin, Jaroslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 3 (2010), s. 255-274 ISSN 0022-3611 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA401/07/0904 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : inference * proof theory * model theory * inferentialism * semantics Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  12. Change in attachment predicts change in emotion regulation particularly among 5-HTTLPR short-allele homozygotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viddal, Kristine Rensvik; Berg-Nielsen, Turid Suzanne; Belsky, Jay; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2017-07-01

    In view of the theory that the attachment relationship provides a foundation for the development of emotion regulation, here, we evaluated (a) whether change in attachment security from 4 to 6 years predicts change in emotion regulation from 6 to 8 years and (b) whether 5-HTTLPR moderates this relation in a Norwegian community sample (n = 678, 99.7% Caucasian). Attachment was measured with the Manchester Child Attachment Story Task, and teachers completed the Emotion Regulation Checklist. Attachment security was modestly stable, with children becoming more secure over time. Regression analyses revealed that increased attachment security from 4 to 6 forecasted increases in emotion regulation from 6 to 8 and decreased attachment security forecasted decreases in emotion regulation. This effect was strongest among the 5-HTTLPR short-allele homozygotes and, according to competitive model fitting, in a differential-susceptibility manner. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Threat-related amygdala functional connectivity is associated with 5-HTTLPR genotype and neuroticism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Martin Korsbak; Mc Mahon, Brenda; Andersen, Sofie Bech

    2016-01-01

    between right amygdala and mPFC and visual cortex, and between both amygdalae and left lateral orbitofrontal (lOFC) and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC). Notably, 5-HTTLPR moderated the association between neuroticism and functional connectivity between both amygdalae and left l...... is not fully understood. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we evaluated independent and interactive effects of the 5-HTTLPR genotype and neuroticism on amygdala functional connectivity during an emotional faces paradigm in 76 healthy individuals. Functional connectivity between left amygdala......Communication between the amygdala and other brain regions critically regulates sensitivity to threat, which has been associated with risk for mood and affective disorders. The extent to which these neural pathways are genetically determined or correlate with risk-related personality measures...

  14. 5-HTTLPR polymorphism modulates neural mechanisms of negative self-reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yina; Li, Bingfeng; Wang, Chenbo; Shi, Zhenhao; Sun, Yun; Sheng, Feng; Zhang, Yifan; Zhang, Wenxia; Rao, Yi; Han, Shihui

    2014-09-01

    Cognitive distortion in depression is characterized by enhanced negative thoughts about both environment and oneself. Carriers of a risk allele for depression, that is, the short (s) allele of the serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR), exhibit amygdala hyperresponsiveness to negative environmental stimuli relative to homozygous long variant (l/l). However, the neural correlates of negative self-schema in s allele carriers remain unknown. Using functional MRI, we scanned individuals with s/s or l/l genotype of the 5-HTTLPR during reflection on their own personality traits or a friend's personality traits. We found that relative to l/l carriers, s/s carriers showed stronger distressed feelings and greater activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate (dACC)/dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) and the right anterior insula (AI) during negative self-reflection. The 5-HTTLPR effect on the distressed feelings was mediated by the AI/inferior frontal (IF) activity during negative self-reflection. The dACC/dmPFC activity explained 20% of the variation in harm-avoidance tendency in s/s but not l/l carriers. The genotype effects on distress and brain activity were not observed during reflection on a friend's negative traits. Our findings reveal that 5-HTTLPR polymorphism modulates distressed feelings and brain activities associated with negative self-schema and suggest a potential neurogenetic susceptibility mechanism for depression. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Interaction Between 5-HTTLPR and BDNF Val66Met Polymorphisms on HPA Axis Reactivity in Preschoolers

    OpenAIRE

    Dougherty, Lea R.; Klein, Daniel N.; Congdon, Eliza; Canli, Turhan; Hayden, Elizabeth P.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether the interaction between the serotonin transporter promoter region (5-HTTLPR) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphisms was associated with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity to stress. A community sample of 144 preschool-aged children was genotyped and exposed to stress-inducing laboratory tasks. Salivary cortisol was obtained at four time points during a standardized laboratory assessment before and after stressors invol...

  16. 5-HTTLPR moderates the association between interdependence and brain responses to mortality threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Siyang; Yu, Dian; Han, Shihui

    2017-12-01

    While behavioral research suggests an association between cultural worldview and decreased anxiety of death, the underlying neurobiological mechanisms remain unclear. Using functional MRI, we investigated whether and how the serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR), which has been associated with mental disorders such as anxiety and depression, moderates the associations between a cultural trait (i.e., interdependence) and self-report of death anxiety/depression and between interdependence and brain responses to mortality threats. Long/long and short/short allele carriers of the 5-HTTLPR were scanned using fMRI while they performed a one-back task on death-related, death-unrelated negative, and neutral words. Participants' interdependence and death anxiety/depression were assessed using questionnaires after scanning. We found that participants who assessed themselves with greater interdependence reported lower death anxiety/depression and showed decreased neural response to death-related words in emotion-related brain regions including the anterior cingulate, putamen, and thalamus. However, these results were evident in long/long allele carriers of the 5-HTTLPR but not in short/short allele carriers who even showed positive associations between interdependence and neural activities in the anterior cingulate, putamen and thalamus in response to death-related words. Our findings suggest candidate mechanisms for explaining the complex relationship between genotype, cultural traits, and mental/neural responses to mortality threats. Hum Brain Mapp 38:6157-6171, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Association between 5-HTTLPR and borderline personality disorder traits among youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Hankin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study provides the first genetic association examination of borderline personality disorder traits (BPD traits in children and adolescents (ages 9-15 using two independent samples of youth recruited from the general community. We tested the a priori hypothesis that the serotonin transporter promoter gene (5-HTTLPR would relate specifically to BPD traits in youth. This association was hypothesized based on prior genetic association research with BPD adults and theory positing that emotion dysregulation may be a core risk process contributing to BPD. Youth provided DNA via buccal cells. Both youth and a parent completed self-report measures assessing youth’s BPD traits and depressive symptoms. Results from both Study 1 (N = 242 and an independent replication sample of Study 2 (N = 144 showed that carriers of the short allele of 5-HTTLPR exhibited the highest levels of BPD traits. This relation was observed even after controlling for the substantial co-occurrence between BPD traits and depressive symptoms. This specific association between 5-HTTLPR and BPD traits among youth supports previous genetic associations with adults diagnosed with BPD and provides preliminary support for a developmental extension of etiological risk for BPD among youth.

  18. Serotonin Transporter Genotype (5HTTLPR) Moderates the Longitudinal Impact of Atypical Attachment on Externalizing Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Kathryn L; Zeanah, Charles H; Nelson, Charles A; Fox, Nathan A; Drury, Stacy S

    2015-01-01

    To test whether genotype of the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5HTTLPR) and atypical attachment interact to predict externalizing psychopathology prospectively in a sample of children with a history of early institutional care. Caregiver report of externalizing behavior at 54 months was examined in 105 children initially reared in institutional care and enrolled in the Bucharest Early Intervention Project, a randomized controlled trial of high quality foster care. 5HTTLPR genotype, attachment status at 42 months of age (typical [secure, avoidant, or ambivalent] or atypical [disorganized-controlling, insecure-other]), and their interaction were examined as predictors of externalizing behavior at age 54 months. 5HTTLPR genotype and atypical attachment at age 42 months interacted to predict externalizing behavior at age 54 months. Specifically, children with the s/s genotype with an atypical attachment had the highest externalizing scores. However, s/s children with a typical attachment demonstrated the lowest externalizing scores, even after controlling for intervention group status. There was no association between attachment status and externalizing behavior among children carrying at least 1 copy of the l allele. These findings indicate that genetic variation in the serotonergic system moderates the association between atypical attachment status and externalizing in young children. Our findings suggest that children, as a result of genetic variability in the serotonergic system, demonstrate differential sensitivity to the attachment relationship.

  19. Serotonin Transporter Genotype (5HTTLPR) Moderates the Longitudinal Impact of Atypical Attachment on Externalizing Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Nelson, Charles A.; Fox, Nathan A.; Drury, Stacy S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test whether genotype of the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5HTTLPR) and atypical attachment interact to predict externalizing psychopathology prospectively in a sample of children with a history of early institutional care. Methods Caregiver report of externalizing behavior at 54 months was examined in 105 children initially reared in institutional care and enrolled in the Bucharest Early Intervention Project, a randomized controlled trial of high quality foster care. 5HTTLPR genotype, attachment status at 42 months of age (typical [secure, avoidant, or ambivalent] or atypical [disorganized-controlling, insecure-other]), as well as their interaction, were examined as predictors of externalizing behavior at age 54 months. Results 5HTTLPR genotype and atypical attachment at age 42 months interacted to predict externalizing behavior at age 54 months. Specifically, children with the s/s genotype with an atypical attachment had the highest externalizing scores. However, s/s children with a typical attachment demonstrated the lowest externalizing scores, even after controlling for intervention group status. There was no association between attachment status and externalizing behavior among children carrying at least one copy of the l allele. Discussion These findings indicate that genetic variation in the serotonergic system moderates the association between atypical attachment status and externalizing in young children. Our findings suggest that children, as a result of genetic variability in the serotonergic system, demonstrate differential sensitivity to the attachment relationship. PMID:25933228

  20. 5-HTTLPR, anxiety and gender interaction moderates right amygdala volume in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerasa, Antonio; Quattrone, Aldo; Piras, Fabrizio; Mangone, Graziella; Magariello, Angela; Fagioli, Sabrina; Girardi, Paolo; Muglia, Maria; Caltagirone, Carlo; Spalletta, Gianfranco

    2014-10-01

    Genetic variants within the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) impact the neurobiology and risk for anxiety-related behaviours. There are also gender differences in the prevalence of anxiety-related behaviours. Although numerous studies have investigated the influence of 5-HTTLPR genotype on the neural systems involved in emotional regulation, none have investigated how these effects are modulated by gender and anxiety. We investigated this issue using two complementary region of interest-based structural neuroimaging approaches (voxel-based morphometry and Freesurfer) in 138 healthy individuals categorized into 'no anxiety' and 'subclinical anxiety' groups based on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAM-A). Preliminarily, using anxiety as a continuous variable, we found a significant interaction effect of genotype by gender on anxiety. Females homozygous for the Short allele showed the highest HAM-A scores and males the lowest. In addition, a three-way significant interaction among genotype, gender and anxiety category was found for the right amygdala volume. Post hoc tests revealed that homozygous females carrying the Short variant with a subclinical anxiety condition had larger volume. The reported interaction effects demonstrate that gender strongly modulates the relationship between 5-HTTLPR genotype and subclinical expression of anxiety acting on amygdala, one region of the emotional neural network specifically involved in the anxiety-like behaviours. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. 5-HTTLPR Expression Outside the Skin: An Experimental Test of the Emotional Reactivity Hypothesis in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeland, Joyce; Slagt, Meike; Brummelman, Eddie; Matthys, Walter; de Castro, Bram Orobio; Overbeek, Geertjan

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that variation in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene SLC6A4 (i.e., the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism) moderates the impact of environmental stressors on child psychopathology. Emotional reactivity -the intensity of an individual's response to other's emotions- has been put forward as a possible mechanism underlying these gene-by-environment interactions (i.e., G×E). Compared to children homozygous for the L-allele (LL-genotypes), children carrying an S-allele (SS/SL-genotypes), specifically when they have been frequently exposed to negative emotions in the family environment, might be more emotionally reactive and therefore more susceptible to affective environmental stressors. However, the association between 5-HTTLPR and emotional reactivity in children has not yet been empirically tested. Therefore, the goal of this study was to test this association in a large-scale experiment. Children (N = 521, 52.5% boys, Mage = 9.72 years) were genotyped and randomly assigned to happy, angry or neutral dynamic facial expressions and vocalizations. Motor and affective emotional reactivity were assessed through children's self-reported negative and positive affect (n = 460) and facial electromyography activity (i.e., fEMG: the zygomaticus or "smile" muscle and the corrugator or "frown" muscle, n = 403). Parents reported on their negative and positive parenting behaviors. Children mimicked and experienced the emotion they were exposed to. However, neither motor reactivity nor affective reactivity to these emotions depended on children's 5-HTTLPR genotype: SS/SL-genotypes did not manifest any stronger response to emotional stimuli than LL-genotypes. This finding remained the same when taking the broader family environment into account, controlling for kinship, age, gender and genetic ancestry, and when including a tri-allelic factor. We found no evidence for an association between the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and children's emotional

  2. Non-replication of the association between 5HTTLPR and response to psychological therapy for child anxiety disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Kathryn J.; Roberts, Susanna; Keers, Robert; Coleman, Jonathan R. I.; Breen, Gerome; Wong, Chloe C. Y.; Xu, Xiaohui; Arendt, Kristian; Blatter-Meunier, Judith; Bögels, Susan; Cooper, Peter; Creswell, Cathy; Heiervang, Einar R.; Herren, Chantal; Hogendoorn, Sanne M.; Hudson, Jennifer L.; Krause, Karen; Lyneham, Heidi J.; McKinnon, Anna; Morris, Talia; Nauta, Maaike H.; Rapee, Ronald M.; Rey, Yasmin; Schneider, Silvia; Schneider, Sophie C.; Silverman, Wendy K.; Smith, Patrick; Thastum, Mikael; Thirlwall, Kerstin; Waite, Polly; Wergeland, Gro Janne; Eley, Thalia C.

    2016-01-01

    Background We previously reported an association between 5HTTLPR genotype and outcome following cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) in child anxiety (Cohort 1). Children homozygous for the low-expression short-allele showed more positive outcomes. Other similar studies have produced mixed results, with most reporting no association between genotype and CBT outcome. Aims To replicate the association between 5HTTLPR and CBT outcome in child anxiety from the Genes for Treatment study (GxT Cohort 2, n = 829). Method Logistic and linear mixed effects models were used to examine the relationship between 5HTTLPR and CBT outcomes. Mega-analyses using both cohorts were performed. Results There was no significant effect of 5HTTLPR on CBT outcomes in Cohort 2. Mega-analyses identified a significant association between 5HTTLPR and remission from all anxiety disorders at follow-up (odds ratio 0.45, P = 0.014), but not primary anxiety disorder outcomes. Conclusions The association between 5HTTLPR genotype and CBT outcome did not replicate. Short-allele homozygotes showed more positive treatment outcomes, but with small, non-significant effects. Future studies would benefit from utilising whole genome approaches and large, homogenous samples. PMID:26294368

  3. The serotonin transporter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) and cortisol stress responsiveness: preliminary evidence for a modulating role for sleep quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dalfsen, Jens H; Markus, C Rob

    2018-05-23

    The short (S) allele of a functional polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) within the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) is found to predispose the risk for stress-related affective disorders relative to the long (L) allele. Evidence suggests that elevated stress reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis might underlie this association although there is little understanding about the origin of inconsistent findings. Since inadequate sleep is commonly known to promote HPA stress reactivity, it might well play an important modulating role. The present study tested this hypothesis by investigating whether sleep quality moderates the relationship between 5-HTTLPR and cortisol stress responsiveness. From a large 5-HTTLPR database (n = 771), a sample of healthy male and female participants homozygous for either the 5-HTTLPR S-allele (n = 25) or L-allele (n = 25) were assessed for sleep quality and salivary cortisol secretion during acute laboratory stress. Diminished sleep quality was found to exclusively potentiate cortisol stress reactivity in the homozygous L-allele genotype. Accounting for this 5-HTTLPR-dependent influence enhanced the predictive value of 5-HTTLPR on cortisol stress responsiveness, revealing greater HPA reactivity in S-allele relative to L-allele carriers. Current findings suggest that variations in sleep quality may serve as a confounding factor in the search for genetic differences in stress sensitivity and related affective disorders.

  4. Perceived Parenting Mediates Serotonin Transporter Gene (5-HTTLPR) and Neural System Function during Facial Recognition: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Saori

    2015-01-01

    This study examined changes in prefrontal oxy-Hb levels measured by NIRS (Near-Infrared Spectroscopy) during a facial-emotion recognition task in healthy adults, testing a mediational/moderational model of these variables. Fifty-three healthy adults (male = 35, female = 18) aged between 22 to 37 years old (mean age = 24.05 years old) provided saliva samples, completed a EMBU questionnaire (Swedish acronym for Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran [My memories of upbringing]), and participated in a facial-emotion recognition task during NIRS recording. There was a main effect of maternal rejection on RoxH (right frontal activation during an ambiguous task), and a gene × environment (G×E) interaction on RoxH, suggesting that individuals who carry the SL or LL genotype and who endorse greater perceived maternal rejection show less right frontal activation than SL/LL carriers with lower perceived maternal rejection. Finally, perceived parenting style played a mediating role in right frontal activation via the 5-HTTLPR genotype. Early-perceived parenting might influence neural activity in an uncertain situation i.e. rating ambiguous faces among individuals with certain genotypes. This preliminary study makes a small contribution to the mapping of an influence of gene and behaviour on the neural system. More such attempts should be made in order to clarify the links. PMID:26418317

  5. Perceived Parenting Mediates Serotonin Transporter Gene (5-HTTLPR and Neural System Function during Facial Recognition: A Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saori Nishikawa

    Full Text Available This study examined changes in prefrontal oxy-Hb levels measured by NIRS (Near-Infrared Spectroscopy during a facial-emotion recognition task in healthy adults, testing a mediational/moderational model of these variables. Fifty-three healthy adults (male = 35, female = 18 aged between 22 to 37 years old (mean age = 24.05 years old provided saliva samples, completed a EMBU questionnaire (Swedish acronym for Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran [My memories of upbringing], and participated in a facial-emotion recognition task during NIRS recording. There was a main effect of maternal rejection on RoxH (right frontal activation during an ambiguous task, and a gene × environment (G × E interaction on RoxH, suggesting that individuals who carry the SL or LL genotype and who endorse greater perceived maternal rejection show less right frontal activation than SL/LL carriers with lower perceived maternal rejection. Finally, perceived parenting style played a mediating role in right frontal activation via the 5-HTTLPR genotype. Early-perceived parenting might influence neural activity in an uncertain situation i.e. rating ambiguous faces among individuals with certain genotypes. This preliminary study makes a small contribution to the mapping of an influence of gene and behaviour on the neural system. More such attempts should be made in order to clarify the links.

  6. Differential influence of the 5-HTTLPR genotype, neuroticism and real-life acute stress exposure on appetite and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capello, Aimée E M; Markus, C Rob

    2014-06-01

    Stress or negative mood often promotes energy intake and overeating. Since the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) is found to mediate stress vulnerability as well as to influence energy intake, this gene may also influence the negative effects of stress exposure on overeating. Moreover, since stress proneness also reflects cognitive stress vulnerability - as often defined by trait neuroticism - this may additionally predispose for stress-induced overeating. In the present study it was investigated whether the 5-HTTLPR genotype interacted with neuroticism on changes in mood, appetite and energy intake following exposure to a real-life academic examination stressor. In a balanced-experimental design, homozygous S-allele and L-allele carriers (N = 94) with the lowest and highest neuroticism scores were selected from a large database of 5-HTTLPR genotyped students. Mood, appetite and energy intake were measured before and after a 2-hour academic examination and compared with a control day. Examination influenced appetite for particular sweet snacks differently depending on 5-HTTLPR genotype and neuroticism. S/S compared with L/L subjects reported greater examination stress, and this was accompanied by a more profound post-stress increase in appetite for sweet snacks. Data also revealed a 5-HTTLPR genotype by trait neuroticism interaction on energy intake, regardless of examination. These results consolidate previous assumptions of 5-HTTLPR involvement in stress vulnerability and suggest 5-HTTLPR and neuroticism may influence stress-induced overeating depending on the type of food available. These findings furthermore link previous findings of increased risk for weight gain in S/S-allele carriers, particularly with high scores on trait neuroticism, to increased energy intake. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Meta-analyses of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms and post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Escámez, Teresa; Koenen, Karestan C; Alonso, Jordi; Sánchez-Meca, Julio

    2013-01-01

    To conduct a meta-analysis of all published genetic association studies of 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms performed in PTSD cases. Potential studies were identified through PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science databases (Web of Knowledge, WoK), PsychINFO, PsychArticles and HuGeNet (Human Genome Epidemiology Network) up until December 2011. Published observational studies reporting genotype or allele frequencies of this genetic factor in PTSD cases and in non-PTSD controls were all considered eligible for inclusion in this systematic review. Two reviewers selected studies for possible inclusion and extracted data independently following a standardized protocol. A biallelic and a triallelic meta-analysis, including the total S and S' frequencies, the dominant (S+/LL and S'+/L'L') and the recessive model (SS/L+ and S'S'/L'+), was performed with a random-effect model to calculate the pooled OR and its corresponding 95% CI. Forest plots and Cochran's Q-Statistic and I(2) index were calculated to check for heterogeneity. Subgroup analyses and meta-regression were carried out to analyze potential moderators. Publication bias and quality of reporting were also analyzed. 13 studies met our inclusion criteria, providing a total sample of 1874 patients with PTSD and 7785 controls in the biallelic meta-analyses and 627 and 3524, respectively, in the triallelic. None of the meta-analyses showed evidence of an association between 5-HTTLPR and PTSD but several characteristics (exposure to the same principal stressor for PTSD cases and controls, adjustment for potential confounding variables, blind assessment, study design, type of PTSD, ethnic distribution and Total Quality Score) influenced the results in subgroup analyses and meta-regression. There was no evidence of potential publication bias. Current evidence does not support a direct effect of 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms on PTSD. Further analyses of gene-environment interactions, epigenetic modulation and new studies with large samples

  8. 5-HTTLPR polymorphism impacts task-evoked and resting-state activities of the amygdala in Han Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sufang; Zou, Qihong; Li, Jun; Li, Jin; Wang, Deyi; Yan, Chaogan; Dong, Qi; Zang, Yu-Feng

    2012-01-01

    Prior research has shown that the amygdala of carriers of the short allele (s) of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene (5-HTTLPR) have a larger response to negative emotional stimuli and higher spontaneous activity during the resting state than non-carriers. However, recent studies have suggested that the effects of 5-HTTLPR may be specific to different ethnic groups. Few studies have been conducted to address this issue. Blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was conducted on thirty-eight healthy Han Chinese subjects (l/l group, n = 19; s/s group, n = 19) during the resting state and during an emotional processing task. Compared with the s/s group, the l/l group showed significantly increased regional homogeneity or local synchronization in the right amygdala during the resting state (|t|>2.028, pemotional processing task. 5-HTTLPR can alter the spontaneous activity of the amygdala in Han Chinese. However, the effect of 5-HTTLPR on the amygdala both in task state and resting state in Asian population was no similar with Caucasians. They suggest that the effect of 5-HTTLPR on the amygdala may be modulated by ethnic differences.

  9. Association between a serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) and personality disorder traits in a community sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Rianne M.; Samuels, Jack F.; Riddle, Mark A.; Bienvenu, O. Joseph; Grados, Marco A.; Reti, Irving M.; Eaton, William W.; Liang, Kung-Yee; Nestadt, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    Background The serotonin transporter (SERT) polymorphism (5HTTLPR) has been reported to be associated with several psychiatric conditions. Specific personality disorders could be intermediate factors in the known relationship between 5HTTLPR and psychiatric disorders. This is the first study to test the association between this polymorphism and dimensions of all DSM-IV personality disorders in a community sample. Methods 374 white participants were assessed by clinical psychologists using the International Personality Disorder Examination (IPDE). Associations between dimensions of each DSM-IV personality disorder and the long (l) and short (s) alleles of the 5HTTLPR were evaluated using nonparametric tests and regression models. Results The s allele of the 5HTTLPR polymorphism was significantly associated with higher avoidant personality trait scores in the whole sample. Males with the s allele had a significantly lower likelihood of higher obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) trait scores, whereas females with the s allele were likely to have higher OCPD personality trait scores. Conclusion This paper provides preliminary data on the relationship between personality disorders and the 5HTTLPR polymorphism. The relationship of the s allele and avoidant PD is consistent with findings of a nonspecific relationship of this polymorphism to anxiety and depressive disorders. Concerning the unusual sexual dimorphic result with OCPD, several hypotheses are presented. These findings need further replication, including a more detailed study of additional variants in SERT. PMID:21450307

  10. Association between a serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism (5HTTLPR) and personality disorder traits in a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Rianne M; Samuels, Jack F; Riddle, Mark A; Joseph Bienvenu, O; Grados, Marco A; Reti, Irving M; Eaton, William W; Liang, Kung-Yee; Nestadt, Gerald

    2011-09-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) polymorphism (5HTTLPR) has been reported to be associated with several psychiatric conditions. Specific personality disorders could be intermediate factors in the known relationship between 5HTTLPR and psychiatric disorders. This is the first study to test the association between this polymorphism and dimensions of all DSM-IV personality disorders in a community sample. 374 white participants were assessed by clinical psychologists using the International Personality Disorder Examination (IPDE). Associations between dimensions of each DSM-IV personality disorder and the long (l) and short (s) alleles of the 5HTTLPR were evaluated using non-parametric tests and regression models. The s allele of the 5HTTLPR polymorphism was significantly associated with higher avoidant personality trait scores in the whole sample. Males with the s allele had a significantly lower likelihood of higher obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) trait scores, whereas females with the s allele were likely to have higher OCPD personality trait scores. This paper provides preliminary data on the relationship between personality disorders and the 5HTTLPR polymorphism. The relationship of the s allele and avoidant PD is consistent with findings of a nonspecific relationship of this polymorphism to anxiety and depressive disorders. Concerning the unusual sexual dimorphic result with OCPD, several hypotheses are presented. These findings need further replication, including a more detailed study of additional variants in SERT. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Meta-analysis of the serotonin transporter promoter variant (5-HTTLPR) in relation to adverse environment and antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tielbeek, Jorim J; Karlsson Linnér, Richard; Beers, Koko; Posthuma, Danielle; Popma, Arne; Polderman, Tinca J C

    2016-07-01

    Several studies have suggested an association between antisocial, aggressive, and delinquent behavior and the short variant of the serotonin transporter gene polymorphism (5-HTTLPR). Yet, genome wide and candidate gene studies in humans have not convincingly shown an association between these behaviors and 5-HTTLPR. Moreover, individual studies examining the effect of 5-HTTLPR in the presence or absence of adverse environmental factors revealed inconsistent results. We therefore performed a meta-analysis to test for the robustness of the potential interaction effect of the "long-short" variant of the 5-HTTLPR genotype and environmental adversities, on antisocial behavior. Eight studies, comprising of 12 reasonably independent samples, totaling 7,680 subjects with an effective sample size of 6,724, were included in the meta-analysis. Although our extensive meta-analysis resulted in a significant interaction effect between the 5-HTTLPR genotype and environmental adversities on antisocial behavior, the methodological constraints of the included studies hampered a confident interpretation of our results, and firm conclusions regarding the direction of effect. Future studies that aim to examine biosocial mechanisms that influence the etiology of antisocial behavior should make use of larger samples, extend to genome-wide genetic risk scores and properly control for covariate interaction terms, ensuring valid and well-powered research designs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR genotype and childhood trauma are associated with individual differences in decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott F Stoltenberg

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The factors that influence individual differences in decision making are not yet fully characterized, but convergent evidence is accumulating that implicates serotonin (5-HT system function. Therefore, both genes and environments that influence serotonin function are good candidates for association with risky decision making. In the present study we examined associations between common polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4; 5-HTTLPR and rs25531, the experience of childhood trauma and decision making on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT in 391 (64.5% female healthy Caucasian adults. Homozygosity for the 5-HTTLPR L allele was associated with riskier decision making in the first block of 20 trials (i.e. decision making under ambiguity, p = .004. In addition, mean IGT performance was significantly worse in blocks 3-5 (i.e. decision making under risk, p≤ .05 for those participants who reported experiencing higher levels of childhood trauma. Our findings add to the growing evidence that genetic variation in the 5-HT system is associated with individual differences in decision making under ambiguity; and we report that the experience of childhood trauma is associated with relatively poor decision making under risk.

  13. Individual differences in early adolescents' latent trait cortisol: Interaction of early adversity and 5-HTTLPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Frances R; Stroud, Catherine B; Vrshek-Schallhorn, Suzanne; Doane, Leah D; Granger, Douglas A

    2017-10-01

    The present study aimed to examine the interaction of 5-HTTLPR and early adversity on trait-like levels of cortisol. A community sample of 117 early adolescent girls (M age=12.39years) provided DNA samples for 5-HTTLPR genotyping, and saliva samples for assessing cortisol 3 times a day (waking, 30min post-waking, and bedtime) over a three-day period. Latent trait cortisol (LTC) was modeled using the first 2 samples of each day. Early adversity was assessed with objective contextual stress interviews with adolescents and their mothers. A significant 5-HTTLPR×early adversity interaction indicated that greater early adversity was associated with lower LTC levels, but only among individuals with either L/L or S/L genotype. Findings suggest that serotonergic genetic variation may influence the impact of early adversity on individual differences in HPA-axis regulation. Future research should explore whether this interaction contributes to the development of psychopathology through HPA axis functioning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. 5-HTTLPR moderates the association between attention away from angry faces and prospective depression among youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenness, Jessica L; Young, Jami F; Hankin, Benjamin L

    2017-08-01

    Attention bias to emotion has been studied as a risk factor associated with depression. No study has examined whether attention bias within the context of measured genetic risk leads to increased risk for clinical depressive episodes over time. The current study investigated whether genetic risk, as indexed by the serotonin-transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), moderated the relationship between attention bias to emotional faces and clinical depression onset prospectively across 18-months in a community sample of youth (n = 428; mean age = 11.97, SD = 2.28; 59% girls). Youth who attended away from angry emotional faces and were homozygous for the S allele of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism were at greater risk for prospective depressive episode onset. The current study's findings highlight the importance of examining risk for depression across multiple levels of analysis and demonstrate attention away from threat as a possible point of intervention related to attention bias modification and depression treatment among youth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 5-HTTLPR modulates the recognition accuracy and exploration of emotional facial expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina eBoll

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Individual genetic differences in the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR have been associated with variations in the sensitivity to social and emotional cues as well as altered amygdala reactivity to facial expressions of emotion. Amygdala activation has further been shown to trigger gaze changes towards diagnostically relevant facial features. The current study examined whether altered socio-emotional reactivity in variants of the 5-HTTLPR promoter polymorphism reflects individual differences in attending to diagnostic features of facial expressions. For this purpose, visual exploration of emotional facial expressions was compared between a low (n=39 and a high (n=40 5-HTT expressing group of healthy human volunteers in an eye tracking paradigm. Emotional faces were presented while manipulating the initial fixation such that saccadic changes towards the eyes and towards the mouth could be identified. We found that the low versus the high 5-HTT group demonstrated greater accuracy with regard to emotion classifications, particularly when faces were presented for a longer duration. No group differences in gaze orientation towards diagnostic facial features could be observed. However, participants in the low 5-HTT group exhibited more and faster fixation changes for certain emotions when faces were presented for a longer duration and overall face fixation times were reduced for this genotype group. These results suggest that the 5-HTT gene influences social perception by modulating the general vigilance to social cues rather than selectively affecting the pre-attentive detection of diagnostic facial features.

  16. Afraid to help: social anxiety partially mediates the association between 5-HTTLPR triallelic genotype and prosocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltenberg, Scott F; Christ, Christa C; Carlo, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    There is growing evidence that the serotonin system influences prosocial behavior. We examined whether anxiety mediated the association between variation in the serotonin transporter gene regulatory region (5-HTTLPR) and prosocial behavior. We collected self-reported tendencies to avoid certain situations and history of helping others using standard instruments and buccal cells for standard 5-HTTLPR genotyping from 398 undergraduate students. Triallelic 5-HTTLPR genotype was significantly associated with prosocial behavior and the effect was partially mediated by social anxiety, such that those carrying the S' allele reported higher levels of social avoidance and lower rates of helping others. These results are consistent with accounts of the role of serotonin on anxiety and prosocial behavior and suggest that targeted efforts to reduce social anxiety in S' allele carriers may enhance prosocial behavior.

  17. Interaction between 5-HTTLPR genotype and cognitive stress vulnerability on sleep quality: effects of sub-chronic tryptophan administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dalfsen, Jens H; Markus, C Rob

    2015-02-02

    Abundant evidence suggests that allelic variation in the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) influences susceptibility to stress and its affective consequences due to brain serotonergic vulnerability. Based on recent assumptions, the present study examined whether the 5-HTTLPR genotype may also interact with a vulnerability to chronic stress experience (conceptualized by trait neuroticism) in order to influence sleep quality and, additionally, whether this is influenced by brain serotonergic manipulations. In a well-balanced experimental design, homozygous S-allele (n = 57) and L-allele (n = 54) genotypes with high and low chronic stress vulnerability (neuroticism) were first assessed for general past sleep quality during a month before onset of the experiment. Then subjects were assessed for sleep quality following 7 days of tryptophan (3.0g/day) or placebo intake. Although high neuroticism was significantly related to a higher frequency of stressful life events and daily hassles, it did not interact with the 5-HTTLPR genotype on general past sleep quality. However, as expected, a 7 day period of tryptophan administration was exclusively associated with better sleep quality scores in the S'/S' genotype with high trait neuroticism. Current findings suggest that 5-HTTLPR does not directly interact with stress vulnerability in order to influence sleep quality. Instead, based on current and previous findings, it is suggested that the S'/S' 5-HTTLPR genotype promotes the risk for stress-related sleep disturbances because of an increased susceptibility to the depressogenic consequences of stress. Accordingly, by way of reducing depressive symptomatology, tryptophan augmentation may particularly improve sleep quality in stress-vulnerable individuals carrying the 5-HTTLPR S-allele. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  18. Meta-analyses of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms and post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Navarro-Mateu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To conduct a meta-analysis of all published genetic association studies of 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms performed in PTSD cases. METHODS DATA SOURCES: Potential studies were identified through PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science databases (Web of Knowledge, WoK, PsychINFO, PsychArticles and HuGeNet (Human Genome Epidemiology Network up until December 2011. STUDY SELECTION: Published observational studies reporting genotype or allele frequencies of this genetic factor in PTSD cases and in non-PTSD controls were all considered eligible for inclusion in this systematic review. DATA EXTRACTION: Two reviewers selected studies for possible inclusion and extracted data independently following a standardized protocol. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: A biallelic and a triallelic meta-analysis, including the total S and S' frequencies, the dominant (S+/LL and S'+/L'L' and the recessive model (SS/L+ and S'S'/L'+, was performed with a random-effect model to calculate the pooled OR and its corresponding 95% CI. Forest plots and Cochran's Q-Statistic and I(2 index were calculated to check for heterogeneity. Subgroup analyses and meta-regression were carried out to analyze potential moderators. Publication bias and quality of reporting were also analyzed. RESULTS: 13 studies met our inclusion criteria, providing a total sample of 1874 patients with PTSD and 7785 controls in the biallelic meta-analyses and 627 and 3524, respectively, in the triallelic. None of the meta-analyses showed evidence of an association between 5-HTTLPR and PTSD but several characteristics (exposure to the same principal stressor for PTSD cases and controls, adjustment for potential confounding variables, blind assessment, study design, type of PTSD, ethnic distribution and Total Quality Score influenced the results in subgroup analyses and meta-regression. There was no evidence of potential publication bias. CONCLUSIONS: Current evidence does not support a direct effect of 5-HTTLPR

  19. The serotonin transporter gene polymorphism 5-HTTLPR moderates the effects of stress on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, D. van der; Hartman, C.A.; Richards, J.; Bralten, J.B.; Franke, B.; Oosterlaan, J.; Heslenfeld, D.J.; Faraone, S.V.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Hoekstra, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The role of the serotonin transporter gene polymorphism 5-HTTLPR in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is unclear. Heterogeneity of findings may be explained by gene-environment interactions (GxE), as it has been suggested that S-allele carriers are more reactive to

  20. The serotonin transporter gene polymorphism 5-HTTLPR moderates the effects of stress on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, D.; Hartman, C.A.; Richards, J.; Bralten, J.; Franke, B.; Oosterlaan, J.; Heslenfeld, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The role of the serotonin transporter gene polymorphism 5-HTTLPR in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is unclear. Heterogeneity of findings may be explained by gene-environment interactions (GxE), as it has been suggested that S-allele carriers are more reactive to

  1. The serotonin transporter gene polymorphism 5-HTTLPR moderates the effects of stress on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, D.; Hartman, C.A.; Richards, J.; Bralten, J.; Franke, B.; Oosterlaan, J.; Heslenfeld, D.J.; Faraone, S.V.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Hoekstra, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The role of the serotonin transporter gene polymorphism 5-HTTLPR in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is unclear. Heterogeneity of findings may be explained by gene-environment interactions (GxE), as it has been suggested that S-allele carriers are more reactive to

  2. Brain Correlates of the Interaction Between 5-HTTLPR and Psychosocial Stress Mediating Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Severity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Dennis; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Zwiers, Marcel; Mennes, Maarten; Schweren, Lizanne J.; Franke, Barbara; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Faraone, Stephen V.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Hartman, Catharina A.

    Objective: The serotonin transporter 5-HTTLPR genotype has been found to moderate the effect of stress on severity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with stronger effects of stress in carriers of the short allele than in individuals homozygous for the tong allele. The underlying

  3. Non-replication of the association between 5HTTLPR and response to psychological therapy for child anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lester, Kathryn J.; Roberts, Susanna; Keers, Robert; Coleman, Jonathan R. I.; Breen, Gerome; Wong, Chloe C. Y.; Xu, Xiaohui; Arendt, Kristian; Blatter-Meunier, Judith; Bögels, Susan; Cooper, Peter; Creswell, Cathy; Heiervang, Einar R.; Herren, Chantal; Hogendoorn, Sanne M.; Hudson, Jennifer L.; Krause, Karen; Lyneham, Heidi J.; McKinnon, Anna; Morris, Talia; Nauta, Maaike H.; Rapee, Ronald M.; Rey, Yasmin; Schneider, Silvia; Schneider, Sophie C.; Silverman, Wendy K.; Smith, Patrick; Thastum, Mikael; Thirlwall, Kerstin; Waite, Polly; Wergeland, Gro Janne; Eley, Thalia C.

    2016-01-01

    Background We previously reported an association between 5HTTLPR genotype and outcome following cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) in child anxiety (Cohort 1). Children homozygous for the low-expression short-allele showed more positive outcomes. Other similar studies have produced mixed results,

  4. Non-replication of the association between 5HTTLPR and response to psychological therapy for child anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lester, K.J.; Roberts, S.; Keers, R.; Coleman, J.R.I.; Breen, G.; Wong, C.C.Y.; Xu, X.; Arendt, K.; Blatter-Meunier, J.; Bögels, S.M.; Cooper, P.; Creswell, C.; Heiervang, E.R.; Herren, C.; Hogendoorn, S.M.; Hudson, J.L.; Krause, K.; Lyneham, H.J.; McKinnon, A.; Morris, T.; Nauta, M.H.; Rapee, R.M.; Rey, Y.; Schneider, S.; Schneider, S.C.; Silverman, W.K.; Smith, P.; Thastum, M.; Thirlwall, K.; Waite, P.; Wergeland, G.J.; Eley, T.C.

    2015-01-01

    Background We previously reported an association between 5HTTLPR genotype and outcome following cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) in child anxiety (Cohort 1). Children homozygous for the low-expression short-allele showed more positive outcomes. Other similar studies have produced mixed results,

  5. Non-replication of the association between 5HTTLPR and response to psychological therapy for child anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lester, Kathryn J; Roberts, Susanna; Keers, Robert; Coleman, Jonathan R I; Breen, Gerome; Wong, Chloe C Y; Xu, Xiaohui; Arendt, Kristian; Blatter-Meunier, Judith; Bögels, Susan; Cooper, Peter; Creswell, Cathy; Heiervang, Einar R; Herren, Chantal; Hogendoorn, Sanne M; Hudson, Jennifer L; Krause, Karen; Lyneham, Heidi J; McKinnon, Anna; Morris, Talia; Nauta, Maaike H; Rapee, Ronald M; Rey, Yasmin; Schneider, Silvia; Schneider, Sophie C; Silverman, Wendy K; Smith, Patrick; Thastum, Mikael; Thirlwall, Kerstin; Waite, Polly; Wergeland, Gro Janne; Eley, Thalia C

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundWe previously reported an association between 5HTTLPR genotype and outcome following cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) in child anxiety (Cohort 1). Children homozygous for the low-expression short-allele showed more positive outcomes. Other similar studies have produced mixed results,

  6. The influence of 5-HTTLPR transporter genotype on amygdala-subgenual anterior cingulate cortex connectivity in autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Velasquez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Social deficits in autism spectrum disorder (ASD are linked to amygdala functioning and functional connection between the amygdala and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sACC is involved in the modulation of amygdala activity. Impairments in behavioral symptoms and amygdala activation and connectivity with the sACC seem to vary by serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR variant genotype in diverse populations. The current preliminary investigation examines whether amygdala-sACC connectivity differs by 5-HTTLPR genotype and relates to social functioning in ASD. A sample of 108 children and adolescents (44 ASD completed an fMRI face-processing task. Youth with ASD and low expressing 5-HTTLPR genotypes showed significantly greater connectivity than youth with ASD and higher expressing genotypes as well as typically developing (TD individuals with both low and higher expressing genotypes, in the comparison of happy vs. baseline faces and happy vs. neutral faces. Moreover, individuals with ASD and higher expressing genotypes exhibit a negative relationship between amygdala-sACC connectivity and social dysfunction. Altered amygdala-sACC coupling based on 5-HTTLPR genotype may help explain some of the heterogeneity in neural and social function observed in ASD. This is the first ASD study to combine genetic polymorphism analyses and functional connectivity in the context of a social task.

  7. Association Between 5-HTTLPR Polymorphism and Tics after Treatment with Methylphenidate in Korean Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seo Yeon; Kim, Eun Joo; Cheon, Keun-Ah

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between 5-HTTLPR polymorphism (44-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism of serotonin transporter gene) and methylphenidate (MPH) treatment response, as well as the association between the adverse events of MPH treatment and 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A total of 114 children with ADHD (mean age 9.08 ± 1.94 years) were recruited from the child psychiatric clinic in a hospital in South Korea. We have extracted the genomic DNA of the subjects from their blood lymphocytes and analyzed 5-HTTLPR polymorphism of the SLC6A4 gene. All children were treated with MPH for 8 weeks, with clinicians monitoring both the improvement of ADHD symptoms and the side effects. We compared the response to MPH treatment and adverse events among those with the genotype of 5-HRRLPR polymorphism. There was no significant association between the 5-HTTLPR genotype and the response to MPH treatment in children with ADHD. Subjects with the S/L+L/L genotype tended to have tics and nail biting (respectively, p tics and nail-biting as an adverse event of methylphenidate. This may aid in our understanding of the genetic contribution and genetic susceptibility of a particular allele in those ADHD patients with tics or nail biting.

  8. Interactive effects of 5-HTTLPR genotype and rearing environment on affective attitude towards own infant in Japanese mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawano, Erika; Doi, Hirokazu; Nagai, Tomoko; Ikeda, Satoko; Shinohara, Kauyuki

    2017-05-15

    Maternal positive attitude towards one's own infant is the cornerstone of effective parenting. Previous research has revealed an influence of both genetic and environmental factors on maternal parenting behavior, but little is known of the potential gene-environment interaction in shaping a mother's affective attitude. To address this gap, we investigated the effect of a mother's childhood rearing environment and a serotonin transporter gene polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) on affective attitude towards her infant. Our analyses found an interactive effect between rearing environment and 5-HTTLPR genotype on maternal attitude. Specifically, a poor rearing environment (characterized by low maternal care and high paternal overprotection) decreased positive attitude towards one's own infant in mothers with homozygous short allele genotype. In contrast, this detrimental effect was almost eliminated in long allele carriers. Altogether, our results indicate that the 5-HTTLPR gene moderates the influence of experienced rearing environment on maternal parental behavior in a manner consistent with the notion that the short 5-HTTLPR allele amplifies environmental influence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The serotonin transporter gene polymorphism 5-HTTLPR moderates the effects of stress on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Dennis; Hartman, Catharina A.; Richards, Jennifer; Bralten, Janita B.; Franke, Barbara; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    2014-01-01

    IntroductionThe role of the serotonin transporter gene polymorphism 5-HTTLPR in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is unclear. Heterogeneity of findings may be explained by gene-environment interactions (GxE), as it has been suggested that S-allele carriers are more reactive to

  10. Relational Security Moderates the Effect of Serotonin Transporter Gene Polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) on Stress Generation and Depression among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Lisa R.; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.; Najman, Jake M.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates that carriers of the short allele of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) show both greater susceptibility to depression in response to stressful life events and higher rates of generation of stressful events in response to depression. The current study examines relational security (i.e., self-reported beliefs…

  11. Interactive Effects of the Serotonin Transporter 5-HTTLPR Polymorphism and Stressful Life Events on College Student Drinking and Drug Use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Covault, J.; Tennen, H.; Armeli, S.; Conner, T.S.; Herman, A.I.; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Kranzler, H.R.

    2007-01-01

    Background - A common functional polymorphism, 5-HTTLPR, in the serotonin transporter gene has been associated with heavy drinking in college students. We examined this polymorphism as it interacted with negative life events to predict drinking and drug use in college students. Methods - Daily

  12. Differential effects of 5-HTTLPR genotypes on mood, memory, and attention bias following acute tryptophan depletion and stress exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firk, Christine; Markus, C Rob

    2009-05-01

    Polymorphisms of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) may be associated with increased vulnerability to acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) and depression vulnerability especially following stressful life events. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of ATD in subjects with different 5-HTTLPR profiles before and after stress exposure on affective and cognitive-attentional changes. Eighteen subjects with homozygotic short alleles (S'/S') and 17 subjects with homozygotic long alleles (L'/L') of the 5-HTTLPR participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design to measure the effects of ATD on mood, memory, and attention before and after acute stress exposure. ATD lowered mood in all subjects independent of genotype. In S'/S' genotypes, mild acute stress increased depressive mood and in L'/L' genotypes increased feelings of vigor. Furthermore, S'/S' genotypes differed from L'/L' genotypes on measures of attention independent of treatment and memory following ATD. Polymorphisms of the 5-HTTLPR differentially affect responses to mild stress and ATD, suggesting greater vulnerability of S'/S' carriers to serotonergic manipulations and supporting increased depression vulnerability.

  13. Relationship of 5-HTTLPR Polymorphism with Various Factors of Pain Processing : Subjective Experience, Motor Responsiveness and Catastrophizing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunz, Miriam; Hennig, Juergen; Karmann, Anna J.; Lautenbacher, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Although serotonin is known to play an important role in pain processing, the relationship between the polymorphism in 5-HTTLPR and pain processing is not well understood. To examine the relationship more comprehensively, various factors of pain processing having putative associations with 5-HT

  14. Novel procedure for genotyping of the human serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR)--a region with a high level of allele diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik B; Werge, Thomas M

    2007-01-01

    determination. After having developed a 5-HTTLPR genotyping assay, we examined all samples of DNA in two separate rounds of analyses and found complete agreement between the results from these two rounds. CONCLUSION: On the basis of simultaneous analysis of tandem repeat size variation and variation of single......BACKGROUND: The serotonin transporter, the target of a group of antidepressant drugs, is involved in the regulation of the availability and reuptake of serotonin. A variable number of tandem repeats in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene, designated 5-HTTLPR, affects...... for detailed genotyping of 5-HTTLPR based upon simultaneous analysis of tandem repeat size variation and single nucleotide variations. METHODS: We elaborated a list of all known 5-HTTLPR alleles to provide an overview of the allele repertoire at this polymorphic locus. Fragments of 5-HTTLPR were PCR...

  15. The 5-HTTLPR variant in the serotonin transporter gene modifies degeneration of brain regions important for emotion in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S. Yokoyama

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The serotonin transporter length polymorphism (5-HTTLPR short allele (5-HTTLPR-s has been associated with differential susceptibility for anxiety and depression in multiple psychiatric disorders. 5-HTTLPR-s modifies the serotonergic systems that support emotion and behavioral regulation by reducing gene expression, which slows the reuptake of serotonin, and is associated with distinct morphological and functional effects. Serotonergic systems are also shown to be dysfunctional in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD, a disease characterized by marked socioemotional dysfunction. However, studies of 5-HTTLPR-s effects in bvFTD have been inconsistent. Our objective was to investigate the patterns of gray matter volume by 5-HTTLPR-s genotype in both healthy older controls and bvFTD patients. We performed voxel-based morphometry of 179 cognitively normal older adults and 24 bvFTD cases to determine brain changes associated with dose (0/1/2 of 5-HTTLPR-s allele. 5-HTTLPR-s frequency did not differ between controls and bvFTD. We found a significant interaction effect whereby carrying more 5-HTTLPR-s alleles in bvFTD was associated with smaller volume in left inferior frontal gyrus (T = 4.86, PFWE = 0.03 and larger volume in right temporal lobe (T = 5.01, PFWE = 0.01. These results suggest that the 5-HTTLPR-s allele differentially influences brain morphology in bvFTD. We propose that patients with bvFTD and 5-HTTLPR-s have altered volumes in regions that support socioemotional behavior, which may be a developmental or disease-related compensation for altered serotonergic activity.

  16. The effect of an adverse psychological environment on salivary cortisol levels in the elderly differs by 5-HTTLPR genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancelin, Marie-Laure; Scali, Jacqueline; Norton, Joanna; Ritchie, Karen; Dupuy, Anne-Marie; Chaudieu, Isabelle; Ryan, Joanne

    2017-12-01

    An adverse psychological environment (e.g. stressful events or depression) has been shown to influence basal cortisol levels and cortisol response to stress. This differs depending on the adverse stimuli, but also varies across individuals and may be influenced by genetic predisposition. An insertion/deletion polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene ( 5-HTTLPR ) is a strong candidate in this regard. To investigate how stressful life events and depression are associated with diurnal cortisol levels in community-dwelling elderly and determine whether this varies according to genetic variability in the 5-HTTLPR . This population-based study included 334 subjects aged 65 and older (mean (SD) = 76.5 (6.3)). Diurnal cortisol was measured on two separate days, under quiet (basal) and stressful conditions. The number of recent major stressful events experienced during the past year was assessed from a 12-item validated questionnaire as an index of cumulative recent stressful events. Lifetime trauma was evaluated using the validated Watson's PTSD inventory, which evaluates the most severe traumatic or frightening experience according to DSM criteria. Depression was defined as having a Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) diagnosis of current major depressive disorder or high levels of depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale ≥16). 5-HTTLPR genotyping was performed on blood samples. Exposure to stressful life events was associated with lower basal evening cortisol levels overall, and in the participants with the 5-HTTLPR L allele but not the SS genotype. The greatest effects (over 50% decrease, p traumas. Participants with the L allele also had higher evening cortisol stress response. Conversely, depression tended to be associated with a 42% higher basal morning cortisol in the SS participants specifically, but did not modify the association between stressful events and cortisol levels. An adverse psychological

  17. Interaction of 5-HTTLPR genotype and unipolar major depression in the emergence of aggressive/hostile traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, Xenia; Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N; Csukly, Gabor; Bagdy, Gyorgy; Pap, Dorottya; Molnár, Eszter; Laszik, Andras; Lazary, Judit; Sarosi, Andrea; Faludi, Gabor; Sasvari-Szekely, Maria; Szekely, Anna; Rihmer, Zoltan

    2011-08-01

    The 5-HTTLPR polymorphism has been associated both with depression and aggression/hostility. The multidirectional association between depression, aggression and the s allele may be important, since all these phenomena are related to suicidal behavior. Our aim was to investigate the association between 5-HTTLPR and aggressive/hostile traits in depressed patients and controls. 137 depressive and 118 control women completed the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory and were genotyped for 5-HTTLPR. BDHI scores in the different groups were investigated by Generalized Linear Model Analysis. Association between dependent and independent variables in the model was tested by the likelihood ratio Chi-square statistic. Diagnosis and genotype showed a significant association with several aggressive/hostile traits. Interaction of the two main effects was also significant in case of several subscales. Post hoc analyses indicated a significant association between BDHI subscales and s allele only in the depressed group. Only women were studied and since gender differences are present both in aggressive behavior and putatively in the behavioral effects of 5-HTTLPR genotype, our findings pertain only to females. Our results indicate a robust relationship between aggression/hostility and 5-HTTLPR genotype, but this association is more marked in the presence of depression. The presence of the s allele thus not only contributes to a higher risk of depression, but in depressives also leads to higher aggression/hostility. Our results have important implications for suicide research, since the s allele is associated with violent suicide, and this association may be mediated through the emergence of increased aggression/hostility in depressed patients carrying the s allele. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The 5-HTTLPR polymorphism moderates the effect of stressful life events on drinking behavior in college students of African descent.

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    Kranzler, Henry R; Scott, Denise; Tennen, Howard; Feinn, Richard; Williams, Carla; Armeli, Stephen; Taylor, Robert E; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J; Covault, Jonathan

    2012-07-01

    Covault et al. [Covault et al. (2007); Biol Psychiatry 61(5): 609-616] reported that the common functional polymorphism, 5-HTTLPR, in the serotonin transporter gene moderated the association between past-year stressful events and daily reports of drinking in a sample of European-American (EA) college students. We examined this effect in college students of African descent. Students recruited at a Historically Black University (n = 564) completed web-based measures of past-year stressful life experiences and daily reports of drinking and heavy drinking over a 30-day period. Participants were genotyped for the tri-allelic 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and dichotomized as low-activity S' allele carriers or high-activity L' homozygotes. Generalized linear models were used to examine the effects of life stress, genotype, and their interaction on the two drinking measures. In students who completed 15 or more daily surveys (n = 393), there was a significant interaction of past-year stressful events, 5-HTTLPR genotype, and gender on the number of drinking days (P = 0.002). Similar findings were obtained in relation to heavy drinking days (P = 0.007). Men showed a main effect of past-year stressful events on both drinking outcomes (P's life stressors on the frequency of drinking and heavy drinking days (P's stressful events were associated with more frequent drinking and heavy drinking, an effect that was moderated by the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism. However, in contrast to the findings in EA students, in the current sample, 5-HTTLPR moderated the association only among women. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Lack of association between serotonin transporter gene polymorphism 5-HTTLPR and smoking among Polish population: a case-control study

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    Jassem Ewa

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A better understanding of the genetic determinants of tobacco smoking might help in developing more effective cessation therapies, tailored to smokers' genotype. Insertion/deletion polymorphism in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR has been linked to vulnerability to smoking and ability to quit. We aimed to determine whether 5-HTTLPR genotype is associated with smoking behavior in Caucasians from Northern Poland and to investigate other risk factors for tobacco smoking. Methods 5-HTTLPR genotypes were determined in 149 ever smokers (66 females; mean age 53.0 years and 158 gender and ethnicity matched never smoking controls (79 females; mean age 45.0 years to evaluate the association of this polymorphism with ever smoking status. Analysis of smokers was performed to evaluate the role of 5-HTTLPR in the age of starting regular smoking, the number of cigarettes smoked daily, pack-years, FTND score, duration of smoking, and the mean length of the longest abstinence on quitting. Genotype was classified according to the presence or absence of the short (S allele vs. the long (L allele of 5-HTTLPR (i.e., S/S + S/L vs. L/L. Logistic regression analysis was also used to evaluate correlation between ever smoking and several selected variables. Results We found no significant differences in the rates of S allele carriers in ever smokers and never smokers, and no relationship was observed between any quantitative measures of smoking and the polymorphism. Multivariate analysis demonstrated significant association between the older age (OR = 4.03; 95% CI: 2.33–6.99 and alcohol dependence (OR = 10.23; 95% CI: 2.09–50.18 and smoking. Conclusion 5-HTTLPR seems to be not a major factor determining cigarette smoking in Poles. Probably, the risk of smoking results from a large number of genes, each contributing a small part of the overall risk, while numerous non-genetic factors might strongly influence these

  20. A serotonin transporter gene polymorphism (5-HTTLPR), drinking-to-cope motivation, and negative life events among college students.

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    Armeli, Stephen; Conner, Tamlin S; Covault, Jonathan; Tennen, Howard; Kranzler, Henry R

    2008-11-01

    This study was performed to examine whether a polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) in the serotonin transporter gene was related to college students' reports of relief drinking (drinking-to-cope motives) and whether it moderated the associations between negative life events and drinking to cope. We examined reward drinking (drinking-to-enhance motives) as a comparison and to see whether these effects varied across gender. Using an Internet-based survey, college students (N = 360; 192 women) self-reported on drinking motives and negative life events for up to 4 years. Study participants provided saliva for genotyping the triallelic (LA vs LG or S) variants of 5-HTTLPR. Among men, individuals with two risk alleles (LG or S), compared with individuals with the LA/LA allele, displayed lower drinking-to-cope motives. Among women, individuals with one risk allele (either LG or S), compared with individuals with the LA/LA allele, displayed stronger drinking-to-enhance motives. The association between yearly changes in negative life events and drinking-to-cope motives varied across 5-HTTLPR genotype and gender and was strongest in the positive direction for women with the LA/LA variant. Our findings are not consistent with prior speculation that stronger positive associations between life stress and alcohol use among individuals with the LG or S allele are the result of increased use of alcohol as a method for coping with stress. The importance of examining gender differences in the relations between 5-HTTLPR, substance use, and related constructs is also noted.

  1. Sleep quality and diurnal preference in a sample of young adults: associations with 5HTTLPR, PER3, and CLOCK 3111.

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    Barclay, Nicola L; Eley, Thalia C; Mill, Jonathan; Wong, Chloe C Y; Zavos, Helena M S; Archer, Simon N; Gregory, Alice M

    2011-09-01

    Research investigating associations between specific genes and individual differences with regards to the quality and timing of sleep has primarily focussed on serotonin-related and clock genes. However, there are only a few studies of this type and most of those to date have not considered the possibility of gene-environment interaction. Here, we describe associations between sleep quality and diurnal preference and three functional polymorphisms: 5HTTLPR, PERIOD3, and CLOCK 3111. Furthermore, we assessed whether associations between genotypes and sleep phenotypes were moderated by negative life events-a test of gene-environment interaction. DNA from buccal swabs was collected from 947 individuals [mean age = 20.3 years (SD = 1.77), age range = 18-27 years; 61.8% female] and genotyped for the three polymorphisms. Participants completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire. There was a significant main effect of 5HTTLPR on sleep quality, indicating that "long-long" homozygotes experienced significantly poorer sleep quality (mean = 6.35, SD = 3.36) than carriers of at least one "short" allele (mean = 5.67, SD = 2.96; β = -0.34, P = 0.005). There were no main effects of 5HTTLPR on diurnal preference; no main effects of PERIOD3 or CLOCK on sleep quality or diurnal preference; and no significant interactions with negative life events. The main effect of the "long" 5HTTLPR allele contradicts previous research, suggesting that perhaps the effects of this gene are heterogeneous in different populations. Failure to replicate previous research in relation to PERIOD3 and CLOCK concurs with previous research suggesting that the effects of these genes are small and may be related to population composition. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Impact of BDNF Val66Met and 5-HTTLPR polymorphism variants on neural substrates related to sadness and executive function.

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    Wang, L; Ashley-Koch, A; Steffens, D C; Krishnan, K R R; Taylor, W D

    2012-04-01

    The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val(66) Met allelic variation is linked to both the occurrence of mood disorders and antidepressant response. These findings are not universally observed, and the mechanism by which this variation results in increased risk for mood disorders is unclear. One possible explanation is an epistatic relationship with other neurotransmitter genes associated with depression risk, such as the serotonin-transporter-linked promotor region (5-HTTLPR). Further, it is unclear how the coexistence of the BDNF Met and 5-HTTLPR S variants affects the function of the affective and cognitive control systems. To address this question, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in 38 older adults (20 healthy and 18 remitted from major depressive disorder). Subjects performed an emotional oddball task during the fMRI scan and provided blood samples for genotyping. Our analyses examined the relationship between genotypes and brain activation to sad distractors and attentional targets. We found that 5-HTTLPR S allele carriers exhibited stronger activation in the amygdala in response to sad distractors, whereas BDNF Met carriers exhibited increased activation to sad stimuli but decreased activation to attentional targets in the dorsolateral prefrontal and dorsomedial prefrontal cortices. In addition, subjects with both the S allele and Met allele genes exhibited increased activation to sad stimuli in the subgenual cingulate and posterior cingulate. Our results indicate that the Met allele alone or in combination with 5-HTTLPR S allele may increase reactivity to sad stimuli, which might represent a neural mechanism underlying increased depression vulnerability. © 2012 The Authors. Genes, Brain and Behavior © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  3. Risk-seeking for losses is associated with 5-HTTLPR, but not with transient changes in 5-HT levels.

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    Neukam, Philipp T; Kroemer, Nils B; Deza Araujo, Yacila I; Hellrung, Lydia; Pooseh, Shakoor; Rietschel, Marcella; Witt, Stephanie H; Schwarzenbolz, Uwe; Henle, Thomas; Smolka, Michael N

    2018-05-05

    Serotonin (5-HT) plays a key role in different aspects of value-based decision-making. A recent framework proposed that tonic 5-HT (together with dopamine, DA) codes future average reward expectations, providing a baseline against which possible choice outcomes are compared to guide decision-making. To test whether high 5-HT levels decrease loss aversion, risk-seeking for gains, and risk-seeking for losses. In a first session, 611 participants were genotyped for 5-HTTLPR and performed a mixed gambles (MGA) task and two probability discounting tasks for gains and losses, respectively (PDG/PDL). Afterwards, a subsample of 105 participants (44 with S/S, 6 with S/L, 55 with L/L genotype) completed the pharmacological study using a crossover design with tryptophan depletion (ATD), loading (ATL), and balanced (BAL) conditions. The same decision constructs were assessed. We found increased risk-seeking for losses in S/S compared to L/L individuals at the first visit (p = 0.002). Neither tryptophan depletion nor loading affected decision-making, nor did we observe an interaction between intervention and 5-HTTLPR genotype. Our data do not support the idea that transient changes of tonic 5-HT affect value-based decision-making. We provide evidence for an association of 5-HTTLPR with risk-seeking for losses, independent of acute 5-HT levels. This indicates that the association of 5-HTTLPR and risk-seeking for losses is mediated via other mechanisms, possibly by differences in the structural development of neural circuits of the 5-HT system during early life phases.

  4. The serotonin transporter gene polymorphism 5-HTTLPR moderates the effects of stress on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

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    van der Meer, Dennis; Hartman, Catharina A; Richards, Jennifer; Bralten, Janita B; Franke, Barbara; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Faraone, Stephen V; Buitelaar, Jan K; Hoekstra, Pieter J

    2014-12-01

    The role of the serotonin transporter gene polymorphism 5-HTTLPR in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is unclear. Heterogeneity of findings may be explained by gene-environment interactions (GxE), as it has been suggested that S-allele carriers are more reactive to psychosocial stress than L-allele homozygotes. This study aimed to investigate whether 5-HTTLPR genotype moderates the effects of stress on ADHD in a multisite prospective ADHD cohort study. 5-HTTLPR genotype, as well as the number of stressful life events in the past 5 years and ongoing long-term difficulties, was determined in 671 adolescents and young adults with ADHD, their siblings, and healthy controls (57.4% male, average age 17.3 years). Linear mixed models, accounting for family relatedness, were applied to investigate the effects of genotype, experienced stress, and their interaction on ADHD severity at time point T2, while controlling for ADHD severity at T1 (mean follow-up time 5.9 years) and for comorbid internalizing problems at T2. The interaction between genotype and stress significantly predicted ADHD severity at T2 (p = .006), which was driven by the effect on hyperactivity-impulsivity (p = .004). Probing of the interaction effect made clear that S-allele carriers had a significantly more positive correlation between stress and ADHD severity than L-allele homozygotes. The results show that the interaction between 5-HTTLPR and stress is a mechanism involved particularly in the hyperactivity/impulsivity dimension of ADHD, and that this is independent of comorbid internalizing problems. Further research into the neurobiological mechanisms underlying this interaction effect is warranted. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  5. Amygdala Volume in Offspring from Multiplex for Alcohol Dependence Families: The Moderating Influence of Childhood Environment and 5-HTTLPR Variation.

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    Hill, Shirley Y; Wang, Shuhui; Carter, Howard; McDermott, Michael D; Zezza, Nicholas; Stiffler, Scott

    2013-12-12

    The increased susceptibility for developing alcohol dependence seen in offspring from families with alcohol dependence may be related to structural and functional differences in brain circuits that influence emotional processing. Early childhood environment, genetic variation in the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) of the SLCA4 gene and allelic variation in the Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) gene have each been reported to be related to volumetric differences in the temporal lobe especially the amygdala. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to obtain amygdala volumes for 129 adolescent/young adult individuals who were either High-Risk (HR) offspring from families with multiple cases of alcohol dependence (N=71) or Low-Risk (LR) controls (N=58). Childhood family environment was measured prospectively using age-appropriate versions of the Family Environment Scale during a longitudinal follow-up study. The subjects were genotyped for Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) Val66Met and the serotonin transporter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR). Two family environment scale scores (Cohesion and Conflict), genotypic variation, and their interaction were tested for their association with amygdala volumes. Personal and prenatal exposure to alcohol and drugs were considered in statistical analyses in order to more accurately determine the effects of familial risk group differences. Amygdala volume was reduced in offspring from families with multiple alcohol dependent members in comparison to offspring from control families. High-Risk offspring who were carriers of the S variant of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism had reduced amygdala volume in comparison to those with an LL genotype. Larger amygdala volume was associated with greater family cohesion but only in Low-Risk control offspring. Familial risk for alcohol dependence is an important predictor of amygdala volume even when removing cases with significant personal exposure and covarying for

  6. Epistasis between 5-HTTLPR and ADRA2B polymorphisms influences attentional bias for emotional information in healthy volunteers.

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    Naudts, Kris H; Azevedo, Ruben T; David, Anthony S; van Heeringen, Kees; Gibbs, Ayana A

    2012-09-01

    Individual differences in emotional processing are likely to contribute to vulnerability and resilience to emotional disorders such as depression and anxiety. Genetic variation is known to contribute to these differences but they remain incompletely understood. The serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) and α2B-adrenergic autoreceptor (ADRA2B) insertion/deletion polymorphisms impact on two separate but interacting monaminergic signalling mechanisms that have been implicated in both emotional processing and emotional disorders. Recent studies suggest that the 5-HTTLPR s allele is associated with a negative attentional bias and an increased risk of emotional disorders. However, such complex behavioural traits are likely to exhibit polygenicity, including epistasis. This study examined the contribution of the 5-HTTLPR and ADRA2B insertion/deletion polymorphisms to attentional biases for aversive information in 94 healthy male volunteers and found evidence of a significant epistatic effect (pbias for aversive information was attenuated by possession of the ADRA2B deletion variant whereas in the absence of the s allele, the bias was enhanced. These data identify a cognitive mechanism linking genotype-dependent serotonergic and noradrenergic signalling that is likely to have implications for the development of cognitive markers for depression/anxiety as well as therapeutic drug effects and personalized approaches to treatment.

  7. Children's 5-HTTLPR genotype moderates the link between maternal criticism and attentional biases specifically for facial displays of anger.

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    Gibb, Brandon E; Johnson, Ashley L; Benas, Jessica S; Uhrlass, Dorothy J; Knopik, Valerie S; McGeary, John E

    2011-09-01

    Theorists have proposed that negative experiences in childhood may contribute to the development of experience-specific information-processing biases, including attentional biases. There are also clear genetic influences on cognitive processes, with evidence that polymorphisms in specific candidate genes may moderate the impact of environmental stress on attentional biases (e.g., a functional polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene; 5-HTTLPR). In the current study, we tested a gene×environment (G×E) model of risk for attentional biases. We hypothesised that children whose mothers exhibit high levels of expressed emotion criticism (EE-Crit) would display attentional biases specifically for angry, but not happy or sad, faces, and that this link would be stronger among children carrying one or two copies of the 5-HTTLPR short allele than among those homozygous for the long allele. Results generally supported these hypotheses, though we found that carriers of the 5-HTTLPR short allele who also had a critical mother exhibited attentional avoidance of angry faces rather than preferential attention.

  8. 5-HTTLPR polymorphism is linked to neural mechanisms of selective attention in preschoolers from lower socioeconomic status backgrounds

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    Elif Isbell

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available While a growing body of research has identified experiential factors associated with differences in selective attention, relatively little is known about the contribution of genetic factors to the skill of sustained selective attention, especially in early childhood. Here, we assessed the association between the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR genotypes and the neural mechanisms of selective attention in young children from lower socioeconomic status (SES backgrounds. Event-related potentials (ERPs were recorded during a dichotic listening task from 121 children (76 females, aged 40–67 months, who were also genotyped for the short and long allele of 5-HTTLPR. The effect of selective attention was measured as the difference in ERP mean amplitudes elicited by identical probe stimuli embedded in stories when they were attended versus unattended. Compared to children homozygous for the long allele, children who carried at least one copy of the short allele showed larger effects of selective attention on neural processing. These findings link the short allele of the 5-HTTLPR to enhanced neural mechanisms of selective attention and lay the groundwork for future studies of gene-by-environment interactions in the context of key cognitive skills.

  9. 5-HTTLPR polymorphism is linked to neural mechanisms of selective attention in preschoolers from lower socioeconomic status backgrounds.

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    Isbell, Elif; Stevens, Courtney; Hampton Wray, Amanda; Bell, Theodore; Neville, Helen J

    2016-12-01

    While a growing body of research has identified experiential factors associated with differences in selective attention, relatively little is known about the contribution of genetic factors to the skill of sustained selective attention, especially in early childhood. Here, we assessed the association between the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) genotypes and the neural mechanisms of selective attention in young children from lower socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during a dichotic listening task from 121 children (76 females, aged 40-67 months), who were also genotyped for the short and long allele of 5-HTTLPR. The effect of selective attention was measured as the difference in ERP mean amplitudes elicited by identical probe stimuli embedded in stories when they were attended versus unattended. Compared to children homozygous for the long allele, children who carried at least one copy of the short allele showed larger effects of selective attention on neural processing. These findings link the short allele of the 5-HTTLPR to enhanced neural mechanisms of selective attention and lay the groundwork for future studies of gene-by-environment interactions in the context of key cognitive skills. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Using trajectory analyses to refine phenotype for genetic association: conduct problems and the serotonin transporter (5HTTLPR).

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    Sakai, Joseph T; Boardman, Jason D; Gelhorn, Heather L; Smolen, Andrew; Corley, Robin P; Huizinga, David; Menard, Scott; Hewitt, John K; Stallings, Michael C

    2010-10-01

    Conduct disorder is a serious, relatively common disorder of childhood and adolescence. Findings from genetic association studies searching for genetic determinants of the liability toward such behaviors have been inconsistent. One possible explanation for differential results is that most studies define phenotype from a single assessment; for many adolescents conduct problems decrease in severity over time, whereas for others such behaviors persist. Therefore, longitudinal datasets offer the opportunity to refine phenotype. We used Caucasians that were first assessed during adolescence from the National Youth Survey Family Study. Nine waves of data were used to create latent growth trajectories and test for associations between trajectory class and 5HTTLPR genotype. For the full sample, 5HTTLPR was not associated with conduct problem phenotypes. However, the short (s) allele was associated with chronic conduct problems in females; a nominally significant sex by 5HTTLPR genotype interaction was noted. Longitudinal studies provide unique opportunities for phenotypic refinement and such techniques, with large samples, may be useful for phenotypic definition with other study designs, such as whole genome association studies.

  11. Adolescent Loneliness and the Interaction between the Serotonin Transporter Gene (5-HTTLPR and Parental Support: A Replication Study.

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    Annette W M Spithoven

    Full Text Available Gene-by-environment interaction (GxEs studies have gained popularity over the last decade, but the robustness of such observed interactions has been questioned. The current study contributes to this debate by replicating the only study on the interaction between the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR and perceived parental support on adolescents' peer-related loneliness. A total of 1,111 adolescents (51% boys with an average age of 13.70 years (SD = 0.93 participated and three annual waves of data were collected. At baseline, adolescent-reported parental support and peer-related loneliness were assessed and genetic information was collected. Assessment of peer-related loneliness was repeated at Waves 2 and 3. Using a cohort-sequential design, a Latent Growth Curve Model was estimated. Overall, a slight increase of loneliness over time was found. However, the development of loneliness over time was found to be different for boys and girls: girls' levels of loneliness increased over time, whereas boys' levels of loneliness decreased. Parental support was inversely related to baseline levels of loneliness, but unrelated to change of loneliness over time. We were unable to replicate the main effect of 5-HTTLPR or the 5-HTTLPR x Support interaction effect. In the Discussion, we examine the implications of our non-replication.

  12. Depression, 5HTTLPR and BDNF Val66Met polymorphisms, and plasma BDNF levels in hemodialysis patients with chronic renal failure

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    Wang LJ

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Liang-Jen Wang,1,* Chih-Ken Chen,2,3,* Heng-Jung Hsu,3,4 I-Wen Wu,3,4 Chiao-Yin Sun,3,4 Chin-Chan Lee3,41Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Keelung, Taiwan; 3Chang Gung University School of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 4Department of Nephrology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Keelung, Taiwan *LJW and CKC are joint first authors and contributed equally to this manuscriptObjective: Depression is the most prevalent comorbid psychiatric disease among hemodialysis patients with end-stage renal disease. This cross-sectional study investigated whether depression in hemodialysis patients is associated with the polymorphism of the 5' flanking transcriptional region (5-HTTLPR of the serotonin transporter gene, the valine (Val-to-methionine (Met substitution at codon 66 (Val66Met polymorphism of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF gene, or plasma BDNF levels.Methods: A total of 188 participants (mean age: 58.5±14.0 years; 89 men and 99 women receiving hemodialysis at the Chang Gung Memorial Hospital were recruited. The diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD was confirmed using the Chinese version of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. The genotypes of 5-HTTLPR and BDNF Val66Met were conducted using polymerase chain reactions plus restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The plasma BDNF levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit.Results: Forty-five (23.9% patients fulfilled the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV-TR criteria for a MDD. There were no significant effects of the 5-HTTLPR or BDNF Val66Met gene polymorphism on MDD among the hemodialysis patients. The plasma BDNF levels correlated significantly with age (P=0.003 and sex (P=0.047 but not with depression, the genotypes of 5

  13. The effect of an adverse psychological environment on salivary cortisol levels in the elderly differs by 5-HTTLPR genotype

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    Marie-Laure Ancelin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: An adverse psychological environment (e.g. stressful events or depression has been shown to influence basal cortisol levels and cortisol response to stress. This differs depending on the adverse stimuli, but also varies across individuals and may be influenced by genetic predisposition. An insertion/deletion polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR is a strong candidate in this regard. Objective: To investigate how stressful life events and depression are associated with diurnal cortisol levels in community-dwelling elderly and determine whether this varies according to genetic variability in the 5-HTTLPR. Methods: This population-based study included 334 subjects aged 65 and older (mean (SD = 76.5 (6.3. Diurnal cortisol was measured on two separate days, under quiet (basal and stressful conditions. The number of recent major stressful events experienced during the past year was assessed from a 12-item validated questionnaire as an index of cumulative recent stressful events. Lifetime trauma was evaluated using the validated Watson's PTSD inventory, which evaluates the most severe traumatic or frightening experience according to DSM criteria. Depression was defined as having a Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI diagnosis of current major depressive disorder or high levels of depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale ≥16. 5-HTTLPR genotyping was performed on blood samples. Results: Exposure to stressful life events was associated with lower basal evening cortisol levels overall, and in the participants with the 5-HTTLPR L allele but not the SS genotype. The greatest effects (over 50% decrease, p < 0.001 were observed for the LL participants having experienced multiple recent stressful events or severe lifetime traumas. Participants with the L allele also had higher evening cortisol stress response. Conversely, depression tended to be associated with a 42

  14. Serotonin transporter 5-HTTLPR genotype is associated with intrusion and avoidance symptoms of DSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in Chinese earthquake survivors.

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    Liu, Luobing; Wang, Li; Cao, Chengqi; Cao, Xing; Zhu, Ye; Liu, Ping; Luo, Shu; Zhang, Jianxin

    2018-05-01

    Prior studies have found that the serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) interacts with trauma exposure to increase general risk for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). However, there is little knowledge about the effects of the interaction on distinct symptom clusters of PTSD. This study aimed to investigate the relation between the interaction of 5-HTTLPR and earthquake-related exposures and a contemporary phenotypic model of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms in a traumatised adult sample from China. A cross-sectional design with gene-environment interaction (G × E) approach was adopted. Participants were 1131 survivors who experienced 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. PTSD symptoms were assessed with the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5). The 5-HTTLPR polymorphism was genotyped with capillary electrophoresis (CE) in ABI 3730xl genetic Analyzer. Although there was no significant interaction between 5-HTTLPR and traumatic exposure on total PTSD symptoms, respondents with the LL genotype of 5-HTTLPR who were highly exposed to the earthquake experienced lower intrusion and avoidance symptoms than those with the S-allele carriers. The findings suggest that the 5-HTTLPR may have an important impact on the development of PTSD and add to the extant knowledge on understanding and treating of posttraumatic psychopathology.

  15. The 5-HTTLPR confers susceptibility to anorexia nervosa in Han Chinese: evidence from a case-control and family-based study.

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    Chen, Jue; Kang, Qing; Jiang, Wenhui; Fan, Juan; Zhang, Mingdao; Yu, Shunying; Zhang, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence has implied that serotonin system dysfunction may be involved in the etiology of anorexia nervosa (AN). Serotonin-transporter-linked promoter region (5-HTTLPR) polymorphism is the genetic variant coding for the serotonin transporter and has a modulatory effect on its expression. This study aimed to investigate the possible association between the 5-HTTLPR and the susceptibility and severity of AN in Han Chinese using a case-control (255 patients and 351 controls) and family based study (198 trios). Eating disorder examination was used to measure the severity of AN behavioral symptoms. For the case-control study, the 5-HTTLPR showed significant association with AN in our sample (genotypic P = 0.03). The frequency of S allele was significantly higher in patients than that in controls (OR = 1.38, 95%CI: 1.06-1.79, P = 0.017). For the family-based study, the S allele of 5-HTTLPR was preferentially transmitted rather than non-transmitted from the parents to affected offspring (P = 0.013). The results of ANCOVA test revealed no significant association between the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and severity of AN. Our findings suggested that 5-HTTLPR is able to confer susceptibility to AN in Han Chinese.

  16. The 5-HTTLPR confers susceptibility to anorexia nervosa in Han Chinese: evidence from a case-control and family-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jue Chen

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence has implied that serotonin system dysfunction may be involved in the etiology of anorexia nervosa (AN. Serotonin-transporter-linked promoter region (5-HTTLPR polymorphism is the genetic variant coding for the serotonin transporter and has a modulatory effect on its expression. This study aimed to investigate the possible association between the 5-HTTLPR and the susceptibility and severity of AN in Han Chinese using a case-control (255 patients and 351 controls and family based study (198 trios. Eating disorder examination was used to measure the severity of AN behavioral symptoms. For the case-control study, the 5-HTTLPR showed significant association with AN in our sample (genotypic P = 0.03. The frequency of S allele was significantly higher in patients than that in controls (OR = 1.38, 95%CI: 1.06-1.79, P = 0.017. For the family-based study, the S allele of 5-HTTLPR was preferentially transmitted rather than non-transmitted from the parents to affected offspring (P = 0.013. The results of ANCOVA test revealed no significant association between the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and severity of AN. Our findings suggested that 5-HTTLPR is able to confer susceptibility to AN in Han Chinese.

  17. The association between COMT rs4680 and 5-HTTLPR genotypes and concussion history in South African rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Fie, Sarah; Abrahams, Shameemah; Patricios, Jon; Suter, Jason; Posthumus, Michael; September, Alison V

    2018-04-01

    The objective was to investigate the relationship between Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) rs4680 and serotonin-transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) genotypes with concussion history and personality traits. Rugby players ("all levels": n = 303), from high schools ("junior", n = 137), senior amateur, and professional teams ("senior", n = 166), completed a self-reported concussion history questionnaire, Cloninger's Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire, and donated a DNA sample. Participants were allocated into control (non-concussed, n = 140), case (all) (previous suspected or diagnosed concussions, n = 163), or case (diagnosed only) (previous diagnosed concussion, n = 140) groups. COMT rs4680 Val/Val genotypes were over-represented in controls in all levels (P = 0.013, OR:2.00, 95% CI:1.15-3.57) and in juniors (P = 0.003, OR:3.57, 95% CI:1.45-9.09). Junior Val/Val participants displayed increased "anticipatory worry" (P = 0.023). The 5-HTTLPR low expressing group was under-represented in controls when all levels were considered (P = 0.032; OR:2.02, 95% CI:1.05-3.90) and in juniors (P = 0.021; OR:3.36, 95% CI:1.16-9.72). Junior 5-HTTLPR low and intermediate expressing groups displayed decreased "harm avoidance" (P = 0.009), "anticipatory worry" (P = 0.041), and "fear of uncertainty" (P < 0.001). This study provides preliminary indications that personality associated genetic variants can influence concussion in rugby.

  18. BDNF Val66met and 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms predict a human in vivo marker for brain serotonin levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisher, Patrick M; Holst, Klaus K; Adamsen, Dea

    2015-01-01

    ) polymorphism. We applied a linear latent variable model (LVM) using regional 5-HT4 binding values (neocortex, amygdala, caudate, hippocampus, and putamen) from 68 healthy humans, allowing us to explicitly model brain-wide and region-specific genotype effects on 5-HT4 binding. Our data supported an LVM wherein...... specifically affects 5-HT4 binding in the neocortex. These findings implicate serotonin signaling as an important molecular mediator underlying the effects of BDNF val66met and 5-HTTLPR on behavior and related risk for neuropsychiatric illness in humans. Hum Brain Mapp, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....

  19. The effect of COMT Val158 Met genotype on decision-making and preliminary findings on its interaction with the 5-HTTLPR in healthy females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bos, Ruud; Homberg, Judith; Gijsbers, Ellen; den Heijer, Esther; Cuppen, Edwin

    2009-02-01

    Poor decision-making is inherent to several psychiatric conditions for which a genetic basis may exist. We previously showed that healthy female volunteers homozygous for the short allele (s/s) of the serotonin transporter length polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) chose more often cards from disadvantageous decks in the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), which measures decision-making, than long (l) allele carriers. The 5-HTTLPR and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val(158) Met polymorphism affect the same set of neuronal structures. Therefore, we explored the effect of the (COMT) Val(158) Met polymorphism on IGT performance and its interaction with the 5-HTTLPR in the same subjects in this study. We observed that subjects homozygous for methionine (Met/Met) chose more disadvantageously than subjects homozygous for valine (Val/Val). s/s-Met/Met-subjects appeared to show the poorest IGT performance of all possible combinations of 5-HTTLPR and COMT allelic variants. Using the Expectancy-Valence model, no differences were found for the three different 5-HTTLPR or COMT genotypes regarding (i) attention to wins versus losses, (ii) updating rate, or (iii) response consistency. However, subjects with at least one Met-allele were paying more attention to wins than subjects with no Met-alleles. We discuss whether a common neuronal mechanism relates to s- and Met-allele-related deficits in updating and/or processing of choice outcome to guide subsequent choices in this gamble-based test.

  20. Extending Previous cG×I Findings on 5-HTTLPR's Moderation of Intervention Effects on Adolescent Substance Misuse Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlomer, Gabriel L; Cleveland, H Harrington; Feinberg, Mark E; Wolf, Pedro S A; Greenberg, Mark T; Spoth, Richard L; Redmond, Cleve; Tricou, Eric P; Vandenbergh, David J

    2017-11-01

    This study addresses replication in candidate gene × environment interaction (cG×E) research by investigating if the key findings from Brody, Beach, Philibert, Chen, and Murry (2009) can be detected using data (N = 1,809) from the PROSPER substance use preventive intervention delivery system. Parallel to Brody et al., this study tested the hypotheses that substance misuse initiation would increase faster from age 11 to age 14 and be higher at age 14 among: (a) 5-HTTLPR short carrier adolescents versus long homozygotes, (b) control versus intervention adolescents, and (c) 5-HTTLPR short carriers in the control condition versus all other participants. The hypotheses were generally supported and results were consistent with Brody et al.'s cG×I finding. Results are discussed in light of replication issues in cG×E research and implications for intervention. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  1. Institutionalization and indiscriminate social behavior: Differential-susceptibility versus diathesis-stress models for the 5-HTTLPR and BDNF genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, A R; Belsky, J; Li, Z; Baptista, J; Carvalho-Correia, E; Maciel, P; Soares, I

    2015-12-01

    Institutionalization adversely impacts children's emotional functioning, proving related to attachment disorders, perhaps most notably that involving indiscriminate behavior, the subject of this report. In seeking to extend work in this area, this research on gene X environment (GXE) interplay investigated whether the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) and val66met Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) polymorphisms moderated the effect of institutional care on indiscriminate behavior in preschoolers. Eighty-five institutionalized and 135 home-reared Portuguese children were assessed using Disturbances of Attachment Interview (DAI). GXE results indicated that s/s homozygotes of the 5-HTTLPR gene displayed significantly higher levels of indiscriminate behavior than all other children if institutionalized, something not true of such children when family reared. These findings proved consistent with the diathesis-stress rather than differential-susceptibility model of person×environment interaction. BDNF proved unrelated to indiscriminate behavior. Results are discussed in relation to previous work on this subject of indiscriminate behavior, institutionalization and GXE interaction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. 5-HTTLPR Genotype Moderates the Effects of Past Ecstasy Use on Verbal Memory Performance in Adolescent and Emerging Adults: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Natasha E; Strong, Judith A; Gilbart, Erika R; Shollenbarger, Skyler G; Lisdahl, Krista M

    2015-01-01

    Ecstasy use is associated with memory deficits. Serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) polymorphisms have been linked with memory function in healthy samples. The present pilot study investigated the influence of 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms on memory performance in ecstasy users, marijuana-using controls, and non-drug-using controls, after a minimum of 7 days of abstinence. Data were collected from 116 young adults (18-25 years-old), including 45 controls, 42 marijuana users, and 29 ecstasy users, and were balanced for 5-HTTLPR genotype. Participants were abstinent seven days prior to completing memory testing. Three MANCOVAs and one ANCOVA were run to examine whether drug group, 5-HTTLPR genotype, and their interactions predicted verbal and visual memory after controlling for gender, past year alcohol use, other drug use, and nicotine cotinine levels. MANCOVA and ANCOVA analysis revealed a significant interaction between drug group and genotype (p = .03) such that ecstasy users with the L/L genotype performed significantly worse on CVLT-2 total recall (p = .05), short (p = .008) and long delay free recall (p = .01), and recognition (p = .006), with the reverse pattern found in controls. Ecstasy did not significantly predict visual memory. 5-HTTLPR genotype significantly predicted memory for faces (p = .02); short allele carriers performed better than those with L/L genotype. 5-HTTLPR genotype moderated the effects of ecstasy on verbal memory, with L/L carriers performing worse compared to controls. Future research should continue to examine individual differences in ecstasy's impact on neurocognitive performance as well as relationships with neuronal structure. Additional screening and prevention efforts focused on adolescents and emerging adults are necessary to prevent ecstasy consumption.

  3. 5-HTTLPR Genotype Moderates the Effects of Past Ecstasy Use on Verbal Memory Performance in Adolescent and Emerging Adults: A Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha E Wright

    Full Text Available Ecstasy use is associated with memory deficits. Serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR polymorphisms have been linked with memory function in healthy samples. The present pilot study investigated the influence of 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms on memory performance in ecstasy users, marijuana-using controls, and non-drug-using controls, after a minimum of 7 days of abstinence.Data were collected from 116 young adults (18-25 years-old, including 45 controls, 42 marijuana users, and 29 ecstasy users, and were balanced for 5-HTTLPR genotype. Participants were abstinent seven days prior to completing memory testing. Three MANCOVAs and one ANCOVA were run to examine whether drug group, 5-HTTLPR genotype, and their interactions predicted verbal and visual memory after controlling for gender, past year alcohol use, other drug use, and nicotine cotinine levels.MANCOVA and ANCOVA analysis revealed a significant interaction between drug group and genotype (p = .03 such that ecstasy users with the L/L genotype performed significantly worse on CVLT-2 total recall (p = .05, short (p = .008 and long delay free recall (p = .01, and recognition (p = .006, with the reverse pattern found in controls. Ecstasy did not significantly predict visual memory. 5-HTTLPR genotype significantly predicted memory for faces (p = .02; short allele carriers performed better than those with L/L genotype.5-HTTLPR genotype moderated the effects of ecstasy on verbal memory, with L/L carriers performing worse compared to controls. Future research should continue to examine individual differences in ecstasy's impact on neurocognitive performance as well as relationships with neuronal structure. Additional screening and prevention efforts focused on adolescents and emerging adults are necessary to prevent ecstasy consumption.

  4. Serotonin Transporter Gene 5-HTTLPR Polymorphism as a Protective Factor Against the Progression of Post-Stroke Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiang; Guo, Yi; Yang, Dong; Yang, Tiansong; Meng, Xianghui

    2016-04-01

    Polymorphisms in the 5-HTT and BDNF genes are shown to affect their function at the molecular and serum level. Prior work has tried to correlate the polymorphisms with post-stroke depression (PSD), the results nevertheless remain indefinitive. A plausible reason accounting for the uncertainty relates to the small sample of each published trial. In this study, we have performed a comprehensive meta-analysis in order to evaluate the effects of 5-HTT and BDNF polymorphisms (5-HTTLPR, STin2 VNTR, 5-HTR2a 102 T/C, Val66Met) on genetic risk of PSD. Human case-control trials were identified by computer-assisted and manual searches. The article search was performed until October 2014. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the fixed effects meta-analysis to measure the effects 5-HTT and BDNF polymorphisms exerted on PSD. We also performed test of heterogeneity, test of publication bias, and sensitivity analysis to examine the reliability and stability of combined effects. 5-HTTLPR was clearly associated with genetic risk of PSD. The association seemed to be more pronounced in the homozygous model (OR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.23-0.51, P(Q-test) = 0.63). Both the heterozygous model and the recessive model showed 50% decreased risk of PSD (OR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.37-0.67, P(Q-test) = 0.91; OR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.36-0.70, P(Q-test) = 0.43, respectively). Such significant association was also detected for Caucasian and Asian. These results were reliable and stable based on related analyses. Taken together, 5-HTTLPR polymorphism of the 5-HTT gene seems to protect against the occurrence of PSD. Small sample size for the polymorphisms within 5-HTT and BDNF genes may have caused underestimated associations, and a larger study is required to further assess the relations.

  5. Genetic sensitivity to the caregiving context: The influence of 5httlpr and BDNF val66met on indiscriminate social behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Stacy S; Gleason, Mary Margaret; Theall, Katherine; Smyke, Anna T; Nelson, Charles A; Fox, Nathan A; Zeanah, Charles H

    2014-01-01

    Evidence that gene x environment interactions can reflect differential sensitivity to the environmental context, rather than risk or resilience, is increasing. To test this model, we examined the genetic contribution to indiscriminate social behavior, in the setting of a randomized controlled trial of foster care compared to institutional rearing. Children enrolled in the Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP) were assessed comprehensively before the age of 30 months and subsequently randomized to either care as usual (CAUG) or high quality foster care (FCG). Indiscriminate social behavior was assessed at four time points, baseline, 30 months, 42 months and 54 months of age, using caregiver report with the Disturbances of Attachment Interview (DAI). General linear mixed-effects models were used to examine the effect of the interaction between group status and functional polymorphisms in Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and the Serotonin Transporter (5htt) on levels of indiscriminate behavior over time. Differential susceptibility, relative to levels of indiscriminate behavior, was demonstrated in children with either the s/s 5httlpr genotype or met 66 BDNF allele carriers. Specifically children with either the s/s 5httlpr genotype or met66 carriers in BDNF demonstrated the lowest levels of indiscriminate behavior in the FCG and the highest levels in the CAUG. Children with either the long allele of the 5httlpr or val/val genotype of BDNF demonstrated little difference in levels of indiscriminate behaviors over time and no group x genotype interaction. Children with both plasticity genotypes had the most signs of indiscriminate behavior at 54 months if they were randomized to the CAUG in the institution, while those with both plasticity genotypes randomized to the FCG intervention had the fewest signs at 54 months. Strikingly children with no plasticity alleles demonstrated no intervention effect on levels of indiscriminate behavior at 54 months. These

  6. Association of 5-HTTLPR Polymorphism with the Nursing Diagnoses and the Achievement of Nursing Outcomes in Patients with Major Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokofieva, Margarita; Karadima, Georgia; Koukia, Evmorfia; Michou, Vassiliki; Kyprianidou, Chrysoula; Papageorgiou, Chrysovalantis V; Alexiadis, Evangelos; Constantoulakis, Pantelis; Dikeos, Dimitris

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate whether a 44-base-pair insertion/deletion polymorphism in the upstream regulatory region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) is associated with the nursing diagnoses and the achievement of the desired nursing outcomes in inpatients with major depression. Thirty five patients were evaluated. The nursing diagnoses of risk for suicide and imbalanced nutrition are reported less often in homozygotes of the high-expressing gene (L A ). Carriers of the low-expressing genes (L G or S) have a worse response to interventions which aim to increase low self-esteem, indicating that they may need more intensive care in order to achieve the desired outcome. Genetics in psychiatric nursing could help refine personalized care, however further studies with large sample sizes and multiple gene evaluations are needed.

  7. Ludics, dialogue and inferentialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Lecomte

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we try to show that Ludics, a (pre-logical framework invented by J-Y. Girard, enables us to rethink some of the relationships between Philosophy, Semantics and Pragmatics. In particular, Ludics helps to shed light on the nature of dialogue and to articulate features of Brandom's inferentialism.

  8. Serotonergic 5HTTLPR/rs25531 s-allele homozygosity associates with violent suicides in male citalopram users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahikainen, Anna-Liina; Majaharju, Salla; Haukka, Jari; Palo, Jukka U; Sajantila, Antti

    2017-10-01

    Depressive disorders are involved as a background factor in over 50% of suicide cases. The most widely used antidepressants today are serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). However, not all users benefit from SSRI medication. Although the overall number of suicides in Finland have decreased notably during the last decade, the annual rate is still relatively high, particularly in male population. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the genetic variants associated with decreased citalopram efficiency, 5HTTLPR/rs25531, and increased impulsive behavior, MAOA-uVNTR and HTR2B Q20*, are more frequent among citalopram users committing suicide than among the citalopram users in general. Also the effect of alcohol was evaluated. The study population comprised 349 suicide victims (184 males and 165 females). Based on the suicide method used, cases were divided into two groups; violent (88 males and 49 females) and non-violent (96 males and 116 females). The control group (284; 159 males and 125 females) consisted of citalopram users who died of causes other than suicide. We found that male citalopram users with low functioning s/s genotype of 5HTTLPR/rs25531 were in increased risk to commit violent suicide (OR 2.50, 95%CI 1.15-5.42, p = 0.020). Surprisingly, high blood alcohol concentration was observed to be a risk factor only in non-violent suicides (both males and females), but not in violent ones. No association between suicides and MAOA-uVNTR and HTR2B Q20*, which have been previously connected to violent and impulsive behavior, was detected. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Serotonin Transporter Promoter Region (5-HTTLPR) Polymorphism Is Not Associated With Paroxetine-Induced Ejaculation Delay in Dutch Men With Lifelong Premature Ejaculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Paddy K. C.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Olivier, Berend; Waldinger, Marcel D.

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the association between the 5-HT-transporter-gene-linked promoter region (5-HTTLPR) polymorphism and 20-mg paroxetine-induced ejaculation delay in men with lifelong premature ejaculation (LPE). This was a prospective study of 10 weeks of paroxetine treatment in 54 men with LPE.

  10. Serotonin Transporter Promoter Region (5-HTTLPR) Polymorphism Is Not Associated With Paroxetine-Induced Ejaculation Delay in Dutch Men With Lifelong Premature Ejaculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Paddy K C; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Olivier, Berend; Waldinger, Marcel D

    PURPOSE: To investigate the association between the 5-HT-transporter-gene-linked promoter region (5-HTTLPR) polymorphism and 20-mg paroxetine-induced ejaculation delay in men with lifelong premature ejaculation (LPE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective study of 10 weeks of paroxetine

  11. Serotonin Transporter-Linked Polymorphic Region (5-HTTLPR) Genotype and Stressful Life Events Interact to Predict Preschool-Onset Depression: A Replication and Developmental Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdan, Ryan; Agrawal, Arpana; Gaffrey, Michael S.; Tillman, Rebecca; Luby, Joan L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Scientific enthusiasm about gene × environment interactions, spurred by the 5-HTTLPR (serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region) × SLEs (stressful life events) interaction predicting depression, have recently been tempered by sober realizations of small effects and meta-analyses reaching opposing conclusions. These mixed findings…

  12. Lack of association between the Serotonin Transporter Promoter Polymorphism (5-HTTLPR and Panic Disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfro Gisele G

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to assess the association between the Serotonin Transporter Promoter Polymorphism (5-HTTLPR and Panic Disorder (PD. Methods This is a systematic review and meta-analysis of case-control studies with unrelated individuals of any ethnic origin examining the role of the 5-HTTLPR in PD according to standard diagnostic criteria (DSM or ICD. Articles published in any language between January 1996 and April 2007 were eligible. The electronic databases searched included PubMed, PsychInfo, Lilacs and ISI. Two separate analyses were performed: an analysis by alleles and a stratified analysis separating studies by the quality of control groups. Asymptotic DerSimonian and Laird's Q test were used to assess heterogeneity. Results of individual studies were combined using the fixed effect model with respective 95% confidence intervals. Results Nineteen potential articles were identified, and 10 studies were included in this meta-analysis. No statistically significant association between 5-HTTLPR and PD was found, OR = 0.91 (CI95% 0.80 to 1.03, p = 0.14. Three sub-analyses divided by ethnicity, control group quality and Agoraphobia comorbidity also failed to find any significant association. No evidence of heterogeneity was found between studies in the analyses. Conclusion Results from this systematic review do not provide evidence to support an association between 5-HTTLPR and PD. However, more studies are needed in different ethnic populations in order to evaluate a possible minor effect.

  13. Effect of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism on posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, anxiety, and quality of life among Iraq and Afghanistan veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrel, Nathan A; Morissette, Sandra B; Meyer, Eric C; Chrestman, Roberta; Jamroz, Robert; Silvia, Paul J; Beckham, Jean C; Young, Keith A

    2015-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, and stress are significant problems among returning veterans and are associated with reduced quality of life. A correlational design was used to examine the impact of a polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) in the serotonin transporter promoter gene on post-deployment adjustment among returning veterans. A total of 186 returning Iraq and Afghanistan veterans were genotyped for the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism. Symptoms of PTSD, depression, general stress, and anxiety were assessed along with quality of life. After controlling for combat exposure, age, sex of the participant, and race, 5-HTTLPR had a significant multivariate effect on post-deployment adjustment, such that S' carriers reported more post-deployment adjustment problems and worse quality of life than veterans homozygous for the L' allele. This effect was larger when the analyses were restricted to veterans of European ancestry. Our findings suggest that veterans who carry the S' allele of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism may be at increased risk for adjustment problems and reduced quality of life following deployments to war zones.

  14. Association of the 5-HTT gene-linked promoter region (5-HTTLPR polymorphism with psychiatric disorders: review of psychopathology and pharmacotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenna GA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available George A Kenna1, Nick Roder-Hanna2, Lorenzo Leggio3, William H Zywiak4, James Clifford5, Steven Edwards3, John A Kenna6, Jessica Shoaff1, Robert M Swift11Center for Alcohol and Addiction Studies, Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Brown University, Providence; 2College of Pharmacy, University of Rhode Island, Kingston; 3Center for Alcohol and Addiction Studies, Department of Community Health, Brown University, Providence; 4Butler Hospital, Providence, RI; 5Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavior Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA; 6College of Nursing, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI, USAAbstract: Serotonin (5-HT regulates important biological and psychological processes including mood, and may be associated with the development of several psychiatric disorders. An association between psychopathology and genes that regulate 5-HT neurotransmission is a robust area of research. Identification of the genes responsible for the predisposition, development, and pharmacological response of various psychiatric disorders is crucial to the advancement of our understanding of their underlying neurobiology. This review highlights research investigating 5-HT transporter (5-HTTLPR polymorphism, because studies investigating the impact of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism have demonstrated significant associations with many psychiatric disorders. Decreased transcriptional activity of the S allele (“risk allele” may be associated with a heightened amygdala response leading to anxiety-related personality traits, major depressive disorder, suicide attempts, and bipolar disorder. By contrast, increased transcriptional activity of the L allele is considered protective for depression but is also associated with completed suicide, nicotine dependence, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. For some disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder, the research suggests that treatment

  15. Genetic variation in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR, rs25531 influences the analgesic response to the short acting opioid Remifentanil in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schalling Martin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence from animal studies that serotonin (5-HT can influence the antinociceptive effects of opioids at the spinal cord level. Therefore, there could be an influence of genetic polymorphisms in the serotonin system on individual variability in response to opioid treatment of pain. The serotonin transporter (5-HTT is a key regulator of serotonin metabolism and availability and its gene harbors several known polymorphisms that are known to affect 5-HTT expression (e.g. 5-HTTLPR, rs25531. The aim of this study was to investigate if the triallelic 5-HTTLPR influences pain sensitivity or the analgesic effect of opioids in humans. 43 healthy volunteers (12 men, 31 women, mean age 26 years underwent heat pain stimulations before and after intravenous injection of Remifentanil; a rapid and potent opioid drug acting on μ-type receptors. Subjects rated their perceived pain on a visual analogue scale (VAS. All participants were genotyped for the 5-HTTLPR and the rs25531 polymorphism. We recruited by advertising, with no history of drug abuse, chronic pain or psychiatric disorders. Results At baseline, there was no difference in pain ratings for the different triallelic 5-HTTLPR genotype groups. However, the opiod drug had a differential analgesic effect depending on the triallelic 5-HTTLPR genotype. Remifentanil had a significantly better analgesic effect in individuals with a genotype coding for low 5-HTT expression (SA/SA and SA/LG as compared to those with high expression(LA/LA, p Conclusion This is the first report showing an influence of the triallelic 5-HTTLPR on pain sensitivity or the analgesic effect of opioids in humans. Previously the 5-HTTLPR s-allele has been associated with higher risk of developing chronic pain conditions but in this study we show that the genotype coding for low 5-HTT expression is associated with a better analgesic effect of an opioid. The s-allele has been associated with downregulation of

  16. BDNF Val 66 Met and 5-HTTLPR genotype moderate the impact of early psychosocial adversity on plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor and depressive symptoms: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmann, Arlette F; Hellweg, Rainer; Rietschel, Marcella; Treutlein, Jens; Witt, Stephanie H; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Schmidt, Martin H; Esser, Günter; Banaschewski, Tobias; Laucht, Manfred; Deuschle, Michael

    2013-08-01

    Recent studies have emphasized an important role for neurotrophins, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), in regulating the plasticity of neural circuits involved in the pathophysiology of stress-related diseases. The aim of the present study was to examine the interplay of the BDNF Val⁶⁶Met and the serotonin transporter promoter (5-HTTLPR) polymorphisms in moderating the impact of early-life adversity on BDNF plasma concentration and depressive symptoms. Participants were taken from an epidemiological cohort study following the long-term outcome of early risk factors from birth into young adulthood. In 259 individuals (119 males, 140 females), genotyped for the BDNF Val⁶⁶Met and the 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms, plasma BDNF was assessed at the age of 19 years. In addition, participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Early adversity was determined according to a family adversity index assessed at 3 months of age. Results indicated that individuals homozygous for both the BDNF Val and the 5-HTTLPR L allele showed significantly reduced BDNF levels following exposure to high adversity. In contrast, BDNF levels appeared to be unaffected by early psychosocial adversity in carriers of the BDNF Met or the 5-HTTLPR S allele. While the former group appeared to be most susceptible to depressive symptoms, the impact of early adversity was less pronounced in the latter group. This is the first preliminary evidence indicating that early-life adverse experiences may have lasting sequelae for plasma BDNF levels in humans, highlighting that the susceptibility to this effect is moderated by BDNF Val⁶⁶Met and 5-HTTLPR genotype. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Genetic variation in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR, rs25531) influences the analgesic response to the short acting opioid Remifentanil in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosek, Eva; Jensen, Karin B; Lonsdorf, Tina B; Schalling, Martin; Ingvar, Martin

    2009-07-01

    There is evidence from animal studies that serotonin (5-HT) can influence the antinociceptive effects of opioids at the spinal cord level. Therefore, there could be an influence of genetic polymorphisms in the serotonin system on individual variability in response to opioid treatment of pain. The serotonin transporter (5-HTT) is a key regulator of serotonin metabolism and availability and its gene harbors several known polymorphisms that are known to affect 5-HTT expression (e.g. 5-HTTLPR, rs25531). The aim of this study was to investigate if the triallelic 5-HTTLPR influences pain sensitivity or the analgesic effect of opioids in humans. 43 healthy volunteers (12 men, 31 women, mean age 26 years) underwent heat pain stimulations before and after intravenous injection of Remifentanil; a rapid and potent opioid drug acting on micro-type receptors. Subjects rated their perceived pain on a visual analogue scale (VAS). All participants were genotyped for the 5-HTTLPR and the rs25531 polymorphism. We recruited by advertising, with no history of drug abuse, chronic pain or psychiatric disorders. At baseline, there was no difference in pain ratings for the different triallelic 5-HTTLPR genotype groups. However, the opiod drug had a differential analgesic effect depending on the triallelic 5-HTTLPR genotype. Remifentanil had a significantly better analgesic effect in individuals with a genotype coding for low 5-HTT expression (SA/SA and SA/LG) as compared to those with high expression(LA/LA), p desensitization of 5-HT1 receptors have an increased analgesic response to opioids during acute pain stimuli, but may still be at increased risk of developing chronic pain conditions.

  18. Serotonin Transporter Promoter Region (5-HTTLPR) Polymorphism Is Not Associated With Paroxetine-Induced Ejaculation Delay in Dutch Men With Lifelong Premature Ejaculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Paddy K.C.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Olivier, Berend

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the association between the 5-HT-transporter-gene-linked promoter region (5-HTTLPR) polymorphism and 20-mg paroxetine-induced ejaculation delay in men with lifelong premature ejaculation (LPE). Materials and Methods This was a prospective study of 10 weeks of paroxetine treatment in 54 men with LPE. Intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) was measured by stopwatch. Controls consisted of 92 Caucasian men. All men with LPE were genotyped for the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism. Allele frequencies and genotypes of short (S) and long (L) variants of the polymorphism were compared between patients and controls. Associations between the LL, SL, and SS genotypes and fold increase of mean IELT were investigated. Results Of the 54 patients, 43 (79.6%) responded to 20-mg paroxetine treatment with an ejaculation delay, whereas 11 patients (20.4%) did not respond; 44%, 18%, and 18% of the patients showed a fold increase in mean IELT of 2-10, 10-20, and more than 20, respectively. Of the 54 men, 14 (25.9%) had the LL genotype, 29 (53.7%) had the SL genotype, and 11 (20.4%) had the SS genotype. In the 92 controls, the LL, SL, and SS genotypes were present in 27 (29.3%), 41 (44.6%), and 24 (26.1%), respectively. No statistically significant differences were found in 5-HTTLPR allelic variations or in 5-HTTLPR gene variations. In all men treated with 20 mg paroxetine, analysis of variance of the natural logarithm of fold increase in the IELT showed no statistically significant difference according to genotype (p=0.83). Conclusions The 5-HTTLPR polymorphism is not associated with daily 20-mg paroxetine treatment-induced ejaculation delay in men with LPE. PMID:24578810

  19. Financial difficulties but not other types of recent negative life events show strong interactions with 5-HTTLPR genotype in the development of depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, X; Eszlari, N; Kovacs, D; Anderson, I M; Deakin, J F W; Juhasz, G; Bagdy, G

    2016-05-03

    Several studies indicate that 5-HTTLPR mediates the effect of childhood adversity in the development of depression, while results are contradictory for recent negative life events. For childhood adversity the interaction with genotype is strongest for sexual abuse, but not for other types of childhood maltreatment; however, possible interactions with specific recent life events have not been investigated separately. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of four distinct types of recent life events in the development of depressive symptoms in a large community sample. Interaction between different types of recent life events measured by the List of Threatening Experiences and the 5-HTTLPR genotype on current depression measured by the depression subscale and additional items of the Brief Symptom Inventory was investigated in 2588 subjects in Manchester and Budapest. Only a nominal interaction was found between life events overall and 5-HTTLPR on depression, which failed to survive correction for multiple testing. However, subcategorising life events into four categories showed a robust interaction between financial difficulties and the 5-HTTLPR genotype, and a weaker interaction in the case of illness/injury. No interaction effect for the other two life event categories was present. We investigated a general non-representative sample in a cross-sectional approach. Depressive symptoms and life event evaluations were self-reported. The 5-HTTLPR polymorphism showed a differential interaction pattern with different types of recent life events, with the strongest interaction effects of financial difficulties on depressive symptoms. This specificity of interaction with only particular types of life events may help to explain previous contradictory findings.

  20. Negative self-referential processing is associated with genetic variation in the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR): Evidence from two independent studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dainer-Best, Justin; Disner, Seth G; McGeary, John E; Hamilton, Bethany J; Beevers, Christopher G

    2018-01-01

    The current research examined whether carriers of the short 5-HTTLPR allele (in SLC6A4), who have been shown to selectively attend to negative information, exhibit a bias towards negative self-referent processing. The self-referent encoding task (SRET) was used to measure self-referential processing of positive and negative adjectives. Ratcliff's diffusion model isolated and extracted decision-making components from SRET responses and reaction times. Across the initial (N = 183) and replication (N = 137) studies, results indicated that short 5-HTTLPR allele carriers more easily categorized negative adjectives as self-referential (i.e., higher drift rate). Further, drift rate was associated with recall of negative self-referential stimuli. Findings across both studies provide further evidence that genetic variation may contribute to the etiology of negatively biased processing of self-referent information. Large scale studies examining the genetic contributions to negative self-referent processing may be warranted.

  1. 5-HTTLPR genotype potentiates the effects of war zone stressors on the emergence of PTSD, depressive and anxiety symptoms in soldiers deployed to iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telch, Michael J; Beevers, Christopher G; Rosenfield, David; Lee, Han-Joo; Reijntjes, Albert; Ferrell, Robert E; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2015-06-01

    Exposure to war zone stressors is common, yet only a minority of soldiers experience clinically meaningful disturbance in psychological function. Identification of biomarkers that predict vulnerability to war zone stressors is critical for developing more effective treatment and prevention strategies not only in soldiers but also in civilians who are exposed to trauma. We investigated the role of the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) genotype in predicting the emergence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depressive and anxiety symptoms as a function of war zone stressors. A prospective cohort of 133 U.S. Army soldiers with no prior history of deployment to a war zone, who were scheduled to deploy to Iraq, was recruited. Multilevel regression models were used to investigate associations between 5-HTTLPR genotype, level of war zone stressors, and reported symptoms of PTSD, depression and anxiety while deployed to Iraq. Level of war zone stressors was associated with symptoms of PTSD, depression and anxiety. Consistent with its effects on stress responsiveness, 5-HTTLPR genotype moderated the relationship between level of war zone stressors and symptoms of emotional disturbance. Specifically, soldiers carrying one or two low functioning alleles (S or LG ) reported heightened symptoms of PTSD, depression and anxiety in response to increased levels of exposure to war zone stressors, relative to soldiers homozygous for the high functioning allele (LA ). These data suggest that 5-HTTLPR genotype moderates individual sensitivity to war zone stressors and the expression of emotional disturbance including PTSD symptoms. Replication of this association along with identification of other genetic moderators of risk can inform the development of biomarkers that can predict relative resilience vs. vulnerability to stress. © 2015 World Psychiatric Association.

  2. Serotonin transporter promoter region (5-HTTLPR) polymorphism is associated with the intravaginal ejaculation latency time in Dutch men with lifelong premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Paddy K C; Bakker, Steven C; Réthelyi, Janos; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Touw, Daan J; Olivier, Berend; Waldinger, Marcel D

    2009-01-01

    Lifelong premature ejaculation (LPE) is characterized by persistent intravaginal ejaculation latency times (IELTs) of less than 1 minute, and has been postulated as a neurobiological dysfunction with genetic vulnerability for the short IELTs, related to disturbances of central serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) neurotransmission and 5-HT receptor functioning. To investigate the relationship between 5-HT transporter gene-linked polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) and short IELTs in men with lifelong PE. A prospective study was conducted in 89 Dutch Caucasian men with lifelong PE. IELT during coitus was assessed by stopwatch over a 1-month period. Controls consisted of 92 Dutch Caucasian men. All men with LPE were genotyped for a 5-HTT-promoter polymorphism. Allele frequencies and genotypes of short (S) and long (L) variants of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism were compared between patients and controls. Association between LL, SL, and SS genotypes, and the natural logarithm of the IELT in men with LPE was investigated. IELT measured by stopwatch, 5-HTTLPR polymorphism. In men with lifelong PE, the geometric mean, median, and natural mean IELTs were 21, 26, and 32 seconds, respectively. There were no significant differences in the 5-HTT polymorphism alleles and genotypes between 89 Dutch Caucasian men with LPE (S 47%, L 53%/LL 29%, SL 48%, SS 22%) and 92 Dutch Caucasian controls (S 48%, L 52%/LL 29%, SL 45%, SS 26%). In men with lifelong PE there was a statistically significant difference between LL, SL, and SS genotypes in their geometric mean IELT (P IELTs than the SS and SL genotypes. The 5-HTTLPR polymorphism is associated with significant effects on the latency to ejaculate in men with lifelong PE. Men with SS and SL genotypes have 100% and 90% longer ejaculation time, respectively than men with LL genotypes.

  3. Genetic moderation of child maltreatment effects on depression and internalizing symptoms by 5-HTTLPR, BDNF, NET, and CRHR1 genes in African-American children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic moderation of the effects of child maltreatment on depression and internalizing symptoms was investigated in a sample of low-income maltreated and nonmaltreated African-American children (N = 1,096). Lifetime child maltreatment experiences were independently coded from Child Protective Services records and maternal report. Child depression and internalizing problems were assessed in the context of a summer research camp by self-report (Children’s Depression Inventory, CDI) and adult counselor-report (Teacher Report Form, TRF). DNA was obtained from buccal cell or saliva samples and genotyped for polymorphisms of the following genes: 5-HTTLPR, BDNF, NET, and CRHR1. ANCOVAs with age and gender as covariates were conducted, with maltreatment status and respective polymorphism as main effects and their GxE interactions. Maltreatment consistently was associated with higher CDI and TRF symptoms. Results for child self-report symptoms indicated a GxE interaction for BDNF and maltreatment. Additionally, BDNF and tri-allelic 5-HTTLPR interacted with child maltreatment in a GxGxE interaction. Analyses for counselor-report of child anxiety/depression symptoms on the TRF indicated moderation of child maltreatment effects by tri-allelic 5-HTTLPR. These effects were elaborated based on variation in developmental timing of maltreatment experiences. NET was found to further moderate the GxE interaction of 5-HTTLPR and maltreatment status revealing a GxGxE interaction. This GxGxE was extended by consideration of variation in maltreatment subtype experiences. Finally, GxGxE effects were observed for the co-action of BDNF and the CRHR1 haplotype. The findings illustrate the variable influence of specific genotypes in GxE interactions based on variation in maltreatment experiences and the importance of a multi-genic approach for understanding influences on depression and internalizing symptoms among African-American children. PMID:25422957

  4. ADHD Symptoms in Middle Adolescence Predict Exposure to Person-Related Life Stressors in Late Adolescence in 5-HTTLPR S-allele Homozygotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinksma, Djûke M; Hoekstra, Pieter J; de Bildt, Annelies; Buitelaar, Jan K; van den Hoofdakker, Barbara J; Hartman, Catharina A; Dietrich, Andrea

    2017-12-19

    Literature suggests that life stressors predict attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and that this relationship is moderated by the serotonin transporter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR). It is less clear whether, on reverse, ADHD symptoms may influence the risk of exposure to life stressors. Furthermore, the role of life stressors may vary across development depending on the type of life stressor. We used threewave longitudinal data of 1,306 adolescents from the general population and clinicreferred cohort of the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey. The 5-HTTLPR genotype (SS, LS, LL), parent-reported ADHD symptoms at three time points (T1: Mage = 11.2; T2: Mage = 13.5; T3: Mage = 16.2 years), and the number of personrelated ('dependent') and environment-related ('independent') life stressors occurring between measurements (T1-T2, T2-T3) were assessed. Using path analyses, we examined bidirectional relations between exposure to these life stressors and ADHD symptoms between the separate waves moderated by 5-HTTLPR status. Exposure to life stressors did not predict ADHD symptoms. Rather, we found that in 5-HTTLPR Sallele homozygotes, ADHD symptoms in middle adolescence (T2) predicted exposure to the number of person-related life stressors later in adolescence (T2-T3, p = 0.001). There was no relation with environment-related life stressors. Our study suggests that S-allele homozygotes with higher levels of ADHD symptoms in middle adolescence are more vulnerable to becoming exposed to person-related ('dependent') life stressors in late adolescence. Findings emphasize the need to be aware of social-emotional adversities that may occur in genetically vulnerable adolescents with ADHD symptoms in the transition into adulthood.

  5. Interaction effects between the 5-hydroxy tryptamine transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) genotype and family conflict on adolescent alcohol use and misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jueun; Park, Aesoon; Glatt, Stephen J; Eckert, Tanya L; Vanable, Peter A; Scott-Sheldon, Lori A J; Carey, Kate B; Ewart, Craig K; Carey, Michael P

    2015-02-01

    To investigate whether the effects of family conflict on adolescent drinking differed as a function of 5-hydroxy tryptamine transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) genotype cross-sectionally and prospectively in two independent samples of adolescents. Path analysis and multi-group analysis of two prospective datasets were conducted. United States and United Kingdom. Sample 1 was 175 adolescents in the United States (mean age = 15 at times 1 and 2 with a 6-month interval); Sample 2 was 4916 adolescents in the United Kingdon (mean age = 12 at time 1 and 15 at time 2). In both samples, demographics, tri-allelic 5-HTTLPR genotype and perceived family conflict were assessed at time 1. Alcohol use (frequency of drinking) and alcohol misuse (frequency of intoxication, frequency of drinking three or more drinks, maximum number of drinks) were assessed at times 1 and 2. A significant gene-environment interaction on alcohol misuse at time 1 was found in both sample 1 (β = 0.57, P = 0.001) and sample 2 (β = 0.19, P = 0.01), indicating that the 5-HTTLPR low-activity allele carriers exposed to higher levels of family conflict were more likely to engage in alcohol misuse than non-carriers. A significant gene-environment interaction effect on change in alcohol misuse over time was found only in sample 1 (β = 0.48, P = 0.04) but not in sample 2. Compared with non-carriers, adolescents carrying the 5-HTTLPR low-activity allele are more susceptible to the effects of family conflict on alcohol misuse. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  6. Children’s 5-HTTLPR genotype moderates the link between maternal criticism and attentional biases specifically for facial displays of anger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Brandon E.; Johnson, Ashley L.; Benas, Jessica S.; Uhrlass, Dorothy J.; Knopik, Valerie S.; McGeary, John E.

    2011-01-01

    Theorists have proposed that negative experiences in childhood may contribute to the development of experience-specific information-processing biases, including attentional biases. There are also clear genetic influences on cognitive processes, with evidence that polymorphisms in specific candidate genes may moderate the impact of environmental stress on attentional biases (e.g., a functional polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene [5-HTTLPR]). In the current study, we tested a gene × environment (G × E) model of risk for attentional biases. We hypothesized that children whose mothers exhibit high levels of expressed emotion criticism (EE-Crit) would display attentional biases specifically for angry, but not happy or sad, faces, and that this link would be stronger among children carrying one or two copies of the 5-HTTLPR short allele than among those homozygous for the long allele. Results generally supported these hypotheses, though we found that carriers of the 5-HTTLPR short allele who also had a critical mother exhibited attentional avoidance of angry faces rather than preferential attention. PMID:21895572

  7. Relationships Between Self-Reported and Observed Parenting Behaviour, Adolescent Disordered Eating Attitudes and Behaviours, and the 5-HTTLPR Polymorphism: Data From the Australian Temperament Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenblat, Vanja; Ryan, Joanne; Wertheim, Eleanor; King, Ross; Olsson, Craig A; Letcher, Primrose; Krug, Isabel

    2017-09-01

    This study examined whether self-reported and observationally measured parental behaviours were associated with disordered eating, and investigated possible moderation by a serotonin-transporter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR). Study 1 included 650 adolescents from the Australian Temperament Project who completed the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 Drive for Thinness and Bulimia scales at 15/16 years and were genotyped for 5-HTTLPR. Parents completed an Australian Temperament Project-devised measure of parental warmth and harsh punishment. Study 2 included a subgroup of 304 participants who also engaged in a video-recorded family interaction, with observed parental warmth and hostility coded by the Iowa Family Interaction Rating Scale. Greater self-reported parental warmth was associated with lower bulimia scores. Conversely, observationally measured parental warmth was associated with lower drive for thinness, but not bulimia. Self-reported parental harsh punishment was associated with bulimia only, with observed parental hostility associated with neither outcome. 5-HTTLPR genotype did not moderate the relationship between parent behaviours and adolescent disordered eating. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  8. Does the Incredible Years reduce child externalizing problems through improved parenting? The role of child negative affectivity and serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeland, Joyce; Chhangur, Rabia R; Jaffee, Sara R; Van Der Giessen, Danielle; Matthys, Walter; Orobio De Castro, Bram; Overbeek, Geertjan

    2018-02-01

    In a randomized controlled trial, the Observational Randomized Controlled Trial of Childhood Differential Susceptibility (ORCHIDS study), we tested whether observed parental affect and observed and reported parenting behavior are mechanisms of change underlying the effects of the behavioral parent training program the Incredible Years (IY). Furthermore, we tested whether some children are more susceptible to these change mechanisms because of their temperamental negative affectivity and/or serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) genotype. Participants were 387 Dutch children between 4 and 8 years of age (M age = 6.31, SD = 1.33; 55.3% boys) and their parents. Results showed that although IY was successful in improving parenting behavior and increasing parental positive affect, these effects did not explain the significant decreases in child externalizing problems. We therefore found no evidence for changes in parenting behavior or parental affect being the putative mechanisms of IY effectiveness. Furthermore, intervention effects on child externalizing behavior were not moderated by child negative affectivity or 5-HTTLPR genotype. However, child 5-HTTLPR genotype did moderate intervention effects on negative parenting behavior. This suggests that in research on behavioral parent training programs, "what works for which parents" might also be an important question.

  9. How possible is the development of an operational psychometric method to assess the presence of the 5-HTTLPR s allele? Equivocal preliminary findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laszik Andras

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The s allele of the 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter-linked promoter region (5-HTTLPR polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene has been found to be associated with neuroticism-related traits, affective temperaments and response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI treatment. The aim of the current study was to develop a psychometric tool that could at least partially substitute for laboratory testing and could predict the presence of the s allele. Methods The study included 138 women of Caucasian origin, mean 32.20 ± 1.02 years old. All subjects completed the Hungarian standardised version of the Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A instrument and were genotyped for 5-HTTLPR using PCR. The statistical analysis included the calculation of the Index of Discrimination (D, Discriminant Function Analysis, creation of scales on the basis of the above and then item analysis and calculation of sensitivity and specificity. Results Four indices were eventually developed, but their psychometric properties were relatively poor and their joint application did not improve the outcome. Conclusions We could not create a scale that predicts the 5-HTTLPR genotype with sufficient sensitivity and specificity, therefore we could not substitute a psychometric scale for laboratory genetic testing in predicting genotype, and also possibly affective disorder characterisation and treatment.

  10. Biallelic and Triallelic 5-Hydroxytyramine Transporter Gene-Linked Polymorphic Region (5-HTTLPR) Polymorphisms and Their Relationship with Lifelong Premature Ejaculation: A Case-Control Study in a Chinese Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Xiansheng; Gao, Jingjing; Tang, Dongdong; Gao, Pan; Li, Chao; Liu, Weiqun; Liang, Chaozhao

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to explore the relationship between premature ejaculation (PE) and the serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) with respect to the biallelic and triallelic classifications. Material/Methods A total of 115 outpatients who complained of ejaculating prematurely and who were diagnosed as having lifelong premature ejaculation (LPE) and 101 controls without PE complaint were recruited. All subjects completed a detailed questionnaire and were genotyped for 5-HTTLPR polymorphism using PCR-based technology. We evaluated the associations between 5-HTTLPR allelic and genotypic frequencies and their association with LPE, as well as the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) of different 5-HTTLPR genotypes among LPE patients. Results The patients and controls did not differ significantly in terms of any characteristic except age. The results showed no significant difference regarding biallelic 5-HTTLPR. According to the triallelic classification, no significant difference was found when comparing the genotypic distribution (P=0.091). However, the distribution of the S, LG, and LA alleles in the cases was significantly different from the controls (P=0.018). We found a significantly lower frequency of LA allele and higher frequency of LG allele in patients. Based on another classification by expression, we found a significantly lower frequency of the L’L’ genotype (OR=0.37; 95%CI=0.15–0.91, P=0.025) in patients with LPE. No significant association was detected between IELT of LPE and different genotypes. Conclusions Contrary to the general classification based on S/L alleles, triallelic 5-HTTLPR was associated with LPE. Triallelic 5-HTTLPR may be a promising field for genetic research in PE to avoid false-negative results in future studies. PMID:27311544

  11. Investigating Direct Links between Depression, Emotional Control, and Physical Punishment with Adolescent Drive for Thinness and Bulimic Behaviors, Including Possible Moderation by the Serotonin Transporter 5-HTTLPR Polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenblat, Vanja; Ryan, Joanne; Wertheim, Eleanor H; King, Ross; Olsson, Craig A; Krug, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the relationship between psychological and social factors (depression, emotional control, sexual abuse, and parental physical punishment) and adolescent drive for Thinness and Bulimic behaviors in a large community sample, and to investigate possible genetic moderation. Method: Data were drawn from the Australian Temperament Project (ATP), a population-based cohort study that has followed a representative sample of 2443 participants from infancy to adulthood across 16 waves since 1983. A subsample of 650 participants (50.2% female) of Caucasian descent who provided DNA were genotyped for a serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism ( 5-HTTLPR ). Adolescent disordered eating attitudes and behaviors were assessed using the Bulimia and Drive for Thinness scales of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (15-16 years). Depression and emotional control were examined at the same age using the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire, and an ATP-devised measure of emotional control. History of sexual abuse and physical punishment were assessed retrospectively (23-24 years) in a subsample of 467 of those providing DNA. Results: EDI-2 scores were associated with depression, emotional control, and retrospectively reported parental physical punishment. Although there was statistically significant moderation of the relationship between parental physical punishment and bulimic behaviors by 5-HTTLPR ( p = 0.0048), genotypes in this subsample were not in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium. No other G×E interactions were significant. Conclusion: Findings from this study affirm the central importance of psychosocial processes in disordered eating patterns in adolescence. Evidence of moderation by 5-HTTLPR was not conclusive; however, genetic moderation observed in a subsample not in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium warrants further investigation.

  12. Stressful life events, perceived stress, and 12-month course of geriatric depression: direct effects and moderation by the 5-HTTLPR and COMT Val158Met polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannas, Anthony S; McQuoid, Douglas R; Steffens, David C; Chrousos, George P; Taylor, Warren D

    2012-07-01

    Although the relation between stressful life events (SLEs) and risk of major depressive disorder is well established, important questions remain about the effects of stress on the course of geriatric depression. Our objectives were (1) to examine how baseline stress and change in stress is associated with course of geriatric depression and (2) to test whether polymorphisms of serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT Val158Met) genes moderate this relation. Two-hundred and sixteen depressed subjects aged 60 years or older were categorized by remission status (Montgomery-Asberg depression rating scale≤6) at 6 and 12 months. At 6 months, greater baseline numbers of self-reported negative and total SLEs and greater baseline perceived stress severity were associated with lower odds of remission. At 12 months, only baseline perceived stress predicted remission. When we examined change in stress, 12-month decrease in negative SLEs and level of perceived stress were associated with improved odds of 12-month remission. When genotype data were included, COMT Val158Met genotype did not influence these relations. However, when compared with 5-HTTLPR L/L homozygotes, S allele carriers with greater baseline numbers of negative SLEs and with greater decrease in negative SLEs were more likely to remit at 12 months. This study demonstrates that baseline SLEs and perceived stress severity may influence the 12-month course of geriatric depression. Moreover, changes in these stress measures over time correlate with depression outcomes. 5-HTTLPR S carriers appear to be more susceptible to both the effects of enduring stress and the benefit of interval stress reduction.

  13. Citation bias and selective focus on positive findings in the literature on the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR), life stress and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Y A; Roest, A M; Franzen, M; Munafò, M R; Bastiaansen, J A

    2016-10-01

    Caspi et al.'s 2003 report that 5-HTTLPR genotype moderates the influence of life stress on depression has been highly influential but remains contentious. We examined whether the evidence base for the 5-HTTLPR-stress interaction has been distorted by citation bias and a selective focus on positive findings. A total of 73 primary studies were coded for study outcomes and focus on positive findings in the abstract. Citation rates were compared between studies with positive and negative results, both within this network of primary studies and in Web of Science. In addition, the impact of focus on citation rates was examined. In all, 24 (33%) studies were coded as positive, but these received 48% of within-network and 68% of Web of Science citations. The 38 (52%) negative studies received 42 and 23% of citations, respectively, while the 11 (15%) unclear studies received 10 and 9%. Of the negative studies, the 16 studies without a positive focus (42%) received 47% of within-network citations and 32% of Web of Science citations, while the 13 (34%) studies with a positive focus received 39 and 51%, respectively, and the nine (24%) studies with a partially positive focus received 14 and 17%. Negative studies received fewer citations than positive studies. Furthermore, over half of the negative studies had a (partially) positive focus, and Web of Science citation rates were higher for these studies. Thus, discussion of the 5-HTTLPR-stress interaction is more positive than warranted. This study exemplifies how evidence-base-distorting mechanisms undermine the authenticity of research findings.

  14. A functional polymorphism in a serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) interacts with 9/11 to predict gun-carrying behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, J C; Beaver, Kevin M; Boutwell, Brian B

    2013-01-01

    On September 11, 2001, one of the deadliest terrorist attacks in US history took place on American soil and people around the world were impacted in myriad ways. Building on prior literature which suggests individuals are more likely to purchase a gun for self-protection if they are fearful of being victimized, the authors hypothesized that the terrorist attacks of 9/11 would lead to an increase in gun carrying among US residents. At the same time, a line of research has shown that a polymorphism in the 5-HTT gene (i.e., 5-HTTLPR) interacts with environmental stressors to predict a range of psychopathologies and behaviors. Thus, it was hypothesized that 9/11 and 5-HTTLPR would interact to predict gun carrying. The results supported both hypotheses by revealing a positive association between 9/11 and gun carrying (b = .426, odds ratio = 1.531, standard error for b = .194, z = 2.196, p = .028) in the full sample of respondents (n = 15,052) and a statistically significant interaction between 9/11 and 5-HTTLPR in the prediction of gun carrying (b = -1.519, odds ratio = .219, standard error for b = .703, z = -2.161, p = .031) in the genetic subsample of respondents (n = 2,350). This is one of the first studies to find an association between 9/11 and gun carrying and, more importantly, is the first study to report a gene-environment interaction (GxE) between a measured gene and a terrorist attack.

  15. Serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) influences decision making under ambiguity and risk in a large Chinese sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qinghua; Xue, Gui; Chen, Chuansheng; Lu, Zhonglin; Dong, Qi; Lei, Xuemei; Ding, Ni; Li, Jin; Li, He; Chen, Chunhui; Li, Jun; Moyzis, Robert K; Bechara, Antoine

    2010-11-01

    Risky decision making is a complex process that involves weighing the probabilities of alternative options that can be desirable, undesirable, or neutral. Individuals vary greatly in how they make decisions either under ambiguity and/or under risk. Such individual differences may have genetic bases. Based on previous studies on the genetic basis of decision making, two decision making tasks [i.e., the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and Loss Aversion Task (LAT)] were used to test the effect of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism on decision making under ambiguity and under risk in a large Han Chinese sample (572 college students, 312 females). Basic intelligence and memory tests were also included to control for the influence of basic cognitive abilities on decision making. We found that 5-HTTLPR polymorphism significantly influenced performance in both IGT and LAT. After controlling for intelligence and memory abilities, subjects homozygous for s allele had lower IGT scores than l carriers in the first 40 trials of the IGT task. They also exhibited higher loss aversion than l carriers in the LAT task. Moreover, the effects of 5-HTTLPR were stronger for males than for females. These results extend the literature on the important role of emotion in decision making under ambiguity and risk, and shed additional lights on how decision making is influenced by culture as well as sex differences. Combining our results with existing literature, we propose that these effects might be mediated by a neural circuitry that comprises the amygdala, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and insular cortex. Understanding the genetic factors affecting decision making in healthy subjects may allow us to better identify at-risk individuals, and better target the development of new potential treatments for specific disorders such as schizophrenia, addiction, and depression. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Serotonin Transporter Gene-Linked Polymorphic Region (5-HTTLPR) Influences Decision Making under Ambiguity and Risk in a Large Chinese Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qinghua; Xue, Gui; Chen, Chuansheng; Lu, Zhonglin; Dong, Qi; Lei, Xuemei; Ding, Ni; Li, Jin; Li, He; Chen, Chunhui; Li, Jun; Moyzis, Robert K.; Bechara, Antoine

    2010-01-01

    Risky decision-making is a complex process that involves weighing the probabilities of alternative options that can be desirable, undesirable, or neutral. Individuals vary greatly in how they make decisions either under ambiguity and/or under risk. Such individual differences may have genetic bases. Based on previous studies on the genetic basis of decision making, two decision making tasks [i.e., Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and Loss Aversion Task (LAT)] were used to test the effect of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism on decision making under ambiguity and under risk in a large Han Chinese sample (572 college students, 312 females). Basic intelligence and memory tests were also included to control for the influence of basic cognitive abilities on decision making. We found that 5-HTTLPR polymorphism significantly influenced performance in both IGT and LAT. After controlling for intellectual and memory abilities, subjects homozygous for s allele had lower IGT scores than l carriers in the first 40 trials of the IGT task. They also exhibited higher loss aversion than l carriers in the LAT task. Moreover, the effects of 5-HTTLPR were stronger for males than for females. These results extend the literature on the important role of emotion in decision under ambiguity and risk, and provide additional lights on how decision-making is influenced by culture as well as sex differences. Combining our results with existing literature, we propose that these effects might be mediated by a neural circuitry that comprises the amygdala, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and insular cortex. Understanding the genetic factors affecting decision in healthy subjects may allow us better identify at-risk individuals, and target better the development of new potential treatments for specific disorders such as schizophrenia, addiction, and depression. PMID:20659488

  17. Investigating Direct Links between Depression, Emotional Control, and Physical Punishment with Adolescent Drive for Thinness and Bulimic Behaviors, Including Possible Moderation by the Serotonin Transporter 5-HTTLPR Polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Rozenblat

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To examine the relationship between psychological and social factors (depression, emotional control, sexual abuse, and parental physical punishment and adolescent drive for Thinness and Bulimic behaviors in a large community sample, and to investigate possible genetic moderation.Method: Data were drawn from the Australian Temperament Project (ATP, a population-based cohort study that has followed a representative sample of 2443 participants from infancy to adulthood across 16 waves since 1983. A subsample of 650 participants (50.2% female of Caucasian descent who provided DNA were genotyped for a serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR. Adolescent disordered eating attitudes and behaviors were assessed using the Bulimia and Drive for Thinness scales of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (15–16 years. Depression and emotional control were examined at the same age using the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire, and an ATP-devised measure of emotional control. History of sexual abuse and physical punishment were assessed retrospectively (23–24 years in a subsample of 467 of those providing DNA.Results: EDI-2 scores were associated with depression, emotional control, and retrospectively reported parental physical punishment. Although there was statistically significant moderation of the relationship between parental physical punishment and bulimic behaviors by 5-HTTLPR (p = 0.0048, genotypes in this subsample were not in Hardy–Weinberg Equilibrium. No other G×E interactions were significant. Conclusion: Findings from this study affirm the central importance of psychosocial processes in disordered eating patterns in adolescence. Evidence of moderation by 5-HTTLPR was not conclusive; however, genetic moderation observed in a subsample not in Hardy–Weinberg Equilibrium warrants further investigation.

  18. The influence of 5-HTTLPR genotype on the association between the plasma concentration and therapeutic effect of paroxetine in patients with major depressive disorder.

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    Tetsu Tomita

    Full Text Available The efficacy of treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD can differ depending on the patient's serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR genotype, and the effects of varying plasma concentrations of drugs can also vary. We investigated the association between the paroxetine plasma concentration and clinical response in patients with different 5-HTTLPR genotypes.Fifty-one patients were enrolled in this study. The Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS was used to evaluate patients at 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6 weeks. The patients' paroxetine plasma concentrations at week 6 were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Additionally, their 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms (alleles S and L were analyzed using a polymerase chain reaction with specific primers. We divided the participants into two groups based on their L haplotype: the SS group and the SL and LL group. We performed single and multiple regression analyses to investigate the associations between MADRS improvement and paroxetine plasma concentrations or other covariates for each group.There were no significant differences between the two groups with regard to demographic or clinical data. In the SS group, the paroxetine plasma concentration was significantly negatively correlated with improvement in MADRS at week 6. In the SL and LL group, the paroxetine plasma concentration was significantly positively correlated with improvement in MADRS at week 6 according to the results of the single regression analysis; however, it was not significantly correlated with improvement in MADRS at week 6 according to the results of the multiple regression analysis.Among patients with MDD who do not respond to paroxetine, a lower plasma concentration or a lower oral dose of paroxetine might be more effective in those with the SS genotype, and a higher plasma concentration might be more effective in those with the SL or LL

  19. Serotonergic gene polymorphisms (5-HTTLPR, 5HTR1A, 5HTR2A), and population differences in aggression: traditional (Hadza and Datoga) and industrial (Russians) populations compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butovskaya, Marina L; Butovskaya, Polina R; Vasilyev, Vasiliy A; Sukhodolskaya, Jane M; Fekhredtinova, Dania I; Karelin, Dmitri V; Fedenok, Julia N; Mabulla, Audax Z P; Ryskov, Alexey P; Lazebny, Oleg E

    2018-04-16

    Current knowledge on genetic basis of aggressive behavior is still contradictory. This may be due to the fact that the majority of studies targeting associations between candidate genes and aggression are conducted on industrial societies and mainly dealing with various types of psychopathology and disorders. Because of that, our study was carried on healthy adult individuals of both sex (n = 853). Three populations were examined: two traditional (Hadza and Datoga) and one industrial (Russians), and the association of aggression with the following polymorphisms 5-HTTLPR, rs6295 (5HTR1A gene), and rs6311 (5HTR2A gene) were tested. Aggression was measured as total self-ratings on Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire. Distributions of allelic frequencies of 5-HTTLPR and 5HTR1A polymorphisms were significantly different among the three populations. Consequently, the association analyses for these two candidate genes were carried out separately for each population, while for the 5HTR2A polymorphism, it was conducted on the pooled data that made possible to introduce ethnic factor in the ANOVA model. The traditional biometrical approach revealed no sex differences in total aggression in all three samples. The three-way ANOVA (μ + 5-HTTLPR + 5HTR1A + 5HTR2A +ε) with measures of self-reported total aggression as dependent variable revealed significant effect of the second serotonin receptor gene polymorphism for the Hadza sample. For the Datoga, the interaction effect between 5-HTTLPR and 5HTR1A was significant. No significant effects of the used polymorphisms were obtained for Russians. The results of two-way ANOVA with ethnicity and the 5HTR2A polymorphism as main effects and their interactions revealed the highly significant effect of ethnicity, 5HTR2A polymorphism, and their interaction on total aggression. Our data provided obvious confirmation for the necessity to consider the population origin, as well as cultural background of tested individuals, while

  20. Association of a serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) 5-HTTLPR polymorphism with body mass index categories but not type 2 diabetes mellitus in Mexicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta-Leal, Valeria; Leal-Ugarte, Evelia; Meza-Espinoza, Juan P.; Dávalos-Rodríguez, Ingrid P.; Bocanegra-Alonso, Anabel; Acosta-González, Rosa I.; Gonzales, Enrique; Nair, Saraswathy; Durán-González, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    The serotonergic system has been hypothesized to contribute to the biological susceptibility to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and body-mass index (BMI) categories. We investigate a possible association of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism (L and S alleles) in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) with the development of T2DM and/or higher BMI by analyzing a sample of 138 individuals diagnosed with T2DM and 172 unrelated controls from the Mexican general population. In the total sample genotypes were distributed according to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and S allele frequency was 0.58. There was no statistical association between 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and the development of T2DM in this Mexican population sample (p = 0.12). Nevertheless, logistic regression analysis of the L allele and increased BMI disclosed an association, after adjusting for age, sex and T2DM (p = 0.02, OR 1.74, 95% CI: 1.079–2.808). PMID:23055796

  1. Association of Polymorphisms of Serotonin Transporter (5HTTLPR) and 5-HT2C Receptor Genes with Criminal Behavior in Russian Criminal Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toshchakova, Valentina A.; Bakhtiari, Yalda; Kulikov, Alexander V.; Gusev, Sergey I.; Trofimova, Marina V.; Fedorenko, Olga Yu.; Mikhalitskaya, Ekaterina V.; Popova, Nina K.; Bokhan, Nikolay A.; Hovens, Johannes E.; Loonen, Anton J.M.; Wilffert, Bob; Ivanova, Svetlana A.

    2018-01-01

    Background Human aggression is a heterogeneous behavior with biological, psychological, and social backgrounds. As the biological mechanisms that regulate aggression are components of both reward-seeking and adversity-fleeing behavior, these phenomena are difficult to disentangle into separate neurochemical processes. Nevertheless, evidence exists linking some forms of aggression to aberrant serotonergic neurotransmission. We determined possible associations between 6 serotonergic neurotransmission-related gene variants and severe criminal offenses. Methods Male Russian prisoners who were convicted for murder (n = 117) or theft (n = 77) were genotyped for variants of the serotonin transporter (5HTTLPR), tryptophan hydroxylase, tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase, or type 2C (5-HT2C) receptor genes and compared with general-population male controls (n = 161). Prisoners were psychologically phenotyped using the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory. Results No differences were found between murderers and thieves either concerning genotypes or concerning psychological measures. Comparison of polymorphism distribution between groups of prisoners and controls revealed highly significant associations of 5HTTLPR and 5-HTR2C (rs6318) gene polymorphisms with being convicted for criminal behavior. Conclusions The lack of biological differences between the 2 groups of prisoners indicates that the studied 5HT-related genes do not differentiate between the types of crimes committed. PMID:29621775

  2. Short Sleep as an Environmental Exposure: A Preliminary Study Associating 5-HTTLPR Genotype to Self-Reported Sleep Duration and Depressed Mood in First-Year University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carskadon, Mary A.; Sharkey, Katherine M.; Knopik, Valerie S.; McGeary, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined whether the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in the SLC6A4 gene is associated with self-reported symptoms of depressed mood in first-year university students with a persistent pattern of short sleep. Design: Students provided DNA samples and completed on-line sleep diaries and a mood scale during the first semester. A priori phenotypes for nocturnal sleep and mood scores were compared for the distribution of genotypes. Setting: Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island. Participants: A sample of 135 first-year students, 54 male, 71 Caucasian, mean age 18.1 (± 0.5) yr. Interventions: None. Measurements: Students completed on-line sleep diaries daily across the first term (21-64 days; mean = 51 days ± 11) and Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) mood scale after 8 wk. DNA was genotyped for the triallelic 5-HTTLPR polymorphism. Low-expressing S and LGpolymorphisms were designated S′, and high-expressing LA was designated L′. Phenotype groups were identified from a combination of CES-D (median split: high > 12; low sleep time (TST) from diaries: (shorter ≤ 7 hr; longer ≥ 7.5 hr). Three genotypes were identified (S′S′, S′L′, L′L′); the S′S′ genotype was present in a higher proportion of Asian than non-Asian students. Results: Four phenotype groups were compared: 40 students with shorter TST/high CES-D; 34 with shorter TST/low CES-D; 29 with longer TST/high CES-D; 32 with longer TST/low CES-D. Female:male distribution did not vary across phenotype groups (chi-square = 1.39; df = 3; P = 0.71). S′S′ participants (n = 23) were overrepresented in the shorter TST/high CES-D group (chi- square = 15.04; df = 6; P sleep and higher depressed mood are more likely than others to carry a variant of the SLC6A4 gene associated with low expression of the serotonin transporter. Citation: Carskadon MA; Sharkey KM; Knopik VS; McGeary JE. Short sleep as an environmental exposure: a preliminary study associating 5-HTTLPR

  3. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Val66Met and serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR polymorphisms modulate plasticity in inhibitory control performance over time but independent of inhibitory control training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sören Enge

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Several studies reported training-induced improvements in executive function tasks and also observed transfer to untrained tasks. However, the results are mixed and there is large interindividual variability within and across studies. Given that training-related performance changes would require modification, growth or differentiation at the cellular and synaptic level in the brain, research on critical moderators of brain plasticity potentially explaining such changes is needed. In the present study, a pre-post-follow-up design (N=122 and a three-weeks training of two response inhibition tasks (Go/NoGo and Stop-Signal was employed and genetic variation (Val66Met in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF promoting differentiation and activity-dependent synaptic plasticity was examined. Because Serotonin (5-HT signaling and the interplay of BDNF and 5-HT are known to critically mediate brain plasticity, genetic variation in the 5-HT transporter (5-HTTLPR was also addressed. The overall results show that the kind of training (i.e., adaptive vs. non-adaptive did not evoke genotype-dependent differences. However, in the Go/NoGo task, better inhibition performance (lower commission errors were observed for BDNF Val/Val genotype carriers compared to Met-allele ones supporting similar findings from other cognitive tasks. Additionally, a gene-gene interaction suggests a more impulsive response pattern (faster responses accompanied by higher commission error rates in homozygous l-allele carriers relative to those with the s-allele of 5-HTTLPR. This, however, is true only in the presence of the Met-allele of BDNF, while the Val/Val genotype seems to compensate for such non-adaptive responding. Intriguingly, similar results were obtained for the Stop-Signal task. Here, differences emerged at post-testing, while no differences were observed at T1. In sum, although no genotype-dependent differences between the relevant training groups emerged suggesting

  4. Facial emotion recognition deficits in relatives of children with autism are not associated with 5HTTLPR Prejuízos no reconhecimento de emoções faciais em parentes de primeiro grau de portadores de autismo não são associados com o polimorfismo 5HTTLPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maila de Castro Lourenço das Neves

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: A large body of evidence suggests that several aspects of face processing are impaired in autism and that this impairment might be hereditary. This study was aimed at assessing facial emotion recognition in parents of children with autism and its associations with a functional polymorphism of the serotonin transporter (5HTTLPR. METHOD: We evaluated 40 parents of children with autism and 41 healthy controls. All participants were administered the Penn Emotion Recognition Test (ER40 and were genotyped for 5HTTLPR. RESULTS: Our study showed that parents of children with autism performed worse in the facial emotion recognition test than controls. Analyses of error patterns showed that parents of children with autism over-attributed neutral to emotional faces. We found evidence that 5HTTLPR polymorphism did not influence the performance in the Penn Emotion Recognition Test, but that it may determine different error patterns. CONCLUSION: Facial emotion recognition deficits are more common in first-degree relatives of autistic patients than in the general population, suggesting that facial emotion recognition is a candidate endophenotype for autism.OBJETIVO: Diversos estudos sugerem que o processamento de emoções faciais está prejudicado em portadores de autismo e que tal prejuízo possa ser hereditário. Nós estudamos o reconhecimento de emoções faciais em parentes de primeiro grau de portadores de autismo e suas associações com o polimorfismo funcional de transportador de serotonina (5HTTLPR. MÉTODO: Foram avaliados 40 parentes de primeiro grau de portadores de autismo e 41 controles saudáveis. Todos os participantes foram submetidos ao Teste de Reconhecimento de Emoções (ER40 da Bateria Neuropsicológica Computadorizada da Universidade da Pensilvânia (PENNCNP e genotipados para o 5HTTLPR. RESULTADOS: Os parentes de primeiro grau de portadores de autismo apresentaram pior reconhecimento de emoções faciais comparados aos

  5. Lack of association of the serotonin transporter gene promoter region polymorphism, 5-HTTLPR, including rs25531 with cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik; Bagger, Yu; Tanko, Laszlo B

    2009-01-01

    We addressed the question whether 5-HTTLPR, a variable number of tandem repeats located in the 5' end of the serotonin transporter gene, is associated with smoking or alcohol consumption. Samples of DNA from 1,365 elderly women with a mean age of 69.2 years were genotyped for this polymorphism...... using a procedure, which allowed the simultaneous determination of variation in the number of repeat units and single nucleotide changes, including the A > G variation at rs25531 for discrimination between the L(A) and L(G) alleles. Qualitative and quantitative information on the women's current...... and previous consumption of cigarettes and alcohol were obtained using a questionnaire. Genotypes were classified according to allele size, that is, S and L with 14 and 16 repeat units, respectively, and on a functional basis by amalgamation of the L(G) and S alleles. Data were subjected to regression analyses...

  6. COMT Val(158)Met and 5HTTLPR functional loci interact to predict persistence of anxiety across adolescence: results from the Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, C A; Byrnes, G B; Anney, R J L; Collins, V; Hemphill, S A; Williamson, R; Patton, G C

    2007-10-01

    We investigated whether a composite genetic factor, based on the combined actions of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) (Val(158)Met) and serotonin transporter (5HTTLPR) (Long-Short) functional loci, has a greater capacity to predict persistence of anxiety across adolescence than either locus in isolation. Analyses were performed on DNA collected from 962 young Australians participating in an eight-wave longitudinal study of mental health and well-being (Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study). When the effects of each locus were examined separately, small dose-response reductions in the odds of reporting persisting generalized (free-floating) anxiety across adolescence were observed for the COMT Met(158) [odds ratio (OR) = 0.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.76-0.95, P = 0.004] and 5HTTLPR Short alleles (OR = 0.88, CI = 0.79-0.99, P = 0.033). There was no evidence for a dose-response interaction effect between loci. However, there was a double-recessive interaction effect in which the odds of reporting persisting generalized anxiety were more than twofold reduced (OR = 0.45, CI = 0.29-0.70, P anxiety. Exploratory stratified analyses suggested that genetic protection may be more pronounced under conditions of high stress (insecure attachments and sexual abuse), although strata differences did not reach statistical significance. By describing the interaction between genetic loci, it may be possible to describe composite genetic factors that have a more substantial impact on psychosocial development than individual loci alone, and in doing so, enhance understanding of the contribution of constitutional processes in mental health outcomes.

  7. The association between DRD2/ANKK1, 5-HTTLPR gene, and specific personality trait on antisocial alcoholism among Han Chinese in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chin-Yeh; Wu, Yi-Syuan; Lee, Jia-Fu; Huang, San-Yuan; Yu, Lung; Ko, Huei-Chen; Lu, Ru-Band

    2008-06-05

    Cloninger suggested that type II alcoholism was associated with higher novelty seeking and less harm avoidance behaviors, which was similar to antisocial alcoholism. Most previous studies have failed to recruit subjects that have antisocial personality disorder without alcoholism due to the high coexisting likelihood of having antisocial personality disorder with alcoholism in the majority of the examined populations. Thus, recruitment of individuals with antisocial non-alcoholism (antisocial personality disorder) served as an important control group in examining Cloninger's hypothesis. Due to the documented protective effects against alcoholism of ALDH2*1/*2 or *2/*2 genotype among the Han Chinese population, we recruited antisocial non-alcoholics from the Han Chinese population in Taiwan to verify Cloninger's hypotheses. A total of 127 Han Chinese subjects were recruited who met the diagnosis of antisocial alcoholism (n = 43) or antisocial non-alcoholism (n = 84). We found that the antisocial alcoholism group scored higher on the novelty seeking behavior than did the antisocial non-alcoholism group (t = 2.61, P = 0.01), but no difference was observed on the harm avoidance dimension between these two groups (t = 0.15, P = 0.88). In the novelty seeking scores, after stratification of DRD2 TaqI A genotypes, only a significant difference in 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms between antisocial alcoholics and antisocial non-alcoholics was found, indicating an interaction between DRD2 TaqI A1+ (include A1/A1 or A1/A2) and 5-HTTLPR S/S genotype (t = 2.75, P = 0.01) However, no significant difference was found in the harm avoidance personality trait between these two groups of Han Chinese in Taiwan. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Conditionals and inferential connections: A hypothetical inferential theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douven, Igor; Elqayam, Shira; Singmann, Henrik; van Wijnbergen-Huitink, Janneke

    2018-03-01

    Intuition suggests that for a conditional to be evaluated as true, there must be some kind of connection between its component clauses. In this paper, we formulate and test a new psychological theory to account for this intuition. We combined previous semantic and psychological theorizing to propose that the key to the intuition is a relevance-driven, satisficing-bounded inferential connection between antecedent and consequent. To test our theory, we created a novel experimental paradigm in which participants were presented with a soritical series of objects, notably colored patches (Experiments 1 and 4) and spheres (Experiment 2), or both (Experiment 3), and were asked to evaluate related conditionals embodying non-causal inferential connections (such as "If patch number 5 is blue, then so is patch number 4"). All four experiments displayed a unique response pattern, in which (largely determinate) responses were sensitive to parameters determining inference strength, as well as to consequent position in the series, in a way analogous to belief bias. Experiment 3 showed that this guaranteed relevance can be suppressed, with participants reverting to the defective conditional. Experiment 4 showed that this pattern can be partly explained by a measure of inference strength. This pattern supports our theory's "principle of relevant inference" and "principle of bounded inference," highlighting the dual processing characteristics of the inferential connection. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Style

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rösing, Lilian Munk

    2017-01-01

    Defined as the tropes, figures, and grammar of the text, style is quite concrete, quite analyzable. Pure detection and identification of the tropes and figures of a text is not very interesting to literary studies, though, unless it is combined with interpretation, that is, unless you ask: What i...

  10. Short sleep as an environmental exposure: a preliminary study associating 5-HTTLPR genotype to self-reported sleep duration and depressed mood in first-year university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carskadon, Mary A; Sharkey, Katherine M; Knopik, Valerie S; McGeary, John E

    2012-06-01

    This study examined whether the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in the SLC6A4 gene is associated with self-reported symptoms of depressed mood in first-year university students with a persistent pattern of short sleep. Students provided DNA samples and completed on-line sleep diaries and a mood scale during the first semester. A priori phenotypes for nocturnal sleep and mood scores were compared for the distribution of genotypes. Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island. A sample of 135 first-year students, 54 male, 71 Caucasian, mean age 18.1 (± 0.5) yr. None. Students completed on-line sleep diaries daily across the first term (21-64 days; mean = 51 days ± 11) and Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) mood scale after 8 wk. DNA was genotyped for the triallelic 5-HTTLPR polymorphism. Low-expressing S and L(G)polymorphisms were designated S', and high-expressing L(A) was designated L'. Phenotype groups were identified from a combination of CES-D (median split: high > 12; low sleep time (TST) from diaries: (shorter ≤ 7 hr; longer ≥ 7.5 hr). Three genotypes were identified (S'S', S'L', L'L'); the S'S' genotype was present in a higher proportion of Asian than non-Asian students. FOUR PHENOTYPE GROUPS WERE COMPARED: 40 students with shorter TST/high CES-D; 34 with shorter TST/low CES-D; 29 with longer TST/high CES-D; 32 with longer TST/low CES-D. Female:male distribution did not vary across phenotype groups (chi-square = 1.39; df = 3; P = 0.71). S'S' participants (n = 23) were overrepresented in the shorter TST/high CES-D group (chi- square = 15.04; df = 6; P sleep and higher depressed mood are more likely than others to carry a variant of the SLC6A4 gene associated with low expression of the serotonin transporter.

  11. Disentangling the effects of serotonin on risk perception: S-carriers of 5-HTTLPR are primarily concerned with the magnitude of the outcomes, not the uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millroth, Philip; Juslin, Peter; Eriksson, Elias; Agren, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    Serotonin signaling is vital for reward processing, and hence, also for decision-making. The serotonin transporter gene linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) has been connected to decision making, suggesting that short-allele carriers (s) are more risk averse than long-allele homozygotes (ll). However, previous research has not identified if this occurs because s-carriers (i) are more sensitive to the uncertainty of the outcomes or (ii) are more sensitive to the magnitude of the outcomes. This issue was disentangled using a willingness-to-pay task, where the participants evaluated prospects involving certain gains, uncertain gains, and ambiguous gains. The results clearly favored the hypothesis that s-carriers react more to the magnitude of the outcomes. Self-reported measures of everyday risk-taking behavior also favored this hypothesis. We discuss how these results are in line with recent research on the serotonergic impact on reward processing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Maintenance of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS in Young CFS Patients Is Associated with the 5-HTTLPR and SNP rs25531 A > G Genotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedicte Meyer

    Full Text Available Earlier studies have shown that genetic variability in the SLC6A4 gene encoding the serotonin transporter (5-HTT may be important for the re-uptake of serotonin (5-HT in the central nervous system. In the present study we investigated how the 5-HTT genotype i.e. the short (S versus long (L 5-HTTLPR allele and the SNP rs25531 A > G affect the physical and psychosocial functioning in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS. All 120 patients were recruited from The Department of Paediatrics at Oslo University Hospital, Norway, a national referral center for young CFS patients (12-18 years. Main outcomes were number of steps per day obtained by an accelerometer and disability scored by the Functional Disability Inventory (FDI. Patients with the 5-HTT SS or SLG genotype had a significantly lower number of steps per day than patients with the 5-HTT LALG, SLA or LALA genotype. Patients with the 5-HTT SS or SLG genotype also had a significantly higher FDI score than patients with the 5-HTT LALG, SLA or LALA genotype. Thus, CFS patients with the 5-HTT SS or SLG genotype had worse 30 weeks outcome than CFS patients with the 5-HTT LALG, SLA or LALA genotype. The present study suggests that the 5-HTT genotype may be a factor that contributes to maintenance of CFS.

  13. Early life stress predicts negative urgency through brooding, depending on 5-HTTLPR genotype: A pilot study with 6-month follow-up examining suicide ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valderrama, Jorge; Miranda, Regina

    2017-12-01

    The present study examined the interaction between early life stress and 5-HTT genotypes in predicting two risk factors for suicidal behavior - the brooding subtype of rumination and impulsivity, in the form of negative urgency - over time. Furthermore, we examined early life stress, brooding, and impulsivity as predictors of suicidal ideation over time. Participants with and without a history of early life stress were genotyped for the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and completed assessments assessing brooding and negative urgency at baseline and 6-month follow up. Early life emotional abuse was associated with negative urgency at follow-up. We found an indirect effect of early life emotional abuse on negative urgency through brooding among individuals with 5-HTT low expressing genotypes but not among individuals with 5-HTT high expressing genotypes. Further, a logistic regression analysis revealed that negative urgency was associated with higher odds (O.R. = 16.2) of reporting suicide ideation (versus no ideation) at follow-up. Our findings suggest that brooding and negative urgency may result from the interaction between early life emotional abuse and 5-HTT low expressing genotypes. Further research is necessary to understand how early life stress interacts with 5-HTT genotypes to confer risk for suicidal behavior through psychological mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Voxel-based morphometric brain comparison between healthy subjects and major depressive disorder patients in Japanese with the s/s genotype of 5-HTTLPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igata, Natsuki; Kakeda, Shingo; Watanabe, Keita; Ide, Satoru; Kishi, Taro; Abe, Osamu; Igata, Ryouhei; Katsuki, Asuka; Iwata, Nakao; Yoshimura, Reiji; Korogi, Yukunori

    2017-06-21

    Individuals with s/s genotype of serotonin transporter gene-linked promotor region (5-HTTLPR), which appear with a high frequency in Japanese, exhibit more diagnosable depression in relation to stressful life events than those with the s/l or l/l genotype. We prospectively investigated the brain volume changes in first-episode and medication naïve major depression disorder patients (MDD) with the s/s genotype in Japanese. We assessed the differences between 27 MDD with the s/s genotype and 44 healthy subjects (HS) with the same genotype using a whole-brain voxel-by-voxel statistical analysis of MRI. Gray matter volume in a brain region with significant clusters obtained via voxel-based morphometry analysis were measured and, as an exploratory analysis, evaluated for relationships to the subcategory scores (core, sleep, activity, psychic, somatic anxiety, delusion) of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) and the Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS). The brain volume in the left insula lobe was significantly smaller in the MDD than in the HS. The left insula lobe volume correlated negatively with the "psychic" score of HAM-D and the SRRS. In a Japanese population with the s/s genotype, we found an atrophy of the insula in the MDD, which might be associated with "psychic" symptom and stress events.

  15. Genotypes do not confer risk for delinquency but rather alter susceptibility to positive and negative environmental factors: gene-environmentinteractions of BDNF Val66Met, 5-HTTLPR, and MAOA-uVNTR [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Kent W; Comasco, Erika; Hodgins, Sheilagh; Oreland, Lars; Åslund, Cecilia

    2014-12-10

    Previous evidence of gene-by-environment interactions associated with emotional and behavioral disorders is contradictory. Differences in findings may result from variation in valence and dose of the environmental factor, and/or failure to take account of gene-by-gene interactions. The present study investigated interactions between the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene (BDNF Val66Met), the serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA-uVNTR) polymorphisms, family conflict, sexual abuse, the quality of the child-parent relationship, and teenage delinquency. In 2006, as part of the Survey of Adolescent Life in Västmanland, Sweden, 1 337 high-school students, aged 17-18 years, anonymously completed questionnaires and provided saliva samples for DNA analyses. Teenage delinquency was associated with two-, three-, and four-way interactions of each of the genotypes and the three environmental factors. Significant four-way interactions were found for BDNF Val66Met × 5-HTTLPR×MAOA-uVNTR × family conflicts and for BDNF Val66Met × 5-HTTLPR×MAOA-uVNTR × sexual abuse. Further, the two genotype combinations that differed the most in expression levels (BDNF Val66Met Val, 5-HTTLPR LL, MAOA-uVNTR LL [girls] and L [boys] vs BDNF Val66Met Val/Met, 5-HTTLPR S/LS, MAOA-uVNTR S/SS/LS) in interaction with family conflict and sexual abuse were associated with the highest delinquency scores. The genetic variants previously shown to confer vulnerability for delinquency (BDNF Val66Met Val/Met × 5-HTTLPR S × MAOA-uVNTR S) were associated with the lowest delinquency scores in interaction with a positive child-parent relationship. Functional variants of the MAOA-uVNTR, 5-HTTLPR, and BDNF Val66Met, either alone or in interaction with each other, may be best conceptualized as modifying sensitivity to environmental factors that confer either risk or protection for teenage delinquency. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University

  16. Genotypes Do Not Confer Risk For Delinquency ut Rather Alter Susceptibility to Positive and Negative Environmental Factors: Gene-Environment Interactions of BDNF Val66Met, 5-HTTLPR, and MAOA-uVNTR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comasco, Erika; Hodgins, Sheilagh; Oreland, Lars; Åslund, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous evidence of gene-by-environment interactions associated with emotional and behavioral disorders is contradictory. Differences in findings may result from variation in valence and dose of the environmental factor, and/or failure to take account of gene-by-gene interactions. The present study investigated interactions between the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene (BDNF Val66Met), the serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA-uVNTR) polymorphisms, family conflict, sexual abuse, the quality of the child-parent relationship, and teenage delinquency. Methods: In 2006, as part of the Survey of Adolescent Life in Västmanland, Sweden, 1 337 high-school students, aged 17–18 years, anonymously completed questionnaires and provided saliva samples for DNA analyses. Results: Teenage delinquency was associated with two-, three-, and four-way interactions of each of the genotypes and the three environmental factors. Significant four-way interactions were found for BDNF Val66Met × 5-HTTLPR×MAOA-uVNTR × family conflicts and for BDNF Val66Met × 5-HTTLPR×MAOA-uVNTR × sexual abuse. Further, the two genotype combinations that differed the most in expression levels (BDNF Val66Met Val, 5-HTTLPR LL, MAOA-uVNTR LL [girls] and L [boys] vs BDNF Val66Met Val/Met, 5-HTTLPR S/LS, MAOA-uVNTR S/SS/LS) in interaction with family conflict and sexual abuse were associated with the highest delinquency scores. The genetic variants previously shown to confer vulnerability for delinquency (BDNF Val66Met Val/Met × 5-HTTLPR S × MAOA-uVNTR S) were associated with the lowest delinquency scores in interaction with a positive child-parent relationship. Conclusions: Functional variants of the MAOA-uVNTR, 5-HTTLPR, and BDNF Val66Met, either alone or in interaction with each other, may be best conceptualized as modifying sensitivity to environmental factors that confer either risk or protection for teenage delinquency. PMID

  17. Contextual fear conditioning in virtual reality is affected by 5HTTLPR and NPSR1 polymorphisms: effects on fear-potentiated startle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn eGlotzbach-Schoon

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The serotonin (5-HT and neuropeptide S (NPS systems are discussed as important genetic modulators of fear and sustained anxiety contributing to the etiology of anxiety disorders. Sustained anxiety is a crucial characteristic of most anxiety disorders which likely develops through context conditioning. This study investigated if and how genetic alterations of the 5-HT and the NPS systems as well as their interaction modulate contextual fear conditioning; specifically, function polymorphic variants in the genes coding for the 5-HT transporter (5HTT and the NPS receptor (NPSR1 were studied. A large group of healthy volunteers was therefore stratified for 5HTTLPR (S+ vs. LL carriers and NPSR1 rs324981 (T+ vs. AA carriers polymorphisms resulting in four genotype groups (S+/T+, S+/AA, LL/T+, LL/AA of 20 participants each. All participants underwent contextual fear conditioning and extinction using a virtual reality paradigm. During acquisition, one virtual office room (anxiety context, CXT+ was paired with an unpredictable electric stimulus (unconditioned stimulus, US, whereas another virtual office room was not paired with any US (safety context, CXT-. During extinction no US was administered. Anxiety responses were quantified by fear-potentiated startle and ratings. Most importantly, we found a gene × gene interaction on fear-potentiated startle. Only carriers of both risk alleles (S+/T+ exhibited higher startle responses in CXT+ compared to CXT-. In contrast, anxiety ratings were only influenced by the NPSR1 polymorphism with AA carriers showing higher anxiety ratings in CXT+ as compared to CXT-. Our results speak in favor of a two level account of fear conditioning with diverging effects on implicit vs. explicit fear responses. Contextual fear reflected in potentiated startle responses may be an endophenotype for anxiety disorders.

  18. Heightened amygdala responsiveness in s-carriers of 5-HTTLPR genetic polymorphism reflects enhanced cortical rather than subcortical inputs: An MEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qian; Holroyd, Tom; Mitchell, Derek; Yu, Henry; Cheng, Xi; Hodgkinson, Colin; Chen, Gang; McCaffrey, Daniel; Goldman, David; Blair, R James

    2017-09-01

    Short allele carriers (S-carriers) of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) show an elevated amygdala response to emotional stimuli relative to long allele carriers (LL-homozygous). However, whether this reflects increased responsiveness of the amygdala generally or interactions between the amygdala and the specific input systems remains unknown. It is argued that the amygdala receives input via a quick subcortical and a slower cortical pathway. If the elevated amygdala response in S-carriers reflects generally increased amygdala responding, then group differences in amygdala should be seen across the amygdala response time course. However, if the difference is a secondary consequence of enhanced amygdala-cortical interactions, then group differences might only be present later in the amygdala response. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we found an enhanced amygdala response to fearful expressions starting 40-50 ms poststimulus. However, group differences in the amygdala were only seen 190-200 ms poststimulus, preceded by increased superior temporal sulcus (STS) responses in S-carriers from 130 to 140 ms poststimulus. An enhanced amygdala response to angry expressions started 260-270 ms poststimulus with group differences in the amygdala starting at 160-170 ms poststimulus onset, preceded by increased STS responses in S-carriers from 150 to 160 ms poststimulus. These suggest that enhanced amygdala responses in S-carriers might reflect enhanced STS-amygdala connectivity in S-carriers. Hum Brain Mapp 38:4313-4321, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. An introduction to inferentialism in mathematics education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derry, Jan

    2017-12-01

    This paper introduces the philosophical work of Robert Brandom, termed inferentialism, which underpins this collection and argues that it offers rich theoretical resources for reconsidering many of the challenges and issues that have arisen in mathematics education. Key to inferentialism is the privileging of the inferential over the representational in an account of meaning; and of direct concern here is the theoretical relevance of this to the process by which learners gain knowledge. Inferentialism requires that the correct application of a concept is to be understood in terms of inferential articulation, simply put, understanding it as having meaning only as part of a set of related concepts. The paper explains how Brandom's account of the meaning is inextricably tied to freedom and it is our responsiveness to reasons involving norms which makes humans a distinctive life form. In an educational context norms, function to delimit the domain in which knowledge is acquired and it is here that the neglect of our responsiveness to reasons is significant, not only for Brandom but also for Vygotsky, with implications for how knowledge is understood in mathematics classrooms. The paper explains the technical terms in Brandom's account of meaning, such as deontic scorekeeping, illustrating these through examples to show how the inferential articulation of a concept, and thus its correct application, is made visible. Inferentialism fosters the possibility of overcoming some of the thorny old problems that have seen those on the side of facts and disciplines opposed to those whose primary concern is the meaning making of learners.

  20. The use of regularization in inferential measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hines, J. Wesley; Gribok, Andrei V.; Attieh, Ibrahim; Uhrig, Robert E.

    1999-01-01

    Inferential sensing is the prediction of a plant variable through the use of correlated plant variables. A correct prediction of the variable can be used to monitor sensors for drift or other failures making periodic instrument calibrations unnecessary. This move from periodic to condition based maintenance can reduce costs and increase the reliability of the instrument. Having accurate, reliable measurements is important for signals that may impact safety or profitability. This paper investigates how collinearity adversely affects inferential sensing by making the results inconsistent and unrepeatable; and presents regularization as a potential solution (author) (ml)

  1. Performing Inferential Statistics Prior to Data Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trafimow, David; MacDonald, Justin A.

    2017-01-01

    Typically, in education and psychology research, the investigator collects data and subsequently performs descriptive and inferential statistics. For example, a researcher might compute group means and use the null hypothesis significance testing procedure to draw conclusions about the populations from which the groups were drawn. We propose an…

  2. Inferentialism and the Compositionality of Meaning

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peregrin, Jaroslav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2009), s. 154-181 ISSN 1877-3095 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA401/07/0904 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : inferentialism * compositionality * semantics Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  3. Inferential statistics, power estimates, and study design formalities continue to suppress biomedical innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Kern, Scott E.

    2014-01-01

    Innovation is the direct intended product of certain styles in research, but not of others. Fundamental conflicts between descriptive vs inferential statistics, deductive vs inductive hypothesis testing, and exploratory vs pre-planned confirmatory research designs have been played out over decades, with winners and losers and consequences. Longstanding warnings from both academics and research-funding interests have failed to influence effectively the course of these battles. The NIH publicly...

  4. A Framework to Support Research on Informal Inferential Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieffler, Andrew; Garfield, Joan; delMas, Robert; Reading, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Informal inferential reasoning is a relatively recent concept in the research literature. Several research studies have defined this type of cognitive process in slightly different ways. In this paper, a working definition of informal inferential reasoning based on an analysis of the key aspects of statistical inference, and on research from…

  5. Inferentialism as an alternative to socioconstructivism in mathematics education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorloos, Ruben; Taylor, Samuel D.; Bakker, Arthur; Derry, Jan

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to draw the attention of mathematics education researchers to a relatively new semantic theory called inferentialism, as developed by the philosopher Robert Brandom. Inferentialism is a semantic theory which explains concept formation in terms of the inferences individuals make in the context of an intersubjective practice of acknowledging, attributing, and challenging one another's commitments. The article argues that inferentialism can help to overcome certain problems that have plagued the various forms of constructivism, and socioconstructivism in particular. Despite the range of socioconstructivist positions on offer, there is reason to think that versions of these problems will continue to haunt socioconstructivism. The problems are that socioconstructivists (i) have not come to a satisfactory resolution of the social-individual dichotomy, (ii) are still threatened by relativism, and (iii) have been vague in their characterization of what construction is. We first present these problems; then we introduce inferentialism, and finally we show how inferentialism can help to overcome the problems. We argue that inferentialism (i) contains a powerful conception of norms that can overcome the social-individual dichotomy, (ii) draws attention to the reality that constrains our inferences, and (iii) develops a clearer conception of learning in terms of the mastering of webs of reasons. Inferentialism therefore represents a powerful alternative theoretical framework to socioconstructivism.

  6. Inferential Role and the Ideal of Deductive Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hofweber

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Although there is a prima facie strong case for a close connection between the meaning and inferential role of certain expressions, this connection seems seriously threatened by the semantic and logical paradoxes which rely on these inferential roles. Some philosophers have drawn radical conclusions from the paradoxes for the theory of meaning in general, and for which sentences in our language are true. I criticize these overreactions, and instead propose to distinguish two conceptions of inferential role. This distinction is closely tied to two conceptions of deductive logic, and it is the key, I argue, for understanding first the connection between meaning and inferential role, and second what the paradoxes show more generally.

  7. Beyond the Story Map: Inferential Comprehension via Character Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTigue, Erin; Douglass, April; Wright, Katherine L.; Hodges, Tracey S.; Franks, Amanda D.

    2015-01-01

    Inferential comprehension requires both emotional intelligence and cognitive skills, however instructional comprehension strategies typically underemphasize the emotional contribution. This article documents an intervention used by diverse third grade students which centers on teaching story comprehension through character perspective-taking…

  8. Genetic polymorphism of serotonin transporter 5-HTTLPR ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    society (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2008). More than 98% of ... smoking addiction (Li 2006). It is well ... neurotransmitter transporter (SLC6) family (Saier 1999). ..... gested that the effects of genotype and treatment may vary.

  9. Measurement errors in polymerase chain reaction are a confounding factor for a correct interpretation of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism effects on lifelong premature ejaculation: a critical analysis of a previously published meta-analysis of six studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Paddy K C; Olivier, Berend; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Waldinger, Marcel D

    2014-01-01

    To analyze a recently published meta-analysis of six studies on 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and lifelong premature ejaculation (PE). Calculation of fraction observed and expected genotype frequencies and Hardy Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) of cases and controls. LL,SL and SS genotype frequencies of patients were subtracted from genotype frequencies of an ideal population (LL25%, SL50%, SS25%, p = 1 for HWE). Analysis of PCRs of six studies and re-analysis of the analysis and Odds ratios (ORs) reported in the recently published meta-analysis. Three studies deviated from HWE in patients and one study deviated from HWE in controls. In three studies in-HWE the mean deviation of genotype frequencies from a theoretical population not-deviating from HWE was small: LL(1.7%), SL(-2.3%), SS(0.6%). In three studies not-in-HWE the mean deviation of genotype frequencies was high: LL(-3.3%), SL(-18.5%) and SS(21.8%) with very low percentage SL genotype concurrent with very high percentage SS genotype. The most serious PCR deviations were reported in the three not-in-HWE studies. The three in-HWE studies had normal OR. In contrast, the three not-in-HWE studies had a low OR. In three studies not-in-HWE and with very low OR, inadequate PCR analysis and/or inadequate interpretation of its gel electrophoresis resulted in very low SL and a resulting shift to very high SS genotype frequency outcome. Consequently, PCRs of these three studies are not reliable. Failure to note the inadequacy of PCR tests makes such PCRs a confounding factor in clinical interpretation of genetic studies. Currently, a meta-analysis can only be performed on three studies-in-HWE. However, based on the three studies-in-HWE with OR of about 1 there is not any indication that in men with lifelong PE the frequency of LL,SL and SS genotype deviates from the general male population and/or that the SL or SS genotype is in any way associated with lifelong PE.

  10. Measurement errors in polymerase chain reaction are a confounding factor for a correct interpretation of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism effects on lifelong premature ejaculation: a critical analysis of a previously published meta-analysis of six studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paddy K C Janssen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze a recently published meta-analysis of six studies on 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and lifelong premature ejaculation (PE. METHODS: Calculation of fraction observed and expected genotype frequencies and Hardy Weinberg equilibrium (HWE of cases and controls. LL,SL and SS genotype frequencies of patients were subtracted from genotype frequencies of an ideal population (LL25%, SL50%, SS25%, p = 1 for HWE. Analysis of PCRs of six studies and re-analysis of the analysis and Odds ratios (ORs reported in the recently published meta-analysis. RESULTS: Three studies deviated from HWE in patients and one study deviated from HWE in controls. In three studies in-HWE the mean deviation of genotype frequencies from a theoretical population not-deviating from HWE was small: LL(1.7%, SL(-2.3%, SS(0.6%. In three studies not-in-HWE the mean deviation of genotype frequencies was high: LL(-3.3%, SL(-18.5% and SS(21.8% with very low percentage SL genotype concurrent with very high percentage SS genotype. The most serious PCR deviations were reported in the three not-in-HWE studies. The three in-HWE studies had normal OR. In contrast, the three not-in-HWE studies had a low OR. CONCLUSIONS: In three studies not-in-HWE and with very low OR, inadequate PCR analysis and/or inadequate interpretation of its gel electrophoresis resulted in very low SL and a resulting shift to very high SS genotype frequency outcome. Consequently, PCRs of these three studies are not reliable. Failure to note the inadequacy of PCR tests makes such PCRs a confounding factor in clinical interpretation of genetic studies. Currently, a meta-analysis can only be performed on three studies-in-HWE. However, based on the three studies-in-HWE with OR of about 1 there is not any indication that in men with lifelong PE the frequency of LL,SL and SS genotype deviates from the general male population and/or that the SL or SS genotype is in any way associated with lifelong PE.

  11. Adaptive inferential sensors based on evolving fuzzy models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelov, Plamen; Kordon, Arthur

    2010-04-01

    A new technique to the design and use of inferential sensors in the process industry is proposed in this paper, which is based on the recently introduced concept of evolving fuzzy models (EFMs). They address the challenge that the modern process industry faces today, namely, to develop such adaptive and self-calibrating online inferential sensors that reduce the maintenance costs while keeping the high precision and interpretability/transparency. The proposed new methodology makes possible inferential sensors to recalibrate automatically, which reduces significantly the life-cycle efforts for their maintenance. This is achieved by the adaptive and flexible open-structure EFM used. The novelty of this paper lies in the following: (1) the overall concept of inferential sensors with evolving and self-developing structure from the data streams; (2) the new methodology for online automatic selection of input variables that are most relevant for the prediction; (3) the technique to detect automatically a shift in the data pattern using the age of the clusters (and fuzzy rules); (4) the online standardization technique used by the learning procedure of the evolving model; and (5) the application of this innovative approach to several real-life industrial processes from the chemical industry (evolving inferential sensors, namely, eSensors, were used for predicting the chemical properties of different products in The Dow Chemical Company, Freeport, TX). It should be noted, however, that the methodology and conclusions of this paper are valid for the broader area of chemical and process industries in general. The results demonstrate that well-interpretable and with-simple-structure inferential sensors can automatically be designed from the data stream in real time, which predict various process variables of interest. The proposed approach can be used as a basis for the development of a new generation of adaptive and evolving inferential sensors that can address the

  12. [Inferential evaluation of intimacy based on observation of interpersonal communication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Masanori

    2015-06-01

    How do people inferentially evaluate others' levels of intimacy with friends? We examined the inferential evaluation of intimacy based on the observation of interpersonal communication. In Experiment 1, participants (N = 41) responded to questions after observing conversations between friends. Results indicated that participants inferentially evaluated not only goodness of communication, but also intimacy between friends, using an expressivity heuristic approach. In Experiment 2, we investigated how inferential evaluation of intimacy was affected by prior information about relationships and by individual differences in face-to-face interactional ability. Participants (N = 64) were divided into prior- and no-prior-information groups and all performed the same task as in Experiment 1. Additionally, their interactional ability was assessed. In the prior-information group, individual differences had no effect on inferential evaluation of intimacy. On the other hand, in the no-prior-information group, face-to-face interactional ability partially influenced evaluations of intimacy. Finally, we discuss the fact that to understand one's social environment, it is important to observe others' interpersonal communications.

  13. Genetic moderation of child maltreatment effects on depression and internalizing symptoms by serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), norepinephrine transporter (NET), and corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) genes in African American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A

    2014-11-01

    Genetic moderation of the effects of child maltreatment on depression and internalizing symptoms was investigated in a sample of low-income maltreated and nonmaltreated African American children (N = 1,096). Lifetime child maltreatment experiences were independently coded from Child Protective Services records and maternal report. Child depression and internalizing problems were assessed in the context of a summer research camp by self-report on the Children's Depression Inventory and adult counselor report on the Teacher Report Form. DNA was obtained from buccal cell or saliva samples and genotyped for polymorphisms of the following genes: serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), norepinephrine transporter, and corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1. Analyses of covariance with age and gender as covariates were conducted, with maltreatment status and respective polymorphism as main effects and their Gene × Environment (G × E) interactions. Maltreatment consistently was associated with higher Children's Depression Inventory and Teacher Report Form symptoms. The results for child self-report symptoms indicated a G × E interaction for BDNF and maltreatment. In addition, BDNF and triallelic 5-HTTLPR interacted with child maltreatment in a G × G × E interaction. Analyses for counselor report of child anxiety/depression symptoms on the Teacher Report Form indicated moderation of child maltreatment effects by triallelic 5-HTTLPR. These effects were elaborated based on variation in developmental timing of maltreatment experiences. Norepinephrine transporter was found to further moderate the G × E interaction of 5-HTTLPR and maltreatment status, revealing a G × G × E interaction. This G × G × E was extended by consideration of variation in maltreatment subtype experiences. Finally, G × G × E effects were observed for the co-action of BDNF and the corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1

  14. Inferential ecosystem models, from network data to prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Clark; Pankaj Agarwal; David M. Bell; Paul G. Flikkema; Alan Gelfand; Xuanlong Nguyen; Eric Ward; Jun Yang

    2011-01-01

    Recent developments suggest that predictive modeling could begin to play a larger role not only for data analysis, but also for data collection. We address the example of efficient wireless sensor networks, where inferential ecosystem models can be used to weigh the value of an observation against the cost of data collection. Transmission costs make observations ‘‘...

  15. Inferentialism in mathematics education : introduction to a special issue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Arthur; Hußmann, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    Inferentialism, as developed by the philosopher Robert Brandom (1994, 2000), is a theory of meaning. The theory has wide-ranging implications in various fields but this special issue concentrates on the use and content of concepts. The key idea, relevant to mathematics education research, is that

  16. Probability Theory Plus Noise: Descriptive Estimation and Inferential Judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Fintan; Watts, Paul

    2018-01-01

    We describe a computational model of two central aspects of people's probabilistic reasoning: descriptive probability estimation and inferential probability judgment. This model assumes that people's reasoning follows standard frequentist probability theory, but it is subject to random noise. This random noise has a regressive effect in descriptive probability estimation, moving probability estimates away from normative probabilities and toward the center of the probability scale. This random noise has an anti-regressive effect in inferential judgement, however. These regressive and anti-regressive effects explain various reliable and systematic biases seen in people's descriptive probability estimation and inferential probability judgment. This model predicts that these contrary effects will tend to cancel out in tasks that involve both descriptive estimation and inferential judgement, leading to unbiased responses in those tasks. We test this model by applying it to one such task, described by Gallistel et al. ). Participants' median responses in this task were unbiased, agreeing with normative probability theory over the full range of responses. Our model captures the pattern of unbiased responses in this task, while simultaneously explaining systematic biases away from normatively correct probabilities seen in other tasks. Copyright © 2018 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  17. The Development of Introductory Statistics Students' Informal Inferential Reasoning and Its Relationship to Formal Inferential Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Bridgette L.

    2013-01-01

    The difficulties introductory statistics students have with formal statistical inference are well known in the field of statistics education. "Informal" statistical inference has been studied as a means to introduce inferential reasoning well before and without the formalities of formal statistical inference. This mixed methods study…

  18. Brain Evolution and Human Neuropsychology: The Inferential Brain Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koscik, Timothy R.; Tranel, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Collaboration between human neuropsychology and comparative neuroscience has generated invaluable contributions to our understanding of human brain evolution and function. Further cross-talk between these disciplines has the potential to continue to revolutionize these fields. Modern neuroimaging methods could be applied in a comparative context, yielding exciting new data with the potential of providing insight into brain evolution. Conversely, incorporating an evolutionary base into the theoretical perspectives from which we approach human neuropsychology could lead to novel hypotheses and testable predictions. In the spirit of these objectives, we present here a new theoretical proposal, the Inferential Brain Hypothesis, whereby the human brain is thought to be characterized by a shift from perceptual processing to inferential computation, particularly within the social realm. This shift is believed to be a driving force for the evolution of the large human cortex. PMID:22459075

  19. Genetic loading on human loving styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuele, Enzo; Brondino, Natascia; Pesenti, Sara; Re, Simona; Geroldi, Diego

    2007-12-01

    It has been hypothesized that cerebral neurotransmitters such as dopamine and serotonin could play a role in human romantic bonding. However, no data on the genetic basis of human romantic love are currently available. To address this issue, we looked for associations between markers in neurotransmitter genes (the serotonin transporter gene, 5-HTT; the serotonin receptor 2A, 5HT2A; the dopamine D2 receptor gene, DRD2; and the dopamine D4 receptor gene, DRD4) and the six styles of love as conceptualized by Lee (Eros, Ludus, Storge, Pragma, Mania and Agape). A total of 350 healthy young adults (165 males and 185 females, mean age: 24.1+/-3.9 years, range 18-32 years) filled the 24-item Love Attitudes Scale (LAS) and were genotyped for the following six polymorphic markers: the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), the 5HT2A T102C and C516T polymorphisms, the DRD2 TaqI A and TaqI B variants, and the DRD4 exon 3 VNTR polymorphism. Statistical analysis revealed a significant association between the DRD2 TaqI A genotypes and "Eros" (a loving style characterized by a tendency to develop intense emotional experiences based on the physical attraction to the partner), as well as between the C516T 5HT2A polymorphism and "Mania" (a possessive and dependent romantic attachment, characterized by self-defeating emotions). These associations were present in both sexes and remained significant even after adjustment for potential confounders. Our data provide the first evidence of a possible genetic loading on human loving styles.

  20. A Statistical Primer: Understanding Descriptive and Inferential Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Gillian Byrne

    2007-01-01

    As libraries and librarians move more towards evidence‐based decision making, the data being generated in libraries is growing. Understanding the basics of statistical analysis is crucial for evidence‐based practice (EBP), in order to correctly design and analyze researchas well as to evaluate the research of others. This article covers the fundamentals of descriptive and inferential statistics, from hypothesis construction to sampling to common statistical techniques including chi‐square, co...

  1. Regularization methods for inferential sensing in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hines, J.W.; Gribok, A.V.; Attieh, I.; Uhrig, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    Inferential sensing is the use of information related to a plant parameter to infer its actual value. The most common method of inferential sensing uses a mathematical model to infer a parameter value from correlated sensor values. Collinearity in the predictor variables leads to an ill-posed problem that causes inconsistent results when data based models such as linear regression and neural networks are used. This chapter presents several linear and non-linear inferential sensing methods including linear regression and neural networks. Both of these methods can be modified from their original form to solve ill-posed problems and produce more consistent results. We will compare these techniques using data from Florida Power Corporation's Crystal River Nuclear Power Plant to predict the drift in a feedwater flow sensor. According to a report entitled 'Feedwater Flow Measurement in U.S. Nuclear Power Generation Stations' that was commissioned by the Electric Power Research Institute, venturi meter fouling is 'the single most frequent cause' for derating in Pressurized Water Reactors. This chapter presents several viable solutions to this problem. (orig.)

  2. Learning Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Coll. of Education.

    Information is provided regarding major learning styles and other factors important to student learning. Several typically asked questions are presented regarding different learning styles (visual, auditory, tactile and kinesthetic, and multisensory learning), associated considerations, determining individuals' learning styles, and appropriate…

  3. Translator’s inferential excursions, with imagination in the background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Tokarz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In a literary work, signals that trigger reader’s inferential excursions allow the reader’s imagination to identify with and control the represented world. They constitute an important element of sense-generating mechanism. Thanks to imagination, the translator imitates the inferential mechanism of the original on various level’s of the text’s structure, activating the imagination of the reader. The translator’s imagination is bi- or multivalent in having the linguistic-semiotic, literary, and cultural quality. Although it manifests itself in language, it goes beyond the boundaries of language. Imagination is a form of consciousness which has no object of its own, and a medium connecting a specific non-imaginary knowledge with representations. It constitutes a mind faculty shaped on the basis of sensory and mental perception. It is derived from individual principles of perception and cognition data processing. It usually requires a stymulus to activate the capabilities of the imagining subject. As a mind faculty, imagination is based on the mental capability common to all people, which is the ability to create chains of associations.Translator’s respect for inferential excursions in the original text is necessary for retaining the original meaning, regardless of whether they occur on the phonetic-phonological level (as in Ionesco’s The Chairs, or on the level of image-semantic and syntactic relations (as in translation of Apollinaire’s Zone, or on the level of syntax (as in translation of Mrożek’s short stories into Slovenian, or on the level of cultural communication (as in Slovenian translation of Gombrowicz’s Trans-Atlantic.

  4. Descriptive and inferential statistical methods used in burns research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Benna, Sammy; Al-Ajam, Yazan; Way, Benjamin; Steinstraesser, Lars

    2010-05-01

    Burns research articles utilise a variety of descriptive and inferential methods to present and analyse data. The aim of this study was to determine the descriptive methods (e.g. mean, median, SD, range, etc.) and survey the use of inferential methods (statistical tests) used in articles in the journal Burns. This study defined its population as all original articles published in the journal Burns in 2007. Letters to the editor, brief reports, reviews, and case reports were excluded. Study characteristics, use of descriptive statistics and the number and types of statistical methods employed were evaluated. Of the 51 articles analysed, 11(22%) were randomised controlled trials, 18(35%) were cohort studies, 11(22%) were case control studies and 11(22%) were case series. The study design and objectives were defined in all articles. All articles made use of continuous and descriptive data. Inferential statistics were used in 49(96%) articles. Data dispersion was calculated by standard deviation in 30(59%). Standard error of the mean was quoted in 19(37%). The statistical software product was named in 33(65%). Of the 49 articles that used inferential statistics, the tests were named in 47(96%). The 6 most common tests used (Student's t-test (53%), analysis of variance/co-variance (33%), chi(2) test (27%), Wilcoxon & Mann-Whitney tests (22%), Fisher's exact test (12%)) accounted for the majority (72%) of statistical methods employed. A specified significance level was named in 43(88%) and the exact significance levels were reported in 28(57%). Descriptive analysis and basic statistical techniques account for most of the statistical tests reported. This information should prove useful in deciding which tests should be emphasised in educating burn care professionals. These results highlight the need for burn care professionals to have a sound understanding of basic statistics, which is crucial in interpreting and reporting data. Advice should be sought from professionals

  5. An introduction to inferential statistics: A review and practical guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, Gill, E-mail: gill.marshall@cumbria.ac.u [Faculty of Health, Medical Sciences and Social Care, University of Cumbria, Lancaster LA1 3JD (United Kingdom); Jonker, Leon [Faculty of Health, Medical Sciences and Social Care, University of Cumbria, Lancaster LA1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    Building on the first part of this series regarding descriptive statistics, this paper demonstrates why it is advantageous for radiographers to understand the role of inferential statistics in deducing conclusions from a sample and their application to a wider population. This is necessary so radiographers can understand the work of others, can undertake their own research and evidence base their practice. This article explains p values and confidence intervals. It introduces the common statistical tests that comprise inferential statistics, and explains the use of parametric and non-parametric statistics. To do this, the paper reviews relevant literature, and provides a checklist of points to consider before and after applying statistical tests to a data set. The paper provides a glossary of relevant terms and the reader is advised to refer to this when any unfamiliar terms are used in the text. Together with the information provided on descriptive statistics in an earlier article, it can be used as a starting point for applying statistics in radiography practice and research.

  6. An introduction to inferential statistics: A review and practical guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, Gill; Jonker, Leon

    2011-01-01

    Building on the first part of this series regarding descriptive statistics, this paper demonstrates why it is advantageous for radiographers to understand the role of inferential statistics in deducing conclusions from a sample and their application to a wider population. This is necessary so radiographers can understand the work of others, can undertake their own research and evidence base their practice. This article explains p values and confidence intervals. It introduces the common statistical tests that comprise inferential statistics, and explains the use of parametric and non-parametric statistics. To do this, the paper reviews relevant literature, and provides a checklist of points to consider before and after applying statistical tests to a data set. The paper provides a glossary of relevant terms and the reader is advised to refer to this when any unfamiliar terms are used in the text. Together with the information provided on descriptive statistics in an earlier article, it can be used as a starting point for applying statistics in radiography practice and research.

  7. Artificial Intelligence for Inferential Control of Crude Oil Stripping Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ebnali

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Stripper columns are used for sweetening crude oil, and they must hold product hydrogen sulfide content as near the set points as possible in the faces of upsets. Since product    quality cannot be measured easily and economically online, the control of product quality is often achieved by maintaining a suitable tray temperature near its set point. Tray temperature control method, however, is not a proper option for a multi-component stripping column because the tray temperature does not correspond exactly to the product composition. To overcome this problem, secondary measurements can be used to infer the product quality and adjust the values of the manipulated variables. In this paper, we have used a novel inferential control approach base on adaptive network fuzzy inference system (ANFIS for stripping process. ANFIS with different learning algorithms is used for modeling the process and building a composition estimator to estimate the composition of the bottom product. The developed estimator is tested, and the results show that the predictions made by ANFIS structure are in good agreement with the results of simulation by ASPEN HYSYS process simulation package. In addition, inferential control by the implementation of ANFIS-based online composition estimator in a cascade control scheme is superior to traditional tray temperature control method based on less integral time absolute error and low duty consumption in reboiler.

  8. Spacecraft control center automation using the generic inferential executor (GENIE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Jonathan; Luczak, Ed; Stump, Doug

    1996-01-01

    The increasing requirement to dramatically reduce the cost of mission operations led to increased emphasis on automation technology. The expert system technology used at the Goddard Space Flight Center (MD) is currently being applied to the automation of spacecraft control center activities. The generic inferential executor (GENIE) is a tool which allows pass automation applications to be constructed. The pass script templates constructed encode the tasks necessary to mimic flight operations team interactions with the spacecraft during a pass. These templates can be configured with data specific to a particular pass. Animated graphical displays illustrate the progress during the pass. The first GENIE application automates passes of the solar, anomalous and magnetospheric particle explorer (SAMPEX) spacecraft.

  9. A hierarchical inferential method for indoor scene classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Jingzhe

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Indoor scene classification forms a basis for scene interaction for service robots. The task is challenging because the layout and decoration of a scene vary considerably. Previous studies on knowledge-based methods commonly ignore the importance of visual attributes when constructing the knowledge base. These shortcomings restrict the performance of classification. The structure of a semantic hierarchy was proposed to describe similarities of different parts of scenes in a fine-grained way. Besides the commonly used semantic features, visual attributes were also introduced to construct the knowledge base. Inspired by the processes of human cognition and the characteristics of indoor scenes, we proposed an inferential framework based on the Markov logic network. The framework is evaluated on a popular indoor scene dataset, and the experimental results demonstrate its effectiveness.

  10. Fault detection in IRIS reactor secondary loop using inferential models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perillo, Sergio R.P.; Upadhyaya, Belle R.; Hines, J. Wesley

    2013-01-01

    The development of fault detection algorithms is well-suited for remote deployment of small and medium reactors, such as the IRIS, and the development of new small modular reactors (SMR). However, an extensive number of tests are still to be performed for new engineering aspects and components that are not yet proven technology in the current PWRs, and present some technological challenges for its deployment since many of its features cannot be proven until a prototype plant is built. In this work, an IRIS plant simulation platform was developed using a Simulink® model. The dynamic simulation was utilized in obtaining inferential models that were used to detect faults artificially added to the secondary system simulations. The implementation of data-driven models and the results are discussed. (author)

  11. Psychometric Evaluation of the Italian Adaptation of the Test of Inferential and Creative Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraci, Palmira; Hell, Benedikt; Schuler, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the psychometric properties of the Italian adaptation of the "Analyse des Schlussfolgernden und Kreativen Denkens" (ASK; Test of Inferential and Creative Thinking) for measuring inferential and creative thinking. The study aimed to (a) supply evidence for the factorial structure of the instrument, (b) describe its…

  12. Effects of Stress and Working Memory Capacity on Foreign Language Readers' Inferential Processing during Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Manpreet K.; Loschky, Lester C.; Harris, Richard Jackson; Peck, Nicole R.; Cook, Lindsay G.

    2011-01-01

    Although stress is frequently claimed to impede foreign language (FL) reading comprehension, it is usually not explained how. We investigated the effects of stress, working memory (WM) capacity, and inferential complexity on Spanish FL readers' inferential processing during comprehension. Inferences, although necessary for reading comprehension,…

  13. Evaluation of Physicians' Cognitive Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Beckstead, Jason W; Elqayam, Shira; Reljic, Tea; Hozo, Iztok; Kumar, Ambuj; Cannon-Bowers, Janis; Taylor, Stephanie; Tsalatsanis, Athanasios; Turner, Brandon; Paidas, Charles

    2014-07-01

    Patient outcomes critically depend on accuracy of physicians' judgment, yet little is known about individual differences in cognitive styles that underlie physicians' judgments. The objective of this study was to assess physicians' individual differences in cognitive styles relative to age, experience, and degree and type of training. Physicians at different levels of training and career completed a web-based survey of 6 scales measuring individual differences in cognitive styles (maximizing v. satisficing, analytical v. intuitive reasoning, need for cognition, intolerance toward ambiguity, objectivism, and cognitive reflection). We measured psychometric properties (Cronbach's α) of scales; relationship of age, experience, degree, and type of training; responses to scales; and accuracy on conditional inference task. The study included 165 trainees and 56 attending physicians (median age 31 years; range 25-69 years). All 6 constructs showed acceptable psychometric properties. Surprisingly, we found significant negative correlation between age and satisficing (r = -0.239; P = 0.017). Maximizing (willingness to engage in alternative search strategy) also decreased with age (r = -0.220; P = 0.047). Number of incorrect inferences negatively correlated with satisficing (r = -0.246; P = 0.014). Disposition to suppress intuitive responses was associated with correct responses on 3 of 4 inferential tasks. Trainees showed a tendency to engage in analytical thinking (r = 0.265; P = 0.025), while attendings displayed inclination toward intuitive-experiential thinking (r = 0.427; P = 0.046). However, trainees performed worse on conditional inference task. Physicians capable of suppressing an immediate intuitive response to questions and those scoring higher on rational thinking made fewer inferential mistakes. We found a negative correlation between age and maximizing: Physicians who were more advanced in their careers were less willing to spend time and effort in an

  14. Inferential smart sensing for feedwater flowrate in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, M. G.; Hwang, I. J.; Lee, Y. J.

    2006-01-01

    The feedwater flowrate that is measured by Venturi flow meters in most pressurized water reactors can be over-measured because of the fouling phenomena that make corrosion products accumulate in the Venturi meters. Therefore, in this work, two kinds of methods, a support vector regression method and a fuzzy modeling method, combined with a sequential probability ratio test, are used in order to accurately estimate online the feedwater flowrate, and also to monitor the status of the existing hardware sensors. Also, the data for training the support vector machines and the fuzzy model are selected by using a subtractive clustering scheme to use informative data from among all acquired data. The proposed inferential sensing and monitoring algorithm is verified by using the acquired real plant data of Yonggwang Nuclear Power Plant Unit 3. In the simulations, it was known that the root mean squared error and the relative maximum error are so small and the proposed method early detects the degradation of an existing hardware sensor. (authors)

  15. Inferential reasoning by exclusion in children (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Andrew; Collier-Baker, Emma; Suddendorf, Thomas

    2012-08-01

    The cups task is the most widely adopted forced-choice paradigm for comparative studies of inferential reasoning by exclusion. In this task, subjects are presented with two cups, one of which has been surreptitiously baited. When the empty cup is shaken or its interior shown, it is possible to infer by exclusion that the alternative cup contains the reward. The present study extends the existing body of comparative work to include human children (Homo sapiens). Like chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) that were tested with the same equipment and near-identical procedures, children aged three to five made apparent inferences using both visual and auditory information, although the youngest children showed the least-developed ability in the auditory modality. However, unlike chimpanzees, children of all ages used causally irrelevant information in a control test designed to examine the possibility that their apparent auditory inferences were the product of contingency learning (the duplicate cups test). Nevertheless, the children's ability to reason by exclusion was corroborated by their performance on a novel verbal disjunctive syllogism test, and we found preliminary evidence consistent with the suggestion that children used their causal-logical understanding to reason by exclusion in the cups task, but subsequently treated the duplicate cups information as symbolic or communicative, rather than causal. Implications for future comparative research are discussed. 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  16. The role of working memory in inferential sentence comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Ana Isabel; Paolieri, Daniela; Macizo, Pedro; Bajo, Teresa

    2014-08-01

    Existing literature on inference making is large and varied. Trabasso and Magliano (Discourse Process 21(3):255-287, 1996) proposed the existence of three types of inferences: explicative, associative and predictive. In addition, the authors suggested that these inferences were related to working memory (WM). In the present experiment, we investigated whether WM capacity plays a role in our ability to answer comprehension sentences that require text information based on these types of inferences. Participants with high and low WM span read two narratives with four paragraphs each. After each paragraph was read, they were presented with four true/false comprehension sentences. One required verbatim information and the other three implied explicative, associative and predictive inferential information. Results demonstrated that only the explicative and predictive comprehension sentences required WM: participants with high verbal WM were more accurate in giving explanations and also faster at making predictions relative to participants with low verbal WM span; in contrast, no WM differences were found in the associative comprehension sentences. These results are interpreted in terms of the causal nature underlying these types of inferences.

  17. Inferential revision in narrative texts: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Ana; Cain, Kate; Castellanos, María C; Bajo, Teresa

    2015-11-01

    We evaluated the process of inferential revision during text comprehension in adults. Participants with high or low working memory read short texts, in which the introduction supported two plausible concepts (e.g., 'guitar/violin'), although one was more probable ('guitar'). There were three possible continuations: a neutral sentence, which did not refer back to either concept; a no-revise sentence, which referred to a general property consistent with either concept (e.g., '…beautiful curved body'); and a revise sentence, which referred to a property that was consistent with only the less likely concept (e.g., '…matching bow'). Readers took longer to read the sentence in the revise condition, indicating that they were able to evaluate their comprehension and detect a mismatch. In a final sentence, a target noun referred to the alternative concept supported in the revise condition (e.g., 'violin'). ERPs indicated that both working memory groups were able to evaluate their comprehension of the text (P3a), but only high working memory readers were able to revise their initial incorrect interpretation (P3b) and integrate the new information (N400) when reading the revise sentence. Low working memory readers had difficulties inhibiting the no-longer-relevant interpretation and thus failed to revise their situation model, and they experienced problems integrating semantically related information into an accurate memory representation.

  18. Applying contemporary philosophy in mathematics and statistics education : The perspective of inferentialism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schindler, Maike; Mackrell, Kate; Pratt, Dave; Bakker, A.

    2017-01-01

    Schindler, M., Mackrell, K., Pratt, D., & Bakker, A. (2017). Applying contemporary philosophy in mathematics and statistics education: The perspective of inferentialism. In G. Kaiser (Ed.). Proceedings of the 13th International Congress on Mathematical Education, ICME-13

  19. Leadership Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val, Carlin; Kemp, Jess

    2012-01-01

    This study examines how a group's dynamic changes under the influence of different leadership styles, and determines what leadership style works best in a large group expedition. The main question identified was "What roles can a leader play in affecting the dynamic of a large group while partaking in a field expedition?" The following…

  20. The relationship between magical thinking, inferential confusion and obsessive-compulsive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goods, N A R; Rees, C S; Egan, S J; Kane, R T

    2014-01-01

    Inferential confusion is an under-researched faulty reasoning process in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Based on an overreliance on imagined possibilities, it shares similarities with the extensively researched construct of thought-action fusion (TAF). While TAF has been proposed as a specific subset of the broader construct of magical thinking, the relationship between inferential confusion and magical thinking is unexplored. The present study investigated this relationship, and hypothesised that magical thinking would partially mediate the relationship between inferential confusion and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. A non-clinical sample of 201 participants (M = 34.94, SD = 15.88) were recruited via convenience sampling. Regression analyses found the hypothesised mediating relationship was supported, as magical thinking did partially mediate the relationship between inferential confusion and OC symptoms. Interestingly, inferential confusion had the stronger relationship with OC symptoms in comparison to the other predictor variables. Results suggest that inferential confusion can both directly and indirectly (via magical thinking) impact on OC symptoms. Future studies with clinical samples should further investigate these constructs to determine whether similar patterns emerge, as this may eventually inform which cognitive errors to target in treatment of OCD.

  1. A Study on the learning Styles of Nursing and Midwifery Students in Yasuj According to the VARK Model (2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Behnam Moghadam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: learning style(s is one of the factors effective learning. Information about students learning styles can aid the presentation of teaching appropriate to their individual style. The purpose of this study was to determine the learning styles of Yasuj nursing and midwifery students based on the VARK model in 2013. Methods: The present research was a descriptive- analytical study which was conducted on 140 students from nursing and midwifery faculty of Yasuj university of Medical Sciences in the academic year of 2013. Sampling was done using census method, and data were collected using demographic information questionnaire followed by questionnaire of learning styles. The data were analyzed using SPSS software version 18, and descriptive- inferential statistics. Results: The mean age of the students was 20.68±1.34. Of the total of 140 students, 98 (70% just selected only one type of the learning styles, whereas, 42 students preferred combination of different styles. Reading-writing style was the prevailing style among single learning style which selected by 43 students but the most frequent style among multi style was double style which was selected only by 15% of the participants. Conclusion: Most of the students had an individual learning style. Identifying the dominant learning style(s of the students and adjusting them to the teaching methods of lecturers and also developing lesson plans based on learning styles could improve educational objectives.

  2. Two degree of freedom PID based inferential control of continuous bioreactor for ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachauri, Nikhil; Singh, Vijander; Rani, Asha

    2017-05-01

    This article presents the development of inferential control scheme based on Adaptive linear neural network (ADALINE) soft sensor for the control of fermentation process. The ethanol concentration of bioreactor is estimated from temperature profile of the process using soft sensor. The prediction accuracy of ADALINE is enhanced by retraining it with immediate past measurements. The ADALINE and retrained ADALINE are used along with PID and 2-DOF-PID leading to APID, A2PID, RAPID and RA2PID inferential controllers. Further the parameters of 2-DOF-PID are optimized using Non-dominated sorted genetic algorithm-II and used with retrained ADALINE soft sensor which leads to RAN2PID inferential controller. Simulation results demonstrate that performance of proposed RAN2PID controller is better in comparison to other designed controllers in terms of qualitative and quantitative performance indices. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Style Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handberg, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    Postmodernismen er kommet på museum i Victoria and Alberts stort anlagte udstilling Postmodernism. Style and Subversion 1970-1990. Reportage fra en udstilling, der spænder fra filosofi til firserpop og tager den nære fortid på museum....

  4. Statistical analysis and interpretation of prenatal diagnostic imaging studies, Part 2: descriptive and inferential statistical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuuli, Methodius G; Odibo, Anthony O

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this article is to discuss the rationale for common statistical tests used for the analysis and interpretation of prenatal diagnostic imaging studies. Examples from the literature are used to illustrate descriptive and inferential statistics. The uses and limitations of linear and logistic regression analyses are discussed in detail.

  5. On optimal feedforward and ILC : the role of feedback for optimal performance and inferential control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zundert, J.C.D.; Oomen, T.A.E

    2017-01-01

    The combination of feedback control with inverse model feedforward control or iterative learning control is known to yield high performance. The aim of this paper is to clarify the role of feedback in the design of feedforward controllers, with specific attention to the inferential situation. Recent

  6. Teachers' Literal and Inferential Talk in Early Childhood and Special Education Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sembiante, Sabrina F.; Dynia, Jaclyn M.; Kaderavek, Joan N.; Justice, Laura M.

    2018-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined preschool teachers' literal talk (LT) and inferential talk (IT) during shared book readings in early childhood education (ECE) and early childhood special education (ECSE) classrooms. We aimed to characterize and compare teachers' LT and IT in these 2 classroom contexts and determine whether differences in LT…

  7. [Parenting styles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torío López, Susana; Peña Calvo, José Vicente; Inda Caro, Mercedes

    2008-02-01

    Parental educational styles constitute one of the key elements of family socialization. The aim of the present essay is to present the results of a research project carried out in the Principality of Asturias (Spain) among 2,965 families with children of infant and primary-school age (5-8 years old). This research attempts to analyse, among other aspects, parental behaviour tendencies in child upbringing. The analysis of the results obtained allows us to: 1) identify the most common attitudinal and behavioural tendencies of parents in the upbringing of their children; 2) determine how many people have a well defined parental style, and delimit their socio-educational characteristics. Lastly, we consider the need to change some parental behaviour patterns and stress the importance of family education programmes, with the aim of promoting appropriate parenting models and modifying or improving current practices.

  8. Conflict resolution styles in the nursing profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losa Iglesias, Marta Elena; Becerro de Bengoa Vallejo, Ricardo

    2012-12-01

    Managers, including those in nursing environments, may spend much of their time addressing employee conflicts. If not handled properly, conflict may significantly affect employee morale, increase turnover, and even result in litigation, ultimately affecting the overall well-being of the organization. A clearer understanding of the factors that underlie conflict resolution styles could lead to the promotion of better management strategies. The aim of this research was to identify the predominant conflict resolution styles used by a sample of Spanish nurses in two work settings, academic and clinical, in order to determine differences between these environments. The effects of employment level and demographic variables were explored as well. Descriptive cross-sectional survey study. Our sample consisted of professional nurses in Madrid, Spain, who worked in either a university setting or a clinical care setting. Within each of these environments, nurses worked at one of three levels: full professor, assistant professor, or scholarship professor in the academic setting; and nursing supervisor, registered staff nurse, or nursing assistant in the clinical setting. Conflict resolution style was examined using the standardized Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument, a dual-choice questionnaire that assesses a respondent's predominant style of conflict resolution. Five styles are defined: accommodating, avoiding, collaborating, competing, and compromising. Participants were asked to give answers that characterized their dominant response in a conflict situation involving either a superior or a subordinate. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to examine the relationship between workplace setting and conflict resolution style. The most common style used by nurses overall to resolve workplace conflict was compromising, followed by competing, avoiding, accommodating, and collaborating. There was a significant overall difference in styles between nurses who worked

  9. Neural Networks. Diagnostic and inferential measurements; Reti neurali. Diagnostica e misure inferenziali

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonavita, N. [Apc Group Leader, Abb Industria, Genua (Italy); Parisini, T. [Milan Politecnico, Milan (Italy). Dipt. di Elettronica e Informazione

    2000-09-01

    In this work, the use of neural approximating networks is described in the context of fault diagnosis of industrial plants with a particular emphasis to the technique of inferential measurements. The proposed methodology is related to the current literature emphasizing advantages and disadvantages of the analytical redundancy concept. The use of neural approximators for the generation of inferential measurement is described in the context of industrial distributed control systems. [Italian] In questo articolo viene descritta l'utilizzazione degli approssimatori neurali in problemi di diagnostica d'impianto con particolare riferimento alla tecnica delle misure inferenziali. Viene fornito un inquadramento della metodologia rispetto alla letteratura attuale mettendo in risalto vantaggi e svantaggi del concetto di ridondanza analitica. L'uso degli approssimatori neurali per la generazione di misure inferenziali e' illustrato in un contesto di sistemi di controllo distribuito di tipo industriale.

  10. Affective Style, Humor Styles and Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Ford

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the relationships between dispositional approach and avoidance motives, humor styles, and happiness. In keeping with previous research, approach motives and the two positive humor styles (self-enhancing and affiliative positively correlated with happiness, whereas avoidance motives and the two negative humor styles (self-defeating and aggressive negatively correlated with happiness. Also, we found support for three new hypotheses. First, approach motives correlated positively with self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles. Second, avoidance motives correlated positively with self-defeating humor style, and third, the positive relationship between approach motives and happiness was mediated by self-enhancing humor style.

  11. Cognitive stimulation of pupils with Down syndrome: A study of inferential talk during book-sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engevik, Liv Inger; Næss, Kari-Anne B; Hagtvet, Bente E

    2016-08-01

    In the education of pupils with Down syndrome, "simplifying" literal talk and concrete stimulation have typically played a dominant role. This explorative study investigated the extent to which teachers stimulated abstract cognitive functions via inferential talk during book-sharing and how pupils with Down syndrome responded. Dyadic interactions (N=7) were videotaped, transcribed and coded to identify levels of abstraction in teacher utterances and to evaluate the adequacy of pupil responses. One-third of the teachers' utterances contained high levels of abstraction and promoted inferential talk. Six of the seven children predominantly responded in ways which revealed inferential thinking. Dialog excerpts highlighted individual, contextual and interactional factors contributing to variations in the findings. Contrary to previous claims, the children with Down syndrome in the current sample appear able to draw inferences beyond the "here-and-now" with teacher support. This finding highlights the educational relevance and importance of higher-order cognitive stimulation of pupils with intellectual disabilities, to foster independent metacognitive skills. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cross-categorization of legal concepts across boundaries of legal systems: in consideration of inferential links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Fumiko Kano; Herlau, Tue; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard

    2014-01-01

    This work contrasts Giovanni Sartor’s view of inferential semantics of legal concepts (Sartor in Artif Intell Law 17:217–251, 2009) with a probabilistic model of theory formation (Kemp et al. in Cognition 114:165–196, 2010). The work further explores possibilities of implementing Kemp’s probabili......This work contrasts Giovanni Sartor’s view of inferential semantics of legal concepts (Sartor in Artif Intell Law 17:217–251, 2009) with a probabilistic model of theory formation (Kemp et al. in Cognition 114:165–196, 2010). The work further explores possibilities of implementing Kemp...... and Griffiths in Behav Brain Sci 4:629–640, 2001), the probabilistic model of theory formation, i.e., the Infinite Relational Model (IRM) first introduced by Kemp et al. (The twenty-first national conference on artificial intelligence, 2006, Cognition 114:165–196, 2010) and its extended model, i.e., the normal...... to the International Standard Classification of Education. The main contribution of this work is the proposal of a conceptual framework of the cross-categorization approach that, inspired by Sartor (Artif Intell Law 17:217–251, 2009), attempts to explain reasoner’s inferential mechanisms....

  13. Inferential Processor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    dlutilization,o Groupe d’Intelligence Artificielle , Universite d’Aix- Marseille, Luminy, France, September 1975. 4. Clocksint W.F. and C.S. Mellish...for reasoning in higher-order logics such as the first-order predicate calculus; the latter is required for applications in artificial intelligence ...analysis and evaluation of intelligence reports, the preparation and analysis of tactical I methods and principles, the formulation and interpretation of

  14. Statistical limitations in functional neuroimaging. I. Non-inferential methods and statistical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, K M; Nichols, T E; Poline, J B; Holmes, A P

    1999-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging (FNI) provides experimental access to the intact living brain making it possible to study higher cognitive functions in humans. In this review and in a companion paper in this issue, we discuss some common methods used to analyse FNI data. The emphasis in both papers is on assumptions and limitations of the methods reviewed. There are several methods available to analyse FNI data indicating that none is optimal for all purposes. In order to make optimal use of the methods available it is important to know the limits of applicability. For the interpretation of FNI results it is also important to take into account the assumptions, approximations and inherent limitations of the methods used. This paper gives a brief overview over some non-inferential descriptive methods and common statistical models used in FNI. Issues relating to the complex problem of model selection are discussed. In general, proper model selection is a necessary prerequisite for the validity of the subsequent statistical inference. The non-inferential section describes methods that, combined with inspection of parameter estimates and other simple measures, can aid in the process of model selection and verification of assumptions. The section on statistical models covers approaches to global normalization and some aspects of univariate, multivariate, and Bayesian models. Finally, approaches to functional connectivity and effective connectivity are discussed. In the companion paper we review issues related to signal detection and statistical inference. PMID:10466149

  15. Why do people show minimal knowledge updating with task experience: inferential deficit or experimental artifact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzog, Christopher; Price, Jodi; Burpee, Ailis; Frentzel, William J; Feldstein, Simeon; Dunlosky, John

    2009-01-01

    Students generally do not have highly accurate knowledge about strategy effectiveness for learning, such as that imagery is superior to rote repetition. During multiple study-test trials using both strategies, participants' predictions about performance on List 2 do not markedly differ for the two strategies, even though List 1 recall is substantially greater for imagery. Two experiments evaluated whether such deficits in knowledge updating about the strategy effects were due to an experimental artifact or to inaccurate inferences about the effects the strategies had on recall. Participants studied paired associates on two study-test trials--they were instructed to study half using imagery and half using rote repetition. Metacognitive judgements tapped the quality of inferential processes about the strategy effects during the List 1 test and tapped gains in knowledge about the strategies across lists. One artifactual explanation--noncompliance with strategy instructions--was ruled out, whereas manipulations aimed at supporting the data available to inferential processes improved but did not fully repair knowledge updating.

  16. A study of students' learning styles and mathematics anxiety amongst form four students in Kerian Perak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esa, Suraya; Mohamed, Nurul Akmal

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to identify the relationship between students' learning styles and mathematics anxiety amongst Form Four students in Kerian, Perak. The study involves 175 Form Four students as respondents. The instrument which is used to assess the students' learning styles and mathematic anxiety is adapted from the Grasha's Learning Styles Inventory and the Mathematics Anxiety Scale (MAS) respectively. The types of learning styles used are independent, avoidant, collaborative, dependent, competitive and participant. The collected data is processed by SPSS (Statistical Packages for Social Sciences 16.0). The data is analysed by using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics that include t-test and Pearson correlation. The results show that majority of the students adopt collaborative learning style and the students have moderate level of mathematics anxiety. Moreover, it is found that there is significant difference between learning style avoidant, collaborative, dependent and participant based on gender. Amongst all students' learning style, there exists a weak but significant correlation between avoidant, independent and participant learning style and mathematics anxiety. It is very important for the teachers need to be concerned about the effects of learning styles on mathematics anxiety. Therefore, the teachers should understand mathematics anxiety and implement suitable learning strategies in order for the students to overcome their mathematics anxiety.

  17. Using inferential sensors for quality control of Everglades Depth Estimation Network water-level data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkewich, Matthew D.; Daamen, Ruby C.; Roehl, Edwin A.; Conrads, Paul

    2016-09-29

    The Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN), with over 240 real-time gaging stations, provides hydrologic data for freshwater and tidal areas of the Everglades. These data are used to generate daily water-level and water-depth maps of the Everglades that are used to assess biotic responses to hydrologic change resulting from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. The generation of EDEN daily water-level and water-depth maps is dependent on high quality real-time data from water-level stations. Real-time data are automatically checked for outliers by assigning minimum and maximum thresholds for each station. Small errors in the real-time data, such as gradual drift of malfunctioning pressure transducers, are more difficult to immediately identify with visual inspection of time-series plots and may only be identified during on-site inspections of the stations. Correcting these small errors in the data often is time consuming and water-level data may not be finalized for several months. To provide daily water-level and water-depth maps on a near real-time basis, EDEN needed an automated process to identify errors in water-level data and to provide estimates for missing or erroneous water-level data.The Automated Data Assurance and Management (ADAM) software uses inferential sensor technology often used in industrial applications. Rather than installing a redundant sensor to measure a process, such as an additional water-level station, inferential sensors, or virtual sensors, were developed for each station that make accurate estimates of the process measured by the hard sensor (water-level gaging station). The inferential sensors in the ADAM software are empirical models that use inputs from one or more proximal stations. The advantage of ADAM is that it provides a redundant signal to the sensor in the field without the environmental threats associated with field conditions at stations (flood or hurricane, for example). In the

  18. Effects of Webquest on the achievement and motivation on Jordanian university students of (Independent & Dependent cognitive style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osamah Mohammad Ameen Aldalalah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of webquest on the jordanian students’ of different cognitive style. The independent variables were the instruction (conventional & webquest. The dependent variables were the students’ achievement and motivation. The instructionrating variable is cognitive style (independent & dependent. The study sample consisted of 72 undergraduate educational technology students, information and communication technology students and graphic design students. Inferential statistics were conducted to analyze the data. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA and T-TEST was carried out to examine the main effects of the independent variables on the dependent variables. The findings of this study showed that students using the webquest instruction performed significantly better on achievement and motivation than students using the conventional instruction. Independent cognitive style students performed significantly better on achievement and motivation than dependent cognitive style students. The webquest instruction was found to help students with dependent cognitive style on achievement and motivation

  19. Style in Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannenberg, Roger B.

    Because music is not objectively descriptive or representational, the subjective qualities of music seem to be most important. Style is one of the most salient qualities of music, and in fact most descriptions of music refer to some aspect of musical style. Style in music can refer to historical periods, composers, performers, sonic texture, emotion, and genre. In recent years, many aspects of music style have been studied from the standpoint of automation: How can musical style be recognized and synthesized? An introduction to musical style describes ways in which style is characterized by composers and music theorists. Examples are then given where musical style is the focal point for computer models of music analysis and music generation.

  20. Gas energy meter for inferential determination of thermophysical properties of a gas mixture at multiple states of the gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Thomas B [San Antonio, TX; Kelner, Eric [San Antonio, TX; Owen, Thomas E [Helotes, TX

    2008-07-08

    A gas energy meter that acquires the data and performs the processing for an inferential determination of one or more gas properties, such as heating value, molecular weight, or density. The meter has a sensor module that acquires temperature, pressure, CO2, and speed of sound data. Data is acquired at two different states of the gas, which eliminates the need to determine the concentration of nitrogen in the gas. A processing module receives this data and uses it to perform a "two-state" inferential algorithm.

  1. Film Noir Style Genealogy

    OpenAIRE

    Rietuma, Dita

    2012-01-01

    Annotation for the Doctoral Work Film Noir Style Genealogy (The Genealogy of the Film Noir Style) The doctoral work topic Film Noir Style Genealogy encompasses traditionally approved world film theory views on the concept of film noir and its related cinematographic heritage, and an exploration of its evolution and distinctive style, including – the development of film noir in the USA, Europe, and also in Latvia, within the context of both socio-political progression and the paradigm of m...

  2. [The research protocol VI: How to choose the appropriate statistical test. Inferential statistics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Ruiz, Eric; Miranda-Novales, María Guadalupe; Villasís-Keever, Miguel Ángel

    2017-01-01

    The statistical analysis can be divided in two main components: descriptive analysis and inferential analysis. An inference is to elaborate conclusions from the tests performed with the data obtained from a sample of a population. Statistical tests are used in order to establish the probability that a conclusion obtained from a sample is applicable to the population from which it was obtained. However, choosing the appropriate statistical test in general poses a challenge for novice researchers. To choose the statistical test it is necessary to take into account three aspects: the research design, the number of measurements and the scale of measurement of the variables. Statistical tests are divided into two sets, parametric and nonparametric. Parametric tests can only be used if the data show a normal distribution. Choosing the right statistical test will make it easier for readers to understand and apply the results.

  3. Evaluation of Bending Strength of Carburized Gears Based on Inferential Identification of Principal Surface Layer Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuyama, Tomoya; Inoue, Katsumi; Yamanaka, Masashi; Kitamura, Kenichi; Saito, Tomoyuki

    High load capacity of carburized gears originates mainly from the hardened layer and induced residual stress. On the other hand, surface decarburization, which causes a nonmartensitic layer, and inclusions such as oxides and segregation act as latent defects which considerably reduce fatigue strength. In this connection, the authors have proposed a formula of strength evaluation by separately quantifying defect influence. However, the principal defect which limits strength of gears with several different defects remains unclarified. This study presents a method of inferential identification of principal defects based on test results of carburized gears made of SCM420 clean steel, gears with both an artificial notch and nonmartensitic layer at the tooth fillet, and so forth. It clarifies practical uses of presented methods, and strength of carburized gears can be evaluated by focusing on principal defect size.

  4. Assessment and Certification of Neonatal Incubator Sensors through an Inferential Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Medeiros de Araújo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Measurement and diagnostic systems based on electronic sensors have been increasingly essential in the standardization of hospital equipment. The technical standard IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission 60601-2-19 establishes requirements for neonatal incubators and specifies the calibration procedure and validation tests for such devices using sensors systems. This paper proposes a new procedure based on an inferential neural network to evaluate and calibrate a neonatal incubator. The proposal presents significant advantages over the standard calibration process, i.e., the number of sensors is drastically reduced, and it runs with the incubator under operation. Since the sensors used in the new calibration process are already installed in the commercial incubator, no additional hardware is necessary; and the calibration necessity can be diagnosed in real time without the presence of technical professionals in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. Experimental tests involving the aforementioned calibration system are carried out in a commercial incubator in order to validate the proposal.

  5. The research protocol VI: How to choose the appropriate statistical test. Inferential statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Flores-Ruiz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The statistical analysis can be divided in two main components: descriptive analysis and inferential analysis. An inference is to elaborate conclusions from the tests performed with the data obtained from a sample of a population. Statistical tests are used in order to establish the probability that a conclusion obtained from a sample is applicable to the population from which it was obtained. However, choosing the appropriate statistical test in general poses a challenge for novice researchers. To choose the statistical test it is necessary to take into account three aspects: the research design, the number of measurements and the scale of measurement of the variables. Statistical tests are divided into two sets, parametric and nonparametric. Parametric tests can only be used if the data show a normal distribution. Choosing the right statistical test will make it easier for readers to understand and apply the results.

  6. A new ore reserve estimation method, Yang Chizhong filtering and inferential measurement method, and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jingqin.

    1989-01-01

    Yang Chizhong filtering and inferential measurement method is a new method used for variable statistics of ore deposits. In order to apply this theory to estimate the uranium ore reserves under the circumstances of regular or irregular prospecting grids, small ore bodies, less sampling points, and complex occurrence, the author has used this method to estimate the ore reserves in five ore bodies of two deposits and achieved satisfactory results. It is demonstrated that compared with the traditional block measurement method, this method is simple and clear in formula, convenient in application, rapid in calculation, accurate in results, less expensive, and high economic benefits. The procedure and experience in the application of this method and the preliminary evaluation of its results are mainly described

  7. A Genetic-Neuro-Fuzzy inferential model for diagnosis of tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumini Olatunji Omisore

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is a social, re-emerging infectious disease with medical implications throughout the globe. Despite efforts, the coverage of tuberculosis disease (with HIV prevalence in Nigeria rose from 2.2% in 1991 to 22% in 2013 and the orthodox diagnosis methods available for Tuberculosis diagnosis were been faced with a number of challenges which can, if measure not taken, increase the spread rate; hence, there is a need for aid in diagnosis of the disease. This study proposes a technique for intelligent diagnosis of TB using Genetic-Neuro-Fuzzy Inferential method to provide a decision support platform that can assist medical practitioners in administering accurate, timely, and cost effective diagnosis of Tuberculosis. Performance evaluation observed, using a case study of 10 patients from St. Francis Catholic Hospital Okpara-In-Land (Delta State, Nigeria, shows sensitivity and accuracy results of 60% and 70% respectively which are within the acceptable range of predefined by domain experts.

  8. On the use of recognition in inferential decision making: An overview of the debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudiger F. Pohl

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available I describe and discuss the sometimes heated controversy surrounding the recognition heuristic (RH as a model of inferential decision making. After briefly recapitulating the history of the RH up to its current version, I critically evaluate several specific assumptions and predictions of the RH and its surrounding framework: recognition as a memory-based process; the RH as a cognitive process model; proper conditions of testing the RH; measures of using the RH; reasons for not using the RH; the RH as a non-compensatory strategy; evidence for a Less-is-more effect (LIME; and the RH as part of the toolbox. The collection of these controversial issues may help to better understand the debate, to further sharpen the RH theory, and to develop ideas for future research.

  9. Relationship between leadership styles of nurse managers and nurses' job satisfaction in Jimma University Specialized Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negussie, Nebiat; Demissie, Asresash

    2013-03-01

    Leadership style of nurse managers plays a significant role in nurses' job satisfaction. However, there is limited literature in areas related to nurses' manager leadership style. The objective of this research was thus to investigate the relationship between leadership style of nurse managers and nurses' job satisfaction in Jimma University Specialized Hospital. The study was conducted at Jimma University Specialized Hospital from January to June 2012 and used a non-experimental correlation design. All full time, non-supervisory nurses with an experience of more than one year in nursing profession were participated in the study. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire and Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire were used to collect data. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version16.0 statistical software. The results were analyzed through descriptive statistics followed by the application of inferential statistics on the variables. Significance level was considered when pleadership style over transactional leadership style and had moderate-level intrinsic (M=2.72, SD=0.71) but low level of extrinsic job satisfaction (M=1.83, SD=0.68). Furthermore, from transactional leadership, only contingent reward was found to be statically significant and correlated with extrinsic (B=0.45, pleadership style were statistically significant and correlated with both intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction. Nurses tended to be more satisfied with the transformational leadership than transactional leadership style. Therefore, nurses' managers should use transformational leadership style in order to increase nurses' job satisfaction.

  10. Starlink Document Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawden, M. D.

    This document describes the various styles which are recommended for Starlink documents. It also explains how to use the templates which are provided by Starlink to help authors create documents in a standard style. This paper is concerned mainly with conveying the ``look and feel" of the various styles of Starlink document rather than describing the technical details of how to produce them. Other Starlink papers give recommendations for the detailed aspects of document production, design, layout, and typography. The only style that is likely to be used by most Starlink authors is the Standard style.

  11. Staff nurse perceptions of nurse manager leadership styles and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casida, Jesus; Parker, Jessica

    2011-05-01

    To explore the correlations of leadership styles of nurse managers (NMs) and outcomes.   Little is known about the linkages among leadership styles [transformational (TFL), transactional (TRL)] of NMs and outcomes [a leader's extra effort (LEE), leadership satisfaction (LS) and effectiveness (LE)] using the full-range leadership theory. Methods  An exploratory correlational design was employed using data from a 2007 study in which staff nurses (n = 278) from four hospitals in the Northeastern US were asked to rate the leadership styles of NMs (n = 37) and outcomes using the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire Form 5x-Short. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistical methods. TFL leadership has strong correlations to LEE, LS and LE, and was a predictor for leadership outcomes. Conversely, TRL leadership has week correlations to LEE, LS and LE and did not predict leadership outcomes. NMs who frequently display TFL leadership styles will probably achieve goals in a satisfying manner, warranting further research. TFL leadership training should be a basic competency requirement of NMs. Placing successful and effective TFL leaders in nursing units are the professional and moral obligations of nurse executives. © 2011 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. The Cost of Thinking about False Beliefs: Evidence from Adults' Performance on a Non-Inferential Theory of Mind Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apperly, Ian A.; Back, Elisa; Samson, Dana; France, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Much of what we know about other people's beliefs comes non-inferentially from what people tell us. Developmental research suggests that 3-year-olds have difficulty processing such information: they suffer interference from their own knowledge of reality when told about someone's false belief (e.g., [Wellman, H. M., & Bartsch, K. (1988). Young…

  13. Effects of Working Memory Capacity and Content Familiarity on Literal and Inferential Comprehension in L2 Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alptekin, Cem; Ercetin, Gulcan

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the effects of working memory capacity and content familiarity on literal and inferential comprehension in second language (L2) reading. Participants were 62 Turkish university students with an advanced English proficiency level. Working memory capacity was measured through a computerized version of a reading span test, whereas…

  14. A Response to White and Gorard: Against Inferential Statistics: How and Why Current Statistics Teaching Gets It Wrong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, James; Ridgway, Jim

    2017-01-01

    White and Gorard make important and relevant criticisms of some of the methods commonly used in social science research, but go further by criticising the logical basis for inferential statistical tests. This paper comments briefly on matters we broadly agree on with them and more fully on matters where we disagree. We agree that too little…

  15. Clues as information, the semiotic gap, and inferential investigative processes, or making a (very small) contribution to the new discipline, Forensic Semiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent; Thellefsen, Torkild Leo; Thellefsen, Martin Muderspach

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we try to contribute to the new discipline Forensic Semiotics – a discipline introduced by the Canadian polymath Marcel Danesi. We focus on clues as information and criminal investigative processes as inferential. These inferential (and Peircean) processes have a certain complexity...

  16. Leadership styles and theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giltinane, Charlotte Louise

    It is useful for healthcare professionals to be able to identify the leadership styles and theories relevant to their nursing practice. Being adept in recognising these styles enables nurses to develop their skills to become better leaders, as well as improving relationships with colleagues and other leaders, who have previously been challenging to work with. This article explores different leadership styles and theories, and explains how they relate to nursing practice.

  17. Citation Styles For Internet Resources : A Webliography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A Webliography collects resources about citation Styles For internet resources, it divided by the styles: Chicago University style, MLA style, APA style, ISO style, and some articles about internet resources citation.

  18. The t-test: An Influential Inferential Tool in Chaplaincy and Other Healthcare Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Katherine R B; Flannelly, Kevin J; Flannelly, Laura T

    2018-01-01

    The t-test developed by William S. Gosset (also known as Student's t-test and the two-sample t-test) is commonly used to compare one sample mean on a measure with another sample mean on the same measure. The outcome of the t-test is used to draw inferences about how different the samples are from each other. It is probably one of the most frequently relied upon statistics in inferential research. It is easy to use: a researcher can calculate the statistic with three simple tools: paper, pen, and a calculator. A computer program can quickly calculate the t-test for large samples. The ease of use can result in the misuse of the t-test. This article discusses the development of the original t-test, basic principles of the t-test, two additional types of t-tests (the one-sample t-test and the paired t-test), and recommendations about what to consider when using the t-test to draw inferences in research.

  19. Surface Area of Patellar Facets: Inferential Statistics in the Iraqi Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Imam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The patella is the largest sesamoid bone in the body; its three-dimensional complexity necessitates biomechanical perfection. Numerous pathologies occur at the patellofemoral unit which may end in degenerative changes. This study aims to test the presence of statistical correlation between the surface areas of patellar facets and other patellar morphometric parameters. Materials and Methods. Forty dry human patellae were studied. The morphometry of each patella was measured using a digital Vernier Caliper, electronic balance, and image analyses software known as ImageJ. The patellar facetal surface area was correlated with patellar weight, height, width, and thickness. Results. Inferential statistics proved the existence of linear correlation of total facetal surface area and patellar weight, height, width, and thickness. The correlation was strongest for surface area versus patellar weight. The lateral facetal area was found persistently larger than the medial facetal area, the p value was found to be <0.001 (one-tailed t-test for right patellae, and another significant p value of < 0.001 (one-tailed t-test was found for left patellae. Conclusion. These data are vital for the restoration of the normal biomechanics of the patellofemoral unit; these are to be consulted during knee surgeries and implant designs and can be of an indispensable anthropometric, interethnic, and biometric value.

  20. Evaluating Style Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Roon, F.A.; Nijman, T.E.; Ter Horst, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we evaluate applications of (return based) style analysis.The portfolio and positivity constraints imposed by style analysis are useful in constructing mimicking portfolios without short positions.Such mimicking portfolios can be used, e.g., to construct efficient portfolios of mutual

  1. Evaluating Style Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.A. de Roon (Frans); T.E. Nijman (Theo); B.J.M. Werker

    2000-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we evaluate applications of (return based) style analysis. The portfolio and positivity constraints imposed by style analysis are useful in constructing mimicking portfolios without short positions. Such mimicking portfolios can be used e.g. to construct efficient

  2. Profiling & Utilizing Learning Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, James W., Ed.

    The purpose of the National Association of Secondary School Principals (NASSP) Learning Style Profile is to provide educators with a well-validated and easy-to-use instrument for diagnosing the cognitive styles, perceptual response tendencies, and study/instructional preferences of middle level and senior high school students. The Learning Style…

  3. Cognitive Style: Individual Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracho, Olivia N.

    1989-01-01

    A literature review describes several dimensions of cognitive styles in an effort to illustrate individual stylistic differences. Discusses the field dependence-independence dimension, taking into account age, sex, and cultural differences. Suggests that cognitive style theory needs to be structured in a broader theoretical framework. (NH)

  4. Codependency and Parenting Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Judith L.; Crawford, Duane W.

    1992-01-01

    College students (n=175) reported the parenting style of their mother and father and completed a scale assessing their own level of codependency. Parenting style of the father (uninvolved, permissive, authoritarian, or democratic) was related to offspring codependency. Both sons and daughters of authoritarian fathers had higher levels of…

  5. 5-HTTLPR and use of antidepressants after colorectal cancer including a meta-analysis of 5-HTTLPR and depression after cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suppli, N P; Bukh, J D; Moffitt, T E

    2015-01-01

    created an exposed-only cohort of 849 colorectal cancer patients from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort study. The hypothesized association was investigated with Cox regression models and competing risk analyses. Five studies comprising a total of 1484 cancer patients were included in the meta...

  6. AUTOMATIC ARCHITECTURAL STYLE RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mathias

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Procedural modeling has proven to be a very valuable tool in the field of architecture. In the last few years, research has soared to automatically create procedural models from images. However, current algorithms for this process of inverse procedural modeling rely on the assumption that the building style is known. So far, the determination of the building style has remained a manual task. In this paper, we propose an algorithm which automates this process through classification of architectural styles from facade images. Our classifier first identifies the images containing buildings, then separates individual facades within an image and determines the building style. This information could then be used to initialize the building reconstruction process. We have trained our classifier to distinguish between several distinct architectural styles, namely Flemish Renaissance, Haussmannian and Neoclassical. Finally, we demonstrate our approach on various street-side images.

  7. Why inferential statistics are inappropriate for development studies and how the same data can be better used

    OpenAIRE

    Ballinger, Clint

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is twofold: 1) to highlight the widely ignored but fundamental problem of 'superpopulations' for the use of inferential statistics in development studies. We do not to dwell on this problem however as it has been sufficiently discussed in older papers by statisticians that social scientists have nevertheless long chosen to ignore; the interested reader can turn to those for greater detail. 2) to show that descriptive statistics both avoid the problem of s...

  8. Do narcissism and emotional intelligence win us friends? : modeling dynamics of peer popularity using inferential network analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Czarna, Anna; Leifeld, Philip; Śmieja-Nęcka, Magdalena; Dufner, Michael; Salovey, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This research investigated effects of narcissism and emotional intelligence (EI) on popularity in social networks. In a longitudinal field study, we examined the dynamics of popularity in 15 peer groups in two waves (N = 273). We measured narcissism, ability EI, and explicit and implicit self-esteem. In addition, we measured popularity at zero acquaintance and 3 months later. We analyzed the data using inferential network analysis (temporal exponential random graph modeling, TERGM) accounting...

  9. A Matter of Style

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Lasse Gøhler; Grønvad, Jonas Følsgaard; Pedersen, David Budtz

    2018-01-01

    , defined by choices of research topics, theories, empirical material, analytical methods/techniques, epistemological research aims, practical research aims, publication strategies and collaborative activities. The first dimension opposes a quantitative style focusing on questions of cognition, on the one...

  10. Thinking Styles and Regret in Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djulbegovic, Mia; Beckstead, Jason; Elqayam, Shira; Reljic, Tea; Kumar, Ambuj; Paidas, Charles; Djulbegovic, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Decision-making relies on both analytical and emotional thinking. Cognitive reasoning styles (e.g. maximizing and satisficing tendencies) heavily influence analytical processes, while affective processes are often dependent on regret. The relationship between regret and cognitive reasoning styles has not been well studied in physicians, and is the focus of this paper. A regret questionnaire and 6 scales measuring individual differences in cognitive styles (maximizing-satisficing tendencies; analytical vs. intuitive reasoning; need for cognition; intolerance toward ambiguity; objectivism; and cognitive reflection) were administered through a web-based survey to physicians of the University of South Florida. Bonferroni's adjustment was applied to the overall correlation analysis. The correlation analysis was also performed without Bonferroni's correction, given the strong theoretical rationale indicating the need for a separate hypothesis. We also conducted a multivariate regression analysis to identify the unique influence of predictors on regret. 165 trainees and 56 attending physicians (age range 25 to 69) participated in the survey. After bivariate analysis we found that maximizing tendency positively correlated with regret with respect to both decision difficulty (r=0.673; prational-analytical thinking (r=-0.422; p<0.001), need for cognition (r=-0.340; p<0.001), and objectivism (r=-0.309; p=0.003) and positively correlated with ambiguity intolerance (r=0.285; p=0.012). However, after conducting a multivariate regression analysis, we found that regret was positively associated with maximizing only with respect to decision difficulty (r=0.791; p<0.001), while it was negatively associated with satisficing (r=-0.257; p=0.020) and objectivism (r=-0.267; p=0.034). We found no statistically significant relationship between regret and overall accuracy on conditional inferential tasks. Regret in physicians is strongly associated with their tendency to maximize; i.e. the

  11. Thinking Styles and Regret in Physicians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Djulbegovic

    Full Text Available Decision-making relies on both analytical and emotional thinking. Cognitive reasoning styles (e.g. maximizing and satisficing tendencies heavily influence analytical processes, while affective processes are often dependent on regret. The relationship between regret and cognitive reasoning styles has not been well studied in physicians, and is the focus of this paper.A regret questionnaire and 6 scales measuring individual differences in cognitive styles (maximizing-satisficing tendencies; analytical vs. intuitive reasoning; need for cognition; intolerance toward ambiguity; objectivism; and cognitive reflection were administered through a web-based survey to physicians of the University of South Florida. Bonferroni's adjustment was applied to the overall correlation analysis. The correlation analysis was also performed without Bonferroni's correction, given the strong theoretical rationale indicating the need for a separate hypothesis. We also conducted a multivariate regression analysis to identify the unique influence of predictors on regret.165 trainees and 56 attending physicians (age range 25 to 69 participated in the survey. After bivariate analysis we found that maximizing tendency positively correlated with regret with respect to both decision difficulty (r=0.673; p<0.001 and alternate search strategy (r=0.239; p=0.002. When Bonferroni's correction was not applied, we also found a negative relationship between satisficing tendency and regret (r=-0.156; p=0.021. In trainees, but not faculty, regret negatively correlated with rational-analytical thinking (r=-0.422; p<0.001, need for cognition (r=-0.340; p<0.001, and objectivism (r=-0.309; p=0.003 and positively correlated with ambiguity intolerance (r=0.285; p=0.012. However, after conducting a multivariate regression analysis, we found that regret was positively associated with maximizing only with respect to decision difficulty (r=0.791; p<0.001, while it was negatively associated with

  12. Measurement of volatile organic compounds emitted in libraries and archives: an inferential indicator of paper decay?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibson Lorraine T

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A sampling campaign of indoor air was conducted to assess the typical concentration of indoor air pollutants in 8 National Libraries and Archives across the U.K. and Ireland. At each site, two locations were chosen that contained various objects in the collection (paper, parchment, microfilm, photographic material etc. and one location was chosen to act as a sampling reference location (placed in a corridor or entrance hallway. Results Of the locations surveyed, no measurable levels of sulfur dioxide were detected and low formaldehyde vapour (-3 was measured throughout. Acetic and formic acids were measured in all locations with, for the most part, higher acetic acid levels in areas with objects compared to reference locations. A large variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs was measured in all locations, in variable concentrations, however furfural was the only VOC to be identified consistently at higher concentration in locations with paper-based collections, compared to those locations without objects. To cross-reference the sampling data with VOCs emitted directly from books, further studies were conducted to assess emissions from paper using solid phase microextraction (SPME fibres and a newly developed method of analysis; collection of VOCs onto a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS elastomer strip. Conclusions In this study acetic acid and furfural levels were consistently higher in concentration when measured in locations which contained paper-based items. It is therefore suggested that both acetic acid and furfural (possibly also trimethylbenzenes, ethyltoluene, decane and camphor may be present in the indoor atmosphere as a result of cellulose degradation and together may act as an inferential non-invasive marker for the deterioration of paper. Direct VOC sampling was successfully achieved using SPME fibres and analytes found in the indoor air were also identified as emissive by-products from paper. Finally a new non

  13. The determination of contribution of emotional intelligence and parenting styles components to predicts positive psychological components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hosein Ebrahimi moghadam

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since the essential of positive psychological components, as compliment of deficiency oriented approaches, has begun in recent days,we decided to take into account this new branch of psychology which scientifically considers studying forces of human, as well as because of the importance of this branch of psychology, we also tried to search the contribution of emotional intelligence and parenting styles components to predict positive psychological components. Materials and Methods:In this cross sectional study 200 psychological students of Azad university (Rudehen branch selected using cluster sampling method. Then they were estimated by Bradbery and Grivers emotional intelligence questionnaire , Bamrind parenting styles and Rajayi et al positive psychological components questionnaire. Research data was analyzed using descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation, inferential statistics (multiple regression and Pierson correlation coefficient and SPSS software. Results:Among the components of emotional intelligence, the component of emotional self consciousness (β=0.464 had the greatest predictable , and reaction leadership showed no predictability in this research between parenting styles , authority parenting styles had positive significance relationship with positive psychological components. And no significant relationship was found between despot parenting styles and positive psychological components. Conclusion: Regarding the results of this research and importance of positive psychological components, it is suggested to treat the emotional intelligence from childhood and to learn it to parents and remind them the parenting way to decrease the satisfaction of individuals which leads to promotion of society mental health.

  14. Inferential monitoring of global change impact on biodiversity through remote sensing and species distribution modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangermano, Florencia

    2009-12-01

    The world is suffering from rapid changes in both climate and land cover which are the main factors affecting global biodiversity. These changes may affect ecosystems by altering species distributions, population sizes, and community compositions, which emphasizes the need for a rapid assessment of biodiversity status for conservation and management purposes. Current approaches on monitoring biodiversity rely mainly on long term observations of predetermined sites, which require large amounts of time, money and personnel to be executed. In order to overcome problems associated with current field monitoring methods, the main objective of this dissertation is the development of framework for inferential monitoring of the impact of global change on biodiversity based on remotely sensed data coupled with species distribution modeling techniques. Several research pieces were performed independently in order to fulfill this goal. First, species distribution modeling was used to identify the ranges of 6362 birds, mammals and amphibians in South America. Chapter 1 compares the power of different presence-only species distribution methods for modeling distributions of species with different response curves to environmental gradients and sample sizes. It was found that there is large variability in the power of the methods for modeling habitat suitability and species ranges, showing the importance of performing, when possible, a preliminary gradient analysis of the species distribution before selecting the method to be used. Chapter 2 presents a new methodology for the redefinition of species range polygons. Using a method capable of establishing the uncertainty in the definition of existing range polygons, the automated procedure identifies the relative importance of bioclimatic variables for the species, predicts their ranges and generates a quality assessment report to explore prediction errors. Analysis using independent validation data shows the power of this

  15. Technological Style is History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blond, Lasse

    The effort to comprehend innovation across cultures and time highlights the importance of the explicating factors external to technology. It becomes relevant to nuance or differentiate the understanding of social and cultural responses to adopted technologies by recognizing that technology shapes...... culture, and just as importantly that culture shapes technology. By looking at a recent transfer of technology this reciprocal exchange is elaborated by considering the cultural or contextual influence in the adaptation of technology. In this connection the notion of technological style is revisited...... by questioning whether it pays due attention to the non-technical factors of the process? In order to compensate for the deficiencies of the technological style as a sensitizing device the concept of sociotechnical style is introduced – a concept more in tune with resent research in technology studies....

  16. Management styles and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Dana Ann

    2012-01-01

    According to a review of the current literature, common managerial styles are transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire. When managers expand their leadership skills to improve the staff's morale, they must use a combination of transformational leadership behaviors and transactional contingent rewards to maximize their effectiveness on employees. A motivation theory such as Herzberg and Maslow enhances employees' motivation, morale, and satisfaction. Being able to motivate, empower, and influence staff improves satisfaction and retention levels among the team. A manager's leadership style influences motivation, morale, and retention in staff. Leaders are influenced by their educational development and the organizational culture. Organizational culture has an impact on a manager's style, which is forwarded to their followers.

  17. Example based style classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welnicka, Katarzyna; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Aanæs, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    We address the problem of analysis of families of shapes which can be classified according to two categories: the main one corresponding usually to the coarse shape which we call the function and the more subtle one which we call the style. The style and the function both contribute to the overal...... this similarity should be reflected across different functions. We show the usability of our methods first on the example of a number of chess sets which our method helps sort. Next, we investigate the problem of finding a replacement for a missing tooth given a database of teeth....

  18. Leadership styles in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Vicki; Murray, Melanie

    2017-06-21

    Nurses are often asked to think about leadership, particularly in times of rapid change in healthcare, and where questions have been raised about whether leaders and managers have adequate insight into the requirements of care. This article discusses several leadership styles relevant to contemporary healthcare and nursing practice. Nurses who are aware of leadership styles may find this knowledge useful in maintaining a cohesive working environment. Leadership knowledge and skills can be improved through training, where, rather than having to undertake formal leadership roles without adequate preparation, nurses are able to learn, nurture, model and develop effective leadership behaviours, ultimately improving nursing staff retention and enhancing the delivery of safe and effective care.

  19. Demystifying APA style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddy, Claudia M

    2002-01-01

    Many nursing schools and health care journals have adopted the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA stylebook) as their guide to achieve uniformity and consistency in manuscript preparation as well as in usage and writing style. Published in 2001, the fifth edition of the APA stylebook contains 440 pages and can overwhelm someone who tries to use it for the first time. This article delineates main points in the areas of manuscript preparation, reference lists, in-text citations, and style choices.

  20. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy based inferential sensor model for estimating the average air temperature in space heating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jassar, S.; Zhao, L. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, ON (Canada); Liao, Z. [Department of Architectural Science, Ryerson University (Canada)

    2009-08-15

    The heating systems are conventionally controlled by open-loop control systems because of the absence of practical methods for estimating average air temperature in the built environment. An inferential sensor model, based on adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system modeling, for estimating the average air temperature in multi-zone space heating systems is developed. This modeling technique has the advantage of expert knowledge of fuzzy inference systems (FISs) and learning capability of artificial neural networks (ANNs). A hybrid learning algorithm, which combines the least-square method and the back-propagation algorithm, is used to identify the parameters of the network. This paper describes an adaptive network based inferential sensor that can be used to design closed-loop control for space heating systems. The research aims to improve the overall performance of heating systems, in terms of energy efficiency and thermal comfort. The average air temperature results estimated by using the developed model are strongly in agreement with the experimental results. (author)

  1. Early warning of limit-exceeding concentrations of cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins in drinking water reservoirs by inferential modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recknagel, Friedrich; Orr, Philip T; Bartkow, Michael; Swanepoel, Annelie; Cao, Hongqing

    2017-11-01

    An early warning scheme is proposed that runs ensembles of inferential models for predicting the cyanobacterial population dynamics and cyanotoxin concentrations in drinking water reservoirs on a diel basis driven by in situ sonde water quality data. When the 10- to 30-day-ahead predicted concentrations of cyanobacteria cells or cyanotoxins exceed pre-defined limit values, an early warning automatically activates an action plan considering in-lake control, e.g. intermittent mixing and ad hoc water treatment in water works, respectively. Case studies of the sub-tropical Lake Wivenhoe (Australia) and the Mediterranean Vaal Reservoir (South Africa) demonstrate that ensembles of inferential models developed by the hybrid evolutionary algorithm HEA are capable of up to 30days forecasts of cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins using data collected in situ. The resulting models for Dolicospermum circinale displayed validity for up to 10days ahead, whilst concentrations of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii and microcystins were successfully predicted up to 30days ahead. Implementing the proposed scheme for drinking water reservoirs enhances current water quality monitoring practices by solely utilising in situ monitoring data, in addition to cyanobacteria and cyanotoxin measurements. Access to routinely measured cyanotoxin data allows for development of models that predict explicitly cyanotoxin concentrations that avoid to inadvertently model and predict non-toxic cyanobacterial strains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Humor Styles and Leadership Styles: Community College Presidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrica, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between leadership styles (transformational, transactional, laissez-faire) and humor styles (affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, self-defeating) of community college presidents. Research has shown that humor and leadership styles are related and that humor may enhance interpersonal…

  3. Style as Supplement - Supplement as Style

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    The film Derrida by Amy Ziering Kofman & Kirby Dick (2003) has a memorable scene, showing Derrida watching Derrida watching Derrida. This regression, almost ad infinitum, would seem to have the specific purpose to hammer home the point to the viewer of the film that all communication is mediated......, and to aim for an almost Brechtian Verfremdung-effect, but the film also uses this device as a stylistic trait to characterize something ‘essential' about Derrida and his style. Derrida strikes the same chord by insisting on drawing attention to the artificiality of the making of the film, where questions...... have to be repeated and answers interrupted when the light or the sound is not just right. He furthermore deconstructs the interview process by constantly referring to the impossibility of answering questions without specific contexts, frames and grounds. This makes it easy to characterize the film...

  4. Style in Educational Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, John

    1976-01-01

    Characteristics of broadcast educational television for adult audiences are discussed in terms of: style in television, television grammar, and course and resource-type programs. The current British Broadcasting Company (BBC) Adult Literacy Project and the television program "On the Move" are used as examples. (LH)

  5. Cultural Styles of Persuasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, E. S.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Offers an alternative methodology for studying persuasive strategies by examining the persuasive strategies selected by professional persuaders representing those cultures being studied. Analyzes the persuasive styles of United States, Soviet Union and Arab diplomats involved in international negotiations in the Security Council of the United…

  6. Perspective: Louisville Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Debra

    2010-01-01

    Louisville, Kentucky is an eclectic town of architectural styles from Greek revival to Renaissance Revival to Post modernism, not to mention an entire street dedicated to artsy mom and pop stores. Louisville is second only to the New York City Soho district in terms of the number of its cast-iron facades. Many of these building's fronts have…

  7. The Style of Gorgias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consigny, Scott

    1992-01-01

    Examines two prominent schools of critics who employ a hermeneutic strategy and who arrive at conflicting interpretations of Gorgias's overall "philosophy." Argues that in fact both schools misconstrue the nature of Gorgias's writing. Presents an alternative reading of Gorgias' style. (TB)

  8. A Manual of Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebraska State Dept. of Education, Lincoln.

    This "Manual of Style" is offered as a guide to assist Nebraska State employees in producing quality written communications and in presenting a consistently professional image of government documents. The manual is not designed to be all-inclusive. Sections of the manual discuss formatting documents, memorandums, letters, mailing…

  9. Put Your Style at Stake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Christian Garmann; Olaison, Lena; Meier Sørensen, Bent

    2018-01-01

    This article uses the concept of style to rethink sustainable entrepreneurship. Our point of departure is the conceptual distinction between organization as style made durable and entrepreneurship as the disruption of style. We show that style is not simply an aesthetic category, but rather what...... enable the creation of new styles. In order to conceptualize this creative process, we explore how play can create disharmonies within the organization, but we also maintain that any new practice will remain marginal without a collective assemblage capable of adopting it. On this basis, we argue...... that sustainable entrepreneurship consists of making an environmentally friendly and socially conscious style durable, but also of disrupting such a style. In order to illustrate our argument, we use the example of the sustainable smartphone producer Fairphone. In conclusion, we argue that the concept of style may...

  10. Style and creativity in design

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Chiu-Shui

    2015-01-01

    This book looks at causative reasons behind creative acts and stylistic expressions. It explores how creativity is initiated by design cognition and explains relationships between style and creativity. The book establishes a new cognitive theory of style and creativity in design and provides designers with insights into their own cognitive processes and styles of thinking, supporting a better understanding of the qualities present in their own design.  An explanation of the nature of design cognition begins this work, with a look at how design knowledge is formulated, developed, structured and utilized, and how this utilization triggers style and creativity. The author goes on to review historical studies of style, considering a series of psychological experiments relating to the operational definition, degree, measurement, and creation of style. The work conceptually summarizes the recognition of individual style in products, as well as the creation of such styles as a process before reviewing studies on cr...

  11. Identity style and coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzonsky, M D

    1992-12-01

    This study examined the relationship between identity style and strategies used to cope with stressors that potentially threaten one's sense of identity. Identity style refers to differences in the way individuals construct and revise or maintain their sense of identity. An informational style involves actively seeking out, evaluating, and utilizing self-relevant information. A normative style highlights the expectations and standards of significant others. A diffuse/avoidant style is characterized by procrastination and situation-specific reactions. Late-adolescent college subjects were administered measures of identity style, ways of coping with academic stressors, and test anxiety. Within this self-as-student context, subjects with diffuse and normative identity styles employed avoidant-oriented coping strategies (wishful thinking, distancing, and tension reduction). An informational style was associated with deliberate, problem-focused coping. Findings are discussed in terms of a process model of identity development.

  12. Paranormal belief and attributional style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, R T; Whisnand, E A

    2000-06-01

    52 college students completed Tobacyk's 1988 Revised Paranormal Belief Scale and Peterson, Semmel, von Baeyer, Abramson, Metalsky, and Seligman's 1982 Attributional Style Questionnaire. Analysis showed significantly higher depressive attributional styles among high scorers on paranormal phenomena than low scorers.

  13. The interaction between 5-HTTLPR genotype and ruminative thinking on BMI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, Robbie; Markus, C. Robert

    2017-01-01

    Negative affect or stress is often found to increase energy intake for high palatable energy-rich foods and hence weight gain. Reduced brain serotonin (5-HT) function is known to increase stress vulnerability and the risk for eating-related disturbances. A short (S) allele polymorphism in the

  14. Serotonin transporter genotype (5-HTTLPR): effects of neutral and undefined conditions on amygdala activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Andreas; Smolka, Michael N; Braus, Dieter F; Wrase, Jana; Beck, Anne; Flor, Herta; Mann, Karl; Schumann, Gunter; Büchel, Christian; Hariri, Ahmad R; Weinberger, Daniel R

    2007-04-15

    A polymorphism of the human serotonin transporter gene (SCL6A4) has been associated with serotonin transporter expression and with processing of aversive stimuli in the amygdala. Functional imaging studies show that during the presentation of aversive versus neutral cues, healthy carriers of the short (s) allele showed stronger amygdala activation than long (l) carriers. However, a recent report suggested that this interaction is driven by amygdala deactivation during presentation of neutral stimuli in s carriers. Functional MRI was used to assess amygdala activation during the presentation of a fixation cross or affectively aversive or neutral visual stimuli in 29 healthy men. Amygdala activation was increased in s carriers during undefined states such as the presentation of a fixation cross compared with emotionally neutral conditions. This finding suggests that s carriers show stronger amygdala reactivity to stimuli and contexts that are relatively uncertain, which we propose are stressful.

  15. Association between the Serotonin Transporter Promoter Polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) and Adult Unresolved Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspers, Kristin M.; Paradiso, Sergio; Yucuis, Rebecca; Troutman, Beth; Arndt, Stephan; Philibert, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Research on antecedents of organized attachment has focused on the quality of caregiving received during childhood. In recent years, research has begun to examine the influence of genetic factors on quality of infant attachment. However, no published studies report on the association between specific genetic factors and adult attachment. This…

  16. Teaching for Different Learning Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropper, Carolyn

    1994-01-01

    This study examined learning styles in 137 high ability fourth-grade students. All students were administered two learning styles inventories. Characteristics of students with the following learning styles are summarized: auditory language, visual language, auditory numerical, visual numerical, tactile concrete, individual learning, group…

  17. Learning styles in otolaryngology fellowships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, David A Diaz Voss; Malik, Mohammad U; Laeeq, Kulsoom; Pandian, Vinciya; Brown, David J; Weatherly, Robert A; Cummings, Charles W; Bhatti, Nasir I

    2011-12-01

    Previous studies have identified a predominant learning style in trainees from different specialties, more recently in otolaryngology residents. The purpose of our study was to determine a predominant learning style within otolaryngology fellowships and to identify any differences between otolaryngology fellows and residents. We conducted a survey of otolaryngology fellows at 25 otolaryngology fellowship programs accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. We emailed Kolb's Learning Style Index version 3.1 to 16 pediatric otolaryngology (PO) and 24 otology/neurotology (ON) fellows. This index is a widely used 12-item questionnaire. The participants answered each item in the questionnaire as it applied to their preferred learning style: accommodating, converging, diverging, or assimilating. Results were then analyzed and compared between each subspecialty and the previously reported preferred styles of otolaryngology residents. Ten PO and 20 ON fellows completed the survey, with an overall response rate of 75%. PO and ON fellows (60% of each group) preferred a learning style that was "balanced" across all four styles. For ON fellows, 35% preferred converging and 5% preferred accommodating styles. For PO fellows, converging and accommodating styles accounted for 20% each. It was previously reported that 74.4% of otolaryngology residents prefer either converging or accommodating styles. We believe that the fellowship training environment calls for fellows to use more than one learning style to become proficient physicians, hence the trend toward potentially developing a balanced style when at this level. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  18. Cognitive Styles and Distance Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuliang; Ginther, Dean

    1999-01-01

    Considers how to adapt the design of distance education to students' cognitive styles. Discusses cognitive styles, including field dependence versus independence, holistic-analytic, sensory preference, hemispheric preferences, and Kolb's Learning Style Model; and the characteristics of distance education, including technology. (Contains 92…

  19. Parenting Style Transitions and Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Ryan D.; Mowen, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Parenting style has been extensively analyzed as a contributor to juvenile delinquency in the criminological literature, but no research to date has assessed the prevalence of parenting style changes during adolescence or the influence of such parenting style changes on juvenile delinquency. Drawing from the life course theory, the results show…

  20. Style drift in private equity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cumming, D.; Fleming, G.; Schwienbacher, A.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the concept of style drift to private equity investment. We present theory and evidence pertaining to style drifts in terms of a fund manager's stated focus on particular stages of entrepreneurial development. We develop a model that derives conditions under which style drifts are less

  1. Writing-Reading Relationships: Effectiveness of Writing Activities As Pre-Reading Tasks to Enhance L2 Inferential Reading Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thilina Indrajie Wickramaarachchi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the interaction between reading and writing processes in general and more specifically the impact of pre-reading tasks incorporating writing tasks (referred to as “prw tasks” in helping the development of inferential reading comprehension. A sample of 70 first year ESL students of the University of Kelaniya were initially selected with one group (experimental group engaging in “prw tasks” while the other group (control group performing the tasks without a pre-reading component. The intervention was for 6 sessions (one hour in each session. At the end of each session, the performance of the two groups was measured and the test scores were analyzed using the data analysis package SPSS to determine the effectiveness of the intervention. The results indicated that the experimental group had significantly performed better than the control group which indicated the effectiveness of the prw tasks in improving reading comprehension.

  2. Do Narcissism and Emotional Intelligence Win Us Friends? Modeling Dynamics of Peer Popularity Using Inferential Network Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarna, Anna Z; Leifeld, Philip; Śmieja, Magdalena; Dufner, Michael; Salovey, Peter

    2016-09-27

    This research investigated effects of narcissism and emotional intelligence (EI) on popularity in social networks. In a longitudinal field study, we examined the dynamics of popularity in 15 peer groups in two waves (N = 273). We measured narcissism, ability EI, and explicit and implicit self-esteem. In addition, we measured popularity at zero acquaintance and 3 months later. We analyzed the data using inferential network analysis (temporal exponential random graph modeling, TERGM) accounting for self-organizing network forces. People high in narcissism were popular, but increased less in popularity over time than people lower in narcissism. In contrast, emotionally intelligent people increased more in popularity over time than less emotionally intelligent people. The effects held when we controlled for explicit and implicit self-esteem. These results suggest that narcissism is rather disadvantageous and that EI is rather advantageous for long-term popularity. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  3. New Oxford style manual

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The New Oxford Style Manual brings together two essential reference works in a single volume: New Hart's Rules and the New Oxford Dictionary for Writers and Editors. New Hart's Rules, Oxford's definitive guide to style, consists of 20 chapters that provide authoritative and expert advice on how to prepare copy for publication. Topics covered include how to use italic, roman, and other type treatments, numbers and dates, law and legal references, illustrations, notes and references, and bibliographies. The guidelines are complemented by the New Oxford Dictionary for Writers and Editors, which features 25,000 alphabetically arranged entries giving authoritative advice on those words and names which raise questions time and time again because of spelling, capitalization, hyphenation, or cultural and historical context. Entries give full coverage of recommended spellings, variant forms, confusable words, hyphenation, capitalization, foreign and specialist terms, proper names, and abbreviations. The dictionary a...

  4. Managerial style in Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Cristina Etayo Pérez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the management style of the Spanish advertising agencies. For this purpose, it explores the way in which the dimensions that define the nature of this concept arise in the sector chosen. The analysis begins with the definition of management style as concept followed by an exposition of its main functions and its fundamental dimensions. Then, the paper presents the methodology used to verify how these dimensions appear among managers as well as the results obtained during the fieldwork. Such methodology includes the achievement of in-depth interviews, with the help of a questionnaire of semi-structured questions, and the descriptive analysis of qualitative and quantitative information obtained from those interviews. The revision of these aspects enriches the study of management at the advertising agencies since it contributes to understand why certain actions have as a consequence one particular kind of relationship between directors and collaborators or another.

  5. Inferential comprehension of 3-6 year olds within the context of story grammar: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filiatrault-Veilleux, Paméla; Bouchard, Caroline; Trudeau, Natacha; Desmarais, Chantal

    2015-01-01

    The ability to make inferences plays a crucial role in reading comprehension and the educational success of school-aged children. However, it starts to unfold much earlier than school entry and literacy. Given that it is likely to be targeted in speech language therapy, it would be useful for clinicians to have access to information about a developmental sequence of inferential comprehension. Yet, at this time, there is no clear proposition of the way in which this ability develops in young children prior to school entry. To reduce the knowledge gap with regards to inferential comprehension in young children by conducting a scoping review of the literature. The two objectives of this research are: (1) to describe typically developing children's comprehension of causal inferences targeting elements of story grammar, with the goal of proposing milestones in the development of this ability; and (2) to highlight key elements of the methodology used to gather this information in a paediatric population. A total of 16 studies from six databases that met the inclusion criteria were qualitatively analysed in the context of a scoping review. This methodological approach was used to identify common themes and gaps in the knowledge base to achieve the intended objectives. Results permit the description of key elements in the development of six types of causal inference targeting elements of story grammar in children between 3 and 6 years old. Results also demonstrate the various methods used to assess this ability in young children and highlight particularly interesting procedures for use with this younger population. These findings point to the need for additional studies to understand this ability better and to develop strategies to stimulate an evidence-based developmental sequence in children from an early age. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal College of Speech and

  6. Style representation in design grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Sumbul; Chase, Scott Curland

    2012-01-01

    The concept of style is relevant for both the analysis and synthesis of designs. New styles are often formed by the adaptation of previous ones based on changes in design criteria and context. A formal characterization of style is given by shape grammars, which describe the compositional rules...... underlying a set of designs. Stylistic change can be modelled by grammar transformations, which allow the transformation of the structure and vocabulary of a grammar that is used to describe a particular style. In order for grammars to be useful beyond a single application, they should have the capability...... to be transformed according to changing design style needs. Issues of formalizing stylistic change necessitate a lucid and formal definition of style in the design language generated by a grammar. Furthermore, a significant aspect of the definition of style is the representation of aesthetic qualities attributed...

  7. Parenting styles and economics

    OpenAIRE

    Zilibotti, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Does the economy influence the way people bring up their children? How can we determine and measure a child’s utility? How can parenting styles be categorized in an economic model? These are the questions that Professor Fabricio Zilibotti of the University of Zurich addressed in his honorary lecture ‘Parenting with Style’, which he delivered at the April International Academic Conference during the 5th LCSR international workshop ‘Social and Cultural Changes in Cross-National Perspective: Sub...

  8. Rondocubism versus National Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hnídková, Vendula

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a range of various terms used to refer to architectural production from the period after the First World War, among the most common being 'Rondocubism' and the 'National Style'. The terminological ambiguity clearly points to the problem with the very character of the style of expression that lies behind these diverse labels. In the 1920s, figures of the interwar avant-garde were already sharply critical of the post-war decorative style, the leading figures of which were the architects Pavel Janák and Josef Gočár. While this negative stigma was later overcome, following several thematic studies, it is still possible to look for other inspiring sources outside aesthetic categories that were directed at clarifying this theme. Extensive social projects had architects employed in all sorts of artistic activities, and therefore a possible answer to what the essence of the style was is offered by the wider political and cultural context. After the foundation of the Czechoslovak Republic, the former protagonists of architectural Cubism and their colleagues from the Czechoslovak Workshop Association, Artěl and the School of Decorative Arts attained such social standing that they could effectively influence local artistic development. Through the individual conception applied to official commissions they created a visual identity of the new state system. As is apparent from their theoretical writings, they found their sources of information for ornamental decoration of buildings and craft artefacts by bonding with local tradition. This did not of course mean directly borrowing from folk-art prototypes. Advanced forms of national art were intended to help establish Czechoslovakia in the international scene and were also a conscious attempt through a more folkish form of expression to appeal to the wider strata of the population.

  9. Framing Gangnam Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunsun Catherine Yoon

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the way in which news about Gangnam Style was framed in the Korean press. First released on 15th July 2012, it became the first video to pass two billion views on YouTube. 400 news articles between July 2012 and March 2013 from two South Korean newspapers - Chosun Ilbo and Hankyoreh were analyzed using the frame analysis method in five categories: industry/economy, globalization, cultural interest, criticism, and competition. The right-left opinion cleavage is important because news frames interact with official discourses, audience frames and prior knowledge which consequently mediate effects on public opinion, policy debates, social movement and individual interpretations. Whilst the existing literature on Gangnam Style took rather holistic approach, this study aimed to fill the lacuna, considering this phenomenon as a dynamic process, by segmenting different stages - recognition, spread, peak and continuation. Both newspapers acknowledged Gangnam Style was an epochal event but their perspectives and news frames were different; globalization frame was most frequently used in Chosun Ilbo whereas cultural interest frame was most often used in Hankyoreh. Although more critical approaches were found in Hankyoreh, reflecting the right-left opinion cleavage, both papers lacked in critical appraisal and analysis of Gangnam Style’s reception in a broader context of the new Korean Wave.

  10. Nursing Students’ Preferred Learning Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Salehi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Learning style is the processing of information and comprehension. If teachers present contents in a style that matches a student’s preferred learning style, academic performance and success will improve. If content retention improves it will result in an increase in thetest scores. It is also important to determine if students, as a group, fit into a particular style or a particular cycle as they move through an educational program.Methods: The study is a descriptive analytical research. Nursing Students at Isfahan Medical Sciences University completed a questionnaire  formulated to assess learning styles. Analysis of variance was used to investigate the possible relationship between learning cycle and student’s grades in the curriculum (i.e. freshman, sophomore, junior, or senior. Cross tabulation was used to test for a relationship between learning style and student academic year of study in the curriculum.Results: 294 students received the Kolb LSI questionnaire. The data demonstrated that juniors preferred a converger learning style and the senior students were in the abstract conceptualization cycle of learning. There were no relationships demonstrated between other groups in the study.Conclusion: The junior and senior students appear to prefer the stage of learning involving thinking and problem analysis. When a group of students demonstrate a preference for particular learning style teachers can develop their curriculum along their learning styleKey words: LEARNING STYLES, NURSING STUDENTS, FRESHMAN, SOPHOMORE, JUNIOR, SENIOR

  11. Entrepreneurs` Cognitive and Decision Making Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Motvaseli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to explore the relation between decision-making styles which are measured by the General decision-making style (GDMS test and information processing styles which are often termed cognitive styles and are, in this study, measured by Cognitive Style Inventory. The authors directed a survey research on 162 Iranian students. Structural equation modeling techniques were used to measure the impact of cognitive styles on decision-making styles. The authors found that cognitive styles have a positive impact on decision-making styles. In spite of the abundant research on factors that affect decision-making styles, few researches have tested the relationship between cognitive styles and decision-making styles. This study examines the impact of cognitive styles on decision-making styles in Iran. This study, like most research paper studies, cannot easily be generalized. Furthermore, the results of this study could be affected by economic conditions.

  12. The role of critical thinking skills and learning styles of university students in their academic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    GHAZIVAKILI, ZOHRE; NOROUZI NIA, ROOHANGIZ; PANAHI, FARIDE; KARIMI, MEHRDAD; GHOLSORKHI, HAYEDE; AHMADI, ZARRIN

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The Current world needs people who have a lot of different abilities such as cognition and application of different ways of thinking, research, problem solving, critical thinking skills and creativity. In addition to critical thinking, learning styles is another key factor which has an essential role in the process of problem solving. This study aimed to determine the relationship between learning styles and critical thinking of students and their academic performance in Alborz University of Medical Science. Methods: This cross-correlation study was performed in 2012, on 216 students of Alborz University who were selected randomly by the stratified random sampling. The data was obtained via a three-part questionnaire included demographic data, Kolb standardized questionnaire of learning style and California critical thinking standardized questionnaire. The academic performance of the students was extracted by the school records. The validity of the instruments was determined in terms of content validity, and the reliability was gained through internal consistency methods. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was found to be 0.78 for the California critical thinking questionnaire. The Chi Square test, Independent t-test, one way ANOVA and Pearson correlation test were used to determine relationship between variables. The Package SPSS14 statistical software was used to analyze data with a significant level of pcritical thinking of the students showed that the mean of deductive reasoning and evaluation skills were higher than that of other skills and analytical skills had the lowest mean and there was a positive significant relationship between the students’ performance with inferential skill and the total score of critical thinking skills (pcritical thinking had significant difference between different learning styles. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the learning styles, critical thinking and academic performance are significantly associated

  13. A study on relationship between conflict management styles and organizational agility: A case study of Ilam state University, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardeshir Shiri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study is to explore the relationship between various styles of conflict management and organizational agility in Ilam state university. The study is quantitative one, having developmental orientation and comparative approach, which applies the strategy of survey research with an aim of exploration and description. It is implemented as single point and utilizes questionnaire as data collecting tool. The population and sample of the study include 425 and 205 individuals, respectively. The sample size is determined through Cochran’s formula and random sampling method has been used for sampling. In order to perform the data analysis, descriptive and inferential statistics as well as Spearman and Kendall test in SPSS were utilized. The results of the study reveal that there was a positive and significant relationship among four styles of conflict management (avoiding, forcing, compromising, and yielding, however there was no significant relationship between integrating conflict management and organizational agility.

  14. Process modeling style

    CERN Document Server

    Long, John

    2014-01-01

    Process Modeling Style focuses on other aspects of process modeling beyond notation that are very important to practitioners. Many people who model processes focus on the specific notation used to create their drawings. While that is important, there are many other aspects to modeling, such as naming, creating identifiers, descriptions, interfaces, patterns, and creating useful process documentation. Experience author John Long focuses on those non-notational aspects of modeling, which practitioners will find invaluable. Gives solid advice for creating roles, work produ

  15. Leadership Styles Promote Teamwork

    OpenAIRE

    Khater Aldoshan

    2015-01-01

    This paper will evaluate the importance of learning leadership styles and the explanation of when and how each one is used in the workforce. In this paper many experts have been cited that are well-known in the field of leadership. Also this paper will concentrate on the importance of teamwork in the workforce and there are many examples of how teamwork is effective for creating the best possible outcomes for creativity and productivity. In the television industry creativity is an essential c...

  16. Leadership Styles Promote Teamwork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khater Aldoshan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper will evaluate the importance of learning leadership styles and the explanation of when and how each one is used in the workforce. In this paper many experts have been cited that are well-known in the field of leadership. Also this paper will concentrate on the importance of teamwork in the workforce and there are many examples of how teamwork is effective for creating the best possible outcomes for creativity and productivity. In the television industry creativity is an essential component of the job description and inspirational leadership that promotes teamwork is essential.

  17. The behavior style of coaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijanović Mihajlo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available On the sample by 121 perspective young athletes was carried out the researching in the aim to establish the behavior style of coaches. The relevant information was obtained through the validated questionnaires of Chelladura and Saleha (1980. The questionnaire contains 40 questions which directly determine 5 behavior styles of coaches. All questions possess the scale by 5 levels with possible statements: (always, often, periodically, rarely and never. The true answer is only one statement on one question. It is word about five degrees 'Likert's scale'. It was carried out extensive and complex statistics processing of date, where the input qualitative categorical variables were transformed into quantitative. In the next step, transformed categorical variables were exposed in classical and neoclassical statistical methodology. On the base of exact indications which were obtained by using relevant invariant and multivariate statistical methods and tests, dominant behavior style of coaches is 'Instructive'. This behavior style of coach is the most desirable. According to this researching at the last position is behavior style which is the autocratically and it is also at the same time the least desirable. The results of Analysis of variance (ANOVA and Canonic discriminative analysis show the general statistical significant difference in the representation of the behavior styles. Instructive and Autocratic behavior style of coach mostly influences on the total (general discrimination i.e. difference. For above mentioned styles, it could be said that they are paradigm of contrasts in every way. Values of Tukey - HSD test explicitly shows that there are not statistical significant difference between Instructive Style and style Awarded - Feedback as well as between Democratically and style of Social Support. The other combinations i.e. couples of behavior styles are statistical significantly different.

  18. Learning styles and courseware design

    OpenAIRE

    Valley, Karen

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we examine how (courseware) can accommodate differences in preferred learning style. A review of the literature on learning styles is followed by a discussion of the implications of being able to accurately classify learners, and key issues that must be addressed are raised. We then present two courseware design solutions that take into account individual learning‐style preference: the first follows on from traditional research in this area and assumes that learners can be class...

  19. Advertising styles in different cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Krasulja Nevena

    2003-01-01

    Modern consumer is inhabitant of a "Global Village" as well as of its own national culture which largely influences his creation of a system of values, beliefs and style of life in general. According to adopted values and styles, consumers from different cultures have different buying behavior, different needs and preferences related to a product and they have their favorite advertising styles. As advertising reflects culture, symbols and rituals which are used are even more emphasized and st...

  20. Dry deposition of reactive nitrogen to European ecosystems: a comparison of inferential models across the NitroEurope network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Flechard

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Inferential models have long been used to determine pollutant dry deposition to ecosystems from measurements of air concentrations and as part of national and regional atmospheric chemistry and transport models, and yet models still suffer very large uncertainties. An inferential network of 55 sites throughout Europe for atmospheric reactive nitrogen (Nr was established in 2007, providing ambient concentrations of gaseous NH3, NO2, HNO3 and HONO and aerosol NH4+ and NO3 as part of the NitroEurope Integrated Project.

    Network results providing modelled inorganic Nr dry deposition to the 55 monitoring sites are presented, using four existing dry deposition routines, revealing inter-model differences and providing ensemble average deposition estimates. Dry deposition is generally largest over forests in regions with large ambient NH3 concentrations, exceeding 30–40 kg N ha−1 yr−1 over parts of the Netherlands and Belgium, while some remote forests in Scandinavia receive less than 2 kg N ha−1 yr−1. Turbulent Nr deposition to short vegetation ecosystems is generally smaller than to forests due to reduced turbulent exchange, but also because NH3 inputs to fertilised, agricultural systems are limited by the presence of a substantial NH3 source in the vegetation, leading to periods of emission as well as deposition.

    Differences between models reach a factor 2–3 and are often greater than differences between monitoring sites. For soluble Nr gases such as NH3 and HNO3, the non-stomatal pathways are responsible for most of the annual uptake over many surfaces, especially the non-agricultural land uses, but parameterisations of the sink strength vary considerably among models. For aerosol NH4

  1. Ward leadership styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, G

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to devise a leadership style scale based in the authoritarian/democratic concept of leadership and to test it with a group of nurses. The working hypothesis was that nurses, working by primary nursing methods, would have a more democratic attitude to leadership than those nurses working in a traditional task allocation system. Recent papers such as that of Henry & Tuxill (1) plead for the caring professions to take on board the concept of the 'person'. Not only is the traditional model of nursing care seen as bad for the patient; it is seen also as harmful to the nurses. Fretwell (2) describes the task system as essentially an industrial model rather than a professional one which tends to satisfy the needs of the doctor rather than the patient or nurse. Kinston (3) describes nursing decision-making and work as Level I work (tradesmen). Current models of care that individualize the nurse's response to work and decision-making become Level II type (professional). Primary nursing fulfils the need for professionalizing nursing and meeting the need for more independence as well as respecting the patient as a 'person' with the organisation there to facilitate interaction between qualified nurse and patient. Changes in attitude and relationships are essential if work is to change from task to person-centred. Styles of leadership in nurses need to alter as our orientation to care issues change (4).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Teaching Styles, Learning Styles and the ESP Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Ph’ng Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Learner diversity that exists in the classroom plays a role in influencing the teaching and learning process in the classroom. It should be acknowledged in order for the teaching and learning process to be a meaningful and effective process. Thus, this study examined the learning styles preference of engineering students and the teaching styles preferences of their Technical Communication lecturers. The study also looked at whether the students’ learning styles preferences were influenced by their field of study, gender and ethnic backgrounds. Felder and Solomon’s Index of Learning Styles was administered to 588 engineering students while Grasha and Riechmann-Hruska’s Teaching Style Survey was administered to 10 Technical Communication lecturers. The findings revealed that the students have a marked preference for the visual learning style but balanced preferences for the other learning styles dimensions. The students’ field of study, gender and ethnic backgrounds did not seem to influence the students’ learning styles preferences. As for their Technical Communication lecturers, they seem to favour the student-centered teaching approach. All the data support the notion of adopting a balanced teaching approach in the Technical Communication classroom.

  3. Profiling and Utilizing Learning Style. NASSP Learning Style Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, James W., Ed.

    In 1986, the National Association of Secondary School Principals, with the assistance of a national task force, published the NASSP Learning Style Profile (LSP) for diagnosis of the cognitive styles, perceptual response tendencies, and instructional preferences of middle level and senior high school students. This monograph offers a short course…

  4. The Generic Style Rules for Linguistics

    OpenAIRE

    Haspelmath, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The Generic Style Rules for Linguistics provide a style sheet that can be used by any linguistics journal or edited book, or for teaching purposes. They regulate aspects of text-structure style such as typographic highlighting, citation style, use of capitalization, and bibliographic style (based on the LSA's Unified Stylesheet for linguistics).

  5. Impacts of Different Culture on Management Style

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国君

    2015-01-01

    cultural differences affect the management behavior and management style.Participatory management style in the United States and instructional management style in China has a deep cultural roots.In terms of the type of management style,they are equal.As long as management style is consistent with its culture accordingly,the leadership will be effective.

  6. Style popularity and the comovement of stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, T.; Plantinga, A.

    2006-01-01

    We examine to what extent the popularity of an investment style can be attributed to style investing. The style investing hypothesis predicts that assets in the same style show strong comovement with respect to their underlying fundamentals and that reclassifying assets into a new style raises its

  7. The Significance of Leadership Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Elise

    1998-01-01

    In a learning environment, leadership style reflects a leader's deeply held educational beliefs, which are mirrored in the school's culture. Case studies illustrate how the leadership styles of three principals affect school ambience. Good leadership practice means acknowledging each person's differing gifts, strengths, and concerns, and utilizing…

  8. Supervisory Styles: A Contingency Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehe, Dirk Michael

    2016-01-01

    While the contingent nature of doctoral supervision has been acknowledged, the literature on supervisory styles has yet to deliver a theory-based contingency framework. A contingency framework can assist supervisors and research students in identifying appropriate supervisory styles under varying circumstances. The conceptual study reported here…

  9. Life Style Assessment: So What!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubry, William E.

    The construct life style was used by Alfred Adler to describe the characteristic way in which individuals act and think. Followers of his theories are now collecting evidence to support or validate his contentions. The assessment of client life styles serves: (1) to make the client aware of his misconceptions, (2) as a reference point for therapy,…

  10. Choreography Styles in Figure Skating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moormann, Peter Paul

    2006-01-01

    Fifty-eight figure skating trainers from fifteen different countries acted as volunteers in this study on choreography styles. The styles were based on reports of artistic-creative strategies in composing music, drawing, writing poems or novels, and in making dances. The prevalence of the Mozartian (at the onset the choreographer already has a…

  11. The role of critical thinking skills and learning styles of university students in their academic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZOHRE GHAZIVAKILI

    2014-07-01

    relationship between the students’ performance with inferential skill and the total score of critical thinking skills (p<0.05. Furthermore, evaluation skills and deductive reasoning had significant relationship. On the other hand, the mean total score of critical thinking had significant difference between different learning styles. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the learning styles, critical thinking and academic performance are significantly associated with one another. Considering the growing importance of critical thinking in enhancing the professional competence of individuals, it's recommended to use teaching methods consistent with the learning style because it would be more effective in this context.

  12. Styles of success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgaard, Jens Jørn; Nørgaard, Anders; Jakobsen, Søren

    1997-01-01

    Corporate success stories tend to emphasize the "great men" theory of history. But now a European research project established the managerial attributes that can turn an ordinary leader into one ideal for the pursuit of business excellence. The emergence of five leadership styles as crucial drivers...... of business excellence points to a clear agenda for success. Setting clear strategic goals and the ability to take a long-term view of an organization's direction, combined with other leadership attributes such as creativity, teambuilding and learning, are principal keys to creating an excellent organization....... Leaders seeking to achive business excellence must view the high-level attainment of these sets of leadership competencies as their paramount objective. In striving for business excellence, European leaders may encounter resistance among their employees. Crucially, European employees place a markedly...

  13. Language, Communication and Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stăncuţa Ramona DIMA-LAZA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Intercultural language and communication skills vary across culture. Blunders are the result of an improper understanding of other nation’s language, non-verbal communication or customs and traditions. The present paper represents an incursion into the world of inaccurate translations and misinterpretations caused by a lack of ability to overcome cultural and language barriers. It also provides solutions for such problems, exemplifying with relevant situations. It informs the reader about writing principles and style, examining the outcome of conveying an inaccurate message. People write, deliver speeches or communicate for different purposes: to learn something, to entertain or to make money. Whether it is about one reason or another, the basic idea is to comply with certain language codes in order to avoid cultural conflicts.

  14. Intercultural conflict styles: literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batkhina A.A.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Analytical review of foreign psychological research on the international conflict styles is presented in this article. Intercultural conflict is understood as an interpersonal conflict between representatives of different cultures. The main models describing the intercultural conflict styles are analyzed: the dual concern model, the intercultural conflict styles inventory model, the face negotiation model. The publication provides a brief review of modern studies’ results of behavior predictors in the intercultural conflict; special attention is paid to the analysis of the influence of culture and intercultural communication apprehension on the choice of conflict styles. The importance of assessing the conflict styles effectiveness used in the situation of intercultural interaction is noted. In conclusion, unresolved problems and actual trends in the study of behavior in the intercultural conflict are designated.

  15. Humor and creative life styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, J

    2001-01-01

    This paper is based upon the writings of William James in the late 19th century, and Alfred Adler and Sigmund Freud in the 20th, enriched by the contributions of later personality and role theorists. The self is defined as the unique organization of each person; a style is the self in action. Different life styles and their components are expressed in different situations. I posit that humor and positive thinking, combined with meaning and purpose, are vital components of all constructive life styles. The knowledge of life styles cuts through diagnostic labels to reveal our universal humanity. It can be fruitfully applied to patients and nonpatients alike and, I found, for the self-understanding of therapist. The clinical application of life styles is illustrated through numerous vignettes.

  16. Do you remember your sad face? The roles of negative cognitive style and sad mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudek, Corrado; Monni, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    We studied the effects of negative cognitive style, sad mood, and facial affect on the self-face advantage in a sample of 66 healthy individuals (mean age 26.5 years, range 19-47 years). The sample was subdivided into four groups according to inferential style and responsivity to sad mood induction. Following a sad mood induction, we examined the effect on working memory of an incidental association between facial affect, facial identity, and head-pose orientation. Overall, head-pose recognition was more accurate for the self-face than for nonself face (self-face advantage, SFA). However, participants high in negative cognitive style who experienced higher levels of sadness displayed a stronger SFA for sad expressions than happy expressions. The remaining participants displayed an opposite bias (a stronger SFA for happy expressions than sad expressions), or no bias. These findings highlight the importance of trait-vulnerability status in the working memory biases related to emotional facial expressions.

  17. Style popularity and the comovement of stocks

    OpenAIRE

    Wouters, T.; Plantinga, A.

    2006-01-01

    We examine to what extent the popularity of an investment style can be attributed to style investing. The style investing hypothesis predicts that assets in the same style show strong comovement with respect to their underlying fundamentals and that reclassifying assets into a new style raises its correlation with that style. We test this prediction by studying how comovement varies with proxies of popularity. We use different kinds of data, such as data on stocks, mutual funds, IPO?s and fin...

  18. Personal style of the therapist, attachment style and personality trait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Genise

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between the personal style of the therapist, attachment style and personality trait. It was used the personal style of the therapist questionnaire (PST – Q, the Argentinean attachment inventory and the big five inventory. The study sample consisted of 120 psychotherapists average age of 36.28 years (SD = 9.65, and the average years of experience was 7.90 years (SD = 8.04. The analysis of the results showed that there is a positive, significant and low intensity between the personality factor of openness to experience and personal style of involvement, a negative correlation, significant and of medium intensity between low extraversion factor correlation and mode not anxious romantic attachment and a significant positive relationship between the low–intensity factor neuroticism personality and how anxious romantic attachment. 

  19. Parenting style and adolescent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Byrne, Kristin Koetting; Haddock, C Keith; Poston, Walker S C

    2002-06-01

    To investigate whether parenting style is an independent risk factor of smoking initiation and experimentation among adolescents, and whether there is a relationship between parenting style and readiness to quit, or nicotine dependence among smokers. The 84-item Health and Smoking Questionnaire, which assesses demographics, smoking status and smoking history, perceptions of risk and risk reduction, risk factors for tobacco use, and parenting style, was administered to 816 adolescents in grades 7 to 12 (mean age, 15.1 years) of whom 22.6% (n = 182) were smokers. Parenting style was measured by the brief, non-retrospective version of the Family of Origin Scale (FOS). Higher scores on the FOS indicated more positive perceived parenting style with high levels of intimacy and autonomy, characteristics of healthy parent-child relationships. Data were analyzed using a model-building approach to logistic regression with demographic and other psychosocial variables in the first two steps, and with parenting style as the last step. Results from two logistic regression models indicate that although parenting style is not a significant risk factor for smoking experimentation [odds ratio (OR) =.998; confidence interval (CI) =.977-1.019; p =.820], it is a significant independent risk factor for smoking initiation (OR =.950; CI =.930-.970; p =.000). Smokers who were more ready to quit had higher parenting style scores than those who were not ready to quit, and smokers who had made a serious quit attempt (an indicator of nicotine addiction) had higher parenting style scores than those who had not made a quit attempt. Moreover, nonsmokers who reported they would smoke a cigarette if their best friend offered had significantly lower parenting style scores than those who reported they would not smoke a cigarette. Additional research on parenting style and its impact on adolescent smoking with a more economically and ethnically diverse sample is warranted. If future research confirms

  20. The role of critical thinking skills and learning styles of university students in their academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazivakili, Zohre; Norouzi Nia, Roohangiz; Panahi, Faride; Karimi, Mehrdad; Gholsorkhi, Hayede; Ahmadi, Zarrin

    2014-07-01

    The Current world needs people who have a lot of different abilities such as cognition and application of different ways of thinking, research, problem solving, critical thinking skills and creativity. In addition to critical thinking, learning styles is another key factor which has an essential role in the process of problem solving. This study aimed to determine the relationship between learning styles and critical thinking of students and their academic performance in Alborz University of Medical Science. This cross-correlation study was performed in 2012, on 216 students of Alborz University who were selected randomly by the stratified random sampling. The data was obtained via a three-part questionnaire included demographic data, Kolb standardized questionnaire of learning style and California critical thinking standardized questionnaire. The academic performance of the students was extracted by the school records. The validity of the instruments was determined in terms of content validity, and the reliability was gained through internal consistency methods. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was found to be 0.78 for the California critical thinking questionnaire. The Chi Square test, Independent t-test, one way ANOVA and Pearson correlation test were used to determine relationship between variables. The Package SPSS14 statistical software was used to analyze data with a significant level of pstudents with convergent learning style have better performance than other groups. Also learning style had a relationship with age, gender, field of study, semester and job. The results about the critical thinking of the students showed that the mean of deductive reasoning and evaluation skills were higher than that of other skills and analytical skills had the lowest mean and there was a positive significant relationship between the students' performance with inferential skill and the total score of critical thinking skills (pskills and deductive reasoning had significant

  1. Advertising styles in different cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasulja Nevena

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern consumer is inhabitant of a "Global Village" as well as of its own national culture which largely influences his creation of a system of values, beliefs and style of life in general. According to adopted values and styles, consumers from different cultures have different buying behavior, different needs and preferences related to a product and they have their favorite advertising styles. As advertising reflects culture, symbols and rituals which are used are even more emphasized and strengthen cultural values, which are then used as a strong advertising style characteristic. Global advertisers are increasingly faced with different environment meaning. A fact that has been proved in practice is that standardized approach to advertising does not transmit values in a correct way, so the advertisers that want to achieve long term success must differentiate their brands to competitors'. In modern market environment strategy "Think globally, act locally" proved to be adequate for advertising in modern international market.

  2. Personal Change and Intervention Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, John D. W.

    1977-01-01

    Presents a theory of personal change and analyzes growth-producing interventions using examples from the film, "Three Approaches to Psychotherapy". Compares the styles of Carl Rogers, Frttz Perls, and Albert Ellis to illustrate the theory. (Editor/RK)

  3. Asian-Style Chicken Wraps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/recipe/asianstylechickenwraps.html Asian-Style Chicken Wraps To use the sharing features on this ... Tbsp lime juice (or about 2 limes) For chicken: 1 Tbsp peanut oil or vegetable oil 1 ...

  4. Instructional Style Meets Classroom Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli, Joan

    1991-01-01

    Nine elementary teachers explain how they design their classrooms to match and support their instructional styles. The teachers focus on whole language programs, student portfolios, science activity set-ups, technology transformation, learning center strategies, and space utilization. (SM)

  5. Style and ideology in translation

    CERN Document Server

    Munday, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Adopting an interdisciplinary approach, this book investigates the style, or 'voice,' of English language translations of twentieth-century Latin American writing, including fiction, political speeches, and film. Existing models of stylistic analysis, supported at times by computer-assisted analysis, are developed to examine a range of works and writers, selected for their literary, cultural, and ideological importance. The style of the different translators is subjected to a close linguistic investigation within their cultural and ideological framework.

  6. Parenting styles and eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jáuregui Lobera, I; Bolaños Ríos, P; Garrido Casals, O

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the parental bonding profiles in patients with eating disorders (ED), as well as the relationship among the different styles of parenting and some psychological and psychopathological variables. In addition, the association between the perceived parental bonding and different coping strategies was analysed. Perception of parenting styles was analysed in a sample of 70 ED patients. The Parental Bonding Instrument, Self-Esteem Scale of Rosenberg, Coping Strategies Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory and Eating Disorders Inventory-2 were used. Kruskal-Wallis test (comparisons), Spearman correlation coefficients (association among different variables) and χ(2)-test (parental bonding profiles differences) were applied. The stereotyped style among ED patients is low care-high control during the first 16 years, and the same can be said about current styles of the mothers. Between 8.6% and 12.9% of the patients perceive their parents' styles as neglectful. The neglectful parenting is the style mainly involved in the specific ED symptoms as drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction and bulimia. In order to achieve a better balanced parents' role during the treatment, it would be necessary to improve the role of the mothers as caregivers, decreasing their role mainly based on the overprotection. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing.

  7. Extreme Programming: Maestro Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Jeffrey; Fox, Jason; Rabe, Kenneth; Shu, I-Hsiang; Powell, Mark

    2009-01-01

    "Extreme Programming: Maestro Style" is the name of a computer programming methodology that has evolved as a custom version of a methodology, called extreme programming that has been practiced in the software industry since the late 1990s. The name of this version reflects its origin in the work of the Maestro team at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory that develops software for Mars exploration missions. Extreme programming is oriented toward agile development of software resting on values of simplicity, communication, testing, and aggressiveness. Extreme programming involves use of methods of rapidly building and disseminating institutional knowledge among members of a computer-programming team to give all the members a shared view that matches the view of the customers for whom the software system is to be developed. Extreme programming includes frequent planning by programmers in collaboration with customers, continually examining and rewriting code in striving for the simplest workable software designs, a system metaphor (basically, an abstraction of the system that provides easy-to-remember software-naming conventions and insight into the architecture of the system), programmers working in pairs, adherence to a set of coding standards, collaboration of customers and programmers, frequent verbal communication, frequent releases of software in small increments of development, repeated testing of the developmental software by both programmers and customers, and continuous interaction between the team and the customers. The environment in which the Maestro team works requires the team to quickly adapt to changing needs of its customers. In addition, the team cannot afford to accept unnecessary development risk. Extreme programming enables the Maestro team to remain agile and provide high-quality software and service to its customers. However, several factors in the Maestro environment have made it necessary to modify some of the conventional extreme

  8. Reading Processes and Parenting Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreteiro, Rui Manuel; Justo, João Manuel; Figueira, Ana Paula

    2016-08-01

    Home literacy environment explains between 12 and 18.5 % of the variance of children's language skills. Although most authors agree that children whose parents encourage them to read tend to develop better and earlier reading skills, some authors consider that the impact of family environment in reading skills is overvalued. Probably, other variables of parent-child relationship, like parenting styles, might be relevant for this field. Nevertheless, no previous studies on the effect of parenting styles in literacy have been found. To analyze the role of parenting styles in the reading processes of children. Children's perceptions of parenting styles contribute significantly to the explanation of statistical variance of children's reading processes. 110 children (67 boys and 43 girls), aged between 7 and 11 years (M [Formula: see text] 9.22 and SD [Formula: see text] 1.14) from Portuguese schools answered to a socio-demographic questionnaire. To assess reading processes it was administered the Portuguese adaptation (Figueira et al. in press) of Bateria de Avaliação dos Processos Leitores-Revista (PROLEC-R). To assess the parenting styles Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran-parents (EMBU-P) and EMBU-C (children version) were administered. According to multiple hierarchical linear regressions, individual factors contribute to explain all reading tests of PROLEC-R, while family factors contribute to explain most of these tests. Regarding parenting styles, results evidence the explanatory power about grammatical structures, sentence comprehension and listening. Parenting styles have an important role in the explanation of higher reading processes (syntactic and semantic) but not in lexical processes, focused by main theories concerning dyslexia.

  9. Transformational Leadership Style as Predictor of Decision Making Styles: Moderating Role of Emotional Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Rashid Rehman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study examines the relationship among transformational leadership style and decision making styles. It also determines the moderating role of emotional intelligence in predicting this relationship. Three hypotheses are generated for the study i.e., twohypotheses are to measure the relationship among transformational leadership style and decision making styles whereas third hypothesis is to assess the moderating effect of emotional intelligence. Questionnaire method is used to collect data from 113respondents. Regression analysis is utilized to study the relationship among transformational leadership style and decision making styles and step-wise regression analysis is used to study moderating effect of emotional intelligence. The study foundthat transformational leadership style strongly predicts rational and dependant decision making styles and weakly predict intuitive and spontaneous decision making styles while no association founds with avoidant decision making styles. Present research also foundthat emotional intelligence moderates the relationship among transformational leadership style and decision making styles.

  10. Stress resiliency, psychological empowerment and conflict management styles among baccalaureate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pines, Eula W; Rauschhuber, Maureen L; Norgan, Gary H; Cook, Jennifer D; Canchola, Leticia; Richardson, Cynthia; Jones, Mary Elaine

    2012-07-01

    This article is a report of a Neuman Systems Model-guided correlational study of the relations of stress resiliency, psychological empowerment, selected demographic characteristics (age, ethnicity, semester in school) and conflict management styles. Emerging evidence suggests that stress resiliency and psychological empowerment can strengthen student nurses in academic achievement and coping with stress. Little is known about conflict management styles of students and the relationship to empowerment, resiliency and the implications for managing workplace conflict. A correlational study was conducted in Spring 2010 with 166 baccalaureate students. Most participants were female, single, Hispanic and 25 years old. The data collection instruments included the Stress Resiliency Profile, the Psychological Empowerment Instrument, the Conflict Mode Instrument and a demographic inventory. Descriptive and inferential correlational statistics were used to analyse the data. Students scored in the high range for focusing on their deficiencies in conflict situations; they scored above the 60th percentile for avoiding and accommodating behaviours and were less likely to use competing or collaborating strategies to manage conflict. Empowerment scores were significantly correlated with stress resiliency scores. Students with high scores on empowerment had high scores on the skill recognition subscale of the Stress Resiliency Profile suggesting more resilience; high scores on empowerment were related to high necessitating subscale scores of the Stress Resiliency Profile suggesting a predisposition to stress. Neuman Systems Model may provide guidance for educators to strengthen student nurses' management of stressors in the workplace. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Teacher Uses of Learning Styles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitmøller, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Among all the various learning style models, the Dunn & Dunn Learning Style Model (DDLSM) in particular has become a widely used method transforming teaching practice. Dunn & Dunn research literature is scarce when it comes to how the model is used by teachers in general. This is an issue since...... the model is a research-based prescriptive model of teaching. Employing observations and interviews to collect data, the present study investigates teachers’ use of the model. Findings indicate that the DDLSM is used for a number of purposes, some of which are in contradiction to the model prescriptions....

  12. Understanding Business Majors' Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, James; Rochford, Regina A.

    2005-01-01

    Recently, business education programs have experienced a decline in enrollment and an increase in attrition. To understand these issues and recommend solutions, the learning styles of 503 first-year business majors at an urban community college were examined. The results demonstrated that: (a) 94% of the participants were analytic learners; (b)…

  13. Individual Learning Styles and Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitar, Aleša Saša; Cerne, Matej; Aleksic, Darija; Mihelic, Katarina Katja

    2016-01-01

    Business schools are in need of developing creative graduates. This article explores how creativity among business students can be stimulated. Because a considerable amount of knowledge is required for creative ideas to emerge, the learning process has a significant impact on creativity. This, in turn, indicates that learning style is important…

  14. Accommodating Elementary Students' Learning Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, James

    1995-01-01

    Examines the perceptual learning style preferences of sixth- and seventh-grade students in the Philippines. Finds that the visual modality was the most preferred and the auditory modality was the least preferred. Offers suggestions for accommodating visual, tactile, and kinesthetic preferences. (RS)

  15. Attention & Cognitive Style, FY 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, John C.

    A study is presented which concentrates on the development of a cognitive style assessment instrument for 3- to 8-year-olds and on a series of studies designed to evaluate the role of stylistic and attentional processes in the development of various competencies in young children. This report incorporates a manual for users, a technical report on…

  16. Style and Variables in English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shopen, Timothy, Ed.; Williams, Joseph M., Ed.

    A collection of articles on the kinds of variation in English that one finds within the language of one group or one person includes: "The English Language as Rule-Governed Behavior" (Timothy Shopen); "The English Language as Use-Governed Behavior" (Joseph M. Williams); "Styles" (Ann D. Zwicky); "The Organization…

  17. Francis Bacon and the Technology of Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Christopher

    1983-01-01

    Examines Francis Bacon's intentionally devised style for scientific writings and the theoretical basis of that style. Discusses his emphasis on a truly objective point of view, and his use of aphorisms to adapt to his audience. (HTH)

  18. Managment Styles to Avoid: Some Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttschalk, George E.; Cangemi, Joseph P.

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes management styles of numerous leaders who failed. Presents these categories of styles not associated with success: dictator, blocker, withholder, brownnoser, butcher, non-delegator, worrier, troublemaker, malcontent, weakling, jealous executive, and no-conscience administrator. (Author/ABL)

  19. Fashion Forward: Forecasting Visual Style in Fashion

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Halah, Ziad; Stiefelhagen, Rainer; Grauman, Kristen

    2017-01-01

    What is the future of fashion? Tackling this question from a data-driven vision perspective, we propose to forecast visual style trends before they occur. We introduce the first approach to predict the future popularity of styles discovered from fashion images in an unsupervised manner. Using these styles as a basis, we train a forecasting model to represent their trends over time. The resulting model can hypothesize new mixtures of styles that will become popular in the future, discover styl...

  20. The Relationship between Decision Making Styles and Leadership Styles among Public Schools Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Omari, Aieman Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the relationships between leadership styles and decision-making styles among public schools principals. A total of 108 principals returned questionnaires from Russaifa Education District in Jordan. The Decision Style Inventory and the Administrative Styles Questionnaire were used in this study. "Directive decision…

  1. Assessing Experiential Learning Styles: A Methodological Reconstruction and Validation of the Kolb Learning Style Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolis, Chris; Burns, David J.; Assudani, Rashmi; Chinta, Ravi

    2013-01-01

    To understand experiential learning, many have reiterated the need to be able to identify students' learning styles. Kolb's Learning Style Model is the most widely accepted learning style model and has received a substantial amount of empirical support. Kolb's Learning Style Inventory (LSI), although one of the most widely utilized instruments to…

  2. Key characteristics of different management styles

    OpenAIRE

    AGADZHANYAN A.S.

    2015-01-01

    The article reveals main management styles practiсed by managers all over the world. The author considers key characteristics of management styles, conditions of their using. The paper analyzes cultural differences in management styles in the West and in the East.

  3. An Intelligent System for Determining Learning Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Ali; Alaybeyoglu, Aysegul; Mulayim, Naciye; Uysal, Muhammed

    2018-01-01

    In this study, an intelligent system which determines learning style of the students is developed to increase success in effective and easy learning. The importance of the proposed software system is to determine convenience degree of the student's learning style. Personal information form and Dunn Learning Style Preference Survey are used to…

  4. Learning Styles: Do They Differ by Discipline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Kara; Bates, Derald; Manikowske, Linda; Amundsen, Rebecca

    2005-01-01

    Kolb's Experiential Learning Theory describes how learners see and interpret information. Past studies have analyzed learning styles of certain professions and majors. This study evaluated whether student learning styles differ by major. The Marshall and Merritt Learning Style Inventory was completed by 531 students. Differences were found in…

  5. Learning Styles and Continuing Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Voorhees, Curtis; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The Gregorc Style Delineator--Word Matrix was administered to 2,060 physicians in order to gain a better understanding of their participation in continuing medical education. The study showed that 63 percent preferred the concrete sequential learning style. Different style preferences may account for some of the apparent disparity between…

  6. Behavioral Style, Culture, and Teaching and Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, Asa G., III

    1992-01-01

    Argues that unique behavioral styles can be identified among African-American populations and that behavioral style may help explain differences in test performance for white and African-American students. Implications for all students of providing stylistic diversity in the schools and student ability to use multiple learning styles are…

  7. Are Students' Learning Styles Discipline Specific?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Cheryl; Reichard, Carla; Mokhtari, Kouider

    2003-01-01

    This study examines the extent to which community college students' learning style preferences vary as a function of discipline. Reports significant differences in students' learning style preferences across disciplines, but not by gender. Adds that student learning style preferences varied by academic performance as measured by gender. Discusses…

  8. Parent Predictors of Adolescents' Explanatory Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, Clorinda E.; Krause, Elizabeth D.; Brunwasser, Steven M.; Freres, Derek R.; Abenavoli, Rachel M.; Gillham, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    The current study tested the prospective relations (6-month lag) between three aspects of the parent-child relationship at Time 1 (T1) and adolescents' explanatory styles at Time 2 (T2): caregiving behaviors, parents' explanatory style for their own negative events, and parents' explanatory style for their children's negative events. The sample…

  9. LIFE-STYLE SEGMENTATION WITH TAILORED INTERVIEWING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KAMAKURA, WA; WEDEL, M

    The authors present a tailored interviewing procedure for life-style segmentation. The procedure assumes that a life-style measurement instrument has been designed. A classification of a sample of consumers into life-style segments is obtained using a latent-class model. With these segments, the

  10. Conceptualizing On-the-Job Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berings, Marjolein G. M. C.; Poell, Rob F.; Simons, P. Robert-Jan

    2005-01-01

    The broad aims of this study are to gain insight into employees' on-the-job learning activities to help them improve their on-the-job learning. The authors define on-the-job learning styles and operationalize the concept to include both mental and overt learning styles and both interpersonal and intrapersonal learning styles. Organizations and…

  11. The Relationship between Learning Styles and Information Seeking Behavior in Master Degree Students of Medical Sciences in Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences in Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Parsaeian

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Learning styles influence the methods and ways of obtaining information and lead to the variety of information seeking behaviors from the searchers. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between learning styles and information seeking behavior in master degree students of medical science in Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences in Yazd. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional analytic study. The population of the study was 601 master degree students of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences in Yazd in 2013-2015. They were all freshmen. The sample size of 234 students was determined using Cochran formula. Data were collected by two questionnaires (Kolb questionnaire and researcher-made seeking behavior questionnaire. The validity of questionnaires was confirmed by a panel of experts and their reliability was confirmed by Cronbach`s alpha. Data analysis was done by inferential statistics and statistical software SPSS (version 18. Measuring the significant relationship between learning styles and information seeking behavior was done with Pierson correlation coefficient. The significant difference between learning styles and information seeking behavior in terms of gender and faculty was examined by Fisher`s test. Results: Learning styles had effect on information seeking behavior; also correlation coefficients between the learning styles and information seeking behavior had significant difference, but there was no difference in terms of faculty. Conclution: Recognition of learning styles and including it into designing of information systems may increase system`s interactivity that it may lead to have better and faster accessibility to information resources.

  12. The Relationship between Parenting Styles and Adult Attachment Styles from Jordan University Students

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad M. Mahasneh; Zohair H. Al-Zoubi; Omar T. Batayenh; Mohammad S. Jawarneh

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between parenting styles and adult attachment styles. A random sample of (564) male and female students at the faculty of educational sciences was chosen selected. Two questionnaires on attachment styles and parenting styles were administered to the selected sample population during the academic year of 2012-2013. Results indicated significant positive correlations between the authoritative, negligent and authoritarian parenting styles...

  13. Attachment Styles of Dermatological Patients in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szabó, Csanád; Altmayer, Anita; Lien, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Attachment styles of dermatological outpatients and satisfaction with their dermatologists were investigated within the framework of a multicentre study conducted in 13 European countries, organized by the European Society for Dermatology and Psychiatry. Attachment style was assessed with the Adult......, and experienced similar rates of anxiety in relationships as did the controls. Participants who had secure attachment styles reported stressful life events during the last 6 months significantly less often than those who had insecure attachment styles. Patients with secure attachment styles tended to be more...... satisfied with their dermatologist than did insecure patients. These results suggest that secure attachment of dermatological outpatients may be a protective factor in the management of stress....

  14. Adult attachment style and anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sara Kerstine Kaya; Lønfeldt, Nicole Nadine; Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Although there is substantial evidence for the role of emotion regulation in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders, knowledge about what contributes to emotion dysregulation is sparse. Attachment style is related to emotion regulation and anxiety symptoms, but these variables have rar...... knowledge to examine the mediating role of emotion regulation between attachment dimensions (avoidance and anxiety) and anxiety symptoms.......Although there is substantial evidence for the role of emotion regulation in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders, knowledge about what contributes to emotion dysregulation is sparse. Attachment style is related to emotion regulation and anxiety symptoms, but these variables have...... rarely been examined together. Examining emotion dysregulation within the context of anxiety disorders through an attachment theory framework will lead to a better understanding of the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders. In the present study we combined theoretically and empirically derived...

  15. Communications Style Guide. Fourth Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Example 2: The general’s dog, obedient and loyal, was the perfect companion . 2. Adverbial modifiers: Adverbial modifiers are usually followed...pronoun in this case. Example 3: Us chefs like to cook.  You wouldn’t say, “Us like to cook,” so the appropriate pronoun here is we. 2...in Chicago Style. Resources for Additional Help:  Alred, Gerald J., Charles T. Brusaw, and Walter E. Oliu. The Business Writer’s Companion

  16. Adult Attachment Style and Suicidality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miniati, Mario; Callari, Antonio; Pini, Stefano

    2017-09-01

    There is evidence in the literature that adverse early attachment experiences and subsequent attachment insecurities during adulthood would lead to pessimism, low self-esteem, hopelessness and, ultimately, to suicide risk. This paper aims to review finding on the link between attachment style and suicidality. We searched the literature using the database of the U.S. National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)-MedLine/Pubmed system from January 1992 until December 2016. We started with 1992 because, as far as we know, there are no published studies exploring the relationship between suicide and insecure attachment before that year. We considered reports published on the relationship between attachment style and suicidality. We applied several combinations of the following search terms: attachment, adult attachment style and suicidality, suicide, suicidal ideation, suicidal behavior or suicidal thoughts, and suicide attempts. We selected only English language studies. Research suggests that insecure attachment style, mostly anxious, and unresolved traumas are associated with an increased suicide risk. Few studies prospectively examined clinical course, comorbid psychiatric disorders, familial suicidality or other psychosocial factors. Further research is needed to highlight the nature of the link between attachment and suicidality. The presence of suicidal ideation and attempts might be a consequence of an underlying interaction between the emergence of psychiatrics symptoms, and the long-lasting presence of inadequate patterns of attachment. Within this context, Separation Anxiety Disorder, categorized in the DSM-5 as a condition not confined to childhood but as an anxiety disorder that may occur through the entire lifespan, might be the a key for the comprehension of this link. From a neurobiological point of view, the role of oxytocin remains unclear.

  17. Serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) genotype moderates the longitudinal impact of early caregiving on externalizing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Zoë H; Humphreys, Kathryn L; Smyke, Anna T; Gleason, Mary Margaret; Nelson, Charles A; Zeanah, Charles H; Fox, Nathan A; Drury, Stacy S

    2015-02-01

    We examined caregiver report of externalizing behavior from 12 to 54 months of age in 102 children randomized to care as usual in institutions or to newly created high-quality foster care. At baseline no differences by group or genotype in externalizing were found. However, changes in externalizing from baseline to 42 months of age were moderated by the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region genotype and intervention group, where the slope for short-short (S/S) individuals differed as a function of intervention group. The slope for individuals carrying the long allele did not significantly differ between groups. At 54 months of age, S/S children in the foster care group had the lowest levels of externalizing behavior, while children with the S/S genotype in the care as usual group demonstrated the highest rates of externalizing behavior. No intervention group differences were found in externalizing behavior among children who carried the long allele. These findings, within a randomized controlled trial of foster care compared to continued care as usual, indicate that the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region genotype moderates the relation between early caregiving environments to predict externalizing behavior in children exposed to early institutional care in a manner most consistent with differential susceptibility.

  18. ONE-DIMENSIONAL AND TWO-DIMENSIONAL LEADERSHIP STYLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Stefanović

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to motivate their group members to perform certain tasks, leaders use different leadership styles. These styles are based on leaders' backgrounds, knowledge, values, experiences, and expectations. The one-dimensional styles, used by many world leaders, are autocratic and democratic styles. These styles lie on the two opposite sides of the leadership spectrum. In order to precisely define the leadership styles on the spectrum between the autocratic leadership style and the democratic leadership style, leadership theory researchers use two dimensional matrices. The two-dimensional matrices define leadership styles on the basis of different parameters. By using these parameters, one can identify two-dimensional styles.

  19. Title: A study of the relationship between managers\\' decision making styles and organizational health in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Bahrami

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available   Background and Aims: Managers decision making style can function effectively correct departments in universities and its positive impact on organizational health group will increase efficiency. The present study aims to examine the relationship between the decision-making styles and organizational health departments in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences.   Methods: A descriptive and survey research method was utilized. The statistical population included all 594 members of Isfahan Medical Science University Colleges from which a sample of 201 was selected though a classified random sampling   The data gathering instruments included, a researcher – made decision making questionnaire and the Ho & Feldmn (1990, organizational health questionnaire. The reliability of the instruments was estimated 0.86 and 0.92 respectively, though Cronbach Alpha coefficient. Utilizing SPSS (15 statistical software, both descriptive and inferential statistics were applied to analyze the data.   Results: Consultative decision making scored the highest average among the chairpersons, while the authoritative style scored the lowest average. The departments' organizational health was more than mean level in all dimensions except chairperson's influence. Moreover, a significant relationship was observed between decision making style and organizational health indices. Also a direct relationship was not observed between authoritarian decision makings and institutional integration, chairperson influence, consideration, initiating structure, and academic emphasis. A direct relationship was observed between Consultative decision making and chairperson influence, consideration, initiating structure, resource support, morale, and academic emphasis. A direct relationship was observed between Participative decision making and chairperson Influence, consideration, initiating structure.   Conclusion: Consultative and participative decision making can lead to enhancement

  20. ONE-DIMENSIONAL AND TWO-DIMENSIONAL LEADERSHIP STYLES

    OpenAIRE

    Nikola Stefanović

    2007-01-01

    In order to motivate their group members to perform certain tasks, leaders use different leadership styles. These styles are based on leaders' backgrounds, knowledge, values, experiences, and expectations. The one-dimensional styles, used by many world leaders, are autocratic and democratic styles. These styles lie on the two opposite sides of the leadership spectrum. In order to precisely define the leadership styles on the spectrum between the autocratic leadership style and the democratic ...

  1. Nurse managers' leadership styles in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesterinen, Soili; Suhonen, Marjo; Isola, Arja; Paasivaara, Leena

    2012-01-01

    Nurse managers who can observe their own behaviour and its effects on employees can adjust to a better leadership style. The intention of this study was to explore nurses' and supervisors' perceptions of nurse managers' leadership styles. Open-ended interviews were conducted with 11 nurses and 10 superiors. The data were analysed by content analysis. In the study, six leadership styles were identified: visionary, coaching, affiliate, democratic, commanding, and isolating. Job satisfaction and commitment as well as operation and development work, cooperation, and organizational climate in the work unit were the factors, affected by leadership styles. The nurse managers should consider their leadership style from the point of view of employees, situation factors, and goals of the organization. Leadership styles where employees are seen in a participatory role have become more common.

  2. Nurse Managers' Leadership Styles in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesterinen, Soili; Suhonen, Marjo; Isola, Arja; Paasivaara, Leena

    2012-01-01

    Nurse managers who can observe their own behaviour and its effects on employees can adjust to a better leadership style. The intention of this study was to explore nurses' and supervisors' perceptions of nurse managers' leadership styles. Open-ended interviews were conducted with 11 nurses and 10 superiors. The data were analysed by content analysis. In the study, six leadership styles were identified: visionary, coaching, affiliate, democratic, commanding, and isolating. Job satisfaction and commitment as well as operation and development work, cooperation, and organizational climate in the work unit were the factors, affected by leadership styles. The nurse managers should consider their leadership style from the point of view of employees, situation factors, and goals of the organization. Leadership styles where employees are seen in a participatory role have become more common. PMID:23008767

  3. Understanding Learning Style Variations among Undergraduate Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Jayakumar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in Vellore district of Tamil Nadu state to understand the learning styles of students. The term learning style refers to the way or method or approach by which a student learns. The study explored the possible learning style variations among agricultural, horticultural, engineering and arts & science students and their association with academic achievement. One hundred and twelve students were randomly selected from the four streams and their learning styles were analyzed. In the agricultural and horticultural streams, a majority of the students were auditory learners. They were also found to be predominantly unimodal learners. Overall, it was found that majority of the students were visual learners followed by auditory and kinesthetic style. The highest percentage of kinesthetic learners was found among engineering students. Trimodal learners scored the highest mean percentage of marks. The influence of learning styles on the academic achievements of the students did not show a significant relationship.

  4. Nurse Managers’ Leadership Styles in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soili Vesterinen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nurse managers who can observe their own behaviour and its effects on employees can adjust to a better leadership style. The intention of this study was to explore nurses’ and supervisors’ perceptions of nurse managers’ leadership styles. Open-ended interviews were conducted with 11 nurses and 10 superiors. The data were analysed by content analysis. In the study, six leadership styles were identified: visionary, coaching, affiliate, democratic, commanding, and isolating. Job satisfaction and commitment as well as operation and development work, cooperation, and organizational climate in the work unit were the factors, affected by leadership styles. The nurse managers should consider their leadership style from the point of view of employees, situation factors, and goals of the organization. Leadership styles where employees are seen in a participatory role have become more common.

  5. Defense styles of pedophilic offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapeau, Martin; Beretta, Véronique; de Roten, Yves; Koerner, Annett; Despland, Jean-Nicolas

    2008-04-01

    This pilot study investigated the defense styles of pedophile sexual offenders. Interviews with 20 pedophiles and 20 controls were scored using the Defense Mechanisms Rating Scales. Results showed that pedophiles had a significantly lower overall defensive functioning score than the controls. Pedophiles used significantly fewer obsessional-level defenses but more major image-distorting and action-level defenses. Results also suggested differences in the prevalence of individual defenses where pedophiles used more dissociation, displacement, denial, autistic fantasy, splitting of object, projective identification, acting out, and passive aggressive behavior but less intellectualization and rationalization.

  6. Other-regarding preferences and leadership styles

    OpenAIRE

    Kocher, Martin G.; Pogrebna, Ganna; Sutter, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    We use a laboratory experiment to examine whether and to what extent other-regarding preferences of team leaders influence their leadership style in choice under risk. We find that leaders who prefer efficiency or report high levels of selfishness are more likely to exercise an autocratic leadership style by ignoring preferences of the other team members. Yet, inequity aversion has no significant impact on leadership styles. Elected leaders have a higher propensity than exogenously assigned l...

  7. Personality Styles and Suggestibility: A Differential Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, Rute; Silva, Danilo R.; Ferreira, Ana Sousa

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses the relationship between personality styles measured with the Portuguese adaptation of the Millon Index of Personality Styles Revised – MIPS-R and interrogative suggestibility assessed by the Portuguese adaptation of the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale – GSS1. Hypotheses predicted individual differences in suggestibility and that these differences correspond to differences in individuals’ personality styles. The study was conducted with a sample of 258 individuals (M age ...

  8. Nurse Managers’ Leadership Styles in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Vesterinen, Soili; Suhonen, Marjo; Isola, Arja; Paasivaara, Leena

    2012-01-01

    Nurse managers who can observe their own behaviour and its effects on employees can adjust to a better leadership style. The intention of this study was to explore nurses' and supervisors' perceptions of nurse managers' leadership styles. Open-ended interviews were conducted with 11 nurses and 10 superiors. The data were analysed by content analysis. In the study, six leadership styles were identified: visionary, coaching, affiliate, democratic, commanding, and isolating. Job satisfaction and...

  9. Leadership Style Right in the Democratic

    OpenAIRE

    Harlen, Togu

    2015-01-01

    Each leader has a leadership style that is different tobe adapted to the work environment so as to avoidinternal conflicts between superiors and subordinates.No leadership style that has been attached since theman was still in the womb, but some are derived fromexperience and knowledge about leadership.In an era of democratization takes leaders who have ademocratic leadership style that promotes democraticvalues that exist so that the subordinate was given theopportunity to cooperate and coor...

  10. Cognitive characteristics affecting rational decision making style

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberg, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Decision making is one of the most important and frequent tasks among managers and employees in an organization. Knowledge about more stable cognitive characteristics underlying decision making styles has been requested. This study aimed to examine the relationship between rational decision making style, cognitive style, self efficacy and locus of control. Possible interaction effects in relation to gender were also analyzed. 186 employees at the Ministry of Defence were surveyed...

  11. Conflict management styles in the health professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sportsman, Susan; Hamilton, Patti

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine prevalent conflict management styles chosen by students in nursing and to contrast these styles with those chosen by students in allied health professions. The associations among the level of professional health care education and the style chosen were also determined. A convenience sample of 126 students in a comprehensive university completed the Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument (TKI), which requires respondents to choose behaviors most characteristic of their response to conflict and classifies these behaviors as one of five styles. There was no significant difference between the prevalent conflict management styles chosen by graduate and undergraduate nursing students and those in allied health. Some of the students were already licensed in their discipline; others had not yet taken a licensing exam. Licensure and educational level were not associated with choice of styles. Women and men had similar preferences. The prevalent style for nursing students was compromise, followed by avoidance. In contrast, avoidance, followed by compromise and accommodation, was the prevalent style for allied health students. When compared to the TKI norms, slightly more than one half of all participants chose two or more conflict management styles, commonly avoidance and accommodation at the 75th percentile or above. Only 9.8% of the participants chose collaboration at that level. Implications for nurse educators, researchers, and administrators are discussed.

  12. [The style of leadership idealized by nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa, Elza de Fátima Ribeiro; Trevizan, Maria Auxiliadora

    2005-01-01

    This study focuses on nursing leadership on the basis of Grid theories. According to the authors, these theories are an alternative that allows for leadership development in nursing. The research aimed to identify and analyze the style of leadership idealized by nurses, according to their own view, and to compare the styles of leadership idealized by nurses between the two research institutions. Study subjects were 13 nurses. The results show that nurses at both institutions equally mention they idealize style 9.9, followed by 5.5 and 1.9, with a tendency to reject styles 9.1 and 1.1.

  13. Eating disorder symptoms and parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haycraft, Emma; Blissett, Jackie

    2010-02-01

    This study aimed to examine associations between symptoms of eating disorders and parenting style, in a non-clinical sample. One hundred and five mothers completed self-report measures of eating disorder symptoms and parenting style. Higher levels of eating disorder symptoms were associated with more authoritarian and permissive parenting styles. Authoritative parenting was not significantly related to eating disorder symptoms. The findings demonstrate that eating disorder symptoms in non-clinical individuals are related to less adaptive parenting styles. These findings have potential implications for clinicians working with mothers with eating disorders. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. DECISION-MAKING STYLES OF CONSUMERS IN TURKEY AND AZERBAIJAN: A CONSUMER STYLES INVENTORY APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZDEMİR, Erkan; OMAROV, Zaur

    2018-01-01

    Consumersmake purchasing decisions based on different criteria. These criteria, whichcan be considered in many different titles such as price, quality, fashion,entertainment, also shape the purchasing decision-making styles of consumers. Consumerscan be divided into market segments according to decision-making styles. Thisstudy aims to determine the decision-making styles ofconsumers in Turkey and Azerbaijan and compare the decision-making styles ofconsumers in the two countries.The data coll...

  15. Transformational Leadership Style as Predictor of Decision Making Styles: Moderating Role of Emotional Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Rana Rashid Rehman; Ajmal Waheed

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines the relationship among transformational leadership style and decision making styles. It also determines the moderating role of emotional intelligence in predicting this relationship. Three hypotheses are generated for the study i.e., twohypotheses are to measure the relationship among transformational leadership style and decision making styles whereas third hypothesis is to assess the moderating effect of emotional intelligence. Questionnaire method is used to coll...

  16. The Relationships of Problem Solving Styles to Parenting Styles: Two Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyen, Julia; Volpe, Carolyn Ann; Selby, Edwin C.; Houtz, John C.

    2017-01-01

    Two independent studies were conducted to examine the relationship of problem solving styles to parenting styles. Both studies used VIEW: An Assessment of Problem Solving Style and the Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ). Study 1 included 173 adults recruited using Mechanical Turk and Study 2 included 131 adults recruited using Qualtrics. Data…

  17. Development of an Instrument to Measure Teaching Style in Japan: The Teaching Style Assessment Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Fumiko; Conti, Gary J.; Yamauchi, Toyoaki; Iwasaki, Takaaki

    2014-01-01

    Teaching style has been a popular concept for many years. Teaching style refers to the distinct qualities displayed by a teacher that are persistent from situation to situation regardless of the content. The Principles of Adult Learning Scale (PALS) has been used extensively in the West for measuring teaching style in relationship to the adult…

  18. [The influence of music on pictorial expression of young women--a comparative study of different music styles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiltz, L; Maugendre, M; Brytek-Matera, A

    2010-01-01

    Questing one's personal identity and developing a coherent representation of oneself, the other and the world are major tasks in adolescence. Research showed that a satisfactory resolution of the crisis of adolescence can be favoured by psychological counselling based on artistic mediations. The objective of this study consisted in exploring the effect of music on the pictorial expression of a non clinical sample of female adolescents (N=157) aged from 17 to 28 years. We analysed free drawings realised by the test group with the help of a rating scale constructed in a phenomenological and structural perspective (Schiltz, 2006). The adolescents painted under musical induction. We proposed three different styles of music, i.e. baroque music (Georg Friedrich Händel and Johann Sebastian Bach), classical music (Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Ludwig van Beethoven) and polish ethnical music (Kapela ze Wsi Warszawa-Warsaw Village Band). By using non parametric inferential and multi dimensional statistics, we could show that structural characteristics of music styles lead to differences in formal and content variables on the rating scales for the pictures. The results of our exploratory study open some tracks for future research. It would be pertinent to enlarge the population to other categories of age and to investigate the influence of gender.

  19. A Reinforcement Model of the Relationships of Supervisors' General Communication Styles and Conflict Management Styles to Task Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeless, Lawrence R.; Reichel, Lisa S.

    1990-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between general styles of communicating and more situation-specific conflict management styles. Finds substantial relationships between general communication styles and conflict management styles, as well as very substantial relationships between the style constructs and task attraction of supervisors. (SR)

  20. The mediational pathway among parenting styles, attachment styles and self-regulation with addiction susceptibility of adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Zeinali

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: The findings of present study suggest the authoritative and permissive parenting styles as the most efficient styles and authoritarian and neglectful parenting styles as the most inefficient styles in terms of addiction susceptibility. Accordingly, efficient parenting style training to parents should be the main goal of drug demand reduction program.

  1. Conflict Management Styles of Turkish Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkalp, Enver; Sungur, Zerrin; Ozdemir, Aytul Ayse

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to determine Turkish managers conflict styles in different sectors, namely durable consumer goods, aviation, automotive and banking. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 130 managers conflict management styles were assessed by applying the Rahim's 1983 Organizational Conflict Inventory-II. Findings: First,…

  2. Integration of Leadership Styles of School Director

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovic, Nebojsa; Oljaca, Milka; Kostovic, Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    Management style can be defined as a special behavior of directors in the work process that affects the performance in an organization, in this case-school. Management style has two related meanings: first is behavior of directors to employees, second is directors' approach in school regarding management, participation of employees in decision…

  3. Towards Generic Interaction Styles for Product Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob; Stienstra, Marcelle

    2008-01-01

    a wider range of interactive products. In this paper we report on five years of continued research into interaction styles for telephones, kitchen equipment, HiFi products and medical devices, and we show how it is indeed possible and beneficial to formulate a set of generic interaction styles....

  4. Parenting Styles and Adjustment in Gifted Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilarinos, Vassiliki; Solomon, C. R.

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between parenting styles and the psychosocial adjustment of 48 children aged 7 to 11 years, each of whom had been identified as gifted on the basis of a score of 130 or above on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Fourth Edition. Parenting styles and child psychosocial adjustment were measured…

  5. [Live style and risk of lifestyle diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kábrt, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome included obesity, diabetes mellitus type II, hypertension and disorder of lipid metabolism are serious complication affecting many people of economic advanced countries. Unhealthy live style with limited physical activity and overfeeding are the main cause of this disorder. Adjustment of the live style with regular physical activity has the better result compared with a diet intervention alone.

  6. Combat Leadership Styles: Empowerment versus Authoritarianism

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    Combat Leadership Styles : Empowerment versus Authoritarianism FARIS R. KIRKLAND Recent research in Israel and the United States suggests that...Combat Leadership Styles : Empowerment versus Authoritarianism 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  7. Personality Inventory Selection for Understanding Leadership Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-05

    justifies using personality inventories to identify leadership styles and it compares the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire and the Myers-Briggs Type...Indicator for consideration by the ACSC. The study concludes the MBTI has better interpretive value for the understanding of leadership styles .

  8. Cognitive styles: Controversial issues and research problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia N. Volkova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analytical review of cognitive styles research, considering the problems of its theory, methodology, measurement and practical applications. Issues concerning the prospects, as well as theoretical and practical relevance of cognitive styles research, are discussed. We examine the main causes leading to researchers’ declining interest to study of cognitive styles, related to theory, methodology, measurement and practical applications. The main problems discussed relate to lack of clear definition and common theoretical framework. Moreover, the number of empirical studies prevails over the one aimed at theoretical generalization of empirical results and findings, and therefore the primacy of empirics appears. We analyze the possible ways of advancing the field, suggested research programs and potential perspectives for future research. We pose questions of the relationship between cognitive styles and other psychological constructs, such as abilities and cognitive strategies. We emphasize the need to develop integrative models of cognitive styles in order to systematize and organize a large number of existing cognitive styles dimensions. The main controversial issues concerning cognitive styles’ stability and value are considered. We suggest that cognitive style is a psychological mean of cognitive tasks solving, based on both situation circumstances and subject’s current cognitive resources. Issues concerning cognitive styles may answer the question on the nature of individual differences and clarify psychological mechanisms of personality-situation interaction. Furthermore, it may serve as a basis for integrated studies at the areas of personality and cognitive psychology.

  9. STYLE AS EXEMPLIFICATIONAL ASPECT OF DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Košćak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Goodman's semiotics and the theory of style are highly influental in contemporary conteptualizations of style and in defining the scope of literary stylistics, particulary in France. The key concept in that context is exemplification – a specific referential function. This paper presents a critical summary of Nelson Goodman's hypotheses as well as his successors', namely Gérard Genette.

  10. Women's Role and Their Styles of Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobaw, Mekasha Kassaye

    2017-01-01

    This research had three objectives: determining the level of participation of women in the academic leadership of Addis Ababa University (AAU), specifying the types of leadership styles women leaders demonstrate, and tracing the factors that led to those styles. Two key research instruments were used: questionnaires and interview. Qualitative and…

  11. Adam Smith and the Rhetoric of Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael G.

    Historians of rhetoric have generally accepted the view that Adam Smith rejected the principles of classical rhetoric. However, while there can be no doubt that Smith greatly truncated the five classical arts of rhetoric (invention, arrangement, style, memory, and delivery) by reducing his concerns largely to style and arrangement, he did not…

  12. Understanding the learning styles of undergraduate physiotherapy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Undergraduate students at universities have different learning styles. To perform optimally, both they and their educators should be made aware of their preferred learning styles and problem-solving abilities. Students have different backgrounds, strengths, weaknesses, interests, ambitions, levels of motivation ...

  13. Improving Teamwork through Awareness of Conversational Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehling, Louise

    2004-01-01

    Conversational styles can sometimes cause conflicts on problem-solving writing teams. In self-defense, students often resort to blaming and shaming around conversational styles, which can just worsen unproductive group behaviors, limiting idea exchanges and deflecting attention from substantive issues and onto what is often labeled "personality…

  14. Application of Learning Style in Media Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranston, Charles M.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a study that examined whether statistically significant differences existed among performance levels of college students in a beginning media writing class when compared according to cognitive style and learning style subgroups. Results are reported for five mass media formats--broadcast news, television copywriting, documentary,…

  15. Successful Instructional Leadership Styles in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gina; Minor, Maria; Brashen, Henry; Remaly, Kristie

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to explore the dominant leadership styles of online college instructors. Online instructors voluntarily participated in a survey to indicate which of four leadership styles they use in their classes: transformational, situational, democratic, or authoritarian. The surveys indicated that the transformational…

  16. Learning Style Preferences of Southeast Asian Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Clara C.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated the perceptual learning style preferences (auditory, visual, kinesthetic, and tactile) and preferences for group and individual learning of Southeast Asian students compared to white students. Surveys indicated significant differences in learning style preferences between Southeast Asian and white students and between the diverse…

  17. Cognitive Style, Creativity Framing and Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dew, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates how individuals with different cognitive styles respond to choices involving framing effects. The results suggest that cognitive style as defined by Kirton (1976) is far more complex than previous studies indicate. Kirton characterises "Innovators" as rule breakers and "Adaptors" as conformists. The most…

  18. Students' Preferred Learning Styles in Graphic Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Jeremy V.; Clark, Aaron C.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify changes in dominant preferred learning styles of students based on instructional presentation of course content. This study evaluates dominant preferred learning styles of two groups of university students. The first group of students was enrolled in a course that introduces graphical representation in…

  19. Perceived Parenting Styles on College Students' Optimism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Debora R.; McIntyre, Anne; Hardaway, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between perceived parenting styles and levels of optimism in undergraduate college students. Sixty-three participants were administered surveys measuring dispositional optimism and perceived parental Authoritative and Authoritarian styles. Multiple regression analysis revealed that both…

  20. Iranian Validation of the Identity Style Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Shokri, Omid

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate the Iranian version of the Identity Style Inventory (ISI). Participants were 376 (42% males) university students. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed a clear three-factor structure of identity style and a mono-factor structure of commitment in the overall sample as well as in gender subgroups. Convergent…

  1. Are Learning Styles Relevant to Virtual Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chwen Jen; Toh, Seong Chong; Ismail, Wan Mohd Fauzy Wan

    2005-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of a virtual reality (VR)-based learning environment on learners with different learning styles. The findings of the aptitude-by-treatment interaction study have shown that learners benefit most from the VR (guided exploration) mode, irrespective of their learning styles. This shows that the VR-based…

  2. relationship between parenting styles and marital adjustment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. BARTH EKWEME

    The relationship between permissive parenting style and marital adjustment was also very low, positive and insignificant. There was a low, positive and significant joint relationship between the parenting styles and marital adjustment of married teachers in secondary schools in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers ...

  3. E.B. White: Aspects of Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumeyer, Peter F.

    1987-01-01

    Assesses the writing style of a famous author of children's books, concluding that E.B. White's informal tone uses anaphora, simple sentences, doubling and redundancy, and mixes colloquial with standard English. Provides examples of his style, from 10 years old to maturity. (NKA)

  4. The Scientific Status of Learning Styles Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willingham, Daniel T.; Hughes, Elizabeth M.; Dobolyi, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Theories of learning styles suggest that individuals think and learn best in different ways. These are not differences of ability but rather preferences for processing certain types of information or for processing information in certain types of way. If accurate, learning styles theories could have important implications for instruction because…

  5. Can We Choose a Management Style?

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Thomas O.

    1985-01-01

    Options in management style from corporate administration literature available to educational institutions include the choices of Theory X vs. Theory Y, the managerial vs. academic grid, management by objectives, autocratic vs. bureaucratic vs. participative vs. free-rein leadership styles, situational leadership, presidential role, leadership…

  6. Temperament Styles of Indian and USA Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakland, Thomas; Singh, Kuldeep; Callueng, Camelo; Puri, Gurmit Singh; Goen, Akiko

    2011-01-01

    Age, gender, and cross-national differences of children ages 8- through 16-years-old in India (n = 400) and the United States of America (n = 3,200) are examined on four bipolar temperament styles: extroversion-introversion, practical-imaginative, thinking-feeling, and organized-flexible styles. In general, Indian children prefer extroverted to…

  7. Personality Types, Learning Styles, and Educational Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alan

    1991-01-01

    Outlines a new personality typology that provides a coherent system for construing and conducting research on learning styles. Discusses analytic, holistic, objective, and subjective styles as the affect versatility. Presents implications for educational goals, such as determining which students can benefit from stylistic versatility and which…

  8. Parenting Styles and Adolescents' Achievement Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aunola, Kaisa; Stattin, Hakan; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the extents to which adolescents' achievement strategies are associated with the parenting styles they experience in their families. Respondents (N=354) identified four types of families: those with Authoritative; Authoritarian; Permissive; and Neglectful parenting styles. Results further reveal that adolescents from authoritative…

  9. Constructive consequences of leaders' forcing influence styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emans, B.J.M.; Munduate, L; Klaver, E; Van de Vliert, E.

    In contrast to non-forcing influence styles used by leaders, their forcing influence styles are commonly found to be ineffective, evoking sheer resistance, rather than compliance. As a corollary of conglomerate conflict behavior theory, we state that forcing, if combined with non-forcing, may

  10. Decision-Making Style and Vocational Maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Susan D.; Strohmer, Douglas C.

    1982-01-01

    Examined the relationship between decision-making style, scholastic achievement, and vocational maturity for college students (N=64). Results did not support the hypothesized relationship between rationality and attitudinal and cognitive maturity. Scholastic achievement and lack of dependent decision style were found to be moderately predictive of…

  11. The European leadership style survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgaard, Jens Jørn; Nørgaard, Anders; Jakobsen, Søren

    Total Quality Management, Business Process Reengineering, Learning Organisations and Human Resource Management are all concepts which lately have been mentioned in relation to leadership. Each of these management theories have different views concerning the strategic direction companies should...... pursue when operating in an international and highly competitive business environment. Often, the way in which management should carry out its daily work is advocated for in such theories and typically on the basis of a single success story. In this way leaders such as Mærsk McKinney Møller - Mærsk...... and different leadership styles which are to be found in any organisation. Without a profound understanding of this relationship, we cannot achive Business Excellence. This article sets out the results of the research project, which was carried out under the joint auspices of the Research Group on Quality...

  12. Leadership styles in an organization

    OpenAIRE

    Dyachenko, Yu. I.; Дьяченко, Ю. И.

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes different leadership styles. The definition of leadership is given and differences between leadership and management are examined. В документе описываются различные стили руководства. Дано определение лидерства и рассматриваются различия между руководством и управлением.

  13. Leadership styles of hospital pharmacy directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrett, E E; Hurd, P D; Northcraft, G; McGhan, W F; Bootman, J L

    1985-05-01

    The leadership styles of hospital pharmacy directors and the association between leadership style, participative management, and innovative pharmaceutical services were studied using a mail questionnaire. The questionnaire was sent to 570 randomly selected hospital pharmacy directors. Included were a validated instrument that measures task-oriented versus relationship-oriented leadership behavior and other questions about participation of staff members, innovative services, and respondents' personal characteristics. The response rate was 69%. The majority of respondents perceived their leadership as highly relationship-oriented as well as highly task-oriented. Respondents with the "high relationship-high task" leadership style had the highest scores for subordinate participation. There were no significant differences in scores for innovative services by leadership style. A positive correlation between scores for subordinate participation and scores for innovative services was demonstrated. Most hospital pharmacy directors used a management style in which relationships and staff participation were important.

  14. The use of PowerPoint presentations in the teaching of vocational subjects: The preferences of medical high school students and their relationship to learning styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simin Dragana P.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In medical vocational high schools teachers frequently use PowerPoint presentations. The study presented in this paper has sought to identify, on the one hand, the preferences of students of medical vocational high schools regarding PowerPoint presentations in the instruction of vocational subjects, and on the other, students' dominant learning styles, and also as to establish whether the differences in preferences were based on learning styles. In this cross-sectional study, responses from 170 students of three medical high schools were obtained using the questionnaire designed by Chan and Denner. The data were processed using the methods of descriptive and inferential statistics. The values obtained for Cronbach's alpha indicate that the questionnaire was reliable. In all three schools, PowerPoint presentations are used in the teaching of most vocational subjects. According to the findings, students prefer teaching that uses PowerPoint presentations, finding it more interesting than teaching that involves teachers writing on the board. On the other hand, students' responses indicate that PowerPoint presentations don't lead to greater classroom participation. The findings show that dominant learning styles contribute to differences in student preferences for classes in which teachers use PowerPoint presentations, but also indicate the need for further research.

  15. Parenting styles, feeding styles, and their influence on child obesogenic behaviors and body weight. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Rachel L; Mobley, Amy R

    2013-12-01

    With recommendations to include parents as targets for childhood obesity interventions, there is a need to review the relationship of general parenting influences on childhood obesity. Therefore, the aim of this review is to examine the existing literature regarding the influence of parenting style and/or feeding styles on childhood obesogenic behaviors and body weight. Research articles related to parenting style (n=40) and parental feeding style (n=11) were identified and reviewed. An authoritative style appears to be the most protective parenting and feeding style while the indulgent feeding style is consistently associated with negative health outcomes. Overall, results for parenting style studies are inconsistent due to differences in conceptualization and measurement, while the results for feeding styles are much more cohesive. The literature is lacking in the ability to describe the interplay between parenting and feeding styles and child obesity risk. Recommendations for future research and interventions are discussed in regards to feeding style and influences on childhood obesity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The relationship among parenting styles, academic self-concept ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship among parenting styles, academic self-concept, academic ... the four specific parenting styles, the authoritative style has the medium correlation 'r' ... school level parent education programs should be incorporated and parents ...

  17. Strategic Style in Pared-Down Poker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Kevin

    This chapter deals with the manner of making diagnoses and decisions, called strategic style, in a gambling game called Pared-down Poker. The approach treats style as a mental mode in which choices are constrained by expected utilities. The focus is on two classes of utility, i.e., money and effort, and how cognitive styles compare to normative strategies in optimizing these utilities. The insights are applied to real-world concerns like managing the war against terror networks and assessing the risks of system failures. After "Introducing the Interactions" involved in playing poker, the contents are arranged in four sections, as follows. "Underpinnings of Utility" outlines four classes of utility and highlights the differences between them: economic utility (money), ergonomic utility (effort), informatic utility (knowledge), and aesthetic utility (pleasure). "Inference and Investment" dissects the cognitive challenges of playing poker and relates them to real-world situations of business and war, where the key tasks are inference (of cards in poker, or strength in war) and investment (of chips in poker, or force in war) to maximize expected utility. "Strategies and Styles" presents normative (optimal) approaches to inference and investment, and compares them to cognitive heuristics by which people play poker--focusing on Bayesian methods and how they differ from human styles. The normative strategy is then pitted against cognitive styles in head-to-head tournaments, and tournaments are also held between different styles. The results show that style is ergonomically efficient and economically effective, i.e., style is smart. "Applying the Analysis" explores how style spaces, of the sort used to model individual behavior in Pared-down Poker, might also be applied to real-world problems where organizations evolve in terror networks and accidents arise from system failures.

  18. LEARNING STYLE SEBAGAI UPAYA PENINGKATAN PRESTASI BELAJAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zalik Nuryana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Learning is the basic human need to know something, whether packed formally or not. There is not one method that is appropriate and certainly appropriate with all students. Students have their own learning styles between one another can’t be equated. Real memorable learning comes from the will of the heart, not coercion. The uniqueness of each individual is what makes the variety of learning styles should be understood so that each student can overcome difficulties learning. In the implementation of learning many teachers doesn’t understand the learning style, so as to force students to always pay attention to the speech and explanation of teachers. The learning process will be effective if the method of learning  used can accommodate students. Research on the most appropriate teaching methods turns out to be a failure, because each teaching method depends on the way or style of the student in learning. This research was conducted in the school as a place of observation (field research by using a quantitative approach. Data were collected by questionnaires, observations, interviews, and document studies which were then processed and analytically analyzed descriptively. The results of research showed that a class can not be equally aligned using and applying a single learning method only. Because in the class there are several learning styles of students. The student's learning style visually dominates the class, followed by the auditorial style, and the kinesthetic style. This research also provides advice to educators / teachers to understand the diversity of student learning styles. so that with the basic teachers are required to be more creative and innovative in applying the method of learning so that all learning styles of students can be accommodated, so that with this understanding of learning achievement can be improved.

  19. Style over substance: What can parenting styles tell us about ownership styles and obesity in companion animals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Alexander J

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a major medical concern in human subjects, and most concerning is the rapid recent increase in childhood obesity. Children are more likely to be obese if their parents are obese, an effect that is mediated both by genetics and environment, most notably parental influence. Four major parenting styles have been recognised: authoritative; authoritarian; indulgent; uninvolved. Too much parental control, as with the authoritarian style, is associated with a higher weight status in children. Conversely, indulgent feeding styles can also have negative consequences and, where control is too lax, a poor relationship with food develops, which may also lead to weight gain. Obesity is also a growing concern in companion animals, and it has parallels with obesity in children. For instance, overweight people are more likely to own overweight dogs. Furthermore, the care that people provide for their pets mirrors that which parents provide for children, and pets are commonly viewed as child substitutes. These similarities raise obvious questions about whether different styles of pet ownership exist, and what part they may play in attitudes to feeding as well as predisposition to obesity in pets. Future work could focus on determining to what extent styles of pet ownership mirror parenting styles, whether there are links to obesity in dogs and cats. Knowledge regarding the owner-pet bond might provide comparative insights into the links between parenting styles and childhood obesity.

  20. Relationship between Leadership Style and Personality Type in Three Levels of Nursing Managers in Iran-Esfahan Medical University Hospitals In 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Akbari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Proper leadership style helps proper functioning of nurses who are the most frequent experts in hospitals and improves quality of their work. One of the important factors affecting nurses` performance is the behaviors of managers toward them which is due to their personality type. The purpose of this study was to study the relationship between personality type and leadership style of nursing managers in Iran-Esfahan medical university hospitals in 2015. Present study is descriptive correlation type. The research community are 150 nursing managers of three levels, Matron, Supervisor and head nurse, from hospitals belonging to Esfahan medical university. Data collection was done by a 3-part questionnaire consisting of demographic information, McCurry and Costa 5-factor personality questionnaire and Renesis Likert questionnaire for determining leadership style. Data were analyzed using SPSS software ver. 22 in two level, descriptive and inferential. The average scores of dominant responsible personality among the first, second and third level were 36.33±5.12, 39.59±5.51 and 36.50±6.75, respectively and a verage scores of dominant organization oriented leadership style were 12.56±1.88, 11.03±4.54 and 12.30±4.40. Hospitals like other organizations require modern leadership styles instead of conventional one. Although organizationoriented leadership has been beneficial to achieve organizational objectives in short term, but in the long term it decreases productivity and job satisfaction because of lack of proper attention to the staff. Thus, applying humanoriented leadership, specially combined leadership will have much better results. Responsible personality is useful for the organization and increases productivity but it seems that in health care department in which interaction with humans is crucial, flexible or extroverted personality is more beneficial.

  1. An Examination of Elementary School Students' Parental Style and Parental Internet Style with Respect to Various Variables

    OpenAIRE

    Deniz, Metin; Horzum, Mehmet Barış; Ayas, Tuncay; Koç, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between parental style and internet parental style and find out whether student's parental style and parental internet style differ according to various variables. In this study, survey model was used. The study was performed with 296 students, attending at an elementary school in the second period of 2011-2012 academic years in Sakarya, Turkey. Parental style and parental internet style scales were used. Results indicated ...

  2. Nursing leadership style and psychosocial work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Terry; Penprase, Barbara

    2010-09-01

    This study examines the relationship between leadership style and the psychosocial work environment of registered nurses. Research consistently supports the positive relationship between transformational leadership style and job satisfaction. There is less evidence, which identifies the relationship between leadership style and psychosocial work environment. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire 5× was used to identify the leadership style. The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire was used to measure psychosocial work environment dimensions. Statistical analysis included Pearson's r correlation between leadership style and psychosocial work environment and anova to analyse group means. There is a significant correlation between leadership style and 22 out of the 37 dimensions of the psychosocial work environment. This correlation was significant ranging from r = 0.88, P leadership scores of the immediate supervisor report significant differences in their psychosocial work environment. This study supports the significant correlation between leadership style and psychosocial work environment for registered nurses. The results of this study suggest that there would be an improvement in the nursing psychosocial work environment by implementation of transformational and contingent reward leadership behaviours. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. LEARNING STYLES AND SATISFACTION IN DISTANCE EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren C. WU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Although complex, controversial, and contradicting, learning styles is highly influential. Distance education (DE has experienced tremendous growth in the last few decades. The popularity of learning styles and DE necessitates research. This correlational research study was conducted to determine if there is any evidence to incorporate learning styles in DE. The following is the research question for this study. Are students’ learning styles based on the visual, auditory, tactile model correlated to satisfaction of course format in an online undergraduate course? The participants of this study were students enrolled in three sections of the Contemporary Worldviews course at a private higher education institution (HEI. Learning styles were determined by a variant of the visual, auditory, read/write, and kinesthetic (VARK framework. Satisfaction of course format was determined from one composite question with responses based on a Likert scale. The response rate was 53.5%. Statistical analysis determined that learning styles was not correlated to satisfaction of course format in this current study. There are implications from this study that curriculum can be designed for a single course that leaves students highly satisfied. Educators should saturate DE courses with as much variance as feasible given technology and cost limitations to account for possible learning style differences.

  4. Attributional Style and Depression in Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Several etiologic theories have been proposed to explain depression in the general population. Studying these models and modifying them for use in the multiple sclerosis (MS) population may allow us to better understand depression in MS. According to the reformulated learned helplessness (LH) theory, individuals who attribute negative events to internal, stable, and global causes are more vulnerable to depression. This study differentiated attributional style that was or was not related to MS in 52 patients with MS to test the LH theory in this population and to determine possible differences between illness-related and non-illness-related attributions. Patients were administered measures of attributional style, daily stressors, disability, and depressive symptoms. Participants were more likely to list non-MS-related than MS-related causes of negative events on the Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ), and more-disabled participants listed significantly more MS-related causes than did less-disabled individuals. Non-MS-related attributional style correlated with stress and depressive symptoms, but MS-related attributional style did not correlate with disability or depressive symptoms. Stress mediated the effect of non-MS-related attributional style on depressive symptoms. These results suggest that, although attributional style appears to be an important construct in MS, it does not seem to be related directly to depressive symptoms; rather, it is related to more perceived stress, which in turn is related to increased depressive symptoms. PMID:24453767

  5. Analytic information processing style in epilepsy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonfiglio, Marzia; Di Sabato, Francesco; Mandillo, Silvia; Albini, Mariarita; Di Bonaventura, Carlo; Giallonardo, Annateresa; Avanzini, Giuliano

    2017-08-01

    Relevant to the study of epileptogenesis is learning processing, given the pivotal role that neuroplasticity assumes in both mechanisms. Recently, evoked potential analyses showed a link between analytic cognitive style and altered neural excitability in both migraine and healthy subjects, regardless of cognitive impairment or psychological disorders. In this study we evaluated analytic/global and visual/auditory perceptual dimensions of cognitive style in patients with epilepsy. Twenty-five cryptogenic temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients matched with 25 idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) sufferers and 25 healthy volunteers were recruited and participated in three cognitive style tests: "Sternberg-Wagner Self-Assessment Inventory", the C. Cornoldi test series called AMOS, and the Mariani Learning style Questionnaire. Our results demonstrate a significant association between analytic cognitive style and both IGE and TLE and respectively a predominant auditory and visual analytic style (ANOVA: p values <0,0001). These findings should encourage further research to investigate information processing style and its neurophysiological correlates in epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Tablet PC Support of Students' Learning Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreya Kothaneth

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of rapid technology development, it comes as no surprise that technology continues to impact the educational domain, challenging traditional teaching and learning styles. This study focuses on how students with different learning styles use instructional technology, and in particular, the tablet PC, to enhance their learning experience. The VARK model was chosen as our theoretical framework as we analyzed responses of an online survey, both from a quantitative and qualitative standpoint. Results indicate that if used correctly, the tablet PC can be used across different learning styles to enrich the educational experience.

  7. Learning Styles and Organisational Development in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Jacob; Lauridsen, Karen M.

    2012-01-01

    Issues of innovation and knowledge management are often treated from an organisational learning perspective. As a complement to this, there is a vast potential in the strategic enhancement of individual learning by implementing learning styles profiles and creating personal learning strategies...... for management and employees in a knowledge based organisation. Based on an action-research case study, we offer an example of how learning styles affects individual learning and thus personal knowledge creation in practice. The paper argues that innovation and knowledge management is enhanced and facilitated...... in practice by working with the learning styles of individuals and groups/teams....

  8. Leadership Style: School Perspective in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asan Vernyuy Wirba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines leadership styles of secondary school principals in Cameroon, in terms of transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles. This paper discusses the leadership styles in Cameroon and puts forward ideas for continuous improvement. A qualitative approach, using a semistructured interview, was adopted. It was conducted on ten principals, ten teachers, and ten students. Majority of respondents from schools described their principals as transformational leaders. Doubts are cast on the nature of transformational leadership in schools in Cameroon, since there is less training and development for leadership in schools.

  9. The impact of leadership styles on innovations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesting, Peter; Ulhøi, John Parm; Song, Jiwen Lynda

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the insights that research offers on the impact of different leadership styles on innovation management. To do so, we develop a framework structuring existing insights into four generic dimensions: people, means, effects, and goals. Based on this framework, we review studies on...... demands on leadership. Against this background, transformational leadership is not the only style to lead innovations, but different leadership styles fit differently well with different innovation types and stages. However, the specification of this fit is still very incomplete and the answer...

  10. Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire. Establishing cutoff points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Sheryl O; Cross, Matthew B; Hennessy, Erin; Tovar, Alison; Economos, Christina D; Power, Thomas G

    2012-02-01

    Researchers use the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ) to categorize parent feeding into authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and uninvolved styles. The CFSQ assesses self-reported feeding and classifies parents using median splits which are used in a substantial body of parenting literature and allow for direct comparison across studies on dimensions of demandingness and responsiveness. No national norms currently exist for the CFSQ. This paper establishes and recommends cutoff points most relevant for low-income, minority US samples that researchers and clinicians can use to assign parents to feeding styles. Median scores for five studies are examined and the average across these studies reported. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. PLURILINGUAL COMPETENCE, STYLES AND VARIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyrki Kalliokoski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores plurilingual competence in respect to language proficiency, language education and pluri- and multilingualism. The notion of communicative competence was introduced by Hymes (1972 as a reaction to chomskyan view of language as an autonomous system. Hymes’ notion of communicative competence originally included plurilingualism. The concept of communicative competence was quickly adopted to applied linguistics but the idea of a linguistic repertoire consisting of the competencies of linguistic varieties was not imported to SLA or language testing. The Hymesian perspective to plurilingualism as an essential dimension of communicative competence was revived in the Common European Framework (CEFR. However,the practice of applying the CEFR has mostly neglected the dimension on plurilingualism and plurilingual competence. The focus in the use of the CEFR has been on the different areas of language skills within one single language at a time, while the application of plurilingual practices has gained very little attention. The Hymesian notion of communicative competence has lived on in the sociolinguistic research tradition, especially within interactional sociolinguistics. The present paper relates the notion of plurilingual competence to its hymesian origin, to recent trends in plurilingual and pluricultural education, and to the sociolinguistic study of style and linguistic variation in multilingual communities. The article uses Finnish L2 data to show how plurilingual competence is used as an interactional resource.From the perspective of language learning, plurilingual competence enables speakers with different linguistic backgrounds to use their shared linguistic repertoire in order to ensure smooth interaction and achieve mutual understanding.

  12. Styles and Style-Stretching: How are They Related to Successful Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Carol; İnceçay, Görsev

    2016-06-01

    Although the learning style construct has aroused much interest over the years, questions remain regarding basic issues such as definition, the validity and/or reliability of various measurement instruments, and the relationship between learning style and successful learning. Furthermore, although maintaining stylistic flexibility is recommended by many authors, few studies have attempted to relate the style-stretching concept to successful learning. This study therefore attempted to address these questions. According to results, conducted among 106 Turkish university students, using an original instrument constructed using elements from established questionnaires, a small group of styles was significantly correlated with exam results, accounting for about a quarter of the variance (considered a large effect size in social science). In addition, higher-scoring students reported a more eclectic range of styles, suggesting more willingness to style-stretch, while lower-scoring students reported a more limited range. Pedagogical implications as well as areas for ongoing research are suggested.

  13. Towards assessing managerial competencies and leadership styles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One way of achieving long term sustainability of game ranches in South Africa is to ensure the ... assess the management competencies and leadership styles needed by game ranch managers/owners in order ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  14. Stereotype threat and female communication styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hippel, Courtney; Wiryakusuma, Cindy; Bowden, Jessica; Shochet, Megan

    2011-10-01

    A large body of research has documented the performance-debilitating effects of stereotype threat for individuals, but there is a paucity of research exploring interpersonal consequences of stereotype threat. Two experiments tested the hypothesis that stereotype threat would change the style in which women communicate. Results indicate that women who experience stereotype threat regarding leadership abilities react against the stereotype by adopting a more masculine communication style. Study 2 provides evidence that self-affirmation eliminates this effect of stereotype threat on women's communication styles. A third study demonstrates an ironic consequence of this effect of stereotype threat on women's communication--when women under stereotype threat adopt a more masculine communication style, they are rated as less warm and likeable, and evaluators indicate less willingness to comply with their requests. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  15. Predicting coping style in adolescence following trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard; Hansen, Maj; Elklit, Ask

    Decades of research have established the importance of coping with stressful events. Individuals generally use the same overall coping styles across situations, and correlational studies have demonstrated a relationship between single individual characteristics and coping. However, there is a lac...

  16. Trajectories of delinquency and parenting styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, M.; van Blokland, A.; Dubas, J.S.; Loeber, R; Gerris, J.R.M.; van der Laan, P.H.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated trajectories of adolescent delinquent development using data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study and examined the extent to which these different trajectories are differentially predicted by childhood parenting styles. Based on self-reported and official delinquency seriousness, covering

  17. Trajectories of Delinquency and Parenting Styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, M.; Blokland, A.A.J.; Dubas, J.S.; Loeber, R.; Gerris, J.R.M.; Laan, P.H. van der

    2008-01-01

    We investigated trajectories of adolescent delinquent development using data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study and examined the extent to which these different trajectories are differentially predicted by childhood parenting styles. Based on self-reported and official delinquency seriousness, covering

  18. Creative style, personality, and artistic endeavor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelade, Garry A

    2002-08-01

    Research has shown that creative style, as measured by the Kirton Adaption-Innovation Inventory (KAI; M. J. Kirton, 1976), is correlated with more than 30 different personality traits. In this article, the author demonstrates that many of these correlations can be understood within the framework of the Five-Factor Model of personality and shows that the predominant correlates of creative style are personality indicators in the domains of the factors Conscientiousness, Openness to Experience, and, to a lesser extent, Extraversion. These findings provide a basis for comparing the personality traits associated with creative style and occupational creativity. High scorers on the KAI (innovators) differ from both average and creative scientists but have personality characteristics similar to those of artists. This finding suggests that the artistic personality may be more common than is generally supposed and that common factors might underlie both artistic endeavor and creative style.

  19. Attachment style and adjustment to divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yárnoz-Yaben, Sagrario

    2010-05-01

    Divorce is becoming increasingly widespread in Europe. In this study, I present an analysis of the role played by attachment style (secure, dismissing, preoccupied and fearful, plus the dimensions of anxiety and avoidance) in the adaptation to divorce. Participants comprised divorced parents (N = 40) from a medium-sized city in the Basque Country. The results reveal a lower proportion of people with secure attachment in the sample group of divorcees. Attachment style and dependence (emotional and instrumental) are closely related. I have also found associations between measures that showed a poor adjustment to divorce and the preoccupied and fearful attachment styles. Adjustment is related to a dismissing attachment style and to the avoidance dimension. Multiple regression analysis confirmed that secure attachment and the avoidance dimension predict adjustment to divorce and positive affectivity while preoccupied attachment and the anxiety dimension predicted negative affectivity. Implications for research and interventions with divorcees are discussed.

  20. Happiness and Defense Styles in Psychiatrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Leonardo; Tavares, Hermano; Petribú, Kátia; Pinto, Tiago; Cantilino, Amaury

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to measure happiness in a sample of Brazilian psychiatrists and correlate it with the defense styles used by them and sociodemographic data. This study was observational, cross-sectional, and analytical. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires by Brazilian psychiatrists who participated in the XXXII Brazilian Congress of Psychiatry, 2014. In this sample of psychiatrists, happiness levels were high (scoring 5.69 of a total of 7), and mature defense styles prevailed, especially humor and anticipation. In a multivariate analysis, having children, good sleep quality, increased sexual interest, and use of defense styles such as humor, anticipation, and idealization all showed a positive relationship with happiness; on the other hand, using defense style such as acting out or annulment demonstrated a negative relationship with happiness. Despite the well-known professional burden that they bear, Brazilian psychiatrists surveyed presented, in general, high levels of subjective well-being and happiness.

  1. Learning Styles in Continuing Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennet, Nancy L.; Fox, Robert D.

    1984-01-01

    Synthesizes literature on cognitive style and considers issues about its role in continuing medical education research, including whether it should be used as a dependent or independent variable and how it may be used in causal models. (SK)

  2. Style as a Symptom: A Phenomenological Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorc, Anthony F.

    1984-01-01

    Findings from early and current phenomenological studies indicate that stylistic characteristics are indicators of psychological forces that guide interactions with the world. Implications of how this theory relates to learning and teaching styles are discussed. (DF)

  3. Air University Style and Author Guide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bassett, Marvin

    2005-01-01

    The "Air University Style and Author Guide" is designed to unify the writing of faculty, staff, and students of Air University stylistically, and to give them information about publishing with Air University (AU) Press...

  4. Leader communication styles and organizational health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Joel M

    2011-01-01

    Communication is perhaps one of the greatest challenges facing managers and leaders today. Clearly articulating ideas and expectations to employees is vital to the productivity and the longevity of an organization. Furthermore, the style in which the communication is delivered has an influence on the satisfaction levels of employees. Research has discovered that there are many different styles in which a leader may communicate with employees. Research has provided several methods that aid in determining which style is the most appropriate for any given circumstance. Research has demonstrated how appropriate and effective communication is used to promote organizational health. Furthermore, research has demonstrated how inappropriate communication may decrease employee satisfaction. Finally, research has provided methods to aid in improving communication styles and delivery.

  5. The impact of perceived parenting styles on attachment styles, self-evaluations and close relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Sümer, N; Güngör, Derya

    1999-01-01

    The present study examined the interplay between the perceived parenting styles of the university students and attachment styles, basic self-dimensions, behavior patterns in close relationships, and relationship satisfaction. The findings indicated that parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, permissive/indulgent, and permissive/neglecting), which were constructed by crossing perceived parental acceptance/involment and strict control dimensions of parenting were consistently related w...

  6. Different Styles for Different Needs – The Effect of Cognitive Styles on Idea Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Lomberg, Carina; Kollmann, Tobias; Stockmann, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Researchers are engaged in finding the precursors for innovation. Drawing on Kirton's Adaption-Innovation (KAI) Inventory, we explicitly test Kirton's central premise that cognitive styles differentiate between preferences for producing ideas in a certain way. We argue that the generation of either a magnitude or original ideas is governed by different underlying cognitive styles. In a study with 191 individuals, we find that the cognitive style originality associates with ideational fluency ...

  7. Learning style preferences of surgical residency applicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Roger H; Gilbert, Timothy

    2015-09-01

    The learning style preferences of general surgery residents have been previously reported; there is evidence that residents who prefer read/write learning styles perform better on the American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination (ABSITE). However, little is known regarding the learning style preferences of applicants to general surgery residency and their impact on educational outcomes. In this study, the preferred learning styles of surgical residency applicants were determined. We hypothesized that applicant rank data are associated with specific learning style preferences. The Fleming VARK learning styles inventory was offered to all general surgery residency applicants that were interviewed at a university hospital-based program. The VARK model categorizes learners as visual (V), aural (A), read/write (R), kinesthetic (K), or multimodal (MM). Responses on the inventory were scored to determine the preferred learning style for each applicant. Applicant data, including United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) scores, class rank, interview score, and overall final applicant ranking, were examined for association with preferred learning styles. Sixty-seven applicants were interviewed. Five applicants were excluded due to not completing the VARK inventory or having incomplete applicant data. The remaining 62 applicants (92%) were included for analysis. Most applicants (57%) had a multimodal preference. Sixty-nine percent of all applicants had some degree of preference for kinesthetic learning. There were statistically significant differences between applicants of different learning styles in terms of USMLE step 1 scores (P = 0.001) and USMLE step 2 clinical knowledge scores (P = 0.01), but not for class ranks (P = 0.27), interview scores (P = 0.20), or final ranks (P = 0.14). Multiple comparison analysis demonstrated that applicants with aural preferences had higher USMLE 1 scores (233.2) than those with kinesthetic (211.8, P = 0.005) or multimodal

  8. Relation between birth order and interpersonal styles

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro de Oliveira Magalhães

    2009-01-01

    Interpersonal style is an aspect of personality related to the particular way individuals participate and gain influence in social contexts. It has its origin in childhood’s first social interactions within the family group. It is suggested that the individual position in the family structure, namely birth order, is an important variable in this process. The present study investigated combined effects of sex and birth order on interpersonal style. A sample of 435 college students (196 men and...

  9. Style in knitted textiles and fashion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štemberger, M.; Pavko-Čuden, A.

    2017-10-01

    The presented research relates the basic elements of the art theory with the concept of style and fashion design. The objective of the research was to determine how style is manifested in knitting in different periods of fashion seasons. The collections of three designers were compared: Missoni, Issey Miyake and Sonia Rykiel, in four different seasons in three different years. The basic artistic elements used in the presented research were: point, line, light-dark and colour together with syntactic rules. A combination of different elements and syntactic rules refers to different artistic languages, which have their own artistic grammar, i.e. a different style. All three investigated fashion designers used knitting in their collections as a significant element which defined their style. Different knitting technologies as well as different yarns made of synthetic or natural fibres in all colour spectra significantly influence the surface of a knitted fabric. Even when the technology is the same, the use of different materials, structures, colours, etc. creates various unique surfaces. The method used in the presented research was a style matrix which is developed from the axiomatic system. Only the part dealing with the language of fine arts and the pictorial speech - the style of a certain designer and a certain work of art/knitted fabric was used. After the selected three designers were examined through all the periods, it was concluded that each designer can be characterised by his own style. Despite the influencing fashion trends, all the compared designers still retained their own style, their own techniques, their own inspirations.

  10. Perceived Parental Styles and Adult Separation Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başbuğ, Sezin; Cesur, Gizem; Durak Batıgün, Ayşegül

    2017-01-01

    The Mediating Role of Interpersonal Cognitive Distortions OBJECTIVE: This study primarily aimed to determine whether perceived parental styles and interpersonal cognitive distortions are predictors of adult separation anxiety. Further, this study aimed to examine the mediating role of interpersonal cognitive distortions in the relationship between perceived over-permissive/boundless parental styles and adult separation anxiety in university students. This study included 444 university students (281 female (63,3%) and 163 male (36,7%) with a mean age of sample 21,02 years (SS = 1,70). The Demographic Information Form, Young Parenting Inventory, Interpersonal Cognitive Distortions Scale, and Adult Separation Anxiety Questionnaire were used. The regression analyses revealed that the age of the participants and their percieved controlling/shaping father parenting style negatively predicted adult separation anxiety, while percieved over-permissive/boundless mother parenting style, exploitative/abusive and overprotective/anxious father parenting styles and the subscales of the interpersonal cognitive distortions scale positively predicted adult separation anxiety. As hypothesized, data from this study reveal that subscales of the interpersonal cognitive distortions scale play a full mediating role in the relationship between over-permissive/boundless parenting styles and adult separation anxiety. Results indicate that the perceived over-permissive/boundless parenting style positively predicts adult separation anxiety symptoms by distorting interpersonal cognitions. Furthermore, the over-permissive parenting style and lack of boundaries and/or discipline lead to similar adverse effects as do authoritarian and normative parenting. To our knowledge, there are very few studies investigating adult separation anxiety symptoms in Turkey. Therefore, our current study provides practical information to mental health professionals regarding adult separation anxiety symptoms, which

  11. Maternal styles in a precocial bird

    OpenAIRE

    Pittet , Florent; Houdelier , Cécilia; de Margerie , Emmanuel; Le Bot , Océane; Richard-Yris , Marie-Annick; Lumineau , Sophie

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Care provided by females of many mammal species varies naturally between individuals; these differences in turn influence the phenotypic development of their offspring. When individual maternal behavioural traits are consistent over a number of breeding periods, maternal styles can be defined. These styles have been studied in a large range of mammalian species. Nevertheless, mammals rarely offer the possibility to dissociate mothers' behavioural influence from their g...

  12. Response Styles in the Partial Credit Model

    OpenAIRE

    Tutz, Gerhard; Schauberger, Gunther; Berger, Moritz

    2016-01-01

    In the modelling of ordinal responses in psychological measurement and survey- based research, response styles that represent specific answering patterns of respondents are typically ignored. One consequence is that estimates of item parameters can be poor and considerably biased. The focus here is on the modelling of a tendency to extreme or middle categories. An extension of the Partial Credit Model is proposed that explicitly accounts for this specific response style. In contrast to exi...

  13. Style et rhétorique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Eva de la Fuente

    2006-01-01

    En se forgeant un style presque inimitable, qui paraît ébauché, Rembrandt a suscité l'admiration de ses contemporains. Au-delà son apparente spontanéité, ce style fait certainement écho aux préoccupations des théoriciens de l'art contemporains qui attendaient de la peinture, comme de la rhétorique...

  14. School Disciplinary Style and Adolescent Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Claudia; Wong, Mitchell; Dudovitz, Rebecca

    2018-02-01

    Parenting style is strongly associated with adolescent health. However, little is known about how school disciplinary style relates to health. We categorized adolescents' perceptions of their schools as authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, or neglectful, and test whether perceived school disciplinary style is associated with health. We analyze data from the RISE Up study (Reducing Health Inequities Through Social and Educational Change Follow-up), comprised of baseline (eighth grade) and 2-year follow-up surveys (10th grade) from 1,159 low-income minority adolescents in Los Angeles attending 157 schools. At 10th grade, students' ratings of school support and structure were used to categorize perceived school disciplinary style as authoritative (highest tertile for support and structure), authoritarian (low support, high structure), permissive (high support, low structure), neglectful (low on both dimensions), and average (middle tertile on either dimension). Mixed effects logistic regressions controlling for sociodemographic factors, parenting style, grades, and baseline health tested whether school disciplinary style was associated with substance use, violence, bullying, and depression symptoms. Risky behaviors varied by school disciplinary style. After adjusting for covariates, compared with an average school disciplinary style, a neglectful school was associated with higher odds of substance use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.3, p authoritative school was associated with lower odds of substance use (AOR .6, p = .049), violence (AOR .6, p = .03), and bullying (AOR .5, p = .001). Structured and supportive school environments may impact the health of vulnerable adolescents. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. CULTURAL VARIATIONS IN LEARNING AND LEARNING STYLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegah OMIDVAR,, Putra University, MALAYSIA

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The need for cross-cultural understanding of the relationship between culture and learning style is becoming increasingly important because of the changing cultural mix of classrooms and society at large. The research done regarding the two variables is mostly quantitative. This review summarizes results of the existing research on cultural variations in learning styles. Limitations of the existing studies are discussed and some suggestion for future research is proposed.

  16. Applying leadership styles to the healthcare sector

    OpenAIRE

    Galea, Marthese;

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Leadership can have a different meaning to different individuals. The way a person defines a leader depends on many aspects, such as cultural background, beliefs and experiences. Leaders are not in short supply but leaders that truly make a positive difference are not easy to come by. Leadership styles There are many leadership styles that are mentioned in the literature. In this review, four models are discussed which the author thinks best apply to the healthcare s...

  17. Citing & Referencing Using the Harvard Style: Examples

    OpenAIRE

    Cullen, John G.

    2016-01-01

    This teaching resource supplements 2 videos which are available online on YouTube. These videos are titled: • ‘Citing and referencing using the Harvard Style (Part 1)’ - Available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9X1UjtfgTU8 • Citing and referencing using the Harvard Style (Part 2)’ - Available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hj_EXIFviZA

  18. Predictive capacity of a non-radioisotopic local lymph node assay using flow cytometry, LLNA:BrdU-FCM: Comparison of a cutoff approach and inferential statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Da-Eun; Yang, Hyeri; Jang, Won-Hee; Jung, Kyoung-Mi; Park, Miyoung; Choi, Jin Kyu; Jung, Mi-Sook; Jeon, Eun-Young; Heo, Yong; Yeo, Kyung-Wook; Jo, Ji-Hoon; Park, Jung Eun; Sohn, Soo Jung; Kim, Tae Sung; Ahn, Il Young; Jeong, Tae-Cheon; Lim, Kyung-Min; Bae, SeungJin

    2016-01-01

    In order for a novel test method to be applied for regulatory purposes, its reliability and relevance, i.e., reproducibility and predictive capacity, must be demonstrated. Here, we examine the predictive capacity of a novel non-radioisotopic local lymph node assay, LLNA:BrdU-FCM (5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine-flow cytometry), with a cutoff approach and inferential statistics as a prediction model. 22 reference substances in OECD TG429 were tested with a concurrent positive control, hexylcinnamaldehyde 25%(PC), and the stimulation index (SI) representing the fold increase in lymph node cells over the vehicle control was obtained. The optimal cutoff SI (2.7≤cutoff <3.5), with respect to predictive capacity, was obtained by a receiver operating characteristic curve, which produced 90.9% accuracy for the 22 substances. To address the inter-test variability in responsiveness, SI values standardized with PC were employed to obtain the optimal percentage cutoff (42.6≤cutoff <57.3% of PC), which produced 86.4% accuracy. A test substance may be diagnosed as a sensitizer if a statistically significant increase in SI is elicited. The parametric one-sided t-test and non-parametric Wilcoxon rank-sum test produced 77.3% accuracy. Similarly, a test substance could be defined as a sensitizer if the SI means of the vehicle control, and of the low, middle, and high concentrations were statistically significantly different, which was tested using ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis, with post hoc analysis, Dunnett, or DSCF (Dwass-Steel-Critchlow-Fligner), respectively, depending on the equal variance test, producing 81.8% accuracy. The absolute SI-based cutoff approach produced the best predictive capacity, however the discordant decisions between prediction models need to be examined further. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Different Styles for Different Needs – The Effect of Cognitive Styles on Idea Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomberg, Carina; Kollmann, Tobias; Stockmann, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Researchers are engaged in finding the precursors for innovation. Drawing on Kirton's Adaption-Innovation (KAI) Inventory, we explicitly test Kirton's central premise that cognitive styles differentiate between preferences for producing ideas in a certain way. We argue that the generation of either...... a magnitude or original ideas is governed by different underlying cognitive styles. In a study with 191 individuals, we find that the cognitive style originality associates with ideational fluency whereas the rule governance style associates with the generation of original ideas. By providing a cognitive...

  20. Assessing learning styles of Saudi dental students using Kolb's Learning Style Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALQahtani, Dalal A; Al-Gahtani, Sara M

    2014-06-01

    Experiential learning theory (ELT), a theory developed by David Kolb that considers experience to be very important for learning, classifies learners into four categories: Divergers, Assimilators, Convergers, and Accommodators. Kolb used his Learning Style Inventory (LSI) to validate ELT. Knowing the learning styles of students facilitates their understanding of themselves and thereby increases teaching efficiency. Few studies have been conducted that investigate learning preferences of students in the field of dentistry. This study was designed to distinguish learning styles among Saudi dental students and interns utilizing Kolb's LSI. The survey had a response rate of 62 percent (424 of 685 dental students), but surveys with incomplete answers or errors were excluded, resulting in 291 usable surveys (42 percent of the student population). The independent variables of this study were gender, clinical experience level, academic achievement as measured by grade point average (GPA), and specialty interest. The Diverging learning style was the dominant style among those in the sample. While the students preferred the Assimilating style during their early preclinical years, they preferred the Diverging style during their later clinical years. No associations were found between students' learning style and their gender, GPA, or specialty interest. Further research is needed to support these findings and demonstrate the impact of learning styles on dental students' learning.

  1. Vocal health fitness to different music styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cláudia Mendes Caminha Muniz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present genres and styles currently running on western music scene, focusing on the practice of singing voice. Methods: An observational and documental study for which were selected sound sources presenting musical genres and styles that are part of the experience of the researchers, which were analyzed considering origins, formative elements and vocal features. Alongside we carried out a review of literature grounded in databases research and free review of websites and classical books of the area. Results: The selected styles (Rock and Roll, Heavy Metal, Trash Metal, Grunge, Gothic Metal, Rap, Funk, Blues, R&B – Rhythm and Blues, Soul, Gospel, MPB, Samba, Forro, Sertanejo, Bossa Nova, Opera and Chamber Music were described, pointing the reasons for the speech therapist to be informed about them and about singing voice aspects. His guidance may minimize possible vocal damage caused by each style, since each of them carries its own patterns to which the interpreter must submit. Conclusions: We conclude that the singer will use a specific vocal pattern that resembles the musical style he intends to sing, regardless of any harm it may or may not cause to vocal health. When choosing a musical style, it is important that the singer has the knowledge and understanding of how the use of his vocal apparatus will cause or not cause injury to his voice. Also be aware that the technique in singing is necessary for vocal longevity.

  2. Creativity, visualization abilities, and visual cognitive style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhevnikov, Maria; Kozhevnikov, Michael; Yu, Chen Jiao; Blazhenkova, Olesya

    2013-06-01

    Despite the recent evidence for a multi-component nature of both visual imagery and creativity, there have been no systematic studies on how the different dimensions of creativity and imagery might interrelate. The main goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between different dimensions of creativity (artistic and scientific) and dimensions of visualization abilities and styles (object and spatial). In addition, we compared the contributions of object and spatial visualization abilities versus corresponding styles to scientific and artistic dimensions of creativity. Twenty-four undergraduate students (12 females) were recruited for the first study, and 75 additional participants (36 females) were recruited for an additional experiment. Participants were administered a number of object and spatial visualization abilities and style assessments as well as a number of artistic and scientific creativity tests. The results show that object visualization relates to artistic creativity and spatial visualization relates to scientific creativity, while both are distinct from verbal creativity. Furthermore, our findings demonstrate that style predicts corresponding dimension of creativity even after removing shared variance between style and visualization ability. The results suggest that styles might be a more ecologically valid construct in predicting real-life creative behaviour, such as performance in different professional domains. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  3. Neural codes of seeing architectural styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Heeyoung; Nasar, Jack L; Nikrahei, Bardia; Walther, Dirk B

    2017-01-10

    Images of iconic buildings, such as the CN Tower, instantly transport us to specific places, such as Toronto. Despite the substantial impact of architectural design on people's visual experience of built environments, we know little about its neural representation in the human brain. In the present study, we have found patterns of neural activity associated with specific architectural styles in several high-level visual brain regions, but not in primary visual cortex (V1). This finding suggests that the neural correlates of the visual perception of architectural styles stem from style-specific complex visual structure beyond the simple features computed in V1. Surprisingly, the network of brain regions representing architectural styles included the fusiform face area (FFA) in addition to several scene-selective regions. Hierarchical clustering of error patterns further revealed that the FFA participated to a much larger extent in the neural encoding of architectural styles than entry-level scene categories. We conclude that the FFA is involved in fine-grained neural encoding of scenes at a subordinate-level, in our case, architectural styles of buildings. This study for the first time shows how the human visual system encodes visual aspects of architecture, one of the predominant and longest-lasting artefacts of human culture.

  4. Analysis of Bloggers' Influence Style within Blog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan, Luke Kien-Weng

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Blogs are readily available sources of opinions and sentiments which allows bloggers to exert a certain level of influence over the blog readers. Previous studies had attempted to analyze blog features to detect influence within the blogosphere, but had not studied in details influence at the blogger-level. Other studies studied bloggers' personalities with regards to their propensity to blog, but did not relate the personalities of bloggers to influence. Bloggers may differ in their way or manner of exerting influence. For example, bloggers could be active participants or just passive shares, or whether they express ideas in a rational or subjective manner, or they are received positively or negatively by the readers. In this paper, we further analyze the engagement style (frequency, scope, originality, and consistency of the blog postings, persuasion style (appeals to reasons or emotions, and persona (degree of compliance of individual bloggers. Methods used include similarity analysis to detect the sharing-creating aspect of engagement style, subjectivity analysis to measure persuasion style, and sentiment analysis to identify persona style. While previous studies analyzed influence at blog site level, our model is shown to provide a fine-grained influence analysis that could further differentiate the bloggers' influence style in a blog site.

  5. Best-Worst Scaling of Values: More Substance than Style?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Herk, H.; Lee, Julie Anne

    2017-01-01

    Research on response styles typically focuses on response styles being bias that requires purging from the data. In the literature several procedures have been proposed to detect response styles such as acquiescence, extreme response style and midpoint responding. The main focus has been on post hoc

  6. Learning Styles and Student Performance in Introductory Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunton, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Data from nine introductory microeconomics classes was used to test the effect of student learning style on academic performance. The Kolb Learning Style Inventory was used to assess individual student learning styles. The results indicate that student learning style has no significant effect on performance, undermining the claims of those who…

  7. The Positive Effects of Cognitive Learning Styles in ELT Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagcioglu, Ozlem

    2016-01-01

    In the EFL, ESL, ESP and in the ELT classes, students are taught their courses with different kinds of methods and approaches. Cognitive learning styles are the most essential styles in foreign language education. In this paper, the positive effects of cognitive learning styles will be handled. The benefits of these styles will be highlighted.…

  8. Learning Styles: A Comparison between Indian and German Business Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Tushar; Sinha, Vinita

    2018-01-01

    Every individual is characterized by a learning style which an individual develops over a course of time. The learning style may be shaped by different cultural environment. This study aims to find and compare the learning style of Indian and German business students by examining the learning styles of 81 students from India and Germany. The study…

  9. OTTER, Resolution Style Theorem Prover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCune, W.W.

    2001-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: OTTER (Other Techniques for Theorem-proving and Effective Research) is a resolution-style theorem-proving program for first-order logic with equality. OTTER includes the inference rules binary resolution, hyper-resolution, UR-resolution, and binary para-modulation. These inference rules take as small set of clauses and infer a clause. If the inferred clause is new and useful, it is stored and may become available for subsequent inferences. Other capabilities are conversion from first-order formulas to clauses, forward and back subsumption, factoring, weighting, answer literals, term ordering, forward and back demodulation, and evaluable functions and predicates. 2 - Method of solution: For its inference process OTTER uses the given-clause algorithm, which can be viewed as a simple implementation of the set of support strategy. OTTER maintains three lists of clauses: axioms, sos (set of support), and demodulators. OTTER is not automatic. Even after the user has encoded a problem into first-order logic or into clauses, the user must choose inference rules, set options to control the processing of inferred clauses, and decide which input formulae or clauses are to be in the initial set of support and which, if any, equalities are to be demodulators. If OTTER fails to find a proof, the user may try again different initial conditions. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem - Maxima of: 5000 characters in an input string, 64 distinct variables in a clause, 51 characters in any symbol. The maxima can be changed by finding the appropriate definition in the header.h file, increasing the limit, and recompiling OTTER. There are a few constraints on the order of commands

  10. Inferential misconceptions and replication crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Hirschauer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Misinterpretations of the p value and the introduction of bias through arbitrary analytical choices have been discussed in the literature for decades. Nonetheless, they seem to have persisted in empirical research, and criticisms of p value misuses have increased in the recent past due to the non-replicability of many studies. Unfortunately, the critical concerns that have been raised in the literature are scattered over many disciplines, often linguistically confusing, and differing in their main reasons for criticisms. Misuses and misinterpretations of the p value are currently being discussed intensely under the label “replication crisis” in many academic disciplines and journals, ranging from specialized scientific journals to Nature and Science. In a drastic response to the crisis, the editors of the journal Basic and Applied Social Psychology even decided to ban the use of p values from future publications at the beginning of 2015, a fact that has certainly added fuel to the discussions in the relevant scientific forums. Finally, in early March, the American Statistical Association released a brief formal statement on p values that explicitly addresses misuses and misinterpretations. In this context, we systematize the most serious flaws related to the p value and discuss suggestions of how to prevent them and reduce the rate of false discoveries in the future.

  11. Development and Validation of a Q-Sort Measure of Identity Processing Style: The Identity Processing Style Q-Sort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Joe F.; Kerpelman, Jennifer L.; Lamke, Leanne K.; Sollie, Donna L.

    2009-01-01

    Identity styles represent strategies individuals use to explore identity-related issues. Berzonsky (Berzonsky, M. D. (1992). Identity style and coping strategies. "Journal of Personality, 60", 771-788) identified three styles: informational, normative, and diffuse. In three studies, this paper presents (a) the identity processing style Q-sort…

  12. THE POSITIVE EFFECTS OF COGNITIVE LEARNING STYLES IN ELT CLASSES

    OpenAIRE

    Ozlem Yagcioglu

    2016-01-01

    In the EFL, ESL, ESP and in the ELT classes, students are taught their courses with different kinds of methods and approaches. Cognitive learning styles are the most essential styles in foreign language education. In this paper, the positive effects of cognitive learning styles will be handled. The benefits of these styles will be highlighted. Games on cognitive learning styles will be explained. Sample classroom activities will be shared. Useful books, videos and websites on cognitive learni...

  13. The Role of Parenting Styles and Teacher Interactional Styles in Children's Reading and Spelling Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuru, Noona; Aunola, Kaisa; Torppa, Minna; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Niemi, Pekka; Viljaranta, Jaana; Lyyra, Anna-Liisa; Leskinen, Esko; Tolvanen, Asko; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the associations between parenting styles, teacher interactional styles, and children's reading and spelling skills. The sample consisted of 864 Finnish-speaking children and their parents (864 mothers, 864 fathers) and teachers ("N" = 123). Children's risk for reading disabilities and reader status were assessed in…

  14. Identity Styles and Conflict Resolution Styles: Associations in Mother-Adolescent Dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missotten, Lies Christine; Luyckx, Koen; Branje, Susan; Vanhalst, Janne; Goossens, Luc

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent identity and parent-adolescent conflict have each attracted considerable research interest. However, few studies have examined the important link between the two constructs. The present study examined the associations between adolescent identity processing styles and adolescent conflict resolution styles in the mother-adolescent dyad.…

  15. The impact of group training about parenting styles on maternal attitudes toward parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandiyeh, Zahra; Zare, Elaheh; Hedayati, Batool

    2015-01-01

    Parenting style is one of the most important and effective factors in training and growth of children and adolescents and the method that parents communicate with their children is an effective factor on family contact models. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of group training about parenting styles on maternal attitudes that were admitted to Isfahan Imam Ali (AS) health care center in 2013. This was an experimental study, which was conducted on a random sample of 25 mothers referred to this health care center. They were divided into two groups (experimental and control). The experimental group received five sessions of group training, and the control group received a booklet about parenting styles. The used tool in this study was the Bamerind Parenting Style Questionnaire that was completed by the mothers before and after the intervention and finally, their obtained scores were compared with each other. The results of the present study showed that the mean score of attitude toward easy-going style in test group was less than the control group after intervention (P = 0.045). The mean score of attitude toward authoritative style in the experimental group was less than control group after intervention (P = 0.037) and the mean score of attitude toward authoritative style in the experimental group was more than the control group after intervention (P = 0.011). Group training can be an appropriate method in changing maternal attitudes toward parenting styles.

  16. Influence of Transformational Leadership Style on Decision-Making Style and Technology Readiness: A Correlation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Crystal A.

    2009-01-01

    The research addressed the problem of technology initiatives failing to meet organizational objectives. The purpose of the quantitative correlation study was to determine the relationship between transformational leadership styles, decision-making styles, and technology readiness. The findings of the study answered research questions in three…

  17. Styles and Style-Stretching: How Are They Related to Successful Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Carol; Inceçay, Görsev

    2016-01-01

    Although the learning style construct has aroused much interest over the years, questions remain regarding basic issues such as definition, the validity and/or reliability of various measurement instruments, and the relationship between learning style and successful learning. Furthermore, although maintaining stylistic flexibility is recommended…

  18. Achievement Motivation of Primary Mathematics Education Teacher Candidates According to Their Cognitive Styles and Motivation Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Hakan; Dündar, Sefa; Ayvaz, Ülkü

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to reveal whether there is relation between achievement motivations of teacher candidates according to their cognitive styles and motivation styles or not. This study was designed as a quantitative study due to collecting quantitative data and running statistical analyses. Both comparative and correlational survey methods…

  19. Intergenerational Transmission of Family Factors: Parenting Styles, Attachment Styles & Family Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    میرمحمدباقر آزادموسوی

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to examine the relationship between parental styles (authoritative, permissive, authoritarian and neglectful, attachment styles (secure, avoidant and ambivalent & family climate (hot and cold of two generations. Subjects were 220 (110 boy students of third class of secondary schools of two districts of Qazvin, and 110 parents who were selected via cluster sampling. In this study, Schaffer,s parenting questionnaires styles (Naqashian, 1358 and Collins and Read,s attachment (Collins & Read, 1990 were used as measures for collecting required data. Analyzes were carried out using simple linear regression, pearson correlation and chi-square. Results revealed that parenting styles, attachment styles and family climate of parents, predict same variables in children as second generation.

  20. CROSS CULTURAL CONFLICT RESOLUTION STYLES: DATA REVISITED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuray ALAGÖZLÜ

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The way conflicts are solved is thought to be culturally learned (Hammer, 2005; therefore, this is reflected through language use. Conflicts, as inevitable parts of communication, naturally mirror cultural differences. Intercultural conflict styles have been studied so far by various researchers. How conflicts are initiated, maintained and escalated or terminated are all culture bound (Leung, 2002 and all the related stages vary from one culture to another. In the related literature, there have been attempts to describe different conflict handling classifications. Using Hammer’s (2005 categorization that was found to be more refined and summative, conflict resolution styles of Turkish and American College students were explored using Discourse Completion Tests (DCT with eight conflict situations where the respondents were required to write verbal solutions to overcome the conflicts described in the test. Those utterances were categorized according to Directness/Indirectness Scale modified from Hammer’s (2005 “International Conflict Style Inventory (ICSI” that classifies intercultural conflict resolution styles as high/low level of directness and high/low level of emotional expressiveness. It is believed that the study provides insight into intercultural communication as there are culturally generalizable (etic and learned patterns of conflict resolution styles pertinent to different cultures (Hammer, 2009, p. 223; Ting-Toomey, 1994.

  1. Decision-Making Styles in the Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Raffaldi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Two procedures were adopted to assess decision-making styles in the workplace: (a the administration of traditional standardized self-report questionnaires and (b open-ended questions about the way respondents would take decisions in a critical business case. Seventy-four adults were given two questionnaires: the Preference for Intuition and Deliberation, which assesses “deliberative” or “intuitive” decision style, and the Style of Learning and Thinking, which assesses thinking styles as “left” (namely, analytical-systematic or “right” (that is, global-intuitive. Participants were also presented with a business case that involved taking a decision. Responses to the business case were used to classify approaches to decision making as “analytical-systematic” or “global-intuitive.” Results showed that the questionnaires correlated consistently with scores from the business case, thus supporting the notion that the assessment of decision style through self-report questionnaires is reliable and valid.

  2. Analysis of leadership styles in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Udovčić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available During the last two decades, leadership has become the focus of intense interest and research by scientists and theorists. A large number of leadership models have been developed in order to define and enable a certain level of business flexibility that is crucial for survival in a new business environment characterized by frequent market changes, growing global competition and technology development together with demographic changes of employees. This paper aims to determine the dominant leadership style in organizations in Croatia. For the purpose of this paper, empirical research was conducted with the goal of defining the leadership styles of top and middle management of 205 active organizations in Croatia. The research was based on the leadership model developed and established by Rensis Likert. An analysis of leadership styles variables showed that there is a distinguished leadership style in organizations in Croatia. Furthermore, there is an empirically distinguished leadership style concerning the size of the organizations, ownership type and the branches of activity of the organizations in Croatia.

  3. Parenting styles and adolescents' achievement strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aunola, K; Stattin, H; Nurmi, J E

    2000-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the extent to which adolescents' achievement strategies are associated with the parenting styles they experience in their families. Three hundred and fifty-four 14-year-old adolescents completed a Strategy and Attribution Questionnaire and a family parenting style inventory. Analogous questionnaires were also completed by the adolescents' parents. Based on adolescents' report of the parenting styles, four types of families were identified: those with Authoritative, Authoritarian, Permissive, and Neglectful parenting styles. The results further showed that adolescents from authoritative families applied most adaptive achievement strategies characterized by low levels of failure expectations, task-irrelevant behaviour and passivity, and the use of self-enhancing attributions. Adolescents from neglectful families, in turn, applied maladaptive strategies characterized by high levels of task-irrelevant behaviour, passivity and a lack of self-enhancing attributions. The results provide a basis for understanding some of the processes by which parenting styles may influence adolescents' academic achievement and performance.

  4. Styles of Success: Research on Gender Differences in Management Styles [and] What Is the Most Important Difference in Management Styles between Men and Women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small Business Forum, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Responses to the Success Style Profile from 127 men and women businessowners and reactions from an 8-member panel found that male and female entrepreneurs resemble each other more than they resemble nonentrepreneurs in thinking and management styles. Women favor right-brain, intuitive styles. One conclusion is that both ways have strengths. (JOW)

  5. Experiential learning and changing leadership style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanecchia, M D

    1985-11-01

    One of the many problems facing the nursing profession today is the lack of preparedness of its leaders. Nursing educators, collaborating with nursing service, can teach baccalaureate students leadership skills and to develop leadership styles. Experiential real-world management tasks selected by faculty and head nurses can serve as learning opportunities. Students can learn leadership ability and change style. Utilizing t-test, the before and after course mean scores on the standardized Leadership Ability Evaluation instrument were statistically analyzed. Significant differences and style changes were identified. Students in the total class became more effective leaders as did the students in both the traditional and experiential groups. Traditional students (lecture only) became less autocratic-submissive and more democratic. The experiential group significantly became less autocratic-aggressive, less laissez-faire and more democratic.

  6. Trajectories of delinquency and parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeve, Machteld; Blokland, Arjan; Dubas, Judith Semon; Loeber, Rolf; Gerris, Jan R M; van der Laan, Peter H

    2008-02-01

    We investigated trajectories of adolescent delinquent development using data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study and examined the extent to which these different trajectories are differentially predicted by childhood parenting styles. Based on self-reported and official delinquency seriousness, covering ages 10-19, we identified five distinct delinquency trajectories differing in both level and change in seriousness over time: a nondelinquent, minor persisting, moderate desisting, serious persisting, and serious desisting trajectory. More serious delinquents tended to more frequently engage in delinquency, and to report a higher proportion of theft. Proportionally, serious persistent delinquents were the most violent of all trajectory groups. Using cluster analysis we identified three parenting styles: authoritative, authoritarian (moderately supportive), and neglectful (punishing). Controlling for demographic characteristics and childhood delinquency, neglectful parenting was more frequent in moderate desisters, serious persisters, and serious desisters, suggesting that parenting styles differentiate non- or minor delinquents from more serious delinquents.

  7. Contractor-style tunnel cost estimating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scapuzzi, D.

    1990-06-01

    Keeping pace with recent advances in construction technology is a challenge for the cost estimating engineer. Using an estimating style that simulates the actual construction process and is similar in style to the contractor's estimate will give a realistic view of underground construction costs. For a contractor-style estimate, a mining method is chosen; labor crews, plant and equipment are selected, and advance rates are calculated for the various phases of work which are used to determine the length of time necessary to complete each phase of work. The durations are multiplied by the cost or labor and equipment per unit of time and, along with the costs for materials and supplies, combine to complete the estimate. Variations in advance rates, ground support, labor crew size, or other areas are more easily analyzed for their overall effect on the cost and schedule of a project. 14 figs

  8. Conflict management style and marital satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeff, A P; de Bruyne, T

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is one conflict management style that correlated more significantly with marital satisfaction than any other. In addition, spousal satisfaction with how marital conflict is managed was also examined, as were gender differences. Fifty-seven couples who had been married for at least 10 years took part in the study. Results showed that the collaborative conflict management style has the highest correlation with both marital satisfaction and spousal satisfaction with conflict management in the marriage. In contrast, where one or both of the spouses used the competitive conflict management style, the lowest marital satisfaction was reported. The results were also interpreted in terms of cultural and gender differences.

  9. Relationship Between Leadership Styles and Organizational Creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Bratnicka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Empirical research on entrepreneurship in organizations has brought disparate and often contradictory evidence related to the impact of leadership on creativity in organizations. The purpose of this paper is to explore and discuss the impact of different leadership styles on creativity, with the view to formulating an integrated conceptual model that links creative novelty and creative practicality with leadership. Methodology: The author applied the methodology of meta-theoretical review. In accordance with the principles of theoretical bricolage, a new conceptual model was built on the basis of the multidimensional creativity theory and the leadership theory. In her analysis, the author took into account leadership styles that have already been subject to research; each of them was mapped in the two-dimensional space of organizational creativity. Findings: In order to fully understand the reasons for differences in organizational creativity, the drivers of divergences in the space of creative novelty and creative practicality need to be clarified. Greater knowledge about the impact of leadership styles on the structure and configuration of organizational creativity is necessary. In this paper, the author provides a theoretical framework that illustrates manners in which leadership influences organizational creativity. The model clarifies the role that leadership plays in shaping a unique configuration of organizational creativity, and consequently in ensuring the necessary internal adaptation of an organization. Originality: The value of this research lies in the situational interpretation of various leadership styles in the context of their impact on organizational creativity. The analysis goes beyond the conventional discussion about leadership and creativity, focused on establishing whether a given leadership style proves beneficial or not for organizational creativity. The paper identifies particular effects that several key

  10. Vulnerability-specific stress generation: An examination of negative cognitive and interpersonal styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Richard T.; Alloy, Lauren B.; Mastin, Becky M.; Choi, Jimmy Y.; Boland, Elaine M.; Jenkins, Abby L.

    2014-01-01

    Although there is substantial evidence documenting the stress generation effect in depression (i.e., the tendency for depression-prone individuals to experience higher rates of life stress to which they contribute), additional research is required to advance current understanding of the specific types of dependent stress (i.e., events influenced by characteristics and attendant behaviors of the individual) relevant to this effect. The present study tested an extension of the stress generation hypothesis, in which the content of dependent stress that is produced by depression-prone individuals is contingent upon, and matches, the nature of their particular vulnerabilities. This extension was tested within the context of two cognitive models (i.e., hopelessness theory [Abramson, Metalsky, & Alloy, 1989] and Cole’s [1990, 1991] competency-based model) and two interpersonal models (i.e., Swann’s [1987] self-verification theory and Coyne’s [1976] interpersonal theory) of depression. Overall, support was obtained for vulnerability-specific stress generation. Specifically, in analyses across vulnerability domains, evidence of stress-generation specificity was found for all domain-specific cognitive vulnerabilities except self-perceived social competence. The within-domain analyses for cognitive vulnerabilities produced more mixed results, but were largely supportive. Additionally, excessive reassurance-seeking was specifically predictive of dependent stress in the social domain, and moderated, but did not mediate, the relation between negative inferential styles overall and in the interpersonal domain and their corresponding generated stress. Finally, no evidence was found for a stress generation effect with negative feedback-seeking. PMID:24679143

  11. Assessing public leadership styles for innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricard, Lykke Margot; Klijn, Erik Hans; Lewis, Jenny M.

    2017-01-01

    This article explores which leadership qualities public managers regard as important for public innovation. It is based on a survey of 365 senior public managers in Copenhagen, Rotterdam and Barcelona. Five perspectives on leadership were identified and tested using a number of items. Some...... of these proved to be more robust than others. Analysis of the three cities reveals a nuanced set of leadership styles, which include a transformational style, and one that is more dedicated to motivating employees, risk-taking and including others in decision-making. This suggests the need for more research...

  12. A model for selecting leadership styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, V J

    1992-01-01

    Occupational therapists lead a variety of groups during their professional activities. Such groups include therapy groups, treatment teams and management meetings. Therefore it is important for each therapist to understand theories of leadership and be able to select the most effective style for him or herself in specific situations. This paper presents a review of leadership theory and research as well as therapeutic groups. It then integrates these areas to assist students and new therapists in identifying a style that is effective for a particular group.

  13. Leadership styles: The role of cultural intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Solomon

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Within both the South African context and abroad, leaders are increasingly being required to engage with staff members whose cultures differ from their own. As the attractiveness of different leadership styles varies in line with staff member cultural preferences, the challenge leaders face is that their behaviours may no longer be apposite. To this end, it is mostly unknown whether those leaders who are deemed culturally intelligent behave in a specific manner, that is, display the empowering and directive leadership styles. Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between leader cultural intelligence and the empowering and directive styles of leadership, as perceived by subordinates. Motivation for the study: To operate successfully, leaders need to adopt and display those leadership styles that best match the cultural expectations of their staff members. Cultural intelligence may assist in this respect. Most of the studies on leader cultural intelligence and leadership styles have concentrated on the transformational leadership style. There is, thus, a requirement to examine how leader cultural intelligence relates to other leadership styles. Research design, approach and method: The study was quantitative in nature and made use of a cross-sectional survey design. Data were collected from 1140 staff members spread across 19 diverse organisations carrying on business activities in South Africa. Correlation and regression techniques were performed to identify relationships. Main findings: Leader cultural intelligence was found to have a stronger relationship with empowering leadership than it had with directive leadership. With empowering leadership, leader metacognitive and motivational cultural intelligence acted as important antecedents, whilst for directive leadership, leader’s motivational, cognitive and metacognitive cultural intelligence played a predictive part that carried a medium

  14. Relationship of personal authoritarianism with parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Laura

    2006-02-01

    This research investigated the relationship between the personality construct of right-wing authoritarianism and Baumrind's 1971 proposed parenting styles of authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive parenting. 68 youth ages 12-18 along with one of their parents participated. The children rated both parents on Buri's 1991 Parental Authority Questionnaire. One of the parents responded to Altemeyer's Right-Wing Authoritarian Scale. People with higher scores on Altemeyer's scale were more likely to prefer the authoritarian parenting style as their offspring reported (r = .33). Permissive parenting correlated negatively with the measure of authoritarianism as a personality variable (r = -.56).

  15. Leadership Styles of Oxford House Officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komer, Anne C; Jason, Leonard A; Harvey, Ronald; Olson, Brad

    Oxford House recovery homes are unusual compared to most recovery homes in that they function entirely without the use of staff; instead members are elected to officer positions. The aim of this study was to perform preliminary analysis of the types of leadership styles utilized by members of oxford house. Twentynine house residents of five Oxford Houses were asked to rate their own leadership styles using the leader behavior description questionnaire and the multifactor leader questionnaire. Results showed that participants were more likely to use person-oriented behaviors above task-oriented actions. Transformational leadership was associated with higher outcomes than Transactional leadership. Implications for future research are discussed.

  16. Do emergency medicine residents and faculty have similar learning styles when assessed with the Kolb learning style assessment tool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredette, Jenna; O'Brien, Corinne; Poole, Christy; Nomura, Jason

    2015-04-01

    Experiential learning theory and the Kolb Learning Style Inventory (Kolb LSI) have influenced educators worldwide for decades. Knowledge of learning styles can create efficient learning environments, increase information retention, and improve learner satisfaction. Learning styles have been examined in medicine previously, but not specifically with Emergency Medicine (EM) residents and attendings. Using the Kolb LSI, the learning styles of Emergency Medicine residents and attendings were assessed. The findings showed that the majority of EM residents and attendings shared the accommodating learning style. This result was different than prior studies that found the majority of medical professionals had a converging learning style and other studies that found attendings often have different learning styles than residents. The issue of learning styles among emergency medical residents and attendings is important because learning style knowledge may have an impact on how a residency program structures curriculum and how EM residents are successfully, efficiently, and creatively educated.

  17. Gakumon-Ryoku and japanese style of management- does our management style matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oba Hiroyuki

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights a new style of development learning, the so-called “Gakumon-ryoku”, and its application to the Japanese style of management. “Gakumon-ryoku” is the capability and commitment or free-will to awaken and share freedom lifestyles by learning and asking about our thoughts and feelings through the Value-Conscious Matrix VC Matrix or simply VCM for short.This enlightens and vitalizes our thoughts and feelings, and can transform us by creating a new identity for us as Development of Co-creative Alive Beings, or D-CAB. This eye-opening experience was examined with the Japanese style of management (JM in short and has brought us to become aware of the essence of JM spirit of TO BE ONE. To the question, “does our management style matter”, this paper has answered “Yes”, not because this is not economically or rationally efficient, but because it has been confined to it and has not been examined in the light of the JOY criterion including efficiency. What really matters is not whether or not to follow the Japanese style, but the fact that the quality of life, or Joyful or not matters in our management style. We learn that the Japanese style of management has both unique and universal features, and we, as human beings, can share its universal value of JOY of service.

  18. Leadership = Communication? The Relations of Leaders' Communication Styles with Leadership Styles, Knowledge Sharing and Leadership Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Reinout E; Bakker-Pieper, Angelique; Oostenveld, Wyneke

    2010-09-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relations between leaders' communication styles and charismatic leadership, human-oriented leadership (leader's consideration), task-oriented leadership (leader's initiating structure), and leadership outcomes. METHODOLOGY: A survey was conducted among 279 employees of a governmental organization. The following six main communication styles were operationalized: verbal aggressiveness, expressiveness, preciseness, assuredness, supportiveness, and argumentativeness. Regression analyses were employed to test three main hypotheses. FINDINGS: In line with expectations, the study showed that charismatic and human-oriented leadership are mainly communicative, while task-oriented leadership is significantly less communicative. The communication styles were strongly and differentially related to knowledge sharing behaviors, perceived leader performance, satisfaction with the leader, and subordinate's team commitment. Multiple regression analyses showed that the leadership styles mediated the relations between the communication styles and leadership outcomes. However, leader's preciseness explained variance in perceived leader performance and satisfaction with the leader above and beyond the leadership style variables. IMPLICATIONS: This study offers potentially invaluable input for leadership training programs by showing the importance of leader's supportiveness, assuredness, and preciseness when communicating with subordinates. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: Although one of the core elements of leadership is interpersonal communication, this study is one of the first to use a comprehensive communication styles instrument in the study of leadership.

  19. Personality, Humor Styles and Happiness: Happy People Have Positive Humor Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Ford

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the relationships between four personality traits, humor styles, and happiness. Replicating previous research, happiness was positively correlated with four personality traits: extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism. Further, happiness positively related to self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles; it related negatively to self-defeating and aggressive humor styles. Thus, happy people habitually engage in positive uses of humor and avoid engaging in negative uses of humor in daily life. We also found support for our hypothesis. People high in extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism are happier because they engage in positive humor in daily life.

  20. Personality, Humor Styles and Happiness: Happy People Have Positive Humor Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Thomas E.; Lappi, Shaun K.; Holden, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the relationships between four personality traits, humor styles, and happiness. Replicating previous research, happiness was positively correlated with four personality traits: extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism. Further, happiness positively related to self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles; it related negatively to self-defeating and aggressive humor styles. Thus, happy people habitually engage in positive uses of humor and avoid engaging in negative uses of humor in daily life. We also found support for our hypothesis. People high in extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism are happier because they engage in positive humor in daily life. PMID:27547251