WorldWideScience

Sample records for inertial reference systems

  1. Properties of gravi-inertial systems of reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dozmorov, I.M.

    1977-01-01

    A number of papers of the author have been summarized devoted to gravi-inertial systems of reference in which the following problems are solved: a) analogs of inertial systems of reference (ISR), gravi-ISR, have been introduced into the general relativity the ory (GRT); b) using transformations between such ISR as symmetry transformation, obtained by variational methods are values with clear physical sense; c) using the gravi-ISR basis as the zero level of the deformation reading, the theory of elasticity in GRT has been constructed and someof its applications considered. The results are compared with those of other authors

  2. Mechanical Energy Change in Inertial Reference Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical energy change of a system in an inertial frame of reference equals work done by the total nonconservative force in the same frame. This relation is covariant under the Galilean transformations from inertial frame S to S', where S' moves with constant velocity relative to S. In the presence of nonconservative forces, such as normal…

  3. Physics of Non-Inertial Reference Frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamalov, Timur F.

    2010-01-01

    Physics of non-inertial reference frames is a generalizing of Newton's laws to any reference frames. It is the system of general axioms for classical and quantum mechanics. The first, Kinematics Principle reads: the kinematic state of a body free of forces conserves and equal in absolute value to an invariant of the observer's reference frame. The second, Dynamics Principle extended Newton's second law to non-inertial reference frames and also contains additional variables there are higher derivatives of coordinates. Dynamics Principle reads: a force induces a change in the kinematic state of the body and is proportional to the rate of its change. It is mean that if the kinematic invariant of the reference frame is n-th derivative with respect the time, then the dynamics of a body being affected by the force F is described by the 2n-th differential equation. The third, Statics Principle reads: the sum of all forces acting a body at rest is equal to zero.

  4. Inertial reference frames and gravitational forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santavy, I.

    1981-01-01

    The connection between different definitions of inertial, i.e. fundamental, reference frames and the corresponding characterisation of gravitational fields by gravitational forces are considered from the point of view of their possible interpretation in university introductory courses. The introduction of a special class of reference frames, denoted 'mixed reference frames' is proposed and discussed. (author)

  5. SeaVipers- Computer Vision and Inertial Position/Reference Sensor System (CVIPRSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    power plants responsible for the genera- tion and distribution of electricity to the vessel, including cables and wiring. The Propulsion System...e.g. known criminals for a law- 17 enforcement application or past customers for commercial and marketing applications. When a specific face is...www.amazon.com/b?node=8037720011 [28] (2012) Burrito bomber: The worlds first airborne mexican food delivery system. [Online]. Available: http

  6. Transformations between inertial and linearly accelerated frames of reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashworth, D.G.

    1983-01-01

    Transformation equations between inertial and linearly accelerated frames of reference are derived and these transformation equations are shown to be compatible, where applicable, with those of special relativity. The physical nature of an accelerated frame of reference is unambiguously defined by means of an equation which relates the velocity of all points within the accelerated frame of reference to measurements made in an inertial frame of reference. (author)

  7. Lightweight, Miniature Inertial Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Liang; Crassidis, Agamemnon

    2012-01-01

    A miniature, lighter-weight, and highly accurate inertial navigation system (INS) is coupled with GPS receivers to provide stable and highly accurate positioning, attitude, and inertial measurements while being subjected to highly dynamic maneuvers. In contrast to conventional methods that use extensive, groundbased, real-time tracking and control units that are expensive, large, and require excessive amounts of power to operate, this method focuses on the development of an estimator that makes use of a low-cost, miniature accelerometer array fused with traditional measurement systems and GPS. Through the use of a position tracking estimation algorithm, onboard accelerometers are numerically integrated and transformed using attitude information to obtain an estimate of position in the inertial frame. Position and velocity estimates are subject to drift due to accelerometer sensor bias and high vibration over time, and so require the integration with GPS information using a Kalman filter to provide highly accurate and reliable inertial tracking estimations. The method implemented here uses the local gravitational field vector. Upon determining the location of the local gravitational field vector relative to two consecutive sensors, the orientation of the device may then be estimated, and the attitude determined. Improved attitude estimates further enhance the inertial position estimates. The device can be powered either by batteries, or by the power source onboard its target platforms. A DB9 port provides the I/O to external systems, and the device is designed to be mounted in a waterproof case for all-weather conditions.

  8. DRIRU I/SKIRU - The application of the DTG to spacecraft attitude control. [Dynamically-Tuned Gyro for Inertial Reference Unit systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, C. O.

    1982-01-01

    The dynamically tuned gyro (DTG) was developed to replace the floated, rate integrating gyro used for space attitude control, as the DTG fulfills cost, performance, and reliability requirements not satisfied by its predecessor. The use of this gyro in the Dry Gyro Inertial Reference Unit I (DRIRU I) marked the first application of a DTG in a spacecraft attitude reference unit. Design and performance characteristics of DTG application in the Singer-Kearfott Inertial Reference Unit (SKIRU) are outlined, for example its minimal weight (7 lb), and operational reliability. The DTG has accomplished 156,000 failure-free hours, and a chart, logging test performance, indicates that this and other requirements were more than sufficiently satisfied. The unit has an unparalleled life span, with several units still operating after 70,000 to 130,000 hours, and a random drift which always remains under 0.0005 deg/h. Potential for improvements, such as drift performance, are considered.

  9. Five years in the life of an inertial system operating in orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, R. A.; Denhard, W. G.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes the in-orbit performance of the gyroscopes and strapdown attitude reference system for the OAO-C (Copernicus) satellite, launched on Aug. 21, 1972. In order to fulfill NASA requirements, the inertial system had to: (1) operate for at least one year in orbit without failure, (2) maintain an inertial reference with an uncertainty of 50 microradians or less for at least one hour, and (3) control attitude changes with an accuracy of at least 30 parts per million. During the orbit period, the inertial system has demonstrated a capability for maintaining an inertial reference that is significantly better than these performance goals.

  10. Error Analysis of Inertial Navigation Systems Using Test Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Vaispacher, Tomáš; Bréda, Róbert; Adamčík, František

    2015-01-01

    Content of this contribution is an issue of inertial sensors errors, specification of inertial measurement units and generating of test signals for Inertial Navigation System (INS). Given the different levels of navigation tasks, part of this contribution is comparison of the actual types of Inertial Measurement Units. Considering this comparison, there is proposed the way of solving inertial sensors errors and their modelling for low – cost inertial navigation applications. The last part is ...

  11. Micro-system inertial sensing technology overview.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, James Joe

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of Micro-System technology as it applies to inertial sensing. Transduction methods are reviewed with capacitance and piezoresistive being the most often used in COTS Micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) inertial sensors. Optical transduction is the most recent transduction method having significant impact on improving sensor resolution. A few other methods are motioned which are in a R&D status to hopefully allow MEMS inertial sensors to become viable as a navigation grade sensor. The accelerometer, gyroscope and gravity gradiometer are the type of inertial sensors which are reviewed in this report. Their method of operation and a sampling of COTS sensors and grade are reviewed as well.

  12. The Gaia inertial reference frame and the tilting of the Milky Way disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perryman, Michael; Spergel, David N.; Lindegren, Lennart

    2014-01-01

    While the precise relationship between the Milky Way disk and the symmetry planes of the dark matter halo remains somewhat uncertain, a time-varying disk orientation with respect to an inertial reference frame seems probable. Hierarchical structure formation models predict that the dark matter halo is triaxial and tumbles with a characteristic rate of ∼2 rad H 0 −1 (∼30 μas yr –1 ). These models also predict a time-dependent accretion of gas, such that the angular momentum vector of the disk should be misaligned with that of the halo. These effects, as well as tidal effects of the LMC, will result in the rotation of the angular momentum vector of the disk population with respect to the quasar reference frame. We assess the accuracy with which the positions and proper motions from Gaia can be referred to a kinematically non-rotating system, and show that the spin vector of the transformation from any rigid self-consistent catalog frame to the quasi-inertial system defined by quasars should be defined to better than 1 μas yr –1 . Determination of this inertial frame by Gaia will reveal any signature of the disk orientation varying with time, improve models of the potential and dynamics of the Milky Way, test theories of gravity, and provide new insights into the orbital evolution of the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds.

  13. Are OPERA neutrinos faster than light because of non-inertial reference frames?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germanà, C.

    2012-02-01

    Context. Recent results from the OPERA experiment reported a neutrino beam traveling faster than light. The challenging experiment measured the neutrino time of flight (TOF) over a baseline from the CERN to the Gran Sasso site, concluding that the neutrino beam arrives ~60 ns earlier than a light ray would do. Because the result, if confirmed, has an enormous impact on science, it might be worth double-checking the time definitions with respect to the non-inertial system in which the neutrino travel time was measured. An observer with a clock measuring the proper time τ free of non-inertial effects is the one located at the solar system barycenter (SSB). Aims: Potential problems in the OPERA data analysis connected with the definition of the reference frame and time synchronization are emphasized. We aim to investigate the synchronization of non-inertial clocks on Earth by relating this time to the proper time of an inertial observer at SSB. Methods: The Tempo2 software was used to time-stamp events observed on the geoid with respect to the SSB inertial observer time. Results: Neutrino results from OPERA might carry the fingerprint of non-inertial effects because they are timed by terrestrial clocks. The CERN-Gran Sasso clock synchronization is accomplished by applying corrections that depend on special and general relativistic time dilation effects at the clocks, depending on the position of the clocks in the solar system gravitational well. As a consequence, TOF distributions are centered on values shorter by tens of nanoseconds than expected, integrating over a period from April to December, longer if otherwise. It is worth remarking that the OPERA runs have always been carried out from April/May to November. Conclusions: If the analysis by Tempo2 holds for the OPERA experiment, the excellent measurement by the OPERA collaboration will turn into a proof of the general relativity theory in a weak field approximation. The analysis presented here is falsifiable

  14. Shift of the spectrum in the non-inertial reference frame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudykina, T. A.; Pervak, A. I.

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new natural explanation of the spectral redshift (blue shift) arguing that the rotatory non-inertial reference frame of cosmological objects is the main reason of the shift of the frequency of emitting light. (Author)

  15. Wellbore inertial navigation system (WINS) software development and test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wardlaw, R. Jr.

    1982-09-01

    The structure and operation of the real-time software developed for the Wellbore Inertial Navigation System (WINS) application are described. The procedure and results of a field test held in a 7000-ft well in the Nevada Test Site are discussed. Calibration and instrumentation error compensation are outlined, as are design improvement areas requiring further test and development. Notes on Kalman filtering and complete program listings of the real-time software are included in the Appendices. Reference is made to a companion document which describes the downhole instrumentation package.

  16. Validation of an Inertial Sensor System for Swing Analysis in Golf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Lückemann

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Wearable inertial sensor systems are an upcoming tool for self-evaluation in sports, and can be used for swing analysis in golf. The aim of this work was to determine the validity and repeatability of an inertial sensor system attached to a player’s glove using a radar system as a reference. 20 subjects performed five full swings with each of three different clubs (wood, 7-iron, wedge. Clubhead speed was measured simultaneously by both sensor systems. Limits of Agreement were used to determine the accuracy and precision of the inertial sensor system. Results show that the inertial sensor system is quite accurate but with a lack of precision. Random error was quantified to approximately 17 km/h. The measurement error was dependent on the club type and was weakly negatively correlated to the magnitude of clubhead speed.

  17. High accuracy attitude reference stabilization and pointing using the Teledyne SDG-5 gyro and the DRIRU II inertial reference unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, K. N.; van Alstine, R. L.

    This paper presents the current performance levels of the SDG-5 gyro, a high performance two-axis dynamically tuned gyro, and the DRIRU II redundant inertial reference unit relating to stabilization and pointing applications. Also presented is a discussion of a product improvement program aimed at further noise reductions to meet the demanding requirements of future space defense applications.

  18. Design Issues for MEMS-Based Pedestrian Inertial Navigation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Marinushkin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes design issues for MEMS-based pedestrian inertial navigation systems. By now the algorithms to estimate navigation parameters for strap-down inertial navigation systems on the basis of plural observations have been already well developed. At the same time mathematical and software processing of information in the case of pedestrian inertial navigation systems has its specificity, due to the peculiarities of their functioning and exploitation. Therefore, there is an urgent task to enhance existing fusion algorithms for use in pedestrian navigation systems. For this purpose the article analyzes the characteristics of the hardware composition and configuration of existing systems of this class. The paper shows advantages of various technical solutions. Relying on their main features it justifies a choice of the navigation system architecture and hardware composition enabling improvement of the estimation accuracy of user position as compared to the systems using only inertial sensors. The next point concerns the development of algorithms for complex processing of heterogeneous information. To increase an accuracy of the free running pedestrian inertial navigation system we propose an adaptive algorithm for joint processing of heterogeneous information based on the fusion of inertial info rmation with magnetometer measurements using EKF approach. Modeling of the algorithm was carried out using a specially developed functional prototype of pedestrian inertial navigation system, implemented as a hardware/software complex in Matlab environment. The functional prototype tests of the developed system demonstrated an improvement of the navigation parameters estimation compared to the systems based on inertial sensors only. It enables to draw a conclusion that the synthesized algorithm provides satisfactory accuracy for calculating the trajectory of motion even when using low-grade inertial MEMS sensors. The developed algorithm can be

  19. Cryogenic systems for inertial fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatain, D.; Perin, J.P.; Bonnay, P.; Bouleau, E.; Chichoux, M.; Communal, D.; Manzagol, J.; Viargues, F.; Brisset, D.; Lamaison, V.; Paquignon, G.

    2008-01-01

    The Low Temperatures Laboratory of CEA/Grenoble (France) is involved in the development of cryogenic systems for inertial fusion since a ten of years. A conceptual design for the cryogenic infrastructure of the Laser MegaJoule (LMJ) facility has been proposed. Several prototypes have been designed, built and tested like for example the 1500 bars cryo-compressor for the targets filling, the target positioner and the thermal shroud remover. The HIPER project will necessitate the development of such equipments. The main difference is that this time, the cryogenic targets are direct drive targets. The first phase of HIPER experiments is a single shot period. Based oil the experience gained the last years, not only by our laboratory but also by Omega and G.A teams, we could design the new HIPER equipments for this phase. Some experimental results obtained with the prototypes of the LMJ cryogenic system are given and a first conceptual design for the HIPER single shot cryogenic system is shown. (authors)

  20. Systems and Methods for Determining Inertial Navigation System Faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharadwaj, Raj Mohan (Inventor); Bageshwar, Vibhor L. (Inventor); Kim, Kyusung (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An inertial navigation system (INS) includes a primary inertial navigation system (INS) unit configured to receive accelerometer measurements from an accelerometer and angular velocity measurements from a gyroscope. The primary INS unit is further configured to receive global navigation satellite system (GNSS) signals from a GNSS sensor and to determine a first set of kinematic state vectors based on the accelerometer measurements, the angular velocity measurements, and the GNSS signals. The INS further includes a secondary INS unit configured to receive the accelerometer measurements and the angular velocity measurements and to determine a second set of kinematic state vectors of the vehicle based on the accelerometer measurements and the angular velocity measurements. A health management system is configured to compare the first set of kinematic state vectors and the second set of kinematic state vectors to determine faults associated with the accelerometer or the gyroscope based on the comparison.

  1. A novel method of calibrating a MEMS inertial reference unit on a turntable under limited working conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiazhen; Liang, Shufang; Yang, Yanqiang

    2017-10-01

    Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) inertial measurement devices tend to be widely used in inertial navigation systems and have quickly emerged on the market due to their characteristics of low cost, high reliability and small size. Calibration is the most effective way to remove the deterministic error of an inertial reference unit (IRU), which in this paper consists of three orthogonally mounted MEMS gyros. However, common testing methods in the lab cannot predict the corresponding errors precisely when the turntable’s working condition is restricted. In this paper, the turntable can only provide a relatively small rotation angle. Moreover, the errors must be compensated exactly because of the great effect caused by the high angular velocity of the craft. To deal with this question, a new method is proposed to evaluate the MEMS IRU’s performance. In the calibration procedure, a one-axis table that can rotate a limited angle in the form of a sine function is utilized to provide the MEMS IRU’s angular velocity. A new algorithm based on Fourier series is designed to calculate the misalignment and scale factor errors. The proposed method is tested in a set of experiments, and the calibration results are compared to a traditional calibration method performed under normal working conditions to verify their correctness. In addition, a verification test in the given rotation speed is implemented for further demonstration.

  2. Inertial effects in systems with magnetic charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, N. P.

    2018-05-01

    This short article sets out some of the basic considerations that go into detecting the mass of quasiparticles with effective magnetic charge in solids. Effective magnetic charges may be appear as defects in particular magnetic textures. A magnetic monopole is a defect in this texture and as such these are not monopoles in the actual magnetic field B, but instead in the auxiliary field H. They may have particular properties expected for such quasiparticles such as magnetic charge and mass. This effective mass may-in principle-be detected in the same fashion that the mass is detected of other particles classically e.g. through their inertial response to time-dependent electromagnetic fields. I discuss this physics in the context of the "simple" case of the quantum spin ices, but aspects are broadly applicable. Based on extensions to Ryzkhin's model for classical spin ice, a hydrodynamic formulation can be given that takes into account inertial and entropic forces. Ultimately, a form for the susceptibility is obtained that is equivalent to the Rocard equation, which is a classic form used to account for inertial effects in the context of Debye-like relaxation.

  3. The vacuum in non-inertial systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto, F.; Cocho, G.; Villarreal, C.; Hacyan, S.; Sarmiento, A.

    1987-01-01

    A brief presentation of the attemps made by our group on understanding the physics of the thermal effects appearing in quantum field theory in the non-inertial frames or in curved spacetime is made. The idea of the vacuum field being directly responsible for the thermal effects in non-inertial frames is introduced and explored; the thermal distributions observed from a non-inertial frame are due to the Doppler distortion undergone by the vacuum field. To support this idea we use the results obtained by T.H. Boyer in stochastic field theory, and further on we develop a formalism which leads to consistent results. We also show that the thermal character of the denominators in the distributions, appearing in quantum field theory in non-inertia frames, is directly linked to the discreteness originated by confining the space where the field is being quantized. This confinement implies the absence of some long wave modes, which in turn implies a modification of the states density in phase space. (author)

  4. Inertial navigation without accelerometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, M.

    The Kennedy-Thorndike (1932) experiment points to the feasibility of fiber-optic inertial velocimeters, to which state-of-the-art technology could furnish substantial sensitivity and accuracy improvements. Velocimeters of this type would obviate the use of both gyros and accelerometers, and allow inertial navigation to be conducted together with vehicle attitude control, through the derivation of rotation rates from the ratios of the three possible velocimeter pairs. An inertial navigator and reference system based on this approach would probably have both fewer components and simpler algorithms, due to the obviation of the first level of integration in classic inertial navigators.

  5. Real-time precision pedestrian navigation solution using Inertial Navigation System and Global Positioning System

    OpenAIRE

    Yong-Jin Yoon; King Ho Holden Li; Jiahe Steven Lee; Woo-Tae Park

    2015-01-01

    Global Positioning System and Inertial Navigation System can be used to determine position and velocity. A Global Positioning System module is able to accurately determine position without sensor drift, but its usage is limited in heavily urbanized environments and heavy vegetation. While high-cost tactical-grade Inertial Navigation System can determine position accurately, low-cost micro-electro-mechanical system Inertial Navigation System sensors are plagued by significant errors. Global Po...

  6. Pulsed power systems for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanDevender, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    Sandis's Particle Beam Fusion Program is investigating pulsed electron and light ion beam accelerators with the goal of demonstrating the practical application of such drivers as igniters in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactors. The power and energy requirements for net energy gain are 10 14 to 10 15 W and 1 to 10 MJ. Recent advances in pulsed power and power flow technologies permit suitable accelerators to be built. The first accelerator of this new generation is PBFA I. It operates at 2 MV, 15 MA, 30 TW for 35 ns and is scheduled for completion in June 1980. The principles of this new accelerator technology and their application to ICF will be presented

  7. A self-calibration method in single-axis rotational inertial navigation system with rotating mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuanpei; Wang, Lingcao; Li, Kui

    2017-10-01

    Rotary inertial navigation modulation mechanism can greatly improve the inertial navigation system (INS) accuracy through the rotation. Based on the single-axis rotational inertial navigation system (RINS), a self-calibration method is put forward. The whole system is applied with the rotation modulation technique so that whole inertial measurement unit (IMU) of system can rotate around the motor shaft without any external input. In the process of modulation, some important errors can be decoupled. Coupled with the initial position information and attitude information of the system as the reference, the velocity errors and attitude errors in the rotation are used as measurement to perform Kalman filtering to estimate part of important errors of the system after which the errors can be compensated into the system. The simulation results show that the method can complete the self-calibration of the single-axis RINS in 15 minutes and estimate gyro drifts of three-axis, the installation error angle of the IMU and the scale factor error of the gyro on z-axis. The calibration accuracy of optic gyro drifts could be about 0.003°/h (1σ) as well as the scale factor error could be about 1 parts per million (1σ). The errors estimate reaches the system requirements which can effectively improve the longtime navigation accuracy of the vehicle or the boat.

  8. Magnetic suspension of a rotating system. Application to inertial flywheels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemarquand, Guy

    1984-01-01

    The various possible magnetic suspension configurations compatible with rotating mechanical systems are defined from studies of the characteristics of different types of magnetic bearings. The results obtained are used in the design and realization of a magnetic suspension for an inertial flywheel. (author) [fr

  9. The sensitivity theory for inertial confinement pellet fusion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Shaohui; Zhang, Yuquan.

    1986-01-01

    A sensitivity theory for inertial confinement pellet fusion system is developed based on a physical model similar to that embodied in the laser fusion code MEDUSA. The theory presented here can be an efficient tool for estimating the effects of many alternations in the data field. Our result is different from Greenspan's work in 1980. (author)

  10. INERTIAL TECHNOLOGIES IN SYSTEMS FOR STABILIZATION OF GROUND VEHICLES EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olha Sushchenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The vibratory inertial technology is a recent modern inertial technology. It represents the most perspective approach to design of inertial sensors, which can be used in stabilization and tracking systems operated on vehicles of the wide class. The purpose of the research is to consider advantages of this technology in comparison with laser and fiber-optic ones. Operation of the inertial sensors on the ground vehicles requires some improvement of the Coriolis vibratory gyroscope with the goal to simplify information processing, increase reliability, and compensate bias. Methods: Improvement of the Coriolis vibratory gyroscope includes introducing of the phase detector and additional excitation unit. The possibility to use the improved Coriolis vibratory gyroscope in the stabilization systems operated on the ground vehicles is shown by means of analysis of gyroscope output signal. To prove efficiency of the Coriolis vibratory gyroscope in stabilization system the simulation technique is used. Results: The scheme of the improved Coriolis vibratory gyroscope including the phase detector and additional excitation unit is developed and analyzed. The way to compensate bias is determined. Simulation of the stabilization system with the improved Coriolis vibratory gyroscope is carried out. Expressions for the output signals of the improved Coriolis vibratory gyroscope are derived. The error of the output signal is estimated and the possibility to use the modified Coriolis vibratory gyroscope in stabilization systems is proved. The results of stabilization system simulation are given. Their analysis is carried out. Conclusions: The represented results prove efficiency of the proposed technical decisions. They can be useful for design of stabilization platform with instrumental equipment operated on moving vehicles of the wide class.

  11. Vision-aided inertial navigation system for robotic mobile mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayoud, Fadi; Skaloud, Jan

    2008-04-01

    A mapping system by vision-aided inertial navigation was developed for areas where GNSS signals are unreachable. In this framework, a methodology on the integration of vision and inertial sensors is presented, analysed and tested. The system employs the method of “SLAM: Simultaneous Localisation And Mapping” where the only external input available to the system at the beginning of the mapping mission is a number of features with known coordinates. SLAM is a term used in the robotics community to describe the problem of mapping the environment and at the same time using this map to determine the location of the mapping device. Differing from the robotics approach, the presented development stems from the frameworks of photogrammetry and kinematic geodesy that are merged in two filters that run in parallel: the Least-Squares Adjustment (LSA) for features coordinates determination and the Kalman filter (KF) for navigation correction. To test this approach, a mapping system-prototype comprising two CCD cameras and one Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) is introduced. Conceptually, the outputs of the LSA photogrammetric resection are used as the external measurements for the KF that corrects the inertial navigation. The filtered position and orientation are subsequently employed in the photogrammetric intersection to map the surrounding features that are used as control points for the resection in the next epoch. We confirm empirically the dependency of navigation performance on the quality of the images and the number of tracked features, as well as on the geometry of the stereo-pair. Due to its autonomous nature, the SLAM's performance is further affected by the quality of IMU initialisation and the a-priory assumptions on error distribution. Using the example of the presented system we show that centimetre accuracy can be achieved in both navigation and mapping when the image geometry is optimal.

  12. A Visual-Aided Inertial Navigation and Mapping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Munguía

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available State estimation is a fundamental necessity for any application involving autonomous robots. This paper describes a visual-aided inertial navigation and mapping system for application to autonomous robots. The system, which relies on Kalman filtering, is designed to fuse the measurements obtained from a monocular camera, an inertial measurement unit (IMU and a position sensor (GPS. The estimated state consists of the full state of the vehicle: the position, orientation, their first derivatives and the parameter errors of the inertial sensors (i.e., the bias of gyroscopes and accelerometers. The system also provides the spatial locations of the visual features observed by the camera. The proposed scheme was designed by considering the limited resources commonly available in small mobile robots, while it is intended to be applied to cluttered environments in order to perform fully vision-based navigation in periods where the position sensor is not available. Moreover, the estimated map of visual features would be suitable for multiple tasks: i terrain analysis; ii three-dimensional (3D scene reconstruction; iii localization, detection or perception of obstacles and generating trajectories to navigate around these obstacles; and iv autonomous exploration. In this work, simulations and experiments with real data are presented in order to validate and demonstrate the performance of the proposal.

  13. Stores, Weight and Inertial System Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility provides stores weight, center of gravity, and inertia measurements in support of weapon/aircraft compatibility testing. System provides store weight...

  14. DRG-Based CubeSat Inertial Reference Unit (DCIRU), Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CubeSats currently lack adequate inertial attitude knowledge and control required for future sophisticated science missions. Boeing's Disc Resonator Gyro (DRG)...

  15. Inertial Pocket Navigation System: Unaided 3D Positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefania Munoz Diaz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Inertial navigation systems use dead-reckoning to estimate the pedestrian’s position. There are two types of pedestrian dead-reckoning, the strapdown algorithm and the step-and-heading approach. Unlike the strapdown algorithm, which consists of the double integration of the three orthogonal accelerometer readings, the step-and-heading approach lacks the vertical displacement estimation. We propose the first step-and-heading approach based on unaided inertial data solving 3D positioning. We present a step detector for steps up and down and a novel vertical displacement estimator. Our navigation system uses the sensor introduced in the front pocket of the trousers, a likely location of a smartphone. The proposed algorithms are based on the opening angle of the leg or pitch angle. We analyzed our step detector and compared it with the state-of-the-art, as well as our already proposed step length estimator. Lastly, we assessed our vertical displacement estimator in a real-world scenario. We found that our algorithms outperform the literature step and heading algorithms and solve 3D positioning using unaided inertial data. Additionally, we found that with the pitch angle, five activities are distinguishable: standing, sitting, walking, walking up stairs and walking down stairs. This information complements the pedestrian location and is of interest for applications, such as elderly care.

  16. Inertial Pocket Navigation System: Unaided 3D Positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz Diaz, Estefania

    2015-01-01

    Inertial navigation systems use dead-reckoning to estimate the pedestrian's position. There are two types of pedestrian dead-reckoning, the strapdown algorithm and the step-and-heading approach. Unlike the strapdown algorithm, which consists of the double integration of the three orthogonal accelerometer readings, the step-and-heading approach lacks the vertical displacement estimation. We propose the first step-and-heading approach based on unaided inertial data solving 3D positioning. We present a step detector for steps up and down and a novel vertical displacement estimator. Our navigation system uses the sensor introduced in the front pocket of the trousers, a likely location of a smartphone. The proposed algorithms are based on the opening angle of the leg or pitch angle. We analyzed our step detector and compared it with the state-of-the-art, as well as our already proposed step length estimator. Lastly, we assessed our vertical displacement estimator in a real-world scenario. We found that our algorithms outperform the literature step and heading algorithms and solve 3D positioning using unaided inertial data. Additionally, we found that with the pitch angle, five activities are distinguishable: standing, sitting, walking, walking up stairs and walking down stairs. This information complements the pedestrian location and is of interest for applications, such as elderly care. PMID:25897501

  17. A Dynamic Precision Evaluation Method for the Star Sensor in the Stellar-Inertial Navigation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiazhen; Lei, Chaohua; Yang, Yanqiang

    2017-06-28

    Integrating the advantages of INS (inertial navigation system) and the star sensor, the stellar-inertial navigation system has been used for a wide variety of applications. The star sensor is a high-precision attitude measurement instrument; therefore, determining how to validate its accuracy is critical in guaranteeing its practical precision. The dynamic precision evaluation of the star sensor is more difficult than a static precision evaluation because of dynamic reference values and other impacts. This paper proposes a dynamic precision verification method of star sensor with the aid of inertial navigation device to realize real-time attitude accuracy measurement. Based on the gold-standard reference generated by the star simulator, the altitude and azimuth angle errors of the star sensor are calculated for evaluation criteria. With the goal of diminishing the impacts of factors such as the sensors' drift and devices, the innovative aspect of this method is to employ static accuracy for comparison. If the dynamic results are as good as the static results, which have accuracy comparable to the single star sensor's precision, the practical precision of the star sensor is sufficiently high to meet the requirements of the system specification. The experiments demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  18. Reactor potential of the magnetically insulated inertial fusion (MICF) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kammash, T.; Galbraith, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    The Magnetically Insulated Inertial Confinement Fusion (MICF) scheme is examined with regard to its potential as a power-producing reactor. This approach combines the favorable aspects of both magnetic and inertial fusions in that physical containment of the plasma is provided by a metallic shell while thermal insulation of its energy is provided by a strong, self-generated magnetic field. The plasma is created at the core of the target as a result of irradiation of the fuel-coated inner surface by a laser beam that enters through a hole in the spherical shell. The instantaneous magnetic field is generated by the current loops formed by the laser-heated, laser-ablated electrons, and preliminary experimental results at Osaka University have confirmed the presence of such a field. These same experiments have also yielded a Lawson parameter of about 5x10 12 cm -3 sec, and because of these unique properties, the plasma lifetimes in MICF have been shown to be about two orders of magnitude longer than conventional, pusher type inertial fusion schemes. In this paper a quasi one dimensional, time dependent set of particle and energy balance equations for the thermal species, namely, electrons, ions and thermal alphas which also allows for an appropriate set of fast alpha groups is utilized to assess the reactor prospects of a DT-burning MICF system. (author) [pt

  19. Flight results of attitude matching between Space Shuttle and Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) navigation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treder, Alfred J.; Meldahl, Keith L.

    The recorded histories of Shuttle/Orbiter attitude and Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) attitude have been analyzed for all joint flights of the IUS in the Orbiter. This database was studied to determine the behavior of relative alignment between the IUS and Shuttle navigation systems. It is found that the overall accuracy of physical alignment has a Shuttle Orbiter bias component less than 5 arcmin/axis and a short-term stability upper bound of 0.5 arcmin/axis, both at 1 sigma. Summaries of the experienced physical and inertial alginment offsets are shown in this paper, together with alignment variation data, illustrated with some flight histories. Also included is a table of candidate values for some error source groups in an Orbiter/IUS attitude errror model. Experience indicates that the Shuttle is much more accurate and stable as an orbiting launch platform than has so far been advertised. This information will be valuable for future Shuttle payloads, especially those (such as the Aeroassisted Flight Experiment) which carry their own inertial navigation systems, and which could update or initialize their attitude determination systems using the Shuttle as the reference.

  20. DRG-based CubeSat Inertial Reference Unit (DCIRU), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CubeSats currently lack adequate inertial attitude knowledge and control required for future sophisticated science missions. Boeing?s Disc Resonator Gyro (DRG)...

  1. Wide-Bandwidth, Ultra-Accurate, Composite Inertial Reference Sensor, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Applied Technology Associates (ATA) proposes to develop a new inertial sensor by combining two sensing phenomena in a single device. ATA has patented an advanced...

  2. Analysis of an induction linac driver system for inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovingh, J.; Brady, V.O.; Faltens, A.; Keefe, D.; Lee, E.P.

    1987-07-01

    A linear induction accelerator that produces a beam of energetic (5 to 20 GeV) heavy (130 to 210 amu) ions is a prime candidate as a driver for inertial fusion. Continuing developments in sources for ions with charge state greater than unity allow a potentially large reduction in the driver cost and an increase in the driver efficiency. The use of high undepressed tunes (σ 0 ≅ 85 0 ) and low depressed tunes (σ ≅ 8.5 0 ) also contributes to a potentially large reduction in the driver cost. The efficiency and cost of the induction linac system are discussed as a function of output energy and pulse repetition frequency for several ion masses and charge states. The cost optimization code LIACEP, including accelerating module alternatives, transport modules, and scaling laws, is presented. Items with large cost-leverage are identified as a guide to future research activities and development of technology that can yield substantial reductions in the accelerator system cost and improvement in the accelerator system efficiency. Finally, a cost-effective strategy using heavy ion induction linacs in a development scenario for inertial fusion is presented. 34 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs

  3. Spin-1/2 particles in non-inertial reference frames. Low- and high-energy approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.; Papini, G.

    2000-01-01

    Spin-1/2 particles can be used to study inertial and gravitational effects by means of interferometers, particle accelerators, and ultimately quantum systems. These studies require, in general, knowledge of the Hamiltonian and of the inertial and gravitational quantum phases. The procedure followed gives both in the low- and high-energy approximations. The latter affords a more consistent treatment of mass at high energies. The procedure is based on general relativity and on a solution of the Dirac equation that is exact to first-order in the metric deviation. Several previously known acceleration- and rotation-induced effects are rederived in a comprehensive, unified way. Several new effects involve spin, electromagnetic and inertial/gravitational fields in different combinations

  4. Antares Reference Telescope System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanathan, V.K.; Kaprelian, E.; Swann, T.; Parker, J.; Wolfe, P.; Woodfin, G.; Knight, D.

    1983-01-01

    Antares is a 24-beam, 40-TW carbon-dioxide laser-fusion system currently nearing completion at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The 24 beams will be focused onto a tiny target (typically 300 to 1000 μm in diameter) located approximately at the center of a 7.3-m-diameter by 9.3-m-long vacuum (10 - 6 torr) chamber. The design goal is to position the targets to within 10 μm of a selected nominal position, which may be anywhere within a fixed spherical region 1 cm in diameter. The Antares Reference Telescope System is intended to help achieve this goal for alignment and viewing of the various targets used in the laser system. The Antares Reference Telescope System consists of two similar electro-optical systems positioned in a near orthogonal manner in the target chamber area of the laser. Each of these consists of four subsystems: (1) a fixed 9X optical imaging subsystem which produces an image of the target at the vidicon; (2) a reticle projection subsystem which superimposes an image of the reticle pattern at the vidicon; (3) an adjustable front-lighting subsystem which illuminates the target; and (4) an adjustable back-lighting subsystem which also can be used to illuminate the target. The various optical, mechanical, and vidicon design considerations and trade-offs are discussed. The final system chosen (which is being built) and its current status are described in detail

  5. Integrated navigation method of a marine strapdown inertial navigation system using a star sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qiuying; Diao, Ming; Gao, Wei; Zhu, Minghong; Xiao, Shu

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated navigation method of the strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS) using a star sensor. According to the principle of SINS, its own navigation information contains an error that increases with time. Hence, the inertial attitude matrix from the star sensor is introduced as the reference information to correct the SINS increases error. For the integrated navigation method, the vehicle’s attitude can be obtained in two ways: one is calculated from SINS; the other, which we have called star sensor attitude, is obtained as the product between the SINS position and the inertial attitude matrix from the star sensor. Therefore, the SINS position error is introduced in the star sensor attitude error. Based on the characteristics of star sensor attitude error and the mathematical derivation, the SINS navigation errors can be obtained by the coupling calculation between the SINS attitude and the star sensor attitude. Unlike several current techniques, the navigation process of this method is non-radiating and invulnerable to jamming. The effectiveness of this approach was demonstrated by simulation and experimental study. The results show that this integrated navigation method can estimate the attitude error and the position error of SINS. Therefore, the SINS navigation accuracy is improved. (paper)

  6. Data analysis of inertial sensor for train positioning detection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong Jin; Park, Sung Soo; Lee, Jae Ho; Kang, Dong Hoon [Korea Railroad Research Institute, Uiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Train positioning detection information is fundamental for high-speed railroad inspection, making it possible to simultaneously determine the status and evaluate the integrity of railroad equipment. This paper presents the results of measurements and an analysis of an inertial measurement unit (IMU) used as a positioning detection sensors. Acceleration and angular rate measurements from the IMU were analyzed in the amplitude and frequency domains, with a discussion on vibration and train motions. Using these results and GPS information, the positioning detection of a Korean tilting train express was performed from Naju station to Illo station on the Honam-line. The results of a synchronized analysis of sensor measurements and train motion can help in the design of a train location detection system and improve the positioning detection performance.

  7. Modeling Xenon Purification Systems in a Laser Inertial Fusion Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Ann; Gentile, Charles

    2011-10-01

    A Laser Inertial Fusion Engine (LIFE) is a proposed method to employ fusion energy to produce electricity for consumers. However, before it can be built and used as such, each aspect of a LIFE power plant must first be meticulously planned. We are in the process of developing and perfecting models for an exhaust processing and fuel recovery system. Such a system is especially essential because it must be able to recapture and purify expensive materials involved in the reaction so they may be reused. One such material is xenon, which is to be used as an intervention gas in the target chamber. Using Aspen HYSYS, we have modeled several subsystems for exhaust processing, including a subsystem for xenon recovery and purification. After removing hydrogen isotopes using lithium bubblers, we propose to use cryogenic distillation to purify the xenon from remaining contaminants. Aspen HYSYS allows us to analyze predicted flow rates, temperatures, pressures, and compositions within almost all areas of the xenon purification system. Through use of Aspen models, we hope to establish that we can use xenon in LIFE efficiently and in a practical manner.

  8. Data Integration from GPS and Inertial Navigation Systems for Pedestrians in Urban Area

    OpenAIRE

    Krzysztof Bikonis; Jerzy Demkowicz

    2013-01-01

    The GPS system is widely used in navigation and the GPS receiver can offer long-term stable absolute positioning information. The overall system performance depends largely on the signal environments. The position obtained from GPS is often degraded due to obstruction and multipath effect caused by buildings, city infrastructure and vegetation, whereas, the current performance achieved by inertial navigation systems (INS) is still relatively poor due to the large inertial sensor errors. The c...

  9. IAEA technical committee on advances in inertial confinement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, N.J.

    1980-01-01

    In the United Kingdom there is no national inertial confinement programme directed towards civil reactor use. The programme for Controlled Fusion Research, which forms part of the UKAEA Research Group activities, is located at the Culham Laboratory. At this centre, fusion research is devoted entirely to magnetic confinement systems. A fraction of the total effort involves the development and use of powerful lasers for diagnostic purposes, for toroidal plasma refuelling schemes, for basic studies of laser-plasma interactions, highly-ionised atoms and XUV light gain experiments, and for certain commercial applications. Within the universities there is a widespread interest in laser systems and laser-plasma interactions. The substantial research facilities in the Laser Division of the Rutherford Laboratory (SRC) provides a focus for these activities. These lasers are operated as a university users' facility. A two beam, neodymium in phosphate, glass laser (operating at 0.6 TW/beam, but presently being upgraded) is the Rutherford Laboratory's major laser system for implosion and compression studies. Sophisticated radiation diagnostics are a feature of this work. In a single-beam mode, the glass laser has been used for a great deal of laser-plasma interaction physics e.g. non-linear absorption, inhibited heat conduction and harmonic self-generation. Atomic structure of highly-ionised atoms, plasma line broadening and XUV light gain experiments are also active research topics. Concurrent with upgrading the glass laser facility to 6 x 1 TW beams, experiments on harmonic conversion of the output to 2ω 0 , 4ω 0 are being pursued. Electron beam-pumped, rare-gas halide, eximer systems operating in the blue region of the spectrum are also being investigated. The universities provide a considerable back-up for the work at the Rutherford Laser Division. (J.P.N.)

  10. Inertial motion capture system for biomechanical analysis in pressure suits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Capua, Massimiliano

    A non-invasive system has been developed at the University of Maryland Space System Laboratory with the goal of providing a new capability for quantifying the motion of the human inside a space suit. Based on an array of six microprocessors and eighteen microelectromechanical (MEMS) inertial measurement units (IMUs), the Body Pose Measurement System (BPMS) allows the monitoring of the kinematics of the suit occupant in an unobtrusive, self-contained, lightweight and compact fashion, without requiring any external equipment such as those necessary with modern optical motion capture systems. BPMS measures and stores the accelerations, angular rates and magnetic fields acting upon each IMU, which are mounted on the head, torso, and each segment of each limb. In order to convert the raw data into a more useful form, such as a set of body segment angles quantifying pose and motion, a series of geometrical models and a non-linear complimentary filter were implemented. The first portion of this works focuses on assessing system performance, which was measured by comparing the BPMS filtered data against rigid body angles measured through an external VICON optical motion capture system. This type of system is the industry standard, and is used here for independent measurement of body pose angles. By comparing the two sets of data, performance metrics such as BPMS system operational conditions, accuracy, and drift were evaluated and correlated against VICON data. After the system and models were verified and their capabilities and limitations assessed, a series of pressure suit evaluations were conducted. Three different pressure suits were used to identify the relationship between usable range of motion and internal suit pressure. In addition to addressing range of motion, a series of exploration tasks were also performed, recorded, and analysed in order to identify different motion patterns and trajectories as suit pressure is increased and overall suit mobility is reduced

  11. Theoretical Limits of Lunar Vision Aided Navigation with Inertial Navigation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    THEORETICAL LIMITS OF LUNAR VISION AIDED NAVIGATION WITH INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEM THESIS David W. Jones, Capt, USAF AFIT-ENG-MS-15-M-020 DEPARTMENT...Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-ENG-MS-15-M-020 THEORETICAL LIMITS OF LUNAR VISION AIDED NAVIGATION WITH...DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. AFIT-ENG-MS-15-M-020 THEORETICAL LIMITS OF LUNAR VISION AIDED NAVIGATION WITH INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEM THESIS David W. Jones

  12. Motional dispersions and ratchet effect in inertial systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    without the application of any time-averaged external field is termed as ratchet effect [1]. This is necessarily a ... The effect can also be obtained if the system is driven periodically but time asymmetrically in such a way that the ..... Govt. of India for financial assistance (SR/FTP/PS-33/2004). References. [1] P Reimann, Phys.

  13. A system to measure the kinematics during the entire ski jump sequence using inertial sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chardonnens, Julien; Favre, Julien; Cuendet, Florian; Gremion, Gérald; Aminian, Kamiar

    2013-01-04

    Three-dimensional analysis of the entire sequence in ski jumping is recommended when studying the kinematics or evaluating performance. Camera-based systems which allow three-dimensional kinematics measurement are complex to set-up and require extensive post-processing, usually limiting ski jumping analyses to small numbers of jumps. In this study, a simple method using a wearable inertial sensors-based system is described to measure the orientation of the lower-body segments (sacrum, thighs, shanks) and skis during the entire jump sequence. This new method combines the fusion of inertial signals and biomechanical constraints of ski jumping. Its performance was evaluated in terms of validity and sensitivity to different performances based on 22 athletes monitored during daily training. The validity of the method was assessed by comparing the inclination of the ski and the slope at landing point and reported an error of -0.2±4.8°. The validity was also assessed by comparison of characteristic angles obtained with the proposed system and reference values in the literature; the differences were smaller than 6° for 75% of the angles and smaller than 15° for 90% of the angles. The sensitivity to different performances was evaluated by comparing the angles between two groups of athletes with different jump lengths and by assessing the association between angles and jump lengths. The differences of technique observed between athletes and the associations with jumps length agreed with the literature. In conclusion, these results suggest that this system is a promising tool for a generalization of three-dimensional kinematics analysis in ski jumping. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Inertial confinement fusion systems using heavy ion accelerators as drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Godlove, T.F.; Keefe, D.

    1980-03-01

    Heavy ion accelerators are the most recent entrants in the effort to identify a practical driver for inertial confinement fusion. They are of interest because of the expected efficient coupling of ion kinetic energy to the thermal energy needed to implode the pellet and because of the good electrical efficiency of high intensity particle accelerators. The beam intensities required, while formidable, lie within the range that can be studied by extensions of the theories and the technology of modern high energy accelerators

  15. Work and Inertial Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Richard

    2017-12-01

    A fairly recent paper resolves a large discrepancy in the internal energy utilized to fire a cannon as calculated by two inertial observers. Earth and its small reaction velocity must be considered in the system so that the change in kinetic energy is calculated correctly. This paper uses a car in a similar scenario, but considers the work done by forces acting over distances. An analysis of the system must include all energy interactions, including the work done on the car and especially the (negative) work done on Earth in a moving reference frame. This shows the importance of considering the force on Earth and the distance Earth travels. For calculation of work in inertial reference frames, the center of mass perspective is shown to be useful. We also consider the energy requirements to efficiently accelerate a mass among interacting masses.

  16. Expert Systems in Reference Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roysdon, Christine, Ed.; White, Howard D., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Eleven articles introduce expert systems applications in library and information science, and present design and implementation issues of system development for reference services. Topics covered include knowledge based systems, prototype development, the use of artificial intelligence to remedy current system inadequacies, and an expert system to…

  17. Bound states for a neutral particle analogous to a quantum dot induced by the non-inertial effects of the Fermi-Walker reference frame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakke, Knut

    2010-01-01

    We study the appearance of bound states analogous to a quantum dot, proposed by Tan and Inkson (1996) , in the non-relativistic quantum dynamics of a neutral particle with permanent magnetic dipole moment induced by the non-inertial effects of the Fermi-Walker reference frame.

  18. Explaining as Mediated Action: An Analysis of Pre-Service Teachers' Account of Forces of Inertia in Non-Inertial Frames of Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pereira, Alexsandro Pereira; Lima Junior, Paulo; Rodrigues, Renato Felix

    2016-01-01

    Explaining is one of the most important everyday practices in science education. In this article, we examine how scientific explanations could serve as cultural tools for members of a group of pre-service physics teachers. Specifically, we aim at their use of explanations about forces of inertia in non-inertial frames of reference. A basic…

  19. Optimization of reliability centered predictive maintenance scheme for inertial navigation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Xiuhong; Duan, Fuhai; Tian, Heng; Wei, Xuedong

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study is to propose a reliability centered predictive maintenance scheme for a complex structure Inertial Navigation System (INS) with several redundant components. GO Methodology is applied to build the INS reliability analysis model—GO chart. Components Remaining Useful Life (RUL) and system reliability are updated dynamically based on the combination of components lifetime distribution function, stress samples, and the system GO chart. Considering the redundant design in INS, maintenance time is based not only on components RUL, but also (and mainly) on the timing of when system reliability fails to meet the set threshold. The definition of components maintenance priority balances three factors: components importance to system, risk degree, and detection difficulty. Maintenance Priority Number (MPN) is introduced, which may provide quantitative maintenance priority results for all components. A maintenance unit time cost model is built based on components MPN, components RUL predictive model and maintenance intervals for the optimization of maintenance scope. The proposed scheme can be applied to serve as the reference for INS maintenance. Finally, three numerical examples prove the proposed predictive maintenance scheme is feasible and effective. - Highlights: • A dynamic PdM with a rolling horizon is proposed for INS with redundant components. • GO Methodology is applied to build the system reliability analysis model. • A concept of MPN is proposed to quantify the maintenance sequence of components. • An optimization model is built to select the optimal group of maintenance components. • The optimization goal is minimizing the cost of maintaining system reliability

  20. On the generalized potential of inertial forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siboni, S

    2009-01-01

    The generalized potential of the inertial forces acting on a holonomic system in an accelerated reference frame is derived in a way which admits a simple physical interpretation. It is shown that the generalized potential refers to all the inertial forces and, apart from the very special case of a uniformly rotating frame, it is impossible to distinguish a contribution to only the Coriolis force and a contribution pertaining to the residual, velocity-independent fictitious forces. Such an approach to the determination of the generalized potential of inertial forces may be helpful in introducing the topic of the generalized potential to advanced undergraduate and graduate students

  1. Inertial confinement fusion systems using heavy ion accelerators as drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Godlove, T.F.; Keefe, D.

    1980-01-01

    Heavy ion accelerators are the most recent entrants in the effort to identify a practical driver for inertial confinement fusion. They are of interest because of the expected efficient coupling of ion kinetic energy to the thermal energy needed to implode the pellet and because of the good electrical efficiency of high intensity particle accelerators. The beam intensities required, while formidable, lie within the range that can be studied by extensions of the theories and the technology of modern high energy accelerators. (orig.) [de

  2. Korean Reference HLW Disposal System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Heui Joo; Lee, J. Y.; Kim, S. S. (and others)

    2008-03-15

    This report outlines the results related to the development of Korean Reference Disposal System for High-level radioactive wastes. The research has been supported around for 10 years through a long-term research plan by MOST. The reference disposal method was selected via the first stage of the research during which the technical guidelines for the geological disposal of HLW were determined too. At the second stage of the research, the conceptual design of the reference disposal system was made. For this purpose the characteristics of the reference spent fuels from PWR and CANDU reactors were specified, and the material and specifications of the canisters were determined in term of structural analysis and manufacturing capability in Korea. Also, the mechanical and chemical characteristics of the domestic Ca-bentonite were analyzed in order to supply the basic design parameters of the buffer. Based on these parameters the thermal and mechanical analysis of the near-field was carried out. Thermal-Hydraulic-Mechanical behavior of the disposal system was analyzed. The reference disposal system was proposed through the second year research. At the final third stage of the research, the Korean Reference disposal System including the engineered barrier, surface facilities, and underground facilities was proposed through the performance analysis of the disposal system.

  3. Data Glove System Embedded With Inertial Measurement Units for Hand Function Evaluation in Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bor-Shing; Hsiao, Pei-Chi; Yang, Shu-Yu; Su, Che-Shih; Lee, I-Jung

    2017-11-01

    This paper proposes a data glove system integrated with six-axis inertial measurement unit sensors for evaluating the hand function of patients who have suffered a stroke. The modular design of this data glove facilitates its use for stroke patients. The proposed system can use the hand's accelerations, angular velocities, and joint angles as calculated by a quaternion algorithm, to help physicians gain new insights into rehabilitation treatments. A clinical experiment was performed on 15 healthy subjects and 15 stroke patients whose Brunnstrom stages (BSs) ranged from 4 to 6. In this experiment, the participants were subjected to a grip task, thumb task, and card turning task to produce raw data and three features, namely, the average rotation speed, variation of movement completion time, and quality of movement; these features were extracted from the recorded data to form 2-D and 3-D scatter plots. These scatter plots can provide reference information and guidance to physicians who must determine the BSs of stroke patients. The proposed system demonstrated a hit rate of 70.22% on average. Therefore, this system can effectively reduce physicians' load and provide them with detailed information about hand function to help them adjust rehabilitation strategies for stroke patients.

  4. Inertial forces and physics teaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva Martinez, J.M.; Pontes Pedrajas, A.

    1996-01-01

    An epistemological and didactic analysis about inertial forces and the role of validity of Newton's Laws seen from several reference systems is performed. On the basis of considerations fulfilled, a discussion about the necessity of introducing these topics in the curriculum of physics teaching at different levels is also carried out. (Author) 21 refs

  5. Equimoves: A wireless networked inertial measurement system for objective examination of horse gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, Stephan; Serra Bragança, Filipe; Marin-Perianu, Mihai; Marin-Perianu, Raluca; van der Zwaag, Berend Jan; Voskamp, John; Back, Willem; Van Weeren, René; Havinga, Paul

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we describe and validate the EquiMoves system, which aims to support equine veterinarians in assessing lameness and gait performance in horses. The system works by capturing horse motion from up to eight synchronized wireless inertial measurement units. It can be used in various

  6. Quantum effects due to coordinate non-inertial systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Daniel

    1996-01-01

    In chapter 1 we make an introduction to quantum fields in curved spaces, mentioning something about fermions. Chapter 2 begins a brief introduction to General Relativity, and the calculation of the linearized limit to obtain Thirring's metric, which is a first approximation to the Kerr metric. In Chapter 3 we calculate Dirac's equation in Thirring's space-time and work out the non relativistic limit obtaining the modifications in Schroedinger's equation resulting from the geometry. Particularly, we observe the interference of a particle beam. And in Chapter 4, we present a revision of classical and quantum detectors and discuss the response of detectors in non-inertial motion, in particular, for uniform acceleration and uniform circular motion. The latter is known to yield and integral for the response function which has been so far carried out only numerically. We propose a semi-analytical solution for the spectrum of a circular moving detector. We consider c=1. (author)

  7. Velocity-Aided Attitude Estimation for Helicopter Aircraft Using Microelectromechanical System Inertial-Measurement Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Cheol Lee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an algorithm for velocity-aided attitude estimation for helicopter aircraft using a microelectromechanical system inertial-measurement unit. In general, high- performance gyroscopes are used for estimating the attitude of a helicopter, but this type of sensor is very expensive. When designing a cost-effective attitude system, attitude can be estimated by fusing a low cost accelerometer and a gyro, but the disadvantage of this method is its relatively low accuracy. The accelerometer output includes a component that occurs primarily as the aircraft turns, as well as the gravitational acceleration. When estimating attitude, the accelerometer measurement terms other than gravitational ones can be considered as disturbances. Therefore, errors increase in accordance with the flight dynamics. The proposed algorithm is designed for using velocity as an aid for high accuracy at low cost. It effectively eliminates the disturbances of accelerometer measurements using the airspeed. The algorithm was verified using helicopter experimental data. The algorithm performance was confirmed through a comparison with an attitude estimate obtained from an attitude heading reference system based on a high accuracy optic gyro, which was employed as core attitude equipment in the helicopter.

  8. Velocity-Aided Attitude Estimation for Helicopter Aircraft Using Microelectromechanical System Inertial-Measurement Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Cheol; Hong, Sung Kyung

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for velocity-aided attitude estimation for helicopter aircraft using a microelectromechanical system inertial-measurement unit. In general, high- performance gyroscopes are used for estimating the attitude of a helicopter, but this type of sensor is very expensive. When designing a cost-effective attitude system, attitude can be estimated by fusing a low cost accelerometer and a gyro, but the disadvantage of this method is its relatively low accuracy. The accelerometer output includes a component that occurs primarily as the aircraft turns, as well as the gravitational acceleration. When estimating attitude, the accelerometer measurement terms other than gravitational ones can be considered as disturbances. Therefore, errors increase in accordance with the flight dynamics. The proposed algorithm is designed for using velocity as an aid for high accuracy at low cost. It effectively eliminates the disturbances of accelerometer measurements using the airspeed. The algorithm was verified using helicopter experimental data. The algorithm performance was confirmed through a comparison with an attitude estimate obtained from an attitude heading reference system based on a high accuracy optic gyro, which was employed as core attitude equipment in the helicopter. PMID:27973429

  9. SAFIRE: A systems analysis code for ICF [inertial confinement fusion] reactor economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarville, T.J.; Meier, W.R.; Carson, C.F.; Glasgow, B.B.

    1987-01-01

    The SAFIRE (Systems Analysis for ICF Reactor Economics) code incorporates analytical models for scaling the cost and performance of several inertial confinement fusion reactor concepts for electric power. The code allows us to vary design parameters (e.g., driver energy, chamber pulse rate, net electric power) and evaluate the resulting change in capital cost of power plant and the busbar cost of electricity. The SAFIRE code can be used to identify the most attractive operating space and to identify those design parameters with the greatest leverage for improving the economics of inertial confinement fusion electric power plants

  10. A new systematic calibration method of ring laser gyroscope inertial navigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Guo; Gao, Chunfeng; Wang, Qi; Wang, Qun; Xiong, Zhenyu; Long, Xingwu

    2016-10-01

    Inertial navigation system has been the core component of both military and civil navigation systems. Before the INS is put into application, it is supposed to be calibrated in the laboratory in order to compensate repeatability error caused by manufacturing. Discrete calibration method cannot fulfill requirements of high-accurate calibration of the mechanically dithered ring laser gyroscope navigation system with shock absorbers. This paper has analyzed theories of error inspiration and separation in detail and presented a new systematic calibration method for ring laser gyroscope inertial navigation system. Error models and equations of calibrated Inertial Measurement Unit are given. Then proper rotation arrangement orders are depicted in order to establish the linear relationships between the change of velocity errors and calibrated parameter errors. Experiments have been set up to compare the systematic errors calculated by filtering calibration result with those obtained by discrete calibration result. The largest position error and velocity error of filtering calibration result are only 0.18 miles and 0.26m/s compared with 2 miles and 1.46m/s of discrete calibration result. These results have validated the new systematic calibration method and proved its importance for optimal design and accuracy improvement of calibration of mechanically dithered ring laser gyroscope inertial navigation system.

  11. Space-Time Reference Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Soffel, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The high accuracy of modern astronomical spatial-temporal reference systems has made them considerably complex. This book offers a comprehensive overview of such systems. It begins with a discussion of ‘The Problem of Time’, including recent developments in the art of clock making (e.g., optical clocks) and various time scales. The authors address  the definitions and realization of spatial coordinates by reference to remote celestial objects such as quasars. After an extensive treatment of classical equinox-based coordinates, new paradigms for setting up a celestial reference system are introduced that no longer refer to the translational and rotational motion of the Earth. The role of relativity in the definition and realization of such systems is clarified. The topics presented in this book are complemented by exercises (with solutions). The authors offer a series of files, written in Maple, a standard computer algebra system, to help readers get a feel for the various models and orders of magnitude. ...

  12. Heat transfer in inertial confinement fusion reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovingh, J.

    1979-01-01

    The transfer of energy produced by the interaction of the intense pulses of short-ranged fusion microexplosion products with materials is one of the most difficult problems in inertially-confined fusion (ICF) reactor design. The short time and deposition distance for the energy results in local peak power densities on the order of 10 18 watts/m 3 . High local power densities may cause change of state or spall in the reactor materials. This will limit the structure lifetimes for ICF reactors of economic physical sizes, increasing operating costs including structure replacement and radioactive waste management. Four basic first wall protection methods have evolved: a dry-wall, a wet-wall, a magnetically shielded wall, and a fluid wall. These approaches are distinguished by the way the reactor wall interfaces with fusion debris as well as the way the ambient cavity conditions modify the fusion energy forms and spectra at the first wall. Each of these approaches requires different heat transfer considerations

  13. Extended investigation into continuous laser scanning of underground mine workings by means of Landis inertial navigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, E. N.

    2017-10-01

    The paper investigates the method of applying mobile scanning systems (MSSs) with inertial navigators in the underground conditions for carrying out the surveying tasks. The available mobile laser scanning systems cannot be used in the underground environment since Global Positioning System (GPS) signals cannot be received in mines. This signal not only is necessary for space positioning, but also operates as the main corrective signal for the primary navigation system - the inertial navigation system. The idea of the method described in this paper consists in using MSSs with a different correction of the inertial system than GPS is.

  14. On the theory of transformations of coordinates for massive systems of reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadykov, B.S.

    1978-01-01

    Suggested is a new local group of coordinate transformations of reference systems connected with massive bodies, such as the Earth, the Sun and so on, which are rather inertial in the kinematic relation, but possess different gravitational fields. The effect of the gravitational field of the reference body upon the metric of the system is taken into account. For identical systems the new group transfers into the Lorentz group

  15. Reactor potential of the Magnetically Insulated Inertial Confinement Fusion (MICF) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kammash, T.; Galbraith, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper a quasi one dimensional, time dependent set of particle and energy balance equations for the thermal species, namely, electrons, ions and thermal alphas which also allows for an appropriate set of fast alpha groups is utilized to assess the reactor prospects of a DT-burning Magnetically Insulated Inertial Confinement Fusion (MICF) system. A reference reactor consisting of an initial plasma with density of 10 21 cm -3 , temperature of keV, a radius of 0.25 cm is shown to ignite and yield an energy multiplication factor ''Q'' of about 60 when the plasma is allowed to burn for 2 microseconds. When the burntime is extended to 9 microseconds for the same initial conditions our calculations show that Q almost doubles just before the final radius becomes equal to the inner radius of the shell. These preliminary results seem to indicate that MICF does indeed have the potential for a reactor although some relevant physics issues need to be addressed first. 42 refs., 6 figs

  16. Inertial confinement fusion reaction chamber and power conversion system study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maya, I.; Schultz, K.R.; Bourque, R.F.

    1985-10-01

    This report summarizes the results of the second year of a two-year study on the design and evaluation of the Cascade concept as a commercial inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor. We developed a reactor design based on the Cascade reaction chamber concept that would be competitive in terms of both capital and operating costs, safe and environmentally acceptable in terms of hazard to the public, occupational exposure and radioactive waste production, and highly efficient. The Cascade reaction chamber is a double-cone-shaped rotating drum. The granulated solid blanket materials inside the rotating chamber are held against the walls by centrifugal force. The fusion energy is captured in a blanket of solid carbon, BeO, and LiAlO 2 granules. These granules are circulated to the primary side of a ceramic heat exchanger. Primary-side granule temperatures range from 1285 K at the LiAlO 2 granule heat exchanger outlet to 1600 K at the carbon granule heat exchanger inlet. The secondary side consists of a closed-cycle gas turbine power conversion system with helium working fluid, operating at 1300 K peak outlet temperature and achieving a thermal power conversion efficiency of 55%. The net plant efficiency is 49%. The reference design is a plant producing 1500 MW of D-T fusion power and delivering 815 MW of electrical power for sale to the utility grid. 88 refs., 44 figs., 47 tabs

  17. LiDAR Scan Matching Aided Inertial Navigation System in GNSS-Denied Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Jian; Chen, Yuwei; Niu, Xiaoji; Wang, Li; Chen, Liang; Liu, Jingbin; Shi, Chuang; Hyyppä, Juha

    2015-01-01

    A new scan that matches an aided Inertial Navigation System (INS) with a low-cost LiDAR is proposed as an alternative to GNSS-based navigation systems in GNSS-degraded or -denied environments such as indoor areas, dense forests, or urban canyons. In these areas, INS-based Dead Reckoning (DR) and Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) technologies are normally used to estimate positions as separate tools. However, there are critical implementation problems with each standalone system. Th...

  18. Performance Improvement of Inertial Navigation System by Using Magnetometer with Vehicle Dynamic Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daehee Won

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A navigation algorithm is proposed to increase the inertial navigation performance of a ground vehicle using magnetic measurements and dynamic constraints. The navigation solutions are estimated based on inertial measurements such as acceleration and angular velocity measurements. To improve the inertial navigation performance, a three-axis magnetometer is used to provide the heading angle, and nonholonomic constraints (NHCs are introduced to increase the correlation between the velocity and the attitude equation. The NHCs provide a velocity feedback to the attitude, which makes the navigation solution more robust. Additionally, an acceleration-based roll and pitch estimation is applied to decrease the drift when the acceleration is within certain boundaries. The magnetometer and NHCs are combined with an extended Kalman filter. An experimental test was conducted to verify the proposed method, and a comprehensive analysis of the performance in terms of the position, velocity, and attitude showed that the navigation performance could be improved by using the magnetometer and NHCs. Moreover, the proposed method could improve the estimation performance for the position, velocity, and attitude without any additional hardware except an inertial sensor and magnetometer. Therefore, this method would be effective for ground vehicles, indoor navigation, mobile robots, vehicle navigation in urban canyons, or navigation in any global navigation satellite system-denied environment.

  19. A Pedestrian Dead Reckoning System Integrating Low-Cost MEMS Inertial Sensors and GPS Receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-feng Li

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The body-mounted inertial systems for pedestrian navigation do not require any preinstalled facilities and can run autonomously. The advantages over other technologies make it especially attractive for the applications such as first responders, military and consumer markets. The hardware platform integrating the low-cost, low-power and small-size MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical systems inertial sensors and GPS (global positioning system receiver is proposed. When the satellite signals are available, the location of the pedestrian is directly obtained from the GPS receiver. The inertial sensors are the complement of the GPS receiver in places where the GPS signals are not available, such as indoors, urban canyons and places under dense foliages. The height tracking is achieved by the barometer. The proposed PDR (pedestrian dead reckoning algorithm is real-timely implemented in the platform. The simple but effective step detection and step length estimation method are realized to reduce the computation and memory requirements on the microprocessor. A complementary filter is proposed to fuse the data from the accelerometer, gyroscope and digital compass for decreasing the heading error, which is the main error source in positioning. The reliability and accuracy of the proposed system is verified by field pedestrian walking tests in outdoors and indoors. The positioning error is less than 4% of the total traveled distance. The results indicate that the pedestrian dead reckoning system is able to provide satisfactory tracking performance.

  20. Lasers and power systems for inertial confinement fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stark, E.E. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    After discussing the role of lasers in ICF and the candidate lasers, several important areas of technology requirements are discussed. These include the beam transport system, the pulsed power system and the gas flow system. The system requirements, state of the art, as well as needs and prospects for new technology developments are given. Other technology issues and promising developments are described briefly

  1. A Short Tutorial on Inertial Navigation System and Global Positioning System Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalling, Kyle M.; Eure, Kenneth W.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe a simple method of integrating Inertial Navigation System (INS) information with Global Positioning System (GPS) information for an improved estimate of vehicle attitude and position. A simple two dimensional (2D) case is considered. The attitude estimates are derived from sensor data and used in the estimation of vehicle position and velocity through dead reckoning within the INS. The INS estimates are updated with GPS estimates using a Kalman filter. This tutorial is intended for the novice user with a focus on bringing the reader from raw sensor measurements to an integrated position and attitude estimate. An application is given using a remotely controlled ground vehicle operating in assumed 2D environment. The theory is developed first followed by an illustrative example.

  2. FLIGHT DEVELOPMENT OF A DISTRIBUTED INERTIAL SATELLITE MICRONAVIGATTION SYSTEM FOR SYNTHETIC - APERTURE RADAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Vladimirovich Chernodarov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current state of the onboard systems is characterized by the integration of aviation and radio-electronic equipment systems for solving problems of navigation and control. These problems include micro-navigation of the anten- na phase center (APC of the radar during the review of the Earth's surface from aboard the aircraft. Increasing of the reso- lution of the radar station (RLS by hardware increasing the antenna size is not always possible due to restrictions on the aircraft onboard equipment weight and dimensions. Therefore the implementation of analytic extension of the radiation pattern by "gluing" the images, obtained by RLS on the aircraft motion trajectory is embodied. The estimations are con- verted into amendments to the signals of RLS with synthetic aperture RSA to compensate instabilities. The purpose of the research is building a theoretical basis and a practical implementation of procedures for evaluating the trajectory APS in- stabilities using a distributed system of inertial-satellite micro-navigation (DSMN taking into account the RSA flight oper- ations actual conditions. The technology of evaluation and compensation of RSA trajectory instabilities via DSMN is con- sidered. The implementation of this technology is based on the mutual support of inertial, satellite and radar systems. Syn- chronization procedures of inertial and satellite measurements in the evaluation of DSMN errors are proposed. The given results of DSMN flight testing justify the possibility and expediency to apply the proposed technology in order to improve the resolution of RSA. The compensation of aircraft trajectory instabilities in RSA signals can be provided by inertial- satellite micro-navigation system, taking into account the actual conditions of the RSA flight operations. The researches show that in order to achieve the required resolution of RSA it seems to be appropriate to define the rational balance be- tween accuracy DSMN characteristics

  3. A dead reckoning localization system for mobile robots using inertial sensors and wheel revolution encoding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Bong Su; Moon, Woo Sung; Seo, Woo Jin; Baek, Kwang Ryul [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    Inertial navigation systems (INS) are composed of inertial sensors, such as accelerometers and gyroscopes. An INS updates its orientation and position automatically; it has an acceptable stability over the short term, however this stability deteriorates over time. Odometry, used to estimate the position of a mobile robot, employs encoders attached to the robot's wheels. However, errors occur caused by the integrative nature of the rotating speed and the slippage between the wheel and the ground. In this paper, we discuss mobile robot position estimation without using external signals in indoor environments. In order to achieve optimal solutions, a Kalman filter that estimates the orientation and velocity of mobile robots has been designed. The proposed system combines INS and odometry and delivers more accurate position information than standalone odometry.

  4. Comparison of robust H∞ filter and Kalman filter for initial alignment of inertial navigation system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Yan-ling; CHEN Ming-hui; LI Liang-jun; XU Bo

    2008-01-01

    There are many filtering methods that can be used for the initial alignment of an integrated inertial navigation system.This paper discussed the use of GPS,but focused on two kinds of filters for the initial alignment of an integrated strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS).One method is based on the Kalman filter (KF),and the other is based on the robust filter.Simulation results showed that the filter provides a quick transient response and a little more accurate estimate than KF,given substantial process noise or unknown noise statistics.So the robust filter is an effective and useful method for initial alignment of SINS.This research should make the use of SINS more popular,and is also a step for further research.

  5. Quality Assurance and T&E of Inertial Systems for RLV Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathiamurthi, S.; Thakur, Nayana; Hari, K.; Peter, Pilmy; Biju, V. S.; Mani, K. S.

    2017-12-01

    This work describes the quality assurance and Test and Evaluation (T&E) activities carried out for the inertial systems flown successfully in India's first reusable launch vehicle technology demonstrator hypersonic experiment mission. As part of reliability analysis, failure mode effect and criticality analysis and derating analysis were carried out in the initial design phase, findings presented to design review forums and the recommendations were implemented. T&E plan was meticulously worked out and presented to respective forums for review and implementation. Test data analysis, health parameter plotting and test report generation was automated and these automations significantly reduced the time required for these activities and helped to avoid manual errors. Further, T&E cycle is optimized without compromising on quality aspects. These specific measures helped to achieve zero defect delivery of inertial systems for RLV application.

  6. SNAP operating system reference manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabuda, J.D.; Polito, J.; Walker, J.L.; Grant, F.H. III.

    1982-03-01

    The SNAP Operating System (SOS) is a FORTRAN 77 program which provides assistance to the safeguards analyst who uses the Safeguards Automated Facility Evaluation (SAFE) and the Safeguards Network Analysis Procedure (SNAP) techniques. Features offered by SOS are a data base system for storing a library of SNAP applications, computer graphics representation of SNAP models, a computer graphics editor to develop and modify SNAP models, a SAFE-to-SNAP interface, automatic generation of SNAP input data, and a computer graphic post-processor for SNAP. The SOS Reference Manual provides detailed application information concerning SOS as well as a detailed discussion of all SOS components and their associated command input formats. SOS was developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research and the US Naval Surface Weapons Center by Pritsker and Associates, Inc., under contract to Sandia National Laboratories

  7. Inertial confinement fusion reaction chamber and power conversion system study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maya, I.; Schultz, K.R.; Battaglia, J.M.

    1984-09-01

    GA Technologies has developed a conceptual ICF reactor system based on the Cascade rotating-bed reaction chamber concept. Unique features of the system design include the use of low activation SiC in a reaction chamber constructed of box-shaped tiles held together in compression by prestressing tendons to the vacuum chamber. Circulating Li 2 O granules serve as the tritium breeding and energy transport material, cascading down the sides of the reaction chamber to the power conversion system. The total tritium inventory of the system is 6 kg; tritium recovery is accomplished directly from the granules via the vacuum system. A system for centrifugal throw transport of the hot Li 2 O granules from the reaction chamber to the power conversion system has been developed. A number of issues were evaluated during the course of this study. These include the response of first-layer granules to the intense microexplosion surface heat flux, cost effective fabrication of Li 2 O granules, tritium inventory and recovery issues, the thermodynamics of solids-flow options, vacuum versus helium-medium heat transfer, and the tradeoffs of capital cost versus efficiency for alternate heat exchange and power conversion system option. The resultant design options appear to be economically competitive, safe, and environmentally attractive

  8. 3D-Calibration for IMU of the Strapdown Inertial Navigation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avrutov V.V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new calibration method for Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU of Strapdown Iner-tial Navigation Systems was presented. IMU has been composed of accelerometers, gyroscopes and a circuit of signal processing. Normally, a rate transfer test and multi-position tests are us-ing for IMU calibration. The new calibration method is based on whole angle rotation or finite rotation. In fact it’s suggested to turn over IMU around three axes simultaneously. In order to solve the equation of calibration, it is necessary to provide an equality of a rank of basic matrix into degree of basic matrix. The results of simulated IMU data presented to demonstrate the performance of the new calibration method.

  9. Noise reduction and estimation in multiple micro-electro-mechanical inertial systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waegli, Adrian; Skaloud, Jan; Guerrier, Stéphane; Parés, Maria Eulàlia; Colomina, Ismael

    2010-01-01

    This research studies the reduction and the estimation of the noise level within a redundant configuration of low-cost (MEMS-type) inertial measurement units (IMUs). Firstly, independent observations between units and sensors are assumed and the theoretical decrease in the system noise level is analyzed in an experiment with four MEMS-IMU triads. Then, more complex scenarios are presented in which the noise level can vary in time and for each sensor. A statistical method employed for studying the volatility of financial markets (GARCH) is adapted and tested for the usage with inertial data. This paper demonstrates experimentally and through simulations the benefit of direct noise estimation in redundant IMU setups

  10. The Spallation Neutron Source RF Reference System

    CERN Document Server

    Piller, Maurice; Crofford, Mark; Doolittle, Lawrence; Ma, Hengjie

    2005-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) RF Reference System includes the master oscillator (MO), local oscillator(LO) distribution, and Reference RF distribution systems. Coherent low noise Reference RF signals provide the ability to control the phase relationships between the fields in the front-end and linear accelerator (linac) RF cavity structures. The SNS RF Reference System requirements, implementation details, and performance are discussed.

  11. A nonlocal phase-field system with inertial term

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grasselli, M.; Petzeltová, Hana; Schimperna, G.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 3 (2007), s. 451-469 ISSN 0033-569X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100190606 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : nonlocal phase-field system * Lojasiewicz inequality * convergence to equilibria Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.463, year: 2007

  12. An Integrated Thermal Compensation System for MEMS Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Ren Chiu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An active thermal compensation system for a low temperature-bias-drift (TBD MEMS-based gyroscope is proposed in this study. First, a micro-gyroscope is fabricated by a high-aspect-ratio silicon-on-glass (SOG process and vacuum packaged by glass frit bonding. Moreover, a drive/readout ASIC, implemented by the 0.25 µm 1P5M standard CMOS process, is designed and integrated with the gyroscope by directly wire bonding. Then, since the temperature effect is one of the critical issues in the high performance gyroscope applications, the temperature-dependent characteristics of the micro-gyroscope are discussed. Furthermore, to compensate the TBD of the micro-gyroscope, a thermal compensation system is proposed and integrated in the aforementioned ASIC to actively tune the parameters in the digital trimming mechanism, which is designed in the readout ASIC. Finally, some experimental results demonstrate that the TBD of the micro-gyroscope can be compensated effectively by the proposed compensation system.

  13. Equivalent to Represent Inertial and Primary Frequency Control Effects of an External System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weckesser, Johannes Tilman Gabriel; Van Cutsem, Thierry

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a novel equivalent, which is suitable for simulation of inertial and primary frequency control effects. In the model reduction procedure, dynamic power injectors are used to replace the external system and to mimic its dynamic behavior. The parameters of the equivalents...... are tuned with a simple approach presented in this paper. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated on a modified version of the ENTSO-E Dynamic Study Model. The results show that the system frequency response of the unreduced system is retained and a speedup of the simulations of around 4...

  14. Hidden Markov Model-based Pedestrian Navigation System using MEMS Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yingjun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a foot-mounted pedestrian navigation system using MEMS inertial sensors is implemented, where the zero-velocity detection is abstracted into a hidden Markov model with 4 states and 15 observations. Moreover, an observations extraction algorithm has been developed to extract observations from sensor outputs; sample sets are used to train and optimize the model parameters by the Baum-Welch algorithm. Finally, a navigation system is developed, and the performance of the pedestrian navigation system is evaluated using indoor and outdoor field tests, and the results show that position error is less than 3% of total distance travelled.

  15. Coordinates system adapted to non-inertial frames in Minkowski spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felix, Patricio; Dahia, F.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Static observers in curved spacetimes may interpret their proper acceleration as the opposite of a local gravitation Field (in the Newtonian sense). Based on this interpretation and the equivalence principle, we are led to investigate congruences of timelike curves in Minkowski spacetime whose acceleration field coincides with the acceleration field of static observers of curved spaces. The congruences give rise to non-inertial frames that are examined. Specifically we find, based on the locality principle, the embedding of simultaneity hypersurfaces adapted to the non-inertial frame in an explicit form for arbitrary acceleration fields. This work has motivated the fact that according to the principle of equivalence, it is expected that some physical features of gravity cam be mimicked by accelerated frames in Minkowski spacetime. The Rindler frame, which is adapted to a family of uniformly accelerated observers, is a famous example of a non-inertial system that simulates some characteristics of a black hole's geometry. This frame has been widely investigated in the literature and here we are going to start our discussion pointing out a peculiar aspect of the Rindler frame. It is related to the remarkable characteristic that the proper acceleration 'a' of Rindler observers, which is constant along their world lines, varies according to the law a = 1/ρ in relation to the observers, where ρ corresponds to the initial distance of the observers with respect to the origin of an inertial frame. This particular dependence of a ρ is connected to the behavior of static observers in Schwarzschild geometry in the vicinity of the horizon. Indeed, if ρ denotes the radial distance of an observer to the horizon, then, the proper acceleration the observers need in order to stay at rest in their position close to the horizon is proportional to 1/ρ. Therefore the Rindler congruence and the static Schwarzschild observers have the same acceleration field a(ρ). However

  16. Coordinates system adapted to non-inertial frames in Minkowski spacetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, Patricio; Dahia, F. [Universidade Federal de Campo Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Static observers in curved spacetimes may interpret their proper acceleration as the opposite of a local gravitation Field (in the Newtonian sense). Based on this interpretation and the equivalence principle, we are led to investigate congruences of timelike curves in Minkowski spacetime whose acceleration field coincides with the acceleration field of static observers of curved spaces. The congruences give rise to non-inertial frames that are examined. Specifically we find, based on the locality principle, the embedding of simultaneity hypersurfaces adapted to the non-inertial frame in an explicit form for arbitrary acceleration fields. This work has motivated the fact that according to the principle of equivalence, it is expected that some physical features of gravity cam be mimicked by accelerated frames in Minkowski spacetime. The Rindler frame, which is adapted to a family of uniformly accelerated observers, is a famous example of a non-inertial system that simulates some characteristics of a black hole's geometry. This frame has been widely investigated in the literature and here we are going to start our discussion pointing out a peculiar aspect of the Rindler frame. It is related to the remarkable characteristic that the proper acceleration 'a' of Rindler observers, which is constant along their world lines, varies according to the law a = 1/ρ in relation to the observers, where ρ corresponds to the initial distance of the observers with respect to the origin of an inertial frame. This particular dependence of a ρ is connected to the behavior of static observers in Schwarzschild geometry in the vicinity of the horizon. Indeed, if ρ denotes the radial distance of an observer to the horizon, then, the proper acceleration the observers need in order to stay at rest in their position close to the horizon is proportional to 1/ρ. Therefore the Rindler congruence and the static Schwarzschild observers have the same acceleration field

  17. Grid Inertial Response with Lithium-ion Battery Energy Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knap, Vaclav; Sinha, Rakesh; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    2014-01-01

    of this paper is to evaluate the technical viability of utilizing energy storage systems based on Lithium-ion batteries for providing inertial response in grids with high penetration levels of wind power. In order to perform this evaluation, the 12-bus system grid model was used; the inertia of the grid...... was varied by decreasing the number of conventional power plants in the studied grid model while in the same time increasing the load and the wind power penetration levels. Moreover, in order to perform a realistic investigation, a dynamic model of the Lithium-ion battery was considered and parameterized...

  18. Space Transportation System Cargo projects: inertial stage/spacecraft integration plan. Volume 1: Management plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Management System for the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) - spacecraft processing from KSC arrival through launch is described. The roles and responsibilities of the agencies and test team organizations involved in IUS-S/C processing at KSC for non-Department of Defense missions are described. Working relationships are defined with respect to documentation preparation, coordination and approval, schedule development and maintenance, test conduct and control, configuration management, quality control and safety. The policy regarding the use of spacecraft contractor test procedures, IUS contractor detailed operating procedures and KSC operations and maintenance instructions is defined. Review and approval requirements for each documentation system are described.

  19. THERMAL PROTECTION AND THERMAL STABILIZATION OF FIBER-OPTICAL GYROSCOPE INCLUDED IN STRAPDOWN INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Gromov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available It is known, that temperature perturbations and thermal modes have significant influence on the accuracy of a fiber-optical gyroscope. Nowadays, thermal perturbations are among the main problems in the field of navigation accuracy. Review of existing methods for decrease of temperature influences on the accuracy of a strapdown inertial navigation system with fiberoptical gyros showed, that the usage of constructive and compensation methods only is insufficient and, therefore, thermostabilization is required. Reversible thermostabilization system is offered, its main executive elements are thermoelectric modules (Peltier’s modules, heat transfer from which is provided by heatsinks at work surfaces of modules. This variant of thermostabilization maintenance is considered; Peltier’s modules and temperature sensors for the system are chosen. Parameters of heatsinks for heat transfer intensification are calculated. Fans for necessary air circulation in the device are chosen and thickness of thermal isolation is calculated. Calculations of thermal modes of navigation system with thermostabilization are made in modern software Autodesk Simulation CFD. Comparison of results for present and previous researches and calculations shows essential decrease in gradients of temperature on gyro surfaces and better uniformity of temperature field in the whole device. Conclusions about efficiency of the given method usage in view of accuracy improvement of navigation system are made. Thermostabilization provision of a strapdown inertial navigation system with fiberoptical gyros is proved. Thermostabilization application in combination with compensational methods can reach a necessary accuracy of navigation system.

  20. Motion sickness and tilts of the inertial force environment : Active suspension systems vs. active passengers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golding, J. F.; van der Bles, W.; Bos, J. E.; Haynes, T.; Gresty, M. A.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Maneuvering in vehicles exposes occupants to low frequency forces (<1 Hz) which can provoke motion sickness. Hypothesis: Aligning with the tilting inertial resultant (gravity + imposed horizontal acceleration: gravito-inertial force (GIF)) may reduce motion sickness when tilting is

  1. Data Integration from GPS and Inertial Navigation Systems for Pedestrians in Urban Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Bikonis

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The GPS system is widely used in navigation and the GPS receiver can offer long-term stable absolute positioning information. The overall system performance depends largely on the signal environments. The position obtained from GPS is often degraded due to obstruction and multipath effect caused by buildings, city infrastructure and vegetation, whereas, the current performance achieved by inertial navigation systems (INS is still relatively poor due to the large inertial sensor errors. The complementary features of GPS and INS are the main reasons why integrated GPS/INS systems are becoming increasingly popular. GPS/INS systems offer a high data rate, high accuracy position and orientation that can work in all environments, particularly those where satellite availability is restricted. In the paper integration algorithm of GPS and INS systems data for pedestrians in urban area is presented. For data integration an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF algorithm is proposed. Complementary characteristics of GPS and INS with EKF can overcome the problem of huge INS drifts, GPS outages, dense multipath effect and other individual problems associated with these sensors.

  2. Modular finger and hand motion capturing system based on inertial and magnetic sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valtin Markus

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of hand posture and kinematics is increasingly important in various fields. This includes the rehabilitation of stroke survivors with restricted hand function. This paper presents a modular, ambulatory measurement system for the assement of the remaining hand function and for closed-loop controlled therapy. The device is based on inertial sensors and utilizes up to five interchangeable sensor strips to achieve modularity and to simplify the sensor attachment. We introduce the modular hardware design and describe algorithms used to calculate the joint angles. Measurements with two experimental setups demonstrate the feasibility and the potential of such a tracking device.

  3. Aurora multikilojoule KrF laser system prototype for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosocha, L.A.; Hanlon, J.A.; Mc Leod, J.; Kang, M.; Kortegaard, B.L.; Burrows, M.D.; Bowling, P.S.

    1987-01-01

    Aurora is the Los Alamos National Laboratory short-pulse, high-power, KrF laser system. It serves as an end-to-end technology demonstration for large-scale ultraviolet laser systems of interest for short wavelength, inertial confinement fusion (ICF) investigations. The systems is a prototype for using optical angular multiplexing and serial amplification by large electron-beam-driven KrF laser amplifiers to deliver stacked, 248-nm, 5-ns duration multikilojoule laser pulses to ICF targets using an --1-km-long optical beam path. The entire Aurora KrF laser system is described and the design features of the following major system components are summarized: front-end lasers, amplifier train, multiplexer, optical relay train, demultiplexer, target irradiation apparatus, and alignment and controls systems

  4. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF TRIAXIAL MULTIMODE ATTITUDE AND HEADING REFERENCE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olha Sushchenko

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper deals with the mathematical description of the gimballed attitude and heading reference systems, which can be applied in design of strategic precision navigation systems. The main goal is to created mathematical description taking into consideration the necessity to use different navigations operating modes of this class of navigation systems. To provide the high accuracy the indirect control is used when the position of the gimballed platform is controlled by signals of gyroscopic devices, which are corrected using accelerometer’s signals. Methods: To solve the given problem the methods of the classical theoretical mechanics, gyro theory, and inertial navigation are used. Results: The full mathematical model of the gimballed attitude and heading reference system is derived including descriptions of different operating modes. The mathematical models of the system Expressions for control and correction moments in the different modes are represented. The simulation results are given. Conclusions: The represented results prove efficiency of the proposed models. Developed mathematical models can be useful for design of navigation systems of the wide class of moving vehicles.

  5. Dragging of inertial frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciufolini, Ignazio

    2007-09-06

    The origin of inertia has intrigued scientists and philosophers for centuries. Inertial frames of reference permeate our daily life. The inertial and centrifugal forces, such as the pull and push that we feel when our vehicle accelerates, brakes and turns, arise because of changes in velocity relative to uniformly moving inertial frames. A classical interpretation ascribed these forces to acceleration relative to some absolute frame independent of the cosmological matter, whereas an opposite view related them to acceleration relative to all the masses and 'fixed stars' in the Universe. An echo and partial realization of the latter idea can be found in Einstein's general theory of relativity, which predicts that a spinning mass will 'drag' inertial frames along with it. Here I review the recent measurements of frame dragging using satellites orbiting Earth.

  6. Genetics Home Reference: systemic scleroderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Systemic scleroderma Systemic scleroderma Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Systemic scleroderma is an autoimmune disorder that affects the skin ...

  7. Field momentum, inertial momentum and gravitational momentum of a system of bodies in the post-Newtonian approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jankiewicz, Cz; Sikora, D [Wyzsza Szkola Pedagogiczna, Rzeszow (Poland)

    1980-01-01

    It is shwon that in the post-Newtonian approximation the gravitational momentum of a system of point particles is equal to the sum of field momentum and inertial momentum only in two classes of coordinate systems. This equality may be treated as a natural condition on a coordinate system in which the generally covariant Einstein equations are to be solved.

  8. Cost/performance analysis of an induction linac driver system for inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovingh, J.; Brady, V.O.; Faltens, A.; Hoyer, E.H.; Lee, E.P.

    1986-01-01

    A linear induction accelerator that produces a beam of energetic (≅ 10 GeV) heavy (A ≅ 200) ions is a prime candidate as a driver for inertial fusion. Continuing developments is amorphous iron for use in accelerating modules represent a potentially large reduction in the driver cost and an increase in the driver efficiency. Additional insulator developments may also represent a potentially large reduction in the driver cost. The efficiency and cost of the induction linac system is discussed as a function of output energy and pulse repetition frequency for several beam charge states, numbers of beams and beam particle species. Accelerating modules and transport modules are described. Large cost leverage items are identified as a guide to future research activities and technology of development that can yield further substantial reductions in the accelerator system cost and improvement in the accelerator system efficiency

  9. Cost/performance analysis of an induction linac driver system for inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovingh, J.; Brady, V.O.; Faltens, A.; Hoyer, E.H.; Lee, E.P.

    1985-11-01

    A linear induction accelerator that produces a beam of energetic (approx. =10 GeV) heavy (CAapprox.200) ions is a prime candidate as a driver for inertial fusion. Continuing developments in amorphous iron for use in accelerating modules represent a potentially large reduction in the driver cost and an increase in the driver efficiency. Additional insulator developments may also represent a potentially large reduction in the driver cost. The efficiency and cost of the induction linac system is discussed as a function of output energy and pulse repetition frequency for several beam charge states, numbers of beams and beam particle species. Accelerating modules and transport modules will be described. Large cost leverage items will be identified as a guide to future research activities and technology of development that can yield further substantial reductions in the accelerator system cost and improvement in the accelerator system efficiency. 13 refs., 2 figs

  10. A Damping Grid Strapdown Inertial Navigation System Based on a Kalman Filter for Ships in Polar Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weiquan; Fang, Tao; Luo, Li; Zhao, Lin; Che, Fengzhu

    2017-07-03

    The grid strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS) used in polar navigation also includes three kinds of periodic oscillation errors as common SINS are based on a geographic coordinate system. Aiming ships which have the external information to conduct a system reset regularly, suppressing the Schuler periodic oscillation is an effective way to enhance navigation accuracy. The Kalman filter based on the grid SINS error model which applies to the ship is established in this paper. The errors of grid-level attitude angles can be accurately estimated when the external velocity contains constant error, and then correcting the errors of the grid-level attitude angles through feedback correction can effectively dampen the Schuler periodic oscillation. The simulation results show that with the aid of external reference velocity, the proposed external level damping algorithm based on the Kalman filter can suppress the Schuler periodic oscillation effectively. Compared with the traditional external level damping algorithm based on the damping network, the algorithm proposed in this paper can reduce the overshoot errors when the state of grid SINS is switched from the non-damping state to the damping state, and this effectively improves the navigation accuracy of the system.

  11. ENEA-Frascati inertial confinement fusion: Multi-channel digitizer control, acquisition and analysis system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caruso, A.; Strangio, C.; Elman, G.; Hugh, J. Mc; Rogers, G.; Pastina, E.; Raimondi, F.; Umbro, A.

    1991-09-01

    The ICF (Inertial Confinement Fusion) data acquisition and analysis system described in this paper incorporates digitizer channels, signal switching, an instrument controller, a graphic hardcopy unit, laser printer and software. The digitizers, signal switching and instrument controller are standard components appropriate to acquire the single fast shot signals (rise-time: from about 100 picoseconds to nanoseconds). The input signals are switched to the digitizers through the TSI-8150 test system interface by TSS40 switch controller cards and TSS46 18GHz microwave switches. Graphic hardcopy is accomplished using either a 4693PX colour hardcopy unit or a laser printer connected through a printer spooler/multiplexer. The software is based on an existing package from Ressler called RAI/DAC reviewed by Fus-Inerz and Tektronix-Italy to define the modifications needed for data acquisition and handling. The adopted software solution is based on an IBM PC compatible instrument controller running software developed by Ressler Associates.

  12. Energy from inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This book contains 22 articles on inertial fusion energy (IFE) research and development written in the framework of an international collaboration of authors under the guidance of an advisory group on inertial fusion energy set up in 1991 to advise the IAEA. It describes the actual scientific, engineering and technological developments in the field of inertial confinement fusion (ICF). It also identifies ways in which international co-operation in ICF could be stimulated. The book is intended for a large audience and provides an introduction to inertial fusion energy and an overview of the various technologies needed for IFE power plants to be developed. It contains chapters on (i) the fundamentals of IFE; (ii) inertial confinement target physics; (iii) IFE power plant design principles (requirements for power plant drivers, solid state laser drivers, gas laser drivers, heavy ion drivers, and light ion drivers, target fabrication and positioning, reaction chamber systems, power generation and conditioning and radiation control, materials management and target materials recovery), (iv) special design issues (radiation damage in structural materials, induced radioactivity, laser driver- reaction chamber interfaces, ion beam driver-reaction chamber interfaces), (v) inertial fusion energy development strategy, (vi) safety and environmental impact, (vii) economics and other figures of merit; (viii) other uses of inertial fusion (both those involving and not involving implosions); and (ix) international activities. Refs, figs and tabs

  13. Wearable Inertial Sensor Systems for Lower Limb Exercise Detection and Evaluation: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Martin; Caulfield, Brian; Ward, Tomas; Johnston, William; Doherty, Cailbhe

    2018-05-01

    Analysis of lower limb exercises is traditionally completed with four distinct methods: (1) 3D motion capture; (2) depth-camera-based systems; (3) visual analysis from a qualified exercise professional; and (4) self-assessment. Each method is associated with a number of limitations. The aim of this systematic review is to synthesise and evaluate studies which have investigated the capacity for inertial measurement unit (IMU) technologies to assess movement quality in lower limb exercises. A systematic review of studies identified through the databases of PubMed, ScienceDirect and Scopus was conducted. Articles written in English and published in the last 10 years which investigated an IMU system for the analysis of repetition-based targeted lower limb exercises were included. The quality of included studies was measured using an adapted version of the STROBE assessment criteria for cross-sectional studies. The studies were categorised into three groupings: exercise detection, movement classification or measurement validation. Each study was then qualitatively summarised. From the 2452 articles that were identified with the search strategies, 47 papers are included in this review. Twenty-six of the 47 included studies were deemed as being of high quality. Wearable inertial sensor systems for analysing lower limb exercises is a rapidly growing field of research. Research over the past 10 years has predominantly focused on validating measurements that the systems produce and classifying users' exercise quality. There have been very few user evaluation studies and no clinical trials in this field to date.

  14. Overcoming urban GPS navigation challenges through the use of MEMS inertial sensors and proper verification of navigation system performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinande, Eric T.

    This research proposes several means to overcome challenges in the urban environment to ground vehicle global positioning system (GPS) receiver navigation performance through the integration of external sensor information. The effects of narrowband radio frequency interference and signal attenuation, both common in the urban environment, are examined with respect to receiver signal tracking processes. Low-cost microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) inertial sensors, suitable for the consumer market, are the focus of receiver augmentation as they provide an independent measure of motion and are independent of vehicle systems. A method for estimating the mounting angles of an inertial sensor cluster utilizing typical urban driving maneuvers is developed and is able to provide angular measurements within two degrees of truth. The integration of GPS and MEMS inertial sensors is developed utilizing a full state navigation filter. Appropriate statistical methods are developed to evaluate the urban environment navigation improvement due to the addition of MEMS inertial sensors. A receiver evaluation metric that combines accuracy, availability, and maximum error measurements is presented and evaluated over several drive tests. Following a description of proper drive test techniques, record and playback systems are evaluated as the optimal way of testing multiple receivers and/or integrated navigation systems in the urban environment as they simplify vehicle testing requirements.

  15. DVL Velocity Aiding in the HUGIN 1000 Integrated Inertial Navigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørn Jalving

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The RDI WHN-600 Doppler Velocity Log (DVL is a key navigation sensor for the HUG1N 1000 Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV. HUGIN 1000 is designed for autonomous submerged operation for long periods of time. This is facilitated by a low drift velocity aided Inertial Navigation System (INS. Major factors determining the position error growth are the IMU and DVL error characteristics and the mission plan pattern_ For instance, low frequency DVL errors cause an approximately linear drift in a straight-line trajectory, while these errors tend to be cancelled out by a lawn mower pattern_ The paper focuses on the accuracy offered by the DVL. HUGIN 1000 is a permanent organic mine countermeasure (MCM capacity on the Royal Norwegian Navy MCM vessel KNM Karmoy. HUGIN 1000 will be part of the NATO force MCMFORNORTH in fall 2004.

  16. Acceleration systems for heavy-ion beams for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faltens, A.; Judd, D.L.; Keefe, D.

    1977-01-01

    Heavy-ion beam pulse parameters needed to achieve useful electric power generation through inertial confinement fusion have been set forth. For successful ignition of a high-gain D-T target a few magajoules of energy per pulse, delivered at a peak power of several hundred terawatts, are needed; it must be deposited with an energy density of 20 to 30 magajoules per gram of the target material on which it impinges. Additional requirements must be met if this form of fusion is to be used for practical power generation; for example, the igniter system for a 1 GWe power plant should have a repetition rate in the neighborhood of 1 to 10 Hz, an overall electrical conversion efficiency from mains to beam of greater than 10%, and high availability. At present under discussion are the needs for a Heavy-Ion Demonstration Experiment (HIDE); an example set of parameters is given for comparison with those for a power plant

  17. Fused Silica Final Optics for Inertial Fusion Energy: Radiation Studies and System-Level Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latkowski, Jeffery F.; Kubota, Alison; Caturla, Maria J.; Dixit, Sham N.; Speth, Joel A.; Payne, Stephen A.

    2003-01-01

    The survivability of the final optic, which must sit in the line of sight of high-energy neutrons and gamma rays, is a key issue for any laser-driven inertial fusion energy (IFE) concept. Previous work has concentrated on the use of reflective optics. Here, we introduce and analyze the use of a transmissive final optic for the IFE application. Our experimental work has been conducted at a range of doses and dose rates, including those comparable to the conditions at the IFE final optic. The experimental work, in conjunction with detailed analysis, suggests that a thin, fused silica Fresnel lens may be an attractive option when used at a wavelength of 351 nm. Our measurements and molecular dynamics simulations provide convincing evidence that the radiation damage, which leads to optical absorption, not only saturates but that a 'radiation annealing' effect is observed. A system-level description is provided, including Fresnel lens and phase plate designs

  18. Motion sickness and tilts of the inertial force environment: active suspension systems vs. active passengers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golding, J.F.; Bles, W.; Bos, J.E.; Haynes, T.; Gresty, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Maneuvering in vehicles exposes occupants to low frequency forces (<1 Hz) which can provoke motion sickness. Hypothesis: Aligning with the tilting inertial resultant (gravity + imposed horizontal acceleration: gravito-inertial force (GIF)) may reduce motion sickness when tilting is either 'active'

  19. POD evaluation for joint angles from inertial and optical motion capturing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Kai; Kobayashi, Futoshi; Nakamoto, Hiroyuki; Kojima, Fumio

    2016-01-01

    It has been recognized that advances in preventive maintenance can improve the sustainment of systems, facilities, and infrastructure. Robot technologies have also received attention for maintenance applications. In order to operate delicate tasks, multi-fingered robot hands have been proposed in cases where human capability is deficient. This paper deals with motion capturing systems for controlling the hand/arm robot remotely. Several types of motion capturing systems have been developed so far. However, it is difficult for individual motion capturing systems to measure precise joint angles of a human arm. Therefore, in this paper, we integrate the inertial motion capturing system with the optical motion capturing system to capture a human arm posture. By evaluating the reliability of each motion capturing system, the integration is carried out. The probability of detection (POD) is applied to evaluate and compare the reliability of datasets measured by each motion capturing system. POD is one of the widely used statistical techniques to determine reliability. We apply the â analysis to determine the POD(a) function from the data set. Based on the POD evaluation, two motion capturing systems are integrated. (author)

  20. Optimum design of a Lanchester damper for a viscously damped single degree of freedom system subjected to inertial excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bapat, V. A.; Prabhu, P.

    1980-11-01

    The problem of designing an optimum Lanchester damper for a viscously damped single degree of freedom system subjected to inertial harmonic excitation is investigated. Two criteria are used for optimizing the performance of the damper: (i) minimum motion transmissibility; (ii) minimum force transmissibility. Explicit expressions are developed for determining the absorber parameters.

  1. Giving the force direction : Analysis of speed skater push off forces with respect to an inertial coordinate system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kruk, E.; van der Helm, F.C.T.; Schwab, A.L.; Veeger, H.E.J.

    2016-01-01

    Pushoff in speed skating requires an extensive motion strategy. During speed skating the skater continuously changes the lean and steering angle of the skate and therewith the direction of push-off, The forces in an inertial coordinate system can give insight into what amount of the push-off force

  2. Hybrid extended particle filter (HEPF) for integrated inertial navigation and global positioning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, Priyanka; Syed, Zainab; El-Sheimy, Naser

    2009-01-01

    Navigation includes the integration of methodologies and systems for estimating time-varying position, velocity and attitude of moving objects. Navigation incorporating the integrated inertial navigation system (INS) and global positioning system (GPS) generally requires extensive evaluations of nonlinear equations involving double integration. Currently, integrated navigation systems are commonly implemented using the extended Kalman filter (EKF). The EKF assumes a linearized process, measurement models and Gaussian noise distributions. These assumptions are unrealistic for highly nonlinear systems like land vehicle navigation and may cause filter divergence. A particle filter (PF) is developed to enhance integrated INS/GPS system performance as it can easily deal with nonlinearity and non-Gaussian noises. In this paper, a hybrid extended particle filter (HEPF) is developed as an alternative to the well-known EKF to achieve better navigation data accuracy for low-cost microelectromechanical system sensors. The results show that the HEPF performs better than the EKF during GPS outages, especially when simulated outages are located in periods with high vehicle dynamics

  3. Recent progress on the Los Alamos Aurora ICF [inertial confinement fusion] laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosocha, L.A.; Blair, L.S.

    1987-01-01

    Aurora is the Los Alamos short-pulse, high-power, krypton-fluoride laser system. It serves as an end-to-end technology demonstration prototype for large-scale ultraviolet laser systems for short wavelength inertial confinement fusion (ICF) investigations. The system is designed to employ optical angular multiplexing and serial amplification by electron-beam-driven KrF laser amplifiers to deliver stacked, 248-nm, 5-ns duration multikilojoule laser pulses to ICF-relevant targets. This paper presents a summary of the Aurora system and a discussion of the progress achieved in the construction and integration of the laser system. We concentrate on the main features of the following major system components: front-end lasers, amplifier train, multiplexer, optical relay train, demultiplexer, and the associated optical alignment system. During the past year, two major construction and integration tasks have been accomplished. The first task is the demonstration of 96-beam multiplexing and amplified energy extraction, as evidenced by the integrated operation of the front end, the multiplexer (12-fold and 8-fold encoders), the optical relay train, and three electron-beam-driven amplifiers. The second task is the assembly and installation of the demultiplexer optical hardware, which consists of over 300 optical components ranging in size from several centimeters square to over a meter square. 13 refs., 13 figs

  4. Gravity Compensation Using EGM2008 for High-Precision Long-Term Inertial Navigation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruonan Wu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The gravity disturbance vector is one of the major error sources in high-precision and long-term inertial navigation applications. Specific to the inertial navigation systems (INSs with high-order horizontal damping networks, analyses of the error propagation show that the gravity-induced errors exist almost exclusively in the horizontal channels and are mostly caused by deflections of the vertical (DOV. Low-frequency components of the DOV propagate into the latitude and longitude errors at a ratio of 1:1 and time-varying fluctuations in the DOV excite Schuler oscillation. This paper presents two gravity compensation methods using the Earth Gravitational Model 2008 (EGM2008, namely, interpolation from the off-line database and computing gravity vectors directly using the spherical harmonic model. Particular attention is given to the error contribution of the gravity update interval and computing time delay. It is recommended for the marine navigation that a gravity vector should be calculated within 1 s and updated every 100 s at most. To meet this demand, the time duration of calculating the current gravity vector using EGM2008 has been reduced to less than 1 s by optimizing the calculation procedure. A few off-line experiments were conducted using the data of a shipborne INS collected during an actual sea test. With the aid of EGM2008, most of the low-frequency components of the position errors caused by the gravity disturbance vector have been removed and the Schuler oscillation has been attenuated effectively. In the rugged terrain, the horizontal position error could be reduced at best 48.85% of its regional maximum. The experimental results match with the theoretical analysis and indicate that EGM2008 is suitable for gravity compensation of the high-precision and long-term INSs.

  5. Gravity Compensation Using EGM2008 for High-Precision Long-Term Inertial Navigation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ruonan; Wu, Qiuping; Han, Fengtian; Liu, Tianyi; Hu, Peida; Li, Haixia

    2016-12-18

    The gravity disturbance vector is one of the major error sources in high-precision and long-term inertial navigation applications. Specific to the inertial navigation systems (INSs) with high-order horizontal damping networks, analyses of the error propagation show that the gravity-induced errors exist almost exclusively in the horizontal channels and are mostly caused by deflections of the vertical (DOV). Low-frequency components of the DOV propagate into the latitude and longitude errors at a ratio of 1:1 and time-varying fluctuations in the DOV excite Schuler oscillation. This paper presents two gravity compensation methods using the Earth Gravitational Model 2008 (EGM2008), namely, interpolation from the off-line database and computing gravity vectors directly using the spherical harmonic model. Particular attention is given to the error contribution of the gravity update interval and computing time delay. It is recommended for the marine navigation that a gravity vector should be calculated within 1 s and updated every 100 s at most. To meet this demand, the time duration of calculating the current gravity vector using EGM2008 has been reduced to less than 1 s by optimizing the calculation procedure. A few off-line experiments were conducted using the data of a shipborne INS collected during an actual sea test. With the aid of EGM2008, most of the low-frequency components of the position errors caused by the gravity disturbance vector have been removed and the Schuler oscillation has been attenuated effectively. In the rugged terrain, the horizontal position error could be reduced at best 48.85% of its regional maximum. The experimental results match with the theoretical analysis and indicate that EGM2008 is suitable for gravity compensation of the high-precision and long-term INSs.

  6. Analysis and Compensation of Modulation Angular Rate Error Based on Missile-Borne Rotation Semi-Strapdown Inertial Navigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiayu Zhang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The Semi-Strapdown Inertial Navigation System (SSINS provides a new solution to attitude measurement of a high-speed rotating missile. However, micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS inertial measurement unit (MIMU outputs are corrupted by significant sensor errors. In order to improve the navigation precision, a rotation modulation technology method called Rotation Semi-Strapdown Inertial Navigation System (RSSINS is introduced into SINS. In fact, the stability of the modulation angular rate is difficult to achieve in a high-speed rotation environment. The changing rotary angular rate has an impact on the inertial sensor error self-compensation. In this paper, the influence of modulation angular rate error, including acceleration-deceleration process, and instability of the angular rate on the navigation accuracy of RSSINS is deduced and the error characteristics of the reciprocating rotation scheme are analyzed. A new compensation method is proposed to remove or reduce sensor errors so as to make it possible to maintain high precision autonomous navigation performance by MIMU when there is no external aid. Experiments have been carried out to validate the performance of the method. In addition, the proposed method is applicable for modulation angular rate error compensation under various dynamic conditions.

  7. Assessment of System Frequency Support Effect of PMSG-WTG Using Torque-Limit-Based Inertial Control: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiao; Gao, Wenzhong; Wang, Jianhui; Wu, Ziping; Yan, Weihang; Gevorgian, Vahan; Zhang, Yingchen; Muljadi, Eduard; Kang, Moses; Hwang, Min; Kang, Yong Cheol

    2017-05-12

    To release the 'hidden inertia' of variable-speed wind turbines for temporary frequency support, a method of torque-limit-based inertial control is proposed in this paper. This method aims to improve the frequency support capability considering the maximum torque restriction of a permanent magnet synchronous generator. The advantages of the proposed method are improved frequency nadir (FN) in the event of an under-frequency disturbance; and avoidance of over-deceleration and a second frequency dip during the inertial response. The system frequency response is different, with different slope values in the power-speed plane when the inertial response is performed. The proposed method is evaluated in a modified three-machine, nine-bus system. The simulation results show that there is a trade-off between the recovery time and FN, such that a gradual slope tends to improve the FN and restrict the rate of change of frequency aggressively while causing an extension of the recovery time. These results provide insight into how to properly design such kinds of inertial control strategies for practical applications.

  8. Study on the Dynamics of Laser Gyro Strapdown Inertial Measurement Unit System Based on Transfer Matrix Method for Multibody System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangli Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic test precision of the strapdown inertial measurement unit (SIMU is the basis of estimating accurate motion of various vehicles such as warships, airplanes, spacecrafts, and missiles. So, it is paid great attention in the above fields to increase the dynamic precision of SIMU by decreasing the vibration of the vehicles acting on the SIMU. In this paper, based on the transfer matrix method for multibody system (MSTMM, the multibody system dynamics model of laser gyro strapdown inertial measurement unit (LGSIMU is developed; the overall transfer equation of the system is deduced automatically. The computational results show that the frequency response function of the LGSIMU got by the proposed method and Newton-Euler method have good agreements. Further, the vibration reduction performance and the attitude error responses under harmonic and random excitations are analyzed. The proposed method provides a powerful technique for studying dynamics of LGSIMU because of using MSTMM and its following features: without the global dynamics equations of the system, high programming, low order of system matrix, and high computational speed.

  9. Measurement of the dynamics in ski jumping using a wearable inertial sensor-based system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chardonnens, Julien; Favre, Julien; Cuendet, Florian; Gremion, Gérald; Aminian, Kamiar

    2014-01-01

    Dynamics is a central aspect of ski jumping, particularly during take-off and stable flight. Currently, measurement systems able to measure ski jumping dynamics (e.g. 3D cameras, force plates) are complex and only available in few research centres worldwide. This study proposes a method to determine dynamics using a wearable inertial sensor-based system which can be used routinely on any ski jumping hill. The system automatically calculates characteristic dynamic parameters during take-off (position and velocity of the centre of mass perpendicular to the table, force acting on the centre of mass perpendicular to the table and somersault angular velocity) and stable flight (total aerodynamic force). Furthermore, the acceleration of the ski perpendicular to the table was quantified to characterise the skis lift at take-off. The system was tested with two groups of 11 athletes with different jump distances. The force acting on the centre of mass, acceleration of the ski perpendicular to the table, somersault angular velocity and total aerodynamic force were different between groups and correlated with the jump distances. Furthermore, all dynamic parameters were within the range of prior studies based on stationary measurement systems, except for the centre of mass mean force which was slightly lower.

  10. LiDAR Scan Matching Aided Inertial Navigation System in GNSS-Denied Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jian; Chen, Yuwei; Niu, Xiaoji; Wang, Li; Chen, Liang; Liu, Jingbin; Shi, Chuang; Hyyppä, Juha

    2015-07-10

    A new scan that matches an aided Inertial Navigation System (INS) with a low-cost LiDAR is proposed as an alternative to GNSS-based navigation systems in GNSS-degraded or -denied environments such as indoor areas, dense forests, or urban canyons. In these areas, INS-based Dead Reckoning (DR) and Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) technologies are normally used to estimate positions as separate tools. However, there are critical implementation problems with each standalone system. The drift errors of velocity, position, and heading angles in an INS will accumulate over time, and on-line calibration is a must for sustaining positioning accuracy. SLAM performance is poor in featureless environments where the matching errors can significantly increase. Each standalone positioning method cannot offer a sustainable navigation solution with acceptable accuracy. This paper integrates two complementary technologies-INS and LiDAR SLAM-into one navigation frame with a loosely coupled Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) to use the advantages and overcome the drawbacks of each system to establish a stable long-term navigation process. Static and dynamic field tests were carried out with a self-developed Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) platform-NAVIS. The results prove that the proposed approach can provide positioning accuracy at the centimetre level for long-term operations, even in a featureless indoor environment.

  11. LiDAR Scan Matching Aided Inertial Navigation System in GNSS-Denied Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Tang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A new scan that matches an aided Inertial Navigation System (INS with a low-cost LiDAR is proposed as an alternative to GNSS-based navigation systems in GNSS-degraded or -denied environments such as indoor areas, dense forests, or urban canyons. In these areas, INS-based Dead Reckoning (DR and Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM technologies are normally used to estimate positions as separate tools. However, there are critical implementation problems with each standalone system. The drift errors of velocity, position, and heading angles in an INS will accumulate over time, and on-line calibration is a must for sustaining positioning accuracy. SLAM performance is poor in featureless environments where the matching errors can significantly increase. Each standalone positioning method cannot offer a sustainable navigation solution with acceptable accuracy. This paper integrates two complementary technologies—INS and LiDAR SLAM—into one navigation frame with a loosely coupled Extended Kalman Filter (EKF to use the advantages and overcome the drawbacks of each system to establish a stable long-term navigation process. Static and dynamic field tests were carried out with a self-developed Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV platform—NAVIS. The results prove that the proposed approach can provide positioning accuracy at the centimetre level for long-term operations, even in a featureless indoor environment.

  12. Aurora: A short-pulse multikilojoule KrF inertial fusion laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosocha, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    Aurora is a laser system that serves as an operating technology demonstration prototype for large-scale high-energy KrF laser systems of interest for inertial fusion applications. This system will incorporate the following elements to achieve an end-to-end 248-nm laser fusion concept demonstration: an injection-locked oscillator-amplifier front end; an optical angular multiplexer to produce 96 encoded optical channels each of 5-nsec duration; a chain of four electron-beam-driven KrF laser amplifiers; automated alignment systems for beam alignment; a decoder to provide for pulse compression of some fraction of the total beam train to be delivered to target, and a target chamber to house and diagnose fusion targets. The front end configuration uses a stable resonator master oscillator to drive an injection-locked unstable resonator slave oscillator. An extension of existing technology has been used to develop an electrooptic switchout at 248 nm that produces a 5-nsec pulse from the longer slave oscillator pulse. This short pulse is amplified by a postamplifier. Using these discharge lasers, the front end then delivers at least 250 mJ of KrF laser light output to the optical encoder

  13. Inertial Navigation System for India's Reusable Launch Vehicle-Technology Demonstrator (RLV-TD HEX) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umadevi, P.; Navas, A.; Karuturi, Kesavabrahmaji; Shukkoor, A. Abdul; Kumar, J. Krishna; Sreekumar, Sreejith; Basim, A. Mohammed

    2017-12-01

    This work presents the configuration of Inertial Navigation System (INS) used in India's Reusable Launch Vehicle-Technology Demonstrator (RLV-TD) Program. In view of the specific features and requirements of the RLV-TD, specific improvements and modifications were required in the INS. A new system was designed, realised and qualified meeting the mission requirements of RLV-TD, at the same time taking advantage of the flight heritage attained in INS through various Launch vehicle Missions of the country. The new system has additional redundancy in acceleration channel, in-built inclinometer based bias update scheme for acceleration channels and sign conventions as employed in an aircraft. Data acquisition in micro cycle periodicity (10 ms) was incorporated which was required to provide rate and attitude information at higher sampling rate for ascent phase control. Provision was incorporated for acquisition of rate and acceleration data with high resolution for aerodynamic characterisation and parameter estimation. GPS aided navigation scheme was incorporated to meet the stringent accuracy requirements of the mission. Navigation system configuration for RLV-TD, specific features incorporated to meet the mission requirements, various tests carried out and performance during RLV-TD flight are highlighted.

  14. An Application of UAV Attitude Estimation Using a Low-Cost Inertial Navigation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eure, Kenneth W.; Quach, Cuong Chi; Vazquez, Sixto L.; Hogge, Edward F.; Hill, Boyd L.

    2013-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) are playing an increasing role in aviation. Various methods exist for the computation of UAV attitude based on low cost microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers. There has been a recent increase in UAV autonomy as sensors are becoming more compact and onboard processing power has increased significantly. Correct UAV attitude estimation will play a critical role in navigation and separation assurance as UAVs share airspace with civil air traffic. This paper describes attitude estimation derived by post-processing data from a small low cost Inertial Navigation System (INS) recorded during the flight of a subscale commercial off the shelf (COTS) UAV. Two discrete time attitude estimation schemes are presented here in detail. The first is an adaptation of the Kalman Filter to accommodate nonlinear systems, the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF). The EKF returns quaternion estimates of the UAV attitude based on MEMS gyro, magnetometer, accelerometer, and pitot tube inputs. The second scheme is the complementary filter which is a simpler algorithm that splits the sensor frequency spectrum based on noise characteristics. The necessity to correct both filters for gravity measurement errors during turning maneuvers is demonstrated. It is shown that the proposed algorithms may be used to estimate UAV attitude. The effects of vibration on sensor measurements are discussed. Heuristic tuning comments pertaining to sensor filtering and gain selection to achieve acceptable performance during flight are given. Comparisons of attitude estimation performance are made between the EKF and the complementary filter.

  15. HYPERFUSE: a hypervelocity inertial confinement system for fusion energy production and fission waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makowitz, H.; Powell, J.R.; Wiswall, R.

    1980-01-01

    Parametric system studies of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor system to transmute fission products from a LWR economy have been carried out. The ICF reactors would produce net power in addition to transmuting fission products. The particular ICF concept examined is an impact fusion approach termed HYPERFUSE, in which hypervelocity pellets, traveling on the order of 100 to 300 km/sec, collide with each other or a target block in a reactor chamber and initiate a thermonuclear reaction. The DT fusion fuel is contained in a shell of the material to be transmuted, e.g., 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 129 I, 99 Tc, etc. The 14-MeV fusion neutrons released during the pellet burn cause transmutation reactions (e.g., (n,2n), (n,α), (n,γ), etc.) that convert the long-lived fission products (FP's) either to stable products or to species that decay with a short half-life to a stable product. The transmutation parametric studies conclude that the design of the hypervelocity projectiles should emphasize the achievement of high densities in the transmutation regions (greater than the DT fusion fuel density), as well as the DT ignition and burn criterion (rho R = 1.0 to 3.0) requirements. These studies also indicate that masses on the order of 1.0 g at densities of rho greater than or equal to 500.0 g/cm 3 are required for a practical fusion-based fission product transmutation system

  16. EquiMoves: A Wireless Networked Inertial Measurement System for Objective Examination of Horse Gait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Bosch

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe and validate the EquiMoves system, which aims to support equine veterinarians in assessing lameness and gait performance in horses. The system works by capturing horse motion from up to eight synchronized wireless inertial measurement units. It can be used in various equine gait modes, and analyzes both upper-body and limb movements. The validation against an optical motion capture system is based on a Bland–Altman analysis that illustrates the agreement between the two systems. The sagittal kinematic results (protraction, retraction, and sagittal range of motion show limits of agreement of ± 2.3 degrees and an absolute bias of 0.3 degrees in the worst case. The coronal kinematic results (adduction, abduction, and coronal range of motion show limits of agreement of − 8.8 and 8.1 degrees, and an absolute bias of 0.4 degrees in the worst case. The worse coronal kinematic results are most likely caused by the optical system setup (depth perception difficulty and suboptimal marker placement. The upper-body symmetry results show no significant bias in the agreement between the two systems; in most cases, the agreement is within ±5 mm. On a trial-level basis, the limits of agreement for withers and sacrum are within ±2 mm, meaning that the system can properly quantify motion asymmetry. Overall, the bias for all symmetry-related results is less than 1 mm, which is important for reproducibility and further comparison to other systems.

  17. HYPERFUSE: a hypervelocity inertial confinement system for fusion energy production and fission waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makowitz, H.; Powell, J.R.; Wiswall, R.

    1980-01-01

    Parametric system studies of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor system to transmute fission products from an LWR economy have been carried out. The ICF reactors would produce net power in addition to transmuting fission products. The particular ICF concept examined is an impact fusion approach termed HYPERFUSE, in which hypervelocity pellets, traveling on the order of 100 to 300 km/sec, collide with each other or a target block in a reactor chamber and initiate a thermonuclear reaction. The DT fusion fuel is contained in a shell of the material to be transmuted, e.g., 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 129 I, 99 Tc, etc. The 14-MeV fusion neutrons released during the pellet burn cause transmutation reactions (e.g., (n,2n), (n,α), (n,γ), etc.) that convert the long-lived fission products (FP's) either to stable products or to species that decay with a short half-life to a stable product. The transmutation parametric studies conclude that the design of the hypervelocity projectiles should emphasize the achievement of high densities in the transmutation regions (greater than the DT fusion fuel density), as well as the DT ignition and burn criterion (rho R=1.0 to 3.0) requirements

  18. Field Programmable Gate Array Based Parallel Strapdown Algorithm Design for Strapdown Inertial Navigation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long-Hua Ma

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A new generalized optimum strapdown algorithm with coning and sculling compensation is presented, in which the position, velocity and attitude updating operations are carried out based on the single-speed structure in which all computations are executed at a single updating rate that is sufficiently high to accurately account for high frequency angular rate and acceleration rectification effects. Different from existing algorithms, the updating rates of the coning and sculling compensations are unrelated with the number of the gyro incremental angle samples and the number of the accelerometer incremental velocity samples. When the output sampling rate of inertial sensors remains constant, this algorithm allows increasing the updating rate of the coning and sculling compensation, yet with more numbers of gyro incremental angle and accelerometer incremental velocity in order to improve the accuracy of system. Then, in order to implement the new strapdown algorithm in a single FPGA chip, the parallelization of the algorithm is designed and its computational complexity is analyzed. The performance of the proposed parallel strapdown algorithm is tested on the Xilinx ISE 12.3 software platform and the FPGA device XC6VLX550T hardware platform on the basis of some fighter data. It is shown that this parallel strapdown algorithm on the FPGA platform can greatly decrease the execution time of algorithm to meet the real-time and high precision requirements of system on the high dynamic environment, relative to the existing implemented on the DSP platform.

  19. Inertial Navigation System/Doppler Velocity Log (INS/DVL Fusion with Partial DVL Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asaf Tal

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Technion autonomous underwater vehicle (TAUV is an ongoing project aiming to develop and produce a small AUV to carry on research missions, including payload dropping, and to demonstrate acoustic communication. Its navigation system is based on an inertial navigation system (INS aided by a Doppler velocity log (DVL, magnetometer, and pressure sensor (PS. In many INSs, such as the one used in TAUV, only the velocity vector (provided by the DVL can be used for aiding the INS, i.e., enabling only a loosely coupled integration approach. In cases of partial DVL measurements, such as failure to maintain bottom lock, the DVL cannot estimate the vehicle velocity. Thus, in partial DVL situations no velocity data can be integrated into the TAUV INS, and as a result its navigation solution will drift in time. To circumvent that problem, we propose a DVL-based vehicle velocity solution using the measured partial raw data of the DVL and additional information, thereby deriving an extended loosely coupled (ELC approach. The implementation of the ELC approach requires only software modification. In addition, we present the TAUV six degrees of freedom (6DOF simulation that includes all functional subsystems. Using this simulation, the proposed approach is evaluated and the benefit of using it is shown.

  20. INTEGRATION OF DISTRIBUTED INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEMS BUILT AROUND FIBER-OPTIC AND MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SENSORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Chernodarov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current state of airborne measuring-and-computing complexes (MCCs is characterized by the inclusion of distributed strapdown inertial navigation systems (SINSs as components of these complexes. This is associated with the necessity of the provision of navigational support not only for aircraft (Acft, but also for airborne Earth surface surveillance systems in which the SINSs are included as components. Among such systems are radar systems, video monitors, laser scanners (lidars, and other surveillance devices. At the same time, when the DSINSs are united into a single structure, new functional possibilities for such integrated navigation systems appear, namely: redundancy and mutual support of SINSs, and also an increase in MCC information reliability on this basis; mutual monitoring and mutual diagnosis of SINSs; optimization of DSINS structure for providing the required accuracy of navigation and attitude control under severe conditions of Acft operation. Such conditions are connected with Acft maneuvering, with a loss of the signals of satellite navigation systems (SNSs. The purpose of this paper is to study the capabilities of DSINS which are built around fiberoptic and micromechanical sensors when they are united into a closely connected information-measuring structure. In the solution of the problem formulated above, an object-oriented modular technology for the creation of integrated navigation systems was taken as a basis. The use of such a technology has permitted us to realize the new functional possibilities of the DSINSs, and also to take into account the following features of the construction and functioning of DSINSs as components of MCCs: need for mutual information exchange among DSINS modules via an MCC airborne top-level computing system; synchronization of measuring-and-computing procedures that are realized in the DSINS. In addition, due to restrictions on overall dimensions and weight, SINSs of surveillance systems are

  1. The CEBAF fiber optic phase reference system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, K.; Simrock, S.; Hovater, C.; Krycuk, A.

    1995-01-01

    The specified phase stability of the CEBAF RF distribution system is 2.9 degree rms per linac. Stability is achieved through the use of a temperature and pressure regulated coaxial drive line. Purpose of the fiber optic phase reference system is to monitor the relative phase at the beginning and ending of this drive line, between linacs, injector and separator to determine drift due to ambient temperature fluctuations. The system utilizes an Ortel 1310 nm single mode laser driving Sumitumo optical fiber to distribute a reference signal at 1497 MHz. Phase of this reference signal is compared to the 1427 MHz (LO) and the 70 MHz (IF) via a 360 degree phase detector. The detected information is then routed to the CEBAF control system for display with a specified resolution of ±0.2 degree over a 20 degree phase delta

  2. Accuracy of position measurement method using Arago spot for inertial fusion energy target tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saruta, Koichi; Tsuji, Ryusuke

    2007-01-01

    The accuracy of a position measurement method using the Arago spot is reported for an inertial fusion energy (IFE) target tracking system, where the position of the target is determined by the position of the Arago spot, which is a bright spot appearing in the central portion of the diffraction pattern of a spherical obstacle. We use a He-Ne laser as the light source and a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera with a microscope objective lens to magnify and record the diffraction pattern of a spherical target. We examine two different algorithms to determine the center of the Arago spot in order to compare the measurement performances. The experimental results show that the position of a 5-mm-diameter target can be obtained with a measurement resolution of 1 μm and an rms measurement error of less than 0.2μm for both algorithms when the distance between the target and the microscope objective lens is 5 cm. (author)

  3. Application of the spherical harmonic gravity model in high precision inertial navigation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jing; Yang, Gongliu; Zhou, Xiao; Li, Xiangyun

    2016-01-01

    The spherical harmonic gravity model (SHM) may, in general, be considered as a suitable alternative to the normal gravity model (NGM), because it represents the Earth’s gravitational field more accurately. However, the high-resolution SHM has never been used in current inertial navigation systems (INSs) due to its extremely complex expression. In this paper, the feasibility and accuracy of a truncated SHM are discussed for application in a real-time free-INS with a precision demand better than 0.8 nm h −1 . In particular, the time and space complexity are analyzed mathematically to verify the feasibility of the SHM. Also, a test on a typical navigation computer shows a storable range of cut-off degrees. To further evaluate the appropriate degree and accuracy of the truncated SHM, analyses of covariance and truncation error are proposed. Finally, a SHM of degree 12 is demonstrated to be the appropriate model for routine INSs in the precision range of 0.4–0.75 nm h −1 . Flight simulations and road tests show its outstanding performance over the traditional NGM. (paper)

  4. A Wavelet-based method for processing signal of fog in strap-down inertial systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, D.; Xiong, C.; Liu, H. [Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2009-07-01

    Fibre optical gyroscopes (FOGs) have been applied widely in many fields in contrast, with their counterparts such as mechanical gyroscopes and ring laser gyroscopes. The precision of FOG is affected significantly by bias drift, angle random walk temperature effects and noises. Especially, uncertain disturbances resulting from road irregularities often affect accuracy of strap-down inertial system (SINS). Hence, eliminating, uncertain disturbances from outputs of it FOG plays a crucial role to improve accuracy of SINS. This paper presents a wavelet-based method for denoising signals of FOGs in SINS used for exploring and rescuing robots in coal mines. Property of road irregularities in mines is taken into account as a key factor resulting in uncertain disturbances in this research. Both frequency band and amplitude of uncertain disturbances are introduced to choose filtering thresholds. Experimental results have demonstrated that the proposed method can efficiently eliminate uncertain disturbances due to road irregularities from outputs of FOGs and improve accuracy of surrogate data. It indicates that the proposed method has a significant potential in FOG-related applications.

  5. Inertial confinement fusion driver enhancements: Final focusing systems and compact heavy-ion driver designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieri, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    Required elements of an inertial confinement fusion power plant are modeled and discussed. A detailed analysis of two critical elements of candidate drivers is done, and new component designs are proposed to increase the credibility and feasibility of each driver system. An analysis of neutron damage to the final elements of a laser focusing system is presented, and multilayer -- dielectric mirrors are shown to have damage lifetimes which axe too short to be useful in a commercial power plant. A new final-focusing system using grazing incidence metal mirrors to protect sensitive laser optics is designed and shown to be effective in extending the lifetime of the final focusing system. The reflectivities and damage limits of grazing incidence metal mirrors are examined in detail, and the required mirror sizes are shown to be compatible with the beam sizes and illumination geometries currently envisioned for laser drivers. A detailed design and analysis is also done for compact arrays of superconducting magnetic quadrupoles, which are needed in a multi-beam heavy-ion driver. The new array model is developed in more detail than some previous conceptual designs and models arrays which are more compact than arrays scaled from existing single -- quadrupole designs. The improved integrated model for compact arrays is used to compare the effects of various quadrupole array design choices on the size and cost of a heavy-ion driver. Array design choices which significantly affect the cost of a heavy-ion driver include the choice of superconducting material and the thickness of the collar used to support the winding stresses. The effect of these array design choices on driver size and cost is examined and the array model is used to estimate driver cost savings and performance improvements attainable with aggressive quadrupole array designs with high-performance superconductors

  6. Concurrent validation of an inertial measurement system to quantify kicking biomechanics in four football codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Stephanie; Duthie, Grant; Robertson, Sam; Hopkins, William; Ball, Kevin

    2018-05-17

    Wearable inertial measurement systems (IMS) allow for three-dimensional analysis of human movements in a sport-specific setting. This study examined the concurrent validity of a IMS (Xsens MVN system) for measuring lower extremity and pelvis kinematics in comparison to a Vicon motion analysis system (MAS) during kicking. Thirty footballers from Australian football (n = 10), soccer (n = 10), rugby league and rugby union (n = 10) clubs completed 20 kicks across four conditions. Concurrent validity was assessed using a linear mixed-modelling approach, which allowed the partition of between and within-subject variance from the device measurement error. Results were expressed in raw and standardised units for assessments of differences in means and measurement error, and interpreted via non-clinical magnitude-based inferences. Trivial to small differences were found in linear velocities (foot and pelvis), angular velocities (knee, shank and thigh), sagittal joint (knee and hip) and segment angle (shank and pelvis) means (mean difference: 0.2-5.8%) between the IMS and MAS in Australian football, soccer and the rugby codes. Trivial to small measurement errors (from 0.1 to 5.8%) were found between the IMS and MAS in all kinematic parameters. The IMS demonstrated acceptable levels of concurrent validity compared to a MAS when measuring kicking biomechanics across the four football codes. Wearable IMS offers various benefits over MAS, such as, out-of-laboratory testing, larger measurement range and quick data output, to help improve the ecological validity of biomechanical testing and the timing of feedback. The results advocate the use of IMS to quantify biomechanics of high-velocity movements in sport-specific settings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Positional reference system for ultraprecision machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, J.B.; Burleson, R.R.; Pardue, R.M.

    1980-09-12

    A stable positional reference system for use in improving the cutting tool-to-part contour position in numerical controlled-multiaxis metal turning machines is provided. The reference system employs a plurality of interferometers referenced to orthogonally disposed metering bars which are substantially isolated from machine strain induced position errors for monitoring the part and tool positions relative to the metering bars. A microprocessor-based control system is employed in conjunction with the plurality of positions interferometers and part contour description data input to calculate error components for each axis of movement and output them to corresponding axis driven with appropriate scaling and error compensation. Real-time position control, operating in combination with the reference system, makes possible the positioning of the cutting points of a tool along a part locus with a substantially greater degree of accuracy than has been attained previously in the art by referencing and then monitoring only the tool motion relative to a reference position located on the machine base.

  8. Positional reference system for ultraprecision machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, J.B.; Burleson, R.R.; Pardue, R.M.

    1982-01-01

    A stable positional reference system for use in improving the cutting tool-to-part contour position in numerical controlledmultiaxis metal turning machines is provided. The reference system employs a plurality of interferometers referenced to orthogonally disposed metering bars which are substantially isolated from machine strain induced position errors for monitoring the part and tool positions relative to the metering bars. A microprocessor-based control system is employed in conjunction with the plurality of position interferometers and part contour description data inputs to calculate error components for each axis of movement and output them to corresponding axis drives with appropriate scaling and error compensation. Real-time position control, operating in combination with the reference system, makes possible the positioning of the cutting points of a tool along a part locus with a substantially greater degree of accuracy than has been attained previously in the art by referencing and then monitoring only the tool motion relative to a reference position located on the machine base

  9. Two calibration procedures for a gyroscope-free inertial measurement system based on a double-pendulum apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappa, P.; Patanè, F.; Rossi, S.

    2008-05-01

    This paper presents a novel calibration algorithm to be used with a gyro-free inertial measurement unit (GF-IMU) based on the use of linear accelerometers (AC). The analytical approach can be implemented in two calibration procedures. The first procedure (P-I) is articulated in the conduction of a static trial, to compute the sensitivity and the direction of the sensing axis of each AC, followed by a dynamic trial, to determine the AC locations. By contrast, the latter procedure (P-II) consists in the calculation of the previously indicated calibration parameters by means of a dynamic trial only. The feasibility of the two calibration procedures has been investigated by testing two GF-IMUs, equipped with ten and six bi-axial linear ACs, with an ad hoc instrumented double-pendulum apparatus. P-I and P-II were compared to a calibration procedure used as a reference (P-REF), which incorporates the AC positions measured with an optoelectronic system. The experimental results we present in this paper demonstrate that (i) P-I is able to determine the calibration parameters of the AC array with a higher accuracy than P-II; (ii) consequently, the errors associated with translational (a0 - g) and rotational (\\dot{\\bm \\omega }) acceleration components for the two GF-IMUs are significantly greater using P-II than P-I and (iii) the errors in (a0 - g) and \\dot{\\bm \\omega } obtained with P-I are comparable with the ones obtainable by using P-REF. Thus, the proposed novel algorithm used in P-I, in conjunction with the double-pendulum apparatus, can be globally considered a viable tool in GF-IMU calibration.

  10. Dragging of inertial frames in the composed black-hole-ring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hod, Shahar

    2015-01-01

    A well-established phenomenon in general relativity is the dragging of inertial frames by a spinning object. In particular, due to the dragging of inertial frames by a ring orbiting a central black hole, the angular velocity Ω H BH-ring of the black-hole horizon in the composed black-hole-ring system is no longer related to the black-hole angular momentum J H by the simple Kerr-like (vacuum) relation Ω H Kerr (J H ) = J H /2M 2 R H (here M and R H are the mass and horizon-radius of the black hole, respectively). Will has performed a perturbative treatment of the composed black-hole-ring system in the regime of slowly rotating black holes and found the explicit relation Ω H BH-ring (J H = 0, J R , R) = 2J R /R 3 for the angular velocity of a central black hole with zero angular momentum, where J R and R are respectively the angular momentum of the orbiting ring and its proper circumferential radius. Analyzing a sequence of black-hole-ring configurations with adiabatically varying (decreasing) circumferential radii, we show that the expression found by Will for Ω H BH-ring (J H = 0, J R , R) implies a smooth transition of the central black-hole angular velocity from its asymptotic near-horizon value Ω H BH-ring (J H = 0, J R , R → R H + ) → 2J R /R H 3 (that is, just before the assimilation of the ring by the central black hole), to its final Kerr (vacuum) value Ω H Kerr (J H new )= J H new /2M new2 R H new [that is, after the adiabatic assimilation of the ring by the central black hole. Here J H new = J R , M new , and R H new are the new parameters of the resulting Kerr (vacuum) black hole after it assimilated the orbiting ring]. We use this important observation in order to generalize the result of Will to the regime of black-hole-ring configurations in which the central black holes possess non-zero angular momenta. In particular, it is shown that the continuity argument (namely, the characteristic smooth evolution of the black-hole angular velocity

  11. Dragging of inertial frames in the composed black-hole-ring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hod, Shahar [The Ruppin Academic Center, Emeq Hefer (Israel); The Hadassah Institute, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2015-11-15

    A well-established phenomenon in general relativity is the dragging of inertial frames by a spinning object. In particular, due to the dragging of inertial frames by a ring orbiting a central black hole, the angular velocity Ω{sub H}{sup BH-ring} of the black-hole horizon in the composed black-hole-ring system is no longer related to the black-hole angular momentum J{sub H} by the simple Kerr-like (vacuum) relation Ω{sub H}{sup Kerr}(J{sub H}) = J{sub H}/2M{sup 2}R{sub H} (here M and R{sub H} are the mass and horizon-radius of the black hole, respectively). Will has performed a perturbative treatment of the composed black-hole-ring system in the regime of slowly rotating black holes and found the explicit relation Ω{sub H}{sup BH-ring}(J{sub H} = 0, J{sub R}, R) = 2J{sub R}/R{sup 3} for the angular velocity of a central black hole with zero angular momentum, where J{sub R} and R are respectively the angular momentum of the orbiting ring and its proper circumferential radius. Analyzing a sequence of black-hole-ring configurations with adiabatically varying (decreasing) circumferential radii, we show that the expression found by Will for Ω{sub H}{sup BH-ring}(J{sub H} = 0, J{sub R}, R) implies a smooth transition of the central black-hole angular velocity from its asymptotic near-horizon value Ω{sub H}{sup BH-ring}(J{sub H} = 0, J{sub R}, R → R{sub H}{sup +}) → 2J{sub R}/R{sub H}{sup 3} (that is, just before the assimilation of the ring by the central black hole), to its final Kerr (vacuum) value Ω{sub H}{sup Kerr}(J{sub H}{sup new})= J{sub H}{sup new}/2M{sup new2}R{sub H}{sup new} [that is, after the adiabatic assimilation of the ring by the central black hole. Here J{sub H}{sup new} = J{sub R}, M{sup new}, and R{sub H}{sup new} are the new parameters of the resulting Kerr (vacuum) black hole after it assimilated the orbiting ring]. We use this important observation in order to generalize the result of Will to the regime of black-hole-ring configurations

  12. Dragging of inertial frames in the composed black-hole–ring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hod, Shahar, E-mail: shaharhod@gmail.com [The Ruppin Academic Center, 40250, Emeq Hefer (Israel); The Hadassah Institute, 91010, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2015-11-19

    A well-established phenomenon in general relativity is the dragging of inertial frames by a spinning object. In particular, due to the dragging of inertial frames by a ring orbiting a central black hole, the angular velocity Ω{sub H}{sup BH-ring} of the black-hole horizon in the composed black-hole–ring system is no longer related to the black-hole angular momentum J{sub H} by the simple Kerr-like (vacuum) relation Ω{sub H}{sup Kerr}(J{sub H})=J{sub H}/2M{sup 2}R{sub H} (here M and R{sub H} are the mass and horizon-radius of the black hole, respectively). Will has performed a perturbative treatment of the composed black-hole–ring system in the regime of slowly rotating black holes and found the explicit relation Ω{sub H}{sup BH-ring}(J{sub H}=0,J{sub R},R)=2J{sub R}/R{sup 3} for the angular velocity of a central black hole with zero angular momentum, where J{sub R} and R are respectively the angular momentum of the orbiting ring and its proper circumferential radius. Analyzing a sequence of black-hole–ring configurations with adiabatically varying (decreasing) circumferential radii, we show that the expression found by Will for Ω{sub H}{sup BH-ring}(J{sub H}=0,J{sub R},R) implies a smooth transition of the central black-hole angular velocity from its asymptotic near-horizon value Ω{sub H}{sup BH-ring}(J{sub H}=0,J{sub R},R→R{sub H}{sup +})→2J{sub R}/R{sub H}{sup 3} (that is, just before the assimilation of the ring by the central black hole), to its final Kerr (vacuum) value Ω{sub H}{sup Kerr}(J{sub H}{sup new})=J{sub H}{sup new}/2M{sup new2}R{sub H}{sup new} [that is, after the adiabatic assimilation of the ring by the central black hole. Here J{sub H}{sup new}=J{sub R}, M{sup new}, and R{sub H}{sup new} are the new parameters of the resulting Kerr (vacuum) black hole after it assimilated the orbiting ring]. We use this important observation in order to generalize the result of Will to the regime of black-hole–ring configurations in which the

  13. Reduced order models, inertial manifolds, and global bifurcations: searching instability boundaries in nuclear power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez-Antola, Roberto, E-mail: roberto.suarez@miem.gub.u, E-mail: rsuarez@ucu.edu.u [Universidad Catolica del Uruguay, Montevideo (Uruguay). Fac. de Ingenieria y Tecnologias. Dept. de Matematica; Ministerio de Industria, Energia y Mineria, Montevideo (Uruguay). Direccion General de Secretaria

    2011-07-01

    One of the goals of nuclear power systems design and operation is to restrict the possible states of certain critical subsystems to remain inside a certain bounded set of admissible states and state variations. In the framework of an analytic or numerical modeling process of a BWR power plant, this could imply first to find a suitable approximation to the solution manifold of the differential equations describing the stability behavior, and then a classification of the different solution types concerning their relation with the operational safety of the power plant. Inertial manifold theory gives a foundation for the construction and use of reduced order models (ROM's) of reactor dynamics to discover and characterize meaningful bifurcations that may pass unnoticed during digital simulations done with full scale computer codes of the nuclear power plant. The March-Leuba's BWR ROM is generalized and used to exemplify the analytical approach developed here. A nonlinear integral-differential equation in the logarithmic power is derived. Introducing a KBM Ansatz, a coupled set of two nonlinear ordinary differential equations is obtained. Analytical formulae are derived for the frequency of oscillation and the parameters that determine the stability of the steady states, including sub- and supercritical PAH bifurcations. A Bautin's bifurcation scenario seems possible on the power-flow plane: near the boundary of stability, a region where stable steady states are surrounded by unstable limit cycles surrounded at their turn by stable limit cycles. The analytical results are compared with recent digital simulations and applications of semi-analytical bifurcation theory done with reduced order models of BWR. (author)

  14. Reduced order models, inertial manifolds, and global bifurcations: searching instability boundaries in nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez-Antola, Roberto; Ministerio de Industria, Energia y Mineria, Montevideo

    2011-01-01

    One of the goals of nuclear power systems design and operation is to restrict the possible states of certain critical subsystems to remain inside a certain bounded set of admissible states and state variations. In the framework of an analytic or numerical modeling process of a BWR power plant, this could imply first to find a suitable approximation to the solution manifold of the differential equations describing the stability behavior, and then a classification of the different solution types concerning their relation with the operational safety of the power plant. Inertial manifold theory gives a foundation for the construction and use of reduced order models (ROM's) of reactor dynamics to discover and characterize meaningful bifurcations that may pass unnoticed during digital simulations done with full scale computer codes of the nuclear power plant. The March-Leuba's BWR ROM is generalized and used to exemplify the analytical approach developed here. A nonlinear integral-differential equation in the logarithmic power is derived. Introducing a KBM Ansatz, a coupled set of two nonlinear ordinary differential equations is obtained. Analytical formulae are derived for the frequency of oscillation and the parameters that determine the stability of the steady states, including sub- and supercritical PAH bifurcations. A Bautin's bifurcation scenario seems possible on the power-flow plane: near the boundary of stability, a region where stable steady states are surrounded by unstable limit cycles surrounded at their turn by stable limit cycles. The analytical results are compared with recent digital simulations and applications of semi-analytical bifurcation theory done with reduced order models of BWR. (author)

  15. System study of a diode-pumped solid-state-laser driver for inertial fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orth, C.D.; Payne, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    The present a conceptual design of a diode-pumped solid-state-laser (DPSSL) driver for an inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant based on the maximized cost of electricity (COE) as determined in a comprehensive systems study. This study contained extensive detail for all significant DPSSL physics and costs, plus published scaling relationships for the costs of the target chamber and the balance of plant (BOP). Our DPSSL design offers low development cost because it is modular, can be fully tested functionally at reduced scale, and is based on mature solid-state-laser technology. Most of the parameter values that we used are being verified by experiments now in progress. Future experiments will address the few issues that remain. As a consequence, the economic and technical risk of our DPSSL driver concept is becoming rather low. Baseline performance at 1 GW e using a new gain medium [Yb 3+ -doped Sr 5 (PO 4 ) 3 F or Yb:S-FAP] includes a product of laser efficiency and target gain of ηG = 7, and a COE of 8.6 cents/kW·h, although values of ηG ≥ 11 and COEs ≤6.6 cents/kW·h are possible at double the assumed target gain of 76 at 3.7 MJ. We present a summary of our results, discuss why other more-common types of laser media do not perform as well as Yb:S-FAP, and present a simple model that shows where DPSSL development should proceed to reduce projected COEs

  16. The ship-borne infrared searching and tracking system based on the inertial platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Zhang, Haibo

    2011-08-01

    As a result of the radar system got interferenced or in the state of half silent ,it can cause the guided precision drop badly In the modern electronic warfare, therefore it can lead to the equipment depended on electronic guidance cannot strike the incoming goals exactly. It will need to rely on optoelectronic devices to make up for its shortcomings, but when interference is in the process of radar leading ,especially the electro-optical equipment is influenced by the roll, pitch and yaw rotation ,it can affect the target appear outside of the field of optoelectronic devices for a long time, so the infrared optoelectronic equipment can not exert the superiority, and also it cannot get across weapon-control system "reverse bring" missile against incoming goals. So the conventional ship-borne infrared system unable to track the target of incoming quickly , the ability of optoelectronic rivalry declines heavily.Here we provide a brand new controlling algorithm for the semi-automatic searching and infrared tracking based on inertial navigation platform. Now it is applying well in our XX infrared optoelectronic searching and tracking system. The algorithm is mainly divided into two steps: The artificial mode turns into auto-searching when the deviation of guide exceeds the current scene under the course of leading for radar.When the threshold value of the image picked-up is satisfied by the contrast of the target in the searching scene, the speed computed by using the CA model Least Square Method feeds back to the speed loop. And then combine the infrared information to accomplish the closed-loop control of the infrared optoelectronic system tracking. The algorithm is verified via experiment. Target capturing distance is 22.3 kilometers on the great lead deviation by using the algorithm. But without using the algorithm the capturing distance declines 12 kilometers. The algorithm advances the ability of infrared optoelectronic rivalry and declines the target capturing

  17. On-the-fly Locata/inertial navigation system integration for precise maritime application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Li, Yong; Rizos, Chris

    2013-10-01

    The application of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) technology has meant that marine navigators have greater access to a more consistent and accurate positioning capability than ever before. However, GNSS may not be able to meet all emerging navigation performance requirements for maritime applications with respect to service robustness, accuracy, integrity and availability. In particular, applications in port areas (for example automated docking) and in constricted waterways, have very stringent performance requirements. Even when an integrated inertial navigation system (INS)/GNSS device is used there may still be performance gaps. GNSS signals are easily blocked or interfered with, and sometimes the satellite geometry may not be good enough for high accuracy and high reliability applications. Furthermore, the INS accuracy degrades rapidly during GNSS outages. This paper investigates the use of a portable ground-based positioning system, known as ‘Locata’, which was integrated with an INS, to provide accurate navigation in a marine environment without reliance on GNSS signals. An ‘on-the-fly’ Locata resolution algorithm that takes advantage of geometry change via an extended Kalman filter is proposed in this paper. Single-differenced Locata carrier phase measurements are utilized to achieve accurate and reliable solutions. A ‘loosely coupled’ decentralized Locata/INS integration architecture based on the Kalman filter is used for data processing. In order to evaluate the system performance, a field trial was conducted on Sydney Harbour. A Locata network consisting of eight Locata transmitters was set up near the Sydney Harbour Bridge. The experiment demonstrated that the Locata on-the-fly (OTF) algorithm is effective and can improve the system accuracy in comparison with the conventional ‘known point initialization’ (KPI) method. After the OTF and KPI comparison, the OTF Locata/INS integration is then assessed further and its performance

  18. On-the-fly Locata/inertial navigation system integration for precise maritime application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Wei; Li, Yong; Rizos, Chris

    2013-01-01

    The application of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) technology has meant that marine navigators have greater access to a more consistent and accurate positioning capability than ever before. However, GNSS may not be able to meet all emerging navigation performance requirements for maritime applications with respect to service robustness, accuracy, integrity and availability. In particular, applications in port areas (for example automated docking) and in constricted waterways, have very stringent performance requirements. Even when an integrated inertial navigation system (INS)/GNSS device is used there may still be performance gaps. GNSS signals are easily blocked or interfered with, and sometimes the satellite geometry may not be good enough for high accuracy and high reliability applications. Furthermore, the INS accuracy degrades rapidly during GNSS outages. This paper investigates the use of a portable ground-based positioning system, known as ‘Locata’, which was integrated with an INS, to provide accurate navigation in a marine environment without reliance on GNSS signals. An ‘on-the-fly’ Locata resolution algorithm that takes advantage of geometry change via an extended Kalman filter is proposed in this paper. Single-differenced Locata carrier phase measurements are utilized to achieve accurate and reliable solutions. A ‘loosely coupled’ decentralized Locata/INS integration architecture based on the Kalman filter is used for data processing. In order to evaluate the system performance, a field trial was conducted on Sydney Harbour. A Locata network consisting of eight Locata transmitters was set up near the Sydney Harbour Bridge. The experiment demonstrated that the Locata on-the-fly (OTF) algorithm is effective and can improve the system accuracy in comparison with the conventional ‘known point initialization’ (KPI) method. After the OTF and KPI comparison, the OTF Locata/INS integration is then assessed further and its performance

  19. Modcomp MAX IV System Processors reference guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummings, J.

    1990-10-01

    A user almost always faces a big problem when having to learn to use a new computer system. The information necessary to use the system is often scattered throughout many different manuals. The user also faces the problem of extracting the information really needed from each manual. Very few computer vendors supply a single Users Guide or even a manual to help the new user locate the necessary manuals. Modcomp is no exception to this, Modcomp MAX IV requires that the user be familiar with the system file usage which adds to the problem. At General Atomics there is an ever increasing need for new users to learn how to use the Modcomp computers. This paper was written to provide a condensed Users Reference Guide'' for Modcomp computer users. This manual should be of value not only to new users but any users that are not Modcomp computer systems experts. This Users Reference Guide'' is intended to provided the basic information for the use of the various Modcomp System Processors necessary to, create, compile, link-edit, and catalog a program. Only the information necessary to provide the user with a basic understanding of the Systems Processors is included. This document provides enough information for the majority of programmers to use the Modcomp computers without having to refer to any other manuals. A lot of emphasis has been placed on the file description and usage for each of the System Processors. This allows the user to understand how Modcomp MAX IV does things rather than just learning the system commands.

  20. Crew Transportation System Design Reference Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    Contains summaries of potential design reference mission goals for systems to transport humans to andfrom low Earth orbit (LEO) for the Commercial Crew Program. The purpose of this document is to describe Design Reference Missions (DRMs) representative of the end-to-end Crew Transportation System (CTS) framework envisioned to successfully execute commercial crew transportation to orbital destinations. The initial CTS architecture will likely be optimized to support NASA crew and NASA-sponsored crew rotation missions to the ISS, but consideration may be given in this design phase to allow for modifications in order to accomplish other commercial missions in the future. With the exception of NASA’s mission to the ISS, the remaining commercial DRMs are notional. Any decision to design or scar the CTS for these additional non-NASA missions is completely up to the Commercial Provider. As NASA’s mission needs evolve over time, this document will be periodically updated to reflect those needs.

  1. INCLINATION AND VIBRATION MEASUREMENT BY INERTIAL SENSING FOR STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugisaki, Koichi; Abe, Masato; Koshimizu, Satoru

    To develop a practical health monitoring system, inertial sensing which can readily be done for wide variety of situations is useful. However inertial sensors are measuring inclination and acceleration in reference to gravity. Therefore inclination are influence by acceleration and vice versa caused measuring errors. Especially, errors are more affected at low-frequency band which is important to estimate displacement. In this study, to establish correcting theory for inertial sensing and to develop method to estimate parameters for some structural system. And conducted a field test targeted at the real railway bridge to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method using response records of the pier under passing train load.

  2. Observability Analysis of a Matrix Kalman Filter-Based Navigation System Using Visual/Inertial/Magnetic Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohu Feng

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A matrix Kalman filter (MKF has been implemented for an integrated navigation system using visual/inertial/magnetic sensors. The MKF rearranges the original nonlinear process model in a pseudo-linear process model. We employ the observability rank criterion based on Lie derivatives to verify the conditions under which the nonlinear system is observable. It has been proved that such observability conditions are: (a at least one degree of rotational freedom is excited, and (b at least two linearly independent horizontal lines and one vertical line are observed. Experimental results have validated the correctness of these observability conditions.

  3. Reduced order models, inertial manifolds, and global bifurcations: searching instability boundaries in nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez Antola, R.

    2011-01-01

    One of the goals of nuclear power systems design and operation is to restrict the possible states of certain critical subsystems, during steady operation and during transients, to remain inside a certain bounded set of admissible states and state variations. Also, during transients, certain restrictions must be imposed on the time scale of evolution of the critical subsystem's state. A classification of the different solution types concerning their relation with the operational safety of the power plant is done by distributing the different solution types in relation with the exclusion region of the power-flow map. In the framework of an analytic or numerical modeling process of a boiling water reactor (BWR) power plant, this could imply first to find an suitable approximation to the solution manifold of the differential equations describing the stability behavior of this nonlinear system, and then a classification of the different solution types concerning their relation with the operational safety of the power plant, by distributing the different solution types in relation with the exclusion region of the power-flow map. Inertial manifold theory gives a foundation for the construction and use of reduced order models (ROM's) of reactor dynamics to discover and characterize meaningful bifurcations that may pass unnoticed during digital simulations done with full scale computer codes of the nuclear power plant. The March-Leuba's BWR ROM is used to exemplify the analytical approach developed here. The equation for excess void reactivity of this ROM is generalized. A nonlinear integral-differential equation in the logarithmic power is derived, including the generalized thermal-hydraulics feedback on the reactivity. Introducing a Krilov- Bogoliubov-Mitropolsky (KBM) ansatz with both amplitude and phase being slowly varying functions of time relative to the center period of oscillation, a coupled set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations for amplitude and phase

  4. A Physical Activity Reference Data-Set Recorded from Older Adults Using Body-Worn Inertial Sensors and Video Technology—The ADAPT Study Data-Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Kevin Bourke

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity monitoring algorithms are often developed using conditions that do not represent real-life activities, not developed using the target population, or not labelled to a high enough resolution to capture the true detail of human movement. We have designed a semi-structured supervised laboratory-based activity protocol and an unsupervised free-living activity protocol and recorded 20 older adults performing both protocols while wearing up to 12 body-worn sensors. Subjects’ movements were recorded using synchronised cameras (≥25 fps, both deployed in a laboratory environment to capture the in-lab portion of the protocol and a body-worn camera for out-of-lab activities. Video labelling of the subjects’ movements was performed by five raters using 11 different category labels. The overall level of agreement was high (percentage of agreement >90.05%, and Cohen’s Kappa, corrected kappa, Krippendorff’s alpha and Fleiss’ kappa >0.86. A total of 43.92 h of activities were recorded, including 9.52 h of in-lab and 34.41 h of out-of-lab activities. A total of 88.37% and 152.01% of planned transitions were recorded during the in-lab and out-of-lab scenarios, respectively. This study has produced the most detailed dataset to date of inertial sensor data, synchronised with high frame-rate (≥25 fps video labelled data recorded in a free-living environment from older adults living independently. This dataset is suitable for validation of existing activity classification systems and development of new activity classification algorithms.

  5. Review of fission-fusion pellet designs and inertial confinement system studies at EIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifriz, W [Eidgenoessisches Inst. fuer Reaktorforschung, Wuerenlingen (Switzerland)

    1978-01-01

    The article summarizes the work done so far at the Swiss Federal Institute for Reactor Research (EIR) in the field of the inertial confinement fusion technique. The following subjects are reviewed: a) fission fusion pellet designs using fissionable triggers, b) uranium tampered pellets, c) tampered pellets recycling unwanted actinide wastes from fission reactors in beam-driven micro-explosion reactors, and d) symbiotic fusion/fission reactor studies.

  6. Alternation of regular and chaotic dynamics in a simple two-degree-of-freedom system with nonlinear inertial coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigalov, G; Gendelman, O V; AL-Shudeifat, M A; Manevitch, L I; Vakakis, A F; Bergman, L A

    2012-03-01

    We show that nonlinear inertial coupling between a linear oscillator and an eccentric rotator can lead to very interesting interchanges between regular and chaotic dynamical behavior. Indeed, we show that this model demonstrates rather unusual behavior from the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamics. Specifically, at a discrete set of values of the total energy, the Hamiltonian system exhibits non-conventional nonlinear normal modes, whose shape is determined by phase locking of rotatory and oscillatory motions of the rotator at integer ratios of characteristic frequencies. Considering the weakly damped system, resonance capture of the dynamics into the vicinity of these modes brings about regular motion of the system. For energy levels far from these discrete values, the motion of the system is chaotic. Thus, the succession of resonance captures and escapes by a discrete set of the normal modes causes a sequence of transitions between regular and chaotic behavior, provided that the damping is sufficiently small. We begin from the Hamiltonian system and present a series of Poincaré sections manifesting the complex structure of the phase space of the considered system with inertial nonlinear coupling. Then an approximate analytical description is presented for the non-conventional nonlinear normal modes. We confirm the analytical results by numerical simulation and demonstrate the alternate transitions between regular and chaotic dynamics mentioned above. The origin of the chaotic behavior is also discussed.

  7. Reference dosimeter system of the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, Kishor; Girzikowsky, Reinhard

    1995-01-01

    Quality assurance programmes must be in operation at radiation facilities to satisfy national and international Standards. Since dosimetry has a vital function in these QA programmes, it is imperative that the dosimetry systems in use at these facilities are well calibrated with a traceability to a Primary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory. As a service to the Member States, the International Atomic Energy Agency operates the International Dose Assurance Service (IDAS) to assist in this process. The transfer standard dosimetry system that is used for this service is based on ESR spectrometry. The paper describes the activities undertaken at the IAEA Dosimetry Laboratory to establish the QA programme for its reference dosimetry system. There are four key elements of such a programme: quality assurance manual; calibration that is traceable to a Primary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory; a clear and detailed statement of uncertainty in the dose measurement; and, periodic quality audit. (Author)

  8. Reference dosimeter system of the iaea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Kishor; Girzikowsky, Reinhard

    1995-09-01

    Quality assurance programmes must be in operation at radiation processing facilities to satisfy national and international Standards. Since dosimetry has a vital function in these QA programmes, it is imperative that the dosimetry systems in use at these facilities are well calibrated with a traceability to a Primary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory. As a service to the Member States, the International Atomic Energy Agency operates the International Dose Assurance Service (IDAS) to assist in this process. The transfer standard dosimetry system that is used for this service is based on ESR spectrometry. The paper describes the activities undertaken at the IAEA Dosimetry Laboratory to establish the QA programme for its reference dosimetry system. There are four key elements of such a programme: quality assurance manual; calibration that is traceable to a Primary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory; a clear and detailed statement of uncertainty in the dose measurement; and, periodic quality audit.

  9. Reference dosimeter system of the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, K.; Girzikowsky, R.

    1995-01-01

    Quality assurance programmes must be in operation at radiation processing facilities to satisfy national and international standards. Since dosimetry has a vital function in these QA programmes, it is imperative that the dosimetry systems in use at these facilities are well calibrated with a traceability to a Primary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory. As a service to the Member States, the International Atomic Energy Agency operates the International Dose Assurance Service (IDAS) to assist in this process. The transfer standard dosimetry system that is used for this service is based on ESR spectrometry. The paper describes the activities undertaken at the IAEA Dosimetry Laboratory to establish the QA programme for its reference dosimetry system. There are four key elements of such a programme: quality assurance manual; calibration that is traceable to a Primary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory; a clear and detailed statement of uncertainty in the dose measurement; and, periodic quality audit. (author)

  10. Giving the force direction: Analysis of speed skater push off forces with respect to an inertial coordinate system

    OpenAIRE

    van der Kruk, E.; van der Helm, F.C.T.; Schwab, A.L.; Veeger, H.E.J.

    2016-01-01

    Pushoff in speed skating requires an extensive motion strategy. During speed skating the skater continuously changes the lean and steering angle of the skate and therewith the direction of push-off, The forces in an inertial coordinate system can give insight into what amount of the push-off force is directed into the forward motion. In this paper we present the preliminary results of a study on the global forces in speed skating. From a mechanical viewpoint, increasing the lean angle of the ...

  11. Hazardous Solvent Substitution Data System reference manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branham-Haar, K.A.; Twitchell, K.E.

    1993-07-01

    Concern for the environment, in addition to Federal regulation, mandate the replacement of hazardous solvents with safer cleaning agents. Manufacturers are working to produce these replacement solvents. As these products are developed, potential users need to be informed of their availability. To promote the use of these new products instead of traditional solvents, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has developed the Hazardous Solvent Substitution Data System (HSSDS). The HSSDS provides a comprehensive system of information on alternatives to hazardous solvents and related subjects, and it makes that information available to solvent users, industrial hygienists, and process engineers. The HSSDS uses TOPIC reg-sign, a text retrieval system produced by Verity, Inc., to allow a user to search for information on a particular subject. TOPIC reg-sign produces a listing of the retrieved documents and allows the use to examine the documents individually and to use the information contained in them. This reference manual does not replace the comprehensive TOPIC reg-sign user documentation (available from Verity, Inc.), or the HSSDS Tutorial (available from the INEL). The purpose of this reference manual is to provide enough instruction on TOPIC reg-sign so the user may begin accessing the data contained in the HSSDS

  12. A polar-region-adaptable systematic bias collaborative measurement method for shipboard redundant rotational inertial navigation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Wu, Wenqi; Wei, Guo; Lian, Junxiang; Yu, Ruihang

    2018-05-01

    The shipboard redundant rotational inertial navigation system (RINS) configuration, including a dual-axis RINS and a single-axis RINS, can satisfy the demand of marine INSs of especially high reliability as well as achieving trade-off between position accuracy and cost. Generally, the dual-axis RINS is the master INS, and the single-axis RINS is the hot backup INS for high reliability purposes. An integrity monitoring system performs a fault detection function to ensure sailing safety. However, improving the accuracy of the backup INS in case of master INS failure has not been given enough attention. Without the aid of any external information, a systematic bias collaborative measurement method based on an augmented Kalman filter is proposed for the redundant RINSs. Estimates of inertial sensor biases can be used by the built-in integrity monitoring system to monitor the RINS running condition. On the other hand, a position error prediction model is designed for the single-axis RINS to estimate the systematic error caused by its azimuth gyro bias. After position error compensation, the position information provided by the single-axis RINS still remains highly accurate, even if the integrity monitoring system detects a dual-axis RINS fault. Moreover, use of a grid frame as a navigation frame makes the proposed method applicable in any area, including the polar regions. Semi-physical simulation and experiments including sea trials verify the validity of the method.

  13. An overview of Aurora: a multi-kilojoule KrF laser system for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosocha, L.A.; Bowling, P.S.; Burrows, M.D.; Kang, M.; Hanlon, J.; McLeod, J.; York, G.W.

    1986-01-01

    Aurora is a short-pulse high-power krypton-fluoride laser system that serves as an end-to-end technology demonstration prototype for large-scale ultraviolet laser systems of interest for short wavelength inertial confinement fusion (ICF) studies. The system is designed to employ optical angular multiplexing and serial amplification by electron-beam-driven KrF laser amplifiers to deliver 248 nm, 5-ns duration multi-kilojoule laser pulses to ICF targets using a beam train of approximately 1 km in length. The goals for the system are discussed and the design features of the major system components: front-end lasers, amplifier train, and the alignment and controls systems are summarised. (author)

  14. Heavy ion inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.; Sessler, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    Inertial fusion has not yet been as well explored as magnetic fusion but can offer certain advantages as an alternative source of electric energy for the future. Present experiments use high-power beams from lasers and light-ion diodes to compress the deuterium-tritium (D-T) pellets but these will probably be unsuitable for a power plant. A more promising method is to use intense heavy-ion beams from accelerator systems similar to those used for nuclear and high-energy physics; the present paper addresses itself to this alternative. As will be demonstrated the very high beam power needed poses new design questions, from the ion-source through the accelerating system, the beam transport system, to the final focus. These problems will require extensive study, both theoretically and experimentally, over the next several years before an optimum design for an inertial fusion driver can be arrived at. (Auth.)

  15. Heavy ion inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.; Sessler, A.M.

    1980-07-01

    Inertial fusion has not yet been as well explored as magnetic fusion but can offer certain advantages as an alternative source of electric energy for the future. Present experiments use high-power beams from lasers and light-ion diodes to compress the deuterium-tritium (D-T) pellets but these will probably be unsuitable for a power plant. A more promising method is to use intense heavy-ion beams from accelerator systems similar to those used for nuclear and high-energy physics; the present paper addresses itself to this alternative. As will be demonstrated the very high beam power needed poses new design questions, from the ion source through the accelerating system, the beam transport system, to the final focus. These problems will require extensive study, both theoretically and experimentally, over the next several years before an optimum design for an inertial fusion driver can be arrived at

  16. Instability of coupled gravity-inertial-Rossby waves on a β-plane in solar system atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. McKenzie

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an analysis of the combined theory of gravity-inertial-Rossby waves on a β-plane in the Boussinesq approximation. The wave equation for the system is fifth order in space and time and demonstrates how gravity-inertial waves on the one hand are coupled to Rossby waves on the other through the combined effects of β, the stratification characterized by the Väisälä-Brunt frequency N, the Coriolis frequency f at a given latitude, and vertical propagation which permits buoyancy modes to interact with westward propagating Rossby waves. The corresponding dispersion equation shows that the frequency of a westward propagating gravity-inertial wave is reduced by the coupling, whereas the frequency of a Rossby wave is increased. If the coupling is sufficiently strong these two modes coalesce giving rise to an instability. The instability condition translates into a curve of critical latitude Θc versus effective equatorial rotational Mach number M, with the region below this curve exhibiting instability. "Supersonic" fast rotators are unstable in a narrow band of latitudes around the equator. For example Θc~12° for Jupiter. On the other hand slow "subsonic" rotators (e.g. Mercury, Venus and the Sun's Corona are unstable at all latitudes except very close to the poles where the β effect vanishes. "Transonic" rotators, such as the Earth and Mars, exhibit instability within latitudes of 34° and 39°, respectively, around the Equator. Similar results pertain to Oceans. In the case of an Earth's Ocean of depth 4km say, purely westward propagating waves are unstable up to 26° about the Equator. The nonlinear evolution of this instability which feeds off rotational energy and gravitational buoyancy may play an important role in atmospheric dynamics.

  17. Instability of coupled gravity-inertial-Rossby waves on a β-plane in solar system atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. McKenzie

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an analysis of the combined theory of gravity-inertial-Rossby waves on a β-plane in the Boussinesq approximation. The wave equation for the system is fifth order in space and time and demonstrates how gravity-inertial waves on the one hand are coupled to Rossby waves on the other through the combined effects of β, the stratification characterized by the Väisälä-Brunt frequency N, the Coriolis frequency f at a given latitude, and vertical propagation which permits buoyancy modes to interact with westward propagating Rossby waves. The corresponding dispersion equation shows that the frequency of a westward propagating gravity-inertial wave is reduced by the coupling, whereas the frequency of a Rossby wave is increased. If the coupling is sufficiently strong these two modes coalesce giving rise to an instability. The instability condition translates into a curve of critical latitude Θc versus effective equatorial rotational Mach number M, with the region below this curve exhibiting instability. "Supersonic" fast rotators are unstable in a narrow band of latitudes around the equator. For example Θc~12° for Jupiter. On the other hand slow "subsonic" rotators (e.g. Mercury, Venus and the Sun's Corona are unstable at all latitudes except very close to the poles where the β effect vanishes. "Transonic" rotators, such as the Earth and Mars, exhibit instability within latitudes of 34° and 39°, respectively, around the Equator. Similar results pertain to Oceans. In the case of an Earth's Ocean of depth 4km say, purely westward propagating waves are unstable up to 26° about the Equator. The nonlinear evolution of this instability which feeds off rotational energy and gravitational buoyancy may play an important role in atmospheric dynamics.

  18. A study of redundancy management strategy for tetrad strap-down inertial systems. [error detection codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, R. J.; Bjorkman, W. S.; Schmidt, S. F.; Carestia, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    Algorithms were developed that attempt to identify which sensor in a tetrad configuration has experienced a step failure. An algorithm is also described that provides a measure of the confidence with which the correct identification was made. Experimental results are presented from real-time tests conducted on a three-axis motion facility utilizing an ortho-skew tetrad strapdown inertial sensor package. The effects of prediction errors and of quantization on correct failure identification are discussed as well as an algorithm for detecting second failures through prediction.

  19. In-Field Validation of an Inertial Sensor-Based System for Movement Analysis and Classification in Ski Mountaineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jules Gellaerts

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ski Mountaineering (SkiMo is a fast growing sport requiring both endurance and technical skills. It involves different types of locomotion with and without the skis. The aim of this study is to develop and validate in the snowfield a novel inertial-based system for analysing cycle parameters and classifying movement in SkiMo in real-time. The study was divided into two parts, one focused on real-time parameters estimation (cadence, distance from strides, stride duration, stride length, number of strides, slope gradient, and power and, second, on transition detection (kickturns, skin on, skin off, ski on and off backpack in order to classify between the different types of locomotion. Experimental protocol involved 16 experienced subjects who performed different SkiMo trials with their own equipment instrumented with a ski-mounted inertial sensor. The results obtained by the algorithm showed precise results with a relative error near 5% on all parameters. The developed system can, therefore, be used by skiers to obtain quantitative training data analysis and real-time feedback in the field. Nevertheless, a deeper validation of this algorithm might be necessary in order to confirm the accuracy on a wider population of subjects with various skill levels.

  20. Increasing the magnetic-field capability of the magneto-inertial fusion electrical discharge system using an inductively coupled coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnak, D. H.; Davies, J. R.; Fiksel, G.; Chang, P.-Y.; Zabir, E.; Betti, R.

    2018-03-01

    Magnetized high energy density physics (HEDP) is a very active and relatively unexplored field that has applications in inertial confinement fusion, astrophysical plasma science, and basic plasma physics. A self-contained device, the Magneto-Inertial Fusion Electrical Discharge System, MIFEDS [G. Fiksel et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 016105 (2015)], was developed at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics to conduct magnetized HEDP experiments on both the OMEGA [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495-506 (1997)] and OMEGA EP [J. H. Kelly et al., J. Phys. IV France 133, 75 (2006) and L. J. Waxer et al., Opt. Photonics News 16, 30 (2005)] laser systems. Extremely high magnetic fields are a necessity for magnetized HEDP, and the need for stronger magnetic fields continues to drive the redevelopment of the MIFEDS device. It is proposed in this paper that a magnetic coil that is inductively coupled rather than directly connecting to the MIFEDS device can increase the overall strength of the magnetic field for HEDP experiments by increasing the efficiency of energy transfer while decreasing the effective magnetized volume. A brief explanation of the energy delivery of the MIFEDS device illustrates the benefit of inductive coupling and is compared to that of direct connection for varying coil size and geometry. A prototype was then constructed to demonstrate a 7-fold increase in energy delivery using inductive coupling.

  1. An adaptive optics system for solid-state laser systems used in inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, J.T.; Bliss, E.S.; Byrd, J.L.; Feldman, M.; Kartz, M.A.; Toeppen, J.S.; Wonterghem, B. Van; Winters, S.E.

    1995-01-01

    Using adaptive optics the authors have obtained nearly diffraction-limited 5 kJ, 3 nsec output pulses at 1.053 microm from the Beamlet demonstration system for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The peak Strehl ratio was improved from 0.009 to 0.50, as estimated from measured wavefront errors. They have also measured the relaxation of the thermally induced aberrations in the main beam line over a period of 4.5 hours. Peak-to-valley aberrations range from 6.8 waves at 1.053 microm within 30 minutes after a full system shot to 3.9 waves after 4.5 hours. The adaptive optics system must have enough range to correct accumulated thermal aberrations from several shots in addition to the immediate shot-induced error. Accumulated wavefront errors in the beam line will affect both the design of the adaptive optics system for NIF and the performance of that system

  2. Inertial Symmetry Breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Christopher T.

    2018-03-19

    We review and expand upon recent work demonstrating that Weyl invariant theories can be broken "inertially," which does not depend upon a potential. This can be understood in a general way by the "current algebra" of these theories, independently of specific Lagrangians. Maintaining the exact Weyl invariance in a renormalized quantum theory can be accomplished by renormalization conditions that refer back to the VEV's of fields in the action. We illustrate the computation of a Weyl invariant Coleman-Weinberg potential that breaks a U(1) symmetry together,with scale invariance.

  3. Flight Demonstration Results of an Inertial Measurement Unit and Global Positioning System Translator Telemetry System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    David, Bradford

    2001-01-01

    .... A GPS translator from the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory and a low-cost IMU designed by ARL from commercial off-the-shelf components were combined with a telemetry system, packaged...

  4. HYPERFUSE: a novel inertial confinement system utilizing hypervelocity projectiles for fusion energy production and fission waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makowitz, H.; Powell, J.R.; Wiswall, R.

    1980-01-01

    Parametric system studies of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor system to transmute fission products from an LWR economy have been carried out. The ICF reactors would produce net power in addition to transmuting fission products. The particular ICF concept examined is an impact fusion approach termed HYPERFUSE, in which hypervelocity pellets, traveling on the order of 100 to 300 km/sec, collide with each other or a target block in a reactor chamber and initiate a thermonuclear reaction. The DT fusion fuel is contained in a shell of the material to be transmuted, e.g., 137 Cs or 90 Sr. The 14-MeV fusion neutrons released during the pellet burn cause transmutation reactions (e.g., (n, 2n), (n, α), etc.) that convert the long lived fission products (FP's) either to stable products or to species that decay with a short half-life to a stable product

  5. Hyper fuse: a novel inertial confinement system utilizing hypervelocity projectiles for fusion energy production and fission waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makowitz, H.; Powell, J.R.; Wiswall, R.

    1979-01-01

    Parametric system studies of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor system to transmute fission products from an LWR economy have been carried out. The ICF reactors would produce net power in addition to transmuting fission products. The particular ICF concept examined is an impact fusion approach termed HYPERFUSE, in which hypervelocity pellets, traveling on the order of 100 to 300 km/sec, collide with a target in a reactor chamber and initiate a thermonuclear reaction. The DT fusion fuel is contained in a shell of the material to be transmuted, e.g., 137 Cs or 90 Sr. The 14 MeV fusion neutrons released during the pellet burn cause transmutation reactions [e.g., (n, 2n), (n, α), etc.] that convert the long lived fission products (FP's) either to stable products or to species that decay with a short half-life to a stable product

  6. A Wearable Magneto-Inertial System for Gait Analysis (H-Gait: Validation on Normal Weight and Overweight/Obese Young Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Agostini

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wearable magneto-inertial sensors are being increasingly used to obtain human motion measurements out of the lab, although their performance in applications requiring high accuracy, such as gait analysis, are still a subject of debate. The aim of this work was to validate a gait analysis system (H-Gait based on magneto-inertial sensors, both in normal weight (NW and overweight/obese (OW subjects. The validation is performed against a reference multichannel recording system (STEP32, providing direct measurements of gait timings (through foot-switches and joint angles in the sagittal plane (through electrogoniometers. Methods: Twenty-two young male subjects were recruited for the study (12 NW, 10 OW. After positioning body-fixed sensors of both systems, each subject was asked to walk, at a self-selected speed, over a 14-m straight path for 12 trials. Gait signals were recorded, at the same time, with the two systems. Spatio-temporal parameters, ankle, knee, and hip joint kinematics were extracted analyzing an average of 89 ± 13 gait cycles from each lower limb. Intraclass correlation coefficient and Bland-Altmann plots were used to compare H-Gait and STEP32 measurements. Changes in gait parameters and joint kinematics of OW with respect NW were also evaluated. Results: The two systems were highly consistent for cadence, while a lower agreement was found for the other spatio-temporal parameters. Ankle and knee joint kinematics is overall comparable. Joint ROMs values were slightly lower for H-Gait with respect to STEP32 for the ankle (by 1.9° for NW, and 1.6° for OW and for the knee (by 4.1° for NW, and 1.8° for OW. More evident differences were found for hip joint, with ROMs values higher for H-Gait (by 6.8° for NW, and 9.5° for OW. NW and OW showed significant differences considering STEP32 (p = 0.0004, but not H-Gait (p = 0.06. In particular, overweight/obese subjects showed a higher cadence (55.0 vs. 52.3 strides/min and a

  7. Nondestructive Inspection System for Special Nuclear Material Using Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Neutrons and Laser Compton Scattering Gamma-Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohgaki, H.; Daito, I.; Zen, H.; Kii, T.; Masuda, K.; Misawa, T.; Hajima, R.; Hayakawa, T.; Shizuma, T.; Kando, M.; Fujimoto, S.

    2017-07-01

    A Neutron/Gamma-ray combined inspection system for hidden special nuclear materials (SNMs) in cargo containers has been developed under a program of Japan Science and Technology Agency in Japan. This inspection system consists of an active neutron-detection system for fast screening and a laser Compton backscattering gamma-ray source in coupling with nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) method for precise inspection. The inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device has been adopted as a neutron source and two neutron-detection methods, delayed neutron noise analysis method and high-energy neutron-detection method, have been developed to realize the fast screening system. The prototype system has been constructed and tested in the Reactor Research Institute, Kyoto University. For the generation of the laser Compton backscattering gamma-ray beam, a race track microtron accelerator has been used to reduce the size of the system. For the NRF measurement, an array of LaBr3(Ce) scintillation detectors has been adopted to realize a low-cost detection system. The prototype of the gamma-ray system has been demonstrated in the Kansai Photon Science Institute, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology. By using numerical simulations based on the data taken from these prototype systems and the inspection-flow, the system designed by this program can detect 1 kg of highly enriched 235U (HEU) hidden in an empty 20-ft container within several minutes.

  8. Global Reference Tables for Management Information Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This database is a collection of reference tables that store common information used throughout SSA. These tables standardize code structures and code usage of SSA...

  9. Global Reference Tables for Production Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This database is a collection of reference tables that store common information used throughout SSA. These tables standardized code structures and code usage of SSA...

  10. Mastication Evaluation With Unsupervised Learning: Using an Inertial Sensor-Based System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucena, Caroline Vieira; Lacerda, Marcelo; Caldas, Rafael; De Lima Neto, Fernando Buarque

    2018-01-01

    There is a direct relationship between the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders of the temporomandibular joint and orofacial disorders. A well-elaborated analysis of the jaw movements provides relevant information for healthcare professionals to conclude their diagnosis. Different approaches have been explored to track jaw movements such that the mastication analysis is getting less subjective; however, all methods are still highly subjective, and the quality of the assessments depends much on the experience of the health professional. In this paper, an accurate and non-invasive method based on a commercial low-cost inertial sensor (MPU6050) to measure jaw movements is proposed. The jaw-movement feature values are compared to the obtained with clinical analysis, showing no statistically significant difference between both methods. Moreover, We propose to use unsupervised paradigm approaches to cluster mastication patterns of healthy subjects and simulated patients with facial trauma. Two techniques were used in this paper to instantiate the method: Kohonen’s Self-Organizing Maps and K-Means Clustering. Both algorithms have excellent performances to process jaw-movements data, showing encouraging results and potential to bring a full assessment of the masticatory function. The proposed method can be applied in real-time providing relevant dynamic information for health-care professionals. PMID:29651365

  11. Extraction and Analysis of Respiratory Motion Using Wearable Inertial Sensor System during Trunk Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apoorva Gaidhani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory activity is an essential vital sign of life that can indicate changes in typical breathing patterns and irregular body functions such as asthma and panic attacks. Many times, there is a need to monitor breathing activity while performing day-to-day functions such as standing, bending, trunk stretching or during yoga exercises. A single IMU (inertial measurement unit can be used in measuring respiratory motion; however, breathing motion data may be influenced by a body trunk movement that occurs while recording respiratory activity. This research employs a pair of wireless, wearable IMU sensors custom-made by the Department of Electrical Engineering at San Diego State University. After appropriate sensor placement for data collection, this research applies principles of robotics, using the Denavit-Hartenberg convention, to extract relative angular motion between the two sensors. One of the obtained relative joint angles in the “Sagittal” plane predominantly yields respiratory activity. An improvised version of the proposed method and wearable, wireless sensors can be suitable to extract respiratory information while performing sports or exercises, as they do not restrict body motion or the choice of location to gather data.

  12. Mastication Evaluation With Unsupervised Learning: Using an Inertial Sensor-Based System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucena, Caroline Vieira; Lacerda, Marcelo; Caldas, Rafael; De Lima Neto, Fernando Buarque; Rativa, Diego

    2018-01-01

    There is a direct relationship between the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders of the temporomandibular joint and orofacial disorders. A well-elaborated analysis of the jaw movements provides relevant information for healthcare professionals to conclude their diagnosis. Different approaches have been explored to track jaw movements such that the mastication analysis is getting less subjective; however, all methods are still highly subjective, and the quality of the assessments depends much on the experience of the health professional. In this paper, an accurate and non-invasive method based on a commercial low-cost inertial sensor (MPU6050) to measure jaw movements is proposed. The jaw-movement feature values are compared to the obtained with clinical analysis, showing no statistically significant difference between both methods. Moreover, We propose to use unsupervised paradigm approaches to cluster mastication patterns of healthy subjects and simulated patients with facial trauma. Two techniques were used in this paper to instantiate the method: Kohonen's Self-Organizing Maps and K-Means Clustering. Both algorithms have excellent performances to process jaw-movements data, showing encouraging results and potential to bring a full assessment of the masticatory function. The proposed method can be applied in real-time providing relevant dynamic information for health-care professionals.

  13. Coupling effect and control strategies of the maglev dual-stage inertially stabilization system based on frequency-domain analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhuchong; Liu, Kun; Zhang, Li; Zeng, Delin

    2016-09-01

    Maglev dual-stage inertially stabilization (MDIS) system is a newly proposed system which combines a conventional two-axis gimbal assembly and a 5-DOF (degree of freedom) magnetic bearing with vernier tilting capacity to perform dual-stage stabilization for the LOS of the suspended optical instrument. Compared with traditional dual-stage system, maglev dual-stage system exhibits different characteristics due to the negative position stiffness of the magnetic forces, which introduces additional coupling in the dual stage control system. In this paper, the coupling effect on the system performance is addressed based on frequency-domain analysis, including disturbance rejection, fine stage saturation and coarse stage structural resonance suppression. The difference between various control strategies is also discussed, including pile-up(PU), stabilize-follow (SF) and stabilize-compensate (SC). A number of principles for the design of a maglev dual stage system are proposed. A general process is also suggested, which leads to a cost-effective design striking a balance between high performance and complexity. At last, a simulation example is presented to illustrate the arguments in the paper. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Tools for Predicting Optical Damage on Inertial Confinement Fusion-Class Laser Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nostrand, M.C.; Carr, C.W.; Liao, Z.M.; Honig, J.; Spaeth, M.L.; Manes, K.R.; Johnson, M.A.; Adams, J.J.; Cross, D.A.; Negres, R.A.; Widmayer, C.C.; Williams, W.H.; Matthews, M.J.; Jancaitis, K.S.; Kegelmeyer, L.M.

    2010-01-01

    Operating a fusion-class laser to its full potential requires a balance of operating constraints. On the one hand, the total laser energy delivered must be high enough to give an acceptable probability for ignition success. On the other hand, the laser-induced optical damage levels must be low enough to be acceptably handled with the available infrastructure and budget for optics recycle. Our research goal was to develop the models, database structures, and algorithmic tools (which we collectively refer to as ''Loop Tools'') needed to successfully maintain this balance. Predictive models are needed to plan for and manage the impact of shot campaigns from proposal, to shot, and beyond, covering a time span of years. The cost of a proposed shot campaign must be determined from these models, and governance boards must decide, based on predictions, whether to incorporate a given campaign into the facility shot plan based upon available resources. Predictive models are often built on damage ''rules'' derived from small beam damage tests on small optics. These off-line studies vary the energy, pulse-shape and wavelength in order to understand how these variables influence the initiation of damage sites and how initiated damage sites can grow upon further exposure to UV light. It is essential to test these damage ''rules'' on full-scale optics exposed to the complex conditions of an integrated ICF-class laser system. Furthermore, monitoring damage of optics on an ICF-class laser system can help refine damage rules and aid in the development of new rules. Finally, we need to develop the algorithms and data base management tools for implementing these rules in the Loop Tools. The following highlights progress in the development of the loop tools and their implementation.

  15. Tools for Predicting Optical Damage on Inertial Confinement Fusion-Class Laser Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nostrand, M C; Carr, C W; Liao, Z M; Honig, J; Spaeth, M L; Manes, K R; Johnson, M A; Adams, J J; Cross, D A; Negres, R A; Widmayer, C C; Williams, W H; Matthews, M J; Jancaitis, K S; Kegelmeyer, L M

    2010-12-20

    Operating a fusion-class laser to its full potential requires a balance of operating constraints. On the one hand, the total laser energy delivered must be high enough to give an acceptable probability for ignition success. On the other hand, the laser-induced optical damage levels must be low enough to be acceptably handled with the available infrastructure and budget for optics recycle. Our research goal was to develop the models, database structures, and algorithmic tools (which we collectively refer to as ''Loop Tools'') needed to successfully maintain this balance. Predictive models are needed to plan for and manage the impact of shot campaigns from proposal, to shot, and beyond, covering a time span of years. The cost of a proposed shot campaign must be determined from these models, and governance boards must decide, based on predictions, whether to incorporate a given campaign into the facility shot plan based upon available resources. Predictive models are often built on damage ''rules'' derived from small beam damage tests on small optics. These off-line studies vary the energy, pulse-shape and wavelength in order to understand how these variables influence the initiation of damage sites and how initiated damage sites can grow upon further exposure to UV light. It is essential to test these damage ''rules'' on full-scale optics exposed to the complex conditions of an integrated ICF-class laser system. Furthermore, monitoring damage of optics on an ICF-class laser system can help refine damage rules and aid in the development of new rules. Finally, we need to develop the algorithms and data base management tools for implementing these rules in the Loop Tools. The following highlights progress in the development of the loop tools and their implementation.

  16. Genetics Home Reference: systemic lupus erythematosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter Home Health Conditions Systemic lupus erythematosus Systemic lupus erythematosus Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic disease that causes inflammation ...

  17. SIMULATION OF INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEM ERRORS AT AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY FROM UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Shults

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The problem of accuracy determination of the UAV position using INS at aerial photography can be resolved in two different ways: modelling of measurement errors or in-field calibration for INS. The paper presents the results of INS errors research by mathematical modelling. In paper were considered the following steps: developing of INS computer model; carrying out INS simulation; using reference data without errors, estimation of errors and their influence on maps creation accuracy by UAV data. It must be remembered that the values of orientation angles and the coordinates of the projection centre may change abruptly due to the influence of the atmosphere (different air density, wind, etc.. Therefore, the mathematical model of the INS was constructed taking into account the use of different models of wind gusts. For simulation were used typical characteristics of micro electromechanical (MEMS INS and parameters of standard atmosphere. According to the simulation established domination of INS systematic errors that accumulate during the execution of photographing and require compensation mechanism, especially for orientation angles. MEMS INS have a high level of noise at the system input. Thanks to the developed model, we are able to investigate separately the impact of noise in the absence of systematic errors. According to the research was found that on the interval of observations in 5 seconds the impact of random and systematic component is almost the same. The developed model of INS errors studies was implemented in Matlab software environment and without problems can be improved and enhanced with new blocks.

  18. Using Inertial Sensors in Smartphones for Curriculum Experiments of Inertial Navigation Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Niu, Xiaoji; Wang, Qingjiang; Li, You; Li, Qingli; Liu, Jingnan

    2015-01-01

    Inertial technology has been used in a wide range of applications such as guidance, navigation, and motion tracking. However, there are few undergraduate courses that focus on the inertial technology. Traditional inertial navigation systems (INS) and relevant testing facilities are expensive and complicated in operation, which makes it inconvenient and risky to perform teaching experiments with such systems. To solve this issue, this paper proposes the idea of using smartphones, which are ubi...

  19. On-body inertial sensor location recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenk, D.; van Beijnum, Bernhard J.F.; Goaied, Salma; Baten, Christian T.M.; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Veltink, Petrus H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and past research: In previous work we presented an algorithm for automatically identifying the body segment to which an inertial sensor is attached during walking [1]. Using this method, the set-up of inertial motion capture systems becomes easier and attachment errors are avoided. The

  20. Material control system simulator program reference manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollstien, R.B.

    1978-01-24

    A description is presented of a Material Control System Simulator (MCSS) program for determination of material accounting uncertainty and system response to particular adversary action sequences that constitute plausible material diversion attempts. The program is intended for use in situations where randomness, uncertainty, or interaction of adversary actions and material control system components make it difficult to assess safeguards effectiveness against particular material diversion attempts. Although MCSS may be used independently in the design or analysis of material handling and processing systems, it has been tailored toward the determination of material accountability and the response of material control systems to adversary action sequences.

  1. Material control system simulator program reference manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollstien, R.B.

    1978-01-01

    A description is presented of a Material Control System Simulator (MCSS) program for determination of material accounting uncertainty and system response to particular adversary action sequences that constitute plausible material diversion attempts. The program is intended for use in situations where randomness, uncertainty, or interaction of adversary actions and material control system components make it difficult to assess safeguards effectiveness against particular material diversion attempts. Although MCSS may be used independently in the design or analysis of material handling and processing systems, it has been tailored toward the determination of material accountability and the response of material control systems to adversary action sequences

  2. Behavioral Reference Model for Pervasive Healthcare Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasbi, Arezoo; Adabi, Sahar; Rezaee, Ali

    2016-12-01

    The emergence of mobile healthcare systems is an important outcome of application of pervasive computing concepts for medical care purposes. These systems provide the facilities and infrastructure required for automatic and ubiquitous sharing of medical information. Healthcare systems have a dynamic structure and configuration, therefore having an architecture is essential for future development of these systems. The need for increased response rate, problem limited storage, accelerated processing and etc. the tendency toward creating a new generation of healthcare system architecture highlight the need for further focus on cloud-based solutions for transfer data and data processing challenges. Integrity and reliability of healthcare systems are of critical importance, as even the slightest error may put the patients' lives in danger; therefore acquiring a behavioral model for these systems and developing the tools required to model their behaviors are of significant importance. The high-level designs may contain some flaws, therefor the system must be fully examined for different scenarios and conditions. This paper presents a software architecture for development of healthcare systems based on pervasive computing concepts, and then models the behavior of described system. A set of solutions are then proposed to improve the design's qualitative characteristics including, availability, interoperability and performance.

  3. Mobile User Objective Systems (MUOS) Reference Implementation Laboratory (MRIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Mobile User Objective Systems (MUOS) Reference Implementation Laboratory (MRIL) performs verification and validation testing of various MUOS terminals. MRIL also...

  4. Mounting system for optical frequency reference cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notcutt, Mark (Inventor); Hall, John L. (Inventor); Ma, Long-Sheng (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A technique for reducing the vibration sensitivity of laser-stabilizing optical reference cavities is based upon an improved design and mounting method for the cavity, wherein the cavity is mounted vertically. It is suspended at one plane, around the spacer cylinder, equidistant from the mirror ends of the cavity. The suspension element is a collar of an extremely low thermal expansion coefficient material, which surrounds the spacer cylinder and contacts it uniformly. Once the collar has been properly located, it is cemented in place so that the spacer cylinder is uniformly supported and does not have to be squeezed at all. The collar also includes a number of cavities partially bored into its lower flat surface, around the axial bore. These cavities are support points, into which mounting base pins will be inserted. Hence the collar is supported at a minimum of three points.

  5. High accuracy navigation information estimation for inertial system using the multi-model EKF fusing adams explicit formula applied to underwater gliders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haoqian; Chen, Xiyuan; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Jian

    2017-01-01

    The underwater navigation system, mainly consisting of MEMS inertial sensors, is a key technology for the wide application of underwater gliders and plays an important role in achieving high accuracy navigation and positioning for a long time of period. However, the navigation errors will accumulate over time because of the inherent errors of inertial sensors, especially for MEMS grade IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit) generally used in gliders. The dead reckoning module is added to compensate the errors. In the complicated underwater environment, the performance of MEMS sensors is degraded sharply and the errors will become much larger. It is difficult to establish the accurate and fixed error model for the inertial sensor. Therefore, it is very hard to improve the accuracy of navigation information calculated by sensors. In order to solve the problem mentioned, the more suitable filter which integrates the multi-model method with an EKF approach can be designed according to different error models to give the optimal estimation for the state. The key parameters of error models can be used to determine the corresponding filter. The Adams explicit formula which has an advantage of high precision prediction is simultaneously fused into the above filter to achieve the much more improvement in attitudes estimation accuracy. The proposed algorithm has been proved through theory analyses and has been tested by both vehicle experiments and lake trials. Results show that the proposed method has better accuracy and effectiveness in terms of attitudes estimation compared with other methods mentioned in the paper for inertial navigation applied to underwater gliders. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Gravity Gradiometry and Map Matching: An Aid to Aircraft Inertial Navigation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    wife, who listened to my techno-babble and fully supported long hours of study . I think it’s time we take a vacation… together this time...Air Force Institute of Technology BEP Break Even Point CEP Circular Error Probable (50th percentile) CSAF Chief of Staff of the Air Force DTED...matching to aid an aircraft INS. Comprehensive, in this case , refers to an assessment that shows the potential for this concept to provide certain

  7. Saturation of equatorial inertial instability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloosterziel, R.C.; Orlandi, P.; Carnevale, G.F.

    2015-01-01

    Inertial instability in parallel shear flows and circular vortices in a uniformly rotating system ( $f$f-plane) redistributes absolute linear momentum or absolute angular momentum in such a way as to neutralize the instability. In previous studies we showed that, in the absence of other

  8. Robot operating system (ROS) the complete reference

    CERN Document Server

    The objective of this book is to provide the reader with a comprehensive coverage on the Robot Operating Systems (ROS) and latest related systems, which is currently considered as the main development framework for robotics applications. The book includes twenty-seven chapters organized into eight parts. Part 1 presents the basics and foundations of ROS. In Part 2, four chapters deal with navigation, motion and planning. Part 3 provides four examples of service and experimental robots. Part 4 deals with real-world deployment of applications. Part 5 presents signal-processing tools for perception and sensing. Part 6 provides software engineering methodologies to design complex software with ROS. Simulations frameworks are presented in Part 7. Finally, Part 8 presents advanced tools and frameworks for ROS including multi-master extension, network introspection, controllers and cognitive systems. This book will be a valuable companion for ROS users and developers to learn more ROS capabilities and features.   ...

  9. weHelp: A Reference Architecture for Social Recommender Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Swapneel; Arora, Nipun; Murphy, Christian; Kaiser, Gail

    2010-01-01

    Recommender systems have become increasingly popular. Most of the research on recommender systems has focused on recommendation algorithms. There has been relatively little research, however, in the area of generalized system architectures for recommendation systems. In this paper, we introduce weHelp : a reference architecture for social recommender systems - systems where recommendations are derived automatically from the aggregate of logged activities conducted by the system's users. Our architecture is designed to be application and domain agnostic. We feel that a good reference architecture will make designing a recommendation system easier; in particular, weHelp aims to provide a practical design template to help developers design their own well-modularized systems.

  10. Micromachined Precision Inertial Instruments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Najafi, Khalil

    2003-01-01

    This program focuses on developing inertial-grade micromachined accelerometers and gyroscopes and their associated electronics and packaging for use in a variety of military and commercial applications...

  11. Developing a Frame of Reference for understanding configuration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladeby, Klaes Rohde; Edwards, Kasper

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses the theory of technical systems to develop a frame of reference of product configuration systems. Following a definition of the configuration task, product model and product configuration system the theory of technical systems are presented. Configuration systems are then related...

  12. Sizing of an Energy Storage System for Grid Inertial Response and Primary Frequency Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knap, Vaclav; Chaudhary, Sanjay Kumar; Stroe, Daniel Loan

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale integration of renewable energy sources in power system leads to the replacement of conventional power plants (CPPs) and consequently challenges in power system reliability and security are introduced. This study is focused on improving the grid frequency response after a contingency ...

  13. A System for Measuring Defect Induced Beam Modulation on Inertial Confinement Fusion-class Laser Optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runkel, M; Hawley-Fedder, R; Widmayer, C; Williams, W; Weinzapfel, C; Roberts, D

    2005-01-01

    A multi-wavelength laser based system has been constructed to measure defect induced beam modulation (diffraction) from ICF class laser optics. The Nd:YLF-based modulation measurement system (MMS) uses simple beam collimation and imaging to capture diffraction patterns from optical defects onto an 8-bit digital camera at 1053, 527 and 351 nm. The imaging system has a field of view of 4.5 x 2.8 mm 2 and is capable of imaging any plane from 0 to 30 cm downstream from the defect. The system is calibrated using a 477 micron chromium dot on glass for which the downstream diffraction patterns were calculated numerically. Under nominal conditions the system can measure maximum peak modulations of approximately 7:1. An image division algorithm is used to calculate the peak modulation from the diffracted and empty field images after the baseline residual light background is subtracted from both. The peak modulation can then be plotted versus downstream position. The system includes a stage capable of holding optics up to 50 pounds with x and y translation of 40 cm and has been used to measure beam modulation due to solgel coating defects, surface digs on KDP crystals, lenslets in bulk fused silica and laser damage sites mitigated with CO 2 lasers

  14. A System for Measuring Defect Induced Beam Modulation on Inertial Confinement Fusion-class Laser Optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runkel, M; Hawley-Fedder, R; Widmayer, C; Williams, W; Weinzapfel, C; Roberts, D

    2005-10-18

    A multi-wavelength laser based system has been constructed to measure defect induced beam modulation (diffraction) from ICF class laser optics. The Nd:YLF-based modulation measurement system (MMS) uses simple beam collimation and imaging to capture diffraction patterns from optical defects onto an 8-bit digital camera at 1053, 527 and 351 nm. The imaging system has a field of view of 4.5 x 2.8 mm{sup 2} and is capable of imaging any plane from 0 to 30 cm downstream from the defect. The system is calibrated using a 477 micron chromium dot on glass for which the downstream diffraction patterns were calculated numerically. Under nominal conditions the system can measure maximum peak modulations of approximately 7:1. An image division algorithm is used to calculate the peak modulation from the diffracted and empty field images after the baseline residual light background is subtracted from both. The peak modulation can then be plotted versus downstream position. The system includes a stage capable of holding optics up to 50 pounds with x and y translation of 40 cm and has been used to measure beam modulation due to solgel coating defects, surface digs on KDP crystals, lenslets in bulk fused silica and laser damage sites mitigated with CO{sub 2} lasers.

  15. Integrated process modeling for the laser inertial fusion energy (LIFE) generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, W. R.; Anklam, T. M.; Erlandson, A. C.; Miles, R. R.; Simon, A. J.; Sawicki, R.; Storm, E.

    2010-08-01

    A concept for a new fusion-fission hybrid technology is being developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The primary application of this technology is base-load electrical power generation. However, variants of the baseline technology can be used to "burn" spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors or to perform selective transmutation of problematic fission products. The use of a fusion driver allows very high burn-up of the fission fuel, limited only by the radiation resistance of the fuel form and system structures. As a part of this process, integrated process models have been developed to aid in concept definition. Several models have been developed. A cost scaling model allows quick assessment of design changes or technology improvements on cost of electricity. System design models are being used to better understand system interactions and to do design trade-off and optimization studies. Here we describe the different systems models and present systems analysis results. Different market entry strategies are discussed along with potential benefits to US energy security and nuclear waste disposal. Advanced technology options are evaluated and potential benefits from additional R&D targeted at the different options is quantified.

  16. Integrated process modeling for the laser inertial fusion Energy (LIFE) generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, W.R.; Anklam, T.M.; Erlandson, A.C.; Miles, R.R.; Simon, A.J.; Sawicki, R.; Storm, E.

    2010-01-01

    A concept for a new fusion-fission hybrid technology is being developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The primary application of this technology is base-load electrical power generation. However, variants of the baseline technology can be used to 'burn' spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors or to perform selective transmutation of problematic fission products. The use of a fusion driver allows very high burn-up of the fission fuel, limited only by the radiation resistance of the fuel form and system structures. As a part of this process, integrated process models have been developed to aid in concept definition. Several models have been developed. A cost scaling model allows quick assessment of design changes or technology improvements on cost of electricity. System design models are being used to better understand system interactions and to do design trade-off and optimization studies. Here we describe the different systems models and present systems analysis results. Different market entry strategies are discussed along with potential benefits to US energy security and nuclear waste disposal. Advanced technology options are evaluated and potential benefits from additional R and D targeted at the different options is quantified.

  17. Integrated process modeling for the laser inertial fusion energy (LIFE) generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, W R; Anklam, T M; Erlandson, A C; Miles, R R; Simon, A J; Sawicki, R; Storm, E

    2010-01-01

    A concept for a new fusion-fission hybrid technology is being developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The primary application of this technology is base-load electrical power generation. However, variants of the baseline technology can be used to 'burn' spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors or to perform selective transmutation of problematic fission products. The use of a fusion driver allows very high burn-up of the fission fuel, limited only by the radiation resistance of the fuel form and system structures. As a part of this process, integrated process models have been developed to aid in concept definition. Several models have been developed. A cost scaling model allows quick assessment of design changes or technology improvements on cost of electricity. System design models are being used to better understand system interactions and to do design trade-off and optimization studies. Here we describe the different systems models and present systems analysis results. Different market entry strategies are discussed along with potential benefits to US energy security and nuclear waste disposal. Advanced technology options are evaluated and potential benefits from additional R and D targeted at the different options is quantified.

  18. Symbiotic molten-salt systems coupled with accelerator molten-salt breeder (AMSB) or inertial-confined fusion hybrid molten-salt breeder (IHMSB) and their comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, K.

    1984-01-01

    Two types of breeder systems are proposed. One is the combined system of Accelerator Molten-Salt Breeder (AMSB) and Molten-Salt Converter Reactor (MSCR), and the other is the combined system of Inertial-confined Fusion Hybrid Molten-Salt Breeder (IHMSB) and modified MSCR. Both apply the molten-fluorides and have technically deep relations. AMSB would be much simpler and have already high technical feasibility. This will become economical the Th breeder system having a doubling time shorter than ten years and distributing any size of power stations MSCR. (orig.) [de

  19. Reduced order models inertial manifold and global bifurcations: searching instability boundaries in nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez Antola, R.

    2009-01-01

    In the framework of an analytic or numerical model of a BWR power plant, this could imply first to find an suitable approximation to the solution manifold of the differential equations describing the stability behaviour of this nonlinear system, and then a classification of the different solution types concerning their relation with the operational safety of the power plant, by distributing the different solution types in relation with the exclusion region of the power-flow map. Then the goal is to obtain the best attainable qualitative and quantitative global picture of plant dynamics. To do this, the construction and the analysis of the so called reduced order models (Rom) seems a necessary step. A reduced order model results after the full system of coupled nonlinear partial differential equations of the plant is reduced to a system of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations

  20. On the invariance of world time reference system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asanov, G.S.

    1978-01-01

    A universal reference system is studied. It is shown that time differentiation acquires an invariant meaning in the covariant theory of a curved space-time. All the principal covariant equations of the Einstein gravitational field theory can be interpreted successively relative to a universal reference system, whose base congruence is the S-congruence. The Lorentz calibration conditions determine the base tetrades of the universal reference system with an accuracy to rigid spatial rotations with constant coefficients. The use of rigid tetrades eliminates the ambiguity in the interpretation of the value of the energy momentum of a gravitational field

  1. The derivation of the general form of kinematics with the universal reference system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Szostek

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the whole class of time and position transformations was derived. These transformations were derived based on the analysis of the Michelson-Morley experiment and its improved version, that is the Kennedy-Thorndike experiment. It is possible to derive a different kinematics of bodies based on each of these transformations. In this way, we demonstrated that the Special Theory of Relativity is not the only theory explaining the results of experiments with light. There is the whole continuum of the theories of kinematics of bodies which correctly explain the Michelson-Morley experiment and other experiments in which the velocity of light is measured. Based on the derived transformations, we derive the general formula for the velocity of light in vacuum measured in any inertial reference system. We explain why the Michelson-Morley and Kennedy-Thorndike experiments could not detect the ether. We present and discuss three examples of specific transformations. Finally, we explain the phenomenon of anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation by means of the presented theory. The theory derived in this work is called the Special Theory of Ether – with any transverse contraction. The entire article contains only original research conducted by its authors. Keywords: Kinematics of bodies, Universal frame of reference, Transformation of time and position, One-way speed of light, Anisotropy of cosmic microwave background

  2. A Smartphone Inertial Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera-Garrido, Azael

    2017-01-01

    In order to measure the mass of an object in the absence of gravity, one useful tool for many decades has been the inertial balance. One of the simplest forms of inertial balance is made by two mass holders or pans joined together with two stiff metal plates, which act as springs.

  3. Development and Flight Test of a Robust Optical-Inertial Navigation System Using Low-Cost Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    for this test. Though, marketed as a GPS/INS, it was in fact used simply as an IMU for this test. The raw inertial measurement data (from the...Performance Evaluation of Low Cost MEMS-Based IMU Integrated With GPS for Land Vehicle Navigation Application. MS Thesis, UCGE Reports Number

  4. Status of the Aurora laser system: Angular-multiplexed multikilojoule krypton fluoride prototype for inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosocha, L.A.; Goldstone, P.D.; Kristal, R.

    1986-01-01

    In this presentation, the authors report on the present status of the Aurora system including: The operation of the final stage 1-X 1-m laser at the 10-kJ level; the generation of 5-ns pulses by the front end; integration of the front end, multiplexer, amplifiers, and the extraction of long-pulse energy from the amplifier chain. Progress on the design and construction of the demultiplexer are also reported

  5. Drift compression and final focus systems for heavy ion inertial fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Hoon, Michiel Jan Laurens [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Longitudinal compression of space-charge dominated beams can be achieved by imposing a head-to-tail velocity tilt on the beam. This tilt has to be carefully tailored, such that it is removed by the longitudinal space-charge repulsion by the time the beam reaches the end of the drift compression section. The transverse focusing lattice should be designed such that all parts of the beam stay approximately matched, while the beam smoothly expands transversely to the larger beam radius needed in the final focus system following drift compression. In this thesis, several drift compression systems were designed within these constraints, based on a given desired pulse shape at the end of drift compression systems were designed within these constraints, based on a given desired pulse shape at the end of drift compression. The occurrence of mismatches due to a rapidly increasing current was analyzed. In addition, the sensitivity of drift compression to errors in the initial velocity tilt and current profile was studied. These calculations were done using a new computer code that accurately calculates the longitudinal electric field in the space-charge dominated regime.

  6. Evaluation of seismic forces due to anchor movement and inertial effects in multiply supported piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdisso, R.A.; Singh, M.P.

    1987-01-01

    The results indicate that various ad hoc approaches used for calculating the dynamic and pseudo static responses of a multiply supported secondary system do not provide the correct estimates of the response. The approaches can under- or over-estimate the true response. Also, the contribution of the dynamic, pseudo static responses to the total response is likely to vary with the type of response, member in which the response is calculated, characteristics of the two systems and the input. No generalizations can be made about the relative contribution of these components. Furthermore, the contribution of the correlation between the dynamic and pseudo static response component to the total response can be very significant. It can not be correctly included by the currently used approximate rules for the combination of dynamic and pseudo static responses. In summary, to obtain the correct response for a multiply supported secondary system, one must use proper inputs at the support as well as employ analytically rational approach to calculate the response from the inputs. (orig./HP)

  7. KrF amplifier design issues and application to inertial confinement fusion system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, J.A.; Allen, G.R.; Berggren, R.R.

    1993-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has assembled an array of experimental and theoretical tools to optimize amplifier design for future single-pulse KrF lasers. The next opportunity to exercise these tools is with the design of the second-generation NIKE system under construction at the Naval Research Laboratory with the collaboration of Los Alamos National Laboratory. Los Alamos has applied these amplifier design tools to the conceptual design of a 100-kJ Laser Target Test Facility and a 3-MJ Laboratory Microfusion Facility. (author)

  8. Rotating light ion beam-plasma system in inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, H.; Okada, T.

    1997-01-01

    The stabilizing mechanism of filamentation instability in light ion beam propagation is studied numerically by using a particle-in-cell code. Rotating light ion beam scheme has been proposed for the light ion beam propagation. The filamentation instability is stabilized by the external magnetic field which is induced by the rotating light ion beams. From a dispersion relation, linear growth rates of filamentation instabilities are obtained in a light ion beam-plasma system with an external magnetic field. The theory and simulation comparisons illustrate the results. (author)

  9. Interplanetary propulsion using inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orth, C.D.; Hogan, W.J.; Hoffman, N.; Murray, K.; Klein, G.; Diaz, F.C.

    1987-01-01

    Inertial fusion can be used to power spacecraft within the solar system and beyond. Such spacecraft have the potential for short-duration manned-mission performance exceeding other technologies. We are conducting a study to assess the systems aspects of inertial fusion as applied to such missions, based on the conceptual engine design of Hyde (1983) we describe the required systems for an entirely new spacecraft design called VISTA that is based on the use of DT fuel. We give preliminary design details for the power conversion and power conditioning systems for manned missions to Mars of total duration of about 100 days. Specific mission performance results will be published elsewhere, after the study has been completed

  10. A Reference Architecture for Network-Centric Information Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Renner, Scott; Schaefer, Ronald

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the "C2 Enterprise Reference Architecture" (C2ERA), which is a new technical concept of operations for building information systems better suited to the Network-Centric Warfare (NCW) environment...

  11. A Nonlinear Observer for Integration of GPS and Inertial Navigation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørnar Vik

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available GPS and INS have complementary properties and they are therefore well suited for integration. The integrated solution offers better long term accuracy than a stand-alone INS, and better integrity, availability and continuity than a stand-alone GPS receiver, making it suitable for demanding applications. The integrated filter is nonlinear both in state and measurements, and the extended Kalman-filter has been used with good results, but it has not been proven globally stable, and it is also computationally intensive, especially within a direct integration architecture. In this work a nonlinear observer suitable for direct integration is presented. Global exponent ial stability of the origin of the combined attitude and velocity error systems is proven along with robust stability in the presence of noise and unmodelled dynamics.

  12. A compact, large-range interferometer for precision measurement and inertial sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, S. J.; Collins, C. J.; Green, A. C.; Hoyland, D.; Speake, C. C.; Freise, A.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.

    2018-05-01

    We present a compact, fibre-coupled interferometer with high sensitivity and a large working range. We propose to use this interferometer as a readout mechanism for future inertial sensors, removing a major limiting noise source, and in precision positioning systems. The interferometer’s peak sensitivity is 2 × 10-{14} m \\sqrt{Hz-1} at 70 Hz and 7 × 10-{11} m \\sqrt{Hz-1} at 10 mHz. If deployed on a GS-13 geophone, the resulting inertial sensing output will be limited by the suspension thermal noise of the reference mass from 10 mHz to 2 Hz.

  13. Quantum coherence behaviors of fermionic system in non-inertial frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhiming; Situ, Haozhen

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we analyze the quantum coherence behaviors of a single qubit in the relativistic regime beyond the single-mode approximation. Firstly, we investigate the freezing condition of quantum coherence in fermionic system. We also study the quantum coherence tradeoff between particle and antiparticle sector. It is found that there exists quantum coherence transfer between particle and antiparticle sector, but the coherence lost in particle sector is not entirely compensated by the coherence generation of antiparticle sector. Besides, we emphatically discuss the cohering power and decohering power of Unruh channel with respect to the computational basis. It is shown that cohering power is vanishing and decohering power is dependent of the choice of Unruh mode and acceleration. Finally, we compare the behaviors of quantum coherence with geometric quantum discord and entanglement in relativistic setup. Our results show that this quantifiers in two region converge at infinite acceleration limit, which implies that this measures become independent of Unruh modes beyond the single-mode approximations. It is also demonstrated that the robustness of quantum coherence and geometric quantum discord are better than entanglement under the influence of acceleration, since entanglement undergoes sudden death.

  14. An Estimator for Attitude and Heading Reference Systems Based on Virtual Horizontal Reference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yunlong; Soltani, Mohsen; Hussain, Dil muhammed Akbar

    2016-01-01

    makes it possible to correct the output of roll and pitch of the attitude estimator in the situations without accelerometer measurements, which cannot be achieved by the conventional nonlinear attitude estimator. The performance of VHR is tested both in simulation and hardware environment to validate......The output of the attitude determination systems suffers from large errors in case of accelerometer malfunctions. In this paper, an attitude estimator, based on Virtual Horizontal Reference (VHR), is designed for an Attitude Heading and Reference System (AHRS) to cope with this problem. The VHR...... their estimation performance. Moreover, the hardware test results are compared with that of a high-precision commercial AHRS to verify the estimation results. The implemented algorithm has shown high accuracy of attitude estimation that makes the system suitable for many applications....

  15. An inertial parameter identification method of eliminating system damping effect for a six-degree-of-freedom parallel manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Tixian

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A new simple and effective inertial parameter identification method based on sinusoidal vibrations of a six-degree-of-freedom parallel manipulator is proposed. Compared with previously known identification algorithms, the advantages of the new approach are there is no need to design the excitation trajectory to consider the condition number of the observation matrix and the inertial matrix can be accurately defined regardless of the effect of viscous friction. In addition, the use of a sinusoidal exciting trajectory allows calculation of the velocities and accelerations from the measured position response. Simulations show that the new approach has acceptable tolerance of dry friction when using a simple coupling parameter modified formula. The experimental application to the hydraulically driven Stewart platform demonstrates the capability and efficiency of the proposed identification method.

  16. Discrete Model Reference Adaptive Control System for Automatic Profiling Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Song

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic profiling machine is a movement system that has a high degree of parameter variation and high frequency of transient process, and it requires an accurate control in time. In this paper, the discrete model reference adaptive control system of automatic profiling machine is discussed. Firstly, the model of automatic profiling machine is presented according to the parameters of DC motor. Then the design of the discrete model reference adaptive control is proposed, and the control rules are proven. The results of simulation show that adaptive control system has favorable dynamic performances.

  17. Analysis of the Reference Systems of Modern Selenographic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefedyev, Yuri; Petrova, Natalia; Andreev, Alexey; Demina, Natalya

    2016-07-01

    In this work analysis of the reference systems of modern selenographic systems was made. The center of the Moon's mass position relative to its center of figure was determined from the data of "Clementine" and "Kaguya" missions and "ULCN" and "KSC-1162" catalogues. The knowledge of the Moon's center of mass position relative to its center of figure is important for researches of the lunar origin, structure and evolution and in terms of precision solutions circumlunar navigation tasks. At the present this task is the most relevant and demanded for cosmic lunar missions.The expansions by spherical harmonics N=5 degree and order of the lunar function h (λ, β) using the package ASNI USTU were executed. Module of the expansion of the local area to surfaces to full sphere was used. The parameters of cosmic missions are given for comparison (SAI; Bills, Ferrari). The normalized coefficients from expansions for eight sources of hypsometric information are obtained: "Clementine" (N=40), "KSC-1162" (N=5), "Kiev" (N=5), "SAI" (N=10; Chuikova (1975)), "Bills, Ferrari", "Kaguya" (Selena, Japan mission), "ULCN" (The Unified Lunar Control Network 2005). The displacements of the lunar center of figure relative to the lunar center of the mass were defined from equations (Chuikova (1975)): Δ ξ = C_{11} √{3}, Δ η= S_{11} √{3}, Δ ζ = C_{10} √{3}, where ξ is the axis directed towards the Earth, η is equatorial axis directed perpendicularly to ξ , ζ is rotation axis of the Moon, C_{11} , S_{11} , C_{10} are the normalized amplitudes of the harmonics of the first order expansion of the relief. After that we considered: - mathematical models in the form of expansions in spherical functions - methods for estimating the model parameters; - information technology data processing. As a model describing the behavior of the relief on the lunar sphere is used the expansion of the height in a series of spherical harmonics (Sagitov (1979)) in the form of a regression model

  18. A 1.5--4 Kelvin detachable cold-sample transfer system: Application to inertially confined fusion with spin-polarized hydrogens fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, N.; Barden, J.; Fan, Q.; Honig, A.

    1990-01-01

    A compact cold-transfer apparatus for engaging and retrieving samples at liquid helium temperatures (1.5--4K), maintaining the samples at such temperatures for periods of hours, and subsequently inserting them in diverse apparatuses followed by disengagement, is described. The properties of several thermal radiation-insulating shrouds, necessary for very low sample temperatures, are presented. The immediate intended application is transportable target-shells containing highly spin-polarized deuterons in solid HD or D 2 for inertially confined fusion (ICF) experiments. The system is also valuable for unpolarized high-density fusion fuels, as well as for other applications which are discussed. 9 refs., 6 figs

  19. An N+3 Technology Level Reference Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Scott M.; Haller, William J.; Tong, Michael To-Hing

    2017-01-01

    An N+3 technology level engine, suitable as a propulsion system for an advanced single-aisle transport, was developed as a reference cycle for use in technology assessment and decision-making efforts. This reference engine serves three main purposes: it provides thermodynamic quantities at each major engine station, it provides overall propulsion system performance data for vehicle designers to use in their analyses, and it can be used for comparison against other proposed N+3 technology-level propulsion systems on an equal basis. This reference cycle is meant to represent the expected capability of gas turbine engines in the N+3 timeframe given reasonable extrapolations of technology improvements and the ability to take full advantage of those improvements.

  20. The derivation of the general form of kinematics with the universal reference system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostek, Karol; Szostek, Roman

    2018-03-01

    In the article, the whole class of time and position transformations was derived. These transformations were derived based on the analysis of the Michelson-Morley experiment and its improved version, that is the Kennedy-Thorndike experiment. It is possible to derive a different kinematics of bodies based on each of these transformations. In this way, we demonstrated that the Special Theory of Relativity is not the only theory explaining the results of experiments with light. There is the whole continuum of the theories of kinematics of bodies which correctly explain the Michelson-Morley experiment and other experiments in which the velocity of light is measured. Based on the derived transformations, we derive the general formula for the velocity of light in vacuum measured in any inertial reference system. We explain why the Michelson-Morley and Kennedy-Thorndike experiments could not detect the ether. We present and discuss three examples of specific transformations. Finally, we explain the phenomenon of anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation by means of the presented theory. The theory derived in this work is called the Special Theory of Ether - with any transverse contraction. The entire article contains only original research conducted by its authors.

  1. Economic potential of inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuckolls, J.H.

    1984-04-01

    Beyond the achievement of scientific feasibility, the key question for fusion energy is: does it have the economic potential to be significantly cheaper than fission and coal energy. If fusion has this high economic potential then there are compelling commercial and geopolitical incentives to accelerate the pace of the fusion program in the near term, and to install a global fusion energy system in the long term. Without this high economic potential, fusion's success depends on the failure of all alternatives, and there is no real incentive to accelerate the program. If my conjectures on the economic potential of inertial fusion are approximately correct, then inertial fusion energy's ultimate costs may be only half to two-thirds those of advanced fission and coal energy systems. Relative cost escalation is not assumed and could increase this advantage. Both magnetic and inertial approaches to fusion potentially have a two-fold economic advantage which derives from two fundamental properties: negligible fuel costs and high quality energy which makes possible more efficient generation of electricity. The wining approach to fusion may excel in three areas: electrical generating efficiency, minimum material costs, and adaptability to manufacture in automated factories. The winning approach must also rate highly in environmental potential, safety, availability factor, lifetime, small 0 and M costs, and no possibility of utility-disabling accidents

  2. Inertial effects in laser-driven ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrach, R.J.; Szeoke, A.; Howard, W.M.

    1983-01-01

    The gasdynamic partial differential equations (PDE's) governing the motion of an ablatively accelerated target (rocket) contain an inertial force term that arises from acceleration of the reference frame in which the PDE's are written. We give a simple, intuitive description of this effect, and estimate its magnitude and parametric dependences by means of approximate analytical formulas inferred from our computer hydrocode calculations. Often this inertial term is negligible, but for problems in the areas of laser fusion and laser equation of state studies we find that it can substantially reduce the attainable hydrodynamic efficiency of acceleration and implosion

  3. Theory of gravitational-inertial field of universe. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davtyan, O.K.

    1978-01-01

    Application of the equations of the gravitational-inertial field to the problem of free motion in the inertial field (to the cosmologic problem) leads to results according to which (1) all Galaxies in the Universe 'disperse' from each other according to Hubble's law, (2) the 'dispersion' of bodies represents a free motion in the inertial field and Hubble's law represents a law of motion of free body in the inertial field, (3) for arbitrary mean distribution densities of space masses different from zero the space is Lobachevskian. All critical systems (with Schwarzschild radius) are specific because they exist in maximal-inertial and gravitational potentials. The Universe represents a critical system, it exists under the Schwarzschild radius. In high-potential inertial and gravitational fields the material mass in a static state or in motion with deceleration is subject to an inertial and gravitational 'annihilation'. At the maximal value of inertial and gravitational potentials (= c 2 ) the material mass is being completely 'evaporated' transforming into radiation mass. The latter is being concentrated in the 'horizon' of the critical system. All critical systems-black holes-represent geon systems, i.e. local formations of gravitational-electromagnetic radiations, held together by their own gravitational and inertial fields. The Universe, being a critical system, is 'wrapped' in a geon crown. (author)

  4. Conceptual design and issues of the laser inertial fusion test (LIFT) reactor—targets and chamber systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norimatsu, T.; Kozaki, Y.; Shiraga, H.; Fujita, H.; Okano, K.; Members of LIFT Design Team

    2017-11-01

    We present the conceptual design of an experimental laser fusion plant known as the laser inertial fusion test (LIFT) reactor. The conceptual design aims at technically connecting a single-shot experiment and a commercial power plant. The LIFT reactor is designed on a three-phase scheme, where each phase has specific goals and the dedicated chambers of each phase are driven by the same laser. Technical issues related to the chamber technology including radiation safety to repeat burst mode operation are discussed in this paper.

  5. Development of a Locomotion Interface for Portable Virtual Environment Systems Using an Inertial/Magnetic Sensor-Based System and a Ranging Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    is no obstacle within the maximum sensing range of the system, the max range value will be represented. The filled circle represents the user...dimensional 3D three-dimensional AHRS attitude heading reference system API application programming interface CAVE cave automatic virtual...such as doors, windows, and furniture ) contained in this environment. The form and structure of a virtual environment entirely depends on the purpose

  6. Using Inertial Sensors in Smartphones for Curriculum Experiments of Inertial Navigation Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoji Niu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Inertial technology has been used in a wide range of applications such as guidance, navigation, and motion tracking. However, there are few undergraduate courses that focus on the inertial technology. Traditional inertial navigation systems (INS and relevant testing facilities are expensive and complicated in operation, which makes it inconvenient and risky to perform teaching experiments with such systems. To solve this issue, this paper proposes the idea of using smartphones, which are ubiquitous and commonly contain off-the-shelf inertial sensors, as the experimental devices. A series of curriculum experiments are designed, including the Allan variance test, the calibration test, the initial leveling test and the drift feature test. These experiments are well-selected and can be implemented simply with the smartphones and without any other specialized tools. The curriculum syllabus was designed and tentatively carried out on 14 undergraduate students with a science and engineering background. Feedback from the students show that the curriculum can help them gain a comprehensive understanding of the inertial technology such as calibration and modeling of the sensor errors, determination of the device attitude and accumulation of the sensor errors in the navigation algorithm. The use of inertial sensors in smartphones provides the students the first-hand experiences and intuitive feelings about the function of inertial sensors. Moreover, it can motivate students to utilize ubiquitous low-cost sensors in their future research.

  7. The MADE reference information model for interoperable pervasive telemedicine systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fung, L.S.N.; Jones, Valerie M.; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The main objective is to develop and validate a reference information model (RIM) to support semantic interoperability of pervasive telemedicine systems. The RIM is one component within a larger, computer-interpretable "MADE language" developed by the authors in the context of the

  8. Digital Receiver Design for Transmitted Reference Ultra-Wideband Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Y.; Leus, G.; Van der Veen, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    A complete detection, channel estimation, synchronization, and equalization scheme for a transmitted reference (TR) ultra-wideband (UWB) system is proposed in this paper. The scheme is based on a data model which admits a moderate data rate and takes both the interframe interference (IFI) and the

  9. Standard Relativistic Reference Systems and the IAU Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffel, Michael H.

    2009-05-01

    The classical post-Newtonian (PN) framework is formulated in one single reference system. In a series of papers Damour, Soffel and Xu laid the foundations for a new improved PN framework dealing with the celestial mechanical problem of N gravitationally interacting rotating bodies of arbitrary shape and the problem of astronomical reference systems. In the DSX-framework a total of N+1 reference systems with corresponding coordinates is introduced in the N-body problem: a global one covering the entire model manifold where the translational equations of motion are formulated and one local system attached to each of the N bodies that is co-moving with the body under consideration. In each of these systems the metric tensor is assumed to be of a special form determined by two potentials: a scalar and a vector potential. Theorems are given for the transformations between local and global coordinates and metric potentials. In each of the local systems outside the local body the metric potentials are expressed in terms of Blanchet-Damour mass- and spin-multipole moments. The talk first introduces the original DSX formalism and then concentrates on IAU resolutions related with it. Finally, the formalism is extended to include also effects from the cosmic expansion. The influence of the Hubble expansion on the dynamics of the solar system is explicitly discussed in some detail.

  10. Inertial fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mima, K.

    2001-01-01

    Reviewed is the present status of the inertial confinement energy (IFE) research. The highlights of the IFE presentations are as follows. Toward demonstrating ignition and burning of imploded plasmas, ignition facilities of mega jule class blue laser system are under construction at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the CEA laboratory of Bordeaux. The central ignition by both indirect drive and direct drive will be explored by the middle of 2010's. A new ignition concept so called 'fast ignition' has also been investigated intensively in the last two years. Peta watt level (1PW∼0.1PW output) CPA lasers have been used for heating solid targets and imploded plasmas. With 50J∼500J/psec pulses, solid targets are found to be heated up to 300eV. They were measured by X-ray spectroscopy, neutron energy spectrum, and so on. Summarized are also researches on simulation code developments, target design and fabrication, heavy ion beam fusion, Z-pinch based X-ray source, and laser driver technology. (author)

  11. Heavy ion inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fessenden, T.J.; Friedman, A.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the research status in the following areas of research in the field of heavy ion inertial fusion: (1) RF accelerators, storage rings, and synchrotrons; (2) induction linacs; (3) recirculation induction accelerator approach; (4) a new accelerator concept, the ''Mirrortron''; (5) general issues of transport, including beam merging, production of short, fat quadrupoles with nearly linear focusing, calculations of beam behaviour in image fields; 3-D electrostatic codes on drift compression with misalignments and transport around bends; (6) injectors, ion sources and RFQs, a.o., on the development of a 27 MHz RFQ to be used for the low energy portion of a new injector for all ions up to Uranium, and the development of a 2 MV carbon ion injector to provide 16 C + beams of 0.5 A each for ILSE; (7) beam transport from accelerator to target, reporting, a.o., the feasibility to suppress third-order aberrations; while Particle-in-Cell simulations on the propagation of a non-neutral ion beam in a low density gas identified photo-ionization by thermal X-rays from the target as an important source of defocusing; (9) heavy ion target studies; (10) reviewing experience with laser drivers; (11) ion cluster stopping and muon catalyzed fusion; (12) heavy ion systems, including the option of a fusion-fission burner. 1 tab

  12. Reference clock parameters for digital communications systems applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartaschoff, P.

    1981-01-01

    The basic parameters relevant to the design of network timing systems describe the random and systematic time departures of the system elements, i.e., master (or reference) clocks, transmission links, and other clocks controlled over the links. The quantitative relations between these parameters were established and illustrated by means of numerical examples based on available measured data. The examples were limited to a simple PLL control system but the analysis can eventually be applied to more sophisticated systems at the cost of increased computational effort.

  13. A reference model for space data system interconnection services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietras, John; Theis, Gerhard

    1993-01-01

    The widespread adoption of standard packet-based data communication protocols and services for spaceflight missions provides the foundation for other standard space data handling services. These space data handling services can be defined as increasingly sophisticated processing of data or information received from lower-level services, using a layering approach made famous in the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Open System Interconnection Reference Model (OSI-RM). The Space Data System Interconnection Reference Model (SDSI-RM) incorporates the conventions of the OSIRM to provide a framework within which a complete set of space data handling services can be defined. The use of the SDSI-RM is illustrated through its application to data handling services and protocols that have been defined by, or are under consideration by, the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS).

  14. Astronomical relativistic reference systems with multipolar expansion: the global one

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Yi

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of techniques for astronomical observations, the precision of measurements has been significantly increasing. Theories describing astronomical relativistic reference systems, which are the foundation for processing and interpreting these data now and in the future, may require extensions to satisfy the needs of these trends. Besides building a framework compatible with alternative theories of gravity and the pursuit of higher order post-Newtonian approximation, it will also be necessary to make the first order post-Newtonian multipole moments of celestial bodies be explicitly expressed in the astronomical relativistic reference systems. This will bring some convenience into modeling the observations and experiments and make it easier to distinguish different contributions in measurements. As a first step, the global solar system reference system is expressed as a multipolar expansion and the post-Newtonian mass and spin moments are shown explicitly in the metric which describes the coordinates of the system. The full expression of the global metric is given. (research papers)

  15. Theory of inertial waves in rotating fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelash, Andrey; L'vov, Victor; Zakharov, Vladimir

    2017-04-01

    The inertial waves emerge in the geophysical and astrophysical flows as a result of Earth rotation [1]. The linear theory of inertial waves is known well [2] while the influence of nonlinear effects of wave interactions are subject of many recent theoretical and experimental studies. The three-wave interactions which are allowed by inertial waves dispersion law (frequency is proportional to cosine of the angle between wave direction and axes of rotation) play an exceptional role. The recent studies on similar type of waves - internal waves, have demonstrated the possibility of formation of natural wave attractors in the ocean (see [3] and references herein). This wave focusing leads to the emergence of strong three-wave interactions and subsequent flows mixing. We believe that similar phenomena can take place for inertial waves in rotating flows. In this work we present theoretical study of three-wave and four-wave interactions for inertial waves. As the main theoretical tool we suggest the complete Hamiltonian formalism for inertial waves in rotating incompressible fluids [4]. We study three-wave decay instability and then present statistical description of inertial waves in the frame of Hamiltonian formalism. We obtain kinetic equation, anisotropic wave turbulence spectra and study the problem of parametric wave turbulence. These spectra were previously found in [5] by helicity decomposition method. Taking this into account we discuss the advantages of suggested Hamiltonian formalism and its future applications. Andrey Gelash thanks support of the RFBR (Grant No.16-31-60086 mol_a_dk) and Dr. E. Ermanyuk, Dr. I. Sibgatullin for the fruitful discussions. [1] Le Gal, P. Waves and instabilities in rotating and stratified flows, Fluid Dynamics in Physics, Engineering and Environmental Applications. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 25-40, 2013. [2] Greenspan, H. P. The theory of rotating fluids. CUP Archive, 1968. [3] Brouzet, C., Sibgatullin, I. N., Scolan, H., Ermanyuk, E

  16. Inertial fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decroisette, M.; Andre, M.; Bayer, C.; Juraszek, D.; Le Garrec, B.; Deutsch, C.; Migus, A.

    2005-01-01

    We first recall the scientific basis of inertial fusion and then describe a generic fusion reactor with the different components: the driver, the fusion chamber, the material treatment unit, the target factory and the turbines. We analyse the options proposed at the present time for the driver and for target irradiation scheme giving the state of art for each approach. We conclude by the presentation of LMJ (laser Megajoule) and NIF (national ignition facility) projects. These facilities aim to demonstrate the feasibility of laboratory DT ignition, first step toward Inertial Fusion Energy. (authors)

  17. Prospect for inertial fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, C.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents recent inertial fusion experiments at Osaka. The inertial fusion energy reactor used for these experiments was designed according to some principles based on environmental, social and safety considerations. (TEC). 1 fig., 1 ref

  18. Performance evaluation of the Antares Reference Telescope System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, J.R.; Woodfin, G.L.; Viswanathan, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    The Antares Reference Telescope System is a complicated electro-optical-mechanical system whose main purpose is to enable positioning of targets used in the Antares Laser System to within 10 μm of a selected nominal position. To date, it has been used successfully to position targets ranging in size from 300 μm to 2 mm. The system consists of two electro-optical systems positioned in a nearly orthogonal manner. This ''cross telescope'' configuration facilitates accurate positioning in three planes. The results obtained so far in resolution and positioning of targets using this system are discussed. It is shown that a resolution of 200 lp/mm and a positioning precision of 25 μm can be obtained

  19. On Chinese National Continuous Operating Reference Station System of GNSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Junyong

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Global navigation satellite system (GNSS Continuous Operating Reference Station (CORS System can maintain a accurate, 3D, geocentric and dynamic reference coordinate frame in the corresponding area, can provide positioning and navigation service. It can also serve for the meteorology, geodynamics, earthquake monitoring and Location Based services (LBS etc in the same area. Until now, our country can’t provide a facing National CORS System serving for every profession and trade, and the national sharing platform of CORS System resources has not been established. So this paper discusses some valuable insight how to construct the National CORS System in China. Method: Constructing goal、Service object、CORS distribution、CORS geographic、geology and communication environment and other factors, are major considerations for the Constructing the National CORS System. Moreover, constructing GNSS CORS is more specific, mainly from four aspects, namely site-selection、civil construction、security measures and equipment-selection for consideration. Outcome: The project of the Constructing Global navigation satellite system (GNSS Continuous Operating Reference Station (CORS System in china is put forward, and is discussed from goal、principle、project and other for construction. Some meaning thought how to construct the National CORS System is submitted Conclusion: The Global navigation satellite system (GNSS Continuous Operating Reference Station (CORS System in china is the lack of a unified planning and design in the national level. So far, the national CORS system serving all walks of life has not been provided, and the national sharing platform of CORS System resources has not been established The primary mission of the Global navigation satellite system (GNSS Continuous Operating Reference Station (CORS System in china is as follows: using data set of GNSS and receiving, transport, process, integration, transmit information and

  20. Magneto-inertial Fusion: An Emerging Concept for Inertial Fusion and Dense Plasmas in Ultrahigh Magnetic Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thio, Francis Y.C.

    2008-01-01

    An overview of the U.S. program in magneto-inertial fusion (MIF) is given in terms of its technical rationale, scientific goals, vision, research plans, needs, and the research facilities currently available in support of the program. Magneto-inertial fusion is an emerging concept for inertial fusion and a pathway to the study of dense plasmas in ultrahigh magnetic fields (magnetic fields in excess of 500 T). The presence of magnetic field in an inertial fusion target suppresses cross-field thermal transport and potentially could enable more attractive inertial fusion energy systems. A vigorous program in magnetized high energy density laboratory plasmas (HED-LP) addressing the scientific basis of magneto-inertial fusion has been initiated by the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences of the U.S. Department of Energy involving a number of universities, government laboratories and private institutions.

  1. Four Reference Models for Transparency Requirements in Information Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseini, Mahmoud; Shahri, Alimohammad; Phalp, Keith T.; Ali, Ra

    2017-01-01

    Transparency is a key emerging requirement in modern businesses and their information systems. Transparency refers to the information which flows amongst stakeholders for the purpose of informed decision-making and taking the right action. Transparency is generally associated with positive connotations such as trust and accountability. However, it has been shown that it could have adverse effects such as information overload and affecting decisions objectiveness. This calls for systematic app...

  2. FM-to-AM modulations induced by a weak residual reflection stack of sine-modulated pulses in inertial confinement fusion laser systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoxia; Deng, Xuewei; Zhou, Wei; Hu, Dongxia; Guo, Huaiwen; Wang, Yuancheng; Zhao, Bowang; Zhong, Wei; Deng, Wu

    2018-02-01

    We report on frequency to amplitude modulation (FM-to-AM) conversion induced by a weak residual reflection stack of sine-modulated pulses in a complex laser system. Theoretical and experimental investigations reveal that when weak residual reflected pulses stack on the main pulse, the spectral intensity changes in the stacked region, which then converts to obvious AM. This kind of FM-to-AM effect often occurs in the tail of the pulse and cannot be eliminated by common compensation methods, which even enhance the modulation depth. Furthermore, the actual intensity modulation frequency and depth induced by the residual reflection stack are much higher and deeper than observed on the oscilloscope, which is harmful for safe operation of the laser facility and the driving power balance during inertial confinement fusion. To eliminate this kind of FM-to-AM effect, any possible on-axis and near-axis residual reflection in laser systems must be avoided.

  3. Nuclear thermal rocket workshop reference system Rover/NERVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borowski, S.K.

    1991-01-01

    The Rover/NERVA engine system is to be used as a reference, against which each of the other concepts presented in the workshop will be compared. The following topics are reviewed: the operational characteristics of the nuclear thermal rocket (NTR); the accomplishments of the Rover/NERVA programs; and performance characteristics of the NERVA-type systems for both Mars and lunar mission applications. Also, the issues of ground testing, NTR safety, NASA's nuclear propulsion project plans, and NTR development cost estimates are briefly discussed

  4. Progress in inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, W.; Storm, E.

    1985-10-01

    The requirements for high gain in inertial confinement are given in terms of target implosion requirements. Results of experimental studies of the laser/target interaction and of the dynamics of laser implosion. A report of the progress of advanced laser development is also presented. 3 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  5. Compact inertial confinement multireactor concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendergrass, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) commercial-applications plant-optimum driver pulse repetition rates may exceed reactor pulse-repetition-rate capabilities. Thus, more than one reactor may be required for low-cost production of electric power, process heat, fissionable fuels, etc., in ICF plants. Substantial savings in expensive reactor containment cells and blankets can be realized by placing more than one reactor in a cell and by surrounding more than one reactor cavity with a single blanket system. There are also some potential disadvantages associated with close coupling in compact multicavity blankets and multireactor cells. Tradeoffs associated with several scenarios have been studied

  6. From the LHC Reference Database to the Powering Interlock System

    CERN Document Server

    Dehavay, C; Schmidt, R; Veyrunes, E; Zerlauth, M

    2003-01-01

    The protection of the magnet powering system for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) currently being built at CERN is a major challenge due to the unprecedented complexity of the accelerator. The Powering Interlock System of the LHC will have to manage more than 1600 DC circuits for magnet powering, different in their structure, complexity and importance to the accelerator. For the coherent description of such complex system, a Reference Database as unique source of the parameters of the electrical circuits has been developed. The information, introduced via a generic circuit description language, is first used for installing the accelerator and making all electrical connections. The data is then used for tests and commissioning. During operation, the Powering Interlock System manages all critical functions. It consists of 36 PLC based controllers dis tributed around the machine and requires a flexible and transparent way of configuration, since each controller manages different numbers and types of electrical ci...

  7. Testing and reference model analysis of FTTH system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiancheng; Cui, Wanlong; Chen, Ying

    2009-08-01

    With rapid development of Internet and broadband access network, the technologies of xDSL, FTTx+LAN , WLAN have more applications, new network service emerges in endless stream, especially the increase of network game, meeting TV, video on demand, etc. FTTH supports all present and future service with enormous bandwidth, including traditional telecommunication service, traditional data service and traditional TV service, and the future digital TV and VOD. With huge bandwidth of FTTH, it wins the final solution of broadband network, becomes the final goal of development of optical access network.. Fiber to the Home (FTTH) will be the goal of telecommunications cable broadband access. In accordance with the development trend of telecommunication services, to enhance the capacity of integrated access network, to achieve triple-play (voice, data, image), based on the existing optical Fiber to the curb (FTTC), Fiber To The Zone (FTTZ), Fiber to the Building (FTTB) user optical cable network, the optical fiber can extend to the FTTH system of end-user by using EPON technology. The article first introduced the basic components of FTTH system; and then explain the reference model and reference point for testing of the FTTH system; Finally, by testing connection diagram, the testing process, expected results, primarily analyze SNI Interface Testing, PON interface testing, Ethernet performance testing, UNI interface testing, Ethernet functional testing, PON functional testing, equipment functional testing, telephone functional testing, operational support capability testing and so on testing of FTTH system. ...

  8. Activity Management System user reference manual. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, T.A.; Burdick, M.B.

    1994-01-01

    The Activity Management System (AMS) was developed in response to the need for a simple-to-use, low-cost, user interface system for collecting and logging Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Project (HWVP) activities. This system needed to run on user workstations and provide common user access to a database stored on a local network file server. Most important, users wanted a system that provided a management tool that supported their individual process for completing activities. Existing system treated the performer as a tool of the system. All AMS data is maintained in encrypted format. Users can feel confident that any activities they have entered into the database are private and that, as the originator, they retain sole control over who can see them. Once entered into the AMS database, the activities cannot be accessed by anyone other than the originator, the designated agent, or by authorized viewers who have been explicitly granted the right to look at specific activities by the originator. This user guide is intended to assist new AMS users in learning how to use the application and, after the initial learning process, will serve as an ongoing reference for experienced users in performing infrequently used functions. Online help screens provide reference to some of the key information in this manual. Additional help screens, encompassing all the applicable material in this manual, will be incorporated into future AMS revisions. A third, and most important, source of help is the AMS administrator(s). This guide describes the initial production version of AMS, which has been designated Revision 1.0

  9. Advanced laser-backlit grazing-incidence x-ray imaging systems for inertial confinement fusion research. II. Tolerance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, Guy R.; Folta, James A.

    2001-01-01

    Two example ultrahigh-spatial resolution laser-backlit grazing-incidence x-ray microscope designs for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research have been described [Appl. Opt. 40, 4570 (2001)]. Here details of fabrication, assembly, and optical surface errors that are characteristic of present state-of-the-art superpolished multilayer-coated spherical mirrors are given. They indicate that good image qualities can be expected; in particular, <0.5-μm spatial resolution at very high x-ray energies (up to 25 keV) appears to be feasible. Existing ICF imaging diagnostics approach ∼2 μm spatial at low (<2 keV) energy. The improvement in resolution compared with that of other grazing-incidence devices is attributed to a fortuitous residual on-axis aberration dependence on short wavelengths; recent advances in mirror fabrication, including a new thin-film deposition technique to correct figure errors precisely in one dimension; and novel design. For even higher resolution, a means of creating precise aspherical mirrors of spheric-quality microroughness may be possible by use of the same deposition technique

  10. Quantum effects due to coordinate non-inertial systems; Efeitos quanticos devidos a sistemas nao inerciais de coordenadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Daniel

    1996-12-31

    In chapter 1 we make an introduction to quantum fields in curved spaces, mentioning something about fermions. Chapter 2 begins a brief introduction to General Relativity, and the calculation of the linearized limit to obtain Thirring`s metric, which is a first approximation to the Kerr metric. In Chapter 3 we calculate Dirac`s equation in Thirring`s space-time and work out the non relativistic limit obtaining the modifications in Schroedinger`s equation resulting from the geometry. Particularly, we observe the interference of a particle beam. And in Chapter 4, we present a revision of classical and quantum detectors and discuss the response of detectors in non-inertial motion, in particular, for uniform acceleration and uniform circular motion. The latter is known to yield and integral for the response function which has been so far carried out only numerically. We propose a semi-analytical solution for the spectrum of a circular moving detector. We consider c=1. (author) 27 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Reference reactor module for NASA's lunar surface fission power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poston, David I.; Kapernick, Richard J.; Dixon, David D.; Werner, James; Qualls, Louis; Radel, Ross

    2009-01-01

    Surface fission power systems on the Moon and Mars may provide the first US application of fission reactor technology in space since 1965. The Affordable Fission Surface Power System (AFSPS) study was completed by NASA/DOE to determine the cost of a modest performance, low-technical risk surface power system. The AFSPS concept is now being further developed within the Fission Surface Power (FSP) Project, which is a near-term technology program to demonstrate system-level TRL-6 by 2013. This paper describes the reference FSP reactor module concept, which is designed to provide a net power of 40 kWe for 8 years on the lunar surface; note, the system has been designed with technologies that are fully compatible with a Martian surface application. The reactor concept uses stainless-steel based. UO 2 -fueled, pumped-NaK fission reactor coupled to free-piston Stirling converters. The reactor shielding approach utilizes both in-situ and launched shielding to keep the dose to astronauts much lower than the natural background radiation on the lunar surface. The ultimate goal of this work is to provide a 'workhorse' power system that NASA can utilize in near-term and future Lunar and Martian mission architectures, with the eventual capability to evolve to very high power, low mass systems, for either surface, deep space, and/or orbital missions.

  12. Crack stability in a representative piping system under combined inertial and seismic/dynamic displacement-controlled stresses. Subtask 1.3 final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, P.; Olson, R.; Wilkowski, O.G.; Marschall, C.; Schmidt, R.

    1997-06-01

    This report presents the results from Subtask 1.3 of the International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG) program. The objective of Subtask 1.3 is to develop data to assess analysis methodologies for characterizing the fracture behavior of circumferentially cracked pipe in a representative piping system under combined inertial and displacement-controlled stresses. A unique experimental facility was designed and constructed. The piping system evaluated is an expansion loop with over 30 meters of 16-inch diameter Schedule 100 pipe. The experimental facility is equipped with special hardware to ensure system boundary conditions could be appropriately modeled. The test matrix involved one uncracked and five cracked dynamic pipe-system experiments. The uncracked experiment was conducted to evaluate piping system damping and natural frequency characteristics. The cracked-pipe experiments evaluated the fracture behavior, pipe system response, and stability characteristics of five different materials. All cracked-pipe experiments were conducted at PWR conditions. Material characterization efforts provided tensile and fracture toughness properties of the different pipe materials at various strain rates and temperatures. Results from all pipe-system experiments and material characterization efforts are presented. Results of fracture mechanics analyses, dynamic finite element stress analyses, and stability analyses are presented and compared with experimental results

  13. Crack stability in a representative piping system under combined inertial and seismic/dynamic displacement-controlled stresses. Subtask 1.3 final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, P.; Olson, R.; Wilkowski, O.G.; Marschall, C.; Schmidt, R.

    1997-06-01

    This report presents the results from Subtask 1.3 of the International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG) program. The objective of Subtask 1.3 is to develop data to assess analysis methodologies for characterizing the fracture behavior of circumferentially cracked pipe in a representative piping system under combined inertial and displacement-controlled stresses. A unique experimental facility was designed and constructed. The piping system evaluated is an expansion loop with over 30 meters of 16-inch diameter Schedule 100 pipe. The experimental facility is equipped with special hardware to ensure system boundary conditions could be appropriately modeled. The test matrix involved one uncracked and five cracked dynamic pipe-system experiments. The uncracked experiment was conducted to evaluate piping system damping and natural frequency characteristics. The cracked-pipe experiments evaluated the fracture behavior, pipe system response, and stability characteristics of five different materials. All cracked-pipe experiments were conducted at PWR conditions. Material characterization efforts provided tensile and fracture toughness properties of the different pipe materials at various strain rates and temperatures. Results from all pipe-system experiments and material characterization efforts are presented. Results of fracture mechanics analyses, dynamic finite element stress analyses, and stability analyses are presented and compared with experimental results.

  14. Reference material systems: a sourcebook for material assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhagat, N. (ed.)

    1976-12-01

    A reference set of data related to material systems and a framework for carrying out the material technologies assessment are presented. While the bulk of renewables have been considered in this report, the nonrenewable materials dealt with here include structural materials only, such as steel, aluminum, cement and concrete, and bricks. The complete data set is supposed to include material flows, energy requirements, capital and labor inputs, and environmental effects for each process that a resource must go through to become a useful material for an end use. Although effort has been made to obtain as much information as possible, considerable gaps in data, apparent throughout this report, could not be avoided. A new material technology can be evaluated by substituting that technology for appropriate elements of the reference materials system and calculating the net change in material resource, energy, capital and labor requirements, and environmental impacts. This combination of information thus serves as a means of evaluating the potential benefits to be gained by research in various material technologies.

  15. Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nebel, R.A.; Turner, L.; Tiouririne, T.N.; Barnes, D.C.; Nystrom, W.D.; Bussard, R.W.; Miley, G.H.; Javedani, J.; Yamamoto, Y.

    1994-01-01

    Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) is one of the earliest plasma confinement concepts, having first been suggested by P. T. Farnsworth in the 1950s. The concept involves a simple apparatus of concentric spherical electrostatic grids or a combination of grids and magnetic fields. An electrostatic structure is formed from the confluence of electron or ion beams. Gridded IEC systems have demonstrated neutron yields as high as 2 * 10 10 neutrons/sec. These systems have considerable potential as small, inexpensive, portable neutron sources for assaying applications. Neutron tomography is also a potential application. Atomic physics effects strongly influence the performance of all of these systems. Important atomic effects include elastic scattering, ionization, excitation, and charge exchange. This paper discusses how an IEC system is influenced by these effects and how to design around them. Theoretical modeling and experimental results are presented

  16. Scalar material reference systems and loop quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giesel, K; Thiemann, T

    2015-01-01

    In the past, the possibility to employ (scalar) material reference systems in order to describe classical and quantum gravity directly in terms of gauge invariant (Dirac) observables has been emphasized frequently. This idea has been picked up more recently in loop quantum gravity with the aim to perform a reduced phase space quantization of the theory, thus possibly avoiding problems with the (Dirac) operator constraint quantization method for a constrained system. In this work, we review the models that have been studied on the classical and/or the quantum level and parametrize the space of theories considered so far. We then describe the quantum theory of a model that, to the best of our knowledge, has only been considered classically so far. This model could arguably be called the optimal one in this class of models considered as it displays the simplest possible true Hamiltonian, while at the same time reducing all constraints of general relativity. (paper)

  17. Data Link Test and Analysis System/ATCRBS Transponder Test System Technical Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    This document references material for personnel using or making software changes : to the Data Link Test and Analysis System (DATAS) for Air Traffic Control Radar : Beacon System (ATCRBS) transponder testing and data collection. This is one of : a se...

  18. Mapping in inertial frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunasalam, V.

    1989-05-01

    World space mapping in inertial frames is used to examine the Lorentz covariance of symmetry operations. It is found that the Galilean invariant concepts of simultaneity (S), parity (P), and time reversal symmetry (T) are not Lorentz covariant concepts for inertial observers. That is, just as the concept of simultaneity has no significance independent of the Lorentz inertial frame, likewise so are the concepts of parity and time reversal. However, the world parity (W) [i.e., the space-time reversal symmetry (P-T)] is a truly Lorentz covariant concept. Indeed, it is shown that only those mapping matrices M that commute with the Lorentz transformation matrix L (i.e., [M,L] = 0) are the ones that correspond to manifestly Lorentz covariant operations. This result is in accordance with the spirit of the world space Mach's principle. Since the Lorentz transformation is an orthogonal transformation while the Galilean transformation is not an orthogonal transformation, the formal relativistic space-time mapping theory used here does not have a corresponding non-relativistic counterpart. 12 refs

  19. Development of Fast Error Compensation Algorithm for Integrated Inertial-Satellite Navigation System of Small-size Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Complex Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Fomichev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with the structural features of small-size unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV, and considering the feasibility of this project, the article studies an integrated inertial-satellite navigation system (INS. The INS algorithm development is based on the method of indirect filtration and principle of loosely coupled combination of output data on UAV positions and velocity. Data on position and velocity are provided from the strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS and satellite navigation system (GPS. A difference between the output flows of measuring data on position and velocity provided from the SINS and GPS is used to evaluate SINS errors by means of the basic algorithm of Kalman filtering. Then the outputs of SINS are revised. The INS possesses the following advantages: a simpler mathematical model of Kalman filtering, high reliability, two independently operating navigation systems, and high redundancy of available navigation information.But in case of loosely coupled scheme, INS can meet the challenge of high precision and reliability of navigation only when the SINS and GPS operating conditions are normal all the time. The proposed INS is used with UAV moving in complex environment due to obstacles available, severe natural climatic conditions, etc. This case expects that it is impossible for UAV to receive successful GPS-signals frequently. In order to solve this problem, was developed an algorithm for rapid compensation for errors of INS information, which could effectively solve the problem of failure of the navigation system in case there are no GPS-signals .Since it is almost impossible to obtain the data of the real trajectory in practice, in the course of simulation in accordance with the kinematic model of the UAV and the complex environment of the terrain, the flight path generator is used to produce the flight path. The errors of positions and velocities are considered as an indicator of the INS effectiveness. The results

  20. Control Parameters Optimization Based on Co-Simulation of a Mechatronic System for an UA-Based Two-Axis Inertially Stabilized Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyang Zhou

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method based on co-simulation of a mechatronic system to optimize the control parameters of a two-axis inertially stabilized platform system (ISP applied in an unmanned airship (UA, by which high control performance and reliability of the ISP system are achieved. First, a three-dimensional structural model of the ISP is built by using the three-dimensional parametric CAD software SOLIDWORKS®; then, to analyze the system’s kinematic and dynamic characteristics under operating conditions, dynamics modeling is conducted by using the multi-body dynamics software ADAMS™, thus the main dynamic parameters such as displacement, velocity, acceleration and reaction curve are obtained, respectively, through simulation analysis. Then, those dynamic parameters were input into the established MATLAB® SIMULINK® controller to simulate and test the performance of the control system. By these means, the ISP control parameters are optimized. To verify the methods, experiments were carried out by applying the optimized parameters to the control system of a two-axis ISP. The results show that the co-simulation by using virtual prototyping (VP is effective to obtain optimized ISP control parameters, eventually leading to high ISP control performance.

  1. Hand Pose Estimation by Fusion of Inertial and Magnetic Sensing Aided by a Permanent Magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortier, Henk G; Antonsson, Jacob; Schepers, H Martin; Gustafsson, Fredrik; Veltink, Peter H

    2015-09-01

    Tracking human body motions using inertial sensors has become a well-accepted method in ambulatory applications since the subject is not confined to a lab-bounded volume. However, a major drawback is the inability to estimate relative body positions over time because inertial sensor information only allows position tracking through strapdown integration, but does not provide any information about relative positions. In addition, strapdown integration inherently results in drift of the estimated position over time. We propose a novel method in which a permanent magnet combined with 3-D magnetometers and 3-D inertial sensors are used to estimate the global trunk orientation and relative pose of the hand with respect to the trunk. An Extended Kalman Filter is presented to fuse estimates obtained from inertial sensors with magnetic updates such that the position and orientation between the human hand and trunk as well as the global trunk orientation can be estimated robustly. This has been demonstrated in multiple experiments in which various hand tasks were performed. The most complex task in which simultaneous movements of both trunk and hand were performed resulted in an average rms position difference with an optical reference system of 19.7±2.2 mm whereas the relative trunk-hand and global trunk orientation error was 2.3±0.9 and 8.6±8.7 deg respectively.

  2. Enhanced electricity system analysis for decision making - A reference book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The objective of electricity system analysis in support of decision making is to provide comparative assessment results upon which relevant policy choices between alternative technology options and supply strategies can be based. This reference book offers analysts, planners and decision makers documented information on enhanced approaches to electricity system analysis, that can assist in achieving this objective. The book describes the main elements of comprehensive electricity system analysis and outlines an advanced integrated analysis and decision making framework for the electric power sector. Emphasis is placed on mechanisms for building consensus between interested and affected parties, and on aspects of planning that go beyond the traditional economic optimisation approach. The scope and contents of the book cover the topics to be addressed in decision making for the power sector and the process of integrating economic, social, health and environmental aspects in the comparative assessment of alternative options and strategies. The book describes and discusses overall frameworks, processes and state of the art methods and techniques available to analysts and planners for carrying out comparative assessment studies, in order to provide sound information to decision makers. This reference book is published as part of a series of technical reports and documents prepared in the framework of the inter-agency joint project (DECADES) on databases and methodologies for comparative assessment of different energy sources for electricity generation. The overall objective of the DECADES project is to enhance capabilities for incorporating economic, social, health and environmental issues in the comparative assessment of electricity generation options and strategies in the process of decision making for the power sector. The project, established in 1992, is carried out jointly by the European Commission (EC), the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific

  3. Alternate fusion -- continuous inertial confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, D.C.; Turner, L.; Nebel, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    The authors argue that alternate approaches to large tokamak confinement are appropriate for fusion applications if: (1) They do not require magnetic confinement of a much higher quality than demonstrated in tokamaks; (2) Their physics basis may be succinctly stated and experimentally tested; (3) They offer near-term applications to important technical problems; and (4) Their cost to proof-of-principle is low enough to be consistent with current budget realities. An approach satisfying all of these criteria is presented. Fusion systems based on continuous inertial confinement are described. In these approaches, the inertia of a nonequilibrium plasma is used to produce local concentrations of plasma density in space and/or time. One implementation (inertial electrostatic confinement) which has been investigated both experimentally and theoretically uses a system of electrostatic grids to accelerate plasma ions toward a spherical focus. This system produced a steady 2 x 10 10 D-T neutrons/second with an overall fusion gain of 10 -5 in a sphere of about 9 cm radius. Recent theoretical developments show how to raise the fusion gain to order unity or greater by replacing the internal grids by a combination of applied magnetic and electrostatic fields. In these approaches, useful thermonuclear conditions may be produced in a system as small as a few mm radius. Confinement is that of a nonneutralized plasma. A pure electron plasma with a radial beam velocity distribution is absolutely confined by an applied Penning trap field. Spherical convergence of the confined electrons forms a deep virtual cathode near r = 0, in which thermonuclear ions are absolutely confined at useful densities. The authors have examined the equilibrium, stability, and classical relaxation of such systems, and obtained many positive physics results. Equilibria exist for both pure electron and partially charge-neutralized systems with arbitrarily high core-plasma densities

  4. System-Level Operational and Adequacy Impact Assessment of Photovoltaic and Distributed Energy Storage, with Consideration of Inertial Constraints, Dynamic Reserve and Interconnection Flexibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingxi Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The growing penetration of solar photovoltaic (PV systems requires a fundamental understanding of its impact at a system-level. Furthermore, distributed energy storage (DES technologies, such as batteries, are attracting great interest owing to their ability to provide support to systems with large-scale renewable generation, such as PV. In this light, the system-level impacts of PV and DES are assessed from both operational and adequacy perspectives. Different control strategies for DES are proposed, namely: (1 centralised, to support system operation in the presence of increasing requirements on system ramping and frequency control; and (2 decentralised, to maximise the harnessing of solar energy from individual households while storing electricity generated by PV panels to provide system capacity on request. The operational impacts are assessed by deploying a multi-service unit commitment model with consideration of inertial constraints, dynamic reserve allocation, and interconnection flexibility, while the impacts on adequacy of supply are analysed by assessing the capacity credit of PV and DES through different metrics. The models developed are then applied to different future scenarios for the Great Britain power system, whereby an electricity demand increase due to electrification is also considered. The numerical results highlight the importance of interconnectors to provide flexibility. On the other hand, provision of reserves, as opposed to energy arbitrage, from DES that are integrated into system operation is seen as the most effective contribution to improve system performance, which in turn also decreases the role of interconnectors. DES can also contribute to providing system capacity, but to an extent that is limited by their individual and aggregated energy availability under different control strategies.

  5. Realization of a reference system for the generation radon 222

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guelin, M.

    1990-11-01

    After some general considerations on radon and its calibration techniques, the methods and technologies developed in order to realize a reference system for the generation of radon 222 are presented. Two original patented techniques have been developed. The former technique deals with the realization of radon 222 solid sources from radium 226 deposit on acrylic fibres. This new technology offers the advantage of very quickly obtaining a constant emission rate near to 100%. The latter technique deals with the standard measurement of radon 222 volumic activity via gamma spectrometry of its short-lived daughters. This new procedure is the only one allowing to relate this measure to gaseous standards. An aeraulic/ventilation circuit makes it possible to calibrate the radon measurement instrumentation within a wide volumic activity range from to 4 to 4 000 Bq/m 3

  6. Dosimetric methodology and reference system for diagnostic level X radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potiens, Maria da Penha Albuquerque

    1999-01-01

    Several methodologies for the calibration of diagnostic radiology instruments were developed and established at the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN. These established radiation qualities are recommended by international standards. The methods may be used in the calibration procedures of survey meters used in radiation protection measurements (scattered radiation), instruments used in direct beams (attenuated and non attenuated beams) and quality control instruments. A reference system was proposed using two identical ionization chambers developed at IPEN. They differ only by the collecting electrode material, one of aluminium and the other of graphite. The different energetic dependence of the chamber's response provided a ratio related to the tube potential. The variation of only 0.28%, from 14.3 to 111 keV, on the energetic dependence of the graphite electrode chamber, provided the possibility of air kerma rate determination in the studied radiation beams. (author)

  7. Human Perception of Ambiguous Inertial Motion Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guan-Lu

    2010-01-01

    Human daily activities on Earth involve motions that elicit both tilt and translation components of the head (i.e. gazing and locomotion). With otolith cues alone, tilt and translation can be ambiguous since both motions can potentially displace the otolithic membrane by the same magnitude and direction. Transitions between gravity environments (i.e. Earth, microgravity and lunar) have demonstrated to alter the functions of the vestibular system and exacerbate the ambiguity between tilt and translational motion cues. Symptoms of motion sickness and spatial disorientation can impair human performances during critical mission phases. Specifically, Space Shuttle landing records show that particular cases of tilt-translation illusions have impaired the performance of seasoned commanders. This sensorimotor condition is one of many operational risks that may have dire implications on future human space exploration missions. The neural strategy with which the human central nervous system distinguishes ambiguous inertial motion cues remains the subject of intense research. A prevailing theory in the neuroscience field proposes that the human brain is able to formulate a neural internal model of ambiguous motion cues such that tilt and translation components can be perceptually decomposed in order to elicit the appropriate bodily response. The present work uses this theory, known as the GIF resolution hypothesis, as the framework for experimental hypothesis. Specifically, two novel motion paradigms are employed to validate the neural capacity of ambiguous inertial motion decomposition in ground-based human subjects. The experimental setup involves the Tilt-Translation Sled at Neuroscience Laboratory of NASA JSC. This two degree-of-freedom motion system is able to tilt subjects in the pitch plane and translate the subject along the fore-aft axis. Perception data will be gathered through subject verbal reports. Preliminary analysis of perceptual data does not indicate that

  8. Modification of reference temperature program in reactor regulating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Sung Sik; Lee, Byung Jin; Kim, Se Chang; Cheong, Jong Sik [Korea Power Engineering Company, Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji In; Doo, Jin Yong [Korea Electric Power Cooperation, Yonggwang (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-12-31

    In Yonggwang nuclear units 3 and 4 currently under commercial operation, the cold temperature was very close to the technical specification limit of 298 deg C during initial startup testing, which was caused by the higher-than-expected reactor coolant system flow. Accordingly, the reference temperature (Tref) program needed to be revised to allow more flexibility for plant operations. In this study, the method of a specific test performed at Yonggwang nuclear unit 4 to revise the Tref program was described and the test results were discussed. In addition, the modified Tref program was evaluated on its potential impacts on system performance and safety. The methods of changing the Tref program and the associated pressurizer level setpoint program were also explained. Finally, for Ulchin nuclear unit 3 and 4 currently under initial startup testing, the effects of reactor coolant system flow rate on the coolant temperature were evaluated from the thermal hydraulic standpoint and an optimum Tref program was recommended. 6 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  9. Modification of reference temperature program in reactor regulating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Sung Sik; Lee, Byung Jin; Kim, Se Chang; Cheong, Jong Sik [Korea Power Engineering Company, Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji In; Doo, Jin Yong [Korea Electric Power Cooperation, Yonggwang (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    In Yonggwang nuclear units 3 and 4 currently under commercial operation, the cold temperature was very close to the technical specification limit of 298 deg C during initial startup testing, which was caused by the higher-than-expected reactor coolant system flow. Accordingly, the reference temperature (Tref) program needed to be revised to allow more flexibility for plant operations. In this study, the method of a specific test performed at Yonggwang nuclear unit 4 to revise the Tref program was described and the test results were discussed. In addition, the modified Tref program was evaluated on its potential impacts on system performance and safety. The methods of changing the Tref program and the associated pressurizer level setpoint program were also explained. Finally, for Ulchin nuclear unit 3 and 4 currently under initial startup testing, the effects of reactor coolant system flow rate on the coolant temperature were evaluated from the thermal hydraulic standpoint and an optimum Tref program was recommended. 6 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  10. Laboratory measurements of grain-bedrock interactions using inertial sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniatis, Georgios; Hoey, Trevor; Hodge, Rebecca; Valyrakis, Manousos; Drysdale, Tim

    2016-04-01

    Sediment transport in steep mountain streams is characterized by the movement of coarse particles (diameter c.100 mm) over beds that are not fully sediment-covered. Under such conditions, individual grain dynamics become important for the prediction of sediment movement and subsequently for understanding grain-bedrock interaction. Technological advances in micro-mechanical-electrical systems now provide opportunities to measure individual grain dynamics and impact forces from inside the sediments (grain inertial frame of reference) instead of trying to infer them indirectly from water flow dynamics. We previously presented a new prototype sensor specifically developed for monitoring sediment transport [Maniatis et al. EGU 2014], and have shown how the definition of the physics of the grain using the inertial frame and subsequent derived measurements which have the potential to enhance the prediction of sediment entrainment [Maniatis et al. 2015]. Here we present the latest version of this sensor and we focus on beginning of the cessation of grain motion: the initial interaction with the bed after the translation phase. The sensor is housed in a spherical case, diameter 80mm, and is constructed using solid aluminum (density = 2.7 kg.m-3) after detailed 3D-CAD modelling. A complete Inertial Measurement Unit (a combination of micro- accelerometer, gyroscope and compass) was placed at the center of the mass of the assembly, with measurement ranges of 400g for acceleration, and 1200 rads/sec for angular velocity. In a 0.9m wide laboratory flume, bed slope = 0.02, the entrainment threshold of the sensor was measured, and the water flow was then set to this value. The sensor was then rolled freely from a static cylindrical bar positioned exactly on the surface of the flowing water. As the sensor enters the flow we record a very short period of transport (1-1.5 sec) followed by the impact on the channel bed. The measured Total Kinetic Energy (Joules) includes the

  11. Estimating Stair Running Performance Using Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro V. Ojeda

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Stair running, both ascending and descending, is a challenging aerobic exercise that many athletes, recreational runners, and soldiers perform during training. Studying biomechanics of stair running over multiple steps has been limited by the practical challenges presented while using optical-based motion tracking systems. We propose using foot-mounted inertial measurement units (IMUs as a solution as they enable unrestricted motion capture in any environment and without need for external references. In particular, this paper presents methods for estimating foot velocity and trajectory during stair running using foot-mounted IMUs. Computational methods leverage the stationary periods occurring during the stance phase and known stair geometry to estimate foot orientation and trajectory, ultimately used to calculate stride metrics. These calculations, applied to human participant stair running data, reveal performance trends through timing, trajectory, energy, and force stride metrics. We present the results of our analysis of experimental data collected on eleven subjects. Overall, we determine that for either ascending or descending, the stance time is the strongest predictor of speed as shown by its high correlation with stride time.

  12. Inertially Stabilized Platforms for Precision Pointing Applications to Directed-Energy Weapons and Space-Based Lasers (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Negro, J; Griffin, S

    2006-01-01

    .... This article addresses directed-energy-weapon (DEW) precision pointing requirements and implementation alternatives in the context of strapdown and stable-platform inertial-reference technologies...

  13. A flexible cell concentrator using inertial focusing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Chunglong; Zhou, Jian; Liang, Yitao; Huang, Bobo; Fang, Yifeng; Liang, Xiao; Ye, Xuesong

    2017-09-11

    Cell concentration adjustment is intensively implemented routinely both in research and clinical laboratories. Centrifuge is the most prevalent technique for tuning biosample concentration. But it suffers from a number of drawbacks, such as requirement of experienced operator, high cost, low resolution, variable reproducibility and induced damage to sample. Herein we report on a cost-efficient alternative using inertial microfluidics. While the majority of existing literatures concentrate on inertial focusing itself, we identify the substantial role of the outlet system played in the device performance that has long been underestimated. The resistances of the outlets virtually involve in defining the cutoff size of a given inertial filtration channel. Following the comprehensive exploration of the influence of outlet system, we designed an inertial device with selectable outlets. Using both commercial microparticles and cultured Hep G2 cells, we have successfully demonstrated the automated concentration modification and observed several key advantages of our device as compared with conventional centrifuge, such as significantly reduced cell loss (only 4.2% vs. ~40% of centrifuge), better preservation of cell viability and less processing time as well as the increased reproducibility due to absence of manual operation. Furthermore, our device shows high effectiveness for concentrated sample (e.g., 1.8 × 10 6 cells/ml) as well. We envision its promising applications in the circumstance where repetitive sample preparation is intensely employed.

  14. Inertial confinement fusion (ICF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuckolls, J.

    1977-01-01

    The principal goal of the inertial confinement fusion program is the development of a practical fusion power plant in this century. Rapid progress has been made in the four major areas of ICF--targets, drivers, fusion experiments, and reactors. High gain targets have been designed. Laser, electron beam, and heavy ion accelerator drivers appear to be feasible. Record-breaking thermonuclear conditions have been experimentally achieved. Detailed diagnostics of laser implosions have confirmed predictions of the LASNEX computer program. Experimental facilities are being planned and constructed capable of igniting high gain fusion microexplosions in the mid 1980's. A low cost long lifetime reactor design has been developed

  15. Overview of external reference pricing systems in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rémuzat, Cécile; Urbinati, Duccio; Mzoughi, Olfa; El Hammi, Emna; Belgaied, Wael; Toumi, Mondher

    2015-01-01

    External reference pricing (ERP) is a price regulation tool widely used by policy makers in the European Union (EU) Member States (MS) to contain drug cost, although in theory, it may contribute to modulate prices up and down. The objective of this article was to summarise and discuss the main findings of part of a large project conducted for the European Commission ('External reference pricing of medicinal products: simulation-based considerations for cross-country coordination'; see www.ec.europa.eu/health/healthcare/docs/erp_reimbursement_medicinal_products_en.pdf) that aimed to provide an overview of ERP systems, both on processes and potential issues in 31 European countries (28 EU MS, Iceland, Norway, and Switzerland). A systematic structured literature review was conducted to identify and characterise the use of ERP in the selected countries, to describe its impact on the prices of pharmaceuticals, and to discuss the possible cross-country coordination issues in EU MS. This research was complemented with a consultation of competent authorities' and international organisations' representatives to address the main issues or uncertainties identified through the literature review. All selected countries applied ERP, except the United Kingdom and Sweden. Twenty-three countries used ERP as the main systematic criterion for pricing. In the majority of European countries, ERP was based on legislated pricing rules with different levels of accuracy. ERP was applied either for all marketed drugs or for specific categories of medicines; it was mainly used for publicly reimbursed medicines. The number of reference countries included in the basket varied from 1 to 31. There was a great variation in the calculation methods used to compute the price; 15 countries used the average price, 7 countries used the lowest price, and 7 countries used other calculation methods. Reported limitations of ERP application included the lack of reliable sources of price information, price

  16. Neural network-based model reference adaptive control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino, H D; Liu, D

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, an approach to model reference adaptive control based on neural networks is proposed and analyzed for a class of first-order continuous-time nonlinear dynamical systems. The controller structure can employ either a radial basis function network or a feedforward neural network to compensate adaptively the nonlinearities in the plant. A stable controller-parameter adjustment mechanism, which is determined using the Lyapunov theory, is constructed using a sigma-modification-type updating law. The evaluation of control error in terms of the neural network learning error is performed. That is, the control error converges asymptotically to a neighborhood of zero, whose size is evaluated and depends on the approximation error of the neural network. In the design and analysis of neural network-based control systems, it is important to take into account the neural network learning error and its influence on the control error of the plant. Simulation results showing the feasibility and performance of the proposed approach are given.

  17. Using Posture Estimation to Enhance Personal Inertial Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    augment tracking during periods without GPS coverage. The goal of this research is to improve the current personal inertial navigation system by...solution is to use inertial navigation systems to augment tracking during periods without GPS coverage. The goal of this research is to improve the...For large items such as vehicles or aircraft, a Global Positioning System ( GPS ) is used to track the locations of friendly units and display these

  18. Memory systems interaction in the pigeon: working and reference memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, William A; Strang, Caroline; Macpherson, Krista

    2015-04-01

    Pigeons' performance on a working memory task, symbolic delayed matching-to-sample, was used to examine the interaction between working memory and reference memory. Reference memory was established by training pigeons to discriminate between the comparison cues used in delayed matching as S+ and S- stimuli. Delayed matching retention tests then measured accuracy when working and reference memory were congruent and incongruent. In 4 experiments, it was shown that the interaction between working and reference memory is reciprocal: Strengthening either type of memory leads to a decrease in the influence of the other type of memory. A process dissociation procedure analysis of the data from Experiment 4 showed independence of working and reference memory, and a model of working memory and reference memory interaction was shown to predict the findings reported in the 4 experiments. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuckolls, J.H.; Wood, L.L.

    1988-01-01

    Edward Teller has been a strong proponent of harnessing nuclear explosions for peaceful purposes. There are two approaches: Plowshare, which utilizes macro- explosions, and inertial confinement fusion, which utilizes microexplosions. The development of practical fusion power plants is a principal goal of the inertial program. It is remarkable that Teller's original thermonuclear problem, how to make super high yield nuclear explosions, and the opposite problem, how to make ultra low yield nuclear explosions, may both be solved by Teller's radiation implosion scheme. This paper reports on the essential physics of these two thermonuclear domains, which are separated by nine orders of magnitude in yield, provided by Teller's similarity theorem and its exceptions. Higher density makes possible thermonuclear burn of smaller masses of fuel. The leverage is high: the scale of the explosion diminishes with the square of the increase in density. The extraordinary compressibility of matter, first noticed by Teller during the Los Alamos atomic bomb program, provides an almost incredible opportunity to harness fusion. The energy density of thermonuclear fuels isentropically compressed to super high-- -densities---even to ten thousand times solid density---is small compared to the energy density at thermonuclear ignition temperatures. In small masses of fuel imploded to these super high matter densities, the energy required to achieve ignition may be greatly reduced by exploiting thermonuclear propagation from a relatively small hot spot

  20. Status of inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.

    1987-04-01

    The technology advancement to high-power beams has also given birth to new technologies. That class of Free Electron Lasers that employs rf linacs, synchrotrons, and storage rings - although the use the tools of High Energy Physics (HEP) - was developed well behind the kinetic energy frontier. The induction linac, however, is something of an exception; it was born directly from the needs of the magnetic fusion program, and was not motivated by a high-energy physics application. The heavy-ion approach to inertial fusion starts with picking from the rich menu of accelerator technologies those that have, ab initio, the essential ingredients needed for a power plant driver: multigap acceleration - which leads to reliability/lifetime; electrical efficiency; repetition rate; and beams that can be reliably focused over a suitably long distance. The report describes the programs underway in Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research as well as listing expected advances in driver, target, and beam quality areas in the inertial fusion power program

  1. A Modernized National Spatial Reference System in 2022: Focus on the Caribbean Terrestrial Reference Frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    In 2022, the National Geodetic Survey will replace all three NAD 83 reference frames the four new terrestrial reference frames. Each frame will be named after a tectonic plate (North American, Pacific, Caribbean and Mariana) and each will be related to the IGS frame through three Euler Pole parameters (EPPs). This talk will focus on practical application in the Caribbean region. A working group is being re-established for development of the North American region and will likely also result in analysis of the Pacific region as well. Both of these regions are adequately covered with existing CORS sites to model the EPPs. The Mariana region currently lacks sufficient coverage, but a separate project is underway to collect additional information to help in defining EPPs for that region at a later date. The Caribbean region has existing robust coverage through UNAVCO's COCONet and other data sets, but these require further analysis. This discussion will focus on practical examination of Caribbean sites to establish candidates for determining the Caribbean frame EPPs as well as an examination of any remaining velocities that might inform a model of the remaining velocities within that frame (Intra-Frame Velocity Model). NGS has a vested interest in defining such a model to meet obligations to U.S. citizens in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Beyond this, NGS aims to collaborate with other countries in the region through efforts with SIRGAS and UN-GGIM-Americas for a more acceptable regional model to serve everyone's needs.

  2. Referring to IAEA system to improve Chinese standards system on nuclear and radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang Zhaorong; Wang Wenhai

    2010-01-01

    Referring to the standards system of IAEA, to build and improve the Chinese standards system of nuclear and radiation safety is a long term infrastructure work and an assurance to keep sustainable development of nuclear industry and nuclear technology application in China. The paper analyses the current main problem, and gives some suggestions on developing and improving the system. (authors)

  3. Inertial fusion commercial power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, B.G.

    1994-01-01

    This presentation discusses the motivation for inertial fusion energy, a brief synopsis of five recently-completed inertial fusion power plant designs, some general conclusions drawn from these studies, and an example of an IFE hydrogen synfuel plant to suggest that future fusion studies consider broadening fusion use to low-emission fuels production as well as electricity

  4. Inertial fusion energy development strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutant, J.; Hogan, W.J.; Nakai, S.; Rozanov, V.B.; Velarde, G.

    1995-01-01

    The research and development strategy for inertial fusion energy (IFE) is delineated. The development strategy must indicate how commercial IFE power can be made available in the first part of the next century, by which is meant that a Demonstration Power Plant (DPP) will have shown that in commercial operation IFE power plants can satisfy the requirements of public and employee safety, acceptably low impact on the environment, technical performance, reliability, maintainability and economic competitiveness. The technical issues associated with the various required demonstrations for each of the subsystems of the power plant (target, driver, reaction chamber, and remainder of plant (ROP) where the tritium for future targets is extracted and thermal energy is converted into electricity) are listed. The many developments required to make IFE commercially available can be oriented towards a few major demonstrations. These demonstrations do not necessarily each need separate facilities. The goals of these demonstrations are: (i) ignition demonstration, to show ignition and thermonuclear burn in an ICF target and determine the minimum required driver conditions; (ii) high gain demonstration, to show adequate driver efficiency-gain product; (iii) engineering demonstrations, to show high pulse rate operations in an integrated system and to choose the best designs of the various reactor systems; (iv) commercial demonstrations, to prove safe, environmentally benign, reliable, economic, near-commercial operation. In this document the present status of major inertial confinement research activities is summarized including a table of the major operating or planned facilities. The aspects involved in each of the required demonstrations are discussed. Also, for each of the subsystems mentioned above the technical developments that are needed are discussed. The document ends with a discussion of the two existing detailed IFE development plans, by the United States and Japan. 9

  5. Time and Relative Distance Inertial Sensor, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Precise location information is critical for crewmembers for safe EVA Moon and Mars exploration. Current inertial navigation systems are too bulky, fragile, and...

  6. Digital Receiver Design for Transmitted Reference Ultra-Wideband Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yiyin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A complete detection, channel estimation, synchronization, and equalization scheme for a transmitted reference (TR ultra-wideband (UWB system is proposed in this paper. The scheme is based on a data model which admits a moderate data rate and takes both the interframe interference (IFI and the intersymbol interference (ISI into consideration. Moreover, the bias caused by the interpulse interference (IPI in one frame is also taken into account. Based on the analysis of the stochastic properties of the received signals, several detectors are studied and evaluated. Furthermore, a data-aided two-stage synchronization strategy is proposed, which obtains sample-level timing in the range of one symbol at the first stage and then pursues symbol-level synchronization by looking for the header at the second stage. Three channel estimators are derived to achieve joint channel and timing estimates for the first stage, namely, the linear minimum mean square error (LMMSE estimator, the least squares (LS estimator, and the matched filter (MF. We check the performance of different combinations of channel estimation and equalization schemes and try to find the best combination, that is, the one providing a good tradeoff between complexity and performance.

  7. Digital Receiver Design for Transmitted Reference Ultra-Wideband Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiyin Wang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A complete detection, channel estimation, synchronization, and equalization scheme for a transmitted reference (TR ultra-wideband (UWB system is proposed in this paper. The scheme is based on a data model which admits a moderate data rate and takes both the interframe interference (IFI and the intersymbol interference (ISI into consideration. Moreover, the bias caused by the interpulse interference (IPI in one frame is also taken into account. Based on the analysis of the stochastic properties of the received signals, several detectors are studied and evaluated. Furthermore, a data-aided two-stage synchronization strategy is proposed, which obtains sample-level timing in the range of one symbol at the first stage and then pursues symbol-level synchronization by looking for the header at the second stage. Three channel estimators are derived to achieve joint channel and timing estimates for the first stage, namely, the linear minimum mean square error (LMMSE estimator, the least squares (LS estimator, and the matched filter (MF. We check the performance of different combinations of channel estimation and equalization schemes and try to find the best combination, that is, the one providing a good tradeoff between complexity and performance.

  8. Reference pricing system and competition: case study from Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portela, Conceiçăo

    2009-10-01

    To characterize the patterns of competition for a sample of drugs in the Portuguese pharmaceutical market before (January 2002-March 2003) and after (April 2003-June 2003) the introduction of the reference pricing system (RPS). We performed a descriptive, retrospective, longitudinal analysis, with monthly observations from January 2002 until June 2003 of 15 homogeneous groups. The groups represented the upper limit of public pharmaceutical expenditure in the RPS segment in 2003 (n=270). Measures of competition were: 1) number of presentations; 2) prescriptions' concentration in the generic and originator (brand) segments, using Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI); and 3) dominant positions of market leader in the homogeneous group. A correlation analysis between the number of presentations, the HHI, and the dominant position of the market leader was performed using Pearson coefficient of correlation. The structure of the market changed with the introduction of RPS. We found an increasing number of generic presentations (from 4+/-3 to 7+/-4; mean+/-standard deviation) and a decrease in the HHI for the generics market segment (from 0.7+/-0.2 to 0.6+/-0.3). There was a negative correlation between those variables that increased after the introduction of RPS (from -0.6 to -0.8). The HHI for brands and the dominant positions remained unchanged. After the implementation of RPS, the increased competition was mainly driven by economic and social agents in the generics market segment but not in the brands market segment.

  9. Target support for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, K.R.

    1995-08-01

    General Atomics (GA) plays an important industrial support role for the US Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program in the area of target technology. This includes three major activities: target fabrication support, target handling systems development, and target chamber design. The work includes target fabrication for existing ICF experiments, target and target system development for future experiments, and target research and target chamber design for experiments on future machines, such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

  10. 14 CFR Appendix G to Part 121 - Doppler Radar and Inertial Navigation System (INS): Request for Evaluation; Equipment and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...). At least two systems must be operational at takeoff. The dual system may consist of either two INS... memory or other inflight alignment means, a separate electrical power source (independent of the main... a compass comparator system is installed and operational procedures call for frequent cross-checks...

  11. Performance Evaluation of State of the Art Systems for Physical Activity Classification of Older Subjects Using Inertial Sensors in a Real Life Scenario: A Benchmark Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awais, Muhammad; Palmerini, Luca; Bourke, Alan K; Ihlen, Espen A F; Helbostad, Jorunn L; Chiari, Lorenzo

    2016-12-11

    The popularity of using wearable inertial sensors for physical activity classification has dramatically increased in the last decade due to their versatility, low form factor, and low power requirements. Consequently, various systems have been developed to automatically classify daily life activities. However, the scope and implementation of such systems is limited to laboratory-based investigations. Furthermore, these systems are not directly comparable, due to the large diversity in their design (e.g., number of sensors, placement of sensors, data collection environments, data processing techniques, features set, classifiers, cross-validation methods). Hence, the aim of this study is to propose a fair and unbiased benchmark for the field-based validation of three existing systems, highlighting the gap between laboratory and real-life conditions. For this purpose, three representative state-of-the-art systems are chosen and implemented to classify the physical activities of twenty older subjects (76.4 ± 5.6 years). The performance in classifying four basic activities of daily life (sitting, standing, walking, and lying) is analyzed in controlled and free living conditions. To observe the performance of laboratory-based systems in field-based conditions, we trained the activity classification systems using data recorded in a laboratory environment and tested them in real-life conditions in the field. The findings show that the performance of all systems trained with data in the laboratory setting highly deteriorates when tested in real-life conditions, thus highlighting the need to train and test the classification systems in the real-life setting. Moreover, we tested the sensitivity of chosen systems to window size (from 1 s to 10 s) suggesting that overall accuracy decreases with increasing window size. Finally, to evaluate the impact of the number of sensors on the performance, chosen systems are modified considering only the sensing unit worn at the lower back

  12. Performance Evaluation of State of the Art Systems for Physical Activity Classification of Older Subjects Using Inertial Sensors in a Real Life Scenario: A Benchmark Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Awais

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The popularity of using wearable inertial sensors for physical activity classification has dramatically increased in the last decade due to their versatility, low form factor, and low power requirements. Consequently, various systems have been developed to automatically classify daily life activities. However, the scope and implementation of such systems is limited to laboratory-based investigations. Furthermore, these systems are not directly comparable, due to the large diversity in their design (e.g., number of sensors, placement of sensors, data collection environments, data processing techniques, features set, classifiers, cross-validation methods. Hence, the aim of this study is to propose a fair and unbiased benchmark for the field-based validation of three existing systems, highlighting the gap between laboratory and real-life conditions. For this purpose, three representative state-of-the-art systems are chosen and implemented to classify the physical activities of twenty older subjects (76.4 ± 5.6 years. The performance in classifying four basic activities of daily life (sitting, standing, walking, and lying is analyzed in controlled and free living conditions. To observe the performance of laboratory-based systems in field-based conditions, we trained the activity classification systems using data recorded in a laboratory environment and tested them in real-life conditions in the field. The findings show that the performance of all systems trained with data in the laboratory setting highly deteriorates when tested in real-life conditions, thus highlighting the need to train and test the classification systems in the real-life setting. Moreover, we tested the sensitivity of chosen systems to window size (from 1 s to 10 s suggesting that overall accuracy decreases with increasing window size. Finally, to evaluate the impact of the number of sensors on the performance, chosen systems are modified considering only the sensing unit worn

  13. Inertial Sensor-Based Gait Recognition: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprager, Sebastijan; Juric, Matjaz B.

    2015-01-01

    With the recent development of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), inertial sensors have become widely used in the research of wearable gait analysis due to several factors, such as being easy-to-use and low-cost. Considering the fact that each individual has a unique way of walking, inertial sensors can be applied to the problem of gait recognition where assessed gait can be interpreted as a biometric trait. Thus, inertial sensor-based gait recognition has a great potential to play an important role in many security-related applications. Since inertial sensors are included in smart devices that are nowadays present at every step, inertial sensor-based gait recognition has become very attractive and emerging field of research that has provided many interesting discoveries recently. This paper provides a thorough and systematic review of current state-of-the-art in this field of research. Review procedure has revealed that the latest advanced inertial sensor-based gait recognition approaches are able to sufficiently recognise the users when relying on inertial data obtained during gait by single commercially available smart device in controlled circumstances, including fixed placement and small variations in gait. Furthermore, these approaches have also revealed considerable breakthrough by realistic use in uncontrolled circumstances, showing great potential for their further development and wide applicability. PMID:26340634

  14. Inertial confinement fusion target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdier, A.

    2001-12-01

    A simple, zero-dimensional model describing the temporal behaviour of an imploding-shell, magnetized fuel inertial confinement fusion target is formulated. The addition of a magnetic field to the fuel reduces thermal conduction losses. As a consequence, it might lead to high gains and reduce the driver requirements. This beneficial effect of the magnetic field on thermonuclear gains is confirmed qualitatively by the zero-dimensional model results. Still, the extent of the initial-condition space for which significant gains can occur is not, by far, as large as previously reported. One-dimensional CEA code simulations which confirm this results are also presented. Finally, we suggest to study the approach proposed by Hasegawa. In this scheme, the laser target is not imploded, and the life-time of the plasma can be very much increased. (author)

  15. Inertial fusion by laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dautray, R.; Watteau, J.-P.

    1980-01-01

    Following a brief historical survey of research into the effects of interaction of laser with matter, the principles of fusion by inertial confinement are described and the main parameters and possible levels given. The development of power lasers is then discussed with details of performances of the main lasers used in various laboratories, and with an assessment of the respective merits of neodymium glass, carbon dioxide or iodine lasers. The phenomena of laser radiation and its interaction with matter is then described, with emphasis on the results of experiments concerned with target implosion with the object of compressing and heating the mixture of heavy hydrogen and tritium to be ignited. Finally, a review is made of future possibilities opened up by the use of large power lasers which have recently become operational or are being constructed, and the ground still to be covered before a reactor can be produced [fr

  16. Ion beam inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangerter, R.O.

    1995-01-01

    About twenty years ago, A. W. Maschke of Brookhaven National Laboratory and R. L. Martin of Argonne National Laboratory recognized that the accelerators that have been developed for high energy and nuclear physics are, in many ways, ideally suited to the requirements of inertial fusion power production. These accelerators are reliable, they have a long operating life, and they can be efficient. Maschke and Martin noted that they can focus ion beams to small focal spots over distances of many meters and that they can readily operate at the high pulse repetition rates needed for commercial power production. Fusion, however, does impose some important new constraints that are not important for high energy or nuclear physics applications. The most challenging new constraint from a scientific standpoint is the requirement that the accelerator deliver more than 10 14 W of beam power to a small quantity (less than 100 mg) of matter. The most challenging constraint from an engineering standpoint is accelerator cost. Maschke showed theoretically that accelerators could produce adequate work. Heavy-ion fusion is widely recognized to be a promising approach to inertial fusion power production. It provides an excellent opportunity to apply methods and technology developed for basic science to an important societal need. The pulsed-power community has developed a complementary, parallel approach to ion beam fusion known as light-ion fusion. The talk will discuss both heavy-ion and light-ion fusion. It will explain target physics requirements and show how they lead to constraints on the usual accelerator parameters such as kinetic energy, current, and emittance. The talk will discuss experiments that are presently underway, specifically experiments on high-current ion sources and injectors, pulsed-power machines recirculating induction accelerators, and transverse beam combining. The talk will give a brief description of a proposed new accelerator called Elise

  17. On the construction of inertial manifolds under symmetry constraints II: O(2) constraint and inertial manifolds on thin domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Bernal, A.

    1993-01-01

    On a model example, the Kuramoto-Velarde equation, which includes the Kuramoto-Sivashin-sky and the Cahn-Hilliard models, and under suitable and reasonable hypothesis, we show the dimension and determining modes of inertial manifolds for several classes of solutions. We also give bounds for the dimensions of inertial manifolds of the full system as a parameter is varied. The results are pointed out to be almost model-independent. The same ideas are also applied to a class of parabolic equations in higher space dimension, obtaining results about inertial manifolds on thin and small domains. (Author). 30 refs

  18. The Physics of Inertial Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, S

    2004-01-01

    The growing effort in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research, with the upcoming new MJ class laser facilities, NIF in USA and LMJ in France, and the upgraded MJ z-pinch ZR facility in the USA, makes the appearance of this book by Atzeni and Meyer-ter-Vehn very timely. This book is an excellent introduction for graduate or masters level students and for researchers just entering the field. It is written in a very pedagogical way with great attention to the basic understanding of the physical processes involved. The book should also be very useful to researchers already working in the field as a reference containing many key formulas from different relevant branches of physics; experimentalists will especially appreciate the presence of 'ready-to-use' numerical formulas written in convenient practical units. The book starts with a discussion of thermonuclear reactions and conditions required to achieve high gain in ICF targets, emphasizing the importance of high compression of the D-T fuel, and compares the magnetic confinement fusion and inertial confinement fusion approaches. The next few chapters discuss in detail the basic concepts of ICF: the hydrodynamics of a spherically imploding capsule, ignition and energy gain. This is followed by a thorough discussion of the physics of thermal waves, ablative drive and hydrodynamic instabilities, with primary focus on the Rayleigh--Taylor instability. The book also contains very useful chapters discussing the properties of hot dense matter (ionization balance, equation of state and opacity) and the interaction of laser and energetic ion beams with plasma. The book is based on and reflects the research interests of the authors and, more generally, the European activity in this area. This could explain why, in my opinion, some topics are covered in less detail than they deserve, e.g. the chapter on hohlraum physics is too brief. On the other hand, the appearance in the book of an interesting chapter on the concept of

  19. Development and Flight Test of a Robust Optical-Inertial Navigation System Using Low-Cost Sensors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nielsen, Michael B

    2008-01-01

    .... This algorithm provides an alternative to the Global Positioning System (GPS) as a precision navigation source, enabling navigation in GPS denied environments, using low-cost sensors and equipment...

  20. On inertial range scaling laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, J.C.

    1994-12-01

    Inertial-range scaling laws for two- and three-dimensional turbulence are re-examined within a unified framework. A new correction to Kolmogorov's k -5/3 scaling is derived for the energy inertial range. A related modification is found to Kraichnan's logarithmically corrected two-dimensional enstrophy cascade law that removes its unexpected divergence at the injection wavenumber. The significance of these corrections is illustrated with steady-state energy spectra from recent high-resolution closure computations. The results also underscore the asymptotic nature of inertial-range scaling laws. Implications for conventional numerical simulations are discussed

  1. An Online Solution of LiDAR Scan Matching Aided Inertial Navigation System for Indoor Mobile Mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Niu, Xiaoji; Yu, Tong; Tang, Jian; Chang, Le

    2017-01-01

    Multisensors (LiDAR/IMU/CAMERA) integrated Simultaneous Location and Mapping (SLAM) technology for navigation and mobile mapping in a GNSS-denied environment, such as indoor areas, dense forests, or urban canyons, becomes a promising solution. An online (real-time) version of such system can extremely extend its applications, especially for indoor mobile mapping. However, the real-time response issue of multisensors is a big challenge for an online SLAM system, due to the different sampling f...

  2. A Highly Automated, Wireless Inertial Measurement Unit Based System for Monitoring Gym-Based Push-Start Training Sessions by Bob-Skeleton Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark GAFFNEY

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Inertial Measurement Units (WIMUs are increasingly used to improve our understanding of complex human motion scenarios. In sports this allows for more valid coaching, selection and training methods leading to improved athletic performance. The Push-Start in the Winter Olympic sport of Bob-Skeleton is poorly understood but believed to be critical to performance. At the University of Bath a piece of gym-based equipment called the “Assassin” used by athletes to practice the Push-Start was instrumented with a custom WIMU system to investigate this motion regime. A test subject performed 36 runs, comprising 3 runs at each of 12 combinations of 3 Incline and 4 Weight settings. A developed algorithm automatically identified valid data-files, extracted the Pushing-Phase Acceleration data, and estimated sled Velocity and Displacement. The average velocities derived from an existing Light-Gate and WIMU data-files were comparable, with an average Root Mean Squared Error of 0.105 meters per second over the 52 valid WIMU data-files identified, covering 11 of the 12 Weight and Incline settings. Additional investigation of WIMU data revealed information such as: step count; track incline; and whether weights had been added could be determined, although further verification and validation of these features are required. Such an automated WIMU-based system could replace performance monitoring methods such as Light-Gates, providing higher fidelity performance data, additional information on equipment setup with lower-cost and greater ease-of-use by coaches or athletes. Its portable and modular nature also allow use with other training scenarios or equipment, such as using additional on-body WIMUs, or use with outdoor and ice-track sleds, enabling performance monitoring from the gym to the ice-track for improved candidate selection, comparison and training in Bob-Skeleton and other ice-track based sled sports.

  3. A novel visual-inertial monocular SLAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Wenjuan; Xu, Li; Liu, JiangGuo

    2018-02-01

    With the development of sensors and computer vision research community, cameras, which are accurate, compact, wellunderstood and most importantly cheap and ubiquitous today, have gradually been at the center of robot location. Simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) using visual features, which is a system getting motion information from image acquisition equipment and rebuild the structure in unknown environment. We provide an analysis of bioinspired flights in insects, employing a novel technique based on SLAM. Then combining visual and inertial measurements to get high accuracy and robustness. we present a novel tightly-coupled Visual-Inertial Simultaneous Localization and Mapping system which get a new attempt to address two challenges which are the initialization problem and the calibration problem. experimental results and analysis show the proposed approach has a more accurate quantitative simulation of insect navigation, which can reach the positioning accuracy of centimeter level.

  4. Computation and brain processes, with special reference to neuroendocrine systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toni, Roberto; Spaletta, Giulia; Casa, Claudia Della; Ravera, Simone; Sandri, Giorgio

    2007-01-01

    The development of neural networks and brain automata has made neuroscientists aware that the performance limits of these brain-like devices lies, at least in part, in their computational power. The computational basis of a. standard cybernetic design, in fact, refers to that of a discrete and finite state machine or Turing Machine (TM). In contrast, it has been suggested that a number of human cerebral activites, from feedback controls up to mental processes, rely on a mixing of both finitary, digital-like and infinitary, continuous-like procedures. Therefore, the central nervous system (CNS) of man would exploit a form of computation going beyond that of a TM. This "non conventional" computation has been called hybrid computation. Some basic structures for hybrid brain computation are believed to be the brain computational maps, in which both Turing-like (digital) computation and continuous (analog) forms of calculus might occur. The cerebral cortex and brain stem appears primary candidate for this processing. However, also neuroendocrine structures like the hypothalamus are believed to exhibit hybrid computional processes, and might give rise to computational maps. Current theories on neural activity, including wiring and volume transmission, neuronal group selection and dynamic evolving models of brain automata, bring fuel to the existence of natural hybrid computation, stressing a cooperation between discrete and continuous forms of communication in the CNS. In addition, the recent advent of neuromorphic chips, like those to restore activity in damaged retina and visual cortex, suggests that assumption of a discrete-continuum polarity in designing biocompatible neural circuitries is crucial for their ensuing performance. In these bionic structures, in fact, a correspondence exists between the original anatomical architecture and synthetic wiring of the chip, resulting in a correspondence between natural and cybernetic neural activity. Thus, chip "form

  5. Light-water reactors reference system classification for the European reliability data system (ERDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melis, M.; Mancini, G.

    1982-01-01

    The reference system classification represents a basic stage in the organization of the European reliability data system (ERDS) for light-water reactors, a project actually in development at the Joint Research Centre, Ispra. This project is concerned with operational reliability data collection from the various ''national'' data banks, and centralization in a European reliability data system, so improving the significance of the resulting reliability evaluations. In the framework of the ERDS project, the reference system classification provides a LWR functional break-down and represents a plant-unique identification in the process of homogenization of event-data coming from the various ''national'' organizations. The report, after a brief description of the main objectives of the ERDS project, reviews the criteria followed in the elaboration of the reference system classification; then the detailed classification is presented. The nuclear power station is subdivided in about 180 systems. To each system a sheet is associated, containing: a comprehensive description of system-functions and boundaries; a descritpion of the plant operating mode, linked to the various system functions; a list of the main interface system; and finally, a list of the main components, including type and safety classification

  6. Demonstration of a time-integrated short line of sight neutron imaging system for inertial confinement fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, R., E-mail: raspberry@lanl.gov; Danly, C.; Fatherley, V. E.; Merrill, F. E.; Volegov, P.; Wilde, C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Christensen, K.; Fittinghoff, D.; Grim, G. P.; Izumi, N.; Jedlovec, D.; Skulina, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    The Neutron Imaging System (NIS) is an important diagnostic for understanding implosions of deuterium-tritium capsules at the National Ignition Facility. While the detectors for the existing system must be positioned 28 m from the source to produce sufficient imaging magnification and resolution, recent testing of a new short line of sight neutron imaging system has shown sufficient resolution to allow reconstruction of the source image with quality similar to that of the existing NIS on a 11.6 m line of sight. The new system used the existing pinhole aperture array and a stack of detectors composed of 2 mm thick high-density polyethylene converter material followed by an image plate. In these detectors, neutrons enter the converter material and interact with protons, which recoil and deposit energy within the thin active layer of the image plate through ionization losses. The described system produces time-integrated images for all neutron energies passing through the pinhole. We present details of the measurement scheme for this novel technique to produce energy-integrated neutron images as well as source reconstruction results from recent experiments at NIF.

  7. Inertial confinement fusion: present status and future potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    Power from inertial confinement fusion holds much promise for society. This paper points out many of the benefits relative to combustion of hydrocarbon fuels and fission power. Potential problems are also identified and put in perspective. The progress toward achieving inertial fusion power is described and results of recent work at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory are presented. Key phenomenological uncertainties are described and experimental goals for the Nova laser system are given. Several ICF reactor designs are discussed

  8. [Potential of using inertial sensors in high level sports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzova, T K; Andreev, D A; Shchukin, A I

    2013-01-01

    The article thoroughly covers development of wireless inertial sensors technology in medicine. The authors describe main criteria of diagnostic value of inertial sensors, advantages and prospects of using these systems in sports medicine, in comparison with other conventional methods of biomechanical examination in sports medicine. The results obtained necessitate further development of this approach, specifically creation of algorithms and methods of biomechanic examination of highly qualified athletes in high achievements sports.

  9. Developing inertial fusion energy - Where do we go from here?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, W.R.; Logan, G.

    1996-01-01

    Development of inertial fusion energy (IFE) will require continued R ampersand D in target physics, driver technology, target production and delivery systems, and chamber technologies. It will also require the integration of these technologies in tests and engineering demonstrations of increasing capability and complexity. Development needs in each of these areas are discussed. It is shown how IFE development will leverage off the DOE Defense Programs funded inertial confinement fusion (ICF) work

  10. Heavy ion drivers for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.

    1983-01-01

    The advantages of heavy ion beams as a way of delivering the needed energy and power to an inertial fusion target are surveyed. The existing broad technology base of particle accelerators provides an important foundation for designing, costing, and evaluating proposed systems. The sequence of steps needed for the verification of the heavy ion approach is described; recent research results are even more encouraging than had been assumed hitherto

  11. Heavy ion drivers for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.

    1983-12-01

    The advantages of heavy ion beams as a way of delivering the needed energy and power to an inertial fusion target are surveyed. The existing broad technology base of particle accelerators provides an important foundation for designing, costing, and evaluating proposed systems. The sequence of steps needed for the verification of the heavy ion approach is described; recent research results are even more encouraging than had been assumed hitherto

  12. Twenty years of ''Nuclear Fusion''. Inertial confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, C.

    1980-01-01

    Inertial confinement (ICF) fusion research is directed towards demonstrating the feasibility of very rapidly heating and compressing small pellets of suitable fuel until conditions exist where thermonuclear fusion can occur and useful amounts of power can be produced. Major problems which have to be solved are the following: 1) pellet design based on driver-plasma coupling; 2) the technology of energy drivers; 3) feasibility of ICF reactor systems

  13. Alignment and Calibration of Optical and Inertial Sensors Using Stellar Observations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Veth, Mike; Raquet, John

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft navigation information (position, velocity, and attitude) can be determined using optical measurements from an imaging sensor pointed toward the ground combined with an inertial navigation system...

  14. An Online Solution of LiDAR Scan Matching Aided Inertial Navigation System for Indoor Mobile Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoji Niu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Multisensors (LiDAR/IMU/CAMERA integrated Simultaneous Location and Mapping (SLAM technology for navigation and mobile mapping in a GNSS-denied environment, such as indoor areas, dense forests, or urban canyons, becomes a promising solution. An online (real-time version of such system can extremely extend its applications, especially for indoor mobile mapping. However, the real-time response issue of multisensors is a big challenge for an online SLAM system, due to the different sampling frequencies and processing time of different algorithms. In this paper, an online Extended Kalman Filter (EKF integrated algorithm of LiDAR scan matching and IMU mechanization for Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV indoor navigation system is introduced. Since LiDAR scan matching is considerably more time consuming than the IMU mechanism, the real-time synchronous issue is solved via a one-step-error-state-transition method in EKF. Stationary and dynamic field tests had been performed using a UGV platform along typical corridor of office building. Compared to the traditional sequential postprocessed EKF algorithm, the proposed method can significantly mitigate the time delay of navigation outputs under the premise of guaranteeing the positioning accuracy, which can be used as an online navigation solution for indoor mobile mapping.

  15. Physics of inertial confinement pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mead, W.C.

    1979-01-01

    An overview of inertial confinement fusion pellet physics is given. A discussion is presented of current estimated ICF driver requirements and a couple of pellet examples. The physics of driver/plasma coupling for two drivers which are being considered, namely a laser driver and a heavy ion accelerator driver, is described. Progress towards inertial confinement fusion that has been made using laser drivers in target experiments to date is discussed

  16. Role of the magnetospheric convection and inertial forces informing the planetary structure of the ionosphere-protonosphere system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saenko, Yu.S.; Natsvalyan, N.S.; Tepenitsyna, N.Yu.; Shagimuratov, I.I.

    1991-01-01

    Mechanisms of forming the planetary distribution of concentrations and fluxes of basic O + and H + ions are investigated on the base of a three-dimensional nonstationary model of ionosphere-protonosphere system. The leading role of diffusion, drifts and inertia in the formation of such structural features as equatorial anomaly, mid-latitudinal gap, polar tail in F2-layer and plasmosphere, plasmosphere, plasma gap and polar wind in protonosphere, as well as regions with increased concentrations of heavy O + ions in the polar wind and plasmosphere, is demonstrated

  17. Plant Friendly Input Design for Parameter Estimation in an Inertial System with Respect to D-Efficiency Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiktor Jakowluk

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available System identification, in practice, is carried out by perturbing processes or plants under operation. That is why in many industrial applications a plant-friendly input signal would be preferred for system identification. The goal of the study is to design the optimal input signal which is then employed in the identification experiment and to examine the relationships between the index of friendliness of this input signal and the accuracy of parameter estimation when the measured output signal is significantly affected by noise. In this case, the objective function was formulated through maximisation of the Fisher information matrix determinant (D-optimality expressed in conventional Bolza form. As setting such conditions of the identification experiment we can only talk about the D-suboptimality, we quantify the plant trajectories using the D-efficiency measure. An additional constraint, imposed on D-efficiency of the solution, should allow one to attain the most adequate information content  from the plant which operating point is perturbed in the least invasive (most friendly way. A simple numerical example, which clearly demonstrates the idea presented in the paper, is included and discussed.

  18. Prospects for developing attractive inertial fusion concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornwall, T.; Bodner, S.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Hogan, W.; Storm, E.; VanDevender, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    The authors discuss the role of inertial fusion in relationship to defense activities as well as in relation to energy alternatives. Other general advantages to inertial fusion besides maintaining the system more cheaply and easily, are discussed such as certain designs and the use of very short wavelength with a very modest laser intensity. A discussion on the direct illumination approach is offered. The progress made in high-gain target physics and the potential for development of solid-state lasers as a potential multimegajoule driver and a potential high-rep-rate fusion driver are discussed. Designs for reaction chambers are examined, as is the heavy-ion fusion program. Light-ion accelerators are also discussed

  19. Radon-daughter chamber instrumentation system reference manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Showalter, R.; Johnson, L.

    1985-01-01

    The radon-daughter chamber instrumentation system collects environmental data from the radon-daughter chamber. These data are then recorded on a Tandberg system tape cartridge and transmitted to the HP-1000 computer for processing. Generators which inject radon and condensation nuclei into the chamber are also included with the instrumentation system

  20. Summary of inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindl, J.

    2003-01-01

    There has been rapid progress in inertial fusion since the last IAEA meeting. This progress spans the construction of ignition facilities, a wide range of target concepts, and the pursuit of integrated programs to develop fusion energy using lasers and ion beams. Two ignition facilities are under construction (NIF in the U.S. and LMJ in France) and both projects are progressing toward an initial experimental capability. The LIL prototype beamline for LMJ and the first 4 beams of NIF will be available for experiments in about 1 year. Ignition experiments are expected to begin in 7-9 years at both facilities. There is steady progress in the target science and target fabrication in preparation for indirect drive ignition experiments on NIF and LMJ. Advanced target designs may lead to 5-10 times more yield than initial target designs. There has been excellent progress on the science of ion beam and z-pinch driven indirect drive targets. Excellent progress on direct-drive targets have been obtained at the University of Rochester. This includes improved performance of targets with a pulse shape predicted to result in reduced hydrodynamic instability. Rochester has also obtained encouraging results from initial cryogenic implosions. There is widespread interest in the science of fast ignition because of its potential for achieving higher target gain with lower driver energy and relaxed target fabrication requirements. Researchers from Osaka have achieved outstanding implosion and heating results from the Gekko Petawatt facility. A broad based program to develop lasers and ions beams for IFE is under way with excellent progress in drivers, chambers, target fabrication and target injection. KrF and Diode Pumped Solid-State lasers (DPSSL) are being developed in conjunction with dry-wall chambers and direct drive targets. Induction accelerators for heavy ions are being developed in conjunction with thick-liquid protected wall chambers and indirect-drive targets. (author)

  1. Active Vibration Isolation Devices with Inertial Servo Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melik-Shakhnazarov, V. A.; Strelov, V. I.; Sofiyanchuk, D. V.; Tregubenko, A. A.

    2018-03-01

    The use of active vibration isolation devices (AVIDs) in aerospace engineering is subject to the following restrictions. First, the volume for installing additional devices is always limited in instrument racks and compartments. Secondly, in many cases, it is impossible to add supports for servo actuators for fundamental or design considerations. In the paper, it has been shown that this problem can be solved if the inertial servo actuators are used in AVIDs instead of reference actuators. A transfer function has been theoretically calculated for an AVID controlled by inertial actuators. It has been shown that the volume of a six-mode single-housing AVID with inertial actuators can be 2-2.5 times smaller than that of devices with support actuators.

  2. The Nuclear Science References (NSR) database and Web Retrieval System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pritychenko, B.; Betak, E.; Kellett, M.A.; Singh, B.; Totans, J.

    2011-01-01

    The Nuclear Science References (NSR) database together with its associated Web interface is the world's only comprehensive source of easily accessible low- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics bibliographic information for more than 200,000 articles since the beginning of nuclear science. The weekly updated NSR database provides essential support for nuclear data evaluation, compilation and research activities. The principles of the database and Web application development and maintenance are described. Examples of nuclear structure, reaction and decay applications are specifically included. The complete NSR database is freely available at the websites of the National Nuclear Data Center (http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/nsr) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (http://www-nds.iaea.org/nsr).

  3. Jason: heavy-ion-driven inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callan, C.G. Jr.; Dashen, R.F.; Garwin, R.L.; Muller, R.A.; Richter, B.; Rosenbluth, M.N.

    1978-02-01

    A few of the problems in heavy-ion-driven inertial-fusion systems are reviewed. Nothing was found within the scope of this study that would in principle bar such systems from delivering the energy and peak power required to ignite the fuel pellet. Indeed, ion-fusion seems to show great promise, but the conceptual design of ion-fusion systems is still in a primitive state. A great deal of work, mostly theoretical, remains to be done before proceeding with massive hardware development. Conclusions are given about the state of the work

  4. Strap-Down Inertial Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-05-01

    variant, and position fixes can be obtained from line-of-sight. otr-horizon, or correlator type (Terrain contour, radiometfic) systgm. ABIA R.D.V...I W eond, the sensor frort" part of the si~tltfitc esrvmant. ABIA author. 77/00100 77A407,0 THE DYNAMICALLY TUNED GYROSkWE A SENSOR FOR LOW COST

  5. A Methodology For Developing an Agent Systems Reference Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    agent framworks , we create an abstraction noting similarities and differences. The differences are documented as points of variation. The result...situated in the physical en- vironment. Addressing how conceptual components of an agent system is beneficial to agent system architects, developers, and

  6. Advances in Geologic Disposal System Modeling and Shale Reference Cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariner, Paul E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stein, Emily R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Frederick, Jennifer M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sevougian, S. David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hammond, Glenn Edward [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-22

    The Spent Fuel and Waste Science and Technology (SFWST) Campaign of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), Office of Fuel Cycle Technology (OFCT) is conducting research and development (R&D) on geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high level nuclear waste (HLW). Two high priorities for SFWST disposal R&D are design concept development and disposal system modeling (DOE 2011, Table 6). These priorities are directly addressed in the SFWST Generic Disposal Systems Analysis (GDSA) work package, which is charged with developing a disposal system modeling and analysis capability for evaluating disposal system performance for nuclear waste in geologic media (e.g., salt, granite, shale, and deep borehole disposal).

  7. A Reference Model for Software and System Inspections. White Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lulu; Shull, Forrest

    2009-01-01

    Software Quality Assurance (SQA) is an important component of the software development process. SQA processes provide assurance that the software products and processes in the project life cycle conform to their specified requirements by planning, enacting, and performing a set of activities to provide adequate confidence that quality is being built into the software. Typical techniques include: (1) Testing (2) Simulation (3) Model checking (4) Symbolic execution (5) Management reviews (6) Technical reviews (7) Inspections (8) Walk-throughs (9) Audits (10) Analysis (complexity analysis, control flow analysis, algorithmic analysis) (11) Formal method Our work over the last few years has resulted in substantial knowledge about SQA techniques, especially the areas of technical reviews and inspections. But can we apply the same QA techniques to the system development process? If yes, what kind of tailoring do we need before applying them in the system engineering context? If not, what types of QA techniques are actually used at system level? And, is there any room for improvement.) After a brief examination of the system engineering literature (especially focused on NASA and DoD guidance) we found that: (1) System and software development process interact with each other at different phases through development life cycle (2) Reviews are emphasized in both system and software development. (Figl.3). For some reviews (e.g. SRR, PDR, CDR), there are both system versions and software versions. (3) Analysis techniques are emphasized (e.g. Fault Tree Analysis, Preliminary Hazard Analysis) and some details are given about how to apply them. (4) Reviews are expected to use the outputs of the analysis techniques. In other words, these particular analyses are usually conducted in preparation for (before) reviews. The goal of our work is to explore the interaction between the Quality Assurance (QA) techniques at the system level and the software level.

  8. Nuclear emergency response exercises and decision support systems - integrating domestic experience with international reference systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavnicu, D.S.; Vamanu, D.V.; Gheorghiu, D.; Acasandrei, V.T.; Slavnicu, E.

    2010-01-01

    The paper glosses on the experience of a research-oriented team routinely involved in emergency preparedness and response management activities, with the assimilation, implementation, and application of decision support systems (DSS) of continental reference in Europe, and the development of supportive, domestic radiological assessment tools. Two exemplary nuclear alert exercises are discussed, along with solutions that emerged during drill planning and execution, to make decision support tools of various origins and strength to work synergistically and complement each other. (authors)

  9. Inertial Fusion Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mima, K

    2012-09-15

    In 1917, Albert Einstein suggested the theory of stimulated emission of light that led to the development of the laser. The first laser, based on Einstein's theory, was demonstrated by the Maiman experiment in 1960. In association with the invention and developments of the laser, N.G. Basov, A. Prokorov and C.H. Towns received the Nobel prize for physics in 1963. On the other hand, it had been recognized that nuclear fusion energy is the energy source of our universe. It is the origin of the energy in our sun and in the stars. Right after the laser oscillation experiment, it was suggested by J. Nuckolls, E. Teller and S. Colgate in the USA and A. Sakharov in the USSR that nuclear fusion induced by lasers be used to solve the energy problem. Following the suggestion, the pioneering works for heating plasmas to a thermonuclear temperature with a laser were published by N. Basov, O.N. Krohin, J.M. Dawson, C.R. Kastler, H. Hora, F. Flux and S. Eliezer. The new concept of fusion ignition and burn by laser 'implosion' was proposed by J. Nuckolls, which extended the spherically imploding shock concept discovered by G. Guderley to the laser fusion concept. Since then, laser fusion research has started all over the world. For example, many inertial fusion energy (IFE) facilities have been constructed for investigating implosion physics: Lasers: GEKKO I, GEKKO II, GEKKO IV, GEKKO MII and GEKKO xII at ILE, Osaka University, Japan; JANUS, CYCLOPS, ARUGUS, SHIVA and NOVA at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), USA; OMEGA at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), University of Rochester, USA; PHEBUS at Limeil, Paris, France; the ASTERIx iodine laser at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik (IPP), Garching, Germany; MPI, GLECO at the Laboratoire d'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses (LULI), ecole Polytecnique, France; HELIOS at Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA; Shengan II at the Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, China; VULCAN at the Rutherford

  10. Solid municipal waste management: Systems and reference technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciancio, G.; Mura, A.

    1993-03-01

    The management of solid municipal wastes comprises simple methods such as dumping into suitably controlled waste disposal sites, and more complex solutions, which can include waste segregation, some form of materials and/or energy recovery, and the use of combined cycle combustion systems. All these methods, however, require environmental protection systems with custom designed techniques, equipment and safeguards. This paper reviews the technical-economic aspects of different pollution control options currently available to meet the specific requirements of various waste management alternatives

  11. A global reference model of the domain name system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koc, Y.; Jamakovic, A.; Gijsen, B.M.M.

    2012-01-01

    The domain name system (DNS) is a crucial component of the Internet. At this time, the DNS is facing major changes such as the introduction of DNSSEC and Internationalized Domain Name extensions (IDNs), the adoption of IPv6 and the upcoming extension of new generic top-level domains. These changes

  12. Phase modulated high density collinear holographic data storage system with phase-retrieval reference beam locking and orthogonal reference encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinpeng; Horimai, Hideyoshi; Lin, Xiao; Huang, Yong; Tan, Xiaodi

    2018-02-19

    A novel phase modulation method for holographic data storage with phase-retrieval reference beam locking is proposed and incorporated into an amplitude-encoding collinear holographic storage system. Unlike the conventional phase retrieval method, the proposed method locks the data page and the corresponding phase-retrieval interference beam together at the same location with a sequential recording process, which eliminates piezoelectric elements, phase shift arrays and extra interference beams, making the system more compact and phase retrieval easier. To evaluate our proposed phase modulation method, we recorded and then recovered data pages with multilevel phase modulation using two spatial light modulators experimentally. For 4-level, 8-level, and 16-level phase modulation, we achieved the bit error rate (BER) of 0.3%, 1.5% and 6.6% respectively. To further improve data storage density, an orthogonal reference encoding multiplexing method at the same position of medium is also proposed and validated experimentally. We increased the code rate of pure 3/16 amplitude encoding method from 0.5 up to 1.0 and 1.5 using 4-level and 8-level phase modulation respectively.

  13. 49 CFR 614.101 - Cross-reference to management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cross-reference to management systems. 614.101... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT § 614.101 Cross-reference to management systems. The regulations in 23 CFR Part 500, subparts A and B shall be followed in...

  14. Industry's role in inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    This paper is an address to the Tenth Symposium on Fusion Engineering. The speaker first addressed the subject of industry's role in inertial fusion three years earlier in 1980, outlining programs that included participation in the Shiva construction project, and the industrial participants' program set up in the laser fusion program to bring industrial scientists and engineers into the laboratory to work on laser fusion. The speaker is now the president of KMS Fusion, Inc., the primary industrial participant in the inertial fusion program. The outlook for fusion energy and the attitude of the federal government toward the fusion program is discussed

  15. Physical habitat simulation system reference manual: version II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milhous, Robert T.; Updike, Marlys A.; Schneider, Diane M.

    1989-01-01

    There are four major components of a stream system that determine the productivity of the fishery (Karr and Dudley 1978). These are: (1) flow regime, (2) physical habitat structure (channel form, substrate distribution, and riparian vegetation), (3) water quality (including temperature), and (4) energy inputs from the watershed (sediments, nutrients, and organic matter). The complex interaction of these components determines the primary production, secondary production, and fish population of the stream reach. The basic components and interactions needed to simulate fish populations as a function of management alternatives are illustrated in Figure I.1. The assessment process utilizes a hierarchical and modular approach combined with computer simulation techniques. The modular components represent the "building blocks" for the simulation. The quality of the physical habitat is a function of flow and, therefore, varies in quality and quantity over the range of the flow regime. The conceptual framework of the Incremental Methodology and guidelines for its application are described in "A Guide to Stream Habitat Analysis Using the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology" (Bovee 1982). Simulation of physical habitat is accomplished using the physical structure of the stream and streamflow. The modification of physical habitat by temperature and water quality is analyzed separately from physical habitat simulation. Temperature in a stream varies with the seasons, local meteorological conditions, stream network configuration, and the flow regime; thus, the temperature influences on habitat must be analysed on a stream system basis. Water quality under natural conditions is strongly influenced by climate and the geological materials, with the result that there is considerable natural variation in water quality. When we add the activities of man, the possible range of water quality possibilities becomes rather large. Consequently, water quality must also be analysed on a

  16. Bubble dynamics in microchannels: inertial and capillary migration forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero-Rodriguez, Javier; Scheid, Benoit

    2018-05-01

    This work focuses on the dynamics of a train of unconfined bubbles flowing in microchan- nels. We investigate the transverse position of a train of bubbles, its velocity and the associated pressure drop when flowing in a microchannel depending on the internal forces due to viscosity, inertia and capillarity. Despite the small scales of the system, inertia, referred to as inertial migration force, play a crucial role in determining the transverse equilibrium position of the bubbles. Beside inertia and viscosity, other effects may also affect the transverse migration of bubbles such as the Marangoni surface stresses and the surface deformability. We look at the influence of surfactants in the limit of infinite Marangoni effect which yields rigid bubble interface. The resulting migration force may balance external body forces if present such as buoyancy, Dean or magnetic ones. This balance not only determines the transverse position of the bubbles but, consequently, the surrounding flow structure, which can be determinant for any mass/heat transfer process involved. Finally, we look at the influence of the bubble deformation on the equilibrium position and compare it to the inertial migration force at the centred position, explaining the stable or unstable character of this position accordingly. A systematic study of the influence of the parameters - such as the bubble size, uniform body force, Reynolds and capillary numbers - has been carried out using numerical simulations based on the Finite Element Method, solving the full steady Navier-Stokes equations and its asymptotic counterpart for the limits of small Reynolds and/or capillary numbers.

  17. Painting recognition with smartphones equipped with inertial measurement unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiero, Andrea; Guarnieri, Alberto; Pirotti, Francesco; Vettore, Antonio

    2015-06-01

    Recently, several works have been proposed in the literature to take advantage of the diffusion of smartphones to improve people experience during museum visits. The rationale is that of substituting traditional written/audio guides with interactive electronic guides usable on a mobile phone. Augmented reality systems are usually considered to make the use of such electronic guides more effective for the user. The main goal of such augmented reality system (i.e. providing the user with the information of his/her interest) is usually achieved by properly executing the following three tasks: recognizing the object of interest to the user, retrieving the most relevant information about it, properly presenting the retrieved information. This paper focuses on the first task: we consider the problem of painting recognition by means of measure- ments provided by a smartphone. We assume that the user acquires one image of the painting of interest with the standard camera of the device. This image is compared with a set of reference images of the museum objects in order to recognize the object of interest to the user. Since comparing images taken in different conditions can lead to unsatisfactory recognition results, the acquired image is typically properly transformed in order to improve the results of the recognition system: first, the system estimates the homography between properly matched features in the two images. Then, the user image is transformed accordingly to the estimated homography. Finally, it is compared with the reference one. This work proposes a novel method to exploit inertial measurement unit (IMU) measurements to improve the system performance, in particular in terms of computational load reduction: IMU measurements are exploited to reduce both the computational burden required to estimate the transformation to be applied to the user image, and the number of reference images to be compared with it.

  18. Tremor analysis by decomposition of acceleration into gravity and inertial acceleration using inertial measurement unit

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šprdlík, Otakar; Hurák, Z.; Hoskovcová, M.; Ulmanová, O.; Růžička, E.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 3 (2011), s. 269-289 ISSN 1746-8094 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0567 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Tremor * Accelerometer * Inertial measurementunit * Gravitational artifact * Regression * Tremor ratingscale Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2011 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/TR/sprdlik-0350248.pdf

  19. Data quality system using reference dictionaries and edit distance algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbarz, Radosław; Mulawka, Jan

    2015-09-01

    The real art of management it is important to make smart decisions, what in most of the cases is not a trivial task. Those decisions may lead to determination of production level, funds allocation for investments etc. Most of the parameters in decision-making process such as: interest rate, goods value or exchange rate may change. It is well know that these parameters in the decision-making are based on the data contained in datamarts or data warehouse. However, if the information derived from the processed data sets is the basis for the most important management decisions, it is required that the data is accurate, complete and current. In order to achieve high quality data and to gain from them measurable business benefits, data quality system should be used. The article describes the approach to the problem, shows the algorithms in details and their usage. Finally the test results are provide. Test results show the best algorithms (in terms of quality and quantity) for different parameters and data distribution.

  20. Inertial thermonuclear fusion by laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watteau, J.P.

    1993-12-01

    The principles of deuterium tritium (DT) magnetic or inertial thermonuclear fusion are given. Even if results would be better with heavy ions beams, most of the results on fusion are obtained with laser beams. Technical and theoretical aspects of the laser fusion are presented with an extrapolation to the future fusion reactor. (A.B.). 34 refs., 17 figs

  1. High performance inertial fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuckolls, J.H.; Bangerter, R.O.; Lindl, J.D.; Mead, W.C.; Pan, Y.L.

    1977-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) designs are considered which may have very high gains (approximately 1000) and low power requirements (<100 TW) for input energies of approximately one megajoule. These include targets having very low density shells, ultra thin shells, central ignitors, magnetic insulation, and non-ablative acceleration

  2. High performance inertial fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuckolls, J.H.; Bangerter, R.O.; Lindl, J.D.; Mead, W.C.; Pan, Y.L.

    1978-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target designs are considered which may have very high gains (approximately 1000) and low power requirements (< 100 TW) for input energies of approximately one megajoule. These include targets having very low density shells, ultra thin shells, central ignitors, magnetic insulation, and non-ablative acceleration

  3. Centrifuges and inertial shear forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, van J.J.W.A.; Folgering, H.T.E.; Bouten, C.V.C.; Smit, T.H.

    2004-01-01

    Centrifuges are often used in biological studies for 1xg control samples in space flight microgravity experiments as well as in ground based research. Using centrifugation as a tool to generate an Earth like acceleration introduces unwanted inertial shear forces to the sample. Depending on the

  4. Hydrodynamic instabilities in inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, N.M.

    1994-01-01

    This report discusses topics on hydrodynamics instabilities in inertial confinement: linear analysis of Rayleigh-Taylor instability; ablation-surface instability; bubble rise in late-stage Rayleigh-Taylor instability; and saturation and multimode interactions in intermediate-stage Rayleigh-Taylor instability

  5. Physical measurements of inertial-fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinstein, B.W.

    1981-01-01

    Measurement of inertial-fusion targets has stimulated the development of many new techniques and instruments. This paper reviews the basis for selected target measurement requirements and the development of optical interferometry, optical scattering, microradiography and scanning electron microscopy as applied to target measurement. We summarize the resolution and speed which have been achieved to date, and describe several systems in which these are traded off to fill specific measurement applications. We point out the extent to which present capabilities meet the requirements for target measurement and the key problems which remain to be solved

  6. Inaccuracies when mixing coordinate reference frameworks in a system of systems simulation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Duvenhage, B

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available commonly used are flat and spherical earth. Another well known ERM is the World Geodetic System from 1984 (WGS 84). For the purposes of this paper the authors however focus on the simpler flat and spherical earth models with example coordinate... words, the equatorial and pole to pole diameters of the earth, as modelled in this ERM, are equal. This paper will use the term ‘real world’ ERMs to refer to spherical, WGS 84 and better ERM approximations. A. The Earth-Centred, Earth...

  7. Speed Sensorless Control of PMSM using Model Reference Adaptive System and RBFN

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Gao; Zhirong Guo

    2013-01-01

    In the speed sensorless vector control system, the amended method of estimating the rotor speed about model reference adaptive system (MRAS) based on radial basis function neural network (RBFN) for PMSM sensorless vector control system was presented. Based on the PI regulator, the radial basis function neural network which is more prominent learning efficiency and performance is combined with MRAS. The reference model and the adjust model are the PMSM itself and the PMSM current, respectively...

  8. Sensorimotor Adaptation Following Exposure to Ambiguous Inertial Motion Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, S. J.; Clement, G. R.; Rupert, A. H.; Reschke, M. F.; Harm, D. L.; Guedry, F. E.

    2007-01-01

    The central nervous system must resolve the ambiguity of inertial motion sensory cues in order to derive accurate spatial orientation awareness. Adaptive changes in how inertial cues from the otolith system are integrated with other sensory information lead to perceptual and postural disturbances upon return to Earth s gravity. The primary goals of this ground-based research investigation are to explore physiological mechanisms and operational implications of tilt-translation disturbances during and following re-entry, and to evaluate a tactile prosthesis as a countermeasure for improving control of whole-body orientation during tilt and translation motion.

  9. An implicit adaptation algorithm for a linear model reference control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabius, L.; Kaufman, H.

    1975-01-01

    This paper presents a stable implicit adaptation algorithm for model reference control. The constraints for stability are found using Lyapunov's second method and do not depend on perfect model following between the system and the reference model. Methods are proposed for satisfying these constraints without estimating the parameters on which the constraints depend.

  10. The Necessity of Real-Time: Fact and Fiction in Digital Reference Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankes, R. David; Shostack, Pauline

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of digital reference services and the use of real-time versus asynchronous services such as email focuses on data from the AskERIC digital reference service to demonstrate that asynchronous services are not only useful but may have greater utility than real-time systems. (Author/LRW)

  11. Inertial wave beams and inertial wave modes in a rotating cylinder with time-modulated rotation rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcia, Ion D.; Ghasemi V., Abouzar; Harlander, Uwe

    2014-05-01

    Inertial gravity waves play an crucial role in atmospheres, oceans, and the fluid inside of planets and moons. In the atmosphere, the effect of rotation is neglected for small wavelength and the waves bear the character of internal gravity waves. For long waves, the hydrostatic assumption is made which in turn makes the atmosphere inelastic with respect to inertial motion. In contrast, in the Earth's interior, pure inertial waves are considered as an important fundamental part of the motion. Moreover, as the deep ocean is nearly homogeneous, there the inertial gravity waves bear the character of inertial waves. Excited at the oceans surface mainly due to weather systems the waves can propagate downward and influence the deep oceans motion. In the light of the aforesaid it is important to understand better fundamental inertial wave dynamics. We investigate inertial wave modes by experimental and numerical methods. Inertial modes are excited in a fluid filled rotating annulus by modulating the rotation rate of the outer cylinder and the upper and lower lids. This forcing leads to inertial wave beams emitted from the corner regions of the annulus due to periodic motions in the boundary layers (Klein et al., 2013). When the forcing frequency matches with the eigenfrequency of the rotating annulus the beam pattern amplitude is increasing, the beams broaden and mode structures can be observed (Borcia et al., 2013a). The eigenmodes are compared with analytical solutions of the corresponding inviscid problem (Borcia et al, 2013b). In particular for the pressure field a good agreement can be found. However, shear layers related to the excited wave beams are present for all frequencies. This becomes obvious in particular in the experimental visualizations that are done by using Kalliroscope particles, highlighting relative motion in the fluid. Comparing the eigenfrequencies we find that relative to the analytical frequencies, the experimental and numerical ones show a small

  12. 3D gait assessment in young and elderly subjects using foot-worn inertial sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mariani, B.; Hoskovec, C.; Rochat, S.; Büla, C.; Penders, J.; Aminian, K.

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the validation of a new wearable system for assessment of 3D spatial parameters of gait. The new method is based on the detection of temporal parameters, coupled to optimized fusion and de-drifted integration of inertial signals. Composed of two wirelesses inertial modules

  13. Reference Concepts for a Space-Based Hydrogen-Oxygen Combustion, Turboalternator, Burst Power System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edenburn, Michael

    1990-01-01

    This report describes reference concepts for a hydrogen-oxygen combustion, turboalternator power system that supplies power during battle engagement to a space-based, ballistic missile defense platform...

  14. Initial Stage Reference Search : Driver Simulators to Test Shared Controls, Limited Autonomy Vehicle Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This literature review and reference scanning focuses on the use of driver simulators for semiautonomous (or shared control) vehicle systems (2012present), including related research from other modes of transportation (e.g., rail or aviation). Foc...

  15. A reference system for animal biometrics: application to the northern leopard frog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovska-Delacretaz, D.; Edwards, A.; Chiasson, J.; Chollet, G.; Pilliod, D.S.

    2014-01-01

    Reference systems and public databases are available for human biometrics, but to our knowledge nothing is available for animal biometrics. This is surprising because animals are not required to give their agreement to be in a database. This paper proposes a reference system and database for the northern leopard frog (Lithobates pipiens). Both are available for reproducible experiments. Results of both open set and closed set experiments are given.

  16. Theory of gravitational-inertial field of universe. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davtyan, O.K.

    1978-01-01

    A generalization of the real world tensor by the introduction of a inertial field tensor is proposed. On the basis of variational equations a system of more general covariant equations of the gravitational-inertial field is obtained. In the Einstein approximation these equations reduce to the field equations of Einstein. The solution of fundamental problems in the general theory of relativity by means of the new equations gives the same results as the solution by means of Einstein's equations. However, application of these equations to the cosmologic problem gives a result different from that obtained by Friedmann's theory. In particular, the solution gives the Hubble law as the law of motion of a free body in the inertial field - in contrast to Galileo-Newton's law. (author)

  17. Decoherence and Multipartite Entanglement of Non-Inertial Observers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramzan, M.

    2012-01-01

    The decoherence effect on multipartite entanglement in non-inertial frames is investigated. The GHZ state is considered to be shared between partners with one partner in the inertial frame whereas the other two are in accelerated frames. One-tangle and π-tangles are used to quantify the entanglement of the multipartite system influenced by phase damping and phase flip channels. It is seen that for the phase damping channel, entanglement sudden death (ESD) occurs for p > 0.5 in the infinite acceleration limit. On the other hand, in the case of the phase flip channel, ESD behavior occurs at p = 0.5. It is also seen that entanglement sudden birth (ESB) occurs in the case of phase flip channel just after ESD, i.e. p > 0.5. Furthermore, it is seen that the effect of the environment on multipartite entanglement is much stronger than that of the acceleration of non-inertial frames. (general)

  18. Sourcebook for energy assessment. [Reference Energy Systems for 1972-2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beller, M. (ed.)

    1975-12-01

    An analytical approach is presented that is broadly applicable to the assessment of energy technologies and policies. Using the Reference Energy System approach, it permits the examination of the economic, environmental, and resource implications resulting from the substitution of one fuel or technology for another. Included as tools for such analyses are the necessary data and methodology, as well as a set of Reference Energy Systems covering the 1972-2020 period to serve as baselines for the perturbation analyses of interest. 46 tables, 25 figures, 71 references.

  19. Microencapsulation and fabrication of fuel pellets for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolen, R.L. Jr.; Kool, L.B.

    1981-01-01

    Various microencapsulation techniques were evaluated for fabrication of thermonuclear fuel pellets for use in existing experimental facilities studying inertial confinement fusion and in future fusion-power reactors. Coacervation, spray drying, in situ polymerization, and physical microencapsulation methods were employed. Highly spherical, hollow polymeric shells were fabricated ranging in size from 20 to 7000 micron. In situ polymerization microencapsulation with poly(methyl methacrylate) provided large shells, but problems with local wall defects still must be solved. Extension to other polymeric systems met with limited success. Requirements for inertial confinement fusion targets are described, as are the methods that were used

  20. Sampling and Control Circuit Board for an Inertial Measurement Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelmins, David T (Inventor); Powis, Richard T., Jr. (Inventor); Sands, Obed (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A circuit board that serves as a control and sampling interface to an inertial measurement unit ("IMU") is provided. The circuit board is also configured to interface with a local oscillator and an external trigger pulse. The circuit board is further configured to receive the external trigger pulse from an external source that time aligns the local oscillator and initiates sampling of the inertial measurement device for data at precise time intervals based on pulses from the local oscillator. The sampled data may be synchronized by the circuit board with other sensors of a navigation system via the trigger pulse.

  1. Inertial cavitation threshold of nested microbubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, N; Dicker, S; Lewin, Peter; Wrenn, S P

    2015-04-01

    Cavitation of ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) promotes both beneficial and detrimental bioeffects in vivo (Radhakrishnan et al., 2013) [1]. The ability to determine the inertial cavitation threshold of UCA microbubbles has potential application in contrast imaging, development of therapeutic agents, and evaluation of localized effects on the body (Ammi et al., 2006) [2]. This study evaluates a novel UCA and its inertial cavitation behavior as determined by a home built cavitation detection system. Two 2.25 MHz transducers are placed at a 90° angle to one another where one transducer is driven by a high voltage pulser and the other transducer receives the signal from the oscillating microbubble. The sample chamber is placed in the overlap of the focal region of the two transducers where the microbubbles are exposed to a pulser signal consisting of 600 pulse trains per experiment at a pulse repetition frequency of 5 Hz where each train has four pulses of four cycles. The formulation being analyzed is comprised of an SF6 microbubble coated by a DSPC PEG-3000 monolayer nested within a poly-lactic acid (PLA) spherical shell. The effect of varying shell diameters and microbubble concentration on cavitation threshold profile for peak negative pressures ranging from 50 kPa to 2 MPa are presented and discussed in this paper. The nesting shell decreases inertial cavitation events from 97.96% for an un-nested microbubble to 19.09% for the same microbubbles nested within a 2.53 μm shell. As shell diameter decreases, the percentage of inertially cavitating microbubbles also decreases. For nesting formulations with average outer capsule diameters of 20.52, 14.95, 9.95, 5.55, 2.53, and 1.95 μm, the percentage of sample destroyed at 1 MPa was 51.02, 38.94, 33.25, 25.27, 19.09, and 5.37% respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Inertial-confinement-fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets are made as simple flat discs, as hollow shells or as complicated multilayer structures. Many techniques have been devised for producing the targets. Glass and metal shells are made by using drop and bubble techniques. Solid hydrogen shells are also produced by adapting old methods to the solution of modern problems. Some of these techniques, problems and solutions are discussed. In addition, the applications of many of the techniques to fabrication of ICF targets is presented

  3. Measurement of inertial confinement fusion reaction rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Xiaoshi; Wang Feng; Tang Daorun; Liu Shenye; Huang Tianxuan; Liu Yonggang; Xu Tao; Chen Ming; Mei Yu

    2011-01-01

    Fusion reaction rate is an important parameter for measuring compression during the implosion in inertial confinement fusion experiment. We have developed a system for fusion reaction history measurement with high temporal resolution. The system is composed of plastic scintillator and nose cone, optical system and streak camera. We have applied this system on the SG-III prototype for fusion reaction rate measuring. For the first time, fusion reaction rate history have been measured for deuterium-tritium filled targets with neutrons yields about 10 10 . We have analyzed possible influence factor during fusion reaction rate measuring. It indicates that the instrument measures fusion reaction bang time at temporal resolutions as low as 30 ps.(authors)

  4. The inertial attitude augmentation for ambiguity resolution in SF/SE-GNSS attitude determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiancheng; Hu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Jingyu; Li, Tao; Wang, Jinling; Wu, Meiping

    2014-06-26

    The Unaided Single Frequency/Single Epoch Global Navigation Satellite System (SF/SE GNSS) model is the most challenging scenario for ambiguity resolution in the GNSS attitude determination application. To improve the performance of SF/SE-GNSS ambiguity resolution without excessive cost, the Micro-Electro-Mechanical System Inertial Measurement Unit (MEMS-IMU) is a proper choice for the auxiliary sensor that carries out the inertial attitude augmentation. Firstly, based on the SF/SE-GNSS compass model, the Inertial Derived Baseline Vector (IDBV) is defined to connect the MEMS-IMU attitude measurement with the SF/SE-GNSS ambiguity search space, and the mechanism of inertial attitude augmentation is revealed from the perspective of geometry. Then, through the quantitative description of model strength by Ambiguity Dilution of Precision (ADOP), two ADOPs are specified for the unaided SF/SE-GNSS compass model and its inertial attitude augmentation counterparts, respectively, and a sufficient condition is proposed for augmenting the SF/SE-GNSS model strength with inertial attitude measurement. Finally, in the framework of an integer aperture estimator with fixed failure rate, the performance of SF/SE-GNSS ambiguity resolution with inertial attitude augmentation is analyzed when the model strength is varying from strong to weak. The simulation results show that, in the SF/SE-GNSS attitude determination application, MEMS-IMU can satisfy the requirements of ambiguity resolution with inertial attitude augmentation.

  5. The Inertial Attitude Augmentation for Ambiguity Resolution in SF/SE-GNSS Attitude Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiancheng; Hu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Jingyu; Li, Tao; Wang, Jinling; Wu, Meiping

    2014-01-01

    The Unaided Single Frequency/Single Epoch Global Navigation Satellite System (SF/SE GNSS) model is the most challenging scenario for ambiguity resolution in the GNSS attitude determination application. To improve the performance of SF/SE-GNSS ambiguity resolution without excessive cost, the Micro-Electro-Mechanical System Inertial Measurement Unit (MEMS-IMU) is a proper choice for the auxiliary sensor that carries out the inertial attitude augmentation. Firstly, based on the SF/SE-GNSS compass model, the Inertial Derived Baseline Vector (IDBV) is defined to connect the MEMS-IMU attitude measurement with the SF/SE-GNSS ambiguity search space, and the mechanism of inertial attitude augmentation is revealed from the perspective of geometry. Then, through the quantitative description of model strength by Ambiguity Dilution of Precision (ADOP), two ADOPs are specified for the unaided SF/SE-GNSS compass model and its inertial attitude augmentation counterparts, respectively, and a sufficient condition is proposed for augmenting the SF/SE-GNSS model strength with inertial attitude measurement. Finally, in the framework of an integer aperture estimator with fixed failure rate, the performance of SF/SE-GNSS ambiguity resolution with inertial attitude augmentation is analyzed when the model strength is varying from strong to weak. The simulation results show that, in the SF/SE-GNSS attitude determination application, MEMS-IMU can satisfy the requirements of ambiguity resolution with inertial attitude augmentation. PMID:24971472

  6. Inertial fusion experiments and theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mima, Kunioki; Tikhonchuk, V.; Perlado, M.

    2011-01-01

    Inertial fusion research is approaching a critical milestone, namely the demonstration of ignition and burn. The world's largest high-power laser, the National Ignition Facility (NIF), is under operation at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), in the USA. Another ignition machine, Laser Mega Joule (LMJ), is under construction at the CEA/CESTA research centre in France. In relation to the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) at LLNL, worldwide studies on inertial fusion applications to energy production are growing. Advanced ignition schemes such as fast ignition, shock ignition and impact ignition, and the inertial fusion energy (IFE) technology are under development. In particular, the Fast Ignition Realization Experiment (FIREX) at the Institute of Laser Engineering (ILE), Osaka University, and the OMEGA-EP project at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), University Rochester, and the HiPER project in the European Union (EU) for fast ignition and shock ignition are progressing. The IFE technology research and development are advanced in the frameworks of the HiPER project in EU and the LIFE project in the USA. Laser technology developments in the USA, EU, Japan and Korea were major highlights in the IAEA FEC 2010. In this paper, the status and prospects of IFE science and technology are described.

  7. Inertial objects in complex flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Rayhan; Ho, George; Cavas, Samuel; Bao, Jialun; Yecko, Philip

    2017-11-01

    Chaotic Advection and Finite Time Lyapunov Exponents both describe stirring and transport in complex and time-dependent flows, but FTLE analysis has been largely limited to either purely kinematic flow models or high Reynolds number flow field data. The neglect of dynamic effects in FTLE and Lagrangian Coherent Structure studies has stymied detailed information about the role of pressure, Coriolis effects and object inertia. We present results of laboratory and numerical experiments on time-dependent and multi-gyre Stokes flows. In the lab, a time-dependent effectively two-dimensional low Re flow is used to distinguish transport properties of passive tracer from those of small paramagnetic spheres. Companion results of FTLE calculations for inertial particles in a time-dependent multi-gyre flow are presented, illustrating the critical roles of density, Stokes number and Coriolis forces on their transport. Results of Direct Numerical Simulations of fully resolved inertial objects (spheroids) immersed in a three dimensional (ABC) flow show the role of shape and finite size in inertial transport at small finite Re. We acknowledge support of NSF DMS-1418956.

  8. Design, Fabrication, and Testing of the INSTAR [INertial STorage And Recovery] System: A Flywheel-based, High Power Energy Storage System for Improved Hybrid Vehicle Fuel Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Talancon, Daniel Raul

    2015-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of the INSTAR system: a high-power, cost-effective energy storage system designed to improve HEV regenerative braking capabilities by combining chemical batteries with an electromechanical flywheel. This combination allows the regenerative braking system in hybrid vehicles to recapture more available braking energy at a lower battery pack charging current, increasing vehicle energy efficiency while also potentially increasing battery life.A prototype flyw...

  9. Characterisation of pristine Polish river systems and their use as reference conditions for Dutch river systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, R.C.; Verdonschot, P.F.M.; Piechocki, A.; Tonczyk, G.; Klukowska, M.

    2006-01-01

    A central feature of the European Water Framework Directive are the reference conditions. The ecological quality status is determined by calculating the distance between the present situation and the reference conditions. To describe reference conditions the natural variation of biota in pristine

  10. Inertial confinement fusion diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, L.W.

    1986-10-01

    The concept and goals of ICF will be briefly reviewed and the new 100 kJ class Nova laser facility will be described. Experimental results obtained to date with Nova will be summarized, and the discussions of diagnostics will use examples on the present capabilities of Nova and new developments that are underway. The classes of diagnostic systems to be discussed fall into three basic categories: optical, x-ray, and particle. Examples of highly space resolved, time resolved, and spectrally resolved techniques as well as schemes involving combinations of these capabilities will be presented. A brief summary of the sophisticated acquisition and analysis system in use for Nova data will be provided

  11. Camera-marker and inertial sensor fusion for improved motion tracking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roetenberg, D.; Veltink, P.H.

    2005-01-01

    A method for combining a camera-marker based motion analysis system with miniature inertial sensors is proposed. It is used to fill gaps of optical data and can increase the data rate of the optical system.

  12. Normalization references for USEtoxTM-based toxic impact categories: North American and European economic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurent, Alexis; Lautier, Anne; Rosenbaum, Ralph K.

    2011-01-01

    economic regions, North America and Europe, to calculate normalization references for the three currently-modelled USEtoxTM-based impact categories, i.e. freshwater ecotoxicity, human toxicity, divided into cancer effects and non-cancer effects. Base years for the references are 2004 for Europe and 2006...... coverage of organics in both the inventory and the CF databases. With respect to the intended global character of the USEtoxTM model, different approaches to determine normalization references of other economic systems (e.g. Asia or world) are discussed in relation to these findings. Overall, we thus...... recommend the use of the provided set of normalization references for USEtoxTM, but we also advocate 1) to perform an update as soon as a more comprehensive inventory can be obtained and as soon as characterization factors for metals are revised; 2) to consider extension to other economic systems in order...

  13. Design and implementation of predictive filtering system for current reference generation of active power filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilic, Tomislav; Milun, Stanko; Petrovic, Goran [FESB University of Split, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Machine Engineering and Naval Architecture, R. Boskovica bb, 21000, Split (Croatia)

    2007-02-15

    The shunt active power filters are used to attenuate the harmonic currents in power systems by injecting equal but opposite compensating currents. Successful control of the active filters requires an accurate current reference. In this paper the current reference determination based on predictive filtering structure is presented. Current reference was obtained by taking the difference of load current and its fundamental harmonic. For fundamental harmonic determination with no time delay a combination of digital predictive filter and low pass filter is used. The proposed method was implemented on a laboratory prototype of a three-phase active power filter. The algorithm for current reference determination was adapted and implemented on DSP controller. Simulation and experimental results show that the active power filter with implemented predictive filtering structure gives satisfactory performance in power system harmonic attenuation. (author)

  14. Inertial fusion reactor designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, W.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper, a variety of reactor concepts are proposed. One of the prime concerns is dealing with the x-rays and debris that are emitted by the target. Internal neutron shielding can reduce radiation damage and activation, leading to longer life systems, reduced activation and fewer safety concerns. There is really no consensus on what the best reactor concept is at this point. There has been virtually no chamber technology development to date. This is the flip side of the coin of the separability of the target physics and the reactor design. Since reactor technology has not been required to do target experiments, it's not being developed. Economic analysis of conceptual designs indicates that ICF can be economically competitive with magnetic fusion, fission and fossil plants

  15. Performance Guaranteed Inertia Emulation forDiesel-Wind System Feed Microgrid via ModelReference Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melin, Alexander M. [ORNL; Zhang, Yichen [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK), Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science; Djouadi, Seddik [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK), Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science; Olama, Mohammed M. [ORNL

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, a model reference control based inertia emulation strategy is proposed. Desired inertia can be precisely emulated through this control strategy so that guaranteed performance is ensured. A typical frequency response model with parametrical inertia is set to be the reference model. A measurement at a specific location delivers the information of disturbance acting on the diesel-wind system to the referencemodel. The objective is for the speed of the diesel-wind system to track the reference model. Since active power variation is dominantly governed by mechanical dynamics and modes, only mechanical dynamics and states, i.e., a swing-engine-governor system plus a reduced-order wind turbine generator, are involved in the feedback control design. The controller is implemented in a three-phase diesel-wind system feed microgrid. The results show exact synthetic inertia is emulated, leading to guaranteed performance and safety bounds.

  16. Inertial Gait Phase Detection for control of a drop foot stimulator: Inertial sensing for gait phase detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotiadis, D.; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Veltink, Petrus H.

    An Inertial Gait Phase Detection system was developed to replace heel switches and footswitches currently being used for the triggering of drop foot stimulators. A series of four algorithms utilising accelerometers and gyroscopes individually and in combination were tested and initial results are

  17. Water Quality in Small Community Distribution Systems. A Reference Guide for Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed this reference guide to assist the operators and managers of small- and medium-sized public water systems. This compilation provides a comprehensive picture of the impact of the water distribution system network on dist...

  18. Evaluation of different inertial control methods for variable-speed wind turbines simulated by fatigue, aerodynamic, structures and turbulence (FAST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiao; Gao, Wenzhong; Scholbrock, Andrew; Muljadi, Eduard; Gevorgian, Vahan; Wang, Jianhui; Yan, Weihang; Zhang, Huaguang

    2017-10-18

    To mitigate the degraded power system inertia and undesirable primary frequency response caused by large-scale wind power integration, the frequency support capabilities of variable-speed wind turbines is studied in this work. This is made possible by controlled inertial response, which is demonstrated on a research turbine - controls advanced research turbine, 3-bladed (CART3). Two distinct inertial control (IC) methods are analysed in terms of their impacts on the grids and the response of the turbine itself. The released kinetic energy in the IC methods are determined by the frequency measurement or shaped active power reference in the turbine speed-power plane. The wind turbine model is based on the high-fidelity turbine simulator fatigue, aerodynamic, structures and turbulence, which constitutes the aggregated wind power plant model with the simplified power converter model. The IC methods are implemented over the baseline CART3 controller, evaluated in the modified 9-bus and 14-bus testing power grids considering different wind speeds and different wind power penetration levels. The simulation results provide various insights on designing such kinds of ICs. The authors calculate the short-term dynamic equivalent loads and give a discussion about the turbine structural loadings related to the inertial response.

  19. Environmental systems analysis of biogas systems-Part II: The environmental impact of replacing various reference systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerjesson, Pal; Berglund, Maria

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses the overall environmental impact when biogas systems are introduced and replace various reference systems for energy generation, waste management and agricultural production. The analyses are based on Swedish conditions using a life-cycle perspective. The biogas systems included are based on different combinations of raw materials and final use of the biogas produced (heat, power and transportation fuel). A general conclusion is that biogas systems normally lead to environmental improvements, which in some cases are considerable. This is often due to indirect environmental benefits of changed land use and handling of organic waste products (e.g. reduced nitrogen leaching, emissions of ammonia and methane), which often exceed the direct environmental benefits achieved when fossil fuels are replaced by biogas (e.g. reduced emissions of carbon dioxide and air pollutants). Such indirect benefits are seldom considered when biogas is evaluated from an environmental point of view. The environmental impact from different biogas systems can, however, vary significantly due to factors such as the raw materials utilised, energy service provided and reference system replaced

  20. A New Calibration Methodology for Thorax and Upper Limbs Motion Capture in Children Using Magneto and Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Ricci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in wearable sensor technologies for motion capture have produced devices, mainly based on magneto and inertial measurement units (M-IMU, that are now suitable for out-of-the-lab use with children. In fact, the reduced size, weight and the wireless connectivity meet the requirement of minimum obtrusivity and give scientists the possibility to analyze children’s motion in daily life contexts. Typical use of magneto and inertial measurement units (M-IMU motion capture systems is based on attaching a sensing unit to each body segment of interest. The correct use of this setup requires a specific calibration methodology that allows mapping measurements from the sensors’ frames of reference into useful kinematic information in the human limbs’ frames of reference. The present work addresses this specific issue, presenting a calibration protocol to capture the kinematics of the upper limbs and thorax in typically developing (TD children. The proposed method allows the construction, on each body segment, of a meaningful system of coordinates that are representative of real physiological motions and that are referred to as functional frames (FFs. We will also present a novel cost function for the Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm, to retrieve the rotation matrices between each sensor frame (SF and the corresponding FF. Reported results on a group of 40 children suggest that the method is repeatable and reliable, opening the way to the extensive use of this technology for out-of-the-lab motion capture in children.

  1. The Influence of Gravito-Inertial Force on Sensorimotor Integration and Reflexive Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curthoys, Ian S.; Guedry, Fred E.; Merfeld, Daniel M.; Watt, Doug G. D.; Tomko, David L.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Sensorimotor responses (e.g.. eye movements, spinal reflexes, etc depend upon the interpretation of the neural signals from the sensory systems. Since neural signals from the otoliths may represent either tilt (gravity) or translation (linear inertial force), sensory signals from the otolith organs are necessarily somewhat ambiguous. Therefore. the neural responses to changing otolith signals depend upon the context of the stimulation (e.g- active vs. passive, relative orientation of gravity, etc.) as well as upon other sensory signals (e.g., vision. canals, etc.). This session will focus upon the -role -played by the sensory signals from the otolith organs in producing efficient sensorimotor and behavioral responses. Curthoys will show the influence of the peripheral anatomy and physiology. Tomko will discuss the influence of tilt and translational otolith signals on eye movements. Merfeld will demonstrate the rate otolith organs play during the interaction of sensory signals from the canals and otoliths. Watt will show the influence of the otoliths on spinal/postural responses. Guedry will discuss the contribution of vestibular information to "path of movement"' perception and to the development of a stable vertical reference. Sensorimotor responses to the ambiguous inertial force stimulation provide an important tool to investigate how the nervous system processes patterns of sensory information and yields functional sensorimotor responses.

  2. Inertial fusion in the nineties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.; Dudziak, D.J.; Cartwright, D.C.

    1987-01-01

    The 1980s have proven to be an exciting time for the inertial confinement fusion (ICF) program. Major new laser and light-ion drivers have been constructed and have produced some encouraging results. The 1990s will be a crucial time for the ICF program. A decision for proceeding with the next facility is scheduled for the early 1990s. If the decision is positive, planning and construction of this facility will occur. Depending on the time required for design and construction, this next-generation facility could become operational near the turn of the century

  3. Inertial confinement fusion at NRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodner, S.E.; Boris, J.P.; Cooperstein, G.

    1979-01-01

    The NRL Inertial Confinement Fusion Program's emphasis has moved toward pellet concepts which use longer (approximately 10ns) lower intensity driver pulses than previously assumed. For laser drivers, this change was motivated by recent experiments at NRL with enhanced stimulated Brillouin backscatter. For ion drivers, the motivation is the possibility that substantial energy at 10-ns pulse lengths may soon be available. To accept these 10-ns pulses, it may be necessary to consider pellets of larger radius and thinner shell. The computational studies of Rayleigh-Taylor instability at NRL indicate the possibility of a dynamic stabilization of these thinner shells. (author)

  4. Adaptive inertial shock-absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faraj, Rami; Holnicki-Szulc, Jan; Knap, Lech; Seńko, Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces and discusses a new concept of impact absorption by means of impact energy management and storage in dedicated rotating inertial discs. The effectiveness of the concept is demonstrated in a selected case-study involving spinning management, a recently developed novel impact-absorber. A specific control technique performed on this device is demonstrated to be the main source of significant improvement in the overall efficiency of impact damping process. The influence of various parameters on the performance of the shock-absorber is investigated. Design and manufacturing challenges and directions of further research are formulated. (paper)

  5. The System For Co-Reference Resolution For Slovenian Texts Analysis and Possibilities of its Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Holozan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Co-reference resolution is an important part of language technologies, but has not yet been developed for Slovenian. There are various types of co-references and the paper focuses on anaphora resolution of personal pronouns. Seven methods, used in combination, were used; the most important one is based on activation. First results are promising, but for more extensive evaluation, Slovenian corpus with marked examples is needed. Co-reference resolution was used in the question answering system Crammer, which can, as a result, answer more questions than before, because it can replace personal pronouns. At the same time, some other improvement were added to Crammer, e.g. answering to individual words and phrases and answering to declarative sentences. Added was also generation of long answers to questions with interrogative particles. Co-reference resolution also improved working of Presis machine translation, especially for determining of gender of pronouns and for disambiguation of attributive subordinate clauses.

  6. Data reference and retrieval system for Richton Dome, Mississippi: annual status report for fiscal year 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    The Geologic Data Base for Richton Dome, Mississippi, was updated and expanded in FY 82 to support National Waste Terminal Storage characterization studies. The existing data base, consisting of references, maps, remote sensing data, and well-boring information, was inventoried to catalog the data acquired during previous studies. This catalog is maintained on Ertec's in-house computer. Bibliographies of selected documents were reviewed and commercial data bases were searched to identify additional references pertinent to future geologic characterization studies to be added to the data base. In addition to the references, selected preliminary safety analysis report sections and associated reports for nuclear generating stations, oil and gas well completion records, and US Geological Survey System 2000 hydrologic data were obtained for specific areas of Mississippi and Alabama. These additional data and references provide a comprehensive and current data base for Richton Dome

  7. Semiclassical neutral atom as a reference system in density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, Lucian A; Fabiano, E; Laricchia, S; Della Sala, F

    2011-05-06

    We use the asymptotic expansions of the semiclassical neutral atom as a reference system in density functional theory to construct accurate generalized gradient approximations (GGAs) for the exchange-correlation and kinetic energies without any empiricism. These asymptotic functionals are among the most accurate GGAs for molecular systems, perform well for solid state, and overcome current GGA state of the art in frozen density embedding calculations. Our results also provide evidence for the conjointness conjecture between exchange and kinetic energies of atomic systems.

  8. A STUDY ON DETERMINING THE REFERENCE SPREADING SEQUENCES FOR A DS/CDMACOMMUNICATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cebrail ÇİFTLİKLİ

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available In a direct sequence/code division multiple access (DS/CDMA system, the role of the spreading sequences (codes is crucial since the multiple access interference (MAI is the main performance limitation. In this study, we propose an accurate criterion which enables the determination of the reference spreading codes which yield lower bit error rates (BER's in a given code set for a DS/CDMA system using despreading sequences weighted by stepping chip waveforms. The numerical results show that the spreading codes determined by the proposed criterion are the most suitable codes for using as references.

  9. Functional representation for the grand partition function of a multicomponent system of charged particles: Correlation functions of the reference system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V.Patsahan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the method of collective variables (CV with a reference system, the exact expression for the functional of the grand partition function of a m-component ionic model with charge and size asymmetry is found. Particular attention is paid to the n-th particle correlation functions of the reference system which is presented as a m-component system of "colour" hard spheres of the same diameter. A two-component model is considered in more detail. In this case the recurrence formulas for the correlation functions are found. A general case of a m-component inhomogeneous system of the "colour" hard spheres is also analysed.

  10. The development and validation of using inertial sensors to monitor postural change in resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleadhill, Sam; Lee, James Bruce; James, Daniel

    2016-05-03

    This research presented and validated a method of assessing postural changes during resistance exercise using inertial sensors. A simple lifting task was broken down to a series of well-defined tasks, which could be examined and measured in a controlled environment. The purpose of this research was to determine whether timing measures obtained from inertial sensor accelerometer outputs are able to provide accurate, quantifiable information of resistance exercise movement patterns. The aim was to complete a timing measure validation of inertial sensor outputs. Eleven participants completed five repetitions of 15 different deadlift variations. Participants were monitored with inertial sensors and an infrared three dimensional motion capture system. Validation was undertaken using a Will Hopkins Typical Error of the Estimate, with a Pearson׳s correlation and a Bland Altman Limits of Agreement analysis. Statistical validation measured the timing agreement during deadlifts, from inertial sensor outputs and the motion capture system. Timing validation results demonstrated a Pearson׳s correlation of 0.9997, with trivial standardised error (0.026) and standardised bias (0.002). Inertial sensors can now be used in practical settings with as much confidence as motion capture systems, for accelerometer timing measurements of resistance exercise. This research provides foundations for inertial sensors to be applied for qualitative activity recognition of resistance exercise and safe lifting practices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Inertial confinement fusion and related topics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starodub, A. N.

    2007-01-01

    The current state of different approaches (laser fusion, light and heavy ions, electron beam) to the realization of inertial confinement fusion is considered. From comparative analysis a conclusion is made that from the viewpoint of physics, technology, safety, and economics the most realistic way to future energetics is an electric power plant based on a hybrid fission-fusion reactor which consists of an external source of neutrons (based on laser fusion) and a subcritical two-cascade nuclear blanket, which yields the energy under the action of 14 MeV neutrons. The main topics on inertial confinement fusion such as the energy driver, the interaction between plasmas and driver beam, the target design are discussed. New concept of creation of a laser driver for IFE based on generation and amplification of radiation with controllable coherence is reported. The performed studies demonstrate that the laser based on generation and amplification of radiation with controllable coherence (CCR laser) has a number of advantages as compared to conventional schemes of lasers. The carried out experiments have shown a possibility of suppression of small-scale self-focusing, formation of laser radiation pulses with required characteristics, simplification of an optical scheme of the laser, good matching of laser-target system and achievement of homogeneous irradiation and high output laser energy density without using traditional correcting systems (phase plates, adaptive optics, space filters etc.). The results of the latest experiments to reach ultimate energy characteristics of the developed laser system are also reported. Recent results from the experiments aimed at studying of the physical processes in targets under illumination by the laser with controllable coherence of radiation are presented and discussed, especially such important laser-matter interaction phenomena as absorption and scattering of the laser radiation, the laser radiation harmonic generation, X

  12. RF Phase Reference Distribution System for the TESLA Technology Based Projects

    CERN Document Server

    Czuba, K; Romaniuk, R S

    2013-01-01

    Since many decades physicists have been building particle accelerators and usually new projects became more advanced, more complicated and larger than predecessors. The importance and complexity of the phase reference distribution systems used in these accelerators have grown significantly during recent years. Amongst the most advanced of currently developed accelerators are projects based on the TESLA technology. These projects require synchronization of many RF devices with accuracy reaching femtosecond levels over kilometre distances. Design of a phase reference distribution system fulfilling such requirements is a challenging scientific task. There are many interdisciplinary problems which must be solved during the system design. Many, usually negligible issues, may became very important in such system. Furthermore, the design of a distribution system on a scale required for the TESLA technology based projects is a new challenge and there is almost no literature sufficiently covering this subject. This th...

  13. Inertial fusion and energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzrichter, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    Inertial-confinement fusion (ICF) is a technology for releasing nuclear energy from the fusion of light nuclei. For energy production, the most reactive hydrogen isotopes (deuterium (D) and tritium (T)) are commonly considered. The energy aplication requires the compression of a few milligrams of a DT mixture to great density, approximately 1000 times its liquid-state density, and to a high temperature, nearly 100 million 0 K. Under these conditions, efficient nuclear-fusion reactions occur, which can result in over 30% burn-up of the fusion fuel. The high density and temperature can be achieved by focusing very powerful laser or ion beams onto the target. The resultant ablation of the outer layers of the target compresses the fuel in the target, DT ignition occurs, and burn-up of the fuel results as the thermonuclear burn wave propagates outward. The DT-fuel burn-up occurs in about 199 picoseconds. On this short time scale, inertial forces are sufficiently strong to prevent target disassembly before fuel burn-up occurs. The energy released by the DT fusion is projected to be several hundred times greater than the energy delivered by the driver. The present statuds of ICF technology is described

  14. Systematic Calibration for Ultra-High Accuracy Inertial Measurement Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingzhong Cai

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An inertial navigation system (INS has been widely used in challenging GPS environments. With the rapid development of modern physics, an atomic gyroscope will come into use in the near future with a predicted accuracy of 5 × 10−6°/h or better. However, existing calibration methods and devices can not satisfy the accuracy requirements of future ultra-high accuracy inertial sensors. In this paper, an improved calibration model is established by introducing gyro g-sensitivity errors, accelerometer cross-coupling errors and lever arm errors. A systematic calibration method is proposed based on a 51-state Kalman filter and smoother. Simulation results show that the proposed calibration method can realize the estimation of all the parameters using a common dual-axis turntable. Laboratory and sailing tests prove that the position accuracy in a five-day inertial navigation can be improved about 8% by the proposed calibration method. The accuracy can be improved at least 20% when the position accuracy of the atomic gyro INS can reach a level of 0.1 nautical miles/5 d. Compared with the existing calibration methods, the proposed method, with more error sources and high order small error parameters calibrated for ultra-high accuracy inertial measurement units (IMUs using common turntables, has a great application potential in future atomic gyro INSs.

  15. Empirical evidence for inertial mass anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, M.; Siemieniec, G.

    1985-01-01

    A several attempts at measuring the possible deviations from inertial mass isotropy caused by a non-uniform distribution of matter are reviewed. A simple model of the inertial mass anisotropy and the results of the currently performed measurements concerning this effect are presented. 34 refs. (author)

  16. Spin transport in non-inertial frame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, Debashree, E-mail: debashreephys@gmail.com; Basu, B., E-mail: sribbasu@gmail.com

    2014-09-01

    The influence of acceleration and rotation on spintronic applications is theoretically investigated. In our formulation, considering a Dirac particle in a non-inertial frame, different spin related aspects are studied. The spin current appearing due to the inertial spin–orbit coupling (SOC) is enhanced by the interband mixing of the conduction and valence band states. Importantly, one can achieve a large spin current through the k{sup →}.p{sup →} method in this non-inertial frame. Furthermore, apart from the inertial SOC term due to acceleration, for a particular choice of the rotation frequency, a new kind of SOC term can be obtained from the spin rotation coupling (SRC). This new kind of SOC is of Dresselhaus type and controllable through the rotation frequency. In the field of spintronic applications, utilizing the inertial SOC and SRC induced SOC term, theoretical proposals for the inertial spin filter, inertial spin galvanic effect are demonstrated. Finally, one can tune the spin relaxation time in semiconductors by tuning the non-inertial parameters.

  17. Reference-tracking feedforward control design for linear dynamical systems through signal decomposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasemsinsup, Y.; Romagnoli, R.; Heertjes, M.F.; Weiland, S.; Butler, H.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we study a novel approach towards the reference-tracking feedforward control design for linear dynamical systems. By utilizing the superposition property and exploiting signal decomposition together with a quadratic optimization process, we obtain a feedforward design procedure for

  18. Reference Models of Information Systems Constructed with the use of Technologies of Cloud Calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darya Sergeevna Simonenkova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the research is analysis of various models of the information system constructed with the use of technologies of cloud calculations. Analysis of models is required for constructing a new reference model which will be used for develop a security threats model.

  19. Nouns referring to tools and natural objects differentially modulate the motor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Patricia M; Riggio, Lucia; Chersi, Fabian; Sato, Marc; Fogassi, Leonardo; Buccino, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    While increasing evidence points to a critical role for the motor system in language processing, the focus of previous work has been on the linguistic category of verbs. Here we tested whether nouns are effective in modulating the motor system and further whether different kinds of nouns - those referring to artifacts or natural items, and items that are graspable or ungraspable - would differentially modulate the system. A Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) study was carried out to compare modulation of the motor system when subjects read nouns referring to objects which are Artificial or Natural and which are Graspable or Ungraspable. TMS was applied to the primary motor cortex representation of the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle of the right hand at 150 ms after noun presentation. Analyses of Motor Evoked Potentials (MEPs) revealed that across the duration of the task, nouns referring to graspable artifacts (tools) were associated with significantly greater MEP areas. Analyses of the initial presentation of items revealed a main effect of graspability. The findings are in line with an embodied view of nouns, with MEP measures modulated according to whether nouns referred to natural objects or artifacts (tools), confirming tools as a special class of items in motor terms. Additionally our data support a difference for graspable versus non graspable objects, an effect which for natural objects is restricted to initial presentation of items. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Towards a reference ontology of complex economic exchanges for Accounting Information Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blums, Ivar; Weigand, Hans; Matthes, Flores; Mendling, Jan; Rinderle-Ma, Stefanie

    Although the field of Accounting Information Systems (AIS) has a long tradition, there is still a lack of a widely adopted conceptualization. The Unified Foundational Ontology (UFO) and its Services sub- ontology (UFO-S) are regarded as grounding the engineering of a reference ontology for AIS. The

  1. A new method of 3-D cephalometry Part I: the anatomic Cartesian 3-D reference system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swennen, G.R.J.; Schutyser, F.A.C.; Barth, E.L.; Groeve, P. De; Mey, A. De

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to present a new innovative three-dimensional (3-D) cephalometric method. Part I deals with the set-up and validation of a voxel-based semi-automatic 3-D cephalometric reference system. The CT data (DICOM 3.0 files) of 20 control patients with normal skeletal

  2. The disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste: postclosure assessment of a reference system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, B.W.; McConnell, D.B.; Andres, T.H.

    1994-01-01

    The concept for disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste is based on a vault located deep in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. We document in this report a method to assess the long-term impacts of a disposal facility for nuclear fuel waste. The assessment integrates relevant information from engineering design studies, site investigations, laboratory studies, expert judgment and detailed mathematical analyses to evaluate system performance in terms of safety criteria, guidelines and standards. The method includes the use of quantitative tools such as the Systems Variability Analysis computer Code (SYVAC) to deal with parameter uncertainty and the use of reasoned arguments based on well-established scientific principles. We also document the utility of the method by describing its application to a hypothetical implementation of the concept called the reference disposal system. The reference disposal system generally conforms to the overall characteristics of the concept, except we have made some specific site and design choices so that the assessment would be more realistic. To make the reference system more representative of a real system, we have used the geological observations of the AECL's Whiteshell Research Area located near Lac du Bonnet, Manitoba, to define the characteristics of the geosphere and the groundwater flow system. This research area has been subject to more than a decade of geological and hydrological studies. The analysis of the reference disposal system provides estimates of radiological and chemical toxicity impacts on members of a critical group and estimates of possible impacts on the environment. The latter impacts include estimates of radiation dose to nonhuman organisms. Other quantitative analyses examine the use of derived constraints to improve the margin of safety, the effectiveness of engineered and natural barriers, and the sensitivity of the results to influential features, events, and processes of the reference disposal

  3. A reference dosimetric system for dose interval of radiotherapy based on alanine/RPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues Junior, Orlando; Galante, Ocimar L.; Campos, Leticia L.

    2001-01-01

    This work describes the development of a reference dosimetric system based on alanine/EPR for radiotherapy dose levels. Currently the IPEN is concluding a similar system for the dose range used for irradiation of products, 10-10 5 Gy. The objective of this work is to present the efforts towards to improve the measure accuracy for doses in the range between 1-10 Gy. This system could be used as reference by radiotherapy services, as much in the quality control of the equipment, as for routine accompaniment of more complex handling where the total doses can reach some grays. The system uses alanine as detector and electronic paramagnetic resonance - EPR as measure technique. To reach accuracy better than 5% mathematical studies on the best optimization of the EPR spectrometer parameters and methods for the handling of the EPR sign are discussed. (author)

  4. EUPOS - Satellite multifunctional system of reference stations in Central and Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sledzinski, J.

    2003-04-01

    The European project EUPOS (European Position Determination System) of establishment of a system of multifunctional satellite reference stations in Central and Eastern Europe is described in the paper. Fifteen countries intend to participate in the project: Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Germany, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovak Republic and Slovenia. One common project will be prepared for all countries, however it will include the existing or developed infrastructure in particular countries. The experiences of establishing and operating of the German network SAPOS as well as experiences gained by other countries will be used. The European network of stations will be compatible with the system SAPOS and future European system Galileo. The network of reference stations will provide signal for both positioning of the geodetic control points and for land, air and marine navigation. Several levels of positioning accuracy will be delivered.

  5. Inertial fusion with hypervelocity impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olariu, S.

    1998-01-01

    The physics of the compression and ignition processes in inertial fusion is to a certain extent independent of the nature of the incident energy pulse. The present strategy in the field of inertial fusion is to study several alternatives of deposition of the incident energy, and, at the same time, of conducting studies with the aid of available incident laser pulses. In a future reactor based on inertial fusion, the laser beams may be replaced by ion beams, which have a better energy efficiency. The main projects in the field of inertial fusion are the National Ignition Facility (NIF) in USA, Laser Megajoule (LMJ) in France, Gekko XII in Japan and Iskra V in Russia. NIF will be constructed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, in California. LMJ will be constructed near Bordeaux. In the conventional approach to inertial confinement fusion, both the high-density fuel mass and the hot central spot are supposed to be produced by the deposition of the driver energy in the outer layers of the fuel capsule. Alternatively, the driver energy could be used only to produce the radial compression of the fuel capsule to high densities but relatively low temperatures, while the ignition of fusion reactions in the compressed capsule should be effected by a synchronized hypervelocity impact. Using this arrangement, it was supposed that a 54 μm projectile is incident with a velocity of 3 x 10 6 m s -1 upon a large-yield deuterium-tritium target at rest. The collision of the incident projectile and of the large-yield target takes place inside a high-Z cavity. A laser or heavy-ion pulse is converted at the walls of the cavity into X-rays, which compresses the incident projectile and the large-yield target in high-density states. The laser pulse and the movement of the incident projectile are synchronized such that the collision should take place when the densities are the largest. The collision converts the kinetic energy of the incident projectile into thermal energy, the

  6. Initial testing of a neutron activation analysis system by analysing standard reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhaimi Hamzah; Roslan Idris; Abdul Khalik Haji Wood; Che Seman Mahmood; Abdul Rahim Mohamad Noor.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the data acquisition and processing system in our laboratories (ND6600), the methods of activation analysis and the results obtained from our analysis of IAEA standard reference material (SL-l lake sediments and NBS coal ash 1632a). These standards were analysed in order to check the capability of the system, which was designed in such a way as to enable the user to independently collect and process data from multiple radiation detectors. (author)

  7. Climate mitigation comparison of woody biomass systems with the inclusion of land-use in the reference fossil system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haus, S.; Gustavsson, L.; Sathre, R.

    2014-01-01

    While issues of land-use have been considered in many direct analyses of biomass systems, little attention has heretofore been paid to land-use in reference fossil systems. Here we address this limitation by comparing forest biomass systems to reference fossil systems with explicit consideration of land-use in both systems. We estimate and compare the time profiles of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and cumulative radiative forcing (CRF) of woody biomass systems and reference fossil systems. A life cycle perspective is used that includes all significant elements of both systems, including GHG emissions along the full material and energy chains. We consider the growth dynamics of forests under different management regimes, as well as energy and material substitution effects of harvested biomass. We determine the annual net emissions of CO 2 , N 2 O and CH 4 for each system over a 240-year period, and then calculate time profiles of CRF as a proxy measurement of climate change impact. The results show greatest potential for climate change mitigation when intensive forest management is applied in the woody biomass system. This methodological framework provides a tool to help determine optimal strategies for managing forests so as to minimize climate change impacts. The inclusion of land-use in the reference system improves the accuracy of quantitative projections of climate benefits of biomass-based systems. - Highlights: • We analyze the dynamics of GHG emissions from woody biomass and fossil systems. • With a life cycle perspective, we account for forest land-use in both systems. • Replacing more carbon intensive fossil fuels gives greater climate benefit. • Increasing the intensity of forest management gives greater climate benefit. • Methodological choices in defining temporal system boundaries are important

  8. The Absolute Stability Analysis in Fuzzy Control Systems with Parametric Uncertainties and Reference Inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bing-Fei; Ma, Li-Shan; Perng, Jau-Woei

    This study analyzes the absolute stability in P and PD type fuzzy logic control systems with both certain and uncertain linear plants. Stability analysis includes the reference input, actuator gain and interval plant parameters. For certain linear plants, the stability (i.e. the stable equilibriums of error) in P and PD types is analyzed with the Popov or linearization methods under various reference inputs and actuator gains. The steady state errors of fuzzy control systems are also addressed in the parameter plane. The parametric robust Popov criterion for parametric absolute stability based on Lur'e systems is also applied to the stability analysis of P type fuzzy control systems with uncertain plants. The PD type fuzzy logic controller in our approach is a single-input fuzzy logic controller and is transformed into the P type for analysis. In our work, the absolute stability analysis of fuzzy control systems is given with respect to a non-zero reference input and an uncertain linear plant with the parametric robust Popov criterion unlike previous works. Moreover, a fuzzy current controlled RC circuit is designed with PSPICE models. Both numerical and PSPICE simulations are provided to verify the analytical results. Furthermore, the oscillation mechanism in fuzzy control systems is specified with various equilibrium points of view in the simulation example. Finally, the comparisons are also given to show the effectiveness of the analysis method.

  9. Development of picture quality monitoring system for IPTV service based on the reduced reference framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Osamu; Kawada, Ryoichi; Koike, Atsushi

    2006-01-01

    The authors developed a software-based realtime IPTV monitoring system based on Reduced Reference framework, and evaluated the proposed system. One of the quality issues of the IPTV service is the picture quality degradation caused by packet loss. The proposed system precisely estimates the PSNR of the corrupted received picture by extracting and comparing image features from transmission and receiver side. Computer simulations show that PSNR estimation with a 0.945 correlation coefficient at a data channel bitrate of 36kbps is possible using the proposed system.

  10. System for effluent treatment with particular reference to the reuse of the water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolke, O.E.

    1979-01-01

    A system for effluent treatment with particular reference to the reuse of the water consisted of biological treatment, flocculation, filtration, activated carbon adsorption and ion exchange. Such a multistage system is needed to treat wastewaters from coal gasification and coke-oven plants since the effluents, derived from cooling water for scrubbers, waste heat boilers, and heat exchangers, contains high levels of phenols, fatty acids, ammonia, suspended tar oil, and coal particles. A pilot plant, which has been built based on the system, will produce water of sufficient quality for reuse as cooling water. It is hoped that cooling systems for coal gasification plants can be 90% closed circuit.

  11. Inertial Sensor-Based Robust Gait Analysis in Non-Hospital Settings for Neurological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Tunca

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The gold standards for gait analysis are instrumented walkways and marker-based motion capture systems, which require costly infrastructure and are only available in hospitals and specialized gait clinics. Even though the completeness and the accuracy of these systems are unquestionable, a mobile and pervasive gait analysis alternative suitable for non-hospital settings is a clinical necessity. Using inertial sensors for gait analysis has been well explored in the literature with promising results. However, the majority of the existing work does not consider realistic conditions where data collection and sensor placement imperfections are imminent. Moreover, some of the underlying assumptions of the existing work are not compatible with pathological gait, decreasing the accuracy. To overcome these challenges, we propose a foot-mounted inertial sensor-based gait analysis system that extends the well-established zero-velocity update and Kalman filtering methodology. Our system copes with various cases of data collection difficulties and relaxes some of the assumptions invalid for pathological gait (e.g., the assumption of observing a heel strike during a gait cycle. The system is able to extract a rich set of standard gait metrics, including stride length, cadence, cycle time, stance time, swing time, stance ratio, speed, maximum/minimum clearance and turning rate. We validated the spatio-temporal accuracy of the proposed system by comparing the stride length and swing time output with an IR depth-camera-based reference system on a dataset comprised of 22 subjects. Furthermore, to highlight the clinical applicability of the system, we present a clinical discussion of the extracted metrics on a disjoint dataset of 17 subjects with various neurological conditions.

  12. Inertial Motion Capture Costume Design Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Szczęsna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a scalable, wearable multi-sensor system for motion capture based on inertial measurement units (IMUs. Such a unit is composed of accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer. The final quality of an obtained motion arises from all the individual parts of the described system. The proposed system is a sequence of the following stages: sensor data acquisition, sensor orientation estimation, system calibration, pose estimation and data visualisation. The construction of the system’s architecture with the dataflow programming paradigm makes it easy to add, remove and replace the data processing steps. The modular architecture of the system allows an effortless introduction of a new sensor orientation estimation algorithms. The original contribution of the paper is the design study of the individual components used in the motion capture system. The two key steps of the system design are explored in this paper: the evaluation of sensors and algorithms for the orientation estimation. The three chosen algorithms have been implemented and investigated as part of the experiment. Due to the fact that the selection of the sensor has a significant impact on the final result, the sensor evaluation process is also explained and tested. The experimental results confirmed that the choice of sensor and orientation estimation algorithm affect the quality of the final results.

  13. LibraryH3lp: A New Flexible Chat Reference System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pam Sessoms

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available LibraryH3lp is an integrated IM and web chat system designed specifically for Virtual Reference services in libraries. The software was designed for, and is currently used by, a night-time chat reference collaboraton between several large academic libraries. LibraryH3lp is designed for the workflow of chat reference, supporting multiple simultaneous operators and routing to queues of operators in a particular service area. It also supports web page embeddable chat 'widgets', as well as simultaneous gateways to multiple IM protocols. This article discusses the motivation for the development of the software, and provides an overview of LibraryH3lp's features and technical architecture. Parts of LibraryH3lp are available as open source. The complete application is available as a low-cost hosted service, and will eventually be available to be licensed for local hosting.

  14. Summary on inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer-Ter-Vehn, J.

    1995-01-01

    Highlights on inertial confinement during the fifteenth international conference on plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion are briefly summarized. Specifically the following topics are discussed: the US National Ignition Facility presently planned by the US Department of Energy; demonstration of diagnostics for hot spot formation; declassification of Hohlraum target design; fusion targets, in particular, the Hohlraum target design for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), Hohlraum experiments, direct drive implosions, ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities, laser imprinting (of perturbations by the laser on the laser target surface), hot spot formation and mixing, hot spot implosion experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, USA, time resolving hot spot dynamics at the Institute of Laser Engineering (ILE), Osaka, Japan, laser-plasma interaction

  15. Study on the System Requirements and Structures of Mailbox Declaration System for Reference Pyroprocessing Facility in the ROK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Jong Kyu

    2011-01-01

    The mailbox declaration system applied for the implementation of Safeguards at the Reference Pyroprocessing Facility (REPF) plays important role to support the declared information provided from Near-Real Time Accountancy (NRTA) and provides reference data to confirm the measurement results generated from the Unattended Monitoring System (UMS) for the purposes of verification and real-time monitoring of the movements and changes of nuclear materials (NM) at the processes in the REPF. In order to install and operate the mailbox declaration system at the REPF, this study focused on the operation, security, transmission of confidential information, procedure for transmission of mailbox declaration system as system requirements, and structure of mailbox declaration system to review the declared information through the mailbox by the national authority and to transmit the revised information to the IAEA

  16. Inertial and GPS data integration for positioning and tracking of GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicarella, Simone; D'Alvano, Alessandro; Ferrara, Vincenzo; Frezza, Fabrizio; Pajewski, Lara

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays many applications and studies use a Global Positioning System (GPS) to integrate Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) data [1-2]. The aim is the production of detailed detection maps that are geo-referenced and superimposable on geographic maps themes. GPS provides data to determine static positioning, and to track the mobile detection system path on the land. A low-cost standard GPS, like GPS-622R by RF Solutions Ltd, allows accuracy around 2.5 m CEP (Circular Error Probability), and a maximum update rate of 10 Hz. These accuracy and update rate are satisfying values when we evaluate positioning datum, but they are unsuitable for precision tracking of a speedy-mobile GPR system. In order to determine the relative displacements with respect to an initial position on the territory, an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) can be used. Some inertial-system applications for GPR tracking have been presented in recent studies [3-4]. The integration of both GPS and IMU systems is the aim of our work, in order to increase GPR applicability, e.g. the case of a GPR mounted on an unmanned aerial vehicle for the detection of people buried under avalanches [5]. In this work, we will present the design, realization and experimental characterization of our electronic board that includes GPS-622R and AltIMU-10 v3 by Pololu. The latter comprises an inertial-measurement unit and an altimeter. In particular, the IMU adopts L3GD20 gyro and LSM303D accelerometer and magnetometer; the digital barometer LPS331AP provides data for altitude evaluation. The prototype of our system for GPR positioning and tracking is based on an Arduino microcontroller board. Acknowledgement This work benefited from networking activities carried out within the EU funded COST Action TU1208 'Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar. ' References [1] M. Solla, X. Núñez-Nieto, M. Varela-González, J. Martínez-Sánchez, and P. Arias, 'GPR for Road Inspection: georeferencing and efficient

  17. A Novel AHRS Inertial Sensor-Based Algorithm for Wheelchair Propulsion Performance Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Bruce Shepherd

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing rise of professionalism in sport, athletes, teams, and coaches are looking to technology to monitor performance in both games and training in order to find a competitive advantage. The use of inertial sensors has been proposed as a cost effective and adaptable measurement device for monitoring wheelchair kinematics; however, the outcomes are dependent on the reliability of the processing algorithms. Though there are a variety of algorithms that have been proposed to monitor wheelchair propulsion in court sports, they all have limitations. Through experimental testing, we have shown the Attitude and Heading Reference System (AHRS-based algorithm to be a suitable and reliable candidate algorithm for estimating velocity, distance, and approximating trajectory. The proposed algorithm is computationally inexpensive, agnostic of wheel camber, not sensitive to sensor placement, and can be embedded for real-time implementations. The research is conducted under Griffith University Ethics (GU Ref No: 2016/294.

  18. CCF analysis of high redundancy systems safety/relief valve data analysis and reference BWR application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankamo, T.; Bjoere, S.; Olsson, Lena

    1992-12-01

    Dependent failure analysis and modeling were developed for high redundancy systems. The study included a comprehensive data analysis of safety and relief valves at the Finnish and Swedish BWR plants, resulting in improved understanding of Common Cause Failure mechanisms in these components. The reference application on the Forsmark 1/2 reactor relief system, constituting of twelve safety/relief lines and two regulating relief lines, covered different safety criteria cases of reactor depressurization and overpressure protection function, and failure to re close sequences. For the quantification of dependencies, the Alpha Factor Model, the Binomial Probability Model and the Common Load Model were compared for applicability in high redundancy systems

  19. Camera Calibration of Stereo Photogrammetric System with One-Dimensional Optical Reference Bar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Q Y; Ye, D; Che, R S; Qi, X; Huang, Y

    2006-01-01

    To carry out the precise measurement of large-scale complex workpieces, accurately calibration of the stereo photogrammetric system has becoming more and more important. This paper proposed a flexible and reliable camera calibration of stereo photogrammetric system based on quaternion with one-dimensional optical reference bar, which has three small collinear infrared LED marks and the lengths between these marks have been precisely calibration. By moving the optical reference bar at a number of locations/orientations over the measurement volume, we calibrate the stereo photogrammetric systems with the geometric constraint of the optical reference bar. The extrinsic parameters calibration process consists of linear parameters estimation based on quaternion and nonlinear refinement based on the maximum likelihood criterion. Firstly, we linear estimate the extrinsic parameters of the stereo photogrameetric systems based on quaternion. Then with the quaternion results as the initial values, we refine the extrinsic parameters through maximum likelihood criterion with the Levenberg-Marquardt Algorithm. In the calibration process, we can automatically control the light intensity and optimize the exposure time to get uniform intensity profile of the image points at different distance and obtain higher S/N ratio. The experiment result proves that the calibration method proposed is flexible, valid and obtains good results in the application

  20. Spectral gaps, inertial manifolds and kinematic dynamos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez, Manuel [Departamento de Analisis Matematico, Universidad de Valladolid, 47005 Valladolid (Spain)]. E-mail: mnjmhd@am.uva.es

    2005-10-17

    Inertial manifolds are desirable objects when ones wishes a dynamical process to behave asymptotically as a finite-dimensional ones. Recently [Physica D 194 (2004) 297] these manifolds are constructed for the kinematic dynamo problem with time-periodic velocity. It turns out, however, that the conditions imposed on the fluid velocity to guarantee the existence of inertial manifolds are too demanding, in the sense that they imply that all the solutions tend exponentially to zero. The inertial manifolds are meaningful because they represent different decay rates, but the classical dynamos where the magnetic field is maintained or grows are not covered by this approach, at least until more refined estimates are found.

  1. DESIGN OF ROBUST NAVIGATION AND STABILIZATION LOOPS OF PRECISION ATTITUDE AND HEADING REFERENCE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olha Sushchenko

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper focuses on problems of design of robust precision attitude and heading reference systems, which can be applied in navigation of marine vehicles. The main goal is to create the optimization procedures for design of navigation and stabilization loops of the multimode gimballed system. The optimization procedure of the navigation loop design is based on the parametric robust H2/H∞-optimization. The optimization procedure of the stabilization loop design is based on the robust structural H∞-synthesis. Methods: To solve the given problem the methods of the robust control system theory and optimization methods are used. Results: The kinematical scheme of the precision gimballed attitude and heading reference system is represented. The parametrical optimization algorithm taking into consideration features of the researched system is given. Method of the mixed sensitivity relative to the researched system design is analyzed. Coefficients of the control laws of navigation loops are obtained based on optimization procedure providing compromise between accuracy and robustness. The robust controller of the stabilization loop was developed based on robust structural synthesis using method of the mixed sensitivity. Simulation of navigation and stabilization processes is carried out. Conclusions: The represented results prove efficiency of the proposed procedures, which can be useful for design of precision navigation systems of the moving vehicles.

  2. Methodology for Assessment of Inertial Response from Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altin, Müfit; Teodorescu, Remus; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    High wind power penetration levels result in additional requirements from wind power in order to improve frequency stability. Replacement of conventional power plants with wind power plants reduces the power system inertia due to the wind turbine technology. Consequently, the rate of change...... of frequency and the maximum frequency deviation increase after a disturbance such as generation loss, load increase, etc. Having no inherent inertial response, wind power plants need additional control concepts in order to provide an additional active power following a disturbance. Several control concepts...... have been implemented in the literature, but the assessment of these control concepts with respect to power system requirements has not been specified. In this paper, a methodology to assess the inertial response from wind power plants is proposed. Accordingly, the proposed methodology is applied...

  3. Overview of safety and environmental issues for inertial fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, S.J.; Brereton, S.J.; Tanaka, S.

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarizes safety and environmental issues of Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE): inventories, effluents, maintenance, accident safety, waste management, and recycling. The fusion confinement approach among inertial and magnetic options affects how the fusion reaction is maintained and which materials surround the reaction chamber. The target fill technology has a major impact on the target factory tritium inventory. IFE fusion reaction chambers usually employ some means to protect the first structural wall from fusion pulses. This protective fluid or granular bed also moderates and absorbs most neutrons before they reach the first structural wall. Although the protective fluid activates, most candidate fluids have low activation hazard. Hands-on maintenance seems practical for the driver, target factory, and secondary coolant systems; remote maintenance is likely required for the reaction chamber, primary coolant, and vacuum exhaust cleanup systems. The driver and fuel target facility are well separated from the main reaction chamber

  4. Fluorescence tracers as a reference for pesticide transport in wetland systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Jens; Passeport, Elodie; Tournebize, Julien

    2010-05-01

    Two different fluorescent tracers, Uranine (UR) and Sulforhodamine (SRB), were injected as a pulse into surface flow wetlands. Tracer breakthrough curves were used to document hydraulic efficiencies, peak attenuation and retention capacities of completely different wetland systems. The tracers were used as a reference to mimic photolytic decay (UR) and sorption (SRB) of contaminants, since a real herbicide (Isoproturon, IPU) was injected in parallel to UR and SRB. Analysis costs limited IPU sampling frequency and single samples deviated from the tracer breakthrough curves. Still, a parallel behavior of IPU and SRB could be observed in totally different wetland systems, including underground passage through drainage lines. Similar recovery rates for IPU and SRB confirmed this observation. Hence, SRB was found to be an appropriate reference tracer to mimic the behavior of mobile pesticides (low KOC, without degradation) in wetland systems and the obtained wetland characteristics for SRB may serve as an indication for contaminant retention. Owing to the properties of IPU, the obtained results should be treated as worst case scenarios for highly mobile pesticides. A comparison of six different wetland types suggested that non-steady wetland systems with large variation in water level may temporally store relatively large amounts of tracers (contaminants), partly in areas that are not continuously saturated. This may lead to an efficient attenuation of peak concentrations. However, when large parts of these systems are flushed by natural storm events, tracers (contaminants) may be re-mobilized. In steady systems vegetation density and water depth were found to be the most important factors for tracer/contaminant retention. Illustrated by SRB, sorption on sediments and vegetation was a quick, almost instantaneous process which lead to considerable tracer losses even at high flow velocities and short contact times. Shallow systems with dense vegetation appeared to be the

  5. Review of fall risk assessment in geriatric populations using inertial sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Howcroft, Jennifer; Kofman, Jonathan; Lemaire, Edward D

    2013-01-01

    Background Falls are a prevalent issue in the geriatric population and can result in damaging physical and psychological consequences. Fall risk assessment can provide information to enable appropriate interventions for those at risk of falling. Wearable inertial-sensor-based systems can provide quantitative measures indicative of fall risk in the geriatric population. Methods Forty studies that used inertial sensors to evaluate geriatric fall risk were reviewed and pertinent methodological f...

  6. Inertial Measures of Motion for Clinical Biomechanics: Comparative Assessment of Accuracy under Controlled Conditions – Changes in Accuracy over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebel, Karina; Boissy, Patrick; Hamel, Mathieu; Duval, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Background Interest in 3D inertial motion tracking devices (AHRS) has been growing rapidly among the biomechanical community. Although the convenience of such tracking devices seems to open a whole new world of possibilities for evaluation in clinical biomechanics, its limitations haven’t been extensively documented. The objectives of this study are: 1) to assess the change in absolute and relative accuracy of multiple units of 3 commercially available AHRS over time; and 2) to identify different sources of errors affecting AHRS accuracy and to document how they may affect the measurements over time. Methods This study used an instrumented Gimbal table on which AHRS modules were carefully attached and put through a series of velocity-controlled sustained motions including 2 minutes motion trials (2MT) and 12 minutes multiple dynamic phases motion trials (12MDP). Absolute accuracy was assessed by comparison of the AHRS orientation measurements to those of an optical gold standard. Relative accuracy was evaluated using the variation in relative orientation between modules during the trials. Findings Both absolute and relative accuracy decreased over time during 2MT. 12MDP trials showed a significant decrease in accuracy over multiple phases, but accuracy could be enhanced significantly by resetting the reference point and/or compensating for initial Inertial frame estimation reference for each phase. Interpretation The variation in AHRS accuracy observed between the different systems and with time can be attributed in part to the dynamic estimation error, but also and foremost, to the ability of AHRS units to locate the same Inertial frame. Conclusions Mean accuracies obtained under the Gimbal table sustained conditions of motion suggest that AHRS are promising tools for clinical mobility assessment under constrained conditions of use. However, improvement in magnetic compensation and alignment between AHRS modules are desirable in order for AHRS to reach their

  7. Calibration of a multi-beam Laser System by using a TLS-generated Reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gordon

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Rotating multi-beam LIDARs mounted on moving platforms have become very successful for many applications such as autonomous navigation, obstacle avoidance or mobile mapping. To obtain accurate point coordinates, a precise calibration of such a LIDAR system is required. For the determination of the corresponding parameters we propose a calibration scheme which exploits the information of 3D reference point clouds captured by a terrestrial laser scanning (TLS device. It is assumed that the accuracy of this point clouds is considerably higher than that from the multi-beam LIDAR and that the data represent faces of man-made objects at different distances. After extracting planes in the reference data sets, the point-plane-incidences of the measured points and the reference planes are used to formulate the implicit constraints. We inspect the Velodyne HDL-64E S2 system as the best-known representative for this kind of sensor system. The usability and feasibility of the calibration procedure is demonstrated with real data sets representing building faces (walls, roof planes and ground. Beside the improvement of the point accuracy by considering the calibration results, we test the significance of the parameters related to the sensor model and consider the uncertainty of measurements w.r.t. the measured distances. The Velodyne returns two kinds of measurements – distances and encoder angles. To account for this, we perform a variance component estimation to obtain realistic standard deviations for the observations.

  8. Implementation of a system for external audits beam radiation therapy in terms of reference no

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso Samper, Jose Luis; Dominguez, Lourdes; Alert Silva, Jose; Alfonso Laguardia, Rodolfo; Larrinaga Cortina, Eduardo; Garcia Yip, Fernando; Rodriguez Machado, Jorge; Morales Lopez, Jorge Luis; Silvestre Patallo, Ileana

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents our experience in implementing a external audit system for radiotherapy beam in no reference conditions with the use of CIRS and a summary of the measurements with him made.This paper presents our experience in implementing a external audit system for radiotherapy beam in no reference conditions with the use of CIRS and a summary of the measurements with him made. Centers were audited with external beam high-energy Co-60, 6 MV and 15 MV and were considered 4 treatment planning systems (TPS): AMEPLAN, Theraplan Plus, Precise Plan and MIRS to calculate doses prescribed in each test case. All measurements were acquired by the audit team using the anthropomorphic phantom CIRS, Semiflex chamber PTW 31010 and PTW electrometer STATES. The implementation and development of the external audits of beams radiotherapy in terms of 'no reference' has brought an improvement in both clinical aspects of treatment and the radiation safety and the quality control, has given us greater confidence and for this reason we believe has become essential. (Author)

  9. Development of reference problems for neutron capture therapy treatment planning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albritton, J.R.; Kiger, W.S. III

    2006-01-01

    Currently, 5 different treatment planning systems (TPSs) are or have been used in clinical trials of Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT): MacNCTPlan, NCTPlan, BNCT Rtpe, SERA, and JCDS. This paper describes work performed to comprehensively test and compare 4 of these NCT treatment planning systems in order to facilitate the pooling of patient data from the different clinical sites for analysis of the clinical results as well as to provide an important quality assurance tool for existing and future TPSs. Two different phantoms were used to evaluate the planning systems: the modified Snyder head phantom and a large water-filled box, similar to that used in the International Dosimetry Exchange for NCT. The comparison of the resulting dose profile, isodose contours, and dose volume histograms to reference calculations performed with the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP5 yielded many interesting differences. Each of the planning systems deviated from the reference calculations, with the newer systems (i.e., SERA and NCTPlan) most often yielding better agreement than their predecessors (i.e., BNCT Rtpe and MacNCTPlan). The combination of simple phantoms and sources with more complicated and realistic planning conditions has produced a well-rounded and useful suite of test problems for NCT treatment planning system analysis. (author)

  10. Estimation of Vertical Ground Reaction Forces and Sagittal Knee Kinematics During Running Using Three Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank J. Wouda

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of running mechanics has traditionally been limited to a gait laboratory using either force plates or an instrumented treadmill in combination with a full-body optical motion capture system. With the introduction of inertial motion capture systems, it becomes possible to measure kinematics in any environment. However, kinetic information could not be provided with such technology. Furthermore, numerous body-worn sensors are required for a full-body motion analysis. The aim of this study is to examine the validity of a method to estimate sagittal knee joint angles and vertical ground reaction forces during running using an ambulatory minimal body-worn sensor setup. Two concatenated artificial neural networks were trained (using data from eight healthy subjects to estimate the kinematics and kinetics of the runners. The first artificial neural network maps the information (orientation and acceleration of three inertial sensors (placed at the lower legs and pelvis to lower-body joint angles. The estimated joint angles in combination with measured vertical accelerations are input to a second artificial neural network that estimates vertical ground reaction forces. To validate our approach, estimated joint angles were compared to both inertial and optical references, while kinetic output was compared to measured vertical ground reaction forces from an instrumented treadmill. Performance was evaluated using two scenarios: training and evaluating on a single subject and training on multiple subjects and evaluating on a different subject. The estimated kinematics and kinetics of most subjects show excellent agreement (ρ>0.99 with the reference, for single subject training. Knee flexion/extension angles are estimated with a mean RMSE <5°. Ground reaction forces are estimated with a mean RMSE < 0.27 BW. Additionaly, peak vertical ground reaction force, loading rate and maximal knee flexion during stance were compared, however, no significant

  11. 1-GWh diurnal load-leveling superconducting magnetic energy storage system reference design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassenzahl, W.V.; Rogers, J.D.

    1979-01-01

    A point reference design has been completed for a 1-GWh Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage system. The system is for electric utility dirunal load leveling; however, such a device will function to meet much faster power demands including dynamic stabilization. The study has explored several concepts of design not previously considered in the same detail as treated here. Because the study is for a point design, optimization in all respects is not complete. The study examines aspects of the coil design; superconductor supported off of the dewar shell; the dewar shell, its configuration and stresses; the underground excavation and related construction for holding the superconducting coil and its dewar; the helium refrigeration system; the electrical converter system; the vacuum system; the guard coil; and the costs. The report is a condensation of the more comprehensive study which is in the process of being printed

  12. Progress in high gain inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jingwen

    2001-01-01

    The author reviews the progress in laboratory high gain inertial confinement fusion (ICF), including ICF capsule physics, high-energy-density science, inertial fusion energy, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and its design of ignition targets and the peta watt laser breakthrough. High power laser, particle beam, and pulsed power facilities around the world have established the new laboratory field of high-energy- density plasma physics and have furthered development of inertial fusion. New capabilities such as those provided by high-brightness peta watt lasers have enabled the study of matter feasible in conditions previously unachievable on earth. Science and technology developed in inertial fusion research have found near-term commercial use and have enabled steady progress toward the goal of fusion ignition and high gain in the laboratory, and have opened up new fields of study for the 21 st century

  13. A Novel Robust H∞ Filter Based on Krein Space Theory in the SINS/CNS Attitude Reference System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Yu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Owing to their numerous merits, such as compact, autonomous and independence, the strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS and celestial navigation system (CNS can be used in marine applications. What is more, due to the complementary navigation information obtained from two different kinds of sensors, the accuracy of the SINS/CNS integrated navigation system can be enhanced availably. Thus, the SINS/CNS system is widely used in the marine navigation field. However, the CNS is easily interfered with by the surroundings, which will lead to the output being discontinuous. Thus, the uncertainty problem caused by the lost measurement will reduce the system accuracy. In this paper, a robust H∞ filter based on the Krein space theory is proposed. The Krein space theory is introduced firstly, and then, the linear state and observation models of the SINS/CNS integrated navigation system are established reasonably. By taking the uncertainty problem into account, in this paper, a new robust H∞ filter is proposed to improve the robustness of the integrated system. At last, this new robust filter based on the Krein space theory is estimated by numerical simulations and actual experiments. Additionally, the simulation and experiment results and analysis show that the attitude errors can be reduced by utilizing the proposed robust filter effectively when the measurements are missing discontinuous. Compared to the traditional Kalman filter (KF method, the accuracy of the SINS/CNS integrated system is improved, verifying the robustness and the availability of the proposed robust H∞ filter.

  14. A reference system for the measurement of low-strength magnetic flux density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorillo, F.; Durin, G.F.; Rocchino, L.

    2006-01-01

    Magnetic flux density standards traceable to the SI units have been developed at IEN-INRIM, by which dissemination for general measurement and testing activities can be pursued. The reference system covers a range of values extending from μ 0 H∼1T to μ 0 H∼10μT and is centered on the use of NMR magnetometers, calibrated coils, and stable current sources. The relative measuring uncertainty of the system is shown to increases with decreasing the field strength value and it is estimated to range between a few 10 -6 and some 10 -3

  15. Decision support systems in nuclear emergencies: A scenario-based comparison of domestic and reference tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vamanu, D.; Slavnicu, S. D.; Slavnicu, E.; Vamanu, B.

    2004-01-01

    The article reports selective results of a comparison between RODOS - an emerging decision support system for the management of nuclear emergencies in Europe developed by an international research consortium under EEC aegis, and a resident software package developed and maintained for similar purposes at IFIN-HH, Bucharest. Reproducible similarity patterns obtained in the output data distributions provide for simple normalising procedures that may ensure convergent radiological assessments. When properly consolidated on a sufficient scenario casuistry, such procedures could lend a certain resilience to domestic decision support tools over the interim lead time required by the full implementation of RODOS, or other major league, internationally accepted reference systems. (authors)

  16. New reference object for metrological performance testing of industrial CT systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Pavel; Hiller, Jochen; Cantatore, Angela

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new reference object, so called “CT ball plate”, used for metrological performance testing of industrial CT systems, and discusses both the calibration procedure using a tactile coordinate measuring machine and the first results carried out using an industrial CT scanner....... This artefact can be used to determine several characteristics of the CT system like, probing errors of spheres, length measuring errors between sphere centers, measurement errors in the whole CT volume and effects in connection with image artefacts....

  17. A Nonlinear Attitude Estimator for Attitude and Heading Reference Systems Based on MEMS Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yunlong; Soltani, Mohsen; Hussain, Dil muhammed Akbar

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a nonlinear attitude estimator is designed for an Attitude Heading and Reference System (AHRS) based on Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) sensors. The design process of the attitude estimator is stated with detail, and the equilibrium point of the estimator error model...... the problems in previous research works. Moreover, the estimation of MEMS gyroscope bias is also inclueded in this estimator. The designed nonlinear attitude estimator is firstly tested in simulation environment and then implemented in an AHRS hardware for further experiments. Finally, the attitude estimation...

  18. Integrated security systems design a complete reference for building enterprise-wide digital security systems

    CERN Document Server

    Norman, Thomas L

    2014-01-01

    Integrated Security Systems Design, 2nd Edition, is recognized as the industry-leading book on the subject of security systems design. It explains how to design a fully integrated security system that ties together numerous subsystems into one complete, highly coordinated, and highly functional system. With a flexible and scalable enterprise-level system, security decision makers can make better informed decisions when incidents occur and improve their operational efficiencies in ways never before possible. The revised edition covers why designing an integrated security system is essential a

  19. Heavy ion accelerators for inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubbia, C.

    1992-01-01

    Particle accelerators are used for accelerating the elementary, stable and separable constituents of matters to relativistic speed. These beams are of fundamental interest in the study on the ultimate constituents of matters and their interaction. Particle accelerators are the most promising driver for the fusion power reactors based on inertial confinement. The principle of inertial confinement fusion, radiation driven indirect drive, the accelerator complex and so on are described. (K.I.)

  20. Disturbance rejection performance analyses of closed loop control systems by reference to disturbance ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagoz, Baris Baykant; Deniz, Furkan Nur; Keles, Cemal; Tan, Nusret

    2015-03-01

    This study investigates disturbance rejection capacity of closed loop control systems by means of reference to disturbance ratio (RDR). The RDR analysis calculates the ratio of reference signal energy to disturbance signal energy at the system output and provides a quantitative evaluation of disturbance rejection performance of control systems on the bases of communication channel limitations. Essentially, RDR provides a straightforward analytical method for the comparison and improvement of implicit disturbance rejection capacity of closed loop control systems. Theoretical analyses demonstrate us that RDR of the negative feedback closed loop control systems are determined by energy spectral density of controller transfer function. In this manner, authors derived design criteria for specifications of disturbance rejection performances of PID and fractional order PID (FOPID) controller structures. RDR spectra are calculated for investigation of frequency dependence of disturbance rejection capacity and spectral RDR analyses are carried out for PID and FOPID controllers. For the validation of theoretical results, simulation examples are presented. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Decision support systems in nuclear emergencies: harmonizing domestic and reference tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vamanu, D.; Mateescu, Gh.; Berinde, A.; Slavnicu, D.; Acasandrei, V.; Slavnicu, E.

    2001-01-01

    The paper addresses the issue of securing the compatibility and inter-operability of computer packages designed to perform as decision support tools in the management of radiological emergencies, over the transition times towards the implementation and uniform acceptance and uniform acceptance of internationally-shared reference tools such as the European Union's RODOS (Real Time On-Line Decision Support System for Off-Site Nuclear Emergencies in Europe). One submits that a harmonization between the currently operational, domestic, and the reference tool can be contemplated, based on extensive code comparison and benchmarking. A case in point is presented, paralleling selected RODOS applications on simulated abnormal nuclear events, and the concurrent application of a resident software package, NOTEPAD, developed to emulate RODOS-wise function at IFIH-HH Bucharest. The reproducible similarity may make domestic decision support system (DSS) facilities useful as both practical tools and factors promoting the emergency preparedness awareness, during the interim time laps till the full development and deployment of RODOS as a reference DSS in Europe. (authors)

  2. Normalization of NDVI from Different Sensor System using MODIS Products as Reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenxia, Gan; Liangpei, Zhang; Wei, Gong; Huanfeng, Shen

    2014-01-01

    Medium Resolution NDVI(Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) from different sensor systems such as Landsat, SPOT, ASTER, CBERS and HJ-1A/1B satellites provide detailed spatial information for studies of ecosystems, vegetation biophysics, and land cover. Limitation of sensor designs, cloud contamination, and sensor failure highlighted the need to normalize and integrate NDVI from multiple sensor system in order to create a consistent, long-term NDVI data set. In this paper, we used a reference-based method for NDVI normalization. And present an application of this approach which covert Landsat ETM+ NDVI calculated by digital number (NDVI DN ) to NDVI calculated by surface reflectance (NDVI SR ) using MODIS products as reference, and different cluster was treated differently. Result shows that this approach can produce NDVI with highly agreement to NDVI calculated by surface reflectance from physical approaches based on 6S (Second Simulation of the satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum). Although some variability exists, the cluster specified reference based approach shows considerable potential for NDVI normalization. Therefore, NDVI products in MODIS era from different sources can be combined for time-series analysis, biophysical parameter retrievals, and other downstream analysis

  3. Numerical Analysis of Vibrations of Structures under Moving Inertial Load

    CERN Document Server

    Bajer, Czeslaw I

    2012-01-01

    Moving inertial loads are applied to structures in civil engineering, robotics, and mechanical engineering. Some fundamental books exist, as well as thousands of research papers. Well known is the book by L. Frýba, Vibrations of Solids and Structures Under Moving Loads, which describes almost all problems concerning non-inertial loads. This book presents broad description of numerical tools successfully applied to structural dynamic analysis. Physically we deal with non-conservative systems. The discrete approach formulated with the use of the classical finite element method results in elemental matrices, which can be directly added to global structure matrices. A more general approach is carried out with the space-time finite element method. In such a case, a trajectory of the moving concentrated parameter in space and time can be simply defined. We consider structures described by pure hyperbolic differential equations such as strings and structures described by hyperbolic-parabolic differential equations ...

  4. Inertial fusion science in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigot, B.

    2006-01-01

    Europe has built significant laser facilities to study inertial confinement fusion since the beginning of this science. The goal is to understand the processes of ignition and propagation of thermonuclear combustion. Three routes toward fusion are pursued, each of which has advantages and difficulties. The conventional routes are using a central hot spot created by the same compression and heating laser beams, either with indirect or direct drive. A more recent route, 'fast ignition', has been actively studied since the 90's, increasing the need for very high energy lasers to create the hot spot; some European lasers of this kind are already functioning, others are under construction or planned. Among European facilities, Laser Mega Joule (LMJ), which is under construction, will be the most powerful tool at the end of the decade, along with NIF in the Usa, to study and obtain fusion. LMJ is designed not only to obtain fusion but also to carry out experiments on all laser-plasma physics themes thanks to its flexibility. This facility, mainly dedicated to defence programmes, will be accessible to the academic research community. On all these facilities, numerous results are and will be obtained in the fields of High Energy Density Physics and Ultra High Intensity. (author)

  5. Reference spent fuel and its characteristics for the concept development of a deep geological disposal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, C. H.; Choi, J. W.; Ko, W. I.; Lee, Y. M.; Park, J. H.; Hwang, Y. S.; Kim, S. K.

    1997-09-01

    The total amount of spent fuel arisen from the nuclear power plant to be planned by 2010 at the basis of the long-term power development plan announced by MOTIE (Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy Resource) in 1995 is estimated to derive the disposal capacity of a deep geological repository is derived. The reference spent fuel whose characteristics could be planned is selected by analysing the characteristic data such as initial enrichment, discharge burnup, geometry, dimension, gross weight, etc. Also isotopic concentration, radioactivity, decay heat, hazard index and radiation intensity of a reference spent fuel are quantitatively identified and summarized in order to apply in the concept developing works of a deep geological disposal system. (author). 12 refs., 24 tabs., 14 figs

  6. Reference spent fuel and its characteristics for the concept development of a deep geological disposal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, C. H.; Choi, J. W.; Ko, W. I.; Lee, Y. M.; Park, J. H.; Hwang, Y. S.; Kim, S. K.

    1997-09-01

    The total amount of spent fuel arisen from the nuclear power plant to be planned by 2010 at the basis of the long-term power development plan announced by MOTIE (Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy Resource) in 1995 is estimated to derive the disposal capacity of a deep geological repository is derived. The reference spent fuel whose characteristics could be planned is selected by analysing the characteristic data such as initial enrichment, discharge burnup, geometry, dimension, gross weight, etc. Also isotopic concentration, radioactivity, decay heat, hazard index and radiation intensity of a reference spent fuel are quantitatively identified and summarized in order to apply in the concept developing works of a deep geological disposal system. (author). 12 refs., 24 tabs., 14 figs.

  7. Fast breeder reactor reference system classification for the ENEA data bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Righini, R.

    1988-01-01

    This report contains the Reference System Classification (RSC) of fast breeder reactors: it provides a functional system breakdown of the reactor. For each system the following important characteristics are reported: the main function, the mode of operation, its location in the reactor, the main interface system, its main components and the component working environment (fluid and/or atmosphere type). The RSC represent a basic step in organizing the ENEA data bank for the registration and processing of reliability data on typical fast reactor components; it provides a functional component breakdown and represent a plant-unique identification in the process of omogenization of event-data coming from different reactors. In this report it was tried to take into account different generations of nuclear power plants, different plant layouts and solutions: in particular loop and pool reactors are separately treated

  8. Inertial sensors as measurement tools of elbow range of motion in gerontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, G; Turpin, JM; Marteu, A; Sakarovitch, C; Teboul, B; Boscher, L; Brocker, P; Robert, P; Guerin, O

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Musculoskeletal system deterioration among the aging is a major reason for loss of autonomy and directly affects the quality of life of the elderly. Articular evaluation is part of physiotherapeutic assessment and helps in establishing a precise diagnosis and deciding appropriate therapy. Reference instruments are valid but not easy to use for some joints. The main goal of our study was to determine reliability and intertester reproducibility of the MP-BV, an inertial sensor (the MotionPod® [MP]) combined with specific software (BioVal [BV]), for elbow passive range-of-motion measurements in geriatrics. Methods This open, monocentric, randomized study compared inertial sensor to inclinometer in patients hospitalized in an acute, post-acute, and long-term-care gerontology unit. Results Seventy-seven patients (mean age 83.5±6.4 years, sex ratio 1.08 [male/female]) were analyzed. The MP-BV was reliable for each of the three measurements (flexion, pronation, and supination) for 24.3% (CI 95% 13.9–32.8) of the patients. Separately, the percentages of reliable measures were 59.7% (49.2–70.5) for flexion, 68.8% (58.4–79.5) for pronation, and 62.3% (51.2–73.1) for supination. The intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.15 (0.07–0.73), 0.46 (0.27–0.98), and 0.50 (0.31–40 0.98) for flexion, pronation, and supination, respectively. Conclusion This study shows the convenience of the MP-BV in terms of ease of use and of export of measured data. However, this instrument seems less reliable and valuable compared to the reference instruments used to measure elbow range of motion in gerontology. PMID:25759568

  9. Pathway to 2022: The Ongoing Modernization of the United States National Spatial Reference System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, W. A.; Caccamise, D.

    2017-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Geodetic Survey (NGS) mission is "to define, maintain and provide access to the National Spatial Reference System (NSRS) to meet our nation's economic, social, and environmental needs." The NSRS is an assemblage of geophysical and geodetic models, tools, and data, with the most-visible components being the North American Datum of 1983 (NAD83) and the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD88), which together provide a consistent spatial reference framework for myriad geospatial applications and positioning requirements throughout the United States. The NGS is engaged in an ongoing and comprehensive multi-year project of modernizing the NSRS, a makeover necessitated by technological developments and user accuracy requirements, all with a goal of providing a modern, accurate, accessible, and globally aligned national positioning framework exploiting the substantial power and utility of the Global Navigation Satellite System - of both today and tomorrow. The modernized NSRS will include four new-generation geometric terrestrial reference frames (replacing NAD83) and a technically unprecedented geopotential datum (replacing NAVD88), all to be released in 2022 (anticipated). This poster/presentation will describe the justification for this modernization effort and will update the status and planned evolution of the NSRS as 2022 draws ever closer. Also discussed will be recent developments, including the publication of "blueprint" documents addressing technical details of various facets of the modernized NSRS and a continued series of public Geospatial Summits. Supporting/ancillary projects such as Gravity for the Redefinition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D), which will result in the generation of a highly accurate gravimetric geoid - or definitional reference surface (zero elevation) - for the future geopotential datum, and Geoid Slope Validation Surveys (GSVS), which are exploring the achievable

  10. Development of Power Controller System based on Model Reference Adaptive Control for a Nuclear Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Sabri Minhat; Izhar Abu Hussin; Ridzuan Abdul Mutalib

    2014-01-01

    The Reactor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP)-type TRIGA Mark II was installed in the year 1982. The Power Controller System (PCS) or Automated Power Controller System (APCS) is very important for reactor operation and safety reasons. It is a function of controlled reactivity and reactor power. The existing power controller system is under development and due to slow response, low accuracy and low stability on reactor power control affecting the reactor safety. The nuclear reactor is a nonlinear system in nature, and it is power increases continuously with time. The reactor parameters vary as a function of power, fuel burnup and control rod worth. The output power value given by the power control system is not exactly as real value of reactor power. Therefore, controller system design is very important, an adaptive controller seems to be inevitable. The method chooses is a linear controller by using feedback linearization, for example Model Reference Adaptive Control. The developed APCS for RTP will be design by using Model Reference Adaptive Control (MRAC). The structured of RTP model to produce the dynamic behaviour of RTP on entire operating power range from 0 to 1MWatt. The dynamic behavior of RTP model is produced by coupling of neutronic and thermal-hydraulics. It will be developed by using software MATLAB/Simulink and hardware module card to handle analog input signal. A new algorithm for APCS is developed to control the movement of control rods with uniformity and orderly for RTP. Before APCS test to real plant, simulation results shall be obtained from RTP model on reactor power, reactivity, period, control rod positions, fuel and coolant temperatures. Those data are comparable with the real data for validation. After completing the RTP model, APCS will be tested to real plant on power control system performance by using real signal from RTP including fail-safe operation, system reliable, fast response, stability and accuracy. The new algorithm shall be a satisfied

  11. Inertial forces and the foundations of optical geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, Rickard

    2006-01-01

    Assuming a general timelike congruence of worldlines as a reference frame, we derive a covariant general formalism of inertial forces in general relativity. Inspired by the works of Abramowicz et al (see e.g. Abramowicz and Lasota 1997 Class. Quantum Grav. 14 A23-30), we also study conformal rescalings of spacetime and investigate how these affect the inertial force formalism. While many ways of describing spatial curvature of a trajectory have been discussed in papers prior to this, one particular prescription (which differs from the standard projected curvature when the reference congruence is shearing), appears novel. For the particular case of a hypersurface-forming congruence, using a suitable rescaling of spacetime, we show that a geodesic photon always follows a line that is spatially straight with respect to the new curvature measure. This fact is intimately connected to Fermat's principle, and allows for a certain generalization of the optical geometry as will be further pursued in a companion paper (Jonsson and Westman 2006 Class. Quantum Grav. 23 61). For the particular case when the shear tensor vanishes, we present the inertial force equation in a three-dimensional form (using the bold-face vector notation), and note how similar it is to its Newtonian counterpart. From the spatial curvature measures that we introduce, we derive corresponding covariant differentiations of a vector defined along a spacetime trajectory. This allows us to connect the formalism of this paper to that of Jantzen and co-workers (see e.g. Bini et al 1997 Int. J. Mod. Phys. D 6 143-98)

  12. Proceedings of the Colloquium of the International Astronomical Union (127th). Reference Systems Held in Virginia Beach, Virginia on October 14-20, 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-06

    and V. K. Abalakin, D. Reidel, Dordrecht, pp. 261-270. Walter, H. G. 1990: in Inertial Coordinate System in the Sky, Proc. IAU Syrup. No. 141. tds ...LIL5K’L atd V1C!Lf K. fuaLqKINJ IU KLUWE/ aGAOEIC PUULISH&R’$, p. 4bd - 454. 4. GU8ANUV V.S., KUMKOVA 1.1. and SOLINA N.I.: 198, Inertial coərdinate...an ’ CD I- CDU,0 C: s t -: N.~ 4 E vi 0 "o to. C 0i I 44, 0 00 I pq .2 Uno c Uo..~.~*0 U 0 td b_ _ b o 0 C, T4r-r4F cS~ 1. 0 0 00 0) L..4 0 0.t -1

  13. Moving to a Modernized Height Reference System in Canada: Rationale, Status and Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronneau, M.; Huang, J.

    2007-05-01

    A modern society depends on a common coordinate reference system through which geospatial information can be interrelated and exploited reliably. For height measurements this requires the ability to measure mean sea level elevations easily, accurately, and at the lowest possible cost. The current national reference system for elevations, the Canadian Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1928 (CGVD28), offers only partial geographic coverage of the Canadian territory and is affected by inaccuracies that are becoming more apparent as users move to space- based technologies such as GPS. Furthermore, the maintenance and expansion of the national vertical network using spirit-levelling, a costly, time consuming and labour intensive proposition, has only been minimally funded over the past decade. It is now generally accepted that the most sustainable alternative for the realization of a national vertical datum is a gravimetric geoid model. This approach defines the datum in relation to an ellipsoid, making it compatible with space-based technologies for positioning. While simplifying access to heights above mean sea level all across the Canadian territory, this approach imposes additional demands on the quality of the geoid model. These are being met by recent and upcoming space gravimetry missions that have and will be measuring the Earth`s gravity field with increasing and unprecedented accuracy. To maintain compatibility with the CGVD28 datum materialized at benchmarks, the current first-order levelling can be readjusted by constraining geoid heights at selected stations of the Canadian Base Network. The new reference would change CGVD28 heights of benchmarks by up to 1 m across Canada. However, local height differences between benchmarks would maintain a relative precision of a few cm or better. CGVD28 will co-exist with the new height reference as long as it will be required, but it will undoubtedly disappear as benchmarks are destroyed over time. The adoption of GNSS

  14. A reference model for model-based design of critical infrastructure protection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Young Don; Park, Cheol Young; Lee, Jae-Chon

    2015-05-01

    Today's war field environment is getting versatile as the activities of unconventional wars such as terrorist attacks and cyber-attacks have noticeably increased lately. The damage caused by such unconventional wars has also turned out to be serious particularly if targets are critical infrastructures that are constructed in support of banking and finance, transportation, power, information and communication, government, and so on. The critical infrastructures are usually interconnected to each other and thus are very vulnerable to attack. As such, to ensure the security of critical infrastructures is very important and thus the concept of critical infrastructure protection (CIP) has come. The program to realize the CIP at national level becomes the form of statute in each country. On the other hand, it is also needed to protect each individual critical infrastructure. The objective of this paper is to study on an effort to do so, which can be called the CIP system (CIPS). There could be a variety of ways to design CIPS's. Instead of considering the design of each individual CIPS, a reference model-based approach is taken in this paper. The reference model represents the design of all the CIPS's that have many design elements in common. In addition, the development of the reference model is also carried out using a variety of model diagrams. The modeling language used therein is the systems modeling language (SysML), which was developed and is managed by Object Management Group (OMG) and a de facto standard. Using SysML, the structure and operational concept of the reference model are designed to fulfil the goal of CIPS's, resulting in the block definition and activity diagrams. As a case study, the operational scenario of the nuclear power plant while being attacked by terrorists is studied using the reference model. The effectiveness of the results is also analyzed using multiple analysis models. It is thus expected that the approach taken here has some merits

  15. The disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste: comments on the postclosure assessment of a reference system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, C.J.; Goodwin, B.W.

    1996-07-01

    Canada, like other countries, is developing technology for disposal of its nuclear fuel waste , based on the concept of geological disposal in stable plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. The choice of methods, materials, and designs for a disposal system will ultimately be made on the basis of safety, taking into account the characteristics of the specific site on which the facility is to be developed, costs and practicality. As part of its work in developing the technology for the disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste, AECL analyzed the performance of a hypothetical disposal facility that incorporates specific design choices for the engineered barriers and that assumes a specific geological setting. This system, comprising the disposal facility and the geological setting, and the results of the performance analysis, is described in an Environmental Impact Statement that AECL submitted in 1994 and in a Primary Reference for the EIS 'The Disposal of Canada's Nuclear Fuel Waste: Postclosure Assessment of a Reference System.' The performance analysis was not intended to be a general proof of the safety of disposal, but rather it presents a safety analysis of one specific system to illustrate the postclosure assessment methodology and to demonstrate that safety could be achieved for the system in question. Although the design of the disposal facility analyzed and the geological setting have specific features, the results obtained from the safety analysis can, however, be used to provide considerable insight into the performance of the various components that comprise the multibarrier geological disposal system. Moreover, the results can show how changes in the performance of specific components can affect the overall performance of the system. This report discusses these aspects of the postclosure analysis. (author)

  16. Semiconductor Laser Diode Pumps for Inertial Fusion Energy Lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deri, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    Solid-state lasers have been demonstrated as attractive drivers for inertial confinement fusion on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and at the Omega Facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) in Rochester, NY. For power plant applications, these lasers must be pumped by semiconductor diode lasers to achieve the required laser system efficiency, repetition rate, and lifetime. Inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plants will require approximately 40-to-80 GW of peak pump power, and must operate efficiently and with high system availability for decades. These considerations lead to requirements on the efficiency, price, and production capacity of the semiconductor pump sources. This document provides a brief summary of these requirements, and how they can be met by a natural evolution of the current semiconductor laser industry. The detailed technical requirements described in this document flow down from a laser ampl9ifier design described elsewhere. In brief, laser amplifiers comprising multiple Nd:glass gain slabs are face-pumped by two planar diode arrays, each delivering 30 to 40 MW of peak power at 872 nm during a ∼ 200 (micro)s quasi-CW (QCW) pulse with a repetition rate in the range of 10 to 20 Hz. The baseline design of the diode array employs a 2D mosaic of submodules to facilitate manufacturing. As a baseline, they envision that each submodule is an array of vertically stacked, 1 cm wide, edge-emitting diode bars, an industry standard form factor. These stacks are mounted on a common backplane providing cooling and current drive. Stacks are conductively cooled to the backplane, to minimize both diode package cost and the number of fluid interconnects for improved reliability. While the baseline assessment in this document is based on edge-emitting devices, the amplifier design does not preclude future use of surface emitting diodes, which may offer appreciable future cost reductions and

  17. Inertial Fusion Energy Reactor Design Studies: Prometheus-L, Prometheus-H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waganer, L.M.; Driemeyer, D.E.; Lee, V.D.

    1992-03-01

    This report contains a review of design studies for inertial confinement reactor. This third of three three volumes discusses the following topics: Driver system definition; vacuum system; fuel processing systems (FPS); cavity design and analysis; heat transport and thermal energy conversion; balance of plant systems; remote maintenance systems; safety and environment; economics; and comparison of IFE designs

  18. New reference trajectory optimization algorithm for a flight management system inspired in beam search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro MURRIETA-MENDOZA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available With the objective of reducing the flight cost and the amount of polluting emissions released in the atmosphere, a new optimization algorithm considering the climb, cruise and descent phases is presented for the reference vertical flight trajectory. The selection of the reference vertical navigation speeds and altitudes was solved as a discrete combinatory problem by means of a graph-tree passing through nodes using the beam search optimization technique. To achieve a compromise between the execution time and the algorithm’s ability to find the global optimal solution, a heuristic methodology introducing a parameter called “optimism coefficient was used in order to estimate the trajectory’s flight cost at every node. The optimal trajectory cost obtained with the developed algorithm was compared with the cost of the optimal trajectory provided by a commercial flight management system(FMS. The global optimal solution was validated against an exhaustive search algorithm(ESA, other than the proposed algorithm. The developed algorithm takes into account weather effects, step climbs during cruise and air traffic management constraints such as constant altitude segments, constant cruise Mach, and a pre-defined reference lateral navigation route. The aircraft fuel burn was computed using a numerical performance model which was created and validated using flight test experimental data.

  19. Comparison of the TLDA with the Nanodrop and the reference Qubit system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neill, M; Arthure, K; Riedel, S; McMillan, ND [Drop Technology Ltd., Tallaght Business Park, Whitestown, Dublin 24 (Ireland); McPartlin, J, E-mail: martina.oneill@droptechnology.com [Vitamin Research Unit, Department of Clinical Medicine, Sir Patrick Duns Laboratory, CPL, St. James' s Hospital, Dublin 8 (Ireland)

    2011-08-17

    The TLDA (transmitted light drop analyser) is a new microvolume UV-visible drop spectrophotometer new to the market. Assays were compared between a TLDA, NanoDrop and the Qubit system which is based on the gold standard for DNA assay, PicoGreen. The evaluation was carried out by the Trinity Biobank in St. James Hospital, Dublin on Buccal swabs and Blood samples. The data is discussed in this paper. The Qubit system is seen as the reference method in most studies as this is believed to provide more accurate results than UV absorbance methods because it distinguishes between DNA, RNA, free nucleotides, and other contaminants. The Qubit system uses fluorescent dyes to measure the concentration of the molecule of interest. The results compare both the spectrophotometric methods against the Qubit fluorescence technique.

  20. On-board landmark navigation and attitude reference parallel processor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, L. E.; Mahajan, D. T.

    1978-01-01

    An approach to autonomous navigation and attitude reference for earth observing spacecraft is described along with the landmark identification technique based on a sequential similarity detection algorithm (SSDA). Laboratory experiments undertaken to determine if better than one pixel accuracy in registration can be achieved consistent with onboard processor timing and capacity constraints are included. The SSDA is implemented using a multi-microprocessor system including synchronization logic and chip library. The data is processed in parallel stages, effectively reducing the time to match the small known image within a larger image as seen by the onboard image system. Shared memory is incorporated in the system to help communicate intermediate results among microprocessors. The functions include finding mean values and summation of absolute differences over the image search area. The hardware is a low power, compact unit suitable to onboard application with the flexibility to provide for different parameters depending upon the environment.

  1. Software reference for SaTool - a Tool for Structural Analysis of Automated Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Torsten; Blanke, Mogens

    2004-01-01

    This software reference details the functions of SaTool – a tool for structural analysis of technical systems. SaTool is intended used as part of an industrial systems design cycle. Structural analysis is a graph-based technique where principal relations between variables express the system’s...... of the graph. SaTool makes analysis of the structure graph to provide knowledge about fundamental properties of the system in normal and faulty conditions. Salient features of SaTool include rapid analysis of possibility to diagnose faults and ability to make autonomous recovery should faults occur........ The list of such variables and functional relations constitute the system’s structure graph. Normal operation means all functional relations are intact. Should faults occur, one or more functional relations cease to be valid. In a structure graph, this is seen as the disappearance of one or more nodes...

  2. Anthology of the renin-angiotensin system: a one hundred reference approach to angiotensin II antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménard, J

    1993-04-01

    To provide a historical overview of the renin-angiotensin system as a guide to the introduction of a new therapeutic pathway, non-peptide inhibition of a angiotensin II. One hundred references were selected as a personal preference, for their originality or for their potential impact on medicine. This review raises the following questions for future research. (1) Will the long-term cardiovascular effects of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition, angiotensin II antagonism and renin inhibition be similar or not, and dependent or independent of blood pressure levels? (2) What are the local-regional interactions between vasoconstrictor and vasodilator systems, and does the renin-angiotensin system synchronize these regional hemodynamic regulatory mechanisms? (3) If hypertension is the result of an interaction between genetic and environmental factors, do proteins secreted through constitutive pathways contribute to the genetic abnormality (prorenin, angiotensinogen, ACE) while regulated secretion (renin) and other regulatory mechanisms (angiotensin II receptors) provide biological support for the environmental effects?

  3. Effect of long-lived containers on the postclosure performance of a reference disposal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, B.W.; Hajas, W.C.; LeNeveu, D.M.

    1996-05-01

    The concept for disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste involves isolating the waste in corrosion-resistant containers emplaced in a scaled vault at a depth of 500 to 1000 m in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. The concept permits a choice of methods, materials, site locations, and designs. The technical feasibility of this concept and its impact on the environment and human health are summarized in an Environmental Impact Statement (AECL 1994a,b), supported by nine detailed reference documents (Davis et al. 1993; Davison et al. 1994a,b; Goodwin et al. 1994; Greber et al. 1994; Grondin et al. 1994; Johnson et al. 1994a,b; Simmons and Baumgartner 1994). In the assessment of the reference disposal system, we assumed the containers encapsulating the nuclear fuel waste were constructed from Grade-2 titanium. In this report, we investigate the effect of a different choice, and assume the use of long-lived containers constructed from materials such as high-purity copper or Grades-12 or -16 titanium alloys. These alternative materials would provide much longer periods of protection, based on the expectation that the only container failure mechanism, for times up to 10 5 a, involves initial fabrication defects. We explore the effects of long-lived containers for the same vault layout and orientation that were assumed for the reference disposal vault. We also explore effects for two less favourable situations, in which the vault is closer to a nearby fracture zone and in which the vault is extended to have emplacement rooms on both sides of the fracture zone. Our analyses use the probabilistic assessment computer code, SYVAC3-CC3, an acronym for SYstems Variability Analysis Code, generation 3. with a system model describing the Canadian Concept, generation 3, for the disposal of nuclear fuel waste. The input data for the code have been adjusted to approximate the expected protection characteristics of alternative container materials. (author). 31 refs., 1 tab., 16 figs

  4. Reference system architecture for trade promotion management: leveraging business intelligence technologies and decision support systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balmus, Andra Bianca; Iacob, Maria Eugenia; van Sinderen, Marten J.; van Busschbach, Murk

    Working towards gaining competitive advantage and establishing stable relationships with their supply chain intermediaries, fast moving consumer goods companies are currently focusing their attention on intelligent, goal-based funds investment. Traditional trade promotion management systems (TPMS),

  5. Speed Estimation of Induction Motor Using Model Reference Adaptive System with Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Brandstetter

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with a speed estimation of the induction motor using observer with Model Reference Adaptive System and Kalman Filter. For simulation, Hardware in Loop Simulation method is used. The first part of the paper includes the mathematical description of the observer for the speed estimation of the induction motor. The second part describes Kalman filter. The third part describes Hardware in Loop Simulation method and its realization using multifunction card MF 624. In the last section of the paper, simulation results are shown for different changes of the induction motor speed which confirm high dynamic properties of the induction motor drive with sensorless control.

  6. Computerized literature reference system: use of an optical scanner and optical character recognition software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lossef, S V; Schwartz, L H

    1990-09-01

    A computerized reference system for radiology journal articles was developed by using an IBM-compatible personal computer with a hand-held optical scanner and optical character recognition software. This allows direct entry of scanned text from printed material into word processing or data-base files. Additionally, line diagrams and photographs of radiographs can be incorporated into these files. A text search and retrieval software program enables rapid searching for keywords in scanned documents. The hand scanner and software programs are commercially available, relatively inexpensive, and easily used. This permits construction of a personalized radiology literature file of readily accessible text and images requiring minimal typing or keystroke entry.

  7. Disposable Miniaturized Screen‐Printed pH and Reference Electrodes for Potentiometric Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musa, Arnaud Emmanuel; del Campo, Francisco Javier; Abramova, Natalia

    2011-01-01

    This work describes the development of a miniaturized potentiometric system comprising a miniaturized quasi‐reference electrode (QRE) coupled to a solid‐state ion‐selective electrode (ISE) for the monitoring of pH. We describe the optimization of materials and fabrication processes including screen‐printing...... electrode) that can be used continuously for a period of not less than 7 days in aqueous solutions. Curing the Ag/AgCl pastes during 20 minutes at 120 °C after printing allowed the QREs to display excellent potential stability, as demonstrated by an open‐circuit‐potential standard deviation of ±1.2 mV over...

  8. Method of collective variables with reference system for the grand canonical ensemble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yukhnovskii, I.R.

    1989-01-01

    A method of collective variables with special reference system for the grand canonical ensemble is presented. An explicit form is obtained for the basis sixth-degree measure density needed to describe the liquid-gas phase transition. Here the author presents the fundamentals of the method, which are as follows: (1) the functional form for the partition function in the grand canonical ensemble; (2) derivation of thermodynamic relations for the coefficients of the Jacobian; (3) transition to the problem on an adequate lattice; and (4) obtaining of the explicit form for the functional of the partition function

  9. Dynamic Accuracy of Inertial Magnetic Sensor Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    xiii LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS AHRS attitude and heading reference system AKF adaptive Kalman filter AUV autonomous underwater vehicle CF...attitude and heading reference system (AHRS) estimation filter (EF) microprocessor with an adaptive Kalman filter (AKF). The 3DM-GX4-25 houses a...separate processor in which temperature compensated measurements are processed through a complementary filter (CF) in order to maintain backwards

  10. Review of Inertial Confinement Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, M. G.

    The physics of inertial confinement fusion is reviewed. The trend to short-wavelength lasers is argued, and the distinction between direct and indirect (soft X-ray) drive is made. Key present issues include the non-linear growth of Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instabilities, the seeding of this instability by the initial laser imprint, the relevance of self-generated magnetic fields, and the importance of parametric instabilities (stimulated Brillouin and Raman scattering) in gas-filled hohlraums. Experiments are reviewed which explore the R-T instability in both planar and converging geometry. The employment of various optical smoothing techniques is contrasted with the overcoating of the capsule by gold coated plastic foams to reduce considerably the imprint problem. The role of spontaneously generated magnetic fields in non-symmetric plasmas is discussed. Recent hohlraum compression results are presented together with gas bag targets which replicate the long-scale-length low density plasmas expected in NIF gas filled hohlraums. The onset of first Brillouin and then Raman scattering is observed. The fast ignitor scheme is a proposal to use an intense short pulse laser to drill a hole through the coronal plasma and then, with laser excited fast electrons, create a propagating thermonuclear spark in a dense, relatively cold laser-compressed target. Some preliminary results of laser hole drilling and 2-D and 3-D PIC simulations of this and the > 10^8 Gauss self-generated magnetic fields are presented. The proposed National Ignition Facility (NIF) is described.

  11. Reference reactor module for NASA's lunar surface fission power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, David I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kapernick, Richard J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dixon, David D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Werner, James [INL; Qualls, Louis [ORNL; Radel, Ross [SNL

    2009-01-01

    Surface fission power systems on the Moon and Mars may provide the first US application of fission reactor technology in space since 1965. The Affordable Fission Surface Power System (AFSPS) study was completed by NASA/DOE to determine the cost of a modest performance, low-technical risk surface power system. The AFSPS concept is now being further developed within the Fission Surface Power (FSP) Project, which is a near-term technology program to demonstrate system-level TRL-6 by 2013. This paper describes the reference FSP reactor module concept, which is designed to provide a net power of 40 kWe for 8 years on the lunar surface; note, the system has been designed with technologies that are fully compatible with a Martian surface application. The reactor concept uses stainless-steel based. UO{sub 2}-fueled, pumped-NaK fission reactor coupled to free-piston Stirling converters. The reactor shielding approach utilizes both in-situ and launched shielding to keep the dose to astronauts much lower than the natural background radiation on the lunar surface. The ultimate goal of this work is to provide a 'workhorse' power system that NASA can utilize in near-term and future Lunar and Martian mission architectures, with the eventual capability to evolve to very high power, low mass systems, for either surface, deep space, and/or orbital missions.

  12. Three-dimensional poor man's Navier-Stokes equation: a discrete dynamical system exhibiting k(-5/3) inertial subrange energy scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, J M

    2009-06-01

    Outline of the derivation and mathematical and physical interpretations are presented for a discrete dynamical system known as the "poor man's Navier-Stokes equation." Numerical studies demonstrate that velocity fields produced by this dynamical system are similar to those seen in laboratory experiments and in detailed simulations, and they lead to scaling for the turbulence kinetic energy spectrum in accord with Kolmogorov K41 theory.

  13. Inertially confined fusion using heavy ion drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Bangerter, R.O.; Bock, R.; Hogan, W.J.; Lindl, J.D.

    1991-10-01

    The various technical issues of HIF will be briefly reviewed in this paper. It will be seen that there are numerous areas in common in all the approaches to HIF. In the recent International Symposium on Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion, the attendees met in specialized workshop sessions to consider the needs for research in each area. Each of the workshop groups considered the key questions of this report: (1) Is this an appropriate time for international collaboration in HIF? (2) Which problems are most appropriate for such collaboration? (3) Can the sharing of target design information be set aside until other driver and systems issues are better resolved, by which time it might be supposed that there could be a relaxation of classification of target issues? (4) What form(s) of collaboration are most appropriate, e.g., bilateral or multilateral? (5) Can international collaboration be sensibly attempted without significant increases in funding for HIF? The authors of this report share the conviction that collaboration on a broad scale is mandatory for HIF to have the resources, both financial and personnel, to progress to a demonstration experiment. Ultimately it may be possible for a single driver with the energy, power, focusibility, and pulse shape to satisfy the needs of the international community for target physics research. Such a facility could service multiple experimental chambers with a variety of beam geometries and target concepts

  14. Externally guided target for inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Val, J.M.; Piera, M.

    1996-01-01

    A totally new concept is proposed to reach fusion conditions by externally guided inertial confinement. The acceleration and compression of the fuel is guided by a cannon-like external duct with a conical section ending in a small-size cavity around the central point of the tube. The fuel pellets coming from each cannon mouth collide in the central cavity where the implosion and final compression of the fuel take place. Both the tube material density and its areal density must be much higher than the initial density and areal density of the fuel. The external tube will explode into pieces as a consequence of the inner pressures achieved after the fuel central collision. If the collision is suitably driven, a fusion burst can take place before the tube disassembly. because of the features of the central collision needed to trigger ignition, this concept could be considered as tamped impact fusion. Both the fusion products and the debris from the guide tube are caught by a liquid-lithium curtain surrounding the target. Only two driving beams are necessary. The system can be applied to any type of driver and could use a solid pellet at room temperature as the initial target. 54 refs., 24 figs., 1 tab

  15. Thermal inertializing of solid incinerator residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proelss, J.

    2003-01-01

    Inertialization of residues is a key task of incinerators. Residues of conventional incineration processes may contain high levels of inorganic or organic pollutants and must be treated prior to recycling. the most effective process is thermal treatment above the melting point. This will destroy organic pollutants like dioxins/furans and pathogenic compounds, while the heavy metals will be partly volatilized. The glassy slag obtained as end product is low in heavy metals and more or less resistant to leaching. The The author describes a method for calculating activity coefficients of volatile components of diluted, liquid multicomponent systems. With these data, the data base for thermodynamic description of fluid mixtures was updated, and a set of characteristic data was established for describing transport in an inflatable module. Once the activity coefficients of interesting constituents of the slag are known along with the transport conditions in the volatilization process, it is possible to optimize the thermal treatment of critical ashes and dusts with a view to energy consumption and process control. In two different exemplary process concepts, the energy consumption for residue treatment is estimated. The processes proposed are compared with published process proposals, and their energy consumption is assessed in a comoparative study [de

  16. Low-cost inertial measurement unit.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deyle, Travis Jay

    2005-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories performs many expensive tests using inertial measurement units (IMUs)--systems that use accelerometers, gyroscopes, and other sensors to measure flight dynamics in three dimensions. For the purpose of this report, the metrics used to evaluate an IMU are cost, size, performance, resolution, upgradeability and testing. The cost of a precision IMU is very high and can cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. Thus the goals and results of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the data flow in an IMU and determine a generic IMU design. (2) Discuss a high cost IMU implementation and its theoretically achievable results. (3) Discuss design modifications that would save money for suited applications. (4) Design and implement a low cost IMU and discuss its theoretically achievable results. (5) Test the low cost IMU and compare theoretical results with empirical results. (6) Construct a more streamlined printed circuit board design reducing noise, increasing capabilities, and constructing a self-contained unit. Using these results, we can compare a high cost IMU versus a low cost IMU using the metrics from above. Further, we can examine and suggest situations where a low cost IMU could be used instead of a high cost IMU for saving cost, size, or both.

  17. An update to the analysis of the Canadian Spatial Reference System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferland, R.; Piraszewski, M.; Craymer, M.

    2015-12-01

    The primary objective of the Canadian Spatial Reference System (CSRS) is to provide users access to a consistent geo-referencing infrastructure over the Canadian landmass. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) positioning accuracy requirements ranges from meter level to mm level (e.g.: crustal deformation). The highest level of the Canadian infrastructure consist of a network of continually operating GPS and GNSS receivers, referred to as active control stations. The network includes all Canadian public active control stations, some bordering US CORS and Alaska stations, Greenland active control stations, as well as a selection of IGS reference frame stations. The Bernese analysis software is used for the daily processing and the combination into weekly solutions which form the basis for this analysis. IGS weekly final orbit, Earth Rotation parameters (ERP's) and coordinates products are used in the processing. For the more demanding users, the time dependant changes of station coordinates is often more important.All station coordinate estimates and related covariance information is used in this analysis. For each input solution, variance factor, translation, rotation and scale (and if needed their rates) or subsets of these are estimated. In the combination of these weekly solutions, station positions and velocities are estimated. Since the time series from the stations in these networks often experience changes in behavior, new (or reuse of) parameters are generally used in these situations. As is often the case with real data, unrealistic coordinates may occur. Automatic detection and removal of outliers is used in these cases. For the transformation, position and velocity parameters loose apriori estimates and uncertainties are provided. Alignment using the usual Helmert transformation to the latest IGb08 realization of ITRF is also performed during the adjustment.

  18. Development of the Korean Reference Vertical Disposal System Concept for Spent Fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.Y.; Cho, D.K.; Kim, S.G.; Choi, H.J.; Choi, J.W.; Hahn, P.S.

    2006-01-01

    The development of a deep geologic disposal system for the spent fuel from nuclear power plants has been carried out since this program was launched at 1997 in Korea. In ' this paper, a pre-conceptual design of the Korean Reference HLW Vertical disposal System (KRS-V1) is presented. Though no site for the underground repository has yet been specified in Korea, a generic site with granitic rock is considered for reference HLW repository design. Depth of the repository is assumed to be 500 meters. The repository consists of the disposal area, technical rooms with four shafts to connect them to the ground level in the controlled area and technical rooms with an access tunnel and three shafts to connect them to the ground level in the uncontrolled area. Disposal area consists of disposal tunnels, panel tunnels and a central tunnel. The repository will be excavated, operated and backfilled in several phases including an Underground Research Laboratory (URL) phase. The result of this preliminary conceptual design will be used for an evaluation of the feasibility, analyses of the long term safety, information for public communication and a cost estimation etc. (authors)

  19. Test reference years - meteorological bases for the technical simulation of heating systems and air-conditioning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perl, J.

    1991-01-01

    For the FRG (western part) for 12 regions with different climate test reference years (TRY) have been established. The TRYs are used for the simulation of the thermal behaviour of buildings, of the operation of heating and space avc systems, lighting control, solar plants as well as of comparable technical systems. A TRY is a collection of hourly data of important meterological parameters over a whole year. The TRYs include 14 meteorological parameters for temperature, humidity, wind, short- and long-wave radiation, atmospheric pressure, precipitation and description of the weather at that time. A TRY is to correspond to the characteristic weather conditions of the TRY region. (orig.) [de

  20. Internally driven inertial waves in geodynamo simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, A.; Davidson, P. A.; Christensen, U. R.; Wicht, J.

    2018-05-01

    Inertial waves are oscillations in a rotating fluid, such as the Earth's outer core, which result from the restoring action of the Coriolis force. In an earlier work, it was argued by Davidson that inertial waves launched near the equatorial regions could be important for the α2 dynamo mechanism, as they can maintain a helicity distribution which is negative (positive) in the north (south). Here, we identify such internally driven inertial waves, triggered by buoyant anomalies in the equatorial regions in a strongly forced geodynamo simulation. Using the time derivative of vertical velocity, ∂uz/∂t, as a diagnostic for traveling wave fronts, we find that the horizontal movement in the buoyancy field near the equator is well correlated with a corresponding movement of the fluid far from the equator. Moreover, the azimuthally averaged spectrum of ∂uz/∂t lies in the inertial wave frequency range. We also test the dispersion properties of the waves by computing the spectral energy as a function of frequency, ϖ, and the dispersion angle, θ. Our results suggest that the columnar flow in the rotation-dominated core, which is an important ingredient for the maintenance of a dipolar magnetic field, is maintained despite the chaotic evolution of the buoyancy field on a fast timescale by internally driven inertial waves.