WorldWideScience

Sample records for inelastic x-ray scattering

  1. Inelastic X-ray scattering activities in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorner, B.

    1984-01-01

    Inelastic X-ray scattering requires an energy determination before and after the scattering process together with a technique to vary at least one energy continuously in a controlled way. Sufficiently monochromatic beams can only be produced by Bragg reflection from single crystals. Stationary X-ray monochromators are standard equipment of conventional X-ray generators to select a particular characteristic line. Quite often they are curved to focus on the sample or the detector. Devices with variable Bragg angle have been and are used as analyzers in Compton scattering which is inelastic X-ray scattering with moderate resolution. With the rapidly increasing availability of synchrotron radiation (SR) monochromators and analyzers became more and more sophisticated improving momentum (Q) resolution and only somewhat the energy resolution ΔE which stays in the order of eV. Very high energy resolution can only be obtained with Bragg angles Theta near to 90 0 . This field is the topic of the present paper

  2. Resonant inelastic x-ray scattering studies of elementary excitations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ament, Lucas Johannes Peter (Luuk)

    2010-01-01

    Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS) is an X-ray in, X-ray out technique that enables one to study the dispersion of excitations in solids. In this thesis, we investigated how various elementary excitations of transition metal oxides show up in RIXS spectra.

  3. Electron Dynamics by Inelastic X-Ray Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Schülke, Winfried

    2007-01-01

    The book offers the first comprehensive review of experimental methods, theory, and successful applications of synchrotron radiation based inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) spectroscopy, which enables the investigation of electron dynamics in condensed matter (correlated motion and excitation).

  4. CHEMICAL APPLICATIONS OF INELASTIC X-RAY SCATTERING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HAYASHI,H.; UDAGAWA,Y.; GILLET,J.M.; CALIEBE,W.A.; KAO,C.C.

    2001-08-01

    Inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS), complementary to other more established inelastic scattering probes, such as light scattering, electron scattering, and neutron scattering, is becoming an important experimental technique in the study of elementary excitations in condensed matters. Over the past decade, IXS with total energy resolution of few meV has been achieved, and is being used routinely in the study of phonon dispersions in solids and liquids as well as dynamics in disordered and biological systems. In the study of electronic excitations, IXS with total energy resolution on the order of 100 meV to 1 eV is gaining wider applications also. For example, IXS has been used to study collective excitations of valence electrons, single electron excitations of valence electrons, as well as core electron excitations. In comparison with the alternative scattering techniques mentioned above, IXS has several advantages. First, IXS probes the full momentum transfer range of the dielectric response of the sample, whereas light scattering is limited to very small momentum transfers, and electron scattering suffers the effects of multiple scattering at large momentum transfers. Second, since IXS measures the bulk properties of the sample it is not surface sensitive, therefore it does not require special preparation of the sample. The greater flexibility in sample conditions and environments makes IXS an ideal probe in the study of liquids and samples under extreme temperature, pressure, and magnetic field. Third, the tunability of synchrotron radiation sources enables IXS to exploit element specificity and resonant enhancement of scattering cross sections. Fourth, IXS is unique in the study of dynamics of liquids and amorphous solids because it can probe the particular region of energy-momentum transfer phase space, which is inaccessible to inelastic neutron scattering. On the other hand, the main disadvantages of IXS are the small cross sections and the strong absorption of

  5. Focusing polycapillary to reduce parasitic scattering for inelastic x-ray measurements at high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, P.; Xiao, Y. M.; Rod, E.; Bai, L. G.; Shen, G. Y.; Sinogeikin, S.; Gao, N.; Ding, Y.; Mao, H.-K.

    2015-01-01

    The double-differential scattering cross-section for the inelastic scattering of x-ray photons from electrons is typically orders of magnitude smaller than that of elastic scattering. With samples 10-100 μm size in a diamond anvil cell at high pressure, the inelastic x-ray scattering signals from samples are obscured by scattering from the cell gasket and diamonds. One major experimental challenge is to measure a clean inelastic signal from the sample in a diamond anvil cell. Among the many strategies for doing this, we have used a focusing polycapillary as a post-sample optic, which allows essentially only scattered photons within its input field of view to be refocused and transmitted to the backscattering energy analyzer of the spectrometer. We describe the modified inelastic x-ray spectrometer and its alignment. With a focused incident beam which matches the sample size and the field of view of polycapillary, at relatively large scattering angles, the polycapillary effectively reduces parasitic scattering from the diamond anvil cell gasket and diamonds. Raw data collected from the helium exciton measured by x-ray inelastic scattering at high pressure using the polycapillary method are compared with those using conventional post-sample slit collimation

  6. High energy resolution inelastic x-ray scattering at the SRI-CAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macrander, A.T.

    1996-08-01

    This report is a combination of vugraphs and two papers. The vugraphs give information on the beamline at the APS for IXS and the science addressable by IXS. They also cover the 10 milli-eV resolution spectrometer and the 200 milli-eV resolution spectrometer. The first paper covers the performance of the focusing Ge(444) backscattering analyzers for the inelastic x-ray scattering. The second paper discusses inelastic x-ray scattering from TiC and Ti single crystals

  7. Revealing inner shell dynamics with inelastic X-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franck, C.

    1990-01-01

    One of the many opportunities provided by the Advanced Photon Source (APS) is to extend the study of intra-atomic dynamics. As a means of testing dynamic response, inelastic x-ray scattering is particularly promising since it allows us to independently vary the period of the exciting field in both space and time. As an example of this type of work, the author presents experiments performed at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS) laboratory, a prototype for the APS. This was inner shell inelastic scattering with a twist: in order to explore a new distance scale an x-ray fluorescence trigger was employed. Aside for the atomic insight gained, the experiment taught them the importance of the time structure of the synchrotron beam for coincidence experiments which are dominated by accidental events

  8. Inelastic X-ray Scattering Beamline Collaborative Development Team Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, Clement

    2008-01-01

    This is the final report for the project to create a beam line for inelastic x-ray scattering at the Advanced Photon Source. The facility is complete and operating well, with spectrometers for both high resolution and medium resolution measurements. With the advent of third generation synchrotron sources, inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) has become a valuable technique to probe the electronic and vibrational states of a wide variety of systems of interest in physics, chemistry, and biology. IXS is a weak probe, and experimental setups are complex and require well-optimized spectrometers which need a dedicated beamline to function efficiently. This project was the result of a proposal to provide a world-class, user friendly beamline for IXS at the Advanced Photon Source. The IXS Collaborative Development Team (IXS-CDT) was formed from groups at the national laboratories and a number of different universities. The beamline was designed from the front end to the experimental stations. Two different experimental stations were provided, one for medium resolution inelastic x-ray scattering (MERIX) and a spectrometer for high resolution inelastic x-ray scattering (HERIX). Funding for this project came from several sources as well as the DOE. The beamline is complete with both spectrometers operating well. The facility is now open to the general user community and there has been a tremendous demand to take advantage of the beamline's capabilities. A large number of different experiments have already been carried out on the beamline. A detailed description of the beamline has been given in the final design report (FDR) for the beamline from which much of the material in this report came. The first part of this report contains a general overview of the project with more technical details given later.

  9. Toroidal silicon polarization analyzer for resonant inelastic x-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Xuan [Department of Physics, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Michigan 49008-5252 (United States); Key Laboratory of Multi-scale Manufacturing Technology, Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chongqing 400714 (China); Casa, Diego; Kim, Jungho; Gog, Thomas [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Li, Chengyang [Department of Physics, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Michigan 49008-5252 (United States); Department of Physics, South University of Science and Technology of China, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Burns, Clement [Department of Physics, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Michigan 49008-5252 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS) is a powerful probe for studying electronic excitations in materials. Standard high energy RIXS measurements do not measure the polarization of the scattered x-rays, which is unfortunate since it carries information about the nature and symmetry of the excitations involved in the scattering process. Here we report the fabrication of thin Si-based polarization analyzers with a double-concave toroidal surface, useful for L-edge RIXS studies in heavier atoms such as the 5-d transition metals.

  10. Atomic dynamics in fluids studied by inelastic x-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inui, Masanori; Kajihara, Yukio; Matsuda, Kazuhiro; Ishikawa, Daisuke; Tsutsui, Satoshi; Baron, Alfred Q.

    2010-01-01

    Studies on atomic dynamics in supercritical fluids at high temperature and high pressure have remarkably been advanced by using an inelastic x-ray scattering technique that achieved a meV-energy resolution in the middle of 1990's. In this article, we describe a brief review of the theoretical background on liquid dynamics, our own high-temperature high-pressure technique and recent results of atomic dynamics in supercritical fluids. In particular, we report the results of inelastic x-ray scattering measurements for expanding fluid Hg at high temperature and high pressure, which were conduced at BL35XU/SPring-8. We found that in the metal-nonmetal transition in fluid Hg, the excitation energy of the acoustic mode disperses three times faster than the adiabatic sound velocity obtained by ultrasonic measurements. This phenomenon must be crucial to understand how a metallic state is formed during atomic condensation accurately. Finally we put a future development of this field in perspective. (author)

  11. On-axis microscopes for the inelastic x-ray scattering beamline at NSLS-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gofron, K. J., E-mail: kgofron@bnl.gov; Cai, Y. Q.; Coburn, D. S.; Antonelli, S.; Suvorov, A. [National Synchrotron Light Source II, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Flores, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, NY 11794 (United States)

    2016-07-27

    A novel on-axis X-ray microscope with 3 µm resolution, 3x magnification, and a working distance of 600 mm for in-situ sample alignment and X-ray beam visualization for the Inelastic X-ray Scattering (IXS) beamline at NSLS-II is presented. The microscope uses reflective optics, which minimizes dispersion, and allows imaging from Ultraviolet (UV) to Infrared (IR) with specifically chosen objective components (coatings, etc.). Additionally, a portable high resolution X-ray microscope for KB mirror alignment and X-ray beam characterization was developed.

  12. Resonant inelastic scattering at intermediate X-ray energies

    CERN Document Server

    Hague, C F; Journel, L; Gallet, J J; Rogalev, A; Krill, G; Kappler, J P

    2000-01-01

    We describe resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) experiments and magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) in X-ray fluorescence performed in the 3-5 keV range. The examples chosen are X-ray fluorescence MCD of FeRh and RIXS experiments performed at the L/sub 3/ edge of Ce. Fe Rh is antiferromagnetic at room temperature but has a transition to the ferromagnetic state above 400 K. The Rh MCD signal is compared with an augmented spherical wave calculation. The experiment confirms the predicted spin polarization of the Rh 4d valence states. The RIXS measurements on Ce compounds and intermetallics address the problem of mixed valency especially in systems where degeneracy with the Fermi level remains small. Examples are taken from the 2p to (4f5d) /sup +1/ followed by 3d to 2p RIXS for a highly ionic compound CeF /sub 3/ and for almost gamma -like CeCuSi. (38 refs).

  13. Fingerprints of orbital physics in magnetic resonant inelastic X-ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Pasquale

    2012-09-01

    Orbital degrees of freedom play a major role in the physics of many strongly correlated transition metal compounds. However, they are still very difficult to access experimentally, in particular by neutron scattering. We propose here how to reveal orbital occupancies of the system ground state by magnetic resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS). This is possible because, unlike in neutron scattering, the intensity of the magnetic excitations in RIXS depends essentially on the symmetry of the orbitals where the spins are in.

  14. Trial fabrication of a secondary x-ray spectrometer with high energy resolution for use in x-ray resonant inelastic scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwazumi, Toshiaki

    2004-01-01

    An instrument was fabricated for use of x-ray resonant inelastic scattering with high-energy resolution in expectation of finding new physical phenomena in strongly correlated electron systems. In the scattering x-ray spectrometer, an asymmetric Johanson crystal spectrometer, which was deployed in an asymmetric Rowland configuration, was designed, fabricated and assessed. The performance expected theoretically for the Johanson spectrometer was recognized from experiments by use of synchrotron radiation. (Y. Kazumata)

  15. Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering: From band mapping to inter-orbital excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luning, J.; Hague, C.F.

    2008-01-01

    Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (also known as resonant X-ray Raman spectroscopy when only valence and conduction states are involved in the final state excitation) has developed into a major tool for understanding the electronic properties of complex materials. Presently it provides access to electron excitations in the few hundred meV range with element and bulk selectivity. Recent progress in X-ray optics and synchrotron radiation engineering have opened up new perspectives for this powerful technique to improve resolving power and efficiency. We briefly present the basics of the method and illustrate its potential with examples chosen from the literature. (authors)

  16. Theory of time-resolved inelastic x-ray diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenz, Ulf; Møller, Klaus Braagaard; Henriksen, Niels Engholm

    2010-01-01

    Starting from a general theory of time-resolved x-ray scattering, we derive a convenient expression for the diffraction signal based on a careful analysis of the relevant inelastic scattering processes. We demonstrate that the resulting inelastic limit applies to a wider variety of experimental...... conditions than similar, previously derived formulas, and it directly allows the application of selection rules when interpreting diffraction signals. Furthermore, we present a simple extension to systems simultaneously illuminated by x rays and a laser beam....

  17. 1s2p resonant inelastic x-ray scattering in a-Fe2O3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caliebe, W.A.; Kao, C.-C.; Hastings, J.B.; Taguchi, M.; Kotani, A.; Uozumi, T.; Groot, F.M.F. de

    1998-01-01

    We report experimental and theoretical results on the Fe K edge x-ray absorption spectrum and 1s2p resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) spectra in a-Fe2O3 . The results are interpreted using an FeO6^9- cluster model with intra-atomic multiplet coupling and interatomic covalency

  18. Soft X-ray radiation damage in EM-CCDs used for Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, D.; Soman, M.; Holland, A.; Keelan, J.; Hall, D.; Holland, K.; Colebrook, D.

    2018-02-01

    Advancement in synchrotron and free electron laser facilities means that X-ray beams with higher intensity than ever before are being created. The high brilliance of the X-ray beam, as well as the ability to use a range of X-ray energies, means that they can be used in a wide range of applications. One such application is Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS). RIXS uses the intense and tuneable X-ray beams in order to investigate the electronic structure of materials. The photons are focused onto a sample material and the scattered X-ray beam is diffracted off a high resolution grating to disperse the X-ray energies onto a position sensitive detector. Whilst several factors affect the total system energy resolution, the performance of RIXS experiments can be limited by the spatial resolution of the detector used. Electron-Multiplying CCDs (EM-CCDs) at high gain in combination with centroiding of the photon charge cloud across several detector pixels can lead to sub-pixel spatial resolution of 2-3 μm. X-ray radiation can cause damage to CCDs through ionisation damage resulting in increases in dark current and/or a shift in flat band voltage. Understanding the effect of radiation damage on EM-CCDs is important in order to predict lifetime as well as the change in performance over time. Two CCD-97s were taken to PTB at BESSY II and irradiated with large doses of soft X-rays in order to probe the front and back surfaces of the device. The dark current was shown to decay over time with two different exponential components to it. This paper will discuss the use of EM-CCDs for readout of RIXS spectrometers, and limitations on spatial resolution, together with any limitations on instrument use which may arise from X-ray-induced radiation damage.

  19. Resonant x-ray Raman scattering from atoms and molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, P.L.

    1992-01-01

    Inelastic x-ray scattering and elastic x-ray scattering are fundamentally related processes. When the x-ray photon energy is near the ionization threshold for an inner shell, the inelastic channel is dominated by resonant x-ray Raman scattering. Studies of this emission not only illuminate the resonant scattering process in general, they also point to new opportunities for spectral studies of electronic structure using x-rays. Atoms in the form of a free gas provide an ideal target for testing the current theoretical understanding of resonant x-ray Raman scattering. In addition, x-ray scattering from molecular gases demonstrates the effect of bonding symmetry on the polarization and angular distribution of the scattered x-rays. Comparisons of experimental data with theory demonstrate both the successes and limitations of simple, single-electron interpretations of the scattering process

  20. Dichroism in resonant inelastic soft X-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braicovich, L.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The dichroism (and in particular the magnetic dichroism) has emerged in the last decade as a key method in the study of electronic states in solids. This has been largely due to the exploitation of the modern sources of Synchrotron Radiation. This approach has been extensively used in X ray Absorption Spectroscopy i.e. in a first order process giving a straightforward access, trough sum rules, to the ground state properties of the sample. On the other hand the studies of dichroism in second order processes as the photon scattering experiments has been up to now relatively limited probably due to experimental difficulties. This is too bad because, at least in principle, the scattering experiments offer unique opportunities typical of second order processes, beyond the possibilities offered by absorption spectroscopy. This requires specific scattering experiments able to give information that cannot be obtained in the absorption mode. A typical example is the circular magnetic dichroism in resonant inelastic scattering in perpendicular geometry i.e. with the light incident perpendicular to the magnetisation. In this case the circular dichroism in absorption is zero by symmetry while the detection of the scattered photons at an angle breaks the left-right symmetry and allows a dichroism to be observed. The aim of the present talk is to review critically the dichroism in resonant X-ray scattering and to show the potential of this approach. In particular it will be shown how to recover, in magnetic samples, the ground state information up to the moments of order four. In this connection original results will be presented including the demonstration of a new experimental approach. The perspectives of the field will be also discussed

  1. High-resolution inelastic X-ray scattering to study the high-frequency atomic dynamics of disordered systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monaco, G.

    2008-01-01

    The use of momentum-resolved inelastic X-ray scattering with meV energy resolution to study the high-frequency atomic dynamics in disordered systems is here reviewed. The typical realization of this experiment is described together with some common models used to interpret the measured spectra and to extract parameters of interest for the investigation of disordered systems. With the help of some selected examples, the present status of the field is discussed. Particular attention is given to those results which are still open for discussion or controversial, and which will require further development of the technique to be fully solved. Such an instrumental development seems nowadays possible at the light of recently proposed schemes for advanced inelastic X-ray scattering spectrometers. (author)

  2. Ultra-high-resolution inelastic X-ray scattering at high-repetition-rate self-seeded X-ray free-electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chubar, Oleg [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Geloni, Gianluca [European X-ray Free-Electron Laser, Albert-Einstein-Ring 19, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Madsen, Anders [European X-ray Free-Electron Laser, Albert-Einstein-Ring 19, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Saldin, Evgeni; Serkez, Svitozar [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Shvyd’ko, Yuri, E-mail: shvydko@aps.anl.gov [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Sutter, John [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-12

    This article explores novel opportunities for ultra-high-resolution inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) at high-repetition-rate self-seeded XFELs. These next-generation light sources are promising a more than three orders of magnitude increase in average spectral flux compared with what is possible with storage-ring-based radiation sources. In combination with the advanced IXS spectrometer described here, this may become a real game-changer for ultra-high-resolution X-ray spectroscopies, and hence for the studies of dynamics in condensed matter systems. Inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) is an important tool for studies of equilibrium dynamics in condensed matter. A new spectrometer recently proposed for ultra-high-resolution IXS (UHRIX) has achieved 0.6 meV and 0.25 nm{sup −1} spectral and momentum-transfer resolutions, respectively. However, further improvements down to 0.1 meV and 0.02 nm{sup −1} are required to close the gap in energy–momentum space between high- and low-frequency probes. It is shown that this goal can be achieved by further optimizing the X-ray optics and by increasing the spectral flux of the incident X-ray pulses. UHRIX performs best at energies from 5 to 10 keV, where a combination of self-seeding and undulator tapering at the SASE-2 beamline of the European XFEL promises up to a 100-fold increase in average spectral flux compared with nominal SASE pulses at saturation, or three orders of magnitude more than what is possible with storage-ring-based radiation sources. Wave-optics calculations show that about 7 × 10{sup 12} photons s{sup −1} in a 90 µeV bandwidth can be achieved on the sample. This will provide unique new possibilities for dynamics studies by IXS.

  3. Precision mechanical structure of an ultra-high-resolution spectrometer for inelastic X-ray scattering instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Deming; Shvydko, Yuri; Stoupin, Stanislav A.; Khachatryan, Ruben; Goetze, Kurt A.; Roberts, Timothy

    2015-04-14

    A method and an ultrahigh-resolution spectrometer including a precision mechanical structure for positioning inelastic X-ray scattering optics are provided. The spectrometer includes an X-ray monochromator and an X-ray analyzer, each including X-ray optics of a collimating (C) crystal, a pair of dispersing (D) element crystals, anomalous transmission filter (F) and a wavelength (W) selector crystal. A respective precision mechanical structure is provided with the X-ray monochromator and the X-ray analyzer. The precision mechanical structure includes a base plate, such as an aluminum base plate; positioning stages for D-crystal alignment; positioning stages with an incline sensor for C/F/W-crystal alignment, and the positioning stages including flexure-based high-stiffness structure.

  4. Inelastic X-ray scattering experiments at extreme conditions: high temperatures and high pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Hosokawa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we review the present status of experimental techniques under extreme conditions of high temperature and high pressure used for inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS experiments of liquid metals, semiconductors, molten salts, molecular liquids, and supercritical water and methanol. For high temperature experiments, some types of single-crystal sapphire cells were designed depending on the temperature of interest and the sample thickness for the X-ray transmission. Single-crystal diamond X-ray windows attached to the externally heated high-pressure vessel were used for the IXS experiment of supercritical water and methanol. Some typical experimental results are also given, and the perspective of IXS technique under extreme conditions is discussed.

  5. Strongly correlated electrons at high pressure: an approach by inelastic X-Ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueff, J.P.

    2007-06-01

    Inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) and associated methods has turn out to be a powerful alternative for high-pressure physics. It is an all-photon technique fully compatible with high-pressure environments and applicable to a vast range of materials. Standard focalization of X-ray in the range of 100 microns is typical of the sample size in the pressure cell. Our main aim is to provide an overview of experimental results obtained by IXS under high pressure in 2 classes of materials which have been at the origin of the renewal of condensed matter physics: strongly correlated transition metal oxides and rare-earth compounds. Under pressure, d and f-electron materials show behaviors far more complex that what would be expected from a simplistic band picture of electron delocalization. These spectroscopic studies have revealed unusual phenomena in the electronic degrees of freedom, brought up by the increased density, the changes in the charge-carrier concentration, the over-lapping between orbitals, and hybridization under high pressure conditions. Particularly we discuss about pressure induced magnetic collapse and metal-insulator transitions in 3d compounds and valence fluctuations phenomena in 4f and 5f compounds. Thanks to its superior penetration depth, chemical selectivity and resonant enhancement, resonant inelastic X-ray scattering has appeared extremely well suited to high pressure physics in strongly correlated materials. (A.C.)

  6. Inelastic x-ray scattering from polycrystalline materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, I.

    2008-09-01

    Inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) is a tool to determine the phonon dispersion along high symmetry directions in single crystals. However, novel materials and crystals under extreme conditions are often only available in form of polycrystalline samples. Thus the investigation is limited to orientation-averaged properties. To overcome these limitations, a methodology to extract the single crystal phonon dispersion from polycrystalline materials was developed. The approach consists of recording IXS spectra over a large momentum transfer region and confront them with a Born - von Karman model calculation. A least-square refinement of the model IXS spectra then provides the single crystal dispersion scheme. In this work the method is developed on the test case Be. Further studies were performed on more and more complex systems, in order to explore the limitations. This novel application of IXS promises to be a valuable tool in cases where single crystalline materials are not available. (author)

  7. Magnetic excitations and phase separation in the underdoped La2-xSrxCuO4 superconductor measured by resonant inelastic X-ray scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braicovich, L; van den Brink, J; Bisogni, V; Sala, M Moretti; Ament, L J P; Brookes, N B; De Luca, G M; Salluzzo, M; Schmitt, T; Strocov, V N; Ghiringhelli, G

    2010-02-19

    We probe the collective magnetic modes of La2CuO4 and underdoped La2-xSrxCuO4 (LSCO) by momentum resolved resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) at the Cu L3 edge. For the undoped antiferromagnetic sample, we show that the single magnon dispersion measured with RIXS coincides with the one determined by inelastic neutron scattering, thus demonstrating that x rays are an alternative to neutrons in this field. In the spin dynamics of LSCO, we find a branch dispersing up to approximately 400 meV coexisting with one at lower energy. The high-energy branch has never been seen before. It indicates that underdoped LSCO is in a dynamic inhomogeneous spin state.

  8. Heavy particle dynamics in liquid Se. Inelastic x-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inui, Masanori; Hosokawa, Shinya; Matsuda, Kazuhiro; Tsutsui, Satoshi; Baron, A. Q. R.

    2007-01-01

    The dynamic structure factor of liquid Se was measured at 523 K using high-resolution inelastic X-ray scattering. Anomalous narrowing of the spectrum was observed at 15 nm -1 , where the static structure factor S(Q) exhibits a weak shoulder, but the elastic part of the dynamic structure factor S(Q, E=0) exhibited a strong maximum. The second frequency moment, which is estimated from only the quasielastic peak, is consistent with the motion of rigid six-atom clusters, while a formal agreement with the first-moment sum rule is preserved by the appearance of a weak intramolecular mode at 30 meV. (author)

  9. Quantitative spectromicroscopy from inelastically scattered photoelectrons in the hard X-ray range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renault, O., E-mail: olivier.renault@cea.fr; Zborowski, C.; Risterucci, P. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble, France and CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Wiemann, C.; Schneider, C. M. [Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI-6) and JARA-FIT, Research Center Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Grenet, G. [Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon, Ecole Centrale, 69134 Ecully Cedex (France); Tougaard, S. [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark)

    2016-07-04

    We demonstrate quantitative, highly bulk-sensitive x-ray photoelectron emission microscopy by analysis of inelastically scattered photoelectrons in the hard X-ray range, enabling elemental depth distribution analysis in deeply buried layers. We show results on patterned structures used in electrical testing of high electron mobility power transistor devices with an epitaxial Al{sub 0.25}Ga{sub 0.75}N channel and a Ti/Al metal contact. From the image series taken over an energy range of up to 120 eV in the Ti 1s loss feature region and over a typical 100 μm field of view, one can accurately retrieve, using background analysis together with an optimized scattering cross-section, the Ti depth distribution from 14 nm up to 25 nm below the surface. The method paves the way to multi-elemental, bulk-sensitive 3D imaging and investigation of phenomena at deeply buried interfaces and microscopic scales by photoemission.

  10. A sample cell to study hydrate formation with x-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, Heiko; Lehmkuehler, Felix; Sternemann, Christian; Feroughi, Omid; Tolan, Metin; Simonelli, Laura; Huotari, Simo

    2009-01-01

    We present a new sample cell for measuring nonresonant inelastic x-ray scattering spectra of a tetrahydrofuran (THF)-water liquid mixture and THF hydrate. The hydrate is formed inside the cell after nucleation seeds have been offered by a special magnetic stirring mechanism. Hydrate formation was verified by wide angle x-ray scattering and nonresonant x-ray Raman scattering spectra at the oxygen K-edge. A broad range of scattering angles can be studied with this cell which is necessary for momentum transfer dependent inelastic x-ray scattering. This cell is ideal to examine other liquid hydrate formers or other liquid samples, which have to be mixed in situ during the measurements.

  11. Time resolved resonant inelastic X-ray scattering: A supreme tool to understand dynamics in solids and molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beye, M.; Wernet, Ph.; Schüßler-Langeheine, C.; Föhlisch, A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •The high specificity of RIXS ideally suits time-resolved measurements. •Methods relating to the core hole lifetime cover the low femtosecond regime. •Pump-probe methods are used starting at sub-ps time scales. •FELs and synchrotrons are useful for pump-probe studies. •Examples from solid state dynamics and molecules are discussed. -- Abstract: Dynamics in materials typically involve different degrees of freedom, like charge, lattice, orbital and spin in a complex interplay. Time-resolved resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) as a highly selective tool can provide unique insight and follow the details of dynamical processes while resolving symmetries, chemical and charge states, momenta, spin configurations, etc. In this paper, we review examples where the intrinsic scattering duration time is used to study femtosecond phenomena. Free-electron lasers access timescales starting in the sub-ps range through pump-probe methods and synchrotrons study the time scales longer than tens of ps. In these examples, time-resolved resonant inelastic X-ray scattering is applied to solids as well as molecular systems

  12. Background radiation in inelastic X-ray scattering and X-ray emission spectroscopy. A study for Johann-type spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes Mellone, O. A.; Bianco, L. M.; Ceppi, S. A.; Goncalves Honnicke, M.; Stutz, G. E.

    2018-06-01

    A study of the background radiation in inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) and X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) based on an analytical model is presented. The calculation model considers spurious radiation originated from elastic and inelastic scattering processes along the beam paths of a Johann-type spectrometer. The dependence of the background radiation intensity on the medium of the beam paths (air and helium), analysed energy and radius of the Rowland circle was studied. The present study shows that both for IXS and XES experiments the background radiation is dominated by spurious radiation owing to scattering processes along the sample-analyser beam path. For IXS experiments the spectral distribution of the main component of the background radiation shows a weak linear dependence on the energy for the most cases. In the case of XES, a strong non-linear behaviour of the background radiation intensity was predicted for energy analysis very close to the backdiffraction condition, with a rapid increase in intensity as the analyser Bragg angle approaches π / 2. The contribution of the analyser-detector beam path is significantly weaker and resembles the spectral distribution of the measured spectra. Present results show that for usual experimental conditions no appreciable structures are introduced by the background radiation into the measured spectra, both in IXS and XES experiments. The usefulness of properly calculating the background profile is demonstrated in a background subtraction procedure for a real experimental situation. The calculation model was able to simulate with high accuracy the energy dependence of the background radiation intensity measured in a particular XES experiment with air beam paths.

  13. Prospects of high-resolution resonant X-ray inelastic scattering studies on solid materials, liquids and gases at diffraction-limited storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, Thorsten; Groot, Frank M. F. de; Rubensson, Jan-Erik

    2014-01-01

    Diffraction-limited storage rings will allow for pushing the achievable energy resolution, signal intensity and the sampled spot size in resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) experiments to new limits. In this article the types of improved soft X-ray RIXS studies that will become possible with these instrumental improvements are envisioned. The spectroscopic technique of resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) will particularly profit from immensely improved brilliance of diffraction-limited storage rings (DLSRs). In RIXS one measures the intensities of excitations as a function of energy and momentum transfer. DLSRs will allow for pushing the achievable energy resolution, signal intensity and the sampled spot size to new limits. With RIXS one nowadays probes a broad range of electronic systems reaching from simple molecules to complex materials displaying phenomena like peculiar magnetism, two-dimensional electron gases, superconductivity, photovoltaic energy conversion and heterogeneous catalysis. In this article the types of improved RIXS studies that will become possible with X-ray beams from DLSRs are envisioned

  14. Scattering of x rays from low-Z materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaines, J.L.; Kissel, L.D.; Catron, H.C.; Hansen, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    X rays incident on thin beryllium, boron, carbon, and other low-Z materials undergo both elastic and inelastic scattering as well as diffraction from the crystalline or crystalline-like structure of the material. Unpolarized monoenergetic x rays in the 1.5 to 8.0-keV energy range were used to determine the absolute scattering efficiency of thin beryllium, carbon, and boron foils. These measurements are compared to calculated scattering efficiencies predicted by single-atom theories. In addition, the relative scattering efficiency versus x-ray energy was measured for other low-Z foils using unpolarized bremsstrahlung x rays. In all the low-Z foils examined, we observed Bragg-like x-ray diffraction due to the ordered structure of the materials

  15. Theoretical and experimental study of resonant inelastic X-ray scattering for NiO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotani, A.; Matsubara, M.; Uozumi, T.; Ghiringhelli, G.; Fracassi, F.; Dallera, C.; Tagliaferri, A.; Brookes, N.B.; Braicovich, L.

    2006-01-01

    Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) spectra for Ni 2p to 3d excitation and 3d to 2p de-excitation of NiO are studied both theoretically and experimentally. Theoretical calculations with a single impurity Anderson model (SIAM) describe the charge transfer (CT) and d-d excitations in RIXS, and detailed study is made for the CT energy. High resolution RIXS measurements reveal the precise d-d excitation structure and its polarization dependence, and they are well reproduced by the SIAM calculation

  16. Precision mechanical design of an ultrahigh-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering spectrometer system with CDFDW optics at the APS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, D; Stoupin, S; Khachatryan, R; Goetze, K A; Roberts, T; Shvyd'ko, Y; Mundboth, K; Collins, S

    2013-01-01

    There are many scientific applications, especially involving topics related to the equilibrium atomic-scale dynamics of condensed matter, that require both a narrower and a steeper resolution function and access to a broader dynamic range than are currently available. To meet these important scientific needs, a prototype of a novel ultrahigh-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering spectrometer system has been designed and constructed at undulator-based beamline 30-ID at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory. This prototype is designed to meet challenging mechanical and optical specifications for performing so-called CDFDW angular-dispersive x-ray crystal optics, which include a central ultra-thin CFW crystal and a pair of dispersing elements. The abbreviation CDFDW stands for: C – collimating crystal, D – dispersing-element crystal (two D-crystals are used in each CDFDW), F – anomalous transmission filter, and W – wavelength-selector crystal [1]. The mechanical design of the ultrahigh-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering spectrometer, as well as the preliminary test results of its precision positioning performance are presented in this paper.

  17. Probing warm dense lithium by inelastic X-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Saiz, E; Riley, D [School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University of Belfast, Belfast (United Kingdom); Gregori, G [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford (United Kingdom); Gregori, G; Clarke, R J; Neely, D; Notley, M M; Spindloe, C [Central Laser Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, OX (United Kingdom); Gericke, D O; Vorberger, J; Wunsch, K [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry (United Kingdom); Barbrel, B; Koenig, M [Laboratoire pour l' Utilisation des Laser Intenses, Ecole Polytechnique - Universite Paris-6, 91 - Palaiseau (France); Freeman, R R; Weber, R L; Van Woerkom, L [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio (United States); Glenzer, S H; Landen, O L; Neumayer, P; Price, D [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California (United States); Khattak, F Y [Department of Physics, Kohat University of Science and Technology, Kohat-26000, NWFP (Pakistan); Pelka, A; Roth, M; Schollmeier, M [Institut fur Kernphysik, Technische Universitat Darmstadt (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    One of the grand challenges of contemporary physics is understanding strongly interacting quantum systems comprising such diverse examples as ultracold atoms in traps, electrons in high-temperature superconductors and nuclear matter. Warm dense matter, defined by temperatures of a few electron volts and densities comparable with solids, is a complex state of such interacting matter. Moreover, the study of warm dense matter states has practical applications for controlled thermonuclear fusion, where it is encountered during the implosion phase, and it also represents laboratory analogues of astrophysical environments found in the core of planets and the crusts of old stars. Here we demonstrate how warm dense matter states can be diagnosed and structural properties can be obtained by inelastic X-ray scattering measurements on a compressed lithium sample. Combining experiments and ab initio simulations enables us to determine its microscopic state and to evaluate more approximate theoretical models for the ionic structure. (authors)

  18. Quantum effets in nonresonant X-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slowik, Jan Malte

    2015-11-15

    Due to their versatile properties, X rays are a unique tool to investigate the structure and dynamics of matter. X-ray scattering is the fundamental principle of many imaging techniques. Examples are X-ray crystallography, which recently celebrated one hundred years and is currently the leading method in structure determination of proteins, as well as X-ray phase contrast imaging (PCI), which is an imaging technique with countless applications in biology, medicine, etc. The technological development of X-ray free electron lasers (XFEL) has brought X-ray imaging at the edge of a new scientific revolution. XFELs offer ultrashort X-ray pulses with unprecedented high X-ray fluence and excellent spatial coherence properties. These properties make them an outstanding radiation source for X-ray scattering experiments, providing ultrafast temporal resolution as well as atomic spatial resolution. However, the radiation-matter interaction in XFEL experiments also advances into a novel regime. This demands a sound theoretical fundament to describe and explore the new experimental possibilities. This dissertation is dedicated to the theoretical study of nonresonant X-ray scattering. As the first topic, I consider the near-field imaging by propagation based X-ray phase contrast imaging (PCI). I devise a novel theory of PCI, in which radiation and matter are quantized. Remarkably, the crucial interference term automatically excludes contributions from inelastic scattering. This explains the success of the classical description thus far. The second topic of the thesis is the X-ray imaging of coherent electronic motion, where quantum effects become particularly apparent. The electron density of coherent electronic wave packets - important in charge transfer and bond breaking - varies in time, typically on femto- or attosecond time scales. In the near future, XFELs are envisaged to provide attosecond X-ray pulses, opening the possibility for time-resolved ultrafast X-ray scattering

  19. Quantum effets in nonresonant X-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slowik, Jan Malte

    2015-11-01

    Due to their versatile properties, X rays are a unique tool to investigate the structure and dynamics of matter. X-ray scattering is the fundamental principle of many imaging techniques. Examples are X-ray crystallography, which recently celebrated one hundred years and is currently the leading method in structure determination of proteins, as well as X-ray phase contrast imaging (PCI), which is an imaging technique with countless applications in biology, medicine, etc. The technological development of X-ray free electron lasers (XFEL) has brought X-ray imaging at the edge of a new scientific revolution. XFELs offer ultrashort X-ray pulses with unprecedented high X-ray fluence and excellent spatial coherence properties. These properties make them an outstanding radiation source for X-ray scattering experiments, providing ultrafast temporal resolution as well as atomic spatial resolution. However, the radiation-matter interaction in XFEL experiments also advances into a novel regime. This demands a sound theoretical fundament to describe and explore the new experimental possibilities. This dissertation is dedicated to the theoretical study of nonresonant X-ray scattering. As the first topic, I consider the near-field imaging by propagation based X-ray phase contrast imaging (PCI). I devise a novel theory of PCI, in which radiation and matter are quantized. Remarkably, the crucial interference term automatically excludes contributions from inelastic scattering. This explains the success of the classical description thus far. The second topic of the thesis is the X-ray imaging of coherent electronic motion, where quantum effects become particularly apparent. The electron density of coherent electronic wave packets - important in charge transfer and bond breaking - varies in time, typically on femto- or attosecond time scales. In the near future, XFELs are envisaged to provide attosecond X-ray pulses, opening the possibility for time-resolved ultrafast X-ray scattering

  20. QCD expectations for deep inelastic scattering at small x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiecinski, J.

    1993-01-01

    The basic QCD expectations concerning the deep inelastic scattering at low x where x is the Bjorken scaling variable are reviewed. This includes discussion of the Lipatov equation which sums the leading powers of Ln(1/x) and the shadowing effects. Phenomenological implications of the theoretical expectations for the deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering in the small x region which will be accessible at the HERA ep collider are described. We give predictions for structure functions F 2 and F L based on the k T factorization theorem and discuss jet production in deep inelastic lepton scattering. The list of other topical problems relevant for the small x physics is given. (author). 46 refs, 7 figs

  1. Electron dynamics in the core-excited CS 2 molecule revealed through resonant inelastic x-ray scattering spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Marchenko , T; Carniato , S; Journel , L; Guillemin , R; Kawerk , E; Žitnik , M; Kavčič , M; Bučar , K; Bohinc , R; Petric , M; da Cruz , V Vaz; Gel'mukhanov , F; Simon , Marielle

    2015-01-01

    International audience; We present an experimental and theoretical study of resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) in the CS2 molecule near the S 1s edge. We show that localization of the S 1s core-hole occurs in CS2 during the RIXS process due to the orientational dephasing of interference between the waves scattering on the two sulfur atoms. Strong evolution of the RIXS profile with the excitation energy far below the first absorption resonance reflects the onset of electron dynamics tr...

  2. Inelastic X-ray scattering on liquid benzene analyzed using a generalized Langevin equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Koji; Fukuyama, Nami; Yamaguchi, Toshio; Hosokawa, Shinya; Uchiyama, Hiroshi; Tsutsui, Satoshi; Baron, Alfred Q. R.

    2017-07-01

    The dynamic structure factor, S(Q,ω), of liquid benzene was measured by meV-resolved inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) and analyzed using a generalized Langevin model with a memory function including fast, μ-relaxation and slow, structural, α-relaxation. The model well reproduced the experimental S(Q,ω) of liquid benzene. The dispersion relation of the collective excitation energy yields the high-frequency sound velocity for liquid benzene as related to the α-relaxation. The ratio of the high-frequency to the adiabatic sound velocity is approximately 1.5, larger to that of carbon tetrachloride and smaller than those of methanol and water, reflecting the nature of intermolecular interactions.

  3. Moments of the Bethe surface and total inelastic x-ray scattering cross sections for H2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, B.S.; Thakkar, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    Moments, S(j,K), of the generalized oscillator strength distribution are global properties of the Bethe surface. Apart from S(-1,K) which is related to the Waller-Hartree incoherent scattering factor, little is known about these moments for nonzero K. This paper describes high-accuracy calculations of S(1,K) and S(2,K) for molecular hydrogen. Comparison with experiment is made, and the utility of simple asymptotic approximations is confirmed. The moments are used to calculate differential cross sections for the inelastic scattering of x rays using the constant-momentum-transfer and constant-angle theories of Bonham. These cross sections differ from the Waller-Hartree cross sections at large angles thus demonstrating the importance of making corrections to the Waller-Hartree theory if the incoherent scattering factor S(K) is to be extracted from experimental inelastic cross sections. Total cross sections for scattering of 6- and 7-keV photons from H 2 are compared with synchrotron radiation scattering experiments. The calculations suggest that the Bonham constant-angle cross sections agree best with experiment. However, further experimental and theoretical work is needed to obtain firm conclusions about the limitations of Waller-Hartree theory

  4. Electron dynamics in the core-excited CS2 molecule revealed through resonant inelastic x-ray scattering spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchenko, T; Carniato, S; Journel, L; Guillemin, R; Kawerk, E; Simon, M; Žitnik, M; Kavčič, M; Bučar, K; Bohinc, R; Petric, M; Da Cruz, V Vaz; Gel'mukhanov, F

    2015-01-01

    We present an experimental and theoretical study of resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) in the CS 2 molecule near the S 1s edge. We show that localization of the S 1s core-hole occurs in CS 2 during the RIXS process due to the orientational dephasing of interference between the waves scattering on the two sulfur atoms. Strong evolution of the RIXS profile with the excitation energy far below the first absorption resonance reflects the onset of electron dynamics triggered by a coherent excitation of multiple electronic states. (paper)

  5. Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering of liquid water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Anders; Tokushima, Takashi; Horikawa, Yuka; Harada, Yoshihisa; Ljungberg, Mathias P.; Shin, Shik; Pettersson, Lars G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Two peaks are observed in the lone pair region of the XES spectrum of water assigned to tetrahedral and distorted hydrogen bonding configurations. ► The isotope effect observed as different relative peak heights is due to spectral line shape differences. ► The two different hydrogen bonding environments can be related to local structures mimicking either low density water or high density water. -- Abstract: We review recent studies using resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) or also here denoted X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) on liquid water and the assignment of the two sharp peaks in the lone-pair region. Using the excitation energy dependence we connect the two peaks to specific features in the X-ray absorption (XAS) spectrum which have independently been assigned to molecules in tetrahedral or distorted configurations. The polarization dependence shows that both peaks are of 1b 1 origin supporting an interpretation in terms of two structural species, tetrahedral or disordered, which is furthermore consistent with the temperature-dependence of the two peaks. We discuss effects of life-time vibrational interference and how this affects the two components differently and also leads to differences in the relative peak heights for H 2 O and D 2 O. We show furthermore that the inherent structure in molecular dynamics simulations contain the structural bimodality suggested by XES, but this is smeared out in the real structure when temperature is included. We present a discussion around alternative interpretations suggesting that the origin of the two peaks is related to ultrafast dissociation and show evidence that such a model is inconsistent with several experimental observations and theoretical concepts. We conclude that the peaks reflect a temperature-dependent balance in fluctuations between tetrahedral and disordered structures in the liquid. This is well-aligned with theories of water under supercooled conditions and higher pressures

  6. Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering of liquid water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Anders, E-mail: nilsson@slac.stanford.edu [SUNCAT Ctr Interface Sci and Catalysis, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Department of Physics, AlbaNova University Center, Stockholm University, SE-10691 (Sweden); Tokushima, Takashi [RIKEN/Spring-8, Sayo-cho, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Horikawa, Yuka [RIKEN/Spring-8, Sayo-cho, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Institute for Solid State Physics (ISSP), The University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Harada, Yoshihisa [RIKEN/Spring-8, Sayo-cho, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Institute for Solid State Physics (ISSP), The University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Synchrotron Radiation Research Organization, The University of Tokyo, Sayo-cho, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5165 (Japan); Ljungberg, Mathias P. [Department of Physics, AlbaNova University Center, Stockholm University, SE-10691 (Sweden); Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC), Campus UAB, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Shin, Shik [RIKEN/Spring-8, Sayo-cho, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Institute for Solid State Physics (ISSP), The University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Synchrotron Radiation Research Organization, The University of Tokyo, Sayo-cho, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5165 (Japan); Pettersson, Lars G.M. [Department of Physics, AlbaNova University Center, Stockholm University, SE-10691 (Sweden)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: ► Two peaks are observed in the lone pair region of the XES spectrum of water assigned to tetrahedral and distorted hydrogen bonding configurations. ► The isotope effect observed as different relative peak heights is due to spectral line shape differences. ► The two different hydrogen bonding environments can be related to local structures mimicking either low density water or high density water. -- Abstract: We review recent studies using resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) or also here denoted X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) on liquid water and the assignment of the two sharp peaks in the lone-pair region. Using the excitation energy dependence we connect the two peaks to specific features in the X-ray absorption (XAS) spectrum which have independently been assigned to molecules in tetrahedral or distorted configurations. The polarization dependence shows that both peaks are of 1b{sub 1} origin supporting an interpretation in terms of two structural species, tetrahedral or disordered, which is furthermore consistent with the temperature-dependence of the two peaks. We discuss effects of life-time vibrational interference and how this affects the two components differently and also leads to differences in the relative peak heights for H{sub 2}O and D{sub 2}O. We show furthermore that the inherent structure in molecular dynamics simulations contain the structural bimodality suggested by XES, but this is smeared out in the real structure when temperature is included. We present a discussion around alternative interpretations suggesting that the origin of the two peaks is related to ultrafast dissociation and show evidence that such a model is inconsistent with several experimental observations and theoretical concepts. We conclude that the peaks reflect a temperature-dependent balance in fluctuations between tetrahedral and disordered structures in the liquid. This is well-aligned with theories of water under supercooled conditions and

  7. Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering of Rare-Earth and Copper Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvashnina, Kristina

    2007-01-01

    Rare earths and copper systems were studied using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS). The use of monochromased synchotron radiation and improved energy resolution for RIXS made possible to obtain valuable information on the electronic structure in 4f, 5f and 3d systems. Experimental results for rare-earths (Ho, Gd, Cm, U, Np, Pu) were analyzed by atomic multiplet theory based on the Hartree-Fock calculations. The inelastic scattering structures in RIXS spectra at 5d edge of actinides found to be sensitive to actinide oxidation states in different systems. Comparison of experimental and calculated Cm 5d RIXS spectra gave direct information about valency of the 248-curium isotope in oxide. Scientific understanding of processes that control chemical changes of radioactive species from spent fuel is improved by studying interactions of actinide ions (U, Np, Pu) with corroded iron surfaces. RIXS measurements at the actinide 5d edge found to be sensitive to actinide oxidation states in different systems. Comparison of experimental and calculated Cm 5d RIXS spectra gave direct information about valency of the 248 curium isotope in oxide. Scientific understanding of processes that control chemical changes of radioactive species from spent fuel is improved by studying interactions of actinide ions (U, Np, Pu) with corroded iron surfaces. RIXS measurements at the actinide 5d edge indicate the reduction of U(VI), NP(V) and Pu(VI) to U(IV), Np(IV) and Pu(IV) by presence of iron ions. This thesis is also addressed to the study of changes in the electronic structure of copper films during interaction with synthetic groundwater solutions. The surface modifications induced by chemical reactions of oxidized 100 Angstrom Cu films with CL - , SO 4 2- and HCO 3 - ions in aqueous solutions with various concentrations were studied in-situ using XAS. It was shown that the pH value, the concentration of Cl - ion and presence of HC 3 - ion in

  8. Innovative diffraction gratings for high-resolution resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voronov, D.L.; Warwick, T.; Gullikson, E. M.; Salmassi, F.; Padmore, H. A.

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS) requires diffraction gratings with very exacting characteristics. The gratings should provide both very high dispersion and high efficiency which are conflicting requirements and extremely challenging to satisfy in the soft x-ray region for a traditional grazing incidence geometry. To achieve high dispersion one should increase the groove density of a grating; this however results in a diffraction angle beyond the critical angle range and results in drastic efficiency loss. The problem can be solved by use of multilayer coated blazed gratings (MBG). In this work we have investigated the diffraction characteristics of MBGs via numerical simulations and have developed a procedure for optimization of grating design for a multiplexed high resolution imaging spectrometer for RIXS spectroscopy to be built in sector 6 at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). We found that highest diffraction efficiency can be achieved for gratings optimized for 4"t"h or 5"t"h order operation. Fabrication of such gratings is an extremely challenging technological problem. We present a first experimental prototype of these gratings and report its performance. High order and high line density gratings have the potential to be a revolutionary new optical element that should have great impact in the area of soft x-ray RIXS.

  9. 1s2p Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering Magnetic Circular Dichroism as a probe for the local and non-local orbitals in CrO 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, Patric; Bouldi, Nadejda; Hunault, Myrtille O.j.y.; Sikora, Marcin; Ablett, James M.; Rueff, Jean Pascal; Lebert, Blair; Sainctavit, Philippe; De Groot, Frank M.f.; Juhin, Amélie

    2018-01-01

    We have determined the magnetic ground state of the half-metal CrO2 based on 1s2p Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering Magnetic Circular Dichroism (RIXS-MCD) experiments. The two-dimensional RIXS-MCD map displays the 1s X-ray absorption spectrum combined with the 1s2p X-ray emission decay, where

  10. Novel opportunities for sub-meV inelastic X-ray scattering at high-repetition rate self-seeded X-ray free-electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chubar, Oleg; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni; Serkez, Svitozar; Shvyd'ko, Yuri

    2015-08-01

    Inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) is an important tool for studies of equilibrium dynamics in condensed matter. A new spectrometer recently proposed for ultra-high-resolution IXS (UHRIX) has achieved 0.6 meV and 0.25 nm -1 spectral and momentum transfer resolutions, respectively. However, further improvements down to 0.1 meV and 0.02 nm -1 are required to close the gap in energy-momentum space between high and low frequency probes. We show that this goal can be achieved by further optimizing the X-ray optics and by increasing the spectral flux of the incident X-ray pulses. UHRIX performs best at energies from 5 to 10 keV, where a combination of self-seeding and undulator tapering at the SASE-2 beamline of the European XFEL promises up to a hundred-fold increase in average spectral flux compared with nominal SASE pulses at saturation, or three orders of magnitude more than possible with storage-ring based radiation sources. Wave-optics propagation shows that about 7 x 10 12 ph/s in a 90-μeV bandwidth can be achieved on the sample. This will provide unique new possibilities for dynamics studies by IXS.

  11. Perspectives of in situ/operando resonant inelastic X-ray scattering in catalytic energy materials science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yi-Sheng; Glans, Per-Anders [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Chuang, Cheng-Hao [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Department of Physics, Tamkang University, Tamsui 250, Taiwan, ROC (China); Kapilashrami, Mukes [Center for Engineering Concepts Development, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Guo, Jinghua, E-mail: jguo@lbl.gov [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • In-situ/operando soft X-ray RXES and RIXS offer unique perspectives in the energy material science. - Abstract: Growing environmental concerns have renewed the interest for light induced catalytic reactions to synthesize cleaner chemical fuels from syngas. This, however, requires a sound understanding for the dynamics taking place at molecular level as a result of light – matter interaction. We present herein the principles of soft X-ray resonant emission spectroscopy (RXES) and resonant inelastic scattering (RIXS) and the importance of these spectroscopic techniques in materials science in light of their unique ability to emanate characteristic fingerprints on the geometric structure, chemical bonding charge and spin states in addition to chemical sensitivity. The addition of in situ/operando RXES and RIXS capability offers new opportunities to project important material properties and functionalities under conditions nearly identical to the operational modes.

  12. Perspectives of in situ/operando resonant inelastic X-ray scattering in catalytic energy materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yi-Sheng; Glans, Per-Anders; Chuang, Cheng-Hao; Kapilashrami, Mukes; Guo, Jinghua

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • In-situ/operando soft X-ray RXES and RIXS offer unique perspectives in the energy material science. - Abstract: Growing environmental concerns have renewed the interest for light induced catalytic reactions to synthesize cleaner chemical fuels from syngas. This, however, requires a sound understanding for the dynamics taking place at molecular level as a result of light – matter interaction. We present herein the principles of soft X-ray resonant emission spectroscopy (RXES) and resonant inelastic scattering (RIXS) and the importance of these spectroscopic techniques in materials science in light of their unique ability to emanate characteristic fingerprints on the geometric structure, chemical bonding charge and spin states in addition to chemical sensitivity. The addition of in situ/operando RXES and RIXS capability offers new opportunities to project important material properties and functionalities under conditions nearly identical to the operational modes.

  13. Electron Dynamics in the Core-Excited CS 2 Molecule Revealed through Resonant Inelastic X-Ray Scattering Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Marchenko , T; Carniato , S; Journel , L; Guillemin , R; Kawerk , E; Žitnik , M; Kavčič , M; Bučar , K; Bohinc , R; Petric , M; Vaz Da Cruz , V; Gel 'mukhanov , F; Simon , Marielle

    2015-01-01

    International audience; We present an experimental and theoretical study of resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) in the carbon disulphide CS 2 molecule near the sulfur K-absorption edge. We observe a strong evolution of the RIXS spectral profile with the excitation energy tuned below the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) absorption resonance. The reason for this is twofold. Reducing the photon energy in the vicinity of the LUMO absorption resonance leads to a relative suppressi...

  14. Spin-Orbital Excitations in Ca2RuO4 Revealed by Resonant Inelastic X-Ray Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, L.; Forte, F.; Fittipaldi, R.

    2018-01-01

    The strongly correlated insulator Ca2RuO4 is considered as a paradigmatic realization of both spin-orbital physics and a band-Mott insulating phase, characterized by orbitally selective coexistence of a band and a Mott gap. We present a high resolution oxygen K-edge resonant inelastic x-ray scatt......-Mott scenario. The high-energy excitations correspond to intra-atomic singlet-triplet transitions at an energy scale set by Hund's coupling. Our findings give a unifying picture of the spin and orbital excitations in the band-Mott insulator Ca2RuO4.......The strongly correlated insulator Ca2RuO4 is considered as a paradigmatic realization of both spin-orbital physics and a band-Mott insulating phase, characterized by orbitally selective coexistence of a band and a Mott gap. We present a high resolution oxygen K-edge resonant inelastic x......-ray scattering study of the antiferromagnetic Mott insulating state of Ca2RuO4. A set of low-energy (about 80 and 400 meV) and high-energy (about 1.3 and 2.2 eV) excitations are reported, which show strong incident light polarization dependence. Our results strongly support a spin-orbit coupled band...

  15. The simultaneous measurement of energy and linear polarization of the scattered radiation in resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braicovich, L., E-mail: lucio.braicovich@polimi.it; Minola, M.; Dellea, G.; Ghiringhelli, G. [CNR-SPIN and Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, Milano I-20133 (Italy); Le Tacon, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Festkörperforschung, Heisenbergstrasse 1, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Moretti Sala, M.; Morawe, C.; Peffen, J.-Ch.; Yakhou, F.; Brookes, N. B. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, Grenoble F-38043 (France); Supruangnet, R. [Synchrotron Light Research Institute, Nakhon Ratchasima (Thailand)

    2014-11-15

    Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS) in the soft x-ray range is an element-specific energy-loss spectroscopy used to probe the electronic and magnetic excitations in strongly correlated solids. In the recent years, RIXS has been progressing very quickly in terms of energy resolution and understanding of the experimental results, but the interpretation of spectra could further improve, sometimes decisively, from a full knowledge of the polarization of incident and scattered photons. Here we present the first implementation, in a high resolution soft-RIXS spectrometer used to analyze the scattered radiation, of a device allowing the measurement of the degree of linear polarization. The system, based on a graded W/B{sub 4}C multilayer mirror installed in proximity of the CCD detector, has been installed on the AXES spectrometer at the ESRF (European Synchrotron Radiation Facility); it has been fully characterized and it has been used for a demonstration experiment at the Cu L{sub 3} edge on a high-T{sub c} superconducting cuprate. The loss in efficiency suffered by the spectrometer equipped with this test facility was a factor 17.5. We propose also a more advanced version, suitable for a routine use on the next generation of RIXS spectrometers and with an overall efficiency up to 10%.

  16. Seeing real-space dynamics of liquid water through inelastic x-ray scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwashita, Takuya; Wu, Bin; Chen, Wei-Ren; Tsutsui, Satoshi; Baron, Alfred Q R; Egami, Takeshi

    2017-12-01

    Water is ubiquitous on earth, but we know little about the real-space motion of molecules in liquid water. We demonstrate that high-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering measurement over a wide range of momentum and energy transfer makes it possible to probe real-space, real-time dynamics of water molecules through the so-called Van Hove function. Water molecules are found to be strongly correlated in space and time with coupling between the first and second nearest-neighbor molecules. The local dynamic correlation of molecules observed here is crucial to a fundamental understanding of the origin of the physical properties of water, including viscosity. The results also suggest that the quantum-mechanical nature of hydrogen bonds could influence its dynamics. The approach used here offers a powerful experimental method for investigating real-space dynamics of liquids.

  17. Probing single magnon excitations in Sr₂IrO₄ using O K-edge resonant inelastic x-ray scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X; Dean, M P M; Liu, J; Chiuzbăian, S G; Jaouen, N; Nicolaou, A; Yin, W G; Rayan Serrao, C; Ramesh, R; Ding, H; Hill, J P

    2015-05-27

    Resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) at the L-edge of transition metal elements is now commonly used to probe single magnon excitations. Here we show that single magnon excitations can also be measured with RIXS at the K-edge of the surrounding ligand atoms when the center heavy metal elements have strong spin-orbit coupling. This is demonstrated with oxygen K-edge RIXS experiments on the perovskite Sr2IrO4, where low energy peaks from single magnon excitations were observed. This new application of RIXS has excellent potential to be applied to a wide range of magnetic systems based on heavy elements, for which the L-edge RIXS energy resolution in the hard x-ray region is usually poor.

  18. Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering of Rare-Earth and CopperSystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvashnina, Kristina [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)

    2007-07-11

    Rare earths and copper systems were studied using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS). The use of monochromased synchotron radiation and improved energy resolution for RIXS made possible to obtain valuable information on the electronic structure in 4f, 5f and 3d systems. Experimental results for rare-earths (Ho, Gd, Cm, U, Np, Pu) were analyzed by atomic multiplet theory based on the Hartree-Fock calculations. The inelastic scattering structures in RIXS spectra at 5d edge of actinides found to be sensitive to actinide oxidation states in different systems. Comparison of experimental and calculated Cm 5d RIXS spectra gave direct information about valency of the 248-curium isotope in oxide. Scientific understanding of processes that control chemical changes of radioactive species from spent fuel is improved by studying interactions of actinide ions (U, Np, Pu) with corroded iron surfaces. RIXS measurements at the actinide 5d edge found to be sensitive to actinide oxidation states in different systems. Comparison of experimental and calculated Cm 5d RIXS spectra gave direct information about valency of the 248 curium isotope in oxide. Scientific understanding of processes that control chemical changes of radioactive species from spent fuel is improved by studying interactions of actinide ions (U, Np, Pu) with corroded iron surfaces. RIXS measurements at the actinide 5d edge indicate the reduction of U(VI), NP(V) and Pu(VI) to U(IV), Np(IV) and Pu(IV) by presence of iron ions. This thesis is also addressed to the study of changes in the electronic structure of copper films during interaction with synthetic groundwater solutions. The surface modifications induced by chemical reactions of oxidized 100 Angstrom Cu films with CL-, SO42- and HCO3- ions in aqueous solutions with various concentrations were studied in-situ using XAS. It was shown that the pH value, the

  19. Novel opportunities for sub-meV inelastic X-ray scattering at high-repetition rate self-seeded X-ray free-electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chubar, Oleg [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States). National Synchrotron Light Source II; Geloni, Gianluca; Madsen, Anders [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni; Serkez, Svitozar [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Shvyd' ko, Yuri [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source; Sutter, John [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Didcot (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-15

    Inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) is an important tool for studies of equilibrium dynamics in condensed matter. A new spectrometer recently proposed for ultra-high-resolution IXS (UHRIX) has achieved 0.6 meV and 0.25 nm{sup -1} spectral and momentum transfer resolutions, respectively. However, further improvements down to 0.1 meV and 0.02 nm{sup -1} are required to close the gap in energy-momentum space between high and low frequency probes. We show that this goal can be achieved by further optimizing the X-ray optics and by increasing the spectral flux of the incident X-ray pulses. UHRIX performs best at energies from 5 to 10 keV, where a combination of self-seeding and undulator tapering at the SASE-2 beamline of the European XFEL promises up to a hundred-fold increase in average spectral flux compared with nominal SASE pulses at saturation, or three orders of magnitude more than possible with storage-ring based radiation sources. Wave-optics propagation shows that about 7 x 10{sup 12} ph/s in a 90-μeV bandwidth can be achieved on the sample. This will provide unique new possibilities for dynamics studies by IXS.

  20. Density functional simulation of resonant inelastic X-ray scattering experiments in liquids: acetonitrile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niskanen, Johannes; Kooser, Kuno; Koskelo, Jaakko; Käämbre, Tanel; Kunnus, Kristjan; Pietzsch, Annette; Quevedo, Wilson; Hakala, Mikko; Föhlisch, Alexander; Huotari, Simo; Kukk, Edwin

    2016-09-21

    In this paper we report an experimental and computational study of liquid acetonitrile (H 3 C-C[triple bond, length as m-dash]N) by resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) at the N K-edge. The experimental spectra exhibit clear signatures of the electronic structure of the valence states at the N site and incident-beam-polarization dependence is observed as well. Moreover, we find fine structure in the quasielastic line that is assigned to finite scattering duration and nuclear relaxation. We present a simple and light-to-evaluate model for the RIXS maps and analyze the experimental data using this model combined with ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. In addition to polarization-dependence and scattering-duration effects, we pinpoint the effects of different types of chemical bonding to the RIXS spectrum and conclude that the H 2 C-C[double bond, length as m-dash]NH isomer, suggested in the literature, does not exist in detectable quantities. We study solution effects on the scattering spectra with simulations in liquid and in vacuum. The presented model for RIXS proved to be light enough to allow phase-space-sampling and still accurate enough for identification of transition lines in physical chemistry research by RIXS.

  1. Measurements of ionic structure in shock compressed lithium hydride from ultrafast x-ray Thomson scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritcher, A L; Neumayer, P; Brown, C R D; Davis, P; Döppner, T; Falcone, R W; Gericke, D O; Gregori, G; Holst, B; Landen, O L; Lee, H J; Morse, E C; Pelka, A; Redmer, R; Roth, M; Vorberger, J; Wünsch, K; Glenzer, S H

    2009-12-11

    We present the first ultrafast temporally, spectrally, and angularly resolved x-ray scattering measurements from shock-compressed matter. The experimental spectra yield the absolute elastic and inelastic scattering intensities from the measured density of free electrons. Laser-compressed lithium-hydride samples are well characterized by inelastic Compton and plasmon scattering of a K-alpha x-ray probe providing independent measurements of temperature and density. The data show excellent agreement with the total intensity and structure when using the two-species form factor and accounting for the screening of ion-ion interactions.

  2. Some notes on data analysis for nuclear resonant inelastic x-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Michael Y., E-mail: myhu@aps.anl.gov [Argonne National Laboratory (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Nuclear Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (NRIXS) is a spectroscopy method to study atomic vibrations and dynamics, currently done with synchrotron radiation at a few high energy third generation facilities. It finds a wide range of applications in condensed matter physics, materials science, chemistry, biophysics, geosciences, and high-pressure researches. Many atomic dynamics and lattice thermodynamics information can be derived from NRIXS measurements. Phonon Density of States (DOS) characterizes lattice dynamics of a material and can be derived under the quasi-harmonic approximation. Combined with modeling and simulations, results from NRIXS can provide unique and clarifying insights into many fields of research. As for a spectroscopic technique, in order to be able to provide reliable information, close attention should be paid to many issues during experiments and data analysis afterwards. Here we discuss several issues relevant to its data analysis, namely, those of multiple sites, background treatments, and error estimates for some derived quantities.

  3. Theory of inelastic scattering and absorption of X-rays

    CERN Document Server

    Veenendaal, Michel van

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive, self-contained guide to X-ray spectroscopy will equip you with everything you need to begin extracting the maximum amount of information available from X-ray spectra. Key topics such as the interaction between X-rays and matter, the basic theory of spectroscopy, and selection and sum rules, are introduced from the ground up, providing a solid theoretical grounding. The book also introduces core underlying concepts such as atomic structure, solid-state effects, the fundamentals of tensor algebra and group theory, many-body interactions, scattering theory, and response functions, placing spectroscopy within a broader conceptual framework, and encouraging a deep understanding of this essential theoretical background. Suitable for graduate students, researchers, materials scientists and optical engineers, this is the definitive guide to the theory behind this powerful and widely used technique.

  4. A 5-μm pitch charge-coupled device optimized for resonant inelastic soft X-ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, N. C.; Denes, P.; Goldschmidt, A.; Joseph, J.; Karcher, A.; Tindall, C. S.

    2017-08-01

    We have developed a charge-coupled device (CCD) with 5 μm × 45 μm pixels on high-resistivity silicon. The fully depleted 200 μm-thick silicon detector is back-illuminated through a 10 nm-thick in situ doped polysilicon window and is thus highly efficient for soft through >8 keV hard X-rays. The device described here is a 1.5 megapixel CCD with 2496 × 620 pixels. The pixel and camera geometry was optimized for Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS) and is particularly advantageous for spectrometers with limited arm lengths. In this article, we describe the device architecture, construction and operation, and its performance during tests at the Advance Light Source (ALS) 8.0.1 RIXS beamline. The improved spectroscopic performance, when compared with a current standard commercial camera, is demonstrated with a ˜280 eV (CK) X-ray beam on a graphite sample. Readout noise is typically 3-6 electrons and the point spread function for soft CK X-rays in the 5 μm direction is 4.0 μm ± 0.2 μm. The measured quantum efficiency of the CCD is greater than 75% in the range from 200 eV to 1 keV.

  5. A 5-μm pitch charge-coupled device optimized for resonant inelastic soft X-ray scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, N C; Denes, P; Goldschmidt, A; Joseph, J; Karcher, A; Tindall, C S

    2017-08-01

    We have developed a charge-coupled device (CCD) with 5 μm × 45 μm pixels on high-resistivity silicon. The fully depleted 200 μm-thick silicon detector is back-illuminated through a 10 nm-thick in situ doped polysilicon window and is thus highly efficient for soft through >8 keV hard X-rays. The device described here is a 1.5 megapixel CCD with 2496 × 620 pixels. The pixel and camera geometry was optimized for Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS) and is particularly advantageous for spectrometers with limited arm lengths. In this article, we describe the device architecture, construction and operation, and its performance during tests at the Advance Light Source (ALS) 8.0.1 RIXS beamline. The improved spectroscopic performance, when compared with a current standard commercial camera, is demonstrated with a ∼280 eV (C K ) X-ray beam on a graphite sample. Readout noise is typically 3-6 electrons and the point spread function for soft C K X-rays in the 5 μm direction is 4.0 μm ± 0.2 μm. The measured quantum efficiency of the CCD is greater than 75% in the range from 200 eV to 1 keV.

  6. Prediction of mass absorption coefficients from inelastically scattered X-radiation for specimens of less than 'infinite thickness'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kieser, R.; Mulligan, T.J.

    1979-01-01

    An equation is developed which describes the X-ray scatter radiation from specimens of any thickness. This equation suggests that a specimen's mass absorption coefficient can be determined from its inelastically scattered X-radiation not only when the specimen is 'infinitely thick' but also when it is of 'intermediate thickness'. Measurements have been carried out with a standard energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer on specimens of 'intermediate thickness'. Good agreement is obtained between the mass absorption coefficients that are calculated from the scattered radiation and those obtained on the basis of tabulated mass absorption coefficients for the elements. (author)

  7. Peculiar atomic dynamics in liquid GeTe with asymmetrical bonding: Observation by inelastic x-ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, M.; Koura, A.; Kajihara, Y.; Hosokawa, S.; Chiba, A.; Kimura, K.; Shimojo, F.; Tsutsui, S.; Baron, A. Q. R.

    2018-05-01

    Collective dynamics in liquid GeTe was investigated by inelastic x-ray scattering at 2 ≤Q ≤31 nm-1 . The dynamic structure factor shows clear inelastic excitations. The excitation energies at low Q disperse with increasing Q , consistent with the behavior of a longitudinal-acoustic excitation. The dispersion curve has a flat-topped region around the pseudo-Brillouin-zone boundary, similar to what is observed in liquid Bi [Inui et al., Phys. Rev. B 92, 054206 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevB.92.054206]. The dynamic structure factor shows a low-frequency excitation, and its coupling with the longitudinal-acoustic mode plays an important role for a flat-topped dispersion. From these results, it is inferred that atomic dynamics in liquid GeTe is strongly affected by a Peierls distortion similar to liquid Bi. By comparing the momentum transfer dependence of the excitation energy and quasielastic linewidth to partial structure factors obtained by our own ab initio molecular dynamics simulation for liquid GeTe, the quasielastic and inelastic components were found to be correlated with Te-Te and Ge-(Ge,Te) partial structure factors, respectively.

  8. Strongly correlated electrons at high pressure: an approach by inelastic X-Ray scattering; Electrons correles sous haute pression: une approche par diffusion inelastique des rayons X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rueff, J.P

    2007-06-15

    Inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) and associated methods has turn out to be a powerful alternative for high-pressure physics. It is an all-photon technique fully compatible with high-pressure environments and applicable to a vast range of materials. Standard focalization of X-ray in the range of 100 microns is typical of the sample size in the pressure cell. Our main aim is to provide an overview of experimental results obtained by IXS under high pressure in 2 classes of materials which have been at the origin of the renewal of condensed matter physics: strongly correlated transition metal oxides and rare-earth compounds. Under pressure, d and f-electron materials show behaviors far more complex that what would be expected from a simplistic band picture of electron delocalization. These spectroscopic studies have revealed unusual phenomena in the electronic degrees of freedom, brought up by the increased density, the changes in the charge-carrier concentration, the over-lapping between orbitals, and hybridization under high pressure conditions. Particularly we discuss about pressure induced magnetic collapse and metal-insulator transitions in 3d compounds and valence fluctuations phenomena in 4f and 5f compounds. Thanks to its superior penetration depth, chemical selectivity and resonant enhancement, resonant inelastic X-ray scattering has appeared extremely well suited to high pressure physics in strongly correlated materials. (A.C.)

  9. Deeply inelastic scattering at small x in 20 min

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, E.M.

    1992-01-01

    A status report is presented on new phenomena that are anticipated in deeply inelastic scattering in the low x→0 region. A summary of the theoretical situation in the region of small x is given, including the importance for the understanding of high energy interaction in QCD, and the low x behaviour of deep inelastic structure function. This new area of physics will be studied experimentally at HERA. (R.P.) 16 refs.; 6 figs

  10. Probing single magnon excitations in Sr2IrO4 using O K-edge resonant inelastic x-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X; Ding, H; Dean, M P M; Yin, W G; Hill, J P; Liu, J; Ramesh, R; Chiuzbăian, S G; Jaouen, N; Nicolaou, A; Serrao, C Rayan

    2015-01-01

    Resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) at the L-edge of transition metal elements is now commonly used to probe single magnon excitations. Here we show that single magnon excitations can also be measured with RIXS at the K-edge of the surrounding ligand atoms when the center heavy metal elements have strong spin–orbit coupling. This is demonstrated with oxygen K-edge RIXS experiments on the perovskite Sr 2 IrO 4 , where low energy peaks from single magnon excitations were observed. This new application of RIXS has excellent potential to be applied to a wide range of magnetic systems based on heavy elements, for which the L-edge RIXS energy resolution in the hard x-ray region is usually poor. (fast track communication)

  11. Theoretical approach to direct resonant inelastic X-ray scattering on magnets and superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, Pasquale

    2015-10-26

    The capability to probe the dispersion of elementary spin, charge, orbital, and lattice excitations has positioned resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) at the forefront of photon science. In this work, we will investigate how RIXS can contribute to a deeper understanding of the orbital properties and of the pairing mechanism in unconventional high-temperature superconductors. In particular, we show how direct RIXS spectra of magnetic excitations can reveal long-range orbital correlations in transition metal compounds, by discriminating different kind of orbital order in magnetic and antiferromagnetic systems. Moreover, we show how RIXS spectra of quasiparticle excitations in superconductors can measure the superconducting gap magnitude, and reveal the presence of nodal points and phase differences of the superconducting order parameter on the Fermi surface. This can reveal the properties of the underlying pairing mechanism in unconventional superconductors, in particular cuprates and iron pnictides, discriminating between different superconducting order parameter symmetries, such as s,d (singlet pairing) and p wave (triplet pairing).

  12. K-α X-ray Thomson Scattering From Dense Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kritcher, Andrea L.; Neumayer, Paul; Castor, John; Doeppner, Tilo; Landen, Otto L.; Ng, Andrew; Pollaine, Steve; Price, Dwight; Glenzer, Siegfried H.; Falcone, Roger W.; Ja Lee, Hae; Lee, Richard W.; Morse, Edward C.

    2009-01-01

    Spectrally resolved Thomson scattering using ultra-fast K-α x rays has measured the compression and heating of shocked compressed matter. The evolution and coalescence of two shock waves traveling through a solid density LiH target were characterized by the elastic scattering component. The density and temperature at shock coalescence, 2.2 eV and 1.7x10 23 cm -3 , were determined from the plasmon frequency shift and the relative intensity of the elastic and inelastic scattering features in the collective scattering regime. The observation of plasmon scattering at coalescence indicates a transition to the dense metallic state in LiH. The density and temperature regimes accessed in these experiments are relevant for inertial confinement fusion experiments and for the study of planetary formation.

  13. K-(alpha) X-ray Thomson Scattering From Dense Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kritcher, A.L.; Neumayer, P.; Castor, J.; Doppner, T.; Falcone, R.W.; Landen, O.L.; Lee, H.J.; Lee, R.W.; Morse, E.C.; Ng, A.; Pollaine, S.; Price, D.; Glenzer, S.H.

    2009-01-01

    Spectrally resolved Thomson scattering using ultra-fast K-α x-rays has measured the compression and heating of shocked compressed matter. The evolution and coalescence of two shock waves traveling through a solid density LiH target were characterized by the elastic scattering component. The density and temperature at shock coalescence, 2.2 eV and 1.7 x 10 23 cm -3 , were determined from the plasmon frequency shift and the relative intensity of the elastic and inelastic scattering features in the collective scattering regime. The observation of plasmon scattering at coalescence indicates a transition to the dense metallic state in LiH. The density and temperature regimes accessed in these experiments are relevant for inertial confinement fusion experiments and for the study of planetary formation

  14. Resonant inelastic x-ray scattering studies of magnons and bimagnons in the lightly doped cuprate La2 -xSrxCuO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaix, L.; Huang, E. W.; Gerber, S.; Lu, X.; Jia, C.; Huang, Y.; McNally, D. E.; Wang, Y.; Vernay, F. H.; Keren, A.; Shi, M.; Moritz, B.; Shen, Z.-X.; Schmitt, T.; Devereaux, T. P.; Lee, W.-S.

    2018-04-01

    We investigated the doping dependence of magnetic excitations in the lightly doped cuprate La2 -xSrxCuO4 via combined studies of resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) at the Cu L3 edge and theoretical calculations. With increasing doping, the magnon dispersion is found to be essentially unchanged, but the spectral width broadens and the spectral weight varies differently at different momenta. Near the Brillouin zone center, we directly observe bimagnon excitations that possess the same energy scale and doping dependence as previously observed by Raman spectroscopy. They disperse weakly in energy-momentum space, and they are consistent with a bimagnon dispersion that is renormalized by the magnon-magnon interaction at the zone center.

  15. Lattice dynamics at high pressure: application of inelastic X-ray scattering and ab-initio calculations -MgO at 35 GPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghose, Subrata

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Until recently, inelastic neutron scattering (INS) has been extensively used to study the phonon dispersion throughout the Brillouin zone and phonon density of states in crystalline materials. The weak interaction of neutrons with matter and the typical size of the neutron beams require the use of cm-size single crystals that puts an upper limit to the measurement of phonon dispersion at high pressure to about 10-15 Gpa by INS. Inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) using third generation synchrotron sources now makes it possible to measure the phonon dispersion at high pressures up to 50 GP A in crystals tens of microns in size mounted in a diamond-anvil cell, usually using He as the pressure transmitting medium. We have used this technique to measure the longitudinal acoustic and optic phonon branches of MgO along the Γ-X direction at 35 Gpa. The experimentally observed phonon-branches are in remarkable agreement with ab-initio quantum mechanical calculations using the density-functional perturbation theory. The derived thermodynamic properties, such as specific heat and the entropy are in very good agreement with values obtained from a thermodynamically assessed data set

  16. Collective chain dynamics in lipid bilayers by inelastic x-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, T.M.; Chen, P.-J.; Sinn, H.; Alp, E.E.; Chen, S.-H.; Hwang, H.W.

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the application of inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) to lipid bilayers. This technique directly measures the dynamic structure factor S(q,ω) which is the space-time Fourier transform of the electron density correlation function of the measured system. For a multiatomic system, the analysis of S(q,ω) is usually complicated. But for multiple bilayers of lipid, S(q,ω) is dominated by chain-chain correlations within individual bilayers. Thus IXS provides a unique probe for the collective dynamics of lipid chains in a bilayer that cannot be obtained by any other method. IXS of dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine and dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine + cholesterol at two different concentrations were measured. S(q,ω) was analyzed by three-mode hydrodynamic equations, including a thermal diffusive mode and two propagating acoustic modes. We obtained the dispersion curves for the phonons that represent the collective in-plane excitations of lipid chains. The effect of cholesterol on chain dynamics was detected. Our analysis shows the importance of having a high instrument resolution as well as the requirement of sufficient signal-to-noise ratio to obtain meaningful results from such an IXS experiment. The requirement on signal-to-noise also applies to molecular dynamics simulations.

  17. Electron Dynamics in the Core-Excited CS_{2} Molecule Revealed through Resonant Inelastic X-Ray Scattering Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Marchenko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We present an experimental and theoretical study of resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS in the carbon disulphide CS_{2} molecule near the sulfur K-absorption edge. We observe a strong evolution of the RIXS spectral profile with the excitation energy tuned below the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO absorption resonance. The reason for this is twofold. Reducing the photon energy in the vicinity of the LUMO absorption resonance leads to a relative suppression of the LUMO contribution with respect to the emission signal from the higher unoccupied molecular orbitals, which results in the modulation of the total RIXS profile. At even larger negative photon-energy detuning from the resonance, the excitation-energy dependence of the RIXS profile is dominated by the onset of electron dynamics triggered by a coherent excitation of multiple electronic states. Furthermore, our study demonstrates that in the hard x-ray regime, localization of the S 1s core hole occurs in CS_{2} during the RIXS process because of the orientational dephasing of interference between the waves scattering on the two sulfur atoms. Core-hole localization leads to violation of the symmetry selection rules for the electron transitions observed in the spectra.

  18. Strong Three-magnon Scattering in Cuprates by Resonant X-rays

    OpenAIRE

    Ament, Luuk J. P.; Brink, Jeroen van den

    2010-01-01

    We show that Resonant Inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) is sensitive to three-magnon excitations in cuprates. Even if it requires three electrons to simultaneously flip their spin, the RIXS tri-magnon scattering amplitude is not small. At the Cu $L$-edge its intensity is generally larger than the bi-magnon one and at low transferred momentum even larger than the single-magnon intensity. At the copper $M$-edge the situation is yet more extreme: in this case three-magnon scattering is dominatin...

  19. Nonperturbative Series Expansion of Green's Functions: The Anatomy of Resonant Inelastic X-Ray Scattering in the Doped Hubbard Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Haverkort, Maurits W.

    2017-12-01

    We present a nonperturbative, divergence-free series expansion of Green's functions using effective operators. The method is especially suited for computing correlators of complex operators as a series of correlation functions of simpler forms. We apply the method to study low-energy excitations in resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) in doped one- and two-dimensional single-band Hubbard models. The RIXS operator is expanded into polynomials of spin, density, and current operators weighted by fundamental x-ray spectral functions. These operators couple to different polarization channels resulting in simple selection rules. The incident photon energy dependent coefficients help to pinpoint main RIXS contributions from different degrees of freedom. We show in particular that, with parameters pertaining to cuprate superconductors, local spin excitation dominates the RIXS spectral weight over a wide doping range in the cross-polarization channel.

  20. Temperature dependence of the electronic structure of Sr14Cu24O41 studied by resonant inelastic X-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, M.; Ishii, K.; Ikeuchi, K.; Jarrige, I.; Murakami, Y.; Mizuki, J.; Tsutsui, K.; Tohyama, T.; Maekawa, S.; Kudo, K.; Koike, Y.; Endoh, Y.

    2010-01-01

    We report a resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) study of charge excitations in the two-leg ladder Sr 14 Cu 24 O 41 . RIXS spectra at 1-5 eV are found to be dependent on temperature. An intraband excitation of the ladder, which appears as a continuum intensity below the Mott gap, decreases in intensity with temperature. Because the intraband excitation is related to the dynamics of doped holes in the ladder, its decrease of the intraband excitation is attributed to the reduction of the mobile holes in the ladder at low temperature.

  1. Angular dependence of resonant inelastic x-ray scattering : A spherical tensor expansion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Juhin, Amelie; Brouder, Christian; de Groot, Frank

    A spherical tensor expansion is carried out to express the resonant inelastic scattering cross-section as a sum of products of fundamental spectra with tensors involving wavevectors and polarization vectors of incident and scattered photons. The expression presented in this paper differs from that

  2. Resonant X-ray Scattering of carbonyl sulfide at the sulfur K edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Journel, Loïc; Marchenko, Tatiana; Guillemin, Renaud; Kawerk, Elie; Simon, Marc; Kavčič, Matjaž; Žit-nik, Matjaž; Bučar, Klemen; Bohinc, Rok

    2015-01-01

    New results on free OCS molecules have been obtained using Resonant X-ray Inelastic Scattering spectroscopy. A deconvolution algorithm has been applied to improve the energy resolution spectra of which we can extract detailed information on nuclear dynamics in the system. (paper)

  3. Resonant X-ray Scattering of carbonyl sulfide at the sulfur K edge

    OpenAIRE

    Journel , Loïc; Marchenko , Tatiana; Guillemin , Renaud; Kawerk , Elie; Kavčič , Matjaž; Žit-nik , Matjaž; Bučar , Klemen; Bohinc , Rok; Simon , Marc

    2015-01-01

    International audience; New results on free OCS molecules have been obtained using Resonant X-ray Inelastic Scattering spectroscopy. A deconvolution algorithm has been applied to improve the energy resolution spectra of which we can extract detailed information on nuclear dynamics in the system.

  4. Energy and polarization dependence of resonant inelastic X-ray scattering in Nd2CuO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.P.; Kao, C.C.; Haemaelaeinen, K.

    1998-01-01

    The authors report the energy and polarization dependence of resonant inelastic x-ray scattering from Nd 2 CuO 4 . An energy loss feature at ∼6 eV is observed in the vicinity of the Cu K-edge. Numerical calculations based on the Anderson impurity model identify this as a charge transfer excitation to the anti-bonding state. The incident polarization is shown to select the intermediate states participating in the resonance process. Resonances are observed at 8,990 eV and 9,000 eV with the incident polarization perpendicular and parallel to the CuO planes, respectively. In contrast to the single-site model calculations, no resonances are observed associated with the 1s3d 10 L intermediate states, suggesting non-local effects play a role

  5. Structural relaxation in the dynamics of glycerol: a joint visible, UV and x-ray inelastic scattering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giugni, A; Cunsolo, A

    2006-01-01

    We describe an experimental study of the dynamic structure factor of liquid glycerol performed by complementary inelastic techniques such as Brillouin visible, ultraviolet and x-ray scattering. The spectra have been collected as a function of both temperature and momentum transfer. The relevant hypersonic parameters are evaluated from the spectral lineshape analysis modelling the data with a simple hydrodynamic profile. The study of their frequency dependence allows us to observe the occurrence of an active structural relaxation and to measure the related timescale. We also find signatures of further relaxation processes occurring below the accessible frequency window. As a result, the dynamic window traditionally probed in spectroscopic experiments is greatly extended and partially bridges the gap between MHz and THz techniques

  6. Inelastic neutron scattering for materials science and engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    The neutron is the ideal probe for studying the positions and motions of atoms in condensed matter. The main advantage of the neutron in inelastic scattering results from its heavy mass when compared to other particles which are used to probe materials such as the photon (light, x-rays, or γ-rays) or the electron. The author discusses the application of neutron scattering to study a number of different materials related problems, including, hard magnets, shape memory effects, and hydrogen distribution in metals

  7. Soft antiferroelectric fluctuations in morphotropic PbZr.sub.1-x./sub.Ti.sub.x./sub.O.sub.3./sub. single crystals as evidenced by inelastic x-ray scattering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlinka, Jiří; Ondrejkovič, Petr; Kempa, Martin; Borissenko, E.; Krisch, M.; Long, X.; Ye, Z. -G.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 14 (2011), "140101-1"-"140101-4" ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD202/09/H041; GA ČR GAP204/10/0616; GA MŠk ME08109; GA MŠk LA 287; GA MŠk(CZ) LA10010 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) SVV-2011-263307 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : inelastic X-ray scattering * lattice dynamics * PZT * piezoelectricity Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.691, year: 2011

  8. NiO as a test case for high resolution resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghiringhelli, G; Matsubara, M; Dallera, C; Fracassi, F; Gusmeroli, R; Piazzalunga, A; Tagliaferri, A; Brookes, N B; Kotani, A; Braicovich, L

    2005-01-01

    Resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) at the L 2,3 edges of 3d transition metal compounds has recently become a high resolution spectroscopic technique thanks to improvements in the instrumentation. We have chosen the prototypical case of NiO to explore the various levels of interpretation applicable to L 3 RIXS spectra of strongly correlated electron systems. Starting from a set of experimental data measured across the Ni L 3 absorption edge with 550 meV combined energy resolution, we analyse the rich spectral structure within an atomic framework. The spectra can be separated into dd and charge transfer excitation regions. The dd excitations can be interpreted and well reproduced within a crystal field model. The charge transfer excitations are analysed through the comparison with calculations made in the Anderson impurity model. A series of parameters belonging to the proposed models (crystal field strength, charge transfer energy, hybridization integrals) can thus be extracted in a very direct and unambiguous way

  9. Studies of Actinides Reduction on Iron Surfaces by Means of Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvashnina, K.O.; Butorin, S.M.; Shuh, D.K.; Ollila, K.; Soroka, I.; Guo, J.-H.; Werme, L.; Nordgren, J.

    2006-01-01

    The interaction of actinides with corroded iron surfaces was studied using resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) spectroscopy at actinide 5d edges. RIXS profiles, corresponding to the f-f excitations are found to be very sensitive to the chemical states of actinides in different systems. Our results clearly indicate that U(VI) (as soluble uranyl ion) was reduced to U(IV) in the form of relatively insoluble uranium species, indicating that the iron presence significantly affects the mobility of actinides, creating reducing conditions. Also Np(V) and Pu (VI) in the ground water solution were getting reduced by the iron surface to Np(IV) and Pu (IV) respectively. Studying the reduction of actinides compounds will have an important process controlling the environmental behavior. Using RIXS we have shown that actinides, formed by radiolysis of water in the disposal canister, are likely to be reduced on the inset corrosion products and prevent release from the canister

  10. Inelastic scattering at the B K edge of hexagonal BN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, J.J.; Callcott, T.A.; Zhou, L. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Many recent soft x-ray fluorescence (SXF) studies have shown that inelastic scattering processes make important contributions to the observed spectra for excitation near the x-ray threshold. These effects are all attributed to a process, usually called an electronic Raman scattering (ERS) process, in which energy is lost to an electronic excitation. The theory has been described using second order perturbation theory by Tulkki and Aberg. In different materials, the detailed nature of the electronic excitation producing the energy loss may be very different. In crystalline Si, diamond and graphite, changes in spectral shape and dispersion of spectral features with variation of the excitation energy are observed, which are attributed to k conservation between the photoelectron generated in the excitation process and the valence hole remaining after the coupled emission process. Hence the process is strongly localized in k-space. In haxagonal boron nitride, which has a lattice and band structure very similar to graphite, inelastic scattering produces very different effects on the observed spectra. Here, the inelastic losses are coupled to a strong resonant elastic scattering process, in which the intermediate state is a localized core exciton and the final state is a localized valence exciton, so that the electronic excitation is strongly localized in real rather than reciprocal space.

  11. Structural and dynamical properties of chlorinated hydrocarbons studied with resonant inelastic x-ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohinc, R.; Žitnik, M.; Bučar, K.; Kavčič, M.; Carniato, S.; Journel, L.; Guillemin, R.; Marchenko, T.; Kawerk, E.; Simon, M.; Cao, W.

    2016-04-01

    We present a theoretical and experimental study of resonant inelastic x-ray scattering on a large group of chlorinated hydrocarbons: CH3Cl, CH2Cl2, CHCl3, CCl4, CH3CH2Cl, ClCH2CH2Cl, CH3CHCl2, CH3CCl3, C2H2Cl2-iso, C2H2Cl2-cis, C2H2Cl2-trans, and C6H5Cl. Differences in structural and dynamical properties of the molecules generated by diverse chemical environments are observed in the measured Cl(Kα) spectral maps as well as in the Cl(K) total fluorescence yield spectra. The energy position, relative intensity, and the width of the Franck-Condon distribution of low-lying σ∗ and π∗ resonances are extracted by a fitting procedure taking into account the experimental broadening. The theoretical values obtained with the transition potential and Δ Kohn-Sham methods are in good agreement with the experimental parameters indicating subtle differences due to variations in the molecular structure.

  12. QCD expectations for deep inelastic scattering at small x and their phenomenological implications for HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiecinski, J.

    1994-05-01

    The basic QCD expectations concerning the deep inelastic scattering at low x where x is the Bjorken scaling variable are reviewed. This includes discussion of the BFKL equation which sums the leading powers of ln (1/x) and the shadowing effects. Phenomenological implications of the theoretical expectations for the deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering in the small x region which has become accessible at the HERA ep collider are described. We give predictions for structure functions F 2 which are based on the BFKL equation and the high energy k T factorization theorem. These predictions are compared with the results of structure function analysis based on Altarelli-Parisi evolution equations and confronted with the recent data from HERA. We discuss jet production and transverse energy flow in deep inelastic lepton scattering as the measurements which may be particularly suitable for revealing the QCD dynamics at small x. (author). 37 refs, 4 figs

  13. Diffraction and absorption of inelastically scattered electrons for K-shell ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josefsson, T.W.; Allen, L.J.

    1995-01-01

    An expression for the nonlocal inelastic scattering cross section for fast electrons in a crystalline environment, which explicitly includes diffraction as well as absorption for the inelastically scattered electrons, is used to carry out realistic calculations of K-shell electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) analysis cross sections. The calculations demonstrate quantitatively why, in EDX spectroscopy, integration over the dynamical states of the inelastically scattered electron averages in such a way that an effective plane wave representation of the scattered electrons is a good approximation. This is only the case for large enough acceptance angles of the detector in an EELS experiment. For EELS with smaller detector apertures, explicit integration over the dynamical final states is necessary and inclusion of absorption for the scattered electrons is important, particularly for thicker crystals. 50 refs., 7 figs

  14. Anionic and cationic redox and interfaces in batteries: Advances from soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy to resonant inelastic scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wanli; Devereaux, Thomas P.

    2018-06-01

    Recent advances in battery science and technology have triggered both the challenges and opportunities on studying the materials and interfaces in batteries. Here, we review the recent demonstrations of soft X-ray spectroscopy for studying the interfaces and electrode materials. The focus of this review is on the recently developed mapping of resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (mRIXS) as a powerful probe of battery chemistry with superior sensitivity. Six different channels of soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (sXAS) are introduced for different experimental purposes. Although conventional sXAS channels remain effective tools for quantitative analysis of the transition-metal states and surface chemistry, we elaborate the limitations of sXAS in both cationic and anionic redox studies. Particularly, based on experimental findings in various electrodes, we show that sXAS is unreliable for studying oxygen redox. We then demonstrate the mRIXS as a reliable technique for fingerprinting oxygen redox and summarize several crucial observations. We conclude that mRIXS is the tool-of-choice to study both the practical issue on reversibility of oxygen redox and the fundamental nature of bulk oxygen states. We hope this review clarifies the popular misunderstanding on oxygen sXAS results of oxide electrodes, and establishes a reliable technique for detecting oxygen redox through mRIXS.

  15. K- and L-edge X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) and Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS) Determination of Differential Orbital Covalency (DOC) of Transition Metal Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael L; Mara, Michael W; Yan, James J; Hodgson, Keith O; Hedman, Britt; Solomon, Edward I

    2017-08-15

    Continual advancements in the development of synchrotron radiation sources have resulted in X-ray based spectroscopic techniques capable of probing the electronic and structural properties of numerous systems. This review gives an overview of the application of metal K-edge and L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), as well as K resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS), to the study of electronic structure in transition metal sites with emphasis on experimentally quantifying 3d orbital covalency. The specific sensitivities of K-edge XAS, L-edge XAS, and RIXS are discussed emphasizing the complementary nature of the methods. L-edge XAS and RIXS are sensitive to mixing between 3d orbitals and ligand valence orbitals, and to the differential orbital covalency (DOC), that is, the difference in the covalencies for different symmetry sets of the d orbitals. Both L-edge XAS and RIXS are highly sensitive to and enable separation of and donor bonding and back bonding contributions to bonding. Applying ligand field multiplet simulations, including charge transfer via valence bond configuration interactions, DOC can be obtained for direct comparison with density functional theory calculations and to understand chemical trends. The application of RIXS as a probe of frontier molecular orbitals in a heme enzyme demonstrates the potential of this method for the study of metal sites in highly covalent coordination sites in bioinorganic chemistry.

  16. Resonant inelastic scattering by use of geometrical optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Jörg; Schweiger, Gustav

    2003-02-01

    We investigate the inelastic scattering on spherical particles that contain one concentric inclusion in the case of input and output resonances, using a geometrical optics method. The excitation of resonances is included in geometrical optics by use of the concept of tunneled rays. To get a quantitative description of optical tunneling on spherical surfaces, we derive appropriate Fresnel-type reflection and transmission coefficients for the tunneled rays. We calculate the inelastic scattering cross section in the case of input and output resonances and investigate the influence of the distribution of the active material in the particle as well as the influence of the inclusion on inelastic scattering.

  17. Performance of spherically focusing Ge(444) backscattering analyzers for inelastic x-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macrander, A.T.; Kushnir, V.I.; Blasdell, R.C.

    1994-01-01

    A spectrometer designed to use an undulator source and having targeted resolutions of 0.01 eV in one mode of use and 0.2 eV in another will operate at the APS. We report here on analyzers that we have, constructed for use on this spectrometer for 0.2-eV resolution. We have tested them at NSLS beamline X21 using focused wiggler radiation and at CHESS using radiation from the CHESS-ANL undulator. Analyzers were constructed by gluing and pressing 90-mm-diameter, (111) oriented Ge wafers into concave glass forms having a radius near 1 m. An overall inelastic scattering resolution of 0.3 eV using the (444) reflection was demonstrated at CHESS. Recent results at X21 revealed a useful diameter of 74 mm at an 870 Bragg angle

  18. Semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering at small-x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquet, Cyrille; Xiao, Bo-Wen; Yuan Feng

    2009-01-01

    We study the semi-inclusive hadron production in deep inelastic scattering at small-x. A transverse-momentum-dependent factorization is found consistent with the results calculated in the small-x approaches, such as the color-dipole framework and the color glass condensate, in the appropriate kinematic region at the lowest order. The transverse-momentum-dependent quark distribution can be studied in this process as a probe for the small-x saturation physics. Especially, the ratio of quark distributions as a function of transverse momentum at different x demonstrates strong dependence on the saturation scale. The Q 2 dependence of the same ratio is also studied by applying the Collins-Soper-Sterman resummation method.

  19. X-ray and neutron scattering investigations of YCo sub 3 -H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benham, M J; Bennington, S M; Ross, D K [Birmingham Univ. (UK). School of Physics and Space Research; Noreus, D [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Structural Chemistry; Yamaguchi, M [Yokohoma National Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    1989-01-01

    Various structural studies of YCo{sub 3}H(D){sub x} in the {beta}-phase (0<x<2) are described, where hydrogenation induces a cyclic variation between ferromagnetic and paramagnetic states. X-ray diffraction measurements determined that the expansion of the lattice is localised to components of the structure which are related to the Laves phase, YCo{sub 2}. Neutron diffraction and inelastic neutron scattering were also used in tandem, and hydrogen occupation of a single (36i) tetrahedral site was inferred for the entire concentration range. (orig.).

  20. Performance of spherically focusing Ge(444) backscattering analyzers for inelastic x-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macrander, A.T.; Kushnir, V.I.; Blasdell, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    A spectrometer designed for use as an undulator source and having targeted resolutions of 0.01 eV in one mode of use and 0.2 eV in another will operate at the APS. We report here on analyzers that we have constructed for use on this spectrometer for 0.2 eV resolution. We have tested them at NSLS beamline X21 using focused wiggler radiation and at the Cornell high energy synchrotron source (CHESS) using radiation from the CHESS-ANL undulator. Analyzers were constructed by gluing and pressing 90-mm-diam, (111) oriented Ge wafers into concave glass forms having a radius near 1 m. An overall inelastic scattering resolution of 0.3 eV using the (444) reflection was demonstrated at CHESS. Recent results at X21 revealed a useful diameter of 74 mm at an 87 degree Bragg angle

  1. Influence of static Jahn-Teller distortion on the magnetic excitation spectrum of PrO2: A synchrotron x-ray and neutron inelastic scattering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, C. H.; Helme, L. M.; Boothroyd, A. T.; McMorrow, D. F.; Wilkins, S. B.; Detlefs, C.; Detlefs, B.; Bewley, R. I.; McKelvy, M. J.

    2007-01-01

    A synchrotron x-ray diffraction study of the crystallographic structure of PrO 2 in the Jahn-Teller distorted phase is reported. The distortion of the oxygen sublattice, which was previously ambiguous, is shown to be a chiral structure in which neighboring oxygen chains have opposite chiralities. A temperature dependent study of the magnetic excitation spectrum, probed by neutron inelastic scattering, is also reported. Changes in the energies and relative intensities of the crystal field transitions provide an insight into the interplay between the static and dynamic Jahn-Teller effects

  2. Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering spectra at the Ir L-edge in Na{sub 2}IrO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igarashi, Jun-ichi, E-mail: junichi.igarashi.kiryu@vc.ibaraki.ac.jp [Faculty of Science, Ibaraki University, Mito, Ibaraki 310-8512 (Japan); Nagao, Tatsuya, E-mail: nagao@gunma-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Engineering, Gunma University, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • A theoretical framework of resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) on the basis of the itinerant electron scheme has been developed. • The RIXS theory is applied to iridate Na{sub 2}IrO{sub 3}. • The origins of the multi-peak structure of the excitation spectra found in the RIXS experiment have been assigned to the magnetic and excitonic excitations. - Abstract: We analyze resonant X-ray scattering (RIXS) spectra in Na{sub 2}IrO{sub 3} on the basis of the itinerant electron picture. Employing a multi-orbital tight-binding model on a honeycomb lattice, we find that the zigzag magnetic order is the most stable with sizable energy gap in the one-electron band within the Hartree–Fock approximation. We derive the RIXS spectra, which are connected to the generalized density–density correlation function. We calculate the spectra as a function of excitation energy ω, within the random phase approximation. The spectra consist of the peaks with ω < 20 meV, and of the peaks with 0.4 < ω < 0.8 eV. The former peaks are composed of four bound states in the density–density correlation function, and may be identified as the magnetic excitations, while the latter peaks are composed of 16 bound states below the energy continuum of individual electron–hole pair excitations, and may be identified as the excitonic excitations. The calculated spectra agree qualitatively with the recent RIXS experiment.

  3. PREFACE: Structure and dynamics determined by neutron and x-ray scattering Structure and dynamics determined by neutron and x-ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Buschbaum, Peter

    2011-06-01

    structure of pyroxene-type MnGeO3 G J Redhammer, A Senyshyn, G Tippelt and G Roth Nanostructured diblock copolymer films with embedded magnetic nanoparticles Xin Xia, Ezzeldin Metwalli, Matthias A Ruderer, Volker Körstgens, Peter Busch, Peter Böni and Peter Müller-Buschbaum Thermal expansion of a La-based bulk metallic glass: insight from in situ high-energy x-ray diffraction J Bednarcik, S Michalik, M Sikorski, C Curfs, X D Wang, J Z Jiang and H Franz The slow short-time motions of phospholipid molecules with a focus on the influence of multiple scattering and fitting artefacts Sebastian Busch and Tobias Unruh Quasi-elastic scattering under short-range order: the linear regime and beyond Michael Leitner and Gero Vogl Structural relaxation as seen by quasielastic neutron scattering on viscous Zr-Ti-Cu-Ni-Be droplets F Yang, T Kordel, D Holland-Moritz, T Unruh and A Meyer In situ observation of cluster formation during nanoparticle solution casting on a colloidal film S V Roth, G Herzog, V Körstgens, A Buffet, M Schwartzkopf, J Perlich, M M Abul Kashem, R Döhrmann, R Gehrke, A Rothkirch, K Stassig, W Wurth, G Benecke, C Li, P Fratzl, M Rawolle and P Müller-Buschbaum Inelastic neutron and x-ray scattering from incommensurate magnetic systems Peter Böni, Bertrand Roessli and Klaudia Hradil Development of magnetic moments in Fe1-xNix-alloys Benjamin Glaubitz, Stefan Buschhorn, Frank Brüssing, Radu Abrudan and Hartmut Zabel Modified mode-coupling theory for the collective dynamics of simple liquids B Schmid and W Schirmacher Inelastic neutron and low-frequency Raman scattering in niobium-phosphate glasses: the role of spatially fluctuating elastic and elasto-optic constants A Schulte, W Schirmacher, B Schmid and T Unruh The effect of heat treatment on the internal structure of nanostructured block copolymer films A Sepe, E T Hoppe, S Jaksch, D Magerl, Q Zhong, J Perlich, D Posselt, D-M Smilgies and C M Papadakis Hydrogen release from sodium alanate observed by time

  4. Measurement of Feynman-x spectra of photons and neutrons in the very forward direction in deep-inelastic scattering at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreev, V.; Belousov, A.; Fomenko, A.; Gogitidze, N.; Lebedev, A.; Malinovski, E.; Rusakov, S.; Vazdik, Y. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Baghdasaryan, A.; Zohrabyan, H. [Yerevan Physics Institute, Yerevan (Armenia); Begzsuren, K.; Ravdandorj, T.; Tseepeldorj, B. [Institute of Physics and Technology of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia); Belov, P.; Brinkmann, M.; Britzger, D.; Campbell, A.J.; Dodonov, V.; Eckerlin, G.; Elsen, E.; Fleischer, M.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Gouzevitch, M.; Haidt, D.; Kleinwort, C.; Krueger, K.; Levonian, S.; Lipka, K.; List, B.; List, J.; Lobodzinski, B.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, J.; Niebuhr, C.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Pahl, P.; Petrukhin, A.; Pirumov, H.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Radescu, V.; Schmitt, S.; Sefkow, F.; Shushkevich, S.; South, D.; Steder, M.; Wuensch, E. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Boudry, V.; Specka, A. [LLR, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, Palaiseau (France); Brandt, G. [Oxford University, Department of Physics, Oxford (United Kingdom); Brisson, V.; Jacquet, M.; Pascaud, C.; Zhang, Z.; Zomer, F. [LAL, Universite Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay (France); Buniatyan, A.; Huber, F.; Sauter, M.; Schoening, A. [Universitaet Heidelberg, Physikalisches Institut, Heidelberg (Germany); Bylinkin, A.; Bystritskaya, L.; Fedotov, A.; Rostovtsev, A. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Cantun Avila, K.B.; Contreras, J.G. [CINVESTAV, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); Ceccopieri, F.; Favart, L.; Grebenyuk, A.; Hreus, T.; Janssen, X.; Roosen, R.; Mechelen, P. van [Brussels and Universiteit Antwerpen, Inter-University Institute for High Energies ULB-VUB, Antwerp (Belgium); Cerny, K.; Pokorny, B.; Polifka, R.; Salek, D.; Valkarova, A.; Zacek, J.; Zlebcik, R. [Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Prague (Czech Republic); Chekelian, V.; Grindhammer, G.; Kiesling, C. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Munich (Germany); Dainton, J.B.; Gabathuler, E.; Greenshaw, T.; Klein, M.; Kostka, P.; Kretzschmar, J.; Laycock, P.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Patel, G.D. [University of Liverpool, Department of Physics, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Daum, K.; Meyer, H. [Fachbereich C, Universitaet Wuppertal, Wuppertal (Germany); Diaconu, C.; Hoffmann, D.; Sauvan, E.; Vallee, C. [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Univ, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Dobre, M.; Rotaru, M. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Dossanov, A. [Universitaet Hamburg, Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Hamburg (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Munich (Germany); Egli, S.; Horisberger, R. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland); Feltesse, J.; Perez, E.; Schoeffel, L. [CEA, DSM/Irfu, CE-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Ferencei, J. [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Institute of Experimental Physics, Kosice (Slovakia); Goerlich, L.; Mikocki, S.; Nowak, G.; Sopicki, P.; Turnau, J. [Institute for Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland); Grab, C. [Institut fuer Teilchenphysik, ETH, Zurich (Switzerland); Henderson, R.C.W. [University of Lancaster, Department of Physics, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Herbst, M.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C. [Kirchhoff-Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Hladky, J.; Reimer, P. [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Institute of Physics, Prague (Czech Republic); Jung, H. [Brussels and Universiteit Antwerpen, Inter-University Institute for High Energies ULB-VUB, Antwerp (Belgium); DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Kapichine, M.; Lytkin, L.; Morozov, A.; Spaskov, V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Kogler, R.; Nowak, K. [Universitaet Hamburg, Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Hamburg (Germany); Landon, M.P.J.; Rizvi, E.; Traynor, D. [University of London, School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary, London (GB); Lange, W.; Naumann, T. [DESY, Zeuthen (DE); Martyn, H.U. [I. Physikalisches Institut der RWTH, Aachen (DE); Mueller, K.; Robmann, P.; Straumann, U.; Truoel, P. [Physik-Institut der Universitaet Zuerich, Zurich (CH); Newman, P.R.; Thompson, P.D. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham (GB); Picuric, I.; Raicevic, N. [University of Montenegro, Faculty of Science, Podgorica (ME); Povh, B. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (DE); Sankey, D.P.C. [STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxfordshire (GB); Soloviev, Y. [DESY, Hamburg (DE); Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (RU); Stella, B. [Dipartimento di Fisica Universita di Roma Tre (IT); INFN Roma 3, Rome (IT); Sykora, T. [Brussels and Universiteit Antwerpen, Inter-University Institute for High Energies ULB-VUB, Antwerp (BE); Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Prague (CZ); Tsakov, I. [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Sofia (BG); Wegener, D. [Institut fuer Physik, TU Dortmund, Dortmund (DE); Collaboration: H1 Collaboration

    2014-06-15

    Measurements of normalised cross sections for the production of photons and neutrons at very small angles with respect to the proton beam direction in deep-inelastic ep scattering at HERA are presented as a function of the Feynman variable x{sub F} and of the centre-of-mass energy of the virtual photon-proton system W. The data are taken with the H1 detector in the years 2006 and 2007 and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 131 pb{sup -1}. The measurement is restricted to photons and neutrons in the pseudorapidity range η > 7.9 and covers the range of negative four momentum transfer squared at the positron vertex 6 < Q{sup 2} < 100 GeV{sup 2}, of inelasticity 0.05 < y < 0.6 and of 70 < W < 245 GeV. To test the Feynman scaling hypothesis the W dependence of the x{sub F} dependent cross sections is investigated. Predictions of deep-inelastic scattering models and of models for hadronic interactions of high energy cosmic rays are compared to the measured cross sections. (orig.)

  5. Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hessler, Jan P.

    2004-06-15

    A detector for time-resolved small-angle x-ray scattering includes a nearly constant diameter, evacuated linear tube having an end plate detector with a first fluorescent screen and concentric rings of first fiber optic bundles for low angle scattering detection and an annular detector having a second fluorescent screen and second fiber optic bundles concentrically disposed about the tube for higher angle scattering detection. With the scattering source, i.e., the specimen under investigation, located outside of the evacuated tube on the tube's longitudinal axis, scattered x-rays are detected by the fiber optic bundles, to each of which is coupled a respective photodetector, to provide a measurement resolution, i.e., dq/q, where q is the momentum transferred from an incident x-ray to an x-ray scattering specimen, of 2% over two (2) orders of magnitude in reciprocal space, i.e., qmax/qmin approx=lO0.

  6. Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction in α -Fe2O3 measured by magnetic circular dichroism in resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyawaki, Jun; Suga, Shigemasa; Fujiwara, Hidenori; Urasaki, Masato; Ikeno, Hidekazu; Niwa, Hideharu; Kiuchi, Hisao; Harada, Yoshihisa

    2017-12-01

    Fe L2 ,3-edge x-ray absorption spectra (XAS) and magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) in resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) of α -Fe2O3 were measured to identify the electronic structure responsible for its weak ferromagnetism caused by the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) at room temperature. In contrast to negligible MCD in XAS, MCD in RIXS (RIXS-MCD) was clearly observed in the d d excitation at 1.8 eV via excitation to charge-transfer states. Furthermore, RIXS-MCD showed a crystal orientation dependence, indicating that the observed RIXS-MCD originated from DMI. The observed RIXS-MCD is well described by ab initio charge-transfer multiplet calculations, revealing that the RIXS-MCD derives from spin flip excitations at delocalized eg orbitals. By the combination of the experiments and calculations, RIXS-MCD has unraveled that the origin of DMI in α -Fe2O3 is the eg orbitals, which are strongly hybridized with the 2 p orbitals of oxygen atoms. The results demonstrate the importance of RIXS-MCD for identifying the electronic structure related to DMI.

  7. Measurement of Feynman-x spectra of photons and neutrons in the very forward direction in deep-inelastic scattering at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, V.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Begzsuren, K.

    2014-03-01

    Measurements of normalised cross sections for the production of photons and neutrons at very small angles with respect to the proton beam direction in deep-inelastic ep scattering at HERA are presented as a function of the Feynman variable x F and of the centre-of-mass energy of the virtual photon-proton system W. The data are taken with the H1 detector in the years 2006 and 2007 and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 131 pb -1 . The measurement is restricted to photons and neutrons in the pseudorapidity range η > 7.9 and covers the range of negative four momentum transfer squared at the positron vertex 6 2 2 , of inelasticity 0.05 F dependent cross sections is investigated. Predictions of deep-inelastic scattering models and of models for hadronic interactions of high energy cosmic rays are compared to the measured cross sections.

  8. Polarized X-ray excitation for scatter reduction in X-ray fluorescence computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernekohl, Don; Tzoumas, Stratis; Zhao, Wei; Xing, Lei

    2018-05-25

    X-ray fluorescence computer tomography (XFCT) is a new molecular imaging modality which uses X-ray excitation to stimulate the emission of fluorescent photons in high atomic number contrast agents. Scatter contamination is one of the main challenges in XFCT imaging which limits the molecular sensitivity. When polarized X-rays are used, it is possible to reduce the scatter contamination significantly by placing detectors perpendicular to the polarization direction. This study quantifies scatter contamination for polarized and unpolarized X-ray excitation and determines the advantages of scatter reduction. The amount of scatter in preclinical XFCT is quantified in Monte Carlo simulations. The fluorescent X-rays are emitted isotropically, while scattered X-rays propagate in polarization direction. The magnitude of scatter contamination is studied in XFCT simulations of a mouse phantom. In this study, the contrast agent gold is examined as an example but a scatter reduction from polarized excitation is also expected for other elements. The scatter reduction capability is examined for different polarization intensities with a monoenergetic X-ray excitation energy of 82 keV. The study evaluates two different geometrical shapes of CZT detectors which are modeled with an energy resolution of 1 keV FWHM at an X-ray energy of 80 keV. Benefits of a detector placement perpendicular to the polarization direction are shown in iterative and analytic image reconstruction including scatter correction. The contrast to noise ratio (CNR) and the normalized mean square error (NMSE) are analyzed and compared for the reconstructed images. A substantial scatter reduction for common detector sizes was achieved for 100% and 80% linear polarization while lower polarization intensities provide a decreased scatter reduction. By placing the detector perpendicular to the polarization direction, a scatter reduction by factor up to 5.5 can be achieved for common detector sizes. The image

  9. The γ-ray angular distribution in fast neutron inelastic scattering from iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Roland; Dietz, Mirco; Bemmerer, Daniel; Junghans, Arnd R.; Kögler, Toni; Massarczyk, Ralph; Müller, Stefan; Schmidt, Konrad; Schwengner, Ronald; Szücs, Tamás; Takács, Marcell P.; Wagner, Andreas

    2018-04-01

    The angular distribution of γ-rays emitted after inelastic scattering of fast neutrons from iron was determined at the n ELBE neutron time-of-flight facility. An iron sample of natural isotopic composition was irradiated by a continuous photo-neutron spectrum in the energy range from about 0.1 up to 10 MeV. The de-excitation γ-rays of the four lowest excited states of 56Fe and the first excited state of 54Fe were detected using a setup of five high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors and five LaBr3 scintillation detectors positioned around the sample at 30°, 55°, 90°, 125° and 150° with respect to the incoming neutron beam. The resulting angular distributions were fitted by Legendre polynomials up to 4th order and the angular distribution coefficients a2 and a4 were extracted. The angular distribution coefficients of three transitions in 56Fe are reported here for the first time. The results are applied to a previous measurement of the inelastic scattering cross section determined using a single HPGe detector positioned at 125°. Using the updated γ-ray angular distribution, the previous cross section results are in good agreement with reference data.

  10. PAL-XFEL soft X-ray scientific instruments and X-ray optics: First commissioning results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Han; Kim, Minseok; Min, Changi-Ki; Eom, Intae; Nam, Inhyuk; Lee, Heung-Soo; Kang, Heung-Sik; Kim, Hyeong-Do; Jang, Ho Young; Kim, Seonghan; Hwang, Sun-min; Park, Gi-Soo; Park, Jaehun; Koo, Tae-Yeong; Kwon, Soonnam

    2018-05-01

    We report an overview of soft X-ray scientific instruments and X-ray optics at the free electron laser (FEL) of the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, with selected first-commissioning results. The FEL exhibited a pulse energy of 200 μJ/pulse, a pulse width of power of 10 500 was achieved. The estimated total time resolution between optical laser and X-ray pulses was <270 fs. A resonant inelastic X-ray scattering spectrometer was set up; its commissioning results are also reported.

  11. Earth formation pulsed neutron porosity logging system utilizing epithermal neutron and inelastic scattering gamma ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.D. Jr.; Smith, M.P.; Schultz, W.E.

    1978-01-01

    An improved pulsed neutron porosity logging system is provided in the present invention. A logging tool provided with a 14 MeV pulsed neutron source, an epithermal neutron detector and an inelastic scattering gamma ray detector is moved through a borehole. The detection of inelastic gamma rays provides a measure of the fast neutron population in the vicinity of the detector. repetitive bursts of neutrons irradiate the earth formation and, during the busts, inelastic gamma rays representative of the fast neutron population is sampled. During the interval between bursts the epithermal neutron population is sampled along with background gamma radiation due to lingering thermal neutrons. the fast and epithermal neutron population measurements are combined to provide a measurement of formation porosity

  12. X-versus y-scaling in non-relativistic deep inelastic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Padula, S. dos; Escobar, C.O.

    1983-06-01

    It is shown, in the context of non-relativistic potential scattering, that the appropriate scaling variable for the deep inelastic region is not the usual Bjorken one x sub(Bj) = Q/sup 2//2 M..nu.. but instead, the variable y=(2m..nu..-q/sup 2/ sup(..-->..))/2q. The y-scaling is shown to be obtained in a natural way by using the WKB approximation. Numerical results are presented comparing the approach to scaling in terms of x sub(Bj) and y.

  13. X-versus y-scaling in non-relativistic deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Padula, S. dos; Escobar, C.O.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown, in the context of non-relativistic potential scattering, that the appropriate scaling variable for the deep inelastic region is not the usual Bjorken one x sub(Bj) = Q 2 /2 Mν but instead, the variable y=(2mν-q 2 sup(→))/2q. The y-scaling is shown to be obtained in a natural way by using the WKB approximation. Numerical results are presented comparing the approach to scaling in terms of x sub(Bj) and y. (Author) [pt

  14. Propagation and scattering of high-intensity X-ray pulses in dense atomic gases and plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weninger, Clemens

    2015-10-01

    Nonlinear spectroscopy in the X-ray domain is a promising technique to explore the dynamics of elementary excitations in matter. X-rays provide an element specificity that allows them to target individual chemical elements, making them a great tool to study complex molecules. The recent advancement of X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) allows to investigate non-linear processes in the X-ray domain for the first time. XFELs provide short femtosecond X-ray pulses with peak powers that exceed previous generation synchrotron X-ray sources by more than nine orders of magnitude. This thesis focuses on the theoretical description of stimulated emission processes in the X-ray regime in atomic gases. These processes form the basis for more complex schemes in molecules and provide a proof of principle for nonlinear X-ray spectroscopy. The thesis also includes results from two experimental campaigns at the Linac Coherent Light Source and presents the first experimental demonstration of stimulated X-ray Raman scattering. Focusing an X-ray free electron laser beam into an elongated neon gas target generates an intense stimulated X-ray emission beam in forward direction. If the incoming X-rays have a photon energy above the neon K edge, they can efficiently photo-ionize 1s electrons and generate short-lived core excited states. The core-excited states decay mostly via Auger decay but have a small probability to emit a spontaneous X-ray photon. The spontaneous emission emitted in forward direction can stimulate X-ray emission along the medium and generate a highly directional and intense X-ray laser pulse. If the photon energy of the incoming X-rays however is below the ionization edge in the region of the pre-edge resonance the incoming X-rays can be inelastically scattered. This spontaneous X-ray Raman scattering process has a very low probability, but the spontaneously scattered photons in the beginning of the medium can stimulate Raman scattering along the medium. The

  15. Difference in x-ray scattering between metallic and non-metallic liquids due to conduction electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chihara, Junzo

    1987-01-01

    X-ray scattered intensity from a liquid metal as an electron-ion mixture is described using the structure factors, which are exactly expressed in terms of the static and dynamic direct correlation functions. This intensity for a metal is shown to differ from the usual scattered intensity from a non-metal in two points: the atomic form factor and the incoherent (Compton) scattering factor. It is shown that the valence electron form factor, which constitutes the atomic form factor in a liquid metal, leads to a determination of the electron-electron and electron-ion structure factors by combining the ionic structure factor. It is also shown that a part of the electron structure factor, which appears as the incoherent x-ray scattering, is usually approximated as the electron structure factor of the jellium model in the case of a simple metal. As a by-product, the x-ray scattered intensity from a crystalline metal and the inelastic scattering from a liquid metal are given by taking account of the presence of conduction electrons. In this way, we clarify some confusion which appeared in the proposal by Egelstaff et al for extracting the electron-electron correlation function in a metal from x-ray and neutron scattering experiments. A procedure to extract the electron-electron and electron-ion structure factors in a liquid metal is proposed on the basis of formula for scattered intensity derived here. (author)

  16. Final Report - X-ray Studies of Highly Correlated Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Clement [Western Michigan Univ., Kalamazoo MI (United States)

    2017-11-27

    The overall goal of the research was to improve the capabilities of x-ray synchrotron instrumentation to enable cutting-edge research in condensed matter physics. The main goal of the current grant cycle was to find a method to measure the polarization of the scattered x-ray in resonant inelastic x-ray scattering. To do this, we developed a polarization analysis apparatus using a thin, toroidally bent single crystal, which could be set to reflect one or the other of the two polarization components in the scattered x-ray beam. Resonant x-ray scattering measurements were also carried out on interfaces and the charge density wave in high temperature superconducting materials.

  17. Magnetic X-Ray Scattering with Synchrotron Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moncton, D. E.; Gibbs, D.; Bohr, Jakob

    1986-01-01

    With the availability of high-brilliance synchrotron radiation from multiple wigglers, magnetic X-ray scattering has become a powerful new probe of magnetic structure and phase transitions. Similar to the well-established magnetic neutron scattering technique, magnetic X-ray scattering methods have...... many complementary advantages. A brief review is presented of the history of magnetic X-ray scattering as well as recent results obtained in studies of the rare-earth magnet holmium with emphasis on instrumentational aspects. In particular, the development of a simple polarization analyzer...... to distinguish charge and magnetic scattering is described....

  18. VPD residue search by monitoring scattered x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Y.; Yamagami, M.; Yamada, T.

    2000-01-01

    Recently, VPD-TXRF has come into wide use for semiconductor analysis. In VPD-TXRF technique, adjusting the mechanical measuring point to the center of dried residue is of importance for accurate determination. Until now, the following searching methods have been used: monitoring light scattering under bright illumination, using laser scattering particle mapper, applying internal standard as a marker. However, each method has individual disadvantage. For example, interference of Kβ line (ex. Sc-Kβ to Ti-Kα) occurs in the internal standard method. We propose a new searching method 'scattered x-ray search' which utilizes x-ray scattering form the dried residue as a marker. Since the line profile of x-ray scattering agrees with that of fluorescent x-rays, scattered x-ray can be used as an alternative marker instead of internal standard. According to our experimental results, this search method shows the same accuracy as internal standard method. The merits are as follows: 1) no need to add internal standard, 2) rapid search because of high intensity of scattered x-rays, 3) searching software for internal standard can be applied without any modification. In this method, diffraction of incident x-rays by substrate causes irregular change over the detected scattering x-rays. Therefore, this method works better under x-y controlled stage than r-Θ one. (author)

  19. X-ray scattering by interstellar dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolf, D.

    1980-10-01

    This thesis reports work carried out to make a first observation of x-rays scattered by interstellar dust grains. Data about the dust, obtained at wavelengths ranging from the infrared to ultra-violet spectral regions, are discussed in order to establish a useful description of the grains themselves. This is then used to estimate the magnitude and form of the expected x-ray scattering effect which is shown to manifest itself as a diffuse halo accompanying the image of a celestial x-ray source. Two x-ray imaging experiments are then discussed. The first, specifically proposed to look for this effect surrounding a point x-ray source, was the Skylark 1611 project, and comprised an imaging proportional counter coupled to an x-ray mirror. This is described up to its final calibration when the basis for a concise model of its point response function was established. The experiment was not carried out but its objective and the experience gained during its testing were transferred to the second of the x-ray imaging experiments, the Einstein Observatory. The new instrumental characteristics are described and a model for its point response function is developed. Using this, image data for the point x-ray source GX339-4 is shown to exhibit the sought after scattering phenomenon. (author)

  20. Crystal structure and dynamics of K2-x(NH4)xSeO4 mixed crystals studied by x-ray and neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, L.S.; Natkaniec, I.; Loose, A.

    2006-01-01

    The K 2-x (NH 4 ) x SeO 4 mixed crystals have been studied by powder X-ray and neutron diffraction and inelastic incoherent neutron scattering in a wide temperature range from 300 to 16 K. No phase transition is observed in (NH 4 ) 2 SeO 4 in the range from room temperature to 20 K. The reorientation potential barriers of ammonium ions in the K 2-x (NH 4 ) x SeO 4 mixed crystals increase with the increasing concentration of ammonium ions

  1. Scattered X-ray beam nondestructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, G.; Kosanetzky, J.

    1988-01-01

    X-ray scatter interactions generally dominate the linear attenuation coefficient at the photon energies typical of medical and industrial radiography. Specific advantages of X-ray scatter imaging, including a flexible choice of measurement geometry, direct 3D-imaging capability (tomography) and improved information for material characterization, are illustrated with results from Compton and coherent scatter devices. Applications of a Compton backscatter scanner (ComScan) in the aerospace industry and coherent scatter imaging in security screening are briefly considered [pt

  2. QCD coherence in deep inelastic scattering at small x at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golec-Biernat, K.

    1998-01-01

    QCD coherence effects in initial state radiation at small x in deep inelastic scattering in HERA kinematics are studied with the help of the Monte Carlo model SMALLX. Theoretical assumptions based on the CCFM evolution equation are reviewed and the basic properties of the partonic final states are investigated. The results are compared with those obtained in the conventional DGLAP evolution scheme. (orig.)

  3. Deep-inelastic lepton scattering in an SU(3) x U(1) gauge model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maharana, K.; Sastry, C.V.

    1976-01-01

    Linear relations and sum rules for deep-inelastic lepton scattering are derived in the light-cone algebra approach from a set of weak, neutral, and electromagnetic currents based on an SU(3) x U(1) gauge model proposed by Schechter and Ueda

  4. X-ray resonant Raman scattering cross sections of Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Hector Jorge; Valentinuzzi, MarIa Cecilia; Perez, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence spectra present singular characteristics produced by the different scattering processes. When atoms are irradiated with incident energy lower and close to an absorption edge, scattering peaks appear due to an inelastic process known as resonant Raman scattering. It constitutes an important contribution to the background of the fluorescent line. The resonant Raman scattering must be taken into account in the determination of low concentration contaminants, especially when the elements have proximate atomic numbers. The values of the mass attenuation coefficients experimentally obtained when materials are analysed with monochromatic x-ray beams under resonant conditions differ from the theoretical values (between 5% and 10%). This difference is due, in part, to the resonant Raman scattering. Monochromatic synchrotron radiation was used to study the Raman effect on pure samples of Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn. Energy scans were carried out in different ranges of energy near the absorption edge of the target element. As the Raman peak has a non-symmetric shape, theoretical models for the differential cross section, convoluted with the instrument function, were used to determine the RRS cross section as a function of the incident energy

  5. Electronic Raman scattering with excitation between localized states observed in the zinc M{sub 2,3} soft x-ray spectra of ZnS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, L.; Callcott, T.A.; Jia, J.J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Zn M{sub 2,3} soft x-ray fluorescence (SXF) spectra of ZnS and ZnS{sub .5}Se{sub .5} excited near threshold show strong inelastic scattering effects that can be explained using a simple model and an inelastic scattering theory based on second order perturbation theory. This scattering is often called electronic resonance Raman scattering. Tulkki and Aberg have developed this theory in detail for atomic systems, but their treatment can be applied to solid systems by utilizing electronic states characteristic of solids rather than of atomic systems.

  6. Resonant X-Ray Scattering and the jeff=1/2 Electronic Ground State in Iridate Perovskites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sala, M. Moretti; Boseggia, S.; McMorrow, Desmond Francis

    2014-01-01

    The resonant x-ray scattering (magnetic elastic, RXMS, and inelastic, RIXS) of Ir4+ at the L-2,L-3 edges relevant to spin-orbit Mott insulators A(n+1) Ir(n)O3(n+1) (A = Sr, Ba, etc.) are calculated using a single-ion model which treats the spin-orbit and tetragonal crystal-field terms on an equal...

  7. X-ray scatter data for diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dick, C.E.; Soares, C.G.; Motz, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    The ratio of the scattered to the total X-ray fluence (scatter fraction) at the centre of the image plane for X-rays transmitted through polystyrene phantoms has been measured for X-ray energies of 32 and 69 keV, X-ray beam diameters from 4 to 40 cm, phantom thicknesses from 5 to 30 cm and phantom-to-image-plane separations from 0.3 to 40 cm. The experimental values for this ratio have less than a 10% variation for these two X-ray energies and the experimental data show good agreement with Monte Carlo calculations and available experimental results for low atomic number materials. Based on these results, simple curves are generated which give estimates (+ - 10%) of the scatter fraction for all combinations of the geometric parameters encountered in diagnostic radiology. (author)

  8. Charge-transfer and Mott-Hubbard Excitations in FeBo3: Fe K-edge resonant Inelastic x-ray scattering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.; Shvydko, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Momentum-resolved resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) spectroscopy has been carried out successfully at the Fe K-edge for the first time. The RIXS spectra of a FeBO 3 single crystal reveal a wealth of information on ∼ 1-10 eV electronic excitations. The IXS signal resonates when the incident photon energy approaches the pre-edge (1s - -3d) and the main-edge (1s - -4p) of the Fe K-edge absorption spectrum. The RIXS spectra measured at the pre-edge and the main-edge show quantitatively different dependences on the incident photon energy, momentum transfer, photon polarization, and temperature. We present a multielectron analysis of the Mott-Hubbard (MH) and charge transfer (CT) excitations, and calculate their energies. Electronic excitations observed in the pre-edge and main-edge RIXS spectra are interpreted as MH and CT excitations, respectively. We propose the electronic structure around the chemical potential in FeBO 3 based on the experimental data.

  9. Theoretical approaches to x-ray absorption fine structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehr, J. J.; Albers, R. C.

    2000-01-01

    Dramatic advances in the understanding of x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) have been made over the past few decades, which have led ultimately to a highly quantitative theory. This review covers these developments from a unified multiple-scattering viewpoint. The authors focus on extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) well above an x-ray edge, and, to a lesser extent, on x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) closer to an edge. The discussion includes both formal considerations, derived from a many-electron formulation, and practical computational methods based on independent-electron models, with many-body effects lumped into various inelastic losses and energy shifts. The main conceptual issues in XAFS theory are identified and their relative importance is assessed; these include the convergence of the multiple-scattering expansion, curved-wave effects, the scattering potential, inelastic losses, self-energy shifts, and vibrations and structural disorder. The advantages and limitations of current computational approaches are addressed, with particular regard to quantitative experimental comparisons. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  10. Measurement of Photon Production in the Very Forward Direction in Deep-Inelastic Scattering at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aaron, F.D.; Andreev, V.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baghdasaryan, S.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Begzsuren, K.; Belousov, A.; Belov, P.; Bizot, J.C.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Britzger, D.; Bruncko, D.; Bunyatyan, A.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Ceccopieri, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Daum, K.; Delcourt, B.; Delvax, J.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dobre, M.; Dodonov, V.; Dossanov, A.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Egli, S.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Fischer, D.J.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Grebenyuk, A.; Greenshaw, T.; Grell, B.R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hennekemper, E.; Henschel, H.; Herbst, M.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hreus, T.; Huber, F.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, X.; Jonsson, L.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Kogler, R.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kruger, K.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lipka, K.; List, B.; List, J.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Martyn, H.U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Mudrinic, M.; Muller, K.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P.R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikitin, D.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Pahl, P.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pirumov, H.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Pokorny, B.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Radescu, V.; Raicevic, N.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rotaru, M.; Tabasco, J.E.Ruiz; Rusakov, S.; Salek, D.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmitt, S.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Sefkow, F.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Shushkevich, S.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, I.; Soloviev, Y.; Sopicki, P.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stoicea, G.; Straumann, U.; Sykora, T.; Thompson, P.D.; Tran, T.H.; Traynor, D.; Truol, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Turnau, J.; Urban, K.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vazdik, Y.; Wegener, D.; Wunsch, E.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2011-01-01

    The production of photons at very small angles with respect to the proton beam direction is studied in deep-inelastic positron-proton scattering at HERA. The data are taken with the H1 detector in the years 2006 and 2007 and correspond to an integrated luminosity of $126 \\mathrm{pb}^{-1}$. The analysis covers the range of negative four momentum transfer squared at the positron vertex $67.9$ as a function of its transverse momentum $p_T^{lead}$ and longitudinal momentum fraction of the incoming proton $x_L^{lead}$. In addition, the cross sections are studied as a function of the sum of the longitudinal momentum fraction $x_L^{sum}$ of all photons in the pseudorapidity range $\\eta>7.9$. The cross sections are normalised to the inclusive deep-inelastic scattering cross section and compared to the predictions of models of deep-inelastic scattering and models of the hadronic interactions of high energy cosmic rays.

  11. X-ray scattering in X-ray fluorescence spectra with X-ray tube excitation - Modelling, experiment, and Monte-Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodoroaba, V.-D.; Radtke, M.; Vincze, L.; Rackwitz, V.; Reuter, D.

    2010-01-01

    X-ray scattering may contribute significantly to the spectral background of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectra. Based on metrological measurements carried out with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) having attached a well characterised X-ray source (polychromatic X-ray tube) and a calibrated energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) the accuracy of a physical model for X-ray scattering is systematically evaluated for representative samples. The knowledge of the X-ray spectrometer efficiency, but also of the spectrometer response functions makes it possible to define a physical spectral background of XRF spectra. Background subtraction relying on purely mathematical procedures is state-of-the-art. The results produced by the analytical model are at least as reliable as those obtained by Monte-Carlo simulations, even without considering the very challenging contribution of multiple scattering. Special attention has been paid to Compton broadening. Relevant applications of the implementation of the analytical model presented in this paper are the prediction of the limits of detection for particular cases or the determination of the transmission of X-ray polycapillary lenses.

  12. Non-factorizable contributions to deep inelastic scattering at large x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecjak, Ben D.

    2005-01-01

    We use soft-collinear effective theory (SCET) to study the factorization properties of deep inelastic scattering in the region of phase space where (1-x) ∼ Λ QCD /Q. By applying a regions analysis to loop diagrams in the Breit frame, we show that the appropriate version of SCET includes anti-hard-collinear, collinear, and soft-collinear fields. We find that the effects of the soft-collinear fields spoil perturbative factorization even at leading order in the 1/Q expansion

  13. Dynamical correlation effects in a weakly correlated material: Inelastic x-ray scattering and photoemission spectra of beryllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidu, Azimatu; Marini, Andrea; Gatti, Matteo

    2018-03-01

    Beryllium is a weakly correlated simple metal. Still we find that dynamical correlation effects, beyond the independent-particle picture, are necessary to successfully interpret the electronic spectra measured by inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) and photoemission spectroscopies (PES). By combining ab initio time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) and many-body Green's function theory in the G W approximation (G W A ), we calculate the dynamic structure factor, the quasiparticle (QP) properties and PES spectra of bulk Be. We show that band-structure effects (i.e., due to interaction with the crystal potential) and QP lifetimes (LT) are both needed in order to explain the origin of the measured double-peak features in the IXS spectra. A quantitative agreement with experiment is obtained only when LT are supplemented to the adiabatic local-density approximation (ALDA) of TDDFT. Besides the valence band, PES spectra display a satellite, a signature of dynamical correlation due to the coupling of QPs and plasmons, which we are able to reproduce thanks to the combination of the G W A for the self-energy with the cumulant expansion of the Green's function.

  14. Spin-Orbital Excitations in Ca_{2}RuO_{4} Revealed by Resonant Inelastic X-Ray Scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Das

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The strongly correlated insulator Ca_{2}RuO_{4} is considered as a paradigmatic realization of both spin-orbital physics and a band-Mott insulating phase, characterized by orbitally selective coexistence of a band and a Mott gap. We present a high resolution oxygen K-edge resonant inelastic x-ray scattering study of the antiferromagnetic Mott insulating state of Ca_{2}RuO_{4}. A set of low-energy (about 80 and 400 meV and high-energy (about 1.3 and 2.2 eV excitations are reported, which show strong incident light polarization dependence. Our results strongly support a spin-orbit coupled band-Mott scenario and explore in detail the nature of its exotic excitations. Guided by theoretical modeling, we interpret the low-energy excitations as a result of composite spin-orbital excitations. Their nature unveils the intricate interplay of crystal-field splitting and spin-orbit coupling in the band-Mott scenario. The high-energy excitations correspond to intra-atomic singlet-triplet transitions at an energy scale set by Hund’s coupling. Our findings give a unifying picture of the spin and orbital excitations in the band-Mott insulator Ca_{2}RuO_{4}.

  15. Study of secondary X-rays from radiographic intensifying screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barroso, R.C.; Eichler, J.; Lopes, R.T.; Cardoso, S.C.

    1998-01-01

    To reduce the radiation dose in radiology, fluorescent intensifying screens for X-ray films are used. They produce visible light which increases the efficiency of the film. In addition, there are two other effects that will degrade the image resolution. First, the gadolinium present in the screens produces X-rays isotropically. Second, the primary radiation can be scattered elastically (Rayleigh scattering) and inelastically (Compton scattering). The intensity and angular distribution of these secondary radiation were measured, showing that the ratio of secondary-to-primary radiation incident on the X-ray film is about 16%. (orig.)

  16. Highlights of electron-proton deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feltesse, J.

    1996-02-01

    Salient results on deep inelastic scattering from the H1 and ZEUS collaborations are reviewed. These include preliminary measurements of the proton structure function F 2 extending to new regimes at both high Q 2 and low Q 2 and x, studies of the hadronic final states and discussion on QCD interpretations of low x data. New determination of α s from jet rates in deep inelastic scattering based on 1994 data are presented. A consistent picture of the gluon density in the proton at low x from a variety of processes is obtained. (author)

  17. X-ray and neutron diffuse scattering in LiNbO3 from 38 to 1200 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zotov, N.; Mayer, H.M.; Guethoff, F.; Hohlwein, D.

    1995-01-01

    A semi-quantitative description of X-ray and neutron diffuse scattering from congruent lithium niobate, LiNbO 3 , is given. The diffuse scattering is concentrated in three sets of diffuse planes perpendicular to the pseudo-cubic symmetry-related [221], [241] and [ anti 4 anti 21] directions and can be attributed to one-dimensional displacive and chemical disorder along these directions. The variation of the X-ray and neutron diffuse intensities with the scattering vector, as well as the comparison between X-ray and neutron data, indicate that more than one type of atom is involved. Temperature variations are followed from 38 to 1200 K. Different disorder models are discussed. The increase of the integrated intensities of the diffuse lines along the [0 1k 2l] * and [0 anti 1k 4l] * directions (i.e. sections of the diffuse planes) up to 800 K followed by a slight decrease at higher temperatures may be interpreted either by static disorder related to temperature-dependent variation of disorder/defect clusters or by dynamic disorder. Inelastic neutron scattering experiments do not show any anomaly of the transversal acoustic (TA) modes. (orig.)

  18. X-ray scattering measurements from thin-foil x-ray mirrors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; BYRNAK, BP; Hornstrup, Allan

    1992-01-01

    Thin foil X-ray mirrors are to be used as the reflecting elements in the telescopes of the X-ray satellites Spectrum-X-Gamma (SRG) and ASTRO-D. High resolution X-ray scattering measurements from the Au coated and dip-lacquered Al foils are presented. These were obtained from SRG mirrors positioned...... in a test quadrant of the telescope structure and from ASTRO-D foils held in a simple fixture. The X-ray data is compared with laser data and other surface structure data such as STM, atomic force microscopy (AFM), TEM, and electron micrography. The data obtained at Cu K-alpha(1), (8.05 keV) from all...

  19. Measurement of photon production in the very forward direction in deep-inelastic scattering at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, F.D. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Bucharest Univ. (Romania). Faculty of Physics; Alexa, C. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Andreev, V. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (RU)] (and others)

    2011-06-15

    The production of photons at very small angles with respect to the proton beam direction is studied in deep-inelastic positron-proton scattering at HERA. The data are taken with the H1 detector in the years 2006 and 2007 and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 126 pb{sup -1}. The analysis covers the range of negative four momentum transfer squared at the positron vertex 6inelasticity 0.057.9 as a function of its transverse momentum p{sub T}{sup lead} and longitudinal momentum fraction of the incoming proton x{sub L}{sup lead}. In addition, the cross sections are studied as a function of the sum of the longitudinal momentum fraction x{sub L}{sup sum} of all photons in the pseudorapidity range {eta}>7.9. The cross sections are normalised to the inclusive deep-inelastic scattering cross section and compared to the predictions of models of deep-inelastic scattering and models of the hadronic interactions of high energy cosmic rays. (orig.)

  20. Measurement of photon production in the very forward direction in deep-inelastic scattering at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, F.D.; Alexa, C.; Rotaru, M.; Stoicea, G. [National Inst. for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Andreev, V.; Belousov, A.; Eliseev, A.; Fomenko, A.; Gogitidze, N.; Lebedev, A.; Malinovski, E.; Rusakov, S.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Soloviev, Y.; Vazdik, Y. [Lebedev Physical Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Backovic, S.; Dubak, A.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Picuric, I.; Raicevic, N. [Univ. of Montenegro, Podgorica (ME); Baghdasaryan, A.; Baghdasaryan, S.; Zohrabyan, H. [Yerevan Physics Inst. (Armenia); Barrelet, E. [Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, LPNHE, Paris (France); Univ. Denis Diderot Paris 7, CNRS/IN2P3, Paris (France); Bartel, W.; Belov, P.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Britzger, D.; Campbell, A.J.; Eckerlin, G.; Elsen, E.; Felst, R.; Fischer, D.J.; Fleischer, M.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grebenyuk, A.; Grell, B.R.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Helebrant, C.; Kleinwort, C.; Kogler, R.; Kraemer, M.; Levonian, S.; Lipka, K.; List, J.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, J.; Niebuhr, C.; Nowak, K.; Olsson, J.E.; Pahl, P.; Panagoulias, I.; Papadopoulou, T.; Petrukhin, A.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Schmitt, S.; Sefkow, F.; South, D.; Steder, M.; Wuensch, E. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Begzsuren, K.; Ravdandorj, T.; Tseepeldorj, B. [Inst. of Physics and Technology of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia); Bizot, J.C.; Brisson, V.; Delcourt, B.; Jacquet, M.; Pascaud, C.; Tran, T.H.; Zhang, Z.; Zomer, F. [Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, LAL, Orsay (France); Boudry, V.; Moreau, F.; Specka, A. [Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, LLR, Palaiseau (France); Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Mudrinic, M.; Pandurovic, M.; Smiljanic, I. [Univ. of Belgrade, Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade (RS); Bracinik, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Newman, P.R.; Thompson, P.D. [Univ. of Birmingham (United Kingdom); Bruncko, D.; Cerny, V.; Ferencei, J. [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Inst. of Experimental Physics, Kosice (Slovakia)] [and others

    2011-10-15

    The production of photons at very small angles with respect to the proton beam direction is studied in deep-inelastic positron-proton scattering at HERA. The data are taken with the H1 detector in the years 2006 and 2007 and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 126 pb{sup -1}. The analysis covers the range of negative four momentum transfer squared at the positron vertex 6inelasticity 0.057.9 as a function of its transverse momentum p{sub T}{sup lead} and longitudinal momentum fraction of the incoming proton x{sub L}{sup lead}. In addition, the cross sections are studied as a function of the sum of the longitudinal momentum fraction x{sub L}{sup sum} of all photons in the pseudorapidity range {eta}>7.9. The cross sections are normalised to the inclusive deep-inelastic scattering cross section and compared to the predictions of models of deep-inelastic scattering and models of the hadronic interactions of high energy cosmic rays. (orig.)

  1. X-ray scatter removal by deconvolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seibert, J.A.; Boone, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The distribution of scattered x rays detected in a two-dimensional projection radiograph at diagnostic x-ray energies is measured as a function of field size and object thickness at a fixed x-ray potential and air gap. An image intensifier-TV based imaging system is used for image acquisition, manipulation, and analysis. A scatter point spread function (PSF) with an assumed linear, spatially invariant response is modeled as a modified Gaussian distribution, and is characterized by two parameters describing the width of the distribution and the fraction of scattered events detected. The PSF parameters are determined from analysis of images obtained with radio-opaque lead disks centrally placed on the source side of a homogeneous phantom. Analytical methods are used to convert the PSF into the frequency domain. Numerical inversion provides an inverse filter that operates on frequency transformed, scatter degraded images. Resultant inverse transformed images demonstrate the nonarbitrary removal of scatter, increased radiographic contrast, and improved quantitative accuracy. The use of the deconvolution method appears to be clinically applicable to a variety of digital projection images

  2. Disappearance of the laue spots of the downward X-ray diffraction and huge recoil Thomson scattering in solid helium as some prominent peculiarities of a quantum crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Tetsuo

    1996-02-01

    In topographs of the downward X-ray diffraction, no Laue spots could be observed using a horizontally thin line-focussed beam. The disappearance of the Laue spots by the downward X-ray diffraction could be explained by two main factors besides a synergistic effect of the smallness of the atomic-scattering factors, the absorption coefficients, the densities etc. One is that the downward X-ray diffraction is completely inelastic scattering, and, as a result, diffracted X-ray beams may become entirely diffuse scattering. The other is that the great difference in the linear scatterer density between the forward and downward directions resulted from the fact that the irradiation of a line-focussed X-ray beam to take section topographs weakens the downward X-ray diffraction. The main reason is not due to the zero-point vibration. (J.P.N.).

  3. Disappearance of the laue spots of the downward X-ray diffraction and huge recoil Thomson scattering in solid helium as some prominent peculiarities of a quantum crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Tetsuo.

    1996-02-01

    In topographs of the downward X-ray diffraction, no Laue spots could be observed using a horizontally thin line-focussed beam. The disappearance of the Laue spots by the downward X-ray diffraction could be explained by two main factors besides a synergistic effect of the smallness of the atomic-scattering factors, the absorption coefficients, the densities etc. One is that the downward X-ray diffraction is completely inelastic scattering, and, as a result, diffracted X-ray beams may become entirely diffuse scattering. The other is that the great difference in the linear scatterer density between the forward and downward directions resulted from the fact that the irradiation of a line-focussed X-ray beam to take section topographs weakens the downward X-ray diffraction. The main reason is not due to the zero-point vibration. (J.P.N.)

  4. X-ray scattering of soft matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stribeck, N.

    2007-01-01

    This coherently written volume summarizes the analytical power of modern X-ray scattering in the field of soft matter. Applications of X-ray scattering to soft matter have advanced considerably within recent years, both conceptually and technically. There are now mature high-power X-ray sources, synchrotrons and rotating anodes, as well as high-speed detectors, which have become readily available and which make the whole process more viable. High-quality time-resolved experiments on polymer structure can now be performed with ease, a major advancement due to the genuine power of the scattering method. This manual is a detailed description of simple tools that can elucidate the mechanisms of structure evolution in the studied materials. It is also a step-by-step guide to more advanced methods of the latest X-ray scattering techniques, and breaks down these methods. Data analysis based on clear, unequivocal results is rendered simple and straightforward - with a stress on the careful planning of experiments and adequate recording of all required data. This book, then, serves as a useful ready-reference guide. It has been written for the modern scientist who is a generalist and needs a concise reference, and demonstrates typical errors in data evaluation. (orig.)

  5. Observing Solvation Dynamics with Simultaneous Femtosecond X-ray Emission Spectroscopy and X-ray Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldrup, Kristoffer; Gawelda, Wojciech; Abela, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    and structural changes, and local solvent structural changes are desired. We have studied the intra- and intermolecular dynamics of a model chromophore, aqueous [Fe(bpy)3]2+, with complementary X-ray tools in a single experiment exploiting intense XFEL radiation as a probe. We monitored the ultrafast structural...... rearrangement of the solute with X-ray emission spectroscopy, thus establishing time zero for the ensuing X-ray diffuse scattering analysis. The simultaneously recorded X-ray diffuse scattering atterns reveal slower subpicosecond dynamics triggered by the intramolecular structural dynamics of the photoexcited...

  6. The complex ion structure of warm dense carbon measured by spectrally resolved x-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, D.; Barbrel, B.; Falcone, R. W. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Vorberger, J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik komplexer Systeme, Nöthnitzer Straße 38, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Helfrich, J.; Frydrych, S.; Ortner, A.; Otten, A.; Roth, F.; Schaumann, G.; Schumacher, D.; Siegenthaler, K.; Wagner, F.; Roth, M. [Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstraße 9, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Gericke, D. O.; Wünsch, K. [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Bachmann, B.; Döppner, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Bagnoud, V.; Blažević, A. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); and others

    2015-05-15

    We present measurements of the complex ion structure of warm dense carbon close to the melting line at pressures around 100 GPa. High-pressure samples were created by laser-driven shock compression of graphite and probed by intense laser-generated x-ray sources with photon energies of 4.75 keV and 4.95 keV. High-efficiency crystal spectrometers allow for spectrally resolving the scattered radiation. Comparing the ratio of elastically and inelastically scattered radiation, we find evidence for a complex bonded liquid that is predicted by ab-initio quantum simulations showing the influence of chemical bonds under these conditions. Using graphite samples of different initial densities we demonstrate the capability of spectrally resolved x-ray scattering to monitor the carbon solid-liquid transition at relatively constant pressure of 150 GPa. Showing first single-pulse scattering spectra from cold graphite of unprecedented quality recorded at the Linac Coherent Light Source, we demonstrate the outstanding possibilities for future high-precision measurements at 4th Generation Light Sources.

  7. Resonant x-ray scattering in manganites: study of the orbital degree of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Sumio; Maekawa, Sadamichi

    2002-01-01

    The orbital degree of freedom of electrons and its interplay with spin, charge and lattice degrees of freedom are some of the central issues in colossal magnetoresistive manganites. The orbital degree of freedom has until recently remained hidden, since it does not couple directly to most experimental probes. Development of synchrotron light sources has changed the situation; by the resonant x-ray scattering (RXS) technique the orbital ordering has successfully been observed. In this article, we review progress in the recent studies of RXS in manganites. We start with a detailed review of the RXS experiments applied to the orbital-ordered manganites and other correlated electron systems. We derive the scattering cross section of RXS, where the tensor character of the atomic scattering factor (ASF) with respect to the x-ray polarization is stressed. Microscopic mechanisms of the anisotropic tensor character of the ASF are introduced and numerical results of the ASF and the scattering intensity are presented. The azimuthal angle scan is a unique experimental method to identify RXS from the orbital degree of freedom. A theory of the azimuthal angle and polarization dependence of the RXS intensity is presented. The theoretical results show good agreement with the experiments in manganites. Apart from the microscopic description of the ASF, a theoretical framework of RXS to relate directly to the 3d orbital is presented. The scattering cross section is represented by the correlation function of the pseudo-spin operator for the orbital degree of freedom. A theory is extended to the resonant inelastic x-ray scattering and methods to observe excitations of the orbital degree of freedom are proposed. (author)

  8. X-ray scattering signatures of β-thalassemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desouky, Omar S.; Elshemey, Wael M.; Selim, Nabila S.

    2009-01-01

    X-ray scattering from lyophilized proteins or protein-rich samples is characterized by the presence of two characteristic broad peaks at scattering angles equivalent to momentum transfer values of 0.27 and 0.6 nm -1 , respectively. These peaks arise from the interference of coherently scattered photons. Once the conformation of a protein is changed, these two peaks reflect such change with considerable sensitivity. The present work examines the possibility of characterizing the most common cause of hemolytic anaemia in Egypt and many Mediterranean countries; β-thalassemia, from its X-ray scattering profile. This disease emerges from a genetic defect causing reduced rate in the synthesis of one of the globin chains that make up hemoglobin. As a result, structurally abnormal hemoglobin molecules are formed. In order to detect such molecular disorder, hemoglobin samples of β-thalassemia patients are collected, lyophilized and measured using a conventional X-ray diffractometer. Results show significant differences in the X-ray scattering profiles of most of the diseased samples compared to control. The shape of the first scattering peak at 0.27 nm -1 , in addition to the relative intensity of the first to the second scattering peaks, provides the most reliable signs of abnormality in diseased samples. The results are interpreted and confirmed with the aid of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of normal and thalassemia samples.

  9. X-ray scattering signatures of β-thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desouky, Omar S.; Elshemey, Wael M.; Selim, Nabila S.

    2009-08-01

    X-ray scattering from lyophilized proteins or protein-rich samples is characterized by the presence of two characteristic broad peaks at scattering angles equivalent to momentum transfer values of 0.27 and 0.6 nm -1, respectively. These peaks arise from the interference of coherently scattered photons. Once the conformation of a protein is changed, these two peaks reflect such change with considerable sensitivity. The present work examines the possibility of characterizing the most common cause of hemolytic anaemia in Egypt and many Mediterranean countries; β-thalassemia, from its X-ray scattering profile. This disease emerges from a genetic defect causing reduced rate in the synthesis of one of the globin chains that make up hemoglobin. As a result, structurally abnormal hemoglobin molecules are formed. In order to detect such molecular disorder, hemoglobin samples of β-thalassemia patients are collected, lyophilized and measured using a conventional X-ray diffractometer. Results show significant differences in the X-ray scattering profiles of most of the diseased samples compared to control. The shape of the first scattering peak at 0.27 nm -1, in addition to the relative intensity of the first to the second scattering peaks, provides the most reliable signs of abnormality in diseased samples. The results are interpreted and confirmed with the aid of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of normal and thalassemia samples.

  10. X-ray scattering signatures of {beta}-thalassemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desouky, Omar S. [Radiation Physics Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT) (Egypt); Elshemey, Wael M. [Biophysics Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University (Egypt)], E-mail: waelelshemey@yahoo.com; Selim, Nabila S. [Radiation Physics Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT) (Egypt)

    2009-08-11

    X-ray scattering from lyophilized proteins or protein-rich samples is characterized by the presence of two characteristic broad peaks at scattering angles equivalent to momentum transfer values of 0.27 and 0.6 nm{sup -1}, respectively. These peaks arise from the interference of coherently scattered photons. Once the conformation of a protein is changed, these two peaks reflect such change with considerable sensitivity. The present work examines the possibility of characterizing the most common cause of hemolytic anaemia in Egypt and many Mediterranean countries; {beta}-thalassemia, from its X-ray scattering profile. This disease emerges from a genetic defect causing reduced rate in the synthesis of one of the globin chains that make up hemoglobin. As a result, structurally abnormal hemoglobin molecules are formed. In order to detect such molecular disorder, hemoglobin samples of {beta}-thalassemia patients are collected, lyophilized and measured using a conventional X-ray diffractometer. Results show significant differences in the X-ray scattering profiles of most of the diseased samples compared to control. The shape of the first scattering peak at 0.27 nm{sup -1}, in addition to the relative intensity of the first to the second scattering peaks, provides the most reliable signs of abnormality in diseased samples. The results are interpreted and confirmed with the aid of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of normal and thalassemia samples.

  11. Depth distribution of multiple order X-ray scatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Weiguang; Leszczynski, Konrad

    2008-01-01

    Scatter can significantly affect quality of projectional X-ray radiographs and tomographic reconstructions. With this in mind, we examined some of the physical properties of multiple orders of scatter of X-ray photons traversing through a layer of scattering media such as water. Using Monte Carlo techniques, we investigated depth distributions of interactions between incident X-ray photons and water before the resulting scattered photons reach the detector plane. Effects of factors such as radiation field size, air gap, thickness of the layer of scattering medium and X-ray energy, on the scatter were included in the scope of this study. The following scatter characteristics were observed: (1) for a layer of scattering material corresponding to the typical subject thickness in medical imaging, frequency distribution of locations of the last scattering interaction increases approximately exponentially with depth, and the higher the order of scatter or the energy of the incident photon, the narrower is the distribution; (2) for the second order scatter, the distribution of locations of the first interaction is more uniform than that of the last interaction and is dependent on the energy of the primary photons. Theoretical proofs for some of these properties are given. These properties are important to better understanding of effects of scatter on the radiographic and tomographic imaging process and to developing effective methods for scatter correction

  12. Basic X-ray scattering for soft matter

    CERN Document Server

    De Jeu, Wim H

    2016-01-01

    X-ray scattering is a well-established technique in materials science. Several excellent textbooks exist in the field, typically written by physicists who use mathematics to make things clear. Often these books do not reach students and scientists in the field of soft matter (polymers, liquid crystals, colloids, and self-assembled organic systems), who usually have a chemical-oriented background with limited mathematics. Moreover, often these people like to know more about x-ray scattering as a technique to be used, but do not necessarily intend to become an expert. This volume is unique in trying to accommodate both points. The aim of the book is to explain basic principles and applications of x-ray scattering in a simple way. The intention is a paperback of limited size that people will like to have on hand rather than on a shelf. Second, it includes a large variety of examples of x-ray scattering of soft matter with, at the end of each chapter, a more elaborate case study. Third, the book contains a separa...

  13. Healing X-ray scattering images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiliang Liu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available X-ray scattering images contain numerous gaps and defects arising from detector limitations and experimental configuration. We present a method to heal X-ray scattering images, filling gaps in the data and removing defects in a physically meaningful manner. Unlike generic inpainting methods, this method is closely tuned to the expected structure of reciprocal-space data. In particular, we exploit statistical tests and symmetry analysis to identify the structure of an image; we then copy, average and interpolate measured data into gaps in a way that respects the identified structure and symmetry. Importantly, the underlying analysis methods provide useful characterization of structures present in the image, including the identification of diffuse versus sharp features, anisotropy and symmetry. The presented method leverages known characteristics of reciprocal space, enabling physically reasonable reconstruction even with large image gaps. The method will correspondingly fail for images that violate these underlying assumptions. The method assumes point symmetry and is thus applicable to small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS data, but only to a subset of wide-angle data. Our method succeeds in filling gaps and healing defects in experimental images, including extending data beyond the original detector borders.

  14. Building a Unified Computational Model for the Resonant X-Ray Scattering of Strongly Correlated Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bansil, Arun

    2016-01-01

    Basic-Energy Sciences of the Department of Energy (BES/DOE) has made large investments in x-ray sources in the U.S. (NSLS-II, LCLS, NGLS, ALS, APS) as powerful enabling tools for opening up unprecedented new opportunities for exploring properties of matter at various length and time scales. The coming online of the pulsed photon source literally allows us to see and follow the dynamics of processes in materials at their natural timescales. There is an urgent need therefore to develop theoretical methodologies and computational models for understanding how x-rays interact with matter and the related spectroscopies of materials. The present project addressed aspects of this grand challenge of X-ray science. In particular, our Collaborative Research Team (CRT) focused on understanding and modeling of elastic and inelastic resonant X-ray scattering processes. We worked to unify the three different computational approaches currently used for modeling X-ray scattering-density functional theory, dynamical mean-field theory, and small-cluster exact diagonalization-to achieve a more realistic material-specific picture of the interaction between X-rays and complex matter. To achieve a convergence in the interpretation and to maximize complementary aspects of different theoretical methods, we concentrated on the cuprates, where most experiments have been performed. Our team included both US and international researchers, and it fostered new collaborations between researchers currently working with different approaches. In addition, we developed close relationships with experimental groups working in the area at various synchrotron facilities in the US. Our CRT thus helped toward enabling the US to assume a leadership role in the theoretical development of the field, and to create a global network and community of scholars dedicated to X-ray scattering research.

  15. Workshop report on new directions in x-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.; Del Grande, N.K.; Fuoss, P.; Mallett, J.H.; Pratt, R.; Templeton, D.

    1987-01-01

    This report is a summary of the Workshop on New Directions in X-Ray Scattering held at the Asilomar Conference Center, Pacific Grove, California, April 2-5, 1985. The report primarily consists of the edited transcript of the final review session of the workshop, in which members of a panel summarized the proceedings. It is clear that we are close to achieving an accurate theory of scattering in independent particle approximation, but for edge regions, there is need to go beyond this approach. Much of what is experimentally interesting in scattering is occurring between the photoabsorption edge and the photoelectric threshold. Applications in condensed matter and biological and chemical material studies are expanding, exploiting higher intensity sources and faster time resolution as in magnetic scattering and surface studies. Storage rings are now conventional sources, and new high-intensity beam lines are under development; the free electron laser is one of the more speculative sources. Recent work in x-ray scattering has led to advances in x-ray optics, and conversely, advances in x-ray optics have benefitted our understanding of x-ray scattering

  16. Low-energy d-d excitations in MnO studied by resonant x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butorin, S.M.; Guo, J.; Magnuson, M. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Resonant soft X-ray emission spectroscopy has been demonstrated to possess interesting abilities for studies of electronic structure in various systems, such as symmetry probing, alignment and polarization dependence, sensitivity to channel interference, etc. In the present abstract the authors focus on the feasibility of resonant soft X-ray emission to probe low energy excitations by means of resonant electronic X-ray Raman scattering. Resonant X-ray emission can be regarded as an inelastic scattering process where a system in the ground state is transferred to a low excited state via a virtual core excitation. The energy closeness to a core excitation of the exciting radiation enhances the (generally) low probability for inelastic scattering at these wavelengths. Therefore soft X-ray emission spectroscopy (in resonant electronic Raman mode) can be used to study low energy d-d excitations in transition metal systems. The involvement of the intermediate core state allows one to use the selection rules of X-ray emission, and the appearance of the elastically scattered line in the spectra provides the reference to the ground state.

  17. Low-energy d-d excitations in MnO studied by resonant x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butorin, S.M.; Guo, J.; Magnuson, M.

    1997-01-01

    Resonant soft X-ray emission spectroscopy has been demonstrated to possess interesting abilities for studies of electronic structure in various systems, such as symmetry probing, alignment and polarization dependence, sensitivity to channel interference, etc. In the present abstract the authors focus on the feasibility of resonant soft X-ray emission to probe low energy excitations by means of resonant electronic X-ray Raman scattering. Resonant X-ray emission can be regarded as an inelastic scattering process where a system in the ground state is transferred to a low excited state via a virtual core excitation. The energy closeness to a core excitation of the exciting radiation enhances the (generally) low probability for inelastic scattering at these wavelengths. Therefore soft X-ray emission spectroscopy (in resonant electronic Raman mode) can be used to study low energy d-d excitations in transition metal systems. The involvement of the intermediate core state allows one to use the selection rules of X-ray emission, and the appearance of the elastically scattered line in the spectra provides the reference to the ground state

  18. Random pulsing of neutron source for inelastic neutron scattering gamma ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertzog, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    Method and apparatus are described for use in the detection of inelastic neutron scattering gamma ray spectroscopy. Data acquisition efficiency is enhanced by operating a neutron generator such that a resulting output burst of fast neutrons is maintained for as long as practicably possible until a gamma ray is detected. Upon the detection of a gamma ray the generator burst output is terminated. Pulsing of the generator may be accomplished either by controlling the burst period relative to the burst interval to achieve a constant duty cycle for the operation of the generator or by maintaining the burst period constant and controlling the burst interval such that the resulting mean burst interval corresponds to a burst time interval which reduces contributions to the detected radiation of radiation occasioned by other than the fast neutrons

  19. Investigations of time resolved x-ray wide-angle scattering and x-ray small-angle scattering at DESY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachmann, H.G.; Gehrke, R.; Prieske, W.; Riekel, C.

    1985-01-01

    Instrumentation is described for the simultaneous wide-angle and small-angle x-ray scattering. The method was applied to the study of the isothermal crystallization of polyethylene terephthalates. In agreement with the classical theories of crystallization, the data showed that the density difference between the crystals and the non-crystalline regions does not change with time. The mechanisms of melting, recrystallization, and crystal thickening were investigated by small-angle x-ray scattering with stepwise changes and continuous changes of temperature using polyethylene terephthalate

  20. Computational time-resolved and resonant x-ray scattering of strongly correlated materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bansil, Arun [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-11-09

    Basic-Energy Sciences of the Department of Energy (BES/DOE) has made large investments in x-ray sources in the U.S. (NSLS-II, LCLS, NGLS, ALS, APS) as powerful enabling tools for opening up unprecedented new opportunities for exploring properties of matter at various length and time scales. The coming online of the pulsed photon source, literally allows us to see and follow the dynamics of processes in materials at their natural timescales. There is an urgent need therefore to develop theoretical methodologies and computational models for understanding how x-rays interact with matter and the related spectroscopies of materials. The present project addressed aspects of this grand challenge of x-ray science. In particular, our Collaborative Research Team (CRT) focused on developing viable computational schemes for modeling x-ray scattering and photoemission spectra of strongly correlated materials in the time-domain. The vast arsenal of formal/numerical techniques and approaches encompassed by the members of our CRT were brought to bear through appropriate generalizations and extensions to model the pumped state and the dynamics of this non-equilibrium state, and how it can be probed via x-ray absorption (XAS), emission (XES), resonant and non-resonant x-ray scattering, and photoemission processes. We explored the conceptual connections between the time-domain problems and other second-order spectroscopies, such as resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) because RIXS may be effectively thought of as a pump-probe experiment in which the incoming photon acts as the pump, and the fluorescent decay is the probe. Alternatively, when the core-valence interactions are strong, one can view K-edge RIXS for example, as the dynamic response of the material to the transient presence of a strong core-hole potential. Unlike an actual pump-probe experiment, here there is no mechanism for adjusting the time-delay between the pump and the probe. However, the core hole

  1. Ultraprecision motion control technique for high-resolution x-ray instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, D.; Toellner, T. S.; Alp, E. E.

    2000-07-17

    With the availability of third-generation hard x-ray synchrotron radiation sources, such as the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory, x-ray inelastic scattering and x-ray nuclear resonant scattering provide powerful means for investigating the vibrational dynamics of a variety of materials and condensed matter systems. Novel high-resolution hard x-ray optics with meV energy resolution requires a compact positioning mechanism with 20--50-nrad angular resolution and stability. In this paper, the authors technical approach to this design challenge is presented. Sensitivity and stability test results are also discussed.

  2. Inelastic Light Scattering Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouche, Daniel G.; Chang, Richard K.

    1973-01-01

    Five different inelastic light scattering processes will be denoted by, ordinary Raman scattering (ORS), resonance Raman scattering (RRS), off-resonance fluorescence (ORF), resonance fluorescence (RF), and broad fluorescence (BF). A distinction between fluorescence (including ORF and RF) and Raman scattering (including ORS and RRS) will be made in terms of the number of intermediate molecular states which contribute significantly to the scattered amplitude, and not in terms of excited state lifetimes or virtual versus real processes. The theory of these processes will be reviewed, including the effects of pressure, laser wavelength, and laser spectral distribution on the scattered intensity. The application of these processes to the remote sensing of atmospheric pollutants will be discussed briefly. It will be pointed out that the poor sensitivity of the ORS technique cannot be increased by going toward resonance without also compromising the advantages it has over the RF technique. Experimental results on inelastic light scattering from I(sub 2) vapor will be presented. As a single longitudinal mode 5145 A argon-ion laser line was tuned away from an I(sub 2) absorption line, the scattering was observed to change from RF to ORF. The basis, of the distinction is the different pressure dependence of the scattered intensity. Nearly three orders of magnitude enhancement of the scattered intensity was measured in going from ORF to RF. Forty-seven overtones were observed and their relative intensities measured. The ORF cross section of I(sub 2) compared to the ORS cross section of N2 was found to be 3 x 10(exp 6), with I(sub 2) at its room temperature vapor pressure.

  3. X-Ray-Scattering Measurements Of Strain In PEEK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebe, Peggy; Lowry, Lynn E.; Chung, Shirley Y.; Yavrouian, Andre H.; Gupta, Amitava

    1988-01-01

    Internal stress relieved by heating above glass-transition temperature. Report describes wide-angle x-ray scattering and differential scanning calorimetry of specimens of poly(etheretherketone) having undergone various thermal treatments. Wide-angle x-ray scattering particularly useful in determining distances between atoms, crystallinity, and related microstructurally generated phenomena, as thermal expansion and strain. Calorimetric measurements aid interpretation of scattering measurements by enabling correlation with thermal effects.

  4. Resonant X-ray scattering in correlated systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Youichi [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Materials Structure Science; Ishihara, Sumio (ed.) [Tohoku Univ., Sendai, Miyagi (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    2017-03-01

    The research and its outcomes presented here is devoted to the use of X-ray scattering to study correlated electron systems and magnetism. Different X-ray based methods are provided to analyze three dimensional electron systems and the structure of transition-metal oxides. Finally the observation of multipole orderings with X-ray diffraction is shown.

  5. Resonant x-ray scattering in correlated systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ishihara, Sumio

    2017-01-01

    The research and its outcomes presented here is devoted to the use of x-ray scattering to study correlated electron systems and magnetism. Different x-ray based methods are provided to analyze three dimensional electron systems and the structure of transition-metal oxides. Finally the observation of multipole orderings with x-ray diffraction is shown.

  6. Measurement of the inelastic branch of the stellar $^{14}$O($\\alpha$, p)$^{17}$F reaction occurring in the explosive burning in Novae and X-ray busters

    CERN Document Server

    He, J J; Hass, M; Warr, N; Raabe, R; Neyskens, P; Aliotta, M; Robinson, A P; Murphy, A St J; Davinson, T; Buescler, J; Wenander, F; Woods, P J; Jenkins, D G; Clement, E; Kumar, V; van der Walle, J

    2010-01-01

    The inelastic component of the key astrophysical resonance (1(-), E-x=6.15 MeV) in the O-14(alpha,p)F-17 reaction has been studied by using the resonant scattering of F-17+p. The experiment was done at REX-ISOLDE CERN with the Miniball setup. The thick target method in inverse kinematics was utilized in the present experiment where a 44.2 MeV F-17 beam bombarded a similar to 40 mu m thick (CH2)(n) target. The inelastic scattering protons in coincidence with the de-excited 495 keV gamma rays have been clearly seen and they are from the inelastic branch to the first excited state in F-17 following decay of the 1(-) resonance in Ne-18. Some preliminary results are reported.

  7. Measurement of the inelastic branch of the stellar 14O(α,p)17F reaction occurring in the explosive burning in Novae and X-ray bursters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, J.J.; Woods, P.J.; Davinson, T.; Aliotta, M.; Buescler, J.; Clement, E.; Delahaye, P.; Hass, M.; Jenkins, D.G.; Kumar, V.; Murphy, A.St.J.; Neyskens, P.; Raabe, R.; Robinson, A.P.; Walle, J. van der; Warr, N.; Wenander, F.

    2010-01-01

    The inelastic component of the key astrophysical resonance (1 - , E x =6.15 MeV) in the 14 O(α,p) 17 F reaction has been studied by using the resonant scattering of 17 F+p. The experiment was done at REX-ISOLDE CERN with the Miniball setup. The thick target method in inverse kinematics was utilized in the present experiment where a 44.2 MeV 17 F beam bombarded a∼40μm thick (CH 2 ) n target. The inelastic scattering protons in coincidence with the de-excited 495 keV γ rays have been clearly seen and they are from the inelastic branch to the first excited state in 17 F following decay of the 1 - resonance in 18 Ne. Some preliminary results are reported.

  8. Solution of a simple inelastic scattering problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knudson, S.K.

    1975-01-01

    Simple examples of elastic scattering, typically from square wells, serve as important pedagogical tools in discussion of the concepts and processes involved in elastic scattering events. An analytic solution of a model inelastic scattering system is presented here to serve in this role for inelastic events. The model and its solution are simple enough to be of pedagogical utility, but also retain enough of the important physical features to include most of the special characteristics of inelastic systems. The specific model chosen is the collision of an atom with a harmonic oscillator, interacting via a repulsive square well potential. Pedagogically important features of inelastic scattering, including its multistate character, convergence behavior, and dependence on an ''inelastic potential'' are emphasized as the solution is determined. Results are presented for various energies and strengths of inelastic scattering, which show that the model is capable of providing an elementary representation of vibrationally inelastic scattering

  9. Inelastic neutron scattering method in hard coal quality monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cywicka-Jakiel, T.; Loskiewicz, J.; Tracz, G.

    1994-07-01

    Nuclear methods in mining industry and power generation plants are nowadays very important especially because of the need for optimization of combustion processes and reduction of environmental pollution. On-line analysis of coal quality not only economic benefits but contribute to environmental protection too. Neutron methods especially inelastic scattering and PGNAA are very useful for analysis of coal quality where calorific valve, ash and moisture content are the most important. Using Pu-Be or Am-Be isotopic sources and measuring carbon 4.43 MeV γ-rays from neutron inelastic scattering: 12 C(n,n'γ) 12 C we can evaluate calorific valve in hard coals with precision better than in PGNAA method. This is mainly because of large cross-section for inelastic scattering and the strong correlation between carbon content and calorific value shown in the paper for different coal basins. The influence of moisture on 4.43 MeV carbon γ-rays in considered in the paper in theoretical and experimental aspects and appropriate formula is introduced. Also the possibilities of determine ash, moisture, Cl, Na and Si in coal are shown. (author). 11 refs, 15 figs

  10. Inelastic neutron scattering method in hard coal quality monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cywicka-Jakiel, T.; Loskiewicz, J.; Tracz, G. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1994-07-01

    Nuclear methods in mining industry and power generation plants are nowadays very important especially because of the need for optimization of combustion processes and reduction of environmental pollution. On-line analysis of coal quality not only economic benefits but contribute to environmental protection too. Neutron methods especially inelastic scattering and PGNAA are very useful for analysis of coal quality where calorific valve, ash and moisture content are the most important. Using Pu-Be or Am-Be isotopic sources and measuring carbon 4.43 MeV {gamma}-rays from neutron inelastic scattering: {sup 12}C(n,n`{gamma}){sup 12}C we can evaluate calorific valve in hard coals with precision better than in PGNAA method. This is mainly because of large cross-section for inelastic scattering and the strong correlation between carbon content and calorific value shown in the paper for different coal basins. The influence of moisture on 4.43 MeV carbon {gamma}-rays in considered in the paper in theoretical and experimental aspects and appropriate formula is introduced. Also the possibilities of determine ash, moisture, Cl, Na and Si in coal are shown. (author). 11 refs, 15 figs.

  11. X-ray and neutron scattering investigations of YCo3-H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benham, M.J.; Bennington, S.M.; Ross, D.K.; Noreus, D.; Yamaguchi, M.

    1989-01-01

    Various structural studies of YCo 3 H(D) x in the β-phase (0 2 . Neutron diffraction and inelastic neutron scattering were also used in tandem, and hydrogen occupation of a single (36i) tetrahedral site was inferred for the entire concentration range. (orig.)

  12. Influence of argon impurities on the elastic scattering of x-rays from imploding beryllium capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, A. M.; Chapman, D. A.; Kritcher, A. L.; Schoff, M.; Shuldberg, C.; Landen, O. L.; Glenzer, S. H.; Falcone, R. W.; Gericke, D. O.; Döppner, T.

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the effect of argon impurities on the elastic component of x-ray scattering spectra taken from directly driven beryllium capsule implosions at the OMEGA laser. The plasma conditions were obtained in a previous analysis [18] by fitting the inelastic scattering component. We show that the known argon impurity in the beryllium modifies the elastic scattering due to the larger number of bound electrons. We indeed find significant deviations in the elastic scattering from roughly 1 at.% argon contained in the beryllium. With knowledge of the argon impurity fraction, we use the elastic scattering component to determine the charge state of the compressed beryllium, as the fits are rather insensitive to the argon charge state. Finally, we discuss how doping small fractions of mid- or high-Z elements into low-Z materials could allow ionization balance studies in dense plasmas.

  13. Study on lattice relaxation type transformation of (CuNi)sub(3-x) Alsub(1+x) alloy by inelastic neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajitani, Tsuyoshi; Hirano, Ken-ichi

    1975-01-01

    Inelastic scattering experiment was carried out on (Cu Ni)sub(3-x)Alsub(1+x) alloy at room temperature. The sample was annealed in vacuum for two hours at 950 0 C, quenched in water at 0 0 C, and aged for about one year. The energy spectrum of scattered neutrons was measured by T-O-F method. The measurement was performed for phonons at reciprocal lattice point (2/3--3/4, 2/3--3/4, 0) corresponding to the period of static shearing deformation. The up-scattering peak (Pq 1) observed at 2 theta = 38 0 in case of -14.5 0 of incident beam direction has width of 14.8 MeV, and is not considered to be a coherent inelastic scattering peak. The up-scattering peak (Pq 2) of 9 0 of incident beam direction has width of 17.3 MeV. The peak Pq 1 is considered as quasi-elastic scattering. The reflection point in the reciprocal lattice space of elastic scattering waves at 2 theta = 38 0 in case of -14.5 0 incident angle is near the [1 1 1] reciprocal lattice point of DO 3 structure. In case of 9 0 incident angle, it is near the [1 0 0] point. As conclusions, (1) it is not said that only the shear waves on the axis are freezed in the martensite transformation of (CuNi)sub(3-x)Alsub(1+x) alloy, (2) an L mode quasi-elastic peak is seen near the [1 1 1] reciprocal lattice point, (3) a T mode phonon peak is observed near the [1 1 0] reciprocal lattice point, and (4) T mode phonons are seen near [1/2, 1/2, 1/2]. (Kato, T.)

  14. Report of workshop on X-ray and nonlinear optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasu, Keiichiro; Namikawa, Kazumichi

    1994-07-01

    As synchrotron radiation has advanced to high luminance, the possibility of realizing coherent light has heightened, and the nonlinear optical phenomena in soft and hard X-ray regions have become the object of the concern of X-ray researchers, and also the researchers in the fields of quantum electronics and optical properties. This workshop was held on September 21 and 22, 1993 at National Laboratory for High energy Physics. Lectures were given on the generation of second harmonic of X-ray by utilizing dynamic diffraction, X-ray parametric scattering induced by strong laser beam, the resonance enhancement of X-ray inelastic scattering induced by strong visible light, Raman scattering in soft X-ray region, the control of nonlinear optical processes by strong external field; the experiments, though they are fundamental, they have not been carried out; undulator radiation X-ray and X-ray free electron laser, the improvement of the coherence of X-ray laser, superradiance of Frenkel excitor system and the measurement of superhigh speed pulses in X-ray region. The comment from the standpoint of the research on nonlinear optics was given. In this document, the gists of these lectures are collected. (K.I.)

  15. Report of workshop on X-ray and nonlinear optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasu, Keiichiro; Namikawa, Kazumichi [eds.

    1994-07-01

    As synchrotron radiation has advanced to high luminance, the possibility of realizing coherent light has heightened, and the nonlinear optical phenomena in soft and hard X-ray regions have become the object of the concern of X-ray researchers, and also the researchers in the fields of quantum electronics and optical properties. This workshop was held on September 21 and 22, 1993 at National Laboratory for High energy Physics. Lectures were given on the generation of second harmonic of X-ray by utilizing dynamic diffraction, X-ray parametric scattering induced by strong laser beam, the resonance enhancement of X-ray inelastic scattering induced by strong visible light, Raman scattering in soft X-ray region, the control of nonlinear optical processes by strong external field; the experiments, though they are fundamental, they have not been carried out; undulator radiation X-ray and X-ray free electron laser, the improvement of the coherence of X-ray laser, superradiance of Frenkel excitor system and the measurement of superhigh speed pulses in X-ray region. The comment from the standpoint of the research on nonlinear optics was given. In this document, the gists of these lectures are collected. (K.I.).

  16. Anisotropy enhanced X-ray scattering from solvated transition metal complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biasin, Elisa; van Driel, Tim B.; Levi, Gianluca

    2018-01-01

    Time-resolved X-ray scattering patterns from photoexcited molecules in solution are in many cases anisotropic at the ultrafast time scales accessible at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs). This anisotropy arises from the interaction of a linearly polarized UV-Vis pump laser pulse with the sample......, which induces anisotropic structural changes that can be captured by femtosecond X-ray pulses. In this work, a method for quantitative analysis of the anisotropic scattering signal arising from an ensemble of molecules is described, and it is demonstrated how its use can enhance the structural...... sensitivity of the time-resolved X-ray scattering experiment. This method is applied on time-resolved X-ray scattering patterns measured upon photoexcitation of a solvated di-platinum complex at an XFEL, and the key parameters involved are explored. It is shown that a combined analysis of the anisotropic...

  17. Neutron and x-ray scattering study of phonon dispersion and diffuse scattering in (Na ,Bi ) Ti O3-x BaTi O3 single crystals near the morphotropic phase boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chengtao; Bansal, Dipanshu; Li, Jiefang; Viehland, Dwight; Winn, Barry; Ren, Yang; Li, Xiaobing; Luo, Haosu; Delaire, Olivier

    2017-11-01

    Neutron and x-ray scattering measurements were performed on (N a1 /2B i1 /2 ) Ti O3-x at %BaTi O3 (NBT-x BT ) single crystals (x =4 , 5, 6.5, and 7.5) across the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB), as a function of both composition and temperature, and probing both structural and dynamical aspects. In addition to the known diffuse scattering pattern near the Γ points, our measurements revealed new, faint superlattice peaks, as well as an extensive diffuse scattering network, revealing a short-range ordering of polar nanoregions (PNR) with a static stacking morphology. In samples with compositions closest to the MPB, our inelastic neutron scattering investigations of the phonon dynamics showed two unusual features in the acoustic phonon branches, between the superlattice points, and between the superlattice points and Γ points, respectively. These critical elements are not present in the other compositions away from the MPB, which suggests that these features may be related to the tilt modes coupling behavior near the MPB.

  18. Diffuse scattering in Ih ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehinger, Björn; Krisch, Michael; Bosak, Alexeï; Chernyshov, Dmitry; Bulat, Sergey; Ezhov, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Single crystals of ice Ih, extracted from the subglacial Lake Vostok accretion ice layer (3621 m depth) were investigated by means of diffuse x-ray scattering and inelastic x-ray scattering. The diffuse scattering was identified as mainly inelastic and rationalized in the frame of ab initio calculations for the ordered ice XI approximant. Together with Monte-Carlo modelling, our data allowed reconsidering previously available neutron diffuse scattering data of heavy ice as the sum of thermal diffuse scattering and static disorder contribution. (paper)

  19. Polarization phenomena in inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhaar, B.J.

    1974-01-01

    An attempt is made to clarify the principles of inelastic scattering using the distorted wave Born approximation, concentrating on inelastic proton scattering. The principle aspects and merits of the microscopic description and the necessity of including the N-N spin orbit force are discussed. (7 figures) (U.S.)

  20. A study on the measurement of effective energy of scattering X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oogama, Noboru; Fujimoto, Nobuhisa; Nishitani, Motohiro; Yamada, Katsuhiko

    1995-01-01

    Only a few studies have been reported on the measurement and evaluation of the effective energy of scattering X-rays using an ionization chamber. The reason for this is due to the difficulty in accurately measuring attenuation curve in scattering X-rays lacking any directional properties. We could come up with a new method for calculating the effective energy of scattering X-rays by utilizing their spectra data. First, for analysing the accuracy of our calculation method with using primary X-rays, a comparison was made of calculated values of the effective energy obtained by our calculation method with the measurement values obtained using an ionization chamber. The results gave the calculated values agreeing with the measurement values within a maximum error of 2%, and this method was very helpful in measuring the effective energy of the scattering X-rays. Consequently, this method was capable of measuring the effective energy of scattering X-rays in the following parameters: X-ray tube voltage, scattering angle and size of scatterer. In conclusion, it is considered that our method could solve the present difficulty regarding the measurement of effective energy of the scattering X-rays, and provided a useful procedure concerning the study of radiation protection. (author)

  1. Fluorescent intensifying screens: contribution of secondary X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barroso, R.C.; Goncalves, O.D.; Eichler, J.; Lopes, R.T.; Cardoso, S.C.

    1996-01-01

    The counting rate and angular distribution of secondary X-rays produced by fluorescent intensifying screens are studied. A source of 241 Am - gamma radiation of 59.54 keV - is used. Fluorescent intensifying screens reduce the radiation dose in radiology since they produce visible light which increases the efficiency of the film. In addition, secondary X-rays arise due to the photoelectric effect, elastic (Rayleigh) and inelastic (Compton) scattering

  2. Building a Unified Computational Model for the Resonant X-Ray Scattering of Strongly Correlated Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bansil, Arun [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Basic-Energy Sciences of the Department of Energy (BES/DOE) has made large investments in x-ray sources in the U.S. (NSLS-II, LCLS, NGLS, ALS, APS) as powerful enabling tools for opening up unprecedented new opportunities for exploring properties of matter at various length and time scales. The coming online of the pulsed photon source literally allows us to see and follow the dynamics of processes in materials at their natural timescales. There is an urgent need therefore to develop theoretical methodologies and computational models for understanding how x-rays interact with matter and the related spectroscopies of materials. The present project addressed aspects of this grand challenge of X-ray science. In particular, our Collaborative Research Team (CRT) focused on understanding and modeling of elastic and inelastic resonant X-ray scattering processes. We worked to unify the three different computational approaches currently used for modeling X-ray scattering—density functional theory, dynamical mean-field theory, and small-cluster exact diagonalization—to achieve a more realistic material-specific picture of the interaction between X-rays and complex matter. To achieve a convergence in the interpretation and to maximize complementary aspects of different theoretical methods, we concentrated on the cuprates, where most experiments have been performed. Our team included both US and international researchers, and it fostered new collaborations between researchers currently working with different approaches. In addition, we developed close relationships with experimental groups working in the area at various synchrotron facilities in the US. Our CRT thus helped toward enabling the US to assume a leadership role in the theoretical development of the field, and to create a global network and community of scholars dedicated to X-ray scattering research.

  3. Inelastic scattering and deformation parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, J.L.C. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    In recent years there has been extensive study of nuclear shape parameters by electron scattering, μ meson atomic transitions, Coulomb excitation and direct nuclear inelastic scattering. Inelastic scattering of strongly absorbed particles, e.g., alpha-particles and heavy ions, at energies below and above the Coulomb barrier probe the charge and mass distributions within the nucleus. This paper summarizes measurements in this field performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  4. Consequences of inelastic discrete-level neutron-collision mechanics for inelastic continuum scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoogenboom, J.E. (Technische Hogeschool Delft (Netherlands))

    1983-01-01

    From the collision mechanics of inelastic discrete-level scattering several properties are derived for the secondary-neutron energy distribution (SNED) for inelastic continuum scattering, when conceived as scattering with continuously-distributed inelastic levels. Using assumptions about the level density and neutron cross section the SNED can be calculated and some examples are shown. A formula is derived to calculate from a given inelastic continuum SNED a function, which is proportional to the level density and the neutron cross section. From this relation further conditions follow for the SNED. Representations for the inelastic continuum SNED currently in use do not, in general, satisfy most of the derived conditions.

  5. Consequences of inelastic discrete-level neutron-collision mechanics for inelastic continuum scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoogenboom, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    From the collision mechanics of inelastic discrete-level scattering several properties are derived for the secondary-neutron energy distribution (SNED) for inelastic continuum scattering, when conceived as scattering with continuously-distributed inelastic levels. Using assumptions about the level density and neutron cross section the SNED can be calculated and some examples are shown. A formula is derived to calculate from a given inelastic continuum SNED a function, which is proportional to the level density and the neutron cross section. From this relation further conditions follow for the SNED. Representations for the inelastic continuum SNED currently in use do not, in general, satisfy most of the derived conditions. (author)

  6. Defect properties from X-ray scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peisl, H.

    1976-01-01

    Lattice distortions due to defects in crystals can be studied most directly by elastic X-ray or neutron scattering experiments. The 'size' of the defects can be determined from the shift of the Bragg reflections. Defect induced diffuse scattering intensity close to and between Bragg reflections gives information on the strength and symmetry of the distortion fields and yields the atomic structure of point defects (interstitials, vacancies, small aggregates). Diffuse scattering is a very sensitive method to decide whether defects are present as isolated point defects or have formed aggregates. X-ray scattering has been used to study defects produced in various ionic crystals by γ- and neutron irradiation. After an introduction to the principles of the method the experimental results will be reviewed and discussed in some detail. (orig.) [de

  7. Diffuse scattering of neutrons and X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novion, C.H. de

    1978-01-01

    Diffuse scattering is used to study defect concentrations of about 10 -4 in the case of X-rays and 10 -3 in the case of neutrons. The foundations of diffuse scattering formalism are given, some experimental devices described and a few applications discussed: study by diffraction on powders of defects in CeOsub(2-x); short-range order study by X-rays on Cusub(0.75) Ausub(0.25); short-range order study by neutrons on Cusub(0.435)Nisub(0.565); short-range order study by electrons TiOx; study of irradiation-induced self-interstitials in Al; study of holes created by neutrons in Al [fr

  8. X-ray holography with an atomic scatterer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mityureva, A.A.; Smirnov, V.V., E-mail: valery_smirnov@mail.ru

    2016-08-15

    X-ray holography scheme with reference scatterer consisting of heavy atom as reference center and its link to an object consisting of several light atoms and using controlled variation of the alignment is represented. The scheme can reproduce an object in three dimensions with atomic resolution. The distorting factors of reconstruction are considered. - Highlights: • X-ray holography scheme with a reference wave formed by atomic scatterer. • 3D object reconstruction with atomic resolution from the set of holograms. • Simple formula for the distorting factor in reconstruction.

  9. X-ray generator based on Compton scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Androsov, V.P.; Agafonov, A.V.; Botman, J.I.M.; Bulyak, E.V.; Drebot, I.; Gladkikh, P.I.; Grevtsev, V.; Ivashchenko, V.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Lapshin, V.I.

    2005-01-01

    Nowadays, the sources of the X-rays based on a storage ring with low beam energy and Compton scattering of intense laser beam are under development in several laboratories. In the paper the state-of-art in development and construction of cooperative project of a Kharkov advanced X-ray source NESTOR

  10. Neutron and x-ray scattering studies of ferroelectric phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolling, G.

    1982-08-01

    The subject of ferroelectric type phase transitions is introduced by means of examples of two main classes (a) displacive transitions, e.g. KNbO 3 , and (b) order-disorder transitions, e.g. NaNO 2 . The significance of crystal structure and crystal dynamics (i.e. the phonon dispersion relations) for ferroelectric behaviour is emphasized. The chief methods for structure determination are x-ray and neutron diffraction, while the most powerful of all techniques for studying phonon properties is that of coherent inelastic neutron scattering. The most useful type of neutron spectrometer for phase transition studies, the triple axis crystal spectrometer, is discussed in detail. The history of the soft mode theory of displacive phase transitions, and its application to the antiferroelectric and 'almost ferroelectric' transitions in SrTiO 3 , provides an introduction to more recent developments in this area, including over-damped soft modes, central peaks and critical scattering, incommensurate phase transitions (e.g. K 2 SeO 4 ), amplitudons, phasons and finally solitions. The treatment throughout is descriptive and introductory, designed for graduate students

  11. Multiple scattering approach to X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benfatto, M.; Wu Ziyu

    2003-01-01

    In this paper authors present the state of the art of the theoretical background needed for analyzing X-ray absorption spectra in the whole energy range. The multiple-scattering (MS) theory is presented in detail with some applications on real systems. Authors also describe recent progress in performing geometrical fitting of the XANES (X-ray absorption near-edge structure) energy region and beyond using a full multiple-scattering approach

  12. The inelastic scattering of medium energy α particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crut, M.

    1960-01-01

    The aim of this work is to find out what are the properties of the so-called 'anomalous states' in medium weight nuclei. These states preferentially excited in the inelastic scattering of medium energy charged particles have an excitation energy at about 4 MeV for nuclei with Z ≤ 29 and in the range 2-3 MeV for high Z nuclei. From a combination of angular distribution data in the elastic and inelastic scattering of 30 MeV α particles, and correlation data between inelastic α particles and deexcitation γ rays, we show that for even-even nuclei, we can attribute spin 3 and parity minus to these 'anomalous states'. This is quite in agreement with the interpretation of these levels suggested by Lane as due to collective octupole oscillations. We give a resume of the theories used in the analysis of the data and a description of the experimental set-up. (author) [fr

  13. Neutron total, scattering and inelastic gamma-ray cross sections of yttrium at few MeV energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budtz-Joergensen, C.; Guenther, P.; Smith, A.; Whalen, J.; McMurray, W.R.; Renan, M.J.; Heerden, I.J. van

    1984-01-01

    Neutron total, scattering and (n; n', γ) cross sections of elemental yttrium ( 89 Y) were measured in the few-MeV region. The neutron total-cross-section measurements were made with broad resolutions from approx.=0.5 to 4.2 MeV in steps of < or approx.0.1 MeV. Neutron elastic- and inelastic-scattering cross sections were measured from approx.=1.5 to 4.0 MeV, at incident-neutron energy intervals of approx.=50 keV and at ten or more scattering angles distributed between 20 and 160 degrees using neutron detection. Inelastic-scattering cross sections were also determined using the (n; n', γ) reaction at incident energies from 1.6 to 3.8 MeV at intervals of 0.1 MeV. Gamma-rays and/or inelastically-scattered neutrons were observed corresponding to the excitation of levels at: 909.0+-0.5, 1,507.4+-0.3, 1,744.5+-0.3, 2,222.6+-0.5, 2,530+-0.8, 2,566.4+-1.0, 2,622.5+-1.0, 2,871.9+-1.5, 2,880.6+-2.0, 3,067.0+-2.0, 3,107.0+-2.0, 3,140.0+-2.0, 3,410.0+-2.0, 3,450.0+-2.0, 3,504.0+-1.5, 3,514.0+-2.0, 3,556.0+-2.0, 3,619.0+-3.0, 3,629.0+-3.0 and 3,715.0+-3.0 keV. The experimental results are discussed in terms of the spherical-optical-statistical, coupled-channels, and core-coupling models, and in the context of previously reported excited-level structure. (orig.)

  14. Development of general X-ray scattering model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, Joe; Wendt, Scott

    2015-01-01

    X-ray scattering is a complex process made difficult to describe due to the effects of a complex energy spectrum interacting with a wide range of material types in complex geometry. The scattering is further complicated by the volume of material illuminated and the experimental configuration of the data acquisition. The importance of accounting for the key physics in scattering modeling is critical to the viability of the model. For example, scattering in the detector and the speed of the detector, as measured by the absorbed dose needed to produce a signal, are important in capturing undercut effects. Another example is the noise properties of the detectors are dependent on photon energy. We report on a semi-empirical treatment of x-ray scattering that includes a full energy treatment for a wide range of material types. We also include complex geometry effects that the part shape introduces. The treatment is based on experimental measurements using an energy dispersive germanium detector over energies from treatment is showing good results with experimental measurements of the scattering component agreeing with the model results to the 10% level over the range of x-ray energies and materials typical in industrial applications. Computation times for this model are in the 20 keV to 320 keV. Detector stripping routines for detector artifacts were developed. The computation time is in the range of a few minutes on a typical PC

  15. Mode-Locked Multichromatic X-Rays in a Seeded Free-Electron Laser for Single-Shot X-Ray Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Dao; Ding, Yuantao; Raubenheimer, Tor; Wu, Juhao; /SLAC

    2012-05-10

    We present the promise of generating gigawatt mode-locked multichromatic x rays in a seeded free-electron laser (FEL). We show that, by using a laser to imprint periodic modulation in electron beam phase space, a single-frequency coherent seed can be amplified and further translated to a mode-locked multichromatic output in an FEL. With this configuration the FEL output consists of a train of mode-locked ultrashort pulses which span a wide frequency gap with a series of equally spaced sharp lines. These gigawatt multichromatic x rays may potentially allow one to explore the structure and dynamics of a large number of atomic states simultaneously. The feasibility of generating mode-locked x rays ranging from carbon K edge ({approx}284 eV) to copper L{sub 3} edge ({approx}931 eV) is confirmed with numerical simulation using the realistic parameters of the linac coherent light source (LCLS) and LCLS-II. We anticipate that the mode-locked multichromatic x rays in FELs may open up new opportunities in x-ray spectroscopy (i.e. resonant inelastic x-ray scattering, time-resolved scattering and spectroscopy, etc.).

  16. Resonance magnetic x-ray scattering study of erbium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanyal, M.K.; Gibbs, D.; Bohr, J.

    1994-01-01

    The magnetic phases of erbium have been studied by resonance x-ray-scattering techniques. When the incident x-ray energy is tuned near the L(III) absorption edge, large resonant enhancements of the magnetic scattering are observed above 18 K. We have measured the energy and polarization dependence...... of this magnetic scattering and analyzed it using a simple model based on electric dipole and quadrupole transitions among atomic orbitals. The line shapes can be fitted to a magnetic structure combining both c-axis-modulated and basal-plane components. Below 18 K, we have observed unusual behavior of the magnetic...

  17. X-ray scattering studies of surfaces and interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanyal, M.K.

    1998-01-01

    Here we shall briefly review the basics and some applications of x-ray specular reflectivity and diffuse scattering techniques. These x-ray scattering techniques are uniquely suited to study of the structure of surfaces and interfaces at atomic resolutions as they are nondestructive and can probe even interfaces which are buried. The study of structure of surfaces and interfaces is not only required in understanding physics in reduced dimensions but is also essential in developing technologically important materials

  18. X-ray coherent scattering tomography of textured material (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zheyuan; Pang, Shuo

    2017-05-01

    Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measures the signature of angular-dependent coherently scattered X-rays, which contains richer information in material composition and structure compared to conventional absorption-based computed tomography. SAXS image reconstruction method of a 2 or 3 dimensional object based on computed tomography, termed as coherent scattering computed tomography (CSCT), enables the detection of spatially-resolved, material-specific isotropic scattering signature inside an extended object, and provides improved contrast for medical diagnosis, security screening, and material characterization applications. However, traditional CSCT methods assumes materials are fine powders or amorphous, and possess isotropic scattering profiles, which is not generally true for all materials. Anisotropic scatters cannot be captured using conventional CSCT method and result in reconstruction errors. To obtain correct information from the sample, we designed new imaging strategy which incorporates extra degree of detector motion into X-ray scattering tomography for the detection of anisotropic scattered photons from a series of two-dimensional intensity measurements. Using a table-top, narrow-band X-ray source and a panel detector, we demonstrate the anisotropic scattering profile captured from an extended object and the reconstruction of a three-dimensional object. For materials possessing a well-organized crystalline structure with certain symmetry, the scatter texture is more predictable. We will also discuss the compressive schemes and implementation of data acquisition to improve the collection efficiency and accelerate the imaging process.

  19. On the possibility of using X-ray Compton scattering to study magnetoelectrical properties of crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, S. P., E-mail: steve.collins@diamond.ac.uk; Laundy, D.; Connolley, T.; Laan, G. van der; Fabrizi, F. [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Janssen, O. [Department of Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Cooper, M. J. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Ebert, H.; Mankovsky, S. [Universität München, Department Chemie, Haus E2.033, Butenandtstrasse 5-13, D-81377 München (Germany)

    2016-02-16

    The possibility of using X-ray Compton scattering to reveal antisymmetric components of the electron momentum density, as a fingerprint of magnetoelectric sample properties, is investigated experimentally and theoretically by studying the polar ferromagnet GaFeO{sub 3}. This paper discusses the possibility of using Compton scattering – an inelastic X-ray scattering process that yields a projection of the electron momentum density – to probe magnetoelectrical properties. It is shown that an antisymmetric component of the momentum density is a unique fingerprint of such time- and parity-odd physics. It is argued that polar ferromagnets are ideal candidates to demonstrate this phenomenon and the first experimental results are shown, on a single-domain crystal of GaFeO{sub 3}. The measured antisymmetric Compton profile is very small (≃ 10{sup −5} of the symmetric part) and of the same order of magnitude as the statistical errors. Relativistic first-principles simulations of the antisymmetric Compton profile are presented and it is shown that, while the effect is indeed predicted by theory, and scales with the size of the valence spin–orbit interaction, its magnitude is significantly overestimated. The paper outlines some important constraints on the properties of the antisymmetric Compton profile arising from the underlying crystallographic symmetry of the sample.

  20. Small angle neutron scattering and small angle X-ray scattering ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The morphology of carbon nanofoam samples comprising platinum nanopar- ticles dispersed in the matrix was characterized by small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques. Results show that the structure of pores of carbon matrix exhibits a mass (pore) fractal nature ...

  1. Deep inelastic electron and muon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.E.

    1975-07-01

    From the review of deep inelastic electron and muon scattering it is concluded that the puzzle of deep inelastic scattering versus annihilation was replaced with the challenge of the new particles, that the evidence for the simplest quark-algebra models of deep inelastic processes is weaker than a year ago. Definite evidence of scale breaking was found but the specific form of that scale breaking is difficult to extract from the data. 59 references

  2. Theory of deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geyer, B.; Robaschik, D.; Wieczorek, E.

    1979-01-01

    The description of deep inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering in the lowest order of the electromagnetic and weak coupling constants leads to a study of virtual Compton amplitudes and their absorptive parts. Some aspects of quantum chromodynamics are discussed. Deep inelastic scattering enables a central quantity of quantum field theory, namely the light cone behaviour of the current commutator. The moments of structure functions are used for the description of deep inelastic scattering. (author)

  3. Low-angle X-ray scattering from spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desouky, O.S.; Ashour, Ahmed H.; Abdullah, Mohamed I.; Elshemey, Wael M.

    2002-01-01

    Low-angle scattering of X-rays is characterized by the presence of one or more peaks in the forward direction of scattering. These peaks are due to the interference of photons coherently scattered from the molecules of the medium. Thus these patterns are closely linked to the molecular structure of the investigated medium. In this work, low-angle X-ray scattering (LAXS) profiles of five spices; pimpinella anisum (anise), coriandrum sativum (coriander), cuminum cyminum (cumin), foenculum vulgare (fennel) and nigella sativa (nigella or black cumin) are presented after extensive measurements. It is found that all spices exhibit one characteristic peak at a scattering angle around 10 deg. This is equivalent to a value x=0.0565 A -1 , where x=sin(θ/2)/λ. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of this peak is found to be characteristic for each type of the investigated spices. The possibility to detect the irradiation of these spices from their LAXS profiles is also examined after 10, 20, 30 and 40 kGy doses of gamma radiation. Except for anise, coriander and cumin at 40 kGy, there are no detectable deviations from the control samples in the scattering profiles of irradiated samples. These results comply with the recommendations of the FDA (US Food and Drug Administration) which defines 30 kGy as the maximum dose for irradiation of spices. The present technique could be used to detect over-irradiation, which causes damage to the molecular structure of some spices

  4. Resonant magnetic scattering of polarized soft x rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacchi, M. [Centre Universitaire Paris-Sud, Orsay (France); Hague, C.F. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France); Gullikson, E.M.; Underwood, J. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Magnetic effects on X-ray scattering (Bragg diffraction, specular reflectivity or diffuse scattering) are a well known phenomenon, and they also represent a powerful tool for investigating magnetic materials since it was shown that they are strongly enhanced when the photon energy is tuned across an absorption edge (resonant process). The resonant enhancement of the magnetic scattering has mainly been investigated at high photon energies, in order to match the Bragg law for the typical lattice spacings of crystals. In the soft X-ray range, even larger effects are expected, working for instance at the 2p edges of transition metals of the first row or at the 3d edges of rare earths (300-1500 eV), but the corresponding long wavelengths prevent the use of single crystals. Two approaches have been recently adopted in this energy range: (i) the study of the Bragg diffraction from artificial structures of appropriate 2d spacing; (ii) the analysis of the specular reflectivity, which contains analogous information but has no constraints related to the lattice spacing. Both approaches have their own specific advantages: for instance, working under Bragg conditions provides information about the (magnetic) periodicity in ordered structures, while resonant reflectivity can easily be related to electronic properties and absorption spectra. An important aspect common to all the resonant X-ray scattering techniques is the element selectivity inherent to the fact of working at a specific absorption edge: under these conditions, X-ray scattering becomes in fact a spectroscopy. Results are presented for films of iron and cobalt.

  5. Inelastic Neutron Scattering Investigations of the Magnetic Excitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feile, R; Kjems, Jørgen; Hauser, A.

    1984-01-01

    The magnetic excitations perpendicular to the antiferromagnetic chains in CsVX3 (X = Cl, Br, I) have been measured in the ordered state by inelastic neutron scattering. The dispersion relations and intensity distributions are those expected for ordinary spin waves in a triangular xy-model....

  6. Kharkov X-ray Generator Based On Compton Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbakov, A.; Zelinsky, A.; Mytsykov, A.; Gladkikh, P.; Karnaukhov, I.; Lapshin, V.; Telegin, Y.; Androsov, V.; Bulyak, E.; Botman, J.I.M.; Tatchyn, R.; Lebedev, A.

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays X-ray sources based on storage rings with low beam energy and Compton scattering of intense laser beams are under development in several laboratories. An international cooperative project of an advanced X-ray source of this type at the Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) is described. The status of the project is reviewed. The design lattice of the storage ring and calculated X-ray beam parameters are presented. The results of numerical simulation carried out for proposed facility show a peak spectral X-ray intensity of about 1014 can be produced

  7. An inelastic neutron scattering study of the spin dynamics of Yb1-xLuxAl3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborn, R.

    1998-01-01

    We present the results of a systematic inelastic neutron scattering study of the spin dynamics of the mixed valent compound YbAl 3 doped with nonmagnetic lutetium. The aim of the investigation is to clarify the origin of the unusual gap-like magnetic response observed in YbAl 3 , which can be modeled by two inelastic peaks: a narrow peak at 34 meV with HWHM, r = 6.4 ± 0.8 meV and a broad peak at 44 meV with Λ = 30 ± 1 meV. Lutetium substitution leads to a substantial increase in the linewidth (Λ = 9 ± 1 meV at x = 0.1) and a decrease in the intensity (down by 60% at x = 0.1) of the narrow component, with a negligible effect on the broad inelastic peak. This trend is confirmed with higher doping resulting in the complete suppression of the narrow peak at x ≥ 0.35. The results indicate that the narrow component arises from coherent excitation processes within the hybridized 4f-band, which are destroyed by disorder, while the broad component is not so sensitive to the loss of coherence

  8. Anomalous scattering and isomorphous replacement in X-ray diffuse scattering holography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopecký, Miloš; Kub, Jiří; Busetto, E.; Lausi, A.; Fábry, Jan; Šourek, Zbyněk

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 204, č. 8 (2007), s. 2572-2577 ISSN 1862-6300 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100529; GA MŠk LA 287 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523; CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : x-ray difuse scattering * x-ray holography Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  9. Compton spectra of atoms at high x-ray intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Sang-Kil; Geffert, Otfried; Santra, Robin

    2017-03-01

    Compton scattering is the nonresonant inelastic scattering of an x-ray photon by an electron and has been used to probe the electron momentum distribution in gas-phase and condensed-matter samples. In the low x-ray intensity regime, Compton scattering from atoms dominantly comes from bound electrons in neutral atoms, neglecting contributions from bound electrons in ions and free (ionized) electrons. In contrast, in the high x-ray intensity regime, the sample experiences severe ionization via x-ray multiphoton multiple ionization dynamics. Thus, it becomes necessary to take into account all the contributions to the Compton scattering signal when atoms are exposed to high-intensity x-ray pulses provided by x-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs). In this paper, we investigate the Compton spectra of atoms at high x-ray intensity, using an extension of the integrated x-ray atomic physics toolkit, xatom. As the x-ray fluence increases, there is a significant contribution from ionized electrons to the Compton spectra, which gives rise to strong deviations from the Compton spectra of neutral atoms. The present study provides not only understanding of the fundamental XFEL-matter interaction but also crucial information for single-particle imaging experiments, where Compton scattering is no longer negligible. , which features invited work from the best early-career researchers working within the scope of J. Phys. B. This project is part of the Journal of Physics series’ 50th anniversary celebrations in 2017. Sang-Kil Son was selected by the Editorial Board of J. Phys. B as an Emerging Leader.

  10. Rapporteur talks at Singapore (deep inelastic scattering) and at Hadron 90 (conference summary)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Close, F.E.

    1990-11-01

    This talk begins by reviewing the early years of deep inelastic scattering with particular reference to some theoretical work. Current highlights include an agreed uniform set of structure functions, polarised structure functions, possible violations of the Gottfried sum rule, deep inelastic scattering off nuclei and anticipated breakdown of naive perturbative quantum chromodynamics QCD as x → 0 at HERA. (author)

  11. Neutron and X-ray Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Hippert, Françoise; Hodeau, Jean Louis; Lelièvre-Berna, Eddy; Regnard, Jean-René

    2006-01-01

    Neutron and X-Ray Spectroscopy delivers an up-to-date account of the principles and practice of inelastic and spectroscopic methods available at neutron and synchrotron sources, including recent developments. The chapters are based on a course of lectures and practicals (the HERCULES course) delivered to young scientists who require these methods in their professional careers. Each chapter, written by a leading specialist in the field, introduces the basic concepts of the technique and provides an overview of recent work. This volume, which focuses on spectroscopic techniques in synchrotron radiation and inelastic neutron scattering, will be a primary source of information for physicists, chemists and materials scientists who wish to acquire a basic understanding of these techniques and to discover the possibilities offered by them. Emphasizing the complementarity of the neutron and X-ray methods, this tutorial will also be invaluable to scientists already working in neighboring fields who seek to extend thei...

  12. Probing lumps of wee partons in deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchmueller, W.

    1994-06-01

    Recently, the ZEUS collaboration has reported on several remarkable properties of events with a large rapidity gap in deep inelastic scattering. We suggest that the mechanism underlying these events is the scattering of electrons off lumps of wee partons inside the proton. Based on an effective lagrangian approach the Q 2 -, x- and W-distributions are evaluated. For sufficiently small invariant mass of the detected hadronic system, the mechanism implies leading twist behaviour. The x- and W-distributions are determined by the Lipatov exponent which governs the behaviour of parton densities at small x. (orig.)

  13. Crystal defect studies using x-ray diffuse scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, B.C.

    1980-01-01

    Microscopic lattice defects such as point (single atom) defects, dislocation loops, and solute precipitates are characterized by local electronic density changes at the defect sites and by distortions of the lattice structure surrounding the defects. The effect of these interruptions of the crystal lattice on the scattering of x-rays is considered in this paper, and examples are presented of the use of the diffuse scattering to study the defects. X-ray studies of self-interstitials in electron irradiated aluminum and copper are discussed in terms of the identification of the interstitial configuration. Methods for detecting the onset of point defect aggregation into dislocation loops are considered and new techniques for the determination of separate size distributions for vacancy loops and interstitial loops are presented. Direct comparisons of dislocation loop measurements by x-rays with existing electron microscopy studies of dislocation loops indicate agreement for larger size loops, but x-ray measurements report higher concentrations in the smaller loop range. Methods for distinguishing between loops and three-dimensional precipitates are discussed and possibilities for detailed studies considered. A comparison of dislocation loop size distributions obtained from integral diffuse scattering measurements with those from TEM show a discrepancy in the smaller sizes similar to that described above.

  14. Crystal defect studies using x-ray diffuse scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, B.C.

    1980-01-01

    Microscopic lattice defects such as point (single atom) defects, dislocation loops, and solute precipitates are characterized by local electronic density changes at the defect sites and by distortions of the lattice structure surrounding the defects. The effect of these interruptions of the crystal lattice on the scattering of x-rays is considered in this paper, and examples are presented of the use of the diffuse scattering to study the defects. X-ray studies of self-interstitials in electron irradiated aluminum and copper are discussed in terms of the identification of the interstitial configuration. Methods for detecting the onset of point defect aggregation into dislocation loops are considered and new techniques for the determination of separate size distributions for vacancy loops and interstitial loops are presented. Direct comparisons of dislocation loop measurements by x-rays with existing electron microscopy studies of dislocation loops indicate agreement for larger size loops, but x-ray measurements report higher concentrations in the smaller loop range. Methods for distinguishing between loops and three-dimensional precipitates are discussed and possibilities for detailed studies considered. A comparison of dislocation loop size distributions obtained from integral diffuse scattering measurements with those from TEM show a discrepancy in the smaller sizes similar to that described above

  15. Ultrafast x-ray scattering on nanoparticle dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plech, A; Ibrahimkutty, S; Issenmann, D; Kotaidis, V; Siems, A

    2013-01-01

    Pulsed X-ray scattering is used for the determination of structural dynamics of laser-irradiated gold particles. By combining several scattering methods such as powder scattering, small angle scattering and diffuse wide angle scattering it is possible to reconstruct the kinetics of structure evolution on several lengths scales and derive complementary information on the particles and their local environment. A generic structural phase diagram for the reaction as function of delay time after laser excitation and laser fluence can be constructed.

  16. Compton profiles by inelastic ion-electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeckl, H.; Bell, F.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that Compton profiles (CP) can be measured by inelastic ion-electron scattering. Within the impulse approximation the binary-encounter peak (BEP) reflects the CP of the target atom whereas the electron-loss peak (ELP) is given by projectile CP's. Evaluation of experimental data reveals that inelastic ion-electron scattering might be a promising method to supply inelastic electron or photon scattering for the determination of target CP's. The measurement of projectile CP's is unique to ion scattering since one gains knowledge about wave-function effects because of the high excitation degree of fast heavy-ion projectiles

  17. Collinear factorization for deep inelastic scattering structure functions at large Bjorken xB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accardi, Alberto; Qiu, Jian-Wei

    2008-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1126-6708/2008/07/090 We examine the uncertainty of perturbative QCD factorization for hadron structure functions in deep inelastic scattering at a large value of the Bjorken variable xB. We analyze the target mass correction to the structure functions by using the collinear factorization approach in the momentum space. We express the long distance physics of structure functions and the leading target mass corrections in terms of parton distribution functions with the standard operator definition. We compare our result with existing work on the target mass correction. We also discuss the impact of a final-state jet function on the extraction of parton distributions at large fractional momentum x.

  18. X-ray scattering studies of non-equilibrium ordering processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagler, S.E.

    1990-01-01

    We report on the progress of our project entitled ''X-ray Scattering of Non-Equilibrium Ordering Processes.'' During the past year we have made the first synchrotron measurements of ordering in Cu 3 Au have revealed the presence of an intermediate, non-equilibrium ordered state. Preliminary work involving x-ray magnetic scattering has been carried out. Work is continuing in these areas as well as on related problems. 5 refs

  19. Interference between magnetism and surface roughness in coherent soft X-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmim, A.; Tixier, S.; Tiedje, T.; Eisebitt, S.; Lorgen, M.; Scherer, R.; Eberhardt, W.; Luning, J.; Scholl, A.

    2002-01-01

    In coherent soft x-ray scattering from magnetically ordered surfaces there are contributions to the scattering from the magnetic domains, from the surface roughness, and from the diffraction associated with the pinhole aperture used as a coherence filter. In the present work, we explore the interplay between these contributions by analyzing speckle patterns in diffusely scattered x rays from the surface of magnetic thin films. Magnetic contrast from the surface of anti ferro magnetically ordered LaFeO3 films is caused by magnetic linear dichroism in resonant x-ray scattering. The samples studied possess two types of domains with their magnetic orientations perpendicular to each other. By tuning the x-ray energy from one of the two Fe-L3 resonant absorption peaks to the other, the relative amplitudes of the x-ray scattering from the two domains is inverted which results in speckle pattern changes. A theoretical expression is derived for the intensity correlation between the speckle patterns with the magnetic contrast inverted and not inverted. The model is found to be in good agreement with the x-ray-scattering observations and independent measurements of the surface roughness. An analytical expression for the correlation function gives an explicit relation between the change in the speckle pattern and the roughness, and magnetic and aperture scattering. Changes in the speckle pattern are shown to arise from beating of magnetic scattering with the roughness scattering and diffraction from the aperture. The largest effect is found when the surface roughness scatter is comparable in intensity to the magnetic scatter

  20. Preliminary Examination of X-ray Scattering from Human Tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desouky, O.S.; Wilkinson, S.; Hall, C.; Rogers, K.; Round, A.

    2008-01-01

    Small Angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and wide angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) patterns have been recorded from different human soft tissues using x-ray synchrotron radiation.Pathological breast, normal kidney and lung tissues show SAXS peaks at q-values equal to 0.291 nm -1 and 0.481 nm -1 (d 21.6 nm and d =13. nm) which are the 3 r d and 5 t h order of the well known axial D-spacing of collagen fibrils. The diffraction is particularly intense in the meridional direction indicating some febrile alignment. In contrast, the normal tissue of brain, liver and heart shows diffuse scatter.The wide-angle coherent scattering from normal human tissues of brain, liver, heart, lung, and kidney is typical of that for amorphous materials. The scatter of the healthy adipose breast tissue shows a sharp peak at momentum transfer 1.24 nm -1 (d= 0.417 nm). The data of the other tissues appears to consist of a broad scattering peak. The two scattering regimes succeed in differentiating between the two major components of breast tissue, collagen and adipose tissue. The results of this study suggest that the soft tissues may have scattering patterns that are characteristics for the particular tissue types and tissue disease state. These results indicate that it may be possible use the coherent scattering as a diagnostic tool

  1. Three-dimensional reciprocal space x-ray coherent scattering tomography of two-dimensional object.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zheyuan; Pang, Shuo

    2018-04-01

    X-ray coherent scattering tomography is a powerful tool in discriminating biological tissues and bio-compatible materials. Conventional x-ray scattering tomography framework can only resolve isotropic scattering profile under the assumption that the material is amorphous or in powder form, which is not true especially for biological samples with orientation-dependent structure. Previous tomography schemes based on x-ray coherent scattering failed to preserve the scattering pattern from samples with preferred orientations, or required elaborated data acquisition scheme, which could limit its application in practical settings. Here, we demonstrate a simple imaging modality to preserve the anisotropic scattering signal in three-dimensional reciprocal (momentum transfer) space of a two-dimensional sample layer. By incorporating detector movement along the direction of x-ray beam, combined with a tomographic data acquisition scheme, we match the five dimensions of the measurements with the five dimensions (three in momentum transfer domain, and two in spatial domain) of the object. We employed a collimated pencil beam of a table-top copper-anode x-ray tube, along with a panel detector to investigate the feasibility of our method. We have demonstrated x-ray coherent scattering tomographic imaging at a spatial resolution ~2 mm and momentum transfer resolution 0.01 Å -1 for the rotation-invariant scattering direction. For any arbitrary, non-rotation-invariant direction, the same spatial and momentum transfer resolution can be achieved based on the spatial information from the rotation-invariant direction. The reconstructed scattering profile of each pixel from the experiment is consistent with the x-ray diffraction profile of each material. The three-dimensional scattering pattern recovered from the measurement reveals the partially ordered molecular structure of Teflon wrap in our sample. We extend the applicability of conventional x-ray coherent scattering tomography to

  2. Study on the influences of X Ray Scattering on radioscopic inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wozniak, M.; Torrent, J.; Bancelin, A. [SNECMA NDE Dept. Laboratory, France, Evry Corbeil, 91 - Evry (France)

    2007-07-01

    This study issued from European project 'Verdict' (Virtual Evaluation and Robust Detection for engine Components non destructive Testing), aimed at developing and evaluating X Ray Non Destructive Method simulation. An qualitative appreciation and quantification for X Ray scattering for modelling (SINDBAD software) was identified. The effect of such radiation on radiogram results in a disturbing blur for interpretation of indications. The method and the results described are innovative in the analysis of X Ray scattering because for aeronautic field, the configurations used with this energy range are breakthrough. The approach followed consists in an experimental and practical method for evaluating scattered radiation on final image issued from the inspection. Experimental tests results confirmed that the influence of scattering radiation are linked to density variation, geometry of parts in the axis of direct radiation and spatial area. This study performed in industrial configurations contributed to improve X Ray scattering understanding. (authors)

  3. Sources of the X-rays Based on Compton Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Androsov, V.; Bulyak, E.; Gladkikh, P.; Karnaukhov, I.; Mytsykov, A.; Telegin, Yu.; Shcherbakov, A.; Zelinsky, A.

    2007-01-01

    The principles of the intense X-rays generation by laser beam scattering on a relativistic electron beam are described and description of facilities assigned to produce the X-rays based on Compton scattering is presented. The possibilities of various types of such facilities are estimated and discussed. The source of the X-rays based on a storage ring with low beam energy is described in details and advantages of the sources of such type are discussed.The results of calculation and numerical simulation carried out for laser electron storage ring NESTOR that is under development in NSC KIPT show wide prospects of the accelerator facility of such type

  4. Inelastic light scattering in crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushchinskii, M. M.

    The papers presented in this volume are concerned with a variety of problems in optics and solid state physics, such as Raman scattering of light in crystals and disperse media, Rayleigh and inelastic scattering during phase transitions, characteristics of ferroelectrics in relation to the general soft mode concept, and inelastic spectral opalescence. A group-theory approach is used to classify the vibrational spectra of the crystal lattice and to analyze the properties of idealized crystal models. Particular attention is given to surface vibrational states and to the study of the surface layers of crystals and films by light scattering methods.

  5. Measurement of e+p neutral current deep inelastic scattering with a longitudinally polarised positron beam and X-ray radiation damage for silicon sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Januschek, Friederike

    2011-01-01

    The cross sections for Neutral Current e + p Deep Inelastic Scattering (NC DIS) with longitudinally polarised positron beams were measured at a centre-of-mass energy √(s)=318 GeV using the ZEUS detector at HERA. Single-differential cross sections as a function of the virtuality of the exchanged boson, Q 2 , of the inelasticity, y, and of the Bjorken scaling variable, x, and reduced cross sections (as a function of x and Q 2 ) were measured in the phase space region defined as Q 2 >185 GeV 2 , y 2 >0.004. The results, based on data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 135.5 pb -1 , are given for zero polarisation for the whole sample, as well as for both positive and negative values of the longitudinal polarisation of the positron beam. The measured cross sections are compared to the predictions of the Standard Model. The proton structure function xF 3 is measured and the interference term xF γZ 3 is extracted as a function of x at Q 2 =1500 GeV 2 by extrapolating the measurements done at different Q 2 values. The presented measurements of the polarised e + p NC DIS cross sections, the xF 3 structure function and the xF γZ 3 interference term exceed the precision of previous ZEUS measurements. The uncertainties of the Parton Density Functions (PDFs) for the gluon and the u-valence quark are expected to be reduced at high-x values when the presented results are included in the PDF fits of the proton. A study is presented to further reduce PDF uncertainties for the gluon at very high x (above 10 -1 ) through the inclusion of DIS dijet cross sections in a ZEUS-JETS-like PDF fit. An irradiation facility to study the X-ray-induced radiation damage of silicon sensors for the European XFEL was set up at HASYLAB. Nine gate-controlled diodes were irradiated with doses from 1 kGy to 1 GGy in several irradiation steps and the surface current I surf and the flatband voltage V fb were measured after each irradiation. It was found that both, I surf and V fb , strongly

  6. Oil classification using X-ray scattering and principal component analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Danielle S.; Souza, Amanda S.; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: dani.almeida84@gmail.com, E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.br, E-mail: amandass@bioqmed.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Oliveira, Davi F.; Anjos, Marcelino J., E-mail: davi.oliveira@uerj.br, E-mail: marcelin@uerj.br [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Armando Dias Tavares

    2015-07-01

    X-ray scattering techniques have been considered promising for the classification and characterization of many types of samples. This study employed this technique combined with chemical analysis and multivariate analysis to characterize 54 vegetable oil samples (being 25 olive oils)with different properties obtained in commercial establishments in Rio de Janeiro city. The samples were chemically analyzed using the following indexes: iodine, acidity, saponification and peroxide. In order to obtain the X-ray scattering spectrum, an X-ray tube with a silver anode operating at 40kV and 50 μA was used. The results showed that oils cab ne divided in tow large groups: olive oils and non-olive oils. Additionally, in a multivariate analysis (Principal Component Analysis - PCA), two components were obtained and accounted for more than 80% of the variance. One component was associated with chemical parameters and the other with scattering profiles of each sample. Results showed that use of X-ray scattering spectra combined with chemical analysis and PCA can be a fast, cheap and efficient method for vegetable oil characterization. (author)

  7. Oil classification using X-ray scattering and principal component analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Danielle S.; Souza, Amanda S.; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Oliveira, Davi F.; Anjos, Marcelino J.

    2015-01-01

    X-ray scattering techniques have been considered promising for the classification and characterization of many types of samples. This study employed this technique combined with chemical analysis and multivariate analysis to characterize 54 vegetable oil samples (being 25 olive oils)with different properties obtained in commercial establishments in Rio de Janeiro city. The samples were chemically analyzed using the following indexes: iodine, acidity, saponification and peroxide. In order to obtain the X-ray scattering spectrum, an X-ray tube with a silver anode operating at 40kV and 50 μA was used. The results showed that oils cab ne divided in tow large groups: olive oils and non-olive oils. Additionally, in a multivariate analysis (Principal Component Analysis - PCA), two components were obtained and accounted for more than 80% of the variance. One component was associated with chemical parameters and the other with scattering profiles of each sample. Results showed that use of X-ray scattering spectra combined with chemical analysis and PCA can be a fast, cheap and efficient method for vegetable oil characterization. (author)

  8. Inelastic electron scattering from a moving nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, S.E. [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Griffioen, K. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    1994-04-01

    The authors propose to measure inelastically scattered electrons in coincidence with spectator protons emitted backwards relative to the virtual photon direction in the reaction d(e, e{prime}p{sub s})X. In a simple spectator model, the backward proton has equal and opposite momentum to the neutron before it is struck, allowing the authors to study the dependence on kinematics and off-shell behaviour of the electron-nucleon inelastic cross section. If the photon couples to a quark in a 6-quark bag, a different dependence of the cross section on the kinematic variables (x, Q{sup 2}, and p{sub s}) can be observed. This proposed experiment requires large acceptance and beam energies above 6 GeV. It is ideally suited for the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS).

  9. Inelastic scattering of fast electrons by crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, L.J.; Josefsson, T.W.

    1995-01-01

    Generalized fundamental equations for electron diffraction in crystals, which include the effect of inelastic scattering described by a nonlocal interaction, are derived. An expression is obtained for the cross section for any specific type of inelastic scattering (e.g. inner-shell ionization, Rutherford backscattering). This result takes into account all other (background) inelastic scattering in the crystal leading to absorption from the dynamical Bragg-reflected beams, in practice mainly due to thermal diffuse scattering. There is a contribution to the cross section from all absorbed electrons, which form a diffuse background, as well as from the dynamical electrons. The approximations involved, assuming that the interactions leading to inelastic scattering can be described by a local potential are discussed, together with the corresponding expression for the cross section. It is demonstrated by means of an example for K-shell electron energy loss spectroscopy that nonlocal effects can be significant. 47 refs., 4 figs

  10. Measurement of leading neutron production in deep-inelastic scattering at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaron, F.D.; Alexa, C.; Rotaru, M.; Stoicea, G.; Andreev, V.; Belousov, A.; Eliseev, A.; Fomenko, A.; Gogitidze, N.; Lebedev, A.; Loktionova, N.; Malinovski, E.; Rusakov, S.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Soloviev, Y.; Vazdik, Y.; Antunovic, B.; Bartel, W.; Brandt, G.; Campbell, A.J.; Cholewa, A.; Deak, M.; Eckerlin, G.; Elsen, E.; Felst, R.; Fischer, D.J.; Fleischer, M.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grell, B.R.; Haidt, D.; Helebrant, C.; Jung, H.; Katzy, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Knutsson, A.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kutak, K.; Levonian, S.; Lipka, K.; List, J.; Marti, L.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Olsson, J.E.; Pahl, P.; Panagoulias, I.; Papadopoulou, T.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Schmitt, S.; Sefkow, F.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Sunar, D.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vinokurova, S.; Driesch, M. von den; Wissing, C.; Wuensch, E.; Backovic, S.; Dubak, A.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Picuric, I.; Raicevic, N.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Volchinski, V.; Zohrabyan, H.; Barrelet, E.; Begzsuren, K.; Ravdandorj, T.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Bizot, J.C.; Brisson, V.; Delcourt, B.; Jacquet, M.; Li, G.; Pascaud, C.; Tran, T.H.; Zhang, Z.; Zomer, F.; Boudry, V.; Moreau, F.; Specka, A.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Mudrinic, M.; Pandurovic, M.; Smiljanic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Newman, P.R.; Shaw-West, R.N.; Thompson, P.D.; Brinkmann, M.; Habib, S.; List, B.; Toll, T.; Bruncko, D.; Cerny, V.; Ferencei, J.; Murin, P.; Tomasz, F.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Chekelian, V.; Dossanov, A.; Grindhammer, G.; Kiesling, C.; Kogler, R.; Liptaj, A.; Raspiareza, A.; Shushkevich, S.; Bystritskaya, L.; Efremenko, V.; Fedotov, A.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Lubimov, V.; Ozerov, D.; Petrukhin, A.; Rostovtsev, A.; Zhokin, A.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Contreras, J.G.; Ruiz Tabasco, J.E.; Cerny, K.; Pejchal, O.; Pokorny, B.; Polifka, R.; Salek, D.; Valkarova, A.; Zacek, J.; Coughlan, J.A.; Morris, J.V.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Cozzika, G.; Feltesse, J.; Perez, E.; Schoeffel, L.; Cvach, J.; Reimer, P.; Zalesak, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Gabathuler, E.; Greenshaw, T.; Klein, M.; Kluge, T.; Kretzschmar, J.; Laycock, P.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Patel, G.D.; Rahmat, A.J.; Daum, K.; Meyer, H.; Delvax, J.; Wolf, E.A. de; Favart, L.; Hreus, T.; Janssen, X.; Marage, P.; Mozer, M.U.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Sykora, T.; Mechelen, P. van; Diaconu, C.; Hoffmann, D.; Sauvan, E.; Trinh, T.N.; Vallee, C.; Dodonov, V.; Povh, B.; Egli, S.; Hildebrandt, M.; Horisberger, R.; Falkiewicz, A.; Goerlich, L.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Nowak, G.; Sopicki, P.; Turnau, J.; Glushkov, I.; Henschel, H.; Hiller, K.H.; Kostka, P.; Lange, W.; Naumann, T.; Piec, S.; Grab, C.; Zimmermann, T.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Sloan, T.; Hennekemper, E.; Herbst, M.; Jung, A.W.; Krueger, K.; Lendermann, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Urban, K.; Herrera, G.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Joensson, L.; Osman, S.; Kapichine, M.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Morozov, A.; Nikitin, D.; Palichik, V.; Spaskov, V.; Tchoulakov, V.; Landon, M.P.J.; Rizvi, E.; Thompson, G.; Traynor, D.; Martyn, H.U.; Mueller, K.; Nowak, K.; Robmann, P.; Straumann, U.; Truoel, P.; Radescu, V.; Sauter, M.; Schoening, A.; South, D.; Wegener, D.; Stella, B.; Tsakov, I.

    2010-01-01

    The production of leading neutrons, where the neutron carries a large fraction x L of the incoming proton's longitudinal momentum, is studied in deep-inelastic positron-proton scattering at HERA. The data were taken with the H1 detector in the years 2006 and 2007 and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 122 pb -1 . The semi-inclusive cross section is measured in the phase space defined by the photon virtuality 6 2 2 , Bjorken scaling variable 1.5 .10 -4 -2 , longitudinal momentum fraction 0.32 L T 2 LN(3) (Q 2 ,x,x L ), and the fraction of deep-inelastic scattering events containing a leading neutron are studied as a function of Q 2 , x and x L . Assuming that the pion exchange mechanism dominates leading neutron production, the data provide constraints on the shape of the pion structure function. (orig.)

  11. Inelastic magnon scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert de Mello Koch

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We study the worldsheet S-matrix of a string attached to a D-brane in AdS5×S5. The D-brane is either a giant graviton or a dual giant graviton. In the gauge theory, the operators we consider belong to the su(2|3 sector of the theory. Magnon excitations of open strings can exhibit both elastic (when magnons in the bulk of the string scatter and inelastic (when magnons at the endpoint of an open string participate scattering. Both of these S-matrices are determined (up to an overall phase by the su(2|22 global symmetry of the theory. In this note we study the S-matrix for inelastic scattering. We show that it exhibits poles corresponding to boundstates of bulk and boundary magnons. A crossing equation is derived for the overall phase. It reproduces the crossing equation for maximal giant gravitons, in the appropriate limit. Finally, scattering in the su(2 sector is computed to two loops. This two loop result, which determines the overall phase to two loops, will be useful when a unique solution to the crossing equation is to be selected.

  12. Raman and fluorescence contributions to the resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering on LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, F.; Fujiwara, H.; Berner, G.; Yamasaki, A.; Niwa, H.; Kiuchi, H.; Gloskovskii, A.; Drube, W.; Gabel, J.; Kirilmaz, O.; Sekiyama, A.; Miyawaki, J.; Harada, Y.; Suga, S.; Sing, M.; Claessen, R.

    2018-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the Ti 3 d carriers at the interface of LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures by high-resolution resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering (RIXS), with special focus on the roles of overlayer thickness and oxygen vacancies. Our measurements show the existence of interfacial Ti 3 d electrons already below the critical thickness for conductivity. The (total) interface charge carrier density increases up to a LaAlO3 overlayer thickness of 6 unit cells before it levels out. Furthermore, we observe strong Ti 3 d charge carrier doping by oxygen vacancies. The RIXS data combined with photoelectron spectroscopy and transport measurements indicate the simultaneous presence of localized and itinerant charge carriers. At variance with previous interpretations, we show that in our excitation energy dependent RIXS measurements the amounts of localized and itinerant Ti 3 d electrons in the ground state do not scale with the intensities of the Raman and fluorescence peaks, respectively. Rather, we attribute the observation of either Raman components or fluorescence signal to the specific nature of the intermediate state reached in the RIXS excitation process.

  13. Leakage and scattered radiation from hand-held dental x-ray unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Kyung

    2007-01-01

    To compare the leakage and scattered radiation from hand-held dental X-ray unit with radiation from fixed dental X-ray unit. For evaluation we used one hand-held dental X-ray unit and Oramatic 558 (Trophy Radiologie, France), a fixed dental X-ray unit. Doses were measured with Unfors Multi-O-Meter 512L at the right and left hand levels of X-ray tube head part for the scattered and leakage radiation when human skull DXTTR ΙΙΙ was exposed to both dental X-ray units. And for the leakage radiation only, doses were measured at the immediately right, left, superior and posterior side of the tube head part when air was exposed. Exposure parameters of hand-held dental X-ray unit were 70 kVp, 3 mA , 0.1 second, and of fixed X-ray unit 70 kVp, 8 mA, 0.45 second. The mean dose at the hand level when human skull DXTTR ΙΙΙ was exposed with portable X-ray unit 6.39 μGy, and the mean dose with fixed X-ray unit 3.03 μGy (p<0.001). The mean dose at the immediate side of the tube head part when air was exposed with portable X-ray unit was 2.97 μGy and with fixed X-ray unit the mean dose was 0.68 μGy (p<0.01). The leakage and scattered radiation from hand-held dental radiography was greater than from fixed dental radiography

  14. Leakage and scattered radiation from hand-held dental x-ray unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Kyung [Dankook Univ. School of Dentistry, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    To compare the leakage and scattered radiation from hand-held dental X-ray unit with radiation from fixed dental X-ray unit. For evaluation we used one hand-held dental X-ray unit and Oramatic 558 (Trophy Radiologie, France), a fixed dental X-ray unit. Doses were measured with Unfors Multi-O-Meter 512L at the right and left hand levels of X-ray tube head part for the scattered and leakage radiation when human skull DXTTR {iota}{iota}{iota} was exposed to both dental X-ray units. And for the leakage radiation only, doses were measured at the immediately right, left, superior and posterior side of the tube head part when air was exposed. Exposure parameters of hand-held dental X-ray unit were 70 kVp, 3 mA , 0.1 second, and of fixed X-ray unit 70 kVp, 8 mA, 0.45 second. The mean dose at the hand level when human skull DXTTR {iota}{iota}{iota} was exposed with portable X-ray unit 6.39 {mu}Gy, and the mean dose with fixed X-ray unit 3.03 {mu}Gy (p<0.001). The mean dose at the immediate side of the tube head part when air was exposed with portable X-ray unit was 2.97 {mu}Gy and with fixed X-ray unit the mean dose was 0.68 {mu}Gy (p<0.01). The leakage and scattered radiation from hand-held dental radiography was greater than from fixed dental radiography.

  15. Anomalous x-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendin, G.

    1979-01-01

    The availability of tunable synchrotron radiation has made it possible systematically to perform x-ray diffraction studies in regions of anomalous scattering near absorption edges, e.g. in order to derive phase information for crystal structure determination. An overview is given of recent experimental and theoretical work and discuss the properties of the anomalous atomic scattering factor, with emphasis on threshold resonances and damping effects. The results are applied to a discussion of the very strong anomalous dispersion recently observed near the L 3 edge in a cesium complex. Also given is an overview of elements and levels where similar behavior can be expected. Finally, the influence of solid state and chemical effects on the absorption edge structure is discussed. 64 references

  16. Fast electron and X-ray scattering as a tool to study target's structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Ya.

    2007-01-01

    We concentrate on several relatively new aspects of the study of fast electron and X-ray scattering by atoms and atom-like objects, namely endohedral atoms and fullerenes. However, main attention is given to fast charge particle scattering. We show that the corresponding cross-sections, being expressed via so-called generalized oscillator strengths (GOS), give information on the electronic structure of the target and on the role of electron correlations in it. We consider what sort of information became available when analyzing the dependence of GOS upon their multipolarity, transferred momentum q and energy ω. To obtain theoretical results, we employ both the one-electron Hartree-Fock approximation and account for the multi-electron correlation in the target, using the random phase approximation with exchange. We demonstrate the role of non-dipole corrections in the small-angle fast-electron inelastic scattering. There dipole contribution dominates while non-dipole corrections can be considerably and controllably enhanced as compared to the case of low and medium energy photoionization. We show also that analyses of GOS for discrete level excitations permit to clarify their multipolarity. The results of calculations of Compton excitation and ionization cross-sections are presented. Attention is given to cooperative effects in inelastic fast electron-atom scattering that results in directed motion of the secondary electrons, a phenomenon that is similar to 'drag currents' in photoionization. We demonstrate how one should derive GOS for endohedral atoms, e.g. A-C 60 and what is the additional information that can be obtained from corresponding GOS. Most of discussions are illustrated by the results of concrete calculations

  17. Search for photon–photon elastic scattering in the X-ray region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inada, T.; Yamaji, T.; Adachi, S.; Namba, T.; Asai, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Tamasaku, K.; Tanaka, Y.; Inubushi, Y.; Sawada, K.; Yabashi, M.; Ishikawa, T.

    2014-01-01

    We report the first results of a search for real photon–photon scattering using X rays. A novel system is developed to split and collide X-ray pulses by applying interferometric techniques. A total of 6.5×10 5 pulses (each containing about 10 11 photons) from an X-ray Free-Electron Laser are injected into the system. No scattered events are observed, and an upper limit of 1.7×10 −24  m 2 (95% C.L.) is obtained on the photon–photon elastic scattering cross section at 6.5 keV

  18. Scattering of x-ray from crystal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, S.R.; Cowley, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    X-ray measurements performed on a variety of materials demonstrate that it is possible to observe diffuse scattering that originates in the abrupt change of density at a crystal surface. Such a discontinuity gives rise, in general, to rods of scattering in reciprocal space which are most intense close to the Bragg peaks tau and are well defined for sufficiently smooth surfaces. For wave-vector transfer Q=tau+q the q-dependence of the intensity of scattering gives information on the topographic structure of the crystal surface. Experimental results on crystals of GaAs and KTaO 3 , with surfaces prepared in various ways, were obtained using conventional x-ray techniques with a rotating anode source and can be described by a continuum model of the surface. There are discrepancies between the predictions of the models and the experimental results and the suggest that further experiments are needed to achieve a more complete understanding. (author)

  19. Multijet production at low xBj in deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S.

    2007-05-01

    Inclusive dijet and trijet production in deep inelastic ep scattering has been measured for 10 2 2 and low Bjorken x, 10 -4 Bj -2 . The data were taken at the HERA ep collider with centre-of-mass energy √(s)=318 GeV using the ZEUS detector and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 82 pb -1 . Jets were identified in the hadronic centre-of-mass (HCM) frame using the k T cluster algorithm in the longitudinally invariant inclusive mode. Measurements of dijet and trijet differential cross sections are presented as functions of Q 2 , x Bj , jet transverse energy, and jet pseudorapidity. As a further examination of low-x Bj dynamics, multi-differential cross sections as functions of the jet correlations in transverse momenta, azimuthal angles, and pseudorapidity are also presented. Calculations at O(α 3 s ) generally describe the trijet data well and improve the description of the dijet data compared to the calculation at O(α 2 s ). (orig.)

  20. Measurement of Leading Neutron Production in Deep-Inelastic Scattering at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aaron, F.D.; Alimujiang, K.; Andreev, V.; Antunovic, B.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Begzsuren, K.; Belousov, A.; Bizot, J.C.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Daum, K.; Deak, M.; Delcourt, B.; Delvax, J.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dossanov, A.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Falkiewicz, A.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Fischer, D.-J.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Grell, B.R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hennekemper, E.; Henschel, H.; Herbst, M.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hreus, T.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, X.; Jonsson, L.; Jung, Andreas Werner; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Knutsson, A.; Kogler, R.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kruger, K.; Kutak, K.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Li, G.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marti, Ll.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mudrinic, M.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P.R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nikitin, D.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Olsson, J.E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Pahl, P; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Pejchal, O.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Pokorny, B.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Radescu, V.; Rahmat, A.J.; Raicevic, N.; Raspiareza, A.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rotaru, M.; Ruiz Tabasco, J.E.; Rusakov, S.; Salek, D.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmitt, S.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R.N.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Shushkevich, S.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, Ivan; Soloviev, Y.; Sopicki, P.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stoicea, G.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P.D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Tran, T.H.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T.N.; Truol, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Turnau, J.; Urban, K.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; von den Driesch, M.; Wegener, D.; Wissing, Ch.; Wunsch, E.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2010-01-01

    The production of leading neutrons, where the neutron carries a large fraction x_L of the incoming proton's longitudinal momentum, is studied in deep-inelastic positron-proton scattering at HERA. The data were taken with the H1 detector in the years 2006 and 2007 and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 122 pb^{-1}. The semi-inclusive cross section is measured in the phase space defined by the photon virtuality 6 < Q^2 < 100 GeV^2, Bjorken scaling variable 1.5x10^{-4} < x < 3x10^{-2}, longitudinal momentum fraction 0.32 < x_L < 0.95 and neutron transverse momentum p_T < 0.2 GeV. The leading neutron structure function, F_2^{LN(3)}(Q^2,x,x_L), and the fraction of deep-inelastic scattering events containing a leading neutron are studied as a function of Q^2, x and x_L. Assuming that the pion exchange mechanism dominates leading neutron production, the data provide constraints on the shape of the pion structure function.

  1. Combination of epithermal and inelastic neutron scattering methods to locate coal and oil-shale zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, W.E.

    1976-01-01

    A pulsed neutron generator of the deuterium-tritium reaction type irradiates earth formations in the vicinity of a borehole with 14 MeV neutrons. Gamma rays produced by the inelastic scattering of the fast neutrons are observed in four energy regions of the gamma ray energy spectrum corresponding to the inelastic scattering of neutrons by carbon, oxygen, silicon, and calcium. The carbon/oxygen, calcium/silicon, and carbon plus oxygen gamma rays are found and combined with a separately derived hydrogen index log to determine the quality of coal-bearing formations or oil-shale regions. The hydrogen index curve is found preferably by a dual-spaced detector epithermal neutron porosity logging technique or from a conventional thermal neutron gamma ray log

  2. Application of small-angle X-ray scattering for differentiation among breast tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changizi, V.; Kheradmand, A. Arab; Oghabian, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) is an X-ray diffraction-based technique where a narrow collimated beam of X-rays is focused onto a sample and the scattered X-rays recorded by a detector. The pattern of the scattered X-rays carries information on the molecular structure of the material. As breast cancer is the most widespread cancer in women and differentiation among its tumors is important, this project compared the results of coherent X-ray scattering measurements obtained from benign and malignant breast tissues. The energy-dispersive method with a setup including X-ray tube, primary collimator, sample holder, secondary collimator and high-purity germanium (HpGe) detector was used. One hundred thirty-one breast-tissue samples, including normal, fibrocystic changes and carcinoma, were studied at the 6 deg scattering angle. Diffraction profiles (corrected scattered intensity versus momentum transfer) of normal, fibrocystic changes and carcinoma were obtained. These profiles showed a few peak positions for adipose (1.15 ± 0.06 nm -1 ), mixed normal (1.15 ± 0.06 nm -1 and 1.4 ± 0.04 nm -1 ), fibrocystic changes (1.46 ± 0.05 nm -1 and 1.74 ± 0.04 nm -1 ) and carcinoma (1.55 ± 0.04 nm -1 , 1.73 ± 0.06 nm -1 , 1.85 ± 0.05 nm -1 ). We were able to differentiate between normal, fibrocystic changes (benign) and carcinoma (malignant) breast tissues by SAXS. However, we were unable to differentiate between different types of carcinoma. (author)

  3. Application of small-angle X-ray scattering for differentiation among breast tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changizi V

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS is an X-ray diffraction-based technique where a narrow collimated beam of X-rays is focused onto a sample and the scattered X-rays recorded by a detector. The pattern of the scattered X-rays carries information on the molecular structure of the material. As breast cancer is the most widespread cancer in women and differentiation among its tumors is important, this project compared the results of coherent X-ray scattering measurements obtained from benign and malignant breast tissues. The energy-dispersive method with a setup including X-ray tube, primary collimator, sample holder, secondary collimator and high-purity germanium (HpGe detector was used. One hundred thirty-one breast-tissue samples, including normal, fibrocystic changes and carcinoma, were studied at the 6° scattering angle. Diffraction profiles (corrected scattered intensity versus momentum transfer of normal, fibrocystic changes and carcinoma were obtained. These profiles showed a few peak positions for adipose (1.15 ± 0.06 nm -1 , mixed normal (1.15 ± 0.06 nm -1 and 1.4 ± 0.04 nm -1 , fibrocystic changes (1.46 ± 0.05 nm -1 and 1.74 ± 0.04 nm -1 and carcinoma (1.55 ± 0.04 nm -1 , 1.73 ± 0.06 nm -1 , 1.85 ± 0.05 nm -1 . We were able to differentiate between normal, fibrocystic changes (benign and carcinoma (malignant breast tissues by SAXS. However, we were unable to differentiate between different types of carcinoma.

  4. Measuring scatter radiation in diagnostic x rays for radiation protection purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panayiotakis, George; Vlachos, Ioannis; Delis, Harry; Tsantilas, Xenophon; Kalyvas, Nektarios; Kandarakis, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    During the last decades, radiation protection and dosimetry in medical X-ray imaging practice has been extensively studied. The purpose of this study was to measure secondary radiation in a conventional radiographic room, in terms of ambient dose rate equivalent H*(10) and its dependence on the radiographic exposure parameters such as X-ray tube voltage, tube current and distance. With some exceptions, the results indicated that the scattered radiation was uniform in the space around the water cylindrical phantom. The results also showed that the tube voltage and filtration affect the dose rate due to the scatter radiation. Finally, the scattered X-ray energy distribution was experimentally calculated. (authors)

  5. Higher-twist effects in QCD, deep inelastic scattering, and the Drell-Yan process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, E.L.; Stanford Univ., CA

    1980-01-01

    Inclusion of specific effects associated with constituent binding in hadronic wave functions is shown to lead to important non-scaling, non-factorizing 1/Q 2 contributions to cross sections for semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering, the Drell-Yan process, and other hard scattering reactions. These 1/Q 2 higher-twist terms are predicted to be dominant in well defined kinematic regions such as large x and/or large z. The provide angular distributions typical of longitudinally polarized virtual photons and W's, including sin 2 theta terms in meson induced Drell-Yan processes and in e + e - → πX, as well as unusual (1-γ) terms in deep-inelastic scattering. Calculations are also presented of the quark structure functions of the pion qsub(π)(x,Q 2 ) and for the quark to pion fragmentation function Dsub(π)(z,Q 2 ). Predictions are made for the azimuthal angle dependence of the cross sections for πN → μ anti μX and IN → l'πX. (orig.)

  6. Diffractive Deep-Inelastic Scattering with a Leading Proton at HERA

    OpenAIRE

    Aktas, A.; Andreev, V.; Anthonis, T.; Antunovic, B.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Babaev, A.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baudrand, S.; Baumgartner, S.

    2006-01-01

    The cross section for the diffractive deep-inelastic scattering process $ep \\to e X p$ is measured, with the leading final state proton detected in the H1 Forward Proton Spectrometer. The data analysed cover the range \\xpom

  7. Inclusive deep inelastic scattering at HERA and related phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zomer, F.

    1999-12-01

    Recent measurements of inclusive deep inelastic scattering differential cross-section in the range 1.5 GeV 2 ≤ Q 2 ≤ 30000 GeV 2 and 5.10 -6 ≤ x ≤ 0.65 are presented. Phenomenological analyses performed from these measurements are also described. (author)

  8. In situ microfluidic dialysis for biological small-angle X-ray scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Magda; Skou, Soren; Jensen, Thomas Glasdam

    2014-01-01

    Owing to the demand for low sample consumption and automated sample changing capabilities at synchrotron small-angle X-ray (solution) scattering (SAXS) beamlines, X-ray microfluidics is receiving continuously increasing attention. Here, a remote-controlled microfluidic device is presented for sim...... in incidental sample purification. Hence, this versatile microfluidic device enables investigation of experimentally induced structural changes under dynamically controllable sample conditions. (C) 2014 International Union of Crystallography......Owing to the demand for low sample consumption and automated sample changing capabilities at synchrotron small-angle X-ray (solution) scattering (SAXS) beamlines, X-ray microfluidics is receiving continuously increasing attention. Here, a remote-controlled microfluidic device is presented...

  9. X-ray, neutron, and electron scattering. Report of a materials sciences workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-08-01

    The ERDA Workshop on X-ray, Neutron, and Electron Scattering to assess needs and establish priorities for energy-related basic research on materials. The general goals of the Workshop were: (1) to review various energy technologies where x-ray, neutron, and electron scattering techniques might make significant contributions, (2) to identify present and future materials problems in the energy technologies and translate these problems into requirements for basic research by x-ray, neutron, and electron scattering techniques, (3) to recommend research areas utilizing these three scattering techniques that should be supported by the DPR Materials Sciences Program, and (4) to assign priorities to these research areas

  10. Refinement of the Compton–Rayleigh scatter ratio method for use on the Mars Science Laboratory alpha particle X-ray spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J.L., E-mail: icampbel@uoguelph.ca [Guelph-Waterloo Physics Institute, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada); Perrett, G.M. [Guelph-Waterloo Physics Institute, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada); Maxwell, J.A. [3A 47 Surrey St. East, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1H 3P6 (Canada); Nield, E.; Gellert, R. [Guelph-Waterloo Physics Institute, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada); King, P.L. [Research School of Earth Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Lee, M.; O’Meara, J.M.; Pradler, I. [Guelph-Waterloo Physics Institute, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada)

    2013-05-01

    Spectra from the Mars rover alpha particle X-ray spectrometers contain the elastic and inelastic scatter peaks of the plutonium L X-rays emitted by the instrument’s {sup 244}Cm source. Various spectrum fitting approaches are tested using the terrestrial twin of the APXS instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover, in order to provide accurate extraction of the Lα and Lβ Compton/Rayleigh intensity ratios, which can provide information about light “invisible” constituents such as water in geological samples. A well-defined dependence of C/R ratios upon mean sample atomic number is established using a large and varied set of geochemical reference materials, and the accuracy of this calibration is examined. Detailed attention is paid to the influence of the rubidium and strontium peaks which overlap the Lα scatter peaks. Our Monte Carlo simulation code for prediction of C/R ratios from element concentrations is updated. The ratio between measured and simulated C/R ratios provides a second means of calibration.

  11. X-ray scattering from periodic arrays of quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holy, V; Stangl, J; Lechner, R T; Springholz, G

    2008-01-01

    Three-dimensional periodic arrays of self-organized quantum dots in semiconductor multilayers are investigated by high-resolution x-ray scattering. We demonstrate that the statistical parameters of the dot array can be determined directly from the scattering data without performing a numerical simulation of the scattered intensity.

  12. X-ray scattering at liquid surfaces and interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daillant, Jean

    2000-01-01

    X-ray and neutron reflectivity techniques have become quite popular for the analysis of surfaces and interfaces over the last ten years. In this review, we discuss the specific aspects of both specular and diffuse x-ray reflectivity at liquid interfaces. We start from a model liquid surface for which the scattering cross-section can be calculated in terms of thermally excited capillary and acoustic waves, and we examine in detail the experimental consequences of the large bulk scattering and of the low q divergence of the surface scattering. Deviations from the simple calculated behaviour point to interesting phenomena which can be studied in detail, like the appearance of a bending stiffness. The method is illustrated through the discussion of representative studies of liquid surfaces, of surfactant monolayers, of liquid-liquid interfaces and of microemulsions. (author)

  13. Inelastic neutron scattering cross-section measurements on 7Li and 63,65Cu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Markus; Belloni, Francesca; Ichinkhorloo, Dagvadorj; Pirovano, Elisa; Plompen, Arjan; Rouki, Chariklia

    2017-09-01

    The γ-ray production cross section for the 477.6-keV transition in 7Li following inelastic neutron scattering has been measured from the reaction threshold up to 18 MeV. This cross section is interesting as a possible standard for other inelastic scattering measurements. The experiment was conducted at the Geel Electron LINear Accelerator (GELINA) pulsed white neutron source with the Gamma Array for Inelastic Neutron Scattering (GAINS) spectrometer. Previous measurements of this cross section are reviewed and compared with our results. Recently, this cross section has also been calculated using the continuum discretized coupled-channels (CDCC) method. Experiments for studying neutrinoless double-β decay (2β0ν) or other very rare processes require greatly reducing the background radiation level (both intrinsic and external). Copper is a common shielding and structural material, used extensively in experiments such as COBRA, CUORE, EXO, GERDA, and MAJORANA. Understanding the background contribution arising from neutron interactions in Cu is important when searching for very weak experimental signals. Neutron inelastic scattering on natCu was investigated with GAINS. The results are compared with previous experimental data and evaluated nuclear data libraries.

  14. Inelastic neutron scattering cross-section measurements on 7Li and 63,65Cu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyman Markus

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The γ-ray production cross section for the 477.6-keV transition in 7Li following inelastic neutron scattering has been measured from the reaction threshold up to 18 MeV. This cross section is interesting as a possible standard for other inelastic scattering measurements. The experiment was conducted at the Geel Electron LINear Accelerator (GELINA pulsed white neutron source with the Gamma Array for Inelastic Neutron Scattering (GAINS spectrometer. Previous measurements of this cross section are reviewed and compared with our results. Recently, this cross section has also been calculated using the continuum discretized coupled-channels (CDCC method. Experiments for studying neutrinoless double-β decay (2β0ν or other very rare processes require greatly reducing the background radiation level (both intrinsic and external. Copper is a common shielding and structural material, used extensively in experiments such as COBRA, CUORE, EXO, GERDA, and MAJORANA. Understanding the background contribution arising from neutron interactions in Cu is important when searching for very weak experimental signals. Neutron inelastic scattering on natCu was investigated with GAINS. The results are compared with previous experimental data and evaluated nuclear data libraries.

  15. Inelastic x-ray study of plasmons in oriented single and multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casa, D.M.; Upton, M.H.; Gog, T.; Misewich, J.; Hill, J.P.; Lowndes, D.; Eres, G.

    2006-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have a wide variety of interesting properties and a large number of potential aplications in electronic and optical devices. In this study we concentrate on one important aspect of their electronic stucture: the plasmon dispersions in both single- and multi-wall CNTs and their relation to those in graphite. For the first time inelastic X-ray scattering is used to study these collective electronic excitations in oriented CNT samples. The experiments were performed on the IXS instrument at beamline 9ID CMC-XOR, APS, ANL. The incident energy was defined by a Si(333) monochromator, a spherically bent Ge(733) diced analyzer at the end of a 1-m arm focused the incident radiation onto a solid-state detector. The overall resolution was ∼300 meV FWHM. The incident photons were linearly polarized perpendicular to the scattering plane. Energy loss scans were taken by varying the incident energy while keeping the exit energy fixed at 8.9805 keV. The momentum transfer was kept along the nanotubes axis. Spectra were taken at room temperature. The samples were oriented CNTs (both single- and multi-wall) grown on a Si substrate. The samples referred to as 'single-wall' were in fact a few walls at most (1-5) while the multi-walled ones had ∼12 walls. Fig. 1. shows the inelastic spectra for the single-, multi-wall, and highly oriented pyrolithic graphite (HOPG) from top to bottom. Momentum transfer was Q = 0.79 (angstrom) -1 in all cases, its direction was along the tubes for the first two samples or parallel to the sheets for graphite. The peaks at ∼10 and ∼30 eV are known as the π and σ + π plasmons respectively. Fig. 2. shows the complete dispersion curves for both plasmon modes as a function of momentum transfer for all three samples.

  16. Significance of matrix diagonalization in modelling inelastic electron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Z. [University of Ulm, Ulm 89081 (Germany); Hambach, R. [University of Ulm, Ulm 89081 (Germany); University of Jena, Jena 07743 (Germany); Kaiser, U.; Rose, H. [University of Ulm, Ulm 89081 (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    Electron scattering is always applied as one of the routines to investigate nanostructures. Nowadays the development of hardware offers more and more prospect for this technique. For example imaging nanostructures with inelastic scattered electrons may allow to produce component-sensitive images with atomic resolution. Modelling inelastic electron scattering is therefore essential for interpreting these images. The main obstacle to study inelastic scattering problem is its complexity. During inelastic scattering, incident electrons entangle with objects, and the description of this process involves a multidimensional array. Since the simulation usually involves fourdimensional Fourier transforms, the computation is highly inefficient. In this work we have offered one solution to handle the multidimensional problem. By transforming a high dimensional array into twodimensional array, we are able to perform matrix diagonalization and approximate the original multidimensional array with its twodimensional eigenvectors. Our procedure reduces the complicated multidimensional problem to a twodimensional problem. In addition, it minimizes the number of twodimensional problems. This method is very useful for studying multiple inelastic scattering. - Highlights: • 4D problems are involved in modelling inelastic electron scattering. • By means of matrix diagonalization, the 4D problems can be simplified as 2D problems. • The number of 2D problems is minimized by using this approach.

  17. Resonant diffuse X-ray scattering from magnetic multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spezzani, Carlo; Torelli, Piero; Delaunay, Renaud; Hague, C.F.; Petroff, Frederic; Scholl, Andreas; Gullikson, E.M.; Sacchi, Maurizio

    2004-01-01

    We have measured field-dependent resonant diffuse scattering from a magnetoresistive Co/Cu multilayer. We have observed that the magnetic domain size in zero field depends on the magnetic history of the sample. The results of the X-ray scattering analysis have been compared to PEEM images of the magnetic domains

  18. The Chemically-Specific Structure of an Amorphous Molybdenum Germanium Alloy by Anomalous X-ray Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, H. A.

    2002-06-11

    Since its inception in the late 1970s, anomalous x-ray scattering (AXS) has been employed for chemically-specific structure determination in a wide variety of noncrystalline materials. These studies have successfully produced differential distribution functions (DDFs) which provide information about the compositionally-averaged environment of a specific atomic species in the sample. Despite the wide success in obtaining DDFs, there are very few examples of successful extraction of the fully-chemically-specific partial pair distribution functions (PPDFs), the most detailed description of an amorphous sample possible by x-ray scattering. Extracting the PPDFs is notoriously difficult since the matrix equation involved is ill-conditioned and thus extremely sensitive to errors present in the experimental quantities that enter the equation. Instead of addressing this sensitivity by modifying the data through mathematical methods, sources of error have been removed experimentally: A focusing analyzer crystal was combined with a position-sensitive linear detector to experimentally eliminate unwanted inelastic scattering intensity over most of the reciprocal space range probed. This instrumentation has been used in data collection for the extraction of PPDFs from amorphous (a)-MoGe{sub 3}. This composition arises as a phase separation endpoint in the Ge-rich region of the vapor-deposited Mo-Ge amorphous alloy system but is not present at equilibrium. Since the first Ge-rich compound in the Mo-Ge equilibrium system is MoGe{sub 2}, previous workers have speculated that perhaps a unique MoGe{sub 3} compound exists in the amorphous system. Rather than indicating a distinct MoGe{sub 3} compound with definitive local structure, however, the coordination results are more consistent with a densely-packed alloy having a wide range of solid solubility. Significant improvement in the quality and reliability of experimental PPDFs from a-MoGe{sub 3} by AXS has been achieved solely

  19. Deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, V.I.

    1977-01-01

    The present status of the quark-parton-gluon picture of deep inelastic scattering is reviewed. The general framework is mostly theoretical and covers investigations since 1970. Predictions of the parton model and of the asymptotically free field theories are compared with experimental data available. The valence quark approximation is concluded to be valid in most cases, but fails to account for the data on the total momentum transfer. On the basis of gluon corrections introduced to the parton model certain predictions concerning both the deep inelastic structure functions and form factors are made. The contributions of gluon exchanges and gluon bremsstrahlung are highlighted. Asymptotic freedom is concluded to be very attractive and provide qualitative explanation to some experimental observations (scaling violations, breaking of the Drell-Yan-West type relations). Lepton-nuclear scattering is pointed out to be helpful in probing the nature of nuclear forces and studying the space-time picture of the parton model

  20. Elastic and inelastic photon scattering on the atomic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piskarev, I.M.

    1982-01-01

    Works on investigation of elastic and inelastic scattering of photons on heavy and intermediate nuclei are briefly reviewed. Theoretical problems of nuclear and electron Tompson, Releev and Delbrueck scatterings as well as nuclear resonance scattering are briefly discussed. It is shown that differential cross section of coherent elastic scattering is expressed by means of partial amplitudes of shown processes. Experimental investigations on elastic scattering in the region of threshold energies of photonucleon reactions are described. Problems of theoretical description of elastic scattering in different variants of collective models are considered. Discussed are works, investigating channels of inelastic photon scattering with excitation of nuclear Raman effect. It is noted that to describe channels of inelastic photon scattering it is necessary to use models, that correctly regard the microscopic structure of giant resonance levels to obtain information on the nature of these levels. Investigations of processes of photon elastic and inelastic scattering connected with fundamental characteristics of atomic nucleus, permit to obtain valuable spectroscopic information on high-lying levels of nucleus. Detail investigation of photon scattering in a wide range of energies is necessary [ru

  1. Deep Inelastic Scattering in Conformal QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Cornalba, Lorenzo; Penedones, Joao

    2010-01-01

    We consider the Regge limit of a CFT correlation function of two vector and two scalar operators, as appropriate to study small-x deep inelastic scattering in N=4 SYM or in QCD assuming approximate conformal symmetry. After clarifying the nature of the Regge limit for a CFT correlator, we use its conformal partial wave expansion to obtain an impact parameter representation encoding the exchange of a spin j Reggeon for any value of the coupling constant. The CFT impact parameter space is the three-dimensional hyperbolic space H3, which is the impact parameter space for high energy scattering in the dual AdS space. We determine the small-x structure functions associated to the exchange of a Reggeon. We discuss unitarization from the point of view of scattering in AdS and comment on the validity of the eikonal approximation. We then focus on the weak coupling limit of the theory where the amplitude is dominated by the exchange of the BFKL pomeron. Conformal invariance fixes the form of the vector impact factor a...

  2. Modeling X-Ray Scattering Process and Applications of the Scattering Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jundi, Taher Lutfi

    1995-01-01

    Computer modeling of nondestructive inspections with x-rays is proving to be a very useful tool for enhancing the performance of these techniques. Two x-ray based inspection techniques are considered in this study. The first is "Radiographic Inspection", where an existing simulation model has been improved to account for scattered radiation effects. The second technique is "Inspection with Compton backscattering", where a new simulation model has been developed. The effect of scattered radiation on a simulated radiographic image can be insignificant, equally important, or more important than the effect of the uncollided flux. Techniques to account for the scattered radiation effects include Monte Carlo techniques, and solving the particle transport equation for photons. However, these two techniques although accurate, are computationally expensive and hence inappropriate for use in computer simulation of radiography. A less accurate approach but computationally efficient is the principle of buildup factors. Traditionally, buildup factors are defined for monoenergetic photons of energies typical of a nuclear reactor. In this work I have expanded the definition of buildup factors to include a bremsstrahlung spectrum of photons with energies typically used in radiography (keV's instead of MeV's). This expansion of the definition relies on an intensive experimental work to measure buildup factors for a white spectrum of x-rays. I have also developed a monte carlo code to reproduce the measured buildup factors. The code was then converted to a parallel code and distributed on a network of workstations to reduce the execution time. The second inspection technique is based on Compton backscattering, where photons are scattered at large angles, more than 90 degrees. The importance of this technique arises when the inspected object is very large, or when access is limited to only one side of the specimen. The downside of detecting photons from backscattering is the low

  3. The Soft X-Ray Spectra of Sulfur Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ling

    1995-01-01

    The sulfur compounds including CdS, ZnS, rm MoS_2, WS_2, NiS, FeS, GaS, SnS, MgS and Alloy rm ZnS_{x }Se_{1-x} were investigated by using photon/e-beam excited soft x-ray spectroscopy through SXA, SXE, SXF and inelastic Resonant Raman scattering and resonant elastic scattering processes. For valence bands, the PDOS of S L_{2,3}, Zn M_{2,3}, Se M _{4,5}, bands locations, band gaps Eg, core level spin splitting, the lifetime broadening of valence band t_{1/2}, branching ratio of rm L_2/L_3 and shallow d level and exciton state were measured in some of these materials respectively. The excitation mechanism or threshold effects were studied for CdS, ZnS, MoS_2, WS_2, FeS, NiS, and alloy. In photon excited S L_ {2,3}^ectra, local core levels with spin splitting were found to charge threshold effects. The threshold effects are also found to be influenced by resonant elastic and inelastic scattering process. A simple model and the second order perturbation theory are used to explain the observed inelastic Raman scattering of Zn M _{2,3} spectra near d threshold. The d participation in the chemical bonding and interactions was studied. Atomiclike d bands were found in FeS and NiS from strong d-d and d-p couplings. Two groups of d bands were observed in Transitional Metal Sulfides (TMS) and the no-bonding group with a few d bands was found to across whole valence bands in TMS. The direct connection between valence bands and conduction bands is built and some conduction bands were studied. A study of alloy was included briefly. These experiments provide a rich information about TMS, and prove that Soft X-ray Spectroscopy is a powerful, precise and reliable tool in the study of fine electronic band structure in solids.

  4. X-ray and neutron scattering studies of complex confined fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, S. K.

    1999-01-01

    We review recent X-ray and neutron scattering studies of the structure and dynamics of confined complex fluids. This includes the study of polymer conformations and binary fluid phase transitions in porous media using Small Angle Neutron scattering, and the use of synchrotrons radiation to study ordering and fluctuation phenomena at solid/liquid and liquid/air interfaces. Ordering of liquids near a solid surface or in confinement will be discussed, and the study, via specular and off-specular X-ray reflectivity, of capillary wave fluctuations on liquid polymer films. Finally, we shall discuss the use of high-brilliance beams from X-ray synchrotrons to study via photon correlation spectroscopy the slow dynamics of soft condensed matter systems

  5. Inelastic neutron scattering and lattice dynamics of minerals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We review current research on minerals using inelastic neutron scattering and lattice dynamics calculations. Inelastic neutron scattering studies in combination with first principles and atomistic calculations provide a detailed understanding of the phonon dispersion relations, density of states and their manifestations in ...

  6. Inelastic neutron scattering and lattice dynamics of minerals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We review current research on minerals using inelastic neutron scattering and lattice dynamics calculations. Inelastic neutron scattering studies in combination with first principles and atomistic calculations provide a detailed understanding of the phonon dispersion relations, density of states and their ...

  7. X-ray crystal structure and small-angle X-ray scattering of sheep liver sorbitol dehydrogenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yennawar, Hemant [Pennsylvania State University, 8 Althouse Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Møller, Magda [Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Gillilan, Richard [Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Yennawar, Neela, E-mail: nhy1@psu.edu [Pennsylvania State University, 8 Althouse Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2011-05-01

    The X-ray crystal structure and a small-angle X-ray scattering solution structure of sheep liver sorbitol dehydrogenase have been determined. The details of the interactions that enable the tetramer scaffold to be the functional biological unit have been analyzed. The X-ray crystal structure of sheep liver sorbitol dehydrogenase (slSDH) has been determined using the crystal structure of human sorbitol dehydrogenase (hSDH) as a molecular-replacement model. slSDH crystallized in space group I222 with one monomer in the asymmetric unit. A conserved tetramer that superposes well with that seen in hSDH (despite belonging to a different space group) and obeying the 222 crystal symmetry is seen in slSDH. An acetate molecule is bound in the active site, coordinating to the active-site zinc through a water molecule. Glycerol, a substrate of slSDH, also occupies the substrate-binding pocket together with the acetate designed by nature to fit large polyol substrates. The substrate-binding pocket is seen to be in close proximity to the tetramer interface, which explains the need for the structural integrity of the tetramer for enzyme activity. Small-angle X-ray scattering was also used to identify the quaternary structure of the tetramer of slSDH in solution.

  8. X-ray scatter signatures for enhanced breast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidane, Ghirmay; Speller, Robert; Royle, Gary [Medical Physics and Bioengineering Department, University College Landon, 11-20 Capper Street, London WC1E 6JA (United Kingdom)

    1999-12-31

    Conventional mammographic imaging suffers from a low specificity. The main cause is the small difference in the x-ray attenuation properties of healthy and diseased tissue leading to poor contrast in the image. It has been observed that additional information on breast tissue type can be obtained from x-ray diffraction effects. A study of excised normal and neoplastic breast tissue samples using x-ray diffraction apparatus has been observed that significant differences exist in the measured spectra between carcinoma and healthy tissue adjacent to the carcinoma. Such a difference allows tissue type to be characterised according to is diseased state. Furthermore the information can be applied to improve diagnosis. It is proposed that collection and analysis of the scattered x-rays present during a mammographic procedure can supply the additional information and be used to improve the image contrast. The ultimate aim of the project is to improve the specificity of x-ray mammography. (authors) 10 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Resonant inelastic scattering in dilute magnetic semiconductors by x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawniczak-Jablonska, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)]|[Institute of Physics, Warsaw (Poland); Jia, J.J.; Underwood, J.H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    As modern, technologically important materials have become more complex, element specific techniques have become invaluable in studying the electronic structure of individual components from the system. Soft x-ray fluorescence (SXF) and absorption (SXA) spectroscopies provide a unique means of measuring element and angular momentum density of electron states, respectively, for the valence and conducting bands in complex materials. X-ray absorption and the decay through x-ray emission are generally assumed to be two independent one-photon processes. Recent studies, however have demonstrated that SXF excited near the absorption threshold generate an array of spectral features that depend on nature of materials, particularly on the localization of excited states in s and d-band solids and that these two processes can no be longer treated as independent. Resonant SXF offers thus the new way to study the dynamics of the distribution of electronic valence states in the presence of a hole which is bound to the electron low lying in the conduction band. This process can simulate the interaction between hole-electron pair in wide gap semiconductors. Therefore such studies can help in understanding of transport and optics phenomena in the wide gap semiconductors. The authors report the result of Mn and S L-resonant emission in Zn{sub 1{minus}x}Mn{sub x}S (with x=0.2 and 0.3) and MnS as the energy of exciting radiation is tuned across the Mn and S L{sub 3,2} absorption edge, along with the resonant excited spectra from elemental Mn as a reference.

  10. New statistical model of inelastic fast neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stancicj, V.

    1975-07-01

    A new statistical model for treating the fast neutron inelastic scattering has been proposed by using the general expressions of the double differential cross section in impuls approximation. The use of the Fermi-Dirac distribution of nucleons makes it possible to derive an analytical expression of the fast neutron inelastic scattering kernel including the angular momenta coupling. The obtained values of the inelastic fast neutron cross section calculated from the derived expression of the scattering kernel are in a good agreement with the experiments. A main advantage of the derived expressions is in their simplicity for the practical calculations

  11. Measurement of leading neutron production in deep-inelastic scattering at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, F.D.; Alexa, C.; Rotaru, M.; Stoicea, G. [National Inst. for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Andreev, V.; Belousov, A.; Eliseev, A.; Fomenko, A.; Gogitidze, N.; Lebedev, A.; Loktionova, N.; Malinovski, E.; Rusakov, S.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Soloviev, Y.; Vazdik, Y. [Lebedev Physical Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Antunovic, B.; Bartel, W.; Brandt, G.; Campbell, A.J.; Cholewa, A.; Deak, M.; Eckerlin, G.; Elsen, E.; Felst, R.; Fischer, D.J.; Fleischer, M.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grell, B.R.; Haidt, D.; Helebrant, C.; Jung, H.; Katzy, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Knutsson, A.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kutak, K.; Levonian, S.; Lipka, K.; List, J.; Marti, L.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Olsson, J.E.; Pahl, P.; Panagoulias, I.; Papadopoulou, T.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Schmitt, S.; Sefkow, F.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Sunar, D.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vinokurova, S.; Driesch, M. von den; Wissing, C.; Wuensch, E. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Backovic, S.; Dubak, A.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Picuric, I.; Raicevic, N. [Univ. of Montenegro, Faculty of Science, Podgorica (ME); Baghdasaryan, A.; Volchinski, V.; Zohrabyan, H. [Yerevan Physics Inst. (Armenia); Barrelet, E. [Universites Paris VI et VII, CNRS/IN2P3, LPNHE, Paris (France); Begzsuren, K.; Ravdandorj, T.; Tseepeldorj, B. [Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Inst. of Physics and Technology, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia); Bizot, J.C.; Brisson, V.; Delcourt, B.; Jacquet, M.; Li, G.; Pascaud, C.; Tran, T.H.; Zhang, Z.; Zomer, F. [Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, LAL, Orsay (France); Boudry, V.; Moreau, F.; Specka, A. [Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, LLR, Palaiseau (France); Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Mudrinic, M.; Pandurovic, M.; Smiljanic, I. [Vinca Inst. of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade (RS); Bracinik, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Newman, P.R.; Shaw-West, R.N.; Thompson, P.D. [Univ. of Birmingham, School of Physics and Astronomy (United Kingdom)] [and others

    2010-08-15

    The production of leading neutrons, where the neutron carries a large fraction x{sub L} of the incoming proton's longitudinal momentum, is studied in deep-inelastic positron-proton scattering at HERA. The data were taken with the H1 detector in the years 2006 and 2007 and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 122 pb {sup -1}. The semi-inclusive cross section is measured in the phase space defined by the photon virtuality 6x <3 .10 {sup -2}, longitudinal momentum fraction 0.32 <x{sub L} <0.95 and neutron transverse momentum p{sub T} <0.2 GeV. The leading neutron structure function, F{sub 2}{sup LN(3)}(Q{sup 2},x,x{sub L}), and the fraction of deep-inelastic scattering events containing a leading neutron are studied as a function of Q{sup 2}, x and x{sub L}. Assuming that the pion exchange mechanism dominates leading neutron production, the data provide constraints on the shape of the pion structure function. (orig.)

  12. Measurement of e{sup +}p neutral current deep inelastic scattering with a longitudinally polarised positron beam and X-ray radiation damage for silicon sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Januschek, Friederike

    2012-05-15

    The cross sections for Neutral Current e{sup +}p Deep Inelastic Scattering (NC DIS) with longitudinally polarised positron beams were measured at a centre-of-mass energy {radical}(s)=318 GeV using the ZEUS detector at HERA. Single-differential cross sections as a function of the virtuality of the exchanged boson, Q{sup 2}, of the inelasticity, y, and of the Bjorken scaling variable, x, and reduced cross sections (as a function of x and Q{sup 2}) were measured in the phase space region defined as Q{sup 2}>185 GeV{sup 2}, y<0.9 and y(1-x){sup 2}>0.004. The results, based on data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 135.5 pb{sup -1}, are given for zero polarisation for the whole sample, as well as for both positive and negative values of the longitudinal polarisation of the positron beam. The measured cross sections are compared to the predictions of the Standard Model. The proton structure function xF{sub 3} is measured and the interference term xF{sup {gamma}}{sup Z}{sub 3} is extracted as a function of x at Q{sup 2}=1500 GeV{sup 2} by extrapolating the measurements done at different Q{sup 2} values. The presented measurements of the polarised e{sup +}p NC DIS cross sections, the xF{sub 3} structure function and the xF{sup {gamma}}{sup Z}{sub 3} interference term exceed the precision of previous ZEUS measurements. The uncertainties of the Parton Density Functions (PDFs) for the gluon and the u-valence quark are expected to be reduced at high-x values when the presented results are included in the PDF fits of the proton. A study is presented to further reduce PDF uncertainties for the gluon at very high x (above 10{sup -1}) through the inclusion of DIS dijet cross sections in a ZEUS-JETS-like PDF fit. An irradiation facility to study the X-ray-induced radiation damage of silicon sensors for the European XFEL was set up at HASYLAB. Nine gate-controlled diodes were irradiated with doses from 1 kGy to 1 GGy in several irradiation steps and the surface current I

  13. Observation of events with an energetic forward neutron in deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrick, M.; Krakauer, D.; Magill, S.

    1996-05-01

    In deep inelastic neutral current scattering of positrons and protons at the center of mass energy of 300 GeV, we observe, with the ZEUS detector, events with a high energy neutron produced at very small scattering angles with respect to the proton direction. The events constitute a fixed fraction of the deep inelastic, neutral current event sample independent of Bjorken x and Q 2 in the range 3.10 -4 BJ -3 and 10 2 2 . (orig.)

  14. Predicting X-ray diffuse scattering from translation–libration–screw structural ensembles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Benschoten, Andrew H.; Afonine, Pavel V.; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Wall, Michael E.; Jackson, Colin J.; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Adams, Paul D.; Urzhumtsev, Alexandre; Fraser, James S.

    2015-01-01

    A method of simulating X-ray diffuse scattering from multi-model PDB files is presented. Despite similar agreement with Bragg data, different translation–libration–screw refinement strategies produce unique diffuse intensity patterns. Identifying the intramolecular motions of proteins and nucleic acids is a major challenge in macromolecular X-ray crystallography. Because Bragg diffraction describes the average positional distribution of crystalline atoms with imperfect precision, the resulting electron density can be compatible with multiple models of motion. Diffuse X-ray scattering can reduce this degeneracy by reporting on correlated atomic displacements. Although recent technological advances are increasing the potential to accurately measure diffuse scattering, computational modeling and validation tools are still needed to quantify the agreement between experimental data and different parameterizations of crystalline disorder. A new tool, phenix.diffuse, addresses this need by employing Guinier’s equation to calculate diffuse scattering from Protein Data Bank (PDB)-formatted structural ensembles. As an example case, phenix.diffuse is applied to translation–libration–screw (TLS) refinement, which models rigid-body displacement for segments of the macromolecule. To enable the calculation of diffuse scattering from TLS-refined structures, phenix.tls-as-xyz builds multi-model PDB files that sample the underlying T, L and S tensors. In the glycerophosphodiesterase GpdQ, alternative TLS-group partitioning and different motional correlations between groups yield markedly dissimilar diffuse scattering maps with distinct implications for molecular mechanism and allostery. These methods demonstrate how, in principle, X-ray diffuse scattering could extend macromolecular structural refinement, validation and analysis

  15. Predicting X-ray diffuse scattering from translation–libration–screw structural ensembles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Benschoten, Andrew H. [University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158 (United States); Afonine, Pavel V. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Wall, Michael E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Jackson, Colin J. [Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia); Sauter, Nicholas K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Adams, Paul D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Urzhumtsev, Alexandre [Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, CNRS–INSERM–UdS, 1 Rue Laurent Fries, BP 10142, 67404 Illkirch (France); Université de Lorraine, BP 239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Fraser, James S., E-mail: james.fraser@ucsf.edu [University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158 (United States)

    2015-07-28

    A method of simulating X-ray diffuse scattering from multi-model PDB files is presented. Despite similar agreement with Bragg data, different translation–libration–screw refinement strategies produce unique diffuse intensity patterns. Identifying the intramolecular motions of proteins and nucleic acids is a major challenge in macromolecular X-ray crystallography. Because Bragg diffraction describes the average positional distribution of crystalline atoms with imperfect precision, the resulting electron density can be compatible with multiple models of motion. Diffuse X-ray scattering can reduce this degeneracy by reporting on correlated atomic displacements. Although recent technological advances are increasing the potential to accurately measure diffuse scattering, computational modeling and validation tools are still needed to quantify the agreement between experimental data and different parameterizations of crystalline disorder. A new tool, phenix.diffuse, addresses this need by employing Guinier’s equation to calculate diffuse scattering from Protein Data Bank (PDB)-formatted structural ensembles. As an example case, phenix.diffuse is applied to translation–libration–screw (TLS) refinement, which models rigid-body displacement for segments of the macromolecule. To enable the calculation of diffuse scattering from TLS-refined structures, phenix.tls-as-xyz builds multi-model PDB files that sample the underlying T, L and S tensors. In the glycerophosphodiesterase GpdQ, alternative TLS-group partitioning and different motional correlations between groups yield markedly dissimilar diffuse scattering maps with distinct implications for molecular mechanism and allostery. These methods demonstrate how, in principle, X-ray diffuse scattering could extend macromolecular structural refinement, validation and analysis.

  16. Small-angle X-ray scattering of solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, M.H.J.; Stuhrmann, H.B.; Vachette, P.; Tardieu, A.

    1982-01-01

    The use of synchrotron radiation in small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques in biological structural studies is described. The main features of the monochromatic radiation systems and the white radiation systems are considered. The detectors, data acquisition and experimental procedures are briefly described. Experimental results are presented for 1) measurements on dilute solutions and weak scatterers, 2) measurement of conformational transitions, 3) contrast variation experiments, 4) time-resolved measurements and 5) complex contrast variation. (U.K.)

  17. X-ray and neutron scattering from amorphous diamondlike carbon and hydrocarbon films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findeisen, E.

    1994-10-01

    In this report amorphous, diamondlike, carbon and hydrocarbon films are investigated by two different methods, namely, X-ray scattering and a combination of X-ray and neutron reflectivity. As specular reflectivity probes the scattering length density profile of a sample perpendicular to its surface, the combination of X-ray and neutron reflectivity reveals the nuclei density of both carbon and hydrogen separately. This allows to calculate the concentration of hydrogen in the films, which varies in the presented experiments between 0 and 36 atomic %. This method is a new and nondestructive technique to determine the concentration of hydrogen within an error of about ±1 at. % in samples with sharp interfaces. It is well suited for thin diamondlike carbon films. X-ray scattering is used to obtain structural information on the atomic scale, especially the average carbon-carbon distance and the average coordination number of the carbon atoms. As grazing incidence diffraction experiments were not successful, free-standing films are used for the scattering experiments with synchrotron light. However, the scattered intensity for large scattering vectors is, in spite of the intense primary beam, very weak, and therefore the accuracy of the obtained structural parameter is not sufficient to prove the diamondlike properties also on the atomic scale. (au) (10 tabs., 76 ills., 102 refs.)

  18. Multijet production at low x{sub Bj} in deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (US)] (and others)

    2007-05-15

    Inclusive dijet and trijet production in deep inelastic ep scattering has been measured for 10x, 10{sup -4}<x{sub Bj}<10{sup -2}. The data were taken at the HERA ep collider with centre-of-mass energy {radical}(s)=318 GeV using the ZEUS detector and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 82 pb{sup -1}. Jets were identified in the hadronic centre-of-mass (HCM) frame using the k{sub T} cluster algorithm in the longitudinally invariant inclusive mode. Measurements of dijet and trijet differential cross sections are presented as functions of Q{sup 2}, x{sub Bj}, jet transverse energy, and jet pseudorapidity. As a further examination of low-x{sub Bj} dynamics, multi-differential cross sections as functions of the jet correlations in transverse momenta, azimuthal angles, and pseudorapidity are also presented. Calculations at O({alpha}{sup 3}{sub s}) generally describe the trijet data well and improve the description of the dijet data compared to the calculation at O({alpha}{sup 2}{sub s}). (orig.)

  19. Inelastic electron and light scattering from the elementary electronic excitations in quantum wells: Zero magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manvir S. Kushwaha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The most fundamental approach to an understanding of electronic, optical, and transport phenomena which the condensed matter physics (of conventional as well as nonconventional systems offers is generally founded on two experiments: the inelastic electron scattering and the inelastic light scattering. This work embarks on providing a systematic framework for the theory of inelastic electron scattering and of inelastic light scattering from the electronic excitations in GaAs/Ga1−xAlxAs quantum wells. To this end, we start with the Kubo's correlation function to derive the generalized nonlocal, dynamic dielectric function, and the inverse dielectric function within the framework of Bohm-Pines’ random-phase approximation. This is followed by a thorough development of the theory of inelastic electron scattering and of inelastic light scattering. The methodological part is then subjected to the analytical diagnoses which allow us to sense the subtlety of the analytical results and the importance of their applications. The general analytical results, which know no bounds regarding, e.g., the subband occupancy, are then specified so as to make them applicable to practicality. After trying and testing the eigenfunctions, we compute the density of states, the Fermi energy, the full excitation spectrum made up of intrasubband and intersubband – single-particle and collective (plasmon – excitations, the loss functions for all the principal geometries envisioned for the inelastic electron scattering, and the Raman intensity, which provides a measure of the real transitions induced by the (laser probe, for the inelastic light scattering. It is found that the dominant contribution to both the loss peaks and the Raman peaks comes from the collective (plasmon excitations. As to the single-particle peaks, the analysis indicates a long-lasting lack of quantitative comparison between theory and experiments. It is inferred that the inelastic electron

  20. Detectors for X-ray diffraction and scattering: a user's overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruegemann, Lutz; Gerndt, E.K.E.

    2004-01-01

    An overview of the applications of X-ray detectors to material research is given. Four experimental techniques and their specific detector requirements are described. Detector types are classified and critical parameters described in the framework of X-ray diffraction and X-ray scattering experiments. The article aims at building a bridge between detector end-users and detector developers. It gives limits of critical detector parameters, like angular resolution, energy resolution, dynamic range, and active area

  1. Bone composition measured by x-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, M.; Hukins, D.W.L.

    1992-01-01

    Ten composite samples consisting of cortical bone and adipose tissue, in known proportions, were made. The intensity of monochromatic x-rays (energy 8 keV) scattered by these samples was determined as a function of the modulus of the scattering vector, K. The ratio of the heights of peaks at K values of around 134 and 22 nm -1 provided a measure of the ratio of adipose tissue to bone mineral in these samples. This method was then used to determine the ratio of adipose tissue to mineral in samples of trabecular bone from 16 vertebral bodies. The results were correlated with measurements of the bone composition determined by ashing (r = 0.66) and histomorphometry (r = 0.66). Furthermore, the ashing and histomorphometry results were correlated with each other (r = 0.68). The feasibility of using higher energy x-rays (35-80 keV) for obtaining the same information from bone within the body is briefly discussed. (author)

  2. Fast electron and X-ray scattering as a tool to study target's structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amusia, M.Ya. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); A.F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: amusia@vms.huji.ac.il

    2007-06-15

    We concentrate on several relatively new aspects of the study of fast electron and X-ray scattering by atoms and atom-like objects, namely endohedral atoms and fullerenes. However, main attention is given to fast charge particle scattering. We show that the corresponding cross-sections, being expressed via so-called generalized oscillator strengths (GOS), give information on the electronic structure of the target and on the role of electron correlations in it. We consider what sort of information became available when analyzing the dependence of GOS upon their multipolarity, transferred momentum q and energy {omega}. To obtain theoretical results, we employ both the one-electron Hartree-Fock approximation and account for the multi-electron correlation in the target, using the random phase approximation with exchange. We demonstrate the role of non-dipole corrections in the small-angle fast-electron inelastic scattering. There dipole contribution dominates while non-dipole corrections can be considerably and controllably enhanced as compared to the case of low and medium energy photoionization. We show also that analyses of GOS for discrete level excitations permit to clarify their multipolarity. The results of calculations of Compton excitation and ionization cross-sections are presented. Attention is given to cooperative effects in inelastic fast electron-atom scattering that results in directed motion of the secondary electrons, a phenomenon that is similar to 'drag currents' in photoionization. We demonstrate how one should derive GOS for endohedral atoms, e.g. A-C{sub 60} and what is the additional information that can be obtained from corresponding GOS. Most of discussions are illustrated by the results of concrete calculations.

  3. Inelastic Neutron Scattering Study of the Rotational Excitations in (KBr)l-x (KCN)x in the Paraelastic and Structural Glass State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loidl, A.; Feile, R.; Knorr, K.

    1984-01-01

    The coupled rotational-translational excitations in (KBr)1-x(KCN)x were studied by inelastic neutron scattering for concentrations 0.008≤x≤0.20. We followed the A1g-T2g tunneling transition and the A1g-Eg librational excitation through the transition from the paraelastic to the structural glass...... state. We found that these two excitations and their coupling to the lattice strains exhibit a very different temperature dependence in the glass state. While the tunneling transition, which triggers reorientations of the CN- ions, shows a drastic reduction of the T2g rotation-translation coupling...

  4. Heavy ion inelastic scattering with a 4π gamma detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, E.E.

    1989-01-01

    Heavy-ion inelastic scattering with a new technique that uses a 4π γ-ray detector in coincidence with charged particle detectors is applied to 24 Mg(200 MeV) + 208 Pb scattering. In addition to differential cross sections, a complete particle-γ angular correlation is obtained for decay of the 2 1 + (1.37 MeV) state of 24 Mg. The data are analyzed in coupled-channels. The correlation data proves to be especially sensitive to the static quadrupole moment. 14 refs., 9 figs

  5. Small-angle X-ray scattering studies of thermally-induced globular protein gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, A.H.; Tuffnell, C.D.

    1980-01-01

    Small-angle X-ray scattering has been applied to gels formed by heating globular proteins, in aqueous solution, above their unfolding temperatures. A number of BSA gels, previously characterised by electron microscopy, have been studied, and by setting up theoretical models for the scattering process, the X-ray data have been shown to be consistent with the microscope conclusions regarding network structure. It is concluded that the networks form by a linearly-directed aggregation of unfolded, disc-like, protein molecules, three-dimensional geometry being achieved by occasional branching, and/or cross-linking. Long-range inhomogeneities in network structure, easily observed by electron microscopy, and correlated with variations in pH or ionic strength, have an effect on X-ray scattering, and hence the X-ray method is sensitive not only to different network strand thicknesses, but to different degrees of uniformity as well. (author)

  6. Deep inelastic lepton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nachtmann, O.

    1977-01-01

    Deep inelastic electron (muon) nucleon and neutrino nucleon scattering as well as electron positron annihilation into hadrons are reviewed from a theoretical point of view. The emphasis is placed on comparisons of quantum chromodynamics with the data. (orig.) [de

  7. Inclusive deep-inelastic muon scattering

    CERN Multimedia

    This experiment aims at measuring deep-inelastic inclusive muon scattering to the highest energy and Q$^{2}$ made available by the high intensity muon beam M$^{2}$ and at investigating events in which several muons are simultaneously produced. The momentum of the incident beam is measured with momentum hodoscopes, its time and space coordinates at several positions along the target with additional hodoscopes. The beam halo is detected by an array of anticounters. The target has a length of 40 m of either graphite or liquid hydrogen or liquid deuterium and is surrounded by a magnetized torus which acts as a spectrometer for scattered muons. \\\\ \\\\This magnet has a diameter of 2.75 m and is divided into 10 separate supermodules, 8 of which are presently in use. Each supermodule consists of 8 modules (each module contains 0.44 m of steel), 8 planes of (3m x 3m) MWPC, and 2 planes of circular trigger counters subdivided in rings. The first 6 supermodules are equipped each with a 5 m long target. Muons scattered i...

  8. Deep inelastic scattering near the Coulomb barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehring, J.; Back, B.; Chan, K.

    1995-01-01

    Deep inelastic scattering was recently observed in heavy ion reactions at incident energies near and below the Coulomb barrier. Traditional models of this process are based on frictional forces and are designed to predict the features of deep inelastic processes at energies above the barrier. They cannot be applied at energies below the barrier where the nuclear overlap is small and friction is negligible. The presence of deep inelastic scattering at these energies requires a different explanation. The first observation of deep inelastic scattering near the barrier was in the systems 124,112 Sn + 58,64 Ni by Wolfs et al. We previously extended these measurements to the system 136 Xe + 64 Ni and currently measured the system 124 Xe + 58 Ni. We obtained better statistics, better mass and energy resolution, and more complete angular coverage in the Xe + Ni measurements. The cross sections and angular distributions are similar in all of the Sn + Ni and Xe + Ni systems. The data are currently being analyzed and compared with new theoretical calculations. They will be part of the thesis of J. Gehring

  9. X-ray scattering for the characterization of lyophilized breast tissue samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elshemey, Wael M.; Mohamed, Fayrouz S.; Khater, Ibrahim M.

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates the possibility of characterizing breast cancer by measuring the X-ray scattering profiles of lyophilized excised breast tissue samples. Since X-ray scattering from water-rich tissue is dominated by scattering from water, the removal of water by lyophilization would enhance the characterization process. In the present study, X-ray scattering profiles of 22 normal, 22 malignant and 10 benign breast tissue samples are measured. The cut-offs of scatter diagrams, sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of three characterization parameters (full width at half maximum (FWHM) for the peak at 1.1 nm −1 , area under curve (AUC), and ratio of 1st to 2nd scattering peak intensities (I 1 /I 2 %)) are calculated and compared to the data from non-lyophilized samples. Results show increased sensitivity (up to 100%) of the present data on lyophilized breast tissue samples compared to previously reported data for non-lyophilized samples while the specificity (up to 95.4%), diagnostic accuracy (up to 95.4%) and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve values (up to 0.9979) for both sets of data are comparable. The present study shows significant differences between normal samples and each of malignant and benign samples. Only subtle differences exist between malignant and benign lyophilized breast tissue samples where FWHM=0.7±0.1 and 0.8±0.3, AUC=1.3±0.2 and 1.4±0.2 and I 1 /I 2 %=44.9±11.0 and 52.4±7.6 for malignant and benign samples respectively. - Highlights: • X-ray scattering profiles of breast tissue samples are acquired. • Three X-ray profile characterization parameters are calculated. • The cut-offs, sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy are calculated. • They are compared to the data from non-lyophilized samples. • Results show increased sensitivity in case of lyophilized samples

  10. Incoherent-scatter computed tomography with monochromatic synchrotron x ray: feasibility of multi-CT imaging system for simultaneous measurement-of fluorescent and incoherent scatter x rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, T.; Akiba, M.; Takeda, T.; Kazama, M.; Hoshino, A.; Watanabe, Y.; Hyodo, K.; Dilmanian, F. A.; Akatsuka, T.; Itai, Y.

    1997-10-01

    We describe a new system of incoherent scatter computed tomography (ISCT) using monochromatic synchrotron X rays, and we discuss its potential to be used in in vivo imaging for medical use. The system operates on the basis of computed tomography (CT) of the first generation. The reconstruction method for ISCT uses the least squares method with singular value decomposition. The research was carried out at the BLNE-5A bending magnet beam line of the Tristan Accumulation Ring in KEK, Japan. An acrylic cylindrical phantom of 20-mm diameter containing a cross-shaped channel was imaged. The channel was filled with a diluted iodine solution with a concentration of 200 /spl mu/gI/ml. Spectra obtained with the system's high purity germanium (HPGe) detector separated the incoherent X-ray line from the other notable peaks, i.e., the iK/sub /spl alpha// and K/sub /spl beta/1/ X-ray fluorescent lines and the coherent scattering peak. CT images were reconstructed from projections generated by integrating the counts In the energy window centering around the incoherent scattering peak and whose width was approximately 2 keV. The reconstruction routine employed an X-ray attenuation correction algorithm. The resulting image showed more homogeneity than one without the attenuation correction.

  11. Development of a compact x-ray source via laser compton scattering at KEK-LUCX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaue, Kazuyuki; Washio, Masakazu; Aryshev, Alexander; Araki, Sakae; Urakawa, Junji; Terunuma, Nobuhiro; Fukuda, Masafumi; Miyoshi, Toshinobu; Takeda, Ayaki

    2013-01-01

    The compact X-ray source based on Laser-Compton scattering (LCS) has been developed at LUCX (Laser Undulator Compact X-ray source) facility in KEK. The multi-bunch high quality electron beam produced by a standing wave 3.6 cell RF Gun and accelerated by the followed S-band normal conducting 12 cells standing wave 'Booster' linear accelerator is scattered off the laser beam stored in the optical cavity. The 4-mirror planar optical cavity with finesse 335 is used. The MCP (Micro-Channer Plate) detector as well as SOI (Silicon-On-Insulator) pixel sensor was used for scattered X-ray detection. The SOI pixel sensor has been used for LCS X-ray detection for the first time and has demonstrated high spatial resolution and high SN ratio X-ray detection that in turn lead to clearest X-ray images achieved by LCS X-ray. We have also achieved generation of 6.38x10 6 ph./sec., which is more than 30 times larger LCS X-ray flux in comparison with our previous results. The complete details of LUCX LCS X-ray source, specifications of both electron and laser beams, and the results of LCS X-ray generation experiments are reported in this paper. (author)

  12. High energy x-ray scattering studies of strongly correlated oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatton, Peter D; Wilkins, S B; Spencer, P D; Zimmermann, M v; D'Almeida, T

    2003-01-01

    Many transition metal oxides display strongly correlated charge, spin, or orbital ordering resulting in varied phenomena such as colossal magnetoresistance, high temperature superconductivity, metal-insulator transitions etc. X-ray scattering is one of the principle techniques for probing the structural response to such effects. In this paper, we discuss and review the use of synchrotron radiation high energy x-rays (50-200 keV) for the study of transition metal oxides such as nickelates (La 2-x Sr x NiO 4 ) and manganites (La 2-2x Sr 1+2x Mn 2 O 7 ). High energy x-rays have sufficient penetration to allow us to study large flux-grown single crystals. The huge increase in sample scattering volume means that extremely weak peaks can be observed. This allows us to study very weak charge ordering. Measurements of the intensity, width and position of the charge ordering satellites as a function of temperature provide us with quantitative measures of the charge amplitude, inverse correlation length and wavevector of the charge ordering

  13. Deep inelastic neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayers, J.

    1989-03-01

    The report is based on an invited talk given at a conference on ''Neutron Scattering at ISIS: Recent Highlights in Condensed Matter Research'', which was held in Rome, 1988, and is intended as an introduction to the techniques of Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering. The subject is discussed under the following topic headings:- the impulse approximation I.A., scaling behaviour, kinematical consequences of energy and momentum conservation, examples of measurements, derivation of the I.A., the I.A. in a harmonic system, and validity of the I.A. in neutron scattering. (U.K.)

  14. Studies of oxide-based thin-layered heterostructures by X-ray scattering methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durand, O. [Thales Research and Technology France, Route Departementale 128, F-91767 Palaiseau Cedex (France)]. E-mail: olivier.durand@thalesgroup.com; Rogers, D. [Nanovation SARL, 103 bis rue de Versailles 91400 Orsay (France); Universite de Technologie de Troyes, 10-12 rue Marie Curie, 10010 (France); Teherani, F. Hosseini [Nanovation SARL, 103 bis rue de Versailles 91400 Orsay (France); Andrieux, M. [LEMHE, ICMMOCNRS-UMR 8182, Universite d' Orsay, Batiment 410, 91410 Orsay (France); Modreanu, M. [Tyndall National Institute, Lee Maltings, Prospect Row, Cork (Ireland)

    2007-06-04

    Some X-ray scattering methods (X-ray reflectometry and Diffractometry) dedicated to the study of thin-layered heterostructures are presented with a particular focus, for practical purposes, on the description of fast, accurate and robust techniques. The use of X-ray scattering metrology as a routinely working non-destructive testing method, particularly by using procedures simplifying the data-evaluation, is emphasized. The model-independent Fourier-inversion method applied to a reflectivity curve allows a fast determination of the individual layer thicknesses. We demonstrate the capability of this method by reporting X-ray reflectometry study on multilayered oxide structures, even when the number of the layers constitutive of the stack is not known a-priori. Fast Fourier transform-based procedure has also been employed successfully on high resolution X-ray diffraction profiles. A study of the reliability of the integral-breadth methods in diffraction line-broadening analysis applied to thin layers, in order to determine coherent domain sizes, is also reported. Examples from studies of oxides-based thin-layers heterostructures will illustrate these methods. In particular, X-ray scattering studies performed on high-k HfO{sub 2} and SrZrO{sub 3} thin-layers, a (GaAs/AlOx) waveguide, and a ZnO thin-layer are reported.

  15. Time-resolved X-ray spectroscopies of chemical systems: New perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majed Chergui

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The past 3–5 years have witnessed a dramatic increase in the number of time-resolved X-ray spectroscopic studies, mainly driven by novel technical and methodological developments. The latter include (i the high repetition rate optical pump/X-ray probe studies, which have greatly boosted the signal-to-noise ratio for picosecond (ps X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies, while enabling ps X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES at synchrotrons; (ii the X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs are a game changer and have allowed the first femtosecond (fs XES and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering experiments to be carried out; (iii XFELs are also opening the road to the development of non-linear X-ray methods. In this perspective, I will mainly focus on the most recent technical developments and briefly address some examples of scientific questions that have been addressed thanks to them. I will look at the novel opportunities in the horizon.

  16. Magnetism in heterogeneous thin film systems: Resonant X-ray scattering studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kortright, J.B.; Jiang, J.S.; Bader, S.D.; Hellwig, O.; Marguiles, D.T.; Fullerton, E.E.

    2002-01-01

    Magnetic and chemical heterogeneity are common in a broad range of magnetic thin film systems. Emerging resonant soft x-ray scattering techniques are well suited to resolve such heterogeneity at relevant length scales. Resonant x-ray magneto-optical Kerr effect measurements laterally average over heterogeneity but can provide depth resolution in different ways, as illustrated in measurements resolving reversible and irreversible changes in different layers of exchange-spring heterostructures. Resonant small-angle scattering measures in-plane heterogeneity and can resolve magnetic and chemical scattering sources in different ways, as illustrated in measurements of granular alloy recording media

  17. Ultrashort hard x-ray pulses generated by 90 degrees Thomson scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, A.H.; Schoenlein, R.W.; Glover, T.E.

    1997-01-01

    Ultrashort x-ray pulses permit observation of fast structural dynamics in a variety of condensed matter systems. The authors have generated 300 femtosecond, 30 keV x-ray pulses by 90 degrees Thomson scattering between femtosecond laser pulses and relativistic electrons. The x-ray and laser pulses are synchronized on a femtosecond time scale, an important prerequisite for ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy. Analysis of the x-ray beam properties also allows for electron bunch characterization on a femtosecond time scale

  18. Time reversal odd effects in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlegel, M.

    2006-04-01

    In this thesis the semi-iclusive deep inelastic scattering l+h→l'+h+X is studied in the framework of the parton model. Especially sum rules are checked which contain transverse-momentum dependent parton distributions. Furthermore the influence of T-odd effects on the subleading order of a twist expansion are investigated. (HSI)

  19. Multiple X-ray tomography using transmitted, scattered and fluorescent radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesareo, R.; Brunetti, A.; Golosio, B.; Lopes, R.T.; Barroso, R.C.; Donativi, M.; Castellano, A.; Quarta, S.

    2003-01-01

    A multiple CT-scanner is described, which contemporaneously uses transmitted, scattered and fluorescent X-rays for Imaging. The scanner is characterized by a small size X-ray tube and by four detectors: a ''pencil'' X-ray NaI(Tl) for transmitted tomography, a larger size NaI(Tl) for 90 C o Compton tomography, a thermoelectrically cooled Si-PIN or CdZnTe for fluorescent imaging and a CdZnTe for Rayleigh (or diffraction) tomography. Examples of applications are shown

  20. Soft X-ray resonant scattering from magnetic heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabis, J.

    2005-01-01

    Heterogenous magnetic multilayers are of great interest both because of their relevance for technological applications and since they provide model systems to understand magnetic behavior and interactions. Soft x-ray resonant magnetic scattering (XRMS) allows to determine element-specific and depth-resolving information of the local magnetic order of such systems. Within the framework of the present thesis the diffractometer ALICE for soft XRMS has been constructed. XRMS measurements of two different physical systems are presented in this thesis: The antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic order in interlayer exchange-coupled Fe/Cr(001) superlattices are studied as a function of the applied field by measuring the reflected intensity at different positions in reciprocal space. Thin films and multilayers of the Heusler compound Co 2 MnGe are studied by means of soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy, magnetic circular dichroism and resonant magnetic scattering

  1. Measurement of scattered and transmitted X-rays from intra-oral and panoramic dental X-ray equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holroyd, John Richard

    2018-04-10

    To quantify the levels of transmitted radiation arising from the use of intra-oral dental X-ray equipment and scattered radiation arising from the use of both intra-oral and panoramic X-ray equipment. Methods: Levels of scattered radiation were measured at 1 m from a phantom, using an 1800 cc ion chamber. Transmitted radiation was measured using both: i) a phantom and Dose Area Product (DAP) meter, ii) a patient and an 1800 cc ion chamber. Results: For intra-oral radiography the patient study gave a maximum transmission of 1.80% (range 0.04% to 1.80%, mean 0.26%) and the phantom study gave a maximum transmission of 6% (range 2% to 6%, mean 5%). The maximum scattered radiation, per unit DAP, was 5.5 nGy (mGy cm2)-1 at 70 kVp and a distance of 1 m. For panoramic radiography the maximum scattered radiation was 9.3 nGy (mGy cm2)-1 at 80 kVp and a distance of 1 m. Conclusions: Typical doses from scattered and transmitted radiation in modern dental practice have been measured and values are presented to enable the calculation of adequate protection measures for dental radiography rooms. Advances in knowledge: Previous studies have used a phantom and measured radiation doses at 1 m from the phantom to determine the radiation dose transmitted through a patient, whereas this study uses both patient and phantom measurements together with a large area dose meter, positioned to capture the entire X-ray beam, to ensure more realistic dose measurements can be made. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  2. X-Band Linac Beam-Line for Medical Compton Scattering X-Ray Source

    CERN Document Server

    Dobashi, Katsuhiro; Ebina, Futaro; Fukasawa, Atsushi; Hayano, Hitoshi; Higo, Toshiyasu; Kaneyasu, Tatsuo; Ogino, Haruyuki; Sakamoto, Fumito; Uesaka, Mitsuru; Urakawa, Junji; Yamamoto, Tomohiko

    2005-01-01

    Compton scattering hard X-ray source for 10~80 keV are under construction using the X-band (11.424 GHz) electron linear accelerator and YAG laser at Nuclear Engineering Research laboratory, University of Tokyo. This work is a part of the national project on the development of advanced compact medical accelerators in Japan. National Institute for Radiological Science is the host institute and U. Tokyo and KEK are working for the X-ray source. Main advantage is to produce tunable monochromatic hard ( 10-80

  3. Multiquark states in the deep inelastic muon-nucleus scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titov, A.I.

    1983-01-01

    The deep-inelastic muon-nucleus scattering in the region forbidden by the kinematics for the scattering on free nucleons, is analysed theoretically. The calculations have been performed under the assumption that the main contribution to the cross section in the considered region of the Bjorken scaling variable, 1 -4 -10 -5 for the nuclear structure function at x approximately equal to 1.4. As it is shown, one has to take into account the six-= ' quark states in extracting the scaling parameter of QCD from the muon-nucleus data at approximately 1

  4. Scaling behaviour of tensor analyzing power (Ayy) in the inelastic scattering of relativistic deuterons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korovin, P.P.; Malinina, L.V.; Strokovskij, E.A.

    1998-01-01

    We suggest a new dimensionless relativistic invariant variable R Δm X / ν which may be interpreted as the ratio of the excitation energy to the full transferred energy; therefore this variable measures a 'degree of inelasticity' of the scattering. Existing data on the tensor analyzing power of the p(d polarized, d ' )X and 12 C(d polarized, d ' )X inelastic scattering at momenta from 4.2 to 9 GeV/c are analyzed in terms of this variable. We observe that A yy taken as a function of R does not depend upon the incident energy, the scattering angle (up to the angles of θ cm ∼ 30 deg), and there is no noticeable difference between the proton and nuclear targets as well. It is remarkable that A yy is maximal (of ∼ 0.5) when R ∼ 0.5 - 0.6 and is small in absolute value when R is close to its limiting values of 0 and 1

  5. New results from HERA on photoproduction and diffraction, the proton structure function, deep inelastic scattering at low x, heavy flavour production, jets and searches for leptoquarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreiro, F.; Bhadra, S.; Lancaster, M.; Lim, J.N.; Soeldner-Rembold, S.; Straub, B.

    1994-11-01

    This report contains some of the papers presented by the ZEUS Collaboration at the 27th international conference on high energy physics in Glasgow (20-27 July 1994). These concern deep inelastic ep scattering at low x, photoproduction and diffraction in ep scattering, a measurement of the proton structure function and determination of the low-x gluon distribution, D * and J/Ψ production in ep scattering, multi-jet production and determination of α s in ep scattering, and the search for leptoquarks in ep collisions. (HSI)

  6. Polarization transfer in inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    Polarization transfer experiments are now feasible for inelastic scattering experiments on complex nuclei. Experiments thus far have dealt with the spin-flip probability; this observable is sensitive to the action of spin-spin and tensor forces in inelastic scattering. Spin-flip probabilities at E approx. 40 MeV in isoscalar transitions in 12 C(12.71 MeV) and 15 O(8.89 MeV) show considerable deviation from DWBA-shell model predictions; this deviation indicates evidence for more complex reaction mechanisms. Experiments at intermediate energies will soon be possible and will yield data of much higher precision than is possible at lower (E < 100 MeV) energies. These experiments hold exciting promise in such areas as nuclear critical opalescence. 7 figures, 1 table

  7. Observation of events with a large rapidity gap in deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrick, M.; Krakauer, D.; Magill, S.

    1993-07-01

    In deep inelastic, neutral current scattering of electrons and protons at √s=296 GeV, we observe in the ZEUS detector events with a large rapidity gap in the hadronic final state. They occur in the region of small Bjorken x and are observed up to Q 2 of 100 GeV 2 . They account for about 5% of the events with Q 2 ≥10 GeV 2 . Their general properties are inconsistent with the dominant mechanism of deep inelastic scattering, where color is transferred between the scattered quark and the proton remnant, and suggest that the underlying production mechanism is the diffractive dissociation of the virtual photon. (orig.)

  8. Resonant inelastic x-ray scattering and photoemission measurement of O2: Direct evidence for dependence of Rydberg-valence mixing on vibrational states in O 1s → Rydberg states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gejo, T.; Oura, M.; Tokushima, T.; Horikawa, Y.; Arai, H.; Shin, S.; Kimberg, V.; Kosugi, N.

    2017-07-01

    High-resolution resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) and low-energy photoemission spectra of oxygen molecules have been measured for investigating the electronic structure of Rydberg states in the O 1s → σ* energy region. The electronic characteristics of each Rydberg state have been successfully observed, and new assignments are made for several states. The RIXS spectra clearly show that vibrational excitation is very sensitive to the electronic characteristics because of Rydberg-valence mixing and vibronic coupling in O2. This observation constitutes direct experimental evidence that the Rydberg-valence mixing characteristic depends on the vibrational excitation near the avoided crossing of potential surfaces. We also measured the photoemission spectra of metastable oxygen atoms (O*) from O2 excited to 1s → Rydberg states. The broadening of the 4p Rydberg states of O* has been found with isotropic behavior, implying that excited oxygen molecules undergo dissociation with a lifetime of the order of 10 fs in 1s → Rydberg states.

  9. Inelastic scattering of quasifree electrons on O7+ projectiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, G.; Grabbe, S.; Richard, P.; Bhalla, C.P.

    1996-01-01

    Absolute doubly differential cross sections (DDCS close-quote s) for the resonant inelastic scattering of quasifree target electrons on H-like projectiles have been measured. Electron spectra for 20.25-MeV O 7+ projectiles on an H 2 target were measured. The spectra contain a resonant contribution from the 3l3l ' doubly excited states of O 6+ , which decay predominantly to the 2l states of the O 7+ via autoionization, and a nonresonant contribution from the direct excitation of the projectiles to the O 7+ (2l) state by the quasifree target electrons. Close-coupling R-matrix calculations for the inelastic scattering of free electrons on O 7+ ions were performed. The relation between the electron-ion inelastic scattering calculation and the electron DDCS close-quote s for the ion-atom collision was established by using the inelastic scattering model (ISM). We found excellent agreement between the theoretical and measured resonant peak positions and relative peak heights. The calculated absolute double differential cross sections for the resonance processes are also in good agreement with the measured data. The implication is that collisions of highly charged ions on hydrogen can be used to obtain high-resolution, angle- resolved differential inelastic electron-scattering cross section. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  10. Deep inelastic scattering near the Coulomb barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehring, J.; Back, B.; Chan, K. [and others

    1995-08-01

    Deep inelastic scattering was recently observed in heavy ion reactions at incident energies near and below the Coulomb barrier. Traditional models of this process are based on frictional forces and are designed to predict the features of deep inelastic processes at energies above the barrier. They cannot be applied at energies below the barrier where the nuclear overlap is small and friction is negligible. The presence of deep inelastic scattering at these energies requires a different explanation. The first observation of deep inelastic scattering near the barrier was in the systems {sup 124,112}Sn + {sup 58,64}Ni by Wolfs et al. We previously extended these measurements to the system {sup 136}Xe + {sup 64}Ni and currently measured the system {sup 124}Xe + {sup 58}Ni. We obtained better statistics, better mass and energy resolution, and more complete angular coverage in the Xe + Ni measurements. The cross sections and angular distributions are similar in all of the Sn + Ni and Xe + Ni systems. The data are currently being analyzed and compared with new theoretical calculations. They will be part of the thesis of J. Gehring.

  11. Deep-Inelastic Inclusive ep Scattering at Low x and a Determination of $\\alpha_{s}$

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C.; Andrieu, B.; Anthonis, T.; Arkadov, V.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Ayyaz, I.; Babaev, A.; Bahr, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Bassler, U.; Bate, P.; Beglarian, A.; Behnke, O.; Beier, C.; Belousov, A.; Benisch, T.; Berger, Christoph; Bernardi, G.; Berndt, T.; Bizot, J.C.; Boudry, V.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Broker, H.B.; Brown, D.P.; Bruckner, W.; Bruel, P.; Bruncko, D.; Burger, J.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Burkhardt, H.; Burrage, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Campbell, A.J.; Cao, Jun; Carli, T.; Caron, S.; Chabert, E.; Clarke, D.; Clerbaux, B.; Collard, C.; Contreras, J.G.; Coppens, Y.R.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cousinou, M.C.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; Davidsson, M.; Delcourt, B.; Delerue, N.; Demirchyan, R.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dixon, P.; Dodonov, V.; Dowell, J.D.; Droutskoi, A.; Duprel, C.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, D.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Ferron, S.; Fleischer, M.; Fleming, Y.H.; Flugge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Formanek, J.; Foster, J.M.; Franke, G.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Garvey, J.; Gassner, J.; Gayler, Joerg; Gerhards, R.; Ghazarian, S.; Glazov, A.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Goldberg, M.; Goodwin, C.; Grab, C.; Grassler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, Guenter; Hadig, T.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haynes, W.J.; Heinemann, B.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hengstmann, S.; Henschel, H.; Heremans, R.; Herrera, G.; Herynek, I.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hilgers, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hladky, J.; Hoting, P.; Hoffmann, D.; Hoprich, W.; Horisberger, R.; Hurling, S.; Ibbotson, M.; Issever, C.; Jacquet, M.; Jaffre, M.; Janauschek, L.; Jansen, D.M.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jones, M.A.S.; Jung, H.; Kastli, H.K.; Kant, D.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Karschnick, O.; Keil, F.; Keller, N.; Kennedy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kermiche, S.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Knies, G.; Koblitz, B.; Kolya, S.D.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S.K.; Koutouev, R.; Koutov, A.; Krasny, M.W.; Krehbiel, H.; Kroseberg, J.; Kruger, K.; Kupper, A.; Kuhr, T.; Kurca, T.; Lahmann, R.; Lamb, D.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka, T.; Lebailly, E.; Lebedev, A.; Leissner, B.; Lemrani, R.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindstroem, M.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lobodzinski, B.; Loginov, A.; Loktionova, N.; Lubimov, V.; Luders, S.; Luke, D.; Lytkin, L.; Magnussen, N.; Mahlke-Kruger, H.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Malinovski, I.; Maracek, R.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martyn, H.U.; Martyniak, J.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Merkel, P.; Metlica, F.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Meyer, P.O.; Mikocki, S.; Milstead, D.; Mkrtchyan, T.; Mohr, R.; Mohrdieck, S.; Mondragon, M.N.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, T.; Nellen, G.; Newman, Paul R.; Nicholls, T.C.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Nix, O.; Nowak, G.; Nunnemann, T.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Panassik, V.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Perez, E.; Phillips, J.P.; Pitzl, D.; Poschl, R.; Potachnikova, I.; Povh, B.; Rabbertz, K.; Radel, G.; Rauschenberger, J.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Reyna, D.; Riess, S.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Royon, C.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.P.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, D.; Schmitt, S.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schorner, T.; Schroder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Schwanenberger, C.; Sedlak, K.; Sefkow, F.; Chekelian, V.I.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Siegmon, G.; Sievers, P.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Solochenko, V.; Solovev, Y.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Spitzer, H.; Stamen, R.; Steinhart, J.; Stella, B.; Stellberger, A.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Struczinski, W.; Swart, M.; Tasevsky, M.; Chernyshov, V.; Chetchelnitski, S.; Thompson, Graham; Thompson, P.D.; Tobien, N.; Traynor, D.; Truoel, Peter; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Turney, J.E.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Udluft, S.; Usik, A.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vassiliev, S.; Vazdik, Y.; Vichnevski, A.; von Dombrowski, S.; Wacker, K.; Wallny, R.; Walter, T.; Waugh, B.; Weber, G.; Weber, M.; Wegener, D.; Werner, M.; White, G.; Wiesand, S.; Wilksen, T.; Winde, M.; Winter, G.G.; Wissing, C.; Wobisch, M.; Wollatz, H.; Wunsch, E.; Wyatt, A.C.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zomer, F.; Zsembery, J.; zur Nedden, M.

    2001-01-01

    A precise measurement of the inclusive deep-inelastic e^+p scattering cross section is reported in the kinematic range 1.5<= Q^2 <=150 GeV^2 and 3*10^(-5)<= x <=0.2. The data were recorded with the H1 detector at HERA in 1996 and 1997, and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 20 pb^(-1). The double differential cross section, from which the proton structure function F_2(x,Q^2) and the longitudinal structure function F_L(x,Q^2) are extracted, is measured with typically 1% statistical and 3% systematic uncertainties. The measured partial derivative (dF_2(x,Q^2)/dln Q^2)_x is observed to rise continuously towards small x for fixed Q^2. The cross section data are combined with published H1 measurements at high Q^2 for a next-to-leading order DGLAP QCD analysis.The H1 data determine the gluon momentum distribution in the range 3*10^(-4)<= x <=0.1 to within an experimental accuracy of about 3% for Q^2 =20 GeV^2. A fit of the H1 measurements and the mu p data of the BCDMS collaboration allows ...

  12. Experiment and application of soft x-ray grazing incidence optical scattering phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuyan; Li, Cheng; Zhang, Yang; Su, Liping; Geng, Tao; Li, Kun

    2017-08-01

    For short wavelength imaging systems,surface scattering effects is one of important factors degrading imaging performance. Study of non-intuitive surface scatter effects resulting from practical optical fabrication tolerances is a necessary work for optical performance evaluation of high resolution short wavelength imaging systems. In this paper, Soft X-ray optical scattering distribution is measured by a soft X-ray reflectometer installed by my lab, for different sample mirrors、wavelength and grazing angle. Then aim at space solar telescope, combining these scattered light distributions, and surface scattering numerical model of grazing incidence imaging system, PSF and encircled energy of optical system of space solar telescope are computed. We can conclude that surface scattering severely degrade imaging performance of grazing incidence systems through analysis and computation.

  13. Fast scattering simulation tool for multi-energy x-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sossin, A., E-mail: artur.sossin@cea.fr [CEA-LETI MINATEC Grenoble, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Tabary, J.; Rebuffel, V. [CEA-LETI MINATEC Grenoble, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Létang, J.M.; Freud, N. [Université de Lyon, CREATIS, CNRS UMR5220, Inserm U1044, INSA-Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Centre Léon Bérard (France); Verger, L. [CEA-LETI MINATEC Grenoble, F-38054 Grenoble (France)

    2015-12-01

    A combination of Monte Carlo (MC) and deterministic approaches was employed as a means of creating a simulation tool capable of providing energy resolved x-ray primary and scatter images within a reasonable time interval. Libraries of Sindbad, a previously developed x-ray simulation software, were used in the development. The scatter simulation capabilities of the tool were validated through simulation with the aid of GATE and through experimentation by using a spectrometric CdTe detector. A simple cylindrical phantom with cavities and an aluminum insert was used. Cross-validation with GATE showed good agreement with a global spatial error of 1.5% and a maximum scatter spectrum error of around 6%. Experimental validation also supported the accuracy of the simulations obtained from the developed software with a global spatial error of 1.8% and a maximum error of around 8.5% in the scatter spectra.

  14. Resonant Soft X-ray Scattering of Cellulose Microstructure in Plant Primary Cell Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Dan; Kiemle, Sarah N.; Wang, Cheng; Cosgrove, Daniel J.; Gomez, Esther W.; Gomez, Enrique D.

    Cellulosic biomass is the most abundant raw material available for the production of renewable and sustainable biofuels. Breaking down cellulose is the rate-limiting step in economical biofuel production; therefore, a detailed understanding of the microscopic structure of plant cell walls is required to develop efficient biofuel conversion methods. Primary cell walls are key determinants of plant growth and mechanics. Their structure is complex and heterogeneous, making it difficult to elucidate how various components such as pectin, hemicellulose, and cellulose contribute to the overall structure. The electron density of these wall components is similar; such that conventional hard X-ray scattering does not generate enough contrast to resolve the different elements of the polysaccharide network. The chemical specificity of resonant soft X-ray scattering allows contrast to be generated based on differences in chemistry of the different polysaccharides. By varying incident X-ray energies, we have achieved increased scattering contrast between cellulose and other polysaccharides from primary cell walls of onions. By performing scattering at certain energies, features of the network structure of the cell wall are resolved. From the soft X-ray scattering results, we obtained the packing distance of cellulose microfibrils embedded in the polysaccharide network.

  15. X-ray scattering from thin organic films and multilayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietsch, U.; Barberka, T. A.; Geue, Th.; Stoemmer, R.

    1997-01-01

    The real structure of LB-multilayers prepared with fatty-acid salts is dominated by finite-sized scattering aggregates. Their different length scales become visible using AFM. It shows that not the whole substrate is wetted by the film. The molecular order is restricted into domains. These micrometer domains are not homogeneous. They contain mesoscopic subdomains of different heights which vary in steps of double layers. Finally high-resolution AFM-maps display a nearly hexagonal arrangement of molecules within subgrains with a diameter of several 10 nm. This domain structure has to be taken into account when interpreting X-ray diffraction data. The size of the crystalline aggregates is obtained by means of X-ray grazing incidence diffraction. On the mesoscopic scale the domain size is determined by X-ray diffuse scattering experiments. Because Sinha's model fails for the present kind of multilayers, they used another approach for data analysis. The lateral correlation length caused by height fluctuations is estimated without knowledge of a definite correlation function. Additionally the mosaicity of the domain orientation can be taken into account

  16. γ production and neutron inelastic scattering cross sections for 76Ge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouki, C.; Domula, A. R.; Drohé, J. C.; Koning, A. J.; Plompen, A. J. M.; Zuber, K.

    2013-11-01

    The 2040.7-keV γ ray from the 69th excited state of 76Ge was investigated in the interest of Ge-based double-β-decay experiments like the Germanium Detector Array (GERDA) experiment. The predicted transition could interfere with valid 0νββ events at 2039.0 keV, creating false signals in large-volume 76Ge enriched detectors. The measurement was performed with the Gamma Array for Inelastic Neutron Scattering (GAINS) at the Geel Electron Linear Accelerator (GELINA) white neutron source, using the (n,n'γ) technique and focusing on the strongest γ rays originating from the level. Upper limits obtained for the production cross section of the 2040.7-keV γ ray showed no possible influence on GERDA data. Additional analysis of the data yielded high-resolution cross sections for the low-lying states of 76Ge and related γ rays, improving the accuracy and extending existing data for five transitions and five levels. The inelastic scattering cross section for 76Ge was determined for incident neutron energies up to 2.23 MeV, significantly increasing the energy range for which experimental data are available. Comparisons with model calculations using the talys code are presented indicating that accounting for the recently established asymmetric rotor structure should lead to an improved description of the data.

  17. Magnon and phonon thermometry with inelastic light scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Kevin S.; An, Kyongmo; Li, Xiaoqin

    2018-04-01

    Spin caloritronics investigates the interplay between the transport of spin and heat. In the spin Seebeck effect, a thermal gradient across a magnetic material generates a spin current. A temperature difference between the energy carriers of the spin and lattice subsystems, namely the magnons and phonons, is necessary for such thermal nonequilibrium generation of spin current. Inelastic light scattering is a powerful method that can resolve the individual temperatures of magnons and phonons. In this review, we discuss the thermometry capabilities of inelastic light scattering for measuring optical and acoustic phonons, as well as magnons. A scattering spectrum offers three temperature sensitive parameters: frequency shift, linewidth, and integrated intensity. We discuss the temperatures measured via each of these parameters for both phonon and magnons. Finally, we discuss inelastic light scattering experiments that have examined the magnon and phonon temperatures in thermal nonequilibrium which are particularly relevant to spin caloritronic phenomena.

  18. Determination of X-ray anomalous scattering in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cusatis, C.

    1987-01-01

    The linear attenuation coeficient for X-ray in silicon was measured with approximately 0,1% accuracy, for 6 diferent wavelenghts of caracteristic radiation. From these result the imaginary parts of the atomic scattering factors, for silicon and for those wavelenghts, were obtained with the same accuracy. The results are compared with the most recent published values. The proposed method to avoid Rayleigh scattering can be used for any type of ''perfect'' crystal. (author) [pt

  19. Phonon renormalization in LaCoO{sub 3} by inelastic neutron and X-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauth, Maximilian; Weber, Frank [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Castellan, John-Paul [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Laboratoire Leon Brillouin, CEA Saclay (France)

    2016-07-01

    LaCoO{sub 3} exhibits two broad magnetic-electric transitions, a diamagnetic to paramagnetic spin-state transition at T{sub SS} ∼ 100 K and a metal-insulator transition at T{sub MI} ∼ 500 K. The spin transitions on heating are proposed to be as follows: from a homogeneous LS state to a mixed Low-Spin/High-Spin (LS/HS) state with strong spin-charge fluctuations at T=T{sub SS} and, subsequently, into a homogeneous HS state at T=T{sub MI}. The lattice participates in the state mixture by expansion of CoO{sub 6} octahedra around the HS sites, while the ones around LS sites have a reduced size. The originally proposed static order [2] has not been observed experimentally and, hence, the ordering is expected to be dynamic and short-ranged. We investigated the lattice dynamical properties of LaCoO{sub 3} using inelastic neutron scattering. Based on detailed ab-initio lattice dynamical calculations (performed in our institute), we aim for a comprehensive understanding of lattice dynamics in LaCoO{sub 3}. The above discussed crossovers and spin state order should be reflected in the lattice degrees of freedom via quasi elastic scattering and phonon renormalization effects.

  20. FDTD parallel computational analysis of grid-type scattering filter characteristics for medical X-ray image diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Koichi; Miyazaki, Yasumitsu; Goto, Nobuo

    2007-01-01

    X-ray diagnosis depends on the intensity of transmitted and scattered waves in X-ray propagation in biomedical media. X-ray is scattered and absorbed by tissues, such as fat, bone and internal organs. However, image processing for medical diagnosis, based on the scattering and absorption characteristics of these tissues in X-ray spectrum is not so much studied. To obtain precise information of tissues in a living body, the accurate characteristics of scattering and absorption are required. In this paper, X-ray scattering and absorption in biomedical media are studied using 2-dimensional finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. In FDTD method, the size of analysis space is very limited by the performance of available computers. To overcome this limitation, parallel and successive FDTD method is introduced. As a result of computer simulation, the amplitude of transmitted and scattered waves are presented numerically. The fundamental filtering characteristics of grid-type filter are also shown numerically. (author)

  1. Ion chamber area monitor for low level scattered x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fergus, R.W.; Robinet, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    An economical, high confidence instrument was developed for laboratories using low energy x-rays. The instrument detects increases in background caused by scattered radiation. Exposure rates close to the open part of the x-ray tubes are of the order of 10 3 to 10 6 R/min. A few meters away the background is a few tenths of a mR/hr

  2. Proposed measurement of tagged deep inelastic scattering in Hall A of Jefferson lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, Rachel [Univ. of Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom); Annand, John [Univ. of Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom); Dutta, Dipangkar [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States); Keppel, Cynthia E. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); King, Paul [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept of Physics; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Zhang, Jixie [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2017-03-01

    A tagged deep inelastic scattering (TDIS) experiment is planned for Hall A of Jefferson Lab, which will probe the mesonic content of the nucleon directly. Low momentum recoiling (and spectator) protons will be measured in coincidence with electrons scattered in a deep inelastic regime from hydrogen (and deuterium) targets, covering kinematics of 8 < W2 < 18 GeV2, 1 < Q2 < 3 (GeV/c)2 and 0:05 < x < 0:2. The tagging technique will help identify scattering from partons in the meson cloud and provide access to the pion structure function via the Sullivan process. The experiment will yield the first TDIS results in the valence regime, for both proton and neutron targets. We present here an overview of the experiment.

  3. X-ray spectral determination by detection of radiation scattered at different angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrea, Raul; Mainardi, R.T.

    1987-01-01

    A precise knowledge of the spectral content of an X-ray beam is of fundamental importance in areas such as X-ray fluorescence analysis by absolute methods, radiodiagnosis, radiotherapy, computed tomography, etc. A simple practical method was developed to determine X-ray spectra emitted by X-ray tubes. It is based on the scattering of the beam on a solid target and detection of this radiation at different angles. This methodology can easily be adapted to the successive attenuation of the beam procedure. Numerical parameter values of a proposed analytical function for the energy spectrum are found measuring the radiation intensity with a suitable detector (ionization chamber or plastic scintillation detector) and equating it with the convolution integral of the proposed spectrum with the incoherent scattering function. This procedure of spectra determination is enclosed in the same group of those generically referred as successive modifications of the irradiation set up used in absolute methods of X-ray fluorescence analysis. (Author) [es

  4. X-band RF gun and linac for medical Compton scattering X-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobashi, Katsuhito; Uesaka, Mitsuru; Fukasawa, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Fumito; Ebina, Futaro; Ogino, Haruyuki; Urakawa, Junji; Higo, Toshiyasu; Akemoto, Mitsuo; Hayano, Hitoshi; Nakagawa, Keiichi

    2004-01-01

    Compton scattering hard X-ray source for 10-80 keV are under construction using the X-band (11.424 GHz) electron linear accelerator and YAG laser at Nuclear Engineering Research laboratory, University of Tokyo. This work is a part of the national project on the development of advanced compact medical accelerators in Japan. National Institute for Radiological Science is the host institute and U.Tokyo and KEK are working for the X-ray source. Main advantage is to produce tunable monochromatic hard (10-80 keV) X-rays with the intensities of 108-1010 photons/s (at several stages) and the table-top size. Second important aspect is to reduce noise radiation at a beam dump by adopting the deceleration of electrons after the Compton scattering. This realizes one beamline of a 3rd generation SR source at small facilities without heavy shielding. The final goal is that the linac and laser are installed on the moving gantry. We have designed the X-band (11.424 GHz) traveling-wave-type linac for the purpose. Numerical consideration by CAIN code and luminosity calculation are performed to estimate the X-ray yield. X-band thermionic-cathode RF-gun and RDS(Round Detuned Structure)-type X-band accelerating structure are applied to generate 50 MeV electron beam with 20 pC microbunches (104) for 1 microsecond RF macro-pulse. The X-ray yield by the electron beam and Q-switch Nd:YAG laser of 2 J/10 ns is 107 photons/RF-pulse (108 photons/sec at 10 pps). We design to adopt a technique of laser circulation to increase the X-ray yield up to 109 photons/pulse (1010 photons/s). 50 MW X-band klystron and compact modulator have been constructed and now under tuning. The construction of the whole system has started. X-ray generation and medical application will be performed in the early next year

  5. X-band RF gun and linac for medical Compton scattering X-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobashi, Katsuhito; Uesaka, Mitsuru; Fukasawa, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Fumito; Ebina, Futaro; Ogino, Haruyuki; Urakawa, Junji; Higo, Toshiyasu; Akemoto, Mitsuo; Hayano, Hitoshi; Nakagawa, Keiichi

    2004-12-01

    Compton scattering hard X-ray source for 10-80 keV are under construction using the X-band (11.424 GHz) electron linear accelerator and YAG laser at Nuclear Engineering Research laboratory, University of Tokyo. This work is a part of the national project on the development of advanced compact medical accelerators in Japan. National Institute for Radiological Science is the host institute and U.Tokyo and KEK are working for the X-ray source. Main advantage is to produce tunable monochromatic hard (10-80 keV) X-rays with the intensities of 108-1010 photons/s (at several stages) and the table-top size. Second important aspect is to reduce noise radiation at a beam dump by adopting the deceleration of electrons after the Compton scattering. This realizes one beamline of a 3rd generation SR source at small facilities without heavy shielding. The final goal is that the linac and laser are installed on the moving gantry. We have designed the X-band (11.424 GHz) traveling-wave-type linac for the purpose. Numerical consideration by CAIN code and luminosity calculation are performed to estimate the X-ray yield. X-band thermionic-cathode RF-gun and RDS(Round Detuned Structure)-type X-band accelerating structure are applied to generate 50 MeV electron beam with 20 pC microbunches (104) for 1 microsecond RF macro-pulse. The X-ray yield by the electron beam and Q-switch Nd:YAG laser of 2 J/10 ns is 107 photons/RF-pulse (108 photons/sec at 10 pps). We design to adopt a technique of laser circulation to increase the X-ray yield up to 109 photons/pulse (1010 photons/s). 50 MW X-band klystron and compact modulator have been constructed and now under tuning. The construction of the whole system has started. X-ray generation and medical application will be performed in the early next year.

  6. X-ray scattering from surfaces of organic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidalevitz, D.; Feidenhans'l, R.; Smilgies, D.-M.

    1997-01-01

    X-ray scattering experiments have been performed on the surfaces of organic crystals. The (010) cleavage planes of beta-alanine and alpha-glycine were investigated, and both specular and off-specular crystal truncation rods were measured. This allowed a determination of the molecular layering...

  7. Pion inelastic scattering and the pion-nucleus effective interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    This work examines pion inelastic scattering with the primary purpose of gaining a better understanding of the properties of the pion-nucleus interaction. The main conclusion of the work is that an effective interaction which incorporates the most obvious theoretical corrections to the impulse approximation does a good job of explaining pion elastic and inelastic scattering from zero to 200 MeV without significant adjustments to the strength parameters of the force. Watson's multiple scattering theory is used to develop a theoretical interaction starting from the free pion-nucleon interaction. Elastic scattering was used to calibrate the isoscalar central interaction. It was found that the impulse approximation did poorly at low energy, while the multiple scattering corrections gave good agreement with all of the data after a few minor adjustments in the force. The distorted wave approximation for the inelastic transition matrix elements are evaluated for both natural and unnatural parity excitations. The isoscalar natural parity transitions are used to test the reaction theory, and it is found that the effective interaction calibrated by elastic scattering produces good agreement with the inelastic data. Calculations are also shown for other inelastic and charge exchange reactions. It appears that the isovector central interaction is reasonable, but the importance of medium corrections cannot be determined. The unnatural parity transitions are also reasonably described by the theoretical estimate of the spin-orbit interaction, but not enough systematic data exists to reach a firm conclusion

  8. Inelastic neutron scattering from glass formers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchenau, U.

    1997-01-01

    Neutron spectra below and above the glass transition temperature show a pronounced difference between strong and fragile glass formers in Angell's fragility scheme. The strong anharmonic increase of the inelastic scattering with increasing temperature in fragile substances is absent in the strongest glass former SiO 2 . That difference is reflected in the temperature dependence of Brillouin sound velocities above the glass transition. Coherent inelastic neutron scattering data indicate a mixture of sound waves and local modes at the low frequency boson peak. A relation between the fragility and the temperature dependence of the transverse hypersound velocity at the glass temperature is derived. (author)

  9. Experimental elucidation: microscopic mechanism of resonant X-ray scattering in manganite films

    CERN Document Server

    Ohsumi, H; Kiyama, T

    2003-01-01

    Resonant X-ray scattering experiments have been performed on perovskite manganite La sub 0 sub . sub 5 Sr sub 0 sub . sub 5 MnO sub 3 thin films, which are grown on three distinct perovskite with a coherent epitaxial strain and have a forced ferro-type orbital ordering of Mn 3d orbitals. Using an interference technique, we have successfully observed the resonant X-ray scattering signal from the system having the ferro-type orbital ordering and also revealed the energy scheme of Mn 4p bands. For the forced ferro-type orbital ordering system, the present results evidence that the resonant X-ray scattering signal originates from the band structure effect due to the Jahn-Teller distortion of a MnO sub 6 octahedron, and not from the Coulomb interaction between 3d and 4p electrons. (author)

  10. Precise tests of x-ray scattering theories in the Compton regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunford, R. W.; Gemmell, D. S.; Kanter, E. P.; Kraessig, B.; Southworth, S. H.; Young, L.

    1999-01-01

    The authors report two experiments intended to test the accuracy of state-of-the-art theoretical predictions for x-ray scattering from low-Z atoms. The first one deals with the differential x-ray scattering cross sections in Ne and He from 11-22 keV and the Ne Compton-to-Rayleigh scattering ratio in this energy range. It was found that, in order to be consistent with the experimental results, an accurate description at low Z must include nonlocal exchange, electron correlation, and dynamic effects. The second experiment concerns the ratio of helium double-to-single ionization for Compton scattering in the 8-28 keV energy range where published experimental and theoretical results so far fail to give a consistent picture. The progress of the experiment and the data analysis is reported

  11. Soft X-ray spectroscopy of transition metal compounds: a theoretical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokarev, S.I.; Hilal, R.; Aziz, S.G.; Kühn, O.

    2017-01-01

    To date, X-ray spectroscopy has become a routine tool that can reveal highly local and element-specific information on the electronic structure of atoms in complex environments. Here, we report on the development of an efficient and versatile theoretical methodology for the treatment of soft X-ray spectra of transition metal compounds based on the multi-configurational self-consistent field electronic structure theory. A special focus is put on the L-edge photon-in/photon-out and photon-in/electron-out processes, i.e. X-ray absorption, resonant inelastic scattering, partial fluorescence yield, and photoelectron spectroscopy, all treated on the same theoretical footing. The investigated systems range from small prototypical coordination compounds and catalysts to aggregates of biomolecules.

  12. Small angle X-ray scattering from hydrating tricalcium silicate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollet, D.

    1983-01-01

    The small-angle X-ray scattering technique was used to study the structural evolution of hydrated tricalcium silicate at room temperature. The changes in specific area of the associated porosity and the evolution of density fluctuations in the solid hydrated phase were deduced from the scattering data. A correlation of these variations with the hydration mechanism is tried. (Author) [pt

  13. X rays and condensed matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daillant, J.

    1997-01-01

    After a historical review of the discovery and study of X rays, the various interaction processes between X rays and matter are described: Thomson scattering, Compton scattering, X-photon absorption through photoelectric effect, and magnetic scattering. X ray sources such as the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) are described. The various X-ray applications are presented: imagery such as X tomography, X microscopy, phase contrast; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy; X-ray scattering and diffraction techniques

  14. ORNL 10-m small-angle X-ray scattering camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, R.W.

    1979-12-01

    A new small-angle x-ray scattering camera utilizing a rotating anode x-ray source, crystal monochromatization of the incident beam, pinhole collimation, and a two-dimensional position-sensitive proportional counter was developed. The sample, and the resolution element of the detector are each approximately 1 x 1 mm 2 , the camera was designed so that the focal spot-to-sample and sample-to-detector distances may each be varied in 0.5-m increments up to 5 m to provide a system resolution in the range 0.5 to 4.0 mrad. A large, general-purpose specimen chamber has been provided into which a wide variety of special-purpose specimen holders can be mounted. The detector has an active area of 200 x 200 mm and has up to 200 x 200 resolution elements. The data are recorded in the memory of a minicomputer by a high-speed interface which uses a microprocessor to map the position of an incident photon into an absolute minicomputer memory address. The data recorded in the computer memory can be processed on-line by a variety of programs designed to enhance the user's interaction with the experiment. At the highest angular resolution (0.4 mrad), the flux incident on the specimen is 1.0 x 10 6 photons/s with the x-ray source operating at 45 kV and 100 mA. SAX and its associated programs OVF and MOT are high-priority, pre-queued, nonresident foreground tasks which run under the ModComp II MAX III operating system to provide complete user control of the ORNL 10-m small-angle x-ray scattering camera

  15. The application of inelastic neutron scattering to investigate the steam reforming of methane over an alumina-supported nickel catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarlane, Andrew R.; Silverwood, Ian P.; Norris, Elizabeth L.; Ormerod, R. Mark; Frost, Christopher D.; Parker, Stewart F.; Lennon, David

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Inelastic neutron scattering has been used to investigate a Ni/alumina catalyst. • The extent of hydrogen retention by the catalyst has been determined. • Filamentous carbon is identified as a by-product. - Abstract: An alumina-supported nickel catalyst, previously used in methane reforming experiments employing CO 2 as the oxidant, is applied here in the steam reforming variant of the process. Micro-reactor experiments are used to discern an operational window compatible with sample cells designed for inelastic neutron scattering (INS) experiments. INS spectra are recorded after 6 h reaction of a 1:1 mixture of CH 4 and H 2 O at 898 K. Weak INS spectra are observed, indicating minimal hydrogen retention by the catalyst in this operational regime. Post-reaction, the catalyst is further characterised by powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and Raman scattering. In a comparable fashion to that seen for the ‘dry’ reforming experiments, the catalyst retains substantial quantities of carbon in the form of filamentous coke. The role for hydrogen incorporation by the catalyst is briefly considered

  16. The application of inelastic neutron scattering to investigate the steam reforming of methane over an alumina-supported nickel catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarlane, Andrew R.; Silverwood, Ian P. [School of Chemistry, Joseph Black Building, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Norris, Elizabeth L.; Ormerod, R. Mark [Department of Chemistry, School of Physical and Geographical Sciences, Keele University, Staffs ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Frost, Christopher D.; Parker, Stewart F. [ISIS Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Lennon, David, E-mail: David.Lennon@glasgow.ac.uk [School of Chemistry, Joseph Black Building, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-12

    Highlights: • Inelastic neutron scattering has been used to investigate a Ni/alumina catalyst. • The extent of hydrogen retention by the catalyst has been determined. • Filamentous carbon is identified as a by-product. - Abstract: An alumina-supported nickel catalyst, previously used in methane reforming experiments employing CO{sub 2} as the oxidant, is applied here in the steam reforming variant of the process. Micro-reactor experiments are used to discern an operational window compatible with sample cells designed for inelastic neutron scattering (INS) experiments. INS spectra are recorded after 6 h reaction of a 1:1 mixture of CH{sub 4} and H{sub 2}O at 898 K. Weak INS spectra are observed, indicating minimal hydrogen retention by the catalyst in this operational regime. Post-reaction, the catalyst is further characterised by powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and Raman scattering. In a comparable fashion to that seen for the ‘dry’ reforming experiments, the catalyst retains substantial quantities of carbon in the form of filamentous coke. The role for hydrogen incorporation by the catalyst is briefly considered.

  17. Status of Kharkov X-ray Generator based on Compton Scattering NESTOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zelinsky, A.; Androsov, V.P.; Bulyak, E.V.; Drebot, I.; Gladkikh, P.I.; Grevtsev, V.; Botman, J.I.M.; Ivashchenko, V.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Lapshin, V.I.; Markov, V.; Mocheshnikov, N.; Mytsykov, A.; Peev, F.A.; Rezaev, A.; Shcherbakov, A.; Skomorkohov, V.; Skyrda, V.; Telegin, Y.; Trotsenko, V.; Tatchyn, R.; Lebedev, B.; Agafonov, A.V.

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays the sources of the X-rays based on a storage ring with low beam energy and Compton scattering of intense laser beam are under development in several laboratories. In the paper the state-of-art in development and construction of cooperative project of a Kharkov advanced X-ray source NESTOR

  18. The determination of electron momentum densities by inelastic scattering gamma-ray-electron coincidence measurements: The (γ,eγ)-experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rollason, A.J.; Bell, F.; Schneider, J.R.

    1989-09-01

    Measurements have been made of the recoiling electron in 320 keV gamma ray inelastic scattering collisions in thin aluminium targets. The angular correlation of these electrons detected in coincidence with the scattered photon is in agreement with the kinematic requirements of the Compton effect and is correctly predicted by Monte Carlo simulations based on the impulse approximation. Further simulations of ideal-geometry experiments indicate that information about the initial electron momenta is available from an examination of those electron-photon events originating in a surface layer of one electronic mean free path depth and that elastic scattering of the recoil electrons from greater depths produces a nearly flat background to this signal. The results clearly demonstrate the feasibility of the (γ,eγ) experiment for studying electron momentum densities with synchrotron radiation. (orig.) With 23 refs., 17 figs

  19. Real-time, ray casting-based scatter dose estimation for c-arm x-ray system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnewaini, Zaid; Langer, Eric; Schaber, Philipp; David, Matthias; Kretz, Dominik; Steil, Volker; Hesser, Jürgen

    2017-03-01

    Dosimetric control of staff exposure during interventional procedures under fluoroscopy is of high relevance. In this paper, a novel ray casting approximation of radiation transport is presented and the potential and limitation vs. a full Monte Carlo transport and dose measurements are discussed. The x-ray source of a Siemens Axiom Artix C-arm is modeled by a virtual source model using single Gaussian-shaped source. A Geant4-based Monte Carlo simulation determines the radiation transport from the source to compute scatter from the patient, the table, the ceiling and the floor. A phase space around these scatterers stores all photon information. Only those photons are traced that hit a surface of phantom that represents medical staff in the treatment room, no indirect scattering is considered; and a complete dose deposition on the surface is calculated. To evaluate the accuracy of the approximation, both experimental measurements using Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and a Geant4-based Monte Carlo simulation of dose depositing for different tube angulations of the C-arm from cranial-caudal angle 0° and from LAO (Left Anterior Oblique) 0°-90° are realized. Since the measurements were performed on both sides of the table, using the symmetry of the setup, RAO (Right Anterior Oblique) measurements were not necessary. The Geant4-Monte Carlo simulation agreed within 3% with the measured data, which is within the accuracy of measurement and simulation. The ray casting approximation has been compared to TLD measurements and the achieved percentage difference was -7% for data from tube angulations 45°-90° and -29% from tube angulations 0°-45° on the side of the x-ray source, whereas on the opposite side of the x-ray source, the difference was -83.8% and -75%, respectively. Ray casting approximation for only LAO 90° was compared to a Monte Carlo simulation, where the percentage differences were between 0.5-3% on the side of the x-ray source where the highest dose

  20. Inelastic pion scattering from 3H and 3He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berman, B.L.; Anderson, G.C.; Briscoe, W.J.; Mokhtari, A.; Petrov, A.M.; Sadler, M.E.; Barlow, D.B.; Nefkens, B.M.K.; Pillai, C.

    1995-01-01

    Cross sections have been measured for the inelastic scattering of π + and π - mesons from 3 H and 3 He in the 10-MeV interval just above the breakup thresholds, for incident pion energies of 142, 180, and 220 MeV and scattering angles of 40 degree, 60 degree, 80 degree, 90 degree, and 110 degree. No significant departure from unity is observed for the ratios of charge-symmetric cross sections. Comparisons are made with elastic pion-scattering and inelastic electron-scattering data

  1. Toward a new polyethylene scattering law determined using inelastic neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavelle, C.M.; Liu, C.-Y.; Stone, M.B.

    2013-01-01

    Monte Carlo neutron transport codes such as MCNP rely on accurate data for nuclear physics cross-sections to produce accurate results. At low energy, this takes the form of scattering laws based on the dynamic structure factor, S(Q,E). High density polyethylene (HDPE) is frequently employed as a neutron moderator at both high and low temperatures, however the only cross-sections available are for ambient temperatures (∼300K), and the evaluation has not been updated in quite some time. In this paper we describe inelastic neutron scattering measurements on HDPE at 5 and 294 K which are used to improve the scattering law for HDPE. We review some of the past HDPE scattering laws, describe the experimental methods, and compare computations using these models to the measured S(Q,E). The total cross-section is compared to available data, and the treatment of the carbon secondary scatterer as a free gas is assessed. We also discuss the use of the measurement itself as a scattering law via the one phonon approximation. We show that a scattering law computed using a more detailed model for the Generalized Density of States (GDOS) compares more favorably to this experiment, suggesting that inelastic neutron scattering can play an important role in both the development and validation of new scattering laws for Monte Carlo work. -- Highlights: ► Polyethylene at 5 K and 300 K is measured using inelastic neutron scattering (INS). ► Measurements conducted at the Wide Angular-Range Chopper Spectrometer at SNS. ► Several models for Polyethylene are compared to measurements. ► Improvements to existing models for the polyethylene scattering law are suggested. ► INS is shown to be highly valuable tool for scattering law development

  2. Deep inelastic scattering and disquarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmino, M.

    1993-01-01

    The most comprehensive and detailed analyses of the existing data on the structure function F 2 (x, Q 2 ) of free nucleons, from the deep inelastic scattering (DIS) of charged leptons on hydrogen and deuterium targets, have proved beyond any doubt that higher twist, 1/Q 2 corrections are needed in order to obtain a perfect agreement between perturbative QCD predictions and the data. These higher twist corrections take into account two quark correlations inside the nucleon; it is then natural to try to model them in the quark-diquark model of the proton. In so doing all interactions between the two quarks inside the diquark, both perturbative and non perturbative, are supposed to be taken into account. (orig./HSI)

  3. Quantitative characterization of fatty liver disease using x-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsharkawy, Wafaa B.; Elshemey, Wael M.

    2013-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a dynamic condition in which fat abnormally accumulates within the hepatocytes. It is believed to be a marker of risk of later chronic liver diseases, such as liver cirrhosis and carcinoma. The fat content in liver biopsies determines its validity for liver transplantation. Transplantation of livers with severe NAFLD is associated with a high risk of primary non-function. Moreover, NAFLD is recognized as a clinically important feature that influences patient morbidity and mortality after hepatic resection. Unfortunately, there is a lack in a precise, reliable and reproducible method for quantification of NAFLD. This work suggests a method for the quantification of NAFLD. The method is based on the fact that fatty liver tissue would have a characteristic x-ray scattering profile with a relatively intense fat peak at a momentum transfer value of 1.1 nm −1 compared to a soft tissue peak at 1.6 nm −1 . The fat content in normal and fatty liver is plotted against three profile characterization parameters (ratio of peak intensities, ratio of area under peaks and ratio of area under fat peak to total profile area) for measured and Monte Carlo simulated x-ray scattering profiles. Results show a high linear dependence (R 2 >0.9) of the characterization parameters on the liver fat content with a reported high correlation coefficient (>0.9) between measured and simulated data. These results indicate that the current method probably offers reliable quantification of fatty liver disease. - Highlights: • A method for the quantification of NAFLD is suggested. • Fatty liver tissue has characteristic x-ray scattering profile. • Profile characterization parameters show differences between normal and fatty liver. • Monte Carlo simulated x-ray scattering profiles are compared to measured

  4. Simulation of a complete inelastic neutron scattering experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, H.; Lefmann, K.; Lake, B.

    2002-01-01

    A simulation of an inelastic neutron scattering experiment on the high-temperature superconductor La2-xSrxCuO4 is presented. The complete experiment, including sample, is simulated using an interface between the experiment control program and the simulation software package (McStas) and is compared...... with the experimental data. Simulating the entire experiment is an attractive alternative to the usual method of convoluting the model cross section with the resolution function, especially if the resolution function is nontrivial....

  5. Introducing a standard method for experimental determination of the solvent response in laser pump, x-ray probe time-resolved wide-angle x-ray scattering experiments on systems in solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Kasper Skov; Brandt van Driel, Tim; Kehres, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In time-resolved laser pump, X-ray probe wide-angle X-ray scattering experiments on systems in solution the structural response of the system is accompanied by a solvent response. The solvent response is caused by reorganization of the bulk solvent following the laser pump event, and in order...... response-the solvent term-experimentally when applying laser pump, X-ray probe time-resolved wide-angle X-ray scattering. The solvent term describes difference scattering arising from the structural response of the solvent to changes in the hydrodynamic parameters: pressure, temperature and density. We...... is demonstrated to exhibit first order behaviour with respect to the amount of energy deposited in the solution. We introduce a standardized method for recording solvent responses in laser pump, X-ray probe time-resolved X-ray wide-angle scattering experiments by using dye mediated solvent heating. Furthermore...

  6. Neutron scattering investigations of the properties of the x - T phase diagram of Rb1-x(NH4)xI mixed crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, L.S.; Natkaniec, I.; Savenko, B.N.

    2002-01-01

    The x - T phase diagram of Rb 1-x (NH 4 ) x I is studied using samples with the ammonium concentration 0.01< x<0.77 over a wide temperature region of 15 to 300 K by neutron powder diffraction and inelastic incoherent neutron scattering. The results of powder diffraction studies show that at low temperatures a phase transition from α-phase to β-phase is observed at ammonium concentrations x = 0.50 and x = 0.66. Inelastic incoherent neutron scattering detects a region of the orientional glass state at ammonium concentrations 0.29< x,0.40

  7. X-ray magnetic scattering in SDW Cr - ab initio study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, M.; Igarashi, J.-I.; Hirai, K.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Resonant x-ray scattering at the K-edge of transition metal atom has attracted much attention as a powerful tool for obtaining information on magnetic or orbital properties of 3d electrons. Recently Mannix et al. performed the x-ray magnetic scattering experiment in SDW Chromium and observed the finite scattering intensity with resonant enhancement at Cr K-edge on the SDW magnetic spot (0, 0, 1 ±δ). Applying ab-initio band structure calculation based on the local spin density approximation, we analyze the scattering spectra and elucidate the mechanism of the resonant enhancement in connection with the electronic structure. We assumed the bcc structure with the lattice constant a = 5.45a 0 and the SDW wavelength λ SDW = 20a, which are nearly equilibrium value at the spin-flip temperature T SF = 122K. The K-edge x-ray absorption and scattering spectra are calculated using Fermi's golden rule. We evaluate the non-resonant scattering amplitude within the spherical and dipolar approximations for spin and orbital moment contributions, respectively. The calculated absorption spectra are in good agreement with the experiment. This may assure the validity of the calculation. We obtained finite scattering amplitude with resonant enhancement at the K-edge. The calculated photon energy dependence of the scattering intensity shows good agreement with the experiment. The contribution of the 3d and 4p orbital moments to the non-resonant scattering amplitude is negligible in consequence of the smallness of their values, which are l max d ∼ 0.006ℎ and l max p ∼ 0.00007ℎ. On the other hand, although the 3d and 4p orbital moments are infinitesimal, they play important role on the resonant enhancement, which occurs through the 1s - 4p dipole transition and reflects the 4p orbital polarization. The 4p orbital polarization is caused by the on-site spin-orbit interaction in 4p orbital itself and the hybridization of the 4p orbital with the 3d orbital at neighboring

  8. A high-resolution multiwire area detector for X-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faruqi, A R; Andrews, H [Medical Research Council, Cambridge (UK). Lab. of Molecular Biology

    1989-11-10

    A high-resolution multiwire area detector has been developed for recording X-ray scattering from biological specimens. The detector is 100x100 mm{sup 2} and, under the present operating conditions, has a spatial resolution of about 250 {mu}m in both directions. The detector is set up on a double-mirror focusing camera on a rotating anode X-ray generator and has been used in a number of small-angle experiments, two of which are described in this paper. (orig.).

  9. Possibility of single biomolecule imaging with coherent amplification of weak scattering x-ray photons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintake, Tsumoru

    2008-10-01

    The number of photons produced by coherent x-ray scattering from a single biomolecule is very small because of its extremely small elastic-scattering cross section and low damage threshold. Even with a high x-ray flux of 3 x 10;{12} photons per 100-nm -diameter spot and an ultrashort pulse of 10 fs driven by a future x-ray free electron laser (x-ray FEL), it has been predicted that only a few 100 photons will be produced from the scattering of a single lysozyme molecule. In observations of scattered x rays on a detector, the transfer of energy from wave to matter is accompanied by the quantization of the photon energy. Unfortunately, x rays have a high photon energy of 12 keV at wavelengths of 1A , which is required for atomic resolution imaging. Therefore, the number of photoionization events is small, which limits the resolution of imaging of a single biomolecule. In this paper, I propose a method: instead of directly observing the photons scattered from the sample, we amplify the scattered waves by superimposing an intense coherent reference pump wave on it and record the resulting interference pattern on a planar x-ray detector. Using a nanosized gold particle as a reference pump wave source, we can collect 10;{4}-10;{5} photons in single shot imaging where the signal from a single biomolecule is amplified and recorded as two-dimensional diffraction intensity data. An iterative phase retrieval technique can be used to recover the phase information and reconstruct the image of the single biomolecule and the gold particle at the same time. In order to precisely reconstruct a faint image of the single biomolecule in Angstrom resolution, whose intensity is much lower than that of the bright gold particle, I propose a technique that combines iterative phase retrieval on the reference pump wave and the digital Fourier transform holography on the sample. By using a large number of holography data, the three-dimensional electron density map can be assembled.

  10. Time-dependent nonequilibrium soft x-ray response during a spin crossover

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veenendaal, Michel

    2018-03-01

    A theoretical framework is developed for better understanding the time-dependent soft-x-ray response of dissipative quantum many-body systems. It is shown how x-ray absorption and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) at transition-metal L edges can provide insight into ultrafast intersystem crossings of importance for energy conversion, ultrafast magnetism, and catalysis. The photoinduced doublet-to-quartet spin crossover on cobalt in Fe-Co Prussian blue analogs is used as a model system to demonstrate how the x-ray response is affected by the nonequilibrium dynamics on a femtosecond time scale. Changes in local spin and symmetry and the underlying mechanism are reflected in strong broadenings, a collapse of clear selection rules during the intersystem crossing, fluctuations in the isotropic branching ratio in x-ray absorption, crystal-field collapse and/or oscillations, and time-dependent anti-Stokes processes in RIXS.

  11. Gamma decay of pygmy states in 90,94Zr from inelastic scattering of light ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, F. C. L.; Bracco, A.; Tamii, A.; Blasi, N.; Camera, F.; Wieland, O.; Aoi, N.; Balabanski, D.; Bassauer, S.; Brown, A. S.; Carpenter, M. P.; Carroll, J. J.; Ciemala, M.; Czeszumska, A.; Davies, P. J.; Donaldson, L.; Fang, Y.; Fujita, H.; Gey, G.; Hoang, T. H.; Ichige, N.; Ideguchi, E.; Inoue, A.; Isaak, J.; Iwamoto, C.; Jenkins, D. G.; Jin, O. H.; Klaus, T.; Kobayashi, N.; Koike, T.; Krzysiek, M.; Raju, M. Kumar; Liu, M.; Maj, A.; Montanari, D.; Morris, L.; Noji, S.; Pickstone, S. G.; Savran, D.; Spieker, M.; Steinhilber, G.; Sullivan, C.; Wasilewska, B.; Werner, V.; Yamamoto, T.; Yamamoto, Y.; Zhou, X.; Zhu, S.

    2018-05-01

    We performed experiments to study the low-energy part of the E1 response (Pygmy Dipole Resonance) in 90,94Zr nuclei, by measuring the (p,p’γ) and (α,α’γ) inelastic scattering reactions at energies Ebeam,p = 80 MeV and Ebeam,α = 130 MeV respectively. The inelastically scattered particles were measured by employing the high-resolution spectrometer Grand Raiden. The gamma-rays emitted following the de-excitation of the Zr target nuclei were detected using both the clover type HPGe detectors of the CAGRA array and the large volume LaBr3:Ce scintillation detectors from the HECTOR+ array. Some preliminary results are presented here.

  12. Time-dependent nonequilibrium soft x-ray response during a spin crossover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Veenendaal, Michel

    2018-03-01

    The rapid development of high-brilliance pulsed X-ray sources with femtosecond time resolution has created a need for a better theoretical understanding of the time-dependent soft-X-ray response of dissipative many-body quantum systems. It is demonstrated how soft-X-ray spectroscopies, such as X-ray absorption and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering at transition-metal L-edges, can provide insight into intersystem crossings, such as a spin crossover. The photoinduced doublet-to-quartet spin crossover on cobalt in Fe-Co Prussian blue analogues is used as an example to demonstrate how the X-ray response is affected by the dissipative nonequilibrium dynamics. The time-dependent soft-X-ray spectra provide a wealth of information that reflect the changes in the nonequilibrium initial state via continuously changing spectral lineshapes that cannot be decomposed into initial photoexcited and final metastable spectra, strong broadenings, a collapse of clear selection rules during the intersystem crossing, strong fluctuations in the isotropic branching ratio in X-ray absorption, and crystal-field collapse/oscillations and strongly time-dependent anti-Stokes processes in RIXS.

  13. Inelastic electron scattering influence on the strong coupling oxide superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabovich, A.M.; Voitenko, A.I.

    1995-01-01

    The superconducting order parameters Δ and energy gap Δ g are calculated taking into account the pair-breaking inelastic quasiparticle scattering by thermal Bose-excitations, e.g., phonons. The treatment is self-consistent because the scattering amplitude depends on Δ. The superconducting transition for any strength of the inelastic scattering is the phase transition of the first kind and the dependences Δ (T) and Δ g (T) tend to rectangular curve that agrees well with the experiment for high-Tc oxides. On the basis of the developed theory the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate R s in the superconducting state is calculated. The Hebel-Slichter peak in R s (T) is shown to disappear for strong enough inelastic scattering

  14. A multislice theory of electron inelastic scattering in a solid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.L.

    1989-01-01

    A multislice theory is proposed to solve Yoshioka's coupling equations for elastic and inelastic scattered high-energy electrons in a solid. This method is capable, in principle, of including the non-periodic crystal structures and the electron multiple scattering among all the excited states in the calculations. It is proved that the proposed theory for calculating the energy-filtered inelastic images, based on the physical optics approach, is equivalent to the quantum-mechanical theory under some approximations. The basic theory of simulating the energy-filtered inelastic image of core-shell losses and thermal diffuse scattering is outlined. (orig.)

  15. Effective exchange potentials for electronically inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwenke, D.W.; Staszewska, G.; Truhlar, D.G.

    1983-01-01

    We propose new methods for solving the electron scattering close coupling equations employing equivalent local exchange potentials in place of the continuum-multiconfiguration-Hartree--Fock-type exchange kernels. The local exchange potentials are Hermitian. They have the correct symmetry for any symmetries of excited electronic states included in the close coupling expansion, and they have the same limit at very high energy as previously employed exchange potentials. Comparison of numerical calculations employing the new exchange potentials with the results obtained with the standard nonlocal exchange kernels shows that the new exchange potentials are more accurate than the local exchange approximations previously available for electronically inelastic scattering. We anticipate that the new approximations will be most useful for intermediate-energy electronically inelastic electron--molecule scattering

  16. A preliminary study of breast cancer diagnosis using laboratory based small angle x-ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Round, A. R.; Wilkinson, S. J.; Hall, C. J.; Rogers, K. D.; Glatter, O.; Wess, T.; Ellis, I. O.

    2005-09-01

    Breast tissue collected from tumour samples and normal tissue from bi-lateral mastectomy procedures were examined using small angle x-ray scattering. Previous work has indicated that breast tissue disease diagnosis could be performed using small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) from a synchrotron radiation source. The technique would be more useful to health services if it could be made to work using a conventional x-ray source. Consistent and reliable differences in x-ray scatter distributions were observed between samples from normal and tumour tissue samples using the laboratory based 'SAXSess' system. Albeit from a small number of samples, a sensitivity of 100% was obtained. This result encourages us to pursue the implementation of SAXS as a laboratory based diagnosis technique.

  17. A preliminary study of breast cancer diagnosis using laboratory based small angle x-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Round, A R [Daresbury Laboratories, Warrington, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Wilkinson, S J [Daresbury Laboratories, Warrington, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Hall, C J [Daresbury Laboratories, Warrington, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Rogers, K D [Department of Materials and Medical Sciences, Cranfield University, Swindon, SN6 8LA (United Kingdom); Glatter, O [Department of Chemistry, University of Graz (Austria); Wess, T [School of Optometry and Vision Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3NB, Wales (United Kingdom); Ellis, I O [Nottingham City Hospital, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2005-09-07

    Breast tissue collected from tumour samples and normal tissue from bi-lateral mastectomy procedures were examined using small angle x-ray scattering. Previous work has indicated that breast tissue disease diagnosis could be performed using small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) from a synchrotron radiation source. The technique would be more useful to health services if it could be made to work using a conventional x-ray source. Consistent and reliable differences in x-ray scatter distributions were observed between samples from normal and tumour tissue samples using the laboratory based 'SAXSess' system. Albeit from a small number of samples, a sensitivity of 100% was obtained. This result encourages us to pursue the implementation of SAXS as a laboratory based diagnosis technique.

  18. A preliminary study of breast cancer diagnosis using laboratory based small angle x-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Round, A R; Wilkinson, S J; Hall, C J; Rogers, K D; Glatter, O; Wess, T; Ellis, I O

    2005-01-01

    Breast tissue collected from tumour samples and normal tissue from bi-lateral mastectomy procedures were examined using small angle x-ray scattering. Previous work has indicated that breast tissue disease diagnosis could be performed using small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) from a synchrotron radiation source. The technique would be more useful to health services if it could be made to work using a conventional x-ray source. Consistent and reliable differences in x-ray scatter distributions were observed between samples from normal and tumour tissue samples using the laboratory based 'SAXSess' system. Albeit from a small number of samples, a sensitivity of 100% was obtained. This result encourages us to pursue the implementation of SAXS as a laboratory based diagnosis technique

  19. Measurement of the structure function of the nearly free neutron using spectator tagging in inelastic 2H(e ,e'ps )X scattering with CLAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachenko, S.; Baillie, N.; Kuhn, S. E.; Zhang, J.; Arrington, J.; Bosted, P.; Bültmann, S.; Christy, M. E.; Fenker, H.; Griffioen, K. A.; Kalantarians, N.; Keppel, C. E.; Melnitchouk, W.; Tvaskis, V.; Adhikari, K. P.; Aghasyan, M.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Avakian, H.; Ball, J.; Baltzell, N. A.; Battaglieri, M.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Biselli, A. S.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brooks, W. K.; Burkert, V. D.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Charles, G.; Cole, P. L.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cortes, O.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Dodge, G. E.; Doughty, D.; Dupre, R.; Egiyan, H.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fleming, J. A.; Garillon, B.; Gevorgyan, N.; Ghandilyan, Y.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Goetz, J. T.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Guidal, M.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hakobyan, H.; Hanretty, C.; Harrison, N.; Hattawy, M.; Hicks, K.; Ho, D.; Holtrop, M.; Hyde, C. E.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Jo, H. S.; Keller, D.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; King, P. M.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Koirala, S.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Lenisa, P.; Lewis, S.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H.; MacCormick, M.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Markov, N.; Mayer, M.; McKinnon, B.; Mineeva, T.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Montgomery, R. A.; Moutarde, H.; Munoz Camacho, C.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Osipenko, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Paremuzyan, R.; Park, K.; Pasyuk, E.; Phillips, J. J.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Pozdniakov, S.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Protopopescu, D.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Rimal, D.; Ripani, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Roy, P.; Sabatié, F.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Seder, E.; Senderovich, I.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Simonyan, A.; Smith, G. D.; Sober, D. I.; Sokhan, D.; Stepanyan, S.; Stepanyan, S. S.; Strauch, S.; Tang, W.; Ungaro, M.; Vlassov, A. V.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D.; Wei, X.; Weinstein, L. B.; Wood, M. H.; Zana, L.; Zonta, I.; CLAS Collaboration

    2014-04-01

    Background: Much less is known about neutron structure than that of the proton due to the absence of free neutron targets. Neutron information is usually extracted from data on nuclear targets such as deuterium, requiring corrections for nuclear binding and nucleon off-shell effects. These corrections are model dependent and have significant uncertainties, especially for large values of the Bjorken scaling variable x . As a consequence, the same data can lead to different conclusions, for example, about the behavior of the d quark distribution in the proton at large x . Purpose: The Barely Off-shell Nucleon Structure experiment at Jefferson Lab measured the inelastic electron-deuteron scattering cross section, tagging spectator protons in coincidence with the scattered electrons. This method reduces nuclear binding uncertainties significantly and has allowed for the first time a (nearly) model-independent extraction of the neutron structure function F2(x ,Q2) in the resonance and deep-inelastic regions. Method: A novel compact radial time projection chamber was built to detect protons with momentum between 70 and 150 MeV/c and over a nearly 4 π angular range. For the extraction of the free-neutron structure function F2n, spectator protons at backward angles (>100∘ relative to the momentum transfer) and with momenta below 100 MeV/c were selected, ensuring that the scattering took place on a nearly free neutron. The scattered electrons were detected with Jefferson Lab's CLAS spectrometer, with data taken at beam energies near 2, 4, and 5 GeV. Results: The extracted neutron structure function F2n and its ratio to the inclusive deuteron structure function F2d are presented in both the resonance and the deep-inelastic regions for momentum transfer squared Q2 between 0.7 and 5 GeV2/c2 , invariant mass W between 1 and 2.7 GeV/c2 , and Bjorken x between 0.25 and 0.6 (in the deep-inelastic scattering region). The dependence of the semi-inclusive cross section on the

  20. Measurement of dijet production in diffractive deep-inelastic scattering with a leading proton at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaron, F.D.; Alexa, C.; Rotaru, M.; Stoicea, G.; Andreev, V.; Belousov, A.; Eliseev, A.; Fomenko, A.; Gogitidze, N.; Lebedev, A.; Malinovski, E.; Rusakov, S.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Soloviev, Y.; Vazdik, Y.; Backovic, S.; Dubak, A.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Picuric, I.; Raicevic, N.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baghdasaryan, S.; Zohrabyan, H.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Belov, P.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Britzger, D.; Campbell, A.J.; Eckerlin, G.; Elsen, E.; Felst, R.; Fischer, D.J.; Fleischer, M.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grebenyuk, A.; Grell, B.R.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Helebrant, C.; Kleinwort, C.; Kogler, R.; Kraemer, M.; Levonian, S.; Lipka, K.; List, B.; List, J.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, J.; Niebuhr, C.; Nowak, K.; Olsson, J.E.; Pahl, P.; Panagoulias, I.; Papadopoulou, T.; Petrukhin, A.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Schmitt, S.; Sefkow, F.; Shushkevich, S.; South, D.; Steder, M.; Wuensch, E.; Begzsuren, K.; Ravdandorj, T.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Bizot, J.C.; Brisson, V.; Delcourt, B.; Jacquet, M.; Pascaud, C.; Tran, T.H.; Zhang, Z.; Zomer, F.; Boudry, V.; Moreau, F.; Specka, A.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Mudrinic, M.; Pandurovic, M.; Smiljanic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Newman, P.R.; Thompson, P.D.; Bruncko, D.; Cerny, V.; Ferencei, J.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Chekelian, V.; Dossanov, A.; Grindhammer, G.; Kiesling, C.; Bystritskaya, L.; Fedotov, A.; Lubimov, V.; Ozerov, D.; Rostovtsev, A.; Zhokin, A.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Contreras, J.G.; Ruiz Tabasco, J.E.; Ceccopieri, F.; Delvax, J.; Wolf, E.A. de; Favart, L.; Hreus, T.; Janssen, X.; Marage, P.; Roosen, R.; Staykova, Z.; Mechelen, P. van; Cerny, K.; Pokorny, B.; Polifka, R.; Salek, D.; Valkarova, A.; Zacek, J.; Coughlan, J.A.; Morris, J.V.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Cvach, J.; Reimer, P.; Zalesak, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Gabathuler, E.; Greenshaw, T.; Klein, M.; Kluge, T.; Kretzschmar, J.; Laycock, P.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Patel, G.D.; Daum, K.; Meyer, H.; Diaconu, C.; Hoffmann, D.; Sauvan, E.; Vallee, C.; Dobre, M.; Placakyte, R.; Dodonov, V.; Povh, B.; Egli, S.; Hildebrandt, M.; Horisberger, R.; Feltesse, J.; Perez, E.; Schoeffel, L.; Goerlich, L.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Nowak, G.; Sopicki, P.; Turnau, J.; Grab, C.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Sloan, T.; Hennekemper, E.; Herbst, M.; Krueger, K.; Lendermann, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Henschel, H.; Hiller, K.H.; Kostka, P.; Lange, W.; Naumann, T.; Herrera, G.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Huber, F.; Pirumov, H.; Radescu, V.; Sauter, M.; Schoening, A.; Joensson, L.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Makankine, A.; Morozov, A.; Nikitin, D.; Palichik, V.; Spaskov, V.; Landon, M.P.J.; Rizvi, E.; Traynor, D.; Martyn, H.U.; Mueller, K.; Robmann, P.; Straumann, U.; Truoel, P.; Stella, B.; Sykora, T.; Tsakov, I.; Wegener, D.

    2012-01-01

    The cross section of diffractive deep-inelastic scattering ep→eXp is measured, where the system X contains at least two jets and the leading final state proton is detected in the H1 Forward Proton Spectrometer. The measurement is performed for fractional proton longitudinal momentum loss x P 2 in squared four-momentum transfer at the proton vertex and 4 2 2 in photon virtuality. The differential cross sections extrapolated to vertical stroke t vertical stroke 2 are in agreement with next-to-leading order QCD predictions based on diffractive parton distribution functions extracted from measurements of inclusive and dijet cross sections in diffractive deep-inelastic scattering. The data are also compared with leading order Monte Carlo models. (orig.)

  1. Magnetic Dynamics of Fine Particles Studied by Inelastic Neutron Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Bødker, Franz; Mørup, Steen

    2000-01-01

    We give an introduction to inelastic neutron scattering and the dynamic scattering function for magnetic nanoparticles. Differences between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic nanoparticles are discussed and we give a review of recent results on ferromagnetic Fe nanoparticles and canted antiferro......We give an introduction to inelastic neutron scattering and the dynamic scattering function for magnetic nanoparticles. Differences between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic nanoparticles are discussed and we give a review of recent results on ferromagnetic Fe nanoparticles and canted...

  2. Measurement of the cross section for diffractive deep-inelastic scattering with a leading proton at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaron, F.D.; Alexa, C.; Rotaru, M.; Stoicea, G.; Andreev, V.; Belousov, A.; Eliseev, A.; Fomenko, A.; Gogitidze, N.; Lebedev, A.; Loktionova, N.; Malinovski, E.; Rusakov, S.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Soloviev, Y.; Vazdik, Y.; Backovic, S.; Dubak, A.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Picuric, I.; Raicevic, N.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Zohrabyan, H.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Britzger, D.; Campbell, A.J.; Cholewa, A.; Deak, M.; Eckerlin, G.; Elsen, E.; Felst, R.; Fischer, D.J.; Fleischer, M.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grebenyuk, A.; Grell, B.R.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Helebrant, C.; Katzy, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Knutsson, A.; Kraemer, M.; Kutak, K.; Levonian, S.; Lipka, K.; List, J.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, J.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, K.; Olsson, J.E.; Pahl, P.; Panagoulias, I.; Papadopoulou, T.; Petrukhin, A.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Schmitt, S.; Sefkow, F.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Toll, T.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Driesch, M. von den; Wuensch, E.; Begzsuren, K.; Ravdandorj, T.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Bizot, J.C.; Brisson, V.; Delcourt, B.; Jacquet, M.; Pascaud, C.; Tran, T.H.; Zhang, Z.; Zomer, F.; Boudry, V.; Moreau, F.; Specka, A.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Mudrinic, M.; Pandurovic, M.; Smiljanic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Newman, P.R.; Thompson, P.D.; Bruncko, D.; Cerny, V.; Ferencei, J.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Chekelian, V.; Dossanov, A.; Grindhammer, G.; Kiesling, C.; Kogler, R.; Shushkevich, S.; Bystritskaya, L.; Efremenko, V.; Fedotov, A.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Lubimov, V.; Ozerov, D.; Rostovtsev, A.; Zhokin, A.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Contreras, J.G.; Ruiz Tabasco, J.E.; Ceccopieri, F.; Delvax, J.; Wolf, E.A. de; Favart, L.; Hreus, T.; Janssen, X.; Marage, P.; Mozer, M.U.; Roosen, R.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Mechelen, P. van; Cerny, K.; Pokorny, B.; Polifka, R.; Salek, D.; Valkarova, A.; Zacek, J.; Coughlan, J.A.; Morris, J.V.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Cvach, J.; Reimer, P.; Zalesak, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Gabathuler, E.; Greenshaw, T.; Klein, M.; Kluge, T.; Kretzschmar, J.; Laycock, P.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Patel, G.D.; Daum, K.; Meyer, H.; Diaconu, C.; Hoffmann, D.; Sauvan, E.; Vallee, C.; Dobre, M.; List, B.; Dodonov, V.; Povh, B.; Egli, S.; Hildebrandt, M.; Horisberger, R.; Feltesse, J.; Perez, E.; Schoeffel, L.; Goerlich, L.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Nowak, G.; Sopicki, P.; Turnau, J.; Grab, C.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Sloan, T.; Hennekemper, E.; Herbst, M.; Jung, A.W.; Krueger, K.; Lendermann, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Urban, K.; Henschel, H.; Hiller, K.H.; Kostka, P.; Lange, W.; Naumann, T.; Herrera, G.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Huber, F.; Pirumov, H.; Radescu, V.; Sauter, M.; Schoening, A.; Joensson, L.; Osman, S.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Makankine, A.; Morozov, A.; Nikitin, D.; Palichik, V.; Spaskov, V.; Landon, M.P.J.; Rizvi, E.; Thompson, G.; Traynor, D.; Martyn, H.U.; Mueller, K.; Robmann, P.; Straumann, U.; Truoel, P.; South, D.; Wegener, D.; Stella, B.; Tsakov, I.

    2011-01-01

    The cross section for the diffractive deep-inelastic scattering process ep→eXp is measured, with the leading final state proton detected in the H1 Forward Proton Spectrometer. The data sample covers the range x P 2 in squared four-momentum transfer at the proton vertex and 4 2 2 in photon virtuality. The cross section is measured four-fold differentially in t,x P ,Q 2 and β=x/x P , where x is the Bjorken scaling variable. The t and x P dependences are interpreted in terms of an effective pomeron trajectory and a sub-leading exchange. The data are compared with perturbative QCD predictions at next-to-leading order based on diffractive parton distribution functions previously extracted from complementary measurements of inclusive diffractive deep-inelastic scattering. The ratio of the diffractive to the inclusive ep cross section is studied as a function of Q 2 ,β and x P . (orig.)

  3. Femtosecond X-ray scattering in condensed matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korff Schmising, Clemens von

    2008-11-24

    This thesis investigates the manifold couplings between electronic and structural properties in crystalline Perovskite oxides and a polar molecular crystal. Ultrashort optical excitation changes the electronic structure and the dynamics of the connected reversible lattice rearrangement is imaged in real time by femtosecond X-ray scattering experiments. An epitaxially grown superlattice consisting of alternating nanolayers of metallic and ferromagnetic strontium ruthenate (SRO) and dielectric strontium titanate serves as a model system to study optically generated stress. In the ferromagnetic phase, phonon-mediated and magnetostrictive stress in SRO display similar sub-picosecond dynamics, similar strengths but opposite sign and different excitation spectra. The amplitude of the magnetic component follows the temperature dependent magnetization square, whereas the strength of phononic stress is determined by the amount of deposited energy only. The ultrafast, phonon-mediated stress in SRO compresses ferroelectric nanolayers of lead zirconate titanate in a further superlattice system. This change of tetragonal distortion of the ferroelectric layer reaches up to 2 percent within 1.5 picoseconds and couples to the ferroelectric soft mode, or ion displacement within the unit cell. As a result, the macroscopic polarization is reduced by up to 100 percent with a 500 femtosecond delay that is due to final elongation time of the two anharmonically coupled modes. Femtosecond photoexcitation of organic chromophores in a molecular, polar crystal induces strong changes of the electronic dipole moment via intramolecular charge transfer. Ultrafast changes of transmitted X-ray intensity evidence an angular rotation of molecules around excited dipoles following the 10 picosecond kinetics of the charge transfer reaction. Transient X-ray scattering is governed by solvation, masking changes of the chromophore's molecular structure. (orig.)

  4. Femtosecond X-ray scattering in condensed matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korff Schmising, Clemens von

    2008-01-01

    This thesis investigates the manifold couplings between electronic and structural properties in crystalline Perovskite oxides and a polar molecular crystal. Ultrashort optical excitation changes the electronic structure and the dynamics of the connected reversible lattice rearrangement is imaged in real time by femtosecond X-ray scattering experiments. An epitaxially grown superlattice consisting of alternating nanolayers of metallic and ferromagnetic strontium ruthenate (SRO) and dielectric strontium titanate serves as a model system to study optically generated stress. In the ferromagnetic phase, phonon-mediated and magnetostrictive stress in SRO display similar sub-picosecond dynamics, similar strengths but opposite sign and different excitation spectra. The amplitude of the magnetic component follows the temperature dependent magnetization square, whereas the strength of phononic stress is determined by the amount of deposited energy only. The ultrafast, phonon-mediated stress in SRO compresses ferroelectric nanolayers of lead zirconate titanate in a further superlattice system. This change of tetragonal distortion of the ferroelectric layer reaches up to 2 percent within 1.5 picoseconds and couples to the ferroelectric soft mode, or ion displacement within the unit cell. As a result, the macroscopic polarization is reduced by up to 100 percent with a 500 femtosecond delay that is due to final elongation time of the two anharmonically coupled modes. Femtosecond photoexcitation of organic chromophores in a molecular, polar crystal induces strong changes of the electronic dipole moment via intramolecular charge transfer. Ultrafast changes of transmitted X-ray intensity evidence an angular rotation of molecules around excited dipoles following the 10 picosecond kinetics of the charge transfer reaction. Transient X-ray scattering is governed by solvation, masking changes of the chromophore's molecular structure. (orig.)

  5. Small angle x-ray scattering from proteins in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Souza, C.F.; Torriani, I.L.; Bonafe, C.F.S.; Merrelles, N.C.; Vachette, P.

    1989-01-01

    In this work the authors report experiments performed with giant respiratory proteins from annelids (erythrocruorins), known to have a molecular weight in the order of four million Daltons. Preliminary x-ray scattering data was obtained using a conventional rotating anode source. High resolution small angle scattering curves were obtained with synchrotron radiation from the DCI storage ring at LURE. Data from solutions with several protein concentrations were analyzed in order to determine low resolution dimensional parameters, using Guinier plots from the smeared scattering curves and the inverse transformation method

  6. Initial study of deep inelastic scattering with ZEUS at HERA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrick, M.; Krakauer, D.; Magill, S.; Musgrave, B.; Repond, J.; Repond, S.; Stanek, R.; Talaga, R. L.; Thron, J.; Arzarello, F.; Ayad, R.; Barbagli, G.; Bari, G.; Basile, M.; Bellagamba, L.; Boscherini, D.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruni, P.; Cara Romeo, G.; Castellini, G.; Chiarini, M.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Ciralli, F.; Contin, A.; D'Auria, S.; del Papa, C.; Frasconi, F.; Giusti, P.; Iacobucci, G.; Laurenti, G.; Levi, G.; Lin, Q.; Lisowski, B.; Maccarrone, G.; Margotti, A.; Massam, T.; Nania, R.; Nemoz, C.; Palmonari, F.; Sartorelli, G.; Timellini, R.; Zamora Garcia, Y.; Zichichi, A.; Bargende, A.; Crittenden, J.; Dabbous, H.; Desch, K.; Diekmann, B.; Doeker, T.; Geerts, M.; Geitz, G.; Gutjahr, B.; Hartmann, H.; Hartmann, J.; Haun, D.; Heinloth, K.; Hilger, E.; Jakob, H.-P.; Kramarczyk, S.; Kückes, M.; Mass, A.; Mengel, S.; Mollen, J.; Monaldi, D.; Müsch, H.; Paul, E.; Schattevoy, R.; Schneider, J.-L.; Wedemeyer, R.; Cassidy, A.; Cussans, D. G.; Dyce, N.; Fawcett, H. F.; Foster, B.; Gilmore, R.; Heath, G. P.; Lancaster, M.; Llewellyn, T. J.; Malos, J.; Morgado, C. J. S.; Tapper, R. J.; Wilson, S. S.; Rau, R. R.; Barillari, T.; Schioppa, M.; Susinno, G.; Bernstein, A.; Caldwell, A.; Gialas, I.; Parsons, J. A.; Ritz, S.; Sciulli, F.; Straub, P. B.; Wai, L.; Yang, S.; Burkot, W.; Eskreys, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Zachara, M.; Zawiejski, L.; Borzemski, P.; Jeleń, K.; Kisielewska, D.; Kowalski, T.; Rulikowska-Zerȩbska, E.; Suszycki, L.; Zajc, J.; Kȩdzierski, T.; Kotański, A.; Przybycień, M.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Behrens, U.; Bienlein, J. K.; Coldewey, C.; Dannemann, A.; Dierks, K.; Dorth, W.; Drews, G.; Erhard, P.; Flasiński, M.; Fleck, I.; Fürtjes, A.; Gläser, R.; Göttlicher, P.; Hass, T.; Hagge, L.; Hain, W.; Hasell, D.; Hultschig, H.; Jahnen, G.; Joos, P.; Kasemann, M.; Klanner, R.; Koch, W.; Kötz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Labs, J.; Ladage, A.; Löhr, B.; Lüke, D.; Mainusch, J.; Manczak, O.; Momayezi, M.; Ng, J. S. T.; Nicel, S.; Notz, D.; Park, I. H.; Pösnecker, K.-U.; Rohde, M.; Ros, E.; Schneekloth, S.; Schroeder, J.; Schulz, W.; Selonke, F.; Stiliaris, E.; Tscheslog, E.; Tsurugai, T.; Turkot, F.; Vogel, W.; Woeniger, T.; Wolf, G.; Youngman, C.; Grabosch, H. J.; Leich, A.; Meyer, A.; Rethfeldt, C.; Schlensthdt, S.; Casalbuoni, R.; de Curtis, S.; Dominici, D.; Francescato, A.; Nuti, M.; Pelfer, P.; Anzivino, G.; Casaccia, R.; de Pasquale, S.; Qian, S.; Votano, L.; Bamberger, A.; Freidhof, A.; Poser, T.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Theisen, G.; Trefzger, T.; Brook, N. H.; Bussey, P. J.; Doyle, A. T.; Forbes, J. R.; Jamieson, V. A.; Raine, C.; Saxon, D. H.; Brückmann, H.; Gloth, G.; Holm, U.; Kammerdocher, H.; Krebs, B.; Neumann, T.; Wick, K.; Hofmann, A.; Kröger, W.; Krüger, J.; Lohrmann, E.; Milewski, J.; Nakahata, M.; Pavel, N.; Poelz, G.; Salomon, R.; Seidman, A.; Schott, W.; Wiik, B. H.; Zetsche, F.; Bacon, T. C.; Butterworth, I.; Markou, C.; McQuillan, D.; Miller, D. B.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Prinias, A.; Vorvolakos, A.; Bienz, T.; Kreutzmann, H.; Mallik, U.; McCliment, E.; Roco, M.; Wang, M. Z.; Cloth, P.; Filges, D.; Chen, L.; Imlay, R.; Kartik, S.; Kim, H.-J.; McNeil, R. R.; Metcalf, W.; Barreiro, F.; Cases, G.; Hervás, L.; Labarga, L.; del Peso, J.; Roldán, J.; Terrón, J.; de Trocóniz, J. F.; Ikraiam, F.; Mayer, J. K.; Smith, G. R.; Corriveau, F.; Gilkinson, D. J.; Hanna, D. S.; Hung, L. W.; Mitchell, J. W.; Patel, P. M.; Sinclair, L. E.; Stairs, D. G.; Ullmann, R.; Bashindzhagyan, G. L.; Ermolov, P. F.; Golubkov, Y. A.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Kuznetsov, E. N.; Savin, A. A.; Voronin, A. G.; Zotov, N. P.; Bentvelsen, S.; Dake, A.; Engelen, J.; de Jong, P.; de Jong, S.; de Kamps, M.; Kooijman, P.; Kruse, A.; van der Lugt, H.; O'dell, V.; Straver, J.; Tenner, A.; Tiecke, H.; Uijterwaal, H.; Vermeulen, J.; Wiggers, L.; de Wolf, E.; van Woudenberg, R.; Yoshida, R.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Li, C.; Ling, T. Y.; McLean, K. W.; Murray, W. N.; Park, S. K.; Romanowski, T. A.; Seidlein, R.; Blair, G. A.; Butterworth, J. M.; Byrne, A.; Cashmore, R. J.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Devenish, R. C. E.; Gingrich, D. M.; Hallam-Baker, P. M.; Harnew, N.; Khatri, T.; Long, K. R.; Luffman, P.; McArthur, I.; Morawitz, P.; Nash, J.; Smith, S. J. P.; Roocroft, N. C.; Wilson, F. F.; Abbiendi, G.; Brugnera, R.; Carlin, R.; dal Corso, F.; de Giorgi, M.; Dosselli, U.; Gasparini, F.; Limentani, S.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Stanco, L.; Stroili, R.; Voci, C.; Field, G.; Lim, J. N.; Oh, B. Y.; Whitmore, J.; Contino, U.; D'Agostini, G.; Guida, M.; Iori, M.; Mari, S. M.; Marini, G.; Mattioli, M.; Nigro, A.; Hart, J. C.; McCubbin, N. A.; Shah, T. P.; Short, T. L.; Barberis, E.; Cartiglia, N.; Heusch, C.; Hubbard, B.; Leslie, J.; O'Shaughnessy, K.; Sadrozinski, H. F.; Seiden, A.; Badura, E.; Biltzinger, J.; Chaves, H.; Rost, M.; Seifert, R. J.; Walenta, A. H.; Weihs, W.; Zech, G.; Dagan, S.; Levy, A.; Zer-Zion, D.; Hasegawa, T.; Hazumi, M.; Ishii, T.; Kasai, S.; Kuze, M.; Nagasawa, Y.; Nakao, M.; Okuno, H.; Tokushuku, K.; Watanabe, T.; Yamada, S.; Chiba, M.; Hamatsu, R.; Hirose, T.; Kitamura, S.; Nagayama, S.; Nakamitsu, Y.; Arneodo, M.; Costa, M.; Ferrero, M. I.; Lamberti, L.; Maselli, S.; Peroni, C.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Dardo, M.; Bailey, D. C.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Benard, F.; Bhadra, S.; Brkic, M.; Burow, B. D.; Chlebana, F. S.; Crombie, M. B.; Hartner, G. F.; Levman, G. M.; Martin, J. F.; Orr, R. S.; Prentice, J. D.; Sampson, C. R.; Stairs, G. G.; Teuscher, R. J.; Yoon, T.-S.; Bullock, F. W.; Catterall, C. D.; Giddings, J. C.; Jones, T. W.; Khan, A. M.; Lane, J. B.; Makkar, P. L.; Shaw, D.; Shulman, J.; Blankenship, K.; Gibaut, D. B.; Kochocki, J.; Lu, B.; Mo, L. W.; Charchula, K.; Ciborowski, J.; Gajewski, J.; Grzelak, G.; Kasprzak, M.; Krzyżanowski, M.; Muchorowski, K.; Nowak, R. J.; Pawlak, J. M.; Stojda, K.; Stopczyński, A.; Szwed, R.; Tymieniecka, T.; Walczak, R.; Wróblewski, A. K.; Zakrzewski, J. A.; Zarnecki, A. F.; Adamus, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Eisenberg, Y.; Glasman, C.; Karshon, U.; Montag, A.; Revel, D.; Shapira, A.; Ali, I.; Behrens, B.; Camerini, U.; Dasu, S.; Fordham, C.; Foudas, C.; Goussiou, A.; Lomperski, M.; Loveless, R. J.; Nylander, P.; Ptacek, M.; Reeder, D. D.; Smith, W. H.; Silverstein, S.; Frisken, W. R.; Furutani, K. M.; Iga, Y.

    1993-04-01

    Results are presented on neutral current, deep inelastic scattering measured in collisions of 26.7 GeV electrons and 820 GeV protons. The events typically populate a range in Q2 from 10 to 100 GeV2. The values of x extend down to x ~ 10-4 which is two orders of magnitude lower than previously measured at such Q2 values in fixed target experiments. The measured cross sections are in accord with the extrapolations of current parametrisations of parton distributions.

  7. A synchrotron radiation camera and data acquisition system for time resolved x-ray scattering studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordas, J.; Koch, M.H.J.; Clout, P.N.; Dorrington, E.; Boulin, C.; Gabriel, A.

    1980-01-01

    Until recently, time resolved measurements of x-ray scattering patterns have not been feasible because laboratory x-ray sources were too weak and detectors unavailable. Recent developments in both these fields have changed the situation, and it is now possible to follow changes in x-ray scattering patterns with a time resolution of a few ms. The apparatus used to achieve this is described and some examples from recent biological experiments are given. (author)

  8. Deep inelastic scattering in spontaneously broken gauge models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goloskokov, S.V.; Mikhov, S.G.; Morozov, P.T.; Stamenov, D.B.

    1975-01-01

    Deep inelastic lepton hadron scattering in the simplest spontaneously broken symmetry (the Kibble model) is analyzed. A hypothesis that the invariant coupling constant of the quartic selfinteraction for large spacelike momenta tends to a finite asymptotic value without spoiling the asymptotic freedom for the invariant coupling constant of the Yang-Mills field is used. It is shown that Biorken scaling for the moments of the structure functions of the deep inelastic lepton hadron scattering is violated by powers of logarithms

  9. New X-ray beam position monitors with submicron resolution utilizing imaging of scattered X-rays at CHESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revesz, Peter; Temnykh, Alexander B.; Pauling, Alan K.

    2011-01-01

    At CHESS' A, F and G wiggler beam lines three new video beam position monitors (VBPMs) have been commissioned. These new VBPMs utilize X-rays scattered from the graphite filter (A and F line) or from a beryllium window (G-line) as the white wiggler beam passes through them. As the X-rays scatter in all directions from the scattering medium, a slit camera creates an image of the beam's footprint on a fluorescent screen. This image is then viewed by a CCD camera and analyzed using a computer program to calculate the intensity centroid, the beam profile and integrated intensity. These data are delivered to the CHESS signal archiving system for storage and display. The new systems employ digital cameras. These cameras are free of the noise inherent to the analog systems with long video signal connections. As a result, the beam position data delivered by the new systems are more reliable and accurate as shown by beam position traces using different beam position monitors on the same beam line.

  10. New X-ray beam position monitors with submicron resolution utilizing imaging of scattered X-rays at CHESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revesz, Peter, E-mail: pr20@cornell.edu [Cornell University, Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source, Ithaca 14850, NY (United States); Temnykh, Alexander B. [Cornell University, Laboratory for Elem-Particle Physics, Ithaca 14850, NY (United States); Pauling, Alan K. [Cornell University, Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source, Ithaca 14850, NY (United States)

    2011-09-01

    At CHESS' A, F and G wiggler beam lines three new video beam position monitors (VBPMs) have been commissioned. These new VBPMs utilize X-rays scattered from the graphite filter (A and F line) or from a beryllium window (G-line) as the white wiggler beam passes through them. As the X-rays scatter in all directions from the scattering medium, a slit camera creates an image of the beam's footprint on a fluorescent screen. This image is then viewed by a CCD camera and analyzed using a computer program to calculate the intensity centroid, the beam profile and integrated intensity. These data are delivered to the CHESS signal archiving system for storage and display. The new systems employ digital cameras. These cameras are free of the noise inherent to the analog systems with long video signal connections. As a result, the beam position data delivered by the new systems are more reliable and accurate as shown by beam position traces using different beam position monitors on the same beam line.

  11. Halo-independent methods for inelastic dark matter scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozorgnia, Nassim; Schwetz, Thomas; Herrero-Garcia, Juan; Zupan, Jure

    2013-01-01

    We present halo-independent methods to analyze the results of dark matter direct detection experiments assuming inelastic scattering. We focus on the annual modulation signal reported by DAMA/LIBRA and present three different halo-independent tests. First, we compare it to the upper limit on the unmodulated rate from XENON100 using (a) the trivial requirement that the amplitude of the annual modulation has to be smaller than the bound on the unmodulated rate, and (b) a bound on the annual modulation amplitude based on an expansion in the Earth's velocity. The third test uses the special predictions of the signal shape for inelastic scattering and allows for an internal consistency check of the data without referring to any astrophysics. We conclude that a strong conflict between DAMA/LIBRA and XENON100 in the framework of spin-independent inelastic scattering can be established independently of the local properties of the dark matter halo

  12. Generation of Attosecond X-Ray Pulse through Coherent Relativistic Nonlinear Thomson Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, K; Jeong, Y U; Lee, B C; Park, S H

    2005-01-01

    In contrast to some recent experimental results, which state that the Nonlinear Thomson Scattered (NTS) radiation is incoherent, a coherent condition under which the scattered radiation of an incident laser pulse by a bunch of electrons can be coherently superposed has been investigated. The Coherent Relativistic Nonlinear Thomson Scattered (C-RNTS) radiation makes it possible utilizing the ultra-short pulse nature of NTS radiation with a bunch of electrons, such as plasma or electron beams. A numerical simulation shows that a 25 attosecond X-ray pulse can be generated by irradiating an ultra-intense laser pulse of 4x10(19) W/cm2 on an ultra-thin solid target of 50 nm thickness, which is commercially available. The coherent condition can be easily extended to an electron beam from accelerators. Different from the solid target, much narrower electron beam is required for the generation of an attosecond pulse. Instead, this condition could be applied for the generation of intense Compton scattered X-rays with a...

  13. International workshop on resonant X-ray scattering in electrically-ordered systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, S.P.; Pettifer, R.F.; Laundy, D.; Ishida, K.; Kokubun, J.; Giles, C.; Yokaichiya, F.; Song, C.; Lee, K.B.; Ji, S.; Koo, J.; Park, Y.J.; Kim, J.Y.; Park, J.H.; Shin, H.J.; Rhyee, J.S.; Oh, B.H.; Cho, B.K.; Wilkins Stuart, B.; Paixao, J.A.; Caciuffo, R.; Javorsky, P.; Wastin, F.; Rebizant, J.; Detlefs, C.; Bernheoft, N.; Lander, G.H.; Bombardi, A.; Bergevin, F. de; Matteo, S. di; Paolasini, L.; Rodriguez-Carvajal, J.; Carretta, P.; Millet, P.; Caciuffo, R.; Goff, J.P.; Deen, P.P.; Lee, S.; Stunault, A.; Brown, S.; Mannix, D.; McIntyre, G.J.; Ward, R.C.C.; Wells, M.R.; Lorenzo, J.E.; Joly, Y.; Nazarenko, E.; Staub, U.; Srajer, G.; Haskel, D.; Choi, Y.; Lee, D.R.; Lang, J.C.; Meersschaut, J.; Jiang, J.S.; Bader, S.D.; Bouchenoire, L.; Brown, S.D.; Beesley, A.; Herring, A.; Thomas, M.; Thompson, P.; Langridge, S.; Stirling, W.G.; Mirone, A.; Lander, G.; Wilkins, S.; Ward, R.C.C.; Wells, M.R.; Zochowski, S.W.; Garcia, J.; Subias, G.; Blasco, J.; Sanchez, M.C.; Proietti, M.G.; Lovesey, S.W.; Dmitrienko, V.E.; Ovchinnikova, E.N.; Ishida, K.; Kokubun, J.; Kirfel, A.; Collins, S.P.; Laundy, D.; Oreshko, A.P.; Strange, P.; Horne, M.; Arola, E.; Winter, H.; Szotek, Z.; Temmerman, W.M.; Igarashi, J.; Usuda, M.; Takahashi, M.; Matteo, S. di; Bernhoeft, N.; Hill, J.P.; Lang, J.C.; McWhan, D.; Lee, D.R.; Haskel, D.; Srajer, G.; Hatton Peter, D.; Katsumata, K.; Braithwaite, D

    2004-07-01

    The research field of Resonant X-ray Scattering (RXS) has achieved tremendous progress in the last years. Nowadays RXS is rapidly becoming the crucial technique for investigating the subtleties of microscopic magnetism in systems where the ground state properties reflect a delicate balance between several different correlated processes. The aim of this workshop is to discuss present and future possibilities for RXS investigations of electronic order, including studies of charge, magnetic, and multipolar ordered states. The sessions will cover experimental and theoretical aspects of hard and soft X-ray resonant scattering from single crystals and thin films. This document gathers the summaries of the presentations.

  14. International workshop on resonant X-ray scattering in electrically-ordered systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, S.P.; Pettifer, R.F.; Laundy, D.; Ishida, K.; Kokubun, J.; Giles, C.; Yokaichiya, F.; Song, C.; Lee, K.B.; Ji, S.; Koo, J.; Park, Y.J.; Kim, J.Y.; Park, J.H.; Shin, H.J.; Rhyee, J.S.; Oh, B.H.; Cho, B.K.; Wilkins Stuart, B.; Paixao, J.A.; Caciuffo, R.; Javorsky, P.; Wastin, F.; Rebizant, J.; Detlefs, C.; Bernheoft, N.; Lander, G.H.; Bombardi, A.; Bergevin, F. de; Matteo, S. di; Paolasini, L.; Rodriguez-Carvajal, J.; Carretta, P.; Millet, P.; Caciuffo, R.; Goff, J.P.; Deen, P.P.; Lee, S.; Stunault, A.; Brown, S.; Mannix, D.; McIntyre, G.J.; Ward, R.C.C.; Wells, M.R.; Lorenzo, J.E.; Joly, Y.; Nazarenko, E.; Staub, U.; Srajer, G.; Haskel, D.; Choi, Y.; Lee, D.R.; Lang, J.C.; Meersschaut, J.; Jiang, J.S.; Bader, S.D.; Bouchenoire, L.; Brown, S.D.; Beesley, A.; Herring, A.; Thomas, M.; Thompson, P.; Langridge, S.; Stirling, W.G.; Mirone, A.; Lander, G.; Wilkins, S.; Ward, R.C.C.; Wells, M.R.; Zochowski, S.W.; Garcia, J.; Subias, G.; Blasco, J.; Sanchez, M.C.; Proietti, M.G.; Lovesey, S.W.; Dmitrienko, V.E.; Ovchinnikova, E.N.; Ishida, K.; Kokubun, J.; Kirfel, A.; Collins, S.P.; Laundy, D.; Oreshko, A.P.; Strange, P.; Horne, M.; Arola, E.; Winter, H.; Szotek, Z.; Temmerman, W.M.; Igarashi, J.; Usuda, M.; Takahashi, M.; Matteo, S. di; Bernhoeft, N.; Hill, J.P.; Lang, J.C.; McWhan, D.; Lee, D.R.; Haskel, D.; Srajer, G.; Hatton Peter, D.; Katsumata, K.; Braithwaite, D.

    2004-01-01

    The research field of Resonant X-ray Scattering (RXS) has achieved tremendous progress in the last years. Nowadays RXS is rapidly becoming the crucial technique for investigating the subtleties of microscopic magnetism in systems where the ground state properties reflect a delicate balance between several different correlated processes. The aim of this workshop is to discuss present and future possibilities for RXS investigations of electronic order, including studies of charge, magnetic, and multipolar ordered states. The sessions will cover experimental and theoretical aspects of hard and soft X-ray resonant scattering from single crystals and thin films. This document gathers the summaries of the presentations

  15. Thin film growth studies using time-resolved x-ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowarik, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    Thin-film growth is important for novel functional materials and new generations of devices. The non-equilibrium growth physics involved is very challenging, because the energy landscape for atomic scale processes is determined by many parameters, such as the diffusion and Ehrlich-Schwoebel barriers. We review the in situ real-time techniques of x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray growth oscillations and diffuse x-ray scattering (GISAXS) for the determination of structure and morphology on length scales from Å to µm. We give examples of time resolved growth experiments mainly from molecular thin film growth, but also highlight growth of inorganic materials using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and electrochemical deposition from liquids. We discuss how scaling parameters of rate equation models and fundamental energy barriers in kinetic Monte Carlo methods can be determined from fits of the real-time x-ray data.

  16. Non-eikonal effects in high-energy scattering IV. Inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurvitz, S.A.; Kok, L.P.; Rinat, A.S.

    1978-01-01

    Amplitudes of inelastically scattered high-energy projections were calculated. In the scattering on 12 C(Tsub(P)=1 GeV) sizeable non-eikonal corrections in diffraction extrema even for relatively small q 2 are demonstrated. At least part of the anomaly in the 3 - distribution may be due to these non-eikonal effects. (B.G.)

  17. Observations of non-collective x-ray scattering in warm dense carbon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Lihua; Zhang Jiyan; Zhao Yang; Ding Yongkun; Zhang Xiaoding

    2012-01-01

    An experiment for observing the spectrally resolved non-collective x-ray scattering in warm dense carbon plasma is presented in this paper. The experiment used Ta M-band x-rays to heat a foamed carbon cylinder sample isochorically and measured the scattering spectrum with a HOPG crystal spectrometer. The spectrum was compared with the calculation results using a Born-Mermin-approximation model. The best fitting was found at an electron temperature of T e =34 eV and an electron density of n e =1.6×10 23 cm −3 .

  18. Density Determination of Metallic Melts from Diffuse X-Ray Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauser, N.; Davis, A.; Greenberg, E.; Prakapenka, V. B.; Campbell, A.

    2017-12-01

    Liquids comprise several important structural components of the deep Earth, for example, the present outer core and a hypothesized magma ocean early in Earth history. However, the physical properties of the constituent materials of these structures at high pressures and temperatures are less well constrained than their crystalline counterparts. Determination of the physical properties of these liquids can inform geophysical models of the composition and structure of the Earth, but methods for studying the physical properties of liquids at high pressure and temperatures are underdeveloped. One proposed method for direct determination of density of a melt requires analysis of the diffuse scattered X-ray signal of the liquid. Among the challenges to applying this technique to high-pressure melts within a laser heated diamond anvil cell are the low signal-to-noise ratio and overlapping diffraction peaks from the crystalline components of the sample assembly interfering with the diffuse scattering from the liquid. Recent advances in instrumentation at synchrotron X-ray sources have made this method more accessible for determination of density of melted material. In this work we present the technique and report the densities of three high-pressure melts of the FCC metals iron, nickel, and gold derived from diffuse scattered X-ray spectra collected from in situ laser-heated diamond anvil cell synchrotron experiments. The results are compared to densities derived from shock wave experiments.

  19. Small angle X-ray scattering from protein in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, C.F. de; Torriani, I.L.

    1988-01-01

    In this work we report experiments performed with giant respiratory proteins from annelids. X-ray scattering data were obtained both by the use of conventional rotating anod source and synchotron radiation. Data from solutions with several protein concentrations were analyzed. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  20. Diffuse X-Ray Scattering from Several Platinum Chain Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braude, A.; Lindegaard-Andersen, Asger; Carneiro, K.

    1980-01-01

    Values of the Fermi wavevector for several platinum based one-dimensional conductors were determined from diffuse X-ray scattering measurements. The values were compared with those expected from the chemical compositions. The importance of conclusive values of this parameter is stressed and the c...

  1. An inelastic neutron scattering study of hematite nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Klausen, Stine Nyborg; Lefmann, K

    2003-01-01

    We have studied the magnetic dynamics in nanocrystalline hematite by inelastic neutron scattering at the high-resolution time-of-flight spectrometer IRIS at ISIS. Compared to previous inelastic neutron scattering experiments an improvement of the resolution function is achieved and more detailed...... moment at the antiferromagnetic Bragg reflection. We have studied different weightings of the particle size distribution. The data and their temperature dependence can with good agreement be interpreted on the basis of the Neel-Brown theory for superparamagnetic relaxation and a model for the collective...

  2. Inelastic neutron scattering from cerium under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainford, B.D.; Buras, B.; Lebech, B.

    1976-01-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering from Ce metal at 300K was studied both below and above the first order γ-α phase transition, using a triple axis spectrometer. It was found that (a) there is no indication of any residual magnetic scattering in the collapsed α phase and (b) the energy width of the paramagnetic scattering in the γ-phase increases with pressure. (Auth.)

  3. A filter based analyzer for studies of X-ray Raman scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Seidler, G T

    2001-01-01

    Non-resonant X-ray Raman scattering (XRS) with hard X-rays holds the potential for measuring local structure and local electronic properties around low-Z atoms in environments where traditional soft X-ray techniques are inapplicable. However, the small cross-section for XRS requires that experiments must simultaneously achieve high detection efficiency, large collection solid angles, and good energy resolution. We report here that a simple X-ray analyzer consisting of an absorber and a point-focusing spatial filter can be used to study some X-ray Raman near-edge features. This apparatus has greater than 10% detection efficiency, has an energy resolution of 8 eV, and can be readily extended to collection angles of more than 1 sr. We present preliminary measurements of the XRS from the nitrogen 1 s shell in pyrolitic boron nitride.

  4. High resolution measurements and study of the neutron inelastic scattering reaction on 56Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupont, E.

    1998-01-01

    High resolution measures of neutrons inelastic scattering cross section, have been performed on 56 Fe from 862 KeV to 3 MeV. The time of flight method has been used on the GELINA source of the IRMM in Geel (Belgium). Four barium fluoride scintillators, placed around the samples, recorded the gamma rays emissions coming from the iron and the boron. A study of the correlations between the partial elastic and inelastic lengths has been performed taking into account first transmission measures realized at Geel. (A.L.B.)

  5. Creation of X-Ray Transparency of Matter by Stimulated Elastic Forward Scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöhr, J; Scherz, A

    2015-09-04

    X-ray absorption by matter has long been described by the famous Beer-Lambert law. Here, we show how this fundamental law needs to be modified for high-intensity coherent x-ray pulses, now available at x-ray free electron lasers, due to the onset of stimulated elastic forward scattering. We present an analytical expression for the modified polarization-dependent Beer-Lambert law for the case of resonant core-to-valence electronic transitions and incident transform limited x-ray pulses. Upon transmission through a solid, the resonant absorption and dichroic contrasts are found to vanish with increasing x-ray intensity, with the stimulation threshold lowered by orders of magnitude through a resonant superradiantlike effect. Our results have broad implications for the study of matter with x-ray lasers.

  6. Measurement of Dijet Production in Diffractive Deep-Inelastic Scattering with a Leading Proton at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aaron, F.D.

    2012-04-18

    The cross section of diffractive deep-inelastic scattering ep \\rightarrow eXp is measured, where the system X contains at least two jets and the leading final state proton is detected in the H1 Forward Proton Spectrometer. The measurement is performed for fractional proton longitudinal momentum loss xIP < 0.1 and covers the range 0.1 < |t| < 0.7 GeV2 in squared four-momentum transfer at the proton vertex and 4 < Q2 < 110 GeV2 in photon virtuality. The differential cross sections extrapolated to |t| < 1 GeV2 are in agreement with next-toleading order QCD predictions based on diffractive parton distribution functions extracted from measurements of inclusive and dijet cross sections in diffractive deep-inelastic scattering. The data are also compared with leading order Monte Carlo models.

  7. A customizable software for fast reduction and analysis of large X-ray scattering data sets: applications of the new DPDAK package to small-angle X-ray scattering and grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benecke, Gunthard; Wagermaier, Wolfgang; Li, Chenghao; Schwartzkopf, Matthias; Flucke, Gero; Hoerth, Rebecca; Zizak, Ivo; Burghammer, Manfred; Metwalli, Ezzeldin; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter; Trebbin, Martin; Förster, Stephan; Paris, Oskar; Roth, Stephan V; Fratzl, Peter

    2014-10-01

    X-ray scattering experiments at synchrotron sources are characterized by large and constantly increasing amounts of data. The great number of files generated during a synchrotron experiment is often a limiting factor in the analysis of the data, since appropriate software is rarely available to perform fast and tailored data processing. Furthermore, it is often necessary to perform online data reduction and analysis during the experiment in order to interactively optimize experimental design. This article presents an open-source software package developed to process large amounts of data from synchrotron scattering experiments. These data reduction processes involve calibration and correction of raw data, one- or two-dimensional integration, as well as fitting and further analysis of the data, including the extraction of certain parameters. The software, DPDAK (directly programmable data analysis kit), is based on a plug-in structure and allows individual extension in accordance with the requirements of the user. The article demonstrates the use of DPDAK for on- and offline analysis of scanning small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) data on biological samples and microfluidic systems, as well as for a comprehensive analysis of grazing-incidence SAXS data. In addition to a comparison with existing software packages, the structure of DPDAK and the possibilities and limitations are discussed.

  8. Characterizing the behavior of scattered radiation in multi-energy x-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sossin, Artur, E-mail: artur.sossin@gmail.com [CEA-LETI MINATEC Grenoble, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Rebuffel, V.; Tabary, J. [CEA-LETI MINATEC Grenoble, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Létang, J.M.; Freud, N. [Univ Lyon, INSA-Lyon, Université Lyon 1, UJM-Saint Etienne, CNRS, Inserm, Centre Léon Bérard, CREATIS UMR 5220 U1206, F-69373 Lyon (France); Verger, L. [CEA-LETI MINATEC Grenoble, F-38054 Grenoble (France)

    2017-04-01

    Scattered radiation results in various undesirable effects in medical diagnostics, non-destructive testing (NDT) and security x-ray imaging. Despite numerous studies characterizing this phenomenon and its effects, the knowledge of its behavior in the energy domain remains limited. The present study aims at summarizing some key insights on scattered radiation originating from the inspected object. In addition, various simulations and experiments with limited collimation on both simplified and realistic phantoms were conducted in order to study scatter behavior in multi-energy x-ray imaging. Results showed that the spectrum shape of the scatter component can be considered preserved in the first approximation across the image plane for various acquisition geometries and phantoms. The variations exhibited by the scatter spectrum were below 10% for most examined cases. Furthermore, the corresponding spectrum shape proved to be also relatively invariant for different experimental angular projections of one of the examined phantoms. The observed property of scattered radiation can potentially lead to the decoupling of spatial and energy scatter components, which can in turn enable speed ups in scatter simulations and reduce the complexity of scatter correction.

  9. Parity violation in deep inelastic electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.E.

    1979-11-01

    Neutral currents in electron scattering and the Weinberg-Salam model are reviewed. This generally accepted model is consistent with experimental results from neutrino interactions; an appropriate deep inelastic electron scattering experiment would measure couplings that don't involve neutrinos to see if they are also correctly described by the theory. The SLAC-Yale experiment measures a difference in the e-d inelastic cross section for right- and left-handed electrons. The polarized source, beam monitors, scattering experiment, checks of helicity dependence, and results are described. It is concluded that the data obtained are in agreement with the Weinberg-Salam model, and that the best value of sin 2 theta/sub W/ for these data is in excellent agreement with the average values of that parameter deduced from neutrino experiments. Future experiments with polarized electrons are discussed. 12 figures, 2 tables

  10. Measurement of the cross-section ratio σn/σp in inelastic muon-nucleon scattering at very low x and Q2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papavassiliou, V.

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented on the measurement of the cross-section ratio σ n /σ p inelastic μN scattering obtained by the E-665 experiment using the Fermilab 490 GeV/c muon beam and liquid H 2 and D 2 targets. The results extend the previously measured x range by two orders of magnitude, down to 2 x 10 -5 , at Q 2 > 10 -2 GeV 2 /C 2 . The ratio is consistent with 1 throughout the new range

  11. Inclusive measurements of pion double charge exchange and inelastic scattering on 3He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuly, M.E.

    1993-06-01

    A measurement was made at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) of the doubly differential cross sections for three inclusive pion reactions on 3 He: π - double charge exchange (DCX), and π + and π - inelastic scattering. The cross sections for DCX were measured at incident energies of 120, 180, 210, and 240 MeV, and at angles of 25, 50, 80, 105, and 130 degrees, while inelastic scattering cross sections were measured at 120, 180, and 240 MeV and scattering angles of 50, 80, 105, and 130 degrees. The final pion energy spectrum was measured from 10 MeV up to the kinematic limit. In the Δ resonance region, where the isospin T = 3/2 channel dominates, the inelastic π - scattering should be almost entirely from the lone neutron in 3 He. The π + inelastic scattering was expected to have significant contributions from both single and double scattering, because the T = 3/2 channel favors π + -p scattering from the two protons in 3 He. The 3 He DCX spectra are similar to those observed for DCX in 4 He. The forward angle double peaks can be understood as a consequence of sequential single charge exchange (SSCX). Calculations using the SSCX model are in rough agreement with the measured shape of the 3 He DCX spectra. The doubly differential cross sections measured for the inelastic scattering reactions exhibit a strong enhancement near the kinematics for free π - -p scattering. The ratios of π + to π - scattering cross sections may indicate multiple scattering, as well as the agreement of the low outgoing energy part of the π + inelastic scattering spectra with the corresponding properly scaled DCX spectra. A distorted-wave impulse-approximation (DWIA) calculation of the quasielastic cross sections has been performed and a comparison made with the measured inelastic cross sections

  12. Using angular dispersion and anomalous transmission to shape ultramonochromatic x rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shvyd' ko, Yuri; Stoupin, Stanislav; Shu, Deming; Khachatryan, Ruben [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Optical spectrometers, instruments that work with highly monochromatic light, are commonly rated by the spectral bandwidth, which defines the ability to resolve closely spaced spectral components. Another equally important feature is the spectral contrast, the ability to detect faint objects among these components. Here we demonstrate that a combined effect of angular dispersion (AD) and anomalous transmission (AT) of x rays in Bragg reflection from asymmetrically cut crystals can shape spectral distributions of x rays to profiles with high contrast and small bandwidths. The AD and AT x-ray optics is implemented as a five-reflection, three-crystal arrangement featuring a combination of the above-mentioned attributes so desirable for x-ray monochromators and analyzers: a spectral contrast of {approx_equal} 500, a bandwidth of {approx_equal} 0.46 meV, and a remarkably large angular acceptance of {approx_equal} 107 {mu}rad with 9.1 keV x rays. The new optics can become a foundation for the next-generation inelastic x-ray scattering spectrometers for studies of atomic dynamics.

  13. Imaging Molecular Motion: Femtosecond X-Ray Scattering of an Electrocyclic Chemical Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minitti, M. P.; Budarz, J. M.; Kirrander, A.; Robinson, J. S.; Ratner, D.; Lane, T. J.; Zhu, D.; Glownia, J. M.; Kozina, M.; Lemke, H. T.; Sikorski, M.; Feng, Y.; Nelson, S.; Saita, K.; Stankus, B.; Northey, T.; Hastings, J. B.; Weber, P. M.

    2015-06-01

    Structural rearrangements within single molecules occur on ultrafast time scales. Many aspects of molecular dynamics, such as the energy flow through excited states, have been studied using spectroscopic techniques, yet the goal to watch molecules evolve their geometrical structure in real time remains challenging. By mapping nuclear motions using femtosecond x-ray pulses, we have created real-space representations of the evolving dynamics during a well-known chemical reaction and show a series of time-sorted structural snapshots produced by ultrafast time-resolved hard x-ray scattering. A computational analysis optimally matches the series of scattering patterns produced by the x rays to a multitude of potential reaction paths. In so doing, we have made a critical step toward the goal of viewing chemical reactions on femtosecond time scales, opening a new direction in studies of ultrafast chemical reactions in the gas phase.

  14. Simbol-X Mirror Module Thermal Shields: II-Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbera, M.; Ayers, T.; Collura, A.; Nasillo, G.; Pareschi, G.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2009-05-01

    The formation flight configuration of the Simbol-X mission implies that the X-ray mirror module will be open to Space on both ends. In order to reduce the power required to maintain the thermal stability and, therefore, the high angular resolution of the shell optics, a thin foil thermal shield will cover the mirror module. Different options are presently being studied for the foil material of these shields. We report results of an experimental investigation conducted to verify that the scattering of X-rays, by interaction with the thin foil material of the thermal shield, will not significantly affect the performances of the telescope.

  15. Simbol-X Mirror Module Thermal Shields: II-Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbera, M.; Ayers, T.; Collura, A.; Nasillo, G.; Pareschi, G.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2009-01-01

    The formation flight configuration of the Simbol-X mission implies that the X-ray mirror module will be open to Space on both ends. In order to reduce the power required to maintain the thermal stability and, therefore, the high angular resolution of the shell optics, a thin foil thermal shield will cover the mirror module. Different options are presently being studied for the foil material of these shields. We report results of an experimental investigation conducted to verify that the scattering of X-rays, by interaction with the thin foil material of the thermal shield, will not significantly affect the performances of the telescope.

  16. Scheme for generation of fully-coherent, TW power level hard X-ray pulses from baseline undulators at the European X-ray FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

    2010-07-01

    The most promising way to increase the output power of an X-ray FEL (XFEL) is by tapering the magnetic field of the undulator. Also, significant increase in power is achievable by starting the FEL process from a monochromatic seed rather than from noise. This report proposes to make use of a cascade self-seeding scheme with wake monochromators in a tunable-gap baseline undulator at the European XFEL to create a source capable of delivering coherent radiation of unprecedented characteristics at hard X-ray wavelengths. Compared with SASE X-ray FEL parameters, the radiation from the new source has three truly unique aspects: complete longitudinal and transverse coherence, and a peak brightness three orders of magnitude higher than what is presently available at LCLS. Additionally, the new source will generate hard X-ray beam at extraordinary peak (TW) and average (kW) power level. The proposed source can thus revolutionize fields like single biomolecule imaging, inelastic scattering and nuclear resonant scattering. The self-seeding scheme with the wake monochromator is extremely compact, and takes almost no cost and time to be implemented. The upgrade proposed in this paper could take place during the commissioning stage of the European XFEL, opening a vast new range of applications from the very beginning of operations.We present feasibility study and examplifications for the SASE2 line of the European XFEL. (orig.)

  17. Leading particle in deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, V.A.

    1984-01-01

    The leading particle effect in deep inelastic scattering is considered. The change of the characteris cs shape of the leading particle inclusive spectrum with Q 2 is estimated to be rather significant at very high Q 2

  18. Design of a scattering polarimeter for hard X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, E.; Cinti, M.N.; Feroci, M.; Matt, G.; Rapisarda, M.

    1995-01-01

    The design of a new hard X-ray Compton scattering polarimeter based on scintillating fibre technology is presented and studied in detail by means of Monte Carlo calculations. Several different configurations and materials have been tested in order to optimise the sensitivity in the medium/high energy X-ray band. A high sensitivity over the energy band 20-200 keV is obtained for a two material configuration. The advantages deriving from employing a new scintillating material, the YAP (YAlO 3 ), are also discussed. (orig.)

  19. Inelastic neutron scattering reactions in fluid saturated rock as exploited in oil well logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, M.C.; Dyos, C.J.

    1986-01-01

    Oil saturated sandstone and limestone targets have been irradiated with 14 MeV neutrons. Gamma-ray spectra were accumulated and the γ-ray intensities arising from inelastic neutron scattering reactions upon carbon and oxygen measured. The results are compared with the predictions of a simple model. They enable some features of the response of (n,γ) tools used in oil well logging to be established and current uncertainties in understanding to be highlighted. (author)

  20. Au-coated X-ray Anti-scattering Grid Performance Test by MCNP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, JunWoo; Yoo, Dong Han; Kim, Hee Reyoung [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    It is required to protect individual against the dangers of ionizing radiation from medical exposure. And increasing of resolution for x-ray radiography tools can give radiation protectoral benefits. Because the image device has higher resolution in same energy source, it requires low energy level source and it can reduce individual dose. The anti-scattering grid is sub-device that is attached in front of detector (direction of source). It is square lattice shape generally. It is composed of penetration parts and shielding parts. Penetration part is generally air (the void) and in some studies it uses wood or aluminum. Shielding part is composed of various materials such as lead or copper. In this study, it is focused on the gold as one of X-ray grid materials, where gold is generally known as excellent shielding material and the performance test on the gold coated anti-scattering grid is carried out by MCNP simulation. X-ray grid was simulated by using MCNP code and its performance was investigated. It was understood that glass based and Au-coated grid could lessen the scattered photons more where the reduction was about two third. In further study, geometry optimization or material selection will be conducted by MCNP simulation for giving benefits to design proper grid for various instruments.

  1. Inelastic neutron scattering on a mixed-valence dodecanuclear polyoxovanadate cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Basler, R; Andrés, H; Güdel, H U; Koegerler, P; Krickemeier, E; Bögge, H; Müller, A; Mutka, H

    2002-01-01

    The magnetic exchange interactions in the mixed-valence dodecanuclear polyoxovanadate cluster compound (NHEt sub 3) sub 4 [V sub 1 sub 2 As sub 8 O sub 4 sub 0 (H sub 2 O)] x H sub 2 O were investigated by a detailed inelastic neutron scattering study using cold neutrons. The data show clear evidence for the presence of a magnetic anisotropy within the cluster. Exchange parameters are accurately determined. (orig.)

  2. X-Ray Scattering Applications Using Pulsed X-Ray Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, B.C.

    1999-05-23

    Pulsed x-ray sources have been used in transient structural phenomena investigations for over fifty years; however, until the advent of synchrotrons sources and the development of table-top picosecond lasers, general access to ligh temporal resolution x-ray diffraction was relatively limited. Advances in diffraction techniques, sample excitation schemes, and detector systems, in addition to IncEased access to pulsed sources, have ld tO what is now a diverse and growing array of pulsed-source measurement applications. A survey of time-resolved investigations using pulsed x-ray sources is presented and research opportunities using both present and planned pulsed x-ray sources are discussed.

  3. DISCUS, Neutron Single to Double Scattering Ratio in Inelastic Scattering Experiment by Monte-Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M.W.

    1993-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: DISCUS calculates the ratio of once-scattered to twice-scattered neutrons detected in an inelastic neutron scattering experiment. DISCUS also calculates the flux of once-scattered neutrons that would have been observed if there were no absorption in the sample and if, once scattered, the neutron would emerge without further re-scattering or absorption. Three types of sample geometry are used: an infinite flat plate, a finite flat plate or a finite length cylinder. (The infinite flat plate is included for comparison with other multiple scattering programs.) The program may be used for any sample for which the scattering law is of the form S(/Q/, omega). 2 - Method of solution: Monte Carlo with importance sampling is used. Neutrons are 'forced' both into useful angular trajectories, and useful energy bins. Biasing of the collision point according to the point of entry of the neutron into the sample is also utilised. The first and second order scattered neutron fluxes are calculated in independent histories. For twice-scattered neutron histories a square distribution in Q-omega space is used to sample the neutron coming from the first scattering event, whilst biasing is used for the second scattering event. (A square distribution is used so as to obtain reasonable inelastic-inelastic statistics.) 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Unlimited number of detectors. Max. size of (Q, omega) matrix is 39*149. Max. number of points in momentum space for the scattering cross section is 199

  4. X-ray Thomson Scattering from Spherically Imploded ICF Ablators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritcher, Andrea; Doeppner, Tilo; Landen, Otto; Glenzer, Siegfried

    2010-11-01

    Time-resolved X-ray Thomson scattering measurements from spherically imploded inertial fusion capsules-type targets have been obtained for the first time at the Omega OMEGA laser facility to characterize the in-flight properties of ICF ablators. In these experiments, the non-collective, or microscopic particle behavior, of imploding CH and Be shells, was probed using a 9 keV Zn He-alpha x-ray source at scattering angles of 113^o and 135^o. for two drive pulse shapes.As an example, the analysis of In-flight scattering measurements from one set of directly-driven compressed 8600 μm-diameter, 40-μm thick Be shells taken (4.2 ns after the start of the compression beamswhen compressed a factor of 4.83x) yielded electron densities of ˜ 1.2±0.23x10^24cm-3, temperatures of ˜13±32 eV, and an ionization state of Be(+2), with uncertainties in the temperature and density of about 40% and 20%. These conditions resulting in an inferred adiabat (ratio of plasma pressure to Fermi degenerate pressure) of 1.797 +0.3/-.5 with an error of about 30%. The high signal-to-noise and high signal-to-background ratio of data obtained in these experiments provides a platform for studying the adiabat of other indirect-drive ICF ablators such as CH and High Density Carbon (HDC) ablators and demonstrates the viability of using this diagnostic to study the in-flight properties adiabat of implosion targets at the National Ignition Facility (NIF).

  5. Electron-deuteron deep-inelastic scattering with spectator nucleon tagging and final-state interactions at intermediate x

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strikman, M.; Weiss, C.

    2018-03-01

    We consider electron-deuteron deep-inelastic scattering (DIS) with detection of a proton in the nuclear fragmentation region ("spectator tagging") as a method for extracting the free neutron structure functions and studying their nuclear modifications. Such measurements could be performed at a future electron-ion collider (EIC) with suitable forward detectors. The measured proton recoil momentum (≲100 MeV in the deuteron rest frame) specifies the deuteron configuration during the high-energy process and permits a controlled theoretical treatment of nuclear effects. Nuclear and nucleonic structure are separated using methods of light-front quantum mechanics. The impulse approximation to the tagged DIS cross section contains the free neutron pole, which can be reached by on-shell extrapolation in the recoil momentum. Final-state interactions (FSIs) distort the recoil momentum distribution away from the pole. In the intermediate-x region 0.1 rest frame momenta ≲1 GeV , target fragmentation region). We construct a schematic model describing this effect, using final-state hadron distributions measured in nucleon DIS experiments and low-energy hadron scattering amplitudes. We investigate the magnitude of FSIs, their dependence on the recoil momentum (angular dependence, forward/backward regions), their analytic properties, and their effect on the on-shell extrapolation. We comment on the prospects for neutron structure extraction in tagged DIS with an EIC. We discuss possible extensions of the FSI model to other kinematic regions (large/small x ). In tagged DIS at x ≪0.1 FSIs resulting from diffractive scattering on the nucleons become important and require separate treatment.

  6. Measurement of proton inelastic scattering cross sections on fluorine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiari, M., E-mail: chiari@fi.infn.it [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence and INFN Florence, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Caciolli, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Padua and INFN Padua, Padova (Italy); Calzolai, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence and INFN Florence, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Climent-Font, A. [CMAM, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Lucarelli, F.; Nava, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence and INFN Florence, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

    2016-10-01

    Differential cross-sections for proton inelastic scattering on fluorine, {sup 19}F(p,p’){sup 19}F, from the first five excited levels of {sup 19}F at 110, 197, 1346, 1459 and 1554 keV were measured for beam energies from 3 to 7 MeV at a scattering angle of 150° using a LiF thin target (50 μg/cm{sup 2}) evaporated on a self-supporting C thin film (30 μg/cm{sup 2}). Absolute differential cross-sections were calculated with a method not dependent on the absolute values of collected beam charge and detector solid angle. The validity of the measured inelastic scattering cross sections was then tested by successfully reproducing EBS spectra collected from a thick Teflon (CF{sub 2}) target. As a practical application of these measured inelastic scattering cross sections in elastic backscattering spectroscopy (EBS), the feasibility of quantitative light element (C, N and O) analysis in aerosol particulate matter samples collected on Teflon by EBS measurements and spectra simulation is demonstrated.

  7. Inelastic neutron scattering from superconducting rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agafonov, A.I.

    2010-01-01

    For the first time the differential cross section for the inelastic magnetic neutron scattering by superconducting rings is derived taking account of the interaction of the neutron magnetic moment with the magnetic field generated by the superconducting current. Calculations of the scattering cross section are carried out for cold neutrons and thin film rings from type-II superconductors with the magnetic fields not exceeding the first critical field.

  8. Measurement of the diffractive deep-inelastic scattering cross section with a leading proton at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, F.D. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Bucharest Univ. (Romania). Faculty of Physics; Alexa, C. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Andreev, V. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (RU)] (and others)

    2010-06-15

    The cross section for the diffractive deep-inelastic scattering process ep{yields}eXp is measured, with the leading final state proton detected in the H1 Forward Proton Spectrometer. The data sample covers the range x{sub P} < 0.1 in fractional proton longitudinal momentum loss, 0.1< vertical stroke t vertical stroke <0.7 GeV{sup 2} in squared four-momentum transfer at the proton vertex and 4x{sub P},Q{sup 2} and {beta}=x/x{sub P}, where x is the Bjorken scaling variable. The t and x{sub P} dependences are interpreted in terms of an effective pomeron trajectory and a sub-leading exchange. The data are compared to perturbative QCD predictions at next-to-leading order based on diffractive parton distribution functions previously extracted from complementary measurements of inclusive diffractive deep-inelastic scattering. The ratio of the diffractive to the inclusive ep cross section is studied as a function of Q{sup 2}, {beta} and x{sub P}. (orig.)

  9. Schwinger–Keldysh canonical formalism for electronic Raman scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Yuehua, E-mail: suyh@ytu.edu.cn

    2016-03-01

    Inelastic low-energy Raman and high-energy X-ray scatterings have made great progress in instrumentation to investigate the strong electronic correlations in matter. However, theoretical study of the relevant scattering spectrum is still a challenge. In this paper, we present a Schwinger–Keldysh canonical perturbation formalism for the electronic Raman scattering, where all the resonant, non-resonant and mixed responses are considered uniformly. We show how to use this formalism to evaluate the cross section of the electronic Raman scattering off an one-band superconductor. All the two-photon scattering processes from electrons, the non-resonant charge density response, the elastic Rayleigh scattering, the fluorescence, the intrinsic energy-shift Raman scattering and the mixed response, are included. In the mean-field superconducting state, Cooper pairs contribute only to the non-resonant response. All the other responses are dominated by the single-particle excitations and are strongly suppressed due to the opening of the superconducting gap. Our formalism for the electronic Raman scattering can be easily extended to study the high-energy resonant inelastic X-ray scattering.

  10. A compilation of structure functions in deep-inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R.G.; Whalley, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    A compilation of data on the structure functions F 2 , xF 3 , and R = σ L /σ T from lepton deep-inelastic scattering off protons and nuclei is presented. The relevant experiments at CERN, Fermilab and SLAC from 1985 are covered. All the data in this review can be found in and retrieved from the Durham-RAL HEP Databases (HEPDATA on the RAL and CERN VM systems and on DURPDG VAX/VMS) together with data on a wide variety of other reactions. (author)

  11. Resonant X-ray Raman scattering for Al, Si and their oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szlachetko, J.; Berset, M.; Dousse, J.-Cl.; Fennane, K.; Szlachetko, M.; Barrett, R.; Hoszowska, J.; Kubala-Kukus, A.; Pajek, M.

    2005-01-01

    High-resolution measurements of the resonant X-ray Raman scattering (RRS) of Al and Si and their oxides were performed at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in Grenoble, France, using a von Hamos Bragg-type curved crystal spectrometer. To probe the influence of chemical effects on the RRS X-ray spectra, Al 2 O 3 and SiO 2 samples were also investigated. The X-ray RRS spectra were measured at different photon beam energies tuned below the K-absorption edge. The measured spectra are compared to results of RRS calculations based on the second-order perturbation theory within the Kramers-Heisenberg approach

  12. X-ray scattering in giant magneto-resistive multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulthorpe, B.D.

    1999-01-01

    The scattering mechanisms responsible for Giant Magneto-Resistance (GMR) in magnetic multilayers are believed to be related to many aspects of the multilayer structure. X-ray scattering techniques provide a powerful method with which to study the bulk and interface morphology in these systems, and are therefore crucial in developing an understanding of the dominant factors influencing the magnitude of the GMR. Reflectivity measurements performed on a series of Co/Cu multilayers, sputter deposited onto etched silicon, reveal no variation in the interface roughness with etching voltage, the thickness of the individual layers also remaining constant. The observed decrease in the GMR cannot, therefore, be attributed to variations in spacer thickness or interfacial spin-independent scattering. Electron and X-ray Diffraction measurements suggest the reduction in GMR is due to a loss of antiferromagnetic coupling associated with a transformation of the texture from a randomly oriented to well oriented (111) polycrystalline texture, and subsequent reduction in the volume fraction of (100) oriented grains. Interfaces within Co/Cu are found to propagate with a high degree of conformality with increasing bilayer number, with an out-of-plane correlation length well in excess of 300A. In contrast, the Co/Pt system exhibits a limiting out-of-plane correlation length of the order of 350A arising from a columnar growth mode. X-ray Reflectivity and Diffraction measurements provide' no structural interpretation for the 3-fold enhancement in the rate of increase of the saturation conductivity, as a function of spacer thickness, in Fe/Au (100) compared to Fe/Au (111), or why large oscillations in the GMR occur for the (100) orientation only. Such observations are, however, consistent with the existence of a channelling mechanism in Fe/Au (100). Grazing Incidence Fluorescence data indicates that Nb acts as a surfactant in Fe/Au (111) growth on sapphire. The influence of different

  13. Interplay between structure and magnetism in HoxPr1-x alloys. 2. Resonant x-ray magnetic scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigliante, A.; Christensen, M.J.; Hill, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    X-ray-scattering techniques have been used to study the crystal and magnetic structures of HoxPr1-x alloys in the form of thin films. Three distinct crystal structures are found as a function of concentration x, each of which has a characteristic magnetic structure. For x greater than or equal to 0.......6 a hexagonal-close-packed phase is found with the magnetic moments ordered in a basal-plane helix, whereas for 0.4 less than or equal to x... hexagonal-close-packed and remain nonmagnetic down to the lowest temperatures studied. Using x-ray magnetic resonance scattering techniques, we demonstrate that a small, static spin-density wave is induced within the alloy 5d band at both the Pr and Ho sites in both of the magnetically ordered phases...

  14. The spin-dependent structure function $g_1(x)$ of the proton from polarized deep-inelastic muon scattering

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2067425; Arvidson, A; Badelek, B; Bardin, G; Baum, G; Berglund, P; Betev, L; Birsa, R; De Botton, N R; Bradamante, Franco; Bravar, A; Bressan, A; Bültmann, S; Burtin, E; Crabb, D; Cranshaw, J; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Dalla Torre, S; Van Dantzig, R; Derro, B R; Deshpande, A A; Dhawan, S K; Dulya, C M; Eichblatt, S; Fasching, D; Feinstein, F; Fernández, C; Forthmann, S; Frois, Bernard; Gallas, A; Garzón, J A; Gilly, H; Giorgi, M A; Görtz, S; Gracia, G; De Groot, N; Haft, K; Von Harrach, D; Hasegawa, T; Hautle, P; Hayashi, N; Heusch, C A; Horikawa, N; Hughes, V W; Igo, G; Ishimoto, S; Iwata, T; Kabuss, E M; Kageya, T; Karev, A G; Ketel, T; Kiryluk, J; Kiselev, Yu F; Krivokhizhin, V G; Kröger, W; Kukhtin, V V; Kurek, K; Kyynäräinen, J; Lamanna, M; Landgraf, U; Le Goff, J M; Lehár, F; de Lesquen, A; Lichtenstadt, J; Litmaath, M; Magnon, A; Mallot, G K; Marie, F; Martin, A; Martino, J; Matsuda, T; Mayes, B W; McCarthy, J S; Medved, K S; Meyer, W T; Van Middelkoop, G; Miller, D; Miyachi, Y; Mori, K; Moromisato, J H; Nassalski, J P; Naumann, Lutz; Niinikoski, T O; Oberski, J; Ogawa, A; Grosse-Perdekamp, M; Pereira, H; Perrot-Kunne, F; Peshekhonov, V D; Pinsky, L; Platchkov, S K; Pló, M; Pose, D; Postma, H; Pretz, J; Puntaferro, R; Rädel, G; Rijllart, A; Reicherz, G; Rodríguez, M; Rondio, Ewa; Roscherr, B; Sabo, I; Saborido, J; Sandacz, A; Savin, I A; Schiavon, R P; Schiller, A; Sichtermann, E P; Simeoni, F; Smirnov, G I; Staude, A; Steinmetz, A; Stiegler, U; Stuhrmann, H B; Szleper, M; Tessarotto, F; Thers, D; Tlaczala, W; Tripet, A; Ünel, G; Velasco, M; Vogt, J; Voss, Rüdiger; Whitten, C; Windmolders, R; Wislicki, W; Witzmann, A; Ylöstalo, J; Zanetti, A M; Zaremba, K

    1997-01-01

    We present a new measurement of the virtual photon proton asymmetry $A_1^{\\rm p}$ from deep inelastic scattering of polarized muons on polarized protons in the kinematic range $0.0008 1$ GeV$^{2}$. A perturbative QCD evolution in next-to-leading order is used to determine $g_1^{\\rm p}(x)$ at a constant $Q^2$. At $Q^{2} = 10$ GeV$^{2}$ we find, in the measured range, $\\int_{0.003}^{0.7} g_{1}^{\\rm p}(x){\\rm d}x = 0.139 \\pm 0.006~({\\rm stat})\\pm 0.008~({\\rm syst)} \\pm 0.006~({\\rm evol})$. The value of the first moment $\\Gamma_{1}^{\\rm p} = \\int_{0}^{1} g_{1}^{\\rm p}(x){\\rm d}x$ of $g_{1}^{\\rm p}$ depends on the approach used to describe the behaviour of $g_{1}^{\\rm p}$ at low $x$. We find that the Ellis-Jaffe sum rule is violated. With our published result for $\\Gamma_{1}^{\\rm d}$ we confirm the Bjorken sum rule with an accuracy of $\\approx 15\\%$ at the one standard deviation level.

  15. Elastic and inelastic heavy ion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toepffer, C.; University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg; Richter, A.

    1977-02-01

    In the field of elastic and inelastic heavy ion scattering, the following issues are dealt with: semiclassical descriptive approximations, optical potentials, barriers, critical radii and angular momenta, excitation functions and the application to superheavy ions and high energies. (WL) [de

  16. Methods for reduction of scattered x-ray in measuring MTF with the square chart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatagawa, Masakatsu; Yoshida, Rie

    1982-01-01

    A square wave chart has been used to measure the MTF of a screen-film system. The problem is that the scattered X-ray from the chart may give rise to measurement errors. In this paper, the authors proposed two methods to reduce the scattered X-ray: the first method is the use of a Pb mask and second is to provide for an air gap between the chart and the screen-film system. In these methods, the scattered X-ray from the chart was reduced. MTFs were measured by both of the new methods and the conventional method, and MTF values of the new methods were in good agreement while that of the conventional method was not. It was concluded that these new methods are able to reduce errors in the measurement of MTF. (author)

  17. Parity violation in inelastic scattering of polarized electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, C.Y.

    1978-10-01

    Parity nonconservation was observed in the inelastic scattering of longitudinally polarized electrons from an unpolarized deuterium target at 19.4 and 22.2 GeV. An asymmetry A = (sigma/sub R/ - sigma/sub L)/(sigma/sub R/ + sigma/sub L/) = (-9.5 +- 1.6) x 10 -5 Q 2 , Q 2 in (GeV/c) 2 was found for values of Q 2 near 1.4. The statistical and systematic errors are each about 9 percent of the measured asymmetry. This result is consistent with predictions from the standard Weinberg--Salam SU(2) x U(1) model. Using the simple quark-parton model of the nucleon, the value sin 2 theta/sub W/ = 0.20 +- 0.03 is obtained. 21 references

  18. Multiple scattering theory of X-ray absorption. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonda, L.

    1991-11-01

    We review the basic elements of the theory of X-ray absorption using the tools provided by the theory of multiple scattering. A momentum space approach of clear physical insight is used where the final formulas expressing EXAFS and XANES, i.e. the structures appearing in the absorption coefficient above the edge of a deep core level threshold, are given in terms of eigenstates of the photoelectron momentum. A simple graphic representation is given for the multiple scattering function. (author). 38 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  19. Transverse momentum in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceccopieri, Federico Alberto; Trentadue, Luca

    2006-01-01

    Within the framework of perturbative quantum chromodynamics we derive the evolution equations for transverse momentum dependent distributions and apply them to the case of semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering. The evolution equations encode the perturbative component of transverse momentum generated by collinear parton branchings. The current fragmentation is described via transverse momentum dependent parton densities and fragmentation functions. Target fragmentation instead is described via fracture functions. We present, to leading logarithmic accuracy, the corresponding semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering cross-section, which applies to the entire phase space of the detected hadron. Some phenomenological implications and further developments are briefly outlined

  20. Evolution of elastic x-ray scattering in laser-shocked warm dense lithium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugland, N L; Gregori, G; Bandyopadhyay, S; Brenner, C M; Brown, C R D; Constantin, C; Glenzer, S H; Khattak, F Y; Kritcher, A L; Niemann, C; Otten, A; Pasley, J; Pelka, A; Roth, M; Spindloe, C; Riley, D

    2009-12-01

    We have studied the dynamics of warm dense Li with near-elastic x-ray scattering. Li foils were heated and compressed using shock waves driven by 4-ns-long laser pulses. Separate 1-ns-long laser pulses were used to generate a bright source of 2.96 keV Cl Ly- alpha photons for x-ray scattering, and the spectrum of scattered photons was recorded at a scattering angle of 120 degrees using a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite crystal operated in the von Hamos geometry. A variable delay between the heater and backlighter laser beams measured the scattering time evolution. Comparison with radiation-hydrodynamics simulations shows that the plasma is highly coupled during the first several nanoseconds, then relaxes to a moderate coupling state at later times. Near-elastic scattering amplitudes have been successfully simulated using the screened one-component plasma model. Our main finding is that the near-elastic scattering amplitudes are quite sensitive to the mean ionization state Z[over ] and by extension to the choice of ionization model in the radiation-hydrodynamics simulations used to predict plasma properties within the shocked Li.

  1. Evolution of elastic x-ray scattering in laser-shocked warm dense lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugland, N. L.; Niemann, C.; Gregori, G.; Bandyopadhyay, S.; Spindloe, C.; Brenner, C. M.; Brown, C. R. D.; Constantin, C.; Glenzer, S. H.; Khattak, F. Y.; Kritcher, A. L.; Otten, A.; Pelka, A.; Roth, M.; Pasley, J.; Riley, D.

    2009-01-01

    We have studied the dynamics of warm dense Li with near-elastic x-ray scattering. Li foils were heated and compressed using shock waves driven by 4-ns-long laser pulses. Separate 1-ns-long laser pulses were used to generate a bright source of 2.96 keV Cl Ly-α photons for x-ray scattering, and the spectrum of scattered photons was recorded at a scattering angle of 120 deg. using a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite crystal operated in the von Hamos geometry. A variable delay between the heater and backlighter laser beams measured the scattering time evolution. Comparison with radiation-hydrodynamics simulations shows that the plasma is highly coupled during the first several nanoseconds, then relaxes to a moderate coupling state at later times. Near-elastic scattering amplitudes have been successfully simulated using the screened one-component plasma model. Our main finding is that the near-elastic scattering amplitudes are quite sensitive to the mean ionization state Z and by extension to the choice of ionization model in the radiation-hydrodynamics simulations used to predict plasma properties within the shocked Li.

  2. RESONANT MAGNETIC-X-RAY SCATTERING FROM MIXED-VALENCE TMSE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MCWHAN, DB; ISAACS, ED; CARRA, P; SHAPIRO, SM; THOLE, BT; HOSHINO, S

    1993-01-01

    The mixed-valent compound TmSe has been studied in its antiferromagnetic state (T x-ray scattering. The (003) magnetic reflection shows two peaks as a function of incident energy corresponding to the L(III) absorption edges of its Tm2+ and Tm2+ configurations. This

  3. Medium energy inelastic proton-nucleus scattering with spin dependent NN interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.; Auger, J.P.

    1981-12-01

    The previously proposed effective profile expansion method for the Glauber multiple scattering model calculation has been extended to the case of proton-nucleus inelastic scattering with spin dependent NN interaction. Using the method which turns out to be computationally simple and of relatively wider applicability, a study of sensitivity of proton-nucleus inelastic scattering calculation to the sometimes neglected momentum transfer dependence of the NN scattering amplitude has been made. We find that the calculated polarization is particularly sensitive in this respect. (author)

  4. Forward-jet production in deep inelastic ep scattering at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (US)] (and others)

    2007-07-15

    Forward jet cross sections have been measured in neutral current deep inelastic scattering at low Bjorken-x with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 81.8 pb{sup -1}. Measurements are presented for inclusive forward jets as well as for forward jets accompanied by a dijet system. The explored phase space, with jet pseudorapidity up to 4.3 is expected to be particularly sensitive to the dynamics of QCD parton evolution at low x. The measurements are compared to fixed-order QCD calculations and to leading-order parton-shower Monte Carlo models. (orig.)

  5. Forward-jet production in deep inelastic ep scattering at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S.

    2007-07-01

    Forward jet cross sections have been measured in neutral current deep inelastic scattering at low Bjorken-x with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 81.8 pb -1 . Measurements are presented for inclusive forward jets as well as for forward jets accompanied by a dijet system. The explored phase space, with jet pseudorapidity up to 4.3 is expected to be particularly sensitive to the dynamics of QCD parton evolution at low x. The measurements are compared to fixed-order QCD calculations and to leading-order parton-shower Monte Carlo models. (orig.)

  6. State-to-state inelastic and reactive molecular beam scattering from surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lykke, K.R.; Kay, B.D.

    1990-01-01

    Resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) laser spectroscopic and molecular beam-surface scattering techniques are coupled to study inelastic and reactive gas-surface scattering with state-to-state specificity. Rotational, vibrational, translational and angular distributions have been measured for the inelastic scattering of HCI and N 2 from Au(111). In both cases the scattering is direct-inelastic in nature and exhibits interesting dynamical features such as rotational rainbow scattering. In an effort to elucidate the dynamics of chemical reactions occurring on surfaces we have extended our quantum-resolved scattering studies to include the reactive scattering of a beam of gas phase H-atoms from a chlorinated metal surface M-CI. The nascent rotational and vibrational distributions of the HCI product are determined using REMPI. The thermochemistry for this reaction on Au indicates that the product formation proceeding through chemisorbed H-atoms is slightly endothermic while direct reaction of a has phase H-atom with M-CI is highly exothermic (ca. 50 kcal/mole). Details of the experimental techniques, results and implications regarding the scattering dynamics are discussed. 55 ref., 8 fig

  7. An x ray scatter approach for non-destructive chemical analysis of low atomic numbered elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, H. Richard

    1993-01-01

    A non-destructive x-ray scatter (XRS) approach has been developed, along with a rapid atomic scatter algorithm for the detection and analysis of low atomic-numbered elements in solids, powders, and liquids. The present method of energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (EDXRF) makes the analysis of light elements (i.e., less than sodium; less than 11) extremely difficult. Detection and measurement become progressively worse as atomic numbers become smaller, due to a competing process called 'Auger Emission', which reduces fluorescent intensity, coupled with the high mass absorption coefficients exhibited by low energy x-rays, the detection and determination of low atomic-numbered elements by x-ray spectrometry is limited. However, an indirect approach based on the intensity ratio of Compton and Rayleigh scattered has been used to define light element components in alloys, plastics and other materials. This XRS technique provides qualitative and quantitative information about the overall constituents of a variety of samples.

  8. Geometric Scaling Analysis of Deep Inelastic Scattering Data Including Heavy Quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Qing-Dong; Zeng Ji; Hu Yuan-Yuan; Li Quan-Bo; Xiang Wen-Chang; Zhou Dai-Cui

    2016-01-01

    An analytic massive total cross section of photon-proton scattering is derived, which has geometric scaling. A geometric scaling is used to perform a global analysis of the deep inelastic scattering data on inclusive structure function F_2 measured in lepton–hadron scattering experiments at small values of Bjorken x. It is shown that the descriptions of the inclusive structure function F_2 and longitudinal structure function F_L are improved with the massive analytic structure function, which may imply the gluon saturation effect dominating the parton evolution process at HERA. The inclusion of the heavy quarks prevent the divergence of the lepton–hadron cross section, which plays a significant role in the description of the photoproduction region. (paper)

  9. Low-angle polarized neutron and X-ray scattering from magnetic nanolayers and nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, Amitesh

    2017-01-01

    This research monograph presents the latest results related to the characterization of low dimensional systems. Low-angle polarized neutron scattering and X-ray scattering at grazing incidence are used as the two main techniques to explore various physical phenomena of these systems. Special focus is put on systems like thin film transition metal and rare-earth layers, oxide heterostructures, hybrid systems, self-assembled nanostructures and self-diffusion.  Readers will gain in-depth knowledge about the usage of specular scattering and off-specular scattering techniques. Investigation of in-plane and out-of-plane structures and magnetism with vector magnetometric information is illustrated comprehensively. The book caters to a wide audience working in the field of nano-dimensional magnetic systems and the neutron and X-ray reflectometry community in particular.

  10. Inelastic scattering of 275 keV neutrons by silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvinsky, L.L.; Zhigalov, Ya.A.; Krivenko, V.G.; Purtov, O.A.; Sabbagh, S.

    1997-01-01

    Neutron total, elastic and inelastic scattering cross-scattering of Ag at the E n = 275 KeV neutron energy were measured by using the filtered neutron beam of the WWR-M reactor in Kiev. The d-neutron strength function S n2 of Ag was determined from the analysis of all available data in the E n ≤ keV energy region on neutron inelastic scattering cross-sections with excitation of the first isomeric levels I π m = 7/2 + , E m ∼ 90 keV of 107,109 Ag: S n2 = (1.03 ± 0.19) · 10 -4 . (author). 10 refs, 3 figs

  11. Diffractive dijet production in deep inelastic scattering at ZEUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonato, A.

    2008-03-01

    This thesis presents a measurement of dijet production of diffractive deep inelastic scattering ep collisions. This type of process is specially relevant for the experimental validity of the perturbative QCD approach to diffractive physics. The measurement was based on an integrated luminosity of 61 pb -1 collected at the HERA collider with the ZEUS experiment. The events were selected for virtualities of the photon, γ*, 5 2 2 , and energies of the γ*p centre-of-mass, 100 T algorithm in the γ*p frame. The jets were required to have a transverse energy in the γ*p frame E T jet *>4 GeV. The jet with the highest transverse energy was required to have E T jet *>5 GeV. All jets were required to be in the pseudorapidity range -3.5 jet * P , was required to be x P TOT D (ep→ep jet 1 jet 2 X')=9.15±1.2 (stat.) 5.4 3.3 (syst.) -5.3 +6.4 (corr.)pb. Single and double differential cross sections were extracted and compared to leading-order predictions and next-to-leading-order QCD calculations. The latter used several diffractive parton densities extracted from inclusive diffractive deep inelastic scattering data. The agreement with the leading and next-to-leading order predictions is good and no hints of factorisation breaking are observed. The double differential measurement can be a previous input for the extraction of more accurate diffractive parton densities. (orig.)

  12. Theoretical model of x-ray scattering as a dense matter probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregori, G; Glenzer, S H; Rozmus, W; Lee, R W; Landen, O L

    2003-02-01

    We present analytical expressions for the dynamic structure factor, or form factor S(k,omega), which is the quantity describing the x-ray cross section from a dense plasma or a simple liquid. Our results, based on the random phase approximation for the treatment on the charged particle coupling, can be applied to describe scattering from either weakly coupled classical plasmas or degenerate electron liquids. Our form factor correctly reproduces the Compton energy down-shift and the known Fermi-Dirac electron velocity distribution for S(k,omega) in the case of a cold degenerate plasma. The usual concept of scattering parameter is also reinterpreted for the degenerate case in order to include the effect of the Thomas-Fermi screening. The results shown in this work can be applied to interpreting x-ray scattering in warm dense plasmas occurring in inertial confinement fusion experiments or for the modeling of solid density matter found in the interior of planets.

  13. Magnetic x-ray scattering studies of holmium using synchro- tron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, D.; Moncton, D.E.; D'Amico, K.L.; Bohr, J.; Grier, B.H.

    1985-01-01

    We present the results of magnetic x-ray scattering experiments on the rare-earth metal holmium using synchrotron radiation. Direct high-resolution measurements of the nominally incommensurate magnetic satellite reflections reveal new lock-in behavior which we explain within a simple spin-discommensuration model. As a result of magnetoelastic coupling, the spin-discommensuration array produces additional x-ray diffraction satellites. Their observation further substantiates the model and demonstrates additional advantages of synchrotron radiation for magnetic-structure studies

  14. The 7th Japan-Taiwan joint meeting on neutron and X-ray scattering. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-03-01

    The 7th Japan-Taiwan joint meeting on neutron and X-ray scattering in Kumatori is held bilaterally in Japan and Taiwan. This meeting provides the recent outstanding results in the fields of fundamental polymer and biological sciences and their applications as well. In the fields of the X-ray and/or neutron scattering, the methodological progress expands the research fields and gives us new scientific insights. This meeting invites the researchers developing new methodologies, such as dynamics measurement utilizing nuclear Bragg resonance, subunit-kinetics measurement with deuteration-assisted small-angle neutron scattering and so on. (J.P.N.)

  15. Experimental validation of a multi-energy x-ray adapted scatter separation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sossin, A.; Rebuffel, V.; Tabary, J.; Létang, J. M.; Freud, N.; Verger, L.

    2016-12-01

    Both in radiography and computed tomography (CT), recently emerged energy-resolved x-ray photon counting detectors enable the identification and quantification of individual materials comprising the inspected object. However, the approaches used for these operations require highly accurate x-ray images. The accuracy of the images is severely compromised by the presence of scattered radiation, which leads to a loss of spatial contrast and, more importantly, a bias in radiographic material imaging and artefacts in CT. The aim of the present study was to experimentally evaluate a recently introduced partial attenuation spectral scatter separation approach (PASSSA) adapted for multi-energy imaging. For this purpose, a prototype x-ray system was used. Several radiographic acquisitions of an anthropomorphic thorax phantom were performed. Reference primary images were obtained via the beam-stop (BS) approach. The attenuation images acquired from PASSSA-corrected data showed a substantial increase in local contrast and internal structure contour visibility when compared to uncorrected images. A substantial reduction of scatter induced bias was also achieved. Quantitatively, the developed method proved to be in relatively good agreement with the BS data. The application of the proposed scatter correction technique lowered the initial normalized root-mean-square error (NRMSE) of 45% between the uncorrected total and the reference primary spectral images by a factor of 9, thus reducing it to around 5%.

  16. Neutron scattering investigations of the properties of the x - T phase diagram of Rb sub 1 sub - sub x (NH sub 4) sub x I mixed crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Smirnov, L S; Savenko, B N

    2002-01-01

    The x - T phase diagram of Rb sub 1 sub - sub x (NH sub 4) sub x I is studied using samples with the ammonium concentration 0.01<x<0.77 over a wide temperature region of 15 to 300 K by neutron powder diffraction and inelastic incoherent neutron scattering. The results of powder diffraction studies show that at low temperatures a phase transition from alpha-phase to beta-phase is observed at ammonium concentrations x = 0.50 and x = 0.66. Inelastic incoherent neutron scattering detects a region of the orientional glass state at ammonium concentrations 0.29<x,0.40

  17. X-ray scattering studies of non-equilibrium ordering processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagler, S.E.

    1991-01-01

    We report on the progress of the project entitled ''X-ray Scattering Studies of Non-Equilibrium Ordering Processes.'' The past year has seen continued progress in the study of kinetic effects in metallic binary alloys and polymers. In addition, work has begun on a low dimensional CDW system: blue bronze. A sample chamber has been constructed to perform small angle neutron scattering measurements on a model quantum system with phase separation: solid He3/He4. Work is continuing on magnetic systems. Planned future experiments include an investigation of crystallization in Rubidium

  18. Nucleon-nucleon correlations and multiquark cluster effects in semi-inclusive deep inelastic lepton scattering off

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simula, S. [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Roma (Italy)

    1994-04-01

    Semi-inclusive deep inelastic lepton scattering off nuclei is investigated assuming that virtual boson absorption occurs on a hadronic cluster which can be either a two-nucleon correlated pair or a six-quark bag. The differences in the energy distribution of nucleons produced in backward and forward directions are analyzed both at x<1 and x>1.

  19. Rayleigh scatter in kilovoltage x-ray imaging: is the independent atom approximation good enough?

    OpenAIRE

    Poludniowski, G; Evans, PM; Webb, S

    2009-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulation is the gold standard method for modelling scattering processes in medical x-ray imaging. General-purpose Monte Carlo codes, however, typically use the independent atom approximation (IAA). This is known to be inaccurate for Rayleigh scattering, for many materials, in the forward direction. This work addresses whether the IAA is sufficient for the typical modelling tasks in medical kilovoltage x-ray imaging. As a means of comparison, we incorporate a more realistic 'inte...

  20. Gamma-rays from deep inelastic collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, F.S.

    1979-01-01

    The γ-rays associated with deep inelastic collisions can give information about the magnitude and orientation of the angular momentum transferred in these events. In this review, special emphasis is placed on understanding the origin and nature of these γ-rays in order to avoid some of the ambiguities that can arise. The experimental information coming from these γ-ray studies is reviewed, and compared briefly with that obtained by other methods and also with the expectations from current models for deep inelastic collisions. 15 figures

  1. X-ray Raman spectroscopy of lithium-ion battery electrolyte solutions in a flow cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketenoglu, Didem; Spiekermann, Georg; Harder, Manuel; Oz, Erdinc; Koz, Cevriye; Yagci, Mehmet C; Yilmaz, Eda; Yin, Zhong; Sahle, Christoph J; Detlefs, Blanka; Yavaş, Hasan

    2018-03-01

    The effects of varying LiPF 6 salt concentration and the presence of lithium bis(oxalate)borate additive on the electronic structure of commonly used lithium-ion battery electrolyte solvents (ethylene carbonate-dimethyl carbonate and propylene carbonate) have been investigated. X-ray Raman scattering spectroscopy (a non-resonant inelastic X-ray scattering method) was utilized together with a closed-circle flow cell. Carbon and oxygen K-edges provide characteristic information on the electronic structure of the electrolyte solutions, which are sensitive to local chemistry. Higher Li + ion concentration in the solvent manifests itself as a blue-shift of both the π* feature in the carbon edge and the carbonyl π* feature in the oxygen edge. While these oxygen K-edge results agree with previous soft X-ray absorption studies on LiBF 4 salt concentration in propylene carbonate, carbon K-edge spectra reveal a shift in energy, which can be explained with differing ionic conductivities of the electrolyte solutions.

  2. Study of ammonium molecular ion impurity modes in Rb1-x(NH4)xI mixed crystals by inelastic incoherent neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, L.S.; Natkaniec, I.; Ollivier, J.; Dianoux, J.A.; Martinez Sarrion, M.L.; Mestres, L.

    2010-01-01

    The study of ammonium dynamics in Rb 1-x (NH 4 ) x I mixed crystals was carried out by inelastic incoherent neutron scattering in the concentration region of orientationally disordered α-phase, 0.0< x<0.40, at the temperature range from 2 to 150 K. The observed resonance modes correspond to three energy regions: 0.19-0.481 (I), 0.56-3.0 (II) and 4.0-10.0 (III) meV. The modes of region I could be described by rotational tunneling energies of the multipole moments of ammonium ions. The modes within energy region II correspond to the calculated rotational tunneling energies between splitted levels of the ground librational level of ammonium ion. The modes of region III can be described as local gap modes of ammonium ion because they are located between acoustic and optic branches of RbI phonon density of states

  3. Inelastic neutron scattering from synthetic and biological polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, J.W.

    1976-01-01

    Neutron elastic and inelastic scattering measurements have provided many unique insights into structure, and by reviewing progress on synthetics, important differences likely to arise in biological systems are identified and a direction for studies of the latter is suggested. By neutron inelastic scattering it is possible to measure the frequency of thermally excited interatomic and intermolecular vibrations in crystals. With perfect organic and inorganic crystals the technique is now classical and has given great insight into the crystal forces responsible for the observed structures as well as the phase transitions they undergo. The study of polymer crystals immediately presents two problems of disorder: (1) Macroscopic disorder arises because the sample is a mixture of amorphous and crystalline fractions, and it may be acute enough to inhibit growth of a single crystal large enough for neutron studies. (2) Microscopic disorder in the packing of polymer chains in the ''crystalline'' regions is indicated by broadening of Bragg peaks. Both types of disorder problem arise in biological systems. The methods by which they were partially overcome to allow neutron measurements with synthetic polymers are described but first a classical example of the determination of interatomic forces by inelastic neutron scattering is given

  4. Rayleigh scatter in kilovoltage x-ray imaging: is the independent atom approximation good enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poludniowski, G.; Evans, P. M.; Webb, S.

    2009-11-01

    Monte Carlo simulation is the gold standard method for modelling scattering processes in medical x-ray imaging. General-purpose Monte Carlo codes, however, typically use the independent atom approximation (IAA). This is known to be inaccurate for Rayleigh scattering, for many materials, in the forward direction. This work addresses whether the IAA is sufficient for the typical modelling tasks in medical kilovoltage x-ray imaging. As a means of comparison, we incorporate a more realistic 'interference function' model into a custom-written Monte Carlo code. First, we conduct simulations of scatter from isolated voxels of soft tissue, adipose, cortical bone and spongiosa. Then, we simulate scatter profiles from a cylinder of water and from phantoms of a patient's head, thorax and pelvis, constructed from diagnostic-quality CT data sets. Lastly, we reconstruct CT numbers from simulated sets of projection images and investigate the quantitative effects of the approximation. We show that the IAA can produce errors of several per cent of the total scatter, across a projection image, for typical x-ray beams and patients. The errors in reconstructed CT number, however, for the phantoms simulated, were small (typically < 10 HU). The IAA can therefore be considered sufficient for the modelling of scatter correction in CT imaging. Where accurate quantitative estimates of scatter in individual projection images are required, however, the appropriate interference functions should be included.

  5. X-ray diffuse scattering holography of a centrosymmetric sample

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopecký, Miloš; Fábry, Jan; Kub, Jiří; Bussetto, E.; Lausi, A.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 23 (2005), 231914/1-231914/3 ISSN 0003-6951 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100529 Grant - others:EU(XE) HPRI-CT-1999-00033 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : x-ray holography * diffuse scattering Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.127, year: 2005

  6. Preparation and characterisation of magnetic nanostructured samples for inelastic neutron scattering experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreuzpaintner, Wolfgang

    2010-06-22

    Recent advances in thin-film structuring techniques have generated significant interest in the dynamics of spin waves in magnetic nanostructures and the possible use of inelastic neutron scattering (INS) for their investigation. This thesis describes the design and implementation, at GKSS Research Centre, of equipment for preparation of large and laterally submicron and nanometre structured magnetic samples for such future INS experiments. After a brief resume on spin waves in nanostructures, the development work on new purpose-designed equipment, including high vacuum (HV) argon ion beam milling and ultra high vacuum (UHV) e-beam evaporation setups, is described. Ni nanodot as well as Ni and novel Gd nanowire samples were prepared using combinations of sputter deposition, laser interference lithography, argon ion beam milling, e-beam evaporation and self organisation techniques. With reference to sample preparation, epitaxial growth studies for Ni on Si(100) substrate were performed, resulting in the development of a new deposition process, which by thermal tuning allows for the direct epitaxial growth of Ni on Si with unprecedented crystalline quality. The results of various characterisation experiments on the prepared nanostructured samples, including Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), microprobe analysis, Atomic and Magnetic Force Microscopy (AFM/MFM), Vibrating Sample Magnetometry (VSM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Reflectivity (XRR), unpolarised and Polarised Neutron Scattering (PNR) and off-specular scattering by X-rays and neutrons using rocking scans and Time-Of-Flight Grazing Incidence Small Angle Neutron Scattering (TOF-GISANS), together with various analysis procedures such as Distorted-Wave Born Approximation (DWBA), are reported. The analysis of a Gd nanowire sample by TOF-GISANS led to a novel evaluation technique which in comparison with single wavelength methods allows portions of reciprocal space to be scanned without changing the angle of

  7. Preparation and characterisation of magnetic nanostructured samples for inelastic neutron scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreuzpaintner, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in thin-film structuring techniques have generated significant interest in the dynamics of spin waves in magnetic nanostructures and the possible use of inelastic neutron scattering (INS) for their investigation. This thesis describes the design and implementation, at GKSS Research Centre, of equipment for preparation of large and laterally submicron and nanometre structured magnetic samples for such future INS experiments. After a brief resume on spin waves in nanostructures, the development work on new purpose-designed equipment, including high vacuum (HV) argon ion beam milling and ultra high vacuum (UHV) e-beam evaporation setups, is described. Ni nanodot as well as Ni and novel Gd nanowire samples were prepared using combinations of sputter deposition, laser interference lithography, argon ion beam milling, e-beam evaporation and self organisation techniques. With reference to sample preparation, epitaxial growth studies for Ni on Si(100) substrate were performed, resulting in the development of a new deposition process, which by thermal tuning allows for the direct epitaxial growth of Ni on Si with unprecedented crystalline quality. The results of various characterisation experiments on the prepared nanostructured samples, including Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), microprobe analysis, Atomic and Magnetic Force Microscopy (AFM/MFM), Vibrating Sample Magnetometry (VSM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Reflectivity (XRR), unpolarised and Polarised Neutron Scattering (PNR) and off-specular scattering by X-rays and neutrons using rocking scans and Time-Of-Flight Grazing Incidence Small Angle Neutron Scattering (TOF-GISANS), together with various analysis procedures such as Distorted-Wave Born Approximation (DWBA), are reported. The analysis of a Gd nanowire sample by TOF-GISANS led to a novel evaluation technique which in comparison with single wavelength methods allows portions of reciprocal space to be scanned without changing the angle of

  8. Measurement of dijet production in diffractive deep-inelastic scattering with a leading proton at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, F.D. [National Inst. for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Bucharest Univ. (Romania). Faculty of Physics; Alexa, C. [National Inst. for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Andreev, V. [Lebedev Physical Inst., Moscow (RU)] (and others)

    2011-09-15

    The cross section of diffractive deep-inelastic scattering ep{yields}eXp is measured, where the system X contains at least two jets and the leading final state proton is detected in the H1 Forward Proton Spectrometer. The measurement is performed for fractional proton longitudinal momentum loss x{sub P}<0.1 and covers the range 0.1< vertical stroke t vertical stroke <0.7 GeV{sup 2} in squared four-momentum transfer at the proton vertex and 4inelastic scattering. The data are also compared with leading order Monte Carlo models. (orig.)

  9. Measurement of dijet production in diffractive deep-inelastic scattering with a leading proton at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, F.D.; Alexa, C.; Rotaru, M.; Stoicea, G. [National Inst. for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Andreev, V.; Belousov, A.; Eliseev, A.; Fomenko, A.; Gogitidze, N.; Lebedev, A.; Malinovski, E.; Rusakov, S.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Soloviev, Y.; Vazdik, Y. [Lebedev Physical Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Backovic, S.; Dubak, A.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Picuric, I.; Raicevic, N. [Univ. of Montenegro, Faculty of Science, Podgorica (ME); Baghdasaryan, A.; Baghdasaryan, S.; Zohrabyan, H. [Yerevan Physics Inst., Yerevan (Armenia); Barrelet, E. [CNRS/IN2P3, LPNHE, Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, Univ. Denis Diderot Paris 7, Paris (France); Bartel, W.; Belov, P.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Britzger, D.; Campbell, A.J.; Eckerlin, G.; Elsen, E.; Felst, R.; Fischer, D.J.; Fleischer, M.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grebenyuk, A.; Grell, B.R.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Helebrant, C.; Kleinwort, C.; Kogler, R.; Kraemer, M.; Levonian, S.; Lipka, K.; List, B.; List, J.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, J.; Niebuhr, C.; Nowak, K.; Olsson, J.E.; Pahl, P.; Panagoulias, I.; Papadopoulou, T.; Petrukhin, A.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Schmitt, S.; Sefkow, F.; Shushkevich, S.; South, D.; Steder, M.; Wuensch, E. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Begzsuren, K.; Ravdandorj, T.; Tseepeldorj, B. [Inst. of Physics and Technology of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia); Bizot, J.C.; Brisson, V.; Delcourt, B.; Jacquet, M.; Pascaud, C.; Tran, T.H.; Zhang, Z.; Zomer, F. [CNRS/IN2P3, LAL, Univ. Paris-Sud, Orsay (France); Boudry, V.; Moreau, F.; Specka, A. [CNRS/IN2P3, LLR, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Mudrinic, M.; Pandurovic, M.; Smiljanic, I. [Univ. of Belgrade, Vinca Inst. of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade (RS); Bracinik, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Newman, P.R.; Thompson, P.D. [Univ. of Birmingham (United Kingdom); Bruncko, D.; Cerny, V.; Ferencei, J. [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Kosice (Slovakia)] [and others

    2012-04-15

    The cross section of diffractive deep-inelastic scattering ep{yields}eXp is measured, where the system X contains at least two jets and the leading final state proton is detected in the H1 Forward Proton Spectrometer. The measurement is performed for fractional proton longitudinal momentum loss x{sub P}<0.1 and covers the range 0.1< vertical stroke t vertical stroke <0.7 GeV{sup 2} in squared four-momentum transfer at the proton vertex and 4inelastic scattering. The data are also compared with leading order Monte Carlo models. (orig.)

  10. Modern X-ray spectroscopy 3. X-ray fluorescence holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Kouichi

    2008-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence holography (XFH) provides three dimensional atomic images around specified elements. The XFH uses atoms as a wave source or monitor of interference field within a crystal sample, and therefore it can record both intensity and phase of scattered X-rays. Its current performance makes it possible to apply to ultra thin film, impurity and quasicrystal. In this article, I show the theory including solutions for twin image problem, advanced measuring system, data processing for reconstruction of the atomic images and for obtaining accurate atomic positions, applications using resonant X-ray scattering and X-ray excited optical luminescence, and an example of XFH result on the local structure around copper in silicon steal. (author)

  11. First Search for the EMC Effect and Nuclear Shadowing in Neutrino Nucleus Deep Inelastic Scattering at MINERvA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousseau, Joel A. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Decades of research in electron-nucleus deep inelastic scattering (DIS) have provided a clear picture of nuclear physics at high momentum transfer. While these effects have been clearly demonstrated by experiment, the theoretical explanation of their origin in some kinematic regions has been lacking. Particularly, the effects in the intermediate regions of Bjorken-x, anti-shadowing and the EMC effect have no universally accepted quantum mechanical explanation. In addition, these effects have not been measured systematically with neutrino-nucleus deep inelastic scattering, due to experiments lacking multiple heavy targets.

  12. Source of X-ray radiation based on back compton scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Bulyak, E V; Karnaukhov, I M; Kononenko, S G; Lapshin, V G; Mytsykov, A O; Telegin, Yu P; Shcherbakov, A A; Zelinsky, Andrey Yurij

    2000-01-01

    Applicability was studied and previous estimation was done of power X-ray beams generation by backward Compton scattering of a laser photon beam on a cooled down electron beam. The few MeV electron beam circulating in a compact storage ring can be cooled down by interaction of that beam with powerful laser radiation of micrometer wavelength to achieve normalized emittance of 10 sup - sup 7 m. A tunable X-ray source of photons of energy ranging from few keV up to a hundred keV could result from the interaction of the laser beam with a dense electron beam.

  13. Source of X-ray radiation based on back compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulyak, E.V.; Gladkikh, P.I.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Kononenko, S.G.; Lapshin, V.I.; Mytsykov, A.O.; Telegin, Yu.N.; Shcherbakov, A.A. E-mail: shcherbakov@kipt.kharkov.ua; Zelinsky, A.Yu

    2000-06-21

    Applicability was studied and previous estimation was done of power X-ray beams generation by backward Compton scattering of a laser photon beam on a cooled down electron beam. The few MeV electron beam circulating in a compact storage ring can be cooled down by interaction of that beam with powerful laser radiation of micrometer wavelength to achieve normalized emittance of 10{sup -7} m. A tunable X-ray source of photons of energy ranging from few keV up to a hundred keV could result from the interaction of the laser beam with a dense electron beam.

  14. Source of X-ray radiation based on back compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulyak, E.V.; Gladkikh, P.I.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Kononenko, S.G.; Lapshin, V.I.; Mytsykov, A.O.; Telegin, Yu.N.; Shcherbakov, A.A.; Zelinsky, A.Yu.

    2000-01-01

    Applicability was studied and previous estimation was done of power X-ray beams generation by backward Compton scattering of a laser photon beam on a cooled down electron beam. The few MeV electron beam circulating in a compact storage ring can be cooled down by interaction of that beam with powerful laser radiation of micrometer wavelength to achieve normalized emittance of 10 -7 m. A tunable X-ray source of photons of energy ranging from few keV up to a hundred keV could result from the interaction of the laser beam with a dense electron beam

  15. Fast Neutron Elastic and Inelastic Scattering of Vanadium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmqvist, B; Johansson, S G; Lodin, G; Wiedling, T

    1969-11-15

    Fast neutron scattering interactions with vanadium were studied using time-of-flight techniques at several energies in the interval 1.5 to 8.1 MeV. The experimental differential elastic scattering cross sections have been fitted to optical model calculations and the inelastic scattering cross sections have been compared with Hauser-Feshbach calculations, corrected for the fluctuation of compound-nuclear level widths.

  16. LIGHT SOURCE: A simulation study of Tsinghua Thomson scattering X-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chuan-Xiang; Li, Ren-Kai; Huang, Wen-Hui; Chen, Huai-Bi; Du, Ying-Chao; Du, Qiang; Du, Tai-Bin; He, Xiao-Zhong; Hua, Jian-Fei; Lin, Yu-Zhen; Qian, Hou-Jun; Shi, Jia-Ru; Xiang, Dao; Yan, Li-Xin; Yu, Pei-Cheng

    2009-06-01

    Thomson scattering X-ray sources are compact and affordable facilities that produce short duration, high brightness X-ray pulses enabling new experimental capacities in ultra-fast science studies, and also medical and industrial applications. Such a facility has been built at the Accelerator Laboratory of Tsinghua University, and upgrade is in progress. In this paper, we present a proposed layout of the upgrade with design parameters by simulation, aiming at high X-ray pulses flux and brightness, and also enabling advanced dynamics studies and applications of the electron beam. Design and construction status of main subsystems are also presented.

  17. Measurement of the Target-Normal Single-Spin Asymmetry in Deep-Inelastic Scattering from the Reaction 3He{uparrow}(e,e')X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katich, Joseph; Qian, Xin; Zhao, Yuxiang; Allada, Kalyan; Aniol, Konrad; Annand, John; Averett, Todd; Benmokhtar, Fatiha; Bertozzi, William; Bradshaw, Elliott; Bosted, Peter; Camsonne, Alexandre; Canan, Mustafa; Cates, Gordon; Chen, Chunhua; Chen, Jian-Ping; Chen, Wei; Chirapatpimol, Khem; Chudakov, Eugene; Cisbani, Evaristo; Cornejo, Juan; Cusanno, Francesco; Dalton, Mark; Deconinck, Wouter; De Jager, Cornelis; De Leo, Raffaele; Deng, Xiaoyan; Deur, Alexandre; Ding, Huaibo; Dolph, Peter; Dutta, Chiranjib; Dutta, Dipangkar; El Fassi, Lamiaa; Frullani, Salvatore; Gao, Haiyan; Garibaldi, Franco; Gaskell, David; Gilad, Gilad; Gilman, Ronald; Glamazdin, Oleksandr; Golge, Serkan; Guo, Lei; Hamilton, David; Hansen, Jens-Ole; Higinbotham, Douglas; Holmstrom, Timothy; Huang, Jijun; Huang, Min; Ibrahim Abdalla, Hassan; Iodice, Mauro; Jin, Ge; Jones, Mark; Kelleher, Aidan; Kim, Wooyoung; Kolarkar, Ameya; Korsch, Wolfgang; LeRose, John; Li, Xiaomei; Li, Y; Lindgren, Richard; Liyanage, Nilanga; Long, Elena; Lu, Hai-jiang; Margaziotis, Demetrius; Markowitz, Pete; Marrone, Stefano; McNulty, Dustin; Meziani, Zein-Eddine; Michaels, Robert; Moffit, Bryan; Munoz Camacho, Carlos; Nanda, Sirish; Narayan, Amrendra; Nelyubin, Vladimir; Norum, Blaine; Oh, Yoomin; Osipenko, Mikhail; Parno, Diana; Peng, Jen-chieh; Phillips, Sarah; Posik, Matthew; Puckett, Andrew; Qiang, Yi; Rakhman, Abdurahim; Ransome, Ronald; Riordan, Seamus; Saha, Arunava; Sawatzky, Bradley; Schulte, Elaine; Shahinyan, Albert; Hashemi Shabestari, Mitra; Sirca, Simon; Stepanyan, Stepan; Subedi, Ramesh; Sulkosky, Vincent; Tang, Liguang; Tobias, William; Urciuoli, Guido; Vilardi, Ignazio; Wang, Kebin; Wang, Y; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan; Yan, X; Yao, Huan; Ye, Yunxiu; Ye, Z; Yuan, Lulin; Zhan, Xiaohui; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Y -W; Zhao, Bo; Zheng, Xiaochao; Zhu, Lingyan; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Zong, Xing

    2014-07-01

    We report the first measurement of the target single-spin asymmetry in deep-inelastic scattering from the inclusive reaction 3He{uparrow}(e,e')X on a 3He gas target polarized normal to the lepton plane. Assuming time-reversal invariance, this asymmetry is strictly zero in the Born approximation. The experiment, conducted at Jefferson Lab using a 5.89 GeV electron beam, covers a range of 1.7x<0.65. Neutron asymmetries were extracted using the effective nucleon polarization and measured proton-to-3He cross section ratios. The measured neutron asymmetries are negative with an average value of (−1.04+/-0.38)×10−2 for invariant mass W>2 GeV, which is non-zero at the 2.75sigma level. Theoretical calculations, which assume two-photon exchange with quasi-free quarks, predict a neutron asymmetry of O(10−4) when both photons couple to one quark, and O(10−2) for the photons coupling to different quarks. Our measured asymmetry agrees both in sign and magnitude with the prediction that uses input based on the Sivers transverse momentum distribution obtained from semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering.

  18. 3-loop heavy flavor Wilson coefficients in deep-inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ablinger, J.; Hasselhuhn, A.; Schneider, C.; Manteuffel, A. von

    2014-09-01

    We present our most recent results on the calculation of the heavy flavor contributions to deep-inelastic scattering at 3-loop order in the large Q 2 limit, where the heavy flavor Wilson coefficients are known to factorize into light flavor Wilson coefficients and massive operator matrix elements. We describe the different techniques employed for the calculation and show the results in the case of the heavy flavor non-singlet and pure singlet contributions to the structure function F 2 (x,Q 2 ).

  19. Studies on biological macromolecules by neutron inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Satoru; Nakagawa, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Neutron inelastic scattering techniques, including quasielastic and elastic incoherent neutron scattering, provide unique tools to directly measure the protein dynamics at a picosecond time scale. Since the protein dynamics at this time scale is indispensable to the protein functions, elucidation of the protein dynamics is indispensable for ultimate understanding of the protein functions. There are two complementary directions of the protein dynamics studies: one is to explore the physical basis of the protein dynamics using 'model' proteins, and the other is more biology-oriented. Examples of the studies on the protein dynamics with neutron inelastic scattering are described. The examples of the studies in the former direction include the studies on the dynamical transitions of the proteins, the relationship between the protein dynamics and the hydration water dynamics, and combined analysis of the protein dynamics with molecular dynamics simulation. The examples of the studies in the latter direction include the elastic incoherent and quasielastic neutrons scattering studies of actin. Future prospects of the studies on the protein dynamics with neutron scattering are briefly described. (author)

  20. Interpretation and Utility of the Moments of Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering Distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modregger, Peter; Kagias, Matias; Irvine, Sarah C; Brönnimann, Rolf; Jefimovs, Konstantins; Endrizzi, Marco; Olivo, Alessandro

    2017-06-30

    Small angle x-ray scattering has been proven to be a valuable method for accessing structural information below the spatial resolution limit implied by direct imaging. Here, we theoretically derive the relation that links the subpixel differential phase signal provided by the sample to the moments of scattering distributions accessible by refraction sensitive x-ray imaging techniques. As an important special case we explain the scatter or dark-field contrast in terms of the sample's phase signal. Further, we establish that, for binary phase objects, the nth moment scales with the difference of the refractive index decrement to the power of n. Finally, we experimentally demonstrate the utility of the moments by quantitatively determining the particle sizes of a range of powders with a laboratory-based setup.

  1. Effect of Pressure on Valence and Structural Properties of YbFe2Ge2 Heavy Fermion Compound A Combined Inelastic X-ray Spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction, and Theoretical Investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Ravhi S.; Svane, Axel; Vaitheeswaran; #8741; , Ganapathy; Kanchana, Venkatakrishnan; Antonio, Daniel; Cornelius, Andrew L.; Bauer, Eric D.; Xiao, Yuming; Chow, Paul (Aarhus); (CIW); (Hyderabad - India); (IIT-India); (LANL); (UNLV)

    2016-06-03

    The crystal structure and the Yb valence of the YbFe2Ge2 heavy fermion compound was measured at room temperature and under high pressures using high-pressure powder X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy via both partial fluorescence yield and resonant inelastic X-ray emission techniques. Furthermore, the measurements are complemented by first-principles density functional theoretical calculations using the self-interaction corrected local spin density approximation investigating in particular the magnetic structure and the Yb valence. While the ThCr2Si2-type tetragonal (I4/mmm) structure is stable up to 53 GPa, the X-ray emission results show an increase of the Yb valence from v = 2.72(2) at ambient pressure to v = 2.93(3) at ~9 GPa, where at low temperature a pressure-induced quantum critical state was reported.

  2. Measurement of the cross section for diffractive deep-inelastic scattering with a leading proton at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, F.D.; Alexa, C.; Rotaru, M.; Stoicea, G. [National Inst. for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Andreev, V.; Belousov, A.; Eliseev, A.; Fomenko, A.; Gogitidze, N.; Lebedev, A.; Loktionova, N.; Malinovski, E.; Rusakov, S.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Soloviev, Y.; Vazdik, Y. [Lebedev Physical Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Backovic, S.; Dubak, A.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Picuric, I.; Raicevic, N. [Univ. of Montenegro, Faculty of Science, Podgorica (ME); Baghdasaryan, A.; Zohrabyan, H. [Yerevan Physics Inst., Yerevan (Armenia); Barrelet, E. [Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, Univ. Denis Diderot Paris 7, CNRS/IN2P3, LPNHE, Paris (France); Bartel, W.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Britzger, D.; Campbell, A.J.; Cholewa, A.; Deak, M.; Eckerlin, G.; Elsen, E.; Felst, R.; Fischer, D.J.; Fleischer, M.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grebenyuk, A.; Grell, B.R.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Helebrant, C.; Katzy, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Knutsson, A.; Kraemer, M.; Kutak, K.; Levonian, S.; Lipka, K.; List, J.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, J.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, K.; Olsson, J.E.; Pahl, P.; Panagoulias, I.; Papadopoulou, T.; Petrukhin, A.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Schmitt, S.; Sefkow, F.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Toll, T.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Driesch, M. von den; Wuensch, E. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Begzsuren, K.; Ravdandorj, T.; Tseepeldorj, B. [Inst. of Physics and Technology of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia); Bizot, J.C.; Brisson, V.; Delcourt, B.; Jacquet, M.; Pascaud, C.; Tran, T.H.; Zhang, Z.; Zomer, F. [Universite Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, LAL, Orsay (France); Boudry, V.; Moreau, F.; Specka, A. [Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, LLR, Palaiseau (France); Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Mudrinic, M.; Pandurovic, M.; Smiljanic, I. [Vinca Inst. of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade (RS); Bracinik, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Newman, P.R.; Thompson, P.D. [Univ. of Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-15

    The cross section for the diffractive deep-inelastic scattering process ep{yields}eXp is measured, with the leading final state proton detected in the H1 Forward Proton Spectrometer. The data sample covers the range x{sub P}<0.1 in fractional proton longitudinal momentum loss, 0.1< vertical stroke t vertical stroke <0.7 GeV{sup 2} in squared four-momentum transfer at the proton vertex and 4x{sub P},Q {sup 2} and {beta}=x/x{sub P}, where x is the Bjorken scaling variable. The t and x{sub P} dependences are interpreted in terms of an effective pomeron trajectory and a sub-leading exchange. The data are compared with perturbative QCD predictions at next-to-leading order based on diffractive parton distribution functions previously extracted from complementary measurements of inclusive diffractive deep-inelastic scattering. The ratio of the diffractive to the inclusive ep cross section is studied as a function of Q{sup 2},{beta} and x{sub P}. (orig.)

  3. Sterman-Weinberg formula in deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhaparidze, G.Sh.; Kartvelishvili, V.G.

    1981-01-01

    The jet cross-section in current fragmentation region in deep inelastic scattering is obtained. It is shown that this jet produced in ep reaction is narrower, then the one from e + e - -annihilation [ru

  4. X-ray diffuse scattering effects from Coulomb-type defects in multilayered structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olikhovskii, S.I.; Molodkin, V.B.; Skakunova, E.S.; Kislovskii, E.N.; Fodchuk, I.M.

    2009-01-01

    The theoretical X-ray diffraction model starting from Takagi-Taupin equation has been developed for the description of coherent and diffuse components of the rocking curve (RC) measured from the multilayered crystal structure with randomly distributed Coulomb-type defects in all the layers and substrate. The model describes both diffuse scattering (DS) intensity distribution and influence of DS on attenuation and angular redistribution of the coherent X-ray scattering intensity. By analyzing the total measured RC with using the proposed diffraction model, the chemical compositions, strains, and characteristics of dislocation loops in layers and substrate of the multilayered structure with InGaAsN/GaAs single quantum well have been determined. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  5. Tissue Equivalent Phantom Design for Characterization of a Coherent Scatter X-ray Imaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanese, Kathryn Elizabeth

    Scatter in medical imaging is typically cast off as image-related noise that detracts from meaningful diagnosis. It is therefore typically rejected or removed from medical images. However, it has been found that every material, including cancerous tissue, has a unique X-ray coherent scatter signature that can be used to identify the material or tissue. Such scatter-based tissue-identification provides the advantage of locating and identifying particular materials over conventional anatomical imaging through X-ray radiography. A coded aperture X-ray coherent scatter spectral imaging system has been developed in our group to classify different tissue types based on their unique scatter signatures. Previous experiments using our prototype have demonstrated that the depth-resolved coherent scatter spectral imaging system (CACSSI) can discriminate healthy and cancerous tissue present in the path of a non-destructive x-ray beam. A key to the successful optimization of CACSSI as a clinical imaging method is to obtain anatomically accurate phantoms of the human body. This thesis describes the development and fabrication of 3D printed anatomical scatter phantoms of the breast and lung. The purpose of this work is to accurately model different breast geometries using a tissue equivalent phantom, and to classify these tissues in a coherent x-ray scatter imaging system. Tissue-equivalent anatomical phantoms were designed to assess the capability of the CACSSI system to classify different types of breast tissue (adipose, fibroglandular, malignant). These phantoms were 3D printed based on DICOM data obtained from CT scans of prone breasts. The phantoms were tested through comparison of measured scatter signatures with those of adipose and fibroglandular tissue from literature. Tumors in the phantom were modeled using a variety of biological tissue including actual surgically excised benign and malignant tissue specimens. Lung based phantoms have also been printed for future

  6. H1 contributions to the workshop on deep inelastic scattering and QCD, Paris'95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeck, A. de; Jung, H.; Phillips, J.P.; Zomer, F.

    1995-08-01

    The following topics were dealt with: Forward jets in deep inelastic scattering at HERA, diffractive interactions, rapidity gap events at HERA and the structure of the pomeron, new results on the proton structure function from H1, extraction of the gluon density at low-x from F 2 proton data

  7. Revisiting Bragg's X-ray microscope: Scatter based optical transient grating detection of pulsed ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullagar, Wilfred K.; Paganin, David M.; Hall, Chris J.

    2011-01-01

    Transient optical gratings for detecting ultrafast signals are routine for temporally resolved photochemical investigations. Many processes can contribute to the formation of such gratings; we indicate use of optically scattering centres that can be formed with highly variable latencies in different materials and devices using ionising radiation. Coherent light scattered by these centres can form the short-wavelength-to-optical-wavelength, incoherent-to-coherent basis of a Bragg X-ray microscope, with inherent scope for optical phasing. Depending on the dynamics of the medium chosen, the way is open to both ultrafast pulsed and integrating measurements. For experiments employing brief pulses, we discuss high-dynamic-range short-wavelength diffraction measurements with real-time optical reconstructions. Applications to optical real-time X-ray phase-retrieval are considered. -- Research highlights: → It is timely that the concept of Bragg's X-ray microscope be revisited. → Transient gratings can be used for X-ray all-optical information processing. → Applications to optical real-time X-ray phase-retrieval are considered.

  8. Development of a computer model using the EGS4 simulation code to calculate scattered X-rays through some materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ghorabie, F.H.H.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper a computer model based on the use of the well-known Monte Carlo simulation code EGS4 was developed to simulate the scattering of polyenergetic X-ray beams through some materials. These materials are: lucite, polyethylene, polypropylene and aluminium. In particular, the ratio of the scattered to total X-ray fluence (scatter fraction) has been calculated for X-ray beams in the energy region 30-120 keV. In addition scatter fractions have been determined experimentally using a polyenergetic superficial X-ray unit. Comparison of the measured and the calculated results has been performed. The Monte Carlo calculations have also been carried out for water, bakelite and bone to examine the dependence of scatter fraction on the density of the scatterer. Good agreement (estimated statistical error < 5%) was obtained between the measured and the calculated values of the scatter fractions for materials with Z < 20 that were studied in this paper. Copyright (2003) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  9. Inelastic Proton Scattering on 21Na in Inverse Kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Roby

    2009-10-01

    R.A.E. Austin, R. Kanungo, S. Reeve, Saint Mary's University; D.G. Jenkins, C.Aa.Diget, A. Robinson, A.G. Tuff, O. Roberts, University of York, UK; P.J. Woods, T. Davinson, G. J. Lotay, University of Edinburgh; C.-Y. Wu, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; H. Al Falou, G.C. Ball, M. Djongolov, A. Garnsworthy, G. Hackman, J.N. Orce, C.J. Pearson, S. Triambak, S.J. Williams, TRIUMF; C. Andreiou, D.S. Cross, N. Galinski, R. Kshetri, Simon Fraser University; C. Sumithrarachchi, M.A. Schumaker, University of Guelph; M.P. Jones, S.V. Rigby, University of Liverpool; D. Cline, A. Hayes, University of Rochester; T.E. Drake, University of Toronto; We describe an experiment and associated technique [1] to measure resonances of interest in astrophysical reactions. At the TRIUMF ISAC-II radioactive beam accelerator facility in Canada, particles inelastically scattered in inverse kinematics are detected with Bambino, a δE-E silicon telescope spanning 15-40 degrees in the lab. We use the TIGRESS to detect gamma rays in coincidence with the charged particles to cleanly select inelastic scattering events. We measured resonances above the alpha threshold in ^22Mg of relevance to the rate of break-out from the hot-CNO cycle via the reaction ^ 18Ne(α,p)^21Na. [1] PJ Woods et al. Rex-ISOLDE proposal 424 Cern (2003).

  10. Transmission X-ray scattering as a probe for complex liquid-surface structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuto, Masafumi; Yang, Lin; Nykypanchuk, Dmytro; Kuzmenko, Ivan

    2016-01-28

    The need for functional materials calls for increasing complexity in self-assembly systems. As a result, the ability to probe both local structure and heterogeneities, such as phase-coexistence and domain morphologies, has become increasingly important to controlling self-assembly processes, including those at liquid surfaces. The traditional X-ray scattering methods for liquid surfaces, such as specular reflectivity and grazing-incidence diffraction, are not well suited to spatially resolving lateral heterogeneities due to large illuminated footprint. A possible alternative approach is to use scanning transmission X-ray scattering to simultaneously probe local intermolecular structures and heterogeneous domain morphologies on liquid surfaces. To test the feasibility of this approach, transmission small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (TSAXS/TWAXS) studies of Langmuir films formed on water meniscus against a vertically immersed hydrophilic Si substrate were recently carried out. First-order diffraction rings were observed in TSAXS patterns from a monolayer of hexagonally packed gold nanoparticles and in TWAXS patterns from a monolayer of fluorinated fatty acids, both as a Langmuir monolayer on water meniscus and as a Langmuir–Blodgett monolayer on the substrate. The patterns taken at multiple spots have been analyzed to extract the shape of the meniscus surface and the ordered-monolayer coverage as a function of spot position. These results, together with continual improvement in the brightness and spot size of X-ray beams available at synchrotron facilities, support the possibility of using scanning-probe TSAXS/TWAXS to characterize heterogeneous structures at liquid surfaces.

  11. Inelastic plasmon and inter-band electron-scattering potentials for Si from dielectric matrix calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josefsson, T.W.; Smith, A.E.

    1994-01-01

    Inelastic scattering of electrons in a crystalline environment may be represented by a complex non-hermitian potential. Completed generalised expressions for this inelastic electron scattering potential matrix, including virtual inelastic scattering, are derived for outer-shell electron and plasmon excitations. The relationship between these expressions and the general anisotropic dielectric response matrix of the solid is discussed. These generalised expressions necessarily include the off-diagonal terms representing effects due to departure from translational invariance in the interaction. Results are presented for the diagonal back structure dependent inelastic and virtual inelastic scattering potentials for Si, from a calculation of the inverse dielectric matrix in the random phase approximation. Good agreement is found with experiment as a function of incident energies from 10 eV to 100 keV. Anisotropy effects and hence the interaction de localisation represented by the off-diagonal scattering potential terms, are found to be significant below 1 keV. 38 refs., 2 figs

  12. The Hadronic Final State in Deep Inelastic ep Scattering at Low Bjorken-x at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goerlich, L.M.

    2006-01-01

    The electron-proton collider HERA with centre of mass system energy of about 300 GeV has extended the available kinematic regime in deep inelastic scattering to low values of Bjorken-x (10 -5 -10 -3 ) and made possible studies of the QCD dynamics in this region. The processes in which partons carry a very small fraction of the proton momentum may show deviations from the standard DGLAP dynamics and it is believed that their correct description is provided by the BFKL evolution formalism. Low x phenomena have been initially studied with the HERA data on F 2 structure function and later with more exclusive measurements of the hadronic final state. In this report recent results of these studies and especially dedicated measurements of jets and π 0 mesons, produced close to the proton remnant, are reviewed. The data are used to discriminate between QCD models with different parton evolution approximations. For completeness, measurements at e + e - and p-p colliders sensitive to the BFKL dynamics are also described. (author)

  13. Measurement of isolated photon production in deep inelastic ep scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S.

    2009-09-01

    Isolated photon production in deep inelastic ep scattering has been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 320 pb -1 . Measurements were made in the isolated-photon transverse-energy and pseudo- rapidity ranges 4 T γ γ 2 , in the range 10 2 2 and for invariant masses of the hadronic system W X >5 GeV. Differential cross sections are presented for inclusive isolated photon production as functions of Q 2 , x, E T γ and η γ . Leading-logarithm parton-shower Monte Carlo simulations and perturbative QCD predictions give a reasonable description of the data over most of the kinematic range. (orig.)

  14. Photon diffractive dissociation in deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryskin, M.G.

    1990-01-01

    The new ep-collider HERA gives us the possibility to study the diffractive dissociation of virtual photon in deep inelastic ep-collision. The process of photon dissociation in deep inelastic scattering is the most direct way to measure the value of triple-pomeron vertex G 3P . It was shown that the value of the correct bare vertex G 3P may more than 4 times exceeds its effective value measuring in the triple-reggeon region and reaches the value of about 40-50% of the elastic pp-pomeron vertex. On the contrary in deep inelastic processes the perpendicular momenta q t of the secondary particles are large enough. Thus in deep inelastic reactions one can measure the absolute value of G 3P vertex in the most direct way and compare its value and q t dependence with the leading log QCD predictions

  15. A compact X-ray source based on Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulyak, E.; Gladkikh, P.; Grigor' ev, Yu.; Guk, I.; Karnaukhov, I.; Khodyachikh, A.; Kononenko, S.; Mocheshnikov, N.; Mytsykov, A.; Shcherbakov, A. E-mail: shcherbakov@kipt.kharkov.ua; Tarasenko, A.; Telegin, Yu.; Zelinsky, A

    2001-07-21

    The main parameters of Kharkov electron storage ring N-100 with a beam energy range from 70 to 150 MeV are presented. The main results that were obtained in experimental researches are briefly described. The future of the N-100 upgrade to the development of the X-ray generator based on Compton back-scattering are presented. The electron beam energy range will be extended up to 250 MeV and the circumference of the storage ring will be 13.72 m. The lattice, parameters of the electron beam and the Compton back-scattering photons flux are described.

  16. A compact X-ray source based on Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulyak, E.; Gladkikh, P.; Grigor'ev, Yu.; Guk, I.; Karnaukhov, I.; Khodyachikh, A.; Kononenko, S.; Mocheshnikov, N.; Mytsykov, A.; Shcherbakov, A.; Tarasenko, A.; Telegin, Yu.; Zelinsky, A.

    2001-01-01

    The main parameters of Kharkov electron storage ring N-100 with a beam energy range from 70 to 150 MeV are presented. The main results that were obtained in experimental researches are briefly described. The future of the N-100 upgrade to the development of the X-ray generator based on Compton back-scattering are presented. The electron beam energy range will be extended up to 250 MeV and the circumference of the storage ring will be 13.72 m. The lattice, parameters of the electron beam and the Compton back-scattering photons flux are described

  17. Inclusive observables and hard gluon emission in neutrino deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchiat, C.; Meyer, P.; Mezard, M.

    1980-01-01

    We derive the predictions of perturbative QCD together with non-perturbative corrections for a set of inclusive observables connected with the angular distribution of light-cone energy in deep inelastic neutrino scattering. Our particular choice of observables has been made in order to meet important physical requirements besides the necessary condition of infrared regularity. Our inclusive observables receive their dominant contribution from the quark fragmentation region. The non-perturbative contribution is calculable in a rather model-independent way and stays at an acceptable level in realistic experimental conditions. The QCD perturbative contribution, which takes the simple form of a convolution product, exhibits a strongly decreasing behaviour as a function of the Bjorken scaling variable x, superimposed on a constant background associated with the non-perturbative terms, allowing a rather clean separation of the two effects. The perturbative term being dominated by the process of hard-gluon emission, an experimental investigation of the observables discussed here may be a good way to detect the effect of gluon emission in deep inelastic neutrino scattering. (orig.)

  18. Measurement of D* production in diffractive deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreev, V.; Belousov, A.; Fomenko, A.; Gogitidze, N.; Lebedev, A.; Malinovski, E.; Soloviev, Y.; Vazdik, Y. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Baghdasaryan, A.; Zohrabyan, H. [Yerevan Physics Institute, Yerevan (Armenia); Begzsuren, K.; Ravdandorj, T. [Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics and Technology of the Mongolian, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia); Bolz, A.; Huber, F.; Sauter, M.; Schoening, A. [Universitaet Heidelberg, Physikalisches Institut, Heidelberg (Germany); Boudry, V.; Specka, A. [LLR, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, Palaiseau (France); Brandt, G. [Universitaet Goettingen, II. Physikalisches Institut, Goettingen (Germany); Brisson, V.; Jacquet, M.; Pascaud, C.; Zhang, Z.; Zomer, F. [LAL, Universite Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay (France); Britzger, D.; Campbell, A.J.; Dodonov, V.; Eckerlin, G.; Elsen, E.; Fleischer, M.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Haidt, D.; Jung, A.; Jung, H.; Katzy, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Kruecker, D.; Krueger, K.; Levonian, S.; Lipka, K.; List, B.; List, J.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, J.; Niebuhr, C.; Olsson, J.E.; Pirumov, H.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Schmitt, S.; Sefkow, F.; South, D.; Steder, M.; Wuensch, E. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Buniatyan, A.; Newman, P.R.; Thompson, P.D. [University of Birmingham, School of Physics and Astronomy, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Bylinkin, A. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Bystritskaya, L.; Fedotov, A. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Avila, K.B.C.; Contreras, J.G. [CINVESTAV, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); Cerny, K.; Jansova, M.; Salek, D.; Valkarova, A.; Zacek, J.; Zlebcik, R. [Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Prague (Czech Republic); Chekelian, V.; Grindhammer, G.; Kiesling, C.; Lobodzinski, B. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Munich (Germany); Cvach, J.; Hladky, J.; Reimer, P. [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Institute of Physics, Prague (Czech Republic); Dainton, J.B.; Gabathuler, E.; Greenshaw, T.; Klein, M.; Kostka, P.; Kretzschmar, J.; Laycock, P.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Patel, G.D. [University of Liverpool, Department of Physics, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Daum, K.; Meyer, H. [Fachbereich C, Universitaet Wuppertal, Wuppertal (Germany); Diaconu, C.; Hoffmann, D.; Vallee, C. [Aix Marseille Universite, CNRS/IN2P3, CPPM UMR 7346, Marseille (France); Dobre, M.; Rotaru, M. [Horia Hulubei National Institute for R and D in Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), Bucharest (Romania); Egli, S.; Horisberger, R.; Ozerov, D. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland); Favart, L.; Grebenyuk, A.; Hreus, T.; Janssen, X.; Roosen, R.; Mechelen, P. van [Brussels and Universiteit Antwerpen, Inter-University Institute for High Energies ULB-VUB, Antwerp (Belgium); Feltesse, J.; Schoeffel, L. [Irfu/SPP, CE Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Ferencei, J. [Nuclear Physics Institute of the CAS, Rez (Czech Republic); Goerlich, L.; Mikocki, S.; Nowak, G.; Sopicki, P. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow (Poland); Gouzevitch, M.; Petrukhin, A. [IPNL, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Villeurbanne (France); Grab, C. [Institut fuer Teilchenphysik, ETH, Zurich (Switzerland); Henderson, R.C.W. [University of Lancaster, Department of Physics, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Kapichine, M.; Morozov, A.; Spaskov, V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Kogler, R. [Universitaet Hamburg, Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Hamburg (Germany); Landon, M.P.J.; Rizvi, E.; Traynor, D. [University of London, School of Physics and Astronomy, London (United Kingdom); Lange, W.; Naumann, T. [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Martyn, H.U. [I. Physikalisches Institut der RWTH, Aachen (Germany); Mueller, K.; Robmann, P.; Straumann, U.; Truoel, P. [Physik-Institut der Universitaet Zuerich, Zurich (Switzerland); Perez, E. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Picuric, I.; Raicevic, N. [University of Montenegro, Faculty of Science, Podgorica (Montenegro); Polifka, R. [Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Prague (Czech Republic); University of Toronto, Department of Physics, Toronto, ON (Canada); Radescu, V. [Oxford University, Department of Physics, Oxford (United Kingdom); Rostovtsev, A. [Institute for Information Transmission Problems RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Sankey, D.P.C. [STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Sauvan, E. [Aix Marseille Universite, CNRS/IN2P3, CPPM UMR 7346, Marseille (France); Universite de Savoie, CNRS/IN2P3, LAPP, Annecy-le-Vieux (France); Shushkevich, S. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Stella, B. [Dipartimento di Fisica Universita di Roma Tre (Italy); INFN Roma 3, Rome (Italy); Sykora, T. [Brussels and Universiteit Antwerpen, Inter-University Institute for High Energies ULB-VUB, Antwerp (Belgium); Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Prague (Czech Republic); Tsakov, I. [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Sofia (Bulgaria); Tseepeldorj, B. [Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics and Technology of the Mongolian, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia); Ulaanbaatar University, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia); Wegener, D. [Institut fuer Physik, TU Dortmund, Dortmund (Germany)

    2017-05-15

    Measurements of D*(2010) meson production in diffractive deep inelastic scattering (5 < Q{sup 2} < 100 GeV{sup 2}) are presented which are based on HERA data recorded at a centre-of-mass energy √(s) = 319 GeV with an integrated luminosity of 287 pb{sup -1}. The reaction ep → eXY is studied, where the system X, containing at least one D*(2010) meson, is separated from a leading low-mass proton dissociative system Y by a large rapidity gap. The kinematics of D* candidates are reconstructed in the D* → Kππ decay channel. The measured cross sections compare favourably with next-to-leading order QCD predictions, where charm quarks are produced via boson-gluon fusion. The charm quarks are then independently fragmented to the D* mesons. The calculations rely on the collinear factorisation theorem and are based on diffractive parton densities previously obtained by H1 from fits to inclusive diffractive cross sections. The data are further used to determine the diffractive to inclusive D* production ratio in deep inelastic scattering. (orig.)

  19. Using X-ray Thomson Scattering to Characterize Highly Compressed, Near-Degenerate Plasmas at the NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doeppner, Tilo; Kraus, D.; Neumayer, P.; Bachmann, B.; Divol, L.; Kritcher, A. L.; Landen, O. L.; Fletcher, L.; Glenzer, S. H.; Falcone, R. W.; MacDonald, M. J.; Saunders, A.; Witte, B.; Redmer, R.; Chapman, D.; Baggott, R.; Gericke, D. O.; Yi, S. A.

    2017-10-01

    We are developing x-ray Thomson scattering for implosion experiments at the National Ignition Facility to characterize plasma conditions in plastic and beryllium capsules near stagnation, reaching more than 20x compression and electron densities of 1025 cm-3, corresponding to a Fermi energy of 170 eV. Using a zinc He- α x-ray source at 9 keV, experiments at a large scattering angle of 120° measure non-collective scattering spectra with high sensitivity to K-shell ionization, and find higher charge states than predicted by widely used ionization models. Reducing the scattering angle to 30° probes the collective scattering regime with sensitivity to collisions and conductivity. We will discuss recent results and future plans. This work was performed under the auspices of the US Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  20. Coherent scattering X-ray imaging at the Brazilian National Synchrotron Laboratory: Preliminary breast images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, C.R.F. [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory-COPPE/UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, Rio de Janeiro 21945-970 (Brazil); Barroso, R.C. [Physics Institute-University of Rio de Janeiro State, Rio de Janeiro 20559-900 (Brazil)]. E-mail: cely@uerij.br; Oliveira, L.F. de [Physics Institute-University of Rio de Janeiro State, Rio de Janeiro 20559-900 (Brazil); Lopes, R.T. [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory-COPPE/UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, Rio de Janeiro 21945-970 (Brazil)

    2005-08-11

    The angular distribution of coherent scatter (low-momentum transfer) carries information about atomic structures, resulting in a pattern, which can be used to reconstruct a series of images. Coherent-scatter computed tomography is a novel imaging method developed to produce cross-sectional images based on the X-ray diffraction properties of an object. A different approach to coherent X-ray imaging is possible by fixing the detector at a given scatter angle {theta}, which produces an interference peak and then, carried out a tomography in the standard way. The cross-sectional images obtained allow determining the spatial dependence of coherent scatter cross-section of selected volume elements of inhomogeneous, extend objects for a single predetermined value of {theta} of interest, leading to a simplification of the data processing and the complexity of the apparatus. This work presents preliminary coherent scattering images carried out at the X-ray Diffraction beamline of the National Synchrotron Light Laboratory in Campinas, Brazil. The specimens were excised human breast tissues fixed in formaline. No frozen procedure was used in order to minimize preferred orientation during sample preparation. About 1mm thick slices cut from each of the fresh samples were mounted in frames without windows and placed on a translator to allow acquisition of scattering spectra. Cylinders containing healthy and cancerous (infiltrating ductal carcinoma) breast tissues were imagined at the characteristic angle for adipose tissue. Transmission and coherent scatter images are compared.

  1. Structure functions and parton distributions in deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluemlein, J.

    1993-08-01

    The possibilities to measure structure functions, to extract parton distributions, and to measure α s and Λ QCD in current and future high energy deep inelastic scattering experiments are reviewed. A comparison is given for experiments at HERA, an ep option at LEP xLHC, and a high energy neutrino experiment. (orig.)

  2. Inelastic Neutron Scattering Study of Mn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Y.; Sarachik, M.P.; Friedman, J.R.; Robinson, R.A.; Kelley, T.M.; Nakotte, H.; Christianson, A.C.; Trouw, F.; Aubin, S.M.J.; Hendrickson, D.N.

    1998-11-09

    The authors report zero-field inelastic neutron scattering experiments on a 14-gram deuterated sample of Mn{sub 12}-Acetate consisting of a large number of identical spin-10 magnetic clusters. Their resolution enables them to see a series of peaks corresponding to transitions between the anisotropy levels within the spin-10 manifold. A fit to the spin Hamiltonian H = {minus}DS{sub z}{sup 2} + {mu}{sub B}B{center_dot}g{center_dot}S-BS{sub z}{sup 4} + C(S{sub +}{sup 4} + S{sub {minus}}{sup 4}) yields an anisotropy constant D = (0.54 {+-} 0.02) K and a fourth-order diagonal anisotropy coefficient B = (1.2 {+-} 0.1) x 10{sup {minus}3}K. Unlike EPR measurements, their experiments do not require a magnetic field and yield parameters that do not require knowledge of the g-value.

  3. Shadowing in inelastic lepton-deuteron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badelek, B.

    1992-01-01

    Shadowing in inelastic lepton-deuteron scattering is analysed using the double interaction formalism where we relate shadowing to inclusive diffractive processes. Both the vector meson and parton contributions are considered for low and high Q 2 values including QCD corrections with parton recombination for high Q 2 . These Q 2 values were chosen to correspond to existing experimental data and to the possible HERA measurements. Detailed discussion of various shadowing mechanisms is given. As expected the shadowing effects are found to be very small, less then 2% or so, in agreement with the recent precise measurements performed by the New Muon Collaboration. The contribution of shadowing term to the Gottfried sum the region x > 0.004 and for Q 2 = 4 GeV 2 is estimated to be equal to -0.025. (author). 10 refs, 4 figs

  4. Multiple scattering and attenuation corrections in Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawidowski, J; Blostein, J J; Granada, J R

    2006-01-01

    Multiple scattering and attenuation corrections in Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering experiments are analyzed. The theoretical basis of the method is stated, and a Monte Carlo procedure to perform the calculation is presented. The results are compared with experimental data. The importance of the accuracy in the description of the experimental parameters is tested, and the implications of the present results on the data analysis procedures is examined

  5. Superhydrophobic surfaces allow probing of exosome self organization using X-ray scattering

    KAUST Repository

    Accardo, Angelo; Tirinato, Luca; Altamura, Davide; Sibillano, Teresa; Giannini, Cinzia; Riekel, Christian; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2013-01-01

    Drops of exosome dispersions from healthy epithelial colon cell line and colorectal cancer cells were dried on a superhydrophobic PMMA substrate. The residues were studied by small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering using both a synchrotron radiation micrometric beam and a high-flux table-top X-ray source. Structural differences between healthy and cancerous cells were detected in the lamellar lattices of the exosome macro-aggregates. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  6. 3-loop heavy flavor Wilson coefficients in deep-inelastic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ablinger, J.; Hasselhuhn, A.; Schneider, C. [Johannes-Kepler-Univ. Linz (Austria). RISC; Behring, A.; Bluemlein, J.; Freitas, A. de; Raab, C.; Round, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Manteuffel, A. von [Mainz Univ. (Germany). PRISMA Cluster of Excellence; Wissbrock, F. [Johannes-Kepler-Univ. Linz (Austria). RISC; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); IHES Institut des Hautes Etudes Scientifiques, Bures-sur-Yvette (France)

    2014-09-15

    We present our most recent results on the calculation of the heavy flavor contributions to deep-inelastic scattering at 3-loop order in the large Q{sup 2} limit, where the heavy flavor Wilson coefficients are known to factorize into light flavor Wilson coefficients and massive operator matrix elements. We describe the different techniques employed for the calculation and show the results in the case of the heavy flavor non-singlet and pure singlet contributions to the structure function F{sub 2}(x,Q{sup 2}).

  7. Study of ammonia dynamics in mixed crystals K1-x(NH4)xHal (Hal = Cl, Br, I) by the inelastic neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natkanets, I.; Smirnov, L.S.; Solov'ev, A.I.; )

    1997-01-01

    The investigation of the dynamics of ammonium ion in the disordered α-phase of mixed crystals K 1-x (NH 4 ) x Hal (Hal = Cl, Br, I) is carried out by the inelastic incoherent neutron scattering (IINS) method. IINS spectra are measured in the 2-200 meV energy range and the 10-300 K temperature range by the time-of-flight method. The generalized densities of phonon states are defined in the single-phonon approximation. It is found out that the libration mode of ammonium ion has the weak concentration dependence. Resonant modes are observed at low temperature for all concentration range of the existence of the disordered α-phase. The broadening of resonant modes at the expensive of the jump rotation diffusion of ammonium ions takes place at temperature above 10 K [ru

  8. Parity violation in deep inelastic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souder, P. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States)

    1994-04-01

    AA beam of polarized electrons at CEBAF with an energy of 8 GeV or more will be useful for performing precision measurements of parity violation in deep inelastic scattering. Possible applications include precision tests of the Standard Model, model-independent measurements of parton distribution functions, and studies of quark correlations.

  9. Computer simulation tools for X-ray analysis scattering and diffraction methods

    CERN Document Server

    Morelhão, Sérgio Luiz

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this book is to break down the huge barrier of difficulties faced by beginners from many fields (Engineering, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Medicine, Material Science, etc.) in using X-rays as an analytical tool in their research. Besides fundamental concepts, MatLab routines are provided, showing how to test and implement the concepts. The major difficult in analyzing materials by X-ray techniques is that it strongly depends on simulation software. This book teaches the users on how to construct a library of routines to simulate scattering and diffraction by almost any kind of samples. It provides to a young student the knowledge that would take more than 20 years to acquire by working on X-rays and relying on the available textbooks. In this book, fundamental concepts in applied X-ray physics are demonstrated through available computer simulation tools. Using MatLab, more than eighty routines are developed for solving the proposed exercises, most of which can be directly used in experimental...

  10. Theory and optical design of x-ray echo spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvyd'ko, Yuri

    2017-08-01

    X-ray echo spectroscopy, a space-domain counterpart of neutron spin echo, is a recently proposed inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) technique. X-ray echo spectroscopy relies on imaging IXS spectra and does not require x-ray monochromatization. Due to this, the echo-type IXS spectrometers are broadband, and thus have a potential to simultaneously provide dramatically increased signal strength, reduced measurement times, and higher resolution compared to the traditional narrow-band scanning-type IXS spectrometers. The theory of x-ray echo spectrometers presented earlier [Yu. Shvyd'ko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 080801 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.080801] is developed here further with a focus on questions of practical importance, which could facilitate optical design and assessment of the feasibility and performance of the echo spectrometers. Among others, the following questions are addressed: spectral resolution, refocusing condition, echo spectrometer tolerances, refocusing condition adjustment, effective beam size on the sample, spectral window of imaging and scanning range, impact of the secondary source size on the spectral resolution, angular dispersive optics, focusing and collimating optics, and detector's spatial resolution. Examples of optical designs and characteristics of echo spectrometers with 1-meV and 0.1-meV resolutions are presented.

  11. Polarized neutron inelastic scattering experiments on spin dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakurai, Kazuhisa

    2016-01-01

    The principles of polarized neutron scattering are introduced and examples of polarized neutron inelastic scattering experiments on spin dynamics investigation are presented. These examples should demonstrate the importance of the polarized neutron utilization for the investigation of non-trivial magnetic ground and excited states in frustrated and low dimensional quantum spin systems. (author)

  12. Charged particle production in high Q deep-inelastic scattering at HERA

    Science.gov (United States)

    H1 Collaboration; Aaron, F. D.; Aktas, A.; Alexa, C.; Andreev, V.; Antunovic, B.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baudrand, S.; Beckingham, M.; Begzsuren, K.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, N.; Bizot, J. C.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Büsser, F. W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A. J.; Avila, K. B. Cantun; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Contreras, J. G.; Coughlan, J. A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J. B.; Daum, K.; Deak, M.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; Delvax, J.; de Roeck, A.; de Wolf, E. A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Essenov, S.; Falkiewicz, A.; Faulkner, P. J. W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Finke, L.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Franke, G.; Frisson, T.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Ginzburgskaya, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Gregori, M.; Grell, B. R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henschel, H.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K. H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Hreus, T.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, M. E.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jönsson, L.; Johnson, D. P.; Jung, A. W.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knutsson, A.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Krüger, K.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Laštovička-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Li, G.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marti, Ll.; Martisikova, M.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S. J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A. B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J. V.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, K.; Murín, P.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P. R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Oganezov, R.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J. E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Peng, H.; Perez, E.; Perez-Astudillo, D.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Plačakytė, R.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Preda, T.; Prideaux, P.; Radescu, V.; Rahmat, A. J.; Raicevic, N.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salek, D.; Salvaire, F.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schöning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R. N.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, I.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P. D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Tran, T. H.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T. N.; Truöl, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urban, K.; Utkin, D.; Valkárová, A.; Vallée, C.; van Mechelen, P.; Trevino, A. Vargas; Vazdik, Y.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Wessels, M.; Wissing, Ch.; Wolf, R.; Wünsch, E.; Xella, S.; Yeganov, V.; Žáček, J.; Zálešák, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2007-10-01

    The average charged track multiplicity and the normalised distribution of the scaled momentum, x, of charged final state hadrons are measured in deep-inelastic ep scattering at high Q in the Breit frame of reference. The analysis covers the range of photon virtuality 100x. The results are compared with ee annihilation data and with various calculations based on perturbative QCD using different models of the hadronisation process.

  13. RESONANT X-RAY SCATTERING AS A PROBE OF ORBITAL AND CHARGE ORDERING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NELSON, C.S.; HILL, J.P.; GIBBS, D.

    2002-01-01

    Resonant x-ray scattering is a powerful experimental technique for probing orbital and charge ordering. It involves tuning the incident photon energy to an absorption edge of the relevant ion and observing scattering at previously 'forbidden' Bragg peaks, and it allows high-resolution, quantitative studies of orbital and charge order--even from small samples. Further, resonant x-ray scattering from orbitally ordered systems exhibits polarization- and azimuthal-dependent properties that provide additional information about the details of the orbital order that is difficult, or impossible, to obtain with any other technique. In the manganites, the sensitivity to charge and orbital ordering is enhanced when the incident photon energy is tuned near the Mn K absorption edge (6.539 keV), which is the lowest energy at which a 1s electron can be excited into an unoccupied state. In this process, the core electron is promoted to an intermediate excited state, which decays with the emission of a photon. The sensitivity to charge ordering is believed to be due to the small difference in K absorption edges of the Mn 3+ and Mn 4+ sites. For orbital ordering, the sensitivity arises from a splitting--or difference in the weight of the density of states [239]--of the orbitals occupied by the excited electron in the intermediate state. In the absence of such a splitting, there is no resonant enhancement of the scattering intensity. In principle, other absorption edges in which the intermediate state is anisotropic could be utilized, but the strong dipole transition to the Mn 4p levels--and their convenient energies for x-ray diffraction--make the K edge well-suited to studies of manganites. The Mn 4p levels are affected by the symmetry of the orbital ordering, which makes the technique sensitive to the orbital degree of freedom. Therefore resonant x-ray scattering can be used to obtain important quantitative information concerning the details of this electronic order. Two

  14. Value of αs from deep-inelastic-scattering data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekhin, S.I.

    2003-01-01

    We report the value of α s obtained from QCD analysis of existing data on deep-inelastic scattering of charged leptons off proton and deuterium and estimate its theoretical uncertainties with particular attention paid to impact of the high-twist contribution to the deep-inelastic-scattering structure functions. Taking into account the major uncertainties the value αNNLO s (M Z )=0.1143±0.0014(exp.)±0.0013(theor.) is obtained. An extrapolation of the LO-NLO-NNLO results to the higher orders makes it possible to estimate αN 3 LO s (M Z )∼0.113. (author)

  15. Theoretical interpretation of medium energy nucleon nucleus inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagrange, Christian

    1970-06-01

    A theoretical study is made of the medium energy nucleon-nucleus inelastic scattering (direct interaction), by applying the distorted wave Born approximation such as can be deduced from the paired equation method. It is applied to the interpretation of the inelastic scattering of 12 MeV protons by 63 Cu; this leads us to make use of different sets of wave functions to describe the various states of the target nucleus. We analyze the nature of these states and the shape of the nucleon-nucleus interaction potential, and we compare the results with those obtained from other theoretical and experimental work. (author) [fr

  16. Higher Order Heavy Quark Corrections to Deep-Inelastic Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blümlein, Johannes; DeFreitas, Abilio; Schneider, Carsten

    2015-04-01

    The 3-loop heavy flavor corrections to deep-inelastic scattering are essential for consistent next-to-next-to-leading order QCD analyses. We report on the present status of the calculation of these corrections at large virtualities Q2. We also describe a series of mathematical, computer-algebraic and combinatorial methods and special function spaces, needed to perform these calculations. Finally, we briefly discuss the status of measuring αs (MZ), the charm quark mass mc, and the parton distribution functions at next-to-next-to-leading order from the world precision data on deep-inelastic scattering.

  17. Higher order heavy quark corrections to deep-inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluemlein, J.; Freitas, A. de; Johannes Kepler Univ., Linz; Schneider, C.

    2014-11-01

    The 3-loop heavy flavor corrections to deep-inelastic scattering are essential for consistent next-to-next-to-leading order QCD analyses. We report on the present status of the calculation of these corrections at large virtualities Q 2 . We also describe a series of mathematical, computer-algebraic and combinatorial methods and special function spaces, needed to perform these calculations. Finally, we briefly discuss the status of measuring α s (M Z ), the charm quark mass m c , and the parton distribution functions at next-to-next-to-leading order from the world precision data on deep-inelastic scattering.

  18. A Soft X-ray Spectrometer using a Highly Dispersive Multilayer Grating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warwick, Tony; Padmore, Howard; Voronov, Dmitriy; Yashchuk, Valeriy

    2010-01-01

    There is a need for higher resolution spectrometers as a tool for inelastic x-ray scattering. Currently, resolving power around R = 10,000 is advertised. Measured RIXS spectra are often limited by this instrumental resolution and higher resolution spectrometers using conventional gratings would be prohibitively large. We are engaged in a development program to build blazed multilayer grating structures for diffracting soft x-rays in high order. This leads to spectrometers with dispersion much higher than is possible using metal coated-gratings. The higher dispersion then provides higher resolution and the multilayer gratings are capable of operating away from grazing incidence as required. A spectrometer design is presented with a total length 3.8 m and capable of 10 5 resolving power.

  19. A Soft X-ray Spectrometer using a Highly Dispersive Multilayer Grating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warwick, Tony; Padmore, Howard; Voronov, Dmitriy; Yashchuk, Valeriy

    2010-01-01

    There is a need for higher resolution spectrometers as a tool for inelastic x-ray scattering. Currently, resolving power around R = 10,000 is advertised. Measured RIXS spectra are often limited by this instrumental resolution and higher resolution spectrometers using conventional gratings would be prohibitively large. We are engaged in a development program to build blazed multilayer grating structures for diffracting soft x-rays in high order. This leads to spectrometers with dispersion much higher than is possible using metal coated-gratings. The higher dispersion then provides higher resolution and the multilayer gratings are capable of operating away from grazing incidence as required. A spectrometer design is presented with a total length 3.8m and capable of 10 5 resolving power.

  20. A short working distance multiple crystal x-ray spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, B.; Seidler, G.T.; Webb, Z.W.; Bradley, J.A.; Nagle, K.P.; Heald, S.M.; Gordon, R.A.; Chou, I.-Ming

    2008-01-01

    For x-ray spot sizes of a few tens of microns or smaller, a millimeter-sized flat analyzer crystal placed ???1 cm from the sample will exhibit high energy resolution while subtending a collection solid angle comparable to that of a typical spherically bent crystal analyzer (SBCA) at much larger working distances. Based on this observation and a nonfocusing geometry for the analyzer optic, we have constructed and tested a short working distance (SWD) multicrystal x-ray spectrometer. This prototype instrument has a maximum effective collection solid angle of 0.14 sr, comparable