WorldWideScience

Sample records for industry problems part

  1. Fundamental Problems in the Operation of the Automotive Parts Industry Small and Medium Businesses in Bangkok and Surrounding Provinces

    OpenAIRE

    P. Thepnarintra

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to: 1) investigate operation conditions of SME automotive part industry in Bangkok and vicinity and 2) to compare operation problem levels of SME automotive part industry in Bangkok and vicinity according to the sizes of the enterprises. Samples in this study included 196 entrepreneurs of SME automotive part industry in Bangkok and vicinity derived from simple random sampling and calculation from R. V. Krejcie and D. W. Morgan's tables. Res...

  2. The problem of industrial wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdan, Fouad

    1998-01-01

    The paper is the result of a feasibility study conducted for the Green peace Office in Lebanon. The overall goal of the study was to work towards implementing a national waste management plan and to combat the import of hazardous wastes from developing countries.The author focuses on the illegal trade of industrial wastes from developed to under developed countries. The trade of toxic wastes causes on environmental pollution. As for Lebanese industries, the main problem is toxic industrial wastes. About 4000 tones/day of domestic wastes are produced in Lebanon. 326000 tones of industrial wastes contain toxic substances are annually produced and wastes growth rate is expected to increase to one million tone/year in 2010. A disaster is threatening Lebanon especially that no policy were taken to deal with the huge growth of wastes. This problem affect on population health especially in the region of Bourj Hammoud. Analysis of ground water in the region of Chekka, confirm the existence of water pollution caused by toxic materials In addition, analysis of Petro coke used in the National Lebanese Cement Industry, contain a high rate of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Green peace is aware of the danger of wastes in air, water and land pollution and preventing environment of any source of pollution this will certainly lead to a sustainable development of the country

  3. Problems of nuclear industry in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshiyama, Hirokichi

    1976-01-01

    The past twenty years growth of Japanese reactor plant makers is historically reviewed in the first part of this report. The first ten years were devoted for the construction of research reactors and for the design studies of power plants. The next ten years were devoted for the construction of power stations. Total income and expenditures of Japanese makers for these two periods are presented. It is emphasized that expenditures always exceeded income. The second part previews the projected growth of nuclear power generation. Generating capacities of 49,000 MW at 1985 and 90,000 MW at 1990 is assumed. To meet this demand, Japanese makers must have the ability of supplying about 8000 MW per year and the number of personnel (at present, about 9,000) must be increased to 25,000 in next ten years. The third part discusses the roles of plant makers. Establishment of safe and reliable technology, promotion of standardization, improvement of economical bases, and the promotion of associated industries (such as nuclear fuel makers and operator training institutions) are the main subjects. The roles of government are also shortly discussed. The rest of this paper shortly discusses about the participation to the national project (ATR, FBR, and centrifuge enrichment) and about future problems in growing to an exporting industry. (Aoki, K.)

  4. Radon problem in uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.H.; Raghavayya, M.

    1991-01-01

    Radon emission is invariably associated with the mining and processing of uranium ores. Radon (sup(222)Rn) enters mine atmosphere through diffusion from exposed ore body, fractures and fissures in the rocks and is also brought in by ground water. Being the progenitor of a series of short lived radioisotopes it contributes over 70% of the radiation dose to mine workers and thus accounts for nearly 30% of the total radiation doses received by workers in the whole nuclear industry. This paper summarises the data on radon emanation from the ore body, backfilled sands and mine water. Radon and its progeny concentrations in different haulage levels and stopes of the Jaduguda uranium mine are presented to emphasise the need for a well planned ventilation system to control radiation exposure of miners. Results of radon monitoring from a few exploratory uranium mines are included to indicate the need for a good ventilation system from inception of the mining operations. Relative contribution of mine exhaust and tailings surfaces to the environmental radon are also given. Some instruments developed locally for monitoring of radon and its progeny in mines and in the environment are briefly described to indicate the progress made in this field. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  5. SIMULATION AS PART OF INDUSTRIAL PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Pekarčíková

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Article discusses the simulation as an efficient scientific method of problem solving in industrial practice. It creates an overview of the simulation program means used in industrial practice and creates an overview of tools for discrete, continuous, and combined.

  6. Institutionalization problems in power industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rais Abrarovich Burganov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the topic is related to the recognition of the position that the full use of the institutional capacity and decrease of institutional constraints in the development of individual sectors of the economy leads to stabilization of the development of the entire national economy. Neglecting the institutions of economic branches negatively affect the trend of sustainable development of society. This work is devoted to the problems of institutional changes in the electricity sector. The subject concerns millions of households. Development of theoretical and methodological basis for the study of institutional relations of economy and energy will significantly influence the creation of the original effective energy strategy. Currently, imperfect institutional relations in the sphere of energy services reduce the efficiency of the driven activities. It is known that the problematic aspects of the institutional environment — keeping costs and externalities in pricing policies, the formation of the institutional environment saving, determination of the behavior of economic agents and the electricity market, etc. require permits. In general, scientific and practical significance of the study is large. The results of research of the institutional structure research of correlation between power engineering and economics based on agency approach will promote deepening of the theory of institutionalism at the sectoral economics level.

  7. Coal industry - problems and prospects. [United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddall, N

    1984-01-01

    Presidential Address by Sir Norman Siddall is presented which considers the problems and prospects facing the UK coal industry. The range of changes which business management is subject to are outlined together with the coal industry's response to these changes. Fluctuations in the energy market and the economy have resulted in a customer orientated approach to marketing, and improved efficiency throughout the industry. New technology has increased the efficiency of some aspects of operations but at the some time developments in the areas of industrial relations and public accountability have limited management's ability to respond to changes in the commercial environment.

  8. Problem Based Learning - Linking Students and Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, Flemming K.

    2006-01-01

    WG2_G4 Problem based learning – linking students and industry: a case study from Aalborg, Denmark Flemming K. Flink ELITE Aalborg University In Aalborg University, Denmark, all study programmes are organised around inter-disciplinary project work in groups. Up to 50% of the study work is problem-...... is essentially problem solving. The presentation looks into on campus POPBL and the Facilitated Work Based Learning (FBL) for continuing education. It also presents case examples of POPBL work....

  9. Environmental problems facing the electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S.

    1988-01-01

    The paper on the environmental problems facing the electricity industry was first presented at the World Electricity Conference, Nov. 1987. According to the author, the biggest immediate environmental challenge the electricity industry faces is the need for the role and importance of nuclear power to be reasserted clearly and unambiguously. The main environmental problems from electricity generation are air pollution and the carbon dioxide/greenhouse issue, and the author thinks that both could be reduced by an increased use of nuclear power as an energy source. (U.K.)

  10. Globalization in the pharmaceutical industry, Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadio Tarabusi, C; Vickery, G

    1998-01-01

    This is the second of a two-part report on the pharmaceutical industry. Part II begins with a discussion of foreign direct investment and inter-firm networks, which covers international mergers, acquisitions, and minority participation; market shares of foreign-controlled firms; international collaboration agreements (with a special note on agreements in biotechnology); and licensing agreements. The final section of the report covers governmental policies on health and safety regulation, price regulation, industry and technology, trade, foreign investment, protection of intellectual property, and competition.

  11. Some Problems of Industrial Scale-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, A. T.

    1985-01-01

    Scientific ideas of the biological laboratory are turned into economic realities in industry only after several problems are solved. Economics of scale, agitation, heat transfer, sterilization of medium and air, product recovery, waste disposal, and future developments are discussed using aerobic respiration as the example in the scale-up…

  12. The spares provisioning problem with parts inventory

    OpenAIRE

    Abboud, Nadim E.

    1990-01-01

    In this research, we consider the spares provisioning problem, where a finite population of homogeneous machines are being deployed to meet a constant demand. While a machine is operating, it could become inoperable due to the failure of a critical built-in part in the machine. Before repairs on the machine can be initiated, however, a replacement part must be obtained. If a replacement part is available from stock, the machine is immediately transferred to the repair subsystem...

  13. IONIZING RADIATION AS AN INDUSTRIAL HEALTH PROBLEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TREWIN, R B

    1964-01-04

    Ionizing radiation, first as x-rays, later in natural form, was discovered in Europe in the late 1890's. Immediate practical uses were found for these discoveries, particularly in medicine. Unfortunately, because of the crude early equipment and ignorance of the harmful effects of radiation, many people were injured, some fatally. Because of these experiences, committees and regulatory bodies were set up to study the problem. These have built up an impressive fund of knowledge useful in radiation protection.With the recent development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy, sources of radioactivity have appeared cheaply and in abundance. A rapidly growing number are finding industrial application. Because of their potential risk to humans, the industrial physician must acquire new knowledge and skills so that he may give proper guidance in this new realm of preventive medicine.The Radiation Protection Program of one such industry, the Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario, is summarized.

  14. Ionizing Radiation as an Industrial Health Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trewin, R. B.

    1964-01-01

    Ionizing radiation, first as x-rays, later in natural form, was discovered in Europe in the late 1890's. Immediate practical uses were found for these discoveries, particularly in medicine. Unfortunately, because of the crude early equipment and ignorance of the harmful effects of radiation, many people were injured, some fatally. Because of these experiences, committees and regulatory bodies were set up to study the problem. These have built up an impressive fund of knowledge useful in radiation protection. With the recent development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy, sources of radioactivity have appeared cheaply and in abundance. A rapidly growing number are finding industrial application. Because of their potential risk to humans, the industrial physician must acquire new knowledge and skills so that he may give proper guidance in this new realm of preventive medicine. The Radiation Protection Program of one such industry, the Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario, is summarized. PMID:14105012

  15. Present day problems concerning the energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecker, G.

    1978-01-01

    Problems of the regional energy supply industry touching directly the energy supply utilities (e.g. territorial reform, power prices) are discussed. In a survey on the overall energy situation in the FRG as seen by energy supply utilities, the following conclusions are drawn: 1) The electricity supply industry is in the favourite position to make the required structural changes by utilizing primary energy for generating electric power. It offers - via electric energy - an effective opportunity for substituting oil. 2) The electricity supply industry alone will be in a position to use nuclear energy during the next few decades. A decision in favour of nuclear energy must not be at disposal to make oneself momentarily politically popular. This indispensable decision results exclusively from our responsibility for the future of our national economy and thus our society. (orig./HP) [de

  16. Big problems for Swedish nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmstroem, Anton; Runesson, Linda

    2006-01-01

    A report of the problems for Swedish nuclear industry the summer of 2006. A detailed description of the 25th of July incident at Forsmark 1 is provided. The incident was classified as level two on the INIS scale. The other Swedish nuclear plants were subject to security evaluations in the aftermath, and at Forsmark 2 similar weaknesses were found in the security system (ml)

  17. Environmental problems in Russian coal industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharchenko, V.; Oumnov, V.

    1996-01-01

    The state of the Russian coal industry is complicated both economically and environmentally. Most mines are unprofitable. Several coal mines are intended to be closed. So, under existing conditions, coal mines are unable to give much attention to environmental protection problems. At the same time, coal mining is one of the most polluting industries. The main trends in this industry's negative influence upon the environment are: land spoilage and immobilization to lay out open-pit mines and mineral waste dump areas and tailing piles as well as with industrial waste water runoff; atmospheric pollution with the air coming from underground and substances blown off from dumps, hydrogeological regime intervention in coal mining areas, etc. One way to solve environmental problems in coal mining is a more rational utilization of the accompanying natural coal resources. Such measures make it possible to obtain complementary profits not only at the expense of reducing environmental destruction but producing new kinds of goods or services as well. Examples of similar solutions are solid mineral wastes utilization, underground space utilization, coal gas utilization and other issues

  18. Problems in steel industry for power engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolbenko, E.T.; Kryanin, I.R.

    1979-01-01

    The main problems of steel industry in power engineering are considered. The effect of charge materials upon steel quality is analyzed. Radical dicision of the problem is the ensurance of power engineering plants with high quality original charge materials, which are quite pure according to impurities such as: iron melted from metallized charge or prereduced pellets. The usage of such materials considerably improves the complex of technological and service properties and structure of large responsible products: vessels of the reactor core, especially large shafts and others. For the most responsible power engineering dies it is necessary to smelt steel of 150-200 tons and above. The main direction of steel melting industry is quality steel melting in large 150-200 tons arc furnaces which are equipped with magnetic stirrer installations. It is marked that the branch of power engineering is equipped with unique installations of out-of-furnace steel refining. It is shown that further increase in the metal quality is possible when vacuum and electroslag technique of melting is used. It permits to reduce considerably the amount of sulphur, gases, nonmetallic inclusions, to increase the metal density, to remove zonal segregation in large steel ingots. The main problem in the field of usage of material, produced by new melting methods is the expansion of the product nomenclature and the development of technical conditions, reflecting the increase in material properties as a result of new technique application. Importance of development and introduction of new automation and testing methods in metallurgical processes is marked

  19. Components and renewal parts in the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, T.F. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    This paper indicates that the nuclear parts industry has been forced to make major investments in time, personnel and financial resources in order to solve short term/emergency procurement problems. What is required, as was previously indicated, is a coordinated industry-wide effort toward long range planning and implementation of a program that addresses these issues. The industry is developing programs directed toward inventory optimization and ''innovative-creative'' financing of manufacturing inventory/work-in-process in an effort to significantly reduce delivery lead times. Product transition, utilization of cancelled plant equipment, equipment qualification programs, and dedication of commercially manufactured/procured parts and components for safety related application continue to be major elements of our program to support current utility requirements

  20. The problem of social opposition to industrial plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malocchi, Andrea

    1996-01-01

    The problem of social opposition to the localization, construction and operation of industrial plants is a major social issue in many industrialized countries where environmental consciousness has rooted deeply in society. This paper proposes a general model for the analysis of the social conflict against the localization and operation of industrial plants. The paper investigates the difference between the 'risk analysis' approach and the 'social acceptability' approach in order to demonstrate the major influence of information and communication between industry and society on social consensus (rather than ordinary technological and environmental factors). In a second part the paper analyses a limit of social acceptability approach highlighting the role of environmental NGO's in the promotion and diffusion of the social protest. As a result of the analysis, a general model for the management of social consensus by companies and public authorities is provided

  1. Health problems of industrial applications of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudrna, J.

    1976-01-01

    Radiation hygiene problems of industrial radioisotope applications are discussed. The observance of regulations is emphasised. Radiation protection is based on the principle of preventing early radiation damage and limiting late radiation damage to an acceptable level. The basic requirement is that the cumulated dose should be as low as possible, i.e., as low as is practically feasible in considering economic and social aspects. Notices 59/72 and 65/72, Collection of Laws, rule that if the limit of 3/10 of the maximum permissible dose is likely to be reached, control zones should be defined and marked at places of work where radioisotopes are handled. The characteristics of such a control zone are listed and the measures to be taken in case of accident are outlined. (B.S.)

  2. Problems and prospects of nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karelin, A.I.

    2001-01-01

    A consideration is given to problems associated with operating nuclear power plants in many countries and building new NPPs. A special attention is given to safety operation of nuclear plants, to reprocessing and transportation of spent nuclear fuel as well as to radioactive waste disposal. In connection with difficulties in solving the above-mentioned problems a proposition is made to resume work on designing NPPs with the use of nuclear liquid salt reactors based on molten fuel fluoride salts. Advantages and disadvantages of fuel compositions of LiF-BeF 2 -UF 4 -(ThF 4 ) are listed. It is recommended that fundamental studies be carried out into such compositions as KF + CsF; BaF 2 + KF + NaF; AlF 3 + Na 3 AlF 6 , eutectics on the basis of tin and zinc fluorides and their complex salts of M x Sn(Zn)F y . An international program is suggested to be developed to find some way out of crisis of nuclear power industry using research efforts in homogeneous liquid salt nuclear underground reactors with a U(233)-Th fuel cycle [ru

  3. SIAM symposium on control problems in industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This symposium focused on industrial control applications that have benefited from recent mathematical and technological developments. The themes featured included: applications of control techniques in aerospace industry, automotive industry, environmental sciences, manufacturing processes, and petroleum industry; optimal shape design in aerospace applications; optimal design of micro-optics; robust control and H-infinity methods.

  4. Fire barrier problems-part 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verna, B.J.

    1993-01-01

    This article deals with problems associated with a thermal barrier material called Thermo-Lag 330. Typically in nuclear applications this material is used to provide either 1 hour (1/2 inch thick) or 3 hour (1 inch thick) barriers to prevent the spread of fires between redundant safety systems, and to protect cable trays and conduit. The article reviews concerns within the nuclear industry as to the proper handling of the material, how to interpret the data available on the material, the apparant conflicting assessments of the material when tested by different groups, etc. Research is ongoing on the suitability of the material, but the article points out that the manufacturer feels it should be installed by properly trained installers, the joints sealed with a grouting material, properly bundled to maintain its integrity, have a complete stress skin, and not be walked on after installation in order to function properly

  5. Scientific perspectives on greenhouse problem. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jastrow, R.; Nierenberg, W.; Seitz, F.

    1992-01-01

    The spectre of major climate change caused by the greenhouse effect has generated intensive research, heated scientific debate and a concerted international effort to draft agreements for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. This report of Scientific Perspectives on the greenhouse problem explains the technical issues in the debate in language readily understandable to the non-specialist. The inherent complexities of attempts to simulate the earth's climate are explained, particularly with regard to the effects of clouds and the circulation of the oceans, which together represent the largest factors of uncertainty in current global warming forecasts. Results of the search for the 'greenhouse signal' in existing climate records aredescribed in chapter 3 (part two). Chapter 5 (part two) develops a projection of 21st-century warming based on relatively firm evidence of the earth's actual response to known increases in greenhouse gas emissions during the last 100 years

  6. Application of Laplace transform to industrial problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, D.J.M.; Vagner, J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents two industrial applications of a new methodology based on Laplace transform properties which has been implemented in an industrial finite element program. In structures endowed with thermal and mechanical properties constant with the temperature, the stresses are computed for unit thermal shocks applied on the areas which are actually affected by the temperature variations. The analytical formulation and the general feature of this implementation are presented

  7. Industrial Water Waste, Problems and the Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alif Noor Anna

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the long term development in Indonesia has changed agricultural sector to the industrial sector. This development can apparently harm our own people. This is due to the waste that is produced from factories. The waste from various factories seems to have different characteristics. This defference encourages us to be able to find out different of methods of managing waste so that cost can be reduced, especially in water treatment. In order that industrial development and environmental preservation can run together in balance, many institutions involved should be consider, especially in the industrial chain, the environment, and human resource, these three elements can be examined in terms of their tolerance to waste.

  8. Making Industry Part of the Climate Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapsa, Melissa Voss [ORNL; Brown, Dr. Marilyn Ann [Georgia Institute of Technology; Jackson, Roderick K [ORNL; Cox, Matthew [Georgia Institute of Technology; Cortes, Rodrigo [Georgia Institute of Technology; Deitchman, Benjamin H [ORNL

    2011-06-01

    Improving the energy efficiency of industry is essential for maintaining the viability of domestic manufacturing, especially in a world economy where production is shifting to low-cost, less regulated developing countries. Numerous studies have shown the potential for significant cost-effective energy-savings in U.S. industries, but the realization of this potential is hindered by regulatory, information, workforce, and financial obstacles. This report evaluates seven federal policy options aimed at improving the energy efficiency of industry, grounded in an understanding of industrial decision-making and the barriers to efficiency improvements. Detailed analysis employs the Georgia Institute of Technology's version of the National Energy Modeling System and spreadsheet calculations, generating a series of benefit/cost metrics spanning private and public costs and energy bill savings, as well as air pollution benefits and the social cost of carbon. Two of the policies would address regulatory hurdles (Output-Based Emissions Standards and a federal Energy Portfolio Standard with Combined Heat and Power); three would help to fill information gaps and workforce training needs (the Superior Energy Performance program, Implementation Support Services, and a Small Firm Energy Management program); and two would tackle financial barriers (Tax Lien Financing and Energy-Efficient Industrial Motor Rebates). The social benefit-cost ratios of these policies appear to be highly favorable based on a range of plausible assumptions. Each of the seven policy options has an appropriate federal role, broad applicability across industries, utilizes readily available technologies, and all are administratively feasible.

  9. Solving process industry problems with specialty stainlesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montrone, E.D.

    1977-01-01

    Substantial steel industry efforts have been devoted to improving the properties of stainless steels by changing the level of alloying elements. Rapid progress has produced materials to meet many of the diversified service conditions existing in process plants. The performance characteristics of seven stainless steels are compared. The emphasis is on steels which avoid the effects of corrosion. 4 figures, 3 tables

  10. Problems of state adjustment the telecommunications industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tregub Ilona Vladimirovna

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the mechanism of state adjustment of the telecommunications industry companies, providing the additional mobile services (VAS-services, by determining the optimal rates of tax and non-tax payments to the budget. Method is based on the approach of A. Laffer, who showed the possibility of existence an optimal tax rate, which provides, on the one hand, the maximum flow of funds in the budget, on the other hand, preserves the incentives of entrepreneurship. In the present paper, we study the dependence of revenues to the Reserve Fund on the size of the contribution rate and the coefficient of profitability of enterprises providing VAS-services.

  11. Working part-time: (not) a problem?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saskia Keuzenkamp; Carlien Hillebrink; Wil Portegijs; Babette Pouwels

    2009-01-01

    Original title: Deeltijd (g)een probleem. Three-quarters of working women in the Netherlands work part-time. More than half these women are in small part-time jobs (less than 25 hours per week). The government wants to raise the average working hours of women. A key question is then how much

  12. Behaviorism: part of the problem or part of the solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, J G

    1978-01-01

    The form frequently taken by behavior-modification programs is analyzed in terms of the parent science, Behaviorism. Whereas Behaviorism assumes that behavior is the result of contingencies, and that lasting behavior change involves changing the contingencies that give rise to and support the behavior, most behavior-modification programs merely arrange special contingencies in a special environment to eliminate the "problem" behavior. Even when the problem behavior is as widespread as alcoholism and crime, behavior modifiers focus on "fixing" the alcoholic and the criminal, not on changing the societal contingencies that prevail outside the therapeutic environment and continue to produce alcoholics and criminals. The contingencies that shape this method of dealing with behavioral problems are also analyzed, and this analysis leads to a criticism of the current social structure as a behavior control system. Although applied behaviorists have frequently focused on fixing individuals, the science of Behaviorism provides the means to analyze the structures, the system, and the forms of societal control that produce the "problems". PMID:649524

  13. Supply chain management problems in the food processing industry: Implications for business performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A. Nguegan Nguegan

    2017-11-01

    Contribution or value-add: Practically, the study enables supply chain professionals in the food processing industry to understand the sources of problems and use this information to develop solutions for the improvement of business performance. Theoretically, the study endorses the view that part of the key to resolving business performance complications in the food processing industry involves streamlining supply chain management by resolving its identifiable problems.

  14. Political crisis poses problems for nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitev, Lubomir [NucNet, Brussels (Belgium)

    2014-11-15

    The political crisis in Ukraine has given rise to several problematic issues for the nuclear industry, including the country's obvious dependence on Russia for nuclear fuel supplies and the transport of nuclear material. A 2013 report by the Polish Institute of International Affairs (PIIA) concluded that Ukraine will lean towards the development of ''intensive cooperation'' with Western nuclear regulators and companies as it seeks to increase its control over the sector and reduce its dependency on Russia. The PIIA report said the gas crises of 2006 and 2009, and especially the current destabilisation of the country, have highlighted Ukraine's ''excessive and problematic dependence'' on energy supply from Russia. The 'Energy Strategy of Ukraine Until 2030' assumes that the share of nuclear energy will remain the same in 2030 as it was in 2005 - about 50 % of the energy mix. To achieve its goals, Ukraine's strategy envisages several priority actions. Firstly, work should begin on identification of three or four sites for new nuclear stations. Secondly, the plan says that Khmelnistki-3 and -4 should be completed by 2016. Thirdly, the plan envisages six gigawatts of new nuclear capacity becoming operational between 2019 and 2021. Finally, lifetime extensions are planned for South Ukraine units 1 to 3, Zaporozhye units 1 to 6, Rovno units 2 and 3 and Khmelnitski-1.

  15. Working part-time: (not) a problem?

    OpenAIRE

    Saskia Keuzenkamp; Carlien Hillebrink; Wil Portegijs; Babette Pouwels

    2009-01-01

    Original title: Deeltijd (g)een probleem. Three-quarters of working women in the Netherlands work part-time. More than half these women are in small part-time jobs (less than 25 hours per week). The government wants to raise the average working hours of women. A key question is then how much scope there is for women to increase their working hours. This report explores this issue from three angles. First it looks at the role played by employers in increasing the working hours of women and at ...

  16. Ecological problems in the food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božović Milan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In regard to the development of agricultural and food technologies Yugoslavia up till now has not had a developed strategy of "development of the environment" - an ecological strategy, nor has it in that respect had clearly defined political scientifically-based strategies. Current efforts to define developmental concepts are almost completely neglected, foremost in the "promotion of new ecologically justified technologies" and the formation of national programs of sustainable development. World trends in this area are already directed to the production and promotion of so-called "healthy food" which, designated in several ways, is becoming more and more present on the tables of developed countries. Yugoslavia, beside its current economic difficulties, has great potential and a elastic chance to follow world trends and completely satisfy the EU standards EVRO-EMA and world ecological standards ISO 14 000 by the quality implementation of well planned ecologically and economically rational programs. n order to undertake appropriate measures for "sustainable development", it s previously necessary to assess the problem and objectively establish the status.

  17. Wind energy development as a part of Poland's industrial development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoerring, Dagmara; Hvelplund, Frede Kloster

    2003-01-01

    The paper concludes with recommendations on how to make wind energy development a part of the industrial development in Poland by introducing renewable energy support mechanisms to improve the conditions for companies to develop wind technology in Poland....

  18. Development, Problems and Countermeasures of Chinese Racing Car Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J. J.

    2018-05-01

    In recent years, motor car racing has developed rapidly in China. However, under the background of maximum vehicle production and car ownership in China, the racing car industry has a long way compared with that of the developed countries. The paper analyzes the current situation and summarizes the problems of Chinese racing car industry with supporting documentation and review of the literature. The future trend of the development of car industry in China is discussed. On the basis of the analysis and prediction, the strategies to respond to the future racing car industry in China are presented.

  19. Topical problems of the German electric power industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeck, H [Stadtwerke Hannover A.G. (Germany, F.R.); Worm, N [Hannover-Braunschweigische Stromversorgungs-A.G., Hannover (Germany, F.R.); Brohmeyer, M [Schleswig-Holsteinische Stromversorgungs A.G., Rendsburg (Germany, F.R.). Abt. Anwendungstechnik und Beratung; Deuster, G [Energieversorgung Oberhausen A.G. (Germany, F.R.); Heitzer, H; Holzer, J [Bayernwerk A.G., Muenchen (Germany, F.R.); Deparade, K [Verband der Energie-Abnehmer e.V., Hannover (Germany, F.R.); Marnet, C [Stadtwerke Duesseldorf A.G. (Germany, F.R.); Oberlack, H W [Hamburgische Electricitaets-Werke A.G. (Germany, F.R.); Segatz, U [Preussische Elektrizitaets-A.G. (Preussenelektra), Hannover (Germany, F.R.)

    1978-06-01

    On the occasion of the general meeting of the VDE high-ranking personalities of the German Power Supply Industry were interviewed on current affairs. The following subjects were discussed: (1) problems involved in energy policy; (2) energy problems due to newly formed regions; (3) utilization of electric power in agriculture; (4) development prospects of district heating; (5) problems of power generation far from coal districts; (6) rationalization in the commercial sector; (7) opportunities and limits of industrial combined heat and power generation; (8) environmental protection and electric power supply; (9) possible utilization of imported coal; and (10). assuring the primary energy basis for electric power supply.

  20. Problem continuity in discontinuity of development of Serbian industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šljukić Marica

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author uses a comparative analysis in order to show the discontinuity in the process of the industrial development of the Serbian society, as well as to point out the fact that the almost same problems have not been mastered throughout the whole process of industrialization. Besides the historical data, the data of the empirical research are used. The goal of the empirical research was to determine the real and the possible degree and intensity of the influence of the structural social changes to the organizing of industrial work. The research had been done from 2011 to 2013 using the multiple case study method, and it included six organizations from different sectors of industry. By comparison of different phases of the industrial development in Serbia the author concludes the continuity of the following problems: accumulation of capital, technical and technological underdevelopment and dependence, raw materials dependence, and the deficit of the competent work force (especially managers. The biggest and the basic problem, which encompasses all four problems mentioned above, has been the absence of the strategy of the industrial development throughout the whole process of this development.

  1. Recycling industrial waste in brick manufacture. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreola, F.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing accumulation of industrial waste speaks to the need to seek cost-effective disposal methods. Brick manufacture would appear to be particularly promising in this regard. The present study analyzes the possibility of recycling the sludge generated in porcelain tile polishing, as well as coal, steel and municipal incinerator ash to make a special type of facing brick whose properties readily accommodate a full analysis of all the problems deriving from the incorporation of residue in its manufacture. Physical-chemical, mechanical and structural analyses were performed on bricks made with varying percentages of the different types of waste considered. This first paper reports the results of the physical arid technological characterization of the products; the second part of the research will address their chemical, mechanical and structural properties.

    El continuo aumento de la cantidad de residuos (desechos que se generan en los procesos industriales induce a buscar nuevos métodos alternativos a la disposición final que sean altamente eficientes y a bajo costo. La industria manufac turera de ladrillos resulta muy prometedora desde este punto de vista. En este trabajo ha sido investigada la posibilidad de usar distintos residuos industriales, entre ellos barros de pulido del gres porcelánico. cenizas de carbón, cenizas de acerías y de incinerador municipal para la fabricación de ladrillos de exteriores. Fueron analizados los problemas que podrían derivar al introducir estos residuos en la pasta. En particular, en esta primera parte del trabajo se muestran los resultados derivados de la introducción de los residuos considerados, en distintos porcentajes, sobre las propiedades físicas y tecnológicas del producto final. En la segunda parte se desarrollarán los efectos causados sobre las propiedades químicas, mecánicas y microestructurales.

  2. Physician-industry relations. Part 1: individual physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Susan L

    2002-03-05

    This is part 1 of a 2-part paper on ethics and physician-industry relationships. Part 1 offers advice to individual physicians; part 2 gives recommendations to medical education providers and medical professional societies. Physicians and industry have a shared interest in advancing medical knowledge. Nonetheless, the primary ethic of the physician is to promote the patient's best interests, while the primary ethic of industry is to promote profitability. Although partnerships between physicians and industry can result in impressive medical advances, they also create opportunities for bias and can result in unfavorable public perceptions. Many physicians and physicians-in-training think they are impervious to commercial influence. However, recent studies show that accepting industry hospitality and gifts, even drug samples, can compromise judgment about medical information and subsequent decisions about patient care. It is up to the physician to judge whether a gift is acceptable. A very general guideline is that it is ethical to accept modest gifts that advance medical practice. It is clearly unethical to accept gifts or services that obligate the physician to reciprocate. Conflicts of interest can arise from other financial ties between physicians and industry, whether to outside companies or self-owned businesses. Such ties include honorariums for speaking or writing about a company's product, payment for participating in clinic-based research, and referrals to medical resources. All of these relationships have the potential to influence a physician's attitudes and practices. This paper explores the ethical quandaries involved and offers guidelines for ethical business relationships.

  3. [Work days lost due to health problems in industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Sylvia Regina Trindade; Santana, Vilma Sousa

    2012-05-01

    This cross-sectional study estimated the prevalence of work days lost due to health problems and associated factors among industrial workers. The study population was a simple random cluster sample of 3,403 workers from 16 to 65 years of age in the city of Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil. Data were collected with individual home interviews. Among industrial workers, one-year prevalence of work days lost to health problems was 12.5%, of which 5.5% were directly work-related and 4.1% aggravated by work. There were no statistically significant differences when compared to other worker categories. Self-perceived workplace hazards, history of work-related injury, and poor self-rated health were associated with work days lost due to work-related injuries/diseases. The findings showed that work days lost are common among both industrial and non-industrial workers, thereby affecting productivity and requiring prevention programs.

  4. Applications of neutrons for laboratory and industrial activation analysis problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, Elek; Bakos, Laszlo

    1986-01-01

    This chapter presents some particular applications and case studies of neutrons in activation analysis for research and industrial development purposes. The reactor neutrons have been applied in Hungarian laboratories for semiconductor research, for analysis of geological (lunar) samples, and for a special comparator measurement of samples. Some industrial applications of neutron generator and sealed sources for analytical problems are presented. Finally, prompt neutron activation analysis is outlined briefly. (R.P.)

  5. A Benchmark Environment Motivated by Industrial Control Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Hein, Daniel; Depeweg, Stefan; Tokic, Michel; Udluft, Steffen; Hentschel, Alexander; Runkler, Thomas A.; Sterzing, Volkmar

    2017-01-01

    In the research area of reinforcement learning (RL), frequently novel and promising methods are developed and introduced to the RL community. However, although many researchers are keen to apply their methods on real-world problems, implementing such methods in real industry environments often is a frustrating and tedious process. Generally, academic research groups have only limited access to real industrial data and applications. For this reason, new methods are usually developed, evaluated...

  6. Economical solution for the industrial waste problem of Karachi industrial area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mubin, S.

    2005-01-01

    The increased rate of industrialization coupled with rapid urbanization in Pakistan has given rise to serious water pollution and environmental problems. A vast range of industries has been established in the country during the last twenty five years, including tanneries, fertilizers, textiles, refineries, chemicals, vegetable oils, paper am pulp, sugar and food. Little attention was paid towards a large scale release of wastewater from these industries. Presently wastewater produced from these industries has been considered a serious problem and research in being conducted to solve its associated problems. Recently, it has been realized that there is a significant threat of water borne diseases, degradation of fresh water quality, environmental depletion and soil deterioration from the effluent and toxic emission of industries. Being a developing country and having limited resources, it is hard to install treatment plants on the industrial effluent with every industry before discharging them into streams which are also creating disturbance in natural ecosystem. An effort has been made to solve wastewater problem by implementing statistical tools on data of Karachi industrial state, obtained from EPA JICA and PCRWR, Islamabad. (author)

  7. The industrial problems raised by the building of the new nuclear power plant system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangloff, P.; Hillairet, J.

    1975-01-01

    The decision made by France to build within 10 years a number of nuclear power plants of an importance unequalled in Europe and in the world has created for the industry involved in this gigantic enterprise problems of growth and adaptation of considerable magnitude. In a first part, the general analysis of needs reveals the breadth of the phenomenon the industry is facing with respect to its capacity of production. This original study, the first synthesis of this kind, could be the starting point of overall industrial planning at the national level. The second part, dealing more particularly with turbogenerator units, shows in its true perspective the magnitude of the material and how the equipment has developed. It recalls how the industrial problem has been approached in order to meet the need for expansion of one of the most important French electromechanical manufacturing plants [fr

  8. Causes of Payment Problems in the New Zealand Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanuja Ramachandra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Payment delays and losses persist in the construction industry and continue to be a key concern to industry practitioners. Therefore an exploration of the key causes of payment delays and losses is undertaken in this study with the ultimate objective of seeking mitigating solutions. The study adopted a survey approach using an online questionnaire, administered to practitioners from the New Zealand construction industry, comprising consultants, head contractors and subcontractors. The data obtained was analysed using inferential statistical techniques, including comparing means and factor analysis. Factor analysis enabled clustering of the inter-related causes of payment delays and losses in order to find reduced number of causes. Accordingly, the study found that payment problems mainly relate to contractual issues, financial strength of industry players, disputes, short-comings of payment processes and ‘domino effects’. Among them, the financial strength of critical industry players was considered central to payment problems. The study concludes that any solution to these problems must address these primary causes, as a rational starting point. Thus procuring a feasible form of financial security at the outset of a project, and the pre-qualification of the financial status of critical project participants, were found to be significant in the mitigation of construction payment risks. Paper Type: Research article

  9. Electric utility strategies and the emerging industry structure - Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motupalli, S.

    1991-01-01

    The electric utility industry is our most capital intensive industry by far. Over the past few decades, socioeconomic and technological forces have been quietly revolutionizing the way the industry conducts itself. During the 1980s, these changes have been particularly intense, often catching both regulators and regulated ill-prepared to develop effective and profitable strategies to deal with such change. Much has already been written about these changes: independent power producers, competitive procurement of resources, incentive-based regulation, the benefits of affiliated company structures, mergers and consolidation, customer energy conservation, and marketing strategy development are all currently highly popular article and seminar topics. The author's object in this two-part series is to facilitate development of a decision framework to put these various changes in perspective, to help develop effective strategies through better focused and equipped planning methodologies. Gaining an understanding of the role, strengths and weaknesses of the various players in an industry and the structural constraints in which they operate is a necessary precursor to developing effective operating strategies to deal with change or to manipulate industry forces in your favor. Michael Port's popular five forces model provides a convenient way to develop such an understanding. It provides a way to map the industry forces driving profitability, through a review of the strengths, weaknesses and leverage of: current industry players, suppliers to the industry, customers for the industry's product, new entrants into the market, and substitute products providing equal or better value. Part 1 of this series reviews each of these five forces along some key dimensions to determine their direction of change or influence, and whether this change impacts a utility's competitive position favorably or unfavorably

  10. Skill Formation in Malaysia: The Case of Auto Parts Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Sadoi, Yuri

    1998-01-01

    This study takes the auto parts industry in Malaysia to demonstrate the difficulties a developing country faces in promoting skill development. Auto parts production needs a wide range of production techniques, which in turn require many types and levels of skilled workers. Realizing the importance of skilled workers, the Malaysian government has been emphasizing skill formation by increasing the number of technical schools, introducing a skill certification system, and giving a tax incentive...

  11. Corrosion problems and solutions in oil refining and petrochemical industry

    CERN Document Server

    Groysman, Alec

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses corrosion problems and their solutions at facilities in the oil refining and petrochemical industry, including cooling water and boiler feed water units. Further, it describes and analyzes corrosion control actions, corrosion monitoring, and corrosion management. Corrosion problems are a perennial issue in the oil refining and petrochemical industry, as they lead to a deterioration of the functional properties of metallic equipment and harm the environment – both of which need to be protected for the sake of current and future generations. Accordingly, this book examines and analyzes typical and atypical corrosion failure cases and their prevention at refineries and petrochemical facilities, including problems with: pipelines, tanks, furnaces, distillation columns, absorbers, heat exchangers, and pumps. In addition, it describes naphthenic acid corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, hydrogen damages, sulfidic corrosion, microbiologically induced corrosion, erosion-corrosion, and corrosion...

  12. Operation of industrial electrical substations. Part II: practical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Jimenez, Juan J; Zerquera Izquierdo, Mariano D; Beltran Leon, Jose S; Garcia Martinez, Juan M; Alvarez Urena, Maria V; Meza Diaz, Guillermo [Universidad de Guadalajara (Mexico)]. E-mails: cheosj@yahoo.com; mdzi@hotmail.com; beltran5601@yahoo.com.mx; jmargarmtz@yahoo.com; victory_alvarez@telmexmail.com; depmec@cucei.udg.mx

    2013-03-15

    The practical application of the methodology explained in Part 1 in a Cuban industry is the principal objective of this paper. The calculus of the economical operation of the principal transformers of the industrial plant is shown of the one very easy form, as well as the determination of the equations of the losses when the transformers operate under a given load diagram. It is calculated the state load which will be passed to the operation in parallel. [Spanish] El objetivo principal de este trabajo es la aplicacion practica de la metodologia, en una industria cubana, que se explico en la Parte 1. El calculo de la operacion economica de los principales transformadores de la planta industrial se muestra de una forma muy facil, asi como la determinacion de las ecuaciones de las perdidas cuando los transformadores operan bajo un diagrama de carga dado. Se calcula la carga de estado que se pasa a la operacion en paralelo.

  13. Learning and Teaching Problems in Part-Time Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotman-Dickenson, D. I.

    1988-01-01

    Results of a British survey of the administrations of six universities and six public colleges, employers, and employees who were part-time students are reported and discussed. The survey assessed the perceptions of those groups concerning problems in the instruction and learning of part-time students. (MSE)

  14. Hotel industry in Azerbaijan: problems perspectives of entrepreneurship development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasanov Arzu Nadzhaf

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the essence of the entrepreneurship activity and the characteristic features of a businessman. The definition of the entrepreneurship according to the Azerbaijan legislation is given. Then, the tourism, peculiarities and legislation base of business in tourism industry and hotel economy characterized, the main data of the activities of replacement enterprises in the country, the level of quality of hotel service and analyzed, the main problems are listed and the conclusion about the state of the business in the sphere of hotel industry is made.

  15. Long-term problem for the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, C.

    1982-01-01

    Dismantling of the 24-year-old Shippingport atomic power station over the next two years will test whether the nuclear industry can safely dispose of high-level radioactive facilities. Recent findings that some components will remain radioactive longer than anticipated may require dismantling instead of the permanent entombment the industry was planning. The five-year dismantlement will cost $40 million and generate 11,700 cubic meters of radioactive waste. Larger reactors will be even more costly. Current regulations require utilities to choose between dismantlement, safe storage, or entombment of contaminated materials. Each has its problems, but the industry objects to an evolving policy for dismantling and an accompanying requirement for a segregated decommissioning fund that would be set aside before a reactor begins operating or during plant lifetime. The latter would require an adequate insurance mechanism to cover premature shutdown

  16. Hotel industry in Azerbaijan: problems perspectives of entrepreneurship development

    OpenAIRE

    Gasanov Arzu Nadzhaf

    2014-01-01

    The article considers the essence of the entrepreneurship activity and the characteristic features of a businessman. The definition of the entrepreneurship according to the Azerbaijan legislation is given. Then, the tourism, peculiarities and legislation base of business in tourism industry and hotel economy characterized, the main data of the activities of replacement enterprises in the country, the level of quality of hotel service and analyzed, the main problems are listed and the conclusi...

  17. Problems the chemical industry of Japan faces and future prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, Shin' ichi

    1989-01-01

    Industry proceeds for the fiscal 1988 are expected to increase remarkably as they did in the previous year with 4.9% increase in revenue and 18.8% increase in profit (ordinary profit) from the previous year. The conditions of material industry are especially favorable and chemical industry is also expected to prosper as it did in the previous year. Problems this prospering chemical industry is facing are introduced in this report. Firstly, it is necessary to improve productivity by adopting more information and promoting factory automation in order to strengthen competition. The future of chemical industry depends on the introduction of information. Secondly, as demands of users are becoming more diversified, and cycles of products shorter, shortening of development terms is essential. It is necessary, therefore, to predict the demands of users in advance and seek after custom products. Thirdly, selection of product bases is required; it might be necessary to consider producing some product items abroad. Moreover, it is desirable to increase investments in investigation and pursue creativity putting much stress on basic investigations. 2 figs., 11 tabs.

  18. The vanishing discount problem and viscosity Mather measures. Part 2: boundary value problems

    OpenAIRE

    Ishii, Hitoshi; Mitake, Hiroyoshi; Tran, Hung V.

    2016-01-01

    In arXiv:1603.01051 (Part 1 of this series), we have introduced a variational approach to studying the vanishing discount problem for fully nonlinear, degenerate elliptic, partial differential equations in a torus. We develop this approach further here to handle boundary value problems. In particular, we establish new representation formulas for solutions of discount problems, critical values, and use them to prove convergence results for the vanishing discount problems.

  19. An inverse problem approach to pattern recognition in industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sever

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many works have shown strong connections between learning and regularization techniques for ill-posed inverse problems. A careful analysis shows that a rigorous connection between learning and regularization for inverse problem is not straightforward. In this study, pattern recognition will be viewed as an ill-posed inverse problem and applications of methods from the theory of inverse problems to pattern recognition are studied. A new learning algorithm derived from a well-known regularization model is generated and applied to the task of reconstruction of an inhomogeneous object as pattern recognition. Particularly, it is demonstrated that pattern recognition can be reformulated in terms of inverse problems defined by a Riesz-type kernel. This reformulation can be employed to design a learning algorithm based on a numerical solution of a system of linear equations. Finally, numerical experiments have been carried out with synthetic experimental data considering a reasonable level of noise. Good recoveries have been achieved with this methodology, and the results of these simulations are compatible with the existing methods. The comparison results show that the Regularization-based learning algorithm (RBA obtains a promising performance on the majority of the test problems. In prospects, this method can be used for the creation of automated systems for diagnostics, testing, and control in various fields of scientific and applied research, as well as in industry.

  20. Problems of power-heat-coupling in industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-03-01

    The coupled heat and electric power supply from counter-pressure and partly also from extraction-condensing plants theoretically offers the best possibilities for saving energy in comparison to other measures which reduce the primary energy employed at equal useful energy. A basic requirement for the use of this principle of power-heat coupling is a somewhat simultaneous need of heat and electrical energy as well as a relatively short distance between production point and consumption point, since the transfer ability of the heat is limited due to the considerable cost of the transportation system. Numerous industrial enterprises offer favorable conditions for the use of power-heat coupling. Because of the existing legal and contract rights restraints, the incentive for a free development of industrial power-heat coupling with the aim of saving energy is strongly weakened. Therefore a new order to road rights is nececessary, which would make possible the construction and operation of common plants for several industrial operations and which would insure the right to lay industrial energy lines in public roads where reasonably possible. It has been proven necessary to make it the duty of the cartel authorities to orient their examinations of price regulations for auxiliary and reserve electric power supply solely on the objective electricity economy facts, but not on so-called advantageous points of view. Ultimately the regulation for common use of the utilities own piping system for the purpose of saving and piping free energy and free power from its own plants can be reasonably necessary in the utilities realm, if free agreements between the utility and the industry are not enough in this question.

  1. Problems of engineering education and their decision involving industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. P. Simonyants

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Russia, the problems of engineering education are connected with political and economic upheavals of the late last century. At the same time, some leading engineering universities in Russia, such as the Bauman Moscow State Technical University (BMSTU were resistant to the damaging effects of the crisis. But the methodology and experience of their effective work are insufficiently known.The problems of international engineering school development are also known. The first UNESCO World Report on Engineering (2010 assesses the state of engineering education as follows: worldwide shortage of engineers is a threat to the development of society.Based on the analysis of the current state of engineering education in the world and tendencies of development an urgency of its modernization with the focus on the enhancement of practical component has been shown.Topical problems associated with innovations and modernization in engineering education in the field of aerospace technology were discussed at the first international forum, which was held in Beijing Beyhanskom University (BUAA on 8 - 9 September 2012. The author attended this forum and presented his impressions of its work. It was noted that the role of Russia in the global process to form and develop engineering education is ignored. This opinion sounded, generally, in all speakers' reports, apart from ours.The President BUAA, a Professor Jinpeng Huai, and a Professor Qiushi Li. talked about the problems of building the engineering education system in China. It was emphasized that in China a study of engineering education techniques was motivated by the fact that quality assurance of engineering education at U.S. universities does not meet requirements.Attention is drawn to Dr. David Wisler's report who is a representative of the U.S. aerospace industry (General Electric Aviation corporation, actively promoting networking technology "initiative CDIO».The assessment of the engineering education

  2. The Nature of Payment Problems in the New Zealand Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanuja Ramachandra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Delay and loss of payment is a serious problem in the construction industry of many countries. These affect the cash flow of contractors which is critical to meeting their financial obligations. Payment defaults by the principal leads to insolvency of contractors and in turn other parts of the project chain. In recognition of some of these problems, most countries have established payment-specific construction industry legislation and other contractual measures to mitigate the problems, but nevertheless the problem persists. In this context, the paper examines the nature of payment problems in the construction industry in New Zealand. It is part of a larger study, that seeks solutions to payment losses in the construction industry.The study uses two approaches; an analysis of liquidators’ reports, and an analysis of court cases involving payment disputes to determine the magnitude of payment problems on construction parties. The findings are presented using simple descriptive and interpretive analyses. The study finds that trade creditors are impacted negatively (payment delays and losses by the liquidation of property developers, general construction and construction trade companies. 75% of trade creditors are unable to be paid fully by these categories of construction companies after liquidation proceedings. Liquidation proceedings take an average 18 months before they are finalised. The analysis of court cases found that 80% of payment disputes are between principals and contractors; with considerably significant percentage of disputes resulting in outright loss of payments. Only 40% of the cases are successful, in which case claimants are able to fully recover the amount in dispute. Payment losses are more prevalent in liquidation than delays and unlike in legal disputes, there is no security for those losses. The study finds that construction parties use remedies contained in the security of payment provisions within standard conditions

  3. The Nature of Payment Problems in the New Zealand Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanuja Ramachandra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Delay and loss of payment is a serious problem in the construction industry of many countries. These affect the cash flow of contractors which is critical to meeting their financial obligations. Payment defaults by the principal leads to insolvency of contractors and in turn other parts of the project chain. In recognition of some of these problems, most countries have established payment-specific construction industry legislation and other contractual measures to mitigate the problems, but nevertheless the problem persists. In this context, the paper examines the nature of payment problems in the construction industry in New Zealand. It is part of a larger study, that seeks solutions to payment losses in the construction industry.The study uses two approaches; an analysis of liquidators’ reports, and an analysis of court cases involving payment disputes to determine the magnitude of payment problems on construction parties. The findings are presented using simple descriptive and interpretive analyses. The study finds that trade creditors are impacted negatively (payment delays and losses by the liquidation of property developers, general construction and construction trade companies. 75% of trade creditors are unable to be paid fully by these categories of construction companies after liquidation proceedings. Liquidation proceedings take an average 18 months before they could be finalised. The analysis of court cases found that 80% of payment disputes are between principals and contractors; with considerably significant percentage of disputes resulting in outright loss of payments. Only 40% of the cases are successful, in which case claimants are able to fully recover the amount in dispute. Payment losses are more prevalent in liquidation than delays and unlike in legal disputes, there is no security for those losses. The study finds that construction parties use remedies contained in the security of payment provisions within standard

  4. Impact of the year 2000 problem on the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rae, A.C.

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents the activities that are taking place in the UK to regulate the nuclear industry through the Y2K critical dates. It identifies the basic steps which a licensee might be expected to take in addressing the Y2K problem. It also sets out the actions needed by the regulator, firstly to secure an acceptable justification of continued operation from the licensee for each critical date, and secondly to ensure that the regulatory body is itself prepared. A review of the activities towards these goals is provided for 1997 and 1998, some lessons learned from regulating through the first critical date are noted and a look-ahead made to the activities anticipated during 1999 and 2000. (author)

  5. [Health problems and illness of female workers in textile industries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soonthorndhada, K

    1989-07-01

    This paper examines 3 major health-related issues: 1) existing health problems and illnesses resulting from physical environmental conditions at workplaces; 2) female workers' perception on illness and health protection; and 3) the relationship between illness and risk factors. The study area is textile factories in Bangkok and its peripheries. Data are drawn from the 1987 Survey of Occupational Health and Textile Industrial Development in Thailand: Effect on Health and Socioeconomics of Female Migrant Workers. This study shows that about 20% of female workers have ill-health problems and illness after a period of working mainly due to high levels of dust and noise, and inadequate light. These conditions are hazardous to the respiratory system (resulting in cough and chest tightness), the hearing system (pains as well as impaired and hearing loss), eye systems (irritation, reduced visual capacity) and skin allergy. Such illnesses are intensified in the long- run. The analysis of variances reveals that education, section of work, perception (particularly mask and ear plug) significantly affect these illnesses. This study concludes that health education and occupational health should be provided in factories with emphasis on health prevention and promotion.

  6. The responsibility of industrialized nations in the energy problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandel, H.

    1979-01-01

    In view of the fact that some 15% of the world's population today claim some 50% of the world primary energy consumption, while 52% of the world population must be satisfied with 13% of the primary energy consumption, and in view also of an increase in world population of, at present, approx. 2% per annum, the question arises how to meet the increasing energy demand in the world without incurring international crises and grave economic setbacks. This attempt to find a problem solution is made in the light of the studies of the Conservation Commission of the World Energy Conference. The late author of this contribution, Professor Heinrich Mandel, who was an energy expert of international renown, always tried to examine the energy problem from a global point of view. In his last survey paper on the subject he once more dealt with the narrow margin available in the sector of energy policy and with the great responsibility of the industrialized nations towards the developing countries. (orig.) [de

  7. Industrial fouling: problem characterization, economic assessment, and review of prevention, mitigation, and accommodation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett-Price, B.A.; Smith, S.A.; Watts, R.L.

    1984-02-01

    A comprehensive overview of heat exchanger fouling in the manufacturing industries is provided. Specifically, this overview addresses: the characteristics of industrial fouling problems; the mitigation and accommodation techniques currently used by industry; and the types and magnitude of costs associated with industrial fouling. A detailed review of the fouling problems, costs and mitigation techniques is provided for the food, textile, pulp and paper, chemical, petroleum, cement, glass and primary metals industries.

  8. Strategic Marketing Problems in the Uganda Maize Seed Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Larson, Donald W.; Mbowa, Swaibu

    2004-01-01

    Strategic marketing issues and challenges face maize seed marketing firms as farmers increasingly adopt hybrid varieties in a modernizing third world country such as Uganda. The maize seed industry of Uganda has changed dramatically from a government owned, controlled, and operated industry to a competitive market oriented industry with substantial private firm investment and participation. The new maize seed industry is young, dynamic, growing and very competitive. The small maize seed marke...

  9. MERCURY IN ATMOSPHERE OVER RURAL, URBAN AND INDUSTRIAL PARTS OF ZAGREB CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav A. Palinkaš

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years Zagreb city encounters severe pollution problems in aquatic, terrrestrial and atmospheric environment. A random or permanent monitoring of some inorganic gaseous pollutants in atmosphere has already been organized and published alsewhere. By means of a sophisticated mercury vapor analyser with a Zeeman effect background corrector, however, continuous registration along two traverses (monitoring routes over rural, urban and industrial parts of Zagreb has been elaborated for the first lime. Data show strong anthropogenic influence in the Žitnjak industrial area. The anomaly high 105 ngm Hg, on the 22 October moved slightly to downtown by change of wind direction on the 31 October. Intensity raised as much as 155 ngm Hg, 13 times augmented in comparison to a background value on the Medvednica mountain. Explanation should be sought in denser public traffic, change of wind direction and lowering of atmospheric pressure.

  10. Integrating Industry in Project Organized Problem Based Learning for Engineering Educations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten M.

    2006-01-01

    This abstract deals with the challenge of establishing engineering student projects in collaboration with industry. Based on empirical results a set of advices for industrial collaboration in project oriented problem based learning are formulated......This abstract deals with the challenge of establishing engineering student projects in collaboration with industry. Based on empirical results a set of advices for industrial collaboration in project oriented problem based learning are formulated...

  11. INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISE TAX PLANNING AS PART OF EXPENSE OPTIMIZATION STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Garnov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tax liability planning is vital for industrial enterprises to reduce their tax burden and thus reduce expenses of the organization for a certain period. Industrial enterprises are among main taxpayers in the Russian Federation, and recommendations given in the article on topical issues related to planning of tax obligations will help top managers of the enterprises to avoid unnecessary financial losses and to ensure further growth and development of their organizations. Attention is focused on specifics of the industrial enterprises’ activities under present conditions due to the nature and particular features of their operation.

  12. INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISE TAX PLANNING AS PART OF EXPENSE OPTIMIZATION STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Garnov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tax liability planning is vital for industrial enterprises to reduce their tax burden and thus reduce expenses of the organization for a certain period. Industrial enterprises are among main taxpayers in the Russian Federation, and recommendations given in the article on topical issues relatedto planning of tax obligations will help top managers of the enterprises to avoid unnecessary financial losses and to ensure further growth and development of their organizations. Attention is focused on specifics of the industrial enterprises’ activities under present conditions due to thenature and particular features of their operation.

  13. Institutionalization of Organized Industrial Estates in Turkey, Problems Encountered and Proposed Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan DAĞLAR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the aim of the study is to determine the institutionalization degree of organized industrial estates and to identify the faced problems and to develop solutions for these problems. By using survey method, information about problems and institutionalization status of organized industrial estates were obtained from managers of the active organized industrial estates. The problems of organized industrial estates are related to the management structure, qualified staff, energy, transportation, regulation and public improvements. Formalization, professionalism, accountability, transparency and social responsibility have been identified as the factors about the institutionalization of organized industrial estates in Turkey according to factor analysis. It could be argued that organized industrial estates in Turkey have an institutional structure and they have institutionalized. However, it could be said that organized industrial estates which operate in 80 cities of Turkey and more than one are in some cities are not at the same level of institutionalization.

  14. Corrosion, inspection and other problems associated with Heat exchangers in the heavy water industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twigg, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    Corrosion, fabrication and inspection problems encountered in the heavy water industry Heat exchangers are discussed. Among the problems examined are erosion/corrosion of two pass exchangers, rolling of tubes, pitting, fretting and protection for long term storage. (auth)

  15. Industry Wage Surveys: Banking and Life Insurance, December 1976. Part I--Banking. Part II--Life Insurance. Bulletin 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsky, Carl

    This report presents the results of a survey conducted by the Bureau of Labor Statistics to determine wages and related benefits in (1) the banking industry and (2) for employees in home offices and regional head offices of life insurance carriers. Part 1 discusses banking industry characteristics and presents data for tellers and selected…

  16. Transformational and transactional leadership and problem solving in restaurant industry

    OpenAIRE

    Huhtala, Nina

    2013-01-01

    The study tries to give information on the leadership behavior of restaurant managers in their problem solving. The results of the study were collected by evaluating three restaurant managers by interviewing them. The restaurant managers’ answers were compared to transformational and transactional leadership model and the aspects of it. Their problem solving skills were evaluated by the help of a rational and creative problem solving model. The study showed that restaurant managers have both ...

  17. Indian Carpet Industry after Trade Liberalization. Problems and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rashid Malik, Rekha Prasad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the constraints and opportunities emerged for the Micro, small and medium enterprises in carpet industry after trade liberalization. The survey method was selected for this study. A structured questionnaire, containing both close and open ended questions was used for data collection. 65 carpet firms of Bhadohi District of Uttar Pradesh registered with All India Carpet Manufacture Association (AICMA were surveyed. Liberalization has brought many opportunities for carpet industry apart from challenges. Findings of the present study show that liberalization gave access to new markets and increased demand of products. Increased cost of raw material, difficulty in ‘export facilitation’ and ‘legal-regulatory framework and difficulty in procuring funds from local financial institutions were identified as the major constraints for the carpet industry.

  18. Exploring the Learning Problems and Resource Usage of Undergraduate Industrial Design Students in Design Studio Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenzhi

    2016-01-01

    Design is a powerful weapon for modern companies so it is important to have excellent designers in the industry. The purpose of this study is to explore the learning problems and the resources that students use to overcome problems in undergraduate industrial design studio courses. A survey with open-type questions was conducted to collect data.…

  19. Cogeneration from Poultry Industry Wastes -- Part II: Economic Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchi, M.; Cherubini, F.; Pascale, A. D.

    2003-01-01

    an existing poultry industry as fuel. Different plant configurations have been considered in order to make use of the oil and of the meat and bone meal, which are the by-products of the chicken cooking process. In particular, the process plant can be integrated with an energy supply plant which can consist...

  20. The gaming industry's role in the prevention and treatment of problem gambling

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, MD

    2010-01-01

    There are many factors that could be incorporated within a gaming company’s framework of social responsibility and that while the industry should be proactive in the prevention of problem gambling, the treatment of problem gambling should be done by those outside of the gaming industry and that one of the ways forward may be online rather than offline help. This is reinforced by the gaming industry having formal relationships with numerous organisations that address training, compliance, accr...

  1. Problems of engineering education and their decision involving industry

    OpenAIRE

    R. P. Simonyants

    2014-01-01

    In Russia, the problems of engineering education are connected with political and economic upheavals of the late last century. At the same time, some leading engineering universities in Russia, such as the Bauman Moscow State Technical University (BMSTU) were resistant to the damaging effects of the crisis. But the methodology and experience of their effective work are insufficiently known.The problems of international engineering school development are also known. The first UNESCO World Repo...

  2. PROBLEM SOLVING TECHNIQUES AS A PART OF IMPLEMENTATION OF SIX SIGMA METHODOLOGY IN TIRE PRODUCTION. CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej WOJTASZAK

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Problem solving methods – are an indispensable part of the management and improvement of production. At the turn of decades, with the development of industry, specific techniques have been implemented and refined by the leaders in this field, such as Toyota, GE and Motorola. The foundation of problem solving is to find real root cause of the problem as soon as possible, its understanding and implementation of appropriate solutions that will ensure that the problem does not occur again. This paper provides an overview of methods and techniques to solve problems in the manufactur-ing plant Trelleborg Wheel Systems Sri Lanka, producing pneumatic tires for light agricultural machinery. These tech-niques are implemented as part of the Lean Six Sigma program.

  3. Radiation protection, safety and associated problems in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Roux, P.R.

    1990-01-01

    Industrial radiography is an indispensable tool for non-destructive testing. Its use entails potential radiation exposure to the operator as well as to the public. Since such radiation has the potential to be harmful, there is a need to limit radiation exposure to a level at which the risk is believed to be acceptable to the individual and to society. The Radiation Protection Society and the Department of National Health believe that the level of protection provided for radiation workers should be comparable with that in other 'safe' industries. The total risk for radiation workers includes the risk of non-radiation related accidents in the various occupations, as well as the special risks of radiation exposure. Industrial radiographers have one of the poorest safety records of all non-medical radiation workers. Operator errors and management errors seem to be the primary contributors to most accidental high exposures. It is necessary to remember that industrial radiography has to be carried out in a wide variety of work places under many different working conditions, both by day and by night. High energy end emissivity (X-ray output or source activity) is required for the radiation to be transmitted through specimens, because these are normally constructed of thick and dense materials such as steel. Additionally, most radiographic sources must be portable to permit use in field locations. On the negative side it must be mentioned that studies undertaken abroad conclude that the most important factors contributing to unsafe operations are human related. Careful planning of the method of work is essential if unnecessary risks are to be avoided. The most effective way of reducing accidents would seem to be to train employees to adhere to established and well documented procedures, to exercise common sense and sound judgement, and to use the protective equipment and devices provided in the manner specified. 2 tabs., 3 refs

  4. MULTI-CRITERIA PROGRAMMING METHODS AND PRODUCTION PLAN OPTIMIZATION PROBLEM SOLVING IN METAL INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Tunjo Perić; Željko Mandić

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the production plan optimization in the metal industry considered as a multi-criteria programming problem. We first provided the definition of the multi-criteria programming problem and classification of the multicriteria programming methods. Then we applied two multi-criteria programming methods (the STEM method and the PROMETHEE method) in solving a problem of multi-criteria optimization production plan in a company from the metal industry. The obtained resul...

  5. Glass: a small part of the Climate Change problem, a large part of the solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stockdale, J.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The challenging EU targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and generating electricity from renewable sources were established as – 20% and 20% by 2020. As part of the strategy, EU confirmed in 2007 the need to save around 300 million tonnes of CO2 per year from EU buildings by 2020. Housing itself accounts for some 40% of emissions, mostly associated with heating. Industry will be expected to source and use appropriate materials and process technologies to improve their own energy consumption and at the same time deliver products that permit to reach those targets. This article examines the relationship between the emissions from relevant sectors of the glass industry and compares them with the carbon savings that can be achieved with the products the industry makes. Four main areas are discussed: glass fibre insulation, advanced glazing (low emissivity glass and advanced solar glass, continuous filament glass fibre and special glass applications. It is suggested that as well as considering the use of free allowances or border carbon adjustment, member states need to take account of the benefit of these products when formulating emission constraint policies; a carbon credit feedback loop should be also explored to encourage cheaper production and installation and avoid carbon leakage.

    La UE ha establecido los objetivos de reducción de emisiones de CO2 en -20% y de generación de electricidad a partir de energías renovables en el 20% para el año 2020. Como parte de esta estrategia la UE confirmó en 2007 la necesidad de reducir en 300 millones de toneladas por año las emisiones provenientes de los edificios en el mismo año 2020. El parque de viviendas aporta alrededor del 40% de las emisiones, básicamente relacionadas con sistemas de calefacción. Se espera de la industria que utilice procesos apropiados para mejorar su propio consumo energético y al mismo tiempo desarrolle y produzca materiales que

  6. The development of Bio-pharmaceutical industry in China: problems and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Gujun

    2014-07-01

    Known as the "sunrise industry" of the 21st century, bio-pharmaceutical industry has been a fast-growing global industry, and many countries have been developing this industry as the focus of their national economies. In China, there exists a huge market demand for the development of bio-pharmaceutical industry, but at the present stage the industry is faced with some problems, such as low level of R & D for innovative drugs, and inappropriate capital investment in the industrialization. In order to accelerate the development of China's bio-pharmaceutical industry, it is necessary to take strategic initiatives of improving the technology transfer system, developing the bio-pharmaceutical outsourcing, and building a diversified industrial financing system.

  7. Geopolitical connections problems of oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreatta, F.

    1998-01-01

    The connections between diplomatic alignments and economic policy and the strategic nature of energy resources affect the foreign policies of major powers. The discovery of vast oil and gas deposits in Central Asia and the Transcaucasus represents an important alternative source other than the Middle East. However, it also presents serious geopolitical problems given the persistence of multiple regional conflicts [it

  8. Tennessee Eastman Plant-wide Industrial Process Challenge Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Cameron, Ian; Gani, Rafiqul

    2011-01-01

    This chapter presents a comprehensive analysis and modelling of the Tennessee Eastman challenge problem. Both a simplified model of the system as well as a full process model that includes the energy balances is given. In each case a full model analysis is carried out to establish the degrees...

  9. The Swiss electrical power industry: energy policy problems and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tognola, F.

    1986-01-01

    The emotive consequences of the Chernobyl accident have had a devastating effect on Swiss public opinion and endanger the serious effort by the Swiss electrical power industry over many years at making possible a power supply capable of meeting increasing demand at minimum cost, compatible with security of supply and protection of the environment. It is considered that two new nuclear power stations will be required, one in 1995 and the other in 2000. The serious consequences if these are not built and, particularly, if it were decided to shut down all existing Swiss nuclear stations are stressed. (P.G.R.)

  10. Human factor in the problem of Russian nuclear industry safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramova, V.

    2002-01-01

    The approach to human factor definition, considered in the paper, consists of recognition of as many as possible factors for developing a complete list of factors, which have influence on mistakes or successful work of NPP personnel. Safety culture is considered as the main factor. The enhancement in nuclear power industry includes an optimization of organizational structures and development of personnel safety attitudes. The organizational factors, as possible root causes for human errors, need to be identified, assessed and improved. The organizational activities taken in Russia are presented

  11. PROBLEMS OF IMPLEMENTATION 5S PRACTICES IN AN INDUSTRIAL COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata GALA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available 5S is a one of the tools of Lean Management enabling to organize workplace in an effective way. It could be implemented in all the spheres of the company. The article provides the theoretic description of Lean Management and 5S and also shows a case study based on gained experience. The author also describe the problems occured during the implementation of the 5S.

  12. Sketch: the only problem of nuclear industry are the wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaussade, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is an humorous presentation of the French policy for the management of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants. The different steps of the processing of wastes is explained in an imaginary dialogue between a power plant operator and a journalist and illustrated with a series of cartoons. The objective of this sketch is to convince the public opinion that radioactive wastes are effectively well managed and that not storage problem exist. (J.S.). 8 figs

  13. Musculoskeletal problems among workers in a garment industry, at Tirupur, Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreesupria Purushothaman Ravichandran

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Every occupation has its own ill effects on health. Garment workers are denied of their basic rights and less importance is given to their health. Their health status also depends on their access to treatment and availability of healthcare facilities. Aims & Objectives: To estimate the prevalence, health seeking pattern and associated factors for musculoskeletal problems among garment workers and to assess the level of exposure of individual workers to upper limb musculoskeletal loads. Materials and methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among 380 workers in a garment industry, at Tirupur over a period of two months. Interview was conducted using a structured pretested questionnaire including Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire and Numerical Pain Rating Scale. Level of exposure to musculoskeletal load was assessed using RULA tool. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 19 version. Results: 77.6% of the workers had musculoskeletal problems. The most common sites affected were neck (32.1%, knee (28.7% and low back (26.6%. More than half of the workers experienced moderate pain in all body parts. 54.2% sought health care and 40% among them preferred government hospital. Only 8.7% workers had acceptable posture. Conclusion: Health problems among garment workers are one of the areas of public health concern in our country. Reducing the work strain and providing a supportive workplace environment will have a favorable impact on work productivity

  14. Employee problems and their consequences in the technology industry: evidence from surveys and counseling records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ching-Wen; Lin, Po-Chang; Sha, Chyuan

    2014-06-01

    To support employees' work and health, organizations should help employees cope with common problems. Previous studies have focused primarily on work-related problems across multiple industries rather than on evaluating industry-specific issues. Here, two approaches identified common work and non-work employee problems in the technology industry with the strongest correlations with psychosomatic health and life satisfaction. Study 1 used questionnaires to identify the problems that were perceived as the most frequent by lower-level employees (N = 355) working in the technology industry. Study 2 evaluated employees' coping behaviors by analyzing (with permission) counseling records collected from an employee assistance service company (N = 276). Employees reported a variety of problems; work problems were the only problems (of the top 5 problems) reported in both studies. Several problems emerged in the counseling records (e.g., legal issues, career development, family and marriage problems, and emotional problems) but not in the surveys. Future research should apply these observations to develop scales for measuring employee stressors.

  15. Wireless Sensor Networks - Node Localization for Various Industry Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derr, Kurt; Manic, Milos

    2015-01-01

    Fast, effective monitoring following airborne releases of toxic substances is critical to mitigate risks to threatened population areas. Wireless sensor nodes at fixed predetermined locations may monitor such airborne releases and provide early warnings to the public. A challenging algorithmic problem is determining the locations to place these sensor nodes while meeting several criteria: 1) provide complete coverage of the domain, and 2) create a topology with problem dependent node densities, while 3) minimizing the number of sensor nodes. This manuscript presents a novel approach to determining optimal sensor placement, Advancing Front mEsh generation with Constrained dElaunay Triangulation and Smoothing (AFECETS) that addresses these criteria. A unique aspect of AFECETS is the ability to determine wireless sensor node locations for areas of high interest (hospitals, schools, high population density areas) that require higher density of nodes for monitoring environmental conditions, a feature that is difficult to find in other research work. The AFECETS algorithm was tested on several arbitrary shaped domains. AFECETS simulation results show that the algorithm 1) provides significant reduction in the number of nodes, in some cases over 40%, compared to an advancing front mesh generation algorithm, 2) maintains and improves optimal spacing between nodes, and 3) produces simulation run times suitable for real-time applications

  16. Corrosion problems and its prevention in nuclear industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakae, Yukio; Susukida, Hiroshi; Kowaka, Masamichi; Fujikawa, Hisao.

    1979-01-01

    29 nuclear power plants with 2.56 million kW output are expected to be in operation by 1985 in Japan. The main problems of corrosion in the nuclear reactors in operation at present and promising for the future are as follows: corrosion, denting and stress corrosion cracking in the steam generator tubes for PWRs, stress corrosion cracking in SUS pipings for BWRs, sodium corrosion and mass transfer in FBRs, high temperature gas corrosion in HTGRs, and interaction between coolant, blanket material and structural material in nuclear fusion reactors. In LWRs, the countermeasures based on the experiences in actual plants and the results of simulation tests have attained the good results. Various monitoring systems and the techniques for in-service inspection and preservice inspection have accomplished astonishing progress. These contributed largely to establish the reliability of nuclear power plants. The cases of troubles in primary and secondary systems, the experiences of the corrosion of steam generator tubes and the countermeasures, and the denting troubles occurred in USA and the trend of countermeasures in PWRs, the cases of stress corrosion cracking in SUS 304 and 316 pipings for BWRs, and the problems of various future reactors are described. Unexpected troubles often occur in practical plants of large capacity, therefore the method of predicting tests must be established, and the monitoring of safety must be thorough. (Kako, I.)

  17. Relaxation cracking in the process industry, an underestimated problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wortel, J.C. van [TNO Institute of Industrial Technology, Apeldoorn (Netherlands)

    1998-12-31

    Austenitic components, operating between 500 and 750 deg C, can fail within 1 year service while the ordinary mechanical properties after failure are still within the code requirements. The intergranular brittle failures are situated in the welded or cold deformed areas. This type of cracking has many names, showing the uncertainty concerning the mechanism for the (catastrophical) failures. A just finished investigation showed that it is a relaxation crack problem, introduced by manufacturing processes, especially welding and cold rolling. Cracking/failures can be expected after only 0.1- 0.2 % relaxation strain. These low strain values can already be generated during relaxation of the welding stresses. Especially coarse grained `age hardening` materials are susceptible. Stabilising and Postweld Heat Treatments are very effective to avoid relaxation crack problems during operation. After these heat treatments the components can withstand more than 2 % relaxation strain. At temperatures between 500 and 750 deg C relaxation cracking is the predominant factor for the safety and lifetime of welded austenitic components. (orig.) 12 refs.

  18. Relaxation cracking in the process industry, an underestimated problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wortel, J.C. van [TNO Institute of Industrial Technology, Apeldoorn (Netherlands)

    1999-12-31

    Austenitic components, operating between 500 and 750 deg C, can fail within 1 year service while the ordinary mechanical properties after failure are still within the code requirements. The intergranular brittle failures are situated in the welded or cold deformed areas. This type of cracking has many names, showing the uncertainty concerning the mechanism for the (catastrophical) failures. A just finished investigation showed that it is a relaxation crack problem, introduced by manufacturing processes, especially welding and cold rolling. Cracking/failures can be expected after only 0.1- 0.2 % relaxation strain. These low strain values can already be generated during relaxation of the welding stresses. Especially coarse grained `age hardening` materials are susceptible. Stabilising and Postweld Heat Treatments are very effective to avoid relaxation crack problems during operation. After these heat treatments the components can withstand more than 2 % relaxation strain. At temperatures between 500 and 750 deg C relaxation cracking is the predominant factor for the safety and lifetime of welded austenitic components. (orig.) 12 refs.

  19. Inequalities in South African health care: Part I. The problem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This exposition analyses and contextualises the complex problem of structural inequality in South African health care. Socio-econornic conditions, racial divisions and geographical location are isolated as the main determinants of inequality in the provision, allocation and distribution of health care; the prevailing inequalities ...

  20. Pozzolanic properties of residues of sugar industries (first part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martirena-Hernández, J. F.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Non altered straw and sugar cane bagasse ash (CPC, CBC collected directly from the boilers in the sugar industry and from non-controlled burning in the open fields turned up to be a reasonably good pozzolana, which can be utilized for the manufacture of lime-pozzolana binders. This paper presents a detailed survey of this material with the aim to use it as raw material in the manufacture of binders.

    Las cenizas de bagazo y paja de caña de azúcar (CPC, CBC, obtenidas en forma inalterada directamente de las calderas de la fábrica de azúcar, y de la quema incontrolada en el campo, representan una interesante fuente de puzolana reactiva, con potencialidad de ser usada en la preparación de aglomerantes del tipo cal/puzolana. El trabajo que se presenta realizó una evaluación integral de estas puzolanas, con el interés de utilizarlas como materia prima en la producción de aglomerantes.

  1. MULTI-CRITERIA PROGRAMMING METHODS AND PRODUCTION PLAN OPTIMIZATION PROBLEM SOLVING IN METAL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunjo Perić

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the production plan optimization in the metal industry considered as a multi-criteria programming problem. We first provided the definition of the multi-criteria programming problem and classification of the multicriteria programming methods. Then we applied two multi-criteria programming methods (the STEM method and the PROMETHEE method in solving a problem of multi-criteria optimization production plan in a company from the metal industry. The obtained results indicate a high efficiency of the applied methods in solving the problem.

  2. Application of Fuzzy TOPSIS MADM approach in ranking & underlining the problems of plywood industry in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Mittal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The manufacturing of plywood consists of simple procedural steps, but the range of problems associated with the plywood manufacturing industries, especially in the case of small-scale industries (SSI, is large. This paper describes the major problems faced by the plywood SSIs along with their cause and the ultimate effect, i.e. pruning the profits. Many cogent tools and techniques are present for the task, but an attempt has been made to apply multiple attribute decision-making (MADM approach in ranking the problems in order of their extent on the basis of various parameters. Some suggestions for the improvement purposes have also been made to overcome the top-ranked problem. The study is the first of its type in a plywood industry, although same can be applied to other similar small-scale cluster industries like steel, textile, pharmaceutical, and automobile.

  3. Problems and future outlook in the nuclear equipment manufacturing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suenaga, Soichiro

    1984-01-01

    The energy policy in Japan is based on a balance between the energy security and the energy cost for the purpose of realizing optimal supply/demand structure. In this field, nuclear equipment manufacturers should cooperate in the settlement of LWR power generation through plant safety and reliability and through high economical efficiency, all involving the advancement of technology. As a new concept being developed, there is an APWR (advanced PWR) which has the electric output of 1,350 MWe. The export of nuclear power plants, though there are various problems, should be enhanced in the high-technology export area. The following matters are described: the settlement of and the heightening of technology in nuclear power generation, the development of the advanced PWR, and the measures for the export of nuclear power plants and components. (Mori, K.)

  4. Recognition of plant parts with problem-specific algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanke, Joerg; Brendel, Thorsten; Jensch, Peter F.; Megnet, Roland

    1994-06-01

    Automatic micropropagation is necessary to produce cost-effective high amounts of biomass. Juvenile plants are dissected in clean- room environment on particular points on the stem or the leaves. A vision-system detects possible cutting points and controls a specialized robot. This contribution is directed to the pattern- recognition algorithms to detect structural parts of the plant.

  5. Youth and nuclear industry in Russia: Tasks and problem solving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippoff, S.; Soldatov, A.; Kovalevskiy, A.; Porokhina, E.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper activities of the Youth Department of Russian Nuclear Society (YDRNS) department at Moscow State Engineering-Physical Institute (MEPhI) are reviewed. The purposes of growing organization were pointed at the international conference P olar Lights'99 . First of all, the revealing and all-level support of active youth, including speciality discussion among pupils. Secondly, propagating the concepts of modern power engineering and creating the positive image of nuclear field among public. And, thirdly, the development of international relationships. May 1999 started with foundation of the YDRNS department at MEPhI and the following scientific trends were announced: Arrangement and conducting of scientific conferences and seminars on the current problems in nuclear field; Assistance in publication of scientific works and articles in scientific editions; Arrangement of the period of trainee and acquaintance of youth with energy enterprises; Reflecting the YDRNS and talented youth activities in mass media; Cooperation with YDRNS departments in other regions of Russia and similar foreign organizations; Creation of data base of participants and their participation in YDRNS activities. This thesis formed the basis of YDRNS of MEPhI activities for year 1999. (authors)

  6. Malting and Brewing Industries Encounter Fusarium spp. Related Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Mastanjević

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Versatile microbiota are inevitably naturally present on cereals. Fungi, yeasts and bacteria and their metabolites all contribute to the quality and safety of the final products derived from most common beer cereals—barley and wheat. The microorganisms that are most often associated with the safety and quality of cereals for beer production belong to the Fusarium spp. They greatly influence yields from the field, and can modify and diminish economic success for farmers. However, the real problem is their harmful metabolites—mycotoxins—that affect the health of humans and animals. In the era of emerging analytical methodologies, the spectrum of known toxins originating from microorganisms that can pose a threat to humans has grown tremendously. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor microflora throughout the productive “barley to beer” chain and to act suppressive on the proliferation of unwanted microorganisms, before and during malting, preventing the occurrence of mycotoxins in final products and by-products. Multi-mycotoxin analyses are very advanced and useful tools for the assessment of product safety, and legislation should follow up and make some important changes to regulate as yet unregulated, but highly occurring, microbial toxins in malt and beer.

  7. Nuclear data for specific problems. Part 1: Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leszczynski, Francisco

    1999-01-01

    The growing volume of basic nuclear data, methods and codes for processing these data, and the wide variety of problems where these data and codes are required, oblige to have an efficient system for managing all this information. In this work we present a new methodology for nuclear data processing, applied to neutron and photon transport calculations for specific problems. The base of the new methodology is the analysis of the requirements, following the chain: Problem-Components-Materials-Elements-Isotopes-Process-Tests-Final product (a library with processed data). This order is the inverse of the normal order followed up to date where, for performing a specific calculation, the first step is the choice of an existing data library for general purposes, without the previous steps of pre-processing data, and tests of the final library. Then, the used data are limited to the isotope content of this library, and the adaptation of material compositions and components to the data availability is necessary , performing finally the required calculations in a rather approximated form, depending on the available data. An interactive computer program for PC , is developed, for managing all the information generated by nuclear data processing, with the additional advantage of having a help tool for performing the needed analysis, before processing data calculations for specific applications. These analyses are based on the particular characteristics of each application, and the processed information of previous cases, is stored in conveniently designed data bases for an easy inspection of its contents. By means of an example of application of the new method, in this paper the methods of analysis and calculations and the tools used (computer programs, data bases and documents) are describes. (author)

  8. Problems of placement of industrial wastes in landfills in the industrial city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STEPANOV Evgeniy Georgievich,

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article shows that the anthropogenic transformation of the environment increases when production wastes and consumption are placed in landfills. Hygienic condition of the areas with high population density and developed industry is determined by the increased amount of household and industrial waste, mainly deposited in the numerous landfills. This situation is studied on the example of landfills used for industrial wastes produced by the enterprises JSC «Gazprom Neftekhim Salavat», JSC «Salavatsteklo», located in the city of Salavat of the Republic of Bashkortostan. The sources of industrial pollution in Salavat have been analyzed. One should note that the city-forming enterprise is the JSC «Gazprom Neftekhim Salavat» which share of the total amount of wastes generated in the city per year is 80%. Another company which contributes significantly to this process is the JSC «Salavatsteklo». To study the possible migration of contaminants to the aquifer an observation well has been made at the landfill site. The research of the water obtained from the observation well at the polygon identified maximum allowable concentrations for chemical oxygen demand (COD, phenol and oil products. The groundwater occurrence modes have been studied. The migration of the chemicals contained in the body of the landfill, to groundwater, has been revealed. That leads to contamination of surface water. Laboratory studies of water objects in the zone of influence of industrial waste landfill in Romodanovskomu career have been performed. It was determined that excess of maximum permissible concentration of benzene, and the presence of toluene, lead, phenol indicates the pollution of groundwater by substances stored in landfills Romanovskogo career, both by infiltration and subsequent migration to groundwater of adjacent aquifers and through surface runoff and infiltration from snowmelt and rainwater.

  9. On The Problem of Constructing Routes, Part I: Preface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertsbakh Ilya B.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This is a preface of the translation of the 1967 paper by Linis and Maksim, “On the problem of constructing routes” (in Russian (in the Proceedings of the Institute of Civil Aviation Engineering, Issue 102, pp. 36-45. It marks 50-year to the deficit function (DF model initially developed in this 1967 work; the DF model then paved the way to further research of vehicle-fleet management in terms of optimal routing and scheduling. The merit of this translation is to describe the roots of the DF modelling to enable further studies to emerge with more contributions.

  10. Profiles of Major Suppliers to the Automotive Industry : Vol. 5. Multinational Automotive Parts and Components Suppliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    This study summarizes extensive information collected over a two-year period (October 1978 to October 1980) on suppliers of parts and components, materials, and machine tools to the automotive industry in the United States. The objective of the study...

  11. Profiles of Major Suppliers to the Automotive Industry : Vol. 6. Foreign Automotive Parts and Components Suppliers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    This study summarizes extensive information collected over a two-year period (October 1978 to October 1980) on suppliers of parts and components, materials, and machine tools to the automotive industry in the United States. The objective of the study...

  12. Industrialization of western region of ukraine: problems of environmental consequences management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Malyarchuk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the consequences of industrialization of the western region of the Ukrainian SSR – large-scale construction industry provided jobs for the active population of the region, led to the expansion of infrastructure of settlements and towns, strengthened social sphere and became a positive factor for the development of the western regions of Ukraine. However, due to the increased production capacity natural resources got depleted. The ability of ecosystems to self-healing and self-cleaning was not taken into account, which caused devastating impact on nature and human health. Uncontrolled industrial pollution of air, water and land resources became a common phenomenon for the urbanized western region. Promoting environmental knowledge and declaration of achievement of significant progress in official documents gave no mechanisms to solve environmental problems. Overcoming the difficulties of the past is connected with the Ukraine had been being a part of the USSR. The leading place took environmental issues. Poor environmental condition of the whole country was not only caused by the world’s largest man-made disaster on the Chernobyl nuclear plant in April 1986, but also intensive industrialization and collectivization. Full conversion of the economy and agriculture in the middle of the last century led to the growth of anthropogenic impact on the environment. A radical break steady of socio-political and socio-economic life took place in western Ukraine in the second half of the twentieth century. Party-Soviet government in a short time made a «socialist transformation» and social progress was considered only as a means to achieve this goal. A number of issues concerning environmental protection, safety of life, were ignored. Environmental protection, regulation of environmental and economic activities, guaranteeing rights of Ukrainian citizens to environmental safety is currently among the national priorities of the

  13. Physio-Chemical Analysis of Industrial Effluents in parts of Edo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physio-Chemical Analysis of Industrial Effluents in parts of Edo States Nigeria. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... particularly, surface water results from all activities of man involving indiscriminate waste disposal from industry such as effluents into waterways, waste, agricultural waste, and all ...

  14. PROBLEMS AND POTENTIAL OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES OF THE KNOWLEDGE-INTENSIVE BRANCHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Yakovlevich Veselovsky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the problems of enterprise development high-tech industries, analyzes the factors that complicate the processes of knowledge-intensive production management. It provided a number of problems that make it difficult to increase the economic efficiency of high-tech industry. To solve the above problems need to increase the investment program and the economic attractiveness of high-tech industries that is to be developed, modern management system, carried out the reform of the knowledge-based industry to provide high levels of efficiency of new organizational structures in the current economic conditions compared to the existing, outdated forms. The purpose / goal. The aim of this study is to analyze the causes that affect the development potential of knowledge-based industries and enterprises identify problems that impede improving the economic efficiency of the Russian high-tech industry. Purpose: To identify the problems that are most difficult to improve the economic efficiency of the Russian high-tech industry; consider the high-tech industry; examine the reasons for the reform of the knowledge-based industry; explore the level of innovation activity of organizations of high-tech industries. Methodology. The methodological and theoretical basis of the study are the works, monographs, research papers, studies of Soviet authors on the development of knowledge-intensive industries, materials of State Statistics. We used scientific methods of research, such as the comparative method of analysis, synthesis, analysis and synthesis. Results. Given the concept of the domestic high-tech complex (NEC, defined the environment in which businesses operate NEC. The features of these companies, where there is the presence of a strong innovation potential. The requirements for knowledge-intensive production as the backbone of a new stage of the development lifecycle. A number of problems hampering the development and transformation of enterprise

  15. Environmental degradation and remediation: is economics part of the problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, Mohammed H I; Burton, Ian

    2003-01-01

    It is argued that standard environmental economic and 'ecological economics', have the same fundamentals of valuation in terms of money, based on a demand curve derived from utility maximization. But this approach leads to three different measures of value. An invariant measure of value exists only if the consumer has 'homothetic preferences'. In order to obtain a numerical estimate of value, specific functional forms are necessary, but typically these estimates do not converge. This is due to the fact that the underlying economic model is not structurally stable. According to neoclassical economics, any environmental remediation can be justified only in terms of increases in consumer satisfaction, balancing marginal gains against marginal costs. It is not surprising that the optimal policy obtained from this approach suggests only small reductions in greenhouse gases. We show that a unidimensional metric of consumer's utility measured in dollar terms can only trivialize the problem of global climate change.

  16. [Pollution-ecological problems of old industrial and mining areas and future research prospects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qixing

    2005-06-01

    Environmental pollution and its solicitation in ecological problems of old industrial and mining areas have become a worldwide technological puzzle restricting sustainable economic and social development. But, the definition and category of old industrial and mining areas is still disputed as an important concept. In this paper, the concept of old industrial and mining area was discussed in theory, and, proceeded with analyzing the complexity of current situation and environmental pollution problems of old industrial and mining areas in China, more keystone attention was paid to the secondary pollution problems from old industrial and mining areas as an important frontier of science. On the basis of expounding the complexity and characters of environmental pollution in old industrial and mining areas, it was suggested that as two key scientific problems in environmental sciences and ecology, the formation mechanisms and control technology of secondary pollution in old industrial and mining areas and the responses of new-type diseases to environmental pollution based on molecular ecotoxicology should be systematically studied on the national scale, and be an important component of environmental protection strategy in China in the future.

  17. Optimization-based decision support systems for planning problems in processing industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, G.D.H.

    2014-01-01

    Summary

    Optimization-based decision support systems for planning problems in processing industries

    Nowadays, efficient planning of material flows within and between supply chains is of vital importance and has become one of the most challenging problems for decision support in

  18. On the problem of ethnophyletism: a historical study. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venediktov Vadim Yuriyevich

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Holy and Great Council on Crete, 2016 has risen an important issue of Ethnophyletism. Russian, Georgian, Bulgarian, and Antiochian Orthodox Churches delegations were not present at the Great Council and were criticized for Ethnophyletism at the plenary session. The heresy of ethnophyletism was announced by the Council of Constantinople in 1872. Now we can see that it became essential nowadays. The article tells about the origin of this heresy and whether the Ethnophyletism may be decided to be the heresy. The second part of the paper deals with the events on the eve of the Pan-Orthodox Synod in 1872 (since the manifestation of the famous Abdülaziz Sultan's Firman 1870.

  19. An Efficient Heuristic Approach for Irregular Cutting Stock Problem in Ship Building Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-xin Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient approach for solving a real two-dimensional irregular cutting stock problem in ship building industry. Cutting stock problem is a common cutting and packing problem that arises in a variety of industrial applications. A modification of selection heuristic Exact Fit is applied in our research. In the case referring to irregular shapes, a placement heuristics is more important to construct a complete solution. A placement heuristic relating to bottom-left-fill is presented. We evaluate the proposed approach using generated instance only with convex shapes in literatures and some instances with nonconvex shapes based on real problem from ship building industry. The results demonstrate that the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed approach are significantly better than some conventional heuristics.

  20. Is EIA part of the wind power planning problem?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smart, Duncan Ewan; Stojanovic, Timothy A., E-mail: tas21@st-andrews.ac.uk; Warren, Charles R.

    2014-11-15

    This research evaluates the importance and effectiveness of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) within wind farm planning debates, drawing on insights from case studies in Scotland. Despite general public support for renewable energy on the grounds that it is needed to tackle climate change and implement sustainable development, many proposed wind farms encounter significant resistance. The importance of planning issues and (EIA) processes has arguably been overlooked within recent wind farm social acceptability discourse. Through semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders and textual analysis of EIA documents, the characteristics of EIA are assessed in terms of its perceived purpose and performance. The data show that whilst respondents perceive EIA to be important, they express concerns about bias and about the inability of EIA to address climate change and wind farm decommissioning issues adequately. Furthermore, the research identifies key issues which impede the effectiveness of EIA, and reveals differences between theoretical and practical framings of EIA. The paper questions the assumption that EIA is a universally applicable tool, and argues that its effectiveness should be analysed in the context of specific development sectors. The article concludes by reviewing whether the recently amended EIA Directive (2014/52/EU) could resolve identified problems within national EIA practice. - Highlights: • Evaluation of EIA for onshore wind farm planning in Scotland. • EIA is important for multiple aspects of onshore wind farm planning. • Multiple substantive deficiencies of relevance to wind farm planning exist in EIA. • Further research into EIA effectiveness for specific development types is required. • Directive 2014/52/EU may improve EIA effectiveness within wind farm planning.

  1. Is EIA part of the wind power planning problem?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smart, Duncan Ewan; Stojanovic, Timothy A.; Warren, Charles R.

    2014-01-01

    This research evaluates the importance and effectiveness of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) within wind farm planning debates, drawing on insights from case studies in Scotland. Despite general public support for renewable energy on the grounds that it is needed to tackle climate change and implement sustainable development, many proposed wind farms encounter significant resistance. The importance of planning issues and (EIA) processes has arguably been overlooked within recent wind farm social acceptability discourse. Through semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders and textual analysis of EIA documents, the characteristics of EIA are assessed in terms of its perceived purpose and performance. The data show that whilst respondents perceive EIA to be important, they express concerns about bias and about the inability of EIA to address climate change and wind farm decommissioning issues adequately. Furthermore, the research identifies key issues which impede the effectiveness of EIA, and reveals differences between theoretical and practical framings of EIA. The paper questions the assumption that EIA is a universally applicable tool, and argues that its effectiveness should be analysed in the context of specific development sectors. The article concludes by reviewing whether the recently amended EIA Directive (2014/52/EU) could resolve identified problems within national EIA practice. - Highlights: • Evaluation of EIA for onshore wind farm planning in Scotland. • EIA is important for multiple aspects of onshore wind farm planning. • Multiple substantive deficiencies of relevance to wind farm planning exist in EIA. • Further research into EIA effectiveness for specific development types is required. • Directive 2014/52/EU may improve EIA effectiveness within wind farm planning

  2. Computed tomography as a tool for tolerance verification of industrial parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Pavel; Cantatore, Angela; Andreasen, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is becoming an important technology for industrial applications, enabling fast and accurate control of manufactured parts. In only a few minutes, a complete 3D model of a part may be obtained, allowing measurements of external and internal features. This paper presents...

  3. Review of concentrating solar thermal power industry in China: Status quo, problems, trend and countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jiajun

    2018-01-01

    Concentrating solar thermal power (CSP) industry is a strategic emerging industry in China. Its further development is of great significance for promoting the energy revolution, achieving energy saving and emission reduction. In this paper, China’s CSP industry is systematically analysed. First of all, the status quo is elaborated from the perspectives of relevant policies and regulations, market and generation technology development. Secondly, the problems and the underlying reasons of China’s CSP industry are deeply studied. On this basis, the future trends of CSP are expounded on the three levels of policy, market and power generation technology. Finally, a series of feasible countermeasures are put forward, designed to promote the development of CSP industry and the transformation of energy structure.

  4. Innovative Activity in the Industry of Ukraine: Problems, Risks, Activization Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pidorycheva, I.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The general characteristic of a condition of innovative activity of the industrial enterprises in Ukraine and positive tendencies of the last years in this plane are shined. The key problems and demotivating factors of increase of interest of the industry in innovations are analyzed. Risks of preservation of available tendencies in the sphere of innovative and technological development of the industry, which can lead to preservation of outdated structure of national production are defined. Priorities and medium-term measures for overcoming of available restrictions in realization of new model of economic development, at the heart of which — investments into the innovative activity, new industrialization and industrial updating of the country are offered.

  5. Process Integration Design Methods for Water Conservation and Wastewater Reduction in Industry. Part 3: Experience of Industrial Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Dunn, Russell; Gottrup, Lene

    2002-01-01

    This paper is Part 3 in a three part series of papers addressing operational techniques for applying mass integration principles to design in industry with special focus on water conservation and wastewater reduction. The presented techniques derive from merging US and Danish experience with indu......This paper is Part 3 in a three part series of papers addressing operational techniques for applying mass integration principles to design in industry with special focus on water conservation and wastewater reduction. The presented techniques derive from merging US and Danish experience......’s experience with defining the scope of the system and with identifying water flow constraints and water quality constraints is discussed. It is shown, how physical constraints for the system design often set a limit for the sophistication of the water recycle network and thereby also a limit for how...... sophisticated the method for system design should be. Finally, pinch analysis and system designs for water recycling in a practical case study are shown, documenting large water saving potentials and achievements....

  6. Clothing industry: development problems, regional dislocation and modern management technologies for small enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hristoforova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses issues related to the problems of development of light industry in the territory of the former Soviet Union, systematize industry regions and analyzes modern management technologies used by small businesses garment industry. The aim of the article is the analysis of the organizational and economic aspects of light industry on the example of clothing companies. The objectives of the article: to sistematize the major regions of the dislocation of light industry: textile, footwear, clothing; to characterize the current state of the apparel industry enterprises; to show the value of small clothing companies; to study the need for the introduction of flexible manufacturing systems (FMS on small sewing factories; to analyze the range of the scientific development of national universities in the study of flexible manufacturing systems and give them a brief description.Methodology. The methodological basis of the paper is the following scientific methods: deduction, comparative and group analysis, desk research. The Results. The result of the study is to identify the main issues and trends in the development of light industry, ordering the placement of the industry in the territory of the former Soviet Union, the definition of the most popular management techniques used in small businesses garment industry.Conclusions / significance. The above article analyzes the development of light industry has allowed to identify the main trends and formulate problems for the enterprises. New conditions require the development of small enterprises and the introduction of modern technologies in production processes and management.

  7. Risk in Nuclear Industry. Liability for Nuclear Damage. Status of the Problem in the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalevich, Oleg M.; Gavrilov, Sergey D.; Voronov, Dmitry B.

    2001-01-01

    Russia is one of a few nuclear power states obtaining the whole number of nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) components - from mining of uranium and on-site electricity production, from NPP spent nuclear fuel processing and extracted fissile materials and radionuclides, which are available in industry, in medicine and in other relevant areas, to radioactive waste processing and disposal. For this reason it is very important to solve the problem of nuclear fuel cycle safety as it is a single system task with an adequate approach for all cycle components. The problem is that NFC facilities are technologically various and refer to different industries (mining, machinery engineering, power engineering, chemistry, etc.). Besides, the above facilities need the development of various scientific bases. The most NFC facilities is directly connected with peaceful use of nuclear energy and with military nuclear industry, as the defense orders stimulated the development of NFC. The specific attention to safety problems at the beginning of nuclear complex foundation adversely affected the state attitude towards the risk in nuclear industry, it has left the traces at present. In our paper we touch upon the problems of risk and the liability for nuclear damage for the third persons. The problems of nuclear damage compensation for nuclear facilities personnel and for the owners (operating organizations) are beyond our subject

  8. Computerization in industry causes problems for people with reading and writing difficulties (dyslexia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsson, A

    1986-01-01

    For 10 years computerization in industry has advanced at a rapid pace. A problem which has not received attention is that of people with reading and writing difficulties who experience severe problems when they have to communicate with a computer monitor screen. These individuals are often embarrassed by their difficulties and conceal them from their fellow workers. A number of case studies are described which show the form the problems can take. In one case, an employee was compelled to move from department to department as each was computerized in turn. Computers transform a large number of manual tasks in industry into jobs which call for reading and writing skills. Better education at elementary school and at the workplace in connection with computerization are the most important means of overcoming this problem. Moreover, computer programs could be written in a more human way.

  9. Optimal recombination in genetic algorithms for combinatorial optimization problems: Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eremeev Anton V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper surveys results on complexity of the optimal recombination problem (ORP, which consists in finding the best possible offspring as a result of a recombination operator in a genetic algorithm, given two parent solutions. In Part II, we consider the computational complexity of ORPs arising in genetic algorithms for problems on permutations: the Travelling Salesman Problem, the Shortest Hamilton Path Problem and the Makespan Minimization on Single Machine and some other related problems. The analysis indicates that the corresponding ORPs are NP-hard, but solvable by faster algorithms, compared to the problems they are derived from.

  10. Optimization-based decision support systems for planning problems in processing industries

    OpenAIRE

    Claassen, G.D.H.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Optimization-based decision support systems for planning problems in processing industries Nowadays, efficient planning of material flows within and between supply chains is of vital importance and has become one of the most challenging problems for decision support in practice. The tremendous progress in hard- and software of the past decades was an important gateway for developing computerized systems that are able to support decision making on different levels within enterprises. T...

  11. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Industry Application External Hazard Analyses Problem Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szilard, Ronaldo Henriques [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Coleman, Justin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Curtis L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Prescott, Steven [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kammerer, Annie [Annie Kammerer Consulting, Rye, NH (United States); Youngblood, Robert [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Pope, Chad [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Risk-Informed Margin Management Industry Application on External Events. More specifically, combined events, seismically induced external flooding analyses for a generic nuclear power plant with a generic site soil, and generic power plant system and structure. The focus of this report is to define the problem above, set up the analysis, describe the methods to be used, tools to be applied to each problem, and data analysis and validation associated with the above.

  12. Optical interferometry for measurement of the geometric dimensions of industrial parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groot, Peter de; Biegen, Jim; Clark, Jack; Lega, Xavier Colonna de; Grigg, David

    2002-01-01

    We describe an instrument for the measurement of surface flatness, parallelism, and size (thickness) of plane-parallel parts in a single measurement to 1σ gauge capability of 0.02, 0.03, and 0.06 μm, respectively. A low-coherence IR profiler viewing both sides of the part simultaneously, believed to be novel, accommodates a wide variety of industrial surface finishes, including machined, ground, or lapped parts, with a 75-mm field of view and 15,000 pixels per side. A heterodyne laser displacement gauge together with an integrated zeroing system allows for a range of part sizes from 0 to 100 mm

  13. Problems with radioactivity scrap in the iron and steel industry of the Czech and Slovak Republics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raab, J.; Toman, V.

    1999-01-01

    During the recent restructuring process, the Czech steel industry has undergone a drastic reduction in the steel production by around 40%. Under such situation, previously exported volumes have been diverted into domestic markets. For the export, the Czech steel industry had to make its efforts in enhancing the quality of products and in improving the technologies in accordance with ISO standards (ISO 9000 and also ISO 14000). Among the various new quality demands in the export market, the radioactive contamination of steel products has received a very high attention. The Czech Iron and Steel Federation has organized a working team specialized in solving the problems arising from radioactive contaminated metallurgical scrap and steel products. The working team is made up of specialists from steel producers and scrap handling firms of the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic, of experts from the State Office for Nuclear Safety, the Ministry of Industry and Trade and the Metrological Institute. Members of the Inspectorate for Ionizing Radiation and the General Directory for Customs are also included. This working team takes part in the elaboration of the legislative norms in that area. This paper deals with all the detailed functions of the working team. At present, all the major Czech steel producers have installed stationary radiation monitoring systems for detecting the possible radioactivity in all materials entering into factories. Under an agreement arranged between the producers of the Czech Iron and Steel Federation, the tolerable range of radionuclide contents in steel scrap and steel products has been set at the maximum of 100 Bq/kg in ( scrap and steel products. In this respect, the large firms collecting and treating scrap have also installed stationary radiation monitoring systems. In such monitoring systems, the detector will measure and check the values of radioactivity above 10 - 15% higher than the natural background level. In the case that

  14. Defect assessment in nuclear components: R and D related to industrial problems - synthesis of the research, training and teaching activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marie, St.

    2007-06-01

    Nuclear industry pays a particular attention to structures integrity problems: well-aware of the possible catastrophic consequence of a major accident, everything is carried out to minimise the risk of such a situation. From the design, and during all the operating life of the plant, a high level of safety is required and checks by the safety authorities, on the basis of reports made by the operator. These two entities ask for R and D activities to support the improvement of the knowledge of the phenomena already identified (as in the case of the vessel of the PWR) or to bring some element of understanding to situation not considered yet, up to the first incident (as in 1998 with the fatigue problems in the thermal mixing zone, at the origin of the Civaux arrest). Among the CEA teams concerned with these problems, the Laboratory of the Structures Integrity and of Normalisation aims to study the integrity problems in metallic nuclear structures leaning on exceptional experimental means: the RESEDA platform allows the realisation of large-scaled tests on analytical tests (representative of analysed phenomena) to reproduce the industrial situation, linked to various and accurate equipment for the measures and the analyses. Three industrial thematics represent to main part of my research activities at CEA in the fracture mechanics field: - the industrial case of the PWR vessel is related to brittle fracture of the ferritic steels, - the piping components, related to ductile tearing and fracture in the brittle-to-ductile domain, - the high temperature fracture mechanics for the components submitted to very complex loadings. (author)

  15. The welfare state and its distributive effects: part of the problem or part of the solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, V

    1987-01-01

    In the first part of this article, the author presents (1) a discussion of some of the major arguments against the welfare state put forward by neoliberal forces on both sides of the Atlantic, and (2) empirical information that shows the ideological rather than scientific nature of those arguments. The author also questions the widely held belief among European neoliberal (and even on occasion progressive) forces that the Reagan Administration policies have been (1) very successful in stimulating employment and economic growth, and (2) neoliberal rather than Keynesian. The empirical information presented in this article shows that these Reagan Administration policies have followed a military Keynesianism rather than social Keynesianism, which is responsible for a rather poor economic and social performance. In the second part, the author presents alternatives to the austerity policies advocated by the anti-welfare state forces, policies based on an expansion of the universalist character of the welfare state and its democratization, with active participation of the municipalities in the administration of the welfare state services and in the development of reflationary policies aimed at guiding production and stimulating consumption. The author also shows that the full development of the welfare state is a precondition for the needed restructuring of the economy, labor mobility, and technological innovation. The welfare state, rather than being the cause of the economic crisis, is part of the resolution of this crisis. The article ends with a discussion of the political conditions for the expansion of the welfare state and for the resolution of the economic crisis.

  16. The problem of slurries of industrial wastes water treatments; Problematica de los lodos procedentes del tratamiento de las aguas residuales de la actividad industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Frutos, J.L. [Tecnologias del Medio Ambiente, Universidad del Pais Vasco (Spain)

    1995-07-01

    The water treatment is not a problem today. The major problem are the slurries and fungi produced by the industrial waste water treatment. This article explains the different utilizations and the main applications of the water in the industrial process. The different treatments (thermal inertization sanitary landfills, etc) are presented.

  17. Success Skills for the Textile Industry: Problem Solving (SS3). Workforce 2000 Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enterprise State Junior Coll., AL.

    This curriculum package on problem solving is a product of the Workforce 2000 Partnership, which combined the resources of four educational partners and four industrial partners in Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina to provide education and training in communication, computation, and critical thinking to employees in the apparel, carpet, and…

  18. The problems of plant control on modern stage of development of the nuclear industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusev S. S.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available the article describes the successful development of nuclear industry at the present stage of its development, the problems of control of nuclear power plants, their classes and the choices of modern science in the field of design of fast neutron reactors as one of the promising directions of development of atomic energy.

  19. Inter-Industry Wage Differentials and the Gender Wage Gap: An Identification Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrace, William C.; Oaxaca, Ronald L.

    2001-01-01

    States that a method for estimating gender wage gaps by industry yields estimates that vary according to arbitrary choice of omitted reference groups. Suggests alternative methods not susceptible to this problem that can be applied to other contexts, such as racial, union/nonunion, and immigrant/native wage differences. (SK)

  20. Single string planning problem arising in liner shipping industries: A heuristic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelareh, Shahin; Neamatian Monemi, Rahimeh; Mahey, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    We propose an efficient heuristic approach for solving instances of the Single String Planning Problem (SSPP) arising in the liner shipping industry. In the SSPP a Liner Service Provider (LSP) only revises one of its many operational strings, and it is assumed that the other strings are unchangea...

  1. Problems of Modernization of the Industry of the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic (1960–1980

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman A. Zhansitov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the problems of the development of the industry of the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic in the course of ‘Kosygin’ reform of 1965 realization. The difficulties of the transformation of command-and-control system into more democratic forms of economic administration, which is one of the reasons of reformist initiatives ‘bulk’ are considered.

  2. FORECASTING OF PRODUCTION OUTPUT FOR LIGHT INDUSTRY ENTERPRISES WITH PURPOSE TO DETERMINE THEIR POWER RESOURCES REQUIREMENTS. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Romaniuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an interest for those specialists who are involved in solution of efficiency problems in light industry of Belarus as one of the significant industries that forms an economic situation in the Republic, its export potential and social climate. It is extremely relevant for the Belarusian enterprises to reduce production costs in order to preserve and strengthen positions in the light industry market. Operating capacities for production of natural, synthetic textile and knit-wear materials and their subsequent treatment are in many respects unjustifiably energy intensive. Nowadays the only acceptable solution of the problem for reduction of production costs is to decrease its energy component. Such approach requires transition to creation of modern heat and power supply systems at heat technology enterprises.The most important sub-system of the enterprises is own combined production of energy flows of secondary electrical and heat energy, freeze. There is a complex of problems that arise during designing process of tri-generation unit. One of the most important problems presupposes determination of a base load demand and capacity of every energy flow generated by an energy source. The solution is directly related to production output, which in its turn is determined by the requirements of sales markets. Due to various reasons the markets have their own specificity for the enterprises under consideration. It is proposed to use statistical methods for searching requirements. In this connection it is necessary to take into account industry development rate (pre-determined by State Programs, Plans, Governmental solutions, including directive instructions, production volumes of competitive goods and actual goods situation on the sales market.The paper presents the first part of the executed complex investigations which are directed on the development of scientifically-substantiated proposals for higher energy efficiency of the

  3. Teacher Resource Book for Population Pressure in Indonesia, Problems of Industrialization in Eurasia, Power Blocs in Eurasia. Man on the Earth Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Angus

    This teacher's resource book is a guide to three intermediate texts about Eurasia entitled Population Pressure in Indonesia, Problems of Industrialization in Eurasia, and Power Blocs in Eurasia. The texts are part of the series, Man on the Earth, which probes broad-based issues confronting mankind. The resource book distinguishes 18 major concepts…

  4. The motion planning problem and exponential stabilization of a heavy chain. Part II

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Grabowski

    2008-01-01

    This is the second part of paper [P. Grabowski, The motion planning problem and exponential stabilization of a heavy chain. Part I, to appear in International Journal of Control], where a model of a heavy chain system with a punctual load (tip mass) in the form of a system of partial differential equations was interpreted as an abstract semigroup system and then analysed on a Hilbert state space. In particular, in [P. Grabowski, The motion planning problem and exponential stabilization of a h...

  5. Advances in industrial biopharmaceutical batch process monitoring: Machine-learning methods for small data problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulsyan, Aditya; Garvin, Christopher; Ündey, Cenk

    2018-04-06

    Biopharmaceutical manufacturing comprises of multiple distinct processing steps that require effective and efficient monitoring of many variables simultaneously in real-time. The state-of-the-art real-time multivariate statistical batch process monitoring (BPM) platforms have been in use in recent years to ensure comprehensive monitoring is in place as a complementary tool for continued process verification to detect weak signals. This article addresses a longstanding, industry-wide problem in BPM, referred to as the "Low-N" problem, wherein a product has a limited production history. The current best industrial practice to address the Low-N problem is to switch from a multivariate to a univariate BPM, until sufficient product history is available to build and deploy a multivariate BPM platform. Every batch run without a robust multivariate BPM platform poses risk of not detecting potential weak signals developing in the process that might have an impact on process and product performance. In this article, we propose an approach to solve the Low-N problem by generating an arbitrarily large number of in silico batches through a combination of hardware exploitation and machine-learning methods. To the best of authors' knowledge, this is the first article to provide a solution to the Low-N problem in biopharmaceutical manufacturing using machine-learning methods. Several industrial case studies from bulk drug substance manufacturing are presented to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed approach for BPM under various Low-N scenarios. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Industrial dual arm robot manipulator for precise assembly of mechanical parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chanhun; Kim, Doohyung; Park, Kyoungtaik; Choi, Youngjin

    2007-12-01

    A new structure of dual arm robot manipulator which consists of two industrial 6-DOF arms and one 2-DOF Torso is introduced. Each industrial 6-DOF arm is able to be used as a stand-alone industrial 6-DOF robot manipulator and as a part of dual arm manipulator at the same time. These structures help the robot maker which is willing to succeed in the emerging dual arm robot market in order to have high competition for the current industrial robot market at same time. Self-collision detection algorithm for multi-arm robot and kinematics algorithms for the developed dual arm robot manipulator which are implemented in our controller are introduced.

  7. Minimizers of a Class of Constrained Vectorial Variational Problems: Part I

    KAUST Repository

    Hajaiej, Hichem

    2014-04-18

    In this paper, we prove the existence of minimizers of a class of multiconstrained variational problems. We consider systems involving a nonlinearity that does not satisfy compactness, monotonicity, neither symmetry properties. Our approach hinges on the concentration-compactness approach. In the second part, we will treat orthogonal constrained problems for another class of integrands using density matrices method. © 2014 Springer Basel.

  8. Risk factors in equine transport-related health problems: A survey of the Australian equine industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padalino, B; Raidal, S L; Hall, E; Knight, P; Celi, P; Jeffcott, L; Muscatello, G

    2017-07-01

    Transportation can affect equine health and is a potential source of economic loss to the industry. To identify journey (duration, vehicle, commercial or noncommercial) and horse (sex, age, breed, use, amateur or professional status) characteristics associated with the development of transport-related health problems in horses. Cross-sectional online survey. An online survey was conducted targeting amateur and professional participants in the Australian equine industry; eligible respondents were required to organise horse movements at least monthly. Respondents provided details of the last case of a transport-related health problem that had affected their horse(s). Associations between type of health problem, journey and horse characteristics were examined with multivariable multinomial regression analysis. Based on 214 responses, health problems were classified as injuries, muscular problems, heat stroke, gastrointestinal and respiratory problems, and death or euthanasia. Respiratory problems were reported most frequently (33.7%), followed by gastrointestinal problems (23.8%) and traumatic injuries (16.3%). The type of health problem was associated with journey duration (Pproblems, and death or euthanasia) were more likely to occur on long journeys. Using Standardbreds as the reference group, Thoroughbreds, Arabians and Warmbloods were more likely to experience a severe illness than an injury. Self-selected participation in the study and the self-reported nature of transport-related problems. Horses undertaking journeys of longer than 24 h are at greater risk for the development of severe disease or death. Further studies on long-haul transportation effects are required to safeguard the welfare of horses moved over long distances. © 2016 EVJ Ltd.

  9. Training of Engineering Personnel for the Innovative Coal Industry: Problems and Ways of Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaruba, Natalya; Fraltsova, Tamara; Snegireva, Tatyana

    2017-11-01

    The article is written based on some results of the long-term scientific research of the problem related to the urgent need to find the ways of training personnel for the innovative coal industry in the higher education system. This is due to the fundamental changes in the Russian social and economic conditions: the change in the social system and the owner of the coal industry, the emergence of new technologies in the field of coal mining and processing, and in the management of these processes. At the same time, the system of training specialists for the coal industry in the higher education institutions has largely remained unchanged: technologies and principles of training, scientific approaches and concepts take little account of the changed situation, traditional views of specialists work-ing in the university continue to dominate innovative ideas. Many innovations, especially related to technology and the principles of education, struggle to make their way into the higher education system. The article substantiates the urgency of the problem of training personnel for the innovative coal industry in the higher education system, as well as the importance of scientific analysis of the problem in order to find the ways to solve it.

  10. Optimal recombination in genetic algorithms for combinatorial optimization problems: Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eremeev Anton V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper surveys results on complexity of the optimal recombination problem (ORP, which consists in finding the best possible offspring as a result of a recombination operator in a genetic algorithm, given two parent solutions. We consider efficient reductions of the ORPs, allowing to establish polynomial solvability or NP-hardness of the ORPs, as well as direct proofs of hardness results. Part I presents the basic principles of optimal recombination with a survey of results on Boolean Linear Programming Problems. Part II (to appear in a subsequent issue is devoted to the ORPs for problems which are naturally formulated in terms of search for an optimal permutation.

  11. Adaptation Problems of the Post Industrial Heritage on the Example of Selected Objects of Bydgoszcz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pszczółkowski, Michał

    2016-09-01

    Post-industrial architecture was until recently regarded as devoid of value and importance due to obsolescence, but this awareness has been a clear change in recent years. The old factories become full-fledged cultural heritage, as evidenced by the inclusion of buildings and complexes of this type in the register of monuments and protected by their conservator. More and more often, therefore, one undertakes revitalization of degraded brownfield sites, and within these treatments - conversion works. Specific issues and problems related to the adaptation of industrial facilities are discussed in the article on the basis of selected examples, completed in recent years in Bydgoszcz.

  12. Global optimization of truss topology with discrete bar areas—Part I: Theory of relaxed problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achtziger, Wolfgang; Stolpe, Mathias

    2008-01-01

    the case of discrete areas. This problem is of major practical relevance if the truss must be built from pre-produced bars with given areas. As a special case, we consider the design problem for a single bar area, i.e., a 0/1-problem. In contrast to heuristic methods considered in other approaches, Part I....... The main issue of the paper and of the approach lies in the fact that the relaxed nonlinear optimization problem can be formulated as a quadratic program (QP). Here the paper generalizes and extends the available theory from the literature. Although the Hessian of this QP is indefinite, it is possible...

  13. Industrial Application of Topology Optimization for Combined Conductive and Convective Heat Transfer Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Mingdong; Alexandersen, Joe; Sigmund, Ole

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an industrial application of topology optimization for combined conductive and convective heat transfer problems. The solution is based on a synergy of computer aided design and engineering software tools from Dassault Systemes. The considered physical problem of steady......-state heat transfer under convection is simulated using SIMULIA-Abaqus. A corresponding topology optimization feature is provided by SIMULIA-Tosca. By following a standard workflow of design optimization, the proposed solution is able to accommodate practical design scenarios and results in efficient...

  14. Fitting Irregular Shape Figures into Irregular Shape Areas for the Nesting Problem in the Leather Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guevara-Palma Luis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The nesting problem of irregular shapes within irregular areas has been studied from several approaches due to their application in different industries. The particular case of cutting leather involves several restrictions that add complexity to this problem, it is necessary to generate products that comply with the quality required by customers This paper presents a methodology for the accommodation of irregular shapes in an irregular area (leather considering the constraints set by the footwear industry, and the results of this methodology when applied by a computer system. The scope of the system is to develop a working prototype that operates under the guidelines of a commercial production line of a sponsor company. Preliminary results got a reduction of 70% of processing time and improvement of 5% to 7% of the area usage when compared with manual accommodation.

  15. Hazard visibility and occupational health problem solving the case of the uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, J.

    1980-01-01

    Recent evidence from European research challenges the adequacy of current US exposure guidelines for underground mine radiation. This study traces the history of government regulatory agency and industry response to the hazard of excessive mine radiation in the uranium industry in Colorado some 30 years ago. Problem-solving activity by government agencies and companies is shown to coincide with how visible the health hazard to uranium miners becomes. Hazard visibility and key problem-solving variables are defined and measured. The article also discusses a number of social factors that affect societal response to evidence of an occupational health hazard. Those factors include the elusiveness of the disease and its symptoms, the social class of the victim, the level of medical and scientific interest in its cause and cure, and the economic costs of the disease

  16. Opinions of UK rescue shelter and rehoming center workers on the problems facing their industry

    OpenAIRE

    Stavisky, Jenny; Brennan, Marnie L.; Downes, Martin J.; Dean, Rachel S.

    2017-01-01

    Animal shelters exist worldwide to care for and rehome unwanted or straying pets. Previous studies have examined why owners breed unwanted animals, or relinquish their pets to shelters. However, the views of shelter workers, who receive and care for these animals, have previously been largely unexplored. The aim of this study was to investigate the perceptions of animal shelter workers on the problems facing their industry. A sampling frame was constructed, consisting of every identified shel...

  17. Antitrust Enforcement in the Electricity and Gas Industries: Problems and Solutions for the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leveque, Francois

    2006-01-01

    Antitrust enforcement in the electricity and gas industries raises specific problems that call for specific solutions. Among the issues: How can the anticompetitive effects of mergers be assessed in a changing regulatory environment? Should long-term agreements in energy purchasing be prohibited? What are the benefits of preventive action such as competition advocacy and market surveillance committees? Should Article 82 (a) of the EC Treaty be used to curb excessive pricing?. (author)

  18. Present status and problems of remote systems technology in nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-02-01

    This reports the activities of Special Committee on Remote Systems Technology, Atomic Energy Society of Japan, during the period from Oct. 1984 to Sep. 1988. The Committee studied and reviewed the present status and problems of remote operation and maintenance in various fields of nuclear industry. Reported items are; reactor operation, reprocessing, nuclear fusion and decommissioning. It also reviews robotics and remote systems tehcnology applied to space and marine development.

  19. Present status and problems of remote systems technology in nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This reports the activities of Special Committee on Remote Systems Technology, Atomic Energy Society of Japan, during the period from Oct. 1984 to Sep. 1988. The Committee studied and reviewed the present status and problems of remote operation and maintenance in various fields of nuclear industry. Reported items are; reactor operation, reprocessing, nuclear fusion and decommissioning. It also reviews robotics and remote systems tehcnology applied to space and marine development. (author)

  20. EXPORT-MARKETING PROBLEMS OF SMES: THE CASE OF LUDHIANA APPARELS AND TEXTILE INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Vohra, Karan

    2008-01-01

    Although, the benefits derived from exporting in an increasingly globalizes marketplace are enormous, but for many small-sized manufacturing firms, the internationalization path is beset by numerous challenges. This research seeks to investigate the perceived level of importance of export-marketing problems and its importance depending on the exporting experience of the firm. In light of certain gaps involving the dearth of major research in the context of Indian Apparel and Textile Industry,...

  1. Improving extreme-scale problem solving: assessing electronic brainstorming effectiveness in an industrial setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornburg, Courtney C; Stevens, Susan M; Hendrickson, Stacey M L; Davidson, George S

    2009-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare the effectiveness of individual versus group electronic brainstorming to address difficult, real-world challenges. Although industrial reliance on electronic communications has become ubiquitous, empirical and theoretical understanding of the bounds of its effectiveness have been limited. Previous research using short-term laboratory experiments have engaged small groups of students in answering questions irrelevant to an industrial setting. The present experiment extends current findings beyond the laboratory to larger groups of real-world employees addressing organization-relevant challenges during the course of 4 days. Employees and contractors at a national laboratory participated, either in a group setting or individually, in an electronic brainstorm to pose solutions to a real-world problem. The data demonstrate that (for this design) individuals perform at least as well as groups in producing quantity of electronic ideas, regardless of brainstorming duration. However, when judged with respect to quality along three dimensions (originality, feasibility, and effectiveness), the individuals significantly (p industrial reliance on electronic problem-solving groups should be tempered, and large nominal groups may be more appropriate corporate problem-solving vehicles.

  2. High efficient ammonia heat pump system for industrial process water using the ISEC concept. Part 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Martin F.; Madsen, Claus; Olsen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    The Isolated System Energy Charging (ISEC) concept allows for a high efficiency of a heat pump system for hot water production. The ISEC concept consists of two water storage tanks, one charged and one discharged. The charged tank is used for the industrial process, while the discharged tank...... is charging. The charging of the tank is done by recirculating water through the condenser and thereby gradually heating the water. The modelling of the system is described in Part I [1]. In this part, Part II, an experimental test setup of the tank system is reported, the results are presented and further...... modelling of the heat pump and tank system is performed (in continuation of Part I). The modelling is extended to include the system performance with different natural refrigerants and the influence of different types of compressors....

  3. Globalization of Japanese steel industry. Part 1. Materials; Tekkogyo no kokusaika. 1. Zairyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aramaki, T. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the globalization of the Japanese steel industry from the viewpoint of maintenance of international competitive potential. In the steel industry, remarkable technology innovation is currently occurring in the production process. The direct iron ore smelting process and strip caster process are being developed. These innovative technologies are characterized by processes having simplified facilities and lower fixed costs. A large problem of Japanese steel industry is the maintenance of competitive potential in the international price. For the purpose of the cost reduction, profitability improvement efforts have been made, as for the cut of research and development cost, consolidation of standards, intensive production, specialization among undertakings, cooperations, etc. Additionally, accompanied with the overseas production of steel consumers, the overseas steel production has been conducted. The overseas production is currently focused on Asia. Significance of the Japanese steel industry in Asia is provided from the viewpoint of accumulating technological know-how, establishment of new technologies, acquisition of operation technologies, promotion of talented persons for industries, etc. 12 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Low vision rehabilitation and ocular problems among industrial workers in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, R; Knight, V F; Aziz Mohammed, M A

    2014-01-01

    Work-related ocular injuries and illnesses were among the major causes of job absenteeism. This study was conducted to determine if low vision rehabilitation was provided following work-related ocular problems among industrial workers in a developing country. This was a retrospective analysis of case records. Randomly selected records of all employees from the Social Security Organization (SOCSO) Medical Board for 2004 who suffered from ocular injuries and illnesses were selected. Rates of ocular injuries and illnesses according to age, gender, races, types of injuries, types of industries, visual rehabilitation and types of medical interventions were tabulated and analysed. A total of 26 cases of ocular injuries and illnesses were identified where 46.2% suffered from ocular injuries. The remaining 53.8% had ocular and/or systemic diseases. The 40-49-yearold age group suffered the greatest number of injuries (26.92%). Ocular perforating injuries (66.67%) and ocular contusions (33.33%) were the most common types of ocular injury among industrial workers in Kuala Lumpur. Most injuries occurred among workers in the service industry (50%). Almost 60% of these injured workers did not receive any low vision rehabilitation after medical intervention while 25% were given contact lenses or spectacles as rehabilitation and remaining had surgery. The low vision rehabilitation is still unexplored in the management of ocular injuries and illnesses among industrial workers. Introducing low vision rehabilitation can benefit both workers and employers as it provides care beyond spectacles or contact lens prescriptions.

  5. Industrial waste recycling strategies optimization problem: mixed integer programming model and heuristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jiafu; Liu, Yang; Fung, Richard; Luo, Xinggang

    2008-12-01

    Manufacturers have a legal accountability to deal with industrial waste generated from their production processes in order to avoid pollution. Along with advances in waste recovery techniques, manufacturers may adopt various recycling strategies in dealing with industrial waste. With reuse strategies and technologies, byproducts or wastes will be returned to production processes in the iron and steel industry, and some waste can be recycled back to base material for reuse in other industries. This article focuses on a recovery strategies optimization problem for a typical class of industrial waste recycling process in order to maximize profit. There are multiple strategies for waste recycling available to generate multiple byproducts; these byproducts are then further transformed into several types of chemical products via different production patterns. A mixed integer programming model is developed to determine which recycling strategy and which production pattern should be selected with what quantity of chemical products corresponding to this strategy and pattern in order to yield maximum marginal profits. The sales profits of chemical products and the set-up costs of these strategies, patterns and operation costs of production are considered. A simulated annealing (SA) based heuristic algorithm is developed to solve the problem. Finally, an experiment is designed to verify the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method. By comparing a single strategy to multiple strategies in an example, it is shown that the total sales profit of chemical products can be increased by around 25% through the simultaneous use of multiple strategies. This illustrates the superiority of combinatorial multiple strategies. Furthermore, the effects of the model parameters on profit are discussed to help manufacturers organize their waste recycling network.

  6. Investigation of elastic stability of the lower part of drill pipe string (dynamic problems)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griguletskii, V.G.

    1981-12-01

    Based on V.V. Bolotin's results, the problem of dynamic stability of the lower part of a string of drill pipes in a vertical well is formulated (and solved in the first approximation). An investigation of the phenomena during the interaction between lengthwise and transverse oscillations of the bottom part of the drill pipe string is carried out. Excitation conditions are determined and the mechanism of the onset of parametric oscillations is explained. 20 refs.

  7. An approximate approach for the joint problem of level of repair analysis and spare parts stocking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basten, R.J.I.; Heijden, van der M.C.; Schutten, J.M.J.

    2011-01-01

    For the spare parts stocking problem, generally metric type methods are used in the context of capital goods. Implicitly, a decision is assumed on which components to discard and which to repair upon failure, and where to perform repairs. In the military world, this decision is taken explicitly

  8. An approximate approach for the joint problem of level of repair analysis and spare parts stocking.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basten, Robertus Johannes Ida; van der Heijden, Matthijs C.; Schutten, Johannes M.J.

    2011-01-01

    For the spare parts stocking problem, generally metric type methods are used in the context of capital goods. Implicitly, a decision is assumed on which components to discard and which to repair upon failure, and where to perform repairs. In the military world, this decision is taken explicitly

  9. A Mathematical Model for the Industrial Hazardous Waste Location-Routing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Boyer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Technology progress is a cause of industrial hazardous wastes increasing in the whole world . Management of hazardous waste is a significant issue due to the imposed risk on environment and human life. This risk can be a result of location of undesirable facilities and also routing hazardous waste. In this paper a biobjective mixed integer programing model for location-routing industrial hazardous waste with two objectives is developed. First objective is total cost minimization including transportation cost, operation cost, initial investment cost, and cost saving from selling recycled waste. Second objective is minimization of transportation risk. Risk of population exposure within bandwidth along route is used to measure transportation risk. This model can help decision makers to locate treatment, recycling, and disposal centers simultaneously and also to route waste between these facilities considering risk and cost criteria. The results of the solved problem prove conflict between two objectives. Hence, it is possible to decrease the cost value by marginally increasing the transportation risk value and vice versa. A weighted sum method is utilized to combine two objectives function into one objective function. To solve the problem GAMS software with CPLEX solver is used. The problem is applied in Markazi province in Iran.

  10. Global environmental problems in the electric industry. Denki jigyo ni okeru chikyu kankyo mondai ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugi, T [Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. (Japan)

    1992-09-30

    Since the electric industry has grappled with a prevention of the environmental pollution such as the air pollution and water contamination as a forerunner in case of construction and operation of the power facilities, and at the same time has conducted actively the environmental conservation countermeasures, it has consequently achieved the environmental conservation level as a top level in the world. On the other hand, as for the emission quantity of CO2 relating to the earth warming, the power field occupies about one fourth of total Japan. Therefore the electric industry should aim at the electric energy supply considering the influence on the environment, such as the power supply structure to restrain CO2 emission as less as possible, higher efficiency of equipments, higher efficiency of energy utilization by using the unused energy and so forth. In addition to it, the consumer side should aim at the social structure with a recycle type such as saving resources and saving energy, and aim at changeover of life style. It is hoped to conduct the overall measure including the items mentioned above. In this report, the recent trend of earth enviromental problems, grappling with the environmental problems as a forerunner such as the prevention measure of air pollution in the thermal power plant, etc., and the correspondence to the earth warming problems are outlined. 11 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Proceedings of EPRI/DOE workshop on nuclear industry valve problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprung, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    Representatives from 29 nuclear industry organizations (11 valve manufacturers, 4 nuclear steam supply system vendors, 5 utilities, 3 national laboratories, 2 architect/engineering firms, the Department of Energy (DOE), EPRI, and 2 others) attended the workshop. Working sessions on key valves and on valve stem and seat leakage developed the following recommendations: (1) establish a small permanent expert staff to collect, analyze, and disseminate information about nuclear valve problems; (2) perform generic key valve programs for pressurized water reactors and for boiling water reactors, and several plant specific key valve programs, the latter to demonstrate the cost-effectiveness of such studies; (3) confirm the identity of, define, and initiate needed longer term research and development programs dealing with seat and stem leakage; and (4) establish an industry working group to review and advise on these efforts. Separate abstracts were prepared for three papers which are included in the appendix

  12. ND/FE magnets: Industrial and economical problems in the short and long term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falconnet, P.

    1985-01-01

    The Rare Earths (RE) world is a small and closed world that needs better communication with the outside and specially with new potential users. The availability of neodymium today is very linked to the existing applications like glass and capacitors. Though no short or long term scarcity can be foreseen, the Rare Earths Industry has to produce increasing amounts of various neodymium compounds and may have to invest in some finishing capacity before knowing which Nd compounds will be used by metal or magnet makers in some years. Despite the high energy product of Nd/Fe magnets some properties like Curie temperature need to be improved to find a large use. Similarly the production cost of these magnets is today rather high, and it will take some years to take advantage of large production scale. The industrial and economical problems of Nd/Fe magnets are discussed in this paper

  13. The Russian oil industry and foreign investments: legal aspects and the problem of business risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konoplyanik, A.A.

    1994-01-01

    Despite the considerable potential oil resources in Russia, oil production is currently falling to the extent where, if present trends continue, imports will be necessary in the next few years in order to meet domestic demand. Foreign investment could make an effective contribution to stabilizing the Russian oil industry. The large resource base, favourable production costs, highly skilled workers and the conversion potential of the former defence industries to oil and gas equipment, are considerable attractions for foreign investors. However, for the time being there are many obstacles and uncertainties for oil and gas investment. Among these are political instability, high taxation, export tariffs, the legal environment, bureaucratic difficulties over new project negotiation, and problems related to oil and gas transportation. Current legislative activities which may lead to a better investment environment are described. (UK)

  14. A capacitated vehicle routing problem with order available time in e-commerce industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ling; Li, Kunpeng; Liu, Zhixue

    2017-03-01

    In this article, a variant of the well-known capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP) called the capacitated vehicle routing problem with order available time (CVRPOAT) is considered, which is observed in the operations of the current e-commerce industry. In this problem, the orders are not available for delivery at the beginning of the planning period. CVRPOAT takes all the assumptions of CVRP, except the order available time, which is determined by the precedent order picking and packing stage in the warehouse of the online grocer. The objective is to minimize the sum of vehicle completion times. An efficient tabu search algorithm is presented to tackle the problem. Moreover, a Lagrangian relaxation algorithm is developed to obtain the lower bounds of reasonably sized problems. Based on the test instances derived from benchmark data, the proposed tabu search algorithm is compared with a published related genetic algorithm, as well as the derived lower bounds. Also, the tabu search algorithm is compared with the current operation strategy of the online grocer. Computational results indicate that the gap between the lower bounds and the results of the tabu search algorithm is small and the tabu search algorithm is superior to the genetic algorithm. Moreover, the CVRPOAT formulation together with the tabu search algorithm performs much better than the current operation strategy of the online grocer.

  15. An off-line dual maximum resource bin packing model for solving the maintenance problem in the aviation industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Cristian Gruia

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the aviation industry, propeller motor engines have a lifecycle of several thousand hours of flight and the maintenance is an important part of their lifecycle. The present article considers a multi-resource, priority-based case scheduling problem, which is applied in a Romanian manufacturing company, that repairs and maintains helicopter and airplane engines at a certain quality level imposed by the aviation standards. Given a reduced budget constraint, the management’s goal is to maximize the utilization of their resources (financial, material, space, workers, by maintaining a prior known priority rule. An Off-Line Dual Maximum Resource Bin Packing model, based on a Mixed Integer Programming model is thus presented. The obtained results show an increase with approx. 25% of the Just in Time shipping of the engines to the customers and approx. 12,5% increase in the utilization of the working area.

  16. AN OFF-LINE DUAL MAXIMUM RESOURCE BIN PACKING MODEL FOR SOLVING THE MAINTENANCE PROBLEM IN THE AVIATION INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGE CRISTIAN GRUIA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the aviation industry, propeller motor engines have a lifecycle of several thousand hours of flight and the maintenance is an important part of their lifecycle. The present article considers a multi-resource, priority-based case scheduling problem, which is applied in a Romanian manufacturing company, that repairs and maintains helicopter and airplane engines at a certain quality level imposed by the aviation standards. Given a reduced budget constraint, the management’s goal is to maximize the utilization of their resources (financial, material, space, workers, by maintaining a prior known priority rule. An Off-Line Dual Maximum Resource Bin Packing model, based on a Mixed Integer Programing model is thus presented. The obtained results show an increase with approx. 25% of the Just in Time shipping of the engines to the customers and approx. 12,5% increase in the utilization of the working area.

  17. Technology Infusion Within Part-Time Professional Development Programmes for Academic Staff and Industry Practitioners

    OpenAIRE

    McAvinia, Dr. Claire; McDonnell, Dr. Claire; Donnelly, Dr. Roisin

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the experiences of programme co-ordinators and includes findings from a two year (2013-15) evaluation pilot study on a key communication technology – audio feedback – conducted across three accredited part-time programmes for a blend of academic staff (faculty) in higher education and eLearning industry practitioners. Key to our decision making with regards to which tools to infuse in our programmes is our aim to help the educators who participate on our programmes to ma...

  18. Steel heat treating: mathematical modelling and numerical simulation of a problem arising in the automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Manuel Diaz Moreno

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe a mathematical model for the industrial heating and cooling processes of a steel workpiece representing the steering rack of an automobile. The goal of steel heat treating is to provide a hardened surface on critical parts of the workpiece while keeping the rest soft and ductile in order to reduce fatigue. The high hardness is due to the phase transformation of steel accompanying the rapid cooling. This work takes into account both heating-cooling stage and viscoplastic model. Once the general mathematical formulation is derived, we can perform some numerical simulations.

  19. Part-Time Employment and Problem Behaviors: Evidence From Adolescents in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moosung; Oi-Yeung Lam, Beatrice; Ju, Eunsu; Dean, Jenny

    2017-03-01

    This study explores the impact of adolescent part-time work experience on problem behaviors in the South Korean context. To achieve this, propensity score matching (PSM) analyses were employed based on data from the Korean Education Employment Panel (KEEP). Results indicate that adolescents' part-time employment during their secondary school years had significantly undesirable effects on drinking and smoking, even after preexisting differences between the two groups (i.e., those adolescents who participated in part-time work and those who did not) were controlled by PSM. However, an insignificant difference was detected in the likelihood of running away from home. Implications of the results are discussed in terms of changes in the meanings of adolescence and of participating in part-time work in South Korea. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2016 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  20. CHANNEL CATFISH INDUSTRY IN THE USA AND THE OFF-FLAVOR PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Fijan

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The history, the production technology in channel catfish pond farming industry as well as the statistical data on production, processing and product value during past 15 years are presented. The trend of increasing consumption by the population and the presently low prices of grain and soybeans are conductive to further expansion of production. The steady growth of the industry is stimulated by several factors: innovative efforts by farmers, research at the universities and at government institutions some of which have numerous experimental ponds, cooperative extension service for farmers, modern marketing, activities of catfish farming associations, high quality of products from processing plants and vertical integration. The off-flavor in catfish caused by algal metabolites is a major problem in the industry. Genera of algae producing such metabolites, their accumulation in other fish and occurrence in drinking water reservoirs as well as the current emphasis on preventing the entrance of off-flavor contaminated catfish onto the market were reviewed. The main undesirable algal metyabolites are volatile alcohols geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB. The need for less expensive and quick methods of identifying major off-flavor compounds was pointed out. Research at the University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff, USA, on control of off-flavor algae in experimental ponds by filter-feeding silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Val. and tilapias confined in cages showed this approach to be rather promising.

  1. Arbitrary order 2D virtual elements for polygonal meshes: part II, inelastic problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artioli, E.; Beirão da Veiga, L.; Lovadina, C.; Sacco, E.

    2017-10-01

    The present paper is the second part of a twofold work, whose first part is reported in Artioli et al. (Comput Mech, 2017. doi: 10.1007/s00466-017-1404-5), concerning a newly developed Virtual element method (VEM) for 2D continuum problems. The first part of the work proposed a study for linear elastic problem. The aim of this part is to explore the features of the VEM formulation when material nonlinearity is considered, showing that the accuracy and easiness of implementation discovered in the analysis inherent to the first part of the work are still retained. Three different nonlinear constitutive laws are considered in the VEM formulation. In particular, the generalized viscoelastic model, the classical Mises plasticity with isotropic/kinematic hardening and a shape memory alloy constitutive law are implemented. The versatility with respect to all the considered nonlinear material constitutive laws is demonstrated through several numerical examples, also remarking that the proposed 2D VEM formulation can be straightforwardly implemented as in a standard nonlinear structural finite element method framework.

  2. A non-self-adjoint quadratic eigenvalue problem describing a fluid-solid interaction Part II : analysis of convergence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bourne, D.P.; Elman, H.; Osborn, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is the second part of a two-part paper treating a non-self-adjoint quadratic eigenvalue problem for the linear stability of solutions to the Taylor-Couette problem for flow of a viscous liquid in a deformable cylinder, with the cylinder modelled as a membrane. The first part formulated

  3. A Genetic Algorithm-based Heuristic for Part-Feeding Mobile Robot Scheduling Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dang, Vinh Quang; Nielsen, Izabela Ewa; Bocewicz, Grzegorz

    2012-01-01

    This present study deals with the problem of sequencing feeding tasks of a single mobile robot with manipulation arm which is able to provide parts or components for feeders of machines in a manufacturing cell. The mobile robot has to be scheduled in order to keep machines within the cell producing...... products without any shortage of parts. A method based on the characteristics of feeders and inspired by the (s, Q) inventory system, is thus applied to define time windows for feeding tasks of the robot. The performance criterion is to minimize total traveling time of the robot in a given planning horizon...

  4. Modelling of an industrial environment, part 2.: External dose calculation with relevant countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eged, K.; Kis, Z.; Alvarez-Farizo, B.; Gil, J.; Voigt, G.

    2002-01-01

    The calculation of the collective dose and averted collective dose after applying countermeasures in an industrial environment has been divided in two parts. In the first part (Kis et al. 2002) separate Monte Carlo simulations of photon transport resulted in the air kermas per photon per unit area due to the industrial surfaces contaminated by 1 37C s at specific points using the so-called local approach. In the local approach the air kerma rates due to specific intervention elements at the evaluation locations in the whole environment are determined (Gutierrez et al. 2000). In this way the collective and averted collective dose due to the radiation from a particular intervention element (e.g. the roof of a building) can be obtained. It can, therefore, provide a ranking of the specific intervention elements based on their contribution to collective dose as well. The deposition pattern and the long-term behaviour of deposited radionuclides vary widely in natural circumstances; therefore the number of the photons emitted from the various surfaces per unit area and time can differ significantly. This means the results of the Monte Carlo simulations have to be weighted according to the number of emitted photons so that the actual radiation field can be set up. For this purpose, a dose calculation code has been developed in the framework of the TEMAS project (Gutierrez et al. 2000) which allows to calculate collective doses for different environments. This code has been applied in the present work

  5. Factors Affecting Green Supply Chain Operational Performance of the Thai Auto Parts Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korrakot Yaibuathet Tippayawong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, operational performance in the green supply chain management (SCM of the Thai auto parts industry was investigated. A green supply chain performance measurement (GSPM model was developed from the combination of various concepts including an SCM logistics scorecard, a supply chain operations reference model, a balance scorecard, and green supply chain management. The GSPM has been designed for use as a self-evaluation tool focusing on five decisive areas, or factors, and 28 sub-factors. A factor analysis was conducted using the survey results of the GSPM in order to identify significant factors that represent the green supply chain operation performance. Grouped as three major factors, namely green procurement, green transportation, and green manufacturing; reverse logistics and eco-design; and reuse and recycle of manufacturing, their significance and impact on the auto parts industry in Thailand were highlighted. Specifically, the factor of green procurement, green transportation, and green manufacturing, as major factor 1, in relation with the factor of reverse logistics and eco-design, as major factor 2, were found to have a strong positive relationship with the asset turnover ratio.

  6. INTEGRATION OF UKRAINIAN INDUSTRY SCIENTIFIC PERIODACLS INTO WORLD SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION SPACE: PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. O. Kolesnykova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Problem of representation lack of scientists’ publications, including transport scientists, in the international scientometric databases is the urgent one for Ukrainian science. To solve the problem one should study the structure and quality of the information flow of scientific periodicals of railway universities in Ukraine and to determine the integration algorithm of scientific publications of Ukrainian scientists into the world scientific information space. Methodology. Applying the methods of scientific analysis, synthesis, analogy, comparison and prediction the author has investigated the problem of scientific knowledge distribution using formal communications. The readiness of Ukrainian railway periodicals to registration procedure in the international scientometric systems was analyzed. The level of representation of articles and authors of Ukrainian railway universities in scientometric database Scopus was studied. Findings. Monitoring of the portals of railway industry universities of Ukraine and the sites of their scientific periodicals and analysis of obtained data prove insufficient readiness of most scientific publications for submission to scientometric database. The ways providing sufficient "visibility" of industry periodicals of Ukrainian universities in the global scientific information space were proposed. Originality. The structure and quality of documentary flow of scientific periodicals in railway transport universities of Ukraine and its reflection in scientometric DB Scopus were first investigated. The basic directions of university activities to integrate the results of transport scientists research into the global scientific digital environment were outlined. It was determined the leading role of university libraries in the integration processes of scientific documentary resources of universities into the global scientific and information communicative space. Practical value. Implementation of the proposed

  7. Whole effluent assessment of industrial wastewater for determination of BAT compliance. Part 2: metal surface treatment industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartiser, Stefan; Hafner, Christoph; Hercher, Christoph; Kronenberger-Schäfer, Kerstin; Paschke, Albrecht

    2010-06-01

    maximum conductivity of the samples was 43,700 microS cm(-1) and indicates that salts might contribute to the overall toxicity. Half of the wastewater samples proved to be biologically well treatable in the Zahn-Wellens test with COD elimination above 80%, whilst the others were insufficiently biodegraded (COD elimination 28-74%). After the pretreatment in the Zahn-Wellens test, wastewater samples from four (out of ten) companies were extremely ecotoxic especially to algae (maximum LID(A) = 16,384). Three wastewater samples were genotoxic in the umu test. Applying the rules for salt correction of test results as allowed in the German Wastewater Ordinance, only a small part of toxicity could be attributed to salts. Considering the PBS, wastewater from the metal surface treatment industry exhibited very low levels of PBS. In one factory, the origin of ecotoxicity has been attributed to the organosulphide dimethyldithiocarbamate (DMDTC) used as a water treatment chemical for metal precipitation. The assumption based on rough calculation of input of the organosulphide into the wastewater was confirmed in practice by testing its ecotoxicity at the corresponding dilution ratio after pretreatment in the Zahn-Wellens test. Whilst the COD elimination of DMDTC was only 32% in 7 days, the pretreated sample exhibited a high ecotoxicity to algae (LID(A) = 1,536) and luminescent bacteria (LID(lb) = 256). Comparative data from wastewater surveillance by authorities (data from 1993 to 2007) confirmed the range of ecotoxicity observed in the study. Whilst wastewater from the metal surface treatment industry usually did not exhibit ecotoxicity (median LID 1-2), the maximum LID values reported for the algae, daphnia and luminescent bacteria tests were very high (LID(A) up to 3,072, LID(D) up to 512 and LID(lb) up to 2,048). DMDTC was found to be one important source of ecotoxicity in galvanic wastewater. DMDTC is added in surplus, and according to the supplier, the amount in excess should

  8. Fifth Anniversary youth scientifically-practical conference Nuclear-industrial complex of Ural: problems and prospects. Theses of reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Theses of reports of the Fifth Anniversary youth scientifically-practical conference Nuclear-industrial complex of Ural: problems and prospects (21-23 April 2009, Ozersk) are presented. The book contains abstracts of papers of fourth thematic sections: SNF reprocessing: science and industry; Radioecology and radiobiology; Advanced science-intensive technologies and materials; Education and training for NFC plants

  9. Assessment of the occupational exposure at a fertiliser industry in the northern part of Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potiriadis, C.; Koukouliou, V.; Seferlis, S.; Kehagia, K.

    2011-01-01

    In the northern part of Greece, close to the city of Kavala, a phosphoric acid production industry has operated since 1965. The raw material used is the phosphate rock imported from the foreign countries. During industrial processes, naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) deposits exist in many facilities in the industry, causing increased levels of radiation exposure. Additionally, increased levels of NORM concentrations are also detected in the waste material of the production process, the phosphogypsum. According to the Greek Regulations for Radiation Protection (no. 216B, 5/3/2001), which is in accordance with the 96/29/EURATOM 31/5/1996, the action levels concerning the effective dose to workers at workplaces due to natural radiation sources are 1 mSv y -1 . Work activities where the corresponding doses exceed 6 mSv y -1 are under the control of the Greek Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC). The mean yearly radon concentration action level at workplaces is 400 Bq m -3 , while the corresponding concentration limit is 3000 Bq m -3 , respectively. GAEC, according to its constitutional law, is the responsible organisation to enforce and to implement the law by means of in situ surveys and laboratory measurements. The first inspection of the area was performed in 2002 and the first measures were proposed. Periodic inspections were performed every 2 y in order to extend the operation licensing of the industry. In this work a dose assessment of the workers based on in situ and laboratory measurements is presented. In order to assess the doses to the workers the external and the internal doses are estimated. (authors)

  10. Assessment of the occupational exposure at a fertiliser industry in the northern part of Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potiriadis, C; Koukouliou, V; Seferlis, S; Kehagia, K

    2011-03-01

    In the northern part of Greece, close to the city of Kavala, a phosphoric acid production industry has operated since 1965. The raw material used is the phosphate rock imported from the foreign countries. During industrial processes, naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) deposits exist in many facilities in the industry, causing increased levels of radiation exposure. Additionally, increased levels of NORM concentrations are also detected in the waste material of the production process, the phosphogypsum. According to the Greek Regulations for Radiation Protection (no. 216B, 5/3/2001), which is in accordance with the 96/29/EURATOM 31/5/1996, the action levels concerning the effective dose to workers at workplaces due to natural radiation sources are 1 mSv y(-1). Work activities where the corresponding doses exceed 6 mSv y(-1) are under the control of the Greek Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC). The mean yearly radon concentration action level at workplaces is 400 Bq m(-3), while the corresponding concentration limit is 3000 Bq m(-3), respectively. GAEC, according to its constitutional law, is the responsible organisation to enforce and to implement the law by means of in situ surveys and laboratory measurements. The first inspection of the area was performed in 2002 and the first measures were proposed. Periodic inspections were performed every 2 y in order to extend the operation licensing of the industry. In this work a dose assessment of the workers based on in situ and laboratory measurements is presented. In order to assess the doses to the workers the external and the internal doses are estimated.

  11. LABOUR PROTECTION AND INDUSTRIAL SAFETY IN UKRAINE: PROBLEMS OF TRANSITION PERIOD AND PERSPECTIVE WAYS OF DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. BOCHKOVSKY

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on comparative analysis of the industrial accident causes in Ukraine and EU countries this article establishes that the main accident reasons are organizational ones (50 to 70% of the total number of cases, however such indicators as the registered in Ukraine fatal cases frequency coefficient (per 1 thousand of employees and the fatal accidents-total accidents number ratio are greater than the similar indicators in Europe by about 2- and 100-fold, respectively. It is noted that the issues of improving the work safety in Ukraine towards the association with the European Union should be considered in the context of two main planes, which are associated with changes in the legislative and educational systems. Within this article, the authors analyse the main inter-sectoral and sectoral regulatory legal acts on labour protection, in particular in the field of providing for fire, explosion and electrical safety, and relevant documents relating to the creation and maintenance of a comfortable environment at work. Based on the conducted analysis, the problems of adapting the national legislation in the field of labour protection and industrial safety to the legal framework of EU, the problems concerning the unsystematic character and selective approach to the implementation of appropriate changes, and potential hazards that can occur at all stages of the life cycle of technical systems in the event of their introduction are determined. The main differences in the systematic approach to the professional training of students in higher educational institutions (HEI of Ukraine and EU countries (Poland, for example in the field of labour protection and industrial safety are singled out. It is noted that in the Republic of Poland numbering the population correlative with Ukraine the quantity of special educational institutions preparing specialists in the field of labour protection in relation to the total number of higher educational establishment is

  12. Climate change as a three-part ethical problem: a response to Jamieson and Gardiner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Ewan

    2014-12-01

    Dale Jamieson has claimed that conventional human-directed ethical concepts are an inadequate means for accurately understanding our duty to respond to climate change. Furthermore, he suggests that a responsibility to respect nature can instead provide the appropriate framework with which to understand such a duty. Stephen Gardiner has responded by claiming that climate change is a clear case of ethical responsibility, but the failure of institutions to respond to it creates a (not unprecedented) political problem. In assessing the debate between Gardiner and Jamieson, I develop an analysis which shows a three-part structure to the problem of climate change, in which the problem Gardiner identifies is only one of three sub-problems of climate change. This analysis highlights difficulties with Jamieson's argument that the duty of respect for nature is necessary for a full understanding of climate ethics, and suggests how a human-directed approach based on the three-part analysis can avoid Jamieson's charge of inadequacy.

  13. Remedies to the problem of child labor: the situation in the apparel industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, J

    1993-09-01

    When you realize how long the problem of child labor has been around, anyone who ventures into the terrain of remedies obviously needs a long memory and not a little optimism. What have we tried? What has worked? And what has not worked? To answer these questions, we must first look at how we have diagnosed the problem. Some say that the return of child labor is due to the present recession. Hard-pressed businesses are looking for cheap and cheaper labor. Sweatshops proliferate. When the recession recedes, so will child labor. If it were that simple, we could all congratulate ourselves on having conducted this enlightened symposium and go home without worrying much more about the problem. The magic hand of the market, in due course, will straighten it all out. Let me tell you something about the apparel industry in New York where new laws and strict enforcement make the only difference. Over 80% of OSHA inspections were triggered by the state's Apparel Task Force.

  14. Present situation, problems and solutions of China's biomass power generation industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jicheng; Wang, Sijia; Wei, Qiushuang; Yan, Suli

    2014-01-01

    With the reduction of global oil reserves, developing renewable energy has become an important issue for each country. Biomass power is an important kind of clean energy, as it has abundant resource and is environmental friendly. In the past few years, China biomass power industry has developed rapidly accompanied with some problems. This paper analyzes the current situation of China biomass power generation from several aspects such as power structure, resource distribution, investment strength, and policy environment, etc. We focus on the problems existed in practical operation and analyze the outstanding problems. At last, this paper offers several suggestions for future development on the relevant fields, such as cost, strategic planning and policy. - Highlights: • Review and analyze the internal and external environment of biomass power in China. • Summarize and classify policies of China biomass power according to time sequence. • Describe the distribution of biomass resources in China accurately on the map. • Use data to draw a picture for grasping current situation. • Provide valuable suggestions for practitioners to improve their business strategies

  15. Profiles of Major Suppliers to the Automotive Industry : Vol. 4. North American Automotive Parts and Components Suppliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    This study summarizes extensive information collected over a two-year period (October 1978 to October 1980) on suppliers of parts and components, materials, and machine tools to the automotive industry in the United States. The objective of the study...

  16. Digital image analysis applied to industrial nondestructive evaluation and automated parts assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janney, D.H.; Kruger, R.P.

    1979-01-01

    Many ideas of image enhancement and analysis are relevant to the needs of the nondestructive testing engineer. These ideas not only aid the engineer in the performance of his current responsibilities, they also open to him new areas of industrial development and automation which are logical extensions of classical testing problems. The paper begins with a tutorial on the fundamentals of computerized image enhancement as applied to nondestructive testing, then progresses through pattern recognition and automated inspection to automated, or robotic, assembly procedures. It is believed that such procedures are cost-effective in many instances, and are but the logical extension of those techniques now commonly used, but often limited to analysis of data from quality-assurance images. Many references are given in order to help the reader who wishes to pursue a given idea further

  17. Duke Power's William Lee says INPO's purpose is solving industry problems, not educating the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Former Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) head, William Lee thinks that nuclear critics could misuse institute reports on investigations of nuclear plant construction and operation. If so, that would outweigh any public relations benefits of using the reports to inform and educate the public. Lee thinks the best way to gain public confidence is for the industry to perform well. The four-year-old institute was originally formed to improve operations, but recent problems with unfinished plants led to a system of construction audits. By offering guidance to companies building nuclear plants, INPO is meeting competition from utilities such as Duke Power, which is now marketing its expertise in designing and building plants. Lee emphasizes the importance of asking the right questions that will lead to quality control

  18. Radioisotope techniques for problem solving in the offshore oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, J.S.; Hurst, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Radioisotope technology has been used for almost half a century by the oil and gas industry to solve problems and to help optimize process operations. The use of radioactive isotopes to investigate the effectiveness of well stimulation procedures and to measure the sweep-out patterns of oil and gas in secondary recovery process is well known. The applications of radioisotopes to study features of plant and process operation has been less widely reported though the economic benefits deriving from such applications are very great. Nevertheless, there has been continuous development in the range of application and in the design of equipment to facilitate the use of the technology at remote environments such as an oil or gas platform. Some indication of the current usage of radioisotope techniques may be obtained from examination of Table I, which lists projects carried out in the UK's North Sea fields by ICI Tracerco, which is the world's largest radioisotope applications service group

  19. A hybrid multiple attribute decision making method for solving problems of industrial environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Singh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The selection of appropriate alternative in the industrial environment is an important but, at the same time, a complex and difficult problem because of the availability of a wide range of alternatives and similarity among them. Therefore, there is a need for simple, systematic, and logical methods or mathematical tools to guide decision makers in considering a number of selection attributes and their interrelations. In this paper, a hybrid decision making method of graph theory and matrix approach (GTMA and analytical hierarchy process (AHP is proposed. Three examples are presented to illustrate the potential of the proposed GTMA-AHP method and the results are compared with the results obtained using other decision making methods.

  20. Russian law: the legal framework for foreign investment in the Russian petroleum industry - problems and progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barmin, A.; Doeh, D.

    1994-01-01

    Recent developments in Russian law relating to foreign investment in the petroleum industry are reviewed. The central piece of legislation regulating foreign investment is the Law on Foreign Investments of 1991. Its significance is that it is opened up to foreign investment that had been a closed society but it did not set out how and or what conditions investors' rights were to be acquired and exercised. The main problems that have had to be dealt with include: determining which government authorities (federal, republic, regional etc.) have the power to grant petroleum exploration and production rights; determining the methods by which these rights may be obtained and on what terms; determining export rights; establishing the basis for taxation; establishing the general framework for foreign investment in Russia. The extent to which these issues have been resolved is discussed and remaining areas of concern considered. (UK)

  1. Trends in the development of industrially assimilated renewable energy: the problem of resource restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizhegorodtsev, R. M.; Ratner, S. V.

    2016-03-01

    An analysis of the dynamics of the development of wind and solar energy and potential resource restrictions of the dissemination of these technologies of energy generation associated with intensive use of rare earth metals and some other mineral resources are presented. The technological prospects of various directions of decisions of the problem of resource restrictions, including escalating of volumes of extraction and production of necessary mineral components, creating substitutes of scarce materials and development of recycling are considered. The bottlenecks of each of the above-mentioned decisions were founded. Conclusions are drawn on the prospects of development of the Russian high-tech sectors of the economy in the context of the most probable decisions of the problem of resource restrictions of wind and solar energy. An increase in extraction and production of rare earth metals and some other materials, stimulation of domestic research and development (R&D) to create the permanent magnets of new types and new technologies of wind-powered generation, and reduction of the resource-demand and technology development of recycling the components of power equipment are the most prospective directions of progress. The innovations in these directions will be in demand on the European, Chinese, and North American markets in the near decades due to the end of the life cycle (approximately 30 years) of wind and solar energy projects started at the turn of the 20th-21st centuries (the beginning of exponential growth in plants). The private investors and relevant regional and federal government agencies can use the qualitative characteristics of the dynamics of industrially assimilated renewable energy to choose the most promising investment orientations in energy projects and selection of the most economically sound development methods of energy and related industries.

  2. Why finding costs are now a major problem [in the US petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaddis, D.; Brock, H.; Boynton, C.

    1993-01-01

    A major problem facing the US petroleum industry is the higher average finding costs that now exist within the US compared to the average finding costs outside the US. It has been argued that federal lands and offshore areas need to be open for drilling in order to reduce average finding costs in the US. Certainly, the development of a national energy policy must acknowledge the importance of finding costs. Financial analysts for some time have acknowledged the importance of finding costs in evaluating individual energy firms. Analysts expect mergers when it is cheaper for companies to purchase reserves than to find them. Just as industry-average finding costs are a key determinant of long-term market prices for oil and gas, relative finding costs are a key determinant of a company's stock market value. Division managers are now judged regularly by top management on the basis of relative finding costs. The heavy use of finding costs data is causing its own problems, however, because there is as yet no standard for calculating and reporting those costs. This article analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of conventional techniques for determining finding costs. Our goal is a finding costs measure that is a reliable indicator of future profitability. Conceptually, a finding cost figure is a measurement of how much it costs a company to find a barrel of oil or an mcf of gas. The figure is arrived at by dividing the figure for costs incurred during a specified period by the volume (barrels or mcfs) of reserve added during the same period. (author)

  3. Industrial Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing industrial waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. In addition part...... of the industrial waste may in periods, depending on market opportunities and prices, be traded as secondary rawmaterials. Production-specificwaste from primary production, for example steel slag, is not included in the current presentation. In some countries industries must be approved or licensed and as part...... of the system industry has to inform at the planning stage and afterwards in yearly reports on their waste arising and how the waste is managed. If available such information is very helpful in obtaining information about that specific industry. However, in many countries there is very little information...

  4. Is China only assembling parts and components?: the recent spurt in high tech industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo José Braga Nonnenberg

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to evaluate to which degree China is climbing up the technology ladder and increasing its domestic content in high tech industry. More specifically, we will assess whether China has increased its share in world trade of high tech goods and, at the same time, increased its domestic content, changing its role from a mere final assembler to a producer of more intense technology goods. We have built an indicator of domestic value added calculated as the difference between exports of final goods and imports of its parts and components. The main conclusion is that this measure has increased significantly since the early 1990ís, putting in evidence the profound changes that occurred in Chinaís high tech exports in the last two decades.

  5. Thermo-mechanical process modelling of industrially pultruded parts having UD and CFM layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baran, Ismet; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Akkerman, Remko

    2014-01-01

    Numerical process simulation of an industrially pultruded rectangular hollow profile is presented. The product contains the continuous filament mat (CFM) and the uni-directional (UD) roving layers made of glass/polyester. The distortion and stress evolutions together with the temperature and degree...... of fields are predicted by the simulation tool developed by the authors. The predicted deformation pattern at the end of the process is found to agree quite well with the one for the real pultruded part in a commercial pultrusion company. A parametric study is also performed based on the total volumetric...... shrinkage of the resin system during curing. The process induced residual stresses are calculated in the in-plane directions which have the potential to influence the internal stress levels during the service loading conditions....

  6. A problem of incentive compatibility in the North Sea petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashani, Hossein A.

    2006-01-01

    The principal-agent relationship between the governments of the UK and Norway, and the multinational oil companies active in the North Sea petroleum industry is, to some extent, different from a typical principal-agent interaction. For almost three decades, the major criterion for allowing a company to take part in the activity was its previous and planned contribution to the domestic economy by means of applying the highest possible domestic inputs. This study applies mathematical modeling to show that the authorities had the opportunity to offer an incentive scheme to persuade the oil companies to involve domestic suppliers at the governments' preferred level. Unlike a typical government regulatory framework, which aims to increase efficiency in terms of price and/or quality, the incentive compatible scheme discussed in this paper could, in certain circumstances, generate inefficiency in the daily operation of the oil and gas fields

  7. Efficient Parallel Sorting for Migrating Birds Optimization When Solving Machine-Part Cell Formation Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Soto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Machine-Part Cell Formation Problem (MPCFP is a NP-Hard optimization problem that consists in grouping machines and parts in a set of cells, so that each cell can operate independently and the intercell movements are minimized. This problem has largely been tackled in the literature by using different techniques ranging from classic methods such as linear programming to more modern nature-inspired metaheuristics. In this paper, we present an efficient parallel version of the Migrating Birds Optimization metaheuristic for solving the MPCFP. Migrating Birds Optimization is a population metaheuristic based on the V-Flight formation of the migrating birds, which is proven to be an effective formation in energy saving. This approach is enhanced by the smart incorporation of parallel procedures that notably improve performance of the several sorting processes performed by the metaheuristic. We perform computational experiments on 1080 benchmarks resulting from the combination of 90 well-known MPCFP instances with 12 sorting configurations with and without threads. We illustrate promising results where the proposal is able to reach the global optimum in all instances, while the solving time with respect to a nonparallel approach is notably reduced.

  8. Lean and Virginia's wood industry - Part II: Results and need for support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian F. Fricke

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This two-part publication about Lean practices by Viriginia’s wood products and furniture manufacturing industries reports results from researching the awareness, the implementation status, the business results, and the need for external implementation support of Virginian companies. This second manuscript focuses on business results and the need for external implementation support. Except for “sales per employee,” where less than half of respondents reported an improvement due to the implementation of Lean in their operation, a majority of respondents indicated improved business results for “lead time,” “on-time delivery,” “inventory turnover,” and “cost per unit.” With respect to the need for external Lean implementation support, only 23 percent of respondents answered in the affirmative. “Training management,” “training shop floor employees,” and “implementing [Lean] with extensive employee involvement” were, with 67, 58, and 48 percent frequencies, the most often named forms of Lean implementation support requested. Results from this study seem to indicate an opportunity to support the well-being of Virginia’s wood products and furniture manufacturing industries through improved communication of the benefits of Lean and offering specific types of training to companies.

  9. Some pedo-ecological problems concerning the effects of industrial emissions on forest sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorny, M.

    1976-01-01

    This study presents part of a long-term research report on the impact of emissions from a nitrogen plant upon soil zoocenoses and appraises the ecological functions of ants and earthworms. Ants (Formica polyctena) were almost the only organisms in the study area which revealed higher activity and ever increasing number of nests on the area of the strongest impact of industrial emissions. The mean increase over a 3 year period amounted to 3 nests per 10 ha per year. It was found that not only more microorganisms occurred in ant nests than in the soil adjoining them, but also that the number of active forms including those nitrogen-fixing ones, was in general, remarkably higher. This suggests the possibility that microorganisms clean the nest air of the excess of nitrogen compounds. Earthworm secretions and soil surrounding them had more abundant microflora, when compared with the soil not influenced by earthworms. The species composition of earthworm microflora in the study area within the range of industrial emissions, was entirely different from that found in earthworms from the control area. Earthworms were introduced on polluted areas along with the organic matter under an amelioration treatment. Their activity although considerable, has to be evaluated as a short-term effect, since a sexually immature population is destined for extinction. It indicates that in the course of ameliorative treatments one has to consider not only vegetation requirements, but also those of soil organisms which condition the development and life of plants.

  10. Associations between air pollution in the industrial and suburban parts of Ostrava city and their use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirik, Vitezslav; Brezna, Barbara; Machaczka, Ondrej; Honkysova, Sabina; Miturova, Hana; Janout, Vladimir

    2017-08-01

    Selecting the locations and numbers of air quality monitoring stations is challenging as these are expensive to operate. Representative concentrations of pollutants in certain areas are usually determined by measuring. If there are significant correlations with concentrations of other pollutants or with other monitoring sites, however, concentrations could also be computed, partly reducing the costs. The aim of this study is to provide an overview of such possible relationships using data on concentrations of ambient air pollutants obtained in different areas of a larger city. Presented are associations between industrial (IP) and suburban parts (SP) as well as correlations between concentrations of various pollutants at the same site. Results of air pollutant monitoring come from Ostrava, an industrial city in Central Europe with a population of over 300,000. The study showed that certain pollutants were strongly correlated, especially particulate matter (r = 0.940) and ozone (r = 0.923) between the IP and SP. Statistically significant correlations were also found between different pollutants at the same site. The highest correlations were between PM 10 and NO 2 (r IP  = 0.728; r SP  = 0.734), NO 2 and benzo(a)pyrene (r IP  = 0.787; r SP  = 0.697), and NO 2 and ozone (r IP  = -0.706; r SP  = -0.686). This could contribute to more cost-effective solutions for air pollution monitoring in cities and their surroundings by using computational models based on the correlations, optimization of the network of monitoring stations, and the best selection of measuring devices.

  11. Municipal strategies for introducing housing on industrial estates as part of compact-city policies in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korthals Altes, W.K.; Tambach, M.

    2009-01-01

    Promoting mixed-use development is part of policies aimed at enhancing urban quality. Until recently, however, industry and housing have rarely been found together in the same development as there is a long tradition of keeping these functions separate. As part of a compact-city policy, Dutch local

  12. Finite element solution of nonlinear eddy current problems with periodic excitation and its industrial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bíró, Oszkár; Koczka, Gergely; Preis, Kurt

    2014-05-01

    An efficient finite element method to take account of the nonlinearity of the magnetic materials when analyzing three-dimensional eddy current problems is presented in this paper. The problem is formulated in terms of vector and scalar potentials approximated by edge and node based finite element basis functions. The application of Galerkin techniques leads to a large, nonlinear system of ordinary differential equations in the time domain. The excitations are assumed to be time-periodic and the steady-state periodic solution is of interest only. This is represented either in the frequency domain as a finite Fourier series or in the time domain as a set of discrete time values within one period for each finite element degree of freedom. The former approach is the (continuous) harmonic balance method and, in the latter one, discrete Fourier transformation will be shown to lead to a discrete harmonic balance method. Due to the nonlinearity, all harmonics, both continuous and discrete, are coupled to each other. The harmonics would be decoupled if the problem were linear, therefore, a special nonlinear iteration technique, the fixed-point method is used to linearize the equations by selecting a time-independent permeability distribution, the so-called fixed-point permeability in each nonlinear iteration step. This leads to uncoupled harmonics within these steps. As industrial applications, analyses of large power transformers are presented. The first example is the computation of the electromagnetic field of a single-phase transformer in the time domain with the results compared to those obtained by traditional time-stepping techniques. In the second application, an advanced model of the same transformer is analyzed in the frequency domain by the harmonic balance method with the effect of the presence of higher harmonics on the losses investigated. Finally a third example tackles the case of direct current (DC) bias in the coils of a single-phase transformer.

  13. Problems of Recreational Industry in European Russia: Changes in Infrastructure, Environment, and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovleva, M.; Lyaskovskiy, S. I.

    2011-12-01

    Forest and forest-steppe zones of European Russia have a great potential for recreation, including its active form, tourism. Soft peaceful landscapes and moderate summer climate provide pleasant conditions for family vacations. Numerous lakes and rivers provide places for swimming, boating, and fishing. These pleasant environmental conditions are complemented with abundant recreational choices such as historical places, old cities, towns, and monasteries filled with museums that deliver detailed information about the millennium-long Russian history. There are the vibrant cities, Moscow and St. Petersburg; cities along the Volga River; and the oldest cities in northwestern Russia, Novgorod and Pskov provide numerous options for cultural and entertaining programs for the most demanding travelers. The country has a broad range of private tour operators that cater to national and international travelers. Still there are problems which should be taken into account by travelers who chose to spend their precious vacation time in Russia. Infrastructure problems include a deficit of three-star hotels that are the mainstream of contemporary tourist business. Their number is growing exponentially in the past decade and at present remains insufficient, but the capacity building is progressing favorably. Climatic and environmental changes became a new and unexpected factor affecting the tourist industry in European Russia. Stable and strongly sustainable climate has been interrupted by extreme events that may cause additional discomfort for some people. Tour operators and hotel hosts both need to invest more to confront incremental weather (first of all investments in air conditioning are needed) and/or have substitute travel variants that are of equivalent quality. One of the unresolved issues remains the air quality problem in Moscow due to intense traffic and the possibility of peat fires in the neighboring Shatura region southeast of the city. This increases risks that must

  14. A Mathematical Formulation of the SCOLE Control Problem. Part 2: Optimal Compensator Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, A. V.

    1988-01-01

    The study initiated in Part 1 of this report is concluded and optimal feedback control (compensator) design for stability augmentation is considered, following the mathematical formulation developed in Part 1. Co-located (rate) sensors and (force and moment) actuators are assumed, and allowing for both sensor and actuator noise, stabilization is formulated as a stochastic regulator problem. Specializing the general theory developed by the author, a complete, closed form solution (believed to be new with this report) is obtained, taking advantage of the fact that the inherent structural damping is light. In particular, it is possible to solve in closed form the associated infinite-dimensional steady-state Riccati equations. The SCOLE model involves associated partial differential equations in a single space variable, but the compensator design theory developed is far more general since it is given in the abstract wave equation formulation. The results thus hold for any multibody system so long as the basic model is linear.

  15. 2012 in review - part II: overcoming the obstacles in the pharma/biotech industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabasseda, X; Dulsat, C; Navarro, D; Cruces, E; Graul, A I; Jago, C; Tracy, M

    2013-02-01

    As highlighted in the first part of this review published last month, the year 2012 saw the approval of a remarkable number of new drugs, and among the new drugs reaching the market, a significant proportion were orphan drugs developed for treating less prevalent diseases. These drugs are certainly not expected to become blockbusters, but are of high interest because of their efficacy in a narrow spectrum of patients. This trend aligns with the general tendency of staying away from fit-for-all blockbusters into personalized medicine as one of the strategies for overcoming the patent cliff that resulted in a long list of drugs going off patent and being approved as generics also during last year. The emerging scenario resulting from new developments in the form of new drugs and biosimilars and newly available generic medications paralleled by strategic movements within the pharmaceutical industry to reinforce their position in the market, as reflected by merger and acquisition deals accompanied by significant efforts into prioritization resulting in spin-off and split transactions, is reviewed in this second part. This paper includes a significant amount of data in tables for quick review and to profile the new strategic movements in drug pipelines. Further information, including details on mechanisms of action, current status, itemized pharmacology, pharmacokinetic and clinical trial research findings and updated information can be found in the proprietary databases Thomson Reuters Integrity(SM) and Thomson Reuters Cortellis™. Copyright 2013 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  16. Economy of conservation options in industry and developed environment. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    To determine the optimal situation for the energy supply in the working area of the IJsselmij and Sep the study on the title subject was carried out. To influence the energy demand demand-side management (DSM) as part of integrated resource planning (IRP) is applied. Several scenarios to determine whether new production capacity must be installed or conservation options and activities should be realized are elaborated and calculated by means of the COMPASS model. E3T compiled input data for the demand-side of the model: energy consumption and energy conservation, investment cost and operational cost per user, number of installations and the development of the penetration of the conservation options between 1990 and 2010, and required subsidies and promotional costs of the IJsselmij to introduce such options. Six of the options were selected and elaborated in detail. The results are presented in this report for the options: coverage of cooling and freezing equipment at night, frequency control of electric motors, decentralized heat production by means of advanced burners, indoor climate control in the built environment, reflectors for TL-lighting systems in the built environment, and behavioral change in industrial companies. In part 1 an overview is given of the economics, the selection and elaboration of the energy conservation options. 9 figs., 53 tabs., 71 refs., 1 appendix

  17. Economy of conservation options in the industry and the built environment. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    To determine the optimal situation for the energy supply in the working area of the IJsselmij and Sep the study on the title subject was carried out. To influence the energy demand demand-side management (DSM) as part of integrated resource planning (IRP) is applied. Several scenarios to determine whether new production capacity must be installed or conservation options and activities should be realized are elaborated and calculated by means of the COMPASS model. E3T compiled input data for the demand-side of the model: energy consumption and energy conservation, investment cost and operational cost per user, number of installations and the development of the penetration of the conservation options between 1990 and 2010, and required subsidies and promotional costs of the IJsselmij to introduce such options. The economics of the energy conservation options are given in chapter 2. Six of the options were selected and elaborated in detail in a separate publication (part 2): coverage of cooling and freezing equipment at night, frequency control of electric motors, decentralized heat production by means of advanced burners, indoor climate control in the built environment, reflectors for TL-lighting systems in the built environment, and behavioral change in industrial companies. 2 figs., 7 tabs., 7 refs., 4 appendices

  18. [Financing problems of capital goods. Part 2: procedure for investment appraisal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, C C; Bauer, M; Saleh, A; Picker, O

    2008-07-01

    In part 1 of this series about problems of financing capital goods the multiple and partly diametric economic effects of financing instruments were presented using the leasing procedure as an example. The result indicated that due to the complexity of these effects the choice of a specific financing instrument requires an individual consideration. Therefore, part 2 of the series introduces the method of dynamic capital budgeting which allows the instruments discussed in part 1 to be compared with each other and helps to evaluate their economic benefits. More precisely this paper focuses on a comparative analysis of the most common alternatives, leasing, credit financing and investment financing by the state. In this context, after having identified the total costs of ownership of anesthesia devices, the final asset values of the three financing instruments can be compared with each other using the method of dynamic capital budgeting. In contrast to the prevailing opinion, the results show that from a purely fiscal perspective leasing anesthesia devices is the most expensive alternative. Given the fact that no financial support is available from the state, the option of credit financing turns out to be the most preferable alternative from a relatively limited pool of possibilities. However, it still remains to be answered whether credit financing can defend this position against further, innovative forms of debt financing (e.g., factoring, asset-backed securities, hedge funds, mezzanine capital, etc.).

  19. Hybrid environment for software sensors design applied to the petrochemical industry problems; Ambiente hibrido para a concepcao de sensores de software aplicados aos problemas da industria petroquimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Bruno X.; Ramalho, Leonardo S.G.; Rodrigues, Igor O.; Martins, Daniel L.; Doria Neto, Adriao D.; Melo, Jorge D.; Oliveira, Luiz A.H.G.G. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This article will show a hybrid environment for the conception of software sensors in Foundation Fieldbus (FF) industrial network. These sensors are focused on the measurement and control problems in the petroleum industry, more specifically in oil and gas refining, contributing for the efficiency increase and operation costs decrease of a refining process. The software sensors are based on intelligent algorithms, as neural networks, fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms. These algorithms need input data, in this case the historical variables data associated to industrial petrochemical plant. One option allowed by the environment is the data acquisition from a simulated process by the FF network. Then, the environment presents a hybrid feature, since it is composed by a real (the industrial network) and a simulated (the process) part, with the use of real control and measurements signals. The environment is flexible, allowing typical dynamics of industrial process reproduction without necessity of the physical network amendment and enabling the creation of several situations from a real industrial environment. (author)

  20. Analysis of precious metals at parts-per-billion levels in industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tickner, James; O'Dwyer, Joel; Roach, Greg; Smith, Michael; Van Haarlem, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Precious metals, including gold and the platinum group metals (notable Pt, Pd and Rh), are mined commercially at concentrations of a few parts-per-million and below. Mining and processing operations demand sensitive and rapid analysis at concentrations down to about 100 parts-per-billion (ppb). In this paper, we discuss two technologies being developed to meet this challenge: X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and gamma-activation analysis (GAA). We have designed on-stream XRF analysers capable of measuring targeted elements in slurries with precisions in the 35–70 ppb range. For the past two years, two on-stream analysers have been in continuous operation at a precious metals concentrator plant. The simultaneous measurement of feed and waste stream grades provides real-time information on metal recovery, allowing changes in operating conditions and plant upsets to be detected and corrected more rapidly. Separately, we have been developing GAA for the measurement of gold as a replacement for the traditional laboratory fire-assay process. High-energy Bremsstrahlung X-rays are used to excite gold via the 197 Au(γ,γ′) 197 Au-M reaction, and the gamma-rays released in the decay of the meta-state are then counted. We report on work to significantly improve accuracy and detection limits. - Highlights: • X-ray fluorescence analysis at sub-parts-per-million concentration in bulk materials. • Gamma activation analysis of gold at high accuracy and low concentrations. • Use of advanced Monte Carlo techniques to optimise radiation-based analysers. • Industrial application of XRF and GAA technologies for minerals processing.

  1. Development Of Entrepreneur Learning Model Based On Problem Based Learning To Increase Competency Independence And Creativity Students Of Industrial Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leola Dewiyani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently it is undeniable that the competition to get a job is very tight and of course universities have an important role in printing human resources that can compete globally not least with the Department of Industrial Engineering Faculty of Engineering Muhammadiyah University of Jakarta FT UMJ. Problems that occur is based on the analysis obtained from the track record of graduates researchers found that 60 percent of students of Industrial Engineering FT UMJ work not in accordance with the level of education owned so financially their income is still below the standard. This study aims to improve the competence of students of Industrial Engineering Department FT UMJ in entrepreneurship courses especially through the development of Problem Based Learning based learning model. Specific targets of this research were conducted with the aim to identify and analyze the need to implement learning model based on Problem Based Learning Entrepreneurship and to design and develop the model of entrepreneurship based on Problem Based Learning to improve the competence independence and creativity of Industrial Engineering students of FT UMJ in Entrepreneurship course. To achieve the above objectives this research uses research and development R amp D method. The product produced in this research is the detail of learning model of entrepreneurial model based on Problem Based Learning entrepreneurship model based on Problem Based Learning and international journals

  2. Data mining for water resource management part 2 - methods and approaches to solving contemporary problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehl, Edwin A.; Conrads, Paul

    2010-01-01

    This is the second of two papers that describe how data mining can aid natural-resource managers with the difficult problem of controlling the interactions between hydrologic and man-made systems. Data mining is a new science that assists scientists in converting large databases into knowledge, and is uniquely able to leverage the large amounts of real-time, multivariate data now being collected for hydrologic systems. Part 1 gives a high-level overview of data mining, and describes several applications that have addressed major water resource issues in South Carolina. This Part 2 paper describes how various data mining methods are integrated to produce predictive models for controlling surface- and groundwater hydraulics and quality. The methods include: - signal processing to remove noise and decompose complex signals into simpler components; - time series clustering that optimally groups hundreds of signals into "classes" that behave similarly for data reduction and (or) divide-and-conquer problem solving; - classification which optimally matches new data to behavioral classes; - artificial neural networks which optimally fit multivariate data to create predictive models; - model response surface visualization that greatly aids in understanding data and physical processes; and, - decision support systems that integrate data, models, and graphics into a single package that is easy to use.

  3. THE ROLE OF RADIATION ACCIDENTS AND INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS OF IONIZING RADIATION SOURCES IN THE PROBLEM OF RADIATION DAMAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Кіхтенко, Ігор Миколайович

    2016-01-01

    Subject of research – the relevance of radiation damage at modern development of industry and medicine. In the world of radiation sources used in different fields of practice and their application in the future will increase, which greatly increases the likelihood of injury in a significant contingent of people.Research topic – the definition of the role of nuclear energy and the industrial use of ionizing radiation sources in the problem of radiation damage. The purpose of research – identif...

  4. Fourth youth scientifically-practical conference Nuclear-industrial complex of Ural: problems and prospects. Theses of reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Theses of reports of the Fourth youth scientifically-practical conference Nuclear-industrial complex of Ural: problems and prospects (18-20 April 2007, Ozersk) are presented. The book contains theses of reports of the seventh subject sections: NFC: science and industry; Ecological problems in NFC development: radiation safety, radioecology and radiobiology; Nuclear power engineering: economics, safety, field experience; Atomic branch: history, today and future; New technologies in education. Education and training for NFC plants, public opinion; Information technologies and telecommunications; Long-term science intensive technologies and new materials [ru

  5. Problems of standardizing and technical regulation in the electric power industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabchak, E. P.

    2016-12-01

    A mandatory condition to ensure normal operation of a power system and efficiency in the sector is standardization and legal regulation of technological activities of electric power engineering entities and consumers. Compared to the times of USSR, the present-time technical guidance documents are not mandatory to follow in most cases, being of an advisory nature due to the lack of new ones. During the last five years, the industry has been showing a deterioration of the situation in terms of ensuring reliability and engineering controllability as a result of the dominant impact of short-term market stimuli and the differences in basic technological policies. In absence of clear requirements regarding the engineering aspects of such activities, production operation does not contribute to the preserving of technical integrity of the Russian power system, which leads to the loss of performance capability and controllability and causes disturbances in the power supply to consumers. The result of this problem is a high rate of accident incidence. The dynamics of accidents by the type of equipment is given, indicating a persisting trend of growth in the number of accidents, which are of a systematic nature. Several problematic aspects of engineering activities of electric power engineering entities, requiring standardization and legal regulation are pointed out: in the domestic power system, a large number of power electrotechnical and generating equipment operate along with systems of regulation, which do not comply with the principles and technical rules representing a framework where the Energy System of Russia is built and functioning

  6. Role of the state in solving the environmental problems of the industrial monoprofile cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musina, L. M.; Neucheva, M. U.

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays the problem of sustainable socio-economic development of monotowns refers to one of the priority issues of the state policy. The author analyzes monotowns state policy support in Russia with main focus on programs aimed at ecological restoration of industrial monoprofile cities. The processes of program control in monotowns within the state economic policy are analyzed. In order to evaluate the results of programs (of city-forming enterprises and monotowns level) the principles of development of criteria development system have been substantiated. The environmental situation of monotowns depends on a complex system of interaction between the city (represented by its people and municipal authorities), private capital and the state. Long-term sustainable development of monotowns requires the interests of all three parties to be in balance. This is possible to achieve by increasing the social responsibility of businesses, increasing the development of local government and urban identity and active influence of local communities on the activities of the municipal authorities.

  7. The Main Problems in the Development of Geothermal Energy Industry in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jiahong; Wang, Shejiao; Li, Feng

    2017-04-01

    As early as 1980-1985, the geothermal energy research group of the Institute of Geology and Geophisics (Chinese Academy of Sciences) has proposed to pay attention to geothermal energy resources in oil fields. PetroChina began to study the geothermal energy resources in the region of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei from 1995. Subsequently, the geothermal resources in the Huabei, Daqing and Liaohe oil regions were evaluated. The total recoverable hot water of the three oilfields reached 19.3 × 1011m3. PetroChina and Kenya have carried out geothermal energy development and utilization projects, with some relevant technical achievements.On the basis of many years' research on geothermal energy, we summarized the main problems in the formation and development of geothermal energy in China. First of all, China's geothermal resources research is still unable to meet the needs of the geothermal energy industry. Secondly, the development and utilization of geothermal energy requires multi-disciplinary cooperation. Thirdly, the development and utilization of geothermal energy needs consideration of local conditions. Finally, the development and utilization of geothermal energy resources requires the effective management of local government.

  8. Syrlic: a Lagrangian code to handle industrial problems involving particles and droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peniguel, C.

    1997-01-01

    Numerous industrial applications require to solve droplets or solid particles trajectories and their effects on the flow. (fuel injection in combustion engine, agricultural spraying, spray drying, spray cooling, spray painting, particles separator, dispersion of pollutant, etc). SYRLIC is being developed to handle the dispersed phase while the continuous phase is tackled by classical Eulerian codes like N3S-EF, N3S-NATUR, ESTET. The trajectory of each droplet is calculated on unstructured grids or structured grids according the Eulerian code with SYRLIC is coupled. The forces applied to each particle are recalculated along each path. The Lagrangian approach treats the convection and the source terms exactly. It is particularly adapted to problems involving a wide range of particles characteristics (diameter, mass, etc). In the near future, wall interaction, heat transfer, evaporation more complex physics, etc, will be included. Turbulent effects will be accounted for by a Langevin equation. The illustration shows the trajectories followed by water droplets (diameter from 1 mm to 4 mm) in a cooling tower. the droplets are falling down due to gravity but are deflected towards the center of the tower because of a lateral wind. It is clear that particles are affected differently according their diameter. The Eulerian flow field used to compute the forces has been generated by N3S-AERO, on an unstructured mesh

  9. Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, I.; Wiesenberger, H.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of the industry in Austria. It gives a review of the structure and types of the industry, the legal framework and environmental policy of industrial relevance. The environmental situation of the industry in Austria is analyzed in detail, concerning air pollution (SO 2 , NO x , CO 2 , CO, CH 4 , N 2 O, NH 3 , Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxin, furans), waste water, waste management and deposit, energy and water consumption. The state of the art in respect of the IPPC-directives (European Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Bureau) concerning the best available techniques of the different industry sectors is outlined. The application of European laws and regulations in the Austrian industry is described. (a.n.)

  10. Future of industry. Part 4. Sustainable entrepreneurship in the Dutch construction industry. Institutional context and strategic responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein Woolthuis, R; De Boer, S.

    2009-12-15

    TNO developed a methodology to identify sector specific opportunities by examining bottlenecks and drivers for sustainable innovation. Research results are presented in 4 reports: the first report explores the highly innovative chemicals sector and how it deals with opportunities and bottlenecks in sustainable innovation. The second report examines the project driven construction industry and how entrepreneurs and incumbent firms develop strategies to deal with the bottlenecks of sustainable innovation. The third report extends the second report by highlighting the role of the incumbent firms in this process, and this (fourth) report deepens the second report by illuminating the strategies of entrepreneurs in the transition to sustainable construction.

  11. The Assessment of 21st Century Skills in Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Complex and Collaborative Problem Solving

    OpenAIRE

    Neubert, Jonas; Mainert, Jakob; Kretzschmar, André; Greiff, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    In the current paper, we highlight why and how industrial and organizational psychology can take advantage of research on 21st century skills and their assessment. We present vital theoretical perspectives, a suitable framework for assessment, and exemplary instruments with a focus on advances in the assessment of Human Capital. Specifically, Complex Problem Solving (CPS) and Collaborative Problem Solving (ColPS) are two transversal skills (i.e., skills that span multiple domains) that are...

  12. FORECASTING OF PRODUCTION OUTPUT FOR LIGHT INDUSTRY ENTERPRISES WITH PURPOSE TO DETERMINE THEIR POWER RESOURCES REQUIREMENTS. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Romaniuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The proposed paper is a continuation of the work, published in the previous issue. It is destined for specialists who are engaged in solution of problems pertaining to efficiency of light industry in Belarus which is considered as one of the branches being significantly involved in formation of national economy, its export potential and social climate. It is extremely relevant to reduce production costs in order to preserve and add strength to the branch positions in the markets. Production of natural, synthetic and knitted materials and their subsequent treatment are unreasonably power-consuming processes. Fundamental solution of the problem for reduction of production costs is to decrease its energy component and this can be achieved due to transition to modern heat and power systems in technological complexes of enterprises.The first part of the paper has considered a range of issues that served as a basis for obtaining statistical models in order to forecast the required production volume of main knitted and textile materials.  Forecasting has been prepared   for a period of more than 20 years because it has been predetermined by development horizon of comprehensive modernization of energy supply systems at enterprises of light industry. The production volumes essentially differ from those that have been stipulated in the programs of light industry.The present paper shows selection of statistical game-type for determination of  build-up rate of the production volume for every textile enterprise. The so-called “Game with Nature” has been selected as a game which is widely used for solution of analogous demand problems. The statistical forecasting models of production obtained in the first part are applied in the second part of the paper which considers strategies for development of individual enterprises. JSC :Baranovichi Industrial Cotton Association” has been taken an example in the paper. Production volumes of any enterprise are

  13. A review of research on the problem of aggression inhibitors (Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalashnikova A.S.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers in the genesis of the formation of aggressive behavior inextricably consider proagressive and constraining, or inhibiting, aggressive manifestations of structure. The second part of the article deals with a theoretical overview of the problem of aggression inhibitors, which covers the latest Russian and foreign research aimed at studying the individual manifestations of factors deterring aggression. For basis for the analysis we chose classification of personality structures inhibiting aggressive manifestations, proposed by F.S. Safuanov, which includes values, socio-normative, dispositional, emotional, communicative, intellectual restraining structure and psychological protective mechanisms. We made conclusion that the problem of aggression inhibitors currently stands on the threshold of a new phase of the study, that is to provide a holistic model, including illegal aggressive behavior, taking into account not only the socio-psychological characteristics of "aggressor" and his victims, and personality structures that promote and inhibiting aggression, but also covering a wide range of inhibitors of aggression, acting through different psychological mechanisms.

  14. College and University Environmental Programs as a Policy Problem (Part 2): Strategies for Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Susan G.; Rutherford, Murray B.; Auer, Matthew R.; Cherney, David N.; Wallace, Richard L.; Mattson, David J.; Clark, Douglas A.; Foote, Lee; Krogman, Naomi; Wilshusen, Peter; Steelman, Toddi

    2011-05-01

    Environmental studies and environmental sciences programs in American and Canadian colleges and universities seek to ameliorate environmental problems through empirical enquiry and analytic judgment. In a companion article (Part 1) we describe the environmental program movement (EPM) and discuss factors that have hindered its performance. Here, we complete our analysis by proposing strategies for improvement. We recommend that environmental programs re-organize around three principles. First, adopt as an overriding goal the concept of human dignity—defined as freedom and social justice in healthy, sustainable environments. This clear higher-order goal captures the human and environmental aspirations of the EPM and would provide a more coherent direction for the efforts of diverse participants. Second, employ an explicit, genuinely interdisciplinary analytical framework that facilitates the use of multiple methods to investigate and address environmental and social problems in context. Third, develop educational programs and applied experiences that provide students with the technical knowledge, powers of observation, critical thinking skills and management acumen required for them to become effective professionals and leaders. Organizing around these three principles would build unity in the EPM while at the same time capitalizing on the strengths of the many disciplines and diverse local conditions involved.

  15. College and university environmental programs as a policy problem (Part 2): Strategies for improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, S.G.; Rutherford, M.B.; Auer, M.R.; Cherney, D.N.; Wallace, R.L.; Mattson, D.J.; Clark, D.A.; Foote, L.; Krogman, N.; Wilshusen, P.; Steelman, T.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental studies and environmental sciences programs in American and Canadian colleges and universities seek to ameliorate environmental problems through empirical enquiry and analytic judgment. In a companion article (Part 1) we describe the environmental program movement (EPM) and discuss factors that have hindered its performance. Here, we complete our analysis by proposing strategies for improvement. We recommend that environmental programs re-organize around three principles. First, adopt as an overriding goal the concept of human dignity-defined as freedom and social justice in healthy, sustainable environments. This clear higher-order goal captures the human and environmental aspirations of the EPM and would provide a more coherent direction for the efforts of diverse participants. Second, employ an explicit, genuinely interdisciplinary analytical framework that facilitates the use of multiple methods to investigate and address environmental and social problems in context. Third, develop educational programs and applied experiences that provide students with the technical knowledge, powers of observation, critical thinking skills and management acumen required for them to become effective professionals and leaders. Organizing around these three principles would build unity in the EPM while at the same time capitalizing on the strengths of the many disciplines and diverse local conditions involved. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  16. Groundwater recharge through wells in open loop geothermal system: problems and solutions - part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Pietro Beretta

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the two parts of this article, the problems related to the management of water wells as part of a low-enthalpy geothermal power plant by means of heat pumps (open loop system are described. In many cases, in absence of discharge in surface water and/or to ensure the conservation of the resource from a quantitative point of view, a doublet system constituted by a pumping and a recharge well is provided. The clogging phenomenon often occurs in this kind of plant, affecting wells with different functions and different thermal potential related to water withdrawal and reinjection into the ground. This phenomenon is due to the presence of air bubbles, suspended solids, bacterial growth and to the chemical-physical reactions that are described in the text. Besides acknowledging the activities for recharge wells management to avoid the fracturing of the drain and the cementation, is also suggested the procedure of in situ tests that are used to properly determine the optimal well discharge, which determines the efficiency and effectiveness of the geothermal system and its economic performance.It is finally shown a regional regulation on the water quality used in an open loop.

  17. Niger Republic, mineral planning (part one)-Mining industries in socio-political and national economy framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Julien

    1982-01-01

    This document focus on Niger Republic mineral industries related points that are: socio-political and economical context; specific characters such as administrative, juridical and fiscal environment; citizens employment and training; actual situation and energy projects; transport; existing mining companies, construction materials enterprises and projects presentation; effect of mining sector and construction material on national economy and prior major problems to be solved [fr

  18. Occupational exposure and health problems in small-scale industry workers in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: a situation analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rongo, L.M.B.; Barten, F.J.M.H.; Msamanga, G.I.; Heederik, D.; Dolmans, W.M.V.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Workers in informal small-scale industries (SSI) in developing countries involved in welding, spray painting, woodwork and metalwork are exposed to various hazards with consequent risk to health. Aim To assess occupational exposure and health problems in SSI in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

  19. [Correction of refractive errors in patients with strabismus. Part I. Clinical problems associated with refraction, accommodation and convergence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarz-Sawińska, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    In Part I the problems associated with refraction, accommodation and convergence and their role in proper eye position/visual alignment of the eyes as well as convergent, divergent and vertical alignment of the eyes have been described.

  20. Balanced territorial development: problems of single-industry towns in the Sverdlovsk region

    OpenAIRE

    Илюхин Алексей Александрович; Ilyuhin Aleksey Aleksandrovich

    2017-01-01

    the article examines the questions concerning the optimization of territorial structure in the Sverdlovsk region associated with the comprehensive transformation of the economy of single-industry towns and mono economics areas. The author has analyzed the population dynamics of the region and industrial production, with allocation of single-industry towns. A classification of towns by type of localization economy has been classified. The author has made some conclusions on quality solution of...

  1. A STUDY ON THE PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF COIR INDUSTRY IN POLLACHI, COIMBATORE DISTRICT

    OpenAIRE

    S. Poornimadevi

    2017-01-01

    Coir industry is an important agro-based employment-oriented traditional cottage industry in India. India is a largest coir producer in the world accounting for more than 80% of the total world production of coir fibre. Kerala is the largest producer of coir and coir products in India. Coir Industry is an export and employment oriented industry which originated in Kerala and is spreading to other coconut growing states of India. The value addition in products has been focused on the demands ...

  2. Russia's nuclear industry - an overview; Russlands Kernenergiewirtschaft: Zustand, Probleme, Perspektiven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tscherkassov, V. [Konzern ROSENERGOATOM, Moskau (Russian Federation)

    2000-04-01

    After the Chernobyl disaster, improvements in materials and in training were made everywhere. As a result, the quality of operation of Russian reactors now is in third place after Germany and Japan. At the present time, it is becoming more and more evident that Russia will have no future in the absence of a nuclear power industry. This is due not only to the country's geographic and socio-economic features, its large territory, and the mismatch between the major energy resources in Siberia and the centers of energy consumption in the European part of Russia, but also to the fact that there is no technology other than nuclear at present which would be able to generate the volume of electricity required after the end of the 'natural gas break'. The generation of electricity in nuclear power plants contributed from 1999 on amounted to a share of approx. 15 per cent in all of Russia; 30 per cent in the European part of Russia and in the central supply region; of this share, 60 per cent in the central Chernozem region; 41 per cent in the northwestern supply region; 70 per cent in the northwest of the autonomous Chukchen region; 40 per cent in the FOREM single electricity market. The same percentages apply to electricity exports. (orig.) [German] Nach der Katastrophe von Tschernobyl wurden ueberall Verbesserungen bei Material und Ausbildung umgesetzt. Die Folge ist, dass heute die Betriebsqualitaet der russischen Reaktoren direkt hinter Deutschland und Japan rangiert. Kernkraftwerke spielen in der Wirtschaft des Landes eine wesentliche Rolle. Rentabel wirtschaftende KKW grosser Leistung werden an den Knotenpunkten des Versorgungsnetzes im Grundlastbereich betrieben und sichern einen stabilen Betrieb des gesamten Energieverbundsystems Russlands. Aus diesem Grund ist Russland an einem stabilen und sicheren Betrieb seiner KKW interessiert. Gegenwaertig zeigt sich immer deutlicher, dass Russland ohne Kernenergiewirtschaft keine entsprechende Zukunft hat. Dies

  3. Sludge in the pulp and paper industry in Sweden, part II[Combustion of]; Slam fraan skogsindustrin, fas II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyllenhammar, Marianne; Herstad Svaerd, Solvie; Kjoerk, Anders; Larsson, Sara; Wennberg, Olle [S.E.P. Scandinavian Energy Project AB, Goeteborg (Sweden); Aamand, Lars-Erik [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Eskilsson, David [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

    2003-11-01

    During part II of this research program combustible sludge from the pulp and paper industry has been studied in detail. 560,000 tonnes of sludge per year (calculated as dry sludge) are produced in Sweden. The energy potential in the produced sludge is about 2 TWh/year. Today 1 TWh/year is produced in the pulp and paper mill's own boilers. This means that additional energy can be utilized from this material. An objective of this program has been to decide whether or not there are sludge types which are favourable respectively difficult to combust. By mixing different sludge types, or other waste products, emissions and/or problems during combustion can be minimized. These possibilities have been studied thoroughly in this program. A lot of sludge samples have been studied in laboratory scale at SP and in full-scale at Chalmers 12 MW CFB boiler. As a complement to the practical tests S.E.P. has done research regarding different aspects of sludge as a fuel; for example handling of sludge and regional drying. The results of 40 sintering tests at SP showed that the sintering temperature during combustion of sludge in a fluidised bed, with silica sand as bed material, varied between <850 deg C and >1100 deg C. The evaluation showed that the alkali content in the ash had the largest influence on the sintering temperature. Other factors were less important. During the tests at Chalmers eleven different sludge samples have been combusted together with wood pellets. Initially there were problems with the feeding to the boiler for some of the sludge samples. When the fuel feeding problems were solved the combustion took place without any problems. When sludge is co-combusted together with a 'clean' base fuel such as wood pellets the sulphur-, nitrogen- and chloride contents in the sludge have a large impact on the emissions. The normal way to reduce sulphur dioxide but also hydrogen chloride is to add lime in different positions into and after the boiler. In

  4. 13 CFR 127.500 - In what industries is a contracting officer authorized to restrict competition under this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false In what industries is a contracting officer authorized to restrict competition under this part? 127.500 Section 127.500 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION WOMEN-OWNED SMALL BUSINESS FEDERAL CONTRACT...

  5. The genesis of relevant entrepreneurial processes – stimulating problem solving capabilities by joint university-industry collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Lindgaard; Fladkjær, Henrik Find; Jensen, Erling

    of researcher programs, preferential tax treatment of firms who do R&D-collaboration with universities etc. Such initiatives for promoting and sustaining university industry interactions have in the literature been seen as an important part of an effort to encourage the development of the “entrepreneurial...

  6. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    . African states as ... regarded as the most important ingredients that went to add value to land and labour in order for countries ... B. Sutcliffe Industry and Underdevelopment (Massachusetts Addison – Wesley Publishing Company. 1971), pp.

  7. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    scholar, Walt W. Rostow presented and supported this line of thought in his analysis of ... A Brief Historical Background of Industrialization in Africa ... indicative) The western model allowed for the political economy to be shaped by market.

  8. Impact of the industrial freezing process on selected vegetables -Part II. Colour and bioactive compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazzeo, Teresa; Paciulli, Maria; Chiavaro, Emma; Visconti, Attilio; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Ganino, Tommaso; Pellegrini, Nicoletta

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the impact of the different steps (i.e. blanching, freezing, storage following the industrial freezing process and the final cooking prior to consumption) of the industrial freezing process was evaluated on colour, chlorophylls, lutein, polyphenols and ascorbic acid content

  9. A Review of International Telecommunications Industry Issues, Structure, and Regulatory Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jack E.; And Others

    Industry structure studies prior to 1968 are briefly reviewed, and an overview of industrial and technological developments up to the present is provided through synopses of more recent studies. Areas covered include overseas telephone and record carriers; the creation of the Communications Satellite Corporation; the current regulatory and…

  10. Salary administration as part of employee incentive system at industrial enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagandykov Michail

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the financial staff incentives at industrial enterprises. The paper concludes that the incentive system should be developed taking into account the developed staff motivation. The only efficient target of influence is the existing staff motivation components. A 3-element employee incentive framework for industrial enterprises is suggested. The article presents the critical analysis of the existing payroll systems of several industrial enterprises, elicits the common flaws of the incentive payments, and develops requirements for such systems. The paper also provides an industrial enterprise needs matrix and an incentive payment types matrix required to build up a rational monetary staff incentive system. These matrices can be adapted for any industrial enterprise with regard to its long-term objectives.

  11. Applications of decision analysis and related techniques to industrial engineering problems at KSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gerald W.

    1995-01-01

    This report provides: (1) a discussion of the origination of decision analysis problems (well-structured problems) from ill-structured problems; (2) a review of the various methodologies and software packages for decision analysis and related problem areas; (3) a discussion of how the characteristics of a decision analysis problem affect the choice of modeling methodologies, thus providing a guide as to when to choose a particular methodology; and (4) examples of applications of decision analysis to particular problems encountered by the IE Group at KSC. With respect to the specific applications at KSC, particular emphasis is placed on the use of the Demos software package (Lumina Decision Systems, 1993).

  12. IMPROVING THE EFFICIENCY OF SPRAY TYPE DEVICES WHEN SOLVING PROBLEMS IN INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Iu. Panov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. This carried out work is aimed enhancing the efficiency of the spray scrubber by combining processes and improving hydraulic conditions in the device. The problem of treating waste gases is often characterized by unique features and the significant factor that makes it difficult to find a solution to the problem of treatment is the low and/or variable concentration of the pollutant. With a removal efficiency of up to 98 %, wet treatment technology in scrubber type devices is the only practical method advantageous to the treatment of waste gases. The set objective is solved by developing a two-stage treatment system for pyrolysis gas based on ejector scrubbers. Their advantage - a central nozzle supply that allows the scrubber to operate on the principle of an ejector pump. A drift eliminator of the developed device is located on the case unit and a chain is suspended from a clamp mounted on the lower part of the tube neck by pins and two detachable joints. The operation of the scrubber was checked in compliance with the absorption gas treatment of sulfur dioxide. A chemical sorbent, calcium carbonate which is produced as a by-product in the manufacture of nitroammophos at JSC “Minudobrenia” factory is used. Preliminary results indicate that the stiochiometric inlet ratio of Ca/S equals about 2.0 and SO2 emissions reduce by 80-90 %, significantly larger than the planned 70 % and subsequently corresponds to the residue concentration of less than 30 mg/m3 . This is explained by the greater degree of capture and deposition of the sorbent on the chain curtain (not more than 20 mg/m3 . The proposed device for treating gases enables: improvement in the efficiency of gas treatment; increased reliability; increase in the degree of treatment of the gas flow without the use of additional equipment; reduction in metal and design complexity; reduction on the cost of the treatment process and simplification in the device design.

  13. A primer of drug safety surveillance: an industry perspective. Part II: Product labeling and product knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, M C

    1992-01-01

    To place the fundamentals of clinical drug safety surveillance in a conceptual framework that will facilitate understanding and application of adverse drug event data to protect the health of the public and support a market for pharmaceutical manufacturers' products. Part II of this series discusses specific issues regarding product labeling, such as developing the labeling, changing the labeling, and the legal as well as commercial ramifications of the contents of the labeling. An adverse event report scenario is further analyzed and suggestions are offered for maintaining the product labeling as an accurate reflection of the drug safety surveillance data. This article also emphasizes the necessity of product knowledge in adverse event database management. Both scientific and proprietary knowledge are required. Acquiring product knowledge is a part of the day-to-day activities of drug safety surveillance. A knowledge of the history of the product may forestall adverse publicity, as shown in the illustration. This review uses primary sources from the federal laws (regulations), commentaries, and summaries. Very complex topics are briefly summarized in the text. Secondary sources, ranging from newspaper articles to judicial summaries, illustrate the interpretation of adverse drug events and opportunities for drug safety surveillance intervention. The reference materials used were articles theoretically or practically applicable in the day-to-day practice of drug safety surveillance. The role of clinical drug safety surveillance in product monitoring and drug development is described. The process of drug safety surveillance is defined by the Food and Drug Administration regulations, product labeling, product knowledge, and database management. Database management is subdivided into the functions of receipt, retention, retrieval, and review of adverse event reports. Emphasis is placed on the dynamic interaction of the components of the process. Suggestions are offered

  14. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  15. Country reports (Part 2). Country report on mining industry in Sabah Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordin, M S. B.

    1988-06-25

    In Sabah district of Malaysia, only one mining industry exists which is a joint venture between Japan and Malaysia, producing copper by consuming 500,000 tons/year of ore which contains 0.57% of copper and 0.65 gm/ton of gold. Regarding the mining industry, outline of its organization, process, equipments, and capacity are summarized. In addition, main clauses of safety regulation and its practises are explained. Concerning Burma, Governmental organization is shown as a graph and mining industries are divided into seven categories. Products, mining methods and capacities are explained by tables. (6 figs, 3 tables)

  16. Regulation of occupational health and safety in the semiconductor industry: enforcement problems and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watterson, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Reports of high incidences of occupational illnesses in the semiconductor industry should have triggered global investigations and rigorous inspection of the industry. Yet semiconductor plants remain essentially unregulated. Health and safety standards are inadequate and enforcement is lax. Roles for stakeholders in laying down good practice, monitoring, and regulating are proposed, and obstacles are described. Effective regulation has advantages for the industry as well as workers. Conditions for best practice include education at all levels, protection and support for labor inspectors, government commitment to enforcing laws, recognition of the right of workers to organize, and recognition of their rights.

  17. Main formulations of the finite element method for the problems of structural mechanics. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignat’ev Aleksandr Vladimirovich

    Full Text Available The author offers a classification of Finite Element formulations, which allows orienting in a great number of the published and continuing to be published works on the problem of raising the efficiency of this widespread numerical method. The second part of the article offers examination of straight formulations of FEM in the form of displacement approach, area method and classical mixed-mode method. The question of solution convergence according to FEM in the form of classical mixed-mode method is considered on the example of single-input single-output system of a beam in case of finite element grid refinement. The author draws a conclusion, that extinction of algebraic equations system of FEM in case of passage to the limit is not a peculiar feature of this method in general, but manifests itself only in some particular cases. At the same time the obtained results prove that FEM in mixed-mode form provides obtaining more stable results in case of finite element grid refinement in comparison with FEM in the form of displacement approach. It is quite obvious that the same qualities will appear also in two-dimensional systems.

  18. Main formulations of the finite element method for the problems of structural mechanics. Part 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignat’ev Aleksandr Vladimirovich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author offers is the classification of the formulae of Finite Element Method. This classification help to orient in a huge number of published articles, as well as those to be published, which are dedicated to the problem of enhancing the efficiency of the most commonly used method. The third part of the article considers the variation formulations of FEM and the energy principles lying in the basis of it. If compared to the direct method, which is applied only to finite elements of a simple geometrical type, the variation formulations of FEM are applicable to the elements of any type. All the variation methods can be conventionally divided into two groups. The methods of the first group are based on the principle of energy functional stationarity - a potential system energy, additional energy or on the basis of these energies, which means the full energy. The methods of the second group are based on the variants of mathematical methods of weighted residuals for solving the differential equations, which in some cases can be handled according to the principle of possible displacements or extreme energy principles. The most widely used and multipurpose is the approach based on the use of energy principles coming from the energy conservation law: principle of possible changes in stress state, principle of possible change in stress-strain state.

  19. Some problems of recent 'All Japan' strategy for nuclear power exports. Identification of its problems and a proposal for improvement based on international development strategies of the major three categories of businesses constituting nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Tomoyuki

    2011-01-01

    In Japan, 'All Japan' strategy for nuclear power exports, which arranges engineering companies and electric utilities to sell nuclear power plants providing engineering, procurement, construction and operation abroad, with governmental support of expanded trade insurance, is strongly promoted today as a part of Japan's national growth strategy. However, 'All Japan' strategy generates some problems because the strategy does not consider difference of business strategies concerning international development of each enterprise. This report identifies problems of 'All Japan' strategy based on environmental scanning of major three categories of businesses, which are big nuclear technology companies, vendors and electric utilities constituting nuclear power industry. And this report proposes the way to improve the strategy as follows to resolve those problems. 1) It is necessary to assess the risk of the project that is to be undertaken by 'All Japan' approach carefully. 2) Governmental support for vendors is also needed because the vendors are source of strength of international development of the nuclear industry in Japan. 3) Where the cooperation among the electric utilities is necessary, imposing the risk burden on the utilities should be avoided. 4) It is necessary for government to take measures about 'Weakness' and 'Threat' that each category of business commonly faces. (author)

  20. A large industrial pollution problem on the Kyrgyzstan - Uzbekistan border: Soviet production of mercury and stibium for the Soviet military

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjamberdiev, I.; Tukhvatshin, R.

    2009-01-01

    Soviet industry of mercury and stibium was located in South-East Fergana in Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan boarder. Khaidarken combine produced high pure mercury (99.9997 percent) since 1940, it was the second source in the World (after Almadena, Spain). Maximal production was 790 t in 1990, after Transitional Shock about 300 tons a year. Tail was established in 1967. There is special tube 5500 m transporting pulp to tail. The pulp contains about 0,003 mg/liter mercury, 0,005 mg/liter arsenic, 21 mg/liter stibium, etc. Pulp is cleaned by aluminum sulfuric and mortar. After drying and compressing by itself the concentrations rises: mercury 90-250 mg/kg, arsenic 190-400, stibium 800-1700 mg/kg. Environment pollution problem contains three kinds: ground water infiltration; old tube corroding some places (leaking from chink of tube) - both mentioned lead to vegetables cumulating; combine work spreading mercury by air to settlement Khaidarken. Kadamjay enterprise for stibium (mines, combine, purify plant, tails) began work in 1936. Most part of production used in soviet military. Maximal production was 17.000 t clearing ore in 1990, after USSR collapse 1-6 t/year. Tremendous tails and dams (total 150 mln t) remains non re-cultivated until now. The tails contain electrolysis wastage: sodium-sulfides, sulfites, sulfates; stibium; arsenic; cadmium; stibium; etc. Seven deposits (tail-damp really) established 1976, total square 76.1 thousands sq m, total volume 250 thousand cub m. The deposits over-filled, contents filtrating - little saline or lakes generated (one situated 50m near Uzbekistan boarder). River Shakhimardan flow to Uzbekistan (settlement Vuadil, Ferghana town). There are health damage indices in the areas.(author)

  1. Problems in the implementation of energy conservation methods: the industrial view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broad, C.W.

    1977-10-15

    It is pointed out that New Zealand industry has been identified as putting little effort into energy conservation. An energy conservation campaign in industry to increase efficiency and reduce wastage could have major benefits for New Zealand as a whole. Little progress in implementing energy conservation techniques in industry is apparent at present. Business decisions are in the main motivated by profits. Because of the low place of energy in industry's costs of production, seen as a single factor, it hardly rates greater priority over other established production costs. A need to integrate energy costs and material costs is apparent. The need for education is obvious, now, with cheap and limitless energy no longer existing.

  2. Problems in the implementation of energy conservation methods: the industrial view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broad, C. W.

    1977-10-15

    It is pointed out that New Zealand industry has been identified as putting little effort into energy conservation. An energy conservation campaign in industry to increase efficiency and reduce wastage could have major benefits for New Zealand as a whole. Little progress in implementing energy conservation techniques in industry is apparent at present. Business decisions are in the main motivated by profits. Because of the low place of energy in industry's costs of production, seen as a single factor, it hardly rates greater priority over other established production costs. A need to integrate energy costs and material costs is apparent. The need for education is obvious, now, with cheap and limitless energy no longer existing.

  3. Post internship student-industry collaborative projects - as vehicle for the realization of challenging parts of the CDIO syllabus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lotte Bjerregaard

    2014-01-01

    Architectural engineering the 5 month internship period is placed early in the curriculum, after 4 semesters of study. It is obviously more challenging to find industry internships for students that are at an early stage in their studies because they need more supervision. However the investment is worth...... the trouble because the post internship curriculum is provided with pedagogical means to address parts of the syllabus that are on an advanced level in the learning taxonomy. The interface between the internship period and post internship student-industry collaborative projects is an important point of focus...

  4. Monitoring and troubleshooting of non-filamentous settling and dewatering problems in an industrial activated sludge treatment plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellerup, B. V.; Keiding, Kristian; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2001-01-01

    dewaterability. The monitoring program revealed that a deterioration of the floc strength and the settling properties in the process tanks was closely connected to downstream dewatering problems and poor effluent quality. Particularly severe problems were observed a few weeks after the production at the factory......A large industrial activated sludge wastewater treatment plant had temporary problems with settling and dewatering of the sludge. Microscopical investigations revealed that the poor settling properties were not due to presence of filamentous bacteria, but poor floc properties. In order...... to characterise the changes in floc properties that led to settling and dewatering problems and to find reasons for this taking place, a comprehensive monitoring program was conducted during more than one year. The monitoring program included various measurements of floc settleability, floc strength and sludge...

  5. Importance and topical problems of the industry of the nuclear fuel cycle in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warrikoff, A.

    1987-01-01

    32 companies belong to the industrial association 'Kernbrennstoffkreislauf e.V.'. They do business in the nuclear fuel cycle in the Federal Republic of Germany. This field comprises the different forms of dealing with nuclear fuels and the materials from which they are made, including the radioactive wastes resulting from the use of nuclear fuels, with the exception of the handling of such materials in nuclear power plants. Some 5000 persons - subcontractors not counted - are employed in this branch of industry. Turnover amounts to about 2 billion Deutsch Marks yearly. But it is a branch of industry that is important beyond the figures mentioned. Its existence constitutes the precondition for building, operating, and exporting nuclear power plants. This paper is concerned particularly with some topical political problems. (orig./UA) [de

  6. Metallic materials for the hydrogen energy industry and main gas pipelines: complex physical problems of aging, embrittlement, and failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nechaev, Yu S

    2008-01-01

    The possibilities of effective solutions of relevant technological problems are considered based on the analysis of fundamental physical aspects, elucidation of the micromechanisms and interrelations of aging and hydrogen embrittlement of materials in the hydrogen industry and gas-main industries. The adverse effects these mechanisms and processes have on the service properties and technological lifetime of materials are analyzed. The concomitant fundamental process of formation of carbohydride-like and other nanosegregation structures at dislocations (with the segregation capacity 1 to 1.5 orders of magnitude greater than in the widely used Cottrell 'atmosphere' model) and grain boundaries is discussed, as is the way in which these structures affect technological processes (aging, hydrogen embrittlement, stress corrosion damage, and failure) and the physicomechanical properties of the metallic materials (including the technological lifetimes of pipeline steels). (reviews of topical problems)

  7. Attraction aspects of petroleum industry: fragilities and opportunities for the petroleum companies - part 1; Atratividade da industria para-petrolifera: fragilidades e oportunidades para as petroleiras - parte 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duque, Marcelo Ascher; Szklo, Alexandre [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PPE/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2010-07-01

    This paper is the first part of the study that examine the structure of the para-petroleum worldwide industry, in accordance with strategies of the largest service industries, the merger and the acquisitions, and the positioning of petroleum operators related to their suppliers. Through the characterization of service sector activities, identifying those more sensible to increasing of market concentration, revealing strategies of vertical integration which can rise the dependence grade of the petroleum companies close to their suppliers. So, this paper evaluates the evolution of the interface among the petroleum and the para-petroleum, identifying the following aspects: the variables that can modify the organizational structure of the agents, the strategies of the service enterprises to act in a environment of elevated dynamism in his structure and competition grade, the strategies of the operators with government participation related to the para-petroleum enterprise businesses, and the consolidation of the sector leader of the service sector and his search for integration.

  8. PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT IN RUSSIA IN THE CONDITIONS OF ECONOMIC CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidziy Elena Nikolaevna

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry is one of the key fund-creating industries, the formation of the Russian economy greatly depends on it. The construction sector is cyclic, that’s why it has always been sensitive to the tendencies of the national economy. In the contemporary conditions of weak economical climate the construction industry is in a state of sluggish recession. The key indicators exercising restraining influence on the construction complex are analyzed. The author carried out calculations of the prices for residential real estate in the past years. The author’s view on the near-term prospects on the exit from recession state is formulated. From the view of the today’s state and the nearest development prospects, it can be stated that the construction industry is one of the most problematic among the basic economic sectors. Retrieval of the expansion rate of the construction industry is possible in case of the positive changes of general economic state.

  9. Multivariate Statistical Process Control Charts and the Problem of Interpretation: A Short Overview and Some Applications in Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Bersimis, Sotiris; Panaretos, John; Psarakis, Stelios

    2005-01-01

    Woodall and Montgomery [35] in a discussion paper, state that multivariate process control is one of the most rapidly developing sections of statistical process control. Nowadays, in industry, there are many situations in which the simultaneous monitoring or control, of two or more related quality - process characteristics is necessary. Process monitoring problems in which several related variables are of interest are collectively known as Multivariate Statistical Process Control (MSPC).This ...

  10. Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) part 6-2 : generic standards : immunity for industrial environments

    CERN Document Server

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

    1999-01-01

    Applies to electrical and electronic apparatus intended for use in industrial environments, for which no designed product or product-family immunity standard exists. Immunity requirements in the frequency range 0 Hz to 400 GHz are covered, in relation to continuous and transient, conducted and radiated disturbances, including electrostatic discharges. Test requirements are specified for each port considered. Apparatus intended to be used in industrial locations are characterized by the existence of one or more of the following: - a power network exists powered by a high or medium voltage power transformer for the supply of an installation feeding manufacturing or similar plant; - industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) apparatus; - heavy inductive or capacitive loads are frequently switched; - currents and associated magnetic fields are high.

  11. A study for safety and health management problem of semiconductor industry in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Chin-Jung; Wang, Hui-Ming; Feng, Wen-Yang; Tseng, Feng-Yi

    2008-12-01

    The main purpose of this study is to discuss and explore the safety and health management in semiconductor industry. The researcher practically investigates and interviews the input, process and output of the safety and health management of semiconductor industry by using the questionnaires and the interview method which is developed according to the framework of the OHSAS 18001. The result shows that there are six important factors for the safety and health management in Taiwan semiconductor industry. 1. The company should make employee clearly understand the safety and health laws and standards. 2. The company should make the safety and health management policy known to the public. 3. The company should put emphasis on the pursuance of the safety and health management laws. 4. The company should prevent the accidents. 5. The safety and health message should be communicated sufficiently. 6. The company should consider safety and health norm completely.

  12. Problems of protection of urban ambient air pollution from industrial dust emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azarov Valeriy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of large cities accompanied by the development of the industry hashistorically led to the fact that now residential areas are located side by side with the industrial production. For instance, exactly this situation has developed in the city of Volgograd, as well as in other Russian cities, where sometimes the distance from large enterprises to a living area is 100 m or less. In addition, small-scale entrepreneurs usually place their production directly in their past places of residence. As a result, the content of harmful substances in the air of city blocks is much higher than the standards of hygiene require. It is obvious that the current situation can be improved through the use of modern, more advanced technologies. However, increasing the efficiency of air systems to protect the city from pollution and industrial emissions is an urgent task. The authors propose a version of the system layout, designed to reduce dust emissions in urban air.

  13. Research and industrialization of near-net rolling technology used in shaft parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhenghuan; Wang, Baoyu; Zheng, Zhenhua

    2018-03-01

    Shaft part rolling is an efficient and green nearnet shaping technology offering many advantages, including high production efficiency, high material utilization rate, high product quality, and excellent production environment. In this paper, the features of shaft part rolling are introduced along with the working principles of two main shaft part rolling technologies, namely, cross wedge rolling (CWR) and skew rolling (SR). In relation to this technology, some R&D achievements gained by the University of Science and Technology Beijing are summarized. Finally, the latest developments in shaft part rolling are presented, including SR steel balls, precise forming of camshaft blank by CWR, SR phosphorous copper balls at room temperature, and CWR hollow axle sleeve. Although the shaft part rolling technology has been widely used in China, it only accounts for about 15% of applicable parts at present. Nevertheless, this technology has broad application prospects.

  14. High repetition ration solid state switched CO2 TEA laser employed in industrial ultrasonic testing of aircraft parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bergmann, Hubertus; Morkel, Francois; Stehmann, Timo

    2015-02-01

    Laser Ultrasonic Testing (UT) is an important technique for the non-destructive inspection of composite parts in the aerospace industry. In laser UT a high power, short pulse probe laser is scanned across the material surface, generating ultrasound waves which can be detected by a second low power laser system and are used to draw a defect map of the part. We report on the design and testing of a transversely excited atmospheric pressure (TEA) CO2 laser system specifically optimised for laser UT. The laser is excited by a novel solid-state switched pulsing system and utilises either spark or corona preionisation. It provides short output pulses of less than 100 ns at repetition rates of up to 1 kHz, optimised for efficient ultrasonic wave generation. The system has been designed for highly reliable operation under industrial conditions and a long term test with total pulse counts in excess of 5 billion laser pulses is reported.

  15. Industrial pollution of the Moselle River: the birth, development and management of an environmental problem, 1850-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcier, J.R.

    2005-12-01

    In the 1850's, the water quality of surface waters in the Moselle river drainage basin began to suffer from the development of heavy industrial activities (coal and iron ore mining, steel and soda making). Industrial development also fuelled a demographic impetus that proved detrimental to the quality of surface waters. This study uses archival sources to analyse the ineffectiveness of the policies that were launched to regulate pollution. In a region traumatized by the Prussian annexation of a quarter of its surface (1870), industrial production enjoyed a symbolic protection that allowed water pollution to go unabated. The fuzzy status of pollution in law contributed to the immunity of industrialists. From the 1950's on, fear that the region might experience severe water shortages due to the growth of water consumption by industries and cities alike enabled more stringent policies to be devised. They still had to take into account the interests of the heavy industry and their effectiveness is questionable. Hydrological planning was based upon a functionalist vision of water resources that did not take environmental issues into account. The situation changed in the 1970's and 1980's, when European integration and the Sandoz catastrophe in the Rhine (November 1986) tipped the scale in favour of more vigorous environmental policies. This study develops the concepts of a 'regional system' and of the 'mode of construction' of an environmental problem. These prove to be valuable theoretical elements to ground environmental geography studies. (author)

  16. Comparative analysis of energy impacts of traditional and partly electronic environmental auditing: Learning from the Japanese automotive industry case

    OpenAIRE

    Mbohwa, C

    2008-01-01

    This paper does a comparative analysis and assessment of energy impacts of traditional and partly electronic ISO 14001 environmental management system auditing that using videoconferencing systems. The focus is on the Japanese automotive industry. The idea is to quantify the environmental impacts of auditing and resolve the important question on whether or not the use of information and communication technology (ICT) in environmental auditing reduces environmental impacts in IS...

  17. Open source projects as incubators of innovation: From niche phenomenon to integral part of the software industry

    OpenAIRE

    Schrape, Jan-Felix

    2017-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, open source development has become an integral part of the software industry and a key component of the innovation strategies of all major IT providers. Against this backdrop, this paper seeks to develop a systematic overview of open source communities and their socio-economic contexts. I begin with a reconstruction of the genesis of open source software projects and their changing relation- ships to established IT companies. This is followed by the identification of f...

  18. STRUCTURAL ALTERNATIVES OF RUSSIAN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES AND ARCHITECTURE OF TECHNOLOGICAL MODERNIZATION. PART 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izryadnova O. I.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Continuing stagnation in the Russian economy makes a compelling case for structural reforms and transition to new technologies in non-financial sector. Given the backdrop of investor choice to wait out the situation and pause their investments, stagnation threatens to remain for longer. The biggest concerns are related to the slowdown in the range of high-tech non-resource manufacturing industries. These industries should become the cornerstone to foster the development of scientific, technical, and innovative potential of the country, overcoming the technical deficit, and implementation of modern technologies of the sixth technological generation. The article assesses the place and role of manufacturing industries in Russia’s economy and presents an analysis of dynamic shifts in their structure during the business cycle. The article demonstrates the results of empirical study of monitoring of innovative receptiveness of manufacturing industries. We discuss the directions of expanded cooperation between business and state. We also outline opportunities for correcting policies and tools directed at activating innovative functioning of the manufacturing sector in the view of the growth of geopolitical tensions, forms and methods of effective institutional management of the modernization of business units. It appears that the issues of investment maneuver to single out some types of economic activities, which manufacture products and services with high added value and increasing competitiveness of the Russian economy, call for the change in the model of economic development.

  19. Agronomic factors related to the quality of wheat for the starch industry; part I: Sprout damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelfkens, M.; Hamer R.J.

    1991-01-01

    The wheat starch industry in the Netherlands processes about 300.000 t of wheat annually. However, only a small percentage of this wheat is grown in the Netherlands although it has been demonstrated that Dutch wheat varieties can also be successfully processed. Climatological and cultural aspects

  20. 29 CFR Non - Mandatory Appendix A to Subpart B of Part 1904-Partially Exempt Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Exempt Industries Non Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... classification, must report to OSHA any workplace incident that results in a fatality or the hospitalization of... Agents, Brokers & Services 832 Individual and Family Services. 653 Real Estate Agents and Managers 835...

  1. A Model for Promoting Poultry Industry Development in Togo: Part 1. Management Practices and Incubation Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tona, K.; Agbonon, A.; Eklu-Gadegbeku, K.; Teteh, A.; Simons, P.; Buyse, J.; Everaert, N.; Kemp, B.; Decuypere, E.; Gbeassor, M.

    2014-01-01

    In commercial poultry husbandry practice, the hatchery takes over the incubation of bird eggs in order to provide as many day-old chicks as needed at any time to farmers. The main bottleneck for poultry industry development in Togo is the lack of day-old chick supply. Indeed, there is no proficient

  2. On-Demand Spare Parts for the Marine Industry with Directed Energy Deposition : Propeller Use Case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ya, Wei; Hamilton, Kelvin; Meboldt, Mirko; Klahn, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    As additive manufacturing (AM) gains greater industrial exposure, there is a drive towards defining practical, high-value processes and products. Defining viable business cases is critical to ensure successful technology adoption. Given the marine industry’s slow uptake of AM, the potential of Wire

  3. STRUCTURAL ALTERNATIVES OF RUSSIAN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES AND ARCHITECTURE OF TECHNOLOGICAL MODERNIZATION. PART 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izryadnova O. I.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Continuing stagnation in the Russian economy makes a compelling case for structural reforms and transition to new technologies in non-financial sector. Given the backdrop of investor choice to wait out the situation and pause their investments, stagnation threatens to remain for longer. The biggest concerns are related to the slowdown in the range of high-tech non-resource manufacturing industries. These industries should become the cornerstone to foster the development of scientific, technical, and innovative potential of the country, overcoming the technical deficit, and implementation of modern technologies of the sixth technological generation. The article assesses the place and role of manufacturing industries in Russia’s economy and presents an analysis of dynamic shifts in their structure during the business cycle. The article demonstrates the results of empirical study of monitoring of innovative receptiveness of manufacturing industries. We discuss the directions of expanded cooperation between business and state. We also outline opportunities for correcting policies and tools directed at activating innovative functioning of the manufacturing sector in the view of the growth of geopolitical tensions, forms and methods of effective institutional management of the modernization of business units. It appears that the issues of investment maneuver to single out some types of economic activities, which manufacture products and services with high added value and increasing competitiveness of the Russian economy, call for the change in the model of economic development.

  4. The Domestic Telecommunications Carrier Industry. Part I. President's Task Force on Communications Policy. Staff Paper Five.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostow, Eugene V.

    A staff paper submitted to the President's Task Force on Communications Policy recommends that public policy ensure an integrated structure in the telecommunications industry, while fostering limited competition to keep the system responsive to new technology and to consumer demands. The present system of regulated monopoly for companies supplying…

  5. The Problem of Agricultural and Industrial Education for African Americans: A Historical Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croom, Dan B.; Alston, Antoine

    2009-01-01

    The model of agricultural and industrial education for African Americans in the United States was created by Samuel Chapman Armstrong, founder of Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute. Armstrong developed a paternal approach to educating African Americans and developed the Hampton Institute curriculum with moral education as its base. Booker…

  6. Principles, effects and problems of differential power pricing policy for energy intensive industries in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Boqiang; Liu, Jianghua

    2011-01-01

    The Chinese government canceled the preferential power pricing policies for energy intensive industries and imposed a reverse differential pricing policy in order to promote energy efficiency and the adjustment and upgrading of the industrial structure. This article analyzes the principles of China's differential power pricing policy, the externalities of energy and the modified Ramsey pricing rule, and also points out the policy implications of China's differential power pricing policy. In our samples, we investigate eight power intensive products in the Henan province with respect to their power consumption per unit (power intensity), electricity cost, total cost, the electricity tariff and profit, in order to test the effects of the differential power pricing policy. The results show that the primary effect of the differential power pricing policy is that enterprises decrease their total costs and improve their productive efficiencies in advance, in anticipating a higher electricity tariff. -- Research highlights: → The article suggests a modified Ramsey pricing model where demand elasticity is replaced by elasticity of energy consumption and polluting elasticity to internalize the negative externality of high energy intensive industry. → The article assesses the effects of differential pricing policy through on-site survey of high energy intensive industries in Henan province and analyzes the reasons behind those effects. → The article presents the lessons and policy implications of implementing differential pricing policy aimed at energy conservation and emission reduction.

  7. Occupational safety of different industrial sectors in Khartoum State, Sudan. Part 1: Safety performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Gehan R; El-Marakby, Fadia A; H Deign El-Nor, Yasser; Nofal, Faten H; Zakaria, Adel M

    2012-12-01

    Safety performance evaluation enables decision makers improve safety acts. In Sudan, accident records, statistics, and safety performance were not evaluated before maintenance of accident records became mandatory in 2005. This study aimed at evaluating and comparing safety performance by accident records among different cities and industrial sectors in Khartoum state, Sudan, during the period from 2005 to 2007. This was a retrospective study, the sample in which represented all industrial enterprises in Khartoum state employing 50 workers or more. All industrial accident records of the Ministry of Manpower and Health and those of different enterprises during the period from 2005 to 2007 were reviewed. The safety performance indicators used within this study were the frequency-severity index (FSI) and fatal and disabling accident frequency rates (DAFR). In Khartoum city, the FSI [0.10 (0.17)] was lower than that in Bahari [0.11 (0.21)] and Omdurman [0.84 (0.34)]. It was the maximum in the chemical sector [0.33 (0.64)] and minimum in the metallurgic sector [0.09 (0.19)]. The highest DAFR was observed in Omdurman [5.6 (3.5)] and in the chemical sector [2.5 (4.0)]. The fatal accident frequency rate in the mechanical and electrical engineering industry was the highest [0.0 (0.69)]. Male workers who were older, divorced, and had lower levels of education had the lowest safety performance indicators. The safety performance of the industrial enterprises in Khartoum city was the best. The safety performance in the chemical sector was the worst with regard to FSI and DAFR. The age, sex, and educational level of injured workers greatly affect safety performance.

  8. Sakharov readings 2010: Environmental problems of the XXI century. Proceedings of the 10 international scientific conference. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundas, S.P.; Mel'nov, S.B.; Poznyak, S.S.

    2010-05-01

    Proceeding includes materials of reports of 10-ts international scientific conference. Part 1e 'Sakharov readings 2010: Environmental problems of XXI century', which took place 20-21 of May 2010 in the International Sakharov Environmental University. The first part of the proceedings continues abstracts about social-ecological and ecology-ethical problems, medical ecology, biological ecology, biomonitoring, bioindication and bioremediation. Materials of the conference intend on wide area of the specialists in ecology and adjacent sciences, teachers, post-graduate students and students of universities and colleges.

  9. Available forest biomass for new energetic and industrial prospects. Part 1: analysis and synthesis of existing studies compiled at the international level. Part 2: volume calculations. Part 3: economic part. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Motivated by new energetic constraints and the interest of biomass, the authors report a bibliographical survey of studies concerning the evaluation of the available forest biomass. They comment the geographical and time distribution of the identified and compiled studies. They analyse their different topics. Then, they discuss the various field hypotheses, discuss and comments various resource assessment methodologies. They comment the resource the French forest can be, present a synthesis of the available resource at the regional level according to the different studies. They propose a review of some technical-economical aspects (costs, energy cost, price evolutions, improvement of the wood-energy mobilization). The second part proposes a whole set of volume calculations for different forest types (clusters or plantations of trees, copses, sawmills products), for industry and household consumption. It discusses the available volumes with respect to accessibility, additional available volumes, and possible improvements. The third part analyses, comments and discusses the wood market and wood energetic uses, and the possible supply curves for wood energetic uses by 2016

  10. A Hybrid Column Generation approach for an Industrial Waste Collection Routing Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauge, Kristian; Larsen, Jesper; Lusby, Richard Martin

    2014-01-01

    , while empty containers must be returned to the depot to await further assignments. Unlike, the traditional ROROR problem, where vehicles may transport one skip container at a time regardless of whether it is full or not, we consider cases in which a vehicle can transport up to eight containers, at most...... two of which can be full. We propose a Generalized Set Partitioning formulation of the problem and describe a hybrid column generation procedure to solve it. A fast Tabu Search heuristic is used to generate new columns. The proposed methodology is tested on nine data sets, four of which are actual......, real-world problem instances. Results indicate that the hybrid column generation outperforms a purely heuristic approach in terms of both running time and solution quality. High quality solutions to problems containing up to 100 orders can be solved in approximately 15 minutes....

  11. Pulmonary Problems among Quarry Workers of Stone Crushing Industrial Site at Umuoghara, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AN Nwibo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Respiratory problem is one of the major health hazards in dust-exposed workers; it is a major cause of morbidity and mortality all over the world. Objective: To determine the prevalence of respiratory problems and lung function impairment among quarry workers in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Methods: Respiratory problems and lung function were studied in 403 quarry workers aged 10–60 years. Respiratory problems were investigated with a questionnaire based on international models adapted for the study population. Lung function was assessed by spirometry and chest roentgenography. Results: The respiratory problems found were chest pain (47.6%, occasional cough (40.7%, occasional shortness of breath (6.5% and wheezing (5.2%. The mean±SD FEV1 and FVC values were significantly decreased with length of exposure—respectively, 3.52±0.77 and 3.91±0.72 L for 10 years of exposure. Moreover, the mean±SD FEV1 and FVC values of smoker (3.37±0.81 and 3.56±1.02 L, respectively were significantly (p<0.05 lower than that of non-smokers (3.68±1.02 and 3.89±0.99 L, respectively working in the quarry site. Conclusion: Chronic exposure to dust due to stone quarrying may increase the risk of respiratory problems and impaired lung function—cigarette smokers are at higher risk.

  12. Closed loop problems in biomechanics. Part II--an optimization approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, C L; Hay, J G; Andrews, J G

    1982-01-01

    A closed loop problem in biomechanics may be defined as a problem in which there are one or more closed loops formed by the human body in contact with itself or with an external system. Under certain conditions the problem is indeterminate--the unknown forces and torques outnumber the equations. Force transducing devices, which would help solve this problem, have serious drawbacks, and existing methods are inaccurate and non-general. The purposes of the present paper are (1) to develop a general procedure for solving closed loop problems; (2) to illustrate the application of the procedure; and (3) to examine the validity of the procedure. A mathematical optimization approach is applied to the solution of three different closed loop problems--walking up stairs, vertical jumping and cartwheeling. The following conclusions are drawn: (1) the method described is reasonably successful for predicting horizontal and vertical reaction forces at the distal segments although problems exist for predicting the points of application of these forces; (2) the results provide some support for the notion that the human neuromuscular mechanism attempts to minimize the joint torques and thus, to a certain degree, the amount of muscular effort; (3) in the validation procedure it is desirable to have a force device for each of the distal segments in contact with a fixed external system; and (4) the method is sufficiently general to be applied to all classes of closed loop problems.

  13. Identification and quantification of principal–agent problems affecting energy efficiency investments and use decisions in the trucking industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernon, David; Meier, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Energy related Principal–Agent (PA) problems cause inefficient combinations of investment, operating costs, and usage behavior. The complex market structure of the trucking industry contributes to split incentives because entities responsible for investments in energy efficiency do not always pay fuel costs and drivers are often not rewarded for fuel-efficient operation. Some contractual relationships exist in the trucking industry that hinder responses to fuel price signals. Up to 91% of total trucking fuel consumption in the U.S. is affected by “usage” PA problems, where the driver does not pay fuel costs and lacks incentive for fuel saving operation. Approximately 23% of trailers are exposed to an “efficiency problem” when owners of rented trailers do not pay fuel costs and therefore have little incentive to invest in efficiency upgrades such as improved trailer aerodynamics and reduced tire rolling resistance. This study shows that PA problems have the potential to significantly increase fuel consumption through avoided investments, insufficient maintenance, and fuel-wasting practices. Further research into the causes and effects of PA problems can shape policies to promote better alignment of costs and benefits, leading to reduced fuel use and carbon emissions. - Highlights: ► We identify and quantify principal agent market failures in the trucking industry. ► Up to 91% of truck fuel consumption is exposed to a usage principal–agent market failure. ► Twenty-three percent of trailers are exposed to an efficiency principal–agent market failure. ► These market failures at least partially insulate key decision makers from fuel price signals.

  14. Surface Coating of Plastic Parts for Business Machines (Industrial Surface Coating): New Source Performance Standards (NSPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn more about the new source performance standards (NSPS) for surface coating of plastic parts for business machines by reading the rule summary and history and finding the code of federal regulations as well as related rules.

  15. The part of the international investments in the Russian petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locatelli, C.

    2004-03-01

    The ''russian risk'' is important for the international petroleum companies, in spite of the creation of the TNK-BP joint venture. The investment in the petroleum domain face different and contradictory interests in function of the economic implied actors. To analyze the situation the author discussed the russian petroleum industry as an ''unfinished model'', and how the place for the international investments is limited. (A.L.B.)

  16. Modelling of an industrial environment, part 1.: Monte Carlo simulations of photon transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kis, Z.; Eged, K.; Meckbach, R.; Voigt, G.

    2002-01-01

    After a nuclear accident releasing radioactive material into the environment the external exposures may contribute significantly to the radiation exposure of the population (UNSCEAR 1988, 2000). For urban populations the external gamma exposure from radionuclides deposited on the surfaces of the urban-industrial environments yields the dominant contributions to the total dose to the public (Kelly 1987; Jacob and Meckbach 1990). The radiation field is naturally influenced by the environment around the sources. For calculations of the shielding effect of the structures in complex and realistic urban environments Monte Carlo methods turned out to be useful tools (Jacob and Meckbach 1987; Meckbach et al. 1988). Using these methods a complex environment can be set up in which the photon transport can be solved on a reliable way. The accuracy of the methods is in principle limited only by the knowledge of the atomic cross sections and the computational time. Several papers using Monte Carlo results for calculating doses from the external gamma exposures were published (Jacob and Meckbach 1987, 1990; Meckbach et al. 1988; Rochedo et al. 1996). In these papers the Monte Carlo simulations were run in urban environments and for different photon energies. The industrial environment can be defined as such an area where productive and/or commercial activity is carried out. A good example can be a factory or a supermarket. An industrial environment can rather be different from the urban ones as for the types and structures of the buildings and their dimensions. These variations will affect the radiation field of this environment. Hence there is a need to run new Monte Carlo simulations designed specially for the industrial environments

  17. Some Problems Associated With the Application of Copyright Law Within the Music Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Miroslav Skoro

    2009-01-01

    This work examines the historical, philosophical and legal particulars relating to copyright law and intellectual property as an intangible work, as well as, the practical application of those rights with emphasis on the particular effects of computerisation and the emergance of the internet on the business results of the music industry. A question is raised as to whether it is businessly ethical for a legal entity to accrue considerable material gain as the result of illegal usage of copywri...

  18. Consumer demands: Major problems facing industry in a consumer-driven society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, G

    1994-01-01

    Demand is driven by conventional market forces over much of the world among consumers with strong positive attitudes to meat as a nutritious, tasty and premium food; price in relation to income, availability, quality (including leanness) and relevance to life-style remain the dominant forces operating. But in the developed world, there are emerging concerns about how meat is produced, which are likely to have negative effects on demand, particularly that of the current younger generation, and which may well begin to affect Government policies towards the meat industry. The industry needs to establish strong information and education programmes, but also to examine its procedures to provide greater consumer assurance about practises and controls. Also the scientists and technologists serving the industry need to help it move towards sustainable lower input, less environmentally damaging systems, less reliance on drugs, stimulants and additives, sensitive exploitation of the new genetics and with more consideration for the animals involved. Copyright © 1993. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Nature of job and psychiatric problems: the experiences of industrial workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perwez, Syed Khalid; Khalique, Abdul; Ramaseshan, H; Swamy, T N V R; Mansoor, Mohammed

    2014-10-09

    The present study aimed to examine the effect of nature of job (High risk/low risk) on psychiatric problems of 200 workers of Tata Motors Ltd. in Jamshedpur. The workers/participants were divided on the basis of the nature of their job (high/low risk) and their salary (high/low paid) resulting in four sub-groups with 50 participants respectively s. The Middlesex Hospital Questionnaire (M.H.Q) constructed by Crown and Crisp (1966) and adapted in Hindi by Srivastava and Bhat in 1974 was administered on the participants. Results clearly indicated that nature of job (high and low risk) played a significant role in creating psychiatric problems in workers. Workers doing high risk jobs showed a greater amount of psychiatric problems compared to workers doing low risk jobs in both high paid and low paid categories. Psychiatric problems included free-floating anxiety, obsessional traits and symptoms, phobic anxiety, somatic concomitants of anxiety, neurotic depression, and hysterical personality traits were seen more in high risk job workers. High risk job workers had significantly higher psychiatric problems compared to low risk job workers.

  20. Petroleum industry's current progress and challenges in dealing with the year 2000 problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, D.I.; Radu, C.G.; McKenzie, S.; Stuart, K.

    1998-01-01

    The steps that some major oil companies in Canada have taken to prepare their computers and automated equipment for the year 2000 (Y2K) are described. It is acknowledged that with 1700 retail service stations, over 300 wholesale operations, and 26 terminals, the extent of the problem is great. In addition some 38 upstream and 65 downstream applications have been identified as mission critical, not counting the 30 mission critical control systems in the upstream field operations and approximately the same number of operations in the downstream refinery. The good news is that remediation and testing is well underway nationally and the Calgary test laboratory will be commercially available in 1999. Getting management on-side, selling the positive aspects of Y2K, making good use of reputable consulting companies, keeping employees properly informed of problems and progress, are some of the key criteria in solving Y2K problems successfully

  1. Region-specific study of the electric utility industry: problem identification, analysis, and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pochan, M.J.

    1985-07-01

    A number of problems were identified that could stand in the way of maintaining an adequate, reliable and economic supply of electric power for the United States in the future. The problems were analyzed by studying a specific region, VACAR (Virginia-Carolinas), in some detail. It was concluded that the future power supply is in jeopardy, but that drastic changes in the present system of investor-owned utilities, specifically, deregulation or government ownership, were not justified. It was recommended that the present electric system be modified and strengthened to meet future needs. 2 refs., 8 figs., 15 tabs.

  2. Region-specific study of the electric utility industry: problem identification, analysis, and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochan, M.J.

    1985-07-01

    A number of problems were identified that could stand in the way of maintaining an adequate, reliable and economic supply of electric power for the United States in the future. The problems were analyzed by studying a specific region, VACAR (Virginia-Carolinas), in some detail. It was concluded that the future power supply is in jeopardy, but that drastic changes in the present system of investor-owned utilities, specifically, deregulation or government ownership, were not justified. It was recommended that the present electric system be modified and strengthened to meet future needs. 2 refs., 8 figs., 15 tabs

  3. Matching presentational tools' ontology to part-task demands to foster problem-solving in business economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slof, Bert; Erkens, Gijsbert; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Slof, B., Erkens, G., & Kirschner, P. A. (2010, July). Matching representational tools’ ontology to part-task demands to foster problem-solving in business economics. In K. Gomez, L. Lyons, & J. Radinsky (Eds.), Learning in the Disciplines: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference of the

  4. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce; Winton, Shea

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to

  5. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to

  6. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or {approx}28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In

  7. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or {approx}28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In

  8. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce; Winton, Shea

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to

  9. Depression and Behavioral Problems Among Adolescent Girls and Young Women Employees of the Textile Industry in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanaselvam, Nancy Angeline; Joseph, Bobby

    2018-01-01

    Stress and depression are common in textile industry employees due to inadequate working conditions and challenging socioeconomic conditions. The objective of the study was to assess depression and mental health among adolescent and young females currently employed in a textile factory located in Tamil Nadu compared with past employees and women who have never been employed. This cross-sectional study included a total of 107 participants in each study group who were interviewed. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire were administered to screen participants for depression and mental health. More current employees (16.82%) and past employees (15.88%) suffered from depression severe enough to require treatment compared with never employed girls and young women (2.8%). Of the study participants, 59.8% of current employees, 63.6% of past employees, and 32.7% of never employed women had mental health or behavior problems. In the regression model, history of abuse was significantly associated with depression. Participants who were current employees and reported family debt and a history of abuse were significantly more likely to have mental health or behavior problems. Mental health issues such as depression and behavior problems were more likely among adolescent girls currently employed in textile industries. Further studies into the causes of this phenomenon are needed.

  10. The effects of occupational noise on blood pressure and heart rate of workers in an automotive parts industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantary, Saba; Dehghani, Ali; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed; Omidi, Leila; Rahimzadeh, Mitra

    2015-07-01

    One of the most important impacts of industrial noise is physiological and psychological effects. The increases in workers' blood pressure and heart rate were detected during and after exposure to high levels of noise. The objectives of this research were to determine whether the noise exposures have any effects on blood pressure and heart rate of workers in the automotive parts industry. This case study was done in 2011 at different units of an automotive parts manufacturing in Tehran. Sound pressure level was measured at different units of the factory with a calibrated instrument. Demographic features of workers were gathered with an appropriate questionnaire. Heart rate and blood pressure were measured twice in a day in the start time of work day (before exposure to noise) and middle shift hours (during exposure to noise) in the occupational physician office. For analyzing data, chi-square, independent sample t-test, paired t-test, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were used. P industrial noise may increase the heart rate of workers. Although rises in heart rate, systolic, and diastolic blood pressure of workers in the case group were observed after exposure to noise, the values of heart rate, systolic, and diastolic blood pressure were in the normal range. Further experimental investigations are needed to determine the relationships between these variables.

  11. SEACAS Theory Manuals: Part 1. Problem Formulation in Nonlinear Solid Mechancis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attaway, S.W.; Laursen, T.A.; Zadoks, R.I.

    1998-08-01

    This report gives an introduction to the basic concepts and principles involved in the formulation of nonlinear problems in solid mechanics. By way of motivation, the discussion begins with a survey of some of the important sources of nonlinearity in solid mechanics applications, using wherever possible simple one dimensional idealizations to demonstrate the physical concepts. This discussion is then generalized by presenting generic statements of initial/boundary value problems in solid mechanics, using linear elasticity as a template and encompassing such ideas as strong and weak forms of boundary value problems, boundary and initial conditions, and dynamic and quasistatic idealizations. The notational framework used for the linearized problem is then extended to account for finite deformation of possibly inelastic solids, providing the context for the descriptions of nonlinear continuum mechanics, constitutive modeling, and finite element technology given in three companion reports.

  12. Methods of solving of the optimal stabilization problem for stationary smooth control systems. Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kondrat'ev

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article some ideas of Hamilton mechanics and differential-algebraic Geometry are used to exact definition of the potential function (Bellman-Lyapunov function in the optimal stabilization problem of smooth finite-dimensional systems.

  13. Minimizers of a Class of Constrained Vectorial Variational Problems: Part I

    KAUST Repository

    Hajaiej, Hichem; Markowich, Peter A.; Trabelsi, Saber

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we prove the existence of minimizers of a class of multiconstrained variational problems. We consider systems involving a nonlinearity that does not satisfy compactness, monotonicity, neither symmetry properties. Our approach hinges

  14. Opportunity Structure for Gambling and Problem Gambling among Employees in the Transport Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revheim, Tevje; Buvik, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    Working conditions for employees in the transport sector might present an opportunity structure for gambling by providing access to gambling during the workday. This study investigates connections between opportunity structure, gambling during the workday, and gambling problems among employees in the transport sector. Data has been collected from…

  15. On the Problem of Constructing Routes, Part II: Methodology and Numerical Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linis V. K.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We consider a periodic aviation schedule which is a finite collection of flights with given arrival/departure times. For this schedule, we solve the problem of finding the minimal number of aircrafts needed to carry out the flights. The crucial role in solving this problem is played by so-called deficit function (DFs defined as the difference between departures and arrivals on interval [0,t] for each terminal.

  16. How is Order 636 affecting the gas producing industry? -- Part 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is an interview with a representative of the natural gas industry regarding the impacts of the new Order 636 recently approved by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. The regulations are related to natural gas production and regulated pipeline distribution. The goal is to help establish long-term contracts between users and producers with a stable transportation system allowing both competition and price controls. The interview discusses the economic aspects of this regulation, the effects on marketing and production, and the ability of the regulation to actually be a catalyst for long-term contract agreements

  17. The year's new drugs & biologics, 2017, part II - News that shaped the industry in 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graul, A I; Dulsat, C; Pina, P; Tracy, M; D'Souza, P

    2018-02-01

    This eagle's-eye overview of the drug industry in 2017 provides insight into some of last year's top stories, including the growing opioid crisis affecting the U.S. and other developed countries and the 2017-2018 influenza epidemic, with a spotlight on the need for a universal flu vaccine. As in previous years, we also review orphan drug development, new agency-supported programs such as PRIME and RMAT, pipeline attrition and drug pricing, as well as pharma/biotech mergers and acquisitions of note. Finally, we take a glimpse into the crystal ball to anticipate the new drugs that will be approved in 2018. Copyright 2018 Clarivate Analytics.

  18. A multi-objective set covering problem: A case study of warehouse allocation in truck industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Malekinezhad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Designing distribution centers is normally formulated in a form of set covering where is primary objective is to minimize the number of connected facilities. However, there are other issues affecting our decision on selecting suitable distribution centers such as weather conditions, temperature, infrastructure facilities, etc. In this paper, we propose a multi-objective set covering techniques where different objectives are considered in an integrated model. The proposed model of this paper is implemented for a real-world case study of truck-industry and the results are analyzed.

  19. Discussion of Environmental Problem and Study of Environmental Impact on Steel Industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The environmental conditions in steel industry were discussed in detail. It was also pointed out that it was necessary to reduce the quantity of waste generated and discharged by improving the raw material, energy structure and consumption rate, and reinforcing the waste control and management. At the same time, the relevant mathematical models of environmental impact were set up on the basis of raw material consumption, energy consumption and waste generation and discharge in different technical routes of steelmaking. The result showed that the production route of DR-iron clearly has more environmental advantages over that of BF-hot metal.

  20. Voice problems of group fitness instructors: diagnosis, treatment, perceived and experienced attitudes and expectations of the industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbach, Anna F

    2013-11-01

    To determine the anatomical and physiological nature of voice problems and their treatment in those group fitness instructors (GFIs) who have sought a medical diagnosis; the impact of voice disorders on quality of life and their contribution to activity limitations and participation restrictions; and the perceived attitudes and level of support from the industry at large in response to instructor's voice disorders and need for treatment. Prospective self-completion questionnaire design. Thirty-eight individuals (3 males and 35 females) currently active in the Australian fitness industry who had been diagnosed with a voice disorder completed an online self-completion questionnaire administered via SurveyMonkey. Laryngeal pathology included vocal fold nodules (N = 24), vocal fold cysts (N = 2), vocal fold hemorrhage (N = 1), and recurrent chronic laryngitis (N = 3). Eight individuals reported vocal strain and muscle tension dysphonia without concurrent vocal fold pathology. Treatment methods were variable, with 73.68% (N = 28) receiving voice therapy alone, 7.89% (N = 3) having voice therapy in combination with surgery, and 10.53% (N = 4) having voice therapy in conjunction with medication. Three individuals (7.89%) received no treatment for their voice disorder. During treatment, 82% of the cohort altered their teaching practices. Half of the cohort reported that their voice problems led to social withdrawal, decreased job satisfaction, and emotional distress. Greater than 65% also reported being dissatisfied with the level of industry and coworker support during the period of voice recovery. This study identifies that GFIs are susceptible to a number of voice disorders that impact their social and professional lives, and there is a need for more proactive training and advice on voice care for instructors, as well as those in management positions within the industry to address mixed approaches and opinions regarding the importance of voice care. Copyright © 2013

  1. Problems in complying with regulations related to low activity materials: Industry, medical, research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steen, J. van der

    1997-01-01

    The new Basic Safety Standards (BSS) for protection against ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources contain nuclide specific exemption levels on reporting. In many cases, these exemption levels differ orders of magnitude, higher or lower, compared to those from the old standards. For the natural radionuclides, the exempted specific activity is much lower (10 or even 1 Bq/g, depending on the radionuclide, compared to 500 Bq/g in the old BSS). As a consequence, industrial activities with certain minerals or raw materials containing elevated concentrations of radionuclides, which were exempted from the radiation protection control system under the old BSS, may have to be declared as radiologically relevant activities and may now come under regulatory control. Examples of these activities are the phosphate ore processing, the refining of a number of metals, the use of slag, and the oil and natural gas production. This might give rise, in some cases, to large volumes of waste which should be treated, conditioned and disposed of in a controlled way. For artificial radionuclides with higher exemption levels, the use of such radionuclides for industrial, medical or research purposes, such as tracers, sealed sources and beta lights, may increase considerably without being controlled any longer by the regulatory system. (author)

  2. The Influence of Problems Faced during Internships on Interns' Views of Their Profession and Their Intention to Work in the Tourism Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasli, Mehmet; Ilban, Mehmet Oguzhan

    2013-01-01

    Problem Statement: The problem of this research is identifying the difficulties that undergraduate students experience during their internships and assessing their future intention to work in the tourism industry. Purpose of Study: This research aims to identify the problems undergraduate students encounter as interns in tourism programs and to…

  3. Zeolites applications in pollution control; radioactive-, municipal-, industrial- and agricultural-waste water treatments: part-I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akbar, S.

    1991-01-01

    Zeolite cations exchangers provide a unique combination of selectivity, capacity and stability not available in other ion-exchangers. In this era of environmental concern, the attractive physical and chemical properties of zeolites have been utilized worldwide in the solution to this problem. The desirable characteristics of high ion-exchange selectivity and resistance to radiolytic degradation have made certain zeolites quite useful for the separation and purification of radioisotopes from radioactive wastewater. Zeolites have also been effectively used in nuclear industry for treatment of radioactive wastes and selectively removing ammonium ions from wastewater. (author)

  4. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ELECTRIC POWER INDUSTRY AFTER THE OCTOBER REVOLUTION OF 1917: ORIGINS, PROSPECTS AND PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Gibadullin

    2018-01-01

    implementation of the plans ahead of schedule. In the post-war period, from 1950–1985, there was an increase in the construction of production capacities, The development of the electric power industry after the October Revolution of 1917: origins, prospects and problems  at the same time, both heat and hydro and nuclear power plants were built, thereby increasing the installed capacity by more than 10 times in thirty years. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, there has been a halt in the pace of development of the Russian electric power industry, and now the deprecation of the fixed assets increase, the degradation of energy equipment, the aging of power generation technologies, the fall in investment attractiveness and the efficiency of management of generating capacities, which can lead to mass failure equipment and emergency consequences.The conclusion. Based on the results of the study, we have the following conclusions in the need to search for new mechanisms to improve the sustainability of the electricity industry in the absence of financial resources. In the author's opinion, it is advisable to implement them on three interrelated mechanisms: revising production capacities, eliminating potentially worn-out fixed assets; the formation of common programs for the development of the electric power industry within the framework of the General Electricity Market of the Eurasian Economic Union; the construction of power plants in the border areas, due to which several national states will provide electric power. 

  5. Drink-driving and the alcohol beverage industry: will reducing per capita consumption solve the problem in the United Kingdom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, D

    1987-12-01

    The impact of drinking and driving is one focus of the mounting concern in the West over the widespread incidence of alcohol-related problems. Conventional wisdom, in the United Kingdom as well as in other countries, suggests that reducing average consumption levels will diminish the impact of the negative effects of alcohol including drinking and driving. But whether policies designed to achieve changes in per capita consumption by increasing alcohol taxes across the board constitute the most effective strategy to reduce drinking and driving is called into question. A number of competing interventions directed at the alcohol beverage industry are analysed and new directions for producers and policymakers are proposed.

  6. The prevalence of musculoskeletal problems and risk factors among women assembly workers in the semiconductor industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasakaran, A; Chee, H L; Rampal, K G; Tan, G L

    2003-12-01

    A cross-sectional study to determine work-related musculoskeletal problems and ergonomic risk factors was conducted among 529 women semiconductor workers. Overall, 83.4% had musculoskeletal symptoms in the last one year. Pain in the back (57.8%), lower leg (48.4%) and shoulder (44.8%) were the three most common musculoskeletal problems. Significant associations were found between prolonged standing and upper and lower leg pain, between prolonged sitting and neck and shoulder pain and between prolonged bending and shoulder arm, back and upper leg pain. The study therefore showed a clear association between work-related musculoskeletal pain and prolonged hours spent in particular postures and movements.

  7. A solution for maintenance-related problems in the power generating industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delamarian, C. [Institute of Welding and Material Testing, Timisoara (Romania); Kautz, H.R.

    1998-12-31

    Important political, social and economic changes in the Europe of the end of the century have had important repercussions in the field of energy generation. A general trend to an opened energy market was encountered not only in the East European (former communist) countries, but also in other West European and overseas countries. Since the continuous aging equipment is far away to be renewed (mainly because of financial reasons), people charged with maintenance responsibilities in power plants are facing with increasing problems. A solution to these problems was developed in the last years within the framework of a cooperation project between ISIM (Institute of Welding and Material Testing) of Timisoara, Romania and GKM (Mannheim Central Power Plant), Germany. A project was developed to support the O and M activities in the field of energy generation. The idea, the way of development and implementation, and estimated results will be presented. (orig.) 436 refs.

  8. A solution for maintenance-related problems in the power generating industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delamarian, C [Institute of Welding and Material Testing, Timisoara (Romania); Kautz, H R

    1999-12-31

    Important political, social and economic changes in the Europe of the end of the century have had important repercussions in the field of energy generation. A general trend to an opened energy market was encountered not only in the East European (former communist) countries, but also in other West European and overseas countries. Since the continuous aging equipment is far away to be renewed (mainly because of financial reasons), people charged with maintenance responsibilities in power plants are facing with increasing problems. A solution to these problems was developed in the last years within the framework of a cooperation project between ISIM (Institute of Welding and Material Testing) of Timisoara, Romania and GKM (Mannheim Central Power Plant), Germany. A project was developed to support the O and M activities in the field of energy generation. The idea, the way of development and implementation, and estimated results will be presented. (orig.) 436 refs.

  9. Trust, Privacy, and Frame Problems in Social and Business E-Networks, Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Buechner

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Privacy issues in social and business e-networks are daunting in complexity—private information about oneself might be routed through countless artificial agents. For each such agent, in that context, two questions about trust are raised: Where an agent must access (or store personal information, can one trust that artificial agent with that information and, where an agent does not need to either access or store personal information, can one trust that agent not to either access or store that information? It would be an infeasible task for any human being to explicitly determine, for each artificial agent, whether it can be trusted. That is, no human being has the computational resources to make such an explicit determination. There is a well-known class of problems in the artificial intelligence literature, known as frame problems, where explicit solutions to them are computationally infeasible. Human common sense reasoning solves frame problems, though the mechanisms employed are largely unknown. I will argue that the trust relation between two agents (human or artificial functions, in some respects, is a frame problem solution. That is, a problem is solved without the need for a computationally infeasible explicit solution. This is an aspect of the trust relation that has remained unexplored in the literature. Moreover, there is a formal, iterative structure to agent-agent trust interactions that serves to establish the trust relation non-circularly, to reinforce it, and to “bootstrap” its strength.

  10. Charting the landscape of priority problems in psychiatry, part 1: classification and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Klaas E; Bach, Dominik R; Fletcher, Paul C; Flint, Jonathan; Frank, Michael J; Friston, Karl J; Heinz, Andreas; Huys, Quentin J M; Owen, Michael J; Binder, Elisabeth B; Dayan, Peter; Johnstone, Eve C; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Montague, P Read; Schnyder, Ulrich; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Breakspear, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary psychiatry faces major challenges. Its syndrome-based disease classification is not based on mechanisms and does not guide treatment, which largely depends on trial and error. The development of therapies is hindered by ignorance of potential beneficiary patient subgroups. Neuroscientific and genetics research have yet to affect disease definitions or contribute to clinical decision making. In this challenging setting, what should psychiatric research focus on? In two companion papers, we present a list of problems nominated by clinicians and researchers from different disciplines as candidates for future scientific investigation of mental disorders. These problems are loosely grouped into challenges concerning nosology and diagnosis (this Personal View) and problems related to pathogenesis and aetiology (in the companion Personal View). Motivated by successful examples in other disciplines, particularly the list of Hilbert's problems in mathematics, this subjective and eclectic list of priority problems is intended for psychiatric researchers, helping to re-focus existing research and providing perspectives for future psychiatric science. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Problem-solving and developing quality management methods and techniques on the example of automotive industry

    OpenAIRE

    Jacek Łuczak; Radoslaw Wolniak

    2015-01-01

    The knowledge about methods and techniques of quality management together with their effective use can be definitely regarded as an indication of high organisational culture. Using such methods and techniques in an effective way can be attributed to certain level of maturity, as far as the quality management system in an organisation is concerned. There is in the paper an analysis of problem-solving methods and techniques of quality management in the automotive sector in Poland. The survey wa...

  12. High efficient ammonia heat pump system for industrial process water using the ISEC concept. Part 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothuizen, Erasmus Damgaard; Madsen, C.; Elmegaard, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the Isolated System Energy Charging (ISEC) is to provide a high-efficient ammonia heat pump system for hot water production. The ISEC concept uses two storage tanks for the water, one discharged and one charged. The charged tank is used for the industrial process while the discharged...... tank, is charging. Charging is done by circulating the water in the tank through the condenser several times and thereby gradually heats the water. This result in a lower condensing temperature than if the water was heated in one step. A dynamic model of the system, implemented in Dymola, is used...... to investigate the performance of the ISEC system. The ISEC concept approaches the efficiency of a number of heat pumps in series and the COP of the system may reach 6.8, which is up to 25 % higher than a conventional heat pump heating water in one step....

  13. Purification of Industrial Phosphoric Acid using Silica Produced from Rice Husk (Part 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gad, H.M.H.; Awwad, N.S.; El-Khalafawy, A.; Daifullah, A.A.M.; El-Reefy, S.A.; Aly, H.F.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, silica was extracted from rice husk (RH) by different techniques and used for removal of some heavy metals from industrial phosphoric acid. The data obtained, showed that removal of Cu(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) is efficient when the silica used is obtained by acidic treatment, while the removal of Fe(III) and Zn(II) is efficient when the silica used was obtained by alkaline treatment of RH. On the other hand, if silica used is obtained from rice husk ash (RHA) it was found more efficient for the removal of Mn. In all cases, the concentration of silica has been characterized by UV-Spectrophotometry. FTIR, SEM and EDX were used for predication of sorption mechanism

  14. Problems of accounting, cost concerns and economic analysis in the mining enrichment industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slabinskiy, V T

    1980-01-01

    Mining enrichment enterprises of the ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy, coal and chemical industry have much in common in the area of technology of production, technical base, organization of labor and production. This in turn presupposes the possible development of a common procedure of accounting of expenditures for production, calculation of net cost of output and analysis of production-economic activity of enterprises. Based on scientific research and generalization of advanced experience of practical workers, means of improvement of economic operation in mining enrichment enterprises are outlined according to increasing demands of production control. An outline of analytic accounting of expenditures which provides for multitarget use of information has been developed: for organization of operational control of the formulation of net cost of output, determination of the results of self support activities of structural subdivisions of an enterprise, computation of the efficiency of scientific and technical progress. Experience of use of economic and mathematical methods in computers for this purpose is discussed.

  15. Global optimization for overall HVAC systems - Part I problem formulation and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Lu; Cai Wenjian; Chai, Y.S.; Xie Lihua

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the global optimization technologies for overall heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. The objective function of global optimization and constraints are formulated based on mathematical models of the major components. All these models are associated with power consumption components and heat exchangers for transferring cooling load. The characteristics of all the major components are briefly introduced by models, and the interactions between them are analyzed and discussed to show the complications of the problem. According to the characteristics of the operating components, the complicated original optimization problem for overall HVAC systems is transformed and simplified into a compact form ready for optimization

  16. Attraction aspects of petroleum industry: fragilities and opportunities for the petroleum companies - part 2; Atratividade da industria para-petrolifera: fragilidades e oportunidades para as petroleiras - parte 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duque, Marcelo Ascher; Szklo, Alexandre [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PPE/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2010-07-01

    This paper is the second part of the study that examine the structure of the para-petroleum worldwide industry, in accordance with strategies of the largest service industries, the merger and the acquisitions, and the positioning of petroleum of petroleum related to their suppliers. The trajectory of the petroleum price since the beginning of the present decade and the investment volume of the petroleum companies on projects of E and P substantially increased the cash flow of their goods and services suppliers. So, as an answer, the recent mergers and acquisitions or the great companies of the service sector are modifying the grade of concentration of various activities alongside of the productive chain. This paper tests the statistical relationship among the the petroleum price and the invoicing of five largest worldwide petroleum companies, revealing the impact of the variation of petroleum price can have on the attraction of the service sector and their unfolding on the costs of the E and P projects.

  17. Hollywood and film critics: Is journalistic criticism about cinema now a part of the culture industry helping economy more than art? Argo: a case study of the movie and film reviews published in the printed media in United States

    OpenAIRE

    Rasooli, Seyedjavad

    2015-01-01

    The term “Culture industry” coined by Adorno and Horkheimer in 1944, is now a very fundamental concept to analyse social and cultural problems in social sciences. When it comes to media studies, it is more useful to investigate problematics in this field. The purpose of this study is to focus on a special part of the culture industry which relates to the movies but not directly about them. The fact that Hollywood, as the biggest industry of film production, has all of the characteristics of t...

  18. Metaheuristics applied to vehicle routing. A case study. Parte 1: formulating the problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo González Vargas

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with VRP (vehicle routing problem mathematical formulation and presents some methodologies used by different authors to solve VRP variation. This paper is presented as the springboard for introducing future papers about a manufacturing company’s location decisions based on the total distance traveled to distribute its product.

  19. Shaping Industry Interaction Through Secure Information Sharing: Part III: Putting Theory Into Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    of Defence, and seven of the world’s larg- est aerospace and defense (A&D) companies . These parties have come together to address one problem: how to...partner would then be responsible for verifying when employees exit the program or leave the company for whatever reason, and Boeing would not have to...uses business-to-business, or B2B , encryption to exchange encrypted and digitally signed e-mail. This provides en- crypted e-mail on a user-to-user

  20. Financing the international oil industry - problems and risks in the Commonwealth of Independent States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kingston, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    For many, the former Soviet Union represents the best example of an oil and gas market. Its natural resource base, its geographical location, highly skilled workforce and its potential to raise significant amounts of capital all point to its future position. However, it is a market which is bedevilled with problems and uncertainties. Whether it be Russian Federation, or some of the key Central Asian states such as Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan or Azerbaijan in the Trans-Caucasus, a lack of stable government, an absence of a regulatory framework, a relative immaturity of domestic financial markets and overarching idealogical views which may not be consistent with market economies, all complicate prospects. (author)

  1. Peculiarities of solving the problems of modern logistics in high-rise construction and industrial production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubtsov, Anatoliy E.; Ushakova, Elena V.; Chirkova, Tamara V.

    2018-03-01

    Basing on the analysis of the enterprise (construction organization) structure and infrastructure of the entire logistics system in which this enterprise (construction organization) operates, this article proposes an approach to solve the problems of structural optimization and a set of calculation tasks, based on customer orders as well as on the required levels of insurance stocks, transit stocks and other types of stocks in the distribution network, modes of operation of the in-company transport and storage complex and a number of other factors.

  2. Sakharov readings 2010: Environmental problems of the XXI century. Proceedings of the 10 international scientific conference. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundas, S.P.; Mel'nov, S.B.; Poznyak, S.S.

    2010-05-01

    Proceeding includes materials of reports of 10-ts international scientific conference 'Sakharov readings 2010: Environmental problems of XXI century', which took place 20-21 of May 2010 in the International Sakharov Environmental University. The second part of the proceedings continues abstracts about radioecology and radiation security; ecological informational systems and technologies; ecological monitoring, management and audit; resumption sources of energy and energy-saving technologies; problems of ecological education. Materials of the conference intend on wide area of the specialists in ecology and adjacent sciences, teachers, post-graduate students and students of universities and colleges. (authors)

  3. An exploration of tutors' experiences of facilitating problem-based learning. Part 2--implications for the facilitation of problem based learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haith-Cooper, Melanie

    2003-01-01

    This paper is the second of two parts exploring a study that was undertaken to investigate the role of the tutor in facilitating problem-based learning (PBL). The first part focussed on the methodological underpinnings of the study. This paper aims to focus on the findings of the study and their implications for the facilitation of PBL. Six essential themes emerged from the findings that described the facilitation role. The tutors believed that their facilitation role was essentially structured around the decision of when to intervene and how to intervene in the PBL process. Modelling and non-verbal communication were seen as essential strategies for the facilitator. Underpinning these decisions was the need to trust in the philosophy of PBL. However, within many of the themes, there was a divergence of opinion as to how the role should actually be undertaken. Despite this, these findings have implications for the future role of PBL facilitators in Health Professional Education.

  4. Problems and possible remedies concerning NORM in by-Product gypsum produced by the phosphate industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, W.C.; Hull, C.D

    1996-01-01

    Large quantities (∼ 30 million tons/year) of phosphogypsum are produced as a by-product of fertilizer production in Florida. The sedimentary phosphate rock, used as the raw material for phosphoric acid production, is enriched in uranium and daughter products. Relatively high concentrations of some of these U-series daughters, particularly 226 Ra (av. = 910 Bq.Kg -1 ), prevent use of the by-product gypsum for construction or other purposes. The material is thus stockpiled on huge stacks which are unsightly and a potential threat to the surrounding air and especially groundwater resources. It is estimated that ∼ 10 9 tons of this material will be on Florida stacks by the turn of the century. We have been investigating the detailed radiochemistry of phosphogypsum in the hope that can understanding of how these radionuclides are fixed in the material may lead to cost-effective purification schemes. Our work has focused on the distribution of 226 Ra but has also included 210 Pb and 210 Po (av. = 860 Bq.Kg -1 ) which are also enriched in phosphogypsum. This paper summarizes the problems associated with this material and reviews its radiochemistry as elucidated by sequential extraction and other methodologies. We also present some possible alternatives to long-term storage as a solution to the phosphogypsum problem. (author)

  5. Problem-solving and developing quality management methods and techniques on the example of automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Łuczak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge about methods and techniques of quality management together with their effective use can be definitely regarded as an indication of high organisational culture. Using such methods and techniques in an effective way can be attributed to certain level of maturity, as far as the quality management system in an organisation is concerned. There is in the paper an analysis of problem-solving methods and techniques of quality management in the automotive sector in Poland. The survey was given to the general population, which in case of the study consisted of companies operating in Poland that had certified quality management systems against ISO/TS 16949. The results of the conducted survey and the conclusions of the author can show actual and potential OEM suppliers (both 1st and 2nd tier in which direction their strategies for development and improvement of quality management systems should go in order to be effective. When the universal character of methods and techniques used in the surveyed population of companies is taken into consideration, it can be assumed that the results of the survey are also universal for all organisations realising the TQM strategy. The results of the research confirmed that methods which are also the basis for creating key system documents are the most relevant ones, i.e. flowcharts and FMEA, and moreover process monitoring tools (SPC and problem solving methods -above all 8D.

  6. Principles and methods of ecological information science in the solution of ecological problems of the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorob'ev, E.I.; Kokoreva, L.V.; Reznichenko, V.Y.

    1989-01-01

    The accident at Chernobyl' Atomic Power Plant has drawn attention to the ecological aspects of the development of the nuclear power industry. It has become clear that the stage of discussions of the importance of ecological problems and of the advisability of studying them further has passed. We now face the stage of carrying out specific tasks: the creation of regional and global monitoring systems; the collection and analysis of data on the effect of nuclear power on nature and humans; modeling and optimization of the strategy for developing the power industry with consideration for ecological aspects; ecological factoring in scientific and technical decisions related to atomic power plant design and siting; and so forth. Three main areas of application of ecological information science can be identified in the nuclear power industry: the creation of global data banks on the safety and reliability of enterprises involved in the nuclear fuel cycle; the development of standard tools for processing and analysis of ecological data; and the creation of tools to support decisions in the field of ecology. The authors' experience in working with information systems and various groups of untrained users (biologists, medical workers, ecologists, etc.) makes possible the conclusion that the most important requirement is a convenient interface that does not require a great deal of effort to master. In the systems discussed here, the authors used structured query languages and menus

  7. Addressing safety issues through a joint industry programme; Traiter des problemes de securite a travers un programme industriel commun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pool, G.; Williams, T.P. [BG Technology (United Kingdom); Jones, A.M. [Health and Safety Executive (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    In an increasingly fragmented gas market, the focus for national gas safety may not rest with one major utility or gas supplier but may be spread across many companies. There will also be many new organisations in a liberalized gas industry with varying views on the needs and benefits of safety related technology development but all agree there is a need to ensure that the good safety record of gas as a domestic fuel is maintained. The number of carbon monoxide (CO) incidents is not decreasing significantly despite an increased awareness of the problem. As a consequence, a two-year joint industry programme addressing issues related to carbon monoxide has been established, co-ordinated by BG Technology and supported by gas organisations, government agencies, manufacturers and suppliers across Europe and the World. The 2-year 2 pound million programme has been constructed as twelve separate projects addressing issues such as the reporting and analysis of domestic incidents, improved service or installation practice, CO alarm reliability and information dissemination. The paper gives results and achievements of the programme, through new techniques, standards, procedures or equipment and demonstrates how the gas industry can work together to meet common safety objectives. (authors)

  8. Heat recovery networks synthesis of large-scale industrial sites: Heat load distribution problem with virtual process subsystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouransari, Nasibeh; Maréchal, Francois

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Synthesizing industrial size heat recovery network with match reduction approach. • Targeting TSI with minimum exchange between process subsystems. • Generating a feasible close-to-optimum network. • Reducing tremendously the HLD computational time and complexity. • Generating realistic network with respect to the plant layout. - Abstract: This paper presents a targeting strategy to design a heat recovery network for an industrial plant by dividing the system into subsystems while considering the heat transfer opportunities between them. The methodology is based on a sequential approach. The heat recovery opportunity between process units and the optimal flow rates of utilities are first identified using a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) model. The site is then divided into a number of subsystems where the overall interaction is resumed by a pair of virtual hot and cold stream per subsystem which is reconstructed by solving the heat cascade inside each subsystem. The Heat Load Distribution (HLD) problem is then solved between those packed subsystems in a sequential procedure where each time one of the subsystems is unpacked by switching from the virtual stream pair back into the original ones. The main advantages are to minimize the number of connections between process subsystems, to alleviate the computational complexity of the HLD problem and to generate a feasible network which is compatible with the minimum energy consumption objective. The application of the proposed methodology is illustrated through a number of case studies, discussed and compared with the relevant results from the literature

  9. Job Satisfaction And Family Happiness : The Part-Time Work Problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booth, A.L.; van Ours, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    Using fixed effects ordered logit estimation, we investigate the relationship between part-time work and working hours satisfaction; job satisfaction; and life satisfaction. We account for interdependence within the family using data on partnered men and women from the British Household Panel

  10. Lecture notes on the safety aspects in the industrial applications of radiation sources - Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report comprises the notes of the lectures delivered on the safety aspects in industrial applications of radiation sources. The notes are presented in 9 chapters. Basic mathematics relevant to the topic and basic concepts of nuclear physics are introduced in chapters I and II respectively. Various aspects of interaction of radiation with matter and living cells are discussed in chapters III and IV respectively. The biological effects of ionizing radiations are described in chapter V. Various commonly used units of measurement of radiation and radioactivity are defined and explained and measuring methods of radiation exposure are described in chapter VI. Chapter VII deals with the maximum permissible levels of radiation, both internal and external, for occupational workers as well as population. The same chapter also deals with ICRP recommendations in this connection. Commonly used radiation detectors and instruments with associated electronics are described in chapter VIII. Production of radioisotopes, radiation sources and labelled compounds is described in chapter IX. A table of useful radioisotopes is appended to this chapter. A bibliography in which references are arranged chapterwise is also given at the end. (M.G.B.)

  11. Reparatory and Manufacturing Hard-Facing of Working Parts Made of Stainless Steels in Confectionary Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rakic

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, for the sake of improving the reparatory hard-facing technology is especially analyzed reparatory hard-facing of tools for manufacturing compressed products in confectionary industry. Those products are being made of a mixture consisting of several powdery components, which is compressed under high pressure. In that way the connection between particles is realized, thus achieving certain hardness and strength of the confectionary product. The considered tool is made of high-alloyed stainless steel. The tool contains 30 identical working places. Besides the production process wear, on those tools, from time to time, appear mechanical damage on some of the products' shape punches, as cracks at the edges, where the products' final shapes are formed. Those damages are small, size wise, but they cause strong effect on the products' final shape. The aggravating circumstance is that the shape punch is extremely loaded in pressure, thus after the reparatory hard-facing, the additional heat treatment is necessary. Mechanical properties in the heat affected zone (HAZ are being leveled by annealing and what also partially reduces the residual internal stresses.

  12. [The economically active population in Verviers during the industrial revolution. Part 1. Inactivity and underemployment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desama, C

    1979-01-01

    The industrial revolution during the 1st 1/2 of the 19th century in Wallonia had important social and demographic repercussions which are still being felt today. The author examines and compares the demographic structures of the working population of the city of Verviers in 1806 and 1846. 1/4 of the adult population was not working at that time. Married women constitute a manpower reserve which is drawn upon in line with the general line of activity; the more than proportional overall offer of employment with respect to demand is a cause for inactivity which is as restraining as the education of children or social pressures may be which force these women to perform household work. Underemployment is linked to age, affecting the youngest among potential workers; it is high between ages 12-19, decreases until age 30 and then becomes negligible, and increases again by age 65 in 1806 or age 70 in 1846. Underemployment is also linked to sex since it affects women, although less than inactivity does. Finally, it affects bachelors; the evident relation in 1806 becomes almost exclusive in 1846 when 90% of underemployed individuals were bachelors. The increase in the rate of underemployment between 1806-1846 is the result of the volume of immigration and its structure which brought about disequilibrium between supply and demand. (author's)

  13. The problems and abuse of performance bond in the construction Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, A. A.; Adnan, H.

    2018-02-01

    Performance bond is a bank-origin system adopted in the construction industry to act as a tool to ensure project delivery. The bond is taken up by an obliging party with endorsement by a third party; normally a banking institution, which would warrants the release of an insured amount should the obliging party fails to complete the contracted work on time or as agreed. The nature of the instrument is said to be perplexed and abusive. The research aims to investigate this claim. Applied legal research using both doctrinal and non-doctrinal legal research is employed. With the application of deductive reasoning, the data is processed and summarized. It is found that the term bond and guarantee, which are used intermittently but equivocally by the parties, should be distinguished accordingly to its obligation values, or otherwise would trigger major disputes. Interpretation, drafting and liabilities issues caused by archaic language and dated recycled wordings in the contracts contributed nothing to the convenience and application of this instrument. The loopholes in the contract made it easy for suspected fraudulent calls to be made by the beneficiary, whom are normally, the client. With several trusted professional bodies discouraged the use of this instrument, the legal system is compelled to provide direction to ensure continuous utilization of this project delivery assurance mechanism. Standardized system and structure is vital in order to obtain uniformity in its application.

  14. Problems of radiation protection at continuous service of industrial full-screen-X-ray-installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krebs, K.

    1979-01-01

    A lot of usual product of high automatisized full-screen-X-ray-installations prove very susceptible to trouble when used in continuous 3-shift-working. Normal safeguards by rough industrial continuous use mostly abruptly lose their efficiency without announcement; this mainly by vibration, disadjustment, aerosols, dirts and thermal stress. The author explains this by illustrated samples of practice. Since for those installations neither physical controls of persons nor dose-alarm-systems are prescribed by law, the needed security regarding radiation protection seems not to be guaranteed. Therefore it is proposed to order the following by technical and legistical rules: 1. Screening has to be constructed and mounted resistant in mechanical and termical regards. 2. Safety-switches must work by constraint and in an primary way. 3. The reaching of the legally allowed dose-limit has to be recognized in an unmistakable way by alarm signal. These protections are the most urgent, since the continuous service of those X-ray-installations normally works without any further screening admist other production installations and operation is done by semiskilled operators who are not subjected to any physical or medical control. (author)

  15. Problems Caused by Microbes and Treatment Strategies Downstream Petroleum Microbiology - An Industry Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Elaine

    In the mid 1800's it was discovered that crude oil could be extracted and exploited to produce energy. However, it was the invention of the first four-stroke internal combustion engine in 1876 that transformed the petroleum industry from a localised to a global business (Dell and Rand, 2004). Crude oil is made into useable products at the refinery via separation, conversion and treatment processes. Separation starts with distillation where the crude is evaporated and condensed into fractions based on their boiling ranges (Fig. 19.1). As well as carbon and hydrogen, the fractions consist of sulphur, nitrogen and oxygen (present in low concentrations) and metals like copper and iron (in trace amounts). After separation, heavy fractions are converted into lighter ones using intense heat, pressure and a catalyst to speed up chemical reactions. Molecules like sulphur can then be stripped out by heat treatment under pressure with hydrogen. Injection of refinery additives makes a finished fuel. For example, static dissipator is added to Automotive Gas Oil (AGO) to reduce the risk of spark and explosion during fuel movements; middle distillate flow improver to improve low temperature operability and lubricity improver to lubricate engine components. Finally, fuel quality measurements are made to ensure that the finished fuel meets the relevant specification.

  16. Dealing with the gas flaring problem in the petroleum industry : proceedings of an Insight conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The 12 presentations at this conference focused on the environmental issues related to the flaring of waste gas in the petroleum industry, including the combustion efficiency of the process. Health issues associated with waste gas flaring were also discussed. Studies have identified about 250 different compounds in flare emissions, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other products of incomplete combustion. In recent years, public opposition to the oil companies in Alberta has become increasingly aggressive, with violence, bombings and other vandalism. Much of this hostile reaction was the result of the perceived harmful effects of flaring. The level of hostility generated by this phenomenon has caused regulators to consider new options designed to reduce the adverse economic and environmental impacts that may be associated with gas flaring. The papers presented at this Insight Conference review the background of the controversy, report on progress developing alternative combustion and incineration technologies for open flare systems, examine the economic and health issues involved, and outline current and proposed regulations. refs., tabs., figs

  17. NACHOS: a finite element computer program for incompressible flow problems. Part I. Theoretical background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gartling, D.K.

    1978-04-01

    The theoretical background for the finite element computer program, NACHOS, is presented in detail. The NACHOS code is designed for the two-dimensional analysis of viscous incompressible fluid flows, including the effects of heat transfer. A general description of the fluid/thermal boundary value problems treated by the program is described. The finite element method and the associated numerical methods used in the NACHOS code are also presented. Instructions for use of the program are documented in SAND77-1334

  18. Legendre-tau approximation for functional differential equations. Part 2: The linear quadratic optimal control problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, K.; Teglas, R.

    1984-01-01

    The numerical scheme based on the Legendre-tau approximation is proposed to approximate the feedback solution to the linear quadratic optimal control problem for hereditary differential systems. The convergence property is established using Trotter ideas. The method yields very good approximations at low orders and provides an approximation technique for computing closed-loop eigenvalues of the feedback system. A comparison with existing methods (based on averaging and spline approximations) is made.

  19. Cogeneration from Poultry Industry Wastes -- Part I: Indirectly Fired Gas Turbine Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peretto, A.; Bianchi, M.; Cherubini, F.

    2003-01-01

    The availability of wet biomass as waste from a agriculture and farms and the need to meet the environmental standards force to investigate all options in order to dispose this waste. The possible treatments usually strongly depend on the biomass characteristics, namely water content, density....... Different plant configurations have been considered in order to make use of the oil and of the meat and bone meal, which are the by-products of the chicken cooking process. In particular, the process plant can be integrated with an energy supply plant which can consist of a Indirectly Fired Gas Turbine....../production and of return of the investments (Part II). Keywords: biomass, cogeneration, Gas Turbine, IFGT...

  20. Transcontinental methane measurements: Part 2. Mobile surface investigation of fossil fuel industrial fugitive emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifer, Ira; Culling, Daniel; Schneising, Oliver; Farrell, Paige; Buchwitz, Michael; Burrows, John P.

    2013-08-01

    The potent greenhouse gas, methane, CH4, has a wide variety of anthropogenic and natural sources. Fall, continental-scale (Florida to California) surface CH4 data were collected to investigate the importance of fossil fuel industrial (FFI) emissions in the South US. A total of 6600 measurements along 7020-km of roadways were made by flame ion detection gas chromatography onboard a nearly continuously moving recreational vehicle in 2010. A second, winter survey in Southern California measured CH4 at 2 Hz with a cavity ring-down spectrometer in 2012. Data revealed strong and persistent FFI CH4 sources associated with refining, oil/gas production, a presumed major pipeline leak, and a coal loading plant. Nocturnal CH4 mixing ratios tended to be higher than daytime values for similar sources, sometimes significantly, which was attributed to day/night meteorological differences, primarily changes in the boundary layer height. The highest CH4 mixing ratio (39 ppm) was observed near the Kern River Oil Field, California, which uses steam reinjection. FFI CH4 plume signatures were distinguished as stronger than other sources on local scales. On large (4°) scales, the CH4 trend was better matched spatially with FFI activity than wetland spatial patterns. Qualitative comparison of surface data with SCIAMACHY and GOSAT satellite retrievals showed agreement of the large-scale CH4 spatial patterns. Comparison with inventory models and seasonal winds suggests for some seasons and some portions of the Gulf of Mexico a non-negligible underestimation of FFI emissions. For other seasons and locations, qualitative interpretation is not feasible. Unambiguous quantitative source attribution is more complex, requiring transport modeling.

  1. The impact of gainsharing in the automotive parts manufacturing industry of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W.D. Zondo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The majority of South Africans expect greater prosperity that can be accomplished through greater employment, high productivity and wage increases. Increased productivity can finance higher wages without burdening the customer with higher selling prices. Consequently, there should be strong co-operation between management and labour to improve productivity, thereby ensuring the survival of South African companies. To achieve this objective, organisations find themselves turning to their employees for creative suggestions and ideas on better ways of doing things. This sentiment underpins the concept of gainsharing. Gainsharing is a formula-based company-wide programme that offers employees a share in the financial gains of a company as a result of its improved performance. This motivation boosts a company’s productivity and radically reduces the cost of waste, spoilage, rejects and rework. This study examined the impact of a gainsharing programme on the improvement of labour productivity in the automotive parts manufacturing sector. The study investigated the production and related experience of two automotive parts manufacturing companies (referred to as A and B in this study that have adopted a gainsharing strategy. The two companies operate in the eThekwini District Municipality in KwaZulu-Natal. It assessed if gainsharing is responsible for company labour productivity improvements. The investigation was achieved by collecting pre- and post-gainsharing quarterly data for spoilage, absenteeism, capital investment and labour productivity. Gainsharing improves labour productivity and reduces spoilage and absenteeism rates. In order to maximise performance, a comprehensive performance policy must be developed, which aligns pay (and other incentives to performance. The study uncovered the strengths and weaknesses of gainsharing for labour productivity improvement in South Africa.

  2. Job Satisfaction And Family Happiness : The Part-Time Work Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Booth, A.L.; van Ours, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    Using fixed effects ordered logit estimation, we investigate the relationship between part-time work and working hours satisfaction; job satisfaction; and life satisfaction. We account for interdependence within the family using data on partnered men and women from the British Household Panel Survey. We find that men have the highest hours-of-work satisfaction if they work full-time without overtime hours but neither their job satisfaction nor their life satisfaction are affected by how many ...

  3. A Moral (Normative) Framework for the Judgment of Actions and Decisions in the Construction Industry and Engineering: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhatib, Omar J

    2017-12-01

    The construction industry is typically characterized as a fragmented, multi-organizational setting in which members from different technical backgrounds and moral values join together to develop a particular business or project. The most challenging obstacle in the construction process is to achieve a successful practice and to identify and apply an ethical framework to manage the behavior of involved specialists and contractors and to ensure the quality of all completed construction activities. The framework should reflect a common moral ground for myriad people involved in this process to survive and compete ethically in today's turbulent construction market. This study establishes a framework for moral judgment of behavior and actions conducted in the construction process. The moral framework provides the basis of judging actions as "moral" or "immoral" based on three levels of moral accountability: personal, professional, and social. The social aspect of the proposed framework is developed primarily from the essential attributes of normative business decision-making models identified in the literature review and subsequently incorporates additional attributes related to professional and personal moral values. The normative decision-making models reviewed are based primarily on social attributes as related to moral theories (e.g., utilitarianism, duty, rights, virtue, etc.). The professional and moral attributes are established by identifying a set of common moral values recognized by professionals in the construction industry and required to prevent common construction breaches. The moral framework presented here is the complementary part of the ethical framework developed in Part I of this article and is based primarily on the personal behavior or the moral aspect of professional responsibility. The framework can be implemented as a form of preventive personal ethics, which would help avoid ethical dilemmas and moral implications in the first place

  4. Energy from biomass. Summaries of the Biomass Projects carried out as part of the Department of Trade and Industry`s New and Renewable Energy Programme. Vol. 4: anaerobic digestion for biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    These volumes of summaries provide easy access to the many projects carried out in the Energy from Biomass programme area as part of the Department of Trade and Industry`s New and Renewable Energy Programme. The summaries in this volume cover contractor reports on the subject published up to December 1997. (author)

  5. College and university environmental programs as a policy problem (Part 1): Integrating Knowledge, education, and action for a better world?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, S.G.; Rutherford, M.B.; Auer, M.R.; Cherney, D.N.; Wallace, R.L.; Mattson, D.J.; Clark, D.A.; Foote, L.; Krogman, N.; Wilshusen, P.; Steelman, T.

    2011-01-01

    The environmental sciences/studies movement, with more than 1000 programs at colleges and universities in the United States and Canada, is unified by a common interest-ameliorating environmental problems through empirical enquiry and analytic judgment. Unfortunately, environmental programs have struggled in their efforts to integrate knowledge across disciplines and educate students to become sound problem solvers and leaders. We examine the environmental program movement as a policy problem, looking at overall goals, mapping trends in relation to those goals, identifying the underlying factors contributing to trends, and projecting the future. We argue that despite its shared common interest, the environmental program movement is disparate and fragmented by goal ambiguity, positivistic disciplinary approaches, and poorly rationalized curricula, pedagogies, and educational philosophies. We discuss these challenges and the nature of the changes that are needed in order to overcome them. In a subsequent article (Part 2) we propose specific strategies for improvement. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  6. Risk communications : an important part of the solution to the problem of gas flaring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruk, G.E.

    1999-01-01

    The 'human' aspect of risk management as it relates to the problem of gas flaring was discussed in an effort to find an effective strategy for dealing with the problem. The 'human' aspect is important for both public consent and regulatory approval. The discipline of risk communications understands that the main issue is not the level of risk, but its acceptability to the public. The author believes that risk should be defined broadly so that it is not limited only to threats to public health and safety, but also to threats to the environment and quality of life. The five main strategic aspects of risk that influence the public's judgement of the level and acceptability of a risk are when: (1) the risk is created by organizations the public feels they cannot trust, (2) the risk is regarded as having been involuntarily imposed on them, (3) the public feels it has no personal control over project decisions, (4) the risk is viewed as unfair, and (5) the risk is managed by people who appear uncaring. A list of other influential factors was also provided. The ultimate objective of any risk communication strategy would be to enhance the affected public's ability to make an informed decision about the acceptability of the risk to which they are exposed. When dealing with the gas flaring problem, it is important to develop greater consensus of 'how safe is safe enough?' It was emphasized that trust is the most important factor in reducing public anxieties about risk and in strengthening relationships. The development of a strategy that has public support requires continuous stakeholder involvement

  7. Selected problems associated with the treatment and care for patients with colostomy – part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachaniuk, Hanna; Szadowska-Szlachetka, Zdzisława; Charzyńska-Gula, Marianna; Kocka, Katarzyna; Bartoszek, Agnieszka; Celej-Szuster, Jolanta

    2013-01-01

    Generally, ostomy is a purposeful connection of the lumen of the intestine with abdominal integuments by surgery. The study presents practical solutions related to care for the colostomy patient, i.e. an ostomy on the large intestine. The following issues will be discussed: regulating the defecation cycle, risk connected with improper selection of ostomy equipment, instruction on colostomy irrigation with practical advice and irrigation equipment supply. The knowledge of these rules and mastering them in practice is to provide ostomy patients not only with highest-standard care and help but also to prepare them for dealing with problems independently, i.e. for self-care. PMID:24596509

  8. Selected problems associated with the treatment and care for patients with colostomy - part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzyczka, Katarzyna; Kachaniuk, Hanna; Szadowska-Szlachetka, Zdzisława; Charzyńska-Gula, Marianna; Kocka, Katarzyna; Bartoszek, Agnieszka; Celej-Szuster, Jolanta

    2013-01-01

    Generally, ostomy is a purposeful connection of the lumen of the intestine with abdominal integuments by surgery. The study presents practical solutions related to care for the colostomy patient, i.e. an ostomy on the large intestine. The following issues will be discussed: regulating the defecation cycle, risk connected with improper selection of ostomy equipment, instruction on colostomy irrigation with practical advice and irrigation equipment supply. The knowledge of these rules and mastering them in practice is to provide ostomy patients not only with highest-standard care and help but also to prepare them for dealing with problems independently, i.e. for self-care.

  9. Globalization of Japanese steel industry. Part 2. Welding materials; Tekkogyo no kokusaika. 2. Yozai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aida, I. [Kobe Steel, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1995-01-01

    This paper mainly discusses the current status and problems of arc welding materials. The domestic production of welding materials has decreased. The recent trend of demand is characterized by the change of form make-up of welding materials. Various technologies for welding materials and their operation in Japan have developed with the progress of steel materials. The high quality and high-grade welding technologies, highly efficient production processes, laborsaving, and robotization have been promoted in various fields. In response to the rapid strong yen, quality and cost have to be further pursued, and amenity and cleanliness of welding have to be realized. The welding technologies have to be developed for large structures, such as ultra high-rise buildings, energy and chemical plants, ships, marine structures, etc. For the welding materials which are applied to robots and robot systems, obstruction factors for the operation have to be removed, which include the unsteady arc, re-arc badness, spattering, wear of chip, slag formation, etc. These measures promote the globalization of welding materials. 17 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Problems related to design and construction of industrial radiography exposure room - an experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Madiha Muhammad Amir; Mohd Khairi Mohd Said; Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Ab Razak Hamzah

    2009-01-01

    In Non-Destructive Testing (NDT), especially in radiography method, inspections of components are executed either on-site or in-house. For in-house inspections, work must be performed in a specially constructed exposure room. The design of the exposure room must be according to specific requirements described in various documents related to radiation safety. Stringent requirements specified for the exposure room is for the purpose of ensuring the safety of public and radiation workers. These requirements are never compromised. One of the AELB requirements that need to be complied is that the permissible dose limit anywhere outside the room must be less than 0.25 mR/hr. In designing and constructing the exposure room, many factors must be taken into account such as shielding thickness, density of shielding, thickness of lead door, the roof design of the exposure room and many more. This paper highlights problems encountered and the considerations taken to design and construct the exposure room so that the exposure room will comply with the permissible dose limit set by the regulatory body. (Author)

  11. To the problem of reliability of high-voltage accelerators for industrial purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al'bertinskij, B.I.; Svin'in, M.P.; Tsepakin, S.G.

    1979-01-01

    Statistical data characterizing the reliability of ELECTRON and AVRORA-2 type accelerators are presented. Used as a reliability index was the mean time to failure of the main accelerator units. The analysis of accelerator failures allowed a number of conclusions to be drawn. The high failure rate level is connected with inadequate training of the servicing personnel and a natural period of equipment adjustment. The mathematical analysis of the failure rate showed that the main responsibility for insufficient high reliability rests with selenium diodes which are employed in the high voltage power supply. Substitution of selenium diodes by silicon ones increases time between failures. It is shown that accumulation and processing of operational statistical data will permit more accurate prediction of the reliability of produced high-voltage accelerators, make it possible to cope with the problems of planning optimal, in time, preventive inspections and repair, and to select optimal safety factors and test procedures n time, preventive inspections and repair, and to select optimal safety factors and test procedures n time, prevent

  12. Health physics problems in the context of the development of industrial uses of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duhamel, F.; Menoux, A.

    1964-01-01

    The development of the industrial use of atomic energy has underlined the need to promote a rational and coherent doctrine relative to the safety of nuclear installations, with particular reference to nuclear sites. The chief aim in the safety field is to reduce or even eliminate irradiation or contamination risks to the workers and the population due to normal or accidental functioning of the installations. A complex set of safety methods is used, amongst which the authors take into particular consideration those which are to some extent independent of the type of installation alarm and measurement systems and their setting in operation, technical and psychological training of individuals, estimation of the capacity of a site to absorb radioactive wastes without damage to the population. It is obvious, in effect, that the consequences of an accident are diminished by the improvement of monitoring, measurement and alarm systems, by the raising of the technical level and by training of personnel and the education of the population This is particularly true near a nuclear installation, where a study of the danger is somewhat abstract m nature and the technological means of protection are many and complex. From investigations to test the suitability of sites, it is possible to determine the diffusion or re-concentration parameters in the various natural media; in this way the fate of radioactive effluents can be anticipated from the installation in which they have their source to man who may be exposed to them. The organisation of radioactivity supervision on nuclear sites is very closely band up with these studies. Amongst the many fields of investigation open, the following will be emphasized particularly: - atmospheric diffusion experiments, the object of which is to determine the value of parameters established theoretically while at the same time taking account of complementary factors. - hydrological, hydrogeological and oceanographical studies, from which the

  13. Handbook on Special Works. Technological Lines of Industrial Enterprises. Part 1,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-16

    welded parts of conduits/manifolds made of carboa steel. ite3l) ipyou3or ymae no MCH 120.60 ’ yrjioM 90. f6 ) iI 45 . P 4-50 0M 2 5) r1LyTe noA yr.aio...14.68 16.4 22,32 30.44 44.32 67. f6 400 17.04 19.0 1 27.32 40,94 62.33 103.6 smO 24.71 24.7 36.84 67.79 .36 1 .x 60 32.91 32.91 45,34 94,2 118,42 I J...flanges). Pr _____’ ( ’) 0.2 3 2.5 4 l Dy D, (.) acca mae& 06 mac OWiacamae " [0 CTS - e La acOTa" CTS; KIO CTA, 0aO *TS xIvold c Ian u8 KAH K - . "l

  14. Hypnosis in nursing practice--emphasis on the "problem patient' who has pain--Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahourek, R P

    1982-04-01

    The program of treating burned patients with hypnosis was expanded to treating multi-problem and chronic pain patients on the same surgical unit at Denver General Hospital. The majority of patients received some benefit. Many gained control over intense pain and many increased their sense of self-esteem and mastery. The behavioral problems diminished and the staff became reinterested and reinvolved with these very needy people. Whether or not nurses elect to practice hypnosis, the principles are familiar and can be added to the repertory of nursing practice. Physical and psychological relaxation relieves distress and potentiates patients' comfort with or without pain medication. Communicate to the patient that what you are doing builds confidence and increases the probability that treatment wil be effective. Furthermore, recognizing imaginary capacities as powerful in promoting comfort adds an option for intervention not always considered or used by nurses. Whether or not nurses describe what they do as "hypnosis," the use of these techniques can be useful to their practice and to the patients in whom they attempt to alleviate suffering and promote comfort and growth.

  15. Industrial chemistry engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This book on industrial chemistry engineering is divided in two parts. The first part deals with industrial chemistry, inorganic industrial chemistry, organic industrial chemistry, analytical chemistry and practical questions. The last parts explain the chemical industry, a unit parts and thermodynamics in chemical industry and reference. It reveals the test subjects for the industrial chemistry engineering with a written examination and practical skill.

  16. Virtue ethics - an old answer to a new dilemma? Part 1. Problems with contemporary medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misselbrook, David

    2015-02-01

    The commonest practical model used in contemporary medical ethics is Principlism. Yet, while Principlism is a widely accepted consensus statement for ethics, the moral theory that underpins it faces serious challenges in its attempt to provide a coherent and accepted system of moral analysis. This inevitably challenges the stability of such a consensus statement and makes it vulnerable to attack by competitors such as preference consequentialism. This two-part paper proposes an inclusive version of virtue theory as a more grounded system of moral analysis. © The Royal Society of Medicine.

  17. Some problems of manufacturing and industrial application of CoMo-Al2O3 catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walendziewski, J.

    1991-01-01

    The monograph presents results of studies of some selected problems relating to CoMo-Al 2 O 3 catalyst: method of production alumina support and catalyst; application of catalyst in the selected hydro refining processes; physicochemical properties of the used catalyst; reclamation of metal compounds from the spent catalyst. Results of investigations of catalyst preparation illustrate how the physicochemical properties of alumina support and catalyst, mainly porous structure could be controlled by the selection of raw materials and parameters of aluminum hydroxide precipitation, method of forming and calcination temperature of support. Application of the catalyst of modified porous structure has shown its high activity in hydro refining process of light cracking catalytic oil (over 95% hydrodesulphurization) and mild hydro cracking process of vacuum gas oil (sulphur content in product below 0.03% wt.). As an effect of studying of hydro refining process of aromatic hydrocarbon fraction it has been found that H 2 S concentration in reaction mixture is the main factor influencing process selectivity. Some effect on the selectivity exerts also other process parameters and chemical composition of the catalyst - cobalt molybdenum content ratio and promoters content. Long term exploitation of the domestic CoMo-Al 2 O 3 catalyst in hydrodesulphurization process indicates its satisfied thermal stability although results in deteriorating of mechanical resistance, lowering of specific surface area, increase in mean pore radius and decrease in acidity of catalyst. In the last chapter of the monograph the results of investigations of reclamation of metal compounds (molybdic acid, aluminum hydroxide, cobalt carbonate) from the spent catalyst as well as an original technology of manufacture of the fresh one using these compounds have been presented. (author). 338 refs, 31 figs, 32 tabs

  18. Population and development in Egypt. Part 2. New hopes for old problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, C F

    1981-01-01

    Egypt is faced with many economic difficultires, e.g., acutely limited land and water resources already stretched to their limits, an increasing dependence on imported food and raw materials, and a large and rapidly growing population which makes ever greater demands on all available resources. For many years, Egypt focussed, understandably but obsessively, on political matters. Only in 1978, with a peace initiative with Israel ongoing, could Egypt concentrate on economic possibilities. The positive economic element that entered the scene at that time was the 1st balance of payments surplus in recent Egyptian history, due to growing tourism, increased oil earnings, resumed revenues from Suez Canal traffic, and high remittances from Egyptians working abroad. There is no guarantee that any or all of these favorable factors will continue. Agriculture in Egypt is inefficient. There are steady pressures of population on the land, sluggishness in land reclamation programs, and a continual loss of cultivated land to industry and urbanization. Water creation projects have not achieved their goals. The increase in agricultural production in 1980 was estimated at 2.7%, but the increase in population in the same year was 2.9%. It is with population growth that Egypt must meet the challenge.

  19. Countermeasures for electrolytic corrosion - Part I: Traditional methods and their problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Yoon-Cheol; Kim, Dae-Kyeong; Bae, Jeong-Hyo; Ha, Tae-Hyun; Lee, Hyun-Goo

    2004-01-01

    When an underground pipeline runs parallel with DC-powered railways, it suffers from electrolytic corrosion caused by the stray current leaked from the railway negative returns. Perforation due to the electrolytic corrosion may bring about large-scale accidents even in cathodically protected systems. Traditionally, bonding methods such as direct drainage, polarized drainage and forced drainage have been used in order to mitigate the damage on pipelines. In particular, the forced drainage method is widely adopted in Korea. In this paper, we report the real-time measurement data of the pipe-to-soil potential variation in the presence and absence of the IR compensation. The drainage current variation was also measured using the Stray Current Logger developed. By analysing them, the problems of current countermeasures for electrolytic corrosion are discussed. (authors)

  20. Countermeasures for electrolytic corrosion - Part I: Traditional methods and their problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Yoon-Cheol; Kim, Dae-Kyeong; Bae, Jeong-Hyo; Ha, Tae-Hyun; Lee, Hyun-Goo [Underground Systems Group, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, 28-1 Sungju-dong, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    When an underground pipeline runs parallel with DC-powered railways, it suffers from electrolytic corrosion caused by the stray current leaked from the railway negative returns. Perforation due to the electrolytic corrosion may bring about large-scale accidents even in cathodically protected systems. Traditionally, bonding methods such as direct drainage, polarized drainage and forced drainage have been used in order to mitigate the damage on pipelines. In particular, the forced drainage method is widely adopted in Korea. In this paper, we report the real-time measurement data of the pipe-to-soil potential variation in the presence and absence of the IR compensation. The drainage current variation was also measured using the Stray Current Logger developed. By analysing them, the problems of current countermeasures for electrolytic corrosion are discussed. (authors)

  1. "We're Part of the Solution": Evolution of the Food and Beverage Industry's Framing of Obesity Concerns Between 2000 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Laura; Mejia, Pamela; Cheyne, Andrew; Wilking, Cara; Dorfman, Lori; Daynard, Richard

    2015-11-01

    We investigated how industry claim-makers countered concerns about obesity and other nutrition-related diseases in newspaper coverage from 2000, the year before the US Surgeon General's Call to Action on obesity, through 2012. We found that the food and beverage industry evolved in its response. The defense arguments were made by trade associations, industry-funded nonprofit groups, and individual companies representing the packaged food industry, restaurants, and the nonalcoholic beverage industry. Individual companies used the news primarily to promote voluntary self-regulation, whereas trade associations and industry-supported nonprofit groups directly attacked potential government regulations. There was, however, a shift away from framing obesity as a personal issue toward an overall message that the food and beverage industry wants to be "part of the solution" to the public health crisis.

  2. Problems of new processes in coking industry discussed at the Scientific Council of the GKNT and the Section of Coking Industry of the Scientific and Technological Council of the Ministry of Iron and Steel Industry of the USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ermolova, V.P.

    1983-03-01

    A report is given from the conference on new processes in the Soviet coking industry held in Moscow on 28-29 October 1982. The following papers were delivered: implementing research programs on new coking processes, new trends in coking plant design and construction in the 11th 5 year plan and in the time period until 1990, increasing efficiency of coking industry, research program of the Scientific Council in 1983. The report concentrates on new trends in coking plant design. Considering that the raw material basis of the Eastern regions of the USSR is poor in high quality coking coal the new coking processes and technologies should use weakly coking coal. The following schemes are discussed: heat treatments (especially useful in the case of black coal from the Kuzbass characterized by intensive fluctuations of petrology), selective crushing (schemes developed by the VUKhIN Institute), partial briquetting of coal mixtures (experiments carried out by the UKhIN in the Donbass in 1982). Other problems of coking such as development of new systems of smokeless fuel feeding to coke ovens, dry coke quenching, increasing capacity of coke chambers to 41.6 m/sup 3/, environmental protection in coking industry and production of special coke types from poor quality coal for metallurgy are also described.

  3. Compliance problems of small utility systems with the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act of 1978: volume II - appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    A study of the problems of compliance with the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act of 1978 experienced by electric utility systems which have a total generating capacity of less than 2000 MW is presented. This volume presents the following appendices: (A) case studies (Farmington, New Mexico; Lamar, Colorado; Dover, Delaware; Wolverine Electric Cooperative, Michigan; Central Telephone and Utilities, Kansas; Sierra Pacific Power Company, Nevada; Vero Beach, Florida; Lubbock, Texas; Western Farmers Cooperative, Oklahoma; and West Texas Utilities Company, Texas); (B) contacts and responses to study; (C) joint action legislation chart; (D) Texas Municipal Power Agency case study; (E) existing generating units jointly owned with small utilities; (F) future generating units jointly owned with small utilities; (G) Federal Register Notice of April 17, 1980, and letter of inquiry to utilities; (H) small utility responses; and (I) Section 744, PIFUA. (WHK)

  4. PREMATURE BIRTH AS A MEDICAL AND SOCIAL HEALTHCARE PROBLEM. PART 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Sakharova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Morbidity and mortality, like a frequency of long-term unfavourable psychomotor developmental outcomes is in inverse relationship with gestational age and birth weight. Now scientists give attention to the risk factors — the infection, preeclampsia, smoking, etc., to look for prevention of premature birth. The outcome of premature baby depends on the birth weight; the methodof labor and the hospital technical support also have an influence. The frequency of neurological impairments — infantile cerebral palsy, visual and hearing disorders, and probability of severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia are also in inverse relationship with gestational age and birth weight. Last decade there are many scientists give attention to the cognitive deficit and behavior disorders in adolescents, born premature. Premature infants with extremely low birth weight have developmental disorders at 8-13%. Not all of cognitive and behavioral problems have symptoms in the first years of life, but have delayed unfavourable effects. The severity of cognitive deficit not always corresponds with structural impairments of brain, detected in functional studies of premature baby in the first year of life.  

  5. MPSalsa a finite element computer program for reacting flow problems. Part 2 - user`s guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salinger, A.; Devine, K.; Hennigan, G.; Moffat, H. [and others

    1996-09-01

    This manual describes the use of MPSalsa, an unstructured finite element (FE) code for solving chemically reacting flow problems on massively parallel computers. MPSalsa has been written to enable the rigorous modeling of the complex geometry and physics found in engineering systems that exhibit coupled fluid flow, heat transfer, mass transfer, and detailed reactions. In addition, considerable effort has been made to ensure that the code makes efficient use of the computational resources of massively parallel (MP), distributed memory architectures in a way that is nearly transparent to the user. The result is the ability to simultaneously model both three-dimensional geometries and flow as well as detailed reaction chemistry in a timely manner on MT computers, an ability we believe to be unique. MPSalsa has been designed to allow the experienced researcher considerable flexibility in modeling a system. Any combination of the momentum equations, energy balance, and an arbitrary number of species mass balances can be solved. The physical and transport properties can be specified as constants, as functions, or taken from the Chemkin library and associated database. Any of the standard set of boundary conditions and source terms can be adapted by writing user functions, for which templates and examples exist.

  6. Investigation of mixed mode - I/II fracture problems - Part 1: computational and experimental analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Demir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, to investigate and understand the nature of fracture behavior properly under in-plane mixed mode (Mode-I/II loading, three-dimensional fracture analyses and experiments of compact tension shear (CTS specimen are performed under different mixed mode loading conditions. Al 7075-T651 aluminum machined from rolled plates in the L-T rolling direction (crack plane is perpendicular to the rolling direction is used in this study. Results from finite element analyses and fracture loads, crack deflection angles obtained from the experiments are presented. To simulate the real conditions in the experiments, contacts are defined between the contact surfaces of the loading devices, specimen and loading pins. Modeling, meshing and the solution of the problem involving the whole assembly, i.e., loading devices, pins and the specimen, with contact mechanics are performed using ANSYSTM. Then, CTS specimen is analyzed separately using a submodeling approach, in which three-dimensional enriched finite elements are used in FRAC3D solver to calculate the resulting stress intensity factors along the crack front. Having performed the detailed computational and experimental studies on the CTS specimen, a new specimen type together with its loading device is also proposed that has smaller dimensions compared to the regular CTS specimen. Experimental results for the new specimen are also presented.

  7. STUDY ON THE USAGE OF SPECIAL MATERIALS FOR HIGH-STRENGTH PARTS USED IN THE MACHINES MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BIBU Marius

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Whereas formerly metallic materials were used extensively and for various purposes in the machines manufacturing industry, nowadays new materials are sought that can replace the "conventional" machines manufacturing materials with new ones. This is especially challenging in areas where parts need to be able to withstand very tough conditions, such as high temperatures or large forces applied to them. The current paper intends to analyze some of the most widely used materials for high-strength applications. A special focus in this regard is on the one hand in fiber-reinforced composite materials with the polymer matrix and on the other hand on basalt. The most important properties, processing technologies and applications of these materials are analyzed and discussed and conclusions are drawn regarding their compatibility with the intended purpose.

  8. Stalking. Part II: Victims' problems with the legal system and therapeutic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, K M; Robinson, G E

    1998-06-01

    This paper is the second of 2 parts reviewing the topic of stalking. It focuses on victims difficulties with the legal system and the psychotherapeutic tasks for victims and therapists. Computerized literature searches were used to identify relevant papers from psychiatric and legal journals. Publications by victims' and women's organizations provided additional information. Victims suffer emotional consequences from being stalked. Additional stress is caused by the legal system's lack of understanding of the causes and consequences of stalking and inadequate and unenforced laws. The treatment of victims requires a comprehensive approach, including education, supportive psychotherapy, and discussion of practical measures. Therapists may overidentify with the patient's powerlessness or hesitate to take on a case out of fear of the stalker. Female therapists may protect themselves against the realization of their own vulnerability by blaming the victim, while male therapists may feel defensive or overprotective. Stalking is a crime with major mental health consequences which is often poorly understood by society. Therapists need to be aware of the victim's emotional reactions, the types of legal and practical supports available, and the possible biases of society. Further education and research should be encouraged.

  9. Comparative analysis of energy impacts of traditional and partly electronic environmental auditing: learning from the Japanese automotive industry case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Mbohwa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper does a comparative analysis and assessment of energy impacts of traditional and partly electronic ISO 14001 environmental management system auditing that using videoconferencing systems. The focus is on the Japanese automotive industry. The idea is to quantify the environmental impacts of auditing and resolve the important question on whether or not the use of information and communication technology (ICT in environmental auditing reduces environmental impacts in ISO 14001 environmental management systems. The main results show that there are no clear energy savings or environmental advantages associated with ICT use in environmental auditing for the set system boundary. However electronic auditing is shown to have clear advantages for stated variables within the model, for example when the distance travelled by the auditors by train and by car is less than 75 km and 17 km per day respectively. A comparison of modes of travel by auditors, shows that rail travel offers the most environmental and energy benefits. It is also noted that travel dominates in terms of energy consumption and environmental burdens compared to all other environmental aspects associated with auditing. The study contributes to knowledge in that among other things, it enables researchers to draw parallels from it applicable to other industrial sectors and other countries. Southern African countries can use this methodology in analysing auditing methods with little or no changes in the model used.

  10. Medical documentation: part of the solution, or part of the problem? A narrative review of the literature on the time spent on and value of medical documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clynch, Neil; Kellett, John

    2015-04-01

    Even though it takes up such a large part of all clinicians' working day the medical literature on documentation and its value is sparse. Medline searches combining the terms medical records, documentation, time, and value or efficacy or benefit yielded only 147 articles. This review is based on the relevant articles selected from this search and additional studies gathered from the personal experience of the authors and their colleagues. Documentation now occupies a quarter to half of doctors' time yet much of the information collected is of dubious or unproven value. Most medical records departments still use the traditional paper chart, and there is considerable debate on the benefits of electronic medical records (EMRs). Although EMRs contains a lot more information than a paper record clinicians do not find it easy to getting useful information out of them. Unlike the paper chart narrative is difficult to enter into most EMRs so that they do not adequately communicate the patient's "story" to clinicians. Recent innovations have the potential to address these issues. Although documentation is widespread throughout the health care industry there has been almost no formal research into its value, on how to enhance its value, or on whether the time spent on it has negative effects on patient care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Manufacturing strategy in the auto parts industry: a multicases study in companies at sorocaba’s region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Regina Neves Guimarães

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The alignment of manufacturing strategy with the business strategy is fundamental for achieving sustainable competitive advantage. In the particular case of the automotive industry, it is verified that the production strategy of suppliers is strongly influenced by the strategy of automakers. In this context, this paper aims at presenting characteristics of the content of the production strategy of four auto parts companies besides analyzing the influence of automakers in the definition of the strategy contents.This is a descriptive and exploratory research that uses  a qualitative approach and the multi-case study method. Among the main results, it was found that the prevalent competitive priority in the companies is quality followed by delivery. In the decision areas, it was noted that customers have great influence on the quality management of these companies and in the R&D activities, besides demanding frequent deliveries. Finally, it was found that auto parts companies seek to strengthen their competitive priorities by adopting criteria from suppliers  for selecting and evaluating.

  12. Desarrollo del diseño fluidodinámico de un filtro de mangas (tipo pulse - jet) para partículas minerales de origen industrial

    OpenAIRE

    Peralta Castillo, German; Barriga Rivera, Alfredo Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    El presente trabajo desarrolla el diseño fluidodinámico de un filtro de mangas para partículas minerales de origen industrial con su utilización en el control de la contaminación industrial del aire y como medio de recuperación de materia prima o de producto terminado, tratando de ajustar este diseño a las condiciones locales y a las necesidades de nuestro país. La primera parte versa sobre los fundamentos teóricos de la dinámica de partículas y del mecanismo de filtrado necesarios para de...

  13. Performance of Automotive Industry under Financial Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Xiaomeng

    2012-01-01

    Since the financial crisis, automobile industry faces severe problems such as sale decline and cash shortage. Some corporations such as General Motors also went to bankrupt. The whole industry was under financial distress and this also affected other related industries such as part manufacturers and suppliers. Most literatures investigated the industry performance by measures such as sale and production volume, export record or GDP contribution. Few of them examine the industrial performance ...

  14. Population, petroleum, and politics: Mexico at the crossroads. Part 2. The potentials and problems of Mexican oil resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, C F

    1980-01-01

    The 2 most important factors which will influence Mexico's future economic development are the country's overpopulation problem and the manner in which the country's oil reserves are exploited. This document describes the historical development of Mexico's oil industry and the current struggle of the government to ensure that the oil resources contribute toward the sound economic development of the country. The government expropriated foreign oil companies in 1938 and today most of the oil operations in Mexico are conducted by the state controlled Pemex Company. In recent years extensive oil reserves were discovered in Mexico and the country is now in the position of having large oil reserves at a time when oil prices are increasing. Known crude oil reserves are estimated at 31 billion barrels; however, an unconfirmed report by Pemex in 1980 placed the known reserves at 50 billion barrels. In the past the management of Pemex was corrupt and inefficient and many top positions in the company were filled by retired politicians. The recent appointment of Jose Andres de Oteyza as Chairman of the Board and of Jorge Diaz Serrano as the Director-General should greatly improve Pemex operations. In developing the country's oil industry the government wants 1) to keep production low enough to offset inflation and to preserve the resource but 2) to produce enough oil so that the country has sufficient funds for investment and for operating needed social programs. The government may not be able to keep oil production down to acceptable levels. It may be forced to increase oil exports to compensate for its growing reliance on imported food and other imported products. In recent years Mexico's industrial productivity and its agricultural production declined. The government wants to avoid being placed in the position where it will be forced to trade large quantities of oil for needed food. The current government is promoting investment in agriculture and industrial development in

  15. Strategies for Solving Potential Problems Associated with Laboratory Diffusion and Batch Experiments - Part 1: An Overview of Conventional Test Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, M.; Takeda, M.; Nakajima, H.

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory diffusion testing as well as batch experiments are well established and widely adopted techniques for characterizing the diffusive and adsorptive properties of geological, geotechnical, and synthetic materials in both scientific and applied fields, including geological disposal of radioactive waste. Although several types of diffusion test, such as the through- diffusion test, in-diffusion test, out-diffusion test, and column test, are currently available, different methods may have different advantages and disadvantages. In addition, traditional methods may have limitations, such as the need for relatively long test times, cumbersome test procedures, and the possibility of errors due to differences between analytical assumptions and actual test conditions. Furthermore, traditional batch experiments using mineral powders are known to overestimate the sorption coefficient. In part 1 of this report, we present a brief overview of laboratory diffusion and batch experiments. The advantages, disadvantages, limitations, and/or potential problems associated with individual tests were compared and summarized. This comprehensive report will provide practical references for reviewing the results obtained from relevant experiments, especially from the viewpoint of regulation. To solve and/or eliminate the potential problems associated with conventional methods, and to obtain the diffusion coefficient and rock capacity factor from a laboratory test both rapidly and accurately, part 2 of this study discusses possible strategies involving the development of rigorous solutions to some relevant test methods, and sensitivity analyses for the related tests that may be helpful to judge the accuracy of the two parameters to be determined from individual tests. (authors)

  16. Problems of perception of radiation risk as a brake of the development of nuclear industry in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruk, Julianna

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The development of nuclear industry is very important task for Belarus, for the country without own alternative sources of energy. At the same time this task is difficult for country that is one of the most suffered form Chernobyl accident. Psychological distress arising from the accident and its aftermath has had a profound impact on individual and community perception of radiation risk by population of Belarus. Although accurate information is accessible and many attempts at dissemination have made, the gloomy stereotype of Chernobyl has developed in public consciousness. At the present day misconceptions and myths about the threat of radiation persist, promoting a paralyzing fatalism among resident in questions of the development of nuclear industry in Belarus. People still lack the information they need about real radiation risk. In such situation good-quality, in time and correctly sent information can be very important in system of measures on reduction of a mental and emotional pressure, on preparation of the population for the decision of socio-economic problems. The creation of uniform information system with use of resources of a global computer network is accepted as new innovation ways of increase of the public knowledge about radiation danger. The creation of such system will allow to carry out by the most modern methods uniform information and socially-rehabilitation politics directed on formation and education of the population in the field of radiating safety and radioecology, on overcoming socially-psychological stress and radio phobia, increase of the vital activity, the formation of a safe image of the life, i.e. on overcoming of consequences of Chernobyl accident in consciousness of the people. (author)

  17. Combining computational modelling with radioisotope technology for a more cost- effective and time-efficient method of solving industrial and medical diagnostic problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, J.Y.; Easey, J.F.; Burch, W.M.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, some work on computational modelling for industrial operations and processes will be presented, for example, the modelling of fly-ash flow and the associated prediction of erosion in power utility boilers. The introduction and use of new formulations of encapsulated radioisotopes, currently being research at ANSTO, will open up further possibilities for the utilisation of radiotracer applications for a wider range of validation work not only in industrial but also in medical investigations. Applications of developed models to solving industrial problems will also be discussed in the paper

  18. Trends in the location of the European car industry from an analysis of trade in parts and components; Tendencias en la localizacion de la industria Europea de automocion. Un analisis a partir del comercio de partes y componentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazquez Gomez, L.; Diaz Mora, C.; Gandoy Juste, R.

    2010-07-01

    The object of this paper is to study the changes in location and specialization in the European automotive industry since the mid-nineties. The analysis is based on the examination of trade flows, distinguishing between final goods and parts and components, and on the delimitation of revealed comparative advantages for those countries leading the European industry. The results show the significance of the European production networks and the increasing new Eastern member countries role in them. Besides, they allow us to establish the main participant countries competitive position in those networks. As far as the Spanish industry is concerned, two aspects must be pointed out. On the one hand, the decrease in the advantages in cars assembly although the specialization in industrial motor vehicles maintains. And on the other hand, the competitive capacity showed by some auxiliary car industries. (Author) 22 refs.

  19. Planning, implementation and analysis of an assessment method of an industrial engineering course grounded on problem based learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Pereira Pinto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In a highly competitive market, companies need increasingly skilled human resources, especially when it comes to engineering. Universities, therefore, play an important role in this scenario, while training future professionals of the country. However, in this task, the institutions are faced with the challenge of attracting and working with young people of Generation Y, which have characteristics and needs that are not met by traditional teaching methods. Problem-Based Learning (PBL is an approach evolved in order to study and develop educational alternatives that meet the needs of businesses as well as the new student profile. In addition, actively teaching is not a simple task and becomes more complex when it refers to assess the knowledge gained through this method. Thus, this paper presents the planning, implementation and the assessment method adopted in a course of Industrial Engineering at the Federal University of Itajubá based on PBL. For this study it was adopted the action research method, in which the authors actively participated in all stages of the course, acting as facilitators in the course planning, implementation and monitoring. As a result, it is highlighted in this article, the benefits achieved by all involved through active learning, as well as the strengths and weaknesses of the method. Moreover, improvements are proposed for future courses.

  20. Robot vs. tax inspector or how the fourth industrial revolution will change the tax system: a review of problems and solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Vishnevsky, Valentine P.; Chekina, Viktoriia D.

    2018-01-01

    The Fourth Industrial Revolution and the accelerated development of cyber-physical technologies lead to essential changes in national tax systems and international taxation. The main areas in which taxation meets cyber-physical technologies are digitalization, robotization, M2M and blockchain technologies. Each of these areas has its own opportunities and problems. Three main approaches towards possible solutions for these new problems are identified. The first is to try to apply taxation to ...

  1. Anza palaeoichnological site. Late Cretaceous. Morocco. Part II. Problems of large dinosaur trackways and the first African Macropodosaurus trackway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masrour, Moussa; Lkebir, Noura; Pérez-Lorente, Félix

    2017-10-01

    The Anza site shows large ichnological surfaces indicating the coexistence in the same area of different vertebrate footprints (dinosaur and pterosaur) and of different types (tridactyl and tetradactyl, semiplantigrade and rounded without digit marks) and the footprint variability of long trackways. This area may become a world reference in ichnology because it contains the second undebatable African site with Cretaceous pterosaur footprints - described in part I - and the first African site with Macropodosaurus footprints. In this work, problems related to long trackways are also analyzed, such as their sinuosity, the order-disorder of the variability (long-short) of the pace length and the difficulty of morphological classification of the theropod footprints due to their morphological variability.

  2. 15. Mendeleev's meeting on general and applied chemistry. Obninsk symposium. Radiological problems in nuclear energetics and industry conversion. Abstracts. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Ecological aspects of nuclear-fuel engineering cycle and radiochemical technologies, radioactive waste processing and water purification, accidents at NPP and their consequences, ecological problems of industry conversion were discussed at the 15th Mendeleev's meeting on general and applied chemistry

  3. The Law and Regulation of Franchising in Malaysia’s Islamic Finance Industry: Problems, Prospects and Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Umar A. Oseni

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing expansion of the global Islamic finance industry beyond its traditional strongholds, there is a gradual increase in the global franchising opportunities in Islamic finance. As one of the pioneering studies on franchise in Islamic finance, this paper examines the Malaysian legal framework on franchising within the Islamic finance industry. Over the years, there has been tremendous growth in the franchise industry in Malaysia and the Islamic fin...

  4. Multidimensional Riemann problem with self-similar internal structure. Part II - Application to hyperbolic conservation laws on unstructured meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsara, Dinshaw S.; Dumbser, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Multidimensional Riemann solvers that have internal sub-structure in the strongly-interacting state have been formulated recently (D.S. Balsara (2012, 2014) [5,16]). Any multidimensional Riemann solver operates at the grid vertices and takes as its input all the states from its surrounding elements. It yields as its output an approximation of the strongly interacting state, as well as the numerical fluxes. The multidimensional Riemann problem produces a self-similar strongly-interacting state which is the result of several one-dimensional Riemann problems interacting with each other. To compute this strongly interacting state and its higher order moments we propose the use of a Galerkin-type formulation to compute the strongly interacting state and its higher order moments in terms of similarity variables. The use of substructure in the Riemann problem reduces numerical dissipation and, therefore, allows a better preservation of flow structures, like contact and shear waves. In this second part of a series of papers we describe how this technique is extended to unstructured triangular meshes. All necessary details for a practical computer code implementation are discussed. In particular, we explicitly present all the issues related to computational geometry. Because these Riemann solvers are Multidimensional and have Self-similar strongly-Interacting states that are obtained by Consistency with the conservation law, we call them MuSIC Riemann solvers. (A video introduction to multidimensional Riemann solvers is available on http://www.elsevier.com/xml/linking-roles/text/html". The MuSIC framework is sufficiently general to handle general nonlinear systems of hyperbolic conservation laws in multiple space dimensions. It can also accommodate all self-similar one-dimensional Riemann solvers and subsequently produces a multidimensional version of the same. In this paper we focus on unstructured triangular meshes. As examples of different systems of conservation laws we

  5. INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGICAL RESEARCH «DEVELOPMENT OF RUSSIAN MARKET OF NANOTECHNOLOGICAL PRODUCTS IN CONSTRUCTION UNTIL 2020». PART 2. ANALYSIS OF THE WORLD MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUSEV Boris Vladimirovich

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Some results of the industrial research «Development of Russian market of nanotechnological products in construction until 2020» have been published. Authors invite all interested specialists and specialized organization to take part in the broad public discussion.

  6. 40 CFR 270.22 - Specific part B information requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste. 270.22 Section 270.22 Protection of... requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste. When an owner or operator of a cement kiln, lightweight aggregate kiln, solid fuel boiler, liquid fuel boiler, or hydrochloric acid...

  7. Instructional Materials in Manufacturing for Junior High School Industrial Arts. Final Report and Parts I-IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus.

    This Title XI Institute was designed and conducted to introduce the participants to inquiry and invention taking place in industrial arts curriculum across the United States. The institute participated in the inquiry stage through advanced study of manufacturing technology and industrial arts curriculum, and in the invention stage through the…

  8. Complex organic pollutant mixtures originating from industrial and municipal emissions in surface waters of the megacity Jakarta-an example of a water pollution problem in emerging economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dsikowitzky, Larissa; Hagemann, Lukas; Dwiyitno; Ariyani, Farida; Irianto, Hari Eko; Schwarzbauer, Jan

    2017-12-01

    During the last decades, the global industrial production partly shifted from industrialized nations to emerging and developing countries. In these upcoming economies, the newly developed industrial centers are generally located in densely populated areas, resulting in the discharge of often only partially treated industrial and municipal wastewaters into the surface waters. There is a huge gap of knowledge about the composition of the complex organic pollutant mixtures occurring in such heavily impacted areas. Therefore, we applied a non-target screening to comprehensively assess river pollution in a large industrial area located in the megacity Jakarta. More than 100 structurally diverse organic contaminants were identified, some of which were reported here for the first time as environmental contaminants. The concentrations of paper manufacturing chemicals in river water-for example, of the endocrine-disrupting compound bisphenol A (50-8000 ng L -1 )-were as high as in pure untreated paper industry wastewaters. The non-target screening approach is the adequate tool for the identification of water contaminants in the new global centers of industrial manufacturing-as the first crucial step towards the evaluation of as yet unrecognized environmental risks.

  9. The part of the international investments in the Russian petroleum industry; La place des investissements internationaux dans l'industrie petroliere russe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locatelli, C

    2004-03-01

    The ''russian risk'' is important for the international petroleum companies, in spite of the creation of the TNK-BP joint venture. The investment in the petroleum domain face different and contradictory interests in function of the economic implied actors. To analyze the situation the author discussed the russian petroleum industry as an ''unfinished model'', and how the place for the international investments is limited. (A.L.B.)

  10. VOC reduction technology deveolpment as part of the U.S. Department of Energy, Industrial Waste Reduction Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranford, B.

    1993-01-01

    A strong industry is vital to U.S. Economic health and prosperity, but U.S. industry is facing serious challenges both domestically and internationally. One of these challenges is the reduction of volatile organic compounds emissions from industrial processes and products. To assist industry with these challenges, the U.S. Department of Energy established the Industrial Waste Reduction Program to improve energy efficiency and competitiveness to private industry through cost-effective waste material reduction. This paper describes the programs and the use of joint partnerships between the Department of Energy, industry, national laboratories, universities and others, in developing technologies which reduce VOC emissions while improving energy efficiency. This paper also describes the process and selection criteria for participation in the program, and briefly describes the following five VOC reduction technologies under development: Dual Cure Coatings, Solvent Reduction through use of a No-clean Soldering Process, Solvent Waste Minimization by Supercritical CO 2 Cleaning Process, ethanol Recovery Process, and Membrane Vapor Recovery Systems. The VOC reductions as well as the energy savings and other benefits to the U.S. are discussed

  11. Defect assessment in nuclear components: R and D related to industrial problems - synthesis of the research, training and teaching activities; Analyse de nocivite de defauts dans les structures nucleaires: R et D associee aux problemes industriels - synthese des activites de recherche, d'encadrement et d'enseignement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marie, St

    2007-06-15

    Nuclear industry pays a particular attention to structures integrity problems: well-aware of the possible catastrophic consequence of a major accident, everything is carried out to minimise the risk of such a situation. From the design, and during all the operating life of the plant, a high level of safety is required and checks by the safety authorities, on the basis of reports made by the operator. These two entities ask for R and D activities to support the improvement of the knowledge of the phenomena already identified (as in the case of the vessel of the PWR) or to bring some element of understanding to situation not considered yet, up to the first incident (as in 1998 with the fatigue problems in the thermal mixing zone, at the origin of the Civaux arrest). Among the CEA teams concerned with these problems, the Laboratory of the Structures Integrity and of Normalisation aims to study the integrity problems in metallic nuclear structures leaning on exceptional experimental means: the RESEDA platform allows the realisation of large-scaled tests on analytical tests (representative of analysed phenomena) to reproduce the industrial situation, linked to various and accurate equipment for the measures and the analyses. Three industrial thematics represent to main part of my research activities at CEA in the fracture mechanics field: - the industrial case of the PWR vessel is related to brittle fracture of the ferritic steels, - the piping components, related to ductile tearing and fracture in the brittle-to-ductile domain, - the high temperature fracture mechanics for the components submitted to very complex loadings. (author)

  12. Defect assessment in nuclear components: R and D related to industrial problems - synthesis of the research, training and teaching activities; Analyse de nocivite de defauts dans les structures nucleaires: R et D associee aux problemes industriels - synthese des activites de recherche, d'encadrement et d'enseignement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marie, St

    2007-06-15

    Nuclear industry pays a particular attention to structures integrity problems: well-aware of the possible catastrophic consequence of a major accident, everything is carried out to minimise the risk of such a situation. From the design, and during all the operating life of the plant, a high level of safety is required and checks by the safety authorities, on the basis of reports made by the operator. These two entities ask for R and D activities to support the improvement of the knowledge of the phenomena already identified (as in the case of the vessel of the PWR) or to bring some element of understanding to situation not considered yet, up to the first incident (as in 1998 with the fatigue problems in the thermal mixing zone, at the origin of the Civaux arrest). Among the CEA teams concerned with these problems, the Laboratory of the Structures Integrity and of Normalisation aims to study the integrity problems in metallic nuclear structures leaning on exceptional experimental means: the RESEDA platform allows the realisation of large-scaled tests on analytical tests (representative of analysed phenomena) to reproduce the industrial situation, linked to various and accurate equipment for the measures and the analyses. Three industrial thematics represent to main part of my research activities at CEA in the fracture mechanics field: - the industrial case of the PWR vessel is related to brittle fracture of the ferritic steels, - the piping components, related to ductile tearing and fracture in the brittle-to-ductile domain, - the high temperature fracture mechanics for the components submitted to very complex loadings. (author)

  13. Radiological impact on the UK population of industries which use or produce materials containing enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides. Part II: the steel production industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crockett, G.M.; Smith, K.R.; Oatway, W.B.; Mobbs, S.F.

    2003-01-01

    This report contains an assessment of the radiological impact on the UK population of the steel production industry within the UK. The radiological impact of the primary industry, the waste streams produced and the use of by-product slag have been considered. Individual doses from atmospheric releases from ail currently operating integrated steel plants in the UK are less than 10 μSv y -1 for all age groups. The per caput dose rate in the UK population from 500 years of continuous steel production at the current levels is estimated to be 0.1 μSv y -1 . Estimated maximum doses to workers at the steel production plant, landfill workers, and workers manufacturing and using building materials containing slag were generally less than 20 μSv y -1 . The estimated radon concentrations in buildings constructed from concrete containing slag depend upon the radon emanation fraction assumed for the material. Experimental data in this area is sparse, and thus a range was considered. The estimated radon concentrations in buildings constructed from concrete containing slag ranged between 7.0 and 10.8 Bq m -3 , compared with 9.9 Bq m -3 when slag-free concrete is assumed. The estimated dose from radon exposure ranges between 363 μSv y -1 and 559 μSv y -1 , compared with 510 μSv y -1 when slag-free concrete is used. The estimated external dose to an individual in a house constructed using concrete containing slag is 790 μSv y -1 compared with 758 μSv y -1 for slag-free concrete. The overall effect of the use of the slag in building materials therefore ranges between a reduction in dose of 115 μSv y -1 and an increase of 81 μSv y -1 . Other scenarios involving exposure of members of the public to slag resulted in doses of less than 5 μSv y -1 . The estimated peak individual risk from landfill disposal of steel industry waste is less than approximately 1 10 -8 y -1 . Currently, radiological controls on the operation of steel production sites are confined to the

  14. Para-petroleum industry: international context. Results of the 2002 inquiry carried out by GEP, CEP and M and IFP (part. 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensaid, B.; Fraysse, S.; Saniere, A.

    2003-01-01

    This article is the 2. part of the presentation of the inquiry about the 2002 economic results of the world para-petroleum industry: 1 - exploration-production: investments, geophysical activity (number of seismic survey teams, geophysical services market), drilling activity, construction of offshore production facilities (platforms construction, production equipments engineering), regional analysis (North America, North Sea, Latin America, Africa, Commonwealth of Independent States, Middle-East, Asia-Pacific). 2 - Refining and petrochemistry: economic context, refining industry expenses, fusions and results of refining companies, world petrochemical expenses, fusion and results of petrochemical companies. (J.S.)

  15. Application of Cs-137 techniques to problems of sediment redistribution in Sungai Lui representative basin, Selangor, Malaysia (Part 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daud bin Mohamad.

    1982-11-01

    Since the beginning of the nuclear age, Cesium-137 has become a part of the world's ecosystems. Cs-137 is carried from the atmosphere to the ground by rainfall. On reaching the earth's surface, 137 Cs becomes strongly adsorbed to soil profiles and is concentrated predominantly in the surface layer, particularly in clayey soils. Systematic measurements of Cs-137 levels will therefore permit estimates to be made of the cumulative effects of soil redistribution over the past 25 years. Sediment movement in river catchments and coastal areas is a very old problem in Malaysia. In view of rapid development of urban and agricultural areas in Malaysia it was realised tha soil loss problems are particularly serious. The Sungai Lui catchment was chosen to be the investigational site. Geologically, the area comprises of granite and granitic schist. The area is mostly covered by forest (approx. 83%) and rubber (13%), padi (2%) and others (2%). The climate is considered to be typical of Peninsular Malaysia (equatorial) characterised by uniform temperature, high humidity and high rainfall. The area is mainly drained by the Lui River. Soil samples were collected from the catchment area at 4 sampling points in April 1981. The results of analyses of Cs-137 in soil samples from Sungai Lui catchment area ranged from 1.3 to 6.8 M Bq g -1 of sample and they could still be detected even up to 20 cm depth. A general pattern of Cs-137 distribution was observed in the soil profile at each site. The highest activity being in the top 3 cm layer and then decreasing up to about 6 cm. The activity increases again up to about 9 cm layer. From there onwards, it decreases. Based on these results, the estimated rate of sediment accumulation in the area was found to be about 0.47 cm/year. Since the samples were only collected from the depositional sites, further sampling especially from erosional site should therefore be carried out in order to obtain more complete data

  16. The Law and Regulation of Franchising in Malaysia’s Islamic Finance Industry: Problems, Prospects and Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar A. Oseni

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing expansion of the global Islamic finance industry beyond its traditional strongholds, there is a gradual increase in the global franchising opportunities in Islamic finance. As one of the pioneering studies on franchise in Islamic finance, this paper examines the Malaysian legal framework on franchising within the Islamic finance industry. Over the years, there has been tremendous growth in the franchise industry in Malaysia and the Islamic financial institutions are not left out in this welcome development. While the franchise industry contributed RM24.6 billion or 2.8% to the Malaysian GDP in 2013, it has been projected that such contribution will reach RM25.4 billion by the end of 2014. The study adopts a qualitative legal method in analyzing the relevant legislations, as they are applicable to Sharī‘ah-compliant business of Islamic financial institutions. The study finds that there is no specific framework for Sharī‘ah-complaint business in Malaysia, including Islamic finance business. Malaysia has vast opportunities in expanding its franchise industry through the amendment of the relevant legal framework to cater for Islamic finance business. This is expected to project Malaysia as a global hub for Islamic finance products and a destination for Sharī‘ah-complaint franchise businesses at the global level.

  17. A primer of drug safety surveillance: an industry perspective. Part I: Information flow, new drug development, and federal regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, M C

    1992-01-01

    To place the fundamentals of clinical drug safety surveillance in a conceptual framework that will facilitate understanding and application of adverse drug event data to protect the health of the public and support a market for pharmaceutical manufacturers' products. Part I of this series provides a background for the discussion of drug safety by defining the basic terms and showing the flow of safety information through a pharmaceutical company. The customers for adverse drug event data are identified to provide a basis for providing quality service. The development of a drug product is briefly reviewed to show the evolution of safety data. Drug development and safety are defined by federal regulations. These regulations are developed by the FDA with information from pharmaceutical manufacturers. The intent of the regulations and the accompanying guidelines is described. An illustration from the news media is cited to show an alternative, positive approach to handling an adverse event report. This review uses primary sources from the federal laws (regulations), commentaries, and summaries. Very complex topics are briefly summarized in the text and additional readings are presented in an appendix. Secondary sources, ranging from newspaper articles to judicial summaries, illustrate the interpretation of adverse drug events and opportunities for drug safety surveillance intervention. The reference materials used were articles theoretically or practically applicable in the day-to-day practice of drug safety surveillance. The role of clinical drug safety surveillance in product monitoring and drug development is described. The process of drug safety surveillance is defined by the Food and Drug Administration regulations, product labeling, product knowledge, and database management. Database management is subdivided into the functions of receipt, retention, retrieval, and review of adverse event reports. Emphasis is placed on the dynamic interaction ;of the components

  18. Future Industrialization of the World and the Necessity of Nuclear Power, Part II: How Limited are Resources?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovich, Jovan V.

    1997-01-01

    Will the future world be forever divided into an industrial, developed and 'rich' on one side, and the primitive, undeveloped, and poor on the other? Is an industrial, affluent and sustainable world of 10-15 billion people owning 5-10 billion cars physically possible to exist? Can the world have enough food, minerals and energy to support such a widespread affluence in a sustainable manner? In previous papers I have argued that even without any major breakthroughs in science and technology, an industrialized, sustainable and affluent world can be created within the next half a century to a century, but only if breeder nuclear power is widely used throughout the world. In this paper I elaborate on the question of future availability of some basic natural resources. (author)

  19. A conceptual framework to explore the roles and contributions of industrial psychologists in South Africa (part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Barnard

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at developing a conceptual framework against which the roles and contributions of industrial psychologists in South Africa could be explored. Three widely-used business frameworks – Balanced Score Card, South African Excellence Model and King II Report on Corporate Governance for South Africa – were theoretically integrated to produce a multi-dimensional framework to clarify roles and contributions in a discourse familiar to the business community. The framework was subsequently utilised in a follow-up study involving 23 registered industrial psychologists who were asked to clarify specific roles and contributions within each of the dimensions of the framework.

  20. The Development of Nanotechnologies and Advanced Materials Industry in Science and Entrepreneurship: Scientific Indicators. A Case Study of Latvia (Part Three)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geipele, S.; Geipele, I.; Kauskale, L.; Zeltins, N.; Staube, T.; Pudzis, E.

    2017-10-01

    The present scientific paper is the third part and continuation of the indepth scientific study of the developed system of engineering economic indicators, where the authors obtain results from the scientific research presented in a series of works on the development of the nanotechnologies and advanced materials industry in science and entrepreneurship in Latvia. Part three determines the crucial scientific indicators of the development of nano-field at the macro, micro, and meso development levels of the economic environment in Latvia. The paper provides the interaction of new identified indicators of nanofield in terms of further scientific and practical activities. Latvia is analysed in comparison with other countries in the world.

  1. 77 FR 29922 - Guides for the Rebuilt, Reconditioned and Other Used Automobile Parts Industry, Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... ``reasonably understandable and designed to call attention to the nature and significance of the information... last amended the Commission had separate guides relating to the advertising and selling of tires. These... Guides helped make the advertising and selling of Industry Products more consistent across the country...

  2. Enhancing an Integrative Course in Industrial Engineering and Management via Realistic Socio-technical Problems and Serious Game Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szirbik, Nicolae; Pelletier, Christine; Velthuizen, Vincent; Umeda, Shigeki

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses specific educational issues encountered during the Systems Engineering Design course at the Industrial Engineering and Management master program at the University of Groningen. It explains first the concept of an integrative course, an innovation that was applied first in this

  3. New technologies in Islamic countries. Power engineering, transport, oil industry, machinery construction, building construction and information technologies problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharipova, N.S.

    1999-01-01

    The published proceedings contain brief presentations concerning new technologies in power engineering, transport, oil industry, machinery construction, building construction and information technologies presented to the International scientific and technical conference: New technologies in Islamic countries, which was organized within frame work of 6 General Assembly of Federation of engineering Institutes of Islamic countries (FEIIC). (author)

  4. Stress and Violence in the Workplace and on Campus: A Growing Problem for Business, Industry and Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Matthew L.; Hughey, Aaron W.; Burke, Monica G.

    2012-01-01

    Levels of stress and violence at work have been increasing globally for the past few decades. Whether the setting is business and industry or a college campus, this disturbing trend affects a growing number of people, including those who do not work directly in these environments. In this paper the authors describe the relationship between stress…

  5. New technologies in Islamic countries. Power engineering, transport, oil industry, machinery construction, building construction and information technologies problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharipova, N.S.

    1999-01-01

    This issue contains papers, which reflect the most important achievements of new technologies in power engineering, transport, oil industry, machinery construction, building construction and information technologies presented to the International Scientific and Technical Conference: New technologies in Islamic countries, which was organized within frame work of 6 General Assembly of Federation of Engineering Institutes of Islamic Countries (FEIIC). (author)

  6. 4. International Conference on Current Problems in Nuclear Physics and Atomic Energy (NPAE-Kyiv2012). Proceedings. Part I and Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyshnevskyi, Ivan M.

    2012-01-01

    Such wide area of topics, discussed during the Conference, is closely connected with the interests of our country to develop the fundamental research in the field of nuclear physics, which is the base of nuclear energy. The purpose of the Conference was to bring together scientists to share their knowledge in the current problems in nuclear physics and atomic energy. consideration of the spherical ground-state proton emitters, while nuclear deformations are supposed to be further included by standard way

  7. CHILDREN’S GIFTEDNESS AND ASSOCIATED PROBLEMS. THE TWICE EXCEPTIONALITY PHENOMENON. GIFTEDNESS AND LEARNING PROBLEMS. GIFTEDNESS AND ATTENTION DEFICIT/ HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER (А REVIEW OF LITERATURE. PART I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Pylaeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with current views, giftedness are considered as the systemic psychic property developing throughout a lifetime, which determines the human possibility of achieving higher (unusual, outstanding results in one or several kinds of activities as compared to other people. People who are endowed with extraordinary abilities may be infrequently called absolutely somatically and mentally healthy. There are data that giftedness in childhood are frequently concurrent with both somatic diseases and different neurological disorders. Many gifted children are diagnosed as having left-handedness, speech disorders, and autoimmune diseases. There are scientific works on the association of giftedness with neurological and psychiatric disorders, including attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, learning problems (dyslexia in particular, autism (including Asperger’s syndrome, bipolar disorder, and migraine. According to the available data, approximately 3–5 % of children fall into a category of intellectually gifted ones; some children (2–5 to 20 % or more of all gifted children according to different findings may have learning problems. The terms “twice-gifted” or “twice-exceptional” are proposed to characterize children with giftedness concurrent with learning problems, attention deficit (including ADHD, or other impairments of cognitive functions and behavior (including oppositional disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder. These children need the more attention of teachers and other correction approaches and adaptation methods to be elaborated as compared to the procedures used for gifted children, on the one hand, and for those with learning problems, behavioral and attention disorders, on the other hand. There is a need for the development and further strengthening of strong suits (gift and correction, adaptation of deficits in children with “twice exceptionality”. The review presents the history of studying the

  8. Analysis of problems in the implementation of management systems of quality in the energy industry, oil and gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borhi, Juan Carlos

    2010-09-15

    The aim of this paper is to describe the problem in the development of systems of quality management based on ISO 9001:2008 to implement in energy companies involved in the extraction, distribution and processing of oil and gas.

  9. Solved problems in electrochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piron, D.L.

    2004-01-01

    This book presents calculated solutions to problems in fundamental and applied electrochemistry. It uses industrial data to illustrate scientific concepts and scientific knowledge to solve practical problems. It is subdivided into three parts. The first uses modern basic concepts, the second studies the scientific basis for electrode and electrolyte thermodynamics (including E-pH diagrams and the minimum energy involved in transformations) and the kinetics of rate processes (including the energy lost in heat and in parasite reactions). The third part treats larger problems in electrolysis and power generation, as well as in corrosion and its prevention. Each chapter includes three sections: the presentation of useful principles; some twenty problems with their solutions; and, a set of unsolved problems

  10. The Interrelationship of Sex, Visual Spatial Abilities, and Mathematical Problem Solving Ability in Grade Seven. Parts 1, 2, and 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonberger, Ann Koch

    This three-volume report deals with the hypothesis that males are more successful at solving mathematical and spatial problems than females. The general relationship between visual spatial abilities and mathematical problem-solving ability is also investigated. The research sample consisted of seventh graders. Each pupil took five spatial tests…

  11. Providing Formative Assessment to Students Solving Multipath Engineering Problems with Complex Arrangements of Interacting Parts: An Intelligent Tutor Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steif, Paul S.; Fu, Luoting; Kara, Levent Burak

    2016-01-01

    Problems faced by engineering students involve multiple pathways to solution. Students rarely receive effective formative feedback on handwritten homework. This paper examines the potential for computer-based formative assessment of student solutions to multipath engineering problems. In particular, an intelligent tutor approach is adopted and…

  12. "Relevance of Earnings Components: Evidence from Manufacturing Firms in Japan - Part II Industry-Period Analysis -" (in Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    Takashi Obinata

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates the value relevance of components of net income by industries and periods. Net income is divided into three components, i.e. operating profits, financial income (including non-core operating profits), and other income (extraordinary items, special items and taxes), which are mandatorily disclosed in Japanese accounting system as known 'multi-step calculation of net income'. Financial income and other income are usually considered noisy. Many accountants think that they...

  13. PROCEEDINGS WITH CONTAMINATED INDUSTRIAL SITES IN TERMS OF NEW LEGISLATION – PART I. HISTORICAL POLLUTION OF THE EARTH'S SURFACE

    OpenAIRE

    Magdalena Paulina Wiśniewska; Agnieszka Pusz

    2017-01-01

    This article shows a way of dealing with the industrial areas, where historical contamination of the earth’s surface occurred, together with an indication of the proper remediation method selection. Public Administration authorities, including the Regional Director of Environmental Protection (RDOŚ) and the governor are responsible, among others, for identifying areas where historical contamination or potential historical contamination of the earth's surface occurred. General Director of Envi...

  14. Educated consumers don’t believe artificial meat is the solution to the problems with the meat industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hocquette , Aurélie; Lambert , Carla; Sinquin , Clémentine; Peterolff , Laure; Wagner , Zoé; ,; Lebert , André; Hocquette , Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    The production of in vitro meat by cell culture has been suggested by some scientists as one solution to address the major challenges facing our society. Firstly, consumers would like the meat industry to reduce potential discomfort of animals on modern farms, or even to avoid killing animals to eat them. Secondly, citizens would like meat producers to reduce potential environmental deterioration by livestock and finally, there is a need to reduce world hunger by increasing pro...

  15. Social assessment of wind power. Part 4: International position and development conditions of the Danish wind turbine industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnoee, P.; Joergensen, U.

    1995-12-01

    Today, the Danish wind turbine industry is positioned as a global market leader on a fast growing international market. The conclusion and observation of this report are: 1. The international market for wind power is likely to grow fast over the next 5 years (a self-reinforcing development) and the Danish wind turbine industry has the potential to increase export from the present DKK 2 billion per year to DKK 4 billion per year. 2. The leading market position is achieved after the collapse of the California market in 1987. The last four years have been export-driven growth together with the development of complementary assets to support a strong product technology. 3. The Danish position might be threatened by the new competitors, but it is our view that it takes 2-3 years before they have equivalent competences, and since the Danish companies are presently also mobilizing resources and competences it is not likely that they are easily outperformed. 4. A continued installation of wind power in Denmark is important to support the sustaining of the international position in the coming years. Through, it is not the volume size of the domestic market, but rather a stable market which serves as a home base for the industry. Not only for the reference and testing of new wind turbines, but also the knowledge networks between manufacturers and suppliers and between manufacturers and the Test Station for Windmills at Risoe. (EG) 51 refs

  16. Impact of industries in the accumulation of radionuclides in the lower part of Ebro river (Catalonia, Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palomo, M.; Penalver, A.; Aguilar, C.; Borrull, F.

    2010-01-01

    Ebro River extends over almost 930 km and is the main Spanish river entering the Mediterranean Sea. There are several industries located along this river course including a di-calcium phosphate factory (DCP) and two nuclear power reactors. These installations, together with other factors such as the geology, can contribute to the radiological content of the river. Therefore, this study was performed to determine some natural and also some anthropogenic radionuclide concentrations in the Ebro River ecosystem. We analysed water samples, solid samples (rice field sludge and surface marine sediment samples), and also biota samples (Cladophora glomerata and Cynodon dactylon). For water samples, gross alpha, gross beta, tritium, uranium, thorium and also a group of gamma-emitting isotopes' activities were determined. The main contribution to radioactivity for these samples was due to some isotopes from the uranium and thorium chain. For the solid samples, we quantified some natural and artificial gamma radioisotopes, which may be related to the geological and/or industrial activities located in this zone. In the case of biota, the results indicate that the presence of the DCP has a significant influence, since the highest activity was observed in the surroundings of this industry (Flix), where isotopes such as 214 Bi and 214 Pb presented activity values of 105 ± 43 Bq/kg and 100 ± 58 Bq/kg, respectively. (authors)

  17. An Ethical (Descriptive) Framework for Judgment of Actions and Decisions in the Construction Industry and Engineering-Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhatib, Omar J; Abdou, Alaa

    2018-04-01

    The construction industry is usually characterized as a fragmented system of multiple-organizational entities in which members from different technical backgrounds and moral values join together to develop a particular business or project. The greatest challenge in the construction process for the achievement of a successful practice is the development of an outstanding reputation, which is built on identifying and applying an ethical framework. This framework should reflect a common ethical ground for myriad people involved in this process to survive and compete ethically in today's turbulent construction market. This study establishes a framework for ethical judgment of behavior and actions conducted in the construction process. The framework was primarily developed based on the essential attributes of business management identified in the literature review and subsequently incorporates additional attributes identified to prevent breaches in the construction industry and common ethical values related to professional engineering. The proposed judgment framework is based primarily on the ethical dimension of professional responsibility. The Ethical Judgment Framework consists of descriptive approaches involving technical, professional, administrative, and miscellaneous terms. The framework provides the basis for judging actions as either ethical or unethical. Furthermore, the framework can be implemented as a form of preventive ethics, which would help avoid ethical dilemmas and moral allegations. The framework can be considered a decision-making model to guide actions and improve the ethical reasoning process that would help individuals think through possible implications and consequences of ethical dilemmas in the construction industry.

  18. A study on PCB, PCDD/PCDF industrial contamination in an urban/agricultural area. Part I - Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turrio-Baldassarri, L.; Alivernini, S.; Battistelli, C.L. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (IT)] (and others)

    2004-09-15

    The Istituto Superiore di Sanita is involved in a study on the impact of existing and past industrial activities as possible sources of contamination on the surrounding environment. The study will focus on an industrial plant inside Brescia, a city in the north-west of Italy, where, from 1938 to 1984, 150 tons of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were produced. In 1994, 1996 and 1998 three monitoring programs, preliminary to the construction of a municipal waste incinerator near the industrial plant, were carried out. High PCBs levels in soils were observed, namely 3000-6000 fold higher than the limits (0,001mg/Kg) allowed by the 1999 Italian law, in an agricultural area where several small farms are located; the farmers have been consuming for a long time food, such as milk and meat, produced in their own farms. This study has different aims: confirming and enriching previous data; helping determining the contamination source; measuring the contamination of the animals living in the area or fed with contaminated forage; evaluate the exposure of the farmers as compared to general population. Moreover, this study is interested in studying the PCB and PCDD/PCDF transfer from soils to humans across the food chain.

  19. ASSESSMENT OF THE E 920 ADDITIVE (L - CYSTEINE IN RELATION TO SOME PROBLEMS OF MODERN FOOD INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radiana Maria TAMBA BEREHOIU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to assess the current state of knowledge about the use of L - cysteine in food industry, regarding certain cultural, legal, technological, toxicological, and other aspects that influence the attitude of the consumerstowards food. Use of L - cysteine and its derivatives in bakery allows the optimizing of the technological characteristics of flours and their higher recovery, by using products with high added value. Use the E 920 additivein human food is subject to the cultural and religious controversy, due to the generalized process of obtaining this additive from animal products (keratin. Our study shows that these controversies will be overcome when industrialfermentative technologies of L - cysteine production will be generalized in the market. There exist no data on thepotential toxicity of L - cysteine in the usual doses which are used in the baking industry. The only threat to the status of E 920 as a safe additive is the excitotoxic potential, suggested in several recent studies. Also, there exists a potential for extending the use of L - cysteine in the food industry in order to reduce the contamination degree withcertain chemicals having carcinogen potential, such as acrylamide and mycotoxins.

  20. LDRD final report for improving human effectiveness for extreme-scale problem solving : assessing the effectiveness of electronic brainstorming in an industrial setting.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dornburg, Courtney C.; Stevens, Susan Marie; Davidson, George S.; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt

    2008-09-01

    An experiment was conducted comparing the effectiveness of individual versus group electronic brainstorming in order to address difficult, real world challenges. While industrial reliance on electronic communications has become ubiquitous, empirical and theoretical understanding of the bounds of its effectiveness have been limited. Previous research using short-term, laboratory experiments have engaged small groups of students in answering questions irrelevant to an industrial setting. The present experiment extends current findings beyond the laboratory to larger groups of real-world employees addressing organization-relevant challenges over the course of four days. Employees and contractors at a national security laboratory participated, either in a group setting or individually, in an electronic brainstorm to pose solutions to a 'wickedly' difficult problem. The data demonstrate that (for this design) individuals perform at least as well as groups in producing quantity of electronic ideas, regardless of brainstorming duration. However, when judged with respect to quality along three dimensions (originality, feasibility, and effectiveness), the individuals significantly (p<0.05) out-performed the group working together. When idea quality is used as the benchmark of success, these data indicate that work-relevant challenges are better solved by aggregating electronic individual responses, rather than electronically convening a group. This research suggests that industrial reliance upon electronic problem solving groups should be tempered, and large nominal groups might be the more appropriate vehicle for solving wicked corporate issues.

  1. Potential problems in introduction of personnel reliability certification systems into Japan's nuclear industry. Implications from the German and the U.S. laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Tomoyuki

    2009-01-01

    In Japan, while the interest in nuclear terrorism has increased which led law revision aiming for reinforcing physical protection in 2005, there is a growing concern in an insider threat in the nuclear industry. To cope with this threat, 'personnel reliability certification systems' are introduced in the United States and other nuclear industrized countries as an effective measure. The report examines current personnel reliability certification systems in Germany and the United States, and identifies common characteristics as well as key differences between two legal systems and regulations, and thereby attempts to identify the potential problems that the Japanese nuclear industry would face if such institutions as seen in Germany and the United States would be introduced in Japan, and suggests some measures to overcome these problems. The author suggests the following measures as practically useful essential in introducing similar systems in Japan: (1) introduction of comprehensive regulation (not industry specific) on personnel reliability certification systems, (2) clarification of conditions of prior consents by the employees, and (3) privacy protection procedures of the employees and information management. (author)

  2. Industrial effluent costs in some Spanish regions and other parts of the EU. Canons and taxes of water treatment; El coste del vertido industrial en varias comunidades autonomas espanolas y en algunos territorios europeos. Los canones y tasas de depuracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grau Rahola, J.; Munoz Requena, A.; Ruaix Prat, T.

    2009-07-01

    In this article, the different systems existing in the Spanish regions for paying all the expense related to industrial effluents are examined and compared with the ones in use in other parts of the EU. Also, the degree of fulfillment of the economic objectives of the Water Framework Directives is determined. The findings are quite clear that there is a comparative disadvantage in the sense that some of the regions have not even regulated and instrument to ensure the principle of Who pollutes, pays, there is a widespread unequal treatment for the same type of effluent within Spain and there is clear evidence of a transfer of resources from the industrial use to the domestic one. (Author)

  3. Part of the inter ministerial commission of artificial radioelements (cirea) in the areas of medicine, research and industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fages, D.Ph.

    2000-01-01

    The Inter ministerial commission of artificial radioelements (C.I.R.E.A.) has been implemented to regulate the production, import, use of artificial radioelements. It gives advices in areas such preparation, import, export, fabrication, calibration, transport, transfer as well as the general conditions of use, the measures of protection against the effects of radiations. The commission is divided in two sections: for the first one, it treats the questions relative to medical practices and human biology, for the second one it treats questions relative to others areas( agriculture, industry, research else than medical one). (N.C.)

  4. Prize for Industrial Applications of Physics Talk: The Inverse Scattering Problem and the role of measurements in its solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Philip

    2009-03-01

    The electromagnetic inverse scattering problem suggests that if a homogeneous and non-absorbing object be illuminated with a monochromatic light source and if the far field scattered light intensity is known at sufficient scattering angles, then, in principle, one could derive the dielectric structure of the scattering object. In general, this is an ill-posed problem and methods must be developed to regularize the search for unique solutions. An iterative procedure often begins with a model of the scattering object, solves the forward scattering problem using this model, and then compares these calculated results with the measured values. Key to any such solution is instrumentation capable of providing adequate data. To this end, the development of the first laser based absolute light scattering photometers is described together with their continuing evolution and some of the remarkable discoveries made with them. For particles much smaller than the wavelength of the incident light (e.g. macromolecules), the inverse scattering problems are easily solved. Among the many solutions derived with this instrumentation are the in situ structure of bacterial cells, new drug delivery mechanisms, the development of new vaccines and other biologicals, characterization of wines, the possibility of custom chemotherapy, development of new polymeric materials, identification of protein crystallization conditions, and a variety discoveries concerning protein interactions. A new form of the problem is described to address bioterrorist threats. Over the many years of development and refinement, one element stands out as essential for the successes that followed: the R and D teams were always directed and executed by physics trained theorists and experimentalists. 14 Ph. D. physicists each made his/her unique contribution to the development of these evolving instruments and the interpretation of their results.

  5. Impact of industrialization on environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, S.M.; Saqi, S.K.

    2005-01-01

    The positive economic and social results of industrial growth have been accompanied by serious environmental degradation, however, as well growing threats to health from occupational hazards. To some extent, these problems are analogous to those of early industrial Europe. In the 19th century, the shift from a rural, agrarian society to an urban, industrial society initially involve widespread social and economic disruption, unemployment, homelessness, pollution, and increased exposure to health hazards both at work and at home. Many of these same problems characterize cities in the developing world today. As part of this growth, industrial wastes are going in quantity and becoming more varied, more toxic, and more difficult to dispose off or degrade. Densities in cities where much of the industrial production is located for surpass those in developed countries, so the number of people exposed to pollutants is potentially much greater. (author)

  6. The power industry of the Magadan oblast: part of the Leninist GOELRO (State Commission for the Electrification of Russia) plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozdnyak, I.G.; Anishchenko, Ye.B.

    1981-01-01

    A brief history is given of the development of the Magadan oblast's power industry, which is inseparably connected with development of the very rich raw material resources and fast development of the mining industry. In 1985 completion of construction of the Kolyma GES is planned; with the end of its construction will begin preparatory work one Ust'-Srednekansk GES: the second GES of the Kalyma falls. Work has begun since 1981 to expand the third phase of the Magadan heat and electric power plant. In 1982 completion of installation of power equipment at the Arkagalinsk State regional power plant is planned. In the 11th five-year plan construction of the system of 220 kV power lines will be finished, and 110 and 35 kV power distribution lines will be built. A special place belongs to construction of the Lankovskaya thermal power plant, which will aid in creating a stable fuel-energy base with a positive future. Chukotka power will be further developed. By 1990, 18 more state farms should be connected to the state power system. Completing the power basis in the Magadan oblast will enable an acceleration in its development, and a rise in the material and cultural standard of living of the people of the Far Northeast.

  7. Part of the green plan : suppliers are helping the coal and oil sands industries to address environmental concerns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabourin, M.

    2009-09-15

    The Canadian coal and oil sands industries operate in one of the most stringent environmental regulatory frameworks found in the world. The purpose of the strict regulations is to ensure that Canadian energy resources are developed safely, responsibly and efficiently. Their primary objectives involve the protection of water supplies and aquatic life. This article discussed how suppliers are helping the coal and oil sands industries address environmental concerns. Several examples were provided. In terms of water protection and management, EBA Engineering Consultants has helped mining companies comply with strict environmental regulations and has assisted them in obtaining the necessary permits and establishing monitoring programs. In terms of containment, the Layfield Group's silt and sediment control products has helped prevent fine soil particles from running off into and clouding local water courses. In terms of land reclamation and remediation, IW Kuhn Environmental Ltd., has provided soil remediation services, including re-vegetation using hydroseeding which involves the sowing of seeds with a hosed jet of water. This article also discussed the many green technology products that have been developed and commercialized by EarthRenew for application in coal and oil sands projects. Their patented waste renew facilities can process and cook manures, biosolids or green wastes into organic fertilizers that could be used in land repair applications. 5 figs.

  8. Risk-Informed Margin Management (RIMM) Industry Applications IA1 - Integrated Cladding ECCS/LOCA Performance Analysis - Problem Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szilard, Ronaldo Henriques [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Youngblood, Robert [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Frepoli, Cesare [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Yurko, Joseph P. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Swindlehurst, Gregg [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zhang, Hongbin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zhao, Haihua [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bayless, Paul D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Alfonsi, Andrea [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Curtis L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The U. S. NRC is currently proposing rulemaking designated as “10 CFR 50.46c” to revise the LOCA/ECCS acceptance criteria to include the effects of higher burnup on cladding performance as well as to address some other issues. The NRC is also currently resolving the public comments with the final rule expected to be issued in the summer of 2016. The impact of the final 50.46c rule on the industry will involve updating of fuel vendor LOCA evaluation models, NRC review and approval, and licensee submittal of new LOCA evaluations or reanalyses and associated technical specification revisions for NRC review and approval. The rule implementation process, both industry and NRC activities, is expected to take 5-10 years following the rule effective date. The need to use advanced cladding designs is expected. A loss of operational margin will result due to the more restrictive cladding embrittlement criteria. Initial and future compliance with the rule may significantly increase vendor workload and licensee cost as a spectrum of fuel rod initial burnup states may need to be analyzed to demonstrate compliance. Consequently there will be an increased focus on licensee decision making related to LOCA analysis to minimize cost and impact, and to manage margin.

  9. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 403 - Selected Industrial Subcategories Considered Dilute for Purposes of the Combined Wastestream Formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Manufacture of Soap Flakes and Powders Manufacture of Bar Soaps Manufacture of Liquid Soaps Manufacture of.... Latex Foam 4 4 Footnote: Except for production that generates zinc as a pollutant in discharge. Soap and Detergent Manufacturing (40 CFR part 417) Soap Manufacture by Batch Kettle Fatty Acid Manufacture by Fat...

  10. AERMOD: A DISPERSION MODEL FOR INDUSTRIAL SOURCE APPLICATIONS PART I: GENERAL MODEL FORMULATION AND BOUNDARY LAYER CHARACTERIZATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The formulations of the AMS/EPA Regulatory Model Improvement Committee's applied air dispersion model (AERMOD) as related to the characterization of the planetary boundary layer are described. This is the first in a series of three articles. Part II describes the formulation of...

  11. Industrial pollution of the Moselle River: the birth, development and management of an environmental problem, 1850-2000; La pollution industrielle de la Moselle francais: naissance, developpement et gestion d'un probleme environnemental, 1850-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcier, J.R

    2005-12-15

    In the 1850's, the water quality of surface waters in the Moselle river drainage basin began to suffer from the development of heavy industrial activities (coal and iron ore mining, steel and soda making). Industrial development also fuelled a demographic impetus that proved detrimental to the quality of surface waters. This study uses archival sources to analyse the ineffectiveness of the policies that were launched to regulate pollution. In a region traumatized by the Prussian annexation of a quarter of its surface (1870), industrial production enjoyed a symbolic protection that allowed water pollution to go unabated. The fuzzy status of pollution in law contributed to the immunity of industrialists. From the 1950's on, fear that the region might experience severe water shortages due to the growth of water consumption by industries and cities alike enabled more stringent policies to be devised. They still had to take into account the interests of the heavy industry and their effectiveness is questionable. Hydrological planning was based upon a functionalist vision of water resources that did not take environmental issues into account. The situation changed in the 1970's and 1980's, when European integration and the Sandoz catastrophe in the Rhine (November 1986) tipped the scale in favour of more vigorous environmental policies. This study develops the concepts of a 'regional system' and of the 'mode of construction' of an environmental problem. These prove to be valuable theoretical elements to ground environmental geography studies. (author)

  12. Safety management in multiemployer worksites in the manufacturing industry: opinions on co-operation and problems encountered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenonen, Sanna; Vasara, Juha

    2013-01-01

    Co-operation between different parties and effective safety management play an important role in ensuring safety in multiemployer worksites. This article reviews safety co-operation and factors complicating safety management in Finnish multiemployer manufacturing worksites. The paper focuses on the service providers' opinions; however, a comparison of the customers' views is also presented. The results show that safety-related co-operation between providers and customers is generally considered as successful but strongly dependent on the partner. Safety co-operation is provided through, e.g., training, orientation and risk analysis. Problems encountered include ensuring adequate communication, identifying hazards, co-ordinating work tasks and determining responsibilities. The providers and the customers encounter similar safety management problems. The results presented in this article can help companies to focus their efforts on the most problematic points of safety management and to avoid common pitfalls.

  13. Development Problems of Pig Breeding Industry Cluster in Yueyang County%岳阳县生猪养殖产业集群发展问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄海; 黎红梅

    2013-01-01

    From the point of view of development mechanism for industrial cluster, pig farming conditions in Yueyang County were analyzed.The results showed that the developing mode of pig breeding industry cluster in Yueyang County is relying on market and driving by core enterprises.Under the background of agricultural industry, the internal mechanism of developing mode of pig breeding industry cluster in Yueyang County formed by requirements of changing production mode and enterprises' cooperation and demands, and the external mechanism of it formed by local government's macroscopic readjustment and control and inspiriting.Moreover, some problems existed in developmental process of pig breeding in Yueyang County were pointed out.Then, the corresponding suggestions and the countermeasures were proposed for sustainable development of pig breeding industry in Yueyang County healthily.%从产业集群发展机制出发,对岳阳县生猪养殖状况进行了分析.结果表明:岳阳县生猪养殖产业集群发展模式为市场依托型和核心企业带动性,农业产业化大背景下生产模式改变的需求和企业的合作与需求是其形成的内在机制,当地政府宏观调控与激励是其外在机制;指出了岳阳县生猪养殖产业集群发展过程中存在的问题,为其健康可持续发展提出了建议与对策.

  14. Studying the effects of operators' problem solving behaviour when using a diagnostic expert system developed for the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmstroem, C.B.O.; Volden, F.S.; Endestad, T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes an experiment with the purpose to also illustrate and discuss some of the methodological problems when empirically studying problem solving. The experiment which was the second in a series, conducted at the OECD Halden Reactor Project, aimed to assess the effect on nuclear power plant operators diagnostic behaviour when using a rule-based diagnostic expert system. The rule-based expert system used in the experiment is called DISKET (Diagnosis System Using Knowledge Engineering Technique) and was originally developed by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). The experiment was performed in the Halden man-machine laboratory using a full scope pressurized water reactor simulator. Existing data collection methods and experimental design principles includes possibilities but also limitations. This is discussed and experiences are presented. Operator performance in terms of quality of diagnosis is improved by the use of DISKET. The use of the DISKET system also influences operators problem solving behaviour. The main difference between the two experimental conditions can be characterized as while the DISKET users during the diagnosis process are following a strategy which is direct and narrowed, the non-DISKET users are using a much broader and less focused search when trying to diagnose a disturbance. (author)

  15. Estimation of surface temperature by using inverse problem. Part 1. Steady state analyses of two-dimensional cylindrical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Toshio; Terada, Atsuhiko

    2006-03-01

    In the corrosive process environment of thermochemical hydrogen production Iodine-Sulfur process plant, there is a difficulty in the direct measurement of surface temperature of the structural materials. An inverse problem method can effectively be applied for this problem, which enables estimation of the surface temperature using the temperature data at the inside of structural materials. This paper shows analytical results of steady state temperature distributions in a two-dimensional cylindrical system cooled by impinging jet flow, and clarifies necessary order of multiple-valued function from the viewpoint of engineeringly satisfactory precision. (author)

  16. Technical and economic working domains of industrial heat pumps: Part 2 - ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix

    2015-01-01

    The ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pump (HACHP) has been proposed as a relevant technology for industrial heat supply, especially for high sink temperatures and high temperature glides in the sink and source. This is due to the reduced vapour pressure and the non-isothermal phase...... change of the zeotropic mixture, ammonia-water. To evaluate to which extent these advantages can be translated into feasible heat pump solutions, the working domain of the HACHP is investigated based on technical and economic constraints. The HACHP working domain is compared to that of the best available...... vapour compression heat pump with natural working fluids. This shows that the HACHP increases the temperature lifts and heat supply temperatures that are feasible to produce with a heat pump. The HACHP is shown to be capable of delivering heat supply temperatures as high as 150 °C and temperature lifts...

  17. Technical and Economic Working Domains of Industrial Heat Pumps: Part 2 - Ammonia-Water Hybrid Absorption-Compression Heat Pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix

    2014-01-01

    The ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pump (HACHP) is a relevant technology for industrial heat supply, especially for high sink temperatures and high temperature glides in the sink and source. This is due to the reduced vapour pressure and the non-isothermal phase change...... of the zeotropic mixture, ammonia-water. To evaluate to which extent these advantages can be translated into feasible heat pump solutions, the working domain of the HACHP is investigated based on technical and economic constraints. The HACHP working domain is compared to that of the best possible vapour...... compression heat pump with natural working fluids. This shows that the HACHP increases the temperature lifts and heat supply temperatures that are feasible to produce with a heat pump. The HACHP is shown to be capable of delivering heat supply temperatures as high as 140 XC and temperature lifts up to 60 K...

  18. Viscosity of Industrially Important Zn-Al Alloys Part II: Alloys with Higher Contents of Al and Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, V. M. B.; Queirós, C. S. G. P.; Lourenço, M. J. V.; Santos, F. J. V.; Nieto de Castro, C. A.

    2018-05-01

    The viscosity of Zn-Al alloys melts, with industrial interest, was measured for temperatures between 693 K and 915 K, with an oscillating cup viscometer, and estimated expanded uncertainties between 3 and 5 %, depending on the alloy. The influence of minor components, such as Si, Mg and Ce + La, on the viscosity of the alloys is discussed. An increase in the amount of Mg triggers complex melt/solidification processes while the addition of Ce and La renders alloys viscosity almost temperature independent. Furthermore, increases in Al and Si contents decrease melts viscosity and lead to an Arrhenius type behavior. This paper complements a previous study describing the viscosity of Zn-Al alloys with quasi-eutectic compositions.

  19. [The economically active population in Verviers during the industrial revolution. Part 2. The employed: economic distribution and demographic structures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desama, C

    1979-01-01

    A study of the active population in Verviers during the 1st 1/2 of the 19th century shows that the distribution of immigrants into workers and nonworkers and among the different lines of activity takes place more in line with demographic factors than in line with the real needs of the economy. For instance, the changes in the demographic structure of the working population (younger people and larger numbers of women) removed any rigidity from the employment market. Each element of the production apparatus, including the service industries, was able to count on the human resources necessary for optimum functioning. The available surplus manpower, resulting from immigration, thus made it possible to reach the most profitable production level at the lowest salary costs at the work and technology conditions imposed by the company head. (author's)

  20. PROCEEDINGS WITH CONTAMINATED INDUSTRIAL SITES IN TERMS OF NEW LEGISLATION – PART I. HISTORICAL POLLUTION OF THE EARTH'S SURFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Paulina Wiśniewska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article shows a way of dealing with the industrial areas, where historical contamination of the earth’s surface occurred, together with an indication of the proper remediation method selection. Public Administration authorities, including the Regional Director of Environmental Protection (RDOŚ and the governor are responsible, among others, for identifying areas where historical contamination or potential historical contamination of the earth's surface occurred. General Director of Environmental Protection is responsible for conducting and updating the registry, which contains information on identified by RDOŚ and district governor contaminated areas. The article discusses also issues related to the duties and responsibilities wielding the earth's surface, as well as the costs of using the environment, taking into account the "polluter pays" principle.

  1. SUSTAINABILITY COST ACCOUNTING - PART 1: A MONETARY PROCEDURE TO EVALUATE THE SUSTAINABILITY OF TECHNOLOGIES IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN PROCESS INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Brent

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The development and management of new technologies is fundamental to the manufacturing sector as a core operational initiative. Managers of a new technology are increasingly pressurised to consider the economic, environmental, and social impacts associated with the life cycle of the technology (and product during decision-making – i.e. the overall sustainability of the technology. At present, there is no consensus on a methodology to incorporate externalities – for example, environmental and social impacts at macro-level, for which a company is (typically not held financially liable – into management practices. This paper introduces the Sustainability Cost Accounting (SCA procedure, whereby externalities (burdens and benefits are translated into financial terms to assess the overall sustainability performance of a developed technology in the process industry.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: ‘n Sentrale operasionele initiatief van die vervaardigings-industrie is die ontwikkeling en bestuur van nuwe tegnologieë. Bestuurders van nuwe tegnologieë word toenemend onder druk geplaas om die ekonomiese-, omgewings-, en sosiale impakte, wat verwant is aan die lewenssiklus van ‘n tegnologie (of produk, in ag te neem tydens besluitneming ten opsigte van die globale volhoudbaarheid van die tegnologie. Op hierdie stadium is daar geen konsensus oor die metodologie wat gevolg moet word om eksterne faktore – bv. omgewings- en sosiale impakte op makrovlak, waarvoor ‘n maatskappy tipies nie aanspreeklik gehou word nie – te inkorporeer in die bestuurpraktyk. Hierdie artikel stel die Volhoudbaarheid Kosterekeningkunde (VKR prosedure voor, waarvolgens die oorgrote volhoudbare prestasie, in terme van eksterne voor- en nadele van ‘n ontwikkelde tegnologie, in die prosesindustrie ge-assesseer kan word in finansiële terme.

  2. Biotrickling filter modeling for styrene abatement. Part 1: Model development, calibration and validation on an industrial scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San-Valero, Pau; Dorado, Antonio D; Martínez-Soria, Vicente; Gabaldón, Carmen

    2018-01-01

    A three-phase dynamic mathematical model based on mass balances describing the main processes in biotrickling filtration: convection, mass transfer, diffusion, and biodegradation was calibrated and validated for the simulation of an industrial styrene-degrading biotrickling filter. The model considered the key features of the industrial operation of biotrickling filters: variable conditions of loading and intermittent irrigation. These features were included in the model switching from the mathematical description of periods with and without irrigation. Model equations were based on the mass balances describing the main processes in biotrickling filtration: convection, mass transfer, diffusion, and biodegradation. The model was calibrated with steady-state data from a laboratory biotrickling filter treating inlet loads at 13-74 g C m -3 h -1 and at empty bed residence time of 30-15 s. The model predicted the dynamic emission in the outlet of the biotrickling filter, simulating the small peaks of concentration occurring during irrigation. The validation of the model was performed using data from a pilot on-site biotrickling filter treating styrene installed in a fiber-reinforced facility. The model predicted the performance of the biotrickling filter working under high-oscillating emissions at an inlet load in a range of 5-23 g C m -3 h -1 and at an empty bed residence time of 31 s for more than 50 days, with a goodness of fit of 0.84. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. To the problem of typology of the riskogenic behaviour (analysis on the example of an industrial enterprise of Perm region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.А. Ryazanova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article offers a method for the typology of riskogenic behavior of employees. The method is based on the identification of the common patterns of behavior in terms of alcohol consumption, smoking, access to medical care, nutrition and physical activity. Three types of behavior, characterized by different levels of self-preservation, self-destructive activities and the degree of riskogenics, are given in this study. The first type is "low level of riskogenics, passive", that combines low levels of physical activity, high culture of consumption of alcoholic beverages, absence of smoking experience and correct eating habits. The second type – "average level of riskogenics, active" assumes daily exercises or sport activities, long walks in the fresh air, absence of dependence on alcohol beverages at severe nicotine dependence and absence of proper nutrition practices. A third type is "high level of riskogenic, passive" that involves systematic abuse of alcohol, heavy smoking, very poor nutrition and lack of exercise. The proposed typology was tested in an industrial plant producing rubber products for industrial and national consumption. The continuous sociological survey of employees of working specialties (n = 63 has been conducted. The parameterization of the behavioral practices of the respondents in the field of health (the indicators reflecting the average daily consumption of alcohol, nicotine uptake, integral index of food and motor activity were calculated as well as the cluster analysis have been performed. The riskogenics first type comprises 30 % of responded employees, the second – 52 %, the third – 18 %. For each type a social portrait has been composed. The analysis of relations between the type of riscogenic behavior of the employees and their health status indexes has been conducted.

  4. RAAIS: Rapid Appraisal of Agricultural Innovation Systems (Part II). Integrated analysis of parasitic weed problems in rice in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, M.; Rodenburg, J.; Klerkx, L.W.A.; Kayeke, J.; Ast, van A.; Bastiaans, L.

    2015-01-01

    Parasitic weeds such as Striga spp and Rhamphicarpa fistulosa in smallholder rice production systems form an increasing problem for food and income security in sub-Saharan Africa. In this paper we implement the Rapid Appraisal of Agricultural Innovation Systems (RAAIS) as a diagnostic tool to

  5. Extended Subject Access to Hypertext Online Documentation. Parts I and II: The Search-Support and Maintenance Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girill, T. R.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes enhancements made to a hypertext information retrieval system at the National Energy Research Supercomputer Center (NERSC) called DFT (Document, Find, and Theseus). The enrichment of DFT's entry vocabulary is described, DFT and other hypertext systems are compared, and problems that occur due to the need for frequent updates are…

  6. Green gas in the natural gas distribution system. Towards a zero-energy dairy industry. Part 1; Groen gas op het aardgasnet. Naar een energieneutrale zuivelketen. Deel 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruinsma, B. [KWA Bedrijfsadviseurs, Amersfoort (Netherlands)

    2007-09-15

    This is the second report in a series on 'zero-energy dairy industry' in the Netherlands. In this first report options were explored. In the second report three concrete pilot projects were presented (Beemster, Koudum. St. Oedenrode). In the third report we focus on making the transport part zero-energy [Dutch] Dit rapport is het eerste rapport in de reeks 'naar een energieneutrale zuivelketen' waarin de mogelijkheden worden verkend. In het tweede apport worden drie concrete pilotprojecten gepresenteerd (Beemster, Koudum. St. Oedenrode). In het derde rapport zoomen we in op het energieneutraal maken van het onderdeel transport in de zuivelketen.

  7. Current problems of the Bulgarian energy industry against the background of global short-term energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batov, S.

    1999-01-01

    The energy demand during the next century due first of all to the expected growth of population necessitates more efficient technologies and huge investments. The production of nuclear energy requires higher safety as well as reduction of costs. A new form of partnership between the developed and developing countries is needed for transferring capital and technologies at special framework terms in order to avoid errors in the process of transition. The Energy Forum'99 highlights the current problems of Bulgarian energy branch and the projects for its future including better utilization of the existing energy resources, for development of new or renewable energy sources, not well utilized at present, and to harmonize the sector with better environmental protection. The most important problems discussed are: 1. Structure and restructuring strategy of the energy sector. Prices and tariffs. Privatization aspects. Construction of new replacement generating capacities; 2. Thermal power plants; 3. Nuclear power plants; 4. District heating and natural gas supply; 5. Efficient energy utilization; 6. Renewable energy sources; 7. Environmental protection and 8. Education

  8. Contemporary problems of health protection for workers employed at a large industrial enterprise and working under occupational hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Ya. Titova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined data provided by a healthcare facility at a large industrial enterprise focusing on occupational morbidity dynamics over 2013-2016 and periodical medical examinations results obtained in 2015 and 2016. We created a specialized program and applied it to conduct sociological research on health of workers who has a periodical medical examination. We detected that most questioned workers (50.48 % whose occupations were associated with dangerous and hazardous occupa-tional factors were poorly aware of occupational diseases prevention and needed relevant knowledge. It is shown that over 2013–2016 occupational morbidity decreased from 9.38 cases per 10,000 workers to 3.55 cases. However, it remained higher that in Russian and Perm region on average. All occupational diseases were detected in workers older than 40 with their working record being longer than 15 years. A share of people able to work with certain limitations grew in 2016 in comparison with 2015 (from 7.35 to 9.31 %; a number of people who needed sanatorium-resort therapy also grew from 19.96 to 32.12 %; a number of people with general somatic diseases increased from 31.23 to 70.17 %; health index reduced from 38.77 to 29.82 %. Musculoskeletal system diseases, con-nective tissue diseases, circulatory system diseases, eye and its accessory apparatus diseases, respiratory organs diseases, and digestive organs diseases prevailed in general somatic morbidity structure. We registered a substantial growth in hearing organs diseases (mostly hearing loss, from 49.47 to 99.06 cases per 100 examined; skin and subcutaneous tissue diseases (from 7.73 to 36.3 cases per 100 examined; urinary system diseases (from 68.42 to 100.62 cases per 100 examined. We detected that most examined workers pursued unhealthy lifestyle. For example, 29.9 % often consumed strong spirits (equally men and women, and 72.8 % smoked. All the respondents tended to have low physical activity. We also revealed some

  9. Textbook of Military Medicine. Part 3. Disease and the Environment. Volume 2. Occupational Health. The Soldier and the Industrial Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    hygiene;and provid- Many agents--including tuberculosis, varicella ,and ing hazard-recognition training.’ rubella-pose significant threats and deserve...Wod War II, abcut 180 scientists from Peenemundeand 300 fir.,ht cars full of V-2 parts werecaptured by UtS ArmyOrdnanceexperts and taken to New Mexico ...detonated in New Mexico . On 6 August an atornic bomb (z gun-assembly. uranium-fueld device code-named Little Boy) was drcpped on HiroshimaJapan.On 11 August a

  10. Dynamism in a Semiconductor Industrial Machine Allocation Problem using a Hybrid of the Bio-inspired and Musical-Harmony Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsom Yusof, Umi; Nor Akmal Khalid, Mohd

    2015-05-01

    Semiconductor industries need to constantly adjust to the rapid pace of change in the market. Most manufactured products usually have a very short life cycle. These scenarios imply the need to improve the efficiency of capacity planning, an important aspect of the machine allocation plan known for its complexity. Various studies have been performed to balance productivity and flexibility in the flexible manufacturing system (FMS). Many approaches have been developed by the researchers to determine the suitable balance between exploration (global improvement) and exploitation (local improvement). However, not much work has been focused on the domain of machine allocation problem that considers the effects of machine breakdowns. This paper develops a model to minimize the effect of machine breakdowns, thus increasing the productivity. The objectives are to minimize system unbalance and makespan as well as increase throughput while satisfying the technological constraints such as machine time availability. To examine the effectiveness of the proposed model, results for throughput, system unbalance and makespan on real industrial datasets were performed with applications of intelligence techniques, that is, a hybrid of genetic algorithm and harmony search. The result aims to obtain a feasible solution to the domain problem.

  11. Application of a COTS Resource Optimization Framework to the SSN Sensor Tasking Domain - Part I: Problem Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, T.

    With the onset of the SmallSat era, the RSO catalog is expected to see continuing growth in the near future. This presents a significant challenge to the current sensor tasking of the SSN. The Air Force is in need of a sensor tasking system that is robust, efficient, scalable, and able to respond in real-time to interruptive events that can change the tracking requirements of the RSOs. Furthermore, the system must be capable of using processed data from heterogeneous sensors to improve tasking efficiency. The SSN sensor tasking can be regarded as an economic problem of supply and demand: the amount of tracking data needed by each RSO represents the demand side while the SSN sensor tasking represents the supply side. As the number of RSOs to be tracked grows, demand exceeds supply. The decision-maker is faced with the problem of how to allocate resources in the most efficient manner. Braxton recently developed a framework called Multi-Objective Resource Optimization using Genetic Algorithm (MOROUGA) as one of its modern COTS software products. This optimization framework took advantage of the maturing technology of evolutionary computation in the last 15 years. This framework was applied successfully to address the resource allocation of an AFSCN-like problem. In any resource allocation problem, there are five key elements: (1) the resource pool, (2) the tasks using the resources, (3) a set of constraints on the tasks and the resources, (4) the objective functions to be optimized, and (5) the demand levied on the resources. In this paper we explain in detail how the design features of this optimization framework are directly applicable to address the SSN sensor tasking domain. We also discuss our validation effort as well as present the result of the AFSCN resource allocation domain using a prototype based on this optimization framework.

  12. Physico-chemical properties of Brazilian cocoa butter and industrial blends. Part I Chemical composition, solid fat content and consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro, A. P. B.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of the primary properties of six cocoa butter samples, representative of industrial blends and cocoa butter extracted from fruits cultivated in different geographical areas in Brazil is presented. The samples were evaluated according to fatty acid composition, triacylglycerol composition, regiospecific distribution, melting point, solid fat content and consistency. The results allowed for differentiating the samples according to their chemical compositions, thermal resistance properties, hardness characteristics, as well as technological adequacies and potential use in regions with tropical climates.

    En este trabajo se presenta un estudio comparativo de las propiedades primarias de mantecas de cacao, representativas de las mezclas industriales, y de la manteca de cacao original de diferentes zonas geográficas de Brasil. Las muestras fueron evaluadas de acuerdo a la composición de ácidos grasos, composición de triglicéridos, distribución de los ácidos grasos en las moléculas de triglicéridos, punto de fusión, contenido de grasa sólida y consistencia. Los resultados permitieron diferenciar las muestras por su composición química, propiedades de resistencia térmica, características de dureza, así como en materia de adecuaciones tecnológicas y los usos potenciales en las regiones de clima tropical.

  13. A BSC method for supplier selection strategy using TOPSIS and VIKOR: A case study of part maker industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Azar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, provision-chain management has been one of the major concepts. The main reason that attracts attention to the concept is the increase in competition and struggle for the survival. There are different ways to increase the competition in organizations such as increasing productivity by acquiring information technology. In this paper, we present an integrated model with the balanced score card framework for supplier selection strategy. The proposed model of this paper gathers 161 important factors suggested in the literature and selects the six most important ones using different multi criteria techniques. We also propose a goal programming techniques with some hard constraints and implement the mathematical model for real-world case study of auto industry. The proposed model is solved in four different forms using TOPSIS, VIKOR and the combination of these 2 factors with factor analysis. The preliminary results indicate that a combination of VIKOR and factor analysis presented better results with 9% reduction in costs, 38% increase of quality, and 3.2% increase in acceptability.

  14. Cold recovery during regasification of LNG part two: Applications in an Agro Food Industry and a Hypermarket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Rocca, Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    The paper deals with the cold energy available during LNG regasification, which can be recovered and utilized both inside the LNG regasification area and at a distance, such as in deep freezing agro food industry facilities and for space conditioning in the commercial and residential sector (e.g. Supermarkets and Hypermarkets). The feasibility study of this kind of application has been carried out at DREAM, Palermo University, within the framework of a research program. The results of a feasibility study of the kind of venture proposed, starting from its conceptual design and with a thorough thermodynamic and economic analysis, demonstrated the suitability and the profitability of the applications proposed. They seem very attractive due to expected wide future exploitation of LNG regasification in the World. -- Highlights: → Proposal pertaining cold recovery during LNG regasification. → Cold utilization far from the regasification site. → Transfer of liquid/gaseous carbon dioxide pipeline. → Exergetic and economic analysis of venture pertaining applications proposed. → Results of venture economic analysis.

  15. Forensic engineering of advanced polymeric materials. Part III - Biodegradation of thermoformed rigid PLA packaging under industrial composting conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musioł, Marta; Sikorska, Wanda; Adamus, Grazyna; Janeczek, Henryk; Richert, Jozef; Malinowski, Rafal; Jiang, Guozhan; Kowalczuk, Marek

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a forensic engineering study on the biodegradation behaviour of prototype packaging thermoformed from PLA-extruded film and plain PLA film under industrial composting conditions. Hydrolytic degradation in water was conducted for reference. The effects of composting duration on changes in molar mass, glass transition temperature and degree of crystallinity of the polymeric material were monitored using gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The chemical structure of water soluble degradation products of the polymeric material was determined using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The results show that the biodegradation process is less dependent on the thermoforming process of PLA and more dependent on the composting/degradation conditions that are applied. The increase in the dispersity index, leading to the bimodal molar mass distribution profile, suggests an autocatalytic hydrolysis effect at the early stage of the composting process, during which the bulk hydrolysis mechanism dominantly operates. Both the prototype PLA-packaging and PLA rigid film samples were shown to have a gradual increase in opacity due to an increase in the degree of crystallinity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Transition zone dosimetry. Part of a coordinated programme on high-dose standardization and intercomparison for industrial radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, W.

    1981-12-01

    A Non-Destructive Assay system is described for the direct determination of fissile material in extended waste boxes and irradiated fuel elements. It is based on active neutron interrogation with an Sb-Be neutron source and attenuation of the source neutrons relative to the fission neutrons. The system is operating in a hot cell in the presence of some 100Ci of fission products. The count rate, obtained from source neutrons, was finally equivalent to 60 mg U-235. This value indicates the lower detection limit of the system. One part of the system (i) is intended for small samples mainly for calibration purposes. In the other part of the system (II) the samples are continuously moving during the measuring turn. For waste boxes of 16,5cm diameter and 25cm height, the relative counting efficiency in system II is 50% as compared to system I. Different packing positions change the result by 5%, the addition of 500g metal wool by 2% and the measurement of 8 subsamples as a whole by 4%. Performance is demonstrated with irradiated fuel elements of the AVR reactor at burn-up values between 0 and 170.000 MWd/t

  17. Agricultural problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickerton, George E.

    1997-01-01

    Although there were not reasons to deplore against major activity release from any of the 110 industrial reactors authorized to operate in US, the nuclear incident that occurred at the Three Mile Island Plant in 1979 urged the public conscience toward the necessity of readiness to cope with events of this type. The personnel of the Emergency Planning Office functioning in the frame of US Department of Agriculture has already participated in around 600 intervention drillings on a federal, local or state scale to plan, test or asses radiological emergency plans or to intervene locally. These exercises allowed acquiring a significant experience in elaborating emergency plans, planning the drillings, working out scenarios and evaluation of the potential impact of accidents from the agricultural point of view. We have also taken part in different international drillings among which the most recent are INEX 1 and RADEX 94. We have found on these occasions that the agricultural problems are essential preoccupations in most of the cases no matter if the context is international, national, local or of state level. The paper poses problems specifically related to milk, fruits and vegetables, soils, meat and meat products. Finally the paper discusses issues like drilling planning, alarm and notification, sampling strategy, access authorizations for farmers, removing of contamination wastes. A number of social, political and economical relating problems are also mentioned

  18. Effective algorithm for solving complex problems of production control and of material flows control of industrial enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezentsev, Yu A.; Baranova, N. V.

    2018-05-01

    A universal economical and mathematical model designed for determination of optimal strategies for managing subsystems (components of subsystems) of production and logistics of enterprises is considered. Declared universality allows taking into account on the system level both production components, including limitations on the ways of converting raw materials and components into sold goods, as well as resource and logical restrictions on input and output material flows. The presented model and generated control problems are developed within the framework of the unified approach that allows one to implement logical conditions of any complexity and to define corresponding formal optimization tasks. Conceptual meaning of used criteria and limitations are explained. The belonging of the generated tasks of the mixed programming with the class of NP is shown. An approximate polynomial algorithm for solving the posed optimization tasks for mixed programming of real dimension with high computational complexity is proposed. Results of testing the algorithm on the tasks in a wide range of dimensions are presented.

  19. Geometric design of part feeders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berretty, R.-P.M.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis presents solutions for problems derived from industrial assembly and robotic manipulation. The basic tasks in a factory are manufacturing the parts, and combining them into the desired product. In automating these tasks, we want to use robot manipulators that require little or no

  20. [Studies on the industrial styrene poisoning (Part X). Determination of styrene in biological materials by gas chromatography (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramoto, K; Horiguchi, S

    1980-09-01

    For monitoring solvents exposure, it is useful to determine not only metabolites of the solvents in urine but also the solvents themselves in blood and tissues. In a series of studies on the industrial styrene poisoning, we have been determining styrene in blood and other tissues as occasion calls. Our examination of the method is presented in this report. The outline on the method is as follows: Aliquots of 0.5g of tissues being added 5 ml of n-hexane are homogenized by a high-speed homogenizer (Polytoron) for 10 to 30 seconds and the filtrates containing extracts are analyzed for styrene by gas chromatography. The linearity was ascertained from the calibration curve obtained by adding the known quantities of styrene (4, 10, 20, 40, 100 ppm) to the blood, liver and adipose tissues of rats. Rates of recoveries of styrene from the above tissues were 92 to 101 per cent. Reproducibility of this method was examined by repeating determinations of styrene in the blood, liver and adipose tissues of rats exposed to 500 ppm styrene for 4 hours, the coefficients of variation being 2.8 to 14.0 per cent. There was an approximately linear relationship between the styrene concentration (0 to 1,000 ppm) of the exposed air and those in the blood of exposed rats. We conclude that our simple and rapid method is applicable to determination of solvents other than styrene in organs and tissues by combining suitable solvents for extraction and packings of gas chromatography.

  1. Minimizing waste (off-cuts using cutting stock model: The case of one dimensional cutting stock problem in wood working industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gbemileke A. Ogunranti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main objective of this study is to develop a model for solving the one dimensional cutting stock problem in the wood working industry, and develop a program for its implementation. Design/methodology/approach: This study adopts the pattern oriented approach in the formulation of the cutting stock model. A pattern generation algorithm was developed and coded using Visual basic.NET language. The cutting stock model developed is a Linear Programming (LP Model constrained by numerous feasible patterns. A LP solver was integrated with the pattern generation algorithm program to develop a one - dimensional cutting stock model application named GB Cutting Stock Program. Findings and Originality/value: Applying the model to a real life optimization problem significantly reduces material waste (off-cuts and minimizes the total stock used. The result yielded about 30.7% cost savings for company-I when the total stock materials used is compared with the former cutting plan. Also, to evaluate the efficiency of the application, Case I problem was solved using two top commercial 1D-cutting stock software.  The results show that the GB program performs better when related results were compared. Research limitations/implications: This study round up the linear programming solution for the number of pattern to cut. Practical implications: From Managerial perspective, implementing optimized cutting plans increases productivity by eliminating calculating errors and drastically reducing operator mistakes. Also, financial benefits that can annually amount to millions in cost savings can be achieved through significant material waste reduction. Originality/value: This paper developed a linear programming one dimensional cutting stock model based on a pattern generation algorithm to minimize waste in the wood working industry. To implement the model, the algorithm was coded using VisualBasic.net and linear programming solver called lpsolvedll (dynamic

  2. Moving East: how the transnational tobacco industry gained entry to the emerging markets of the former Soviet Union-part I: establishing cigarette imports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, A B; McKee, M

    2004-06-01

    To identify British American Tobacco's (BAT) reasons for targeting the former Soviet Union following its collapse in 1991 and the initial strategies BAT used to enter the region. Analysis of tobacco industry documents held at the Guildford BAT archive. Desire to expand to new markets was based in part on the decline in old markets. The large population, proximity to China, scope to expand sales to women and, in Central Asia, a young population with high growth rates made the former Soviet Union particularly attractive. High consumption rates and unfilled demand caused by previous shortages offered potential for rapid returns on investment. A series of steps were taken to penetrate the markets with the initial focus on establishing imports. The documents suggest that BAT encouraged the use of aid money and barter trade to fund imports and directed the smuggling of cigarettes which graduated from an opportunistic strategy to a highly organised operation. In establishing a market presence, promotion of BAT's brands and corporate image were paramount, and used synonymously to promote both the cigarettes and the company. The tobacco industry targeted young people and women. It used the allure of western products to promote its brands and brand stretching and corporate imagery to pre-empt future marketing restrictions. BAT used the chaotic conditions in the immediate post-transition period in the former Soviet Union to exploit legislative loopholes and ensure illegal cigarette imports. Governments of countries targeted by the tobacco industry need to be aware of industry tactics and develop adequate tobacco control policies in order to prevent the exploitation of vulnerable populations. Marketing restrictions that focus on advertising without restricting the use of brand or company promotions will have a limited impact.

  3. Ash behavior during hydrothermal treatment for solid fuel applications. Part 2: Effects of treatment conditions on industrial waste biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mäkelä, Mikko; Yoshikawa, Kunio

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of treatment conditions on composition and solubility of ash. • Ash dissolution and yield governed by liquid pH and calcium carbonate solubility. • Dissolution of calcium carbonate decreases ash fusion temperature during combustion. • Decreasing the ash content of sludge can weaken ash properties for combustion. - Abstract: This second half of our work on ash behavior concentrates on the effects of hydrothermal treatment conditions on paper sludge. Ash composition and solubility were determined based on treatment temperature, reactor solid load and liquid pH using experimental design and univariate regression methods. In addition, ash properties for combustion were evaluated based on recent developments on ash classification. Based on the results, all experimental variables had a statistically significant effect on ash yields. Only reactor solid load was statistically insignificant for char ash content, which increased based on increasing treatment temperature due to the decomposition of organic components. Ash dissolution and ash yield were governed by liquid pH and the generation of acids mainly due to the solubility of calcium carbonate identified as the main mineral species of paper sludge. Dissolution of calcium carbonate however decreased ash fusion temperatures more likely causing problems during char incineration. This indicated that decreasing the ash content of sludge during hydrothermal treatment can actually weaken ash properties for solid fuel applications.

  4. Mass, energy and material balances of SRF production process. Part 1: SRF produced from commercial and industrial waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Muhammad; Vainikka, Pasi; Hannula, Janne; Hurme, Markku; Kärki, Janne

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents the mass, energy and material balances of a solid recovered fuel (SRF) production process. The SRF is produced from commercial and industrial waste (C&IW) through mechanical treatment (MT). In this work various streams of material produced in SRF production process are analyzed for their proximate and ultimate analysis. Based on this analysis and composition of process streams their mass, energy and material balances are established for SRF production process. Here mass balance describes the overall mass flow of input waste material in the various output streams, whereas material balance describes the mass flow of components of input waste stream (such as paper and cardboard, wood, plastic (soft), plastic (hard), textile and rubber) in the various output streams of SRF production process. A commercial scale experimental campaign was conducted on an MT waste sorting plant to produce SRF from C&IW. All the process streams (input and output) produced in this MT plant were sampled and treated according to the CEN standard methods for SRF: EN 15442 and EN 15443. The results from the mass balance of SRF production process showed that of the total input C&IW material to MT waste sorting plant, 62% was recovered in the form of SRF, 4% as ferrous metal, 1% as non-ferrous metal and 21% was sorted out as reject material, 11.6% as fine fraction, and 0.4% as heavy fraction. The energy flow balance in various process streams of this SRF production process showed that of the total input energy content of C&IW to MT plant, 75% energy was recovered in the form of SRF, 20% belonged to the reject material stream and rest 5% belonged with the streams of fine fraction and heavy fraction. In the material balances, mass fractions of plastic (soft), plastic (hard), paper and cardboard and wood recovered in the SRF stream were 88%, 70%, 72% and 60% respectively of their input masses to MT plant. A high mass fraction of plastic (PVC), rubber material and non

  5. Applying Natural Sciences to Studying History: Regarding the Example of England and the Industrial Revolution. Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Badalian

    2011-04-01

    amount of available food supplies is restricted by a single factor only, namely, the price of oil. Below, using an example from the Industrial Revolution, we will show that the process of utilizing a newfound resource by building a society around it is essentially cyclical. Social organisms evolve in regular and recurring patterns, not unlike birth, youth, maturity and death of biological beings. Each of these steps has its own functionality and must be lived through, much like the fact that one can’t mother children until she reaches puberty. That is why this approach possesses significant predictive capabilities. 

  6. The problem of mechanical compatibility of natural building stones in restoration of monuments. Part I: Composite specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourkoulis, Stavros K.; Ninis, Nikolaos L.

    2011-12-01

    The mechanical compatibility of natural building stones used in the restoration of ancient monuments as substitutes of the authentic material is studied in this short two-paper series. Attention is focused on the porous oolitic limestone of Kenchreae used in the erection of the monuments at the Epidaurean Asklepieion. In Part I experimental results are presented concerning the mechanical properties and constants of both the authentic (ancient and freshly quarried) material and the various stones proposed so far as possible substitutes. It is concluded that only the Kenchreae stone satisfactorily simulates the behaviour of the material used by ancient Greeks. The other types of stones have a substantially different character and their incorporation in the restoration should be treated with caution. In an effort to quantify the influence of the substitute stone on the authentic one, a series of experiments were carried out using composite specimens made from equal parts of authentic and substitute material with various inclination angles of the adhesion plane with respect to the load. It was concluded that the mechanical properties of the composite specimen are strongly affected by this angle and the dependence is not monotonous. In addition, strong strain discontinuities are recorded in the vicinity of the adhesion plane, which are responsible for the initiation of cracking in either of the two materials. It was pointed out that in some cases the incompatibility causes violation of the basic restoration principle concerning the protection of the ancient material. In this context certain geometrical configurations of the boundaries of the specimens are examined in Part II as a possible means of modifying the mechanical behaviour of the substitute stones, in order to make them as compatible as possible with the authentic material.

  7. Virtue ethics – an old answer to a new dilemma? Part 1. Problems with contemporary medical ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The commonest practical model used in contemporary medical ethics is Principlism. Yet, while Principlism is a widely accepted consensus statement for ethics, the moral theory that underpins it faces serious challenges in its attempt to provide a coherent and accepted system of moral analysis. This inevitably challenges the stability of such a consensus statement and makes it vulnerable to attack by competitors such as preference consequentialism. This two-part paper proposes an inclusive version of virtue theory as a more grounded system of moral analysis. PMID:25721113

  8. Managing Motherhood in the Australian Construction Industry: Work-family Balance, Parental Leave and Part-time Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Lingard

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A survey of women in the Australian construction industrywas undertaken to examine women's work experiencesin construction. Questionnaires were distributed to threehundred women in construction occupations and 109completed and usable questionnaires were returned.Women were found to be seriously under-represented insite-based roles. Site/project engineers worked longer hoursthan other occupational groups and expressed significantlygreater work-family conflict. Lack of flexibility and theinability to balance work and family were common themesin the qualitative comments made by many respondents.Even when women indicated that part time work options andmaternity entitlements were provided by their organizations,many expressed a reluctance to use them and perceivedcareer penalty associated with this usage. It is concludedthat more flexible work schedules and the implementationof family-friendly policies may encourage more women intosite-based roles in construction. The paper concludes thatthe rigid work practices presently in place act as a subtleform of discrimination. The provision of such policies willonly be effective if cultural and attitudinal change is alsoachieved.

  9. Faltas ao trabalho por problemas de saúde na indústria Work days lost due to health problems in industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Regina Trindade Yano

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo transversal, estima-se a prevalência de episódios de faltas ao trabalho por motivo de saúde (FTS, e fatores associados, focalizando o trabalho na indústria. A população do estudo foi uma amostra aleatória por conglomerado de 3.403 trabalhadores de 16 a 65 anos residentes em Salvador, Bahia, Brasil. Dados foram obtidos em entrevistas domiciliares. Entre os trabalhadores da indústria, a prevalência em um ano de FTS em geral, foi 12,5%, 5,5% para FTS relacionados ao trabalho, e 4,1% para FTS agravados pelo trabalho. Não houve diferenças estatisticamente significantes em relação aos demais trabalhadores. Fatores associados à FTS foram percepção de perigo no trabalho, história de acidente de trabalho, e saúde autopercebida como ruim. Os resultados indicam que a ocorrência de faltas ao trabalho é comum, tanto na indústria como nos demais ramos de atividade, podem afetar a produtividade, o que requer programas de prevenção de agentes de risco em locais de trabalho.This cross-sectional study estimated the prevalence of work days lost due to health problems and associated factors among industrial workers. The study population was a simple random cluster sample of 3,403 workers from 16 to 65 years of age in the city of Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil. Data were collected with individual home interviews. Among industrial workers, one-year prevalence of work days lost to health problems was 12.5%, of which 5.5% were directly work-related and 4.1% aggravated by work. There were no statistically significant differences when compared to other worker categories. Self-perceived workplace hazards, history of work-related injury, and poor self-rated health were associated with work days lost due to work-related injuries/diseases. The findings showed that work days lost are common among both industrial and non-industrial workers, thereby affecting productivity and requiring prevention programs.

  10. Utilization of by-products from the tequila industry. Part 2: Potential value of Agave tequilana Weber azul leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iñiguez-Covarrubias, G; Díaz-Teres, R; Sanjuan-Dueñas, R; Anzaldo-Hernández, J; Rowell, R M

    2001-04-01

    The leaves of the agave plant are left in the field after harvesting the heads for tequila production. Different types of agave leaves were isolated, classified, and their content in the total plant determined. The usable fractions were collected and their properties determined. Of the total wet weight of the agave plant, 54% corresponds to the agave head, 32% corresponds to materials which could be usable for sugar and fiber production which leaves 14% of the wet plant without apparent utility. The fractions with higher total reducing sugars (TRS) content were the fresh fraction of partially dry leaves stuck to the head and the leaf bases with a TRS content of 16.1% and 13.1%, respectively. The highest TRS concentration (16-28%) is in the agave head which is used for tequila production. The leaves are 90-120 cm long and 8-12 cm wide and contain fiber bundles that are 23-52 cm long and 0.6-13 mm wide. The ultimate fiber length is approximately 1.6 mm with an average width of 25 microns. There are several types of leaf fibers that can be utilized depending on what part of the plant they come from and what product is desired. Agave leaf fibers were pulped using a soda pulping process and the pulp was hand formed into test sheets. Test sheets made from pulped agave leaf fibers had a breaking length comparable to paper made from both pine and eucalyptus fibers, but the tear index and burst index were lower than the other two papers.

  11. [Formation of working conditions and the problems of hygienic assessment of industrial environmental factors in railway tunnels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurenkova, G V; Lemeshevskaya, E P

    Tunnels are an integral part of the ways and artificial constructions of the railway. Objective assessment of working conditions is important, because current regulations fail to allow to give a definite hygienic assessment of some factors of the production environment of the tunnels. Objective: to reveal the peculiarities of the formation of working conditions in railway tunnels with the subsequent hygienic assessment for the development of preventive measures. Measurement of the factors of working process and working environment is carried out with the use of the certified equipment for the approved the hygienic and sanitary-chemical methods in workplaces in tunnels of the East-Siberian railway. Specific conditions were shown to be formed due to constructive solutions, climate and geographical location, the length of railway tunnels, the composition of the rocks through which the tunnel, the nature of the maintenance tunnels, ventilation system, repetition rate and type of passing rolling stock. All employees from occupational groups from examined tunnels were established to be exposed to high concentrations of aerosols with predominantly fibrogenic action, noise levels, adverse climate (low positive and negative temperatures, high relative humidity and mobility of air), the lack of natural lighting, low levels of artificial light, hard exertion of labor (dynamic physical load, working position, the slopes of the body, movement in space). Additionally, high levels of the vibration, nonionizing and ionizing radiation were typical for jobs of the Baikal and the North-Muya tunnel. There is proposed the algorithm of hygienic assessment of the microclimate, light environment at the working places depending on the time of the works in the underground conditions and constructional features of tunnels, methods of accounting personnel dose rates from natural sources.

  12. Possible impacts of the natural gas three-part tariff on the great industrial consumers over 500.000 m{sup 3}/month at the COMGAS distribution area; Possiveis impactos da tarifa trinomial de gas natural nos grandes consumidores industriais acima de 500.000 m{sup 3}/mes na area de concessao da COMGAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sant' Ana, Paulo Henrique de Mello; Jannuzzi, Gilberto de Martino; Bajay, Sergio Valdir [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: phsantana@fem.unicamp.br; jannuzzi@fem.uncamp.br; bajay@fem.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    The problem of saturation in the natural gas distribution pipelines in Brazil is not urgent, but it's possible to notice the need of reinforcements in some extensions. Price regulation does not consider this problem yet, but it's already predicted the adoption of a three-part tariff considering a contracted capacity for some industrial consumers - industries that buy more than 500.000 m3/month in the COMGAS distribution area. Some industries, like potteries and glass makers, would probably not suffer strong impacts with the implementation of this three-part tariff, since the majority of their manufacturing processes are continuous. Others sectors would probably have negative impacts with the contracted capacity, like pulp and paper, metallurgy and textile industries. The way that industry will manage the contracted capacity is still unknown. Some possibilities are: considering natural gas as one of the variables in the productions' decision; having a 'Back-up' system when the consumption surpass the contracted capacity; switch fuels when total consumption is above 500.000 m{sup 3}/month, so that the company does not fit in the three-part tariff. The three-part tariff has not been published yet, but it's already necessary a sign to the market that this will occur in the near future, so that the companies involved can already create a strategy for the use of natural gas. This signal is already predicted in the Technical Paper number X of CSPE. (author)

  13. Analysis of the importance of drug packaging quality for end users and pharmaceutical industry as a part of the quality management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lončar Irma M.

    2013-01-01

    's overall quality management system. For them, a big financial investment in the complete traceability chain was not feasible because of the inability to achieve competitive prices in the market. Since only three of surveyed companies were part of international chains, these findings open the path for new research that would include more multinational drug manufacturers from the region, in order to fully comprehend the importance of investing in the drug chain traceability and protection against counterfeiting, as a part of total quality management process in the pharmaceutical industry. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179001

  14. Extending market activities for a distribution company in hourly-ahead energy and reserve markets - Part I: Problem formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashhour, M.; Golkar, M.A.; Moghaddas-Tafreshi, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a novel hourly-ahead profit model for an active distribution company (DISCO), a DISCO with high capacity level of connected DGs that can make selling proposals for the markets, in a pool-based system. The presented model engages DSICO in both energy producing and reserve providing activities. DISCO's earnings from reserve market include the remuneration both for real-time generation and ready-for-service capacity. To achieve the optimal decisions for an active DISCO in the energy and reserve markets, a two-stage optimization model and associated mathematical formulations have been developed. The first subproblem extracts a single operating profile (a lumped financial model) of the whole distribution system, including DGs and ILs, at the connecting point to the upstream network. The second one determines the optimal values of decision variables (power and reserve commodities) to maximize the DISCO's profit, in case such variables are accepted in the markets. In other words, it aims to optimally allocate the DISCO's generating capability for proposing into the energy and reserve markets, from the DISCO's perspective. It also proposes a profit-based network reconfiguration methodology for a multi-substation multi-feeder DISCO to increase DISCO's ability to gain more benefits from the market activities. It conducts DISCO's generating capabilities towards the proper substations to reap more probable benefits. It also introduces fast, simple, and straightforward algorithms for recognition and removal of configurations having loop and/or islanding parts in. Simulation results are given at the second part of the present work.

  15. An interview study of persons who attribute health problems to dental filling materials--part two in a triangulation study on 65 and 75 years old Swedes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ståhlnacke, Katri; Söderfeldt, Björn

    2013-01-01

    Dental materials are perceived as a health problem by some people, although scientists do not agree about possible causes of such problems. The aim of this paper was to gain a deeper knowledge and understanding of experiences from living with health problems attributed to dental materials. Addressed topics were the type of problem, both as to general and oral health, perceived causes of the problems,their experienced effect on life, and reception by health professionals. Persons, who in a previous large questionnaire study had answered that they had experienced troubles from dental materials and also agreed to answer follow-up questions, were contacted with a request to take part in an interview study. Eleven individual interviews were held.The interviews were transcribed verbatim and the material was analysed according to the Qualitative Content Analysis method. Meaning units were extracted and condensed into a number of codes, which were combined into subcategories, categories, and themes. Four themes were identified: 1) Long-term oral, mental, and somatic difficulties of varying character, caused by dental amalgam. 2) Problems treated mainly by replacement of dental material in fillings. 3) Powerful effects on life, mostly negative. 4) The reception by health professionals was generally good, but with elements of encounters where they felt treated with nonchalance and lack of respect. In conclusion, people who attributed their health difficulties to dental materials had a complex range of problems and the perception was that amalgam/mercury was the cause of the troubles. The reception from health professionals was perceived as generally good, although with occasional negative experiences.

  16. Smart Body or the Problem of Human Corporeality Development in the Context of Outsourced Life. Part 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnov S.A.,

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the issue of a popular trend called ‘life outsourcing’ which affects the structure of personality in an individual. Basing on the works of L.S. Vygotsky and others, the author explores the methodology of the concept of cultural development as a process of formation of an embodied personality or non-organic body. He outlines the search for the approaches to the process of cultural development and for its descriptions in terms of personality construction and ‘soul organism’ which can be traced down in Vygotsky’s works. According to these works, cultural-historical psychology employed a concept of tool- and activity-based personality body, or soul organism. As it is argued in the paper, this concept is to a certain extent incomplete. What happens to the individual’s personality body in a situation of increasingly popular life outsourcing, i.e. when more and more basic functions and actions are transferred from the individual to various devices? Using artistic creativity as an example, the author explores the artist’s transition from working with natural materials to working with devices and focuses on the problem of the artist’s ‘smart body’ losing the feeling of texture and form. The issue is to be continued in the second paper.

  17. Materials damaging and rupture - Volumes 1-2. General remarks, metallic materials. Non-metallic materials and biomaterials, assemblies and industrial problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clavel, M.; Bompard, P.

    2009-01-01

    The rupture and damaging of materials and structures is almost always and unwanted events which may have catastrophic consequences. Even if the mechanical failure causes can often be analyzed using a thorough knowledge of materials behaviour, the forecasting and prevention of failures remain difficult. While the macroscopic mechanical behaviour is often the result of average effects at the structure or microstructure scale, the damage is very often the result of the combination of load peaks, of localization effects and of microstructure defects. This book, presented in two volumes, takes stock of the state-of-the-art of the knowledge gained in the understanding and modelling of rupture and damaging phenomena of materials and structure, mostly of metallic type. It gives an outline of the available knowledge for other classes of materials (ceramics, biomaterials, geo-materials..) and for different types of applications (aeronautics, nuclear industry). Finally, it examines the delicate problem, but very important in practice, of the behaviour of assemblies. Content: Vol.1 - physical mechanisms of materials damaging and rupture; rupture mechanics; cyclic plasticity and fatigue crack growth; fatigue crack propagation; environment-induced cracking; contacts and surfaces. Vol.2 - glasses and ceramics; natural environments: soils and rocks; mechanical behaviour of biological solid materials: the human bone; contribution of simulation to the understanding of rupture mechanisms; assemblies damaging and rupture; industrial cases (behaviour of PWR pressure vessel steels, and thermal and mechanical stresses in turbojet engines). (J.S.)

  18. Problems of fluorescent imaging and its solution using nanofluorophores. Part I: Advantages of fluorescent nanoparticles over conventional organic fluorophores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhelev, Z.; Hadjidekov, G.; Zlateva, G.; Spasov, L.; Bakalova, R.

    2011-01-01

    The application of fluorescence in deep-tissue imaging is rapidly expanding in fast several years. The progress in fluorescent molecular probes and fluorescent imaging techniques gives an opportunity to detect single cells and even molecules in live organisms. The highly sensitive and high-speed fluorescent molecular sensors and detection devices allow the application of fluorescence in functional imaging. With development of novel bright fluorophores based on nano-technologies and fluorescence scanners with high spatial and temporal resolution, the fluorescent imaging has a potential to become an alternative of the other non-invasive imaging techniques as magnetic resonance imaging, positron-emission tomography, X-ray, computing tomography. This review outlines the current status and future trends of fluorescent nanoparticles - quantum dots (QDs), as a new generation of fluorophores in experimental and pre-clinical fluorescent imaging diagnostic. Part 1 focuses on the advantages of quantum dots over conventional organic fluorophores and defines the major requirements to the 'perfect' fluorophore for fluorescent deep-tissue imaging diagnostic. The analysis is based on the limitations of fluorescent imaging in vivo and overcome by using quantum dots

  19. The role of health informatics in clinical audit: part of the problem or key to the solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Andrew; Pearson, Michael

    2002-05-01

    The concepts of quality assurance (for which clinical audit is an essential part), evaluation and clinical governance each depend on the ability to derive and record measurements that describe clinical performance. Rapid IT developments have raised many new possibilities for managing health care. They have allowed for easier collection and processing of data in greater quantities. These developments have encouraged the growth of quality assurance as a key feature of health care delivery. In the past most of the emphasis has been on hospital information systems designed predominantly for the administration of patients and the management of financial performance. Large, hi-tech information system capacity does not guarantee quality information. The task of producing information that can be confidently used to monitor the quality of clinical care requires attention to key aspects of the design and operation of the audit. The Myocardial Infarction National Audit Project (MINAP) utilizes an IT-based system to collect and process data on large numbers of patients and make them readily available to contributing hospitals. The project shows that IT systems that employ rigorous health informatics methodologies can do much to improve the monitoring and provision of health care.

  20. Corrosion and anticorrosion. Industrial practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beranger, G.; Mazille, H.

    2002-01-01

    This book comprises 14 chapters written with the collaboration of about 50 French experts of corrosion. It is complementary to another volume entitled 'corrosion of metals and alloys' and published by the same editor. This volume comprises two parts: part 1 presents the basic notions of corrosion phenomena, the properties of surfaces, the electrochemical properties of corrosion etc.. Part 2 describes the most frequent forms of corrosion encountered in industrial environments and corresponding to specific problems of protection: marine environment, atmospheric corrosion, galvanic corrosion, tribo-corrosion, stress corrosion etc.. The first 8 chapters (part 1) treat of the corrosion problems encountered in different industries and processes: oil and gas production, chemical industry, phosphoric acid industry, PWR-type power plants, corrosion of automobile vehicles, civil engineering and buildings, corrosion of biomaterials, non-destructive testing for the monitoring of corrosion. The other chapters (part 2) deal with anticorrosion and protective coatings and means: choice of materials, coatings and surface treatments, thick organic coatings and enamels, paints, corrosion inhibitors and cathodic protection. (J.S.)