WorldWideScience

Sample records for industrial solar retrofit

  1. Solar energy for process heat: Design/cost studies of four industrial retrofit applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, R. L.; Bartera, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    Five specific California plants with potentially attractive solar applications were identified in a process heat survey. These five plants were visited, process requirements evaluated, and conceptual solar system designs were generated. Four DOE (ERDA) sponsored solar energy system demonstration projects were also reviewed and compared to the design/cost cases included in this report. In four of the five cases investigated, retrofit installations providing significant amounts of thermal energy were found to be feasible. The fifth was rejected because of the condition of the building involved, but the process (soap making) appears to be an attractive potential solar application. Costs, however, tend to be high. Several potential areas for cost reduction were identified including larger collector modules and higher duty cycles.

  2. Boston solar retrofits: studies of solar access and economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, M.

    1980-11-01

    Studies of solar access and solar retrofit economics are described for residential applications in the City of Boston. The study of solar access was based upon a random sample of 94 buildings; the sample was stratified to ensure a broad geographic representation from the city's various sections. Using available data on the heights and orientations of the sampled structures and surrounding buildings, each building's hourly access to sunlight was computed separately for the roof and south facing walls. These data were then aggregated by broad structural classifications in order to provide general measures of solar access. The second study was a comparative analysis of the economics of several solar heating and hot water systems. An active hot water system, installed using pre-assembled, commercially purchased equipment, was selected as a reference technology. A variety of measures of economic performance were computed for this system, with and without existing tax credits and under various financing arrangements. Next, a number of alternative approaches for solar space and water heating were identified from interviews with individuals and groups involved in solar retrofit projects in the Boston area. The objective was to identify approaches that many of those interviewed believe to be low-cost means of applying solar energy in residential settings. The approaches selected include thermal window covers, wall collectors, bread box water heaters, and sun spaces. Preliminary estimates of the performance of several representative designs were developed and the economics of these designs evaluated.

  3. Research and development of utilization technology of solar thermal system for industrial and other use. Research and development of solar system (research for solar/energy-conservation technology retrofitted to existing buildings); Sangyoyo nado solar system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu. Solar system no chosa kenkyu (solar toshi muke gijutsu ni kansuru chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takita, M. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    Described herein are the results of the FY1994 research program for solar/energy-conversion technologies retrofitted to existing buildings. The estimated effects and economic viability of retrofitting technologies show that they bring very high energy-saving effects when applied to heating and hot water supply, which consume a large portion of energy, but relatively low energy-saving effects when applied to cooling, solar walls, glazed balconies and transparent insulators. The study on applicability of these technologies in Japan indicates that the technologies which can recover cost within an average life time are those applied to windows, solar collector systems for hot water supply and heating, and transparent insulators. Although these technologies are low in applicability to cooling viewed from the angle of cost recovery, retrofitted radiation type cooling systems improve not only cooling and energy-saving effects but also comfortableness.

  4. Governance of innovative cleantech retrofitting in the shipping industry?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Roberto Rivas; Smink, Carla; Kerndrup, Søren

    retrofitting and forms of governance in the shipping sector by analyzing: How can governance promote clean tech innovation in the shipping industry? To answer this question, the article analyses the Danish "Partnership for Cleaner Shipping". It was initiated by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency...... in collaboration with the Danish Shipowners' Association. The partnership identifies innovative cleaner retrofittings as one of the key domains with the purpose to improve Danish shipping firms to create competitive advantage and comply with the new international regulations of air pollution avoidance at sea....... The case shows that partnership and networks create a protected space for development of maritime cleaner technology which improve the enviromental performance of the shipping industry by creating cleaner retrofitting technologies....

  5. Innovation in product and services in the shipping retrofit industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Roberto Rivas; Köhler, Jonathan

    regulation could create innovation in green products and services in the maritime retrofitting industry?” Our case study focus on business models for the development, installation and operation of ballast water management systems in Denmark. We engaged the perspectives of ship-owners, equipment manufacturers...... and maritime service companies through in-depth interviews, document analysis and observation. The findings support the initial claim that the ballast water treatment regulation may create new market opportunities for service providers to shipyards and shipping companies in design, installation and retrofit...

  6. Solar Heating Retrofit of Military Family Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-09-01

    position of the storage and water heaters. 7-26 71.* 7.6 Systm Modeling Techniques and Results There are few simulation programs available today. TRNSYS ...and Roof Array 5-7 5.4 Solar Collectors 5-24 5.5 Thermal Storage Tank 5-32 5.6 Supporting Mechanical Equipment 5-45 6 INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL...Roof Array Snow Loading Sequence 5-22 5.16 Roof Array Ice Cover 5-23 5.17 Details of Modular Solar Collectors 5-28 5.18 Thermal Storage Tank Details 5

  7. Solar cladding in new and retrofit applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grainger, R.A.

    1997-06-01

    The most widely applicable and financially feasible new solar energy product of the 90`s is the simple, yet elegant {open_quotes}transpired collector{close_quotes}, patented and manufactured under the tradename SOLARWALL{reg_sign}. SOLARWALL{reg_sign} started its product life as a glazed collector in the early 80`s and was installed in over 30 major applications in Canada and northern United States with Ford Motor Company installing solar collectors on seven plants. A typical application was 10,000 - 20,000 sq. ft. of collector. Conserval Engineering`s quest for an improved collector culminated in the patenting in 1990 of an all metal H.P. SOLARWALL{reg_sign} or High Performance SOLARWALL{reg_sign}. The conventional gazing was replaced with a dark colored metal building panel perforated with thousands of small holes, thus the nomenclature of {open_quotes}transpired collector{close_quotes}. The sun`s energy heats the dark metal panel installed on the south wall of the building. The heated metal, panel heats a boundary layer of air on the surface of the panel and this preheated air is pulled at a very low rate (typically 2 - 8 cfm/sq.ft.) through the small holes and into the building. The advantages of the all metal H.P. SOLARWALL{reg_sign} are multiple. First and most important, the unglazed system does not reflect energy, and is 30% more efficient. It also is less expensive, fireproof, exempt from breakage, and more aesthetically pleasing with a wide variety of dark architectural colors and panel profiles to choose from. In northern climates (3,000 degree days and upward), a square foot of SOLARWALL{reg_sign} panels will typically capture 3 to 6 therms (MMBtu`s) of solar energy per heating season, or $1.50 to $5.00 per sq.ft. depending on location, fuel type, and costs. Destratification savings achieved by Conserval`s unique fan and duct make-up air distribution system can double these savings in high bay facilities.

  8. Energy retrofit via Social Housing: a proposal from Solar Decathlon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Tonelli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Solar Decathlon is an annual university challenge where nearly zeroenergy housing prototypes enter in international competition, through a series of ten tests. The contest aims for superior energy performance, high standards of interior comfort, architectural aesthetics, positive electrical balances, industrialisation, and contained costs and feasibility as a marketable proposal. Seven editions of the Solar Decathlon have been held, with a total of 140 competing proposals both realized and placed on the market, representing a notable pool of experimental research to be studied and evaluated for applications in social housing. After a consideration of the competition features, the article describes the prototype presented by City College of New York at Solar Decathlon 2011, Washington DC, as a proposal of an energy retrofit suitable for many urban buildings with flat roofs.

  9. Innovation in product and services in the shipping retrofit industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Roberto Rivas; Köhler, Jonathan

    . Similarly, given the deindustrialisation dynamics to regions with lower manufacturing costs, it is argued that a combination of knowledge intensive and service-based economy will eventually fill the gap left by manufacturing industries. To create added value to their products, some leading firms...... are increasingly developing product-service systems. It is however, argued that product-service systems are not always sustainable, and thus little evidence connect them with green growth. To fill in this gap, we are carrying a case study guided by the following research question: “How the ballast water treatment...... regulation could create innovation in green products and services in the maritime retrofitting industry?” Our case study focus on business models for the development, installation and operation of ballast water management systems in Denmark. We engaged the perspectives of ship-owners, equipment manufacturers...

  10. The continuing performance of the USAF Academy retrofit solar house

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, K. A.; Benson, J. D.

    Performance results of the installation of energy conservation and flat plate collector retrofits to a U.S. Air Force standard serviceman's house are reported. Solar collectors were emplaced on the roof and in the back yard, and a 2500 gal underground thermal storage tank was included in the system. Urea formaldehyde foam was injected into the wall and blown into the attic, while three-inch thick fiberglass batts were added between floor joists over the crawl space. The heating load decreased 30% after the installation of insulation. The collector ground array was tested for effectiveness at different inclination angles, which were found to have a negligeable impact on system performance. Collection efficiencies increased significantly with the use of tubular flat plate collectors. The solar fraction of the heating load increased to 60%, maximum, with the tubular collectors. It is noted that the system performance was highest when the building was inhabited.

  11. Decision process for the retrofit of municipal buildings with solar energy systems: a technical guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licciardello, Michael R.; Wood, Brian; Dozier, Warner; Braly, Mark; Yates, Alan

    1980-11-01

    As a background for solar applications, the following topics are covered: solar systems and components for retrofit installations; cost, performance, and quality considerations; and financing alternatives for local government. The retrofit decision process is discussed as follows: pre-screening of buildings, building data requirements, the energy conservation audit, solar system sizing and economics, comparison of alternatives, and implementation. Sample studies are presented for the West Valley Animal Shelter and the Hollywood Police Station. (MHR)

  12. Optimization of an industrial retrofitted heat exchanger network, using a stage-wise model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovac Kralj, Anita [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Maribor, Smetanova 17, Maribor 2000 (Slovenia)

    2010-12-15

    The heat exchanger network (HEN) can be optimized using the stage-wise model of superstructure representation, as proposed by Yee and Grossmann. This model can be easily solved regarding both trivial problems, and serious and complex new industrial design plants. In this paper, a stage-wise model for new designs is extended for retrofits by using a stage-wise model for a retrofitted HEN. This method using a stage-wise model is very general; it can be used in new designs as well as during existing process integration. The methodology of the stage-wise model for retrofitted HEN can be used to solve HENs easily and well enough, over a short time, and simultaneously. A mathematical model of stage-wise for retrofit HEN can include additional equations and limitations for retrofits. This model was tested by using a retrofitted methanol process generating an additional profit of 189,200 EUR/a. (author)

  13. Carbon Capture in the Cement Industry: Technologies, Progress, and Retrofitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Thomas; Leeson, Duncan; Florin, Nicholas; Fennell, Paul

    2016-01-05

    Several different carbon-capture technologies have been proposed for use in the cement industry. This paper reviews their attributes, the progress that has been made toward their commercialization, and the major challenges facing their retrofitting to existing cement plants. A technology readiness level (TRL) scale for carbon capture in the cement industry is developed. For application at cement plants, partial oxy-fuel combustion, amine scrubbing, and calcium looping are the most developed (TRL 6 being the pilot system demonstrated in relevant environment), followed by direct capture (TRL 4-5 being the component and system validation at lab-scale in a relevant environment) and full oxy-fuel combustion (TRL 4 being the component and system validation at lab-scale in a lab environment). Our review suggests that advancing to TRL 7 (demonstration in plant environment) seems to be a challenge for the industry, representing a major step up from TRL 6. The important attributes that a cement plant must have to be "carbon-capture ready" for each capture technology selection is evaluated. Common requirements are space around the preheater and precalciner section, access to CO2 transport infrastructure, and a retrofittable preheater tower. Evidence from the electricity generation sector suggests that carbon capture readiness is not always cost-effective. The similar durations of cement-plant renovation and capture-plant construction suggests that synchronizing these two actions may save considerable time and money.

  14. Low-cost passive solar-retrofit options for mobile homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brant, S.; Holtz, M.; Tasker, M.

    1981-03-01

    Passive solar heating and cooling retrofit options can significantly reduce the energy consumption of new and existing mobile homes. The initial efforts of the Solar Energy Research Institute to explore the solar potential for the existing stock of mobile homes and those in the production stage are described.

  15. Solar Air Heating Metal Roofing for Reroofing, New Construction, and Retrofit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    testing of an approved BUR roof is not equivalent to the fire testing of other building materials such as foam plastic. In general, the fire...FINAL REPORT Solar Air Heating Metal Roofing For Reroofing, New Construction, and Retrofit ESTCP Project EW-201148 MAY 2013 John... Roofing For Reroofing, New Construction, and Retrofit ii REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting

  16. Development of a Long-Life-Cycle, Highly Water-Resistant Solar Reflective Retrofit Roof Coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyzos, Georgios [ORNL; Hunter, Scott Robert [ORNL; Sharma, Jaswinder K [ORNL; Cheng, Mengdawn [ORNL; Chen, Sharon S [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Demarest, Victoria [Dow Chemical Company; Fabiny, William [Dow Chemical Company; Destaillats, Hugo [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Levinson, Ronnen [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

    2016-03-04

    Highly water-resistant and solar-reflective coatings for low-slope roofs are potentially among the most economical retrofit approaches to thermal management of the building envelope. Therefore, they represent a key building technology research program within the Department of Energy. Research efforts in industry and the Department of Energy are currently under way to increase long-term solar reflectance on a number of fronts. These include new polymer coatings technologies to provide longer-lasting solar reflectivity and improved test methodologies to predict long-term soiling and microbial performance. The focus on long-term improvements in soiling and microbial resistance for maximum reflectance does not address the single most important factor impacting the long-term sustainability of low-slope roof coatings: excellent water resistance. The hydrophobic character of asphaltic roof products makes them uniquely suitable for water resistance, but their low albedo and poor exterior durability are disadvantages. A reflective coating that maintains very high water resistance with increased long-term resistance to soiling and microbial activity would provide additional energy savings and extend roof service life.

  17. Passive solar-heating retrofit of a maintenance facility: First-year performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, D. R.; Callahan, J. M.

    1982-09-01

    A 12,000 sf maintenance facility in Connecticut was retrofitted with a 1,500 sf passive solar Trombe wall, 2 in. of foam roof insulation and a new control system that allows night/weekend temperature setback. A new separate boiler was installed to heat an office/locker wing of the facility. An energy-consumption monitoring system was installed and collected data for 11/2 years before the retrofit and one complete year after the retrofit. Actual energy consumption for the facility was very close to that predicted using simple analytic methods. After the solar wall was installed and other energy-conservation measures implemented the yearly oil consumption was reduced to 2744 gallons/year.

  18. Solar industrial process heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumsdaine, E.

    1981-04-01

    The aim of the assessment reported is to candidly examine the contribution that solar industrial process heat (SIPH) is realistically able to make in the near and long-term energy futures of the United States. The performance history of government and privately funded SIPH demonstration programs, 15 of which are briefly summarized, and the present status of SIPH technology are discussed. The technical and performance characteristics of solar industrial process heat plants and equipment are reviewed, as well as evaluating how the operating experience of over a dozen SIPH demonstration projects is influencing institutional acceptance and economoc projections. Implications for domestic energy policy and international implications are briefly discussed. (LEW)

  19. Starting a local conservation and passive solar retrofit program: an energy planning sourcebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, V; Mathews, R

    1982-02-01

    A city planner or a neighborhood activist may wish to initiate a local conservation and passive solar retrofit program but may not have previous experience in doing so. This sourcebook is designed to assist interested individuals with their energy planning efforts, from determining retrofit potential, to financing and implementing the program. An approach or methodology is provided which can be applied to determine retrofit potential in single-family residences, mobile homes, multifamily residences, and nonresidential buildings. Case studies in Albuquerque, New Mexico, are given as examples. Guidelines are provided for evaluating the economic benefits of a retrofit program through benefit-cost analysis and economic base studies at the city and neighborhood levels. Also included are approaches to community outreach, detailing how to get started, how to gain local support, and examples of successful programs throughout the US. The need for financing, the development of a local strategy, public and private financing techniques, and community energy service organizations are examined. In addition to the Albuquerque case studies, a brief technology characterization, heat-loss calculations, economic tools, and a list of resources are appended.

  20. Microfine coal firing results from a retrofit gas/oil-designed industrial boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, R.; Borio, R.W.; Liljedahl, G. [Combustion Engineering, Inc., Windsor, CT (United States). ABB Power Plant Labs.; Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Energy and Fuels Research Center; McGowan, J.G. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The development of a High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor (HEACC) has been in progress since 1987 and the ABB Power Plant Laboratories. The initial work on this concept produced an advanced coal firing system that was capable of firing both water-based and dry pulverized coal in an industrial boiler environment. Economics may one day dictate that it makes sense to replace oil or natural gas with coal in boilers that were originally designed to burn these fuels. The objective of the current program is to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of retrofitting a gas/oil designed boiler to burn micronized coal. In support of this overall objective, the following specific areas were targeted: A coal handling/preparation system that can meet the technical requirements for retrofitting microfine coal on a boiler designed for burning oil or natural gas; Maintaining boiler thermal performance in accordance with specifications when burning oil or natural gas; Maintaining NOx emissions at or below 0.6 lb/MBtu; Achieving combustion efficiencies of 98% or higher; and Calculating economic payback periods as a function of key variables. The overall program has consisted of five major tasks: (1) A review of current state-of-the-art coal firing system components; (2) Design and experimental testing of a prototype HEACC burner; (3) Installation and testing of a HEACC system in a commercial retrofit application; (4) Economic evaluation of the HEACC concept for retrofit applications; and (5) Long term demonstration under commercial user demand conditions. This paper will summarize the latest key experimental results (Task 3) and the economic evaluation (Task 4) of the HEACC concept for retrofit applications. 28 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Innovation in product and services in the shipping retrofit industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Roberto Rivas; Köhler, Jonathan; Scheepens, Arno

    2015-01-01

    to shed light on this issue, the authors develop a conceptual framework to show how a specific type of business model (Product-Service Systems) could be applied to the context of the maritime industry. With a focus on the Danish maritime industry, the case study addresses two questions: Which business...... to propose a possible product-service system. These results suggest that port-based systems have the highest potential for eco-efficient value creation and a possible product-service system can be designed for this kind of technology. The article highlights the point that authorities need to improve...

  2. Energy retrofit via Social Housing: a proposal from Solar Decathlon

    OpenAIRE

    Chiara Tonelli

    2012-01-01

    Solar Decathlon is an annual university challenge where nearly zeroenergy housing prototypes enter in international competition, through a series of ten tests. The contest aims for superior energy performance, high standards of interior comfort, architectural aesthetics, positive electrical balances, industrialisation, and contained costs and feasibility as a marketable proposal. Seven editions of the Solar Decathlon have been held, with a total of 140 competing proposals both realized and pl...

  3. Solar retrofitting in social housing: a case study in Savona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Giachetta

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In relation to the social Housing’s theme, sustainable requalification interventions on the building heritage in the urban fringes dating back to the WWII postwar play an important role as those are characterized by buildings which offer poor energy performances. These interventions are potentially very effective, although at the same time they raise implementation and management issues, with which it is fundamental to confront, with a view to pursue serious housing and social policies. With this object in view, the introduction of a recently completed intervention in a social housing borough in Savona, also through the use of passive solar systems, offers suggestions and hints for reflection, due to the repeatibility of some adopted solutions and design principles.

  4. Home retrofitting for energy conservation and solar considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    This manual explains both the key concepts behind our need for and our impact on energy usage, as well as a nuts-and-bolts explanation of how to improve the energy efficiency of your home. By reviewing both the concepts and practices of energy conservation, the manual presents a comprehensive picture of how home energy use is effected by the inhabitants and by the structure itself. The manual begins with an explanation of why we are looking at energy, then proceeds to explain how the heat transfer occurs between houses and humans. Next is a chapter on energy audits and how to use them, followed by a comprehensive section on energy conservation actions to do now to reduce energy use. Conservation actions include low cost/no cost measures, schemes to reduce infiltration, how to increase insulation, and what to do with windows and doors, heating and heat distribution systems, and water heaters. Solar energy options are then briefly explained, as well as the all important issues of financing and tax credits. The manual concludes with a bibliography to direct the reader to more sources of information.

  5. System manual for the University of Pennsylvania retrofitted solar heated Philadelphia row home (SolaRow)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinnes, I.; Lior, N.

    1980-05-01

    The University of Pennsylvania SolaRow house, an urban row home retrofitted for comfort and domestic hot water heating, was extensively instrumented for performance monitoring and acquisition of weather and solar radiation data. This report describes the heating and instrumentation systems, provides the details for instrumentation, piping and valve identification, and specifies the operation and maintenance of the heating and data acquisition systems. The following are included: (1) system flow diagrams; (2) valve and cable identification tables; (3) wiring diagrams; and (4) start-up, normal operation, shut-down, maintenance and trouble-shooting procedures. It thus provides the necessary technical information to permit system operation and monitoring, overall system performance analysis and optimization, and acquisition of climatological data.

  6. Retrofitted Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems for Swedish Single-Family Houses—Evaluation of a Prototype and Life-Cycle Cost Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Ricardo Bernardo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available According to recent technology road maps, system cost reductions and development of standardised plug-and-function systems are some of the most important goals for solar heating technology development. Retrofitting hot water boilers in single-family houses when installing solar collectors has the potential to significantly reduce both material and installation costs. Previous studies have investigated such retrofitting, using theoretical simulations and laboratory tests, but no actual installations were made and tested in practice. This article describes the installation, measured performance and cost effectiveness of a retrofitting solution that converts existing domestic hot water heaters to a solar domestic hot water system. The measured performance is characterised by the monthly and annual solar fractions. The cost effectiveness is evaluated by a life-cycle cost analysis, comparing the retrofitted system to a conventional solar domestic hot water system and the case without any solar heating system. Measurements showed that approximately 50% of the 5000 kWh/year of domestic hot water consumption was saved by the retrofitted system in south Sweden. Such savings are in agreement with previous estimations and are comparable to the energy savings when using a conventional solar domestic hot water system. The life-cycle cost analysis showed that, according to the assumptions and given climate, the return on investment of the retrofitted system is approximately 17 years, while a conventional system does not reach profitability during its lifetime of 25 years.

  7. Application of proactive behavioral techniques for the promotion of solar retrofit in condominiums: the Friars Village case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mick, C.; Callahan, D.; Garcia, R.; Spielberg, F.; Mick, U.

    1980-05-06

    The purpose of this project was to develop a program for marketing solar technology to the condominium market. As such, it was intended as a pilot study of retrofit solar water heating for multi-family residences. This objective was later expanded into developing a cooperative model with applicability to: residential housing (multi-family and single family high density); commercial buildings; retrofit and new construction; and water and space heating. An experimental program conducted in the Friars Village development in San Diego is described. The program provided residents with a structured approach to a solar analysis. It included: assessment of existing energy use; assessment of local attitudes concerning solar; review of local building codes affecting solar; analysis of the legal documents governing the condominium, selection of solar designers and contractors; solar system design alternatives; financing of systems; and other relevant information. Section II, provides background information on the development of the project and on the study site, Friars Village. Section III describes the original strategy for the project and the steps outlined to accomplish the goals set for the project. Section IV provides documentation for and results of the activities conducted during the course of the project. Section V provides some discussion of the lessons learned from the experience. (MCW)

  8. Industrial Silicon Wafer Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk-Holger Neuhaus

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2006, around 86% of all wafer-based silicon solar cells were produced using screen printing to form the silver front and aluminium rear contacts and chemical vapour deposition to grow silicon nitride as the antireflection coating onto the front surface. This paper reviews this dominant solar cell technology looking into state-of-the-art equipment and corresponding processes for each process step. The main efficiency losses of this type of solar cell are analyzed to demonstrate the future efficiency potential of this technology. In research and development, more various advanced solar cell concepts have demonstrated higher efficiencies. The question which arises is “why are new solar cell concepts not transferred into industrial production more frequently?”. We look into the requirements a new solar cell technology has to fulfill to have an advantage over the current approach. Finally, we give an overview of high-efficiency concepts which have already been transferred into industrial production.

  9. Structural considerations for solar installers : an approach for small, simplified solar installations or retrofits.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, Elizabeth H.; Schindel, Kay (City of Madison, WI); Bosiljevac, Tom; Dwyer, Stephen F.; Lindau, William (Lindau Companies, Inc., Hudson, WI); Harper, Alan (City of Madison, WI)

    2011-12-01

    Structural Considerations for Solar Installers provides a comprehensive outline of structural considerations associated with simplified solar installations and recommends a set of best practices installers can follow when assessing such considerations. Information in the manual comes from engineering and solar experts as well as case studies. The objectives of the manual are to ensure safety and structural durability for rooftop solar installations and to potentially accelerate the permitting process by identifying and remedying structural issues prior to installation. The purpose of this document is to provide tools and guidelines for installers to help ensure that residential photovoltaic (PV) power systems are properly specified and installed with respect to the continuing structural integrity of the building.

  10. Retrofitting Domestic Hot Water Heaters for Solar Water Heating Systems in Single-Family Houses in a Cold Climate: A Theoretical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Karlsson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest obstacles to economic profitability of solar water heating systems is the investment cost. Retrofitting existing domestic hot water heaters when a new solar hot water system is installed can reduce both the installation and material costs. In this study, retrofitting existing water heaters for solar water heating systems in Swedish single-family houses was theoretically investigated using the TRNSYS software. Four simulation models using forced circulation flow with different system configurations and control strategies were simulated and analysed in the study. A comparison with a standard solar thermal system was also presented based on the annual solar fraction. The simulation results indicate that the retrofitting configuration achieving the highest annual performance consists of a system where the existing tank is used as storage for the solar heat and a smaller tank with a heater is added in series to make sure that the required outlet temperature can be met. An external heat exchanger is used between the collector circuit and the existing tank. For this retrofitted system an annual solar fraction of 50.5% was achieved. A conventional solar thermal system using a standard solar tank achieves a comparable performance for the same total storage volume, collector area and reference conditions.

  11. INDUSTRIAL BOILER RETROFIT FOR NOX CONTROL: COMBINED SELECTIVE NONCATALYTIC REDUCTION AND SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper describes retrofitting and testing a 590 kW (2 MBtu/hr), oil-fired, three-pass, fire-tube package boiler with a combined selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system. The system demonstrated 85% nitrogen oxides (NOx) reduction w...

  12. Industrialization of polymer solar cells - phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, H.; Krebs, F.C. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Energy Conversion, DTU Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark); Andersen, Rasmus B. [Mekoprint A/S, Stoevrimg (Denmark); Bork, J.; Bentzen, B.

    2012-03-15

    A three-phased project with the objective to industrialize DTU's basic polymer solar cell technology was started in the summer of 2009. The technology comprises a specific design of the polymer solar cell and a corresponding roll-to-roll manufacturing process. This basic technology is referred to as ProcessOne in the open literature. The present report relates to the project's phase 1.The key tasks in phase 1 are to stream-line DTU's tech-nology for the industrial utilization, to demonstrate production according to this stream-lined technology at Mekoprint A/S and finally to fertilize the market for polymer solar cells by demonstrating their use in appli-cations that harmonize with their present maturity level. The main focus in the stream-lining of DTU's technology has been to demonstrate a convincing rate of reduction for the production cost, and thereby make a competitive price plausible. This has been materialized as a learning curve showing that the polymer technology presently develops considerably faster than the silicon technology. The polymer solar cells will, under the assumption that both technologies follow a projection of the learning curve, gain a cost-leading position within a reasonable time. A production cost of 5 Euro/Wp has already been demonstrated in DTU's pilot plant, and a road map for the further decrease to 1 Euro/Wp is drawn. This target is expected to be reached in 2013 in the ongoing phase 2 of the project. Another activity essential for the industrialization has been the launch of specialized materials, equipment and services required for the processing of DTU's polymer solar cells. Relevant products and services are made available for sale on DTU's homepage, www.energyconversion.dtu.dk. A production line for polymer solar cells has been established at Mekoprint. For this a retrofit solution was chosen where the core of an existing screen-printing line was dismantled and fitted to a slot-die printing head manufactured in DTU's workshop

  13. Industrialization of polymer solar cells - phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, H.; Krebs, F.C. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Energy Conversion, DTU Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark); Andersen, Rasmus B. [Mekoprint A/S, Stoevrimg (Denmark); Bork, J.; Bentzen, B.

    2012-03-15

    A three-phased project with the objective to industrialize DTU's basic polymer solar cell technology was started in the summer of 2009. The technology comprises a specific design of the polymer solar cell and a corresponding roll-to-roll manufacturing process. This basic technology is referred to as ProcessOne in the open literature. The present report relates to the project's phase 1.The key tasks in phase 1 are to stream-line DTU's tech-nology for the industrial utilization, to demonstrate production according to this stream-lined technology at Mekoprint A/S and finally to fertilize the market for polymer solar cells by demonstrating their use in appli-cations that harmonize with their present maturity level. The main focus in the stream-lining of DTU's technology has been to demonstrate a convincing rate of reduction for the production cost, and thereby make a competitive price plausible. This has been materialized as a learning curve showing that the polymer technology presently develops considerably faster than the silicon technology. The polymer solar cells will, under the assumption that both technologies follow a projection of the learning curve, gain a cost-leading position within a reasonable time. A production cost of 5 Euro/Wp has already been demonstrated in DTU's pilot plant, and a road map for the further decrease to 1 Euro/Wp is drawn. This target is expected to be reached in 2013 in the ongoing phase 2 of the project. Another activity essential for the industrialization has been the launch of specialized materials, equipment and services required for the processing of DTU's polymer solar cells. Relevant products and services are made available for sale on DTU's homepage, www.energyconversion.dtu.dk. A production line for polymer solar cells has been established at Mekoprint. For this a retrofit solution was chosen where the core of an existing screen-printing line was dismantled and fitted to a slot-die printing head manufactured in DTU's workshop

  14. Retrofitting Conventional Electric Domestic Hot Water Heaters to Solar Water Heating Systems in Single-Family Houses—Model Validation and Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis R. Bernardo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available System cost reductions and development of standardised plug-and-function systems are some of the most important goals for solar heating technology development. Retrofitting hot water boilers in single-family houses when installing solar collectors has the potential to significantly reduce both material and installation costs. In this study, the TRNSYS simulation models of the retrofitting solar thermal system were validated against measurements. Results show that the validated models are in good agreement with measurements. On an annual basis a deviation of 2.5% out of 1099 kWh was obtained between the auxiliary energy from results and from the simulation model for a complete system. Using the validated model a system optimization was carried out with respect to control strategies for auxiliary heating, heat losses and volume of auxiliary storage. A sensitivity analysis was carried out regarding different volumes of retrofitted hot water boiler, DHW profiles and climates. It was estimated that, with adequate improvements, extended annual solar fractions of 60%, 78% and 81% can be achieved for Lund (Sweden, Lisbon (Portugal and Lusaka (Zambia, respectively. The correspondent collector area was 6, 4 and 3 m2, respectively. The studied retrofitted system achieves a comparable performance with conventional solar thermal systems with the potential to reduce the investment cost.

  15. Baseline study of US industry solar exports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobius, T M; Levi, R S; Bereny, J A

    1980-10-01

    This study is a detailed aggregate profile of US solar export activity in 1979 based on a survey of all segments of the solar industry. It identifies the dollar volume of exports by technology: (1) solar heating and cooling products; (2) wind products; (3) photovoltaics; (4) solar thermal electric; (5) OTEC and biomass; and (6) support products and services. The study offers to government and industry groups, for the first time, comprehensive information with which to formulate export goals and assistance measures based on the current realities of the solar export marketplace. Specific and aggregate recommendations which can lead to identification of realistic solar export opportunities and development of solar export markets are included.

  16. Commercializing solar for industry in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudelson, J.

    1980-10-01

    The State of California has begun a commercialization program for increasing the rate of solar applications in industry. The components of this program include low interest loans, tax credits, revenue bonds and educational efforts. Many California industries appear to be likely candidates for solar systems, but as yet only a few companies have elected to install them. The various barriers to solar use by industry are primarily perceptual and financial. The emphasis of the state program for commercialization is turning increasingly towards educational seminars for industry groups and development of creative financial tools and arrangements. There are a few remaining legislative changes at state and federal levels, primarily involving leasing and tax laws which, if enacted, would overcome all of the remaining financial barriers to widespread adoption of solar applications by industry.

  17. Solar energy for industrial process heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, R. H.; Pivirotto, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    Findings of study of potential use for solar energy utilization by California dairy industry, prove that applicable solar energy system furnish much of heat needed for milk processing with large savings in expenditures for oil and gas and ensurance of adequate readily available sources of process heat.

  18. International demands for retrofitting, trends in the nuclear industry, safety margins, concepts and options for retrofit; Nachfrage nach Nachruestungen international; industrielle Trends; Rolle von Sicherheitsmargen, Nachruestkonzepte und -moeglichkeiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janke, Rolf; Stoll, Uwe; Grasnick, Claudius [AREVA GmbH, Erlangen (Germany). E and P, P-G

    2016-02-15

    The serious accidents at Fukushima in 2011 pointed out the missing implementation of existing international safety standards for nuclear power plants as also new aspects for nuclear safety. The main safety aspects in the aftermath of Fukushima are: robustness against internal and external impacts; sufficient safety margins; prolonged periods for safety measures; inherent and passive systems and mechanisms; enhanced independent operation of the plant in case of external failures; independent long-term supply with AC; accident management procedures; enhanced retention of radionuclides. Technologies for retrofit are available and are under implementation with respect to the demands and options in the countries using nuclear power.

  19. Solar solution: the next industrial revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn A. Sandén

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The industrial revolution 200 years ago freed society from the limitations of bioenergy and brought tremendous growth but also huge environmental problems. Now, a new generation of modular technologies based on advanced materials enables efficient conversion of solar energy and carries the seeds of a new industrial revolution.

  20. Solar energy for agricultural and industrial process heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-22

    A state-of-the-art review of solar process heat is given; near term prospects are discussed; and the federal solar industrial process heat program is reviewed. Existing solar industrial process heat projects are tabulated. (WHK)

  1. Spectrum-splitting hybrid CSP-CPV solar energy system with standalone and parabolic trough plant retrofit applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosz, Matthew; Zweibaum, Nicolas; Lance, Tamir; Ruiz, Maritza; Morad, Ratson

    2016-05-01

    Sunlight to electricity efficiencies of Parabolic Trough Collector (PTC) plants are typically on the order of 15%, while commercial solar Photovoltaic (PV) technologies routinely achieve efficiencies of greater than 20%, albeit with much higher conversion efficiencies of photons at the band gap. Hybridizing concentrating solar power and photovoltaic technologies can lead to higher aggregate efficiencies due to the matching of photons to the appropriate converter based on wavelength. This can be accomplished through spectral filtering whereby photons unusable or poorly utilitized by PV (IR and UV) are passed through to a heat collection element, while useful photons (VIS) are reflected onto a concentrating PV (CPV) receiver. The mechanical design and experimental validation of spectral splitting optics is described in conjunction with system level modeling and economic analysis. The implications of this architecture include higher efficiency, lower cost hybrid CSP-PV power systems, as well as the potential to retrofit existing PTC plants to boost their output by ~ 10% at a projected investment cost of less than 1 per additional net Watt and an IRR of 18%, while preserving the dispatchability of the CSP plant's thermal energy storage.

  2. SOLAR POWER THE FUTURE OF AVIATION INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet Kumar Vashishtha,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Solar powered aircraft capable of continuous flight was a dream some years ago, but this great challenge has become feasible today. Quite a few manned and unmanned solar powered aircraft have been developed and flown in the last 30 years. The research activities carried out till now have been mainly focused on flying wings or conventional aircraft configurations, with a great emphasis on the technological aspects. Solar powered aircraft uses solar panel to collect the solar radiation for immediate use but it also store the remaining part forthe night flight. The paper deals with the current state of art of empower the aviation industry with solar power and the shortcoming and the future aspect.

  3. Deep Residential Retrofits in East Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudreaux, Philip R [ORNL; Hendrick, Timothy P [ORNL; Christian, Jeffrey E [ORNL; Jackson, Roderick K [ORNL

    2012-04-01

    Executive Summary Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is furthering residential energy retrofit research in the mixed-humid climate of East Tennessee by selecting 10 homes and guiding the homeowners in the energy retrofit process. The homeowners pay for the retrofits, and ORNL advises which retrofits to complete and collects post-retrofit data. This effort is in accordance with the Department of Energy s Building America program research goal of demonstrating market-ready energy retrofit packages that reduce home energy use by 30 50%. Through this research, ORNL researchers hope to understand why homeowners decide to partake in energy retrofits, the payback of home energy retrofits, and which retrofit packages most economically reduce energy use. Homeowner interviews help the researchers understand the homeowners experience. Information gathered during the interviews will aid in extending market penetration of home energy retrofits by helping researchers and the retrofit industry understand what drives homeowners in making positive decisions regarding these retrofits. This report summarizes the selection process, the pre-retrofit condition, the recommended retrofits, the actual cost of the retrofits (when available), and an estimated energy savings of the retrofit package using EnergyGauge . Of the 10 households selected to participate in the study, only five completed the recommended retrofits, three completed at least one but no more than three of the recommended retrofits, and two households did not complete any of the recommended retrofits. In the case of the two homes that did none of the recommended work, the pre-retrofit condition of the homes and the recommended retrofits are reported. The five homes that completed the recommended retrofits are monitored for energy consumption of the whole house, appliances, space conditioning equipment, water heater, and most of the other circuits with miscellaneous electric loads (MELs) and lighting. Thermal comfort is

  4. Industrial wastewater treatment network based on recycling and rerouting strategies for retrofit design schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sueviriyapan, Natthapong; Suriyapraphadilok, Uthaiporn; Siemanond, Kitipat

    2015-01-01

    The advent of complex industrial water/wastewater management problems points to a need for effective systematic design for a sustainable solution. The objective of this work is to extend the research in the area of systematic design of water/wastewater management by further developing and extendi...

  5. Microfine coal firing results from a retrofit gas/oil-designed industrial boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, R.; Borio, R.W.; Liljedahl, G. [Combustion Engineering, Inc., Windsor, CT (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    Under US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) support, the development of a High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor (HEACC) has been in progress since 1987 at the ABB Power Plant Laboratories. The initial work on this concept produced an advanced coal firing system that was capable of firing both water-based and dry pulverized coal in an industrial boiler environment.

  6. Synchronizing new product development projects and supply chain retrofitting for financial sustainability in the pharmaceutical industry

    OpenAIRE

    Lainez Aguirre, José Miguel; Puigjaner Corbella, Lluís; Reklaitis, Gintaras V.

    2009-01-01

    In today's highly competitive marketplace, supply chain and product development activities should be coordinated and synchronized so that market demand, product release and capacity requirements are matched in a financially sustainable fashion. In this work an integrated model is developed which incorporates simultaneous treatment of supply chain design-planning and R&D decisions in the pharmaceutical industry. Moreover, the aforementioned cross-functional model embeds a capita...

  7. Synchronizing new product development projects and supply chain retrofitting for financial sustainability in the pharmaceutical industry

    OpenAIRE

    Lainez Aguirre, José Miguel; Puigjaner Corbella, Lluís; Reklaitis, Gintaras V

    2009-01-01

    In today's highly competitive marketplace, supply chain and product development activities should be coordinated and synchronized so that market demand, product release and capacity requirements are matched in a financially sustainable fashion. In this work an integrated model is developed which incorporates simultaneous treatment of supply chain design-planning and R&D decisions in the pharmaceutical industry. Moreover, the aforementioned cross-functional model embeds a capita...

  8. Solar air heaters for industrial drying; Aquecedor solar de ar para secagem industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, Everaldo Mendes [Governo do Estado da Paraiba, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Secretaria de Planejamento e Gestao

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study is to encourage the use of solar energy in industrial drying of fruits, with the producers poles, at the same time, promote the rational use of energy for heat, or replacing the hydroelectric and oil derivatives for this purpose. This study is presented in the following chapters: availability of solar energy; details of constructive solar heated air; drying fruit; market. (author)

  9. Solar Air Heating Metal Roofing for Reroofing, New Construction, and Retrofit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    variety of useful purposes. This specific project: • Re-roofed a badly worn and patched BUR with a long life metal roof, • Provided insulation...ranging from the high 40s to the high 70s. In addition, the roof had been patched several times and needed replacement. The U.S. Department of...Global, Johnston , RI, July 2008. 5. Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) Data file, available from the National Solar Radiation Database, http

  10. Retrofitting Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    This report gives an overview of the different retrofitting possibilities that are available today. The report looks at both external and internal systems for external wall constructions, roof constructions, floor constructions and foundations. All systems are described in detail in respect to use...... and methods, and the efficiency of the different systems are discussed....

  11. Solar Energy Gain and Space-Heating Energy Supply Analyses for Solid-Wall Dwelling Retrofitted with the Experimentally Achievable U-value of Novel Triple Vacuum Glazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saim Memon

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A considerable effort is devoted to devising retrofit solutions for reducing space-heating energy in the domestic sector. Existing UK solid-wall dwellings, which have both heritage values and historic fabric, are being improved but they tend to have meagre thermal performance, partly, due to the heat-loss through glazings. This paper takes comparative analyses approach to envisage space-heating supply required in order to maintain thermal comfort temperatures and attainable solar energy gains to households with the retrofit of an experimentally achievable thermal performance of the fabricated sample of triple vacuum glazing to a UK solid-wall dwelling. 3D dynamic thermal models (timely regimes of heating, occupancy, ventilation and internal heat gains of an externally-insulated solid-wall detached dwelling with a range of existing glazing types along with triple vacuum glazings are modelled. A dramatic decrease of space-heating load and moderate increase of solar gains are resulted with the dwelling of newly achievable triple vacuum glazings (having centre-of-pane U-value of 0.33 Wm-2K-1 compared to conventional glazing types. The space-heating annual cost of single glazed dwellings was minimised to 15.31% (≈USD 90.7 with the retrofit of triple-vacuum glazings. An influence of total heat-loss through the fabric of solid-wall dwelling was analysed with steady-state calculations which indicates a fall of 10.23 % with triple vacuum glazings compared to single glazings.

  12. Test results, Industrial Solar Technology parabolic trough solar collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudley, V.E. [EG and G MSI, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Evans, L.R.; Matthews, C.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Industrial Solar Technology are cost-sharing development of advanced parabolic trough technology. As part of this effort, several configurations of an IST solar collector were tested to determine the collector efficiency and thermal losses with black chrome and black nickel receiver selective coatings, combined with aluminized film and silver film reflectors, using standard Pyrex{reg_sign} and anti-reflective coated Pyrex{reg_sign} glass receiver envelopes. The development effort has been successful, producing an advanced collector with 77% optical efficiency, using silver-film reflectors, a black nickel receiver coating, and a solgel anti-reflective glass receiver envelope. For each receiver configuration, performance equations were empirically derived relating collector efficiency and thermal losses to the operating temperature. Finally, equations were derived showing collector performance as a function of input insolation value, incident angle, and operating temperature.

  13. High-Performance Energy-Efficient Cool Metal Roof Assemblies Utilizing Building Integrated Renewable Solar Energy Technologies for New and Retrofit Building Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Photograph of full scale mockup of the retrofit roofing system on the Demonstration Project...full scale mockup of the retrofit roofing system on the Demonstration Project Photo Courtesy of MBCI The project site selected for this

  14. Building Energy Model Development for Retrofit Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chasar, David; McIlvaine, Janet; Blanchard, Jeremy; Widder, Sarah H.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2012-09-30

    Based on previous research conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Florida Solar Energy Center providing technical assistance to implement 22 deep energy retrofits across the nation, 6 homes were selected in Florida and Texas for detailed post-retrofit energy modeling to assess realized energy savings (Chandra et al, 2012). However, assessing realized savings can be difficult for some homes where pre-retrofit occupancy and energy performance are unknown. Initially, savings had been estimated using a HERS Index comparison for these homes. However, this does not account for confounding factors such as occupancy and weather. This research addresses a method to more reliably assess energy savings achieved in deep energy retrofits for which pre-retrofit utility bills or occupancy information in not available. A metered home, Riverdale, was selected as a test case for development of a modeling procedure to account occupancy and weather factors, potentially creating more accurate estimates of energy savings. This “true up” procedure was developed using Energy Gauge USA software and post-retrofit homeowner information and utility bills. The 12 step process adjusts the post-retrofit modeling results to correlate with post-retrofit utility bills and known occupancy information. The “trued” post retrofit model is then used to estimate pre-retrofit energy consumption by changing the building efficiency characteristics to reflect the pre-retrofit condition, but keeping all weather and occupancy-related factors the same. This creates a pre-retrofit model that is more comparable to the post-retrofit energy use profile and can improve energy savings estimates. For this test case, a home for which pre- and post- retrofit utility bills were available was selected for comparison and assessment of the accuracy of the “true up” procedure. Based on the current method, this procedure is quite time intensive. However, streamlined processing spreadsheets or

  15. Development and testing of a high efficiency advanced coal combustor: Phase 3 industrial boiler retrofit. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, R.L.; Thornock, D.E.; Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W.; McGowan, J.G.

    1998-03-01

    Economics and/or political intervention may one day dictate the conversion from oil or natural gas to coal in boilers that were originally designed to burn oil or gas. In recognition of this future possibility the US Department of Energy, Federal Energy Technical Center (DOE-FETC) supported a program led by ABB Power Plant Laboratories with support from the Energy and Fuels Research Center of Penn State University with the goal of demonstrating the technical and economic feasibility of retrofitting a gas/oil designed boiler to burn micronized coal. In support of the overall goal the following specific objectives were targeted: develop a coal handling/preparation system that can meet the technical and operational requirements for retrofitting microfine coal on a boiler designed for burning oil or natural gas; maintain boiler thermal performance in accordance with specifications when burning oil or natural gas; maintain NOx emissions at or below 0.6 lb NO{sub 2} per million Btu; achieve combustion efficiencies of 98% or higher; and determine economic payback periods as a function of key variables.

  16. Luminescent Solar Concentrators in the Algal Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellier, Katie; Corrado, Carley; Carter, Sue; Detweiler, Angela; Bebout, Leslie

    2013-03-01

    Today's industry for renewable energy sources and highly efficient energy management systems is rapidly increasing. Development of increased efficiency Luminescent Solar Concentrators (LSCs) has brought about new applications for commercial interests, including greenhouses for agricultural crops. This project is taking first steps to explore the potential of LSCs to enhance production and reduce costs for algae and cyanobacteria used in biofuels and nutraceuticals. This pilot phase uses LSC filtered light for algal growth trials in greenhouses and laboratory experiments, creating specific wavelength combinations to determine effects of discrete solar light regimes on algal growth and the reduction of heating and water loss in the system. Enhancing the optimal spectra for specific algae will not only increase production, but has the potential to lessen contamination of large scale production due to competition from other algae and bacteria. Providing LSC filtered light will reduce evaporation and heating in regions with limited water supply, while the increased energy output from photovoltaic cells will reduce costs of heating and mixing cultures, thus creating a more efficient and cost effective production system.

  17. Q4 2016/Q1 2017 Solar Industry Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margolis, Robert; Feldman, David; Boff, Daniel

    2017-05-17

    This technical presentation provides an update on the major trends that occurred in the solar industry in the fourth quarter of 2016 and the first quarter of 2017. Major topics of focus include global and U.S. supply and demand, module and system price, investment trends and business models, and updates on U.S. government programs supporting the solar industry.

  18. Q3/Q4 2016 Solar Industry Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, David; Boff, Daniel; Margolis, Robert

    2016-12-21

    This technical presentation provides an update on the major trends that occurred in the solar industry in the Q3 and Q4 of 2016. Major topics of focus include global and U.S. supply and demand, module and system price, investment trends and business models, and updates on U.S. government programs supporting the solar industry.

  19. Q2/Q3 2016 Solar Industry Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, David; Boff, Daniel; Margolis, Robert

    2016-10-11

    This technical presentation provides an update on the major trends that occurred in the solar industry in the Q2 and Q3 of 2016. Major topics of focus include global and U.S. supply and demand, module and system price, investment trends and business models, and updates on U.S. government programs supporting the solar industry.

  20. Thermal storage technologies for solar industrial process heat applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, L. H.

    1979-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of thermal storage subsystems for the intermediate and high temperature (100 C to 600 C) solar industrial process heat generation is presented. Primary emphasis is focused on buffering and diurnal storage as well as total energy transport. In addition, advanced thermal storage concepts which appear promising for future solar industrial process heat applications are discussed.

  1. Solar energy in California industry - Applications, characteristics and potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, R. H.; Pivirotto, D. S.

    1978-01-01

    Results of a survey to determine the potential applicability of solar thermal energy to industrial processes in California are presented. It is found that if the heat for all industrial processes at temperatures below 212 F were supplied by solar energy, total state energy consumption could be reduced by 100 trillion Btus (2%), while the use of solar energy in processes between 212 and 350 F could displace 500 trillion Btus. The issues and problems with which solar energy must contend are illustrated by a description of fluid milk processing operations. Solar energy application is found to be technically feasible for processes with thermal energy requirements below 212 F, with design, and degree of technical, economic and management feasibility being site specific. It is recommended that the state provide support for federal and industrial research, development and demonstration programs in order to stimulate acceptance of solar process heat application by industry.

  2. Solar energy in California industry - Applications, characteristics and potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, R. H.; Pivirotto, D. S.

    1978-01-01

    Results of a survey to determine the potential applicability of solar thermal energy to industrial processes in California are presented. It is found that if the heat for all industrial processes at temperatures below 212 F were supplied by solar energy, total state energy consumption could be reduced by 100 trillion Btus (2%), while the use of solar energy in processes between 212 and 350 F could displace 500 trillion Btus. The issues and problems with which solar energy must contend are illustrated by a description of fluid milk processing operations. Solar energy application is found to be technically feasible for processes with thermal energy requirements below 212 F, with design, and degree of technical, economic and management feasibility being site specific. It is recommended that the state provide support for federal and industrial research, development and demonstration programs in order to stimulate acceptance of solar process heat application by industry.

  3. Solar energy and the aeronautics industry. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedek, L.

    1985-01-01

    An introduction to the physical aspects of solar energy, incidental energy and variations in solar flux is presented, along with an explanation of the physical principles of obtaining solar energy. The history of the application of solar energy to aeronautics, including the Gossamer Penguin and the Solar Challenger is given. Finally, an analysis of the possibilities of using a reaction motor with hybrid propulsion combining solar energy with traditional fuels as well as calculations of the proposed cycle and its mode of operation are given.

  4. Use of solar energy to produce process heat for industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.

    1980-04-01

    The role of solar energy in supplying heat and hot water to residential and commercial buildings is familiar. On the other hand, the role that solar energy may play in displacing imported energy supplies in the industrial and utility sectors often goes unrecognized. The versatility of solar technology lends itself well to applications in industry; particularly to the supplemental supply of process heat of all kinds. The realization of that potential will depend, however, on the identification of the most suitable applications and locations for industrial solar energy and the continued improvement in cost, durability, and reliability of solar equipment. The status of solar thermal technology for industrial process heat applications is surveyed, including a description of current costs and operating histories. Because the current status is unsatisfactory in view of the goals established by President Carter for solar industrial energy, the most important objectives to be met in improving system performance, reducing cost, and identifying markets for solar IPH are outlined. The effect of government tax policy will be of little impact until technical efficiency and cost effectiveness are significantly improved.

  5. Building retrofit for cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinrich, H.

    1979-11-01

    The impact of high fuel prices on retrofit in the urban sector is discussed. Then, the benefits of a strong urban retrofit program are enumerated. Institutional, financial, informational, and attitudinal barriers that stand in the way of widespread implementation of energy conservation retrofit are discussed. Policy tools which can be used to implement a retrofit program consist of tax breaks, financing arrangements, mandatory building efficiency standards, and education programs.

  6. Joint Solar Power Industry and Department of Energy Solar Resource and Meteorological Assessment Project (SOLRMAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Steve; Myers, Daryl

    2009-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory has embarked on a collaborative effort with the solar industry to establish high quality solar and meteorological measurements. This Solar Resource and Meteorological Assessment Project (SOLRMAP) provides high quality measurements to support deployment of concentrating solar thermal power projects in the United States. The no-funds-exchanged collaboration brings NREL solar resource assessment expertise together with industry needs for measurements. The end result will be high quality data sets to support the financing, design, and monitoring of large scale solar power projects for industry in addition to research-quality data for NREL model development. NREL provides consultation for instrumentation and station deployment, along with instrument calibrations, data acquisition, quality assessment, data distribution, and summary reports. Industry participants provide equipment, infrastructure, and station maintenance.

  7. Proceedings of the solar industrial process heat symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    The purpose of the symposium was to review the progress of various solar energy systems currently under design for supplying industrial process heat. Formal presentations consisted of a review of solar energy applications in industrial process heat as well as several on-going project reviews. An Open Forum was held to solicit the comments of the participants. The recommendations of this Open Forum are included in these proceedings. Eighteen papers were included. Separate abstracts were prepared for each paper.

  8. Industrial applications of solar chemistry: Methane Reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, M.

    2002-07-01

    Solar reforming has been proposed at the mid-seventies as a method of converting solar energy as a primary source to chemical energy, via a reversible chemical reactions for transmittal and storage of solar energy. Two concepts have been proposed to overcome the disadvantages of electricity as an overall energy carrier, especially, if the end use is process heat and the ability to store energy-Hydrogen produced by thermochemical water splitting. Chemical heat pipe Nuclear energy (especially, High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors-HTGR) and solar energy both appear as heat and the conversion of this heat to a suitable energy carrier must occur, in order to utilize the primary energy source. The advantage of the nuclear source is its stable and continuous operation, and therefore the storage issue not critical. The advantage of the solar source is the possibility to reach higher temperature. (Author)

  9. Industrial Applications of Solar Chemistry: Methane Reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, M.

    2000-07-01

    Solar reforming has been proposed at the mid-seventies as a method of converting solar energy as a primary source to chemical energy, via a reversible chemical reaction for transmittal and storage of solar energy. Two concepts have been proposed to overcome the disadvantages of electricity as an overall energy carrier, especially, if the end use is process heat and the ability to store energy: - Hydrogen produced by thermochemical water splitting. - Chemical heat pipe. Nuclear energy (especially, High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors-HTGR) and solar energy both appear as heat and the conversion of this heat to a suitable energy carrier must occur, in order to utilize the primary energy source. The advantage of the nuclear source is its stable and continuous operation, and therefore the storage issue not critical. The advantage of the solar source is the possibility to reach higher temperatures. (Author)

  10. Market development directory for solar industrial process heat systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-02-01

    The purpose of this directory is to provide a basis for market development activities through a location listing of key trade associations, trade periodicals, and key firms for three target groups. Potential industrial users and potential IPH system designers were identified as the prime targets for market development activities. The bulk of the directory is a listing of these two groups. The third group, solar IPH equipment manufacturers, was included to provide an information source for potential industrial users and potential IPH system designers. Trade associates and their publications are listed for selected four-digit Standard Industrial Code (SIC) industries. Since industries requiring relatively lower temperature process heat probably will comprise most of the near-term market for solar IPH systems, the 80 SIC's included in this chapter have process temperature requirements less than 350/sup 0/F. Some key statistics and a location list of the largest plants (according to number of employees) in each state are included for 15 of the 80 SIC's. Architectural/engineering and consulting firms are listed which are known to have solar experience. Professional associated and periodicals to which information on solar IPH sytstems may be directed also are included. Solar equipment manufacturers and their associations are listed. The listing is based on the SERI Solar Energy Information Data Base (SEIDB).

  11. Advanced Catalytic Hydrogenation Retrofit Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinaldo M. Machado

    2002-08-15

    Industrial hydrogenation is often performed using a slurry catalyst in large stirred-tank reactors. These systems are inherently problematic in a number of areas, including industrial hygiene, process safety, environmental contamination, waste production, process operability and productivity. This program proposed the development of a practical replacement for the slurry catalysts using a novel fixed-bed monolith catalyst reactor, which could be retrofitted onto an existing stirred-tank reactor and would mitigate many of the minitations and problems associated with slurry catalysts. The full retrofit monolith system, consisting of a recirculation pump, gas/liquid ejector and monolith catalyst, is described as a monolith loop reactor or MLR. The MLR technology can reduce waste and increase raw material efficiency, which reduces the overall energy required to produce specialty and fine chemicals.

  12. Industrial solar breeder project using concentrator photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, R; Wohlgemuth, J; Burkholder, J; Levine, A; Storti, G; Wrigley, C; McKegg, A

    1979-08-01

    The purpose of this program is to demonstrate the use of a concentrating photovoltaic system to provide the energy for operating a silicon solar cell production facility, i.e., to demonstrate a solar breeder. Solarex has proposed to conduct the first real test of the solar breeder concept by building and operating a 200 kW(e) (peak) concentrating photovoltaic system based on the prototype and system design developed during Phase I. This system will provide all of the electrical and thermal energy required to operate a solar cell production line. This demonstration would be conducted at the Solarex Rockville facility, with the photovoltaic array located over the company parking lot and on an otherwise unusable flood plain. Phase I of this program included a comprehensive analysis of the application, prototype fabrication and evaluation, system design and specification, and a detailed plan for Phases II and III. A number of prototype tracking concentrator solar collectors were constructed and operated. Extensive system analysis was performed to design the Phase II system as a stand-alone power supply for a solar cell production line. Finally, a detailed system fabrication proposal for Phase II and an operation and evaluation plan for Phase III were completed. These proposals included technical, management, and cost plans for the fabrication and exercise of the proposed system.

  13. Building America Case Study: Pilot Demonstration of Phased Energy Efficiency Retrofits: Deep Retrofits, Central and South Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Parker, K. Sutherland, D. Chasar, J. Montemurno, B. Amos, J. Kono

    2017-02-01

    The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), in collaboration with Florida Power & Light (FPL), is pursuing a phased residential energy-efficiency retrofit program in Florida. Researchers are looking to establish the impacts of technologies of two retrofit packages -- shallow and deep -- on annual energy and peak energy reductions.

  14. Building America Case Study: Pilot Demonstration of Phased Energy Efficiency Retrofits: Deep Retrofits, Central and South Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-02-22

    The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), in collaboration with Florida Power & Light (FPL), is pursuing a phased residential energy-efficiency retrofit program in Florida. Researchers are looking to establish the impacts of technologies of two retrofit packages -- shallow and deep -- on annual energy and peak energy reductions.

  15. Quantifying the Financial Benefits of Multifamily Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philbrick, D. [The Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States); Scheu, R. [The Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States); Brand, L. [The Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2016-01-29

    Increasing the adoption of energy efficient building practices will require the energy sector to increase their understanding of the way that retrofits affect multifamily financial performance as well as how those indicators are interpreted by the lending and appraisal industries. This project analyzed building, energy, and financial program data as well as other public and private data to examine the relationship between energy efficiency retrofits and financial performance on three levels: building, city, and community. The project goals were to increase the data and analysis in the growing body of multifamily financial benefits work as well provide a framework for other geographies to produce similar characterization. The goals are accomplished through three tasks. Task one: A pre- and post-retrofit analysis of thirteen Chicago multifamily buildings. Task two: A comparison of Chicago income and expenses to two national datasets. Task three: An in-depth look at multifamily market sales data and the subsequent impact of buildings that undergo retrofits.

  16. Prospects for the construction of solar furnaces for industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Blanchetais, Ch. H.

    The various techniques and prototype installations employed to absorb and concentrate solar energy for use in applications requiring 100-4000 C temperatures are explored. Mention is made of the Pericles heliostat field and the THEK distributed parabolic concentrator installations, and attention is focused on viable concepts useful for industrial purposes. The Odeillo solar furnace provided design guidelines and requirements for industrial usage. It was found that the reliability of the furnace depends on the annual insolation, that the solar furnaces must be designed to meet specific thermal goals, that simplification and optimization are needed for the orientation and focusing mechanisms, and that solar furnaces are ideally suited for developing nations which experience high levels of insolation. A stepped paraboloid is described for improving the efficiency of a heliostat system, while still employing plane parallel mirrors.

  17. Solar technology assessment project. Volume 11: The solar industry in the United States: Its status and prospects, 1981

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J. A.

    1981-04-01

    The energy production goals for the solar industry, and the industry's present status are described. Manufacturing and sales of low and medium temperature solar collectors from 1974 to 2000 are analyzed, and the HUD/DOE solar demonstration programs' relative merits are discussed. Certain characteristics of the conventional water heating industry are briefly described

  18. Solar era in industrial engineering; Solare Aera im Industriebau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seltmann, T.

    2003-01-06

    Industrial buildings are big enough for PV systems but often unable to withstand additional loads. Two current projects are presented. (orig.) [German] Industriefassaden bieten der Photovoltaik grosse Flaechen, koennen jedoch oft keine zusaetzlichen Lasten tragen. Zwei aktuelle Projekte zeigen, welche Leistungsreserven im Industriebau schlummern. (orig.)

  19. Evaluation of Shunt Losses in Industrial Silicon Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Somasundaran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Shunting is one of the key issues in industrial silicon solar cells which degrade cell performance. This paper presents an approach for investigation of the performance degradation caused by the presence of ohmic extended shunts at various locations in industrial silicon solar cells. Location, nature, and area of the shunts existing in solar cells have been examined by lock-in infrared thermography (LIT. Based on LIT images and experimental dark I-V curves of solar cell, shunted cell has been modeled, from which loss in fill factor and efficiency due to the specific shunt has been obtained. Distributed diode modeling approach of solar cell has been exploited for obtaining simulation results which were supported by experimental measurements. The presented approach is useful to estimate performance reduction due to specific shunts and to quantify losses, which can help in improving the efficiency of solar cell during production by tackling the shunt related problems based on the level of severity and tolerance.

  20. Review. Industrial silicon wafer solar cells. Status and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aberle, Armin G.; Boreland, Matthew B.; Hoex, Bram; Mueller, Thomas [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore). Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore (SERIS)

    2012-11-01

    Crystalline silicon solar cells dominate today's global photovoltaic (PV) market. This paper presents the status and trends of the most important industrial silicon wafer solar cells, ranging from standard p-type homojunction cells to heterojunction cells on n-type wafers. Owing to ongoing technological innovations such as improved surface passivation and the use of increasingly thinner wafers, the trend towards higher cell efficiencies and lower dollar/watt costs is expected to continue during the next 10 years, making silicon wafer based PV modules a moving target for any competing PV technology. (orig.)

  1. Industrialization of Polymer Solar Cells – phase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Hanne; Bork, Jakob; Andersen, Rasmus B.

    Polymer solar cells have unique features such as low weight, slim outline, robustness against breakage and excellent adaptability of size, shape and curvature to the actual application. These features open, not only for cost- and energy effective application of the cell, but also for aesthetic...... in the summer of 2009. The technology comprises a specific design of the polymer solar cell and a corresponding roll-to-roll manufacturing process. This basic technology is referred to as ProcessOne in the open literature. The present report relates to the project’s phase 1.The key tasks in phase 1...... are to stream-line DTU’s tech-nology for the industrial utilization, to demonstrate production according to this stream-lined technology at Mekoprint A/S and finally to fertilize the market for polymer solar cells by demonstrating their use in appli-cations that harmonize with their present maturity level...

  2. Experiences with industrial solar process steam generation in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Dirk; Berger, Michael; Mokhtar, Marwan; Willwerth, Lisa; Zahler, Christian; Al-Najami, Mahmoud; Hennecke, Klaus

    2017-06-01

    At the Jordanian pharmaceuticals manufacturing company RAM Pharma a solar process heat supply has been constructed by Industrial Solar GmbH in March 2015 and operated since then (Figure 1). The collector field consists of 394 m² of linear Fresnel collectors supplying saturated steam to the steam network at RAM Pharma at about 6 bar gauge. In the frame of the SolSteam project funded by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) the installation has been modified introducing an alternative way to separate water and steam by a cyclone. This paper describes the results of experiments with the cyclone and compares the operation with a steam drum. The steam production of the solar plant as well as the fuel demand of the steam boiler are continuously monitored and results are presented in this paper.

  3. Phased Retrofits in Existing Homes In Florida Phase I: Shallow and Deep Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, D. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Sutherland, K. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Chasar, D. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Montemurno, J. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Amos, B. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Kono, J. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2016-02-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building America program, in collaboration with Florida Power and Light (FPL), conducted a phased residential energy-efficiency retrofit program. This research sought to establish impacts on annual energy and peak energy reductions from the technologies applied at two levels of retrofit - shallow and deep, with savings levels approaching the Building America program goals of reducing whole-house energy use by 40%. Under the Phased Deep Retrofit (PDR) project, we have installed phased, energy-efficiency retrofits in a sample of 56 existing, all-electric homes. End-use savings and economic evaluation results from the phased measure packages and single measures are summarized in this report. Project results will be of interest to utility program designers, weatherization evaluators, and the housing remodel industry. Shallow retrofits were conducted in all homes from March to June 2013. The measures for this phase were chosen based on ease of installation, targeting lighting (CFLs and LED lamps), domestic hot water (wraps and showerheads), refrigeration (cleaning of coils), pool pump (reduction of operating hours), and the home entertainment center (smart plugs). Deep retrofits were conducted on a subset of ten PDR homes from May 2013 through March 2014. Measures included new air source heat pumps, duct repair, ceiling insulation, heat pump water heaters, variable speed pool pumps and learning thermostats. Major appliances such as refrigerators and dishwashers were replaced where they were old and inefficient.

  4. Building America Case Study: Pilot Demonstration of Phased Energy Efficiency Retrofits: Shallow Retrofit Results, Central and South Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Parker, K. Sutherland, D. Chasar, J. Montemurno, B. Amos, J. Kono

    2017-02-01

    The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), in collaboration with Florida Power & Light (FPL), is pursuing a phased residential energy-efficiency retrofit program in Florida. Researchers are looking to establish the impacts of technologies of two retrofit packages -- shallow and deep -- on annual energy and peak energy reductions. Sixty homes have been instrumented to record total house power and detailed energy end-use data on all appliances as well as household interior temperature and relative humidity conditions.

  5. Building America Case Study: Pilot Demonstration of Phased Energy Efficiency Retrofits: Shallow Retrofit Results, Central and South Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-02-22

    The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), in collaboration with Florida Power & Light (FPL), is pursuing a phased residential energy-efficiency retrofit program in Florida. Researchers are looking to establish the impacts of technologies of two retrofit packages -- shallow and deep -- on annual energy and peak energy reductions. Sixty homes have been instrumented to record total house power and detailed energy end-use data on all appliances as well as household interior temperature and relative humidity conditions.

  6. Solar technology assessment project. Volume 3: Active space heating and hot water supply with solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaki, S.; Loef, G. O. G.

    1981-04-01

    Several types of solar water heaters are described and assessed. These include thermosiphon water heaters and pump circulation water heaters. Auxiliary water heating is briefly discussed, and new and retrofit systems are compared. Liquid-based space heating systems and solar air heaters are described and assessed, auxiliary space heating are discussed, and new and retrofit solar space heating systems are compared. The status of flat plate collectors, evacuated tube collectors, and thermal storage systems is examined. Systems improvements, reliability, durability and maintenance are discussed. The economic assessment of space and water heating systems includes a comparison of new systems costs with conventional fuels, and sales history and projections. The variety of participants in the solar industry and users of solar heat is discussed, and various incentives and barriers to solar heating are examined. Several policy implications are discussed, and specific government actions are recommended.

  7. Solar Energy Education. Industrial arts: teacher's guide. Field test edition. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    An instructional aid is presented which integrates the subject of solar energy into the classroom study of industrial arts. This guide for teachers was produced in addition to the student activities book for industrial arts by the USDOE Solar Energy Education. A glossary of solar energy terms is included. (BCS)

  8. Licensing arrangements and the development of the solar energy industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, M.

    1979-06-01

    The process by which technology and information related to technology are transferred within industry is explored. Property rights in technology are part of the broader field of intellectual property. The general contours of legal protection for knowledge are explored. The four basic forms of intellectual property - patents, trade secrets (or know-how), trademarks, and copyrights - are covered in varying degrees of depth, depending on their relative applicability to the development of the solar industry. Once this background has been established, the legal aspects of licensing are examined. A license is a legal arrangement whereby a party (licensor) who controls the right to use an idea, invention, etc. shares the right to use the particular intellectual property with someone else (licensee). The advantages and disadvantages of licensing are described from the point of view of potential licensees and licensors. Barriers to licensing are discussed.

  9. Competing in the Global Solar Photovoltaic Industry: The Case of Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Su

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The top five solar cell supply countries in the world in sequential order are China, Taiwan, the United States of America, Japan, and Germany. The capacity of Taiwanese solar cell production is ranked top two in the globe. The competitive advantage of the Taiwanese electronics firms has facilitated the rapid developments to its solar photovoltaic industry. The Taiwanese solar photovoltaic industry possesses a large size and a complete value chain of upstream, midstream, and downstream sectors. In this study, I analyzed the trends and developments of the solar photovoltaic industry in Taiwan and in the globe. And I also investigated the positioning and competitive advantage of Taiwanese firms in the value chain of the global solar photovoltaic industry. I found that Taiwanese firms continue to have an important and indispensable role in the global solar photovoltaic industry by either differentiation or cost advantage.

  10. Solar energy based industrial applications at the "Politehnica" University of Timisoara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminosu Ioan V.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A short overview of a more than 30 years long activity in industrial and home applications of solar energy at the "Politehnica" University of Timişoara, Romania is presented. A built "Solar House", an industrial system for preheating bitumen, a solution for waste water cleaning and an industrial hall for drying ceramic products are described. Some recent studies on solar concentrators are reported.

  11. Building Performance Simulation tools for planning of energy efficiency retrofits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mondrup, Thomas Fænø; Karlshøj, Jan; Vestergaard, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    Designing energy efficiency retrofits for existing buildings will bring environmental, economic, social, and health benefits. However, selecting specific retrofit strategies is complex and requires careful planning. In this study, we describe a methodology for adopting Building Performance...... to energy efficiency retrofits in social housing. To generate energy savings, we focus on optimizing the building envelope. We evaluate alternative building envelope actions using procedural solar radiation and daylight simulations. In addition, we identify the digital information flow and the information...... Simulation (BPS) tools as energy and environmentally conscious decision-making aids. The methodology has been developed to screen buildings for potential improvements and to support the development of retrofit strategies. We present a case study of a Danish renovation project, implementing BPS approaches...

  12. Multifamily Ventilation Retrofit Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, K. [Building Science Corporation (BSC), Somerville, MA (United States); Lstiburek, J. [Building Science Corporation (BSC), Somerville, MA (United States); Bergey, D. [Building Science Corporation (BSC), Somerville, MA (United States)

    2012-12-01

    In multifamily buildings, central ventilation systems often have poor performance, overventilating some portions of the building (causing excess energy use), while simultaneously underventilating other portions (causing diminished indoor air quality). BSC and Innova Services Corporation performed a series of field tests at a mid-rise test building undergoing a major energy audit and retrofit, which included ventilation system upgrades.

  13. Short-Term Test Results. Multifamily Home Energy Efficiency Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, James [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Multifamily deep energy retrofits (DERs) represent great potential for energy savings, while also providing valuable insights on research-generated efficiency measures, cost-effectiveness metrics, and risk factor strategies for the multifamily housing industry. This report describes the Bay Ridge project, a base scope retrofit with a goal of achieving 30% savings (relative to pre-retrofit), and a DER scope with a goal of 50% savings (relative to pre-retrofit). Findings from the short-term testing at Bay Ridge include air infiltration reductions of greater than 60% in the DER building; a hybrid heat pump system with a Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) > 1 (relative to a high efficiency furnace) which also provides the resident with added incentive for energy savings; and duct leakage reductions of > 60% using an aerosolized duct sealing approach.

  14. Short-Term Test Results. Multifamily Home Energy Efficiency Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, James [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Multifamily deep energy retrofits (DERs) represent great potential for energy savings, while also providing valuable insights on research-generated efficiency measures, cost-effectiveness metrics, and risk factor strategies for the multifamily housing industry. This report describes the Bay Ridge project, a base scope retrofit with a goal of achieving 30% savings (relative to pre-retrofit), and a DER scope with a goal of 50% savings (relative to pre-retrofit). Findings from the short-term testing at Bay Ridge include air infiltration reductions of greater than 60% in the DER building; a hybrid heat pump system with a Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) > 1 (relative to a high efficiency furnace) which also provides the resident with added incentive for energy savings; and duct leakage reductions of > 60% using an aerosolized duct sealing approach.

  15. 77 FR 13121 - Solar Energy Industries Association: Notice of Petition for Rulemaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Solar Energy Industries Association: Notice of Petition for Rulemaking Take notice that on February 16, 2012, Solar Energy Industries Association, pursuant to sections 205 and...

  16. Geothermal Energy Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachman, Gary

    2015-07-28

    The Cleary University Geothermal Energy Retrofit project involved: 1. A thermal conductivity test; 2. Assessment of alternative horizontal and vertical ground heat exchanger options; 3. System design; 4. Asphalt was stripped from adjacent parking areas and a vertical geothermal ground heat exchanger system installed; 5. the ground heat exchanger was connected to building; 6. a system including 18 heat pumps, control systems, a manifold and pumps, piping for fluid transfer and ductwork for conditioned air were installed throughout the building.

  17. Retrofit Best Practices Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stovall, T.K.

    2004-01-13

    Few people add siding or change their windows just to reduce their energy bills. But whatever your reasons for retrofitting your home, this will be an important opportunity to improve your home's energy efficiency. Not only will this reduce your utility bills, it will also improve your comfort level and improve our environment. Retrofitting your house is a big deal, and you shouldn't underestimate the effort that will be required to plan the job properly. The energy conservation rewards can be great, but there are also pitfalls that you'll want to avoid. That's what this Best Practices Guide is all about. We can't cover all the issues in these few pages, but we'll tell you some things you need to know if you're changing your siding or windows, and tell you where to learn more about other changes you may want to make to your house. What exactly is a ''best practice''? To put this guide together, we've tested products, talked to contractors and manufacturers, and reviewed the results from a large number of house retrofits. Of course, ''best'' will vary according to the situation. That's why you must start with a careful examination of your house and its existing condition.

  18. Evaluation of Retrofit Delivery Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, M.; Smith, P.; Porse, E.

    2013-07-01

    Residential energy retrofit activities are a critical component of efforts to increase energy efficiency in the U.S. building stock; however, retrofits account for a small percentage of aggregate energy savings at relatively high per unit costs. This report by Building America research team, Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), describes barriers to widespread retrofits and evaluates opportunities to improve delivery of home retrofit measures by identifying economies of scale in marketing, energy assessments, and bulk purchasing through pilot programs in portions of Sonoma, Los Angeles, and San Joaquin Counties, CA. These targeted communities show potential and have revealed key strategies for program design, as outlined in the report.

  19. Evaluation of Retrofit Delivery Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Berman, P. Smith, and E. Porse

    2013-07-01

    Residential energy retrofit activities are a critical component of efforts to increase energy efficiency in the U.S. building stock; however, retrofits account for a small percentage of aggregate energy savings at relatively high per unit costs. This report by Building America research team, Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), describes barriers to widespread retrofits and evaluates opportunities to improve delivery of home retrofit measures by identifying economies of scale in marketing, energy assessments, and bulk purchasing through pilot programs in portions of Sonoma, Los Angeles, and San Joaquin Counties, CA. These targeted communities show potential and have revealed key strategies for program design, as outlined in the report.

  20. Intelligent decision support system for home energy retrofit adoption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Duah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the well-established benefits of home energy retrofits (HER, its adoption has faced huge challenges. Though homeowners typically depend on energy practitioners for HER advice, previous work by the researchers has identified the inadequateness of such information as a barrier. Using an earlier developed information model, an energy retrofit intelligent decision support system (ERIDSS, that integrates expert knowledge with quantitative information to provide homeowners with accurate information for decision-making, was developed. This paper identifies the key components of the proposed ERIDSS, develops rules for relevant energy retrofit expert knowledge to be employed in the knowledge-based system of the proposed ERIDSS, develops the ERIDSS for decision-making for home energy retrofits, and demonstrates the application of the ERIDSS using a pilot system on two test homes. The quantitative information was obtained from published sources and the U.S. Department of Energy’s cost database, and the expert knowledge was obtained through the application of the modified Delphi technique and job shadowing of energy auditors and retrofit contractors. The research contributes to improving the adoption of energy retrofits by homeowners, assisting industry practitioners with the corroboration of knowledge/information they provide to homeowners in order to reduce homeowner bias, providing a good understanding of available implicit domain knowledge through the development of six knowledge-based modules, and the development of a system and approach that may be replicated in other domains.

  1. Retrofitting Systems for External Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    In this report, 9 different external and internal retrofitting systems are analyzed using numerical calculations. The analysis focuses on the thermal bridge effects in the different systems, and on this basis it is discussed whether internal or external retrofitting has the most advantages...

  2. A solar powered wireless computer mouse. Industrial design concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reich, N.H.; Van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Alsema, E.A.; Turkenburg, W.C. [Department of Science, Technology and Society, Copernicus Institute, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS Utrecht (Netherlands); Veefkind, M.; Silvester, S. [Industrial Design Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Landbergstraat 15, 2628 CE Delft (Netherlands)

    2009-02-15

    A solar powered wireless computer mouse (SPM) was chosen to serve as a case study for the evaluation and optimization of industrial design processes of photovoltaic (PV) powered consumer systems. As the design process requires expert knowledge in various technical fields, we assessed and compared the following: appropriate selection of integrated PV type, battery capacity and type, possible electronic circuitries for PV-battery coupling, and material properties concerning mechanical incorporation of PV into the encasing. Besides technical requirements, ergonomic aspects and design aesthetics with respect to good 'sun-harvesting' properties influenced the design process. This is particularly important as simulations show users can positively influence energy balances by 'sun-bathing' the PV mouse. A total of 15 SPM prototypes were manufactured and tested by actual users. Although user satisfaction proved the SPM concept to be feasible, future research still needs to address user acceptance related to product dimensions and user willingness to pro-actively 'sun-bath' PV powered products in greater detail. (author)

  3. Data Center Energy Retrofits

    OpenAIRE

    PervilÀ, Mikko

    2013-01-01

    Within the field of computer science, data centers (DCs) are a major consumer of energy. A large part of that energy is used for cooling down the exhaust heat of the servers contained in the DCs. This thesis describes both the aggregate numbers of DCs and key flagship installations in detail. We then introduce the concept of Data Center Energy Retrofits, a set of low cost, easy to install techniques that may be used by the majority of DCs for reducing their energy consumption. The main c...

  4. Solar Energy Education. Industrial arts: student activities. Field test edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-02-01

    In this teaching manual several activities are presented to introduce students to information on solar energy through classroom instruction. Wind power is also included. Instructions for constructing demonstration models for passive solar systems, photovoltaic cells, solar collectors and water heaters, and a bicycle wheel wind turbine are provided. (BCS)

  5. Pilot Demonstration of Phased Retrofits in Florida Homes (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-08-01

    The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) and Florida Power and Light are pursuing a collaborative energy research/utility partnership to retrofit a large number of homes using a phased approach. The project is creating detailed data on the energy and economic performance of two levels of home retrofit - simple and deep. Acting as a pilot, this project is expected to provide the information necessary to significantly reduce energy use through much larger community-scale projects in collaboration with utilities, program administrators and other market leader stakeholders.

  6. Prospects for the building of solar furnaces for industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Blanchetais, C.H. (CNRS, Groupe des Laboratoires de Bellevue, 92 - Meudon-Bellevue (France))

    1982-01-01

    After a brief summary of the interest of using solar energy, a review of the different kinds of devices is presented: solar furnaces, projects of solar plants of high power. The main characteristics of the 1,000 kw Odeillo solar furnace are reviewed. For the concentrator a project of device derived from the paraboloide is presented and studied with details. For the field of orientators a preliminary study of the energy to the minor in the solar layer reflected by a plane orientator of the finite dimensions shows that it is possible to consider the possibility of reduction of the heliostat field.

  7. Strengthening Building Retrofit Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Templeton, Mary [Michigan Saves; Jackson, Robert [Michigan Energy Office

    2014-04-15

    The Business Energy Financing (BEF) program offered commercial businesses in Michigan affordable financing options and other incentives designed to support energy efficiency improvements. We worked through partnerships with Michigan utilities, lenders, building contractors, trade associations, and other community organizations to offer competitive interest rates and flexible financing terms to support energy efficiency projects that otherwise would not have happened. The BEF program targeted the retail food market, including restaurants, grocery stores, convenience stores, and wholesale food vendors, with the goal of achieving energy efficiency retrofits for 2 percent of the target market. We offered low interest rates, flexible payments, easy applications and approval processes, and access to other incentives and rebates. Through these efforts, we sought to help customers strive for energy savings retrofits that would save 20 percent or more on their energy use. This program helped Michigan businesses reduce costs by financing energy efficient lighting, heating and cooling systems, insulation, refrigeration, equipment upgrades, and more. Businesses completed the upgrades with the help of our authorized contractors, and, through our lending partners, we provided affordable financing options.

  8. Prospects for conversion of solar energy into chemical fuels: the concept of a solar fuels industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harriman, Anthony

    2013-08-13

    There is, at present, no solar fuels industry anywhere in the world despite the well-publicized needs to replace our depleting stock of fossil fuels with renewable energy sources. Many obstacles have to be overcome in order to store sunlight in the form of chemical potential, and there are severe barriers to surmount in order to produce energy on a massive scale, at a modest price and in a convenient form. It is also essential to allow for the intermittent nature of sunlight, its diffusiveness and variability and to cope with the obvious need to use large surface areas for light collection. Nonetheless, we have no alternative but to devise viable strategies for storage of sunlight as biomass or chemical feedstock. Simple alternatives, such as solar heating, are attractive in terms of quick demonstrations but are not the answer. Photo-electrochemical devices might serve as the necessary machinery by which to generate electronic charge but the main problem is to couple these charges to the multi-electron catalysis needed to drive energy-storing chemical reactions. Several potential fuels (CO, H₂, HCOOH, NH₃, O₂, speciality organics, etc.) are possible, but the photochemical reduction of CO₂ deserves particular mention because of ever-growing concerns about overproduction of greenhouse gases. The prospects for achieving these reactions under ambient conditions are considered herein.

  9. Examination of low energy retrofit measures in European office buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kofoed, N.U.

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes the methodology used in the Design and Evaluation Group in the project 'OFFICE - Passive Retrofitting of Office Buildings to Improve their Energy Performance and Indoor Working Conditions' funded by the European Commission under the JOULE III Programme. The objectives of the OFFICE project are to promote passive solar and energy efficient retrofitting measures in terms of energy, indoor environment and economy and based on this develop global retrofitting strategies and design guidelines. Ten European office buildings are included in the project situated respectively in England, France, Greece, Italy, Norway, Denmark, Sweden, Germany and Switzerland. To exemplify the type of results and analysis produced in the project, selected results from the Danish and Greek case study buildings are presented. (au)

  10. Candidate thermal energy storage technologies for solar industrial process heat applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, E. R.

    1979-01-01

    A number of candidate thermal energy storage system elements were identified as having the potential for the successful application of solar industrial process heat. These elements which include storage media, containment and heat exchange are shown.

  11. Solar Data and Tools: Resources for Researchers, Industry, and Developers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-04-01

    In partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has created a suite of analytical tools and data that can inform decisions about implementing solar and that are increasingly forming the basis of private-sector tools and services to solar consumers. The following solar energy data sets and analytical tools are available free to the public.

  12. Recent National Solar Thermal Test Facility activities, in partnership with industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, Cherly; Cameron, Christopher P.; Ralph, Mark E.; Pacheco, James E.; Rawlinson, K. Scott; Evans, Lindsey R.

    The National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF) at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA conducts testing of solar thermal components and systems, funded primarily by the US Department of Energy. Activities are conducted in support of Central Receiver Technology, Distributed Receiver Technology and Design Assistance projects. All activities are performed in support of various cost-shared government/industry joint ventures and, on a design assistance basis, in support of a number of other industry partners.

  13. Recent National Solar Thermal Test Facility activities, in partnership with industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghanbari, C.; Cameron, C.P.; Ralph, M.E.; Pacheco, J.E.; Rawlinson, K.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Evans, L.R. [Ewing Technical Design, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-10-01

    The National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF) at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA conducts testing of solar thermal components and systems, funded primarily by the US Department of Energy. Activities are conducted in support of Central Receiver Technology, Distributed Receiver Technology and Design Assistance projects. All activities are performed in support of various cost-shared government/industry joint ventures and, on a design assistance basis, in support of a number of other industry partners.

  14. 77 FR 36532 - Review of Small Generator Interconnection Agreements and Procedures; Solar Energy Industries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ...-001; ER12-1855-000] Review of Small Generator Interconnection Agreements and Procedures; Solar Energy... discuss issues related to a petition for rulemaking recently submitted by the Solar Energy Industries... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY...

  15. Potential for solar industrial process heat in the United States: A look at California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurup, Parthiv; Turchi, Craig

    2016-05-01

    The use of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) collectors (e.g., parabolic trough or linear Fresnel systems) for industrial thermal applications has been increasing in global interest in the last few years. In particular, the European Union has been tracking the deployment of Solar Industrial Process Heat (SIPH) plants. Although relatively few plants have been deployed in the United States (U.S.), we establish that 29% of primary energy consumption in the U.S. manufacturing sector is used for process heating. Perhaps the best opportunities for SIPH reside in the state of California due to its excellent solar resource, strong industrial base, and solar-friendly policies. This initial analysis identified 48 TWhth/year of process heat demand in certain California industries versus a technical solar-thermal energy potential of 23,000 TWhth/year. The top five users of industrial steam in the state are highlighted and special attention paid to the food sector that has been an early adopter of SIPH in other countries. A comparison of the cost of heat from solar-thermal collectors versus the cost of industrial natural gas in California indicates that SIPH may be cost effective even under the relatively low gas prices seen in 2014. A recommended next step is the identification of pilot project candidates to promote the deployment of SIPH facilities.

  16. Potential for Solar Industrial Process Heat in the United States: A Look at California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurup, Parthiv; Turchi, Craig

    2016-05-31

    The use of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) collectors (e.g., parabolic trough or linear Fresnel systems) for industrial thermal applications has been increasing in global interest in the last few years. In particular, the European Union has been tracking the deployment of Solar Industrial Process Heat (SIPH) plants. Although relatively few plants have been deployed in the United States (U.S.), we establish that 29% of primary energy consumption in the U.S. manufacturing sector is used for process heating. Perhaps the best opportunities for SIPH reside in the state of California due to its excellent solar resource, strong industrial base, and solar-friendly policies. This initial analysis identified 48 TWhth/year of process heat demand in certain California industries versus a technical solar-thermal energy potential of 23,000 TWhth/year. The top five users of industrial steam in the state are highlighted and special attention paid to the food sector that has been an early adopter of SIPH in other countries. A comparison of the cost of heat from solar-thermal collectors versus the cost of industrial natural gas in California indicates that SIPH may be cost effective even under the relatively low gas prices seen in 2014. A recommended next step is the identification of pilot project candidates to promote the deployment of SIPH facilities.

  17. Expert Meeting Report: Retrofit Implementation - A Neighborhood at a Time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, D.

    2012-04-01

    This report provides information about a Building America expert meeting hosted by research team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings on October 25, 2011, in New York City. The meeting discussed several community residential retrofit projects underway across the United States, and included representatives from utilities, energy program implementation firms, affordable housing agencies, and the financing industry.

  18. Expert Meeting Report: Retrofit Implementation - A Neighborhood at a Time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, Dianne [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2012-04-01

    This report provides information about a Building America expert meeting hosted by research team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) on October 25, 2011, in New York City. The meeting discussed several community residential retrofit projects underway across the United States, and included representatives from utilities, energy program implementation firms, affordable housing agencies, and the financing industry.

  19. The reHABITAT Guide: For Energy- and Resource-Efficient Retrofit Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-07-01

    This guide seeks to advance the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Existing Residential Buildings Program (ERBP): to develop approaches that will enable the housing retrofit industry to deliver energy-efficient housing improvements.

  20. Industrial n-type solar cells with >20% cell efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romijn, I.G.; Anker, J.; Burgers, A.R.; Gutjahr, A.; Koppes, M.; Kossen, E.J.; Lamers, M.W.P.E.; Heurtault, Benoit; Saynova-Oosterling, D.S.; Tool, C.J.J. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-03-15

    To realize high efficiencies at low costs, ECN has developed the n-Pasha solar cell concept. The n-Pasha cell concept is a bifacial solar cell concept on n-Cz base material, with which average efficiencies of above 20% have been demonstrated. In this paper recent developments at ECN to improve the cost of ownership (lower Euro/Wp) of the n-Pasha cell concept are discussed. Two main drivers for the manufacturing costs of n-type solar cells are addressed: the n-type Cz silicon material and the silver consumption. We show that a large resistivity range between 2 and 8 cm can be tolerated for high cell efficiency, and that the costs due to the silver metallization can be significantly reduced while increasing the solar cell efficiency. Combining the improved efficiency and cost reduction makes the n-Pasha cell concept a very cost effective solution to manufacture high efficient solar cells and modules.

  1. Advancing Residential Retrofits in Atlanta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Roderick K [ORNL; Kim, Eyu-Jin [Southface Energy Institute; Roberts, Sydney [Southface Energy Institute; Stephenson, Robert [Southface Energy Institute

    2012-07-01

    This report will summarize the home energy improvements performed in the Atlanta, GA area. In total, nine homes were retrofitted with eight of the homes having predicted source energy savings of approximately 30% or greater based on simulated energy consumption.

  2. Retrofitting a 1960s Split-Level, Cold-Climate Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puttagunta, Srikanth [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2015-07-01

    National programs such as Home Performance with ENERGY STAR® and numerous other utility air sealing programs have brought awareness to homeowners of the benefits of energy efficiency retrofits. Yet, these programs tend to focus on the low-hanging fruit: air-sealing the thermal envelope and ductwork where accessible, switch to efficient lighting, and low-flow fixtures. At the other end of the spectrum, deep-energy retrofit programs are also being encouraged by various utilities across the country. While deep energy retrofits typically seek 50% energy savings, they are often quite costly and most applicable to gut-rehab projects. A significant potential for lowering energy usage in existing homes lies between the low hanging fruit and deep energy retrofit approaches - retrofits that save approximately 30% in energy over the existing conditions. A key is to be non-intrusive with the efficiency measures so the retrofit projects can be accomplished in occupied homes. This cold climate retrofit project involved the design and optimization of a home in Connecticut that sought to improve energy savings by at least 30% (excluding solar PV) over the existing home's performance. This report documents the successful implementation of a cost-effective solution package that achieved performance greater than 30% over the pre-retrofit - what worked, what did not, and what improvements could be made.

  3. Design approaches for solar industrial process-heat systems: nontracking and line-focus collector technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutscher, C.F.; Davenport, R.L.; Dougherty, D.A.; Gee, R.C.; Masterson, P.M.; May, E.K.

    1982-08-01

    The design methodology for solar industrial process heat systems is described, and an overview is given of the use of solar energy in industry. A way to determine whether solar energy makes sense for a particular application is described. The basic system configurations used to supply hot water or steam are discussed, and computer-generated graphs are supplied that allow the user to select a collector type. Detailed energy calculations are provided, including the effects of thermal losses and storage. The selection of subsystem components is described, and control systems, installation and start-up details, economics, and safety and environmental issues are explained. (LEW)

  4. Short-Term Test Results: Multifamily Home Energy Efficiency Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, J.

    2013-01-01

    Multifamily deep energy retrofits (DERs) represent great potential for energy savings, while also providing valuable insights on research-generated efficiency measures, cost-effectiveness metrics, and risk factor strategies for the multifamily housing industry. The Bay Ridge project is comprised of a base scope retrofit with a goal of achieving 30% savings (relative to pre-retrofit), and a DER scope with a goal of 50% savings (relative to pre-retrofit). The base scope has been applied to the entire complex, except for one 12-unit building which underwent the DER scope. Findings from the implementation, commissioning, and short-term testing at Bay Ridge include air infiltration reductions of greater than 60% in the DER building; a hybrid heat pump system with a Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) > 1 (relative to a high efficiency furnace) which also provides the resident with added incentive for energy savings; and duct leakage reductions of > 60% using an aerosolized duct sealing approach. Despite being a moderate rehab instead of a gut rehab, the Bay Ridge DER is currently projected to achieve energy savings ≥ 50% compared to pre-retrofit, and the short-term testing supports this estimate.

  5. Short-Term Test Results: Multifamily Home Energy Efficiency Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, J.

    2013-01-01

    Multifamily deep energy retrofits (DERs) represent great potential for energy savings, while also providing valuable insights on research-generated efficiency measures, cost-effectiveness metrics, and risk factor strategies for the multifamily housing industry. The Bay Ridge project is comprised of a base scope retrofit with a goal of achieving 30% savings (relative to pre-retrofit), and a DER scope with a goal of 50% savings (relative to pre-retrofit). The base scope has been applied to the entire complex, except for one 12-unit building which underwent the DER scope. Findings from the implementation, commissioning, and short-term testing at Bay Ridge include air infiltration reductions of greater than 60% in the DER building; a hybrid heat pump system with a Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) > 1 (relative to a high efficiency furnace) which also provides the resident with added incentive for energy savings; and duct leakage reductions of > 60% using an aerosolized duct sealing approach. Despite being a moderate rehab instead of a gut rehab, the Bay Ridge DER is currently projected to achieve energy savings ≥ 50% compared to pre-retrofit, and the short-term testing supports this estimate.

  6. Feasibility of solar technology (photovoltaic) adoption. A case study on Tennessee's poultry industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazen, Ernest F.; Brown, Matthew A. [University of Tennessee, Department of Agricultural Economics, 2621 Morgan Circle, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States)

    2009-03-15

    The advantages and limitations of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems for energy generation are reviewed under various physical efficiency limits and financial assistance programs. Recent increases in utility and fuel costs in poultry production as well as public awareness of and demand for green power or renewable energy sources have given renewed interest in alternative energy sources. This study seeks to investigate the impact of alternative energy programs, grants and other incentives on the feasibility of solar PV systems in several solar regions within Tennessee's poultry industry. Preliminary results show that incentives exceeding current levels before adoption of solar PV systems would be financially beneficial. (author)

  7. Solar Photovoltaic Economic Development: Building and Growing a Local PV Industry, August 2011 (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-08-01

    The U.S. photovoltaic (PV) industry is forecast to grow, and it represents an opportunity for economic development and job creation in communities throughout the United States. This report helps U.S. cities evaluate economic opportunities in the PV industry. It serves as a guide for local economic development offices in evaluating their community?s competitiveness in the solar PV industry, assessing the viability of solar PV development goals, and developing strategies for recruiting and retaining PV companies to their areas.

  8. Recent Progress in TiO2-Mediated Solar Photocatalysis for Industrial Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current paper reviews the application of TiO2-mediated solar photocatalysis for industrial wastewater treatment, starting with a brief introduction on the background of industrial wastewater and the development of wastewater treatment processes, especially advanced oxidation processes (AOPs. We, then, discuss the application of solar TiO2 photocatalysis in treating different kinds of industrial wastewater, such as paper mill wastewater, textile wastewater, and olive mill wastewater. In the end, we compare solar TiO2 photocatalysis with other AOPs in terms of effectiveness, energy, and chemical consumption. Personal perspectives are also given, which may provide new insights to the future development of TiO2 photocatalysis for industrial wastewater.

  9. Feasibility study of utilizing solar furnace technology in steel making industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbaspoursani, K. [The Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Takestan Islamic Azad University (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], Email: a.abbaspour@tiau.ac.ir; Tofigh, A.A.; Nahang Toudeshki, S.; Hadadian, A. [Department of Energy, Materials and Energy Research Center (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], Email: Ali.A.Tofigh@gmail.com, email: toudeshki@hotmail.com, email: Arash.Hadadian@gmail.com; Farahmandpour, B. [Iranian Fuel Conservation company (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], Email: farahmandpour@gmail.com

    2011-07-01

    In Iran, the casting industry consumes 33.6% of electricity production, and most of this electricity is used in the melting process. Currently, scrap preheating is done using electric arc furnaces and the aim of this study is to assess the feasibility of replacing electric arc furnaces with solar furnaces. The performance of solar furnaces in the Iran Alloy Steel Company under Yazd climate conditions was studied. It was found that the solar irradiation time and solar insulation are sufficient to operate a solar furnace with the capacity to preheat 250 thousand tons per year of scrap to 500 degrees celsius. Results showed that such a furnace would decrease energy consumption by 40 GWh per year and that it would take 5 years to return the investment. This study demonstrated that operating a solar furnace in the Iran Alloy Steel Company under Yazd climate conditions is feasible and would result in economic and environmental benefits.

  10. Requirements of Integrated Design Teams While Evaluating Advanced Energy Retrofit Design Options in Immersive Virtual Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the significant ways to save energy use in buildings is to implement advanced energy retrofits in existing buildings. Improving energy performance of buildings through advanced energy retrofitting requires a clear understanding of the cost and energy implications of design alternatives from various engineering disciplines when different retrofit options are considered. The communication of retrofit design alternatives and their energy implications is essential in the decision-making process, as it affects the final retrofit selections and hence the energy efficiency of the retrofitted buildings. The objective of the research presented here was to identify a generic list of information requirements that are needed to be shared and collectively analyzed by integrated design teams during advanced energy retrofit design review meetings held in immersive settings. While identifying such requirements, the authors used an immersive environment based iterative requirements elicitation approach. The technology was used as a means to better identify the information requirements of integrated design teams to be analyzed as a group. This paper provides findings on information requirements of integrated design teams when evaluating retrofit options in immersive virtual environments. The information requirements were identified through interactions with sixteen experts in design and energy modeling domain, and validated with another group of participants consisting of six design experts who were experienced in integrated design processes. Industry practitioners can use the findings in deciding on what information to share with integrated design team members during design review meetings that utilize immersive virtual environments.

  11. Solar thermal application for the livestock industry in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Mei Liu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Solar water heating systems have proven reliable and economical. In Taiwan, the cumulative area of installed solar collectors at the end of 2014 was approximately 2.39 million m2 and approximately 98% of those systems were installed in the domestic sector. Preheating water for livestock processing plants is cost-effective since heated water can be used for evisceration, sanitation during processing and for daily cleanup of plant. In this case study, detailed measurements are reported for parallel combined solar thermal and heat pump systems that are installed in a livestock processing plant. These results confirm that the hot water consumption, the mass flow rate and the operation of circulation and heat pumps affect the system's thermal efficiency. The combined operational effect is a factor in system design. The estimated payback period is less than the expected service period of the system, which validates the financial viability.

  12. Bates solar industrial process-steam application: preliminary design review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-07

    The design is analyzed for a parabolic trough solar process heat system for a cardboard corrugation fabrication facility in Texas. The program is briefly reviewed, including an analysis of the plant and process. The performance modeling for the system is discussed, and the solar system structural design, collector subsystem, heat transport and distribution subsystem are analyzed. The selection of the heat transfer fluid, and ullage and fluid maintenance are discussed, and the master control system and data acquisition system are described. Testing of environmental degradation of materials is briefly discussed. A brief preliminary cost analysis is included. (LEW)

  13. The New Solar System: China’s Evolving Solar Industry and Its Implications for Competitive Solar Power in the United States and the World

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, Jeffrey [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Reicher, Dan [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Sun, Xiaojing [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Pollock, Caitlin [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2017-03-08

    Solar power is undergoing a revolution. Over the past decade, an energy source as old as the planet and theoretically all but limitless has plummeted in cost and begun in some places to be harnessed in large volume. This dynamic is disrupting the modern energy system and, as energy disruptions always do, rattling the geopolitical order. In the process, the industry that produces the equipment to convert sunlight into electricity is simultaneously reeling, consolidating, and surging. These twin transformations—one of the global energy system, one of the global solar industry—carry profound implications for national economies and for the planet. At the center of both transformations sits China. The New Solar System illuminates key and little- understood changes that are remaking the solar enterprise—in China and thus in the world. Based on this analysis, it recommends changes in U.S. solar policy—particularly timely with a new U.S. administration and Congress—that would put solar power on a more economically sensible path toward environmentally significant growth. The New Solar System does not seek to enable any country to beat another in the global solar industry. It seeks instead to help all countries find their most effective places. By better understanding and playing to their comparative strengths in the solar business, countries would achieve two key objectives. They would reduce the cost for the world of scaling up solar power. And they would be better positioned to fashion policies that maximized the long-term benefit to their own economies from solar’s global growth.

  14. Green Retrofitting Skyscrapers: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheir Al-Kodmany

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates innovative trends, practices and goals of tall building retrofits while illustrating green design techniques and implementation strategies. The existing building stock is substantially large and represents one of the biggest opportunities to reduce energy waste and curb air pollution and global warming. In terms of tall buildings, many will benefit from retrofits. There are long lists of inefficient all-glass curtain walls, initially promoted by the modernist movement, that are due to retrofit. The all-glass curtain wall buildings rely on artificial ventilation, cooling and heating, and suffer from poor insulation, which collectively make them energy hogs. Recent practices indicate that green retrofit has helped older buildings to increase energy efficiency, optimize building performance, increase tenants’ satisfaction and boost economic return while reducing greenhouse gas emission. As such, renovating older buildings could be “greener” than destroying them and rebuilding new ones. While some demolition and replacement may remain a necessity to meet contemporary needs, there are significant opportunities to reduce carbon emission and improve existing buildings’ performance by retrofitting them rather than constructing new ones. Practical insight indicates that the confluence of economic and environmental goals is increasingly at the heart of sustainable planning and design.

  15. Strategy Guideline. Mitigation of Retrofit Risk Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Smith, P. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Porse, E. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) Building America team is currently developing strategies designed to promote and achieve increased energy savings and promote upgrades in the residential retrofit sector. These strategies are targeted to retrofit program managers, retrofit contractors, policy makers, academic researchers, and non-governmental organizations. This report focuses on four key areas to promote home energy upgrades: fostering accurate energy savings projections; understanding consumer perceptions for energy savings; measuring energy savings, and ensuring quality control for retrofit installations.

  16. Strategy Guideline: Mitigation of Retrofit Risk Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, M.; Smith, P.; Porse, E.

    2012-12-01

    The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) is currently developing strategies designed to promote and achieve increased energy savings and promote upgrades in the residential retrofit sector. These strategies are targeted to retrofit program managers, retrofit contractors, policy makers, academic researchers, and non-governmental organizations. This report focuses on four key areas to promote home energy upgrades: fostering accurate energy savings projections; understanding consumer perceptions for energy savings; measuring energy savings, and ensuring quality control for retrofit installations.

  17. Using Composites in Seismic Retrofit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    composite shells/wraps/ jackets for the seismic retrofit of concrete columns, a number of these could potentially be used, and these are briefly discussed...Use of Concrete and Steel Jackets for Seismic Retrofit For reinforced concrete columns with these substandard reinforcement details, retrofit systems...an overview of the variations possible for the application of FRP composite jackets for purposes of seismic retrofit of columns. Wherever possible

  18. Constructing Employability Indicators for Enhancing the Effectiveness of Engineering Education for the Solar Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Guo Kuo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to establish a set of employability indicators that capture the competency requirements and performance expectations that solar energy enterprises have of their employees. In the qualitative component of the study, 12 administrators and 32 engineers in the industry were interviewed, and meetings with focus groups were conducted to formulate a questionnaire for a survey of Taiwanese solar energy companies for the confirmation and prioritisation of the employability indicators. On the basis of the results of the quantitative component, an interpretational model relating competence, job performance, working attitude, and employability for solar corporation recruitment and training purposes as well as for school curricular development was developed. The interpretation model formulated effectively interprets the relationship between solar enterprises’ expectations and students’ employability. The research contributes a framework for the selection and cultivation of talent, as well as providing a basis for fundamental development of the solar engineering curriculum.

  19. Macroeconomic impact of the Solar Thermal Electricity Industry in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-10-15

    In the last three years, Solar Thermal Electricity (STE) in Spain has grown significantly. Its weight within the renewables mix is becoming relevant, and even more so, its impact on economics, society, the environment, and reducing energy dependence. This report was carried out by Deloitte for Protermosolar to quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate the main macroeconomic variables derived from the development of this technology in Spain from 2008 to 2010, and forecast its possible future impact.

  20. Bifacial aspects of industrial n-Pasha solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Aken, Bas B.; Tool, Kees; Kossen, Eric J.; Carr, Anna J.; Janssen, Gaby J. M.; Newman, Bonna K.; Romijn, Ingrid G.

    2017-08-01

    Bifacial photovoltaic (PV) modules make optimal use of diffuse and ground-reflected light. The gain in energy yield depends on both the local climatic conditions and the PV system layout. These determine the additional irradiance on the rear of the PV panels. The rear response of the (laminated) solar cell(s) determines how much additional energy this rear irradiance generates. Based on our experiments and simulations, the main parameters that determine the bifaciality factor of solar cells with a front side junction are the rear metal coverage, the base resistivity and the diffusion profile on the rear. These will be evaluated and discussed in this paper. Front-junction solar cells with low base resistivity have a lower short circuit current when illuminated from the rear due to enhanced recombination in the BSF. Stencil printed rear metallization yields a higher bifaciality factor compared to screen printed by reducing the metal coverage and consumption and maintaining the front side efficiency. For our optimized 239 cm2 bifacial cell we estimate that the output with 20% contributed by the rear side is equivalent to that of a 24.4% efficient monofacial cell.

  1. Retrofitting of existing housing stock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unterrainer, Walter

    2015-01-01

    The paper is a case study in retrofitting an urban quarter with social housing of the 1950´s and 1960´s - a model project in Amberg/Germany. It documents and discusses applied ´acupuncture´ and innovative strategies on very different scales as well as on different layers, in order to meet the goal...... of a sustainable retrofitting project in a holistic sense: This included cultural, social, environmental and economic sustainability. The first phase of the project is built and the process included a high level of user participation. The project is an example of integral design from competition level...

  2. Building Professional Competencies Indices in the Solar Energy Industry for the Engineering Education Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Guo Kuo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop professional competency indices and their subindices as needed by the solar energy industry, to establish a basis for development of the engineering education curriculum. The methodologies adopted by the study are literature analysis, expert advisories, and focus groups. The study focuses on the establishment of competency indices by experts at stock market-listed companies and then confirms these competencies with focus groups. The study found that the competencies required by the solar industry consist of knowledge, skills, and attitudes in the areas of materials development and applications, photovoltaic technology, cell manufacturing technology, biotechnology, chemical technology, power generation and electricity, process development and improvement, data collection and analysis, industry regulation, green energy beliefs, and working attitudes and values. The results of this study can be used as the basis for the cultivation, selection, and employment of industry professionals.

  3. Multifamily Retrofit Project Manager Job/Task Analysis and Report: September 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, C. M.

    2013-09-01

    The development of job/task analyses (JTAs) is one of three components of the Guidelines for Home Energy Professionals project and will allow industry to develop training resources, quality assurance protocols, accredited training programs, and professional certifications. The Multifamily Retrofit Project Manager JTA identifies and catalogs all of the tasks performed by multifamily retrofit project managers, as well as the knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) needed to perform the identified tasks.

  4. Trial Demonstration of Area Lighting Retrofit: Yuma Border Patrol, Yuma Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkerson, Andrea M.; McCullough, Jeffrey J.

    2014-12-30

    The Yuma Sector Border Patrol Area is a high flux lighting application in a high temperature environment, presenting a formidable challenge for light-emitting diodes (LEDs). This retrofit is an Energy Savings Performance Contract ENABLE project under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program. If high flux LED technology performs well in a region with high ambient temperature and solar radiation, it can perform well in most outdoor environments. The design process for the Yuma retrofit has already provided valuable knowledge to CBP and DOE. The LED lighting system selected for the retrofit is expected to reduce energy consumption 69% compared to the incumbent quartz metal halide (QMH) lighting system. If the LED lighting system is installed, GATEWAY will continue to document and disseminate information regarding the installation and long-term performance so that others may also gain valuable knowledge from the Yuma Sector Border Patrol Area lighting retrofit.

  5. Trial Demonstration of Area Lighting Retrofit: Yuma Border Patrol, Yuma Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkerson, Andrea M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McCullough, Jeffrey J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The Yuma Sector Border Patrol Area is a high flux lighting application in a high temperature environment, presenting a formidable challenge for light-emitting diodes (LEDs). This retrofit is an Energy Savings Performance Contract ENABLE project under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program. If high flux LED technology performs well in a region with high ambient temperature and solar radiation, it can perform well in most outdoor environments. The design process for the Yuma retrofit has already provided valuable knowledge to CBP and DOE. The LED lighting system selected for the retrofit is expected to reduce energy consumption 69% compared to the incumbent quartz metal halide (QMH) lighting system. If the LED lighting system is installed, GATEWAY will continue to document and disseminate information regarding the installation and long-term performance so that others may also gain valuable knowledge from the Yuma Sector Border Patrol Area lighting retrofit.

  6. Retrofitting Masonry Walls with Carbon Mesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Bischof

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Static-cyclic shear load tests and tensile tests on retrofitted masonry walls were conducted at UAS Fribourg for an evaluation of the newly developed retrofitting system, the S&P ARMO-System. This retrofitting system consists of a composite of carbon mesh embedded in a specially adapted high quality spray mortar. It can be applied with established construction techniques using traditional construction materials. The experimental study has shown that masonry walls reinforced by this retrofitting system reach a similar strength and a higher ductility than retrofits by means of bonded carbon fiber reinforced polymer sheets. Hence, the retrofitting system using carbon fiber meshes embedded in a high quality mortar constitutes a good option for static or seismic retrofits or reinforcements for masonry walls. However, the experimental studies also revealed that the mechanical anchorage of carbon mesh may be delicate depending on its design.

  7. Solar feasibility study for site-specific industrial-process-heat applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, O.L.

    1980-03-18

    This study addresses the technical feasibility of solar energy in industrial process heat (IPH) applications in Mid-America. The study was one of two contracted efforts covering the MASEC 12-state region comprised of: Illinois, Michigan, North Dakota, Indiana, Minnesota, Ohio, Iowa, Missouri, South Dakota, Kansas, Nebraska, Wisconsin. The results of our study are encouraging to the potential future role of solar energy in supplying process heat to a varied range of industries and applications. We identified and developed Case Study documentation of twenty feasible solar IPH applications covering eight major SIC groups within the Mid-American region. The geographical distribution of these applications for the existing range of solar insolation levels are shown and the characteristics of the applications are summarized. The results of the study include process identification, analysis of process heat requirements, selection of preliminary solar system characteristics, and estimation of system performance and cost. These are included in each of the 20 Case Studies. The body of the report is divided into two primary discussion sections dealing with the Study Methodology employed in the effort and the Follow-On Potential of the identified applications with regard to possible demonstration projects. The 20 applications are rated with respect to their relative overall viability and procedures are discussed for possible demonstration project embarkment. Also, a possible extension of this present feasibility study for late-comer industrial firms expressing interest appears worthy of consideration.

  8. Sunnyvale Marine Climate Deep Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Siddiqui, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Dakin, B. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) and Allen Gilliland of One Sky Homes collaborated on a marine climate retrofit project designed to meet both Passive House (PH) and Building America program standards. The scope included sealing, installing wall, roof and floor insulation (previously lacking), replacing windows, upgrading the heating and cooling system, and installing mechanical ventilation.

  9. Sunnyvale Marine Climate Deep Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, A.; Siddiqui, A.; Dakin, B.

    2014-11-01

    The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) and Allen Gilliland of One Sky Homes collaborated on a marine climate retrofit project designed to meet both Passive House (PH) and Building America (BA) program standards. The scope included sealing, installing wall, roof and floor insulation (previously lacking), replacing windows, upgrading the heating and cooling system, and installing.

  10. Retrofitting of existing housing stock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unterrainer, Walter

    2015-01-01

    The paper is a case study in retrofitting an urban quarter with social housing of the 1950´s and 1960´s - a model project in Amberg/Germany. It documents and discusses applied ´acupuncture´ and innovative strategies on very different scales as well as on different layers, in order to meet the goal...

  11. Retrofitting of existing housing stock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unterrainer, Walter

    2015-01-01

    The paper is a case study in retrofitting an urban quarter with social housing of the 1950´s and 1960´s - a model project in Amberg/Germany. It documents and discusses applied ´acupuncture´ and innovative strategies on very different scales as well as on different layers, in order to meet the goa...

  12. Summary of some feasibility studies for site-specific solar industrial process heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    Some feasibility studies for several different site specific solar industrial process heat applications are summarized. The followng applications are examined. Leather Tanning; Concrete Production: Lumber and Paper Processing; Milk Processing; Molding, Curing or Drying; Automobile Manufacture; and Food Processing and Preparation. For each application, site and process data, system design, and performance and cost estimates are summarized.

  13. Plasma texturing on large-area industrial grade CZ silicon solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Nordseth, Ørnulf; Boisen, Anja

    2013-01-01

    We report on an experimental study of nanostructuring of silicon solar cells using reactive ion etching (RIE). A simple mask-less, scalable RIE nanostructuring of the solar cell surface is shown to reduce the AM1.5-weighted average reflectance to a level below 1 % in a fully optimized RIE texturing......-mono-crystalline Si. The process was successfully integrated in fabrication of solar cells using only industry standard processes on a Czochralski (CZ) silicon starting material. The resulting cell performance was compared to cells with conventional texturing. For cells, where the nanostructuring was not fully......, and thus holds a significant potential for improvement of the cell performance compared to current industrial standards. The reflectance is shown to remain below that of conventional textured cells also at high angle of incidence. The process is shown to be equally applicable to mono-, multi- and quasi...

  14. Life-Cycle Assessment of Seismic Retrofit Strategies Applied to Existing Building Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Vitiello

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, the renovation and refurbishment of existing buildings have become the main activities of the construction industry. In particular, many studies have recently focused on the mechanical and energy performances of existing retrofitted/refurbished facilities, while some research has addressed the environmental effects of such operations. The present study aims to assess the environmental impact of some retrofit interventions on an existing reinforced concrete (RC building. Once the structural requirements have been satisfied and the environmental effects of these retrofit solutions defined, the final purpose of this study is to identify the most environmentally sustainable retrofit strategy. The environmental impact of the structural retrofit options is assessed using a life-cycle assessment (LCA. This paper sets out a systematic approach that can be adopted when choosing the best structural retrofit option in terms of sustainability performance. The final aim of the study is to also provide a tool for researchers and practitioners that reflects a deep understanding of the sustainability aspects of retrofit operations and can be used for future researches or practical activities.

  15. Comparison of conventional and solar-water-heating products and industries report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noreen, D; LeChevalier, R; Choi, M; Morehouse, J

    1980-07-11

    President Carter established a goal that would require installation of at least one million solar water heaters by 1985 and 20 million water-heating systems by the year 2000. The goals established require that the solar industry be sufficiently mature to provide cost-effective, reliable designs in the immediate future. The objective of this study was to provide the Department of Energy with quantified data that can be used to assess and redirect, if necessary, the program plans to assure compliance with the President's goals. Results deal with the product, the industry, the market, and the consumer. All issues are examined in the framework of the conventional-hot-water industry. Based on the results of this solar hot water assessment study, there is documented proof that the solar industry is blessed with over 20 good solar hot water systems. A total of eight generic types are currently being produced, but a majority of the systems being sold are included in only five generic types. The good systems are well-packaged for quality, performance and installation ease. These leading systems are sized and designed to fit the requirements of the consumer in every respect. This delivery end also suffers from a lack of understanding of the best methods for selling the product. At the supplier end, there are problems also, including: some design deficiencies, improper materials selection and, occasionally, the improper selection of components and subsystems. These, in total, are not serious problems in the better systems and will be resolved as this industry matures.

  16. Realizacion de practicas con energia solar en ingenieria tecnica industrial de la Universitat de LLeida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampietro, C.; Nogues, M.; Roca, J.; Cabeza, L. E.

    2004-07-01

    The Politechnic School at the University of Lleida has a solar thermal and photovoltaic installation pilot plant for teaching practical lessons in the Industrial Engineering degree, speciality in Mechanics. The solar thermal installation consists of two flat solar collectors which are able to be connected either in sequence or parallel, with a closed circuit that transfers the energy to a storage tank. The solar photovoltaic installation has a silicon policristaline plate that allows to regulate its orientation and inclination and has elements such as a regulator, an inverter of continuous to alternating current, a storage battery, electrical protections and others. The main object of this installation is to contain the most important elements of a real one. According to this, what is mostly tried to achieve is that the students begin to identify these elements. (Author)

  17. End-use matching for solar industrial process heat. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.C.; Hooker, D.W.; Rabl, A.; Stadjuhar, S.A.; West, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    Because of the large energy demand of industry (37% of US demand) and the wide spectrum of temperatures at which heat is required, the industrial sector appears to be very suitable for the matching of solar thermal technology with industrial process heat (IPH) requirements. A methodology for end-use matching has been devised, complete with required data bases and an evaluation program PROSYS/ECONMAT. Six cities in the United States were selected for an analysis of solar applications to IPH. Typical process heat requirements for 70% of the industrial plants in each city were identified and evaluated in conjunction with meteorological and economic data for each site to determine lowest-cost solar systems for each application. The flexibility and scope of PROSYS/ECONMAT is shown in a variety of sensitivity studies that expand the results of the six-city analysis. Case studies of two industrial plants were performed to evaluate the end-use matching procedure; these results are reported.

  18. TOPSICLE Towards 20 Percent mc-Si Industrial Solar Cell Efficiency. Final Environmental Assessment. Excel file

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenkeit, B. [SCHOTT Solar GmbH, Carl-Zeiss-Str. 4, 63755 Alzenau (Germany); Russell, R. [BP Solar, Poligono Industrial s/n Zona Oeste, 28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain); Weeber, A.W.; De Wild-Scholten, M.J. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2006-08-15

    The overall objective of the R and D project TOPSICLE was to define an industrial process to manufacture low-cost 20% mc-Si solar cells and modules. The work of TOPSICLE consisted of improving material quality of the mc-Si wafers and developing advanced processes to produce cost effective super high-efficiency m-Si solar cells and modules on an industrial scale. At the end of the project a road map towards 20% efficient industrial mc-Si PV, and a cost and environmental assessment was made for equipment, materials and processes. A comprehensive study on the developed processes was carried out with respect to the national legislation and the EC directives. For all newly developed processes a limited environmental effect is expected. All emissions will be below 10% of the limits when the exhaust of chemical and furnace processes is purified or recycled. All this can be done with state-of-the-art-technologies.

  19. Next Step Toward Widespread Residential Deep Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIlvaine, J.; Saunders, S.; Bordelon, E.; Baden, S.; Elam, L.; Martin, E.

    2013-07-01

    The complexity of deep energy retrofits warrants additional training to successfully manage multiple improvements that will change whole house air, heat, and moisture flow dynamics. The home performance contracting industry has responded to these challenges by aggregating skilled labor for assessment of and implementation under one umbrella. Two emerging business models are profiled that seek to resolve many of the challenges, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats described for the conventional business models.

  20. The Next Step Toward Widespread Residential Deep Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIlvaine, J. [Building American Partnership for Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Martin, E. [Building American Partnership for Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Saunders, S. [Building American Partnership for Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Bordelon, E. [Building American Partnership for Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Baden, S. [Building American Partnership for Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Elam, L. [Building American Partnership for Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The complexity of deep energy retrofits warrants additional training to successfully manage multiple improvements that will change whole house air, heat, and moisture flow dynamics. The home performance contracting industry has responded to these challenges by aggregating skilled labor for assessment of and implementation under one umbrella. Two emerging business models are profiled that seek to resolve many of the challenges, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats described for the conventional business models.

  1. Industrially feasible, dopant-free, carrier-selective contacts for high-efficiency silicon solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Xinbo

    2017-05-31

    Dopant-free, carrier-selective contacts (CSCs) on high efficiency silicon solar cells combine ease of deposition with potential optical benefits. Electron-selective titanium dioxide (TiO) contacts, one of the most promising dopant-free CSC technologies, have been successfully implemented into silicon solar cells with an efficiency over 21%. Here, we report further progress of TiO contacts for silicon solar cells and present an assessment of their industrial feasibility. With improved TiO contact quality and cell processing, a remarkable efficiency of 22.1% has been achieved using an n-type silicon solar cell featuring a full-area TiO contact. Next, we demonstrate the compatibility of TiO contacts with an industrial contact-firing process, its low performance sensitivity to the wafer resistivity, its applicability to ultrathin substrates as well as its long-term stability. Our findings underscore the great appeal of TiO contacts for industrial implementation with their combination of high efficiency with robust fabrication at low cost.

  2. Assessment of industry views on international business prospects for solar thermal technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Easterling, J.C.

    1984-09-01

    This report contains a review of solar thermal industry viewpoints on their prospects for developing international business. The report documents the industry's current involvement in foreign markets, view of foreign competition in overseas applications, and view of federal R and D and policy requirements to strengthen international business prospects. The report is based on discussions with equipment manufacturers and system integrators who have a product or service with potential international demand. Interviews with manufacturers and system integrators were conducted by using a standard format for interview questions. The use of a standard format for questions provided a basis for aggregating similar views expressed by US companies concerning overseas business prospects. A special effort was made to gather responses from the entire solar thermal industry, including manufacturers of line-focus, point-focus, and central receiver systems. General, technical, economic, institutional, and financial findings are provided in this summary. In addition, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) recommendations are provided (based upon advice from the Solar Thermal Review Panel) for activities to improve US solar thermal business prospects overseas.

  3. Solar cooling - comparative study between thermal and electrical use in industrial buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badea, N.; Badea, G. V.; Epureanu, A.; Frumuşanu, G.

    2016-08-01

    The increase in the share of renewable energy sources together with the emphasis on the need for energy security bring to a spotlight the field of trigeneration autonomous microsystems, as a solution to cover the energy consumptions, not only for isolated industrial buildings, but also for industrial buildings located in urban areas. The use of solar energy for cooling has been taken into account to offer a cooling comfort in the building. Cooling and air- conditioned production are current applications promoting the use of solar energy technologies. Solar cooling systems can be classified, depending on the used energy, in electrical systems using mechanical compression chillers and systems using thermal compression by absorption or adsorption. This comparative study presents the main strengths and weaknesses of solar cooling obtained: i) through the transformation of heat resulted from thermal solar panels combined with adsorption chillers, and ii) through the multiple conversion of electricity - photovoltaic panels - battery - inverter - combined with mechanical compression chillers. Both solutions are analyzed from the standpoints of energy efficiency, dynamic performances (demand response), and costs sizes. At the end of the paper, experimental results obtained in the climatic condition of Galafi city, Romania, are presented.

  4. Building America Case Study: Quantifying the Financial Benefits of Multifamily Retrofits, Chicago, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-04-01

    Increasing the adoption of energy efficient building practices will require the energy sector to increase their understanding of the way that retrofits affect multifamily financial performance as well as how those indicators are interpreted by the lending and appraisal industries. This project analyzed building, energy, and financial program data as well as other public and private data to examine the relationship between energy efficiency retrofits and financial performance on three levels: building, city, and community. The project goals were to increase the data and analysis in the growing body of multifamily financial benefits work as well provide a framework for other geographies to produce similar characterization. The goals are accomplished through three tasks: Task one: A pre- and post-retrofit analysis of thirteen Chicago multifamily buildings. Task two: A comparison of Chicago income and expenses to two national datasets. Task three: An in-depth look at multifamily market sales data and the subsequent impact of buildings that undergo retrofits.

  5. Coupling solar photo-Fenton and biotreatment at industrial scale: Main results of a demonstration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malato, Sixto [Plataforma Solar de Almeria-CIEMAT, Crta. Senes km 4, 04200 Tabernas, Almeria (Spain)]. E-mail: Sixto.malato@psa.es; Blanco, Julian [Plataforma Solar de Almeria-CIEMAT, Crta. Senes km 4, 04200 Tabernas, Almeria (Spain); Maldonado, Manuel I. [Plataforma Solar de Almeria-CIEMAT, Crta. Senes km 4, 04200 Tabernas, Almeria (Spain); Oller, Isabel [Plataforma Solar de Almeria-CIEMAT, Crta. Senes km 4, 04200 Tabernas, Almeria (Spain); Gernjak, Wolfgang [Plataforma Solar de Almeria-CIEMAT, Crta. Senes km 4, 04200 Tabernas, Almeria (Spain); Perez-Estrada, Leonidas [Plataforma Solar de Almeria-CIEMAT, Crta. Senes km 4, 04200 Tabernas, Almeria (Spain)

    2007-07-31

    This paper reports on the combined solar photo-Fenton/biological treatment of an industrial effluent (initial total organic carbon, TOC, around 500 mg L{sup -1}) containing a non-biodegradable organic substance ({alpha}-methylphenylglycine at 500 mg L{sup -1}), focusing on pilot plant tests performed for design of an industrial plant, the design itself and the plant layout. Pilot plant tests have demonstrated that biodegradability enhancement is closely related to disappearance of the parent compound, for which a certain illumination time and hydrogen peroxide consumption are required, working at pH 2.8 and adding Fe{sup 2+} = 20 mg L{sup -1}. Based on pilot plant results, an industrial plant with 100 m{sup 2} of CPC collectors for a 250 L/h treatment capacity has been designed. The solar system discharges the wastewater (WW) pre-treated by photo-Fenton into a biotreatment based on an immobilized biomass reactor. First, results of the industrial plant are also presented, demonstrating that it is able to treat up to 500 L h{sup -1} at an average solar ultraviolet radiation of 22.9 W m{sup -2}, under the same conditions (pH, hydrogen peroxide consumption) tested in the pilot plant.

  6. Coupling solar photo-Fenton and biotreatment at industrial scale: main results of a demonstration plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malato, Sixto; Blanco, Julián; Maldonado, Manuel I; Oller, Isabel; Gernjak, Wolfgang; Pérez-Estrada, Leonidas

    2007-07-31

    This paper reports on the combined solar photo-Fenton/biological treatment of an industrial effluent (initial total organic carbon, TOC, around 500mgL(-1)) containing a non-biodegradable organic substance (alpha-methylphenylglycine at 500mgL(-1)), focusing on pilot plant tests performed for design of an industrial plant, the design itself and the plant layout. Pilot plant tests have demonstrated that biodegradability enhancement is closely related to disappearance of the parent compound, for which a certain illumination time and hydrogen peroxide consumption are required, working at pH 2.8 and adding Fe(2+)=20mgL(-1). Based on pilot plant results, an industrial plant with 100m(2) of CPC collectors for a 250L/h treatment capacity has been designed. The solar system discharges the wastewater (WW) pre-treated by photo-Fenton into a biotreatment based on an immobilized biomass reactor. First, results of the industrial plant are also presented, demonstrating that it is able to treat up to 500Lh(-1) at an average solar ultraviolet radiation of 22.9Wm(-2), under the same conditions (pH, hydrogen peroxide consumption) tested in the pilot plant.

  7. Comparison between Solar and Artificial Photocatalytic Decolorization of Textile Industrial Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falah H. Hussein

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The photocatalytic decolorization of industrial wastewater was investigated by using TiO2 and ZnO photocatalysts. Heterogeneous photocatalytic processes applied under natural weathering conditions, in the presence of solar radiation show a promising degradation capability. The complete removal of color could be achieved in a relatively short time of about 20 minutes, when ZnO was used and about 100 minutes when TiO2 was used under solar irradiation. However, in the presence of artificial UV-light, complete decolorization of textile industrial wastewater was obtained after less than one hour of irradiation when ZnO was used and in less than two hours, when TiO2 was used at the same temperature. The results indicate that the degree of photocatalytic decolorization of textile industrial wastewater was obviously affected by different parameters. These parameters include catalyst mass, type of catalyst, type of reactor, type of dye, dye concentration, and temperature. The procedure used in this research can be used as an efficient technology for solar photocatalytic decolorization of the colored wastewater discharged from the textile industry under the climatic conditions of most countries.

  8. Thermal output analysis of a designed parabolic trough solar field for moderate temperature industrial load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwan Masood

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the Parabolic Trough Solar Collectors, which is a fastest growing technology amongst concentrated solar power technologies. It is largely being used in developed countries; mainly in steam power cycles for electricity generation but its use is not limited to electric power generation. This technology is also being used for many other applications like refrigeration and air-conditioning, desalination of sea water, pumping of irrigation water and many other heating applications for process industry. Though this technology is already being used in many developed countries but there is barely any development in Malaysia. There is thus need for assessment of this technology to explore the potential industrial applications, under local environmental conditions. In this article basic design and development considerations for a parabolic trough collector system have been discussed. This paper also includes a thermal output analysis of a designed parabolic trough solar field to provide the baseline information for industrial applications feasibility study. System Advisor Model (SAM has been used for this analysis, under environmental conditions of Ipoh, Malaysia. The results of simulation indicate that considerable amount of high temperature thermal energy can be obtained. The heat transfer fluid temperature reached up to 200 to 230oC, which can be used to operate an unfired boiler to produce steam or in some other industrial thermal application.

  9. Solar hot water demonstration project at Red Star Industrial Laundry, Fresno, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    The Final Report of the Solar Hot Water System located at the Red Star Industrial Laundry, 3333 Sabre Avenue, Fresno, California, is presented. The system was designed as an integrated wastewater heat recovery and solar preheating system to supply a part of the hot water requirements. It was estimated that the natural gas demand for hot water heating could be reduced by 56 percent (44 percent heat reclamation and 12 percent solar). The system consists of a 16,500 gallon tube-and-shell wastewater heat recovery subsystem combined with a pass-through 6,528 square foot flat plate Ying Manufacturing Company Model SP4120 solar collector subsystem, a 12,500 gallon fiber glass water storage tank subsystem, pumps, heat exchangers, controls, and associated plumbing. The design output of the solar subsystem is approximately 2.6 x 10/sup 9/ Btu/year. Auxiliary energy is provided by a gas fired low pressure boiler servicing a 4,000 gallon service tank. This project is part of the US Department of Energy's Solar Demonstration Program with DOE sharing $184,841 of the $260,693 construction cost. The system was turned on in July 1977, and acceptance tests completed in September 1977. The demonstration period for this project ends September 2, 1982.

  10. Financial barriers to the use of solar-industrial-process heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    Industry concerns about solar process heat, attitudes toward investment in solar process heat, and decision processes and factors are reported. Four cases were selected from among 30 potential solar process heat installations that had been carried through the design stage, and case was analyzed using discounted cash flow to determine what internal rate of return would be earned under current tax laws over 10 years. No case showed any significant rate of return from capital invested in the solar installation. Several possible changes in the cost of solar equipment, its tax treatment or methods of financing were tested through computer simulation. A heavy load of extra tax incentives can improve the return on an investment, but such action is not recommended because they are not found to induce adoption of solar process heat, and if they were effective, capital may be drawn away from applications such as conservation were the potential to improve the nation's energy dilemma is greater. Tax shelter financing through limited partnership may be available. (LEW)

  11. Thermal solar energy - application in industrial heat processes; Energia solar termica - aplicacion en procesos industriales de calor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonneschky, Alexis [Universidad Tecnica de Brandenburgo/Cottbus (Germany); Roth, Pedro; Cancino, Beatriz [Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Valparaiso (Chile); Kanig, Thomas [Germany, (Georgia)

    2000-07-01

    The main objective of this paper is to show the use solar energy for water heating in industry, integrating the companies through some strategy that signifies a common purpose that benefits both of them. In this report a project made with two neighboring companies in the region of Branderburgo, Germany is presented, that mutually benefit with the solar energy installation, but which are independent as far as its intentions and capitals. The first company is the factory FK-Solartchnik Kleinkoschen that produces solar collectors for hot water and is interested in developing publicity in this sense, reason why it put at the disposition of the second industry the necessary area to install the solar collectors. The second company, is the FGT Glaswerk Kleinkoschen that produces high quality glass plates, but does not have facade available for the installation of any solar equipment. In this industry, for the manufacture of glass, hot water is used. The glass plates, already cut, go trough a process of washing and drying. The washing, requires a volume of 1 m{sup 3}/day of hot water, at 60 degrees Celsius and is made between 6:30 a.m. and 3:30 p.m. The water heating was carried out with two electrical heaters (around 12 kW each one). A solar equipment was designed that allows to diminish the energy losses in the accumulation in the hours following the process, where the water is warmed up, and additionally covers part of the requirements of the consumed water. This equipment has a collector with a surface of 27 m{sup 2}. With this system, plus the contribution made by the workers of the company, the water temperature for washing was diminished in 20 K, without affecting the product quality and in addition, the annual consumption of electrical energy of the company was reduced in 15,000 kWh, using the solar energy resources in about 50% of the total consumption. [Spanish] El objetivo principal de este trabajo es mostrar el uso de la energia solar para el calentamiento de

  12. Analysis of the economic potential of solar thermal energy to provide industrial process heat. Final report, Volume I. [In-depth analysis of 78 industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-02-07

    The process heat data base assembled as the result of this survey includes specific process applications from 78 four-digit Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) groups. These applications account for the consumption of 9.81 quadrillion Btu in 1974, about 59 percent of the 16.6 quadrillion Btu estimated to have been used for all process heat in 1974. About 7/sup 1///sub 2/ percent of industrial process heat is used below 212/sup 0/F (100/sup 0/C), and 28 percent below 550/sup 0/F (288/sup 0/C). In this study, the quantitative assessment of the potential of solar thermal energy systems to provide industrial process heat indicates that solar energy has a maximum potential to provide 0.6 quadrillion Btu per year in 1985, and 7.3 quadrillion Btu per year in 2000, in economic competition with the projected costs of conventional fossil fuels for applications having a maximum required temperature of 550/sup 0/ (288/sup 0/C). A wide variety of collector types were compared for performance and cost characteristics. Performance calculations were carried out for a baseline solar system providing hot water in representative cities in six geographical regions within the U.S. Specific industries that should have significant potential for solar process heat for a variety of reasons include food, textiles, chemicals, and primary metals. Lumber and wood products, and paper and allied products also appear to have significant potential. However, good potential applications for solar process heat can be found across the board throughout industry. Finally, an assessment of nontechnical issues that may influence the use of solar process heat in industry showed that the most important issues are the establishment of solar rights, standardization and certification for solar components and systems, and resolution of certain labor-related issues. (Volume 1 of 3 volumes.)

  13. Phased Retrofits in Existing Homes in Florida Phase II. Shallow Plus Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, K. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Parker, D. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Martin, E. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Chasar, D. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Amos, B. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The BAPIRC team and Florida Power and Light (FPL) electric utility pursued a pilot phased energy-efficiency retrofit program in Florida by creating detailed data on the energy and economic performance of two levels of retrofit - simple and deep. For this Phased Deep Retrofit (PDR) project, a total of 56 homes spread across the utility partner's territory in east central Florida, southeast Florida, and southwest Florida were instrumented between August 2012 and January 2013, and received simple pass-through retrofit measures during the period of March 2013 - June 2013. Ten of these homes received a deeper package of retrofits during August 2013 - December 2013.

  14. Summary of three regional assessment studies of solar electric generation opportunities in the Southwest, Southeast, and Northeast United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts, R.L.; Harty, H.

    1981-02-01

    Market opportunities for solar generation of electricity for utility and for residential/commercial/industrial applications in the Northeast, Southeast, and Southwest regions of the United States were evaluated in three studies (JBF 1979, Stone and Webster 1979a, 1979b) and are summarized. The evaluations were based on both economic analyses and user perception of what they would require to select or approve the use of solar electric generation for themselves or for their employers. Over 30 utilities and several industrial and commercial firms and homeowners were involved. Solar electric technologies considered included biomass, hybrid retrofit, OTEC, photovoltaic, solar thermal, and wind. The studies projected that solar electric technologies could account for several percent of the forecast generation in year 2000 in the Southeast and Southwest regions,and up to 10 to 20% in the Northeast region. No single solar electric technology or application (for utility or industrial/commercial/residential use) arrived earlier at economic breakeven than other technologies in the Southeast region, but wind generation for both utility and industrial applications predominated in the Northeast region. The Southwest region, in which only utility applications were considered, showed wind energy and retrofit hybrid (a solar adjunct to an existing fossil-fueled plant) to be the most likely early applications.

  15. Financialization impedes climate change mitigation: Evidence from the early American solar industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerneck, Max

    2017-03-01

    The article investigates how financialization impedes climate change mitigation by examining its effects on the early history of one low-carbon industry, solar photovoltaics in the United States. The industry grew rapidly in the 1970s, as large financial conglomerates acquired independent firms. While providing needed financial support, conglomerates changed the focus from existing markets in consumer applications toward a future utility market that never materialized. Concentration of the industry also left it vulnerable to the corporate restructuring of the 1980s, when the conglomerates were dismantled and solar divisions were pared back or sold off to foreign firms. Both the move toward conglomeration, when corporations became managed as stock portfolios, and its subsequent reversal were the result of increased financial dominance over corporate governance. The American case is contrasted with the more successful case of Japan, where these changes to corporate governance did not occur. Insulated from shareholder pressure and financial turbulence, Japanese photovoltaics manufacturers continued to expand investment throughout the 1980s when their American rivals were cutting back. The study is informed by Joseph Schumpeter's theory of creative destruction and Hyman Minsky's theory of financialization, along with economic sociology. By highlighting the tenuous and conflicting relation between finance and production that shaped the early history of the photovoltaics industry, the article raises doubts about the prevailing approach to mitigate climate change through carbon pricing. Given the uncertainty of innovation and the ease of speculation, it will do little to spur low-carbon technology development without financial structures supporting patient capital.

  16. Quantifying the Financial Benefits of Multifamily Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philbrick, D. [Elevate Energy, Chicago, IL (United States); Scheu, R. [Elevate Energy, Chicago, IL (United States); Brand, L. [Elevate Energy, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America research team Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit analyzed building, energy, and financial program data as well as other public and private data to examine the relationship between energy-efficiency retrofits and financial performance on three levels: building, city, and community.

  17. SUPERTARGET: Applications software for oil refinery retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, S.; Patela, E.

    1987-01-01

    Pinch Technology has recently delivered radically new procedures for process retrofit. Software appropriate to these techniques is implemented in SUPERTARGET. It is now possible to predict, ahead of design, targets for energy savings, capital investment, and payback. The procedures account for how poorly the existing design is being used. This paper shows the techniques performed in an actual oil refinery retrofit using SUPERTARGET.

  18. Prologis Rolls Out Warehouse Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-03-01

    Prologis partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to retrofit existing buildings to reduce annual energy consumption by at least 30% versus pre-retrofit energy use as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) program.

  19. Cyclone reburning retrofit: Corrosion evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarv, H.; Paul, L.D. (Babcock and Wilcox Co., New Orleans, LA (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Reburning is an emerging NO{sub x} reducing technology which offers cyclone boiler owners a promising alternative to the more expensive flue gas cleanup techniques. Pilot-scale test results have shown that the corrosive H{sub 2}S gas can evolve during reburn. This can pose a potential problem and concern in retrofits burning high-sulfur Illinois coals. This research program is intended to assess tube corrosion under simulated reburning conditions (temperature, stoichiometry, and H{sub 2}S concentration). Performance of existing carbon steel as well as other alloys will be tested and compared. 1 fig.

  20. Cyclone reburning retrofit: Corrosion evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farzan, H.; Paul, L.D. (Babcock and Wilcox Co., New Orleans, LA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Reburning is an emerging NO{sub x} reducing technology which offers cyclone boiler owners a promising alternative to the more expensive flue gas cleanup techniques. Pilot-scale test results have shown that the corrosive H{sub 2}S gas can evolve during reburn. This can pose a potential problem and concern in retrofits burning high-sulfur Illinois coals. This research program is intended to assess tube corrosion under simulated reburning conditions (temperature, stoichiometry, and H{sub 2}S concentration). Performance of existing carbon steel as well as other alloys will be tested and compared. 1 fig.

  1. MOVING UP ON SOLAR INDUSTRY VALUE CHAIN: A RESPOND TO WORLD BANK’S PRESCRIPTION FOR MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bakhtyar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pressure due to the changes in supplying energy and its price in the international community is in such an extent that it encourages industrialized and developing countries in seeking self-sufficiency in energy production. As one of the leading in countries South East Asia Nations (ASEAN, Malaysia has taken planning and specific investment for the Solar Industry into consideration, besides paying attention to a variety of new and renewable energies. Given the diversity of processes in working on the development of Solar Industry, the World Bank has, through a comprehensive report, provided prescription with regard to the success of Malaysia in this industry. This paper presents an analysis of the study conducted by the World Bank. However, it shows that despite the detailed and comprehensive analysis of the value chain in the solar industry globally, assumptions and methods the World Bank about the solar industry in Malaysia suffers from several shortcomings and errors which can result in the lack of reliability and validity in its concluding remarks. Encouraging Malaysia to moving towards downstream industries for achieving more added value decrease the security of future investments in this industry in Malaysia also will raise the price of the final products and create crisis in the industry in the event of imbalance.

  2. Solar production of industrial process steam for the Lone Star Brewery. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deffenbaugh, D.M.; Watkins, P.V.; Hugg, S.B.; Kulesz, J.J.; Decker, H.E.; Powell, R.C.

    1979-06-29

    This report outlines the detailed design and system analysis of a solar industrial process steam system for the Lone Star Brewery. The industrial plant has an average natural gas usage of 12.7 MMcf per month. The majority of this energy goes to producing process steam of 125 psi and 353/sup 0/F at about 50,000 lb/h, with this load dropping to about 6000 lb/h on the weekends. The maximum steam production of the solar energy system is about 1700 lb/h. The climatic conditions at the industrial site give 50% of the possible amount of sunshine during the winter months and more than 70% during the summer months. The long-term yearly average daily total radiation on a horizontal surface is 1574 Btu/day-ft/sup 2/, the long-term yearly average daytime ambient temperature is 72/sup 0/F, and the percentage of clear day insolation received on the average day of the year is 62%. The solar steam system will consist of 9450 ft/sup 2/ of Solar Kinetics T-700 collectors arranged in fifteen 90-ft long rows through which 67.5 gpm of Therminol T-55 is pumped. This hot Therminol then transfers the heat collected to a Patterson-Kelley Series 380 unfired steam boiler. The solar-produced steam is then metered to the industrial process via a standard check valve. The thermal performance of this system is projected to produce about 3 million lbs of steam during an average weather year, which is approximately 3 billion Btu's. As with any prototype system, this steam system cannot be justified for purely economic reasons. It is estimated, however, that if the cost of the collectors can be reduced to a mass production level of $3 per lb then this type of system would be cost effective in about six years with the current government incentives and a fuel escalation rate of 10%. This period can be shortened by a combination of an increased investment tax credit and an accelerated depreciation.

  3. Retrofit electrochromic glazing in a UK office

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Kelly Waskett

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrochromic (EC glazing is now considered a viable alternative to fixed transmittance glazing. It has the potential to enable occupants to control daylight glare and solar heat gain without the use of blinds or external shading devices, giving users more access to daylight with all its inherent benefits. Furthermore, EC glazing can reduce energy consumption by decreasing cooling loads and electric lighting usage. Most research to date has studied the effects of EC glazing in scale models, computer simulations and full scale test rooms, and some of these studies have included human participants. However, there is a general lack of understanding regarding the performance and suitability of EC glazing in real-world working environments. A case study of the first UK retrofit application of EC glazing is being conducted in two adjacent offices in a university campus building. The offices are occupied by administration staff and have large southeastfacing windows. The existing double glazed units were replaced with commercially-available EC glazed units in 2012. Over a period of more than 18 months, the rooms were monitored intensively to record the effect of the EC glazing on both the physical room environment and the occupants themselves. A large amount of data from the monitoring programme is currently undergoing detailed analysis. Initial findings emerging from the installation and post-installation period are described in this paper.

  4. Greenbuilt Retrofit Test House Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hudon, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Earle, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Booten, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tabares-Velasco, P. C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Barker, G. [Mountain Energy Partnership, Longmont, CO (United States); Hancock, C. E. [Mountain Energy Partnership, Longmont, CO (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The Greenbuilt house is a 1980's era house in the Sacramento area that was a prominent part of Sacramento Municipal Utility District's (SMUD) Energy Efficient Remodel Demonstration Program. The house underwent an extensive remodel, aimed at improving overall energy efficiency with a goal of reducing the home's energy use by 50%. NREL researchers performed a number of tests on the major systems touched by the retrofit to ensure they were working as planned. Additionally, SMUD rented the house from Greenbuilt Construction for a year to allow NREL to perform a number of tests on the cooling system and the water heating system. The goal of the space conditioning tests was to find the best ways to cut cooling loads and shift the summer peak. The water heating system, comprised of an add-on heat pump water heater and an integrated collector-storage solar water heater, was operated with a number of different draw profiles to see how varying hot water draw volume and schedule affected the performance of the system as a whole. All the experiments were performed with the house empty, with a simulated occupancy schedule running in the house to mimic the load imposed by real occupants.

  5. DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE TESTING OF AN INDUSTRIAL-SCALE INDIRECT SOLAR DRYER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. KHAMA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an indirect solar dryer was developed and tested for drying food. This unit operation is an interesting technique for preservation in agricultural applications. The dryer was designed at industrial scale in order to carry out experiments in real applications and to get concrete results. It operated without additional energy in the passive and active modes, allowing the comparison between the two. The relationship between the solar collector air temperature and the relevant ambience parameters was deduced. The collector efficiency reached 66.56 % with forced ventilation and 46.32 % with natural ventilation. It also increased linearly with the solar radiation varying between 400-800 W/m2 for air velocities ranging between 1 and 1.40 m/s. The effect of the air velocity on the collector efficiency was negligible for solar intensities close to 800 W/m2.The tomato drying occurred mainly in the falling drying rate period. On average, the moisture content in dry basis was reduced from 14.32 kg water/kg dry matter to 0.14 kg water/kg dry matter. The equilibrium moisture content of tomatoes was reached after 12 when the system was used with one layer. In the case it was used with four layers, the difference among the four durations of drying was one hour between each tray.

  6. Proven Performance of Seven Cold Climate Deep Retrofit Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osser, R.; Neuhauser, K.; Ueno, K.

    2012-06-01

    Seven test homes located in Massachusetts are examined within this report. The retrofit strategies of each home are presented along with a comparison of the pre- and post-retrofit airtightness achieved by the group. Pre- and post-retrofit utility bills were collected; energy models were used to estimate pre-retrofit energy use when bills were unavailable.

  7. Industrial Applications of solar Chemistry. Lectures from the summer school at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria. Solar Thermal Energy: The Clean Way to Generate Electricity and Produce Chemical. Training and Mobility of Researchers Programme. Almeria, 21-25 September, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    A Summer School entitled Solar Thermal Energy: The Clean Way to Generate Electricity and Produce Chemicals consisting of two one-week courses, was held at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA) in July and September, 1998. The first was called Solar Thermal Electricity Generation and the second. Industrial Applications of Solar Chemistry. Through both topics concerned the use of solar light as the energy source and the courses were organised within one. Summer School, they clearly cover very different disciplines and it therefore makes sense to publish course materials separately. This volume is a compilation of the lectures given in the course on Electricity Generation. (Author)

  8. Potential Applications of Concentrated Solar Thermal Technologies in the Australian Minerals Processing and Extractive Metallurgical Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eglinton, Thomas; Hinkley, Jim; Beath, Andrew; Dell'Amico, Mark

    2013-12-01

    The Australian minerals processing and extractive metallurgy industries are responsible for about 20% of Australia's total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This article reviews the potential applications of concentrated solar thermal (CST) energy in the Australian minerals processing industry to reduce this impact. Integrating CST energy into these industries would reduce their reliance upon conventional fossil fuels and reduce GHG emissions. As CST technologies become more widely deployed and cheaper, and as fuel prices rise, CST energy will progressively become more competitive with conventional energy sources. Some of the applications identified in this article are expected to become commercially competitive provided the costs for pollution abatement and GHG mitigation are internalized. The areas of potential for CST integration identified in this study can be classed as either medium/low-temperature or high-temperature applications. The most promising medium/low-grade applications are electricity generation and low grade heating of liquids. Electricity generation with CST energy—also known as concentrated solar power—has the greatest potential to reduce GHG emissions out of all the potential applications identified because of the 24/7 dispatchability when integrated with thermal storage. High-temperature applications identified include the thermal decomposition of alumina and the calcination of limestone to lime in solar kilns, as well as the production of syngas from natural gas and carbonaceous materials for various metallurgical processes including nickel and direct reduced iron production. Hybridization and integration with thermal storage could enable CST to sustain these energy-intensive metallurgical processes continuously. High-temperature applications are the focus of this paper.

  9. Retrofitting of RC Slabs Against Explosive Loads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Chengqing; OEHLERS Deric John; XIA Shaohua

    2006-01-01

    With the increase of terrorist bomb attacks on buildings,there is a need to develop advanced retrofitting techniques to strengthen structures against blast loads.Currently,several guidelines including an Australian version for retrofitting reinforced concrete (RC) structures are available for the design of retrofitting systems against seismic and monotonic loads using steel or fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) plates that can be either adhesively bonded to the surface or near surface mounted to the concrete cover.However,none of these guidelines provide advice suitable for retrofitting structures subjected to blast loads.In this paper,numerical models are used to simulate the performance of retrofitted RC slabs subjected to blast loads.Airblast pressure distributions on the surface of the slabs estimated in a previous study are used as input in the analysis.A material damage model developedpreviously for concrete and an elastoplastic model for steel bars are employed in this research for modelling reinforced concrete behaviour due to explosive loads.The material models and blast loading are coded into a finite element computer program LS-DYNA3D to do the analysis.With the numerical model,parametric studies are conducted to investigate RC slabs retrofitted by either externally bonded or near-surface mounted plates or GFRP sheets subjected to blast loads.Discussion is made on the effectiveness of the retrofitting system for RC slabs against blast loads.

  10. Solar photo-degradation of a pharmaceutical wastewater effluent in a semi-industrial autonomous plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expósito, Antonio J; Durán, Antonio; Monteagudo, José M; Acevedo, Alba

    2016-05-01

    An industrial wastewater effluent coming from a pharmaceutical laboratory has been treated in a semi-industrial autonomous solar compound parabolic collector (CPC) plant. A photo-Fenton process assisted with ferrioxalate has been used. Up to 79% of TOC can be removed in 2 h depending on initial conditions when treating an aqueous effluent containing up to 400 ppm of initial organic carbon concentration (TOC). An initial ratio of Fe(II)/TOC higher than 0.5 guarantees a high removal. It can be seen that most of TOC removal occurs early in the first hour of reaction. After this time, mineralization was very slow, although H2O2 was still present in solution. Indeed it decomposed to form oxygen in inefficient reactions. It is clear that remaining TOC was mainly due to the presence of acetates which are difficult to degrade.

  11. Financialization impedes climate change mitigation: Evidence from the early American solar industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerneck, Max

    2017-01-01

    The article investigates how financialization impedes climate change mitigation by examining its effects on the early history of one low-carbon industry, solar photovoltaics in the United States. The industry grew rapidly in the 1970s, as large financial conglomerates acquired independent firms. While providing needed financial support, conglomerates changed the focus from existing markets in consumer applications toward a future utility market that never materialized. Concentration of the industry also left it vulnerable to the corporate restructuring of the 1980s, when the conglomerates were dismantled and solar divisions were pared back or sold off to foreign firms. Both the move toward conglomeration, when corporations became managed as stock portfolios, and its subsequent reversal were the result of increased financial dominance over corporate governance. The American case is contrasted with the more successful case of Japan, where these changes to corporate governance did not occur. Insulated from shareholder pressure and financial turbulence, Japanese photovoltaics manufacturers continued to expand investment throughout the 1980s when their American rivals were cutting back. The study is informed by Joseph Schumpeter’s theory of creative destruction and Hyman Minsky’s theory of financialization, along with economic sociology. By highlighting the tenuous and conflicting relation between finance and production that shaped the early history of the photovoltaics industry, the article raises doubts about the prevailing approach to mitigate climate change through carbon pricing. Given the uncertainty of innovation and the ease of speculation, it will do little to spur low-carbon technology development without financial structures supporting patient capital. PMID:28435862

  12. Results from Development of Model Specifications for Multifamily Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brozyna, K.

    2012-08-01

    Specifications, modeled after CSI MasterFormat, provide the trade contractors and builders with requirements and recommendations on specific building materials, components and industry practices that comply with the expectations and intent of the requirements within the various funding programs associated with a project. The goal is to create a greater level of consistency in execution of energy efficiency retrofits measures across the multiple regions a developer may work. IBACOS and Mercy Housing developed sample model specifications based on a common building construction type that Mercy Housing encounters.

  13. Results From Development of Model Specifications for Multifamily Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brozyna, Kevin [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Specifications, modeled after CSI MasterFormat, provide the trade contractors and builders with requirements and recommendations on specific building materials, components and industry practices that comply with the expectations and intent of the requirements within the various funding programs associated with a project. The goal is to create a greater level of consistency in execution of energy efficiency retrofits measures across the multiple regions a developer may work. IBACOS and Mercy Housing developed sample model specifications based on a common building construction type that Mercy Housing encounters.

  14. Bridging Photonics and Optoelectronics Curriculum for the Solar Photovoltaic and LED Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Su

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The gap between learning courses and practical demands has existed in Taiwanese solar photovoltaic and LED industries; therefore, this study attempts to analyze the existing curriculum design of universities. This study collected the current 103 course programs from all optoelectronics-related departments in Taiwanese 36 colleges and universities and sorted these curriculums by three domains of education objectives theory. This theoretical framework was verified on the basis of samples from 150 Taiwanese industrial experts and 354 optoelectronics-related undergraduates and postgraduates. We found that the levels of correlation among the independent variables including cognitive, affective, and skill-based domains and the dependent variable employability are all positively related to each other. We also found the currently curriculum design in Taiwanese universities rarely fit into theory of education objectives from the results of multiple regression analysis. Industrial and student’s group also have few consistent ideas on courses within the curriculum. Finally in order to bridge the gap between learning and practical application, the study provides an idea on curriculum design and suggests that curriculum review should be executed by industrial experts to confirm the courses related to the employability.

  15. Retrofitting and the mu Problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Daniel; Weigand, Timo; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2010-08-26

    One of the challenges of supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking and mediation is generating a {mu} term consistent with the requirements of electro-weak symmetry breaking. The most common approach to the problem is to generate the {mu} term through a SUSY breaking F-term. Often these models produce unacceptably large B{mu} terms as a result. We will present an alternate approach, where the {mu} term is generated directly by non-perturtative effects. The same non-perturbative effect will also retrofit the model of SUSY breaking in such a way that {mu} is at the same scale as masses of the Standard Model superpartners. Because the {mu} term is not directly generated by SUSY breaking effects, there is no associated B{mu} problem. These results are demonstrated in a toy model where a stringy instanton generates {mu}.

  16. SOLVENT-BASED TO WATERBASED ADHESIVE-COATED SUBSTRATE RETROFIT - VOLUME I: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This volume represents the analysis of case study facilities' experience with waterbased adhesive use and retrofit requirements. (NOTE: The coated and laminated substrate manufacturing industry was selected as part of NRMRL'S support of the 33/50 Program because of its significan...

  17. Product pricing in the Solar Array Manufacturing Industry - An executive summary of SAMICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, R. G.

    1978-01-01

    Capabilities, methodology, and a description of input data to the Solar Array Manufacturing Industry Costing Standards (SAMICS) are presented. SAMICS were developed to provide a standardized procedure and data base for comparing manufacturing processes of Low-cost Solar Array (LSA) subcontractors, guide the setting of research priorities, and assess the progress of LSA toward its hundred-fold cost reduction goal. SAMICS can be used to estimate the manufacturing costs and product prices and determine the impact of inflation, taxes, and interest rates, but it is limited by its ignoring the effects of the market supply and demand and an assumption that all factories operate in a production line mode. The SAMICS methodology defines the industry structure, hypothetical supplier companies, and manufacturing processes and maintains a body of standardized data which is used to compute the final product price. The input data includes the product description, the process characteristics, the equipment cost factors, and production data for the preparation of detailed cost estimates. Activities validating that SAMICS produced realistic price estimates and cost breakdowns are described.

  18. Heat flux: thermohydraulic investigation of solar air heaters used in agro-industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmati Aidinlou, H.; Nikbakht, A. M.

    2017-03-01

    A new design of solar air heater simulator is presented to comply with the extensive applications inagro-industry. A wise installation of increased heat transfer surface area provided uniform and efficient heat diffusion over the duct. Nusselt number and friction factor have been investigated based on the constant roughness parameters such as relative roughness height (e/D), relative roughness pitch (P/e), angle of attack (α) and aspect ratio with Reynolds numbers ranging from 5000 to 19,000 in the fully developed region. Heat fluxes of 800, 900 and 1000 Wm-2 were provided. The enhancement in friction factor is observed to be 3.1656, 3.47 and 3.0856 times, and for the Nusselt number either, augmentation is calculated to be 1.4437, 1.4963 and 1.535 times, respectively, over the smooth duct for 800, 900 and 1000 Wm-2 heat fluxes. Thermohydraulic performance is plotted versus the Reynolds number based on the aforementioned roughness parameters at varying heat fluxes. The results show up that thermohydraulic performance is found to be maximum for 1000 Wm-2 at the average Reynolds number of 5151. Based on the results, we can verify that the introduced solar simulator can help analyzing and developing solar collector installations at the simulated heat fluxes.

  19. Heat flux: thermohydraulic investigation of solar air heaters used in agro-industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmati Aidinlou, H.; Nikbakht, A. M.

    2016-07-01

    A new design of solar air heater simulator is presented to comply with the extensive applications inagro-industry. A wise installation of increased heat transfer surface area provided uniform and efficient heat diffusion over the duct. Nusselt number and friction factor have been investigated based on the constant roughness parameters such as relative roughness height (e/D), relative roughness pitch (P/e), angle of attack (α) and aspect ratio with Reynolds numbers ranging from 5000 to 19,000 in the fully developed region. Heat fluxes of 800, 900 and 1000 Wm-2 were provided. The enhancement in friction factor is observed to be 3.1656, 3.47 and 3.0856 times, and for the Nusselt number either, augmentation is calculated to be 1.4437, 1.4963 and 1.535 times, respectively, over the smooth duct for 800, 900 and 1000 Wm-2 heat fluxes. Thermohydraulic performance is plotted versus the Reynolds number based on the aforementioned roughness parameters at varying heat fluxes. The results show up that thermohydraulic performance is found to be maximum for 1000 Wm-2 at the average Reynolds number of 5151. Based on the results, we can verify that the introduced solar simulator can help analyzing and developing solar collector installations at the simulated heat fluxes.

  20. Bedford Farmhouse High Performance Retrofit Prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-04-26

    In this case study, Building Science Corporation partnered with Habitat for Humanity of Greater Lowell on a retrofit of a mid-19th century farmhouse into affordable housing meeting Building America performance standards.

  1. RETROFITTING AN AUTOMATIC MANUFACTURING WORKCELL FOR STUDY OF OPEN ARCHITECTURE INTEGRATION OF MECHATRONIC SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Research work on plug-and-play open architecture and object-oriented mechatronic system integration is described. The original controllers of two popular industrial robot manipulators Puma 560 and IBM 7575 are completely retrofitted and integrated with a conveyor system to form a robot workcell. This robot workcell can be programmed to run under the Ch language environment. The outline of the Ch language, and the retrofitting strategy of the robot workcell will be described. A sample application program for simulated assembly operations of this robot workcell will be presented to demonstrate the underlying principles of open architecture integration of mechatronic systems under the programming paradigm of the Ch language environment.

  2. Low-E Retrofit Demonstration and Educational Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culp, Thomas D [Birch Point Consulting LLC; Wiehagen, Joseph [Home Innovation Research Labs, Inc.; Drumheller, S Craig [Home Innovation Research Labs, Inc.; Siegel, John [Quanta Technologies Inc.; Stratmoen, Todd [Larson Manufacturing

    2013-11-16

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate the capability of low-emissivity (low-E) storm windows / panels and low-E retrofit glazing systems to significantly and cost effectively improve the energy efficiency of both existing residential and commercial buildings. The key outcomes are listed below: RESIDENTIAL CASE STUDIES: (a) A residential case study in two large multifamily apartment buildings in Philadelphia showed a substantial 18-22% reduction in heating energy use and a 9% reduction in cooling energy use by replacing old clear glass storm windows with modern low-E storm windows. Furthermore, the new low-E storm windows reduced the overall apartment air leakage by an average of 10%. (b) Air leakage testing on interior low-E panels installed in a New York City multifamily building over windows with and without AC units showed that the effective leakage area of the windows was reduced by 77-95%. (c) To study the use of low-E storm windows in a warmer mixed climate with a balance of both heating and cooling, 10 older homes near Atlanta with single pane windows were tested with three types of exterior storm windows: clear glass, low-E glass with high solar heat gain, and low-E glass with lower solar heat gain. The storm windows significantly reduced the overall home air leakage by an average of 17%, or 3.7 ACH50. Considerably high variability in the data made it difficult to draw strong conclusions about the overall energy usage, but for heating periods, the low-E storm windows showed approximately 15% heating energy savings, whereas clear storm windows were neutral in performance. For cooling periods, the low-E storm windows showed a wide range of performance from 2% to over 30% cooling energy savings. Overall, the study showed the potential for significantly more energy savings from using low-E glass versus no storm window or clear glass storm windows in warmer mixed climates, but it is difficult to conclusively say whether one type of low-E performed

  3. Solar Convective Furnace for Metals Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patidar, Deepesh; Tiwari, Sheetanshu; Sharma, Piyush; Pardeshi, Ravindra; Chandra, Laltu; Shekhar, Rajiv

    2015-11-01

    Metals processing operations, primarily soaking, heat treatment, and melting of metals are energy-intensive processes using fossil fuels, either directly or indirectly as electricity, to operate furnaces at high temperatures. Use of concentrated solar energy as a source of heat could be a viable "green" option for industrial heat treatment furnaces. This paper introduces the concept of a solar convective furnace which utilizes hot air generated by an open volumetric air receiver (OVAR)-based solar tower technology. The potential for heating air above 1000°C exists. Air temperatures of 700°C have already been achieved in a 1.5-MWe volumetric air receiver demonstration plant. Efforts to retrofit an industrial aluminium soaking furnace for integration with a solar tower system are briefly described. The design and performance of an OVAR has been discussed. A strategy for designing a 1/15th-scale model of an industrial aluminium soaking furnace has been presented. Preliminary flow and thermal simulation results suggest the presence of recirculating flow in existing furnaces that could possibly result in non-uniform heating of the slabs. The multifarious uses of concentrated solar energy, for example in smelting, metals processing, and even fuel production, should enable it to overcome its cost disadvantage with respect to solar photovoltaics.

  4. Neural Network for the Prediction of Retrofitting/Reconditioning/Upgradation cost of CNC Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BHUPENDRA MISHRA

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to predict the Retrofitting/Reconditioning/Upgradation cost of used CNC Machines in manufacturing industries so as to optimize the capital investments on these activities. I find that neural network can be used to predict these costs, as there is no known relationship between the cost underconsideration and the factors responsible for the retrofitting/reconditioning/upgradation. Although few replacement model based on depreciation value of the CNC Machine, but this model fails to account the effect of technological obsolescence, mechanical condition of the machine and the substantial change in the productiontechnology and valid only for the capital retirement, but not able to determine the Retrofitting/Reconditioning/Up-gradation projects and their costing.

  5. ROPS retrofitting: measuring effectiveness of incentives and uncovering inherent barriers to success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, E M

    2005-02-01

    Tractor overturns are the leading cause of all tractor- and machinery-related fatalities in the agricultural industry. A rollover protective structure (ROPS) on a tractor is the most effective mechanism for protecting a tractor operator's life during a tractor overturn incident. Unfortunately, about half of all tractors presently in operation in the U.S. do not have a ROPS. Retrofitting such tractors with ROPS could result in an as much as a 99% reduction in fatalities associated with tractor overturns. The overall aim of this study was to determine the level of financial incentive required to motivate the maximum number of farmers to install ROPS on non-ROPS equipped tractors and thus affect the greatest level of change within the farming community. This was done by offering a range of subsidy levels by percentage and not by specific dollar amounts to a random sampling of New York farms. A secondary goal was to find any hidden problems associated with retrofitting. Study results showed that cost was not the only factor affecting farmers' reluctance to retrofit. A perceived and actual "hassle factor" was found to be endemic to the retrofitting process and a significant obstacle to farmers' willingness to retrofit, no matter the level of financial subsidy.

  6. Integrated Framework for Patient Safety and Energy Efficiency in Healthcare Facilities Retrofit Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadpour, Atefeh; Anumba, Chimay J; Messner, John I

    2016-07-01

    There is a growing focus on enhancing energy efficiency in healthcare facilities, many of which are decades old. Since replacement of all aging healthcare facilities is not economically feasible, the retrofitting of these facilities is an appropriate path, which also provides an opportunity to incorporate energy efficiency measures. In undertaking energy efficiency retrofits, it is vital that the safety of the patients in these facilities is maintained or enhanced. However, the interactions between patient safety and energy efficiency have not been adequately addressed to realize the full benefits of retrofitting healthcare facilities. To address this, an innovative integrated framework, the Patient Safety and Energy Efficiency (PATSiE) framework, was developed to simultaneously enhance patient safety and energy efficiency. The framework includes a step -: by -: step procedure for enhancing both patient safety and energy efficiency. It provides a structured overview of the different stages involved in retrofitting healthcare facilities and improves understanding of the intricacies associated with integrating patient safety improvements with energy efficiency enhancements. Evaluation of the PATSiE framework was conducted through focus groups with the key stakeholders in two case study healthcare facilities. The feedback from these stakeholders was generally positive, as they considered the framework useful and applicable to retrofit projects in the healthcare industry.

  7. Process heat in California: Applications and potential for solar energy in the industrial, agricultural and commercial sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, R. H.; Bartera, R. E.; Davis, E. S.; Hlavka, G. E.; Pivirotto, D. S.; Yanow, G.

    1978-01-01

    A summary of the results of a survey of potential applications of solar energy for supplying process heat requirements in the industrial, agricultural, and commercial sectors of California is presented. Technical, economic, and institutional characteristics of the three sectors are examined. Specific applications for solar energy are then discussed. Finally, implications for California energy policy are discussed along with recommendations for possible actions by the State of California.

  8. Phased Retrofits in Existing Homes in Florida Phase II: Shallow Plus Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, K. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Parker, D. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Martin, E. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Chasar, D. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Amos, B. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2016-02-03

    The BAPIRC team and Florida Power and Light (FPL) electric utility pursued a pilot phased energy-efficiency retrofit program in Florida by creating detailed data on the energy and economic performance of two levels of retrofit - simple and deep. For this Phased Deep Retrofit (PDR) project, a total of 56 homes spread across the utility partner's territory in east central Florida, southeast Florida, and southwest Florida were instrumented between August 2012 and January 2013, and received simple pass-through retrofit measures during the period of March 2013 - June 2013. Ten of these homes received a deeper package of retrofits during August 2013 - December 2013. A full account of Phase I of this project, including detailed home details and characterization, is found in Parker et al, 2015 (currently in draft). Phase II of this project, which is the focus of this report, applied the following additional retrofit measures to select homes that received a shallow retrofit in Phase I: a) Supplemental mini-split heat pump (MSHP) (6 homes); b) Ducted and space coupled Heat Pump Water Heater (8 homes); c) Exterior insulation finish system (EIFS) (1 homes); d) Window retrofit (3 homes); e) Smart thermostat (21 homes: 19 NESTs; 2 Lyrics); f) Heat pump clothes dryer (8 homes); g) Variable speed pool pump (5 homes).

  9. Post-Retrofit Residential Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lancaster, Ross; lutzenhiser, Loren; Moezzi, Mithra; Widder, Sarah H.; Chandra, Subrato; Baechler, Michael C.

    2012-04-30

    This study examined a range of factors influencing energy consumption in households that had participated in residential energy-efficiency upgrades. The study was funded by a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and was conducted by faculty and staff of Portland State University Center for Urban Studies and Department of Economics. This work was made possible through the assistance and support of the Energy Trust of Oregon (ETO), whose residential energy-efficiency programs provided the population from which the sample cases were drawn. All households in the study had participated in the ETO Home Performance with Energy Star (HPwES) program. A number of these had concurrently pursued measures through other ETO programs. Post-retrofit energy outcomes are rarely investigated on a house-by-house basis. Rather, aggregate changes are ordinarily the focus of program impact evaluations, with deviation from aggregate expectations chalked up to measurement error, the vagaries of weather and idiosyncrasies of occupants. However, understanding how homes perform post-retrofit on an individual basis can give important insights to increase energy savings at the participant and the programmatic level. Taking a more disaggregated approach, this study analyzed energy consumption data from before and after the retrofit activity and made comparisons with engineering estimates for the upgrades, to identify households that performed differently from what may have been expected based on the estimates. A statistical analysis using hierarchal linear models, which accounted for weather variations, was performed looking separately at gas and electrical use during the periods before and after upgrades took place. A more straightforward comparison of billing data for 12-month periods before and after the intervention was also performed, yielding the majority of the cases examined. The later approach allowed total energy use and costs to be

  10. 基于工业以太网矿山综合自动化系统改造设计%Based on industrial Ethernet retrofit design of the mine integrated automation system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卜玉明

    2016-01-01

    Aiming at the non-ferrous metallurgical mines in the automation of information transfor-mation, due to the lack of overall planning and cause the system into different system, cannot communi-cation with each other, so that the whole mine production information island, cannot achieve centralized monitoring, causing the construction investment is high, the maintenance of the huge amount of prob-lems. This paper combines the digital mine of information construction requirements, designed the com-prehensive automation retrofit mine of nonferrous metallurgy. Practice shows that, this design solves the integration problem of metallurgical mines ERP/MES/PCS communication, realize centralized monitoring of large metallurgical mines, reduce the engineering investment, reducing the amount of maintenance, and has great popularization and application value.%针对有色冶金矿山在自动化信息化改造中,由于缺乏整体规划而导致系统各成体系,相互之间不能通讯,使整个矿山生产出现信息孤岛,不能实现集中监控,造成建设投资高,维护量庞大的问题,该文结合数字矿山对信息化建设的要求,进行了有色冶金矿山综合自动化改造设计. 实践表明,该设计解决了冶金矿山ERP/MES/PCS通讯集成问题,实现了大型冶金矿山的集中监控,降低了工程投资,减小了维护量,具有很大的推广应用价值.

  11. Carbon Absorber Retrofit Equipment (CARE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Eric [Neumann Systems Group, Incorporated, Colorado Springs, CO (United States)

    2015-12-23

    During Project DE-FE0007528, CARE (Carbon Absorber Retrofit Equipment), Neumann Systems Group (NSG) designed, installed and tested a 0.5MW NeuStream® carbon dioxide (CO2) capture system using the patented NeuStream® absorber equipment and concentrated (6 molal) piperazine (PZ) as the solvent at Colorado Springs Utilities’ (CSU’s) Martin Drake pulverized coal (PC) power plant. The 36 month project included design, build and test phases. The 0.5MW NeuStream® CO2 capture system was successfully tested on flue gas from both coal and natural gas combustion sources and was shown to meet project objectives. Ninety percent CO2 removal was achieved with greater than 95% CO2product purity. The absorbers tested support a 90% reduction in absorber volume compared to packed towers and with an absorber parasitic power of less than 1% when configured for operation with a 550MW coal plant. The preliminary techno-economic analysis (TEA) performed by the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) predicted an over-the-fence cost of $25.73/tonne of CO2 captured from a sub-critical PC plant.

  12. Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducers Applied to High Temperature Plates for Potential Use in the Solar Thermal Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kogia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Concentrated Solar Plants (CSPs are used in solar thermal industry for collecting and converting sunlight into electricity. Parabolic trough CSPs are the most widely used type of CSP and an absorber tube is an essential part of them. The hostile operating environment of the absorber tubes, such as high temperatures (400–550 °C, contraction/expansion, and vibrations, may lead them to suffer from creep, thermo-mechanical fatigue, and hot corrosion. Hence, their condition monitoring is of crucial importance and a very challenging task as well. Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducers (EMATs are a promising, non-contact technology of transducers that has the potential to be used for the inspection of large structures at high temperatures by exciting Guided Waves. In this paper, a study regarding the potential use of EMATs in this application and their performance at high temperature is presented. A Periodic Permanent Magnet (PPM EMAT with a racetrack coil, designed to excite Shear Horizontal waves (SH0, has been theoretically and experimentally evaluated at both room and high temperatures.

  13. The small community solar thermal power experiment. Parabolic dish technology for industrial process heat application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzien, R. E.; Rodriguez, D.

    1981-01-01

    Aspects of incorporating a thermal energy transport system (ETS) into a field of parabolic dish collectors for industrial process heat (IPH) applications were investigated. Specific objectives are to: (1) verify the mathematical optimization of pipe diameters and insulation thicknesses calculated by a computer code; (2) verify the cost model for pipe network costs using conventional pipe network construction; (3) develop a design and the associated production costs for incorporating risers and downcomers on a low cost concentrator (LCC); (4) investigate the cost reduction of using unconventional pipe construction technology. The pipe network design and costs for a particular IPH application, specifically solar thermally enhanced oil recovery (STEOR) are analyzed. The application involves the hybrid operation of a solar powered steam generator in conjunction with a steam generator using fossil fuels to generate STEOR steam for wells. It is concluded that the STEOR application provides a baseline pipe network geometry used for optimization studies of pipe diameter and insulation thickness, and for development of comparative cost data, and operating parameters for the design of riser/downcomer modifications to the low cost concentrator.

  14. Solar Access to Public Capital (SAPC) Working Group: Best Practices in Commercial and Industrial (C&I) Solar Photovoltaic System Installation; Period of Performance: November 28, 2014-September 1, 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, Chris [Inst. of Building Technology and Safety (IBTS), Ashbum, VA (United States); Loomans, Len [Acuity Power, Wellesley Hills, MA (United States); Truitt, Andrew [Acuity Power, Wellesley Hills, MA (United States); Lockhart, Robert [Acuity Power, Wellesley Hills, MA (United States); Golden, Matt [Efficiency.org, San Francisco, CA (United States); Dabbagh, Kareem [Aurora Solar, Scotts Valley, CA (United States); Lawrence, Richard [North American Board of Certified Energy Practicioners (NABCEP), Clifton Park, NY (United States)

    2015-12-29

    This Best Practices in Commercial and Industrial Solar Photovoltaic System Installation Guide is the second of a series of guides designed to standardize and improve solar asset transparency for investors and rating agencies, provide an industry framework for quality management, and reduce transaction costs in the solar asset securitization process. The Best Practices in C&I PV System Installation Guide is intended to outline the minimum requirements for commercial and industrial solar project developments. Adherence to the guide is voluntary. Providers that adhere to the guide are responsible for self-certifying that they have fulfilled the guide requirements. Investors and rating agencies should verify compliance.

  15. Retrofitting automated process control systems at Ukrainian power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.E. Simkin; V.S. Naumchik; B.D. Kozitskii (and others) [OAO L' vovORGRES, Lviv (Ukraine)

    2008-04-15

    Approaches and principles for retrofitting automated process control systems at Ukrainian power stations are considered. The results obtained from retrofitting the monitoring and control system of Unit 9 at the Burshtyn thermal power station are described.

  16. First steeps in industrial applications of solar photocatalysis in water detoxification. La utilizacion industrial de la fotocatalisis solar en la descontaminacion de aguas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, J.; Malato, S.; Romero, M.; Herrero, J.; Sanchez, M.

    1992-01-01

    A solar photocatalytic water detoxification loop for the destruction of toxic organic compounds dissolved in water has been developed at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria using parabolic trough collectors. In this report, the loop and its main design and control parameters are described as a flexible facility ready to be used for testing. (Author)

  17. Advancements in n-Type Base Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells and Their Emergence in the Photovoltaic Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atteq ur Rehman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The p-type crystalline silicon wafers have occupied most of the solar cell market today. However, modules made with n-type crystalline silicon wafers are actually the most efficient modules up to date. This is because the material properties offered by n-type crystalline silicon substrates are suitable for higher efficiencies. Properties such as the absence of boron-oxygen related defects and a greater tolerance to key metal impurities by n-type crystalline silicon substrates are major factors that underline the efficiency of n-type crystalline silicon wafer modules. The bi-facial design of n-type cells with good rear-side electronic and optical properties on an industrial scale can be shaped as well. Furthermore, the development in the industrialization of solar cell designs based on n-type crystalline silicon substrates also highlights its boost in the contributions to the photovoltaic industry. In this paper, a review of various solar cell structures that can be realized on n-type crystalline silicon substrates will be given. Moreover, the current standing of solar cell technology based on n-type substrates and its contribution in photovoltaic industry will also be discussed.

  18. Advancements in n-type base crystalline silicon solar cells and their emergence in the photovoltaic industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ur Rehman, Atteq; Lee, Soo Hong

    2013-01-01

    The p-type crystalline silicon wafers have occupied most of the solar cell market today. However, modules made with n-type crystalline silicon wafers are actually the most efficient modules up to date. This is because the material properties offered by n-type crystalline silicon substrates are suitable for higher efficiencies. Properties such as the absence of boron-oxygen related defects and a greater tolerance to key metal impurities by n-type crystalline silicon substrates are major factors that underline the efficiency of n-type crystalline silicon wafer modules. The bi-facial design of n-type cells with good rear-side electronic and optical properties on an industrial scale can be shaped as well. Furthermore, the development in the industrialization of solar cell designs based on n-type crystalline silicon substrates also highlights its boost in the contributions to the photovoltaic industry. In this paper, a review of various solar cell structures that can be realized on n-type crystalline silicon substrates will be given. Moreover, the current standing of solar cell technology based on n-type substrates and its contribution in photovoltaic industry will also be discussed.

  19. Advancements in n-Type Base Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells and Their Emergence in the Photovoltaic Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ur Rehman, Atteq; Lee, Soo Hong

    2013-01-01

    The p-type crystalline silicon wafers have occupied most of the solar cell market today. However, modules made with n-type crystalline silicon wafers are actually the most efficient modules up to date. This is because the material properties offered by n-type crystalline silicon substrates are suitable for higher efficiencies. Properties such as the absence of boron-oxygen related defects and a greater tolerance to key metal impurities by n-type crystalline silicon substrates are major factors that underline the efficiency of n-type crystalline silicon wafer modules. The bi-facial design of n-type cells with good rear-side electronic and optical properties on an industrial scale can be shaped as well. Furthermore, the development in the industrialization of solar cell designs based on n-type crystalline silicon substrates also highlights its boost in the contributions to the photovoltaic industry. In this paper, a review of various solar cell structures that can be realized on n-type crystalline silicon substrates will be given. Moreover, the current standing of solar cell technology based on n-type substrates and its contribution in photovoltaic industry will also be discussed. PMID:24459433

  20. Production of large-area polymer solar cells by industrial silk screen printing, lifetime considerations and lamination with polyethyleneterephthalate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Alstrup, J.; Spanggaard, H.

    2004-01-01

    ). The half-life based on I-sc in air for the devices were 63 h. The cells were laminated in a 125 mum PET encasement. Lamination had a negative effect on the lifetime. We demonstrate the feasibility of industrial production of large area solar cells (1 m(2)) by silk screen printing and envisage...

  1. A Multi-Criterion Analysis of Cross-Strait Co-Opetitive Strategy in the Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Chi Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The research adopts multi-criterion analysis to face cross-strait cooperative and competitive (co-opetitive strategies problem in the crystalline silicon solar cell industry between Taiwan and China. The analysis framework is based on the national competitiveness. The Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP approach and TOPSIS analysis are applied to analyze firm-level data, gathered from the solar cell companies across the Taiwan Strait. For the Taiwanese firms, their relative national competitiveness lies in technology development, domestic market, international competition in related industries, and subsidy policy. For the Chinese firms, domestic market, procurement conditions, customization, intellectual resources, risk capital, and human quality are found to be their competitive advantages. Both China and Taiwan have entered into the emerging solar cell industry, with an aim to climb beyond the ladder of catch up. The results have shown that Taiwan and China can explore the possibility of forging strategic alliances by exploiting national competitiveness on the demand side. Above all, the paper has managed to spotlight demand conditions as the crucial factors for China and Taiwan to enhance their international competitiveness in the emerging solar cell industry.

  2. A greenhouse type solar dryer for small-scale dried food industries: Development and dissemination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janjai, Serm [Solar Energy Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Silpakorn University, Nakhon Pathom 73000 (Thailand)

    2012-07-01

    In this study, a greenhouse type solar dryer for small-scale dried food industries was developed and disseminated. The dryer consists of a parabolic roof structure covered with polycarbonate sheets on a concrete floor. The system is 8.0m in width, 20.0m in length and 3.5m in height, with a loading capacity about 1,000kg of fruits or vegetables. To ensure continuous drying operation, a 100kW-LPG gas burner was incorporated to supply hot air to the dryer during cloudy or rainy days. Nine 15-W DC fans powered by three 50-W PV modules were used to ventilate the dryer. This dryer was installed for a small-scale food industry at Nakhon Pathom in Thailand to produce osmotically dehydrated tomato. To investigate its performance, the dryer was used to dry 3 batches of osmotically dehydrated tomato. Results obtained from these experiments showed that drying air temperatures in the dryer varied from 35 C to 65 C. In addition, the drying time for these products was 2-3 days shorter than that of the natural sun drying and good quality dried products were obtained. A system of differential equations describing heat and moisture transfers during drying of osmotically dehydrated tomato was also developed. The simulated results agreed well with the experimental data. For dissemination purpose, other two units of this type of dryer were constructed and tested at two locations in Thailand and satisfactory results were obtained.

  3. Preliminary operational results of the low-temperature solar industrial process heat field tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutscher, C.F.; Davenport, R.L.

    1980-06-01

    Six solar industrial process heat field tests have been in operation for a year or more - three are hot water systems and three are hot air systems. All are low-temperature projects (process heat at temperatures below 212/sup 0/F). Performance results gathered by each contractor's data acquisition system are presented and project costs and problems encountered are summarized. Flat-plate, evacuated-tube, and line-focus collectors are all represented in the program, with collector array areas ranging from 2500 to 21,000 ft/sup 2/. Collector array efficiencies ranged from 12% to 36% with net system efficiencies from 8% to 33%. Low efficiencies are attributable in some cases to high thermal losses and, for the two projects using air collectors, are due in part to high parasitic power consumption. Problems have included industrial effluents on collectors, glazing and absorber surface failures, excessive thermal losses, freezing and overheating, control problems, and data acquisition system failure. With design and data acquisition costs excluded costs of the projects ranged from $25/ft/sup 2/ to $87/ft/sup 2/ and $499/(MBtu/yr) to $1537/(MBtu/yr).

  4. In Situ Roughness Measurements for the Solar Cell Industry Using an Atomic Force Microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higinio González-Jorge

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Areal roughness parameters always need to be under control in the thin film solar cell industry because of their close relationship with the electrical efficiency of the cells. In this work, these parameters are evaluated for measurements carried out in a typical fabrication area for this industry. Measurements are made using a portable atomic force microscope on the CNC diamond cutting machine where an initial sample of transparent conductive oxide is cut into four pieces. The method is validated by making a comparison between the parameters obtained in this process and in the laboratory under optimal conditions. Areal roughness parameters and Fourier Spectral Analysis of the data show good compatibility and open the possibility to use this type of measurement instrument to perform in situ quality control. This procedure gives a sample for evaluation without destroying any of the transparent conductive oxide; in this way 100% of the production can be tested, so improving the measurement time and rate of production.

  5. 0.35% Absolute Efficiency Gain of Bifacial N-type Si Solar cells by Industrial Metal Wrap Through Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geerligs, L.J.; Guillevin, N.; Weeber, A.W.; Bultman, J.H.; Heurtault, B. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands); Zhao, Wenchao; Wang, Jianming; Shen, Yanlong; Wang, Ziqian; Chen, Yingle; Hu, Zhiyan; Li, Gaofei; Chen, Jianhui; Xiong, Jingfeng [Yingli Green Energy Holding Co., Ltd, 3399 North Chaoyang Avenue, Baoding (China)

    2012-06-15

    N-type Metal Wrap Through (n-MWT) is presented as an industrially promising back-contact technology to reach high performance of silicon solar cells and modules. It can combine benefits from both n-type base and MWT metallization. In this paper, the integration of the MWT technique with a commercial industrial bifacial n-type Si Solar cell (239 cm{sup 2}) process is described. After the integration, 0.35% absolute efficiency gain was achieved, and V{sub oc} gain and I{sub sc} gain up to 0.42% and 2.45%, respectively, were obtained, mainly attributed to reduced shadow loss and surface recombination. Based on calculations, the anticipation of further improvements for n-MWT solar cells, by taking better advantage of this integration, is also presented.

  6. Economy Controls Energy Retrofits of Danish Single-family Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Andrea; Heiselberg, Per; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    2014-01-01

    883 Danish single-family house owners completed a questionnaire about energy retrofit. The objective of this paper is, based on the survey results, to determine how Danish homeowners can be motivated to conduct energy retrofits. The conclusion is that the financial aspect of an energy retrofit...

  7. Evaluation of Crawlspace Retrofits in Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, Armin [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    In 2011 and early 2012, Building Science Corporation (BSC) collaborated with Innova Services Corporation on a multifamily community unvented crawlspace retrofit project at Oakwood Gardens in Lansdale, Pennsylvania. BSC provided design consulting services and pre- and post-retrofit evaluation, testing, and data monitoring. The existing condition was a vented crawlspace with an uninsulated floor between the crawlspace and the dwelling units above. The crawlspace was therefore a critically weak link in the building enclosure and was ripe for improvement. Saving energy was the primary interest and goal, but the greatest challenge in this unvented crawlspace retrofit project was working through a crawlspace bulk water intrusion problem caused by inadequate site drainage, window well drainage, foundation wall drainage, and a rising water table during rainy periods.

  8. Solar heat for cooling; Kampf der Kaelte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janzing, Bernward

    2011-05-15

    Solar cooling systems have been in use for several years now. The energy saving potential is enormous, but there is also much to be learned. Careful planning is required as well as early retrofitting or replacement of existing systems.

  9. Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide Retail Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Guopeng; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Weimin; Athalye, Rahul A.; Moser, Dave; Crowe, Eliot; Bengtson, Nick; Effinger, Mark; Webster, Lia; Hatten, Mike

    2011-09-19

    The Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide for Retail Buildings is a component of the Department of Energy’s Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides for Existing Buildings series. The aim of the guides is to facilitate a rapid escalation in the number of energy efficiency projects in existing buildings and to enhance the quality and depth of those projects. By presenting general project planning guidance as well as financial payback metrics for the most common energy efficiency measures, these guides provide a practical roadmap to effectively planning and implementing performance improvements for existing buildings.

  10. Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide Office Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Guopeng; Liu, Bing; Wang, Weimin; Zhang, Jian; Athalye, Rahul A.; Moser, Dave; Crowe, Eliot; Bengtson, Nick; Effinger, Mark; Webster, Lia; Hatten, Mike

    2011-09-27

    The Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide for Office Buildings is a component of the Department of Energy’s Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides for Existing Buildings series. The aim of the guides is to facilitate a rapid escalation in the number of energy efficiency projects in existing buildings and to enhance the quality and depth of those projects. By presenting general project planning guidance as well as financial payback metrics for the most common energy efficiency measures, these guides provide a practical roadmap to effectively planning and implementing performance improvements for existing buildings.

  11. National Grid Deep Energy Retrofit Pilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhauser, K. [Building Science Corporation (BSC), Somervgille, MA (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Through discussion of five case studies (test homes), this project evaluates strategies to elevate the performance of existing homes to a level commensurate with best-in-class implementation of high-performance new construction homes. The test homes featured in this research activity participated in Deep Energy Retrofit (DER) Pilot Program sponsored by the electric and gas utility National Grid in Massachusetts and Rhode Island. Building enclosure retrofit strategies are evaluated for impact on durability and indoor air quality in addition to energy performance.

  12. NDE of composite seismic retrofits to bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E. C.; Nokes, J. P.; Hawkins, G. F.

    1999-12-01

    Composite materials are being used for bridge column seismic retrofits and to rehabilitate other concrete structures. There are three different manufacturing methods for applying composites to concrete columns which are outlined in this paper. Each method has the potential for creating debonds at the composite-concrete interface and within the composite itself. Thermography is a non-destructive evaluation technique which can be used to image debonds below the composite surface. Data from thermographic tests of a variety of retrofit applications, which include examples for each of the three aforementioned manufacturing processes, are presented.

  13. Distribution and Room Air Mixing Risks to Retrofitted Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdick, A. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    An energy efficiency upgrade reduces a home’s heating and cooling load. If the load reduction is great enough and the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system warrants replacement, that system is often upgraded with a more efficient, lower capacity system that meets the load of the upgraded house. For a single-story house with floor supply air diffusers, the ducts often are removed and upgraded. For houses with ducts that are embedded in walls, the cost of demolition precludes the replacement of ducts. The challenge with the use of existing ducts is that the reduced airflow creates a decreased throw at the supply registers, and the supply air and room air do not mix well, leading to potential thermal comfort complaints. This project investigates this retrofit scenario. The issues and solutions discussed here are relevant to all climate zones, with emphasis on climates that require cooling. In this project, IBACOS performed load calculations for a two-story 1960s house and characterized duct sizes and layouts based on industry “rules of thumb” (Herk et al. 2014). The team performed duct-sizing calculations for unaltered ducts and post-retrofit airflows and examined airflow velocities and pressure changes with respect to various factors. The team then used a mocked-up duct and register setup to measure the characteristics of isothermal air—to reduce the effects of buoyancy from the observations—passing through the duct and leaving the register.

  14. Data and Analytics to Inform Energy Retrofit of High Performance Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Tianzhen; Yang, Le; Hill, David; Feng, Wei

    2014-01-25

    Buildings consume more than one-third of the world?s primary energy. Reducing energy use in buildings with energy efficient technologies is feasible and also driven by energy policies such as energy benchmarking, disclosure, rating, and labeling in both the developed and developing countries. Current energy retrofits focus on the existing building stocks, especially older buildings, but the growing number of new high performance buildings built around the world raises a question that how these buildings perform and whether there are retrofit opportunities to further reduce their energy use. This is a new and unique problem for the building industry. Traditional energy audit or analysis methods are inadequate to look deep into the energy use of the high performance buildings. This study aims to tackle this problem with a new holistic approach powered by building performance data and analytics. First, three types of measured data are introduced, including the time series energy use, building systems operating conditions, and indoor and outdoor environmental parameters. An energy data model based on the ISO Standard 12655 is used to represent the energy use in buildings in a three-level hierarchy. Secondly, a suite of analytics were proposed to analyze energy use and to identify retrofit measures for high performance buildings. The data-driven analytics are based on monitored data at short time intervals, and cover three levels of analysis ? energy profiling, benchmarking and diagnostics. Thirdly, the analytics were applied to a high performance building in California to analyze its energy use and identify retrofit opportunities, including: (1) analyzing patterns of major energy end-use categories at various time scales, (2) benchmarking the whole building total energy use as well as major end-uses against its peers, (3) benchmarking the power usage effectiveness for the data center, which is the largest electricity consumer in this building, and (4) diagnosing HVAC

  15. Phased Retrofits in Existing Homes in Florida Phase I: Shallow and Deep Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, D. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Sutherland, K. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Chasar, D. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Montemurno, J. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Amos, B. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Kono, J. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building America program, in collaboration with Florida Power and Light (FPL), conducted a phased residential energy-efficiency retrofit program. This research sought to establish impacts on annual energy and peak energy reductions from the technologies applied at two levels of retrofit - shallow and deep, with savings levels approaching the Building America program goals of reducing whole-house energy use by 40%. Under the Phased Deep Retrofit (PDR) project, we have installed phased, energy-efficiency retrofits in a sample of 56 existing, all-electric homes. End-use savings and economic evaluation results from the phased measure packages and single measures are summarized in this report.

  16. Low-E Retrofit Demonstration and Educational Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culp, Thomas D [Birch Point Consulting LLC; Wiehagen, Joseph [Home Innovation Research Labs, Inc.; Drumheller, S Craig [Home Innovation Research Labs, Inc.; Siegel, John [Quanta Technologies Inc.; Stratmoen, Todd [Larson Manufacturing

    2013-11-16

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate the capability of low-emissivity (low-E) storm windows / panels and low-E retrofit glazing systems to significantly and cost effectively improve the energy efficiency of both existing residential and commercial buildings. The key outcomes are listed below: RESIDENTIAL CASE STUDIES: (a) A residential case study in two large multifamily apartment buildings in Philadelphia showed a substantial 18-22% reduction in heating energy use and a 9% reduction in cooling energy use by replacing old clear glass storm windows with modern low-E storm windows. Furthermore, the new low-E storm windows reduced the overall apartment air leakage by an average of 10%. (b) Air leakage testing on interior low-E panels installed in a New York City multifamily building over windows with and without AC units showed that the effective leakage area of the windows was reduced by 77-95%. (c) To study the use of low-E storm windows in a warmer mixed climate with a balance of both heating and cooling, 10 older homes near Atlanta with single pane windows were tested with three types of exterior storm windows: clear glass, low-E glass with high solar heat gain, and low-E glass with lower solar heat gain. The storm windows significantly reduced the overall home air leakage by an average of 17%, or 3.7 ACH50. Considerably high variability in the data made it difficult to draw strong conclusions about the overall energy usage, but for heating periods, the low-E storm windows showed approximately 15% heating energy savings, whereas clear storm windows were neutral in performance. For cooling periods, the low-E storm windows showed a wide range of performance from 2% to over 30% cooling energy savings. Overall, the study showed the potential for significantly more energy savings from using low-E glass versus no storm window or clear glass storm windows in warmer mixed climates, but it is difficult to conclusively say whether one type of low-E performed

  17. Energetic retrofitting of industrial heat supply systems. Possibilities of enhancing the efficiency and energy conservation at large combustion engineering plants; Energetische Modernisierung industrieller Waermeversorgungssysteme. Moeglichkeiten der Effizienzsteigerung und der Energieeinsparung an grossen feuerungstechnischen Anlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-12-15

    In the contribution under consideration, the Deutsche Energie-Agentur GmbH (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on an energetic modernization of industrial heat supply systems. Possibilities of an enhancement of the energetic efficiency and energy conservation at large combustion engineering plants are described. After an introduction to this theme, the author of this contribution provides an overview of the optimization of heat supply systems, and reports on the following aspects: Optimisation of the heat demand; energy efficient heat generation; heat recovery; energy efficient conversion technology and generation technology; associate partners for more energy efficiency in industry and commerce; best practice examples.

  18. Solar Thermal Small Power Systems Study. Inventory of US industrial small electric power generating systems. [Less than 10 MW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    This inventory of small industrial electric generating systems was assembled by The Aerospace Corporation to provide a data base for analyses being conducted to estimate the potential for displacement of these fossil-fueled systems by solar thermal electric systems no larger than 10 MW in rated capacity. The approximately 2100 megawatts generating capacity of systems in this category constitutes a potential market for small solar thermal and other solar electric power systems. The sources of data for this inventory were the (former) Federal Power Commission (FPC) Form 4 Industrial Ledger and Form 12-C Ledger for 1976. Table 1 alphabetically lists generating systems located at industrial plants and at Federal government installations in each of the 50 states. These systems are differentiated by type of power plant: steam turbine, diesel generator, or gas turbine. Each listing is designated as a power system rather than a power unit because the FPC Ledgers do not provide a means of determining whether more than one unit is associated with each industrial installation. Hence, the user should consider each listing to be a system capacity rating wherein the system may consist of one or more generating units with less than 10 MW/sub e/ combined rating. (WHK)

  19. Feasibility and Basic Design of Solar Integrated Absorption Refrigeration for an Industry

    KAUST Repository

    Akhtar, Saad

    2015-08-28

    This paper presents a review of existing solar cooling technologies and a feasibility study of a solar absorption cooling system for a packaging facility at Tetrapak Lahore, Pakistan. The review includes brief description of existing chiller technologies and solar collectors. The case study includes analysis of the solar potential and design of the cooling system at considered site. The design calculations upon which the feasibility analysis is carried out are solar collector area and type, cooling capacity, cooling area. A comparison is made between solar cooling potential of Pakistan and existing sites all across the globe. Finally an economic analysis is carried out to demonstrate the financial viability of the new cooling system.

  20. A greenhouse type solar dryer for small-scale dried food industries: Development and dissemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serm Janjai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a greenhouse type solar dryer for small-scale dried food industries was developed and disseminated. The dryer consists of a parabolic roof structure covered with polycarbonate sheets on a concrete floor. The system is 8.0m in width, 20.0m in length and 3.5m in height, with a loading capacity about 1,000kg of fruits or vegetables. To ensure continuous drying operation, a 100kW-LPG gas burner was incorporated to supply hot air to the dryer during cloudy or rainy days. Nine 15-W DC fans powered by three 50-W PV modules were used to ventilate the dryer. This dryer was installed for a small-scale food industry at Nakhon Pathom in Thailand to produce osmotically dehydrated tomato. To investigate its performance, the dryer was used to dry 3 batches of osmotically dehydrated tomato. Results obtained from these experiments showed that drying air temperatures in the dryer varied from 35°C to 65°C. In addition, the drying time for these products was 2-3 days shorter than that of the natural sun drying and good quality dried products were obtained. A system of differential equations describing heat and moisture transfers during drying of osmotically dehydrated tomato was also developed. The simulated results agreed well with the experimental data. For dissemination purpose, other two units of this type of dryer were constructed and tested at two locations in Thailand and satisfactory results were obtained.

  1. Retrofiting survivability of military vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavan, Gregory H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    In Iraq the terrain was such that vehicles could be distributed horizontally, which reduced the effectiveness of mines. In the mountainous terrain of Pakistan and Afghanistan vehicles are forced to use the few, passable roads, which are dirt and easily seeded with plentiful, cheap, intelligent mines. It is desirable to reduce the losses to such mines, preferably by retrofit means that do not greatly increase weight or cost or reduce maneuverability. V-bottom vehicles - A known approach to reducing vulnerability is the Buffalo, a large vehicle developed by South Africa to address mine warfare. It has large tires, high axles, and a reinforced, v-shaped bottom that deflects the blast from explosions below. It is developed and tested in combat, but is expensive and has reduced off-road mobility. The domestic MRAP has similar cost and mobility issue. The addition of v-shaped blast deflectors to vehicles such as Humvees could act much as the deflector on a Buffalo, but a Humvee is closer to the ground, so the explosive's expansion would be reduced. The deflector would also reduce a Humvee's clearance for rough terrain, and a deflector of adequate thickness to address the blast by itself could further increase cost and reduce mobility. Reactive armor is developed and has proven effective against shaped and explosive charges from side or top attack. It detects their approach, detonates, and defeats them by interfering with jet formation. If the threat was a shaped charge from below, they would be a logical choice. But the bulk of the damage to Humvees appears to be from the blast from high explosive mines for which the colliding shock from reactive armor could increase that from the explosive. Porous materials such as sand can strongly attenuate the kinetic energy and pressure of a strong shock. Figure 1 shows the kinetic energy (KE), momentum (Mu), velocity (u), and mass (M) of a spherically expanding shock as functions of radius for a material with a porosity

  2. Nordic campus retrofitting concepts - Scalable practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Robert; Nenonen, Suvi; Junghans, Antje;

    2015-01-01

    were about the new ways of researching, collaborating and learning with the concepts of Living lab, Creative community for innovation and entrepreneurship and Network of learning hubs. The cases provided the first insights on retrofitting based on users’ changing needs and the requirements of more...

  3. Sustainable Retrofitting of Nordic University Campuses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Robert; Nenonen, Suvi; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to identify the state-of-art of Nordic campus development and identify how campus areas can be retrofitted by addition of new technologies, features, functions and services. The leading research question is: how to develop Nordic resilient campus management...

  4. Water sensitive urban design retrofits in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fryd, Ole; Backhaus, A.; Birch, H.

    2013-01-01

    Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) is emerging in Denmark. This interdisciplinary desk study investigated the options for WSUD retrofitting in a 15 km2 combined sewer catchment area in Copenhagen. The study was developed in collaboration with the City of Copenhagen and its water utility...

  5. Underwater Adhesives Retrofit Pipelines with Advanced Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Houston-based Astro Technology Inc. used a partnership with Johnson Space Center to pioneer an advanced fiber-optic monitoring system for offshore oil pipelines. The company's underwater adhesives allow it to retrofit older deepwater systems in order to measure pressure, temperature, strain, and flow properties, giving energy companies crucial data in real time and significantly decreasing the risk of a catastrophe.

  6. National Grid Deep Energy Retrofit Pilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhauser, K.

    2012-03-01

    Through discussion of five case studies (test homes), this project evaluates strategies to elevate the performance of existing homes to a level commensurate with best-in-class implementation of high-performance new construction homes. The test homes featured in this research activity participated in Deep Energy Retrofit (DER) Pilot Program sponsored by the electric and gas utility National Grid in Massachusetts and Rhode Island. Building enclosure retrofit strategies are evaluated for impact on durability and indoor air quality in addition to energy performance. Evaluation of strategies is structured around the critical control functions of water, airflow, vapor flow, and thermal control. The aim of the research project is to develop guidance that could serve as a foundation for wider adoption of high performance, 'deep' retrofit work. The project will identify risk factors endemic to advanced retrofit in the context of the general building type, configuration and vintage encountered in the National Grid DER Pilot. Results for the test homes are based on observation and performance testing of recently completed projects. Additional observation would be needed to fully gauge long-term energy performance, durability, and occupant comfort.

  7. Greenbuilt Retrofit Test House Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Earle, L.; Booten, C.; Tabares-Velasco, P. C.; Barker, G.; Hancock, C. E.

    2014-06-01

    The Greenbuilt house, is an all-electric, 1980's era home in the eastern Sacramento suburb of Fair Oaks that was retrofit by Greenbuilt Construction as part of Sacramento Municipal Utility District's (SMUD) Energy Efficient Remodel Demonstration (EERD) Program. The project was a joint effort between the design-build team at Greenbuilt Construction, led by Jim Bayless, SMUD and their project manager Mike Keesee, and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The goal of the Energy Efficient Remodel Demonstration program is to work with local builders to renovate homes with cost-effective energy efficient retrofit measures. The homes remodeled under the EERD program are intended to showcase energy efficient retrofit options for homeowners and other builders. The Greenbuilt house is one of five EERD projects that NREL has supported. NREL's main role in these projects is to provide energy analysis and to monitor the home's performance after the retrofit to verify that the energy consumption is in line with the modeling predictions. NREL also performed detailed monitoring on the more innovative equipment included in these remodels, such as an add-on heat pump water heater.

  8. Evaluation of Crawlspace Retrofits in Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, A.

    2014-09-01

    In 2011 and early 2012, Building Science Corporation (BSC) collaborated with Innova Services Corporation on a multifamily community unvented crawlspace retrofit project at Oakwood Gardens in Lansdale, Pennsylvania. BSC provided design consulting services and pre- and post-retrofit evaluation, testing, and data monitoring. The existing condition was a vented crawlspace with an uninsulated floor between the crawlspace and the dwelling units above. The crawlspace was therefore a critically weak link in the building enclosure and was ripe for improvement. Saving energy was the primary interest and goal, but the greatest challenge in this unvented crawlspace retrofit project was working through a crawlspace bulk water intrusion problem caused by inadequate site drainage, window well drainage, foundation wall drainage, and a rising water table during rainy periods. While the unvented crawlspace retrofit was effective in reducing heat loss, and the majority of the bulk water drainage problems had been resolved, the important finding was that some of the wood joists embedded in masonry pockets behind the brick veneer were showing signs of moisture damage.

  9. Homeowner Best Practices Guide for Residential Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain S.

    2005-09-01

    This best practices guide for HV AC system retrofits is aimed at homeowners who want guidance on upgrading their heating, cooling and ventilation (HVAC) systems and integrating these upgrades with other changes to their home. It has been developed around the idea of having packages of changes to the building HV AC system and building envelope that are climate and house construction dependent. These packages include materials procedures and equipment, and are designed to remove some of the guesswork when selecting a builder, contractor, or installer. The packages are not meant to be taken as rigid requirements - instead they are systems engineered guidelines that form the basis for energy efficient retrofits. Similar approaches have been taken previously for new construction, where a systems engineering approach has been used to develop extremely energy-efficient homes that are comfortable safe and durable, and often cost less than standard construction. This approach is best epitomized by the Building America program, whose partners have built thousands of residences throughout the U.S. using these principles. The differences between retrofitting and new construction tend to limit the changes one can make to a building, so these packages rely on relatively simple and non-intrusive technologies and techniques. The retrofits also focus on changes to a building that will give many years of service to the occupants. Another key aspect of these best practices is that we need to know how a house is working so that we know what parts have the potential for improvement. To do this we have put together a set of simple tests that a homeowner can perform on their own together with checklists and questionnaires. The measured test results, observations and homeowner answers to questions are used to direct us towards the best retrofits applicable to each individual house. The retrofits will depend on the current condition of the building envelope and HV AC system, the local

  10. Great efforts required: Solar industry in Chile. Chile's solar industry is small but rapidly expanding; Noch viel zu tun. Die Solarbranche in Chile ist klein, aber sie entwickelt sich in raschem Tempo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosell, Alejandro Diego

    2010-03-15

    The photovoltaics industry in Chile so far has been radly noticed. There are a small number of manufacturers and installers of lamps and isolated photovoltaic systems wo started a regional sector that is working on opening a market for solar technology. After five hard years, the business is now facing better prospects. The Chilean government, too, is making efforts now to attract foreign investors. (orig.)

  11. RETROFITTING – A METHOD TO INCREASE THE RESISTANCE OF WOOD ELEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina IANĂŞI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the defining features of a new material is to be resistant, easy to process, to combine the qualities of basic materials, in the current technique, but not to borrow from them their negative properties. In recent years, carbon fiber composites have been increasingly used in different ways in reinforcing structural elements. Its use in industry can be either for retrofitting to strengthen an existing structure or as an alternative reinforcing (or pre-stressing material instead of steel from the outset of a project. Retrofitting has become the increasingly dominant use of the material in civil engineering, and applications include increasing the load capacity of old structures (such as bridges that were designed to tolerate far lower service loads than they are experiencing today, seismic retrofitting, and repair of damaged structures. Retrofitting is popular in many instances as the cost of replacing the deficient structure can greatly exceed its strengthening using CFRP. Specifically, the use of composite materials as a reinforcement for wood beams under bending loads requires paying attention to several aspects of the problem such as the number of the composite layers applied on the wood beams.

  12. Improving Occupant Wellness in Commercial Office Buildings through Energy Conservation Retrofits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. McArthur

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing literature demonstrating the link between building indoor environmental quality, and occupant health and productivity, driving the corporate real estate industry to investigate how to integrate wellness features in both new and existing building stock. Meanwhile, new voluntary standards to promote occupant health are becoming adopted alongside sustainability standards. As commercial building owners and tenants seek to improve occupant conditions and incorporate wellness, apparently conflicting priorities must be balanced, particularly improving indoor environmental conditions has the potential to increase energy. This paper presents a framework to consider retrofits holistically and considering the benefit of improved conditions both qualitatively and quantitatively. Where poor conditions exist, published literature demonstrates a lost productivity cost that exceeds typical building energy costs, and this is quantified in the financial analysis presented. Energy retrofits provide a unique opportunity to integrate wellness-enabling features because the energy savings can offset marginal energy or operating cost increases for particular wellness interventions. This paper presents a flexible, customizable framework to develop potential retrofit bundles and evaluate them considering economic, sustainability, wellness, risk and occupant experience factors to identify the optimal zone of retrofit. An illustrative case study using real building data demonstrates how the framework might be applied to a real project and customized to achieve unique stakeholder priorities.

  13. Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing Research Program, Center for Housing Innovation, University of Oregon and the Florida Solar Energy Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, G.Z.

    1990-01-01

    This research program addresses the need to increase the energy efficiency of industrialized housing. Two research centers have responsibility for the program: the Center for Housing Innovation at the University of Oregon and the Florida Solar Energy Center, a research institute of the University of Central Florida. The two organizations provide complementary architectural, systems engineering, and industrial engineering capabilities. In 1989 we worked on these tasks: (1) the formation of a steering committee, (2) the development of a multiyear research plan, (3) analysis of the US industrialized housing industry, (4) assessment of foreign technology, (5) assessment of industrial applications, (6) analysis of computerized design and evaluation tools, and (7) assessment of energy performance of baseline and advanced industrialized housing concepts. The current research program, under the guidance of a steering committee composed of industry and government representatives, focuses on three interdependent concerns -- (1) energy, (2) industrial process, and (3) housing design. Building homes in a factory offers the opportunity to increase energy efficiency through the use of new materials and processes, and to increase the value of these homes by improving the quality of their construction. Housing design strives to ensure that these technically advanced homes are marketable and will meet the needs of the people who will live in them.

  14. Viability of Carbon Capture and Sequestration Retrofits for Existing Coal-Fired Power Plants under an Emission Trading Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talati, Shuchi; Zhai, Haibo; Morgan, M Granger

    2016-12-06

    Using data on the coal-fired electric generating units (EGUs) in Texas we assess the economic feasibility of retrofitting existing units with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) in order to comply with the Clean Power Plan's rate-based emission standards under an emission trading scheme. CCS with 90% capture is shown to be more economically attractive for a range of existing units than purchasing emission rate credits (ERCs) from a trading market at an average credit price above $28 per MWh under the final state standard and $35 per MWh under the final national standard. The breakeven ERC trading prices would decrease significantly if the captured CO2 were sold for use in enhanced oil recovery, making CCS retrofits viable at lower trading prices. The combination of ERC trading and CO2 use can greatly reinforce economic incentives and market demands for CCS and hence accelerate large-scale deployment, even under scenarios with high retrofit costs. Comparing the levelized costs of electricity generation between CCS retrofits and new renewable plants under the ERC trading scheme, retrofitting coal-fired EGUs with CCS may be significantly cheaper than new solar plants under some market conditions.

  15. Study Guide for Fundamentals of Solar Heating: A Correspondence Course for the Airconditioning Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors National Association, Vienna, VA.

    This study guide groups eleven lessons into four study units. The first unit discusses the development and basic concepts of solar heating. The second unit deals with the nomenclature of the solar heating system. The third study unit covers sizing of the solar heating system to meet demand and discusses the operation of the total system. The…

  16. Energy-Efficiency Retrofits in Small-Scale Multifamily Rental Housing: A Business Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeChambeau, Brian

    The goal of this thesis to develop a real estate investment model that creates a financial incentive for property owners to perform energy efficiency retrofits in small multifamily rental housing in southern New England. The medium for this argument is a business plan that is backed by a review of the literature and input from industry experts. In addition to industry expertise, the research covers four main areas: the context of green building, efficient building technologies, precedent programs, and the Providence, RI real estate market for the business plan. The thesis concludes that the model proposed can improve the profitability of real estate investment in small multifamily rental properties, though the extent to which this is possible depends partially on utility-run incentive programs and the capital available to invest in retrofit measures.

  17. Solar production of industrial process hot water: Operation and evaluation of the Campbell Soup hot water solar facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kull, J. I.; Neimeyer, W. N.; Youngblood, S. B.

    1980-12-01

    The operation and evaluation of a solar hot water facility is summarized. The period of evaluation was for 12 months from October 1979 through September 1980. The objective of the work was to obtain additional, long term data on the operation and performance of the facility. Minor modifications to the facility were completed. The system was operated for 15 months, and 12 months of detailed data were evaluated. The facility was available for operation and of the time during the last 8 months of evaluation. A detailed description of the solar facility and of the operating experience is given, and a summary of system performance for the 12 month operation/evaluation period is presented. Recommendations for large scale solar facilities based on this project's experience are given, and an environmental impact assessment is provided.

  18. White Paper: Unleashing Energy Efficiency Retrofits Through Energy Performance Contracts in China and the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Price, Lynn [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Liu, Manzhi [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Meng, Lu [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Miao, Pei [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dai, Fan [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Evans, Meredydd [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Yu, Sha [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Roshchanka, Volha [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Energy performance contracting (EPC) is a mechanism that uses private sector investment and expertise to deploy energy efficiency retrofits in buildings, industries, and other types of facilities. China and the United States both have large, growing EPC markets. This White Paper shares key insights on each market, including strengths and barriers inherent to these markets, compares the two markets, and sets forth options for enhancing EPC markets in each country. The White Paper concludes with recommendations structured around common goals of both countries.

  19. Varieties of Innovation: The Creation of Wind and Solar Industries in China, Germany, and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Bayer   chemical.   Siemens   retired   its   solar   technology   and   instead   bought   the   American   Cirm...industrial   laboratories   at   Siemens,   Bayer ,   Wacker  Chemical,   and  Deutsche  Aerospace,   but   was  lacking...www.vensys.de/energy/ unternehmen/historie.php.  (Accessed  March  15,  2012). Vernon,   Raymond .  1966.   International  

  20. Situation of China's solar water heater industry, related national standards, testing and the Golden Sun certification program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Jun; H.Druck; H.Muller-Steinhagen

    2008-01-01

    China is the largest solar water heater producer and market in the world. Despite the fast growth and an installed capacity that accounts for the majority of the global gross, China's per capita solar hot water capacity is still very low, implying a huge margin of market potential; and the recognition of the industry in the global market is handicapped by the scattered scale of production and inconsistent product quality. To ensure continued growth of China's solar water heating (SWH) industry, Chinese Government has established a series of national SWH standards, three national testing centers, and a certification program to lay the foundation for the development of the Golden Sun product labeling system. China General Certification Center (CGC) developed the Golden Sun product certification and labeling system on a pass/fail basis evaluating with established criteria. The system was designed to help manufacturers acclimate to explicit consistent requirements and to identify and fix the deficiencies in the design and execution of the program itself. Timely revision and integration of the national standards are recommended to accommodate the test procedures and requirements to new technologies and the evolving SWH market. Strict implementation of the Golden Sun certification and labeling system are suggested to avail improving the quality control and forging internationally reputable brands of Chinese solar water heating products.

  1. Monitoring solar gain. Performance of an industrial-scale solar thermal power system; Anlagenertraege kontrollieren. Betriebsergebnisse einer solarthermischen Grossanlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haug, W.; Rittmann, B. [Fachhochschule Aalen (Germany)

    2001-05-01

    The Carl-Schneider students' hostel of Aalen Technical University gets its warm water from a solar systems. A faulty return valve was detected during a routine check, and the authors therefore stress the need for continuous monitoring of solar systems. [German] Eine Solarwaermeanlage versorgt das Carl-Schneider-Studentenheim der Fachhochschule Aalen mit Warmwasser. Sie funktioniert tadellos. Dem war nicht immer so. Ein klemmendes Rueckschlagventil waere wohl nie entdeckt worden, haette es nicht eine Abnahmemessung gegeben. Die Autoren, Professoren an der Fachhochschule, plaedieren deshalb fuer eine kontinuierliche Ueberwachung von Solaranlagen. (orig.)

  2. Villacidro solar demo plant: Integration of small-scale CSP and biogas power plants in an industrial microgrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerada, M.; Cau, G.; Cocco, D.; Damiano, A.; Demontis, V.; Melis, T.; Musio, M.

    2016-05-01

    The integration of small scale concentrating solar power (CSP) in an industrial district, in order to develop a microgrid fully supplied by renewable energy sources, is presented in this paper. The plant aims to assess in real operating conditions, the performance, the effectiveness and the reliability of small-scale concentrating solar power technologies in the field of distributed generation. In particular, the potentiality of small scale CSP with thermal storage to supply dispatchable electricity to an industrial microgrid will be investigated. The microgrid will be realized in the municipal waste treatment plant of the Industrial Consortium of Villacidro, in southern Sardinia (Italy), which already includes a biogas power plant. In order to achieve the microgrid instantaneous energy balance, the analysis of the time evolution of the waste treatment plant demand and of the generation in the existing power systems has been carried out. This has allowed the design of a suitable CSP plant with thermal storage and an electrochemical storage system for supporting the proposed microgrid. At the aim of obtaining the expected energy autonomy, a specific Energy Management Strategy, which takes into account the different dynamic performances and characteristics of the demand and the generation, has been designed. In this paper, the configuration of the proposed small scale concentrating solar power (CSP) and of its thermal energy storage, based on thermocline principle, is initially described. Finally, a simulation study of the entire power system, imposing scheduled profiles based on weather forecasts, is presented.

  3. New industrial titania photocatalysts for the solar detoxification of water containing various pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Jean-Marie; Guillard, Chantal; Disdier, Jean [URA au CNRS, Photocatalyse, Catalyse et Environment, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, B.P. 163, 69131 Ecully -Cedex (France); Lehaut, Corinne [Millennium Inorganic Chemicals, 85 Avenue Victor Hugo, 92563 Cedex Rueil-Malmaison (France); Malato, Sixto; Blanco, Julian [Plataforma Solar de Almeria, CIEMAT, 04200 Tabernas (Spain)

    2002-01-25

    A new series of titania industrial photocatalysts have been elaborated by Millennium Inorganic Chemicals and were denoted Millennium-PC/10, PC/25 and PC/50 with respective specific surface areas equal to 11, 23 and 43m{sup 2}g{sup -1}. Their photocatalytic activities have been determined and compared in the solar pilot CPC-photoreactor at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA) (Spain) in the photocatalytic degradation of four different representative pollutants (4-chlorophenol, nitrobenzene, 2-chlorobenzoic acid and hydrobutanedioic (malic) acid), whose degradation pathways had previously been elucidated in laboratory experiments with artificial light, using titania Degussa P-25 as a reference photocatalyst. The study concerned the influence of (1) the nature of organic pollutants, (2) the surface area and (3) the concentration of suspended TiO{sub 2}. The affinity of the pollutants for TiO{sub 2} and the presence of heteroatoms in the reactant molecules intervened on the activities of Millennium-PCs when compared to Degussa P-25. The higher the affinity of the organic pollutants for titania, the higher the efficiency of Millennium-PC/10 photocatalyst calibrated on the initial rate of pollutant disappearance. The degradation pathways were found similar for both photocatalysts and the primary steps of the degradation for the different types of molecules were discussed. 4-Chlorophenol (4-CP), a model pollutant for waste waters, was then chosen for the study of the influence of the surface areas and of the concentration of Millennium-PC photocatalysts. The initial apparent rate constants of 4-CP degradation in presence of all Millennium-PC catalysts were all higher than that obtained with Degussa P-25. When choosing the total organic carbon (TOC) disappearance rate as an overall kinetic parameter, Millennium-PC/10 and PC/25 appeared as less active than Degussa P-25, with longer solar exposures (by about 10%) necessary to obtain a total mineralisation. However

  4. Understanding and development of cost-effective industrial aluminum back surface field (Al-BSF) silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nian

    For the long-term strategy of gradual decarbonization of the world's energy supply, high penetration of PV electricity is critical in the future world energy landscape. In order to achieve this, solar electricity with competitive cost to fossil fuel energy is necessary. To be able to obtain high efficiency solar cells, many advanced cell architectures have been developed commercially by PV industry. However, the fabrication of these cells necessitates complex processing steps and high requirements on semiconductor materials, which make it not as cost-effective as the state-of-the-art conventional Al-BSF structure. In order to keep the cost of PV cell low and improve on the efficiency with fewer processing steps, this thesis work focuses on the understanding of the conventional Al-BSF solar cell structure. The research work therefore, focuses on the (i) design, and modeling of front metal electrodes including the use of multi-bus-bar capable of decreasing the gridline resistance, (ii) fine-line printing and (iii) metal contact co-firing using high belt speed that is not common to the solar industry to achieve ~20% efficient industrial Al-BSF silicon solar cells. In order to achieve the objectives of this thesis work, firstly, the appropriate Al paste was investigated for lowest back surface recombination velocity (BSRV), which gives high open circuit voltage (Voc). Secondly, the impact of emitter sheet resistance on solar cell performance was modeled to determine the optimal sheet resistance, and the uniformity of emitter was also investigated. Thirdly, modeling on the front metal electrodes was carried out to investigate the optimal number of busbars, and determine the optimum number of gridlines and gridline geometries that would result in low series resistance (Rs), high fill factor (FF) and hence high efficiency. Fourthly, the modeled results were experimentally validated through fine-line printing and optimized contact co-firing. By combining each layer to make

  5. The potential for solar heat for industrial processes - A preliminary study of Swedish possibilities; Solenergi i industriell processvaerme. En foerstudie av svenska moejligheter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, Peter; Quicklund, Henrik; Pettersson, Ulrik

    2003-06-01

    This report starts with a short introduction to solar thermal energy applications in Sweden and to the utilization of energy in general in the Swedish industry. The investigation is focusing on options for industrial solar heating applications. As waste heat recovery in many cases is competing with, or might be supplemented by solar heat, this field is also given some attention in the study. The conclusions are that possible applications are numerous, mainly within food- and mechanical industries, but that low prices on energy, unused potentials for heat recovery and low awareness about the possibilities for solar heat makes the situation tough today. Increasing prices on electricity and oil and decreasing costs for solar energy combined with a continuously growing awareness about environmental issues are key factors that speak for solar heating in a longer perspective. The large potential for industrial solar heat will be in countries further south and this may offer opportunities for Swedish industry to export products and knowledge. Some companies offers large scale solutions for solar heating and research competence within material science and optics will be needed in the development of new collector types. Swedish technology for district heating- and cooling and heat storage in boreholes could also be applied in large scale industrial applications. The literature study on waste heat recovery shows that 90 % of the waste heat comes from the large energy consumers in industry: Pulp and paper, chemical, petroleum and steel and metal industries. Almost everything is used for district heating. The potential for waste heat recovery in Sweden has been largely underestimated by several studies during the nineties and the development has been quite remarkable.

  6. Cascade Apartments: Deep Energy Multifamily Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, A. [Washington State Univ. Energy Program, Olympia, WA (United States); Mattheis, L. [Washington State Univ. Energy Program, Olympia, WA (United States); Kunkle, R. [Washington State Univ. Energy Program, Olympia, WA (United States); Howard, L. [Washington State Univ. Energy Program, Olympia, WA (United States); Lubliner, M. [Washington State Univ. Energy Program, Olympia, WA (United States)

    2014-02-01

    In December of 2009-10, King County Housing Authority (KCHA) implemented energy retrofit improvements in the Cascade multifamily community, located in Kent, Washington (marine climate.)This research effort involved significant coordination from stakeholders KCHA, WA State Department of Commerce, utility Puget Sound Energy, and Cascade tenants. This report focuses on the following three primary BA research questions: 1. What are the modeled energy savings using DOE low income weatherization approved TREAT software? 2. How did the modeled energy savings compare with measured energy savings from aggregate utility billing analysis? 3. What is the Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) of the retrofit package after considering utility window incentives and KCHA capitol improvement funding.

  7. Cascade Apartments: Deep Energy Multifamily Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, A.; Mattheis, L.; Kunkle, R.; Howard, L.; Lubliner, M.

    2014-02-01

    In December of 2009-10, King County Housing Authority (KCHA) implemented energy retrofit improvements in the Cascade multifamily community, located in Kent, Washington (marine climate.)This research effort involved significant coordination from stakeholders KCHA, WA State Department of Commerce, utility Puget Sound Energy, and Cascade tenants. This report focuses on the following three primary BA research questions : 1. What are the modeled energy savings using DOE low income weatherization approved TREAT software? 2. How did the modeled energy savings compare with measured energy savings from aggregate utility billing analysis? 3. What is the Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) of the retrofit package after considering utility window incentives and KCHA capitol improvement funding.

  8. Detection of manufacturing flaws in composite retrofits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Gary F.; Johnson, Eric C.; Nokes, James P.

    1999-02-01

    Composite materials are being used for bridge column seismic retrofits and to rehabilitate other concrete structures. There are three different manufacturing methods for applying composites to concrete columns which are outlined in this paper. Each method has the potential for creating debonds at the composite-concrete interface and within the composite itself. Thermography is a non-destructive evaluation technique which can be used to image debonds below the composite surface. Background fundamentals of the thermographic technique are discussed. Data from thermographic tests of a variety of retrofit applications, which include examples for each of the three aforementioned manufacturing processes, are then presented. The paper concludes with a list of issues which need to be addressed when performing a thermographic inspection in the field.

  9. Retrofit California Overview and Final Reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choy, Howard; Rosales, Ana

    2014-03-01

    Energy efficiency retrofits (also called upgrades) are widely recognized as a critical component to achieving energy savings in the building sector to help lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. To date, however, upgrades have accounted for only a small percentage of aggregate energy savings in building stock, both in California and nationally. Although the measures and technologies to retrofit a building to become energy efficient are readily deployed, establishing this model as a standard practice remains elusive. Retrofit California sought to develop and test new program models to increase participation in the energy upgrade market in California. The Program encompassed 24 pilot projects, conducted between 2010 and mid-2013 and funded through a $30 million American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) grant from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Better Buildings Neighborhood Program (BBNP). The broad scope of the Program can be seen in the involvement of the following regionally based Grant Partners: Los Angeles County (as prime grantee); Association of Bay Area Governments (ABAG), consisting of: o StopWaste.org for Alameda County o Regional Climate Protection Authority (RCPA) for Sonoma County o SF Environment for the City and County of San Francisco o City of San Jose; California Center for Sustainable Energy (CCSE) for the San Diego region; Sacramento Municipal Utilities District (SMUD). Within these jurisdictions, nine different types of pilots were tested with the common goal of identifying, informing, and educating the people most likely to undertake energy upgrades (both homeowners and contractors), and to provide them with incentives and resources to facilitate the process. Despite its limited duration, Retrofit California undoubtedly succeeded in increasing awareness and education among home and property owners, as well as contractors, realtors, and community leaders. However, program results indicate that a longer timeframe will be needed to

  10. Evaluation of Eco-Efficiency and Performance of Retrofit Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Smitha; Rama Chandra Murthy, A.; Iyer, Nagesh R.; Kokila, S.

    2015-12-01

    In this work three materials namely Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP), ferrocement and Textile Reinforced Concrete (TRC) have been evaluated towards their performance efficiency and eco-effectiveness for sustainable retrofitting applications. Investigations have been carried out for flexural strengthening of RC beams with FRP, ferrocement and TRC. It is observed that in the case of FRP, it is not possible to tailor the material according to design requirements and most of the time strengthened structure becomes over stiff. Eco-effectiveness of these retrofitting materials has been evaluated by computing the embodied energy. It is observed that the amount of CO2 emitted by TRC is less compared to other retrofit materials. Further, the performance point of retrofitted RC frames has been evaluated and damage index has been calculated to find out the effective retrofit material. It is concluded that, if RC frame is retrofitted with FRP and TRC, it undergoes less damage compared to ferrocement.

  11. Environmental sustainability of the solar photo-Fenton process for wastewater treatment and pharmaceuticals mineralization at semi-industrial scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foteinis, Spyros; Monteagudo, Jose Maria; Durán, Antonio; Chatzisymeon, Efthalia

    2017-08-31

    The environmental sustainability of a semi-industrial solar photo-Fenton reactor, treating real effluents emanating from a pharmaceutical laboratory, is assessed herein. The life cycle assessment/analysis (LCA) methodology was employed and real life cycle inventory (LCI) data was collected from a ferrioxalate-assisted homogeneous solar photo-Fenton wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), at Ciudad Real, Spain. Electricity was provided by photovoltaic (PV) panels in tandem with a battery bank, making the plant autonomous from the local grid. The effective treatment of 1m(3) of secondary-treated pharmaceutical wastewater, containing antipyrine, was used as a functional unit. The main environmental hotspot was identified to be the chemical reagents used to enhance treatment efficiency, mainly hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and to a smaller degree oxalic acid. On the other hand, land use, PV panels, battery units, compound parabolic collectors (CPC), tanks, pipes and pumps, as materials, had a low contribution, ranging from as little as 0.06% up to about 2% on the total CO2eq emissions. Overall, the solar photo-Fenton process was found to be a sustainable technology for treating wastewater containing micropollutants at semi-industrial level, since the total environmental footprint was found to be 2.71kgCO2m(-3) or 272mPtm(-3), using IPCC 2013 and ReCiPe impact assessment methods, respectively. A sensitivity analysis revealed that if the excess of solar power is fed back into the grid then the total environmental footprint is reduced. Depending on the amount of solar power fed back into the grid the process could have a near zero total environmental footprint. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of Home Retrofit Programs in Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, Kerrie [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership; Hannigan, Eileen [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership

    2013-03-01

    To explore ways to reduce customer barriers and increase home retrofit completions, several different existing home retrofit models have been implemented in the state of Wisconsin. This study compared these programs' performance in terms of savings per home and program cost per home to assess the relative cost-effectiveness of each program design. However, given the many variations in these different programs, it is difficult to establish a fair comparison based on only a small number of metrics. Therefore, the overall purpose of the study is to document these programs' performance in a case study approach to look at general patterns of these metrics and other variables within the context of each program. This information can be used by energy efficiency program administrators and implementers to inform home retrofit program design. Six different program designs offered in Wisconsin for single-family energy efficiency improvements were included in the study. For each program, the research team provided information about the programs' approach and goals, characteristics, achievements and performance. The program models were then compared with performance results-program cost and energy savings-to help understand the overall strengths and weaknesses or challenges of each model.

  13. Comparison of Home Retrofit Programs in Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, K.; Hannigan, E.

    2013-03-01

    To explore ways to reduce customer barriers and increase home retrofit completions, several different existing home retrofit models have been implemented in the state of Wisconsin. This study compared these programs' performance in terms of savings per home and program cost per home to assess the relative cost-effectiveness of each program design. However, given the many variations in these different programs, it is difficult to establish a fair comparison based on only a small number of metrics. Therefore, the overall purpose of the study is to document these programs' performance in a case study approach to look at general patterns of these metrics and other variables within the context of each program. This information can be used by energy efficiency program administrators and implementers to inform home retrofit program design. Six different program designs offered in Wisconsin for single-family energy efficiency improvements were included in the study. For each program, the research team provided information about the programs' approach and goals, characteristics, achievements and performance. The program models were then compared with performance results -- program cost and energy savings -- to help understand the overall strengths and weaknesses or challenges of each model.

  14. Intelligent FRP retrofits for critical civil infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guoliang; Peters, Kara

    2007-04-01

    In this paper, the concept, modeling and preliminary testing of an intelligent FRP retrofit with self-monitoring capabilities for critical civil infrastructures are presented. This intelligent system is based on an easy-to-apply configuration of FRP pre-preg tapes with multiple stacked unidirectional layers of piezoelectric or SMA actuators and integrated optical fiber sensors. This intelligent retrofit will be able to not only monitor conditions including bonding of the FRP to the structure and opening of concrete cracks, but also minimize the crack opening and retard the progression of further FRP debonding. Towards this end, a computationally efficient two-dimensional shear stress-transfer model based on a simplified shear lag analysis is developed, with consideration of the fact that the stress transfer between the FRP, actuator and sensor layers in the intelligent system is complex. The effectiveness of this model is demonstrated through one numerical benchmark problem and one typical FRP configuration, with comparison of each to full threedimensional finite element models. The agreement between the two formulations is shown to be further improved by adjustment of the assumed shape functions. A preliminary experiment is also presented in which pre-fabricated optical fiber ribbons are embedded into the FRP strengthening of a full-scale concrete beam. Results from static loading test of the FRP strengthened beam show the feasibility of this technique for the self-monitoring FRP retrofits.

  15. Plasma texturing on large-area industrial grade CZ silicon solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Nordseth, Ørnulf; Boisen, Anja

    2013-01-01

    We report on an experimental study of nanostructuring of silicon solar cells using reactive ion etching (RIE). A simple mask-less, scalable RIE nanostructuring of the solar cell surface is shown to reduce the AM1.5-weighted average reflectance to a level below 1 % in a fully optimized RIE texturing...

  16. Actual and Estimated Energy Savings Comparison for Deep Energy Retrofits in the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, Jeremy; Widder, Sarah H.; Giever, Elisabeth L.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2012-10-01

    -predicted to 77% over-predicted by the model with respect to monitored energy use. Many of the discrepancies were associated with occupant behavior which influences energy use, dramatically in some cases, actual versus modeled weather differences, modeling input limitations, and complex homes that are difficult to model. The discrepancy between actual and estimated energy use indicates a need for better modeling tools and assumptions. Despite the best efforts of researchers, the estimated energy savings are too inaccurate to determine reliable paybacks for retrofit projects. While the monitored data allows researchers to understand why these differences exist, it is not cost effective to monitor each home with the level of detail presented here. Therefore an appropriate balance between modeling and monitoring must be determined for more widespread application in retrofit programs and the home performance industry. Recommendations to address these deficiencies include: (1) improved tuning process for pre-retrofit energy use, which currently utilized broad-based monthly utility bills; (2) developing simple occupant-based energy models that better address the many different occupant types and their impact on energy use; (3) incorporating actual weather inputs to increase accuracy of the tuning process, which uses utility bills from specific time period; and (4) developing simple, cost-effective monitoring solutions for improved model tuning.

  17. Life cycle cost-based risk model for energy performance contracting retrofits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghorn, George H.

    framework describing the sources of and mitigation strategies employed for assessing key risks in EPC retrofits; (3) to develop a strategy for analyzing and evaluating risks for EPC retrofits focused on managing expected costs throughout the project life cycle, and use data collected through this strategy to develop and parameterize a risk model; and (4) to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed life cost-based risk model through a pilot application to a case study site. Five major contributions to the body of knowledge resulting from the research include: (1) a consensus-based assessment of ESCO risk management; (2) characterization of EPC retrofit risks borne by ESCOs; (3) an empirical evaluation of scenario failure mode and effects analysis and its application to this domain; (4) development and pilot application of a life cycle cost-based risk model; and (5) future expansion of the research approach to other domains. The researcher envisions that full implementation of the research will further encourage the growth of the energy services industry, and support focused retrofits in complex building types that typically can benefit the most from such work. Ultimately, this will reduce the energy consumption of public sector buildings to levels that are more fitting with the global principles of sustainability and responsible management of constrained resources.

  18. Normative price for a manufactured product: the SAMICS methodology. Volume II. Analysis. JPL publication 78-98. [Solar Array Manufacturing Industry Costing Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamberlain, R.G.

    1979-01-15

    The Solar Array Manufacturing Industry Costing Standards (SAMICS) provide standard formats, data, assumptions, and procedures for determining the price a hypothetical solar array manufacturer would have to be able to obtain in the market to realize a specified after-tax rate of return on equity for a specified level of production. This document presents the methodology and its theoretical background. It is contended that the model is sufficiently general to be used in any production-line manufacturing environment. Implementation of this methodology by the Solar Array Manufacturing Industry Simulation computer program (SAMIS III, Release 1) is discussed.

  19. Ready to Retrofit: The Process of Project Team Selection, Building Benchmarking, and Financing Commercial Building Energy Retrofit Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, Mark D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Parrish, Kristen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mathew, Paul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-05-01

    This guide presents a process for three key activities for the building owner in preparing to retrofit existing commercial buildings: selecting project teams, benchmarking the existing building, and financing the retrofit work. Although there are other essential steps in the retrofit process, the three activities presented in this guide are the critical elements where the building owner has the greatest influence on the outcome of the project.

  20. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Flexibility Retrofits for Coal and Gas-Fueled Power Plants: August 2012 - December 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkataraman, S.; Jordan, G.; O' Connor, M.; Kumar, N.; Lefton, S.; Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Palchak, D.; Cochran, J.

    2013-12-01

    High penetrations of wind and solar power plants can induce on/off cycling and ramping of fossil-fueled generators. This can lead to wear-and-tear costs and changes in emissions for fossil-fueled generators. Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-2) determined these costs and emissions and simulated grid operations to investigate the full impact of wind and solar on the fossil-fueled fleet. This report studies the costs and benefits of retrofitting existing units for improved operational flexibility (i.e., capability to turndown lower, start and stop faster, and ramp faster between load set-points).

  1. A retrofit strategy to achieve “Fast, Flexible, Future (F3)” pharmaceutical production processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ravendra; Rozada-Sanchez, Raquel; Wrate, Tim;

    2011-01-01

    n the work reported here, a substrates adoption methodology for a series of similar substrates has been developed as part of a retrofit strategy. The objective is to achieve “fast, flexible and future” pharmaceutical production processes by adapting a generic modular process-plant template. Appli....... Application of the methodology is illustrated through a case study from the pharmaceutical industry. Use of computer-aided models, methods and tools as part of the methodology is also highlighted.......n the work reported here, a substrates adoption methodology for a series of similar substrates has been developed as part of a retrofit strategy. The objective is to achieve “fast, flexible and future” pharmaceutical production processes by adapting a generic modular process-plant template...

  2. Enhanced iron gettering by short, optimized low-temperature annealing after phosphorus emitter diffusion for industrial silicon solar cell processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofstetter, Jasmin; Luque, Antonio; Canizo, Carlos del [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Avd. Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Lelievre, Jean-Francois [Centro de Tecnologia del Silicio Solar, CENTESIL, Madrid (Spain); Fenning, David P.; Bertoni, Mariana I.; Buonassisi, Tonio [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    The introduction of a low-temperature (LT) tail after P emitter diffusion was shown to lead to considerable improvements in electron lifetime and solar cell performance by different researchers. So far, the drawback of the investigated extended gettering treatments has been the lack of knowledge about optimum annealing times and temperatures and the important increase in processing time. In this manuscript, we calculate optimum annealing temperatures of Fe-contaminated Si wafers for different annealing durations. Subsequently, it is shown theoretically and experimentally that a relatively short LT tail of 15 min can lead to a significant reduction of interstitial Fe and an increase in electron lifetime. Finally, we calculate the potential improvement of solar cell efficiency when such a short-tail extended P diffusion gettering is included in an industrial fabrication process. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. NREL Invention Speeds Solar Cell Quality Testing for Industry (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-08-01

    A solid-state optical system, invented by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), measures solar cell quantum efficiency (QE) in less than a second, enabling a suite of new capabilities for solar cell manufacturers. QE is a measurement of how cells respond to light across the solar spectrum, but traditional methods for measuring QE had been too slow, limiting its application to small samples pulled from the production line and analyzed in laboratories. NREL's technique, commercialized by Tau Science as the FlashQE(TM) system, uses a solid-state light source, synchronized electronics, and advanced mathematical analysis to parallel-process QE data in a tiny fraction of the time required by the current method, allowing its use on every solar cell passing through a production line.

  4. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  5. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar PV at the Atlas Industrial Park in Duluth, Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steen, M.; Lisell, L.; Mosey, G.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 5, in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Atlas Industrial Park in Duluth, Minnesota, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The EPA provided funding to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to support a feasibility study of solar renewable energy generation at the Atlas Industrial Park. NREL provided technical assistance for this project but did not assess environmental conditions at the site beyond those related to the performance of a photovoltaic (PV) system. The purpose of this study is to assess the site for a possible PV installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV configurations. In addition, the study evaluates financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  6. Conservation and solar energy program: congressional budget request, FY 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    Funding summaries are presented for the Conservation and Solar Energy Program funding information and program overview on energy conservation (Volume 7 of 7, DOE/CR-0011/2) are included for the Buildings and Community Systems, Industrial, Transportation; State and Local, Multi-Sector, Energy Impact Assistance, and Residential/Commercial retrofit programs. Funding information and program overviews on solar technology (Volume 2 of 7, DOE/CR-011/2) are included for Active and Passive Solar Heating and Cooling, Photovoltaics Energy Systems, Solar Thermal Power Systems, Biomass Energy Systems, Wind Energy Conversion Systems, Ocean Systems, Solar International Activities, Solar Information Systems, SERI Facility, MX-RES, Program Direction, and Alcohol Fuels programs. Information and overviews on energy production, demonstration, and distribution (Volume 6 of 7, DOE/CR-0011/2) are given for the solar program. A funding summary and a program overview are included for electrochemical and physical and chemical storage systems as appearing in DOE/CR-0011/2, Volume 3 of 7. Relevant tabulated data from the FY 1981. Request to the Congress are presented for Supplementals, Rescissions, and Deferrals. (MCW)

  7. Solar-electric power: The U.S. photovoltaic industry roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2003-01-01

    To meet this challenge, we — the U.S.-based PV industry — have developed this roadmap as a guide for building our domestic industry, ensuring U.S. technology ownership, and implementing a sound commercialization strategy that will yield significant benefits at minimal cost. Putting the roadmap into action will call for reasonable and consistent co-investment by our industry and government in research and technology development.

  8. Measure Guideline: Hybrid Foundation Insulation Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, K.; Lstiburek, J.

    2012-05-01

    This measure guideline provides recommendations for designs and variations for retrofit hybrid assemblies in improving interior foundation insulation and water management of basements. Variations include closed cell spray foam (ccSPF) with membrane waterproofing or air gap membrane drainage layers, rigid board foam insulation at flat walls (cast concrete or CMU block), a 'partial drainage' detail making use of the bulk water drainage that occurs through the field of a rubble stone wall, and non-drained spray foam assemblies (including slab insulation).

  9. Crowne Plaza Renovation Retrofit Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-03-01

    InterContinental Hotels Group (IHG) and its franchise partner B.F. Saul Company Hospitality Group (B.F. Saul Co.) partnered with the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to retrofit existing buildings to reduce energy consumption by at least 30% versus requirements set by Standard 90.1-2004 of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), and the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) Program.

  10. Measure Guideline. Hybrid Foundation Insulation Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, K. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Lstiburek, J. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2012-05-01

    This measure guideline provides recommendations for designs and variations for retrofit hybrid assemblies in improving interior foundation insulation and water management of basements. Variations include closed cell spray foam (ccSPF) with membrane waterproofing or air gap membrane drainage layers, rigid board foam insulation at flat walls (cast concrete or CMU block), a “partial drainage” detail making use of the bulk water drainage that occurs through the field of a rubble stone wall, and non-drained spray foam assemblies (including slab insulation).

  11. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    Second World era international system (1945-1990) may not have done any good to ... wedge between the capitalist and socialist blocs, not only blurred Third World .... Politics and the Stages of Economic Growth, Cambridge: Cambridge ... complex industries producing mainly for export, but also producing for local.

  12. A WAY TO A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE: THE SOLAR INDUSTRY IN JAPAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varvara V. Akimova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is considered one of the most promising and rapidly growing sectors of the world economy. In line with the international trend of switching to renewable energy sources, particularly solar, and because of the tragic events at the Fukushima nuclear power station, Japan is experiencing a real “solar boom.” However, despite all obvious advantages of using solar power (ensuring national energy security, overcoming concerns about environmental consequences of using fossil energy sources, etc., Japan is facing several problems in its development. The most important one is the fact that technological and social progresses in Japan do not match each other as a result of a unique history of the nation. In order to promote renewable technology, the emphasis should be made on the role of the governmental policy and the effects of built-in tariffs for renewable energy sources. Considering dynamics and character of solar energy development in Japan, new energy strategy, and megasolar plants construction, the conclusion might be drawn that in the nearest future Japan will keep its place among the leaders in this field.

  13. Indoor climate in renovated and energy retrofitted social housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose; Jensen, Ole Michael

    2016-01-01

    The need for energy retrofitting of the Danish single-family houses is massive, especially for the high proportion of single-family houses built in the 1960s and 1970s. But even though the potential benefits are many, only few families embark on a major energy retrofit. There may be many reasons...... for this. An obvious one may be limited knowledge of non-energy benefits, e.g. in relation to the indoor climate. The objective of this study was to explain this limited effort to save energy by identifying barriers and incentives among house owners in relation to energy retrofitting of one’s own house....... Moreover, it was investigated among house owners, who had carried out energy retrofitting, whether a number of factors, including the perceived indoor climate, became better or worse after retrofitting. A questionnaire survey was carried out among 1,990 house owners in a municipality north of Copenhagen...

  14. Seismic Behavior of Fatigue-Retrofitted Steel Frame Piers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinoshita K.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue retrofit works have been conducted on severely fatigue damaged beam-to-column connections of existing steel frame bridge piers in Japan. It is clear that retrofit works provides additional stiffness but the significance on the seismic behavior of steel frame piers is not clear. Since fatigue retrofit works have become prevalent, the effect of fatigue retrofit works on the seismic behavior of steel frame piers need to be understood. The objective of this study is therefore to investigate these effects of the retrofit work, especially installation of bolted splices, which is the most common technique. Elasto-plastic finite element earthquake response analyses were carried out. It is shown that the existence of bolted splices may increase seismic demand on the piers when plastic hinge zone is located on the beam. In addition, longer bolted splices using low yield strength steel are proposed to overcome this problem and are shown to give beneficial effects.

  15. The development and commercialization of solar PV technology in the oil industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinkse, J.; van den Buuse, D.

    2012-01-01

    In diversifying energy supply, the transformation of the energy industry has been identified as a key challenge for a sustainable energy future. This suggests that incumbent firms in this industry have a vital role in the development and commercialization process of renewable energy technologies. Th

  16. The development and commercialization of solar PV technology in the oil industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinkse, J.; van den Buuse, D.

    2012-01-01

    In diversifying energy supply, the transformation of the energy industry has been identified as a key challenge for a sustainable energy future. This suggests that incumbent firms in this industry have a vital role in the development and commercialization process of renewable energy technologies.

  17. Market dynamics, innovation, and transition in China's solar photovoltaic (PV) industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Hongyang; Du, Huibin; Ren, Jingzheng

    2017-01-01

    China’s photovoltaic (PV) industry has undergone dramatic development in recent years and is now the global market leader in terms of newly added capacity. However, market diffusion and adoption in China is not ideal. This paper examines the blocking and inducement mechanisms of China’s PV industry...

  18. Market dynamics, innovation, and transition in China's solar photovoltaic (PV) industry: A critical review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Hongyang; Du, Huibin; Ren, Jingzheng

    2016-01-01

    China’s photovoltaic (PV) industry has undergone dramatic development in recent years and is now the global market leader in terms of newly added capacity. However, market diffusion and adoption in China is not ideal. This paper examines the blocking and inducement mechanisms of China’s PV industry...

  19. An industrial multi-crystalline EWT solar cell with screen printed metallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenecker, A.; De Moor, H.H.C.; Burgers, A.R.; Weeber, A.W.; Hoornstra, J.; Sinke, W.C. [ECN Renewable Energy, Solar and Wind, Petten (Netherlands); Michiels, P.P.; Steeman, R.A. [Shell Solar Energy, Helmond (Netherlands)

    1997-07-01

    The first results from the processing of an emitter wrap-through solar cell (EWT cell) based on 10x10 cm{sup 2} multicrystalline silicon solar cell technology with screen printing technique are shown. The processing bottlenecks such as laser cutting without material deterioration and the geometrical limitations due to screen printing techniques and emitter series resistance are addressed. The characterisation of the EWT solar cells clearly shows the expected higher photocurrent but fill factor and open circuit voltage need further improvements. Nevertheless it was possible to develop a stable processing scheme and cell design that allowed the processing of a number of EWT cells with reasonable efficiencies to make the first modules. Thus the advantages of a complete backside contacted module could be demonstrated by the first standard 36 cell EWT demonstration module. 8 figs., 6 refs.

  20. Research Progress on Solar Energy to Treat Sewage Sludge%Guangzhou Chemical Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐娟; 毛启迪; 高云泽; 宋晋栋; 郑伟

    2016-01-01

    Excess sludge is the main by-product in wastewater treatment plant. The excess sludge becomesaserious disposal problem for governments and treatment plants. The costs associated with the treatment of the excess sludge may cover up to 50% ~60%. Solar energy technology using in sewage sludge treatment was introduced, mainly including working principle of solar energy drying, influence factors, drying equipments and drying technology development in domestic and overseas. Some solar energy drying technology and application were introduced in detail, and the solar energy using in sludge composting and sludge pyrolysis was partly introduced. The realization of high-efficiency solar energy collecting systemand heat pumpasauxiliary heat source will decrease the costs greatly,and it may openanew way for solar energy utilization.%剩余污泥作为污水处理厂的副产物,是政府和污水处理厂面临的一个严峻问题,并且处理成本占污水处理总成本的50%~60%。本文介绍太阳能在污泥处理中的发展情况,主要阐述太阳能污泥干化的工作原理、影响因素、干化装置及国内外干化技术工艺,详细介绍部分干化工艺技术。对太阳能在污泥堆肥和污泥热解利用方面进行介绍。太阳能高效集热系统的研发和热泵作为辅助热源的实现,能够大大降低污泥处理所需费用,还为太阳能利用开辟新途径。

  1. Solar production of industrial process steam for the Lone Star Brewery. 80% review report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deffenbaugh, D.M.; Watkins, P.V.; Hugg, S.B.; Kulesz, J.J.; Decker, H.E.; Powell, R.C.

    1979-05-15

    The solar steam system for the Lone Star Brewery is described in detail. It consists of a roof-mounted parabolic trough collector field heating Monsanto's Therminol T-55 heat transfer fluid, a solar-fired boiler, a heat transfer fluid circulation pump, and all the associated piping. The comparison of various collectors and heat transfer fluids surveyed is reviewed. Also included are discussions of the system performance analysis, economic analysis, safety analysis, data collection, and environmental impact assessment. Numerous drawings illustrate the system, particularly the parallel trough collectors. (LEW)

  2. Performance investigation of capillary tubes for machine tool coolers retrofitted with HFC-407C refrigerant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fujen; Chang, Tongbou; Chiang, Weiming; Lee, Haochung

    2012-09-01

    The machine tool coolers are the best managers of coolant temperature in avoiding the deviation of spindle centerline for machine tools. However, the machine coolers are facing the compressed schedule to phase out the HCFC (hydro-chloro-floro-carbon) refrigerant and little attention has been paid to comparative study on sizing capillary tube for retrofitted HFC (hydro-floro-carbon) refrigerant. In this paper, the adiabatic flow in capillary tube is analyzed and modeled for retrofitting of HFC-407C refrigerant in a machine tool cooler system. A computer code including determining the length of sub-cooled flow region and the two phase region of capillary tube is developed. Comparative study of HCFC-22 and HFC-407C in a capillary tube is derived and conducted to simplify the traditional trial-and-error method of predicting the length of capillary tubes. Besides, experimental investigation is carried out by field tests to verify the simulation model and cooling performance of the machine tool cooler system. The results from the experiments reveal that the numerical model provides an effective approach to determine the performance data of capillary tube specific for retrofitting a HFC-407C machine tool cooler. The developed machine tool cooler system is not only directly compatible with new HFC-407C refrigerant, but can also perform a cost-effective temperature control specific for industrial machines.

  3. Heat Exchanger Network Retrofit Design by Eliminating Cross Pinch Heat Exchangers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beabu K. Piagbo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The rising cost of energy and environmental concerns are leading the petrochemical industry to search for methods of reducing energy consumption in refinery operations. To address this issue the research presented in this paper explores retrofit design for increasing the energy efficiency of Crude Distillation Units (CDUs. The case study presented uses monitored plant data from the preheat section of the CDU in a Refinery in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria, West Africa. Aspen Energy Analyser® software developed by Aspen Technologies is used in the analysis of this data. The research findings suggest that a retrofit design eliminating all cross pinch heat exchangers is the best retrofit design in terms of improving the energy performance of CDUs. There was an 84.62% and 92.31% reduction in the number of the heat exchangers used and the number of shells respectively. There were 16.57%, 2.74%, and 13.98% reductions in the operating cost, capital cost, and total cost respectively. 3.68% of the area became available for heat transfer. These gains were achieved despite a 12.27% increase in the heating demand. This design is therefore recommended to be applied after additional cost consideration.

  4. Energy Performance of Verandas in the Building Retrofit Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossano Albatici

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Passive solar elements for both direct and indirect gains, are systems used to maintain a comfortable living environment while saving energy, especially in the building energy retrofit and adaptation process. Sunspaces, thermal mass and glazing area and orientation have been often used in the past to guarantee adequate indoor conditions when mechanical devices were not available. After a period of neglect, nowadays they are again considered as appropriate systems to help face environmental issues in the building sector, and both international and national legislation takes into consideration the possibility of including them in the building planning tools, also providing economic incentives. Their proper design needs dynamic simulation, often difficult to perform and time consuming. Moreover, results generally suffer from several uncertainties, so quasi steady-state procedures are often used in everyday practice with good results, but some corrections are still needed. In this paper, a comparative analysis of different solutions for the construction of verandas in an existing building is presented, following the procedure provided by the slightly modified and improved Standard EN ISO 13790:2008. Advantages and disadvantages of different configurations considering thermal insulation, windows typology and mechanical ventilation systems are discussed and a general intervention strategy is proposed. The aim is to highlight the possibility of using sunspaces in order to increase the efficiency of the existing building stock, considering ease of construction and economic viability.

  5. New technologies for an effective energy retrofit of hospitals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizzarri, Giacomo [Dipartimento di Architettura, Universita degli Studi di Ferrara, Via Quartieri, 8-44100 Ferrara (Italy); Morini, Gian Luca [DIENCA, Universita degli Studi di Bologna, Viale Risorgimento, 2-40136 Bologna (Italy)

    2006-02-01

    Following the approval by the European Parliament of the directive on energy efficiency of public buildings, a great effort has been directed towards enhancing low-emission systems such as fuel cells (FC), photovoltaic systems (PVS) or solar thermal systems (STS), especially in all public facilities, such as hospitals, characterized by relevant energy requirements. This paper develops a theoretical analysis which focuses on the environmental benefits achievable through a shift from the conventional systems, normally operating in hospitals, to various hybrid plants. The model site is a hospital located near Ferrara (Italy). Several hybrid schemes were investigated and compared: PAFCs (phosporic acid fuel cells), STS and PVS. An energy analysis was developed for each option assuming, as a benchmark, the conventional systems operating today in the medical center. The results, presented with reference to the primary energy requirements and the pollutant emissions, demonstrate that in the case of existing systems being upgraded with these hybrid plants, overall emissions could be abated with a significant reduction in fossil energy consumption. Finally, an economic study, even taking external factors into account, is developed for all the retrofit scenarios in terms of annual return, simple payback period and IRR. (author)

  6. FY 1995 report on the results of the investigational study on the technology development for the commercialization of solar systems for industrial use, etc. - Investigational study on the solar system. Investigational study on a solar heat utilization system; 1995 nendo sangyoyonado solar system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Solar system no chosa kenkyu (taiyonetsu riyo system ni kansuru chosa kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This survey clarifies the present situation of the solar heat utilization technology mostly for industrial use, makes a concrete concept of solar heat utilization clear, and extracts items of the technology development and evaluates sociality, economical efficiency, etc. It aims at working out a program for the future technology development. The following proposals were made: 1) technology development program; 2) simulation soft development program; 3) experimental field of the solar heat utilization technology. In 1), concepts of technology development are 'medical use boiling pasteurization,' 'temperature increase in the metal surface treatment process,' 'water purification using photo-catalyst,' 'distributed small power system,' and 'waste water treatment using bio-technology.' In 2), cost reduction is needed for commercialization/merchandising of technology, and therefore, the development of simulation software is studied. In 3), as the experimental field from commercial/residential use system to industrial use system, an large-scale and systematical experimental field is proposed where all that can be substituted for by solar energy among the energies required for the urban function are used. By this, the solar heat utilization system gets accustomed to the people, increases the reliability, and clearly leads to the course to the next stage of the R and D. (NEDO)

  7. Governance of innovative cleantech retrofitting in the shipping industry?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Roberto Rivas; Smink, Carla; Kerndrup, Søren

    with regulations and reduce operation costs. However, definitions of maritime cleantech differ and range from end-of-pipe pollution control equipment, more efficient engines, improved hull-design and alternate propulsion fuels (LNG, methanol). Different constellations of actors seem to follow different cleantech...

  8. Deep Energy Retrofits - Eleven California Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Less, Brennan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fisher, Jeremy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-10-01

    This research documents and demonstrates viable approaches using existing materials, tools and technologies in owner-conducted deep energy retrofits (DERs). These retrofits are meant to reduce energy use by 70% or more, and include extensive upgrades to the building enclosure, heating, cooling and hot water equipment, and often incorporate appliance and lighting upgrades as well as the addition of renewable energy. In this report, 11 Northern California (IECC climate zone 3) DER case studies are described and analyzed in detail, including building diagnostic tests and end-use energy monitoring results. All projects recognized the need to improve the home and its systems approximately to current building code-levels, and then pursued deeper energy reductions through either enhanced technology/ building enclosure measures, or through occupant conservation efforts, both of which achieved impressive energy performance and reductions. The beyond-code incremental DER costs averaged $25,910 for the six homes where cost data were available. DERs were affordable when these incremental costs were financed as part of a remodel, averaging a $30 per month increase in the net-cost of home ownership.

  9. Air Distribution Retrofit Strategies for Affordable Housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, J. [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions (ARIES), New York, NY (United States); Conlin, F. [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions (ARIES), New York, NY (United States); Holloway, Parker [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions (ARIES), New York, NY (United States); Podorson, David [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions (ARIES), New York, NY (United States); Varshney, Kapil [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions (ARIES), New York, NY (United States)

    2014-03-01

    In multifamily and attached buildings, traditional duct sealing methods are often impractical or costly and disruptive because of the difficulty in accessing leakage sites. In this project, two retrofit duct sealing techniques, manually-applied sealants and injecting a spray sealant, were implemented in several low-rise multiunit buildings. An analysis on the cost and performance of the two methods are presented. Each method was used in twenty housing units: approximately half of each group of units are single story and the remainder are two story. Results show that duct leakage to the outside was reduced by an average of 59% through the use of manual methods, and by 90% in the units where the injected spray sealant was used. It was found that 73% of the leakage reduction in homes that were treated with injected spray sealant was attributable to the manual sealing done at boots, returns and the air handler. The cost of manually-applying sealant ranged from $275 to $511 per unit and for the injected spray sealant the cost was $700 per unit. Modeling suggests a simple payback of 2.2 years for manual sealing and 4.7 years for the injected spray sealant system. Utility bills were collected for one year before and after the retrofits. Utility bill analysis shows 14% and 16% energy savings using injected spray sealant system and hand sealing procedure respectively in heating season whereas in cooling season, energy savings using injected spray sealant system and hand sealing were both 16%.

  10. Air Distribution Retrofit Strategies for Affordable Housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, J.; Conlin, F.; Holloway, P.; Podorson, D.; Varshney, K.

    2014-03-01

    In multifamily and attached buildings, traditional duct sealing methods are often impractical or costly and disruptive because of the difficulty in accessing leakage sites. In this project, two retrofit duct sealing techniques -- manually-applied sealants and injecting a spray sealant, were implemented in several low-rise multi-unit buildings. An analysis on the cost and performance of the two methods are presented. Each method was used in twenty housing units: approximately half of each group of units are single story and the remainder two-story. Results show that duct leakage to the outside was reduced by an average of 59% through the use of manual methods, and by 90% in the units where the injected spray sealant was used. It was found that 73% of the leakage reduction in homes that were treated with injected spray sealant was attributable to the manual sealing done at boots, returns and the air handler. The cost of manually-applying sealant ranged from $275 to $511 per unit and for the injected spray sealant the cost was $700 per unit. Modeling suggests a simple payback of 2.2 years for manual sealing and 4.7 years for the injected spray sealant system. Utility bills were collected for one year before and after the retrofits. Utility bill analysis shows 14% and 16% energy savings using injected spray sealant system and hand sealing procedure respectively in heating season whereas in cooling season, energy savings using injected spray sealant system and hand sealing were both 16%.

  11. Simulating Performance Risk for Lighting Retrofit Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Hu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In building retrofit projects, dynamic simulations are performed to simulate building performance. Uncertainty may negatively affect model calibration and predicted lighting energy savings, which increases the chance of default on performance-based contracts. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to develop a simulation-based method that can analyze lighting performance risk in lighting retrofit decisions. The model uses a surrogate model, which is constructed by adaptively selecting sample points and generating approximation surfaces with fast computing time. The surrogate model is a replacement of the computation intensive process. A statistical method is developed to generate extreme weather profile based on the 20-year historical weather data. A stochastic occupancy model was created using actual occupancy data to generate realistic occupancy patterns. Energy usage of lighting, and heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC is simulated using EnergyPlus. The method can evaluate the influence of different risk factors (e.g., variation of luminaire input wattage, varying weather conditions on lighting and HVAC energy consumption and lighting electricity demand. Probability distributions are generated to quantify the risk values. A case study was conducted to demonstrate and validate the methods. The surrogate model is a good solution for quantifying the risk factors and probability distribution of the building performance.

  12. Research on the application of solar energy to industrial drying or dehydration processes. Final Phase report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-03-01

    The dehydration operation is described. The system design and its economic analysis are discussed. The system analysis covers the solar collectors, fan and ducting selection, rock storage design, heat recovery, control system, system simulation, and the monitoring system. The construction costs are discussed thoroughly. The construction design is presented including engineering drawings. (MHR)

  13. Design improvement and performance evaluation of solar photocatalytic reactor for industrial effluent treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Ranjith G; Bharadwaj, P J; Samdarshi, S K

    2016-12-01

    This work reports the details of the design components and materials used in a linear compound parabolic trough reactor constructed with an aim to use the photocatalyst for solar photocatalytic applications. A compound parabolic trough reactor has been designed and engineered to exploit both UV and visible part of the solar irradiation. The developed compound parabolic trough reactor could receive almost 88% of UV radiation along with a major part of visible radiation. The performance of the reactor has been evaluated in terms of degradation of a probe pollutant using the parameters such as rate constant, residence time and photonic efficiency. An attempt has been made to assess the performance in different ranges of solar spectrum. Finally the developed reactor has been employed for the photocatalytic treatment of a paper mill effluent using Degussa P25 as the photocatalyst. The paper mill effluent collected from Nagaon paper mill, Assam, India has been treated under both batch mode and continuous mode using Degussa P25 photocatalyst under artificial and natural solar radiation, respectively. The photocatalytic degradation kinetics of the paper mill effluent has been determined using the reduction in total organic carbon (TOC) values of the effluent.

  14. Photovoltaic commercialization: an analysis of legal issues affecting a government-accelerated solar industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamm, D.

    1980-06-01

    The Photovoltaics Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1978 is discussed. Legal issues, including solar access, the need for performance standards, the effects of building codes on photovoltaic system use and commercialization, and manufacturer and installer performance guarantees, are examined. Electric utility policies are examined, including interconnection, and rates and legal issues affecting them. (LEW)

  15. Prospects for integrating utility-scale solar photovoltaics and industrial agriculture in the U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlin, K.; Anderegg, W.; Hernandez, R. R.; Hiza, N.; Johnson, J. E.; Maltais-landry, G.; Wolf, A.; Zimmerman, N. B.

    2011-12-01

    One of the key challenges to many alternative energy options is land use competition, such as conflict with food production (e.g., corn or sugar cane ethanol) or natural resource protection (e.g., solar panels in desert habitat). Wind power has largely avoided these conflicts by leasing land from farmers and maintaining a small footprint on the landscape. Here, we ask whether similar opportunities exist for solar photovoltaics in agricultural settings. Our test case consists of a soybean field in Ames, Iowa (USA), with south-facing solar panels in rows spaced 16 m apart (~3 times further than typical), a center pole height of 3 m (3 times higher than in a typical ground-mounted system), and a fixed tilt of 25 degrees. Using a geometric shade model coupled to a common crop model (DSSAT) and driven by 14 years of weather data, we find that the average annual soybean yield is not significantly reduced (renewable energy with little or no reduction in yields. Using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) System Advisor Model and assuming 18 to 20% efficient panels, we estimate that this configuration at this location will produce 295 MWh ha-1 in the first year of operation. With this configuration the United States' current (2007) electricity production could be met by incorporating photovoltaic panels into as little as 11% of currently cropped land. We are currently developing an independent model that will complement our DSSAT analyses by simulating the effects of solar photovoltaics on available light, albedo and temperature on a range of different crops. We also review some of the major challenges to and potential benefits of integrated solar-agricultural systems in different regions and cropping systems.

  16. Economical and environmental analysis of thermal and photovoltaic solar energy as source of heat for industrial processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Aparicio, Elena; Lillo-Bravo, Isidoro; Moreno-Tejera, Sara; Silva-Pérez, Manuel

    2017-06-01

    Thermal energy for industrial processes can be generated using thermal (ST) or photovoltaic (PV) solar energy. ST energy has traditionally been the most favorable option due to its cost and efficiency. Current costs and efficiencies values make the PV solar energy become an alternative to ST energy as supplier of industrial process heat. The aim of this study is to provide a useful tool to decide in each case which option is economically and environmentally the most suitable alternative. The methodology used to compare ST and PV systems is based on the calculation of the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) and greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) avoided by using renewable technologies instead of conventional sources of energy. In both cases, these calculations depend on costs and efficiencies associated with ST or PV systems and the conversion factor from thermal or electrical energy to GHG. To make these calculations, a series of hypotheses are assumed related to consumer and energy prices, operation, maintenance and replacement costs, lifetime of the system or working temperature of the industrial process. This study applies the methodology at five different sites which have been selected taking into account their radiometric and meteorological characteristics. In the case of ST energy three technologies are taken into account, compound parabolic concentrator (CPC), linear Fresnel collector (LFC) and parabolic trough collector (PTC). The PV option includes two ways of use of generated electricity, an electrical resistance or a combination of an electrical resistance and a heat pump (HP). Current values of costs and efficiencies make ST system remains as the most favorable option. These parameters may vary significantly over time. The evolution of these parameters may convert PV systems into the most favorable option for particular applications.

  17. Building America Case Study: Retrofitting a 1960s Split-Level, Cold-Climate Home, Westport, Connecticut; Whole-House Solutions for Existing Homes, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    ??National programs such as Home Performance with ENERGY STAR(R) and numerous other utility air sealing programs have brought awareness to homeowners of the benefits of energy efficiency retrofits. Yet, these programs tend to focus on the low-hanging fruit: air-sealing the thermal envelope and ductwork where accessible, switch to efficient lighting, and low-flow fixtures. At the other end of the spectrum, deep-energy retrofit programs are also being encouraged by various utilities across the country. While deep energy retrofits typically seek 50% energy savings, they are often quite costly and most applicable to gut-rehab projects. A significant potential for lowering energy usage in existing homes lies between the low hanging fruit and deep energy retrofit approaches - retrofits that save approximately 30% in energy over the existing conditions. A key is to be non-intrusive with the efficiency measures so the retrofit projects can be accomplished in occupied homes. This cold climate retrofit project involved the design and optimization of a home in Connecticut that sought to improve energy savings by at least 30% (excluding solar PV) over the existing home's performance. This report documents the successful implementation of a cost-effective solution package that achieved performance greater than 30% over the pre-retrofit - what worked, what did not, and what improvements could be made. Confirmation of successfully achieving 30% source energy savings over the pre-existing conditions was confirmed through energy modeling and comparison of the utility bills pre- and post- retrofit.

  18. Application of solar energy to the supply of industrial process hot water. Aerotherm final report, 77-235. [Can washing in Campbell Soup plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The objectives of the Solar Industrial Process Hot Water Program are to design, test, and evaluate the application of solar energy to the generation and supply of industrial process hot water, and to provide an assessment of the economic and resource benefits to be gained. Other objectives are to stimulate and give impetus to the use of solar energy for supplying significant amounts of industrial process heat requirements. The plant selected for the design of a solar industrial process hot water system was the Campbell Soup facility in Sacramento, California. The total hot water demand for this plant varies between 500 and 800 gpm during regular production shifts, and hits a peak of over 1,000 gpm for approximately one hour during the cleanup shift. Most of the hot water is heated in the boiler room by a combination of waste heat recovery and low pressure (5 psi) steam-water heat exchangers. The hot water emerges from the boiler room at a temperature between 160/sup 0/F and 180/sup 0/F and is transported to the various process areas. Booster heaters in the process areas then use low pressure (5 psi) or medium pressure (20 psi) steam to raise the temperature of the water to the level required for each process. Hot water is used in several processes at the Campbell Soup plant, but the can washing process was selected to demonstrate the feasibility of a solar hot water system. A detailed design and economic analysis of the system is given. (WHK)

  19. State-of-the-art review revealing a roadmap for public building water and energy efficiency retrofit projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo Bertone

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Governments occupy a significant proportion of building stock and their associated annual water and energy costs can be substantive. Research has shown that significant reductions in energy and water consumption as well as carbon emissions can be achieved through retrofitting public buildings. However, in most countries the current retrofitting rate is very low due to a number of barriers, including a lack of supportive legislation, regulations, guidelines, industry capacity and financial mechanisms. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the barriers as well as the best international practices covering numerous aspects of public building retrofits. Among others, the most important barriers identified were a lack of consideration of the water-energy nexus, and the limited availability of effective financing mechanisms. With a particular focus on the Australian context, a strategic roadmap, as well as a number of recommendations, such as the use of revolving loan fund financing and energy performance procurement, have been developed that aim to foster a greater rate of implementation of energy and water retrofit projects for public buildings. Achievement of such an aim will not only reduce ongoing operational costs of public buildings, but also lower their environmental impact and generate new employment opportunities.

  20. CASE STUDY OF DUCT RETROFIT OF A 1985 HOME AND GUIDELINES FOR ATTIC AND CRAWL SPACE DUCT SEALING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudreaux, Philip R [ORNL; Christian, Jeffrey E [ORNL; Jackson, Roderick K [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is fully committed to research for developing the information and capabilities necessary to provide cost-effective residential retrofits yielding 50% energy savings within the next several years. Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) is the biggest energy end use in the residential sector, and a significant amount of energy can be wasted through leaky ductwork in unconditioned spaces such as attics and crawl spaces. A detailed duct sealing case study is presented for one house along with nine brief descriptions of other duct retrofits completed in the mixed-humid climate. Costs and estimated energy savings are reported for most of the ten houses. Costs for the retrofits ranged from $0.92/ft2 to $1.80/ft2 of living space and estimated yearly energy cost savings due to the duct retrofits range from 1.8% to 18.5%. Lessons learned and duct sealing guidelines based on these ten houses, as well as close work with the HVAC industry in the mixed-humid climate of East Tennessee, northern Georgia, and south-central Kentucky are presented. It is hoped that the lessons learned and guidelines will influence local HVAC contractors, energy auditors, and homeowners when diagnosing or repairing HVAC duct leakage and will be useful for steering DOE s future research in this area.

  1. Phased Retrofits in Existing Homes in Florida Phase II: Shallow Plus Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, K. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Parker, D. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Martin, E. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Chasar, D. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Amos, B. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Originally published in February 2016, this revision contains an added section called 'Evaluation of Complete Central System Replacement with Inverter-Driven Heat Pump,' which presents the designs and energy savings evaluations of two different schemes wherein inverter-driven systems replaced a home's existing central system. Analyses for three additional retrofit measures were bolstered by longer-term data; these are described in the sections on supplemental mini-split heat pumps (MSHPs), smart thermostats, and heat pump clothes dryers. The sections on supplemental MSHPs and smart thermostats were also enhanced with larger sample sizes and projections of weather-normalized annual energy savings. Finally, peak system hour energy demand-reduction predictions are provided for all retrofit measures where meaningful impacts could be drawn.

  2. Phased Retrofits in Existing Homes in Florida Phase II: Shallow Plus Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, K. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Parker, D. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Martin, E. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Chasar, D. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Amos, B. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Originally published in February 2016, this revision contains an added section called 'Evaluation of Complete Central System Replacement with Inverter-Driven Heat Pump,' which presents the designs and energy savings evaluations of two different schemes wherein inverter-driven systems replaced a home’s existing central system. Analyses for three additional retrofit measures were bolstered by longer-term data; these are described in the sections on supplemental mini-split heat pumps (MSHPs), smart thermostats, and heat pump clothes dryers. The sections on supplemental MSHPs and smart thermostats were also enhanced with larger sample sizes and projections of weather-normalized annual energy savings. Finally, peak system hour energy demand-reduction predictions are provided for all retrofit measures where meaningful impacts could be drawn.

  3. Measure Guideline: Deep Energy Enclosure Retrofit for Interior Insulation of Masonry Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musunuru, S. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States); Pettit, B. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This Measure Guideline describes a deep energy enclosure retrofit (DEER) solution for insulating mass masonry buildings from the interior. It describes the retrofit assembly, technical details, and installation sequence for retrofitting masonry walls. Interior insulation of masonry retrofits has the potential to adversely affect the durability of the wall; this document includes a review of decision criteria pertinent to retrofitting masonry walls from the interior and the possible risk of freeze-thaw damage.

  4. Measure Guideline. Deep Energy Enclosure Retrofit for Interior Insulation of Masonry Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musunuru, S. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States); Pettit, B. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-04-30

    This Measure Guideline describes a deep energy enclosure retrofit solution for insulating mass masonry buildings from the interior. It describes the retrofit assembly, technical details, and installation sequence for retrofitting masonry walls. Interior insulation of masonry retrofits might adversely affect the durability of the wall. This guideline includes a review of decision criteria pertinent to retrofitting masonry walls from the interior and the possible risk of freeze-thaw damage.

  5. Engineering, institutions, and the public interest: Evaluating product quality in the Kenyan solar photovoltaics industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Arne [Environmental Resources Engineering and Schatz Energy Research Center, Humboldt State University (United States); Kammen, Daniel M. [Energy and Resources Group and Goldman School of Public Policy, University of California, Berkeley (United States)

    2007-05-15

    Solar sales in Kenya are among the highest per capita among developing countries. While this commercial success makes the Kenya market a global leader, product quality problems have been a persistent concern. In this paper, we report performance test results from 2004 to 2005 for five brands of amorphous silicon (a-Si) photovoltaic (PV) modules sold in the Kenya market. Three of the five brands performed well, but two performed well below their advertised levels. These results support previous work indicating that high-quality a-Si PV modules are a good economic value. The presence of the low performing brands, however, confirms a need for market institutions that ensure the quality of all products sold in the market. Prior work from 1999 indicated a similar quality pattern among brands. This confirms the persistent nature of the problem, and the need for vigilant, long-term approaches to quality assurance for solar markets in Kenya and elsewhere. Following the release of our 2004/2005 test results in Kenya, the Kenya Bureau of Standards moved to implement and enforce performance standards for both amorphous and crystalline silicon PV modules. This appears to represent a positive step towards the institutionalization of quality assurance for products in the Kenya solar market. (author)

  6. A Control System Retrofit for a Plastic Bag Making Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR S S ADAMU

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the development of a microcontroller system to replace a problematic mechanical system of a plastic bag making machine. After detailed study of the existing system the theory of finite state machines is used to model the proposed retrofit, using simulink and stateflow toolboxes of MATLAB. Using the model, theretrofit system is partitioned into hardware and software components. The retrofit is implemented using Microchip’s PIC16F84A 8-bit microcontroller. The developed retrofit performance is the same as the original machine. Due to the flexibility of microcontrollers, other operation and diagnostic features can easily be added.

  7. Pressure drop considerations in the retrofit of heat exchanger networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polley, G.T.; Panjeh Shahi, M.H.; Jegede, F.O. (Manchester Univ. (UK). Inst. of Science and Technology)

    1990-05-01

    Process integration technology is now widely used in both energy saving retrofits and plant debottlenecks. However, in common with much of the developed technology, systematic consideration is only given to the thermal aspects of process design. This paper is a response to the above situation. The work started as an attempt to introduce flow considerations into retrofit targeting. It resulted in a general appreciation of how pressure drop should be used in networks. In some retrofit projects it is possible to reduce the amount of additional heat exchange area needed for debottlenecking (or, for energy saving) by making changes to the flow arrangement. (author).

  8. Solar retrofitting in social housing: a case study in Savona

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Giachetta

    2012-01-01

    In relation to the social Housing’s theme, sustainable requalification interventions on the building heritage in the urban fringes dating back to the WWII postwar play an important role as those are characterized by buildings which offer poor energy performances. These interventions are potentially very effective, although at the same time they raise implementation and management issues, with which it is fundamental to confront, with a view to pursue serious housing and social policies. With ...

  9. Industrial Applications of Solar Chemistry. Lectures from the Summer School at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria. Solar Thermal Energy: The Clean Way to Generate Electricity and Produce Chemicals.Training and Mobility of Researchers Programme. Almeria, 21-25, September, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    A Summer School entitled Solar thermal Energy. The Clean Way to Generate Electricity and Produce Chemicals consisting of two one-week courses, was held at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA) in July and September, 1998. The first was called Solar Thermal Electricity Generation and the second. Industrial Applications of Solar Chemistry. Through both topics concerned the use of solar light as the energy source and the courses were organised within one. Summer School, they clearly cover very different disciplines and it therefore makes sense to publish course materials separately. This volume is a compilation of the lectures given in the course on Electricity Generation. (Author)

  10. 江西省光伏产业发展的实证研究%Empirical Analysis on Photovoltaic Solar Industry in Jiangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘卫华; 张蕊; 詹跃跃

    2012-01-01

    光伏产业链包括多晶硅原料生产、硅棒/硅锭生产、太阳能电池制造、组件封装、光伏产品生产和光伏发电系统等5个环节.目前光伏产业链呈金字塔形结构,从上游开始到下游,所涉及企业数量依次增加,市场竞争程度加剧.在光伏产业链“上小下大”的现状下,我国力争在光伏产业的上、中、下游都要抢占领先地位.文章的研究对象为江西省光伏产业,首先界定光伏产业链的内涵及特征,然后描述江西省光伏产业园现状、江西重点光伏企业现状,最后通过计算行业集中度指数、赫芬达尔-赫希曼指数等指标,评价江西光伏产业发展情况,以便为政府出台光伏产业发展政策、光伏企业制定战略提供基础依据.%The photovoltaic solar industry chain consists of five nodes, i. e. silicon, silicon bar, solar cell, parts assembly and photovoltaic solar power system. At present the structure is just like the pyramid, more enterprises, less profits a-long the upstream to the downstream. However, China is trying to be the leading position of photovoltaic solar industry in the world. This paper focuses on the photovoltaic solar industry in Jiangxi province. Firstly it defines the photovoltaic solar industry chain and characteristics, then introduces the situation of photovoltaic solar industry parks and key photovoltaic solar corporations. Finally it calculates the concentration ratio and Herfindahl - Hirschman index of the industry in Jiangxi province. Such development evaluation is to give evidence and reference for government and photovoltaic solar firms.

  11. Retrofitting the Southeast. The Cool Energy House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoeller, W. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States); Shapiro, C. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States); Vijayakumar, G. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States); Puttagunta, S. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2013-02-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings research team has provided the technical engineering and building science support for a highly visible demonstration home that was unveiled at the National Association of Home Builders' International Builders Show on Feb. 9, 2012, in Orlando, FL. The two previous projects, the Las Vegas net-zero ReVISION House and the 2011 VISION and ReVISION Houses in Orlando, met goals for energy efficiency, cost effectiveness, and information dissemination through multiple web-based venues. This report describes the deep energy retrofit of the Cool Energy House (CEH), which began as a mid-1990s two-story traditional specification house of about 4,000 ft2 in the upscale Orlando suburb of Windermere.

  12. Retrofitting the Southeast: The Cool Energy House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoeller, W.; Shapiro, C.; Vijayakumar, G.; Puttagunta, S.

    2013-02-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings has provided the technical engineering and building science support for a highly visible demonstration home in connection with the National Association of Home Builders' International Builders Show. The two previous projects, the Las Vegas net-zero ReVISION House and the 2011 VISION and ReVISION Houses in Orlando, met goals for energy efficiency, cost effectiveness, and information dissemination through multiple web-based venues. This project, which was unveiled at the 2012 International Builders Show in Orlando on February 9, is the deep energy retrofit Cool Energy House (CEH). The CEH began as a mid-1990s two-story traditional specification house of about 4,000 ft2 in the upscale Orlando suburb of Windermere.

  13. Gasification systems proposed in 13 retrofit proposals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-03-01

    Of the 137 expressions of interest received by the US Department of Energy in response to its November 12, 1986 Program Announcement for clean coal technology projects capable of retrofitting, repowering or modernizing existing facilities, thirteen involved coal gasification. For those proposals which specified the type of gasifier to be used, the following gasifiers were listed: PEBD gasifier - Color Cable Inc.; Calderon gasifier - Calderon Energy Company; Texaco gasifier - Tennessee Valley Authority; U-Gas gasifier - Consolidation Coal Company; Pyrolysis gasifier - Allison Gas Turbine; KILnGAS gasifier - Allis-Chalmers; Dow gasifier - Dow Chemical Company; and U-Gas gasifier - Sargent and Lundy Engineers. A brief abstract is given of each of the 13 gasification-based proposals.

  14. An analysis of the technical and economic performance of a parabolic trough concentrator for solar industrial process heat application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J. A.

    1982-09-01

    Design parameters and economic projections of importance to the commercial realization of mass-produced parabolic trough solar concentrators as industrial heat suppliers are presented. Numerical formulas are defined for obtaining a figure of merit for the thermal efficiency of a concentrator, taking into account the reflectivity, the mirror-receiver intercept factor, the end loss factor, tracking and misalignment errors, the absorptivity-transmissivity product at normal incidence of the receiver tube and its glass envelope, and durability. An economic analysis which includes all costs, tax write-offs, comparisons with conventional fuels, inflation rate, time of borrowing, maintenance, profits, and conversion efficiencies is developed. It was determined that the trough systems will become competitive in the U.S. when installed costs are $15.79/sq ft over a 10-yr investment period

  15. The solar way out of the energy trap for industrial society. Der Sonnenweg aus der Energiefalle der Industriegesellschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopfmann, J.

    1994-01-01

    The first part of this book presents the different variations of solar energy utilisation. All countries of the world are in a position to cover their energy demand by a sensible combination of different solar technologies. This is a chance for industrialised countries to pursue environmentally benign, qualitative economic growth. The second part of the book inquires into the antiecological and antisocial energy policy of the countries of the industrialised world. The energy prices are only so low because the exploitation of nature is not being paid for. The third part of the book arrives at the conclusion that the energy squander practised by industrial society is an act against the evolution of the concerns. All systems brought forth by cosmic evolution tend to bind as much energy as possible and release the minimum possible of bound energy. It is therefore an entropic duty of humanity to use solar energy. The fourth part of the book analyses the economic side of the energy problem. The deliberations focus on the inclusion of the reproduction costs entailed by the consumption of nature in the price of the goods traded in the free market. The reproduction costs entailed by the consumption of nature must be paid in any case. If they are not included in the cost price of the goods, they will reappear multiplied as rehabilitation costs in the subsequent economic process. A social and ecological market economy must therefore take the consumption of all production factors into account in determining the prices of its goods. (orig./UA)

  16. Method for Determining Optimal Residential Energy Efficiency Retrofit Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polly, B.; Gestwick, M.; Bianchi, M.; Anderson, R.; Horowitz, S.; Christensen, C.; Judkoff, R.

    2011-04-01

    Businesses, government agencies, consumers, policy makers, and utilities currently have limited access to occupant-, building-, and location-specific recommendations for optimal energy retrofit packages, as defined by estimated costs and energy savings. This report describes an analysis method for determining optimal residential energy efficiency retrofit packages and, as an illustrative example, applies the analysis method to a 1960s-era home in eight U.S. cities covering a range of International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) climate regions. The method uses an optimization scheme that considers average energy use (determined from building energy simulations) and equivalent annual cost to recommend optimal retrofit packages specific to the building, occupants, and location. Energy savings and incremental costs are calculated relative to a minimum upgrade reference scenario, which accounts for efficiency upgrades that would occur in the absence of a retrofit because of equipment wear-out and replacement with current minimum standards.

  17. LED Retrofit Kits, TLEDs, and Lighting Controls: An Application Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-03-01

    This document provides guidance for retrofitting existing fluorescent troffers including the LED and associated control options available, the pro/cons and costs/benefits of each option, and agency specific requirements (where applicable).

  18. DOE Webinar - Residential Geothermal Heat Pump Retrofits (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, E. R.

    2010-12-14

    This presentation was given December 14, 2010, as part of DOE's Webinar series. The presentation discusses geothermal heat pump retrofits, technology options, and an overview of geothermal energy and geothermal heat pumps.

  19. DOE's role in the solar energy industry, and possible anticompetitive trends. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Antitrust, Monopoly and Business Rights of the Committee on the Judiciary, 96th Congress, 2nd session, 14 November 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The concerns of small business in the solar energy field are discussed. The acquisitions of small companies by larger energy-intense companies was reviewed. Possible Federal regulations for the solar energy industry are considered and the overall solar energy policy for the nation is addressed.

  20. Good times end for the solar industry after the cut on reimbursement: A problem of constitutional law?; Das Ende der sonnigen Zeiten fuer die Solarindustrie nach der Kuerzung der Verguetungsansprueche. Ein (verfassungsrechtlicher) Vertrauensbruch?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kment, Martin [EBS Univ. fuer Wirtschaft und Recht Wiesbaden (Germany). HEUSSEN-Stiftungslehrstuhl fuer Oeffentliches Recht und Europarecht, Recht der erneuerbaren Energien sowie Umwelt- und Planungsrecht

    2012-04-15

    As long as solar energy was funded by the state, the solar industry experienced a period of booming growth. The German government considered the cost too high and decided on drastic cuts. According to the contribution, the investor's faith in solar funding should be considered, and transition periods in the legal regulations should be decided. (orig.)

  1. Lighting Retrofitting: improving energy efficiency and lighting quality

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In order to minimize energy consumption for lighting and increasing lighting quality in existing offices old lighting systems can be retrofitted with more efficient luminaires. Additional savings can be achieved by installing a lighting control system. Installation time and costs can be reduced by installing LED luminaires equipped with inbuilt lighting controls. In the case study six rooms were analysed: in two rooms the old lighting system has been retrofitted with LED luminaires with inbui...

  2. A Control System Retrofit for a Plastic Bag Making Machine

    OpenAIRE

    DR S S ADAMU

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the development of a microcontroller system to replace a problematic mechanical system of a plastic bag making machine. After detailed study of the existing system the theory of finite state machines is used to model the proposed retrofit, using simulink and stateflow toolboxes of MATLAB. Using the model, theretrofit system is partitioned into hardware and software components. The retrofit is implemented using Microchip’s PIC16F84A 8-bit microcontroller. The developed retro...

  3. Wyandotte Neighborhood Stabilization Program: Retrofit of Two Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukachko, A.; Grin, A.; Bergey, D.

    2013-04-01

    The Wyandotte NSP2 project aims to build 20 new houses and retrofit 20 existing houses in Wyandotte, MI. This report will detail the retrofit of 2 existing houses in the program. Wyandotte is part of a Michigan State Housing Development Authority-led consortium that is funded by HUD under the NSP2 program. The City of Wyandotte has also been awarded DOE EE&CBG funds that are being used to develop a district GSHP system to service the project. This draft report examines the energy efficiency recommendations for retrofit construction at these homes. The report will be of interest to anyone planning an affordable, high performance retrofit of an existing home in a Cold Climate zone. Information from this report will also be useful to retrofit or weatherization program staff as some of the proposed retrofit solutions will apply to a wide range of projects. Preliminary results from the first complete house suggest that the technology package employed (which includes spray foam insulation and insulating sheathing) does meet the specific whole house water, air, and thermal control requirements, as well as, the project's affordability goals. Monitoring of the GSHP system has been recommended and analysis of this information is not yet available.

  4. Retrofit of a Multifamily Mass Masonry Building in New England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, K.; Kerrigan, P.; Wytrykowska, H.; Van Straaten, R.

    2013-08-01

    Merrimack Valley Habitat for Humanity (MVHfH) has partnered with Building Science Corporation to provide high performance affordable housing for 10 families in the retrofit of an existing brick building (a former convent) into condominiums. The research performed for this project provides information regarding advanced retrofit packages for multi-family masonry buildings in Cold climates. In particular, this project demonstrates safe, durable, and cost-effective solutions that will potentially benefit millions of multi-family brick buildings throughout the East Coast and Midwest (Cold climates). The retrofit packages provide insight on the opportunities for and constraints on retrofitting multifamily buildings with ambitious energy performance goals but a limited budget. The condominium conversion project will contribute to several areas of research on enclosures, space conditioning, and water heating. Enclosure items include insulation of mass masonry building on the interior, airtightness of these types of retrofits, multi-unit building compartmentalization, window selection, and roof insulation strategies. Mechanical system items include combined hydronic and space heating systems with hydronic distribution in small (low load) units, and ventilation system retrofits for multifamily buildings.

  5. Fragility curves of concrete bridges retrofitted by column jacketing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Northridge earthquake inflicted various levels of damage upon a large number of Caltrans' bridges not retrofitted by column jacketing. In this respect, this study represents results of fragility curve development for two (2) sample bridges typical in southern California, strengthened for seismic retrofit by means of steel jacketing of bridge columns. Monte Carlo simulation is performed to study nonlinear dynamic responses of the bridges before and after column retrofit. Fragility curves in this study are represented by Iognormal distribution functions with two parameters and developed as a function of PGA. The sixty (60) ground acceleration time histories for the Los Angeles area developed for the Federal Emergency Management Agcncy (FEMA) SAC (SEAOC-ATC-CUREe) steel project are used for the dynamic analysis of the bridges.The improvement in the fiagility with steel jacketing is quantified by comparing fragility curves of the bridge before and after column retrofit. In this first attempt to formulate the problem of fragility enhancement, the quantification is made by comparing the median values of the fragility curves before and after the retrofit. Under the hypothesis that this quantification also applies to empirical fragility curves developed on the basis of Northridge earthquake damage, the enhanced version of the empirical curves is developed for the ensuing analysis to determine the enhancement of transportation network performance due to the retrofit.

  6. Fragility curves of concrete bridges retrofitted by column jacketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinozuka, Masanobu; Kim, Sang-Hoon; Kushiyama, Shigeru; Yi, Jin-Hak

    2002-12-01

    The Northridge earthquake inflicted various levels of damage upon a large number of Caltrans’ bridges not retrofitted by column jacketing. In this respect, this study represents results of fragility curve development for two (2) sample bridges typical in southern California, strengthened for seismic retrofit by means of steel jacketing of bridge columns. Monte Carlo simulation is performed to study nonlinear dynamic responses of the bridges before and after column retrofit. Fragility curves in this study are represented by lognormal distribution functions with two parameters and developed as a function of PGA. The sixty (60) ground acceleration time histories for the Los Angeles area developed for the Federal Emergency Management Agcncy (FEMA) SAC (SEAOC-ATC-CUREe) steel project are used for the dynamic analysis of the bridges. The improvement in the fragility with steel jacketing is quantified by comparing fragility curves of the bridge before and after column retrofit. In this first attempt to formulate the problem of fragility enhancement, the quantification is made by comparing the median values of the fragility curves before and after the retrofit. Under the hypothesis that this quantification also applies to empirical fragility curves developed on the basis of Northridge earthquake damage, the enhanced version of the empirical curves is developed for the ensuing analysis to determine the enhancement of transportation network performance due to the retrofit.

  7. Innovative Retrofit Insulation Strategies for Concrete Masonry Foundations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huelman, P. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership; Goldberg, L. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership; Jacobson, R. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership

    2015-05-06

    This study was designed to test a new approach for foundation insulation retrofits, with the goal of demonstrating improved moisture control, improved occupant comfort, and reduced heat loss. Because conducting experimental research on existing below-grade assemblies is very difficult, most of the results are based on simulations. The retrofit approach consists of filling open concrete block cores with an insulating material and adding R-10 exterior insulation that extends 1 ft below grade. The core fill is designed to improve the R-value of the foundation wall and increase the interior wall surface temperature, but more importantly to block convection currents that could otherwise increase moisture loads on the foundation wall and interior space. The exterior insulation significantly reduces heat loss through the most exposed part of the foundation and further increases the interior wall surface temperature. This improves occupant comfort and decreases the risk of condensation. Such an insulation package avoids the full-depth excavation necessary for exterior insulation retrofits, reduces costs, and eliminates the moisture and indoor air quality risks associated with interior insulation retrofits. Retrofit costs for the proposed approach were estimated at roughly half those of a full-depth exterior insulation retrofit.

  8. Decontamination industrial pharmaceutical wastewater by combining solar photo-Fenton and biological treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirtori, C; Zapata, A; Oller, I; Gernjak, W; Agüera, A; Malato, S

    2009-02-01

    Characterization and treatment of a real pharmaceutical wastewater containing 775 mg dissolved organic carbon per liter by a solar photo-Fenton/biotreatment were studied. There were also many inorganic compounds present in the matrix. The most important chemical in this wastewater was nalidixic acid (45 mg/L), an antibiotic pertaining to the quinolone group. A Zahn-Wellens test demonstrated that the real bulk organic content of the wastewater was biodegradable, but only after long biomass adaptation; however, the nalidixic acid concentration remained constant, showing that it cannot be biodegraded. An alternative is chemical oxidation (photo-Fenton process) first to enhance biodegradability, followed by a biological treatment (Immobilized Biomass Reactor--IBR). In this case, two studies of photo-Fenton treatment of the real wastewater were performed, one with an excess of H2O2 (kinetic study) and another with controlled H2O2 dosing (biodegradability and toxicity studies). In the kinetic study, nalidixic acid completely disappeared after 190 min. In the other experiment with controlled H2O2, nalidixic acid degradation was complete at 66 mM of H2O2 consumed. Biodegradability and toxicity bioassays showed that photo-Fenton should be performed until total degradation of nalidixic acid before coupling a biological treatment. Analysis of the average oxidation state (AOS) demonstrated the formation of more oxidized intermediates. With this information, the photo-Fenton treatment time (190 min) and H2O2 dose (66 mM) necessary for adequate biodegradability of the wastewater could be determined. An IBR operated in batch mode was able to reduce the remaining DOC to less than 35 mg/L. Ammonium consumption and NO3- generation demonstrated that nitrification was also attained in the IBR. Overall DOC degradation efficiency of the combined photo-Fenton and biological treatment was over 95%, of which 33% correspond to the solar photochemical process and 62% to the biological

  9. Programmatic environmental assessment of the DOE Solar Agricultural and Industrial Process Heat Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    The program's potential environmental impacts are evaluated to ensure that environmental issues are considered at the earliest meaningful point in the decision-making process. The existing environment is studied for the following: grain drying; crop drying; livestock shelter heating; food processing; textile products; lumber and wood products; paper products; chemicals; petroleum refining; stone, clay, and glass products; and primary metals industries. Environmental impacts of the proposed action on the following are studied: air quality, water quality, ecosystems, health and safety, land use, esthetics, and social and institutional impacts. (MHR)

  10. Opportunities to integrate solar technologies into the Chilean lithium mining industry - reducing process related GHG emissions of a strategic storage resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telsnig, Thomas; Potz, Christian; Haas, Jannik; Eltrop, Ludger; Palma-Behnke, Rodrigo

    2017-06-01

    The arid northern regions of Chile are characterized by an intensive mineral mining industry and high solar irradiance levels. Besides Chile's main mining products, copper, molybdenum and iron, the production of lithium carbonate from lithium containing brines has become strategically important due to the rising demand for battery technologies worldwide. Its energy-intensive production may affect the ecological footprint of the product and the country's climate targets. Thus, the use of solar technologies for electricity and heat production might constitute an interesting option for CO2 mitigation. This study aims to quantify the impacts of the lithium carbonate production processes in Chile on climate change, and to identify site-specific integration options of solar energy technologies to reduce GHG life-cycle emissions. The considered solar integration options include a parabolic trough power plant with a molten salt storage, a solar tower power plant with molten salt receiver and molten salt storage, a one-axis tracking photovoltaic energy system for electricity, and two solar thermal power plants with Ruths storage (steam accumulator) for thermal heat production. CSP plants were identified as measures with the highest GHG mitigation potential reducing the CO2 emissions for the entire production chain and the lithium production between 16% and 33%. In a scenario that combines solar technologies for electricity and thermal energy generation, up to 59% of the CO2 emissions at the lithium production sites in Chile can be avoided. A comparison of the GHG abatement costs of the proposed solar integration options indicates that the photovoltaic system, the solar thermal plant with limited storage and the solar tower power plant are the most cost effective options.

  11. Pilot Residential Deep Energy Retrofits and the PNNL Lab Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Chandra, Subrato; Parker, Graham B.; Sande, Susan; Blanchard, Jeremy; Stroer, Dennis; McIlvaine, Janet; Chasar, David; Beal, David; Sutherland, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes research investigating the technical and economic feasibility of several pilot deep energy retrofits, or retrofits that save 30% to 50% or more on a whole-house basis while increasing comfort, durability, combustion safety, and indoor air quality. The work is being conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Program as part of the Building America Program. As part of the overall program, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers are collecting and analyzing a comprehensive dataset that describes pre- and post-retrofit energy consumption, retrofit measure cost, health and comfort impacts, and other pertinent information for each home participating in the study. The research and data collection protocol includes recruitment of candidate residences, a thorough test-in audit, home energy modeling, and generation of retrofit measure recommendations, implementation of the measures, test-out, and continued evaluation. On some homes, more detailed data will be collected to disaggregate energy-consumption information. This multi-year effort began in October 2010. To date, the PNNL team has performed test-in audits on 51 homes in the marine, cold, and hot-humid climate zones, and completed 3 retrofits in Texas, 10 in Florida, and 2 in the Pacific Northwest. Two of the retrofits are anticipated to save 50% or more in energy bills and the others - savings are in the 30% to 40% range. Fourteen other retrofits are under way in the three climate zones. Metering equipment has been installed in seven of these retrofits - three in Texas, three in Florida, and one in the Pacific Northwest. This report is an interim update, providing information on the research protocol and status of the PNNL deep energy retrofit project as of December, 2011. The report also presents key findings and lessons learned, based on the body of work to date. In addition, the report summarizes the status of the PNNL Lab Homes that are new

  12. Molten salt based nanofluids based on solar salt and alumina nanoparticles: An industrial approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Sánchez, Belén; Nieto-Maestre, Javier; Guerreiro, Luis; Julia, José Enrique; Collares-Pereira, Manuel; García-Romero, Ana

    2017-06-01

    Thermal Energy Storage (TES) and its associated dispatchability is extremely important in Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants since it represents the main advantage of CSP technology in relation to other renewable energy sources like photovoltaic (PV). Molten salts are used in CSP plants as a TES material because of their high operational temperature and stability of up to 600°C. Their main problems are their relative poor thermal properties and energy storage density. A simple cost-effective way to improve the thermal properties of molten salts is to dope them with nanoparticles, thus obtaining the so-called salt-based nanofluids. Additionally, the use of molten salt based nanofluids as TES materials and Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF) has been attracting great interest in recent years. The addition of tiny amounts of nanoparticles to the base salt can improve its specific heat as shown by different authors1-3. The application of these nano-enhanced materials can lead to important savings on the investment costs in new TES systems for CSP plants. However, there is still a long way to go in order to achieve a commercial product. In this sense, the improvement of the stability of the nanofluids is a key factor. The stability of nanofluids will depend on the nature and size of the nanoparticles, the base salt and the interactions between them. In this work, Solar Salt (SS) commonly used in CSP plants (60% NaNO3 + 40% KNO3 wt.) was doped with alumina nanoparticles (ANPs) at a solid mass concentration of 1% wt. at laboratory scale. The tendency of nanoparticles to agglomeration and sedimentation is tested in the molten state by analyzing their size and concentration through the time. The specific heat of the nanofluid at 396 °C (molten state) is measured at different times (30 min, 1 h, 5 h). Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms of agglomeration. A good understanding of the interactions between the nanoparticle surface and the ionic media would provide

  13. Economic Valuation of Hypothetical Paratransit Retrofitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naili Huda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a feasibility analysis of conventional and retrofitted paratransits, comparing economic performance of conventional paratransit with those using lead acid and lithium batteries. Research object is Dago-Kalapa paratransit in Bandung, West Java, travelling the distance of 11 km in town, under 8 peak hour operation. After calculating the estimated annual cost and benefit; net present value (NPV, payback period (PBP and internal rate of return (IRR then were quantified to provide feasibility description of those three paratransits. In addition, a sensitivity analysis regarding discount rate, gasoline price and battery price is given to offer broader sense of factors embraced. It is found that both gasoline and lead acid paratransit have big NPVs with only slight differences, while lithium paratransit has negative NPV. This phenomenon applies to their PBPs and IRRs as well. Only when gasoline costs reaches IDR 15,000 will electric paratransit prevails over conventional one. Thus, it can be inferred that at the moment, paratransit runs with gasoline is still the most cost effective compared to its counterparts. However, starting retrofitting from now is endorsed due to its environmental benefit. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;}

  14. Providing Appropriate Technology for Emerging Markets: Case Study on China’s Solar Thermal Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianghua Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Building on a case study of five Chinese solar thermal companies and one association, our study aims to understand how the innovator’s choices regarding the use of technology and organizational practices for new product development enable companies to design and diffuse appropriate technology in emerging markets. The study uncovers two critical factors that enhance the appropriateness of technology: redefining the identity of technology and building a local supply system. Our analysis shows that synergic innovation in both architecture and component leads to the appropriate functionalities desired by emerging markets. Moreover, modular design and the building of a local supply system enhance the process appropriateness of technology. Our study provides an empirical basis for advocating going beyond minor adaptations of existing products to creating appropriate technology for emerging markets, and extends our understandings of the upstream process of designing appropriate technology. Moreover, the emphasis on the local supply system reflects a holistic framework for shaping and delivering appropriate technology, expanding the existing research focus on the perspective of the technology itself. Our research also has managerial implications that may help firms tap into emerging markets.

  15. Treatment of colored and real industrial effluents through electrocoagulation using solar energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirkarami, Azam; Olya, Mohammad Ebrahim; Tabibian, Sahar

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the removal of Acid Orange 2 (sodium 4-[(2E)-2-(2-oxonaphthalen-1-ylidene) hydrazinyl] benzenesulfonate) and Reactive Blue 19 (2-Anthracenesulfonicacid,1-amino-9,10-dihydro-9,10-dioxo-4-[[3-[[2-(sulfooxy) ethyl] sulfonyl] phenyl] amino]-,sodium salt (1:2)) from synthesized and real effluents through electrocoagulation using solar cells for the purpose of improving economic efficiency of the process. The impact of a number of key operating parameters was explored including current density, anode type, temperature, pH, and electrolyte concentration. The current density of 45 Am(-2) proved to be the optimum level for both dyes. The same optimum alternatives were found for the other parameters in both cases: iron anode, a temperature level of 25°C, a pH of 7, and an electrolyte concentration of 15 mg L(-1). Both effluent samples were subjected to COD (chemical oxygen demand) and TOC (total organic carbon) tests. Cost analysis was performed for the treatment process.

  16. Optimisation of petroleum refinery water network systems retrofit incorporating reuse, regeneration and recycle strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khor, Cheng Seong; Shah, Nilay [Imperial College London (United Kingdom); Mahadzir, Shuhaimi [Universiti Teknologi Petronas (Malaysia); Elkamel, Ali [University of Waterloo (Canada)

    2012-02-15

    Increasingly strict environmental regulations have given rise to higher requirements for operating efficiency and optimization and water has become a vital resource in the refining process and allied industries. Due to this high demand for water, plants may be exposed to supply interruptions and shortages in the future. Major concerns in the petroleum refining industry are the scarcity of fresh water supply and increasingly rigid rules on wastewater discharge, which have resulted from concerns over the environmental impact. This paper presents the efforts made to develop an optimization framework for design of petroleum refinery water network systems and retrofitting that incorporates reuse, regeneration, and recycling strategies. This framework includes the complementary advantage of water pinch analysis (WPA). Water minimization strategies were incorporated as first postulates in a superstructural representation that includes all feasible flow-sheet options for taking advantage of water reuse, regeneration and recycling opportunities. Additionally, a post-optimization analysis was carried out to evaluate the repeated treatment processes required to identify the most efficient retrofit option.

  17. Implementation of Tunneling Passivated Contacts into Industrially Relevant n-Cz Si Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemeth, William; LaSalvia, Vincenzo; Page, Matthew R.; Warren, Emily L.; Dameron, Arrelaine; Norman, Andrew G.; Lee, Benjamin G.; Young, David L.; Stradins, Paul

    2015-06-14

    We identify bottlenecks, and propose solutions, to implement a B-diffused front emitter and a backside pc-Si/SiO2 pasivated tunneling contact into high efficiency n-Cz Si cells in an industrially relevant way. We apply an O-precipitate dissolution treatment to make n-Cz wafers immune to bulk lifetime process degradation, enabling robust, passivated B front emitters with J0 <; 20fA/cm2. Adding ultralow recombination n+ pc-Si/SiO2 back contacts enables pre-metallized cells with iVoc=720 mV and J0=8.6 fA/cm2. However, metallization significantly degrades performance of these contacts due to pinholes and possibly, grain boundary diffusion of primary metal and source contaminates such as Cu. An intermediate, doped a-Si:H capping layer is found to significantly block the harmful metal penetration into pc-Si.

  18. Energy retrofit study of an ammonia plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lababidi, H.M.S.; Alatiqi, I.M.; Nayfeh, L.J. [Kuwait University Safat (Kuwait). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2000-11-01

    Detailed energy integration study of the front-end of an existing ammonia plant has been performed, using recent advances in Pinch technology. Utility loads demanded by the existing process were found to be very close to the calculated minimum targets. This indicated that the selected ammonia plant is well integrated, and not much saving is expected through process-to-process energy integration. Alternatively, the retrofit study concentrated on better placement of available utilities. Two promising options have been investigated. The first one studied the flue gas temperature in the convection section of the primary reformer, and proposed new arrangements of the heating coils. Boiler feed water heating for high-pressure steam generation has been also considered as a possible source for reduction in energy consumption. Total benefit claimed amounted to 17.6% reduction in combustion fuel consumption. The overall results of this case study are promising. However, economical evaluation of the proposed modifications is essential. Additional possible reduction in energy consumption is also possible in energy and power integration of the back-end section. (author)

  19. Industrial cost effective n-pasha solar cells with >20% efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romijn, I.G.; Van Aken, B.; Anker, J.; Barton, P.; Gutjahr, A.; Komatsu, Y.; Koppes, M.; Kossen, E.J.; Lamers, M.; Saynova, D.S.; Tool, C.J.J.; Zhang, Y. [ECN Solar Energy, P.O. Box 1, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Venema, P.R.; Vlooswijk, A.H.G. [Tempress Systems BV, Radeweg 31, 8171 MD Vaassen (Netherlands); Schmitt, C.; Kuehnlein, H.; Bay, N. [RENA GmbH, Hans-Bunte-Strasse 19, D-79108, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Koenig, M.; Stassen, A.F. [Heraeus Precious Metals GmbH and Co. KG, Heraeusstrasse 12-14, D-63450, Hanau (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    The n-Pasha cell is a bifacial solar cell concept with average efficiencies between 19.8% and 20% and is optimized to enable high efficiencies with narrow distribution on wafers from the complete n-type ingots (2 to 10 {omega}-cm). This reduces the yield losses from a wafer point of view, which is important since the wafer costs make up the largest part ({approx}40%) of the total module costs for n-Pasha modules. The module fabrication itself adds up to {approx}35% of the module costs/Wp costs, which leaves {approx}25% of the costs/Wp for the cell production. We found that the costs/Wp for the 20% n-Pasha cell and module process are very similar to those of a 19% p-type cell, assuming similar wafer and module manufacturing costs. In the paper the successful implementation of a reduction of >60% in BBr{sub 3} consumption, and a reduction of >50% in Ag consumption are described, while keeping the n-Pasha cell efficiency at the same level. According to our calculations, the achieved reduction of the Ag and BBr{sub 3} consumption will lower the costs/Wp for n-Pasha modules below that of p-type. The majority of the efficiency losses in the n-Pasha cell are due to recombination in the diffused layers and below the contact regions. By tuning both the emitter and BSF profile, an efficiency gain of 0.4% absolute has been obtained. Based on the simulations and experimental results, the path towards further optimization and efficiencies approaching 21% is shown.

  20. Front surface field formation and diffusion profiles for industrial interdigitated back contact solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cascant, M.; Morecroft, D.; Boulif, K.; Vauche, L.; Yuste, H.; Castano, F.J. [Siliken, High efficiency solar cell pilot line, R and D department, Ciudad Politecnica de la Innovacion- UPV Camino de Vera 14, 46022 Valencia, (Spain); Bende, E.E. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-09-15

    Optimization of the Front Surface Field (FSF) for IBC cells is important for passivation, lowering series resistance and reducing UV light degradation. This work presents results for optimizing the FSF diffusion from an industrial perspective, focusing on optimizing the process flow to achieve excellent FSF performance, whilst at the same time reducing the number of process steps. The ideal FSF profile is a compromise since a lightly doped deep diffusion reduces recombination losses close the cell surface where the light is captured, whilst increased doping reduces series resistance. This work investigates diffusing the FSF (1) at the beginning, (2) in the middle and (3) towards the end of the IBC process flow. The advantage of the first option is that the diffusion depth can be increased by subsequent thermal steps. However a diffusion barrier is required to protect the FSF throughout the subsequent processing, which increases the number of process steps and results in increased costs. By placing the FSF diffusion later in the process flow it is possible to simplify the process reducing the number of steps. Experimental results show excellent FSF diffusion passivation performance over 156mm, with lifetime values of over 500 {mu}s. Simulations confirm that high current generation can be achieved with a short circuit current of over 40 mA cm-{sup 2}.

  1. 中国太阳能产业出口竞争力研究%Research on Export Competitiveness of Chinese Solar Energy Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张汝飞; 刘明

    2014-01-01

    太阳能产业作为新能源产业的一个子产业,在中国新能源发展战略中具有重要地位。本文依据2000~2012年全球主要经济体的太阳能产业海关进出口数据,就中国太阳能产业出口竞争力展开分析研究。TC指数分析表明中国太阳能产业出口竞争力水平呈现持续增长态势,目前已具有较强竞争力,亚洲国家的太阳能产业出口竞争力整体水平较高;在美国、欧盟及日本三个第三方市场中,中国太阳能产业出口额均呈现快速增长趋势,且市场占比均逐年加大,进一步证明了中国太阳能产业出口竞争力在逐步增强。%As a subsidiary,solar energy industry plays an important role in China's new energy develop-ment strategy,the export competitiveness evaluation of which is also an important part of the study.According to the customs import and export data from 2000 to 2012 of the major economies,the paper studies on the export competitiveness of China's solar industry.TC index analysis indicates that China's solar industry export competitiveness level is growing and has strong competitiveness now.The solar industry export competitiveness level of Asia nations are overall high.In the third-party market researching,China's solar industry exports in the United States market,the EU market and the Japan market grow quickly,and the market proportion are increasing.This is another evidence of that China's solar industry export competitiveness has been enhanced.

  2. National Land Cover Database 1992/2001 Retrofit Land Cover Change Product: 1999-2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — NLCD 1992-2001 Retrofit Change Product What is the NLCD 1992/2001 Retrofit Land Cover Change Product? Although one of the guiding principles of the NLCD 2001 design...

  3. Wyandotte Neighborhood Stabilization Program: Retrofit of Two Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukachko, A. [Building Science Corporation (BSC), Somerville, MA (United States); Grin, A. [Building Science Corporation (BSC), Somerville, MA (United States); Bergey, D. [Building Science Corporation (BSC), Somerville, MA (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The Wyandotte NSP2 project aims to build 20 new houses and retrofit 20 existing houses in Wyandotte, MI. Wyandotte is part of a Michigan State Housing Development Authority-led consortium that is funded by HUD under the NSP2 program. The City of Wyandotte has also been awarded DOE EE&CBG funds that are being used to develop a district ground source heat pump (GSHP) system to service the project. This report details the retrofit of two existing houses in the program, and examines the energy efficiency recommendations for the homes. The report will be of interest to anyone planning an affordable, high performance retrofit of an existing home in a cold climate zone. Information from this report will also be useful to retrofit or weatherization program staff as some of the proposed retrofit solutions will apply to a wide range of projects. Preliminary results from the first complete house suggest that the technology package employed (which includes spray foam insulation and insulating sheathing) does meet the specific whole house water, air, and thermal control requirements, as well as, the project’s affordability goals. Monitoring of the GSHP system has been recommended and analysis of this information is not yet available.

  4. Retrofitting of Reinforced Concrete Beams using Reactive Powder Concrete (RPC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, S.; Sundaravadivelu, Karthik

    2017-07-01

    Strengthening of existing damaged structures is one of the leading studies in civil engineering. The purpose of retrofitting is to structurally treat the member with an aim to restore the structure to its original strength. The focus of this project is to study the behaviour of damaged Reinforced Concrete beam retrofitted with Reactive Powder Concrete (RPC) Overlay. Reinforced concrete beams of length 1200 mm, width 100 mm and depth 200 mm were casted with M30 grade of concrete in the laboratory and cured for 28 days. One beam is taken as control and are tested under two point loading to find out ultimate load. Remaining beams are subjected to 90 % ultimate load of control beams. The partially damaged beams are retrofitted with Reactive Powder Concrete Overlay at the full tension face of the beam and side overlay depends upon the respectable retrofitting techniques with 10 mm and 20 mm thick layer to find optimum. Materials like steel fibres are added to enhance the ductility by eliminating coarse particle for homogeneity of the structure. Finally, the modes of failure for retrofitted beams are analysed experimentally under two point loading & compared the results with Control beam.

  5. Housing Stock Characterization Study: An Innovative Approach to Measuring Retrofit Impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, P.; Taylor, N.; Kipp, J.

    2012-09-01

    A residential energy efficiency retrofit loan program depends on a self-sustaining finance option and optimized retrofit measures that recoup their unsubsidized costs through energy bill savings alone within the useful life of the retrofit. A first step in evaluating retrofit options is to measure and verify their energy savings. This report evaluates Orlando Utilities Commission (OUC) residential energy-efficiency demand side management (DSM) programs to assess their relative energy and economic performance.

  6. Housing Stock Characterization Study. An Innovative Approach to Measuring Retrofit Impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, P.; Taylor, N.; Kipp, J.

    2012-09-01

    A residential energy efficiency retrofit loan program depends on a self-sustaining finance option and optimized retrofit measures that recoup their unsubsidized costs through energy bill savings alone within the useful life of the retrofit. A first step in evaluating retrofit options is to measure and verify their energy savings. This report evaluates Orlando Utilities Commission (OUC) residential energy-efficiency demand side management (DSM) programs to assess their relative energy and economic performance.

  7. Measure Guideline: Three High Performance Mineral Fiber Insulation Board Retrofit Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhauser, K. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This Measure Guideline describes a high performance enclosure retrofit package that uses mineral fiber insulation board, and is intended to serve contractors and designers seeking guidance for non-foam exterior insulation retrofit processes. The guideline describes retrofit assembly and details for wood frame roof and walls and for cast concrete foundations.

  8. Measure Guideline: Three High Performance Mineral Fiber Insulation Board Retrofit Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhauser, Ken [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This Measure Guideline describes a high performance enclosure retrofit package that uses mineral fiber insulation board. The Measure Guideline describes retrofit assembly and details for wood frame roof and walls and for cast concrete foundations. This Measure Guideline is intended to serve contractors and designers seeking guidance for non-foam exterior insulation retrofit.

  9. Mini-Split Heat Pumps Multifamily Retrofit Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, J.; Podorson, D.; Varshney, K.

    2014-05-01

    Mini-split heat pumps can provide space heating and cooling in many climates and are relatively affordable. These and other features make them potentially suitable for retrofitting into multifamily buildings in cold climates to replace electric resistance heating or other outmoded heating systems. This report investigates the suitability of mini-split heat pumps for multifamily retrofits. Various technical and regulatory barriers are discussed and modeling was performed to compare long-term costs of substituting mini-splits for a variety of other heating and cooling options. A number of utility programs have retrofit mini-splits in both single family and multifamily residences. Two such multifamily programs are discussed in detail.

  10. Field Assessment of Energy Audit Tools for Retrofit Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, J. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States); Bohac, D. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States); Nelson, C. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States); Smith, I. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    2013-07-01

    This project focused on the use of home energy ratings as a tool to promote energy retrofits in existing homes. A home energy rating provides a quantitative appraisal of a home’s energy performance, usually compared to a benchmark such as the average energy use of similar homes in the same region. Rating systems based on energy performance models, the focus of this report, can establish a home’s achievable energy efficiency potential and provide a quantitative assessment of energy savings after retrofits are completed, although their accuracy needs to be verified by actual measurement or billing data. Ratings can also show homeowners where they stand compared to their neighbors, thus creating social pressure to conform to or surpass others. This project field-tested three different building performance models of varying complexity, in order to assess their value as rating systems in the context of a residential retrofit program: Home Energy Score, SIMPLE, and REM/Rate.

  11. Harnessing the hybrid power supply systems of utility grid and photovoltaic panels at retrofit residential single family building in Medan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangaribuan, A. B.; Rahmat, R. F.; Lidya, M. S.; Zálešák, M.

    2017-01-01

    The paper describes improvisation mode of energy supply source by collaboration between national utility grid as represented by fossil fuels and PV as independent renewable power resource in order to aim the energy consumptions efficiently in retrofit single family house. In this case, one existing single family house model in Medan, Indonesia was observed for the possibility of future refurbishment. The eco-design version of the house model and prediction analyses regarding nearby potential renewable energy resource (solar system) had been made using Autodesk Revit MEP 2015, Climate Consultant 6.0 and Green Building Studio Analysis. Economical evaluation of using hybrid power supply is discussed as well.

  12. 77 FR 31647 - Request for Certification of Compliance-Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    ... States Department of Agriculture to make or guarantee loans or grants to finance industrial and business... finance capital equipment purchases for the manufacturing lines, which includes the retrofit and build-out...

  13. I+D+i of the latest technological trends in the solar industry 2010; I+D+i utlimas tendencias tecnologicas de la industria solar 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    He is currently working hard on the development of technology applied to the use of solar energy, which in turn results in more frequent occurrence of numerous advances in this field. Although none of them is revolutionary, it is interesting that gradually comes to solar energy every day with the goal of being an energy source cost effective, efficient and cheap. many of these advances go unnoticed by the general public, so that was solar has been collecting and collating some of the most important and interesting events that have arisen during the year 2010 to introduce readers in this article. (Author)

  14. Discussion on the Coping Strategies to the Pollution of Solar Photovoltaic Industry%太阳能光伏产业污染的应对策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚希博; 付宏祥; 王欣

    2015-01-01

    指出了随着各国经济的发展和工业规模的不断扩大,能源需求日益增加,太阳能的开发和利用为解决常规能源的不足开辟了路径。我国太阳能光伏产业已经进入规模化、产业化阶段,其在国民经济发展和能源供应中发挥着非常重要的作用,但是由于技术水平、经济效益、废物处理工艺等因素的影响,光伏产业链所带来的污染是非常严重的。结合这一现状,对太阳能光伏产业污染的应对策略进行了探讨。%With the development of national economies and the growing of industrial - scale ,the demand for energy is boosting .The development and use of solar energy opens up a new path to solve the shortage of energy .In China , the solar photovoltaic industry has come to the stage of large scale and industrialization ,which plays a crucial role in the national economic development and energy supply .But PV industry chain has caused very serious pollution because of the influences by its technical level ,economic benefits and waste treatment process .Combining with the status ,the article discusses the coping strategies to the pollution of solar photovoltaic industry .

  15. Evaluation of CNT Energy Savers Retrofit Packages Implemented in Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farley, Jenne [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Chicago, IL (United States); Ruch, Russell [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Chicago, IL (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This evaluation explored the feasibility of designing prescriptive retrofit measure packages for typical Chicago region multifamily buildings in order to achieve 25%-30% source energy savings through the study of three case studies. There is an urgent need to scale up energy efficiency retrofitting of Chicago's multifamily buildings in order to address rising energy costs and a rapidly depleting rental stock. Aimed at retrofit program administrators and building science professionals, this research project investigates the possibility of using prescriptive retrofit packages as a time- and resource-effective approach to the process of retrofitting multifamily buildings.

  16. Evaluation of CNT Energy Savers Retrofit Packages Implemented in Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farley, Jenne [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Chicago, IL (United States); Ruch, Russell [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Chicago, IL (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This evaluation explored the feasibility of designing prescriptive retrofit measure packages for typical Chicago region multifamily buildings in order to achieve 25%-30% source energy savings through the study of three case studies. There is an urgent need to scale up energy efficiency retrofitting of Chicago's multifamily buildings in order to address rising energy costs and a rapidly depletingrental stock. Aimed at retrofit program administrators and building science professionals, this research project investigates the possibility of using prescriptive retrofit packages as a time- and resource-effective approach to the process of retrofitting multifamily buildings.

  17. Solar production of industrial process hot water: operation and evaluation of the Campbell Soup hot water solar facility. Final report, September 1, 1979-December 10, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kull, J. I.; Niemeyer, W. N.; Youngblood, S. B.

    1980-12-01

    The operation and evaluation of a solar hot water facility designed by Acurex Corporation and installed (November 1977) at the Campbell Soup Company Sacramento, California canning plant is summarized. The period of evaluation was for 12 months from October 1979 through September 1980. The objective of the work was to obtain additional, long term data on the operation and performance of the facility. Minor modifications to the facility were completed. The system was operated for 15 months, and 12 months of detailed data were evaluated. The facility was available for operation 99% of the time during the last 8 months of evaluation. A detailed description of the solar facility and of the operating experience is given, and a summary of system performance for the 12 month operation/evaluation period is presented. Recommendations for large-scale solar facilities based on this project's experience are given, and an environmental impact assessment for the Campbell Soup solar facility is provided. (WHK)

  18. Methodology Einstein for energy audit and design of solar heat systems in industrial processes; Metodologia Einstein para auditoria energetica y diseno de sistemas de calor solar en procesos industriales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweiger, H.; Vannoni, C.; Danov, S.; Facci, E.

    2008-07-01

    Estimates show that 57% of the total industrial heat demand in EU countries is required at low (up to 100 degree centigrade) and medium temperature (up to 400 degree centigrade). An important part of this thermal energy demand can be covered by solar thermal energy. In the framework of the European project EINSTEIN (Expert-system for an Intelligent Supply of Thermal Energy in Industry), an expert system is being developed, where process optimisation, heat recovery, intelligent cold supply and renewable energy are integrated into a holistic energy audit methodology with the objective of reducing energy consumption in the industrial sector. EINSTEIN is being developed as a free and open source software project. (Author)

  19. Public Housing: A Tailored Approach to Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, J. [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative (ARIES), New York, NY (United States); Conlin, F. [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative (ARIES), New York, NY (United States); Podorson, D. [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative (ARIES), New York, NY (United States); Alaigh, K. [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative (ARIES), New York, NY (United States); Davis, T. [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative (ARIES), New York, NY (United States)

    2016-02-23

    The Building America research team Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative (ARIES) worked with four public housing authorities (PHAs) to develop packages of energy-efficiency retrofit measures that the PHAs can cost-effectively implement with their own staffs during the normal course of housing operations when units are refurbished between occupancies.

  20. Indoor Environmental Quality Benefits of Apartment Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noris, Federico [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Adamkiewicz, Gary [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston MA (United States); Delp, William W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hotchi, Toshifumi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Russell, Marion [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Spears, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Vermeer, Kimberly [Urban Habitate Initiatives Inc., Boston, MA (United States); Fisk, William J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Sixteen apartments serving low-income populations in three buildings were retrofit with the goal of simultaneously reducing energy consumption and improving indoor environmental quality (IEQ). Retrofit measures varied among apartments and included, among others, envelope sealing, installation of continuous mechanical ventilation systems, upgrading bathroom fans and range hoods, attic insulation, replacement of heating and cooling systems, and adding wall-mounted particle air cleaners. IEQ parameters were measured, generally for two one-week periods before and after the retrofits. The measurements indicate an overall improvement in IEQ conditions after the retrofits. Comfort conditions, bathroom humidity, and concentrations of carbon dioxide, acetaldehyde, volatile organic compounds, and particles generally improved. Formaldehyde and nitrogen dioxide levels decreased in the building with the highest concentrations, were unchanged in a second building, and increased in a third building. IEQ parameters other than particles improved more in apartments with continuous mechanical ventilation systems installed. In general, but not consistently, larger percent increases in air exchange rates were associated with larger percent decreases in indoor levels of the pollutants that primarily come from indoor sources.

  1. An actuarial approach to retrofit savings in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subbarao, Krishnappa; Etingov, Pavel V.; Reddy, T. A.

    2014-01-01

    An actuarial method has been developed for determining energy savings from retrofits from energy use data for a number of buildings. This method should be contrasted with the traditional method of using pre- and post-retrofit data on the same building. This method supports the U.S. Department of Energy Building Performance Database of real building performance data and related tools that enable engineering and financial practitioners to evaluate retrofits. The actuarial approach derives, from the database, probability density functions (PDFs) for energy savings from retrofits by creating peer groups for the user’s pre post buildings. From the energy use distribution of the two groups, the savings PDF is derived. This provides the basis for engineering analysis as well as financial risk analysis leading to investment decisions. Several technical issues are addressed: The savings PDF is obtained from the pre- and post-PDF through a convolution. Smoothing using kernel density estimation is applied to make the PDF more realistic. The low data density problem can be mitigated through a neighborhood methodology. Correlations between pre and post buildings are addressed to improve the savings PDF. Sample size effects are addressed through the Kolmogorov--Smirnov tests and quantile-quantile plots.

  2. Analysis of Pre-Retrofit Building and Utility Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prahl, D. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Beach, R. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    IBACOS analyzed pre-retrofit daily utility data to sort homes by energy consumption, allowing for better targeting of homes for physical audits. Following ASHRAE Guideline 14 normalization procedures, electricity consumption of 1,166 all electric production-built homes was modeled. The homes were in two communities—one built in the 1970s and the other in the mid-2000s.

  3. Implementation of Additive Rapid Prototyping on Retrofit CNC Mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeform fabrication techniques are gaining popularity as a means of making parts. Layered additive methods are associated with rapid prototyping. Many rapid prototyping methods are commercially proprietary and may cost thousands of dollars. Using a retrofit CNC mill for layered fabrication and C...

  4. Whole Foods Market Retrofits Multiple Building Systems for Big Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-03-01

    Whole Foods Market partnered with U.S. the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to reduce annual energy consumption in existing stores by at least 30% versus pre-retrofit energy use at its store in Edgewater, New Jersey, as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) program.

  5. Retrofitting America: A 1970s Home Energy Efficiency Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-11-17

    This paper describes a modeling tool that Building America research team CARB developed to identify the energy benefits of various retrofit energy efficiency measures for a typical 1970’s ranch home in ten cities across four climate zones in the United States.

  6. Retrofit programme for the 500 MW turbines manufactured by LMZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandel, H. [Vattenfall Europe Generation AG and Co. KG, Berlin (Germany); Barth, G. [Vattenfall Europe Generation AG and Co. KG, Kraftwerk Jaenschwalde (Germany); Tanner, W. [Vattenfall Europe Generation AG and Co. KG, Kraftwerk Boxberg (Germany); Klauke, U. [VEAG PowerConsult GmbH, Vetschau (Germany); Schroeder, K.F. [ALSTOM Power Generation GmbH, Mannheim (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Confirmed by the identified potentials, essential improvements with regard to performance, operating reliability and inspections can be achieved by retrofitting the LP and HP turbines of the LMZ type. Thus, the specific heat consumption can be reduced by approximately 540 kJ/kW or about 6%. Furthermore, the economic effectiveness of aging plants is improved. (orig.)

  7. A structured approach to heat exchanger network retrofit design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Reisen, J.L.B.

    2008-01-01

    Process plants have high energy consumption. Much energy can be saved by a proper design of the heat exchanger network, which contains the main heat transferring equipment of the plant. Existing plants can often be made more energy-efficient by a retrofit: the (physical) modification of the equipmen

  8. Modelling the feasibility of retrofitting hydropower to existing South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    water pressure into mechanical shaft rotation which is then. Hydro power (14%) ... hydropower retrofitting model (HRM) applies, a water-to-wire system will most ..... A set amount of flow is drawn off constantly to produce a constant amount of ...

  9. A Retrofit Tool for Improving Energy Efficiency of Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Mark; Feng, Wei; Ke, Jing; Hong, Tianzhen; Zhou, Nan

    2013-06-06

    Existing buildings will dominate energy use in commercial buildings in the United States for three decades or longer and even in China for the about two decades. Retrofitting these buildings to improve energy efficiency and reduce energy use is thus critical to achieving the target of reducing energy use in the buildings sector. However there are few evaluation tools that can quickly identify and evaluate energy savings and cost effectiveness of energy conservation measures (ECMs) for retrofits, especially for buildings in China. This paper discusses methods used to develop such a tool and demonstrates an application of the tool for a retrofit analysis. The tool builds on a building performance database with pre-calculated energy consumption of ECMs for selected commercial prototype buildings using the EnergyPlus program. The tool allows users to evaluate individual ECMs or a package of ECMs. It covers building envelope, lighting and daylighting, HVAC, plug loads, service hot water, and renewable energy. The prototype building can be customized to represent an actual building with some limitations. Energy consumption from utility bills can be entered into the tool to compare and calibrate the energy use of the prototype building. The tool currently can evaluate energy savings and payback of ECMs for shopping malls in China. We have used the tool to assess energy and cost savings for retrofit of the prototype shopping mall in Shanghai. Future work on the tool will simplify its use and expand it to cover other commercial building types and other countries.

  10. High power solid state retrofit lamp thermal characterization and modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakovenko, J.; Formánek, J.; Vladimír, J.; Husák, M.; Werkhoven, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal and thermo-mechanical modeling and characterization of solid state lightening (SSL) retrofit LED Lamp are presented in this paper. Paramount Importance is to design SSL lamps for reliability, in which thermal and thermo-mechanical aspects are key points. The main goal is to get a precise 3D

  11. 美国太阳能发电技术及产业发展%Technology Progress and Industrial Developmentof U.S. Solar Energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    禹庚

    2015-01-01

    Based on empirical study of the U.S. milestone achievements in 2013 and 2014 which are called the year of utility-scale PV solar power and the year of utility-scale CSP(Concentrating Solar Power) respectively, the article analyses the thrust forces produced by technology innovation and preferential policies on the U.S. solar power technology and industry. It argues that it is technology innovation and policies that safeguard the U.S. solar technology and industry on a fast track with features as lower cost, higher efifciency and booming market. With optimistic expectation, the U.S. solar power will be able to fully compete with traditional fossil energy by 2020, a target set by DOE’s SunShot Initiative.%本文以2013年美国多个超大规模光伏电站并网发电、2014年多个超大规模聚热太阳能电站投产为主要研究对象,分析了技术创新驱动和产业扶持政策对美国太阳能发电技术及大规模商业应用发展的推动作用,以及由此引发的效能提升、价格下降、供需市场兴旺,乐观预见美国太阳能发电产业的未来发展。

  12. Chinese Solar Industry Players

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Suntech Power (Wuxi, Jiangsu Province) Suntech Power Holdings Co. Ltd. specializes in the design, development, manufacturing and sale of PV cells, modules and systems. Founded in January 2001 by Dr. Shi Zhengrong, a distinguished PV technology scientist

  13. Multi-criteria decision model for retrofitting existing buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Bostenaru Dan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Decision is an element in the risk management process. In this paper the way how science can help in decision making and implementation for retrofitting buildings in earthquake prone urban areas is investigated. In such interventions actors from various spheres are involved. Their interests range among minimising the intervention for maximal preservation or increasing it for seismic safety. Research was conducted to see how to facilitate collaboration between these actors. A particular attention was given to the role of time in actors' preferences. For this reason, on decision level, both the processural and the personal dimension of risk management, the later seen as a task, were considered. A systematic approach was employed to determine the functional structure of a participative decision model. Three layers on which actors implied in this multi-criteria decision problem interact were identified: town, building and element. So-called 'retrofit elements' are characteristic bearers in the architectural survey, engineering simulations, costs estimation and define the realms perceived by the inhabitants. This way they represent an interaction basis for the interest groups considered in a deeper study. Such orientation means for actors' interaction were designed on other levels of intervention as well. Finally, an 'experiment' for the implementation of the decision model is presented: a strategic plan for an urban intervention towards reduction of earthquake hazard impact through retrofitting. A systematic approach proves thus to be a very good communication basis among the participants in the seismic risk management process. Nevertheless, it can only be applied in later phases (decision, implementation, control only, since it serves verifying and improving solution and not developing the concept. The 'retrofit elements' are a typical example of the detailing degree reached in the retrofit design plans in these phases.

  14. Textile drying using solarized can dryers to demonstrate the application of solar energy to industrial drying or dehydration processes, Phase II. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, P.D.; Beesing, M.E.; Bessler, G.L.

    1979-12-01

    This program has resulted in the installation of a solar energy collection system for providing process heat to a textile drying process. The solar collection subsystem uses 700 square meters (7500 square feet) of parabolic trough, single-axis tracking, concentrating collectors to heat water in a high temperature water (HTW) loop. The solar collectors nominally generate 193/sup 0/C (380/sup 0/F) water with the HTW loop at 1.9 x 10/sup 6/ Pa (275 psi). A steam generator is fueled with the HTW and produces 450 kg/hour (1000 pounds per hour) of process steam at the nominal design point conditions. The solar-generated process steam is at 0.5 x 10/sup 6/ Pa (75 psi) and 160/sup 0/C (321/sup 0/F). It is predicted that the solar energy system will provide 1.2 x 10/sup 6/ MJ/year (1.1 x 10/sup 9/ Btu/year) to the process. This is 46 percent of the direct isolation available to the collector field during the operational hours (300 days/year of the Fairfax mill. The process being solarized is textile drying using can dryers. The can dryers are part of a slashing operation in a WestPoint Pepperell mill in Fairfax, Alabama. Over 50 percent of all woven goods are processed through slashers and dried on can dryers. The collectors were fabricated by Honeywell at a pilot production facility in Minneapolis, Minnesota, under a 3000-square-meter (32,000-square-foot) production run. The collectors and other system components were installed at the site by the Bahnson Service Company and their subcontractors, acting as the project general contractor. System checkout and start-up was conducted. Preliminary system performance was determined from data collected during start-up. System design, fabrication and installation, data analysis, operation and maintenance procedures, and specifications and drawings are presented.

  15. Energy cost reduction in the baking industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Information is presented on methods for saving fuel and electric power in the baking industry; the cost of specific retrofits to bakery equipment and of modifications to processes; ways to reduce transportation costs and energy; and reducing energy demand for lighting, cooling, and heating bakeries. (LCL)

  16. District heating and cooling systems for communities through power plant retrofit and distribution network, City of Piqua, Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-09-18

    The goal of the Piqua, Ohio District Heating and Cooling Demonstration Project is to demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of using cogenerated thermal energy from the City's Municipal Power Plant to provide residential, commercial and industrial space heating and cooling and satisfy other community energy needs as appropriate. Progress in four tasks within this project is reported. These tasks include: development of team work plan resource allocation; identification of thermal energy source market; analysis of energy market; and planning of power plant retrofits. (LCL)

  17. Metodología para el retrofit de procesos químicos basada en una representación jerárquica

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Martínez, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    Industrial processes require periodic evaluations to verify their normal operation, as much in economical as in technical terms. These evaluations are necessary due to changes in markets, safety and environmental legislation. It is necessary to satisfy these demands in order to investigate process alternatives that allow the optimal use of existing resources with the possible minimum investment. One way to make this task is by means of retrofit.The objective of this work is to develop a metho...

  18. Active magnetic bearings applied to industrial compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, R. G.; Hustak, J. F.; Schoeneck, K. A.

    1993-01-01

    The design and shop test results are given for a high-speed eight-stage centrifugal compressor supported by active magnetic bearings. A brief summary of the basic operation of active magnetic bearings and the required rotor dynamics analysis are presented with specific attention given to design considerations for optimum rotor stability. The concerns for retrofits of magnetic bearings in existing machinery are discussed with supporting analysis of a four-stage centrifugal compressor. The current status of industrial machinery in North America using this new support system is presented and recommendations are given on design and analysis requirements for successful machinery operation of either retrofit or new design turbomachinery.

  19. Benefits of solar/fossil hybrid gas turbine systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, H. S.

    1979-01-01

    The potential benefits of solar/fossil hybrid gas turbine power systems were assessed. Both retrofit and new systems were considered from the aspects of cost of electricity, fuel conservation, operational mode, technology requirements, and fuels flexibility. Hybrid retrofit (repowering) of existing combustion (simple Brayton cycle) turbines can provide near-term fuel savings and solar experience, while new and advanced recuperated or combined cycle systems may be an attractive fuel saving and economically competitive vehicle to transition from today's gas and oil-fired powerplants to other more abundant fuels.

  20. IV measurements of mc-Si solar cells. Comparison of results from institute and industry partners within the EU CrystalClear project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, G.; Herguth, A.; Helfricht, A. [University of Konstanz, Department of Physics, Jacob-Burckhardt-Str. 29, 78464 Konstanz (Germany); Hofmann, M; Warta, W. [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Heidenhofstr. 2, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); Van der Borg, N.J.C.M.; Weeber, A.W. [ECN Solar Energy, PO Box 1, NL 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); John, J.; Beaucarne, G. [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Bagus, S.; Nagel, H. [SCHOTT Solar GmbH, Carl-Zeiss-Strasse 4, 63755 Alzenau (Germany); Le Quang, N.; Nichiporuk, O. [Photowatt International S.A.S. 33, Rue St. Honore 38300 Bourgoin Jallieu (France); Vincueria, I. [BP Solar Espana SAU, P.I. Tres Cantos Zona Oeste, s/n 28760, Madrid (Spain); Brochs, M. [REC Scancell, 8512 Narvik (Norway)

    2008-10-15

    Determination of solar cell parameters by illuminated IV measurement is a standard characterisation technique used by many partners active in photovoltaics. The aim of this work is to carry out a cross check of different measurement set-ups used by different research partners of the EU CrystalClear project using industrial type multicrystalline Si solar cells. In a first round robin a significant spread of all cell parameters (Voc, jsc, FF and efficiency) could be observed. After distribution of sister cells to selected cells calibrated at ISE CalLab, a second round robin was carried out. The spread in FF and jsc could be significantly reduced. Repeatability tests showed that by using a photo diode fluctuations of light intensity can be minimised and variations in jsc can be decreased down to 0.2 mA/cm{sup 2}. Remaining systematic errors are control of cell temperature, contacting geometry, and use of appropriate reference cells.

  1. Solar energy driven photocatalytic membrane modules for water reuse in agricultural and food industries. Pre-industrial experience using s-triazines as model molecules

    OpenAIRE

    Ignazio Renato Bellobono; Franca Morazzoni; Riccardo Bianchi; Emilia Simona Mangone; Rodica Stanescu; Cristina Costache; Paola Maria Tozzi

    2005-01-01

    A membrane module, utilizing photocatalytic membranes, has been employed in a pilot plant, in conditions of solar irradiation, to investigate photomineralisation of atrazine, propazine, terbutylazine, symazine, prometryn, and ametryn, as model molecules of s-triazine herbicides, at a standard concentration (1.0 ppm) simulating those of contaminated aquifers, by using ozone as oxygen supplier. Photocatalytic composite membranes immobilised 30±3 wt.% of TiO2 and 6 wt.% of a synergic mixture of ...

  2. Development of new strategies based on solar photocatalysis for water regeneration in an agro-food industry; Desarrollo de nuevas estrategias basadas en fotocatalisis solar para la regeneracion de aguas de una industria agro-alimentaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez Tototzintie, M.

    2015-07-01

    Continuous discharge of effluents coming from the agro-food industry could significantly increase contamination of water resources (both surface water and groundwater). This is mainly due to the presence of many xenobiotic compounds used for increased productivity or for pre- and post- harvest preservation of the fruits and vegetables used in the industry. In 2013, the European Unión Council Directive 2013/39/UE proposed identifying the main causes of water pollution in order to treat contaminant discharge at the source in a sustainable way and without harming the environment. In this context, conventional biological process do not always provide satisfactory results, especially for industrial wastewater treatment, since many of the organic substances are toxic or resistant to biological treatment. Today, biological processes combined with photoassisted advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), have shown a great potential for treating different kinds of industrial wastewaters. The AOPs have been widely proposed as a highly efficient alternative for tertiary treatments in industrial and municipal wastewater treatment plants due to their versatility and ability to remove recalcitrant pollutants. AOPs are characterized by the production of hydroxyl radicals (OH) able to oxidize and mineralize almost any organic molecule, yielding CO2 and inorganic ions. The attention of researchers has been focused on AOPs that can be driven by solar radiation to avoid the high operating costs of UV lamps. Heterogeneous photocatalysis with TiO2 has been suggested for the elimination of several types of contaminants in water due to its beneficial characteristics, including physical and chemical stability, low cost and toxicity, and excellent optical properties. However, as TiO2 is used as slurry in water, it must be removed before water disposal. Recuperating the photocatalyst is a complex process and as a result of this, research in different immobilization techniques in various types of

  3. Residential energy-efficiency retrofit projects at two universities, overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Lipscumb, L. [Morgan State Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Bosworth, F. [Southern Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Two recent US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Buildings Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) projects are investigating high-performance, residential energy-efficiency retrofit measures in indigenous housing types. These projects are studying and testing high-performance, energy-efficiency retrofits that will optimize envelope improvements, equipment improvements, and operational improvements to the cost-effective level (not just code minimums). They will provide an opportunity to design, implement, and evaluate energy efficiency improvements related to the rehabilitation of culturally significant residential units under real world conditions. Each project will establish a cooperative venture between the individual University, a community development organization, home builders/remodelers, and utilities and other governmental agencies to accomplish the rehabilitation of residential units. Three residential units will be rehabilitated in each location.

  4. Resource handbook for low-income residential retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callaway, J.W.; Brenchley, D.L.; Davis, L.J.; Ivey, D.L.; Smith, S.A.; Westergard, E.J.

    1987-04-01

    The purpose of the handbook is to provide technical assistance to state grantees participating in the Partnerships in Low-Income Residential Retrofit (PILIRR) Program. PILIRR is a demonstration program aimed at identifying innovative, successful approaches to developing public and private support for weatherization of low-income households. The program reflects the basic concept that responsibility for financial support for conservation activities such as low-income residential retrofitting is likely to gradually shift from the DOE to the states and the private sector. In preparing the handbook, PNL staff surveyed over 50 programs that provide assistance to low-income residents. The survey provided information on factors that contribute to successful programs. PNL also studied the winning PILIRR proposals (from the states of Florida, Iowa, Kentucky, Oklahoma and Washington) and identified the approaches proposed and the type of information that would be most helpful in implementing these approaches.

  5. Cascade Apartments - Deep Energy Multifamily Retrofit , Kent, Washington (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-02-01

    In December of 2009-10, King County Housing Authority (KCHA) implemented energy retrofit improvements in the Cascade multifamily community, located in Kent, Washington (marine climate.)This research effort involved significant coordination from stakeholders KCHA, WA State Department of Commerce, utility Puget Sound Energy, and Cascade tenants. This report focuses on the following three primary BA research questions : 1. What are the modeled energy savings using DOE low income weatherization approved TREAT software? 2. How did the modeled energy savings compare with measured energy savings from aggregate utility billing analysis? 3. What is the Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) of the retrofit package after considering utility window incentives and KCHA capitol improvement funding.

  6. Analysis of Pre-Retrofit Building and Utility Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prahl, D.; Beach, R.

    2014-12-01

    IBACOS analyzed pre-retrofit daily utility data to sort homes by energy consumption, allowing for better targeting of homes for physical audits. Following ASHRAE Guideline 14 normalization procedures, electricity consumption of 1,166 all electric production-built homes' was modeled. The homes were in two communities -- one built in the 1970s and the other in the mid-2000s.

  7. Commissioning of the Fresno, California, Retrofit Unoccupied Test House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stecher, D.; Imm, C.

    2013-06-01

    Commissioning of instrumentation and limited short-term testing have been completed on a retrofit unoccupied test house in Fresno, California. This house is intended to be used as a laboratory in which several different methods of space conditioning distribution will be evaluated. This report provides background on the project, including specifications of the house and models used in its development, along with models to be evaluated through its operation.

  8. Experimental investigation of retrofit options for mobile homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, S.J.

    1977-03-03

    A mobile home located (outdoors) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, was tested to determine its energy-use characteristics for both space heating and cooling. The main objective was to determine the energy savings that can be achieved by the addition of retrofit items such as storm windows, skirting, and extra insulation and how these savings vary with weather conditions. Analyses of space heating data show that energy savings approaching 50 percent can be achieved, but analyses of space cooling data were inconclusive.

  9. A Wireless Platform for Energy Efficient Building Control Retrofits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    FINAL REPORT A Wireless Platform for Energy Efficient Building Control Retrofits ESTCP Project EW-200938 JULY 2012 Satish Narayanan... Manges Kenneth Woodworth Oak Ridge National Laboratory Francesco Borrelli Anthony Kelman University of California Berkeley Standard Form...NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION

  10. Energy Efficient Crawlspace Foundation Retrofit: Mixed Humid Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Bianco, M. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Wiehagen, J. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Residential quality management systems have most often been designed for new home construction. To address quality in existing homes in the form of Scopes of Work (SOW), the NAHB Research Center began with a new construction scope of work and applied it to an existing home project. This document is intended to outline the steps of translating a new home construction SOW to SOW for retrofit and addressed crawlspace foundations in a mixed-humid climate.

  11. Energy Efficient Crawlspace Foundation Retrofit: Mixed Humid Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Bianco, M.; Wiehagen, J.; Wood, A.

    2013-01-01

    Residential quality management systems have most often been designed for new home construction. To address quality in existing homes in the form of Scopes of Work (SOW), the NAHB Research Center began with a new construction scope of work and applied it to an existing home project. This document is intended to outline the steps of translating a new home construction SOW to SOW for retrofit.

  12. Byggmeister Test Home. Analysis and Initial Results of Cold Climate Wood-Framed Home Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gates, C. [Building Science Corporation (BSC), Somerville, MA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    BSC seeks to further the energy efficiency market for New England area retrofit projects by supporting projects that are based on solid building science fundamentals that will benefit the homeowner through a combination of energy savings, improved durability, and occupant comfort. This report describes a deep retrofit project of a two-family wood-framed home in Belmont, Massachusetts, and examines the retrofit measures for the enclosure amd mechanical systems and reviews the decision-making process that took place during planning.

  13. Chamberlain Heights Redevelopment: A Large Scale, Cold Climate Study of Affordable Housing Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, K. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Mahle, M. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2012-03-01

    The City of Meriden Housing Authority (MHA) collaborated with affordable housing developer Jonathon Rose Companies (JRC) to complete a gut renovation of 124 residential units in the Chamberlain Heights retrofit project. The affordable housing community is made up of 36 buildings in duplex and quad configurations located on 22 acres within two miles of downtown Meriden, CT. The final post-retrofit analysis showed 40-45% source energy savings over the existing pre-retrofit conditions.

  14. High-Efficiency Retrofit Lessons for Retail from a SuperTarget: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langner, R.; Deru, M.; Hirsch, A.; Williams, S.

    2013-02-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory partnered with Target under the Commercial Building Program to design and implement a retrofit of a SuperTarget in Thornton, CO. The result was a retrofit design that predicted 37% energy savings over ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004, and 29% compared to existing (pre-retrofit) store consumption. The largest savings came from energy efficient lighting, energy efficient cooling systems, improved refrigeration, and better control of plug loads.

  15. Byggmeister Test Home. Analysis and Initial Results of Cold Climate Wood-Framed Home Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gates, C. [Building Science Corporation (BSC), Somerville, MA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    BSC seeks to further the energy efficiency market for New England area retrofit projects by supporting projects that are based on solid building science fundamentals that will benefit the homeowner through a combination of energy savings, improved durability, and occupant comfort. This report describes a deep retrofit project of a two-family wood-framed home in Belmont, Massachusetts, and examines the retrofit measures for the enclosure amd mechanical systems and reviews the decision-making process that took place during planning.

  16. A socio-technical approach to post-occupancy evaluation: interactive adaptability in domestic retrofit

    OpenAIRE

    Chiu, L. F.; Lowe, R; Raslan, R. M.; Altamirano, H.; Wingfield, J.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the process of domestic retrofit is important for learning and innovation. This is particularly the case for low carbon retrofits such as those undertaken under the UK's Retrofit for the Future (RftF) programme, with its aim to achieve an overall 80% carbon reduction by 2050. Current post-occupancy evaluation (POE) research has both theoretical and methodological limitations with implications for technical and behavioural research in the built environment. Drawing on relevant id...

  17. New models for conventional and heat exchangers enhanced with tube inserts for heat exchanger network retrofit

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, N; Shelley, J D; Smith, Robin

    2014-01-01

    The retrofit of heat exchanger networks requires detailed models of the heat exchangers for the detailed assessment of network performance. Network retrofit options include heat transfer enhancement. There is thus a requirement for detailed models of heat exchanger performance, including heat transfer enhancement, suitable for inclusion in network retrofit optimization algorithms. Such models must be robust, computationally efficient and accurate enough to reflect the heat transfer and pressu...

  18. Learning from experiences with energy efficient retrofitting of residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marriott, S. [ed.; Nilsson, P.E.; Aronsson, S.; Gusten, J.

    1996-10-01

    Retrofitting is a means of rectifying existing building deficiencies, improving the standard of a building and, sometimes, making it suitable for alternative uses. The main purpose of this report is to provide information about demonstrated and monitored retrofit measures and, as far as possible, to illustrate the lessons learned by examining measures applied to a number of demonstration projects. The report is primarily aimed at residential building owners and administrators, and planners at regional and national levels to give them an overview of possible energy saving techniques and applications. In part two of this report the energy end-use in residential buildings is considered, both generally and at the international level (chapter 2). In chapters 3 and 4 of Part two retrofitting of the building envelope and building services are discussed, while in chapter 5 the options for using more energy efficient domestic appliances are dealt with. In Part three details of 21 demonstration projects are presented in a standard format. 17 figs., 6 tabs., 8 refs.

  19. Relationships between indoor radon concentrations, thermal retrofit and dwelling characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collignan, Bernard; Le Ponner, Eline; Mandin, Corinne

    2016-12-01

    A monitoring campaign was conducted on a sample of more than 3400 dwellings in Brittany, France from 2011 to 2014. The measurements were collected using one passive dosimeter per dwelling over two months during the heating season, according to the NF ISO 11665-8 (2013) standard. Moreover, building characteristics such as the period of construction, construction material, type of foundation, and thermal retrofit were determined using a questionnaire. The final data set consisted of 3233 houses with the measurement results and the questionnaire answers. Multivariate linear regression models were applied to explore the relationships between the indoor radon concentrations and building characteristics, particularly the thermal retrofit. The geometric mean of the indoor radon concentration was 155 Bq m(-3) (with a geometric standard deviation of 3). The houses that had undergone a thermal retrofit had a higher average radon concentration than those that had not, which may have been due to a decrease in air permeability of the building envelope following rehabilitation work that did not systematically include proper management of the ventilation. Other building characteristics, primarily the building material and the foundation type, were associated with the indoor radon concentration. The indoor radon concentrations were higher in older houses built with granite or other stone, with a slab-on-grade foundation and without any ventilation system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Thermo economical evaluation of retrofitting strategies in air conditioning systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tribess, Arlindo; Fiorelli, Flavio Augusto Sanzogo; Hernandez Neto, Alberto [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: atribess@usp.br; fiorelli@usp.br; ahneto@usp.br

    2000-07-01

    In a building project, several subsystems are designed, among them the air conditioning system. Electrical energy consumption profiles show that this subsystem is responsible for 40 to 50% of total consumption in a commercial building. Besides the study of technical aspects that should be considered in order to assure the thermal comfort of the occupants as well the temperature and humidity conditions for an efficient equipment operation, an economical evaluation of this subsystem should be also made. In retrofit projects, the economical aspect is also critical for such projects in order to assure bigger efficiency in an economically attractive way. This paper analyses some strategies that might be adopted in retrofitting an air conditioning system installed in a commercial building with mixed occupation. By mixed we mean that some floors have a typical office occupation profile and other floors are mainly occupied by electronic equipment. This analysis includes both technical and economical evaluation. The proposed solutions performance are compared to the old system, which allows to verify the retrofitting impact in energy consumption reduction and its economical feasibility. (author)

  1. Implementing the retrofitting plan for the European rail freight fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, P. H.; Bergendorff, M.; Brennan, M.; van der Zijpp, F.

    2006-06-01

    In 1998, the International Union of Railways (UIC) agreed on an Action Plan, proposing the retrofitting of the complete European rail freight fleet. Early 2003 the European Commission, Directorate General for Transport and Energy, commissioned the study reported here. The scope of the study was to supply an independent assessment of the conclusions of the UIC Action Plan and elaborate on implementation scenarios and funding options. The retrofitting of existing wagons, by an exchange of cast iron brake blocks with composition blocks, is the preferred option to achieve a substantial noise reduction. K-blocks have been homologated by UIC in 2003, but they require an expensive modification of the wagon. The opportunities for LL-blocks, an economically attractive alternative, are still being investigated to date. The retrofitting reflects some 600,000 wagons and, with an expected reduction of 10 dB(A), probably represents the largest single operation for traffic noise reduction ever. The process could best be combined with the maintenance cycle of freight wagons. In that case the process would require up to 10 years. Through a combination of funding options, the financial burden for wagons owners and freight operators could be softened.

  2. Field Assessment of Energy Audit Tools for Retrofit Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, J.; Bohac, D.; Nelson, C.; Smith, I.

    2013-07-01

    This project focused on the use of home energy ratings as a tool to promote energy retrofits in existing homes. A home energy rating provides a quantitative appraisal of a home's asset performance, usually compared to a benchmark such as the average energy use of similar homes in the same region. Home rating systems can help motivate homeowners in several ways. Ratings can clearly communicate a home's achievable energy efficiency potential, provide a quantitative assessment of energy savings after retrofits are completed, and show homeowners how they rate compared to their neighbors, thus creating an incentive to conform to a social standard. An important consideration is how rating tools for the retrofit market will integrate with existing home energy service programs. For residential programs that target energy savings only, home visits should be focused on key efficiency measures for that home. In order to gain wide adoption, a rating tool must be easily integrated into the field process, demonstrate consistency and reasonable accuracy to earn the trust of home energy technicians, and have a low monetary cost and time hurdle for homeowners. Along with the Home Energy Score, this project also evaluated the energy modeling performance of SIMPLE and REM/Rate.

  3. Expected damages of retrofitted bridges with RC jacketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, O.; Jara, J. M.; Jara, M.; Olmos, B. A.

    2015-07-01

    The bridge infrastructure in many countries of the world consists of medium span length structures built several decades ago and designed for very low seismic forces. Many of them are reinforced concrete structures that according to the current code regulations have to be rehabilitated to increase their seismic capacity. One way to reduce the vulnerability of the bridges is by using retrofitting techniques that increase the strength of the structure or by incorporating devices to reduce the seismic demand. One of the most common retrofit techniques of the bridges substructures is the use of RC jacketing; this research assesses the expected damages of seismically deficient medium length highway bridges retrofitted with reinforced concrete jacketing, by conducting a parametric study. We select a suite of twenty accelerograms of subduction earthquakes recorded close to the Pacific Coast in Mexico. The original structures consist of five 30 m span simple supported bridges with five pier heights of 5 m, 10 m, 15 m 20 and 25 m and the analyses include three different jacket thickness and three steel ratios. The bridges were subjected to the seismic records and non-linear time history analyses were carried out by using the OpenSEEs Plataform. Results allow selecting the reinforced concrete jacketing that better improves the expected seismic behavior of the bridge models.

  4. Deep Energy Retrofit Performance Metric Comparison: Eight California Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fisher, Jeremy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Less, Brennan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    In this paper we will present the results of monitored annual energy use data from eight residential Deep Energy Retrofit (DER) case studies using a variety of performance metrics. For each home, the details of the retrofits were analyzed, diagnostic tests to characterize the home were performed and the homes were monitored for total and individual end-use energy consumption for approximately one year. Annual performance in site and source energy, as well as carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) emissions were determined on a per house, per person and per square foot basis to examine the sensitivity to these different metrics. All eight DERs showed consistent success in achieving substantial site energy and CO2e reductions, but some projects achieved very little, if any source energy reduction. This problem emerged in those homes that switched from natural gas to electricity for heating and hot water, resulting in energy consumption dominated by electricity use. This demonstrates the crucial importance of selecting an appropriate metric to be used in guiding retrofit decisions. Also, due to the dynamic nature of DERs, with changes in occupancy, size, layout, and comfort, several performance metrics might be necessary to understand a project’s success.

  5. Experiment study on RC frame retrofitted by the external structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunyang; Shi, Junji; Hiroshi, Kuramoto; Taguchi, Takashi; Kamiya, Takashi

    2016-09-01

    A new retrofitting method is proposed herein for reinforced concrete (RC) structures through attachment of an external structure. The external structure consists of a fiber concrete encased steel frame, connection slab and transverse beams. The external structure is connected to the existing structure through a connection slab and transverse beams. Pseudostatic experiments were carried out on one unretrofitted specimen and three retrofitted frame specimens. The characteristics, including failure mode, crack pattern, hysteresis loops behavior, relationship of strain and displacement of the concrete slab, are demonstrated. The results show that the load carrying capacity is obviously increased, and the extension length of the slab and the number of columns within the external frame are important influence factors on the working performance of the existing structure. In addition, the displacement difference between the existing structure and the outer structure was caused mainly by three factors: shear deformation of the slab, extraction of transverse beams, and drift of the conjunction part between the slab and the existing frame. Furthermore, the total deformation determined by the first two factors accounted for approximately 80% of the damage, therefore these factors should be carefully considered in engineering practice to enhance the effects of this new retrofitting method.

  6. An Experimental and Analytical Evaluation of Wall And Window Retrofit Configurations: Supporting the Residential Retrofit Best Practices Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stovall, Therese K [ORNL; Petrie, Thomas [ORNL; Kosny, Jan [ORNL; Childs, Phillip W [ORNL; Atchley, Jerald Allen [ORNL; Hulvey, Kimberly D [ORNL

    2007-11-01

    A Retrofit Best Practices Guide was developed to encourage homeowners to consider energy conservation issues whenever they modify their siding or windows. In support of this guide, an experimental program was implemented to measure the performance of a number of possible wall siding and window retrofit configurations. Both thermal and air-leakage measurements were made for a 2.4 x 2.4 m (8 x 8 ft) wall section with and without a 0.9 x 1.2 m (3 x 4 ft) window. The windows tested were previously well-characterized at a dedicated window test facility. A computer model was also used to provide information for the Best Practices Guide. The experimental data for walls and windows were used in conjunction with this model to estimate the total annual energy savings for several typical houses in a number of different locations.

  7. Short-Term Test Results: Transitional Housing Energy Efficiency Retrofit in the Hot-Humid Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, K.; Martin, E.

    2013-02-01

    This project evaluates the renovation of a 5,800 ft2, multi-use facility located in St. Petersburg, on the west coast of central Florida, in the hot humid climate. An optimal package of retrofit measures was designed to deliver 30-40% annual energy cost savings for this building with annual utility bills exceeding $16,000 and high base load consumption. Researchers projected energy cost savings for potential retrofit measures based on pre-retrofit findings and disaggregated, weather normalized utility bills as a basis for simulation true-up. A cost-benefit analysis was conducted for the seven retrofit measures implemented; adding attic insulation and sealing soffits, tinting windows, improving whole building air-tightness, upgrading heating and cooling systems and retrofitting the air distribution system, replacing water heating systems, retrofitting lighting, and replacing laundry equipment. The projected energy cost savings for the full retrofit package based on a post-retrofit audit is 35%. The building's architectural characteristics, vintage, and residential and commercial uses presented challenges for both economic projections and retrofit measure construction.

  8. Short-Term Test Results. Transitional Housing Energy Efficiency Retrofit in the Hot Humid Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, K. [BA-PIRC/Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Martin, Eric [BA-PIRC/Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2013-02-01

    This project evaluates the renovation of a 5,800 ft2, multi-use facility located in St. Petersburg, on the west coast of central Florida, in the hot humid climate. An optimal package of retrofit measures was designed to deliver 30%-40% annual energy cost savings for this building with annual utility bills exceeding $16,000 and high base load consumption. Researchers projected energy cost savings for potential retrofit measures based on pre-retrofit findings and disaggregated, weather normalized utility bills as a basis for simulation true-up. A cost-benefit analysis was conducted for the seven retrofit measures implemented; adding attic insulation and sealing soffits, tinting windows, improving whole building air-tightness, upgrading heating and cooling systems and retrofitting the air distribution system, replacing water heating systems, retrofitting lighting, and replacing laundry equipment. The projected energy cost savings for the full retrofit package based on a post-retrofit audit is 35%. The building's architectural characteristics, vintage, and residential and commercial uses presented challenges for both economic projections and retrofit measure construction.

  9. Performance of a Hot-Dry Climate Whole-House Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weitzel, E. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); German, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Porse, E. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The Stockton house retrofit is a two-story Tudor style single family deep retrofit in the hot-dry climate of Stockton, CA. The home is representative of a deep retrofit option of the scaled home energy upgrade packages offered to targeted neighborhoods under the pilot Large-Scale Retrofit Program (LSRP) administered by the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI). Deep retrofit packages expand on the standard package by adding HVAC, water heater and window upgrades to the ducting, attic and floor insulation, domestic hot water insulation, envelope sealing, lighting and ventilation upgrades. Site energy savings with the deep retrofit were 23% compared to the pre-retrofit case, and 15% higher than the savings estimated for the standard retrofit package. Energy savings were largely a result of the water heater upgrade, and a combination of the envelope sealing, insulation and HVAC upgrade. The HVAC system was of higher efficiency than the building code standard. Overall the financed retrofit would have been more cost effective had a less expensive HVAC system been selected and barriers to wall insulation remedied. The homeowner experienced improved comfort throughout the monitored period and was satisfied with the resulting utility bill savings.

  10. Performance of a Hot-Dry Climate Whole-House Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weitzel, E.; German, A.; Porse, E.

    2014-06-01

    The Stockton house retrofit is a two-story tudor style single family deep retrofit in the hot-dry climate of Stockton, CA. The home is representative of a deep retrofit option of the scaled home energy upgrade packages offered to targeted neighborhoods under the pilot Large-Scale Retrofit Program (LSRP) administered by the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI). Deep retrofit packages expand on the standard package by adding HVAC, water heater and window upgrades to the ducting, attic and floor insulation, domestic hot water insulation, envelope sealing, lighting and ventilation upgrades. Site energy savings with the deep retrofit were 23% compared to the pre-retrofit case, and 15% higher than the savings estimated for the standard retrofit package. Energy savings were largely a result of the water heater upgrade, and a combination of the envelope sealing, insulation and HVAC upgrade. The HVAC system was of higher efficiency than the building code standard. Overall the financed retrofit would have been more cost effective had a less expensive HVAC system been selected and barriers to wall insulation remedied. The homeowner experienced improved comfort throughout the monitored period and was satisfied with the resulting utility bill savings.

  11. Protocol for maximizing energy savings and indoor environmental quality improvements when retrofitting apartments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noris, Federico [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Delp, William W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Vermeer, Kimberly [Urban Habitat Initiatives Inc., Boston, MA (United States); Adamkiewicz, Gary [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fisk, William J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-06-01

    The current focus on building energy retrofit provides an opportunity to simultaneously improve indoor environmental quality (IEQ). Toward this end, we developed a protocol for selecting packages of retrofits that both save energy and improve IEQ in apartments. The protocol specifies the methodology for selecting retrofits from a candidate list while addressing expected energy savings, IEQ impacts, and costs in an integrated manner. Interviews, inspections and measurements are specified to collect the needed input information. The protocol was applied to 17 apartments in three buildings in two different climates within California. Diagnostic measurements and surveys conducted before and after retrofit implementation indicate enhanced apartment performance.

  12. Solar Ready: An Overview of Implementation Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, A.; Guidice, L.; Lisell, L.; Doris, L.; Busche, S.

    2012-01-01

    This report explores three mechanisms for encouraging solar ready building design and construction: solar ready legislation, certification programs for solar ready design and construction, and stakeholder education. These methods are not mutually exclusive, and all, if implemented well, could contribute to more solar ready construction. Solar ready itself does not reduce energy use or create clean energy. Nevertheless, solar ready building practices are needed to reach the full potential of solar deployment. Without forethought on incorporating solar into design, buildings may be incompatible with solar due to roof structure or excessive shading. In these cases, retrofitting the roof or removing shading elements is cost prohibitive. Furthermore, higher up-front costs due to structural adaptations and production losses caused by less than optimal roof orientation, roof equipment, or shading will lengthen payback periods, making solar more expensive. With millions of new buildings constructed each year in the United States, solar ready can remove installation barriers and increase the potential for widespread solar adoption. There are many approaches to promoting solar ready, including solar ready legislation, certification programs, and education of stakeholders. Federal, state, and local governments have the potential to implement programs that encourage solar ready and in turn reduce barriers to solar deployment. With the guidance in this document and the examples of jurisdictions and organizations already working to promote solar ready building practices, federal, state, and local governments can guide the market toward solar ready implementation.

  13. Industrial applications of solar energy: deserts, seas, the Alps; Les applications industrielles de l'energie solaire: du desert aux Alpes en passant par la mer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allani, Y.

    2008-07-01

    In this set of presentation slides, after a review of worldwide energy resources the author presents his innovative technical solution aimed at contributing to future energy supply. An extra-flat solar concentrator was developed to produce industrial steam in the temperature range 150 to 300 {sup o}C. A prototype was operated on the site of the Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) in Lausanne, Switzerland, for power generation at 12 kW{sub el}. In Ras al Khaimah, United Arab Emirates, the concept of the so-called Solar Island is to be tested. Construction work is underway. A floating circular platform will be equipped with parallel rows of extra-flat solar concentrators. The platform will rotate to follow the sun apparent movement and enhance the power output of the concentrators. A second project is presented that should be realised in the Swiss Alps. In this case the extra-flat concentrators will be mounted on existing steel constructions that prevent snow avalanches on steep grounds. The basic technical data of the two projects are given.

  14. Solar heating and domestic hot water system installed at North Dallas High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy system located at the North Dallas High School, Dallas, Texas is discussed. The system is designed as a retrofit in a three story with basement, concrete frame high school building. Extracts from the site files, specification references for solar modification to existing building heating and domestic hot water systems, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  15. Commercial/industrial photovoltaic module and array requirement study. Low-cost solar array project engineering area

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Design requirements for photovoltaic modules and arrays used in commercial and industrial applications were identified. Building codes and referenced standards were reviewed for their applicability to commercial and industrial photovoltaic array installation. Four general installation types were identified - integral (replaces roofing), direct (mounted on top of roofing), stand-off (mounted away from roofing), and rack (for flat or low slope roofs, or ground mounted). Each of the generic mounting types can be used in vertical wall mounting systems. This implies eight mounting types exist in the commercial/industrial sector. Installation costs were developed for these mounting types as a function of panel/module size. Cost drivers were identified. Studies were performed to identify optimum module shapes and sizes and operating voltage cost drivers. The general conclusion is that there are no perceived major obstacles to the use of photovoltaic modules in commercial/industrial arrays.

  16. Existing Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Performance of a Hot-Dry Climate Whole-House Retrofit, Stockton, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-09-01

    The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) team conducted a deep retrofit project within Stockton’s Large-Scale Retrofit Program that expanded on the standard package by adding HVAC, water heater and window upgrades to the ducting, attic and floor insulation, domestic hot water insulation, envelope sealing, lighting and ventilation upgrades. Post-retrofit site energy savings were 23% compared to the pre-retrofit case.

  17. Achieving a Net Zero Energy Retrofit - In a humid, temperate climate: Lessons from the University of Hawai'i at Manoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regnier, Cindy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Robinson, Alastair [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-06-01

    The University of Hawaii at Manoa (UHM) partnered with the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to retrofit exiting buildings to reduce energy consumption by at least 30% as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) Program.1 Kuykendall Hall, located on the UHM campus in Honolulu, was the focus of a CBP analysis and design collaboration among the University of Hawai’i, their consultants, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Kuykendall Hall consists of two 1960s-era wings – a four-story wing containing classrooms, and a seven-story tower containing offices – with a total floor area of approximately 76,000 square feet (ft2). The retrofit design, which uses local prevailing winds to aid ventilation and cooling and incorporates envelope and lighting elements that reduce the need for cooling, was initially on track to use about 50% less energy than the current building, exceeding the CBP’s 30% savings goal. With the addition of building-mounted solar electric panels, the retrofitted building is projected to achieve net-zero annual energy use. Achieving net-zero energy addressed an emerging challenge to the university – how to lower energy usage and reduce dependence on imported fossil fuel in the face of already-high energy prices that are forecast to double by 2040. Not only will the retrofit dramatically reduce Kuykendall Hall’s annual energy costs, but the project lays the groundwork for new campus policies and processes and low-energy design approaches and is building a campus knowledge base on low-energy practices. This project is a model of integrated design and building delivery that will be replicated in future projects on the campus.

  18. Active space heating and hot water supply with solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaki, S.; Loef, G. O.G.

    1981-04-01

    Technical and economic assessments are given of solar water heaters, both circulating, and of air-based and liquid-based solar space heating systems. Both new and retrofit systems are considered. The technical status of flat-plate and evacuated tube collectors and of thermal storage is also covered. Non-technical factors are also briefly discussed, including the participants in the use of solar heat, incentives and deterrents. Policy implications are considered as regards acceleration of solar use, goals for solar use, means for achieving goals, and interaction of governments, suppliers, and users. Government actions are recommended. (LEW)

  19. 78 FR 9936 - Federal Housing Administration (FHA): PowerSaver Home Energy Retrofit Loan Pilot Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ..., 2011, HUD published a notice at 76 FR 17936 that announced HUD's FHA Home Energy Retrofit Loan Pilot... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Federal Housing Administration (FHA): PowerSaver Home Energy Retrofit Loan Pilot Program: Extension of Pilot Program AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Housing--Federal...

  20. Sonoma House: Monitoring of the First U.S. Passive House Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, A.; Weitzel, B.; Backman, C.; Hoeschele, M.; Dakin, B.

    2012-12-01

    The Sonoma Deep Retrofit is a single-story deep retrofit project in the marine climate of Sonoma, California. The design was guided by Passive House principles which promote the use of very high levels of wall, ceiling, and floor insulation along with tight envelope construction to maintain a comfortable indoor environment with little or no need for conventional heating or cooling.

  1. Sonoma House. Monitoring of the First U.S. Passive House Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Weitzel, B. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Backman, C. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Dakin, B. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The Sonoma Deep Retrofit is a single-story deep retrofit project in the marine climate of Sonoma, California. The design was guided by Passive House principles that promote the use of very high levels of wall, ceiling, and floor insulation along with tight envelope construction to maintain a comfortable indoor environment with little or no need for conventional heating or cooling.

  2. Effects on pupil well-being and performance of classroom ventilation retrofits – ASHRAE RP1624

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Wargocki, Pawel

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the effect on classroom indoor climate, pupil well-being, school performance, and energy consumption of four different retrofit solutions to improve classroom ventilation.......This study examines the effect on classroom indoor climate, pupil well-being, school performance, and energy consumption of four different retrofit solutions to improve classroom ventilation....

  3. Expert Meeting Report: Interior Insulation Retrofit of Mass Masonry Wall Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, K.; Van Straaten, R.

    2012-02-01

    The Building Science Consortium held an Expert Meeting on Interior Insulation Retrofit of Mass Masonry Wall Assemblies on July 30, 2011 at the Westford Regency Hotel in Westford, MA. This report outlines the extensive information that was presented on assessment of risk factors for premature building deterioration due to interior insulation retrofits, and methods to reduce such risks.

  4. Retrofitting Vegas: Implementing Energy Efficiency in Two Las Vegas Test Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puttagunta, S.

    2013-04-01

    In 2009, the state of Nevada received nearly forty million dollars in Neighborhood Stabilization Funds from the Department of Housing and Urban Development. The purpose of this funding was to stabilize communities that have suffered from foreclosures and abandonment. In an effort to provide guidance to local officials and maximize how effectively this NSP funding is utilized in retrofitting homes, CARB provided design specifications, energy modeling, and technical support for the Building America Retrofit Alliance (BARA) team and its local partners - Better Building Performance, Nevada Energy Star Partners Green Alliance, and Home Free Nevada - for two retrofit test homes. One home was to demonstrate a modest retrofit and the other a deep energy retrofit. Through this project, CARB has provided two robust solution packages for retrofitting homes built in this region between the 1980s and early 1990s without substantially inconveniencing the occupants. The two test homes, the Carmen and Sierra Hills, demonstrate how cost-effectively energy efficient upgrades can be implemented in the hot, dry climate of the Southwest. In addition, the homes were used as an educational experience for home performance professionals, building trades, remodelers, and the general public. In-field trainings on air-sealing, HVAC upgrades, and insulating were provided to local contractors during the retrofit and BARA documented these retrofits through a series of video presentations, beginning with a site survey and concluding with the finished remodel and test out.

  5. Tenants' experiences and satisfaction in social housing subject to comprehensive retrofitting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Rose, Jørgen

    This report describes a Danish retrofitting project with focus on reducing the energy consump-tion in social housing. The objective of the project was to study tenants’ overall satisfaction with how the retrofitting of their dwellings was carried out and their experiences and satisfaction...

  6. Use of KPIs in an integrated decision support system for energy efficient district retrofitting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bektas, K.E.; Luiten, G.T.

    2014-01-01

    Retrofitting urban districts is a complex process. It deals with multiple stakeholders who have wide range of stakes, priorities, different time horizons and scale of investments. This complexity is boosted by the energy policies, as the retrofitting requires to incorporate both selection and use of

  7. EnergySmart Schools Tips: Retrofitting, Operating, and Maintaining Existing Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Energy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Combining preventative operations and maintenance (O&M) with strategic retrofitting of building systems improves a school's energy performance. For schools with limited resources and experience, "quick wins" in O&M and retrofitting provide a valuable starting point to energy management. As a next step, strategically prioritizing long- and…

  8. Expert Meeting Report. Interior Insulation Retrofit of Mass Masonry Wall Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, K. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Van Straaten, R. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2012-02-01

    The Building Science Consortium held an Expert Meeting on Interior Insulation Retrofit of Mass Masonry Wall Assemblies on July 30, 2011, at the Westford Regency Hotel in Westford, MA. This report outlines the extensive information that was presented on assessment of risk factors for premature building deterioration due to interior insulation retrofits, and methods to reduce such risks.

  9. Review of retrofit strategies decision system in historic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Bostenaru Dan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban development is a process. In structuring and developing its phases different actors are implied, who act under different, sometimes opposite, dynamic conditions and within different reference systems. This paper aims to explore the contribution of participatism to disaster mitigation, when this concerns earthquake impact on urban settlements, through the support provided to multi-criteria decision in matters of retrofit. The research broadness in field of decision making on one side and the lack of a specific model for the retrofit of existing buildings on another side led to an extensive review of the state of the art in related models to address the issue. Core idea in the selection of existing models has been the preoccupation for collaborative issues, in other words, the consideration for the different actors implied in the planning process. The historic perspective on participative planning models is made from the view of two generations of citizen implication. The first approaches focus on the participation of the building owner/inhabitant in the planning process of building construction. As current strategies building rehabilitation and selection from alternative retrofit strategies are presented. New developments include innovative models using the internet or spatial databases. The investigated participation approaches show, that participation and communication as a more comprehensive term are an old topic in the field politics-democratisation-urbanism. In all cases it can be talked of 'successful learning processes', of the improvement of the level of the professional debate. More than 30 years history of participation marked a transition in understanding the concept: from participation, based on a central decision process leading to a solution controlled and steered by the political-administrative system, to communication, characterised by simultaneous decision processes taking place outside politics and administration in co

  10. Coli see des Bois-Francs Victoriaville, Quebec : major retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This profile presented details of a major retrofit of the Colisee des Bois-Francs Ice Rink in Victoriaville, Quebec. The retrofit included the recovery of heat rejected from the refrigeration system; extensive integration of the refrigeration system with heating, ventilation, and dehumidification systems; short-term heat storage; and the installation of a variable condensing temperature and pressure system. Characteristics of the arena were presented, including details of annual energy consumption, energy costs, and the surface area of the building, which was built in 1978. Annual energy costs for the building were estimated at $90,000. The overall cost of the retrofit was $693,300, with technical support provided by the CANMET Energy Technology Centre. Two factory-built commercial refrigeration systems were installed using floating head pressure. Heat transfer fluid in the cold secondary loop was a mixture of water and methanol, while the warm secondary loop contained a mixture of water and ethylene glycol. Energy efficiency measures included using condensation heat rejected in the warm secondary loop and transferred through a coil in the ventilation duct. A simplified system schematic was presented. Building energy consumption savings were estimated at 14 per cent savings for 50 per cent greater cooling capacity compared with the previous system. The use of modular package refrigeration units confined the refrigerant in the mechanical room and reduced the amount of refrigerant required by 70 per cent. Potential refrigerant leaks were also reduced. With the older system, leaks accounted for 120 t equivalent of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) released per year. Additional benefits of the new system include better quality ice, a more reliable system and greater comfort for spectators. 2 figs.

  11. Newporter Apartments. Deep Energy Retrofit Short Term Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, Andrew [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); Howard, Luke [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); Kunkle, Rick [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); Lubliner, Michael [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); Auer, Dan [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); Clegg, Zach [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2012-12-01

    This project demonstrates a path to meet the goal of the Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30% in multi-family buildings. The project demonstrates cost-effective energy savings targets as well as improved comfort and indoor environmental quality (IEQ) associated with deep energy retrofits by a large public housing authority as part of a larger rehabilitation effort. The project focuses on a typical 1960’s vintage low-rise multi-family apartment community (120 units in three buildings).

  12. Newporter Apartments: Deep Energy Retrofit Short-Term Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, A.; Howard, L.; Kunkle, R.; Lubliner, M.; Auer, D.; Clegg, Z.

    2012-12-01

    This project demonstrates a path to meet the goal of the Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30% in multi-family buildings. The project demonstrates cost effective energy savings targets as well as improved comfort and indoor environmental quality (IEQ) associated with deep energy retrofits by a large public housing authority as part of a larger rehabilitation effort. The project focuses on a typical 1960's vintage low-rise multi-family apartment community (120 units in three buildings).

  13. Newporter Apartments. Deep Energy Retrofit Short Term Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, Andrew [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); Howard, Luke [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); Kunkle, Rick [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); Lubliner, Michael [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); Auer, Dan [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); Clegg, Zach [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2012-12-01

    This project demonstrates a path to meet the goal of the Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30% in multi-family buildings. The project demonstrates cost-effective energy savings targets as well as improved comfort and indoor environmental quality (IEQ) associated with deep energy retrofits by a large public housing authority as part of a larger rehabilitation effort. The project focuses on a typical 1960’s vintage low-rise multi-family apartment community (120 units in three buildings).

  14. Newporter Apartments: Deep Energy Retrofit Short-Term Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, A.; Howard, L.; Kunkle, R.; Lubliner, M.; Auer, D.; Clegg, Z.

    2012-12-01

    This project demonstrates a path to meet the goal of the Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30% in multi-family buildings. The project demonstrates cost effective energy savings targets as well as improved comfort and indoor environmental quality (IEQ) associated with deep energy retrofits by a large public housing authority as part of a larger rehabilitation effort. The project focuses on a typical 1960's vintage low-rise multi-family apartment community (120 units in three buildings).

  15. Seismic performance and global ductility of RC frames rehabilitated with retrofitted joints by CFRP laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakharifar, M.; Sharbatdar, M. K.; Lin, Z.; Dalvand, A.; Sivandi-Pour, A.; Chen, G.

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents a new FRP retrofitting scheme to strengthen local beam-column joints in reinforced concrete (RC) frames. The new retrofitting scheme was proposed following a preliminary study of four different existing retrofitting schemes. A numerical simulation was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of FRP-strengthened reinforced concrete frames by bridging behavior of local joints to the whole structure. Local confinement effects due to varying retrofitting schemes in the joints were simulated in the frame model. The seismic behavior factor was used to evaluate the seismic performance of the strengthened RC frames. The results demonstrated that the new proposed retrofitting scheme was robust and promising, and finite element analysis appropriately captured the strength and global ductility of the frame due to upgrading of the local joints.

  16. The Life Cycle CO2 (LCCO2 Evaluation of Retrofits for Water-Saving Fittings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasutoshi Shimizu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available As part of measures being taken against global warming, the reduction of CO2 emissions by retrofitting for water-saving fittings in homes is spreading throughout the world. However, although this retrofitting reduces the environmental impact at the use stage, it generates new impacts at the production and disposal stages. In addition, there has been little research that discusses the reduction in environmental impact obtained by retrofitting from the viewpoint of the overall life cycle of such fittings. In this paper, an evaluation of the environmental impact of retrofitting in terms of the entire life cycle was carried out for toilet bowls and showerheads. The findings show that even for a toilet bowl that generates a large environmental load at the production stage, there is no overall increase in the environmental impact by retrofitting for the average usable life of 20 years.

  17. Retrofitting Las Vegas. Implementing Energy Efficiency in Two Las Vegas Test Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puttagunta, S. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2013-04-01

    In 2009, the state of Nevada received nearly $40 million in Neighborhood Stabilization Funds from the Department of Housing and Urban Development to use to stabilize communities that have suffered from foreclosures and abandonment. In order to provide guidance to local officials and maximize how effectively this NSP funding is used in retrofitting homes, the CARB team provided design specifications, energy modeling, and technical support for the BARA team and its local partners—Better Building Performance, Nevada Energy Star Partners Green Alliance, and Home Free Nevada—for two retrofit test homes. One home demonstrated a modest retrofit and the other a deep energy retrofit. This report describes the retrofit packages, which were used as an educational experience for home performance professionals, building trades, remodelers, and the general public.

  18. Determinants of Household Water Conservation Retrofit Activity: A Discrete Choice Model Using Survey Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, T. A.; Wright, M. B.

    1990-02-01

    Economic analyses of residential water demand have typically concentrated on price and income elasticities. In the short run a substantial change in water prices might induce only small changes in consumption levels. As time passes, however, households will have the opportunity to "retrofit" existing water-using equipment to make it less water-intensive. This produces medium- to long-run demand elasticities that are higher than short-run studies suggest. We examine responses to water conservation questions appearing on the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power's 1983 residential energy survey. We find that households' decisions to install shower retrofit devices are influenced by the potential to save money on water heating bills. We attribute toilet retrofit decisions more to noneconomic factors which might be characterized as "general conservation mindedness." The endogeneity of these retrofit decisions casts some doubt on the results of studies of individual households that treat voluntary retrofits as exogenous.

  19. Measured Cooling Performance and Potential for Buried Duct Condensation in a 1991 Central Florida Retrofit Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chasar, D.; Withers, C.

    2013-02-01

    FSEC conducted energy performance monitoring of two existing residences in Central Florida that were undergoing various retrofits. These homes were occupied by FSEC researchers and were fully instrumented to provide detailed energy, temperature, and humidity measurements. The data provided feedback about the performance of two levels of retrofit in two types of homes in a hot-humid climate. This report covers a moderate-level retrofit and includes two years of pre-retrofit data to characterize the impact of improvements. The other home is a 'deep energy retrofit' (detailed in a separate report) that has performed at near zero energy with a photovoltaic (PV) system and extensive envelope improvements.

  20. Self-centering seismic retrofit scheme for reinforced concrete frame structures: SDOF system study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunfeng; Hu, Xiaobin

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents the results of a parametric study of self-centering seismic retrofit schemes for reinforced concrete (RC) frame buildings. The self-centering retrofit system features flag-shaped hysteresis and minimal residual deformation. For comparison purpose, an alternate seismic retrofit scheme that uses a bilinear-hysteresis retrofit system such as buckling-restrained braces (BRB) is also considered in this paper. The parametric study was carried out in a single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) system framework since a multi-story building structure may be idealized as an equivalent SDOF system and investigation of the performance of this equivalent SDOF system can provide insight into the seismic response of the multi-story building. A peak-oriented hysteresis model which can consider the strength and stiffness degradation is used to describe the hysteretic behavior of RC structures. The parametric study involves two key parameters — the strength ratio and elastic stiffness ratio between the seismic retrofit system and the original RC frame. An ensemble of 172 earthquake ground motion records scaled to the design basis earthquake in California with a probability of exceedance of 10% in 50 years was constructed for the simulation-based parametric study. The effectiveness of the two seismic retrofit schemes considered in this study is evaluated in terms of peak displacement ratio, peak acceleration ratio, energy dissipation demand ratio and residual displacement ratio between the SDOF systems with and without retrofit. It is found from this parametric study that RC structures retrofitted with the self-centering retrofit scheme (SCRS) can achieve a seismic performance level comparable to the bilinear-hysteresis retrofit scheme (BHRS) in terms of peak displacement and energy dissipation demand ratio while having negligible residual displacement after earthquake.

  1. Industry Perspectives on Advanced Inverters for U.S. Solar Photovoltaic Systems. Grid Benefits, Deployment Challenges, and Emerging Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiter, Emerson [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ardani, Kristen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Edge, Ryan [Solar Electric Power Association (SEPA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-09-01

    To clarify current utility strategies and other considerations related to advanced inverter deployment, we interviewed 20 representatives from 11 leading organizations closely involved with advanced inverter pilot testing, protocols, and implementation. Included were representatives from seven utilities, a regional transmission operator, an inverter manufacturer, a leading solar developer, and a consortium for grid codes and standards. Interview data represent geographically the advanced inverter activities identified in SEPA's prior survey results--most interviewed utilities serve California, Arizona, and Hawaii, though we also interviewed others from the Northeast, Mid-Atlantic, and Southeast.

  2. Degradation and monitoring of acetamiprid, thiabendazole and their transformation products in an agro-food industry effluent during solar photo-Fenton treatment in a raceway pond reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carra, Irene; Sirtori, Carla; Ponce-Robles, Laura; Sánchez Pérez, José Antonio; Malato, Sixto; Agüera, Ana

    2015-07-01

    In this study, pesticides acetamiprid and thiabendazole and their transformation products (TPs), seven from each pesticide, were successfully monitored during solar photo-Fenton treatment in a real secondary effluent from an agro-food industry spiked with 100μgL(-1) of each pesticide. To this end, a highly sensitive procedure was developed, based on liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to hybrid quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (QqLIT-MS). In addition, finding low-cost and operational technology for the application of AOPs would then facilitate their use on a commercial level. Simple and extensive photoreactors such as raceway pond reactors (RPRs) are therefore proposed as an alternative for the application of solar photo-Fenton. Results showed that high degradation could be achieved in a complex water matrix (>99% TBZ and 91% ACTM in 240min) using a 120-L RPR pilot plant as novel technology. The analyses indicated that after the treatment only three TPs from ACTM were still present in the effluent, while the others had been removed. The study showed that the goal of either just removing the parent compounds, or going one step further and removing all the TPs, can significantly change the treatment time, which would affect process costs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A high efficiency industrial polysilicon solar cell with a honeycomb-like surface fabricated by wet etching using a photoresist mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Ding, Bin; Chen, Tianhang

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, an effective and low cost method of texturization was introduced into the fabrication process for industrial multicrystalline silicon solar cell production. The purpose of the method was to reduce reflectance by creating a honeycomb-like textured surface using a masked wet etching process. A negative photoresist film was selected as an etching mask. Although large surface roughness of wafer was considered to affect the adhesion and acid resistance of etching mask, a honeycomb-like textured surface with a pitch of 18 μm was fabricated successfully. The etched pits had a nearly smooth spherical segment surface, an average aperture of 15.1 μm, and a depth of 6.5 μm. This regular textured surface had a low light reflectivity of approximately 20.5% and greatly increased the carrier lifetime. Compared with multicrystalline silicon solar cells textured by conventional acid etching, the average short circuit current increased by 2.2% and the average efficiency increased from 17.41% to 17.75%, a net gain of 0.34%. And a high throughput above 2400 pieces per hour was obtained. This texturing technique is expected to promote the application of diamond-wire cut multicrystalline silicon wafers with the low saw-damage in the future.

  4. Evaluation and development of control devices including motion detectors for easy retrofitting of lighting systems; Evaluation und Konzeption von Systemen zur einfachen Nachruestung von Beleuchtungen mit Bedarfssteuerungen - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stalder, M. [Ingenieurbuero fuer Energietechtik, Rifferswil (Switzerland); Naef, R. [Naef Energietechnik, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2008-08-15

    The retrofit of existing lighting with demand lighting control is often esthetically dissatisfying and technically laborious. On the basis of analysis of existing lighting installations, retrofit concepts have been developed, which allows an easy refitting with demand control based on motion detectors. Based on these concepts, our industrial project partner, Hardmeier Electronics, has developed a radio motion detector, which is powered by an indoor photocell. That way no installation of supply lines is necessary. Several pilot installations with the new concept and components have been realized and tested at the University of Zuerich. The radio motion detector and the corresponding radio switch are available on the market by now. Economical calculations showed that with the new concepts and components the retrofit with a demand control system is reasonable in many cases. The application of the new components in new installations is also promising, because more flexibility is given with their use. To improve the quality of demand lighting control installations the web site www.beleuchtungssteuerung.ch was created. Important information for planning and realization of lighting control installations are available there to a wide public. At the moment a further radio switch is in development which is suitable for floor lamps. The control concept with an external radio motion detector promises a more satisfying solution than this is possible with a motion detector integrated in the floor lamp. (author)

  5. Visual assessment of BIPV retrofit design proposals for selected historical buildings using the saliency map method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Xu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing awareness of energy efficiency, many old buildings have to undergo a massive facade energy retrofit. How to predict the visual impact which solar installations on the aesthetic cultural value of these buildings has been a heated debate in Switzerland (and throughout the world. The usual evaluation method to describe the visual impact of BIPV is based on semantic and qualitative descriptors, and strongly dependent on personal preferences. The evaluation scale is therefore relative, flexible and imprecise. This paper proposes a new method to accurately measure the visual impact which BIPV installations have on a historical building by using the saliency map method. By imitating working principles of the human eye, it is measured how much the BIPV design proposals differ from the original building facade in the aspect of attracting human visual attention. The result is directly presented in a quantitative manner, and can be used to compare the fitness of different BIPV design proposals. The measuring process is numeric, objective and more precise.  

  6. 太阳能在海水淡化产业中的应用与研究进展%THE APPLICATION AND RESEARCH PROGRESS OF SOLAR ENERGY IN THE SEAWATER DESALINATION INDUSTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蛟; 刘俊成; 高从增; 张金玲

    2009-01-01

    The main application forms of the solar energy in the seawater desalination industry were the solar energy distillation technology and the solar energy reverse-osmosis technology. Essentially, the former is the light-heat conversion of the solar energy and the latter is the photo-electricity conversion. The application and research progress of solar energy in the seawater desalination industry in recent several centuries were summarized from the two aspects and the elementary expectation for the industry development was also mentioned.%太阳能蒸馏技术与太阳能反渗透技术是太阳能在海水淡化产业中主要的应用形式.从本质上讲,前者是利用太阳能的光热转换,而后者是利用太阳能的光电转换.文章从上述两个方面出发,综述了近几个世纪以来太阳能在海水淡化产业中的应用与研究进展,并对该产业下一步的发展进行了初步展望.

  7. Retrofit catalytic converter for wood-burning stoves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1983-01-01

    The major purpose of this project was to design, fabricate, test, and evaluate a retrofit catalytic converter for woodburning stoves. In the interim between our date of application March 5, 1981 and the beginning of the grant period December 1, 1981, several such devices became commercially available. Therefore, we decided to modify the purpose and direction of our project. In summary, we designed and constructed a calorimeter room in a building located on the campus of Northern Kentucky University. We equipped this room with a woodburning stove and a metal chimney extending through the roof. We designed and constructed the appropriate instrumentation for monitoring the heat output of the stove. We observed and recorded the operating characteristics of this stove over a period of several days. We then equipped the stove with a barometric damper and repeated the experiment. We are now in the process of equipping the stove with a catalytic converter. Thus the major emphasis of the project currently is to test and evaluate several commercial retrofit devices which are purported to reduce creosote and/or increase the efficiency of a woodburning stove.

  8. Retrofitting Heritage Buildings by Strengthening or Using Seismic Isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danieli, Moshe; Bloch, Jacob; Ribakov, Yuri

    2008-07-01

    Many heritage buildings in the Mediterranean area include stone domes as a structural and architectural element. Present stage of these buildings often requires strengthening or retrofitting in order to increase their seismic resistance. Strengthening is possible by casting above existing dome a thin reinforced concrete shell with a support ring. It yields reduction of stresses and strains in the dome. This paper deals with examples of actual restoration and strengthening of three structures in Georgia, two of them damaged by an earthquake in 1991, (a temple in Nikortzminda and a synagogue in Oni, built in 11th and 19r century, respectively) and a mosque in Akhaltzikhe, built in 18th century. Retrofitting of these structures was aimed at preservation of initial geometry and appearance by creating composite (stone—reinforced concrete, or stone—shotcrete) structures, which were partially or fully hidden. Further improving of seismic response may be achieved by using hybrid seismic isolation decreasing the seismic forces and adding damping. A brief description of the design procedure for such cases is presented.

  9. Cost-effectiveness of a ROPS retrofit education campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, M L; Cole, H P; Westneat, S C

    2004-05-01

    A community educational campaign implemented in two Kentucky counties was effective in influencing farmers to retrofit their tractors with rollover protective structures (ROPS) to protect tractor operators from injury in the event of an overturn. This article reports on the cost-effectiveness of this program in the two counties when compared to no program in a control county. A decision analysis indicated that it would be effective at averting 0.27 fatal and 1.53 nonfatal injuries over a 20-year period, and when this analysis was extended statewide, 7.0 fatal and 40 nonfatal injuries would be averted in Kentucky. Over the 20-year period, the cost-per-injury averted was calculated to be $172,657 at a 4% annual discount rate. This cost compared favorably with a national cost of $489,373 per injury averted despite the additional program cost in Kentucky. The principle reason for the increased cost-effectiveness of the Kentucky program was the three-fold higher propensity for tractors to overturn in Kentucky. The cost-per-injury averted in one of the two counties was $112,535. This lower cost was attributed principally to incentive awards financed locally for farmers to retrofit their tractors with ROPS.

  10. Deep Energy Retrofit Guidance for the Building America Solutions Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Less, Brennan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. DOE Building America program has established a research agenda targeting market-relevant strategies to achieve 40% reductions in existing home energy use by 2030. Deep Energy Retrofits (DERs) are part of the strategy to meet and exceed this goal. DERs are projects that create new, valuable assets from existing residences, by bringing homes into alignment with the expectations of the 21st century. Ideally, high energy using, dated homes that are failing to provide adequate modern services to their owners and occupants (e.g., comfortable temperatures, acceptable humidity, clean, healthy), are transformed through comprehensive upgrades to the building envelope, services and miscellaneous loads into next generation high performance homes. These guidance documents provide information to aid in the broader market adoption of DERs. They are intended for inclusion in the online resource the Building America Solutions Center (BASC). This document is an assemblage of multiple entries in the BASC, each of which addresses a specific aspect of Deep Energy Retrofit best practices for projects targeting at least 50% energy reductions. The contents are based upon a review of actual DERs in the U.S., as well as a mixture of engineering judgment, published guidance from DOE research in technologies and DERs, simulations of cost-optimal DERs, Energy Star and Consortium for Energy Efficiency (CEE) product criteria, and energy codes.

  11. Retrofit of an MTBE-unit to ETBE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rix, A.; Peters, U. [Degussa GmbH, Marl (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    New European policies on renewable fuels have created substantial market pressure to increase the share of bio-fuels. For blending in gasoline, ETBE formed by etherification of isobutene with bio-ethanol is an interesting alternative to direct blending of bio-ethanol. Since the physical properties of methanol and ethanol - and consequently MTBE and ETBE - are quite similar, MTBE-plants can be retrofitted for ETBE-production. Experience from a retrofit-project at Marl is presented. In an integrated C4-plant, isobutene removal is one the most important tasks of the etherification unit to purify the raffinate 2 stream for butene-1 production. Compared to MTBE, reaction rate and equilibrium constant are lower and suitable means of maintaining isobutene conversion on former levels must be found. Furthermore, the extraction of excess alcohol and its recovery by distillation is more difficult. The ethanol-water azeotrope formed on top of the alcohol recovery column has to undergo a further drying process. Alternatives for ethanol drying have been evaluated and performance data for a membrane process is presented. (orig.)

  12. Turtle origins: insights from phylogenetic retrofitting and molecular scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M S Y

    2013-12-01

    Adding new taxa to morphological phylogenetic analyses without substantially revising the set of included characters is a common practice, with drawbacks (undersampling of relevant characters) and potential benefits (character selection is not biased by preconceptions over the affinities of the 'retrofitted' taxon). Retrofitting turtles (Testudines) and other taxa to recent reptile phylogenies consistently places turtles with anapsid-grade parareptiles (especially Eunotosaurus and/or pareiasauromorphs), under both Bayesian and parsimony analyses. This morphological evidence for turtle-parareptile affinities appears to contradict the robust genomic evidence that extant (living) turtles are nested within diapsids as sister to extant archosaurs (birds and crocodilians). However, the morphological data are almost equally consistent with a turtle-archosaur clade: enforcing this molecular scaffold onto the morphological data does not greatly increase tree length (parsimony) or reduce likelihood (Bayesian inference). Moreover, under certain analytic conditions, Eunotosaurus groups with turtles and thus also falls within the turtle-archosaur clade. This result raises the possibility that turtles could simultaneously be most closely related to a taxon traditionally considered a parareptile (Eunotosaurus) and still have archosaurs as their closest extant sister group.

  13. High Performance Slab-on-Grade Foundation Insulation Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, Louise F. [NorthernSTAR, St. Paul, MN (United States); Mosiman, Garrett E. [NorthernSTAR, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    2015-09-01

    ?A more accurate assessment of SOG foundation insulation energy savings than traditionally possible is now feasible. This has been enabled by advances in whole building energy simulation with 3-dimensional foundation modelling integration at each time step together with an experimental measurement of the site energy savings of SOG foundation insulation. Ten SOG insulation strategies were evaluated on a test building to identify an optimum retrofit insulation strategy in a zone 6 climate (Minneapolis, MN). The optimum insulation strategy in terms of energy savings and cost effectiveness consisted of two components: (a) R-20 XPS insulation above grade, and, (b) R-20 insulation at grade (comprising an outer layer of R-10 insulation and an interior layer of R-12 poured polyurethane insulation) tapering to R-10 XPS insulation at half the below-grade wall height (the lower half of the stem wall was uninsulated). The optimum insulation strategy was applied to single and multi-family residential buildings in climate zone 4 - 7. The highest site energy savings of 5% was realized for a single family home in Duluth, MN, and the lowest savings of 1.4 % for a 4-unit townhouse in Richmond, VA. SOG foundation insulation retrofit simple paybacks ranged from 18 to 47 years. There are other benefits of SOG foundation insulation resulting from the increase in the slab surface temperatures. These include increased occupant thermal comfort, and a decrease in slab surface condensation particularly around the slab perimeter.

  14. Retrofitted green roofs and walls and improvements in thermal comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, Renato Castiglia; Wilkinson, Sara

    2017-06-01

    Increased urbanization has led to a worsening in the quality of life for many people living in large cities in respect of the urban heat island effect and increases of indoor temperatures in housing and other buildings. A solution may be to retrofit existing environments to their former conditions, with a combination of green infrastructures applied to existing walls and rooftops. Retrofitted green roofs may attenuate housing temperature. However, with tall buildings, facade areas are much larger compared to rooftop areas, the role of green walls in mitigating extreme temperatures is more pronounced. Thus, the combination of green roofs and green walls is expected to promote a better thermal performance in the building envelope. For this purpose, a modular vegetated system is adopted for covering both walls and rooftops. Rather than temperature itself, the heat index, which comprises the combined effect of temperature and relative humidity is used in the evaluation of thermal comfort in small scale experiments performed in Sydney - Australia, where identical timber framed structures prototypes (vegetated and non-vegetated) are compared. The results have shown a different understanding of thermal comfort improvement regarding heat index rather than temperature itself. The combination of green roof and walls has a valid role to play in heat index attenuation.

  15. Analysis of institutional mechanisms affecting residential and commercial buildings retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    Barriers to energy conservation in the residential and commercial sectors influence (1) the willingness of building occupants to modify their energy usage habits, and (2) the willingness of building owners/occupants to upgrade the thermal characteristics of the structures within which they live or work and the appliances which they use. The barriers that influence the willingness of building owners/occupants to modify the thermal efficiency characteristics of building structures and heating/cooling systems are discussed. This focus is further narrowed to include only those barriers that impede modifications to existing buildings, i.e., energy conservation retrofit activity. Eight barriers selected for their suitability for Federal action in the residential and commercial sectors and examined are: fuel pricing policies that in the short term do not provide enough incentive to invest in energy conservation; high finance cost; inability to evaluate contractor performance; inability to evaluate retrofit products; lack of well-integrated or one-stop marketing systems (referred to as lack of delivery systems); lack of precise or customized information; lack of sociological/psychological incentives; and use of the first-cost decision criterion (expanded to include short-term payback criterion for the commercial sector). The impacts of these barriers on energy conservation are separately assessed for the residential and commercial sectors.

  16. 20. symposium on thermal solar energy. Proceedings; 20. Symposium Thermische Solarenergie. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    analyses and quality analysis of 120 solar systems in the storey residential construction as well as in commercial applications (Christian Fink); (18) Ecodesign requirements and energy label for solar thermal power plants - State of the discussion, risks and chances (Uwe Trenkner); (19) Legal framework for large solar thermal power plants - Presentation of the results of a study on behalf of the BMU (Margarete von Oppen); (20) Solar thermal power plants on multiple family building - A new market arises. (Dirk Mangold); (21) Simulation of air collector systems in TSOL (Sebastian Engelhardt); (22) Simulation of heat pumps in connection with solar thermal power plants (Jens Rudolf); (23) Sensibility analysis of thermosyphonic solar thermal power plants using Matlab/Simulink and CARNOT (Sebastian Brandmayr), (24) Optimization of the irradiation by an adaptive arrangement and tracking, respectively (Stephan A. Mathez); (25) Tandem lecture: Concept and implementation of a solar zero energy building (Stephan Fabi); (26) Energy power house - Retrofitting to a plus energy office building (Mathias Schlosser); (27) The winner building in Solar Decathlon 2009 (USA) (Johanna Henrich); (28) DESERTEC - Sustainable Electricity for Europe, Middle East and North Africa (Hans Mueller-Steinhagen); (29) LowEx District heating - Reduction of the grid temperature for enhancing the opportunities of regenerative energy (Karin Ruehling); (30) Solar and heat pump systems - IEA SHC Task 44 and HPP (Jean-Christophe Hadorn); (31) Solar assisted DEC plant ENERGYbase, Vienna: Evaluation of the plant by the Comparison TRNSYS - Simulation with monitoring results for the summer 2009 (Anita Preisler); (32) Long term monitoring of a solar thermal power plant for supporting the refrigeration supply of an office building and administrative building (Klaus Huber); (33) Solar thermal energy and heat pumps - Experiences from 3 heating periods - Development of a solar system operation number (Frank Thole); (34

  17. Solar heating and cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffie, J A; Beckman, W A

    1976-01-16

    We have adequate theory and engineering capability to design, install, and use equipment for solar space and water heating. Energy can be delivered at costs that are competitive now with such high-cost energy sources as much fuel-generated, electrical resistance heating. The technology of heating is being improved through collector developments, improved materials, and studies of new ways to carry out the heating processes. Solar cooling is still in the experimental stage. Relatively few experiments have yielded information on solar operation of absorption coolers, on use of night sky radiation in locations with clear skies, on the combination of a solar-operated Rankine engine and a compression cooler, and on open cycle, humidification-dehumidification systems. Many more possibilities for exploration exist. Solar cooling may benefit from collector developments that permit energy delivery at higher temperatures and thus solar operation of additional kinds of cycles. Improved solar cooling capability can open up new applications of solar energy, particularly for larger buildings, and can result in markets for retrofitting existing buildings. Solar energy for buildings can, in the next decade, make a significant contribution to the national energy economy and to the pocketbooks of many individual users. very large-aggregate enterprises in manufacture, sale, and installation of solar energy equipment can result, which can involve a spectrum of large and small businesses. In our view, the technology is here or will soon be at hand; thus the basic decisions as to whether the United States uses this resource will be political in nature.

  18. Solar hot water space heating system. Technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dam, T

    1979-08-13

    A retrofit solar heating system was installed on Madison Hall at Jordan College, Cedar Springs, Michigan. The system provides heating and domestic water preheating for a campus dormitory. Freeze protection is provided by a draindown system. The building and solar system, construction progress, and design changes are described. Included in appendices are: condensate trap design, structural analysis, pictures of installation, operating instructions, maintenance instructions, and as-built drawings. (MHR)

  19. Retrofitting the Low Impact Development Practices into Developed Urban areas Including Barriers and Potential Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafique, Muhammad; Kim, Reeho

    2017-06-01

    Low impact development (LID)/green infrastructure (GI) practices have been identified as the sustainable practices of managing the stormwater in urban areas. Due to the increasing population, most of the cities are more developing which results in the change of natural area into impervious areas (roads, buildings etc.). Moreover, urbanization and climate change are causing many water-related problems and making over cities unsafe and insecure. Under these circumstances, there is a need to introduce new stormwater management practices into developed cities to reduce the adverse impacts of urbanization. For this purpose, retrofitting low impact development practices demands more attention to reduce these water-related problems and trying to make our cities sustainable. In developed areas, there is a little space is available for the retrofitting of LID practices for the stormwater management. Therefore, the selection of an appropriate place to retrofitting LID practices needs more concern. This paper describes the successfully applied retrofitting LID practices around the globe. It also includes the process of applying retrofitting LID practices at the suitable place with the suitable combination. Optimal places for the retrofitting of different LID practices are also mentioned. This paper also highlights the barriers and potential solutions of retrofitting LID practices in urban areas.

  20. Retrofitting the Low Impact Development Practices into Developed Urban areas Including Barriers and Potential Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafique Muhammad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Low impact development (LID/green infrastructure (GI practices have been identified as the sustainable practices of managing the stormwater in urban areas. Due to the increasing population, most of the cities are more developing which results in the change of natural area into impervious areas (roads, buildings etc.. Moreover, urbanization and climate change are causing many water-related problems and making over cities unsafe and insecure. Under these circumstances, there is a need to introduce new stormwater management practices into developed cities to reduce the adverse impacts of urbanization. For this purpose, retrofitting low impact development practices demands more attention to reduce these water-related problems and trying to make our cities sustainable. In developed areas, there is a little space is available for the retrofitting of LID practices for the stormwater management. Therefore, the selection of an appropriate place to retrofitting LID practices needs more concern. This paper describes the successfully applied retrofitting LID practices around the globe. It also includes the process of applying retrofitting LID practices at the suitable place with the suitable combination. Optimal places for the retrofitting of different LID practices are also mentioned. This paper also highlights the barriers and potential solutions of retrofitting LID practices in urban areas.

  1. Performance of school bus retrofit systems: ultrafine particles and other vehicular pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qunfang; Zhu, Yifang

    2011-08-01

    This study evaluated the performance of retrofit systems for diesel-powered school buses, a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) muffler and a spiracle crankcase filtration system (CFS), regarding ultrafine particles (UFPs) and other air pollutants from tailpipe emissions and inside bus cabins. Tailpipe emissions and in-cabin air pollutant levels were measured before and after retrofitting when the buses were idling and during actual pick-up/drop off routes. Retrofit systems significantly reduced tailpipe emissions with a reduction of 20-94% of total particles with both DOC and CFS installed. However, no unequivocal decrease was observed for in-cabin air pollutants after retrofitting. The AC/fan unit and the surrounding air pollutant concentrations played more important roles for determining the in-cabin air quality of school buses than did retrofit technologies. Although current retrofit systems reduce children's exposure while waiting to board at a bus station, retrofitting by itself does not protect children satisfactorily from in-cabin particle exposures. Turning on the bus engine increased in-cabin UFP levels significantly only when the wind blew from the bus' tailpipe toward its hood with its windows open. This indicated that wind direction and window position are significant factors determining how much self-released tailpipe emissions may penetrate into the bus cabin. The use of an air purifier was found to remove in-cabin particles by up to 50% which might be an alternative short-to-medium term strategy to protect children's health.

  2. Retrofitting a 1960s Split-Level, Cold-Climate Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puttagunta, Srikanth [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-07-13

    National programs such as Home Performance with ENERGY STAR® and numerous other utility air-sealing programs have made homeowners aware of the benefits of energy-efficiency retrofits. Yet these programs tend to focus only on the low-hanging fruit: they recommend air sealing the thermal envelope and ductwork where accessible, switching to efficient lighting and low-flow fixtures, and improving the efficiency of mechanical systems (though insufficient funds or lack of knowledge to implement these improvements commonly prevent the implementation of these higher cost upgrades). At the other end of the spectrum, various utilities across the country are encouraging deep energy retrofit programs. Although deep energy retrofits typically seek 50% energy savings, they are often quite costly and are most applicable to gut-rehab projects. A significant potential for lowering energy use in existing homes lies between the lowhanging fruit and deep energy retrofit approaches—retrofits that save approximately 30% in energy compared to the pre-retrofit conditions. The energy-efficiency measures need to be nonintrusive so the retrofit projects can be accomplished in occupied homes.

  3. SOLAR POWERING OF HIGH EFFICIENCY ABSORPTION CHILLER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randy C. Gee

    2004-11-15

    This is the Final Report for two solar cooling projects under this Cooperative Agreement. The first solar cooling project is a roof-integrated solar cooling and heating system, called the Power Roof{trademark}, which began operation in Raleigh, North Carolina in late July 2002. This system provides 176 kW (50 ton) of solar-driven space cooling using a unique nonimaging concentrating solar collector. The measured performance of the system during its first months of operation is reported here, along with a description of the design and operation of this system. The second solar cooling system, with a 20-ton capacity, is being retrofit to a commercial office building in Charleston, South Carolina but has not yet been completed.

  4. Performance Results for Massachusetts and Rhode Island Deep Energy Retrofit Pilot Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gates, C.; Neuhauser, K.

    2014-03-01

    Between December, 2009 and December, 2012 42 deep energy retrofit (DER) projects were completed through a DER pilot program sponsored by National Grid and conducted in Massachusetts and Rhode Island. 37 of these projects were comprehensive retrofits while 5 were partial DERs, meaning that high performance retrofit was implemented for a single major enclosure component or a limited number of major enclosure components. The 42 DER projects represent 60 units of housing. The comprehensive projects all implemented a consistent 'package' of measures in terms of the performance targeted for major building components. Projects exhibited some variations in the approach to implementing the retrofit package. Pre- and post-retrofit air leakage measurements were performed for each of the projects. Each project also reported information about project costs including identification of energy-related costs. Post-retrofit energy-use data was obtained for 29 of the DER projects. Post-retrofit energy use was analyzed based on the net energy used by the DER project regardless of whether the energy was generated on site or delivered to the site. Homeowner surveys were returned by 12 of the pilot participants. Based on the community experience, this DER package is expected to result in yearly source energy use near 110 MMBtu/year or approximately 40% below the Northeast regional average. Larger to medium sized homes that successful implement these retrofits can be expected to achieve source EUI that is comparable to Passive House targets for new construction. The community of DER projects show post-retrofit airtightness below 1.5 ACH50 to be eminently achievable.

  5. Optimizing Whole House Deep Energy Retrofit Packages: A Case Study of Existing Chicago-Area Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honnie Aguilar Leinartas

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Improving the energy efficiency of the residential building stock plays a key role in mitigating global climate change. New guidelines are targeting widespread application of deep energy retrofits to existing homes that reduce their annual energy use by 50%, but questions remain as to how to identify and prioritize the most cost-effective retrofit measures. This work demonstrates the utility of whole building energy simulation and optimization software to construct a “tool-box” of prescriptive deep energy retrofits that can be applied to large portions of the existing housing stock. We consider 10 generally representative typology groups of existing single-family detached homes built prior to 1978 in the Chicago area for identifying cost-optimal deep energy retrofit packages. Simulations were conducted in BEopt and EnergyPlus operating on a cloud-computing platform to first identify cost-optimal enclosure retrofits and then identify cost-optimal upgrades to heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC systems. Results reveal that prescriptive retrofit packages achieving at least 50% site energy savings can be defined for most homes through a combination of envelope retrofits, lighting upgrades, and upgrades to existing HVAC system efficiency or conversion to mini-split heat pumps. The average upfront cost of retrofits is estimated to be ~$14,400, resulting in average annual site energy savings of ~54% and an average simple payback period of ~25 years. Widespread application of these prescriptive retrofit packages across the existing Chicago-area residential building stock is predicted to reduce annual site energy use by 3.7 × 1016 J and yield approximately $280 million USD in annual energy savings.

  6. Performance Results for Massachusetts and Rhode Island Deep Energy Retrofit Pilot Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gates, C. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Neuhauser, K. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Between December, 2009 and December, 2012, 42 deep energy retrofit (DER) projects were completed through a pilot program sponsored by National Grid and conducted in Massachusetts and Rhode Island. Thirty-seven of these projects were comprehensive retrofits while five were partial DERs, meaning that high performance retrofit was implemented for a single major enclosure component or a limited number of major enclosure components. Building Science Corporation developed a consistent "package" of measures in terms of the performance targeted for major building components. Based on the community experience, this DER package is expected to result in yearly source energy use near 110 MMBtu/year or approximately 40% below the Northeast regional average.

  7. Test Methods and Protocols for Environmental and Safety Hazards Associated with Home Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cautley, D.; Viner, J.; Lord, M.; Pearce, M.

    2012-12-01

    A number of health hazards and hazards to the durability of homes may be associated with energy retrofitting and home renovation projects. Among the hazards associated with energy retrofit work, exposure to radon is thought to cause more than 15,000 deaths per year in the U.S., while carbon monoxide poisoning results in about 20,000 injuries and 450 deaths per year. Testing procedures have been developed for identifying and quantifying hazards during retrofitting. These procedures commonly include a battery of tests to screen combustion appliances for safe operation, including worst case depressurization measurement, backdrafting (spillage) under depressurized or normal conditions, and carbon monoxide production.

  8. Test Methods and Protocols for Environmental and Safety Hazards Associated with Home Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cautley, D. [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States); Viner, J. [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States); Lord, M. [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States); Pearce, M. [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    2012-12-01

    A number of health hazards and hazards to the durability of homes may be associated with energy retrofitting and home renovation projects. Among the hazards associated with energy retrofit work, exposure to radon is thought to cause more than 15,000 deaths per year in the U.S., while carbon monoxide poisoning results in about 20,000 injuries and 450 deaths per year. Testing procedures have been developed for identifying and quantifying hazards during retrofitting. These procedures commonly include a battery of tests to screen combustion appliances for safe operation, including worst case depressurization measurement, backdrafting (spillage) under depressurized or normal conditions, and carbon monoxide production.

  9. Standard Measurement and Verification Plan for Lighting Retrofit Projects for Buildings and Building Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richman, Eric E.

    2012-10-31

    This document provides a framework for standard measurement and verification (M&V) of lighting retrofit and replacement projects. It was developed to provide site owners, contractors, and other involved organizations with the essential elements of a robust M&V plan for lighting projects. It includes details on all aspects of effectively measuring light levels of existing and post-retrofit projects, conducting power measurement, and developing cost-effectiveness analysis. This framework M&V plan also enables consistent comparison among similar lighting projects, and may be used to develop M&V plans for non--lighting-technology retrofits and new installations.

  10. Measure Guideline: Deep Energy Enclosure Retrofit for Double-Stud Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loomis, H. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States); Pettit, B. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-06-22

    This Measure Guideline describes a deep energy enclosure retrofit solution that provides insulation to the interior of the wall assembly with the use of a double-stud wall. The guide describes two approaches to retrofitting the existing walls—one that involves replacing the existing cladding and the other that leaves the cladding in place. This guideline also covers the design principles related to the use of various insulation types and provides strategies and procedures for implementing the double-stud wall retrofit. It also includes an evaluation of important moisture-related and indoor air quality measures that need to be implemented to achieve a durable high-performance wall.

  11. Measure Guideline: Deep Energy Enclosure Retrofit for Double-Stud Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loomis, H. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States); Pettit, B. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This Measure Guideline describes a deep energy enclosure retrofit (DEER) solution that provides insulation to the interior of the wall assembly with the use of a double stud wall. The guide describes two approaches to retrofitting the existing the walls: one involving replacement of the existing cladding, and the other that leaves the existing cladding in place. It discusses the design principles related to the use of various insulation types, and provides strategies and procedures for implementing the double stud wall retrofit. It also evaluates important moisture-related and indoor air quality measures that need to be implemented to achieve a durable, high performance wall.

  12. Technology Solutions for Existing Homes Overview: Quantifying the Financial Benefits of Multifamily Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-04-01

    In this project, the U.S. Department of Energy Building America team Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) worked with Elevate Energy on three tasks: to conduct pre- and post-retrofit analysis on the income and expense data of 13 Chicago-area multifamily buildings, to compare Chicago income and expense data to two national samples, and to explore the ramifications that energy-efficiency retrofits have on nine Chicago-area neighborhoods. The project team collected building, energy, and income and expense data from multiple private and public sources.

  13. Effect of operating parameters on the testing of new industrial titania catalysts at solar pilot plant scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malato, S.; Blanco, J.; Campos, A.; Caceres, J. [Plataforma Solar de Almeria-CIEMAT, Ctra. Senes Km. 4, Tabernas, 04200 Almeria (Spain); Guillard, C.; Herrmann, J.M. [Laboratoire d' Application de la Chimie a l' Environnement, LACE-CNRS-UMR5634, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, 43 Blvd. du 11 Novembre 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Fernandez-Alba, A.R. [Pesticide Residue Research Group, University of Almeria, 04071 Almeria (Spain)

    2003-06-10

    A new granulated version of the well-known P-25 titanium dioxide (VP AEROPERL P-25/20 (Aeroperl)) has been tested to determine whether its photocatalytic efficiency is good enough for use in photocatalytic water purification and to find out if it can be separated from water more easily than its well-known homologue, powdered Degussa P-25, a significant technical improvement that might eliminate the tedious final filtration necessary with a slurry. Furthermore, a new commercial catalyst (PC-100 from Millennium Inorganic Chemicals), having a surface area and structure that are both different from Degussa P-25, has also been studied. All the experiments were carried out in sunlight in the pilot compound parabolic collector (CPC) plant at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria. Three different substrates were chosen as model molecules for this study: dichloracetic acid, phenol and the pesticide imidacloprid. Results show that Degussa Aeroperl is not a good alternative to powdered Degussa P-25 because of its spontaneous sedimentation during photocatalysis. Millennium PC-100 efficiency seems to be in the same range as that of Degussa P-25. In this work we also attempt to demonstrate that the comparison of efficiencies of different photocatalysts is not a trivial matter. Many factors are involved and interfere in the testing of photocatalyst behaviour during the degradation of a contaminant. A thorough comparison of photocatalyst activity should include reactions with several different substrates under varied experimental conditions.

  14. Impacts of retrofitting analysis on first generation ethanol production: process design and techno-economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Karthik; Rajoli, Sreevathsava; Teichert, Oliver; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2015-02-01

    More than half of the bioethanol plants in operation today use corn or grains as raw materials. The downstream processing of mash after fermentation to produce ethanol and distiller grains is an energy-demanding process, which needs retrofitting for optimization. In addition, the fluctuation in the ethanol and grain prices affects the overall profitability of the plant. For this purpose, a process simulation was performed in Aspen Plus(®) based on an existing industrial plant located in Sweden. The simulations were compared using different scenarios including different concentrations of ethanol, using the stillage for biogas production to produce steam instead of distiller grains as a by-product, and altering the purity of the ethanol produced. Using stillage for biogas production, as well as utilizing the steam, reduced the overall energy consumption by 40% compared to the plant in operation. The fluctuations in grain prices had a high impact on the net present value (NPV), where grain prices greater than 349 USD/ton reached a zero NPV. After 20 years, the plant in operation producing 41,600 tons ethanol/year can generate a profit of 78 million USD. Compared to the base case, the less purified ethanol resulted in a lower NPV of 30 million USD.

  15. Distribution and Room Air Mixing Risks to Retrofitted Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdick, A. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Energy efficiency upgrades reduce heating and cooling loads on a house. With enough load reduction and if the HVAC system warrants replacement, the HVAC system is often upgraded with a more efficient, lower capacity system that meets the loads of the upgraded house. For a single-story house with ceiling supply air diffusers, ducts are often removed and upgraded. For houses with ducts that are embedded in walls, the cost of demolition precludes the replacement of ducts. The challenge with the use of existing ducts is that the reduced airflow creates a decreased throw at the supply registers, and the supply air and room air do not mix well, leading to potential thermal comfort complaints. This project investigates this retrofit scenario. The issues and solutions discussed here are relevant to all climate zones, with emphasis on climates that require cooling.

  16. Effect of seismic retrofit of bridges on transportation networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masanobu Shinozuka; Yuko Murachi; Xuejiang Dong; Youwei Zhou; Michal J. Orlikowski

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this research is to determine the effect earthquakes have on the performance of transportation network systems. To do this, bridge fragility curves, expressed as a function of peak ground acceleration (PGA) and peak ground velocity (PGV), were developed. Network damage was evaluated under the 1994 Northridge earthquake and scenario earthquakes. A probabilistic model was developed to determine the effect of repair of bridge damage on the improvement of the network performance as days passed after the event. As an example, the system performance degradation measured in terms of an index, "Drivers Delay," is calculated for the Los Angeles area transportation system, and losses due to Drivers Delay with and without retrofit were estimated.

  17. Deformation Monitoring of Retrofitted Short Concrete Columns with Laser Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avsar, E. Ö.; Celik, M. F.; Binbir, E.; Arslan, A. E.; Çokkeçeci, D.; Seker, D. Z.; Pala, S.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents one of the applications of monitoring mechanical tests carried out in Construction Materials Laboratory of Istanbul Technical University. In Turkey, as in many countries, large amount of existing buildings exposed to seismic hazard, therefore various analytical and experimental studies are being conducted to contribute to the solution of the problem. One of the new generation retrofitting techniques is to strength the structural members by using Fiber Reinforcing Polymer (FRP). This study summarize the results of monitoring of deformations short concrete column samples under the incremental compression load. In this study, result of two rectangular short columns are given. One of them was tested as a reference sample, the other sample were tested after strengthening by PET reinforced polymer composite materials. Besides conventional displacement and strain measurement systems, laser scanning method was used to get three dimensional deformed shape of sample at each selected steps.

  18. Deep Energy Retrofit Guidance for the Building America Solutions Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Less, Brennan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. DOE Building America program has established a research agenda targeting market-relevant strategies to achieve 40% reductions in existing home energy use by 2030. Deep Energy Retrofits (DERs) are part of the strategy to meet and exceed this goal. DERs are projects that create new, valuable assets from existing residences, by bringing homes into alignment with the expectations of the 21st century. Ideally, high energy using, dated homes that are failing to provide adequate modern services to their owners and occupants (e.g., comfortable temperatures, acceptable humidity, clean, healthy), are transformed through comprehensive upgrades to the building envelope, services and miscellaneous loads into next generation high performance homes. These guidance documents provide information to aid in the broader market adoption of DERs.

  19. High-Performance Slab-on-Grade Foundation Insulation Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, Louise F. [NorthernSTAR, St. Paul, MN (United States); Mosiman, Garrett E. [NorthernSTAR, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    2015-09-01

    A more accurate assessment of slab-on-grade foundation insulation energy savings than traditionally possible is now feasible. This has been enabled by advances in whole building energy simulation with 3-dimensional foundation modelling integration at each time step together with an experimental measurement of the site energy savings of SOG foundation insulation. Ten SOG insulation strategies were evaluated on a test building to identify an optimum retrofit insulation strategy in a zone 6 climate (Minneapolis, MN). The optimum insulation strategy in terms of energy savings and cost effectiveness consisted of two components: (a) R-20 XPS insulation above grade, and, (b) R-20 insulation at grade (comprising an outer layer of R-10 insulation and an interior layer of R-12 poured polyurethane insulation) tapering to R-10 XPS insulation at half the below-grade wall height (the lower half of the stem wall was uninsulated).

  20. Retrofitting Garden-Style Apartments in Brooklyn, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolen, Heather [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States); Maxwell, Sean [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States); Neri, Robin [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States); Grab, Joanna [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This research effort sought to achieve a solution package that yields energy savings greater than 30% over the pre-existing conditions in a minimally intrusive multifamily retrofit project. The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) partnered with L+M Development Partners, Inc. on a Mitchell-Lama Housing Program project, Marcus Garvey Village, in Brooklyn, NY (Climate Zone 4A). The Mitchell-Lama Housing Program is a form of housing subsidy in the state of New York that provides affordable rental and cooperative housing to moderate- and middle-income families. Marcus Garvey Village was founded in 1975 and contains 625 residential units (ranging from studios to 5-bedroom units) in thirty-two 4-story garden-style apartment structures built with concrete and faced in light brown brick. The single largest challenge for implementation of energy conservation measures at Marcus Garvey was working within occupied spaces. Measures are being implemented in phases to minimize disruption. As of August 2015, the retrofit work is over 50% complete. The wall insulation, sealing of the through wall AC vent, and installation of new oil-filled electric baseboards with advanced controls are conducted at one time, limiting disruption to the living room space. In a similar fashion, the kitchen work is done, then the bathroom. The final selection of energy conservation measures is projected to save 26.5% in source energy with a cost just under $3.7 million and utility bill savings of nearly $480,000 (of an average $1.8 million annual utility cost for the development).