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Sample records for industrial boiler furnace

  1. 40 CFR 270.22 - Specific part B information requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste. 270.22 Section 270.22 Protection of... requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste. When an owner or operator of a cement kiln, lightweight aggregate kiln, solid fuel boiler, liquid fuel boiler, or hydrochloric acid...

  2. Husk energy for boilers and furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deven, M.

    1985-10-01

    In view of the technical feasibility and economic viability, industries located in rice, coconut, and cotton growing areas, can easily switch over from oil/coal fired furnace/boilers to husk fired ones and thereby effect fuel economy. The banks and financial institutions will readily agree to provide finance as per directions of the governments and in some cases they also offer subsidy for development and utilization of energy saving devices.

  3. Development and application of gradient heat flux measurement for industrial boiler furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapozhnikov, S.Z.; Grigoryev, K.A.; Mitiakov, V.Yu.; Mitiakov, A.V.; Roundyguine, Yu.A.; Osmanov, V.V. [Saint-Petersburg State Polytechnic Univ., St.-Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    Brand new heat flux sensors based on artificial heterogeneous structures are created. These sensors are thermo resistive up to 1,000 K and more; therefore, they are the diagnostic aid for furnace processes. The sensors were tested during full-scale experiments.

  4. ''A Parallel Adaptive Simulation Tool for Two Phase Steady State Reacting Flows in Industrial Boilers and Furnaces''; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael J. Bockelie

    2002-01-01

    This DOE SBIR Phase II final report summarizes research that has been performed to develop a parallel adaptive tool for modeling steady, two phase turbulent reacting flow. The target applications for the new tool are full scale, fossil-fuel fired boilers and furnaces such as those used in the electric utility industry, chemical process industry and mineral/metal process industry. The type of analyses to be performed on these systems are engineering calculations to evaluate the impact on overall furnace performance due to operational, process or equipment changes. To develop a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model of an industrial scale furnace requires a carefully designed grid that will capture all of the large and small scale features of the flowfield. Industrial systems are quite large, usually measured in tens of feet, but contain numerous burners, air injection ports, flames and localized behavior with dimensions that are measured in inches or fractions of inches. To create an accurate computational model of such systems requires capturing length scales within the flow field that span several orders of magnitude. In addition, to create an industrially useful model, the grid can not contain too many grid points - the model must be able to execute on an inexpensive desktop PC in a matter of days. An adaptive mesh provides a convenient means to create a grid that can capture both fine flow field detail within a very large domain with a ''reasonable'' number of grid points. However, the use of an adaptive mesh requires the development of a new flow solver. To create the new simulation tool, we have combined existing reacting CFD modeling software with new software based on emerging block structured Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) technologies developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Specifically, we combined: -physical models, modeling expertise, and software from existing combustion simulation codes used by Reaction Engineering International

  5. Model technique for aerodynamic study of boiler furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1966-02-01

    The help of the Division was recently sought to improve the heat transfer and reduce the exit gas temperature in a pulverized-fuel-fired boiler at an Australian power station. One approach adopted was to construct from Perspex a 1:20 scale cold-air model of the boiler furnace and to use a flow-visualization technique to study the aerodynamic patterns established when air was introduced through the p.f. burners of the model. The work established good correlations between the behaviour of the model and of the boiler furnace.

  6. Report on research results of the development of high efficient boilers in fiscal 1996. Research development of high efficient industrial furnaces, etc; Koseino boiler no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho. Koseino kogyoro nado ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Out of the developments of high efficient boilers which have been continued since fiscal 1993, the paper reported the result of the development conducted in fiscal 1996. The oxygen combustion (the oxygen enrichment combustion including 100% oxygen combustion) decreases the amount of flue gas and reduces heat loss of the flue gas, and is also effective as NOx reduction measures. The experiment was conducted using testing furnace. The boiler efficiency rapidly increased with the increasing concentration of oxygen enrichment. In the pure oxygen combustion, the overall boiler efficiency of a 106% level (low heating value standard) is expected. Since the boiler wet flue gas is decreased, the NOx emission is reduced. The boiler can raise the combustion temperature with no fear of NOx and can be reduced in size. CO2 decreases in proportion to the energy saving effect. The development of a condensation flue gas heat exchanger is aimed at recovering heat down to the low temperature. Prediction of heat transfer in the steam condensation region becomes possible, and the size reduction can be expected. Dew point corrosion resistant materials were also selected. As to the high speed combustion control, a simple type using micro-processor was developed. Obtained were high speed, compactness, electric power saving, and high controllability. 14 refs., 306 figs., 88 tabs.

  7. FY 1999 achievement report on the development of high performance boilers. R and D on high performance industrial furnaces, etc.; 1999 nendo koseino boiler no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho. Koseino kogyoro nado ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This project started in FY 1993 to survey the actual state of industrial use boilers. Based on the results of the survey, in fiscal 1995, 1996 and 1997, no improvement of the present technology which has limits, but the development was made of the oxygen combustion and element technology which are factors for heightening boiler performance with a new idea first in the world. In fiscal 1998, a target for the overall thermal efficiency of 105% was settled by testing a pilot plant where the element technology was integrated into the small once-through boiler, flue/smoke tube boiler, water tube boiler, etc. In fiscal 1999, the target of the overall thermal efficiency of boiler was reached by a pilot plant test to clarify combustion characteristics, heat transfer characteristics, environmental characteristics, etc. Further, effects of energy saving were increased by the adoption method of oxygen supply equipment. Concretely, an overall boiler efficiency of 105.73% exceeding the targeted value of 105% was achieved at a pilot plant of actual scale, by concentrating the results of each of the element technologies such as 'oxygen combustion,' 'condensation type flue gas heat exchanger,' 'high performance combustion control device,' and 'rapid rotating auxiliary machine.' (NEDO)

  8. Radiation from Large Gas Volumes and Heat Exchange in Steam Boiler Furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarov, A. N., E-mail: tgtu-kafedra-ese@mail.ru [Tver State Technical University (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    Radiation from large cylindrical gas volumes is studied as a means of simulating the flare in steam boiler furnaces. Calculations of heat exchange in a furnace by the zonal method and by simulation of the flare with cylindrical gas volumes are described. The latter method is more accurate and yields more reliable information on heat transfer processes taking place in furnaces.

  9. Structured Mathematical Modeling of Industrial Boiler

    OpenAIRE

    Aziz, Abdullah Nur; Nazaruddin, Yul Yunazwin; Siregar, Parsaulian; Bindar, Yazid

    2014-01-01

    As a major utility system in industry, boilers consume a large portion of the total energy and costs. Significant reduction of boiler cost operation can be gained through improvements in efficiency. In accomplishing such a goal, an adequate dynamic model that comprehensively reflects boiler characteristics is required. This paper outlines the idea of developing a mathematical model of a water-tube industrial boiler based on first principles guided by the bond graph method in its derivation. T...

  10. Structured Mathematical Modeling of Industrial Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Nur Aziz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available As a major utility system in industry, boilers consume a large portion of the total energy and costs. Significant reduction of boiler cost operation can be gained through improvements in efficiency. In accomplishing such a goal, an adequate dynamic model that comprehensively reflects boiler characteristics is required. This paper outlines the idea of developing a mathematical model of a water-tube industrial boiler based on first principles guided by the bond graph method in its derivation. The model describes the temperature dynamics of the boiler subsystems such as economizer, steam drum, desuperheater, and superheater. The mathematical model was examined using industrial boiler performance test data.It can be used to build a boiler simulator or help operators run a boiler effectively.

  11. Industrial furnace with improved heat transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoetzl, M.; Lingle, T.M.

    1992-07-07

    This patent describes an industrial furnace for heating work which emits volatiles during heating. It comprises a generally cylindrical, closed end furnace section defining a sealable heat transfer chamber for heating work disposed therein; fan means for directing furnace atmosphere as a swirling wind mass about the interior of the furnace section over a portion thereof; heat means for heating the wind mass within the fan chamber; and an incineration track formed as a circumferentially extending groove about the exterior of the furnace section and in heat transfer relationship with and situated at least to extend about a portion of the fan chamber.

  12. Simulation of Working Processes in the Water-Tube Boiler Furnace with the Purpose of Reducing Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redko A.A.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A significant number of domestic and industrial boilers are in operation in Ukraine. Nitrogen oxides are the most dangerous among all combustion products that pollute the atmosphere, therefore, one should take some measures for decreasing the formation of nitrogen oxides during combustion. The studies were carried out at the boilers of low power (100 kW with a tubular radiator and an open end. The studies in the furnaces of industrial steam boilers having a tubular radiator with a closed end have not been done. The numerical study results of the gaseous fuel combustion processes in the furnace of a DE-10/14 steam water-tube boiler are presented. The fuel-air mixture is formed by premixing the 15% part of the air with a primary burner twist factor n=2.4 and a secondary burner twist factor n=1.6, and an air excess factor αв=10. As a result of the studies, the temperature and velocity distributions of gases in the combustion chamber, the density of heat flows on the screen tubular surfaces, and the concentrations of the combustion components were determined. Flue gas recirculation in the volume of 80-100% is provided, and the reversible movement of combustion products towards the combustion front provides a reduction in the concentration of nitrogen oxides up to 123-125 mg/m3 at the furnace outlet. Disadvantages are the following: the formation of stagnant zones near the end of the secondary radiator. The optimum diameter of the tubular radiator equals to two burners diameters and tubular radiator is located at a distance of one meter from the burner cutoff.

  13. Internal heat exchange tubes for industrial furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoetzl, M.; Lingle, T.M.

    1992-05-26

    This patent describes a method for cooling the work within an industrial furnace. It comprises providing a longitudinally extending outer tube which extends into the furnace having a closed axial end and an open axial end; providing a preformed inner tube open at both ends within the outer tube; injecting a coolant into the inner tube so that the coolant flows from one axial end of the tube out the opposite end adjacent the closed end of the outer tube, and from the closed end of the outer tube to the open end thereof; circulating a gas within the furnace against the outer tube to effect heat transfer therewith.

  14. EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT IN INDUSTRIAL BOILER BY FLUE GAS DUCT INSULATION

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjay H. Zala

    2017-01-01

    Now a days in industry major losses are find out so here we calculate these losses and find out efficiency of boiler. Boiler efficiency and energy losses from boiler are important parameter for any industry using boiler. In this work a detailed analysis was carried out for boiler at Anish Chemicals Bhavnagar. It is a combined water and fire tube boiler using biomass coal as fuel. Boiler efficiency calculated by direct method is in range of (78.5% to 81.6%). Major losses from boiler are heat ...

  15. Factors affecting stress assisted corrosion cracking of carbon steel under industrial boiler conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dong

    Failure of carbon steel boiler tubes from waterside has been reported in the utility boilers and industrial boilers for a long time. In industrial boilers, most waterside tube cracks are found near heavy attachment welds on the outer surface and are typically blunt, with multiple bulbous features indicating a discontinuous growth. These types of tube failures are typically referred to as stress assisted corrosion (SAC). For recovery boilers in the pulp and paper industry, these failures are particularly important as any water leak inside the furnace can potentially lead to smelt-water explosion. Metal properties, environmental variables, and stress conditions are the major factors influencing SAC crack initation and propagation in carbon steel boiler tubes. Slow strain rate tests (SSRT) were conducted under boiler water conditions to study the effect of temperature, oxygen level, and stress conditions on crack initation and propagation on SA-210 carbon steel samples machined out of boiler tubes. Heat treatments were also performed to develop various grain size and carbon content on carbon steel samples, and SSRTs were conducted on these samples to examine the effect of microstructure features on SAC cracking. Mechanisms of SAC crack initation and propagation were proposed and validated based on interrupted slow strain tests (ISSRT). Water chemistry guidelines are provided to prevent SAC and fracture mechanics model is developed to predict SAC failure on industrial boiler tubes.

  16. Advanced Combustion Diagnostics and Control for Furnaces, Fired Heaters and Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tate, J. D.; Le, Linh D.; Knittel,Trevor; Cowie, Alan

    2010-03-20

    The objective of this project was to develop and apply enabling tools and methods towards advanced combustion diagnostics and control of fired-equipment in large-scale petrochemical manufacturing. There are a number of technology gaps and opportunities for combustion optimization, including technologies involving advanced in-situ measurements, modeling, and thermal imaging. These technologies intersect most of manufacturing and energy systems within the chemical industry. This project leveraged the success of a previous DOE funded project led by Dow, where we co-developed an in-situ tunable diode laser (TDL) analyzer platform (with Analytical Specialties Inc, now owned by Yokogawa Electric Corp.). The TDL platform has been tested and proven in a number of combustion processes within Dow and outside of Dow. The primary focus of this project was on combustion diagnostics and control applied towards furnaces, fired heaters and boilers. Special emphasis was placed on the development and application of in-situ measurements for O2, CO and methane since these combustion gases are key variables in optimizing and controlling combustion processes safely. Current best practice in the industry relies on measurements that suffer from serious performance gaps such as limited sampling volume (point measurements), poor precision and accuracy, and poor reliability. Phase I of the project addressed these gaps by adding improved measurement capabilities such as CO and methane (ppm analysis at combustion zone temperatures) as well as improved optics to maintain alignment over path lengths up to 30 meters. Proof-of-concept was demonstrated on a modern olefins furnace located at Dow Chemical's facility in Freeport TX where the improved measurements were compared side-by-side to accepted best practice techniques (zirconium oxide and catalytic bead or thick film sensors). After developing and installing the improved combustion measurements (O2, CO, and methane), we also demonstrated

  17. Energy Saving in Industrial Annealing Furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma ÇANKA KILIÇ

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an energy efficiency studies have been carried out in a natural gas-fired rolling mill annealing furnace of an industrial establishment. In this context, exhaust gas from the furnace has been examined in terms of waste heat potential. In the examinations that have been made in detail; waste heat potential was found as 3.630,31 kW. Technical and feasibility studies have been carried out to realize electricity production through an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC system for evaluating the waste heat potential of the annealing furnace. It has been calculated that 1.626.378,88 kWh/year of electricity can be generated by using the exhaust gas waste heat of the annealing furnace through an ORC system to produce electric energy with a net efficiency of 16%. The financial value of this energy was determined as 436.032,18 TL/year and the simple repayment period of the investment was 8,12 years. Since the annealing period of the annealing furnace is 2800 hours/year, the investment has not been found to be feasible in terms of the feasibility studies. However, the investment suitability can be assured when the annealing furnace is operating at full capacity for 8,000 hours or more annually.

  18. Research of power fuel low-temperature vortex combustion in industrial boiler based on numerical modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlova K.Y.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the presented research is to perform numerical modelling of fuel low-temperature vortex combustion in once-through industrial steam boiler. Full size and scaled-down furnace model created with FIRE 3D software and was used for the research. All geometrical features were observed. The baseline information for the low-temperature vortex furnace process are velocity and temperature of low, upper and burner blast, air-fuel ratio, fuel consumption, coal dust size range. The obtained results are: temperature and velocity three dimensional fields, furnace gases and solid fuel ash particles concentration.

  19. CFD study of temperature distribution in full scale boiler adopting in-furnace coal blending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadhil, S S A; Hasini, H; Shuaib, N H

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the investigation of temperature characteristics of an in-furnace combustion using different coals in a 700 MW full scale boiler. Single mixture fraction approach is adopted for combustion model of both primary and secondary coals. The primary coal was based on the properties of Adaro which has been used as the design coal for the boiler under investigation. The secondary blend coal was selected based on sub-bituminous coal with higher calorific value. Both coals are simultaneously injected into the furnace at alternate coal burner elevations. The general prediction of the temperature contours at primary combustion zone shows identical pattern compared with conventional single coal combustion in similar furnace. Reasonable agreement was achieved by the prediction of the average temperature at furnace exit. The temperature distribution is at different furnace elevation is non-uniform with higher temperature predicted at circumferential 'ring-like' region at lower burner levels for both cases. The maximum flame temperature is higher at the elevation where coal of higher calorific value is injected. The temperature magnitude is within the accepTable limit and the variations does not differ much compared to the conventional single coal combustion.

  20. Industrial furnace with improved heat transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoetzl, M.; Lingle, T.M.

    1993-07-20

    A method is described for effecting improved heat transfer with in an industrial furnace having a cylindrical furnace section, a door at one end of the furnace section, an end plate at the opposite end of the section a circular fan plate concentrically positioned within the furnace section to define a cylindrical fan chamber between the plate and the end section with a fan there between and a heat treat chamber between the plate and the door, the fan plate defining a non-orificing annular space extending between the interior of the cylindrical furnace section and the outer edge of the plate, the plate having a centrally located under-pressure opening extending there through and a plurality of circumferentially spaced tubular heating elements extending through the annular space into the heat treating chamber, the method comprising the steps of: (a) heating the heating elements to a temperature which is hotter that the temperature of the work within the heat treating chamber; (b) rotating the fan at a speed sufficient to form a portion of the furnace atmosphere as a wind mass swirling about the fan chamber; (c) propagating the wind mass through the annular space into the heat treating chamber as a swirling wind mass in the form of an annulus, the wind mass impinging the heating elements to establish heat transfer contact therewith while the mass retains its annulus shape until contacting the door and without any significant movement of the wind mass into the center of the heat treating chamber; (d) drawing the wind mass through the under-pressure zone after the wind mass comes into heat transfer contact with the work in the heat treating chamber; and (e) thereafter heating the work by radiation from the beating elements at high furnace temperatures in excess of about 1,600 F.

  1. Condensing boiler applications in the process industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Qun; Finney, Karen; Li, Hanning; Zhang, Xiaohui; Zhou, Jue; Sharifi, Vida; Swithenbank, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Major challenging issues such as climate change, energy prices and fuel security have focussed the attention of process industries on their energy efficiency and opportunities for improvement. The main objective of this research study was to investigate technologies needed to exploit the large amount of low grade heat available from a flue gas condensing system through industrial condensing boilers. The technology and application of industrial condensing boilers in various heating systems were extensively reviewed. As the condensers require site-specific engineering design, a case study was carried out to investigate the feasibility (technically and economically) of applying condensing boilers in a large scale district heating system (40 MW). The study showed that by recovering the latent heat of water vapour in the flue gas through condensing boilers, the whole heating system could achieve significantly higher efficiency levels than conventional boilers. In addition to waste heat recovery, condensing boilers can also be optimised for emission abatement, especially for particle removal. Two technical barriers for the condensing boiler application are corrosion and return water temperatures. Highly corrosion-resistant material is required for condensing boiler manufacture. The thermal design of a 'case study' single pass shell-and-tube condensing heat exchanger/condenser showed that a considerable amount of thermal resistance was on the shell-side. Based on the case study calculations, approximately 4900 m 2 of total heat transfer area was required, if stainless steel was used as a construction material. If the heat transfer area was made of carbon steel, then polypropylene could be used as the corrosion-resistant coating material outside the tubes. The addition of polypropylene coating increased the tube wall thermal resistance, hence the required heat transfer area was approximately 5800 m 2 . Net Present Value (NPV) calculations showed that the choice of a carbon

  2. Online monitoring of the two-dimensional temperature field in a boiler furnace based on acoustic computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shiping; Shen, Guoqing; An, Liansuo; Niu, Yuguang

    2015-01-01

    Online monitoring of the temperature field is crucial to optimally adjust combustion within a boiler. In this paper, acoustic computed tomography (CT) technology was used to obtain the temperature profile of a furnace cross-section. The physical principles behind acoustic CT, acoustic signals and time delay estimation were studied. Then, the technique was applied to a domestic 600-MW coal-fired boiler. Acoustic CT technology was used to monitor the temperature field of the cross-section in the boiler furnace, and the temperature profile was reconstructed through ART iteration. The linear sweeping frequency signal was adopted as the sound source signal, whose sweeping frequency ranged from 500 to 3000 Hz with a sweeping cycle of 0.1 s. The generalized cross-correlation techniques with PHAT and ML were used as the time delay estimation method when the boiler was in different states. Its actual operation indicated that the monitored images accurately represented the combustion state of the boiler, and the acoustic CT system was determined to be accurate and reliable. - Highlights: • An online monitoring approach to monitor temperature field in a boiler furnace. • The paper provides acoustic CT technology to obtain the temperature profile of a furnace cross-section. • The temperature profile was reconstructed through ART iteration. • The technique is applied to a domestic 600-MW coal-fired boiler. • The monitored images accurately represent the combustion state of the boiler

  3. Researching the Performance of Dual-Chamber Fire-Tube Boiler Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaustov Sergei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous heating systems equipped with fire-tube or shell boilers show high effectiveness, consistent performance and great technical parameters. But there is a significant limitation of its thermal productivity due to the complexity of durable large diameter fire-tube bottoms implementation. Optimization of combustion aerodynamics can be the way to expand the fire-tube boilers performance limit. In this case lots of problems connected with reducing emissions of toxic substances, providing of burning stability, local heat stresses and aerodynamic resistances should be solved. To resolve the indicated problems, a modified model of dual-chamber fire-tube boiler furnace is proposed. The performance of suggested flame-tube was simulated using the proven computer-aided engineering software ANSYS Multiphysics. Results display proposed flame tube completely filled with moving medium without stagnant zones. Turbulent vortical combustion is observed even with the straight-through fuel supply. Active flue gas recirculation in suggested dual-chamber furnace reduces emissions of pollutants. Diminution of wall heat fluxes allows boiler operation at lower water treatment costs.

  4. Life Management Technique of Thermal Fatigue for SMST Boiler Tube at Different Heating Zone Using Smithy Furnace

    OpenAIRE

    Shekhar Pal,; Pradeep Suman

    2014-01-01

    This paper highlights on the evaluation of thermal fatigue failure for SMST (Salzgitter Mannesmann strain less boiler tube) DMV 304 HCu boiler tube using life management technique by using of smithy furnace. Boiler tubes are highly affected by operating conditions like, high temperature and high pressure. So it needs periodic checking for the purpose of safety and health assessment of the plant. So using this technique we can identify the degradation of tubes at microstructure...

  5. Industrial and process furnaces principles, design and operation

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, Barrie

    2014-01-01

    Furnaces sit at the core of all branches of manufacture and industry, so it is vital that these are designed and operated safely and effi-ciently. This reference provides all of the furnace theory needed to ensure that this can be executed successfully on an industrial scale. Industrial and Process Furnaces: Principles, 2nd Edition provides comprehensive coverage of all aspects of furnace operation and design, including topics essential for process engineers and operators to better understand furnaces. This includes: the combustion process and its control, furnace fuels, efficiency,

  6. Development of a test set for adjustment of residential furnaces and boilers. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    A program was undertaken to design and develop a portable test set for simplified field adjustment of residential furnaces and boilers to achieve peak operating efficiency. Advanced technology was applied to provide continuous analysis of flue gases and the display of temperature, oxygen concentrations, smoke value and furnace efficiency. Prototype models were constructed and delivered to Brookhaven National Laboratory for further testing. A survey of furnace dealers was conducted, and a commercialization plan was developed based on survey responses and the status of the equipment developed under the program. Goals for a marketable test set and development steps to achieve a projected energy savings were determined and recommended. Recommendations for specific areas of further development are included.

  7. Thermal Analysis of an Industrial Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Filipponi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Industries, which are mainly responsible for high energy consumption, need to invest in research projects in order to develop new managing systems for rational energy use, and to tackle the devastating effects of climate change caused by human behavior. The study described in this paper concerns the forging industry, where the production processes generally start with the heating of steel in furnaces, and continue with other processes, such as heat treatments and different forms of machining. One of the most critical operations, in terms of energy loss, is the opening of the furnace doors for insertion and extraction operations. During this time, the temperature of the furnaces decreases by hundreds of degrees in a few minutes. Because the dispersed heat needs to be supplied again through the combustion of fuel, increasing the consumption of energy and the pollutant emissions, the evaluation of the amount of lost energy is crucial for the development of systems which can contain this loss. To perform this study, CFD simulation software was used. Results show that when the door opens, because of temperature and pressure differences between the furnace and the ambient air, turbulence is created. Results also show that the amount of energy lost for an opening of 10 min for radiation, convection and conduction is equal to 5606 MJ where convection is the main contributor, with 5020 MJ. The model created, after being validated, has been applied to perform other simulations, in order to improve the energy performance of the furnace. Results show that reducing the opening time of the door saves energy and limits pollutant emissions.

  8. Techniques for measurement of heat flux in furnace waterwalls of boilers and prediction of heat flux – A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankar, G.; Chandrasekhara Rao, A.; Seshadri, P.S.; Balasubramanian, K.R.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Heat flux measurement techniques applicable to boiler water wall are elaborated. • Applications involving heat flux measurement in boiler water wall are discussed. • Appropriate technique for usage in high ash Indian coal fired boilers is required. • Usage of chordal thermocouple is suggested for large scale heat flux measurements. - Abstract: Computation of metal temperatures in a furnace waterwall of a boiler is necessary for the proper selection of tube material and thickness. An adequate knowledge of the heat flux distribution in the furnace walls is a prerequisite for the computation of metal temperatures. Hence, the measurement of heat flux in a boiler waterwall is necessary to arrive at an optimum furnace design, especially for high ash Indian coal fired boilers. Also, a thoroughly validated furnace model will result in a considerable reduction of the quantum of experimentation to be carried out. In view of the above mentioned scenario, this paper reviews the research work carried out by various researchers by experimentation and numerical simulation in the below mentioned areas: (i) furnace modeling and heat flux prediction, (ii) heat flux measurement techniques and (iii) applications of heat flux measurements.

  9. Thermal–hydraulic calculation and analysis of a 600 MW supercritical circulating fluidized bed boiler with annular furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Long; Yang, Dong; Shen, Zhi; Mao, Kaiyuan; Long, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Non-linear model of supercritical CFB boiler with annular furnace is developed. • Many empirical correlations are used to solve the model. • The thermal–hydraulic characteristics of boiler are analyzed. • The results show that the design of the annular furnace is reasonable. - Abstract: The development of supercritical Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boiler has great economic and environmental value. An entirely new annular furnace structure with outer and inner ring sidewalls for supercritical CFB boiler has been put forward by Institute of Engineering Thermophysics (IET), Chinese Academy of Sciences and Dongfang Boiler Group Co., Ltd. (DBC). Its outer and inner ring furnace structure makes more water walls arranged and reduces furnace height availably. In addition, compared with other additional evaporating heating surface structures such as mid-partition and water-cooled panels, the integrative structure can effectively avoid the bed-inventory overturn and improve the penetrability of secondary air. The conditions of the 600 MW supercritical CFB boiler including capability, pressure and mass flux are harsh. In order to insure the safety of boiler operation, it is very necessary to analyze the thermal–hydraulic characteristics of water-wall system. The water-wall system with complicated pipe arrangement is regarded as a network consisting of series-parallel circuits, pressure nodes and linking circuits, which represent vertical water-wall tubes, different headers and linking tubes, respectively. Based on the mass, momentum and energy conservation, a mathematical model is built, which consists of some simultaneous nonlinear equations. The mass flux in circuits, pressure drop between headers, outer vapor temperature of water-wall system and metal temperature data of tubes at the boiler maximum continuous rating (BMCR), 75% BMCR and 30% BMCR loads are obtained by solving the mathematical model. The results show that the vertical water

  10. Seasonal performance and energy costs of oil or gas-fired boilers and furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berlad, A.L.; Lin, H.C.; Batey, J.; Salzano, F.J.; Yu, W.S.; Hoppe, R.J.; Allen, T.

    1977-03-01

    The seasonal operating cost of a small oil or gas-fired boiler or furnace depends upon the intrinsic merits of the device itself, the appropriateness of its capacity and cycle characteristics to the imposed load conditions, the weather characteristics and heat loss characteristics of the building being heated, and the control philosophy employed. The current study provides the bases for comparing quantitatively the seasonal operating costs of various specific space heating and/or domestic hot water systems, as influenced by the device specifics and device interaction with the space conditioned system that it serves. The resulting formalism is applied to various space-heating systems. Quantitative cost comparisons are presented.

  11. The effect of water jet lancing on furnace wall tubes of high slagged deposit fuel-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, V V; Kovalevitch, I A; Maidanik, M N [All-Union Heat Engineering Institute, Siberian Branch, Krasnoyarsk (USSR)

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the results of investigating the effectiveness of water jet lancing on furnace wall tubes of slagged deposits fuels fired boilers type E-500, P-64, P-67 are given. The boilers of these types are designed to burn Jugoslavian lignites are Beresovo lignites of the Kansk-Achinsk deposits. Recommendations for usage of low retractable, long retractable and long-range water blowers, depending on the design, produced in the USSR, the furnace dimension and stability of deposits are given as well.

  12. Utility boiler computer modeling experience in the USA for practical furnace air port and low NOx burner field design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breen, B.P.; Urich, J.A.; Krippene, B.C. [ESA, Inc. (United States)

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents several examples of where effective furnace and low NOx burner modeling has produced substantial advantages to the low NOx combustion system designer. Using practical boiler furnace air injection port and low NOx burner maths modeling as an integral part of the design process has often made the difference between a successful low NOx combustion system field conversion project and an unsuccessful one.

  13. Smelting of high-quality boiler steel in large-load arc furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kablukovskij, A F; Breus, V M; Tyurin, E I; Khristich, V D; Dumchev, Ya P [Tsentral' nyj Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Chernoj Metallurgii, Moscow (USSR)

    1975-02-01

    High-grade steel can be obtained in large-capacity furnaces if the smelting technology used takes account of the size of the aggregates, the course of the metal fusion process, interaction with slag, furnace atmosphere, reducing agents, and other process characteristics. 12Kh1MF boiler steel smelted in a 100-ton electric arc furnace by an oxidizing process with oxygen bath blow and cast by the siphon method into 6.5-ton ingots using a slag-forming mixture (240 mm diameter billets and 219 to 245 mm diameter tubes) is satisfactory with regard to macro and microstructure, oxygen and nonmetallic oxide inclusion content, and mechanical properties. The stress rupture strength of 10/sup 5/ h at 570/sup 0/C is similar to that of open-hearth steel. Sulfides larger than a 3.5 spheroid have been detected in it. The nitrogen content of the electric steel is 0.0090 to 0.0120%, which is somewhat greater than usual in open-hearth metal. Of the oxygen inclusions in the steel, spinel-alumina predominates. Large inclusions were represented mainly by brittle silicates which appeared to be of exogenous origin.

  14. Failure Analysis Of Industrial Boiler Pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natsir, Muhammad; Soedardjo, B.; Arhatari, Dewi; Andryansyah; Haryanto, Mudi; Triyadi, Ari

    2000-01-01

    Failure analysis of industrial boiler pipe has been done. The tested pipe material is carbon steel SA 178 Grade A refer to specification data which taken from Fertilizer Company. Steps in analysis were ; collection of background operation and material specification, visual inspection, dye penetrant test, radiography test, chemical composition test, hardness test, metallography test. From the test and analysis result, it is shown that the pipe failure caused by erosion and welding was shown porosity and incomplete penetration. The main cause of failure pipe is erosion due to cavitation, which decreases the pipe thickness. Break in pipe thickness can be done due to decreasing in pipe thickness. To anticipate this problem, the ppe will be replaced with new pipe

  15. Life-cycle cost analysis of energy efficiency design options for residential furnaces and boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, J.; Lekov, A.; Chan, P.; Dunham Whitehead, C.; Meyers, S.; McMahon, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Div.

    2006-03-01

    In 2001, the US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a rulemaking process to consider whether to amend the existing energy efficiency standards for furnaces and boilers. A key factor in DOE's consideration of new standards is the economic impacts on consumers of possible revisions to energy-efficiency standards. Determining cost-effectiveness requires an appropriate comparison of the additional first cost of energy efficiency design options with the savings in operating costs. DOE's preferred approach involves comparing the total life-cycle cost (LCC) of owning and operating a more efficient appliance with the LCC for a baseline design. This study describes the method used to conduct the LCC analysis and presents the estimated change in LCC associated with more energy-efficient equipment. The results indicate that efficiency improvement relative to the baseline design can reduce the LCC in each of the product classes considered. (author)

  16. Life-cycle cost analysis of energy efficiency design options for residential furnaces and boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, James; Lekov, Alex; Chan, Peter; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Meyers, Steve; McMahon, James

    2006-01-01

    In 2001, the US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a rulemaking process to consider whether to amend the existing energy efficiency standards for furnaces and boilers. A key factor in DOE's consideration of new standards is the economic impacts on consumers of possible revisions to energy-efficiency standards. Determining cost-effectiveness requires an appropriate comparison of the additional first cost of energy efficiency design options with the savings in operating costs. DOE's preferred approach involves comparing the total life-cycle cost (LCC) of owning and operating a more efficient appliance with the LCC for a baseline design. This study describes the method used to conduct the LCC analysis and presents the estimated change in LCC associated with more energy-efficient equipment. The results indicate that efficiency improvement relative to the baseline design can reduce the LCC in each of the product classes considered

  17. Granulated blast furnace slag – A boon for foundry industry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Silica sand; Blast Furnace Slag; Mould properties; Ferrous and nonferrous ... raw material for the production of cast components in foundry industries. ... applications for conserving natural resources and reduce the cost of the raw .... in an elevated temperature melting furnace with temperature values of 750 to.

  18. Emissions from Power Plant and Industrial Boiler Sector

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset provides hourly data on SO2, NOx, and CO2 emissions; gross load, steam load, and heat input; from electricity generation units and industrial boilers from...

  19. Application of zonal combustion model for on-line furnace analysis of 575MW tangential coal firing boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chudnovsky, B.; Karasina, E.; Livshits, B.; Talanker, A. [Israel Electric Corporation (Israel). Engineering Division

    1999-07-01

    An advanced code for calculating heat transfer in the boiler of furnaces is considered. The code can be used to compute the flue gas temperature in the furnace volume and the absorbed and incident heat fluxes. The number of zones in the furnace, the points of the injection of the fuel, air and flue gas recirculation (if applicable), the radiative heat transfer properties of the flue gases as well as all the factors determining performance are taken into account in the calculation. The code also predicts water wall and superheater temperature and NO{sub x} emission. The validity of the proposed model was confirmed by comparison between calculated and measured values. The predicted results show good agreement with the experimental data. The code developed is for engineers using advanced PCS at the stage of designing new boilers as well as when retrofitting and adjusting boilers already in operation. In comparison with existing complex computational models the proposed system can be used in modern monitoring systems for the furnace diagnostic problems including NO{sub x} emission. 7 refs., 11 figs.

  20. Brief introduction of GEF efficient industrial boiler project in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meijian, T.

    1996-12-31

    The present situation of installed industrial boilers, their efficiency and environmental impact are assessed. And the factors contribute to the low efficiency and serious pollution are summarized. Based on WB-assisted GEF project, {open_quotes}Efficient Industrial Boiler Project{close_quotes} aimed at CO{sub 2} mitigation in China, a series of effective measures to bring the GHG emission under control are addressed, in technology, system performance, and operation management aspects.

  1. Furnace and Heat Recovery Area Design and Analysis for Conceptual Design of Supercritical O2-Based PC Boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrew Seltzer

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the furnace and heat recovery area design and analysis task of the Conceptual Design of Supercritical Oxygen-Based PC Boiler study is to optimize the location and design of the furnace, burners, over-fire gas ports, and internal radiant surfaces. The furnace and heat recovery area were designed and analyzed using the FW-FIRE, Siemens, and HEATEX computer programs. The furnace is designed with opposed wall-firing burners and over-fire air ports. Water is circulated in the furnace by forced circulation to the waterwalls at the periphery and divisional wall panels within the furnace. Compared to the air-fired furnace, the oxygen-fired furnace requires only 65% of the surface area and 45% of the volume. Two oxygen-fired designs were simulated: (1) with cryogenic air separation unit (ASU) and (2) with oxygen ion transport membrane (OITM). The maximum wall heat flux in the oxygen-fired furnace is more than double that of the air-fired furnace due to the higher flame temperature and higher H 2 O and CO 2 concentrations. The coal burnout for the oxygen-fired case is 100% due to a 500 F higher furnace temperature and higher concentration of O 2 . Because of the higher furnace wall temperature of the oxygen-fired case compared to the air-fired case, furnace water wall material was upgraded from T2 to T92. Compared to the air-fired heat recovery area (HRA), the oxygen-fired HRA total heat transfer surface is 35% less for the cryogenic design and 13% less for the OITM design due to more heat being absorbed in the oxygen-fired furnace and the greater molecular weight of the oxygen-fired flue gas. The HRA tube materials and wall thickness are nearly the same for the air-fired and oxygen-fired design since the flue gas and water/steam temperature profiles encountered by the heat transfer banks are similar

  2. Investigation of a Boiler's Furnace Aerodynamics with a Vortex Solid Fuel Combustion Scheme on Physical and Mathematical Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokhorov V.B.,

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The important problem of developing the low-cost technologies that will be able to provide a deep decrease in the concentration of nitrogen oxides while maintaining fuel burn-up efficiency is considered. This paper presents the results of the aerodynamics study of the furnace of boiler TPP-210A on the base of the physical and mathematical models in the case when boiler retrofitting from liquid to solid slag removal with two to three times reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions and replacing the vortex burners with direct-flow burners. The need for these studies is due to the fact that the direct-flow burners are "collective action" burners, and efficient fuel combustion can be provided only by the interaction of fuel jets, secondary and tertiary air jets in the furnace volume. The new scheme of air staged combustion in a system of vertical vortexes of opposite rotation with direct-flow burners and nozzles and direct injection of Kuznetsky lean coal dust was developed. In order to test the functional ability and efficiency of the proposed combustion scheme, studies on the physical model of the boiler furnace and the mathematical model of the experimental furnace bench for the case of an isothermal fluid flow were carried out. Comparison showed an acceptable degree of coincidence of these results. In all studied regimes, pronounced vortices remain in both the vertical and horizontal planes, that indicates a high degree of mass exchange between jets and combustion products and the furnace aerodynamics stability to changes in regime factors.

  3. Numerical study of furnace process of a 600 MW pulverized coal boiler under low load with SNCR application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Q.X.; Shi, Y.; Liu, H.; Yang, C.H.; Wu, S.H. [Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China)

    2013-07-01

    Numerical simulation of flow, heat transfer, and combustion process in a 600MW pulverized coal boiler under low load is performed using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code Fluent. The distributions of temperature and species were obtained and their influences on Selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) were analyzed. The results indicate that the furnace temperature changed significantly as the operation load declines. The furnace space with proper temperature for SNCR reaction becomes lower with decreasing of operation load. As the load falls off, the available O{sub 2}concentration for SNCR reactions rises gently and the initial NOx concentration for SNCR reactions debases slightly. These variations can have some influence on the SNCR process. For the upper furnace where the temperature is suitable for SNCR reactions, the CO concentration is close to 0 under different load. Consequently, the SNCR process will not be affected by CO based on the calculation in this work.

  4. Investing in efficient industrial boiler systems in China and Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ming; Dixon, Robert K.

    2012-01-01

    Energy efficiency in industrial boiler steam systems can be very low due to old technologies, improper design and non-optimal operation of the steam systems. Solutions include efficiency assessments and investments in steam system optimizations, education and training for operators of the systems. This paper presents case studies on assessing and investing in boiler steam systems in China and Vietnam. Methodologies and approaches for data collection and analyses were designed specifically for each of the two countries. This paper concludes: (1) investing in energy efficiency in industrial boiler steam system in China and Vietnam are cost effective; (2) government should not sent national energy efficiency standards lower than that of energy companies or energy equipment manufactures. - Highlights: ► GEF successfully catalyzed investment in industrial energy efficiency boilers in China in 1990s. ► With about $100 million of investment by the GEF/World Bank/Chinese government, the project will mitigate 40 million tons of CO 2 by 2019. ► This generated lowest unit cost of carbon reduction in the world: about $2.5 per ton of CO 2 mitigation. ► Investing in energy efficiency in industrial boiler steam system today in Vietnam will be the same cost effective as in China: $2.1 per ton of CO 2 mitigation.

  5. Application of 1-hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-diphosphonic acid in boiler water for industrial boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Bin; Li, Mao-Dong; Zhu, Zhi-Ping; Zhao, Jun-Ming; Zhang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    The primary method used for boiler water treatment is the addition of chemicals to industrial boilers to prevent corrosion and scaling. The static scale inhibition method was used to evaluate the scale inhibition performance of 1-hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-diphosphonic acid (HEDP). Autoclave static experiments were used to study the corrosion inhibition properties of the main material for industrial boilers (20# carbon steel) with an HEDP additive in the industrial boiler water medium. The electrochemical behavior of HEDP on carbon steel corrosion control was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and Tafel polarization techniques. Experimental results indicate that HEDP can have a good scale inhibition effect when added at a quantity of 5 to 7 mg/L at a test temperature of not more than 100 °C. To achieve a high scale inhibition rate, the HEDP dosage must be increased when the test temperature exceeds 100 °C. Electrochemical and autoclave static experimental results suggest that HEDP has a good corrosion inhibition effect on 20# carbon steel at a concentration of 25 mg/L. HEDP is an excellent water treatment agent.

  6. Feasibility of recovery boiler in paper and pulp industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, H.

    2010-01-01

    in this paper feasibility of recovery boiler in terms of economics and environmental impacts in studied. Recovery boilers are employed in the pulp and paper industry where the cooking agent is recovered by burning black liquor. Cooking agent is exhausted due to the absorption of lignin (a burnable component) in cooking agent in the process of straw cooking. The process of recovery boiler is to remove lignin by combustion from black liquor, and heat is produced during the combustion of lignin which is used to produce steam. Recovery boiler is economical as it is recovering valuable chemicals and steam is produced as a byproduct. Steam from recovery boiler is also used for concentrating weak black liquor to concentrated black liquor recovering 50% of the utility water being used at the plant. The regenerated water in the form of foul condensate is reused in the process. The recovery of hazardous chemicals also reduces load of environmental pollution. Which otherwise can pollute the water reservoirs, and regeneration of water makes it environmentally friendly plant. Construction and challenges in operation of recovery boiler such as smelt-water explosion are also discussed in this paper. (author)

  7. Numerical analysis of flow instability in the water wall of a supercritical CFB boiler with annular furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Beibei; Yang, Dong; Xie, Haiyan; Nie, Xin; Liu, Wanyu

    2016-08-01

    In order to expand the study on flow instability of supercritical circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler, a new numerical computational model considering the heat storage of the tube wall metal was presented in this paper. The lumped parameter method was proposed for wall temperature calculation and the single channel model was adopted for the analysis of flow instability. Based on the time-domain method, a new numerical computational program suitable for the analysis of flow instability in the water wall of supercritical CFB boiler with annular furnace was established. To verify the code, calculation results were respectively compared with data of commercial software. According to the comparisons, the new code was proved to be reasonable and accurate for practical engineering application in analysis of flow instability. Based on the new program, the flow instability of supercritical CFB boiler with annular furnace was simulated by time-domain method. When 1.2 times heat load disturbance was applied on the loop, results showed that the inlet flow rate, outlet flow rate and wall temperature fluctuated with time eventually remained at constant values, suggesting that the hydrodynamic flow was stable. The results also showed that in the case of considering the heat storage, the flow in the water wall is easier to return to stable state than without considering heat storage.

  8. SOURCE SAMPLING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER: WOOD-FIRED INDUSTRIAL BOILER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report provides a profile for a wood-fired industrial boiler equipped with a multistage electrostatic precipitator control device. Along with the profile of emissions of fine particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less (PM-2.5), data are also provide...

  9. 40 CFR 266.110 - Waiver of DRE trial burn for boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Waiver of DRE trial burn for boilers... HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.110 Waiver of DRE trial burn for boilers. Boilers that operate under the special requirements of this section...

  10. Advanced In-Furnace NOx Control for Wall and Cyclone-Fired Boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarv, Hamid

    2009-01-01

    A NO x minimization strategy for coal-burning wall-fired and cyclone boilers was developed that included deep air staging, innovative oxygen use, reburning, and advanced combustion control enhancements. Computational fluid dynamics modeling was applied to refine and select the best arrangements. Pilot-scale tests were conducted by firing an eastern high-volatile bituminous Pittsburgh No.8 coal at 5 million Btu/hr in a facility that was set up with two-level overfire air (OFA) ports. In the wall-fired mode, pulverized coal was burned in a geometrically scaled down version of the B and W DRB-4Z(reg sign) low-NO x burner. At a fixed overall excess air level of 17%, NO x emissions with single-level OFA ports were around 0.32 lb/million Btu at 0.80 burner stoichiometry. Two-level OFA operation lowered the NO x levels to 0.25 lb/million Btu. Oxygen enrichment in the staged burner reduced the NO x values to 0.21 lb/million Btu. Oxygen enrichment plus reburning and 2-level OFA operation further curbed the NO x emissions to 0.19 lb/million Btu or by 41% from conventional air-staged operation with single-level OFA ports. In the cyclone firing arrangement, oxygen enrichment of the cyclone combustor enabled high-temperature and deeply staged operation while maintaining good slag tapping. Firing the Pittsburgh No.8 coal in the optimum arrangement generated 112 ppmv NO x (0.15 lb/million Btu) and 59 ppmv CO. The optimum emissions results represent 88% NO x reduction from the uncontrolled operation. Levelized costs for additional NO x removal by various in-furnace control methods in reference wall-fired or cyclone-fired units already equipped with single-level OFA ports were estimated and compared with figures for SCR systems achieving 0.1 lb NO x /10 6 Btu. Two-level OFA ports could offer the most economical approach for moderate NO x control, especially for smaller units. O 2 enrichment in combination with 2-level OFA was not cost effective for wall-firing. For cyclone units

  11. Efficiency of using direct-flow burners and nozzles in implementation of dry-bottom ash removal at the TPP-210A boiler furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipov, A. M.; Kanunnikov, A. A.; Kirichkov, V. S.; Prokhorov, V. B.; Fomenko, M. V.; Chernov, S. L.

    2017-02-01

    In reconstruction of operating pulverized coal-fired boilers, one of the main factors is the choice of a method for slag removal: dry bottom ash removal (DBAR) or slag-tap removal (STR). In this case, ecological and economic aspects should be taken into account, and also the early ignition of pulverized coal fuel, the reliability of operation of the furnace walls in the mode without slagging, and the stability of slag removal should be provided. In this work, issues of changeover of the pulverized coal-fired boilers of the TPP-210A type from the STR mode to the DBAR mode are considered. As of today, the main problems during the operation of these boilers are the high emissions of nitrogen oxides together with flue gases into the atmosphere and the appropriated payoffs, a small range of loads available, the necessity of stabilization of the pulverizedcoal flame sustainability by using the highly reactive fuel, large mechanical fuel underburning, etc. Results of studying aerodynamics of a furnace with DBAR obtained in the process of physical simulation are given; technical solutions and preliminary design (configuration of burners and nozzles in the boiler furnace, conceptual design of the pulverized coal burner, configuration of TPP-210A boiler with the low heat liberation of furnace cross-section and volumetric heat release) are set forth, which are associated with the optimization of aerodynamics of furnace volume, when the direct-flow burners and nozzles are used, and with organization of the efficient staged combustion of solid fuel. Two versions of possible modernization of a boiler unit are considered. Under conditions of the planned increase in the steam production capacity, the most promising measures are as follows: the DBAR implementation with reducing heat releases of the cross-section and volume of the furnace approximately by half, the installation of the direct-flow burners and nozzles with injection of recirculation gases into the active combustion

  12. Numerical modelling of an industrial glass-melting furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, S C [Brigham Young Univ., Advanced Combustion Engineering Research Center, Provo, UT (United States); Webb, B W; McQuay, M Q [Brigham Young Univ., Mechanical Engineering Dept., Provo, UT (United States); Newbold, J [Lockheed Aerospace, Denver, CO (United States)

    2000-03-01

    The predictive capability of two comprehensive combustion codes, PCGC-3 and FLUENT, to simulate local flame structure and combustion characteristics in a industrial gas-fired, flat-glass furnace is investigated. Model predictions are compared with experimental data from the furnace for profiles of velocity, species concentrations, temperatures, and wall-incident radiative heat flux. Predictions from both codes show agreement with the measured mean velocity profiles and incident radiant flux on the crown. However, significant differences between the code predictions and measurements are observed for the flame-ozone temperatures and species concentrations. The observed discrepancies may be explained by (i) uncertainties in the distributions of mean velocity and turbulence in the portneck, (ii) uncertainties in the port-by-port stoichiometry, (iii) different grid-based approximations to the furnace geometry made in the two codes, (iv) the assumption of infinitely fast chemistry made in the chemical reaction model of both codes, and (v) simplifying assumptions made in the simulations regarding the complex coupling between the combustion space, batch blanket, and melt tank. The study illustrates the critical need for accurate boundary conditions (inlet air and fuel flow distributions, boundary surface temperatures, etc.) and the importance of representative furnace geometry in simulating these complex industrial combustion systems. (Author)

  13. Pollutant emissions of commercial and industrial wood furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumbach, G.; Angerer, M.

    1993-03-01

    Based on literature surveys, personal contacts to designers, manufactures and users of woold furnaces, as well as informations of experts from Austria and Switzerland, the used wood fuels and combustion techniques and the potentially by commercial and industrial wood burning emitted air pollutants are described; including the mechanism of pollutant formation, concentrations, and their environmental relevance. The actual situation in Baden-Wuerttemberg concerning the used wood fuels, the state of installed and operated furnaces and the amount of emitted pollutants is presented basing on informations of the 'Statistical Country Bureau' and a country-wide inquiry round the chimney-sweepers. In order to realize the described existing possibilities to reduce pollutant emissions the introduction of a general brand test and certification mode is proposed. (orig.). 53 figs., 118 refs [de

  14. Furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osintsev, V V; Khidiyatov, A M

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of the invention is to improve the operating efficiency of the furnace device containing prefurnaces connected to the main combustion chamber. For this purpose in the proposed furnace device is equipped with prefurnaces with burners, rectangular vertical chamber of combustion is equipped with central hearth projection. As indicated by studies, the hearth projection of the indicated projections promotes the development of transverse streams which guarantee effective mixing of the combustion products in the upper part of the combustion chamber 3. This reduces the nonuniformity of temperature at the outlet from the latter, decreases the probability of slagging and hot spots on the heating surface.

  15. Final Report, Materials for Industrial Heat Recovery Systems, Tasks 3 and 4 Materials for Heat Recovery in Recovery Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiser, James R.; Kish, Joseph R.; Singh, Preet M.; Sarma, Gorti B.; Yuan, Jerry; Gorog, J. Peter; Frederick, Laurie A.; Jette, Francois R.; Meisner, Roberta A.; Singbeil, Douglas L.

    2007-12-31

    The DOE-funded project on materials for industrial heat recovery systems included four research tasks: materials for aluminum melting furnace recuperator tubes, materials and operational changes to prevent cracking and corrosion of the co-extruded tubes that form primary air ports in black liquor recovery boilers, the cause of and means to prevent corrosion of carbon steel tubes in the mid-furnace area of recovery boilers, and materials and operational changes to prevent corrosion and cracking of recovery boiler superheater tubes. Results from studies on the latter two topics are given in this report while separate reports on results for the first two tasks have already been published. Accelerated, localized corrosion has been observed in the mid-furnace area of kraft recovery boilers. This corrosion of the carbon steel waterwall tubes is typically observed in the vicinity of the upper level of air ports where the stainless clad co-extruded wall tubes used in the lower portion of the boiler are welded to the carbon steel tubes that extend from this transition point or “cut line” to the top of the boiler. Corrosion patterns generally vary from one boiler to another depending on boiler design and operating parameters, but the corrosion is almost always found within a few meters of the cut line and often much closer than that. This localized corrosion results in tube wall thinning that can reach the level where the integrity of the tube is at risk. Collection and analysis of gas samples from various areas near the waterwall surface showed reducing and sulfidizing gases were present in the areas where corrosion was accelerated. However, collection of samples from the same areas at intervals over a two year period showed the gaseous environment in the mid-furnace section can cycle between oxidizing and reducing conditions. These fluctuations are thought to be due to gas flow instabilities and they result in an unstable or a less protective scale on the carbon steel

  16. Fiber Bragg Grating Array as a Quasi Distributed Temperature Sensor for Furnace Boiler Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, P. Saidi; Prasad, R. L. N. Sai; Sengupta, D.; Shankar, M. Sai; Srimannarayana, K.; Kishore, P.; Rao, P. Vengal

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents the experimental work on distributed temperature sensing making use of Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) array sensor for possible applications in the monitoring of temperature profile in high temperature boilers. A special sensor has been designed for this purpose which consists of four FBGs (of wavelengths λB1 = 1547.28 nm, λB2 = 1555.72 nm, λB3 = 1550.84 nm, λB4 = 1545.92 nm) written in hydrogen loaded fiber in line with a spacing of 15 cm between them. All the FBGs are encapsulated inside a stainless steel tube for avoiding micro cracks using rigid probe technique. The spatial distribution of temperature profile inside a prototype boiler has been measured experimentally both in horizontal and vertical directions employing the above sensor and the results are presented.

  17. Status and Analysis on Effects of Energy Efficiency Standards for Industrial Boilers in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ren; Chen, Lili; Liu, Meng; Ding, Qing; Zhao, Yuejin

    2017-11-01

    Energy conservation and environmental protection is the basic policy of China, and is an important part of ecological civilization construction. The industrial boilers in China are featured by large quantity, wide distribution, high energy consumption and heavy environmental pollution, which are key problems faced by energy conservation and environmental protection in China. Meanwhile, industrial boilers are important equipment for national economy and people’s daily life, and energy conservation gets through all segments from type selection, purchase, installation and acceptance to fuel management, operation, maintenance and service. China began to implement such national mandatory standards and regulations for industrial boiler as GB24500-2009 The Minimum Allowable Values of Energy Efficiency and Energy Efficiency Grades of Industrial Boilers and TSG G002-2010 Supervision Regulation on Energy-Saving Technology for Boilers since 2009, which obviously promote the development of energy conservation of industrial boilers, but there are also some problems with the rapid development of technologies for energy conservation of industrial boilers. In this paper, the implementation of energy efficiency standards for industrial boilers in China and the significance are analyzed based on survey data, and some suggestions are proposed for the energy efficiency standards for industrial boilers.

  18. Analysis on effects of energy efficiency regulations & standards for industrial boilers in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ren; Chen, Lili; Zhao, Yuejin; Liu, Meng

    2017-11-01

    The industrial boilers in China are featured by large quantity, wide distribution, high energy consumption and heavy environmental pollution, which are key problems faced by energy conservation and environmental protection in China. Meanwhile, industrial boilers are important equipment for national economy and people’s daily life, and energy conservation gets through all segments from type selection, purchase, installation and acceptance to fuel management, operation, maintenance and service. China began to implement such national mandatory standards and regulations for industrial boiler as GB24500-2009 The Minimum Allowable Values of Energy Efficiency and Energy Efficiency Grades of Industrial Boilers and TSG G002-2010 Supervision Regulation on Energy-Saving Technology for Boilers since 2009, which obviously promote the development of energy conservation of industrial boilers, but there are also some problems with the rapid development of technologies for energy conservation of industrial boilers. In this paper, the implementation of energy efficiency standards for industrial boilers in China and the significance are analyzed based on survey data, and some suggestions are proposed for the energy efficiency standards for industrial boilers. Support by Project 2015424050 of Special Fund for quality control Research in the Public Interest

  19. Insights into the chemistry of the Claus reaction furnace and waste heat boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, P.D.; Dowling, N.I.; Huang, M.

    1997-01-01

    Methods to deal with the unwanted by-product of acid-gas combustion in the Claus reaction furnace were presented. The by-product, carbon disulfide (CS 2 ), is disturbing because if it is not converted to H 2 S in the first catalytic converter, it will appear as a sulfur emission in the tail gas of plants not using reductive clean-up technology. To address this issue, Claus catalysts have been designed specifically for CS 2 hydrolysis. Studies have been conducted to determine what type of hydrocarbons lead to CS 2 formation. It was concluded that all hydrocarbons result in CS 2 production, but that benzene is particularly difficult. Data for a wide range of acid gas compositions and contaminant hydrocarbons at different process conditions was presented. Methods to destroy CS 2 in the furnace were also identified

  20. Silva. EDF two-phase 1D annular model of a CFB boiler furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montat, D.; Fauquet, Ph. [Electricite de France (EDF), 78 - Chatou (France). Researckh and Development Div.; Lafanechere, L.; Bursi, J.M. [Electricite de France (EDF) (France). Construction Div.

    1997-01-01

    SILVA computer code is used for the modelling of the thermal-hydraulics and of the combustion of a coal-fired CFBC solid loop. In a first step, only the furnace is considered. The model is based on a 1D annular two phases description of the hydrodynamics. The model is based on particle mass balances and pressure drop calculations. A basic combustion model is incorporated into this model. The coal combustion is divided in two phases, the combustion of volatile matter and the heterogeneous combustion. The model has been developed within LEGO software and can be included into the global model of the solid loop developed by EDF. (author) 26 refs.

  1. A study of burning processes of fossil fuels in straitened conditions of furnaces in low capacity boilers by an example of natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslyakov, P. V.; Proskurin, Y. V.; Khokhlov, D. A.; Zaichenko, M. N.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this work is to research operations of modern combined low-emission swirl burner with a capacity of 2.2 MW for fire-tube boiler type KV-GM-2.0, to ensure the effective burning of natural gas, crude oil and diesel fuel. For this purpose, a computer model of the burner and furnace chamber has been developed. The paper presents the results of numerical investigations of the burner operation, using the example of natural gas in a working load range from 40 to 100%. The basic features of processes of fuel burning in the cramped conditions of the flame tube have been identified to fundamentally differ from similar processes in the furnaces of steam boilers. The influence of the design of burners and their operating modes on incomplete combustion of fuel and the formation of nitrogen oxides has been determined.

  2. Exergy analysis on industrial boiler energy conservation and emission evaluation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Henan

    2017-06-01

    Industrial boiler is one of the most energy-consuming equipments in china, the annual consumption of energy accounts for about one-third of the national energy consumption. Industrial boilers in service at present have several severe problems such as small capacity, low efficiency, high energy consumption and causing severe pollution on environment. In recent years, our country in the big scope, long time serious fog weather, with coal-fired industrial boilers is closely related to the regional characteristics of high strength and low emissions [1]. The energy-efficient and emission-reducing of industry boiler is of great significance to improve China’s energy usage efficiency and environmental protection. Difference in thermal equilibrium theory is widely used in boiler design, exergy analysis method is established on the basis of the first law and second law of thermodynamics, by studying the cycle of the effect of energy conversion and utilization, to analyze its influencing factors, to reveal the exergy loss of location, distribution and size, find out the weak links, and a method of mining system of the boiler energy saving potential. Exergy analysis method is used for layer combustion boiler efficiency and pollutant emission characteristics analysis and evaluation, and can more objectively and accurately the energy conserving potential of the mining system of the boiler, find out the weak link of energy consumption, and improve equipment performance to improve the industrial boiler environmental friendliness.

  3. Recovery Act: Oxy-Combustion Technology Development for Industrial-Scale Boiler Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levasseur, Armand

    2014-01-01

    This Topical Report outlines guidelines and key considerations for design and operation of pulverized coal-fired boilers for oxy-combustion. The scope addressed includes only the boiler island, not the entire oxy-fired CO{sub 2} capture plant. These guidelines are primarily developed for tangential-fired boilers and focus on designs capable of dual air and oxy-fired operation. The guidelines and considerations discussed are applicable to both new units and existing boiler retrofits. These guidelines are largely based on the findings from the extensive 15 MW{sub th} pilot testing and design efforts conducted under this project. A summary level description is provided for each major aspect of boiler design impacted by oxy-combustion, and key considerations are discussed for broader application to different utility and industrial designs. Guidelines address the boiler system arrangement, firing system, boiler thermal design, ducting, materials, control system, and other key systems.

  4. Composition and microstructure of a furnace ash deposit from a coal-fired utility boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fessler, R R

    1980-07-01

    An exploratory study of the structure and composition of furnace-ash deposits was carried out using optical metallography, electron microprobe analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. The results of these analyses were supplemented by studies of particulate melting temperature using hot-stage microscopy to measure melting temperature, and energy-dispersive X-ray analyses to measure composition of melted particles. It was found that the general structure of the ash deposit was a matrix of glassy, spherical particles having a wide range of composition in which unfused particles containing iron oxide and calcium oxide were dispersed. At the imprint of the tube surface a considerable concentration of calcium, sulphur and iron was found. Near the fused outer surface of the deposit, the glassy materials had melted into a porous, glassy slag containing spherical globules of iron oxide combined with other materials. There were no systematic compositional gradients from the tube surface to the fused outer layer except for the sulfur layer found only at the tube surface. However, there were significant differences in composition from particle to particle and these differences were similar to those found in the coal mineral matter as isolated by low-temperature ashing. Single particles of low-temperature ash were found having low fusion temperatures, in the range of fusion temperatures for particles in furnance has. Thus, the glassy spheres found in furnace deposits could originate from single coal particles, without the need of interactions among coal particles or ash particles.

  5. A comprehensive study of combustion products generated from pulverized peat combustion in the furnace of BKZ-210-140F steam boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, V. A.; Zagrai, I. A.

    2017-11-01

    The experimental and theoretical study of combustion products has been carried out for the conditions of pulverized peat combustion in BKZ-210-140F steam boiler. Sampling has been performed in different parts of the boiler system in order to determine the chemical composition, radiative properties and dispersity of slag and ash particles. The chemical composition of particles was determined using the method of x-ray fluorescence analysis. Shapes and sizes of the particles were determined by means of electron scanning microscopy. The histograms and the particle size distribution functions were computed. The calculation of components of the gaseous phase was based on the combustion characteristics of the original fuel. The software package of calculation of thermal radiation of combustion products from peat combustion was used to simulate emission characteristics (flux densities and emissivity factors). The dependence of emission characteristics on the temperature level and on the wavelength has been defined. On the basis of the analysis of emission characteristics the authors give some recommendations how to determine the temperature of peat combustion products in the furnace of BKZ-210-140F steam boiler. The findings can be used to measure the combustion products temperature, support temperature control in peat combustion and solve the problem of boiler furnace slagging.

  6. Fuel sparing: Control of industrial furnaces using process gas as supplemental fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisvert, Patrick G.; Runstedtler, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Combustible gases from industrial processes can be used to spare purchased fuels such as natural gas and avoid wasteful flaring of the process gases. One of the challenges of incorporating these gases into other furnaces is their intermittent availability. In order to incorporate the gases into a continuously operating furnace, the furnace control system must be carefully designed so that the payload is not affected by the changing fuel. This paper presents a transient computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of an industrial furnace that supplements natural gas with carbon monoxide during furnace operation. A realistic control system of the furnace is simulated as part of the CFD calculation. The time dependent changes in fuels and air injection on the furnace operation is observed. It is found that there is a trade-off between over-controlling the furnace, which results in too sensitive a response to normal flow oscillations, and under-controlling, which results in a lagged response to the fuel change. - Highlights: •Intermittently available process gases used in a continuously operating furnace. •Study shows a trade-off between over-controlling and under-controlling the furnace. •Over-controlling: response too sensitive to normal flow oscillations. •Under-controlling: lagged response to changing fuel composition. •Normal flow oscillations in furnace would not be apparent in steady-state model

  7. The pressure cold wind system on the impact of industrial boiler economy and security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Henan; Qian, Hongli; Jiang, Lei; Yu, Dekai; Li, Guannan; Yuan, Hong

    2017-05-01

    Industrial boiler is one of the most energy-consuming equipment in china, the annual consumption of energy accounts for about one-third of the national energy consumption.Industrial boiler in service at present have several severe problems such as small capacity, low efficiency, high energy consumption and causing severe pollution on environment, the average industrial boiler operation efficiency is only 65%. If the efficiency increased by 15% ∼ 20%, which meet the international advanced level, each year 70 million tons of coal saving and reduce environmental pollution[1]. As energy conservation and emissions reduction becomes the basic national policy of our country, improving the efficiency of industrial boiler energy is facing opportunities and challenges, optimizing the operation mode of the existing units, it is necessary to increase the flexibility of the boiler control.

  8. Characteristics of particulate-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emitted from industrial grade biomass boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoyang; Geng, Chunmei; Sun, Xuesong; Yang, Wen; Wang, Xinhua; Chen, Jianhua

    2016-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are carcinogenic or mutagenic and are important toxic pollutants in the flue gas of boilers. Two industrial grade biomass boilers were selected to investigate the characteristics of particulate-bound PAHs: one biomass boiler retro-fitted from an oil boiler (BB1) and one specially designed (BB2) biomass boiler. One coal-fired boiler was also selected for comparison. By using a dilution tunnel system, particulate samples from boilers were collected and 10 PAH species were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The total emission factors (EFs) of PAHs ranged from 0.0064 to 0.0380 mg/kg, with an average of 0.0225 mg/kg, for the biomass boiler emission samples. The total PAH EFs for the tested coal-fired boiler were 1.8 times lower than the average value of the biomass boilers. The PAH diagnostic ratios for wood pellets and straw pellets were similar. The ratio of indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene/[indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene+benzo(g,h,i)perylene] for the two biomass boilers was lower than those of the reference data for other burning devices, which can probably be used as an indicator to distinguish the emission of biomass boilers from that of industrial coal-fired boilers and residential stoves. The toxic potential of the emission from wood pellet burning was higher than that from straw pellet burning, however both of them were much lower than residential stove exhausts. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Feasibility study of utilizing solar furnace technology in steel making industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbaspoursani, K. [The Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Takestan Islamic Azad University (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], Email: a.abbaspour@tiau.ac.ir; Tofigh, A.A.; Nahang Toudeshki, S.; Hadadian, A. [Department of Energy, Materials and Energy Research Center (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], Email: Ali.A.Tofigh@gmail.com, email: toudeshki@hotmail.com, email: Arash.Hadadian@gmail.com; Farahmandpour, B. [Iranian Fuel Conservation company (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], Email: farahmandpour@gmail.com

    2011-07-01

    In Iran, the casting industry consumes 33.6% of electricity production, and most of this electricity is used in the melting process. Currently, scrap preheating is done using electric arc furnaces and the aim of this study is to assess the feasibility of replacing electric arc furnaces with solar furnaces. The performance of solar furnaces in the Iran Alloy Steel Company under Yazd climate conditions was studied. It was found that the solar irradiation time and solar insulation are sufficient to operate a solar furnace with the capacity to preheat 250 thousand tons per year of scrap to 500 degrees celsius. Results showed that such a furnace would decrease energy consumption by 40 GWh per year and that it would take 5 years to return the investment. This study demonstrated that operating a solar furnace in the Iran Alloy Steel Company under Yazd climate conditions is feasible and would result in economic and environmental benefits.

  10. Experience of implementation of in-furnace methods of decreasing NO x in E-320-13.8-560GM boilers: Problems and ways for their solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugov, A. N.; Supranov, V. M.; Izyumov, M. A.; Vereshchetin, V. A.; Usman, Yu. M.; Natal'in, A. S.

    2017-12-01

    During natural gas combustion, the content of nitrogen oxides in combustion products is approximately 450 mg/m3 in many E-320-13.8-560GM boilers in service, which is more than 3.5 times higher than the established maximum NO x concentrations in flue gases for such boilers. Estimates according to the existing techniques have shown that gas combustion on the basis of in-furnace techniques (the feeding of combustion products to burners together with air in the volume of 15% and two-stage combustion with 20% air feeding through the nozzles upstream of the burners) enables one to decrease NO x emissions to the level of concentrations of less than 100 mg/m3, which is lower than the maximum allowable values. However, the application of any of the proposed measures with respect to a boiler makes its operation under normal load significantly difficult, since the thermal capacity of the superheater is higher in both cases, which leads to an increase in the temperature of superheated steam above the maximum allowable temperature. On the basis of the developed adapted boiler model, which was created using the Boiler Designer software, we performed numerical studies to determine the required boiler reconstruction volume; the implementation of this reconstruction will provide reliable boiler operation at all working loads and ensure the normative values of NO x emissions. According to the results of thermal calculations, it was proposed to reduce the surface of the cold stage of the superheater circuit and increase the size of the economizer. It is noted that the implementation of environmental protection measures usually decreases the boiler efficiency. At the same time, it has been established that the technical and economic performance of the E-320-13.8-560GM boiler does not decrease owing to an increase in the economizer surface and a decrease in air inflows and overflows in regenerative air heaters and remains at the same level if the air inflow volume decreases from the

  11. Wythenshawe boiler rig. Thirty years of support to the UK nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudge, Andy; Woolsey, Ian S.; Moore, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The Wythenshawe Boiler Rig in Manchester, UK, recently celebrated thirty years of operation in support of the UK nuclear power industry. The Boiler Rig, owned by EDF Energy and operated on EDF Energy's behalf by Serco plc, is a full scale once-through boiler test facility for the investigation of chemistry and corrosion related topics. This paper presents an overview of the design and operation of the Boiler Rig together with some of the technical highlights from its thirty years of operation, many of which have relevance to power plant operations beyond those plants for which the work was performed. (orig.)

  12. 3D full-loop simulation of an industrial-scale circulating fluidized boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Bona; Zhang, Nan; Wang, Wei; Li, Jinghai [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). State Key Lab. of Multi-phase Complex Systems

    2013-07-01

    In this study, 3D full-loop simulations of a CFB boiler are carried out. FLUENT {sup registered} 6.3 is used as the solver, where an Eulerian multiphase model with EMMS-based drag model is employed. The wide particle size distribution are considered and divided into several groups to better represent the polydisperse behavior of ash particles. The simulation shows that, compared to the conventional drag model, EMMS-based model predicts more reasonable pressure drop of furnace and larger slip velocity at the lower elevations of the furnace. Further work is under way to improve the full-loop simulation.

  13. FORMATION OF CHLORINATED DIOXINS AND FURANS IN A HAZARDOUS-WASTE-FIRING INDUSTRIAL BOILER

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research examined the potential for emissions of polychlorinated diebnzodioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) from industrial boilers that cofire hazardous waste. PCDD/F emissions were sampled from a 732 kW (2.5 x 106 Btu/h), 3-pass, firetube boiler using #2 fuel oil cofired wit...

  14. APPLICATION OF REBURNING TO COAL-FIRED INDUSTRIAL BOILERS IN TAIWAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives an overview of the characteristics of coal-fired industrial boilers in Taiwan and projections of the cost and performance data for retrofitting several boilers with reburning. The impacts of reburning fuel type on the reburning system design and cost effectivenes...

  15. Reconstruction of industrial boiler type DKVR-13 aiming for combustion of waste materials from oil-yielding production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadzhanov, P.

    1997-01-01

    One of the methods for improving of the energy efficiency is the use of a secondary energy resources such as waste products from industrial processes. In case of the oil extraction a great amount of waste product (sunflower shells) with a good thermal potential is available. During the industrial process from 100 kg raw material 15 kg shells are obtained. The combustion heat is about 1700 kJ/kg. The volatile compounds yield is 66.1%. An installation has been constructed intended to use the waste product from the extraction, consisting of: a water tube boiler with a steam capacity of 20 t/h and two PKM-12 type flue boilers and two DKVR 10-13 type water tube boilers. The DKVR 10-13 type boilers are designed for the production of 22.77 kg/s saturated steam with pressure 1.28 MPa and temperature 194 o C. They have an unified constructional schemes with a two-drum evaporating system and a natural circulation. The furnace has a horizontally evaporation beam washed by the gas flux. The reconstruction is aimed to create condition for the use of the sunflower shells as a main fuel and the natural gas or other fuel as additional. The scheme is one using the sloping bed combustion. 70% of the steam production is due to the shells combustion. Calculations for the grid parameters have been done. An additional heater improves the efficiency with 4.5% and the expected annual fuel saving is 300 t. The introduction of hot air (165 o C) provides both combustion and ecological benefits

  16. Analysis of fuel oil consumption in industrial steam boiler plants in Republic of Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armenski, Slave; Dimitrov, Konstantin; Tashevski, Done

    1999-01-01

    The steam boiler plants with heavy and light fuel oils in Republic of Macedonia are analyzed and determined. Depending of the working exit pressure, they are grouped in main industrial branches. The heat capacity and the steam production for the steam boiler plants are determined both total and separately by the different industrial branches. Depending of heat capacity and working period per year, the consumption of heavy and light oil is analyzed and determined particular for each industrial branch and total for all steam boiler plants for summer and winter period. (Author)

  17. A rule-based industrial boiler selection system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, C.F.; Khalil, S.N.; Karjanto, J.; Tee, B.T.; Wahidin, L.S.; Chen, W.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.; Sivarao, S.; Lim, T.L.

    2015-01-01

    Boiler is a device used for generating the steam for power generation, process use or heating, and hot water for heating purposes. Steam boiler consists of the containing vessel and convection heating surfaces only, whereas a steam generator covers the whole unit, encompassing water wall tubes,

  18. A theoretical approach for energy saving in industrial steam boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabry, T.I.; Mohamed, N.H.; Elghonimy, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    Optimization of the performance characteristics of such a steam boiler has been analyzed theoretically. Suitable thermodynamic relations have been utilized here to construct a computer model that would carry out the boiler performance characteristics at different operating parameters (e.g.; amount of excess air, fuel type, rate of blowdown preheating of combustion air and flow gases temperature). The results demonstrate that this computer model is to be used successfully in selecting the different operating parameters of the steam boiler at variant loads considering the best economical operation. Besides, this model can be used to investigate the sensitivity of the performance characteristics to the deviation of the boiler operating parameters from their optimum values. It was found also that changing the operating parameters beside the type of fuel in a boiler affects its performance characteristics. 3 figs

  19. Fiscal 1997 report on the survey of the actual state of various coal related industrial furnaces in China; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (Chugoku ni okeru sekitan ni kakawaru kakushu kogyoro no jittai chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    It is thought that environmental prevention technologies related to boilers which are the largest coal use field in China have been almost all made model projects till now. Further, coal or coke is used in various industrial furnaces except boilers in every industrial sector in China. The amount of coal use there is large next to that in boilers, which is a cause of the country`s serious air pollution. Accordingly, an investigation was commenced in fiscal 1997 aiming at grasping the actual state of environmental pollution caused by various coal related industrial furnaces in China and studying the environmental improvement. This time, various industrial furnaces were examined in chemical and iron/steel industries. It could be inferred that both industries made efforts to enhance and rationalize production activities and then give consideration also to the environmental prevention. Generally, however, most plants still have old-fashioned production facilities, while the facilities are being modernized little by little. It was found that in China productivity was lower than Japan and the environmental pollution was in a serious condition. 16 refs., 28 figs., 69 tabs.

  20. High temperature corrosion in a biomass-fired power boiler : Reducing furnace wall corrosion in a waste wood-fired power plant with advanced steam data

    OpenAIRE

    Alipour, Yousef

    2013-01-01

    The use of waste (or recycled) wood as a fuel in heat and power stations is becoming more widespread in Sweden (and Europe), because it is CO2 neutral with a lower cost than forest fuel. However, it is a heterogeneous fuel with a high amount of chlorine, alkali and heavy metals which causes more corrosion than fossil fuels or forest fuel. A part of the boiler which is subjected to a high corrosion risk is the furnace wall (or waterwall) which is formed of tubes welded together. Waterwalls are...

  1. Chapter 5: Residential Furnaces and Boilers Evaluation Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jacobson, David [Jacobson Energy Research, Providence, RI (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The high-efficiency boiler and furnace measure produces gas heating savings resulting from installation of more energy-efficient heating equipment in a residence. Such equipment, which ranges in size from 60 kBtu/hr to 300 kBtu/hr, is installed primarily in single-family homes and multifamily buildings with individual heating systems for each dwelling unit. This protocol does not cover integrated heating and water heating units which can be used in lieu of space heating only equipment.

  2. Demonstration of coal reburning for cyclone boiler NO{sub x} control. Appendix, Book 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    Based on the industry need for a pilot-scale cyclone boiler simulator, Babcock Wilcox (B&W) designed, fabricated, and installed such a facility at its Alliance Research Center (ARC) in 1985. The project involved conversion of an existing pulverized coal-fired facility to be cyclone-firing capable. Additionally, convective section tube banks were installed in the upper furnace in order to simulate a typical boiler convection pass. The small boiler simulator (SBS) is designed to simulate most fireside aspects of full-size utility boilers such as combustion and flue gas emissions characteristics, fireside deposition, etc. Prior to the design of the pilot-scale cyclone boiler simulator, the various cyclone boiler types were reviewed in order to identify the inherent cyclone boiler design characteristics which are applicable to the majority of these boilers. The cyclone boiler characteristics that were reviewed include NO{sub x} emissions, furnace exit gas temperature (FEGT) carbon loss, and total furnace residence time. Previous pilot-scale cyclone-fired furnace experience identified the following concerns: (1) Operability of a small cyclone furnace (e.g., continuous slag tapping capability). (2) The optimum cyclone(s) configuration for the pilot-scale unit. (3) Compatibility of NO{sub x} levels, carbon burnout, cyclone ash carryover to the convection pass, cyclone temperature, furnace residence time, and FEGT.

  3. NEDO project reports. High performance industrial furnace development project - High temperature air combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-21

    For the purpose of reducing energy consumption, a NEDO project 'Developmental research on high efficiency industrial furnaces' was carried out from FY 1993 to FY 1999 by The Japan Industrial Furnaces Manufacturers Association, and the paper outlined the details of the project. Industrial furnaces handled in this R and D can bring 30% reduction of the energy consumption and approximately 50% NOx reduction, and were given the 9th Nikkei global environmental technology prize. In the study of combustion phenomena of high temperature air combustion, the paper arranged characteristics of flame, the base of gaseous fuel flame, the base of liquid fuel flame, the base of solid fuel flame, etc. Concerning high temperature air combustion models for simulation, fluid dynamics and heat transfer models, and reaction and NOx models, etc. As to impacts of high temperature air combustion on performance of industrial furnaces, energy conservation, lowering of pollution, etc. In relation to a guide for the design of high efficiency industrial furnaces, flow charts, conceptual design, evaluation method for heat balance and efficiency using charts, combustion control system, applicability of high efficiency industrial furnaces, etc. (NEDO)

  4. NEDO project reports. High performance industrial furnace development project - High temperature air combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-21

    For the purpose of reducing energy consumption, a NEDO project 'Developmental research on high efficiency industrial furnaces' was carried out from FY 1993 to FY 1999 by The Japan Industrial Furnaces Manufacturers Association, and the paper outlined the details of the project. Industrial furnaces handled in this R and D can bring 30% reduction of the energy consumption and approximately 50% NOx reduction, and were given the 9th Nikkei global environmental technology prize. In the study of combustion phenomena of high temperature air combustion, the paper arranged characteristics of flame, the base of gaseous fuel flame, the base of liquid fuel flame, the base of solid fuel flame, etc. Concerning high temperature air combustion models for simulation, fluid dynamics and heat transfer models, and reaction and NOx models, etc. As to impacts of high temperature air combustion on performance of industrial furnaces, energy conservation, lowering of pollution, etc. In relation to a guide for the design of high efficiency industrial furnaces, flow charts, conceptual design, evaluation method for heat balance and efficiency using charts, combustion control system, applicability of high efficiency industrial furnaces, etc. (NEDO)

  5. [Emission characteristics of PM10 from coal-fired industrial boiler].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Li, Xing-Hua; Duan, Lei; Zhao, Meng; Duan, Jing-Chun; Hao, Ji-Ming

    2009-03-15

    Through ELPI (electrical low-pressure impactor) based dilution sampling system, the emission characteristics of PM10 and PM2.5 was studied experimentally at the inlet and outlet of dust catchers at eight different coal-fired industrial boilers. Results showed that a peak existed at around 0.12-0.20 microm of particle size for both number size distribution and mass size distribution of PM10 emitted from most of the boilers. Chemical composition analysis indicated that PM2.5 was largely composed of organic carbon, elementary carbon, and sulfate, with mass fraction of 3.7%-21.4%, 4.2%-24.6%, and 1.5%-55.2% respectively. Emission factors of PM10 and PM2.5 measured were 0.13-0.65 kg x t(-1) and 0.08-0.49 kg x t(-1) respectively for grate boiler using raw coal, and 0.24 kg x t(-1) and 0.22 kg x t(-1) for chain-grate boiler using briquette. In comparison, the PM2.5 emission factor of fluidized bed boiler is 1.14 kg x t(-1), much her than that of grate boiler. Due to high coal consumption and low efficiency of dust separator, coal-fired industrial boiler may become the most important source of PM10, and should be preferentially controlled in China.

  6. Curbing Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Industrial Boilers in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Lynn K [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Liu, Xu [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tsen, Katherine [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Xiangyang, Wei [National Energy Conservation Center (China); Yunpeng, Zhang [National Energy Conservation Center (China); Jian, Guan [China Special Equipment Inspection & Test Inst. (China); Rui, Hou [China Machinery Industry Conservation & Resource Utilization Center (China); Junfeng, Zhang [China National Offshore Oil Corp. (China); Yuqun, Zhuo [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Shumao, Xia [China Energy Conservation & Environmental Protection Group (China); Yafeng, Han [Xi' an Jiatong Univ. (China); Manzhi, Liu [China Univ. of Mining and Technology (China)

    2015-10-28

    China’s industrial boiler systems consume 700 million tons of coal annually, accounting for 18% of the nation’s total coal consumption. Together these boiler systems are one of the major sources of China’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, producing approximately 1.3 gigatons (Gt) of carbon dioxide (CO2) annually. These boiler systems are also responsible for 33% and 27% of total soot and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions in China, respectively, making a substantial contribution to China’s local environmental degradation. The Chinese government - at both the national and local level - is taking actions to mitigate the significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and air pollution related to the country’s extensive use of coal-fired industrial boilers. The United States and China are pursuing a collaborative effort under the U.S.-China Climate Change Working Group to conduct a comprehensive assessment of China’s coal-fired industrial boilers and to develop an implementation roadmap that will improve industrial boiler efficiency and maximize fuel-switching opportunities. Two Chinese cities – Ningbo and Xi’an – have been selected for the assessment. These cities represent coastal areas with access to liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports and inland regions with access to interprovincial natural gas pipelines, respectively.

  7. Mass and elemental distributions of atmospheric particles nearby blast furnace and electric arc furnace operated industrial areas in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohiuddin, Kazi; Strezov, Vladimir; Nelson, Peter F.; Stelcer, Eduard; Evans, Tim

    2014-01-01

    The improved understanding of mass and elemental distributions of industrial air particles is important due to their heterogeneous atmospheric behaviour and impact on human health and the environment. In this study, particles of different size ranges were collected from three sites in Australia located in the vicinity of iron and steelmaking industries and one urban background site with very little industrial influence. In order to determine the importance of the type of industrial activity on the urban atmospheric quality, the industrial sites selected in this study were in the close proximity to two blast furnace operated and one electric arc furnace based steelmaking sites. The chemical compositions of the collected air particles were analysed using the proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique. This study revealed significantly higher metal concentrations in the atmospheric particles collected in the industrial sites, comparing to the background urban site, demonstrating local influence of the industrial activities to the air quality. The modality types of the particles were found to be variable between the mass and elements, and among elements in the urban and industrial areas indicating that the elemental modal distribution is as important as particle mass for particle pollution modelling. The highest elemental number distribution at all studied sites occurred with particle size of 0.1 μm. Iron was found as the main dominant metal at the industrial atmosphere in each particle size range. The industrial Fe fraction in the submicron and ultrafine size particles was estimated at up to 95% which may be released from high temperature industrial activities with the iron and steelmaking industries being one of the major contributors. Hence, these industrial elemental loadings can highly influence the atmospheric pollution at local urban and regional levels and are required to consider in the atmospheric modelling settings. - Highlights: • Urban and

  8. Mass and elemental distributions of atmospheric particles nearby blast furnace and electric arc furnace operated industrial areas in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohiuddin, Kazi, E-mail: kazi.mohiuddin@students.mq.edu.au [Graduate School of the Environment, Department of Environment and Geography, Faculty of Science, Macquarie University, NSW (Australia); Strezov, Vladimir; Nelson, Peter F. [Graduate School of the Environment, Department of Environment and Geography, Faculty of Science, Macquarie University, NSW (Australia); Stelcer, Eduard [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Evans, Tim [Graduate School of the Environment, Department of Environment and Geography, Faculty of Science, Macquarie University, NSW (Australia)

    2014-07-01

    The improved understanding of mass and elemental distributions of industrial air particles is important due to their heterogeneous atmospheric behaviour and impact on human health and the environment. In this study, particles of different size ranges were collected from three sites in Australia located in the vicinity of iron and steelmaking industries and one urban background site with very little industrial influence. In order to determine the importance of the type of industrial activity on the urban atmospheric quality, the industrial sites selected in this study were in the close proximity to two blast furnace operated and one electric arc furnace based steelmaking sites. The chemical compositions of the collected air particles were analysed using the proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique. This study revealed significantly higher metal concentrations in the atmospheric particles collected in the industrial sites, comparing to the background urban site, demonstrating local influence of the industrial activities to the air quality. The modality types of the particles were found to be variable between the mass and elements, and among elements in the urban and industrial areas indicating that the elemental modal distribution is as important as particle mass for particle pollution modelling. The highest elemental number distribution at all studied sites occurred with particle size of 0.1 μm. Iron was found as the main dominant metal at the industrial atmosphere in each particle size range. The industrial Fe fraction in the submicron and ultrafine size particles was estimated at up to 95% which may be released from high temperature industrial activities with the iron and steelmaking industries being one of the major contributors. Hence, these industrial elemental loadings can highly influence the atmospheric pollution at local urban and regional levels and are required to consider in the atmospheric modelling settings. - Highlights: • Urban and

  9. Stress-Assisted Corrosion in Boiler Tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preet M Singh; Steven J Pawel

    2006-05-27

    A number of industrial boilers, including in the pulp and paper industry, needed to replace their lower furnace tubes or decommission many recovery boilers due to stress-assisted corrosion (SAC) on the waterside of boiler tubes. More than half of the power and recovery boilers that have been inspected reveal SAC damage, which portends significant energy and economic impacts. The goal of this project was to clarify the mechanism of stress-assisted corrosion (SAC) of boiler tubes for the purpose of determining key parameters in its mitigation and control. To accomplish this in-situ strain measurements on boiler tubes were made. Boiler water environment was simulated in the laboratory and effects of water chemistry on SAC initiation and growth were evaluated in terms of industrial operations. Results from this project have shown that the dissolved oxygen is single most important factor in SAC initiation on carbon steel samples. Control of dissolved oxygen can be used to mitigate SAC in industrial boilers. Results have also shown that sharp corrosion fatigue and bulbous SAC cracks have similar mechanism but the morphology is different due to availability of oxygen during boiler shutdown conditions. Results are described in the final technical report.

  10. Coal utilization in industrial boilers in China - a prospect for mitigating CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, J.; Zeng, T.; Yang, L.I.S.; Oye, K.A.; Sarofim, A.F.; Beer, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    It is estimated from GEF statistical data for 1991 that more than 500,000 industrial boilers (mostly stoker-fired) in China consume over 400 million tons of coal per year. Each year, because of low boiler efficiency, 75 million tons of coal is wasted and 130 million tons of excess CO 2 are emitted. An analysis of 250 boiler thermal-balance test certificates and 6 field visits in three provinces have shown that: (1) boilers with efficiencies of less than 70% account for 75% of the total boiler-population; (2) the main causes of the low efficiencies are high excess air and unburned carbon in the slag and fly ash. The effect of unburned carbon on CO 2 emission is a balance of positive and negative contributions: while the unburned carbon does not produce CO 2 emissions, its replacement carbon, burned at a low efficiency, contributes to a net increase in CO 2 emissions. It seems from the analysis that the average boiler efficiency can be raised to 73% by relatively simple means, such as the size grading of the coal, improved boiler operating practice and some inexpensive equipment modifications. This could then result in savings each year of 34 million tons of coal and a reduction in CO 2 emissions of 63 million tons at an estimated cost of $10 per ton of CO 2 . (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  11. Buyers guide of industrial furnaces and heating equipment. Bau und Ausruestung von Industrieoefen und industriellen Waermeanlagen: Bezugsquellenverzeichnis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepanek, J [comp.

    1988-01-01

    The book is a glossary as well as a dictionary (German, English, French, Spanish). It comprises the following chapters: 1. Trade directory. 2. Industrial furnaces and industrial heating equipment. 3. Index to thermal processes. 4. Index to industrial furnaces and industrial heating equipment. 5. General accessories. 6. Special accessories. 7. Accessories for firing equipment. 8. Addresses. 9. Codes of practice. (HW).

  12. Recovery Act: Oxy-Combustion Techology Development for Industrial-Scale Boiler Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levasseur, Armand

    2014-04-30

    Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom), under U.S. DOE/NETL Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005290, is conducting a development program to generate detailed technical information needed for application of oxy-combustion technology. The program is designed to provide the necessary information and understanding for the next step of large-scale commercial demonstration of oxy combustion in tangentially fired boilers and to accelerate the commercialization of this technology. The main project objectives include: • Design and develop an innovative oxyfuel system for existing tangentially-fired boiler units that minimizes overall capital investment and operating costs. • Evaluate performance of oxyfuel tangentially fired boiler systems in pilot scale tests at Alstom’s 15 MWth tangentially fired Boiler Simulation Facility (BSF). • Address technical gaps for the design of oxyfuel commercial utility boilers by focused testing and improvement of engineering and simulation tools. • Develop the design, performance and costs for a demonstration scale oxyfuel boiler and auxiliary systems. • Develop the design and costs for both industrial and utility commercial scale reference oxyfuel boilers and auxiliary systems that are optimized for overall plant performance and cost. • Define key design considerations and develop general guidelines for application of results to utility and different industrial applications. The project was initiated in October 2008 and the scope extended in 2010 under an ARRA award. The project completion date was April 30, 2014. Central to the project is 15 MWth testing in the BSF, which provided in-depth understanding of oxy-combustion under boiler conditions, detailed data for improvement of design tools, and key information for application to commercial scale oxy-fired boiler design. Eight comprehensive 15 MWth oxy-fired test campaigns were performed with different coals, providing detailed data on combustion, emissions, and thermal behavior over a

  13. Charges on emissions of nitrogen oxides from forest industry boilers. Technical and economic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebscher, P.

    1998-09-01

    The charges on nitrogen oxide emission have been introduced in order to create an incentive for the industry to reduce emissions. A high cost in unproductive investment for monitoring systems, SNCR and gas recirculation systems was paid. However, the economic burden for the industry was less than initially feared, since the NO x emissions were moderate for most of the boilers, and since the potential for reducing NO x by rather simple means could be exploited. Also, the NO x charges have created an objective for industry to optimize their boilers in a way that raises efficiency and availability, which is of greater value to the environment than the reduction of the already low NO x emissions from these boilers

  14. Modeling of Thermochemical Behavior in an Industrial-Scale Rotary Hearth Furnace for Metallurgical Dust Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Liang; Jiang, Ze-Yi; Zhang, Xin-Xin; Xue, Qing-Guo; Yu, Ai-Bing; Shen, Yan-Song

    2017-10-01

    Metallurgical dusts can be recycled through direct reduction in rotary hearth furnaces (RHFs) via addition into carbon-based composite pellets. While iron in the dust is recycled, several heavy and alkali metal elements harmful for blast furnace operation, including Zn, Pb, K, and Na, can also be separated and then recycled. However, there is a lack of understanding on thermochemical behavior related to direct reduction in an industrial-scale RHF, especially removal behavior of Zn, Pb, K, and Na, leading to technical issues in industrial practice. In this work, an integrated model of the direct reduction process in an industrial-scale RHF is described. The integrated model includes three mathematical submodels and one physical model, specifically, a three-dimensional (3-D) CFD model of gas flow and heat transfer in an RHF chamber, a one-dimensional (1-D) CFD model of direct reduction inside a pellet, an energy/mass equilibrium model, and a reduction physical experiment using a Si-Mo furnace. The model is validated by comparing the simulation results with measurements in terms of furnace temperature, furnace pressure, and pellet indexes. The model is then used for describing in-furnace phenomena and pellet behavior in terms of heat transfer, direct reduction, and removal of a range of heavy and alkali metal elements under industrial-scale RHF conditions. The results show that the furnace temperature in the preheating section should be kept at a higher level in an industrial-scale RHF compared with that in a pilot-scale RHF. The removal rates of heavy and alkali metal elements inside the composite pellet are all faster than iron metallization, specifically in the order of Pb, Zn, K, and Na.

  15. EVALUATION OF INTERNALLY STAGED COAL BURNERS AND SORBENT JET AERODYNAMICS FOR COMBINED SO2/NOX CONTROL IN UTILITY BOILERS; VOLUME 2. TESTING IN A 100 MILLION BTU/HR EXPERIMENTAL FURNACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report givesresults of100 million Btu/hr (29 MWt) experimental furnace to explore methods for achieving effective S02 removal in a coalfired utility boiler using calcium-based sorbents, through appropriate selection of injection location and injector design/operating paramete...

  16. Efficient boiler operations sourcebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, F.W. (comp.)

    1985-01-01

    This book emphasizes the practical aspects of industrial and commercial boiler operations. It starts with a comprehensive review of general combustion and boiler fundamentals and then deals with specific efficiency improvement methods, and the cost savings which result. The book has the following chapter headings: boiler combustion fundamentals; boiler efficiency goals; major factors controlling boiler efficiency; boiler efficiency calculations; heat loss; graphical solutions; preparation for boiler testing; boiler test procedures; efficiency-related boiler maintenance procedures; boiler tune-up; boiler operational modifications; effect of water side and gas side scale deposits; load management; auxillary equipment to increase boiler efficiency; air preheaters and economizers; other types of auxillary equipment; combustion control systems and instrumentation; boiler O/sub 2/ trim controls; should you purchase a new boiler.; financial evaluation procedures; case studies. The last chapter includes a case study of a boiler burning pulverized coal and a case study of stoker-fired coal.

  17. Numerical simulations of the industrial circulating fluidized bed boiler under air- and oxy-fuel combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamczyk, Wojciech P.; Kozołub, Paweł; Klimanek, Adam; Białecki, Ryszard A.; Andrzejczyk, Marek; Klajny, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Measured and numerical results of air-fuel combustion process within large scale industrial circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler is presented in this paper. For numerical simulations the industrial compact CFB boiler was selected. Numerical simulations were carried out using three-dimensional model where the dense particulate transport phenomenon was simultaneously modelled with combustion process. The fluidization process was modelled using the hybrid Euler-Lagrange approach. The impact of the geometrical model simplification on predicted mass distribution and temperature profiles over CFB boiler combustion chamber two kinds of geometrical models were used, namely the complete model which consist of combustion chamber, solid separators, external solid super-heaters and simplified boiler geometry which was reduced to the combustion chamber. The evaluated temperature and pressure profiles during numerical simulations were compared against measured data collected during boiler air-fuel operation. Collected data was also used for validating numerical model of the oxy-fuel combustion model. Stability of the model and its sensitivity on changes of several input parameters were studied. The comparison of the pressure and temperature profiles for all considered cases gave comparable trends in contrary to measured data. Moreover, some additional test was carried out the check the influence of radiative heat transfer on predicted temperature profile within the CFB boiler. - Highlights: • Hybrid Euler-Lagrange approach was used for modelling particle transport, air- and oxy-fuel combustion process. • Numerical results were validated against measured data. • The influence of different boiler operating conditions on calculated temperature profile was investigated. • New strategy for resolving particle transport in circulating fluidized bed was shown

  18. Digital Kilns and Furnaces——the Development Direction of Industrial Kilns and Furnaces in the 21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaoming; HUANG Zhichu; ZHANG Jiafan

    2006-01-01

    The digital manufacturing theory is applied to the special manufacturing equipments--industrial kilns and furnaces; the concept of digital kilns & furnaces is put forward. The present status of research and application for digital technologies in fuel industrial kilns & furnaces is also introduced. Then, take the case of gas fuel kilns & furnaces, their main key technical issues are discussed. Digital kilns & furnaces as an important constituent of the digital equipments are the crucial base of the digital manufacturing. The value of research on digital kilns & furnaces and the application prospect are undoubted. It will improve product quality, reduce the manpower cost, enhance product market competitive ability, promote comprehensively tradition industries such as ceramics, metallurgy industry,and so on.

  19. Reports on research achievements in developing high-performance industrial furnaces in fiscal 1998 (Research and development of high-performance industrial furnaces). Volume 1; 1998 nendo koseino kogyoro nado ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    From the reports on research achievements in developing high-performance industrial furnaces in fiscal 1998, the report volume 1 was prepared as a research achievement report of each working group, detailing fundamental researches, heating furnaces, and heat treatment furnaces. The fundamental researches have researched combustion evaluating technology, characteristics of the area in the vicinity of a combustor, characteristics of combustion of high-temperature air, heating characteristics of a furnace to investigate effect of local heat absorption, and combustion evaluation. For the heating furnaces, the following subjects were studied: development of an in-furnace combustion model, summary of an experiment for evaluating high-temperature air combustion, furnace height relative to combustion heat transfer characteristics, heat loss minimizing technology, combustion heat transfer characteristics of liquid fuels, optimal operation of the high-temperature air combustion, basic control in heating control, and steel piece heating control. Studies were performed for the heat treatment furnaces on the case of a direct firing furnace in evaluating the heat transfer characteristics, the case of a radiant tube furnace, application of thermal fluid simulation technology, furnace averaging technology, soot reducing technology, control technology, and trial design on a high-performance heat treatment furnace. (NEDO)

  20. Remaining Life Estimation Of Secondary Superheater Outlet On Industrial Electrical Boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soedardjo; Andryansyah; Arhatari, B.D.; Natsir, Muhammad; Triyadi, Ari; Farokhi

    2001-01-01

    Remaining life estimation of secondary superheater header outlet (SSHO) on industrial electrical boiler has been carried out. Estimation conducted by the observation of microstructure cavitation development based on Neubauer and Wedel theory. The result is available for isolated cavitation development present yet. That Secondary Superheater Outlet component is in good condition after 14 years operated and predicted could be operated for 36 years again

  1. Microfine coal firing results from a retrofit gas/oil-designed industrial boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, R.; Borio, R.W.; Liljedahl, G. [Combustion Engineering, Inc., Windsor, CT (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    Under US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) support, the development of a High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor (HEACC) has been in progress since 1987 at the ABB Power Plant Laboratories. The initial work on this concept produced an advanced coal firing system that was capable of firing both water-based and dry pulverized coal in an industrial boiler environment.

  2. Survey report for fiscal 1999. Evaluation and analysis on items applied for in high-performance industrial furnace introduction field test project in fiscal 1999; 1999 nendo koseino kogyoro donyu field test jigyo chosa hokokusho. Obo anken hyoka bunseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This paper describes comprehensive evaluation and analysis mainly on the 51 items adopted in the high-performance industrial furnace introduction field tests. The development of a high-performance industrial furnace has completed the fundamental development research in fiscal 1998, and the possibility was verified on energy saving of more than 30% and reduction of NOx emission by 50% over that by conventional furnaces. Upon this fundamental achievement, the field test project has started as the comprehensive approach to developing the practically usable technologies for three years from fiscal 1998 until fiscal 2000, which is being promoted as a joint research project. According to the survey on the actual state in fiscal 1998, a little less than 20,000 industrial furnaces having combustion capacity of more than 500,000 Kcal/hr (excepting boilers) are being used. If these furnaces are converted into the high-performance industrial furnace, energy conservation of 210,000 x 10{sup 6} Mcal (converted to crude oil of 22.7 x 10{sup 6} kl/year) can be achieved from the maximum annual energy consumption of 700,000 x 10{sup 6} Mcal (converted to crude oil of 75.7 x 10{sup 6} kl/year). This conservation amount corresponds to about 12% of the final energy consumption in the whole Japanese industrial departments in fiscal 1996. It is expected that the performance of the full-size high-performance industrial furnace will be verified, and this technology will be promoted for wide proliferation. (NEDO)

  3. RBF–ARX model of an industrial furnace for drying olive pomace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casanova-Peláez, P.J.; Cruz-Peragón, F.; Palomar-Carnicero, J.M.; Dorado, R.; López-García, R.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We model a real furnace, fuelled with orujo, used to dry olive pomace. ► We apply a radial basic functions–auto-regression with exogenous variables (ARXs–RBFs) method. ► Root-mean-square error and r 2 are used to validate the ARX–RBF model. - Abstract: Drying operations are common in food industries. One of the main components in a drying system is the furnace. The furnace operation involves heat–mass transfer and combustion, thus it demands a complex mathematic representation. Since autoregressive methods are simple, and help to simulate rapidly a system, we model a drying furnace of olive pomace via an auto-regression with exogenous variables (ARXs) method. A neural network of radial basic functions (RBFs) defines the ARX experimental relation between the amounts of dry pomace (moisture content of 15%) used like fuel and the temperature of outlet gases. A real industrial furnace is studied to validate the proposed model, which can help to control the drying process.

  4. 10 CFR Appendix N to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Furnaces and Boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption... Appendix N to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Furnaces... average burner operating hours, average annual fuel energy consumption and average annual auxiliary...

  5. Howden-Microcoal system for the conversion of industrial oil or gas fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, J

    1985-01-01

    The technical and economic aspects of the conversion of an industrial boiler designed for oil firing at Courtaulds plc Greenfield site in North Wales to Howden-Microcoal firing are discussed. The production of Howden-Micro coal (an ultrafine or 'micronised' coal) is described and the Howden-Microcoal processor is compared with other fluid energy and mechanical mills. A typical boiler installation and modifications required for conversion to Howden-Microcoal firing are presented along with the main results of the Courtauld's tests. Cost, conversion time and the effect on average steam generation costs are considered.

  6. Combustion and regulations. Impacts of new regulations on medium-power thermal equipment (boilers, engines, turbines, dryers and furnaces); Combustion et reglementation. Incidences des nouvelles reglementations sur les equipements thermiques de moyenne puissance (chaudieres, moteurs, turbines, secheurs et fours)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This conference is composed of 20 papers on the influence of French and European new pollution regulations on medium size thermal equipment such as boilers, engines, turbines, dryers and furnaces. It is discussed what is going to change with new regulations, how they will apply to existing plants, what will be the impact on future equipment costs. The evolution of energy suppliers and equipment manufacturers facing these new regulations is also examined: fuel substitution, improvements in turbines and engines with water injection and special chambers, diesel engine control, lean mixtures and electronic control for gas engines... Means for reducing SOx, NOx and ash emission levels in boilers are also examined

  7. Tests with blast furnace slag as bed material in a 12 MW waste fired BFB boiler; Fullskalefoersoek med Hyttsand som baeddmaterial i 12 MW avfallseldad BFB-panna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eklund, Anders; Oehman, Marcus

    2004-11-01

    A full-scale trial has been performed at Saeverstaverket twin 12 MWth BFB boilers in Bollnaes using Hyttsand (a proprietary blast furnace slag) as bed material. The purpose has been to investigate if Hyttsand can be used as bed material in FB boilers for difficult types of fuels. Used fuel has been municipal waste, recovered wood fuel and different types of bio fuels. The test period was 19 days and nearly 100 tons of Hyttsand was used. The most important conclusions are: Good fluidisation can be achieved with Hyttsand as bed material. Hyttsand can fluidise without any changes in boiler settings. Hyttsand can also be mixed with Baskarpsand (a natural sand with over 90% SiO{sub 2}) and used as bed material without any negative changes to the boiler performance. Bed material make-up rate is reduced with up to 30 % when using Hyttsand compared to using Baskarpsand. Other conclusions are: Bed temperature increased slightly and bed temperature deviation decreased. Emissions was in general not affected, however emissions of SO{sub 2} increased slightly. More deposit containing more sulphur was formed on superheater surfaces when using Hyttsand. The increased amount of sulphur when using Hyttsand could be an effect of higher content of sulphur in the fuel or, which is more likely, that sulphur is released from Hyttsand and forms gaseous sulphurous gases. No significant change in produced amounts of fly-, cyclone- or bottom ash. Hyttsand and Baskarpsand had both similar coatings on their particles and similar agglomeration tendencies. There have been some start-up problems during the trials, including two more severe boiler disturbances, but most of these disturbances can be explained and avoided in the future. Previous investigations in laboratory scale using Hyttsand as bed material when firing different bio fuels have shown the advantage of Hyttsand with its higher resistance against a chemical reaction with alkali in the fuel ash compared to conventional bed materials

  8. Application of ELD and load forecast in optimal operation of industrial boiler plants equipped with thermal stores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Jiacong

    2007-01-01

    Optimal operation of industrial boiler plants with objects of high energy efficiency and low fuel cost is still well worth investigating when energy problem becomes a world's concern, for there are a great number of boiler plants serving industries. The optimization of operation is a measure that is less expensive and easier to carry out than many other measures. Economic load dispatch (ELD) is an effective approach to optimal operation of industrial boiler plants. In the paper a newly developed method referred to as the method of minimum-departure model (MDM) is used in the ELD for boiler plants. It is more convenient for carrying out ELD when boiler plants are equipped with thermal energy stores that usually adopt the working mode of optimal segmentation of a daily load curve. In the case of industrial boiler plants, ELD needs a prerequisite, viz., the accurate load forecast, which is performed using artificial neural networks in this paper. A computer program for the optimal operation was completed and applied to an example, which results the minimum daily fuel cost of the whole boiler plant

  9. Modelling of nitrogen oxides distribution in the hearth of gas-fired industrial furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhubrin, S.; Glazov, V.; Guzhov, S.

    2017-11-01

    A model is proposed for calculating the formation and transportation of nitrogen oxides in the combustion chamber of an industrial furnace heated by gaseous fuels burning. The calculations use a three-dimensional stationary description of turbulent flow and mixing of fuel and oxidizer flows in the presence of heat transfer, mass transfer, and momentum between them transfer. Simulation of the spatial pattern of nitrogen oxides formation in the working space of the furnace is performed in the programming and computing suite SCAN. It is shown that the temperature non-uniformity over the hearth surface is not too pronounced due to the organization of the inclined flow inlet in the direction of the hearth, which is a desirable feature of the furnace operation. The highest concentration of combustion products is observed in the zone of maximum temperatures. In addition, the existence of two zones of the highest generation of oxides has been determined. The first zone is located approximately in the center of the hearth, and the second is located on the far external surface of the furnace. The possibility of using the developed model in the SCAN complex for carrying out parametric studies and engineering calculations, as well as for modification in the direction of adjusting and adapting the model to the regime-constructive features of specific energy technological devices, is noted.

  10. Development and Validation of a 3-Dimensional CFB Furnace Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vepsäläinen, Arl; Myöhänen, Karl; Hyppäneni, Timo; Leino, Timo; Tourunen, Antti

    At Foster Wheeler, a three-dimensional CFB furnace model is essential part of knowledge development of CFB furnace process regarding solid mixing, combustion, emission formation and heat transfer. Results of laboratory and pilot scale phenomenon research are utilized in development of sub-models. Analyses of field-test results in industrial-scale CFB boilers including furnace profile measurements are simultaneously carried out with development of 3-dimensional process modeling, which provides a chain of knowledge that is utilized as feedback for phenomenon research. Knowledge gathered by model validation studies and up-to-date parameter databases are utilized in performance prediction and design development of CFB boiler furnaces. This paper reports recent development steps related to modeling of combustion and formation of char and volatiles of various fuel types in CFB conditions. Also a new model for predicting the formation of nitrogen oxides is presented. Validation of mixing and combustion parameters for solids and gases are based on test balances at several large-scale CFB boilers combusting coal, peat and bio-fuels. Field-tests including lateral and vertical furnace profile measurements and characterization of solid materials provides a window for characterization of fuel specific mixing and combustion behavior in CFB furnace at different loads and operation conditions. Measured horizontal gas profiles are projection of balance between fuel mixing and reactions at lower part of furnace and are used together with both lateral temperature profiles at bed and upper parts of furnace for determination of solid mixing and combustion model parameters. Modeling of char and volatile based formation of NO profiles is followed by analysis of oxidizing and reducing regions formed due lower furnace design and mixing characteristics of fuel and combustion airs effecting to formation ofNO furnace profile by reduction and volatile-nitrogen reactions. This paper presents

  11. Materials for the pulp and paper industry. Section 1: Development of materials for black liquor recovery boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiser, J.R.; Hubbard, C.R.; Payzant, E.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Black liquor recovery boilers are essential components of kraft pulp and paper mills because they are a critical element of the system used to recover the pulping chemicals required in the kraft pulping process. In addition, the steam produced in these boilers is used to generate a significant portion of the electrical power used in the mill. Recovery boilers require the largest capital investment of any individual component of a paper mill, and these boilers are a major source of material problems in a mill. The walls and floors of these boilers are constructed of tube panels that circulate high pressure water. Molten salts (smelt) accumulate on the floor of recovery boilers, and leakage of water into the boiler can result in a violent explosion when the leaked water instantly vaporizes upon contacting the molten smelt. Because corrosion of the conventionally-used carbon steel tubing was found to be excessive in the lower section of recovery boilers, use of stainless steel/carbon steel co-extruded tubing was adopted for boiler walls to lessen corrosion and reduce the likelihood of smelt/water explosions. Eventually, this co-extruded or composite (as it is known in the industry) tubing was selected for use as a portion or all of the floor of recovery boilers, particularly those operating at pressures > 6.2 MPa (900 psi), because of the corrosion problems encountered in carbon steel floor tubes. Since neither the cause of the cracking nor an effective solution has been identified, this program was established to develop a thorough understanding of the degradation that occurs in the composite tubing used for walls and floors. This is being accomplished through a program that includes collection and review of technical reports, examination of unexposed and cracked tubes from boiler floors, computer modeling to predict residual stresses under operating conditions, and operation of laboratory tests to study corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and thermal fatigue.

  12. 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K in scales formed in boilers of industrial installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poggi, Claudia M. Braga; Farias, Emerson Emiliano G. de; Hazin, Clovis A.; Gazineu, Maria Helena P.; Universidade Catolica de Pernambuco

    2011-01-01

    Many industrial processes involve the production of steam in boilers, which is sent through pipes to machines and other equipment used in different sectors of the installations. The water commonly used in these processes is groundwater, which generally has high concentrations of calcium and magnesium salts, that can co-precipitate with naturally occurring radioactive elements such as 226 Ra and 228 Ra creating radioactive scales, which are deposited in pipes, thus decreasing the efficiency of steam production. In addition, 40 K that is present in all soils and rocks with a concentration of about 0.012% of natural potassium can also be concentrated in these scales. No data was found in literature relating to radionuclides present in the scales formed on boilers in general. In this context, the purpose of this work was to determine concentrations of 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K, in scales generated inside boilers from different industries in the cities of Caruaru, Paulista and Goiana, Pernambuco. Determination of the radionuclides concentration was performed by gamma spectrometry with an HPGe detector, calculating their specific activities. Activity concentrations of 226 Ra were in the range of -1 and 228 Ra activity concentrations varied from 1 . Activity concentrations of 40 K were in the range of -1 . All these activity concentrations were lower than the limits established by the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission of for this type of matrix. (author)

  13. 40 CFR 270.66 - Permits for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....104(a) of this chapter; (3) When a trial burn for chlorinated dioxins and furans is required under... emission rate of the 2,3,7,8-chlorinated tetra-octa congeners of chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans... chapter, a quantitative analysis of the scrubber water (if any), ash residues, other residues, and...

  14. An intervention for noise control of blast furnace in steel industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golmohammadi, Rostam; Giahi, Omid; Aliabadi, Mohsen; Darvishi, Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    Noise pollution is currently a major health risk factor for workers in industries. The aim of this study was to investigate noise pollution and implement a control intervention plan for blast furnace in a steel industry. The measurement of sound pressure level (SPL) along with frequency analysis was done with the sound-level-meter Cell-450. Personal noise exposure was performed using dosimeter TES-1345 calibrated with CEL-282. Before planning noise controls, acoustic insulation properties of the furnace control unit and workers' rest room were assessed. Control room and workers' rest room were redesigned in order to improve acoustical condition. The SPL before intervention around the Blast Furnace was 90.3 dB (L) and its dominant frequency was 4000 Hz. Besides, noise transmission loss of the control and rest rooms were 10.3 dB and 4.2 dB, respectively. After intervention, noise reduction rates in the control and rest rooms were 27.4 dB and 27.7 dB, respectively. The workers' noise dose before and after the intervention was 240% and less than 100%, respectively. Improvement the workroom acoustic conditions through noise insulation can be considered effective method for preventing workers exposure to harmful noise.

  15. Fire-tube boiler optimization criteria and efficiency indicators rational values defining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batrakov, P. A.; Mikhailov, A. G.; Ignatov, V. Yu

    2018-01-01

    Technical and economic calculations problems solving with the aim of identifying the opportunity to recommend the project for industrial implementation are represented in the paper. One of the main determining factors impacting boiler energy efficiency is the exhaust gases temperature, as well as the furnace volume thermal stress. Fire-tube boilers with different types of furnaces are considered in the study. The fullest analysis of the boiler performance thermal and technical indicators for the following engineering problem: Q=idem, M=idem and evaluation according to η, B is presented. The furnace with the finned ellipse profile application results in the fuel consumption decrease due to a more efficient heat exchange surface of the furnace compared to other examined ones.

  16. Steam generation: fossil-fired systems: utility boilers; industrial boilers; boiler auxillaries; nuclear systems: boiling water; pressurized water; in-core fuel management; steam-cycle systems: condensate/feedwater; circulating water; water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    A survey of development in steam generation is presented. First, fossil-fired systems are described. Progress in the design of utility and industrial boilers as well as in boiler auxiliaries is traced. Improvements in coal pulverizers, burners that cut pollution and improve efficiency, fans, air heaters and economisers are noted. Nuclear systems are then described, including the BWR and PWR reactors, in-core fuel management techniques are described. Finally, steam-cycle systems for fossil-fired and nuclear power plants are reviewed. Condensate/feedwater systems, circulating water systems, cooling towers, and water treatment systems are discussed

  17. Combustion of paper industry sewage sludge in existing boilers. Progress report 1; Tillfoersel av skogsindustriellt slam till eldstaeder. Delrapport etapp 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeglund, Christer; Lundborg, Rickard; Myringer, Aase

    2003-10-01

    The aim of this project is to find a feasible method for combustion of sewage sludge in existing boilers of the paper industry. Biological sludge is complicated to handle since it contains a lot of bound water. Problems arise at dehydration and subsequent treatment. Moreover, the trend is that the amount of biological sludge increases whereas the amount of easily dehydrated fibre sludge decreases. Today, mixed sludge is combusted at more then half of the paper and pulp mills in Sweden. In order to evaluate the existing problems and the characteristics of different sludge, five mills have been studied. Sludge from three of these mills has also been analysed with regards to content and combustion properties. The content of sludge from different mills varies greatly. If the ash content is high, some substances, especially the alkali metals can cause problems at combustion such as sintering and deposits in the boiler. The analysed sludge did not contain important amounts of substances that causes problems at combustion, nor any toxic substances, except from one mill that had relatively high content of mercury. The combustion tests proved that combustion and especially drying of sludge is made preferably when the sludge particles are small, on as big an area as possible. One feasible method to combust sludge from the forest industry is to dehydrate so called fibre sludge to the same dry substance content as bark, in order to introduce it with existing fuel feeding devises and combust it together with the other fuel on the grate in a grate boiler. Dehydrated biological sludge, with considerably higher moisture content than pure fibre sludge, is added with a burner devise above the bed. The sludge particles are dried (in the furnace) and combusted before they leave the furnace. In this way, wet sludge that plug the bed is avoided. The location of the sludge feeding device in the boiler is important and should be adjusted individually to each furnace. Simulations show that

  18. Interated Intelligent Industrial Process Sensing and Control: Applied to and Demonstrated on Cupola Furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed Abdelrahman; roger Haggard; Wagdy Mahmoud; Kevin Moore; Denis Clark; Eric Larsen; Paul King

    2003-02-12

    The final goal of this project was the development of a system that is capable of controlling an industrial process effectively through the integration of information obtained through intelligent sensor fusion and intelligent control technologies. The industry of interest in this project was the metal casting industry as represented by cupola iron-melting furnaces. However, the developed technology is of generic type and hence applicable to several other industries. The system was divided into the following four major interacting components: 1. An object oriented generic architecture to integrate the developed software and hardware components @. Generic algorithms for intelligent signal analysis and sensor and model fusion 3. Development of supervisory structure for integration of intelligent sensor fusion data into the controller 4. Hardware implementation of intelligent signal analysis and fusion algorithms

  19. Temporal trends and spatial variation characteristics of primary air pollutants emissions from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Yifeng; Tian, Hezhong; Yan, Jing; Zhou, Zhen; Wang, Junling; Nie, Lei; Pan, Tao; Zhou, Junrui; Hua, Shenbing; Wang, Yong; Wu, Xiaoqing

    2016-01-01

    Coal-fired combustion is recognized as a significant anthropogenic source of atmospheric compounds in Beijing, causing heavy air pollution events and associated deterioration in visibility. Obtaining an accurate understanding of the temporal trends and spatial variation characteristics of emissions from coal-fired industrial combustion is essential for predicting air quality changes and evaluating the effectiveness of current control measures. In this study, an integrated emission inventory of primary air pollutants emitted from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing is developed for the period of 2007–2013 using a technology-based approach. Future emission trends are projected through 2030 based on current energy-related and emission control policies. Our analysis shows that there is a general downward trend in primary air pollutants emissions because of the implementation of stricter local emission standards and the promotion by the Beijing municipal government of converting from coal-fired industrial boilers to gas-fired boilers. However, the ratio of coal consumed by industrial boilers to total coal consumption has been increasing, raising concerns about the further improvement of air quality in Beijing. Our estimates indicate that the total emissions of PM 10 , PM 2.5 , SO 2 , NO x , CO and VOCs from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing in 2013 are approximately 19,242 t, 13,345 t, 26,615 t, 22,965 t, 63,779 t and 1406 t, respectively. Under the current environmental policies and relevant energy savings and emission control plans, it may be possible to reduce NO x and other air pollutant emissions by 94% and 90% by 2030, respectively, if advanced flue gas purification technologies are implemented and coal is replaced with natural gas in the majority of existing boilers. - Highlights: • A unit-based emission inventory of coal-fired industrial boilers is developed. • Temporal trend of historical period 2007–2013 and the future till 2030 is

  20. Thermal cracking of recycled hydrocarbon gas-mixtures for re-pyrolysis: Operational analysis of some industrial furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gal, T. [MOL PETCHEM Division, Tisza Chemical Works Co. Ltd. (TVK), P.O. Box 20, H-3581 Tiszaujvaros (Hungary); Lakatos, B.G. [Department of Process Engineering, University of Pannonia, P.O. Box 158, H-8200 Veszprem (Hungary)

    2008-02-15

    Thermal decomposition process of recycled hydrocarbon gas-mixtures in industrial furnaces is analyzed by computer simulation. The detailed kinetic and mathematical model developed was validated by using the process control laboratory cracked gas analysis of an industrially operated furnace. The effects of feed compositions and operational conditions are examined to select the favorable operating parameters and to achieve the possibly highest online operation period of the furnace. The effect of deposited coke on the lifetime of radiant coils is examined by a heat-transfer model. The simulation study confirmed that temporal variations of the feedstock composition could be harmonized well with the operating parameters of furnaces with the purpose of achieving maximum effectiveness. (author)

  1. Study on Laws, Regulations and Standards on Energy Efficiency, Energy Conserving and Emission Reduction of Industrial Boilers in EU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ren; Zhao, Yuejin; Chen, Haihong; Liang, Xiuying; Yang, Ming

    2017-12-01

    Industrial boilers are widely applied in such fields as factory power, building heating, and people’s lives; China is the world’s largest producer and user of industrial boilers, with very high annual energy consumption; clear requirements have been put forward by China on the energy efficiency since the “11th Five-year Plan” with the hope to save energy and reduce emission by means of energy efficiency standards and regulations on the supervision and control of various special equipment. So far, the energy efficiency of industrial boilers in China has been improved significantly but there is still a gap with the EU states. This paper analyzes the policies of energy efficiency, implementation models and methods of supervision and implementation at the EU level from laws, regulations, directives as well as standards; the paper also puts forward suggestions of energy conserving and emission reduction on the improvement of energy conserving capacity of industrial boilers in China through studying the legislations and measures of the developed countries in energy conserving of boilers.

  2. Fiscal 1998 research report on development of the advanced industrial furnace (R and D on the advanced industrial furnace). Volume 3; 1998 nendo koseino kogyoro no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho. Koseino kogyoro nado ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This report summarizes the research results of the chapter 4 and 5 (experimental database) from the research report on development of the advanced industrial furnace. The chapter 4 summarizes functions of the temperature performance evaluation simulator of the advanced continuous heating furnace for the database system, and various research results obtained by the simulator. This chapter also summarizes the research result on the applicability of high-temperature air combustion to other industries, the patent research result on heat storage combustion technology, the basic technology research result, and the reaction analysis result by FLUENT. The chapter 5 summarizes the combustion experiment data collection by developing self-completion high-temperature high-radiation heating technology. As for R and D on technology optimizing the profile of heating furnaces, the following data are summarized: measurement data of heat transfer in furnaces and heat flux data at right overhead furnace temperature under cold air and preheated air combustion in conventional furnaces, and heat storage combustion. (NEDO)

  3. Reduction efficiency prediction of CENIBRA's recovery boiler by direct minimization of gibbs free energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. L. Silva

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The reduction efficiency is an important variable during the black liquor burning process in the Kraft recovery boiler. This variable value is obtained by slow experimental routines and the delay of this measure disturbs the pulp and paper industry customary control. This paper describes an optimization approach for the reduction efficiency determination in the furnace bottom of the recovery boiler based on the minimization of the Gibbs free energy. The industrial data used in this study were directly obtained from CENIBRA's data acquisition system. The resulting approach is able to predict the steady state behavior of the chemical composition of the furnace recovery boiler, - especially the reduction efficiency when different operational conditions are used. This result confirms the potential of this approach in the analysis of the daily operation of the recovery boiler.

  4. Failure Analysis of 600 MW Supercritical Boiler Water Wall

    OpenAIRE

    Fu Huilin; Cai Zhengchun; Yan Xiaozhong; He Jinqiao; Zhou Yucai

    2013-01-01

    Boiler tube often causes abnormal boiler outage, bringing greater economic losses. This thesis mainly comes from the dynamics of boiler water, boiler furnace accident location of wall temperature distribution to explore the cause of the accident boiler. Calculation results show that the deformation will seriously reduce the boiler allowable maximum temperature difference between the screens. And the boiler is not over-temperature, low temperature difference between the screens, which have bur...

  5. Biomass as blast furnace injectant – Considering availability, pretreatment and deployment in the Swedish steel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chuan; Mellin, Pelle; Lövgren, Jonas; Nilsson, Leif; Yang, Weihong; Salman, Hassan; Hultgren, Anders; Larsson, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Injection of biofuels was modeled, using real blast furnace data as reference. • For charcoal, torrefied and pelletized biomass; a replacement limit was predicted. • As expected, reduced CO 2 emissions are possible, especially when using charcoal. • We also found that substantial energy savings can be made, using any of the biofuels. • Circumstances today and biomass availability tomorrow are encouraging for deployment. - Abstract: We have investigated and modeled the injection of biomass into blast furnaces (BF), in place of pulverized coal (PC) from fossil sources. This is the easiest way to reduce CO 2 emissions, beyond efficiency-improvements. The considered biomass is either pelletized, torrefied or pyrolyzed. It gives us three cases where we have calculated the maximum replacement ratio for each. It was found that charcoal from pyrolysis can fully replace PC, while torrefied material and pelletized wood can replace 22.8% and 20.0% respectively, by weight. Our energy and mass balance model (MASMOD), with metallurgical sub-models for each zone, further indicates that (1) more Blast Furnace Gas (BFG) will be generated resulting in reduced fuel consumption in an integrated plant, (2) lower need of limestone can be expected, (3) lower amount of generated slag as well, and (4) reduced fuel consumption for heating the hot blast is anticipated. Overall, substantial energy savings are possible, which is one of the main findings in this paper. Due to the high usage of PC in Sweden, large amounts of biomass is required if full substitution by charcoal is pursued (6.19 TWh/y). But according to our study, it is likely available in the long term for the blast furnace designated M3 (located in Luleå). Finally, over a year with almost fully used production capacity (2008 used as reference), a 28.1% reduction in on-site emissions is possible by using charcoal. Torrefied material and wood pellets can reduce the emissions by 6.4% and 5.7% respectively

  6. Industrial study of iron oxide reduction by injection of carbon particles into the electric arc furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conejo, A. N.; Torres, R.; Cuellar, E.

    1999-01-01

    An industrial study was conducted in electric arc furnaces (EAF) employing 100% direct reduced iron to evaluate the oxidation level of the slag-metal system. Energy consumption is decreased by injecting gaseous oxygen, however, slag oxidation also increases. In order to reduce the extent of oxidation while keeping a high volume of the oxygen injected , it is required: a) to optimize the carbon injection practice, b) to increase the carbon concentration of sponge iron, c) to operate with soluble carbon in both the metal and the slag beyond a critical level and d) to employ a low temperature profile, on average 1,650 degree centigrade. A method to define the proper amount of carbon in sponge iron which considers their metallization as well as the amount of oxygen injected is proposed. The position of the lance is critical in order to optimize the practice of carbon injection and assure a better residence time of the carbon particles within the furnace. (Author) 23 refs

  7. Energy conservation in industrial furnaces with vertical radiation roofs of reinforced refractory concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grafe, E

    1981-01-01

    The paper discusses static systems for furnaces of reinforced refractory concrete, the temperature field over the finned-plate cross section, the calculation of the reinforced refractory concrete, experimental application in a flat open-hearth pusher furnace, a pack heating furnace, and a sinker furnace. There are cantilever beam plates, frames, and drop ceiling elements particularly suited for efficient use of high-performance burners.

  8. Effect of Water Quality on the Performance of Boiler in Nigerian Petroleum Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. O. ODIGURE

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates quality of water used in boilers of Refinery Company in Nigeria. The results shows that the quality of water fed to boilers are off specification. Low water quality used in boilers led to frequent failure of the boilers as a result of tube rupture. This has resulted into low capacity utilization and loss of processing fees. The poor performance of the boiler feed treatment plant is attributable to the deplorable condition of water intake plant, raw water treatment, demineralization plant, change in raw water quality and non-functioning of the polisher unit.

  9. Up-date on cyclone combustion and cyclone boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmo, Felipe Alfaia do; Nogueira, Manoel Fernandes Martins; Rocha, Rodrigo Carnera Castro da; Gazel, Hussein Felix; Martins, Diego Henrique dos Reis [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Campus Universitario Jose da Silveira Netto], E-mails: mfmn@ufpa.br, mfmn@ufpa.br

    2010-07-01

    The boiler concept has been around for more than 70 years, and there are many types available. Boilers provide steam or hot water for industrial and commercial use. The Federal University of Para (UFPA) through the research group EBMA (Energy,Biomass and Environment) has been developing cyclonic furnace with a water wall, a boiler, aiming to use regional timbers (sawdust) and agro-industries residues as fuel to produce steam to be used in industrial processes as well as in power generation,. The use of cyclonic combustion for burning waste instead of burning in a fixed bed is mainly due to two factors efficiency improvement causing a more compact boiler and less risk of explosion, since their process does not generate an accumulation of volatile. Present state-of-art for commercial cyclone boilers has as set up a cyclone combustor with two combustion chambers, in fluid communication, where there ducts for supplying air and fuel directly into the first chamber and for forming a cyclonic flow pattern and a heat exchanger surrounding the second chamber for keeping low combustion temperature in both chambers. This paper shows the results of a literature review about design, construction and operation of cyclonic boilers using solid, liquid or gaseous fuel. This information has been used for the design of a cyclone boiler to be constructed at UFPA for research purposes and its basic concept is presented at the end of this article. (author)

  10. Comparison of a burning mass ceramics coating in laboratory furnace and instrustrial furnace; Comparacao de queimas de uma massa ceramica de revestimento em forno de laboratorio e forno industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, R.A.L., E-mail: robertoarruda@ifpi.edu.br [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Piaui (IFPI), Terersina, PI (Brazil); Castro, J.R. de S. [Universidade Federal do Piaui (UFPI), Teresina, PI (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This work intends to analyze the differences obtained in the technological properties of a ceramic coating after firing in two distinct environments, laboratory furnace and industrial furnace. For this, was characterized a ceramic mass used in the production of porous coating. The analyzes were performed chemical, mineralogical and thermal mass in that. The specimens were obtained by compacting and burned in the maximum temperature of 1140 deg C in two furnaces, laboratory and industrial. The technological tests were performed linear shrinkage, water absorption, bulk density and mechanical strength. The microstructure was evaluated by ray-X diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that both furnaces provided significant differences in analyzed specimens, such as increased strength and low water absorption in the fired samples in a laboratory furnace, for example. (author)

  11. HR boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-08-01

    A number of manufacturers of central heating boilers in the Netherlands have produced high-efficiency boilers, all carrying the GIVEG-HR seal of approval (GIVEG is the manufacturers' association in the Netherlands, and HR stands for 'hoog rendement': high efficiency). Efficiences were considerably improved by reducing flue, idling and radiation losses. Control and safety, discharges of flue gases and condensate need special attention. Whether installation of a GIVEG-HR boiler is profitable in view of the cost/profit ratio, will have to be determined from case to case. N.V. Nederlandse Gasunie felt it was time to present the facts so far in a way specially aimed at the construction industry. This special edition of 'Gas and Architecture' answers a number of questions which the architect or consultant engineer might have in particular before advising on the installation of the new boiler in houses and other buildings in the interests of energy saving. A technical description of the HR boiler covers the backgrounds of its development and considers the role of the Netherlands government as regards to the introduction of the boiler.

  12. Catalytic activity of bed materials from industrial CFB boilers for the decomposition of N2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barisic, V.; Klingstedt, F.; Kilpinen, P.; Hupa, M.; Naydenov, A.; Stefanov, P.

    2005-01-01

    The correlation between the catalytic activity towards N 2 O decomposition and fuel type was studied for the bed materials sampled from the bottom bed of two industrial CFB boilers, a 12MW th and a 550MW th , burning biomass fuels and wastes, alone or as a mixture. It was found that the elemental composition of the surface of the bed material particles changed according to the composition of the ash from the parent fuel. The measured catalytic activity of the bed material samples increased with the amount of the catalytically active oxides (CaO, MgO, Fe 2 O 3 , Al 2 O 3 ). In the case of limestone addition, the activity of the bed material was influenced by both the elemental composition of the fuel, and the ratio between lime and sulfated lime

  13. Oxidation study by Moessbauer and optic microscopy of steels from boiler tubes used in sugar industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajardo, M.; Perez Alcazar, G.A.; Aguilar, Y.

    1998-01-01

    Optic microscopy and Moessbauer spectroscopy were used to study the fail and the inner rusted surface of two boiler tubes used in the sugar industry, respectively. The studied tubes, of the type ASTM A 192, were found to have cracks. By optic microscopy it was observed that the failure begins in the inner surface with circumferential cracking. Also, inside and around the surface close to the cracks a rusted layer was detected. Powder from these layers was collected for Moessbauer spectroscopy analysis. By this method the presence of two or three types of Fe oxides such as wuestite, magnetite and hematite, was proved. These results permit to conclude that the failure mechanism was the thermal fatigue due to a hot work in an O 2 -rich vapor atmosphere. The rusted products are stable at high temperatures

  14. Modeling of aerodynamics in vortex furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anufriev, I.; Krasinsky, D. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. of Thermophysics; Salomatov, V.; Anikin, Y.; Sharypov, O. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. of Thermophysics; Novosibirsk State Univ. (Russian Federation); Enkhjargal, Kh. [Mongol Univ. of Science and Technology, Ulan Bator (Mongolia)

    2013-07-01

    At present, the torch burning technology of pulverized-coal fuel in vortex flow is one of the most prospective and environmentally-friendly combustion technologies of low-grade coals. Appropriate organization of aerodynamics may influence stability of temperature and heat flux distributions, increase slag catching, and reduce toxic emissions. Therefore, from scientific point of view it is interesting to investigate aerodynamics in the devices aiming at justification of design and operating parameters for new steam generators with vortex furnace, and upgrade of existing boiler equipment. The present work is devoted to physical and mathematical modeling of interior aerodynamics of vortex furnace of steam generator of thermal power plants. Research was carried out on the air isothermal model which geometry was similar to one section of the experimental- industrial boiler TPE-427 of Novosibirsk TPS-3. Main elements of vortex furnace structure are combustion chamber, diffuser, and cooling chamber. The model is made from organic glass; on the front wall two rectangular nozzles (through which compressed air is injected) are placed symmetrically at 15 to the horizon. The Laser Doppler Velocimeter LAD-05 was used for non-contact measurement of vortex flow characteristics. Two velocity components in the XY-plane (in different cross- sections of the model) were measured in these experiments. Reynolds number was 3.10{sup 5}. Numerical simulation of 3-D turbulent isothermal flow was performed with the use of CFD package FLUENT. Detailed structure of the flow in vortex furnace model has been obtained in predictions. The distributions of main flow characteristics (pressure, velocity and vorticity fields, turbulent kinetic energy) are presented. The obtained results may be used at designing boilers with vortex furnace. Computations were performed using the supercomputer NKS-160.

  15. Performance of an effectively integrated biomass multi-stage gasification system and a steel industry heat treatment furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunarathne, Duleeka Sandamali; Mellin, Pelle; Yang, Weihong; Pettersson, Magnus; Ljunggren, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Multi-stage biomass gasification is integrated with steel heat treatment furnace. • Fossil fuel derived CO_2 emission is eliminated by replacing natural gas with syngas. • The integrated system uses waste heat from the furnace for biomass gasification. • Up to 13% increment of the gasifier system energy efficiency is observed. • Fuel switching results in 10% lower flue gas loss and improved furnace efficiency. - Abstract: The challenges of replacing fossil fuel with renewable energy in steel industry furnaces include not only reducing CO_2 emissions but also increasing the system energy efficiency. In this work, a multi-stage gasification system is chosen for the integration with a heat treatment furnace in the steel powder industry to recover different rank/temperature waste heat back to the biomass gasification system, resulting higher system energy efficiency. A system model based on Aspen Plus was developed for the proposed integrated system considering all steps, including biomass drying, pyrolysis, gasification and the combustion of syngas in the furnace. Both low temperature (up to 400 °C) and high temperature (up to 700 °C) heat recovery possibilities were analysed in terms of energy efficiency by optimizing the biomass pretreatment temperature. The required process conditions of the furnace can be achieved by using syngas. No major changes to the furnace, combustion technology or flue gas handling system are necessary for this fuel switching. Only a slight revamp of the burner system and a new waste heat recovery system from the flue gases are required. Both the furnace efficiency and gasifier system efficiency are improved by integration with the waste heat recovery. The heat recovery from the hot furnace flue gas for biomass drying and steam superheating is the most promising option from an energy efficiency point of view. This option recovers two thirds of the available waste heat, according to the pinch analysis performed

  16. Control of the Gas Flow in an Industrial Directional Solidification Furnace for Production of High Purity Multicrystalline Silicon Ingots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A crucible cover was designed as gas guidance to control the gas flow in an industrial directional solidification furnace for producing high purity multicrystalline silicon. Three cover designs were compared to investigate their effect on impurity transport in the furnace and contamination of the silicon melt. Global simulations of coupled oxygen (O and carbon (C transport were carried out to predict the SiO and CO gases in the furnace as well as the O and C distributions in the silicon melt. Cases with and without chemical reaction on the cover surfaces were investigated. It was found that the cover design has little effect on the O concentration in the silicon melt; however, it significantly influences CO gas transport in the furnace chamber and C contamination in the melt. For covers made of metal or with a coating on their surfaces, an optimal cover design can produce a silicon melt free of C contamination. Even for a graphite cover without a coating, the carbon concentration in the silicon melt can be reduced by one order of magnitude. The simulation results demonstrate a method to control the contamination of C impurities in an industrial directional solidification furnace by crucible cover design.

  17. The comparative analysis of heat transfer efficiency in the conditions of formation of ash deposits in the boiler furnaces, with taking into account the crystallization of slag during combustion of coal and water-coal fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomatov, V. V.; Kuznetsov, G. V.; Syrodoy, S. V.

    2017-11-01

    The results of the numerical simulation of heat transfer from the combustion products of coal and coal-water fuels (CWF) to the internal environment. The mathematical simulation has been carried out on the sample of the pipe surfaces of the combustion chamber of the boiler unit. The change in the characteristics of heat transfer (change of thermochemical characteristics) in the conditions of formation of the ash deposits have been taken into account. According to the results of the numerical simulation, the comparative analysis of the efficiency of heat transfer has been carried out from the furnace environment to the inside pipe coolant (water, air, or water vapor) from the combustion of coal and coal-water fuels. It has been established that, in the initial period of the boiler unit operation during coal fuel combustion the efficiency of heat transfer from the combustion products of the internal environment is higher than when using CWF. The efficiency of heat transfer in CWF combustion conditions is more at large times (τ≥1.5 hours) of the boiler unit. A significant decrease in heat flux from the combustion products to the inside pipe coolant in the case of coal combustion compared to CWF has been found. It has been proved that this is due primarily to the fact that massive and strong ash deposits are formed during coal combustion.

  18. Boilers, evaporators, and condensers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakac, S.

    1991-01-01

    This book reports on the boilers, evaporators and condensers that are used in power plants including nuclear power plants. Topics included are forced convection for single-phase side heat exchangers, heat exchanger fouling, industrial heat exchanger design, fossil-fuel-fired boilers, once through boilers, thermodynamic designs of fossil fuel-first boilers, evaporators and condensers in refrigeration and air conditioning systems (with respect to reducing CFC's) and nuclear steam generators

  19. A chicken in every pot, a new boiler in every powerplant, a new powerplant at every industrial site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bessette, R.D. [Council of Industrial Boiler Owners, Burke, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The paper discusses the pressures on the industrial boiler owner today which affect how he meets his energy needs. As a result of these pressures, especially the environmental regulations, the author sees some major trends which may be indicative of what the future will hold and he discusses these. The author finally describes what the industrial power plant will be in the next 10--20 years.

  20. 76 FR 56339 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ...) which covered furnaces (but not boilers), and it establishes amended energy efficiency standards for... Database for Residential Furnaces and Boilers,\\7\\ and the Consortium for Energy Efficiency's Qualifying...\\ Consortium of Energy Efficiency, Qualifying Furnace and Boiler List (2010) (Available at: http://www.cee1.org...

  1. Modernization of boiler for manufacturing factories in an industrial area of Nanping City, Fujian Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    An investigational study was conducted of the project for energy conservation and greenhouse effect gas reduction by introducing the energy utilization system combined with CCS equipment and cogeneration system to general industry plants at the industrial complex in Nanping City, Fujian Province, China. As a result of the field survey, it was concluded that the capacity suitable for CCS center was 200,000 t/y and the size suitable for pulverized coal boiler at each site was 35 t/h. The energy conservation amount in this project was the coal use reduction amount by 88,000 t/y (48,000 toe/y), and the greenhouse effect gas reduction amount was approximately 90,000 t-CO2/y. As to the economical efficiency of the project, the period of ROI was about 5.1 years, and the internal earning rate at each site was 14-23%. The materialization of the project was confirmed. However, in the case of raising the required funds from city banks in China, financing conditions are strict, and the financing seems to be difficult at each site. It is necessary to raise low-interest funds such as the special environment yen credit. (NEDO)

  2. Research, Development and Demonstration of Bio-Mass Boiler for Food Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Steve [Burns & McDonnell, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States); Knapp, David [Burns & McDonnell, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Frito-Lay is working to reduce carbon emissions from their manufacturing plants. As part of this effort, they invested in a biomass-fired boiler at the Topeka, Kansas, plant. Frito-Lay partnered with Burns & McDonnell Engineering, Inc. and CPL Systems, Inc., to design and construct a steam producing boiler using carbon neutral fuels such as wood wastes (e.g. tree bark), shipping pallets, and used rubber vehicle tires. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) joined with Frito-Lay, Burns & McDonnell, and CPL to analyze the reductions in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions that result from use of biomass-fired boilers in the food manufacturing environment. DOE support provided for the data collection and analysis, and reporting necessary to evaluate boiler efficiencies and reductions in CO2 emissions. The Frito-Lay biomass-fired boiler has resulted in significant reductions in CO2 emissions from the Topeka production facility. The use of natural gas has been reduced by 400 to 420 million standard cubic feet per year with corresponding reductions of 24,000 to 25,000 tons of CO2. The boiler does require auxiliary functions, however, that are unnecessary for a gas-fired boiler. These include heavy motors and fans for moving fuel and firing the boiler, trucks and equipment for delivering the fuel and moving at the boiler plant, and chippers for preparing the fuel prior to delivery. Each of these operations requires the combustion of fossil fuels or electricity and has associated CO2 emissions. Even after accounting for each of these auxiliary processes, however, the biomass-fired boiler results in net emission reductions of 22,500 to 23,500 tons of CO2 per year.

  3. Energy saving options for glass furnaces & recovery of heat from their flue gases and experiences with batch & cullet pre-heaters applied in the glass industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerkens, R.G.C.

    2009-01-01

    Several measures, such as changes in batch composition (less batch humidity), or optimization of operating conditions, and limiting the combustion air excess, can lead to typically 2-8 % of energy savings of industrial glass furnaces. Larger energy savings are only possible by new furnace designs,

  4. Techno-economic analysis of wood biomass boilers for the greenhouse industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chau, J.; Sowlati, T.; Sokhansanj, S.; Preto, F.; Melin, S.; Bi, X.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to perform a techno-economic analysis on a typical wood pellet and wood residue boiler for generation of heat to an average-sized greenhouse in British Columbia. The variables analyzed included greenhouse size and structure, boiler efficiency, fuel types, and source of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) for crop fertilization. The net present value (NPV) show that installing a wood pellet or a wood residue boiler to provide 40% of the annual heat demand is more economical than using a natural gas boiler to provide all the heat at a discount rate of 10%. For an assumed lifespan of 25 years, a wood pellet boiler system could generate NPV of C$259,311 without electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and C$74,695 with ESP, respectively. While, installing a wood residue boiler with or without an ESP could provide NPV of C$919,922 or C$1,104,538, respectively. Using a wood biomass boiler could also eliminate over 3000 tonne CO 2 equivalents of greenhouse gases annually. Wood biomass combustion generates more particulate matters than natural gas combustion. However, an advanced emission control system could significantly reduce particulate matters emission from wood biomass combustion which would bring the particulate emission to a relatively similar level as for natural gas

  5. Development and evaluation of a workpiece temperature analyzer for industrial furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-05-01

    An instrument capable of measuring the bulk temperature of a workpiece while it is being heated could have a variety of applications. If such an instrument were reasonably priced, it would have a tremendous impact upon national energy usage. The Department of Energy has realized the importance of this type of instrument and has sponsored three concurrent programs to evaluate three different technologies for this type of instrument. In one of these programs, Surface Combustion is the prime contractor to develop a pulsed laser, polarizing interferometer based sensor to be used as a workpiece temperature analyzer (WPTA). The overall goal of the program is to develop a workpiece temperature analyzer for industrial furnaces to significantly improve product quality, productivity and energy efficiency. The workpiece temperature analyzer concept in this program uses a pulsed laser polarizing interferometer (PLPI) for measuring sound velocity through a workpiece. This type of instrument has a high resolution and could detect surface motion of as small as 10 picometer. The sound velocity measurement can be converted to an average workpiece temperature through a mathematical equation programmed into the microprocessor used for control. 76 refs., 12 figs., 14 tabs.

  6. Characterisation of heat transfer and flame length in a semi-scale industrial furnace equipped with HiTAC burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, L.; Nehme, W.; Biswas, A.K.; Yang, W.; Blasiak, W.; Bertin, D. [Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-09-15

    This paper investigates the effects of multiple burner nozzles on the combustion characteristics, such as flame volume, heat transfer and NOx emission in a high temperature air combustion (HiTAC) industrial furnace. Experiments were carried out in one semi-industrial furnace located in Kungliga Tekniska Hogskolan (Stockholm, Sweden). Three different types of burners were tested, including both regenerative and recuperative types. Variable flame temperature and oxygen concentration were applied in experiments. Heat transfer characteristics of HiTAC are studied in this paper, and the influences of a variety of inertial fuel/air jets are investigated for both flame length and NOx emission. One improved correlation between chemical flame length and flame Froude number is established for HiTAC with manifold nozzles. NOx emission is also correlated to the flame Froude number. The HiTAC recirculation system effects on flame shape, NOx emission and heat transfer were also examined.

  7. Recovery Act: Oxy-Combustion Technology Development for Industrial-Scale Boiler Applications. Task 4 - Testing in Alstom's 15 MWth Boiler Simulation Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levasseur, Armand

    2014-04-30

    Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom), under U.S. DOE/NETL Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005290, is conducting a development program to generate detailed technical information needed for application of oxy-combustion technology. The program is designed to provide the necessary information and understanding for the next step of large-scale commercial demonstration of oxy combustion in tangentially fired boilers and to accelerate the commercialization of this technology. The main project objectives include: Design and develop an innovative oxyfuel system for existing tangentially-fired boiler units that minimizes overall capital investment and operating costs; Evaluate performance of oxyfuel tangentially fired boiler systems in pilot scale tests at Alstom’s 15 MWth tangentially fired Boiler Simulation Facility (BSF); Address technical gaps for the design of oxyfuel commercial utility boilers by focused testing and improvement of engineering and simulation tools; Develop the design, performance and costs for a demonstration scale oxyfuel boiler and auxiliary systems; Develop the design and costs for both industrial and utility commercial scale reference oxyfuel boilers and auxiliary systems that are optimized for overall plant performance and cost; and, Define key design considerations and develop general guidelines for application of results to utility and different industrial applications. The project was initiated in October 2008 and the scope extended in 2010 under an ARRA award. The project is scheduled for completion by April 30, 2014. Central to the project is 15 MWth testing in the BSF, which provided in-depth understanding of oxy-combustion under boiler conditions, detailed data for improvement of design tools, and key information for application to commercial scale oxy-fired boiler design. Eight comprehensive 15 MWth oxy-fired test campaigns were performed with different coals, providing detailed data on combustion, emissions, and thermal behavior over a matrix of

  8. Risk management of energy efficiency projects in the industry - sample plant for injecting pulverized coal into the blast furnaces

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanović Filip P.; Berić Ivana M.; Jovanović Petar M.; Jovanović Aca D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses the applicability of well-known risk management methodologies in energy efficiency projects in the industry. The possibilities of application of the selected risk management methodology are demonstrated within the project of the plants for injecting pulverized coal into blast furnaces nos. 1 and 2, implemented by the company US STEEL SERBIA d.o.o. in Smederevo. The aim of the project was to increase energy efficiency through the reductio...

  9. Analysis of emission reduction strategies for power boilers in the US pulp and paper industry

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This paper first presents the background information for UISIS-PNP model by discussing different types of boilers installed throughout the pulp and paper sector, the...

  10. The efficacy of radiant heat controls on workers' heat stress around the blast furnace of a steel industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giahi, Omid; Darvishi, Ebrahim; Aliabadi, Mohsen; Khoubi, Jamshid

    2015-01-01

    Workers' exposure to excessive heat in molten industries is mainly due to radiant heat from hot sources. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of radiant heat controls on workers heat stress around a typical blast furnace. Two main interventions were applied for reducing radiant heat around the blast furnace of a steel industry located in western Iran. These included using a heat absorbing system in the furnace body and installing reflective aluminum barrier in the main workstation. Heat stress indexes were measured before and after each intervention using the digital WBGT-meter. The results showed MRT and WBGT indexes decreased by 20 °C and 3.9 °C, respectively after using heat absorbing system and also decreased by 18.6 °C and 2.5 °C, respectively after installing a reflective barrier. These indexes decrease by 26.5 °C and 5.2 °C, respectively due to the simultaneous application of the two interventions which were statistically significant (p steel industries.

  11. Emission of flue gases from industrial boilers and generators and their control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, G.H.; Shareef, A.; Hashmi, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of flue gases in the Stacks was carried out for 17 gas-fired boilers and 19 gas/diesel-fired generators and the concentrations of CO, NO/sub 2/, NO/sub x/ NO/sub 2/ SO/sub 2/ and C/sub x/ H/sub y/ were studied in the stack- emissions. The results have then been discussed with reference to the permissible limits, as per National Environmental Quality Standard. Higher concentration of co was observed in some boilers, and of CO and NO/sub x/ in some generators. Some effects of major air-pollutants have also been discussed as regards the human health, vegetables and materials. Some remedial measures have also been discussed to limit the concentration of air pollutants emitted from boilers and generators. (author)

  12. Study of the instability of black slags from electric arc furnace steel industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frías, M.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available In Spain, the steel manufacture produces important quantities of by-products, representing between 15 and 20 % of total steel production. Most by-products are deposited on open air spaces causing serious economical and environmental problems, internationally, different recycling wais are studied, being the main alternative for these by-products as recycled aggregate. The possibility of recycling these by-products in construction sector depends on its possible volume instability because of the presence of some undesirable compounds. In current paper, two different black slags from electric arc furnace steel industry were chemically characterized, paying attention to some well-known compounds by theirs expansion effects, such as: free CaO, free MgO, chlorides and sulphates. The analytical results carried out in the current research detected the presence of insignificant or null amounts of harmful compounds. Therefore, they should not have any negative incidence on phenomena of volume instability.

    En España la fabricación de acero produce grandes cantidades de residuos industriales, las cuales representan entre el 15-20 % de la producción total de acero, en su mayor parte se depositan en vertederos, causando serios problemas económicos y medioambientales a todos los sectores implicados. A nivel internacional, se están estudiando diferentes vías de reutilización, siendo su uso principal como árido de reciclado. La posibilidad de reutilizar estos subproductos industriales en el sector de la construcción se basa en su posible inestabilidad volumétrica, debido a la presencia de ciertos compuestos no deseados. En este trabajo se caracterizan químicamente 2 escorias negras de horno de arco eléctrico con diferente procedencia y se cuantifican algunos de los principales compuestos conocidos por sus efectos expansivos, como: cal libre, magnesia libre, cloruros y sulfatos. Los resultados analíticos de estas dos escorias negras muestran

  13. INDUSTRIAL BOILER RETROFIT FOR NOX CONTROL: COMBINED SELECTIVE NONCATALYTIC REDUCTION AND SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper describes retrofitting and testing a 590 kW (2 MBtu/hr), oil-fired, three-pass, fire-tube package boiler with a combined selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system. The system demonstrated 85% nitrogen oxides (NOx) reduction w...

  14. FY 1993-1999 report on all the results of the development of high performance industrial furnace; Koseino kogyoro no kaihatsu sogo seika hokokusho (1993 - 1999 nendo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Since an phenomenon was found out that NOx emission, which was thought to be increased, will be decreased by burning the high temperature preheated air jetting it at high speed (high temperature air combustion) in industrial furnace, there appeared a possibility of technical breakthrough for achieving the heightening of energy utilization efficiency and NOx reduction by exhaust heat recovery at the same time. This project aims at conducting full-scale experiments based on the basement technology including the theoretical elucidation of the combustion mechanism and high temperature air combustion by using various experimental facilities. Further, making full use of the most up-to-date analysis methods and constructing general-purpose database, the development is also aimed at of high performance industrial furnaces such as various heating furnace, heat treat furnace and melting furnace, with the assumption of prompt commercialization of the results of the development. As a result, targets were achieved such as energy saving of 30% or more, downsizing of 20% and a remarkable NOx reduction. Core technologies of this project are in-system limit heat recovery technology, high temperature air combustion technology, temperature field control technology (furnace temperature leveling technology) and high exergy heat transfer technology (furnace temperature heightening technology). (NEDO)

  15. Optimization of the combustion of SOME (soybean oil methyl ester), B5, B10, B20 and petrodiesel in a semi industrial boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghorbani, Afshin; Bazooyar, Bahamin

    2012-01-01

    This paper characterizes combustion of petrodiesel and prevalent SOME blends (B100, B5, B10 and B20), which were produced through an alkali-based transesterification in PUT, in a semi industrial boiler by determining its efficiency, exhaust emissions and costs. First, the influence of oxygen content of stock gases (by volume percent) upon regular emissions, thermal efficiency and costs (calculated by a cost function) was studied in order to investigate the performance and feasibility of using biodiesel in the boiler. In the next level, a multi-objective optimization method, named cost-based optimization, was represented and optimized the combustion of the fuels. The overall efficiency of the boiler obtained with the different fuels is comparable for the same operating points. Soy bean methyl ester and the blends emitted lower emissions than petrodiesel. Results demonstrate that the use of pure biodiesel is not economically feasible in the boiler. The total costs of the boiler obtained with the blends and petrodiesel are quite competitive. B5 is introduced to be the best fuel for using in the boiler. Results also reveal an optimum (“compromise”) in total cost of all the fuels in relation to the oxygen concentration of stock gases, which promises a cost saving in the boiler performance. -- Highlights: ► Efficiency, emissions and economy of the boiler fuelled with SOME, B5, B10, B20 and petrodiesel are investigated. ► The use of pure biodiesel was not economically feasible while economy of the blends and petrodiesel is competitive. ► B5 is introduced to be the most appropriate and economic fuel for the boiler. ► Presentation of a cost-based method optimization method. ► Introducing an optimum, “compromise”, O 2 % for the combustion of each fuel which promises a cost saving.

  16. A CFD study on the dust behaviour in a metallurgical waste-heat boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yongxiang, Yang; Jokilaakso, A [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Materials Processing and Powder Metallurgy

    1998-12-31

    A waste-heat boiler forms an essential part for the treatment of high temperature flue-gases in most metallurgical processes. Flue-dust carried by the furnace off-gas has to be captured efficiently in the waste-heat boilers before entering the downstream gas purification equipment. Flue dust may accumulate and foul on the heat transfer surfaces such as tube-walls, narrow conjunctions between the boiler and the furnace uptake, and thus may cause smelter shutdown, and interrupt the production. A commercial CFD package is used as the major tool on modelling the dust flow and settling in the waste-heat boiler of an industrial copper flash smelter. In the presentation, dust settling behaviour is illustrated for a wide range of particle sizes, and dust capture efficiency in the radiation section of the boiler for different particle sizes has been shown with the transient simulation. The simulation aims at providing detailed information of dust behaviour in the waste-heat boiler in sulphide smelting. (author) 11 refs.

  17. A CFD study on the dust behaviour in a metallurgical waste-heat boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Yongxiang; Jokilaakso, A. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Materials Processing and Powder Metallurgy

    1997-12-31

    A waste-heat boiler forms an essential part for the treatment of high temperature flue-gases in most metallurgical processes. Flue-dust carried by the furnace off-gas has to be captured efficiently in the waste-heat boilers before entering the downstream gas purification equipment. Flue dust may accumulate and foul on the heat transfer surfaces such as tube-walls, narrow conjunctions between the boiler and the furnace uptake, and thus may cause smelter shutdown, and interrupt the production. A commercial CFD package is used as the major tool on modelling the dust flow and settling in the waste-heat boiler of an industrial copper flash smelter. In the presentation, dust settling behaviour is illustrated for a wide range of particle sizes, and dust capture efficiency in the radiation section of the boiler for different particle sizes has been shown with the transient simulation. The simulation aims at providing detailed information of dust behaviour in the waste-heat boiler in sulphide smelting. (author) 11 refs.

  18. Furnace devices aerodynamics optimization for fuel combustion efficiency improvement and nitrogen oxide emission reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, E. P.; Prokhorov, V. B.; Arkhipov, A. M.; Chernov, S. L.; Kirichkov, V. S.; Kaverin, A. A.

    2017-11-01

    MPEI conducts researches on physical and mathematical models of furnace chambers for improvement of power-generation equipment fuel combustion efficiency and ecological safety. Results of these researches are general principles of furnace aerodynamics arrangement for straight-flow burners and various fuels. It has been shown, that staged combustion arrangement with early heating and igniting with torch distribution in all furnace volume allows to obtain low carbon in fly ash and nitrogen oxide emission and also to improve boiler operation reliability with expand load adjustment range. For solid fuel combustion efficiency improvement it is practical to use high-placed and strongly down-tilted straight-flow burners, which increases high-temperature zone residence time for fuel particles. In some cases, for this combustion scheme it is possible to avoid slag-tap removal (STR) combustion and to use Dry-bottom ash removal (DBAR) combustion with tolerable carbon in fly ash level. It is worth noting that boilers with STR have very high nitrogen oxide emission levels (1200-1800 mg/m3) and narrow load adjustment range, which is determined by liquid slag output stability, so most industrially-developed countries don’t use this technology. Final decision about overhaul of boiler unit is made with regard to physical and mathematical modeling results for furnace and zonal thermal calculations for furnace and boiler as a whole. Overhaul of boilers to provide staged combustion and straight-flow burners and nozzles allows ensuring regulatory nitrogen oxide emission levels and corresponding best available technology criteria, which is especially relevant due to changes in Russian environmental regulation.

  19. FY 1999 report on the results of the R and D on high performance industrial furnace, etc.; 1999 nendo koseino kogyoro no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho. Koseino kogyoro nado ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    In the development of high performance industrial furnace, initial targets were achieved such as energy saving of 30%, downsizing of 20%, and a remarkable NOx reduction. To verify the achievement, the test field project is being worked on by NEDO. In FY 1998, 23 heating furnaces, 29 heat treat furnaces and 6 melting furnaces were under the project at energy saving effect of 52,000 kl converted to crude oil. In FY 1999, 18 heating furnaces, 26 heat treat furnaces and 7 melting furnaces are now under the project at energy saving effect of 57,000 kl. The project was awarded 'The 9th Nikkei Global Environmental Technology Prize.' The themes for the R and D are as follows: high efficiency exhaust heat utilization system, self-completion type high temperature/high radiation heating technology, technology to make heat transfer in steel heating suitable under non-stationary state, high efficiency heat transfer technology, technology to optimize the shape of heating furnace, high performance atmosphere heat treat furnace, high efficiency heat transfer technology by high temperature jet flame heating, technology of high efficiency aluminum melting furnace, technology to improve soaking degree in steel heating, high performance tubular heating furnace in oil refining, optimum combustion control technology of regenerative burner furnace, and laser measuring method inside industrial furnace. (NEDO)

  20. Boiler conversions for biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinni, J [Tampella Power Inc., Tampere (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Boiler conversions from grate- and oil-fired boilers to bubbling fluidized bed combustion have been most common in pulp and paper industry. Water treatment sludge combustion, need for additional capacity and tightened emission limits have been the driving forces for the conversion. To accomplish a boiler conversion for biofuel, the lower part of the boiler is replaced with a fluidized bed bottom and new fuel, ash and air systems are added. The Imatran Voima Rauhalahti pulverized-peat-fired boiler was converted to bubbling fluidized bed firing in 1993. In the conversion the boiler capacity was increased by 10 % to 295 MWth and NO{sub x} emissions dropped. In the Kymmene Kuusankoski boiler, the reason for conversion was the combustion of high chlorine content biosludge. The emissions have been under general European limits. During the next years, the emission limits will tighten and the boilers will be designed for most complete combustion and compounds, which can be removed from flue gases, will be taken care of after the boiler. (orig.) 3 refs.

  1. Boiler conversions for biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinni, J. [Tampella Power Inc., Tampere (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Boiler conversions from grate- and oil-fired boilers to bubbling fluidized bed combustion have been most common in pulp and paper industry. Water treatment sludge combustion, need for additional capacity and tightened emission limits have been the driving forces for the conversion. To accomplish a boiler conversion for biofuel, the lower part of the boiler is replaced with a fluidized bed bottom and new fuel, ash and air systems are added. The Imatran Voima Rauhalahti pulverized-peat-fired boiler was converted to bubbling fluidized bed firing in 1993. In the conversion the boiler capacity was increased by 10 % to 295 MWth and NO{sub x} emissions dropped. In the Kymmene Kuusankoski boiler, the reason for conversion was the combustion of high chlorine content biosludge. The emissions have been under general European limits. During the next years, the emission limits will tighten and the boilers will be designed for most complete combustion and compounds, which can be removed from flue gases, will be taken care of after the boiler. (orig.) 3 refs.

  2. Advisory expert system for energy analysis in industrial boilers; Sistema experto asesor en el analisis energetico de calderas industriales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemper Valverde, Nicolas; Lara Rosano, Felipe; Vazquez Nava, Rodolfo [Laboratorio de Inteligencia Artificial, Instituto de Ingenieria UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents an expert system for the operational analysis of industrial boilers, estimating the potential of heat recovery, in the small and medium size industry. The package is friendly, practical, flexible easy to maintain and expandable to take into consideration the user`s specific requirements and allows the analysis of the energy losses in the combustion, feed water, drains, and insulation, identifying the enhancements and estimating the saving potential, in energy as well as economical. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presenta un sistema experto para analizar la operacion de calderas industriales estimando el potencial de recuperacion de calor, en la pequena y mediana industria. El paquete es amigable, practico, flexible, facil en su mantenimiento y expandible para tomar en consideracion los requerimientos especificos de los usuarios y permite el analisis de las perdidas de energia en la combustion, agua de alimentacion, purgas y aislamientos, identificando las mejoras y estimando ahorros potenciales, tanto energeticos como economicos.

  3. U.S. Experiences in Tackling Energy and Environmental Challenges of Boiler System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Lynn K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-08-15

    In the U.S., energy consumption by steam and process heat combined accounts for over 50% of the total energy use from industrial systems (see Figure 1). The use of boilers, process heaters, and furnaces for generating steam and heat in industrial facilities, commercial settings, and institutions consumes significant amounts of energy and is one of major sources of hazardous air pollutants, which contribute significantly to local pollution and global climate change. To address the energy and environmental challenges caused by boiler systems in the U.S., the country has taken a series of actions to reduce emissions from industrial, commercial and institutional boilers, improve the efficiency of steam systems, replace coal with cleaner energy resources, and promote the wider use of combined heat and power (CHP).

  4. Estimating the fuel moisture content to control the reciprocating grate furnace firing wet woody biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Striūgas, N.; Vorotinskienė, L.; Paulauskas, R.; Navakas, R.; Džiugys, A.; Narbutas, L.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Combustion of biomass with varying moisture content might lead to unstable operation of a furnace. • Method for automatic control of a furnace fired with wet biomass was developed. • Fuel moisture is estimated by cost-effective indirect method for predictive control. • Fuel moisture estimation methods and furnace control algorithm were validated in an industrial boiler. - Abstract: In small countries like Lithuania with a widespread district heating system, 5–10 MW moving grate biomass furnaces equipped with water boilers and condensing economisers are widely used. Such systems are designed for firing biomass fuels; however, varying fuel moisture, mostly in the range from 30% to 60%, complicates the automated operation. Without manual adjustment of the grate motion mode and other parameters, unstable operation or even extinction of the furnace is possible. To ensure stable furnace operation with moist fuel, the indirect method to estimate the fuel moisture content was developed based on the heat balance of the flue gas condensing economiser. The developed method was implemented into the automatic control unit of the furnace to estimate the moisture content in the feedstock and predictively adjust the furnace parameters for optimal fuel combustion. The indirect method based on the economiser heat balance was experimentally validated in a 6 MW grate-fired furnace fuelled by biomass with moisture contents of 37, 46, 50, 54 and 60%. The analysis shows that the estimated and manually measured values of the fuel moisture content do not differ by more than 3%. This deviation indicates that the indirect fuel moisture calculation method is sufficiently precise and the calculated moisture content varies proportionally to changes in the thermal capacity of the economiser. By smoothing the data using sliding weighted averaging, the oscillations of the fuel moisture content were identified.

  5. Experimental investigation on a 0.35 MWth coal-fired horizontal circulating fluidized bed boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Aihong; Li, Qinghai; Zhang, Yanguo; Wang, Zhaojun; Dang, Wenda [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Ministry of Education, Beijing (China). Key Lab. for Thermal Science and Power Engineering

    2013-07-01

    The capacities of industrial coal-fired boilers are normally less than 20-30 MWe. And these coal-fired boilers of low capacity are facing the severe situation of low efficiency and heavy environmental pollution. Hence, an innovative horizontal circulating fluidized bed (HCFB) boiler was developed to enhance heat efficiency and reduce pollutant emission of industrial boilers in China. The chamber in the HCFB boiler consists of primary combustion chamber, secondary combustion chamber and burnout chamber, which were combined horizontally side by side. To verify the conception of horizontal fluidized circulation and to obtain the characteristic data, a 0.35 MWth coal-combustion HCFB boiler was designed and installed to perform some experiments of combustion and mass circulation. In the boiler there were two mass circulating paths, one is inner circulating through the inertia separator and another was external circulating through the cyclone separator. The connection bottom of the secondary chamber and the burnout chamber was designed as an inertia separator, in which separated and collected solid materials were returned to the primary combustion. In fact the secondary separator was a small cyclone separator connecting to the exit of the burnout chamber. Heat efficiency and separating efficiency of the experimental boiler were measured and analyzed. Furthermore, mass and temperature distribution along the chambers height were also investigated. The results showed that the heat efficiency of the bare boiler was 82%. The mass balance based on ash content was measured and analyzed. Separating efficiency of the inertia separator and cyclone separator was 60 and 99.9%, respectively. It showed that the two stage material separation and circulation enhanced coal combustion in the HCFB boiler and help to minimize the height of the furnace.

  6. Pollutant emissions of commercial and industrial wood furnaces; determination of emissions and emission reducing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumbach, G.; Angerer, M.

    1993-01-01

    Approximately 382.000 t of wood waste from production processes are fired in Baden-Wuerttemberg per year in 4345 furnaces with capacities of less than 1 MW (field of application of the ''1 BImSchV''). This corresponds to an energy consumption of 5600 TJ. The firings with a totally installed capacity of 594 MW are operated mainly by joiners, carpenters, in sawmills and furniture factories. Certainly there are typical differences between the diverse branches concerning the characteristics of the firings such as capacity, kind of firing, of fuel supply and heat generation. Because of lacking established emission factors, at present time the emissions of these furnaces cannot be calculated. Therefore field measurements are carried out at a representative selection of the registered installations. The emissions are measured in consideration of the usual ways of operation and the commonly used fuels. Supplementarily the compound of the emitted hydrocarbons and their dependence on completeness of the combustion as well as the compound and the grain size distribution of the particle emissions are investigated. (orig.) [de

  7. THE WAYS OF IMPROVEMENT OF POWER EFFICIENCY OF INDUSTRIAL FURNACES AT RECUPERATION OF HEAT OF OUTGOING SMOKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Timoshpolskiy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main schemes of recovery of waste gases heat, applied in fuel furnaces of metallurgical and machinebuilding production, are analysed, and also criteria of choice of recuperators construction depending on function and constructions of furnaces are considered.

  8. Fractional control of an industrial furnace - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v32i3.6552

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Antonio Duarte Isfer

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The requirements of high production allied with product quality, process safety and environmental regulation, lead control systems to play a key role in the operation of chemical and biochemical plants. In petrochemical plants, furnaces are essential equipments for process operation and due to energy costs, adequate operation and control are of extreme importance for process economics. The search for new and more efficient control laws led to the development of fractional PID control algorithm, which is based on the use of fractional differential equations. In this work, a previously identified mathematical model of an actual industrial furnace is used for fractional PID control studies. Feedback loop in servo control was analyzed, focusing on the study of the influence of the controller parameters over control loop performance. Particularly, P, fractional PI and fractional PD controller were considered in this study. Simulations were carried out showing that the fractional controllers were able to perform set-point transitions. The control loop performance was evaluated by ITAE and ISE criteria, showing that, in this study, fractional PI is the best algorithm.

  9. Risk management of energy efficiency projects in the industry - sample plant for injecting pulverized coal into the blast furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Filip P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the applicability of well-known risk management methodologies in energy efficiency projects in the industry. The possibilities of application of the selected risk management methodology are demonstrated within the project of the plants for injecting pulverized coal into blast furnaces nos. 1 and 2, implemented by the company US STEEL SERBIA d.o.o. in Smederevo. The aim of the project was to increase energy efficiency through the reduction of the quantity of coke, whose production requires large amounts of energy, reduction of harmful exhaust emission and increase productivity of blast furnaces through the reduction of production costs. The project was complex and had high costs, so that it was necessary to predict risk events and plan responses to identified risks at an early stage of implementation, in the course of the project design, in order to minimise losses and implement the project in accordance with the defined time and cost limitations. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179081: Researching contemporary tendencies of strategic management using specialized management disciplines in function of competitiveness of Serbian economy

  10. Report on survey for high-performance industrial furnace introduction field test project in fiscal 1999. Verification work on achievements of industrial furnace development in 1999 by using theoretical method; 1999 nendo koseino kogyoro donyu field test jigyo chosa hokokusho. 1999 nendo koseino kogyoro kaihatsu seika no rironteki shuho ni yoru kakusho gyomu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The high-performance industrial furnace introduction field test project has been executed from fiscal 1998 through fiscal 2000. Fiscal 1999 has performed measurements, evaluations, analyses, and follow-ups on representative demonstration furnaces, subsequently from fiscal 1998. At the same time, theoretical discussions were given to understand the details of the achievements. The measurements and investigations on the representative demonstration furnaces verified remarkable enhancement in the waste heat recovery rate, and noticeable reduction in the fuel unit requirement. In order to understand in-furnace phenomena and heat conduction mechanisms, simulations were made on combustion gas flows, combustion reactions, and heat conduction by using three-dimensional and non-steady state continuous analyses. The method used is an effective method to elucidate the in-furnace gas temperature distribution in terms of space and time, and evaluate the heat conducting performance quantitatively. The result obtained in the current fiscal year on the overall heat absorption rate was found to be about the same value as for conventional furnaces. The temperature efficiency calculation value for the heat recovering device was 90 to 95%, which is much higher than that for the conventional furnaces of 30 to 60%. The calculation value for the fuel unit requirement was also reduced by 20 to 30% from that of the conventional furnaces. The simulation result is effective in understanding the heat conduction performance enhancing mechanism, having been supplemented by the measurements. (NEDO)

  11. Research achievement report for fiscal 1998 on the development of high-performance industrial furnaces. Research and development of high-performance industrial furnaces and the like (2); 1998 nendo koseino kogyoro no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho. Koseino kogyoro nado ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu (2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Volume 2 named above contains part of research achievement reports and individual research achievement reports. The aluminum melting furnace working group research achievement report covers aluminum melting furnace operating patterns, concentrated impinging flame mode and dispersed impinging flame mode, and honeycomb and ball structures in heat storing bodies. The tubular heater working group report mentions the application of this facility to oil heating furnaces, studies and investigations for the embodiment of real systems using the tubular heater, and tests conducted in a furnace with plural heating tube lines. The individual research achievement reports elaborate on the development of technologies of heat transfer optimization under unsteady conditions in the steel material heating process, research and development of high-efficiency heat transfer technologies, development of heating furnace geometry optimization technologies, research and development of a high-performance controlled atmosphere heat treatment furnace, development of high-efficiency heat transfer technologies in high-temperature jet flame heating, development of heat uniformity improvement technologies for example for the steel material heating process, construction of optimum combustion control technologies for the regenerative burner furnace, research concerning laser-aided measurement in industrial furnaces, etc. (NEDO)

  12. Oxidation study by Mössbauer and optic microscopy of steels from boiler tubes used in sugar industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, M.; Pérez Alcázar, G. A.; Aguilar, Y.

    1998-08-01

    Optic microscopy and Mössbauer spectroscopy were used to study the fail and the inner rusted surface of two boiler tubes used in the sugar industry, respectively. The studied tubes, of the type ASTM A 192, were found to have cracks. By optic microscopy it was observed that the failure begins in the inner surface with circumferential cracking. Also, inside and around the surface close to the cracks a rusted layer was detected. Powder from these layers was collected for Mössbauer spectroscopy analysis. By this method the presence of two or three types of Fe oxides such as wüstite, magnetite and hematite, was proved. These results permit to conclude that the failure mechanism was the thermal fatigue due to a hot work in an O2 -rich vapor atmosphere. The rusted products are stable at high temperatures.

  13. FY 1998 survey report on the project on field tests for high-efficient industrial furnace introduction. Manual; 1998 nendo koseino kogyoro donyu field test jigyo mannual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The high-efficient industrial furnace is a technology with the use of ultra-high temperature air over 1,000 degrees C, which has been impossible. It has been developed since FY 1993. The technology can reduce the energy consumption amount by 30%, and there is a possibility of reducing not only CO2, but NOx by approximately 50% over the conventional method. The main technique of the technology is to preheat the air blown into the incinerator at much higher temperatures of 1,000 degrees C or more than those in the existing combustion and to blow fuel into that high-speed air flow using the short-time-change/heat-storage type heat exchanger. It was predicted that the target value set first can almost be reached, and there can be seen a possibility of its industrial application. Industrial furnaces are used in many industrial fields such as metal production industry, petrochemical industry and electric machinery industry. The energy conservation in these fields brings extremely marked effects, and therefore it is an urgent task to introduce the industrial furnace into the fields quickly. The concentrated R and D were finished in FY 1998, and the field test project for the introduction was actually started. (NEDO)

  14. Research and proposal on selective catalytic reduction reactor optimization for industrial boiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yiming; Li, Jian; He, Hong

    2017-08-24

    The advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software STAR-CCM+ was used to simulate a denitrification (De-NOx) project for a boiler in this paper, and the simulation result was verified based on a physical model. Two selective catalytic reduction (SCR) reactors were developed: reactor 1 was optimized and reactor 2 was developed based on reactor 1. Various indicators, including gas flow field, ammonia concentration distribution, temperature distribution, gas incident angle, and system pressure drop were analyzed. The analysis indicated that reactor 2 was of outstanding performance and could simplify developing greatly. Ammonia injection grid (AIG), the core component of the reactor, was studied; three AIGs were developed and their performances were compared and analyzed. The result indicated that AIG 3 was of the best performance. The technical indicators were proposed for SCR reactor based on the study. Flow filed distribution, gas incident angle, and temperature distribution are subjected to SCR reactor shape to a great extent, and reactor 2 proposed in this paper was of outstanding performance; ammonia concentration distribution is subjected to ammonia injection grid (AIG) shape, and AIG 3 could meet the technical indicator of ammonia concentration without mounting ammonia mixer. The developments above on the reactor and the AIG are both of great application value and social efficiency.

  15. Combustion measurements in an industrial gas-fired flat-glass furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newbold, J; Webb, B W; McQuay, M Q [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.; Huber, A M [Ford Motor Co., Glass Div., Dearborn, MI (United States)

    1997-06-01

    Profiles of velocity, species concentration (O{sub 2}, CO and CO{sub 2}), wall incident radiative heat flux and temperature are reported in the combustion space of a regenerative, side-port, 550t/day, gas-fired flat-glass furnace. A region exists of fast-moving gases near the glass, with axial velocity components exceeding 20 m s{sup -1}, and a large recirculation zone near the crown. Temperatures as high as 1985 K in the flame and as low as 1750 K in the recirculation zone are reported. A region of intense reaction is observed near the glass, with large concentration gradients and incomplete combustion even in the tail of the flame. Local incident radiant fluxes on the crown were nearly uniform spatially at a level of 680 kW m{sup -2}. In the portnecks, flat inlet velocity profiles were measured with a magnitude of approximately 11 m s{sup -1}. Significant variations were observed in the exhaust profiles of most measured variables. Large errors in exhaust mass balance suggest a complex, three-dimensional flow with recirculation zones along the side walls of the portnecks. A nominal preheat air temperature of 1420 k and a variation of exhaust temperatures between 1630 K and 1835 K were noted. O{sub 2} concentrations as high as 8.4% were measured at the exit, suggesting a bypass of oxygen-rich flow around the flame. CO{sub 2} concentrations were the highest near the batch, where the glass reactions are the most intense. (Author)

  16. Modelling of carry-over in recovery furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakhrai, Reza [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Metallurgy

    2000-04-01

    Development of mathematical modelling of the combustion process in the furnace of recovery boilers is the subject of this work. This work as a continuation of many years of modelling efforts carried out at KTH/Vaerme- och Ugnsteknik focussed particularly on: char bed modelling; droplets-wall interaction modelling; and carry-over modelling. The char bed model has been studied. Droplets/parcels were considered as a single reactor working independently of the other droplets. The mass of the droplets was not distributed uniformly but induced in the landing place. The droplets hitting the char bed will stick to it and they are alive and part of the calculation. In this way the distribution of the mass on the char bed is only dependent on the parameters which effect flight history such as droplet/parcel diameter, boilers flow field, etc. The droplet- wall interaction model has been studied and found to be very important for obtaining the correct temperature distribution in the recovery furnace. The new approach is based on removal of droplets which hits the wall in the upper part of the recovery boiler from carryover calculation. This model has been proposed and implemented into the GRFM (General Recovery Furnace Model). The carryover modelling effort was based on mass balance in which the number and physical statistics of the droplets/parcel were estimated and the amount of unburned mass was calculated. All of the above listed models were tested together with all other models of heat and mass transfer processes in recovery furnaces using a GRFM. Three-dimensional numerical simulations of the industrial recovery boiler (63 kg/s, 82 bar, 480 deg C) were performed. The number of grid was 232,000 and the number of air ports in this simulation was 178. The air entering the furnace by these ports has different flow rates. Flow and temperature fields as well as species distributions were calculated. The results show good agreement with previously published data and modelling

  17. INCREASING OF PRECISE ESTIMATION OF OPTIMAL CRITERIA BOILER FUNCTIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. Skakovsk

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Results of laboratory and industrial research allowed offering a way to improve the accuracy of estimation the optimal criterion of boilers' operation depending on fuel quality. Criterion is calculated continuously during boiler operation as heat ratio transmitted in production with superheated steam to the thermal energy obtained by combustion in boiler’s furnace fuel (natural gas .The non-linearity dependence of steam enthalpy from its temperature and pressure are considered when calculating, as well as changes in calorific value of natural gas, depending on variety in nitrogen content therein. The control algorithm and program for Ukrainian PLC MIC-52 are offered. The user selection program implements two searching modes for criterion maximum: automated and automatic. The results are going to be used for upgrading the existing control system on sugar factory.

  18. Fouling control in biomass boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romeo, Luis M.; Gareta, Raquel [Centro de Investigacion de Recursos y Consumos Energeticos (CIRCE), Universidad de Zaragoza, Centro Politecnico Superior, Maria de Luna, 3, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2009-05-15

    One of the important challenges for biomass combustion in industrial applications is the fouling tendency and how it affects to the boiler performance. The classical approach for this question is to activate sootblowing cycles with different strategies to clean the boiler (one per shift, one each six hours..). Nevertheless, it has been often reported no effect on boiler fouling or an excessive steam consumption for sootblowing. This paper illustrates the methodology and the application to select the adequate time for activating sootblowing in an industrial biomass boiler. The outcome is a control strategy developed with artificial intelligence (Neural Network and Fuzzy Logic Expert System) for optimizing the biomass boiler cleaning and maximizing heat transfer along the time. Results from an optimize sootblowing schedule show savings up to 12 GWh/year in the case-study biomass boiler. Extra steam generation produces an average increase of turbine power output of 3.5%. (author)

  19. Fiscal 1997 report on the results of the research on the development of high-performance industrial furnaces. R and D of high-performance industrial furnaces, etc; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho (koseino kogyoro no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho). Koseino kogyoro nado ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    A R and D was conducted for the purpose of developing remarkable energy conservation/CO2 reduction technologies. In fiscal 1997, the five working groups about the following were formed to have animated discussions: the basic research, heating furnace, heat treatment furnace, melting furnace, and tubular heating furnace. The research subjects are the pursuit/deepening of the base study on flame structures in high temperature air combustion, critical heat recovery of the system in high temperature air combustion, examination of the basic common technology on the ultimate optimization of the material heat transfer, construction of general-purpose experimental database, setting-up of design standards for general-purpose high-performance industrial furnaces, presentation of examples of the actual trial design based on the design standards and feasibility study of the practical application, preparatory support of the field test project on high-performance industrial furnaces for commercialization/diffusion/spread, etc. Further, how to arrange the developmental results was studied to make the results of the project useful for study of the prompt commercialization. 442 refs., 1444 figs., 311 tabs.

  20. Toxic emissions during co-combustion of biomass-waste wood-lignite blends in an industrial boiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaras, P; Skodras, G; Sakellaropoulos, G P; Blumenstock, M; Schramm, K W; Kettrup, A

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of this work were to study the PCDD/F emissions during the co-combustion of waste wood/coal co-combustion in an industrial boiler and to determine the relation of the toxic emissions to the fuel properties. Co-combustion experiments were performed in a 13.8 MWthermal industrial moving grate combustor. The fuels which were examined in this study included Greek lignite, natural uncontaminated wood, power poles and medium density fibers (MDFs) which were by-products of the plant production process. Fuel blends were prepared by mixing single components in various concentrations. PCDD/F emissions were collected during experimental runs and were analyzed according to standard methods. Low PCDD/F emissions were obtained during the co-combustion tests, lower than the limit value of 0.1 ng TEQ/Nm3. The lowest values were observed during the combustion of fuel blends containing MDF, possibly due to the inhibitory action of some of the N-containing MDF ingredients, such as urea. No direct correlation was found between the PCDD/F and the copper emissions, while examination of the PCDD/F homologue patterns revealed the predominance of the lower chlorinated isomers over the higher ones.

  1. Regulating low-NOx and high-burnout deep-air-staging combustion under real-furnace conditions in a 600 MWe down-fired supercritical boiler by strengthening the staged-air effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Min; Wang, Zhihua; Zhu, Yanqun; Ling, Zhongqian; Li, Zhengqi

    2014-10-21

    A 600 MW(e) down-fired pulverized-coal supercritical boiler, which was equipped with a deep-air-staging combustion system for reducing the particularly high NOx emissions, suffered from the well-accepted contradiction between low NOx emissions and high carbon in fly ash, in addition to excessively high gas temperatures in the hopper that jeopardized the boiler's safe operations. Previous results uncovered that under low-NOx conditions, strengthening the staged-air effect by decreasing the staged-air angle and simultaneously increasing the staged-air damper opening alleviated the aforementioned problems to some extent. To establish low-NOx and high-burnout circumstances and control the aforementioned hopper temperatures, a further staged-air retrofit with horizontally redirecting staged air through an enlarged staged-air slot area was performed to greatly strengthen the staged-air effect. Full-load industrial-size measurements were performed to confirm the availability of this retrofit. The present data were compared with those published results before the retrofit. High NOx emissions, low carbon in fly ah, and high hopper temperatures (i.e., levels of 1036 mg/m(3) at 6% O2, 3.72%, and about 1300 °C, respectively) appeared under the original conditions with the staged-air angle of 45° and without overfire air (OFA) application. Applying OFA and reducing the angle to 20° achieved an apparent NOx reduction and a moderate hopper temperature decrease while a sharp increase in carbon in fly ash (i.e., levels of 878 mg/m(3) at 6% O2, about 1200 °C, and 9.81%, respectively). Fortunately, the present staged-air retrofit was confirmed to be applicable in regulating low-NOx, high-burnout, and low hopper temperature circumstances (i.e., levels of 867 mg/m(3) at 6% O2, 5.40%, and about 1100 °C, respectively).

  2. State-of-the-art of furnace recuperation in the primary metals industry: technical briefing report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, N.L.

    1983-08-01

    Existing and emerging recuperator technology is identified, as well as the technical and economic issues in applying such technology. An overview of recuperation and its relevance to the primary metals industry is presented. Design considerations, equipment, and energy and cost savings of five recuperator applications in the primary metals industry are examined. Three applications include a case history of a recent recuperator installation. A cost engineering analysis of recuperator technology is included to ensure that technically feasible engineering projects are also economically attractive business ventures. An overview of emerging recuperation technology is presented.

  3. Charting the boiler market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The ''boiler market'' of electricity, sometimes called unsecured transmission, is electric power consumption that in public statistics is restricted by the obligation of the customers to cut their consumption at short notice and therefore are granted some discount on the network lease. The present document is part of a project that aims to provide a better understanding of the flexibility in the Norwegian power market, limited by the power-intensive industry and the boiler market. It discusses the boiler market. It begins with a discusses of the available statistics, where different sources show very dissimilar consumption figures. Then it examines how the consumption in the boiler market developed during the winter 2002/2003. Finally, there is a description of the regulations of unsecured transmission and how the various network owners adapt to the regulations.

  4. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Martin Denison; Adel Sarofim; Connie Senior; Hong-Shig Shim; Dave Swenson; Bob Hurt; Eric Suuberg; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker

    2006-06-30

    in a pilot scale furnace and soot behavior predicted by the CFD model showed good agreement. Field and laboratory tests were performed for SCR catalysts used for coal and biomass co-firing applications. Fundamental laboratory studies were performed to better understand mechanisms involved with catalyst deactivation. Field tests with a slip stream reactor were used to create catalyst exposed to boiler flue gas for firing coal and for co-firing coal and biomass. The field data suggests the mechanisms leading to catalyst deactivation are, in order of importance, channel plugging, surface fouling, pore plugging and poisoning. Investigations were performed to better understand the mechanisms involved with catalyst regeneration through mechanical or chemical methods. A computer model was developed to predict NOx reduction across the catalyst in a SCR. Experiments were performed to investigate the fundamentals of ammonia/fly ash interactions with relevance to the operation of advanced NOx control technologies such as selective catalytic reduction. Measurements were performed for ammonia adsorption isotherms on commercial fly ash samples subjected to a variety of treatments and on the chemistry of dry and semi-dry ammonia removal processes. This work resulted in the first fundamental ammonia isotherms on carbon-containing fly ash samples. This work confirms industrial reports that aqueous solution chemistry takes place upon the introduction of even very small amounts of water, while the ash remains in a semi-dry state.

  5. Fiscal 1998 research report. Current state survey for promoting the field test project for introduction of advanced industrial furnaces; 1998 nendo koseino kogyoro donyu field test jigyo ni okeru jigyo sokushin no tame no jittai chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Survey was made on the current state of installation and operation of industrial furnaces mainly in manufacturers to predict the applicability of advanced industrial furnaces, and study was made on energy consumption trends, the energy saving effect of advanced industrial furnaces, and factor extraction for their applicability. In the survey, questionnaires were delivered to 4,597 offices extracted from domestic 50,780 offices with employees more than 30, and nearly 30% of them were recovered, covering nearly 2.6% of all the offices concerned with this survey. As the survey result, the total annual energy consumption of domestic manufacturers was estimated to be 740,949 x 10{sup 6}Mcal, and among it, 709,709 x 10{sup 6}Mcal for large industrial furnaces. Under the assumption that nearly 30% of large industrial furnaces in operation are replaced with advanced industrial furnaces, energy saving expectation is estimated to be 210,000 x 10{sup 6}Mcal. Opinions and demands for this project showed the difficulty in their application to industrial furnaces in operation and study on their effects. Further enlightenment activities are necessary. (NEDO)

  6. Application of advanced oxidation processes for cleaning of industrial water generated in wet dedusting of shaft furnace gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaplicka, Marianna; Kurowski, Ryszard; Jaworek, Katarzyna; Bratek, Łukasz

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents results of studies into advanced oxidation processes in 03 and 03/UV systems. An advanced oxidation process (AOP) was conducted to reduce the load of impurities in circulating waters from wet de-dusting of shaft furnace gases. Besides inorganic impurities, i.e. mainly arsenic compounds (16 g As L(-1) on average), lead, zinc, chlorides and sulphates, the waters also contain some organic material. The organic material is composed of a complex mixture that contains, amongst others, aliphatic compounds, phenol and its derivatives, pyridine bases, including pyridine, and its derivatives. The test results show degradation of organic and inorganic compounds during ozonation and photo-oxidation processes. Analysis of the solutions from the processes demonstrated that the complex organic material in the industrial water was oxidized in ozonation and in photo-oxidation, which resulted in formation of aldehydes and carboxylic acids. Kinetic degradation of selected pollutants is presented. Obtained results indicated that the O3/UV process is more effective in degradation of organic matter than ozonation. Depending on the process type, precipitation of the solid phase was observed. The efficiency of solid-phase formation was higher in photo-oxidation with ozone. It was found that the precipitated solid phase is composed mainly of arsenic, iron and oxygen.

  7. Analysis of Flue Gas Emissions Using a Semi-industrial Boiler Fueled by Biodiesel Produced from Two-stage Transesterification of Waste Cooking Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Mansourpoor, M.; Shariati, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, waste cooking oil and methanol as feedstock together with sulfuric acid and potassium hydroxide as catalysts were used to produce biodiesel. The physical properties of the waste cooking oil, the produced biodiesel and the purchased petrodiesel were measured using specified ASTM standards. To examine their performance and their flue gases emissions, biodiesel and petrodiesel were burnt in a wet base semi-industrial boiler. The emitted combustion gases, including CO, NOx, SO2 and ...

  8. Improved cooler design of electric arc furnace refractory in mining industry using thermal analysis modeling and simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Istadi, I.; Bindar, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Production of steel and nickel using the electric arc furnace should be focused on the intensification of energy. Improvement of energy efficiency of the most consuming facilities was achieved by improving the use of alternative energy minimization such as reducing the heat lost of hot gases, minimizing the heat radiated through refractory linings of metallurgical furnaces, and cooling the highly thermally stressed components. The refractory of electric arc furnace should be modified to achieve the best cooling system of the furnace. In this physical modeling and simulation works, four modification scenarios of wall refractory designs were simulated, i.e. refractory with basic design, refractory with deep plate coolers, refractory with extra plate coolers, and refractory with wall falling film coolers. Finally, the use of deep plate cooler and the existing waffle cooler system was considered to be the best design of efficient electric arc furnace operationally. - Highlights: • Electric arc furnace design should be focused on the intensification of energy. • Refractory of electric arc furnace were modified to achieve the best cooling system. • Four modification scenarios of the wall refractory designs were simulated. • Use of deep plate cooler and existing waffle cooler system is the best cooling

  9. Survey report for fiscal 1999. Reference book for standard heat calculations in high-performance industrial furnace introduction field test project; 1999 nendo koseino kogyoro donyu field test jigyo chosa hokokusho. Hyojun netsu keisanshiki kijunsho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    With an objective to verify in a short time the heat recovery capability being the evaluation parameter for the technologies to develop the high-performance industrial furnace, a standard calculation book will be prepared, which standardizes the data collection methods and heat calculation methods, and is used as the standard data sheets and bases. Evaluations and analyses will be given on business types, furnace constructions, thermal technologies, and functions in the research items adopted in the field test project. The results will be used to recognize the business entities engaged in the project in the next fiscal year, furnace types and sizes, establish the industrial furnace subjected to researches in the next fiscal year, and proliferate and expand the related business entities. Standard data sheets will be prepared on seven kinds of furnaces, heating furnaces (continuous and batch types), ladles, heat treatment furnaces (continuous and batch types), gas treatment furnaces, and melting furnaces. The standard data sheets will cover the following items: evaluation parameters (energy saving rate, thermal efficiency, and waste heat recovery rate), calculating conditions to be the base for the evaluation parameters, a heat production book to be the base for calculating the heat unit requirement, and a standard calculation book to be the base for the heat production table. The standard data sheets (including the standard calculation book) and floppy disks are submitted. (NEDO)

  10. Energy efficiency and emissions of arc furnaces in the steel industry; Energieeffizienz und Emissionen der Lichtbogenoefen in der Stahlindustrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirschen, M.

    2007-07-01

    The operation of the electric arc furnace obeys economic constraints that require cost optimal use of the resources scrap, scrap substitutes, alloys, direct reduced iron, pig iron, oxygen, fuel gas, and energy. On the other hand, legal restrictions for minimum emissions must be observed. Comprehensive process models and strategies to optimize the EAF steel production require detailed knowledge about both energy flow rates and emissions. However, this data is often not available in the meltshop due to technical problems or high effort for maintenance of on-line off-gas analysis systems at the EAF. The Institute for Industrial Furnaces and Heat Engineering of RWTH Aachen University performed off-gas measurements at various EAFs during steel production. In some plant trials off-gas measurements were conducted simultaneously at two points in the dedusting system in order to determine the otherwise unknown volume flow rate of air at the gap between the EAF elbow and the hot gas duct. In this work, state-of-the-art off-gas analysis systems are presented. First hints for process development of particular EAFs are derived from off-gas data. Off-gas data complement the meltshop data, that are required for complete mass and energy balances. From recent energy balances, the EAF process is evaluated with respect to off-gas energy and energy efficiency. Recent energy balances from our measurements and from the literature of the last decade show total energy demand between 600 kWh/t and 850 kWh/t and energy efficiency values up to 70%. EAFs with scrap pre-heating technologies achieve highest energy efficiency values up to 70%. Measurements of off-gas and air volume flow rates monitor the efficiency of the EAF dedusting plant in combination with the EAF. With direct exhaust control based on furnace pressure measurement, the specific off-gas mass and energy is decreased significantly. Improvement of the analysis equipment for off-gas measurements at the EAF with focus on very

  11. Industrial Application of an Improved Multiple Injection and Multiple Staging Combustion Technology in a 600 MWe Supercritical Down-Fired Boiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Minhang; Zeng, Lingyan; Chen, Zhichao; Li, Zhengqi; Zhu, Qunyi; Kuang, Min

    2016-02-02

    To solve the water wall overheating in lower furnace, and further reduce NOx emissions and carbon in fly ash, continuous improvement of the previously proposed multiple injection and multiple staging combustion (MIMSC) technology lies on three aspects: (1) along the furnace arch breadth, changing the previously centralized 12 burner groups into a more uniform pattern with 24 burners; (2) increasing the mass ratio of pulverized coal in fuel-rich flow to that in fuel-lean flow from 6:4 to 9:1; (3) reducing the arch-air momentum by 23% and increasing the tertiary-air momentum by 24%. Industrial-size measurements (i.e., adjusting overfire air (OFA) damper opening of 20-70%) uncovered that, compared with the prior MIMSC technology, the ignition distance of fuel-rich coal/air flow shortened by around 1 m. The gas temperature in the lower furnace was symmetric and higher, the flame kernel moved upward and therefore made the temperature in near-wall region of furnace hopper decrease by about 400 °C, the water wall overheating disappeared completely. Under the optimal OFA damper opening (i.e, 55%), NOx emissions and carbon in fly ash attained levels of 589 mg/m(3) at 6% O2 and 6.18%, respectively, achieving NOx and carbon in fly ash significant reduction by 33% and 37%, respectively.

  12. Mitsubishi latest coal fired USC boiler technology (CFE Pacifico 700 MW)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, T.; Sakamoto, K. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Nagasaki (Japan). Power Systems; Fujitab, M. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Yokohama (Japan). Power Systems

    2013-07-01

    Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (MHI) has successfully completed commissioning work for CFE (Comision Federal de Electricidad) Pacifico 700 MW coal-fired unit in March 2010 which is the first supercritical unit in Latin America. This supercritical boiler was designed with state of the art technologies such as low NOx burners, high fineness pulverizers, advanced vertical furnace wall technology and so on. Especially the advanced vertical furnace wall technology with some improvements is a key technology to realize swift load changes such as 5% load per minute ramping rate with assuring dynamic characteristics. Recently the requirement of the high efficiency and the swift load changes for the power boilers has been increased so that even a coal-fired unit needs flexible operation characteristics for balancing variety of power sources. One of the challenges for the swift load change is to keep the furnace wall metal temperature low during the load change, which the advanced vertical furnace wall could realize. The report describes the features of the unit and commissioning result including load swing test results in details.

  13. Solved and unsolved problems in boiler systems. Learning from accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozawa, Mamoru

    2000-01-01

    This paper begins with a brief review on the similarity law of conventional fossil-fuel-fired boilers. The concept is based on the fact that the heat release due to combustion in the furnace is restricted by the furnace volume but the heat absorption is restricted by the heat transfer surface area. This means that a small-capacity boiler has relatively high specific furnace heat release rate, about 10 MW/m 3 , and on the contrary a large-capacity boiler has lower value. The surface-heat-flux limit is mainly dominated by the CHF inside the water-wall tubes of the boiler furnace, about 350 kW/m 2 . This heat-flux limit is almost the same order independently on the capacity of boilers. For the safety of water-walls, it is essential to retain suitable water circulation, i.e. circulation ratio and velocity of water. This principle is a common knowledge of boiler designer, but actual situation is not the case. Newly designed boilers often suffer from similar accidents, especially burnout due to circulation problems. This paper demonstrates recent accidents encountered in practical boilers, and raises problems of rather classical but important two-phase flow and heat transfer. (author)

  14. Glass: Rotary Electric Glass Furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Recca, L.

    1999-01-29

    Compared to conventional gas-fired furnaces, the new rotary electric furnace will increase energy efficiency while significantly reducing air emissions, product turnaround time, and labor costs. As this informative new fact sheet explains, the thousand different types of glass optical blanks produced for the photonics industry are used for lasers, telescopes, cameras, lights, and many other products.

  15. Automating the production of high-purity zirconium from waste products in industrial furnaces SKB-5025 and apparatuses TS-40M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavrikov, S.A.; Kotsar', M.L.; Lapidus, A.O.; Akhtonov, S.G.; Aleksandrov, A.V.; Ogorodnikov, L.V.; Chernyshev, A.A.; Kopysov, N.V.

    2014-01-01

    A disadvantage of iodide refining of zirconium in industrial furnaces in the processing of waste products production in JSC CMP is the low direct yield of the metal in iodide rods and large energy consumption of the process. The aim of this work is to optimize the process by means of automated control. The paper deals with the creation of a test unit to automate the iodide refining of zirconium in JSC CMP. The main features of the unit, the hardware and software of the automated unit and the results of its work during the operation are described. A scheme for the automation of 10 furnaces SKB-5025 by optimizing the total cost of computing equipment and for software improvements was proposed and implemented in 2012

  16. Detailed model for practical pulverized coal furnaces and gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.J.; Smoot, L.D.

    1989-08-01

    This study has been supported by a consortium of nine industrial and governmental sponsors. Work was initiated on May 1, 1985 and completed August 31, 1989. The central objective of this work was to develop, evaluate and apply a practical combustion model for utility boilers, industrial furnaces and gasifiers. Key accomplishments have included: Development of an advanced first-generation, computer model for combustion in three dimensional furnaces; development of a new first generation fouling and slagging submodel; detailed evaluation of an existing NO{sub x} submodel; development and evaluation of an improved radiation submodel; preparation and distribution of a three-volume final report: (a) Volume 1: General Technical Report; (b) Volume 2: PCGC-3 User's Manual; (c) Volume 3: Data Book for Evaluation of Three-Dimensional Combustion Models; and organization of a user's workshop on the three-dimensional code. The furnace computer model developed under this study requires further development before it can be applied generally to all applications; however, it can be used now by specialists for many specific applications, including non-combusting systems and combusting geseous systems. A new combustion center was organized and work was initiated to continue the important research effort initiated by this study. 212 refs., 72 figs., 38 tabs.

  17. Final Report, Materials for Industrial Heat Recovery Systems, Task 1 Improved Materials and Operation of Recuperators for Aluminum Melting Furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiser, James R.; Sarma, Gorti B.; Thekdi, Arvind; Meisner Roberta A.; Phelps, Tony; Willoughby, Adam W.; Gorog, J. Peter; Zeh, John; Ningileri, Shridas; Liu, Yansheng; Xiao, Chenghe

    2007-09-30

    Production of aluminum is a very energy intensive process which is increasingly more important in the USA. This project concentrated on the materials issues associated with recovery of energy from the flue gas stream in the secondary industry where scrap and recycled metal are melted in large furnaces using gas fired burners. Recuperators are one method used to transfer heat from the flue gas to the air intended for use in the gas burners. By preheating this combustion air, less fuel has to be used to raise the gas temperature to the desired level. Recuperators have been successfully used to preheat the air, however, in many cases the metallic recuperator tubes have a relatively limited lifetime – 6 to 9 months. The intent of this project was to determine the cause of the rapid tube degradation and then to recommend alternative materials or operating conditions to prolong life of the recuperator tubes. The first step to understanding degradation of the tubes was to examine exposed tubes to identify the corrosion products. Analyses of the surface scales showed primarily iron oxides rather than chromium oxide suggesting the tubes were probably cycled to relatively high temperatures to the extent that cycling and subsequent oxide spalling reduced the surface concentration of chromium below a critical level. To characterize the temperatures reached by the tubes, thermocouples were mounted on selected tubes and the temperatures measured. During the several hour furnace cycle, tube temperatures well above 1000°C were regularly recorded and, on some occasions, temperatures of more than 1100°C were measured. Further temperature characterization was done with an infrared camera, and this camera clearly showed the variations in temperature across the first row of tubes in the four recuperator modules. Computational fluid dynamics was used to model the flow of combustion air in the tubes and the flue gas around the outside of the tubes. This modeling showed the

  18. Steam generators and furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swoboda, E

    1978-04-01

    The documents published in 1977 in the field of steam generators for conventional thermal power plants are classified according to the following subjects: power industry and number of power plants, planning and operation, design and construction, furnaces, environmental effects, dirt accumulation and corrosion, conservation and scouring, control and automation, fundamental research, and materials.

  19. Waste and dust utilisation in shaft furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senk, D.; Babich, A.; Gudenau, H.W. [Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Aachen (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Wastes and dusts from steel industry, non-ferrous metallurgy and other branches can be utilised e.g. in agglomeration processes (sintering, pelletising or briquetting) and by injection into shaft furnaces. This paper deals with the second way. Combustion and reduction behaviour of iron- and carbon-rich metallurgical dusts and sludges containing lead, zinc and alkali as well as other wastes with and without pulverised coal (PC) has been studied when injecting into shaft furnaces. Following shaft furnaces have been examined: blast furnace, cupola furnace, OxiCup furnace and imperial-smelting furnace. Investigations have been done at laboratory and industrial scale. Some dusts and wastes under certain conditions can be not only reused but can also improve combustion efficiency at the tuyeres as well as furnace performance and productivity.

  20. Electrification of buildings and industry in the United States: Drivers, barriers, prospects, and policy approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deason, Jeff; Wei, Max; Leventis, Greg; Smith, Sarah; Schwartz, Lisa C.

    2018-03-26

    The report offers several use cases and case studies of electrification in buildings and industry: air source heat pumps for space heating, zero net energy buildings, electric water heaters and demand response, electric arc furnaces, and electric boilers. Finally, the report suggests several areas for further research to better understand and advance beneficial electrification.

  1. Catalytic burners in larger boiler appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silversand, Fredrik; Persson, Mikael (Catator AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2009-02-15

    This project focuses on the scale up of a Catator's catalytic burner technology to enable retrofit installation in existing boilers and the design of new innovative combinations of catalytic burners and boilers. Different design approaches are discussed and evaluated in the report and suggestions are made concerning scale-up. Preliminary test data, extracted from a large boiler installation are discussed together with an accurate analysis of technical possibilities following an optimization of the boiler design to benefit from the advantages of catalytic combustion. The experimental work was conducted in close collaboration with ICI Caldaie (ICI), located in Verona, Italy. ICI is a leading European boiler manufacturer in the effect segment ranging from about 20 kWt to several MWt. The study shows that it is possibly to scale up the burner technology and to maintain low emissions. The boilers used in the study were designed around conventional combustion and were consequently not optimized for implementation of catalytic burners. From previous experiences it stands clear that the furnace volume can be dramatically decreased when applying catalytic combustion. In flame combustion, this volume is normally dimensioned to avoid flame impingement on cold surfaces and to facilitate completion of the gas-phase reactions. The emissions of nitrogen oxides can be reduced by decreasing the residence time in the furnace. Even with the over-dimensioned furnace used in this study, we easily reached emission values close to 35 mg/kWh. The emissions of carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons were negligible (less than 5 ppmv). It is possible to decrease the emissions of nitrogen oxides further by designing the furnace/boiler around the catalytic burner, as suggested in the report. Simultaneously, the size of the boiler installation can be reduced greatly, which also will result in material savings, i.e. the production cost can be reduced. It is suggested to optimize the

  2. Influence of declivitous secondary air on combustion characteristics of a down-fired 300-MWe utility boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhengqi Li; Feng Ren; Zhichao Chen; Zhao Chen; Jingjie Wang [Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China). School of Energy Science and Engineering

    2010-02-15

    Industrial experiments were performed with a 300-MWe full-scale down-fired boiler. New data is reported for (i) gas temperature distributions within the primary air and coal mixture flows, (ii) gas compositions, such as O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2} and NOx, and (iii) gas temperatures within the near-wall region. The data complements previously-obtained data from the same utility boiler before being modified by declination of the F-tier secondary air. By directing secondary air under the arches, the region where the primary air and pulverized coal mixture is ignited is brought forward within the boiler. Gas temperatures rose in the fuel-burning zone and fell in the fuel-burnout zone. As a result the quantity of unburned carbon in fly ash and the gas temperature at the furnace outlet were both lowered. 20 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Effect of Prolong Aging to the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Boiler Tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norasiah Abdul Kasim; Mohd Harun; Muhamad Rawi Mohd Zin; Zaifol Samsu; Mahdi Ezwan Mahmoud; Zaiton Selamat; Shariff Satar

    2013-01-01

    Boiler or steam generator is a device used to create steam by applying heat energy to water. For industrial applications, most boilers are used under extreme conditions, which require them to operating continuously or in a batch. Therefore constant heating and cooling will result into certain material failure, or when the operation itself exhibit a few malfunctions, it will affected the boiler condition and contribute to its failure. Hence the main emphasis on this study is investigating the effect of aging, with the influence of temperature by heating it into a period of time. Focus on understanding the changes occurred during the operating hour of boiler by simulating a short term aging experiment. The boilers structure material, Carbon Steel BS3509 used in this experiment were heated on a furnace with 500 and 550 centigrade for 19, 49, 72 and 191 hours. After the heating process, the metal specimens will be observed its micro structural changes and the oxide layer. The hardness will also be tested and taken accounted for before and after heating. The results and insight from the observation have been analyzed and discussed. (author)

  4. Increasing the efficiency of the condensing boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaytsev, ON; Lapina, EA

    2017-11-01

    Analysis of existing designs of boilers with low power consumption showed that the low efficiency of the latter is due to the fact that they work in most cases when the heating period in the power range is significantly less than the nominal power. At the same time, condensing boilers do not work in the most optimal mode (in condensing mode) in the central part of Russia, a significant part of their total operating time during the heating season. This is due to existing methods of equipment selection and joint operation with heating systems with quantitative control of the coolant. It was also revealed that for the efficient operation of the heating system, it is necessary to reduce the inertia of the heat generating equipment. Theoretical patterns of thermal processes in the furnace during combustion gas at different radiating surfaces location schemes considering the influence of the very furnace configuration, characterized in that to reduce the work condensing boiler in conventional gas boiler operation is necessary to maintain a higher temperature in the furnace (in the part where spiral heat exchangers are disposed), which is possible when redistributing heat flow - increase the proportion of radiant heat from the secondary burner emitter allow Perey For the operation of the condensing boiler in the design (condensation) mode practically the entire heating period.

  5. On-line monitoring system for utility boiler diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radovanovic, P.M.; Afgan, N.H.; Caralho, M.G.

    1997-01-01

    The paper deals with the new developed modular type Monitoring System for Utility Boiler Diagnostics. Each module is intended to assess the specific process and can be used as a stand alone application. Four modules are developed, namely: LTC - module for the on-line monitoring of parameters related to the life-time consumption of selected boiler components; TRD - module for the tube rupture detection by the position and working fluid Ieakage quantity; FAM - module for the boiler surfaces fouling (slagging) assessment and FLAP - module for visualization of the boiler furnace flame position. All four modules are tested on respective pilot plants built oil the 200 and 300 MWe utility boilers. Monitoring System is commercially available and can be realized in any combination of its modules depending on demands induced by the operational problems of specific boiler. Further development of Monitoring System is performed in accordance with the respective EU project on development of Boiler Expert System. (Author)

  6. Cofiring of biofuels in coal fired boilers: Results of case study analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tillman, D.A. [Ebasco Environmental, Sacramento, CA (United States); Hughes, E. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Gold, B.A. [TVA, Chattanooga, TN (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Ebasco Environmental and Reaction Engineering, under contract to EPRI, performed a case study analysis of cofiring biomass in coal-fired boilers of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The study was also sponsored by DOE. This analysis included evaluating wood fuel receiving, preparation, and combustion in pulverized coal (PC) boilers and cyclone furnaces and an assessment of converting wood into pyrolysis oil or low Btu gas for use in a new combined cycle combustion turbine (CCCT) installation. Cofiring wood in existing coal-fired boilers has the most immediate potential for increasing the utilization of biofuels in electricity generation. Cofiring biofuels with coal can potentially generate significant benefits for utilities including: (1) reducing emissions of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}; (2) reducing the net emissions of CO{sub 2}; (3) potentially reducing the fuel cost to the utility depending upon local conditions and considering biomass is potentially exempt from the proposed Btu tax and may get a 1.5 cent/kWh credit for energy generated by wood combustion; (4) supporting local industrial forest industry; and (5) providing a long term market for the development of a biofuel supply and delivery industry. Potential benefits are reviewed in the context of cofiring biofuel at a rate of 15% heat input to the boiler, and compares this cofiring strategy and others previously tested or developed by other utilities. Other issues discussed include: (1) wood fuel specifications as a function of firing method; (2) wood fuel receiving and preparation system requirements; (3) combustion system requirements for cofiring biofuels with coal; (4) combustion impacts of firing biofuels with coal; (5) system engineering issues; (6) the economics of cofiring biofuel with coal. The Allen, TN 330 MW(e) cyclone boiler and Kingston, TN 135 MW(e) Boiler {number_sign}1, a tangentially fired PC unit, case studies are then summarized in the paper, highlighting the cofiring opportunities.

  7. Evaluation of internal boiler components and gases using a high-temperature infrared (IR) lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammaker, Robert G.; Colsher, Richard J.; Miles, Jonathan J.; Madding, Robert P.

    1996-03-01

    Fuel accounts for an average of seventy percent of the yearly operational and maintenance costs of all the fossil stations in the United States. This amounts to 30 billion dollars spent for fuel each year. In addition, federal and state environmental codes have been enforcing stricter regulations that demand cleaner environments, such as the reduction of nitrogen oxides (NOx), which are a by-product of the fossil fuel flame. If the burn of the flame inside a boiler could be optimized, the usage of fuel and the amounts of pollution produced would be significantly reduced, and many of the common boiler tube failures can be avoided. This would result in a major dollar savings to the utility industry, and would provide a cleaner environment. Accomplishing these goals will require a major effort from the designers and operators that manufacture, operate, and maintain the fossil stations. Over the past few years re-designed burners have been installed in many boilers to help control the temperatures and shape of the flame for better performance and NOx reduction. However, the measurement of the processes and components inside the furnace, that could assist in determining the desired conditions, can at times be very difficult due to the hostile hot environment. In an attempt to resolve these problems, the EPRI M&D Center and a core group of EPRI member utilities have undertaken a two-year project with various optical manufacturers, IR manufacturers, and IR specialists, to fully develop an optical lens that will withstand the high furnace temperatures. The purpose of the lens is to explore the possibilities of making accurate high temperature measurements of the furnace processes and components in an ever-changing harsh environment. This paper provides an introduction to EPRI's internal boiler investigation using an IR high temperature lens (HTL). The paper describes the objectives, approach, benefits, and project progress.

  8. Combustion and NOx emission characteristics of a retrofitted down-fired 660 MWe utility boiler at different loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Z.Q.; Liu, G.K.; Zhu, Q.Y.; Chen, Z.C.; Ren, F. [Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China)

    2011-07-15

    Industrial experiments were performed for a retrofitted 660 MWe full-scale down-fired boiler. Measurements of ignition of the primary air/fuel mixture flow, the gas temperature distribution of the furnace and the gas components in the furnace were conducted at loads of 660, 550 and 330 MWe. With decreasing load, the gas temperature decreases and the ignition position of the primary coal/air flow becomes farther along the axis of the fuel-rich pipe in the burner region under the arches. The furnace temperature also decreases with decreasing load, as does the difference between the temperatures in the burning region and the lower position of the burnout region. With decreasing load, the exhaust gas temperature decreases from 129.8{sup o}C to 114.3{sup o}C, while NOx emissions decrease from 2448 to 1610 mg/m{sup 3}. All three loads result in low carbon content in fly ash and great boiler thermal efficiency higher than 92%. Compared with the case of 660 MWe before retrofit, the exhaust gas temperature decreased from 136 to 129.8{sup o}C, the carbon content in the fly ash decreased from 9.55% to 2.43% and the boiler efficiency increased from 84.54% to 93.66%.

  9. CFB boilers in multifuel application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goral, D.; Krzton, B.

    2007-01-01

    Fuel flexibility characteristic for CFB boilers plays an important rule in industrial and utility size applications. Possibility to use wider range of fuels that has been long time considered as by-products or wastes and possibility to design boilers able to operate with alternative fuels is an important factor that improves fuel delivery security and plant economy. Presented article is based on similar publications that present Foster Wheeler's experience in design and delivery of the CFB boilers for wide range of coals and cofiring by- products of crude oil refining and coal processing. Aspects of biomass cofiring will be also presented. (author)

  10. Development of combined low-emissions burner devices for low-power boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslyakov, P. V.; Proskurin, Yu. V.; Khokhlov, D. A.

    2017-08-01

    Low-power water boilers are widely used for autonomous heat supply in various industries. Firetube and water-tube boilers of domestic and foreign manufacturers are widely represented on the Russian market. However, even Russian boilers are supplied with licensed foreign burner devices, which reduce their competitiveness and complicate operating conditions. A task of developing efficient domestic low-emissions burner devices for low-power boilers is quite acute. A characteristic property of ignition and fuel combustion in such boilers is their flowing in constrained conditions due to small dimensions of combustion chambers and flame tubes. These processes differ significantly from those in open combustion chambers of high-duty power boilers, and they have not been sufficiently studied yet. The goals of this paper are studying the processes of ignition and combustion of gaseous and liquid fuels, heat and mass transfer and NO x emissions in constrained conditions, and the development of a modern combined low-emissions 2.2 MW burner device that provides efficient fuel combustion. A burner device computer model is developed and numerical studies of its operation on different types of fuel in a working load range from 40 to 100% of the nominal are carried out. The main features of ignition and combustion of gaseous and liquid fuels in constrained conditions of the flame tube at nominal and decreased loads are determined, which differ fundamentally from the similar processes in steam boiler furnaces. The influence of the burner devices design and operating conditions on the fuel underburning and NO x formation is determined. Based on the results of the design studies, a design of the new combined low-emissions burner device is proposed, which has several advantages over the prototype.

  11. Soot blowing methods and soot steam consumption in Swedish recovery boilers; Sotningsmetoder och sotaangfoerbrukning i svenska sodapannor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svedin, Kristoffer; Wallin, Erik; Ahlroth, Mikael

    2008-09-15

    The aim with the report was to put together a description of the current state of the sootblowing systems at Swedish recovery boilers, and to explain differences in cleanability and sootblowing efficiency. In chapter 4 a summary of new techniques and alternative soot blowing methods is found. The report is intended for persons working in the pulp industry. To facilitate the benchmarking the recovery boilers have been divided into two groups. Group A comprises recovery boilers which only have one stop per year and the remaining recovery boilers with more than one stop are classified into group B. The following conclusions, based on the recovery boiler design specifications, are of importance to achieve high boiler availability: Low furnace load; High recovery boiler, wide furnace bottom area; Modern air ports; Small or no correlation between cross pitch division in heat surfaces and cleanability could be seen. The expectation was to identify such a relation. However there are doubts on the correctness in reported data. The amount of chlorine and potassium is assumed to affect the cleanability for a few recovery boilers, but for the majority the amounts are low and most likely do not impact the operation. Because of the large impact of the recovery boilers design data (furnace area, load etc.) on the sootblowing, it has been hard to identify the relation cleanability contra sootblowing system. The relations that could be seen are: No distinction between normally designed nozzles and 'high efficiency' nozzles could be identified. The operational conditions for the different models differ a lot and the effect of nozzle type could not be distinguished. Only a minority of the soot blowing sequences are known from the study. In the recovery boilers with problematic areas improvements can be made in the soot blowing sequence. Four recovery boilers are using intelligent soot blowing of some kind. Two of these boilers have low availability and the other two have

  12. Examples of industrial achievements. [Energy economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-07-01

    Several examples are presented of industrial units concerned by energy economies. The problem, the solution, the energy savings and the financial balance are given for each following case: recuperation of smoke from two glass furnaces with continuous heat and power production; a new type of heating furnace for non-ferrous ingots; heating furnace with smoke recuperation; high-power boiler for very wet barks; smokes to supply heat to buildings and for a dryer; heat pump drying of plaster squares; air-conditioning of a workshop by recuperation on a furnace; dehydration of fodder and beetroot pulp with a straw generator; microprocessor-controlled hot water recuperation in cheese-making; electronic speed regulation for electronic motors.

  13. Model-free adaptive control of supercritical circulating fluidized-bed boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, George Shu-Xing; Mulkey, Steven L

    2014-12-16

    A novel 3-Input-3-Output (3.times.3) Fuel-Air Ratio Model-Free Adaptive (MFA) controller is introduced, which can effectively control key process variables including Bed Temperature, Excess O2, and Furnace Negative Pressure of combustion processes of advanced boilers. A novel 7-input-7-output (7.times.7) MFA control system is also described for controlling a combined 3-Input-3-Output (3.times.3) process of Boiler-Turbine-Generator (BTG) units and a 5.times.5 CFB combustion process of advanced boilers. Those boilers include Circulating Fluidized-Bed (CFB) Boilers and Once-Through Supercritical Circulating Fluidized-Bed (OTSC CFB) Boilers.

  14. Study of the possibility of thermal utilization of contaminated water in low-power boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslyakov, P. V.; Proskurin, Y. V.; Zaichenko, M. N.

    2017-09-01

    The utilization of water contaminated with oil products is a topical problem for thermal power plants and boiler houses. It is reasonable to use special water treatment equipment only for large power engineering and industry facilities. Thermal utilization of contaminated water in boiler furnaces is proposed as an alternative version of its utilization. Since there are hot-water fire-tube boilers at many enterprises, it is necessary to study the possibility of thermal utilization of water contaminated with oil products in their furnaces. The object of this study is a KV-GM-2.0 boiler with a heating power of 2 MW. The pressurized burner developed at the Moscow Power Engineering Institute, National Research University, was used as a burner device for supplying liquid fuel. The computational investigations were performed on the basis of the computer simulation of processes of liquid fuel atomization, mixing, ignition, and burnout; in addition, the formation of nitrogen oxides was simulated on the basis of ANSYS Fluent computational dynamics software packages, taking into account radiative and convective heat transfer. Analysis of the results of numerical experiments on the combined supply of crude oil and water contaminated with oil products has shown that the thermal utilization of contaminated water in fire-tube boilers cannot be recommended. The main causes here are the impingement of oil droplets on the walls of the flame tube, as well as the delay in combustion and increased emissions of nitrogen oxides. The thermal utilization of contaminated water combined with diesel fuel can be arranged provided that the water consumption is not more than 3%; however, this increases the emission of nitrogen oxides. The further increase in contaminated water consumption will lead to the reduction of the reliability of the combustion process.

  15. EVALUATION OF INTERNALLY STAGED COAL BURNERS AND SORBENT JET AERODYNAMICS FOR COMBINED SO2/NOX CONTROL IN UTILITY BOILERS, VOLUME 1, TESTING IN A 10 MILLION BTU/HR EXPERIMENTAL FURNACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The document gives results of tests conducted in a 2 MWt experimental furnace to: (1) investigate ways to reduce NOx emissions from utility coal burners without external air ports (i.e., with internal fuel/air staging); and (2) improve the performance of calcium-based sorbents fo...

  16. Biomass boiler conversion potential in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles D. Ray; Li Ma; Thomas Wilson; Daniel Wilson; Lew McCreery; Janice K. Wiedenbeck

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. is the world's leading consumer of primary energy. A large fraction of this energy is used in boiler installations to generate steam and hot water for heating applications. It is estimated there are total 163,000 industrial and commercial boilers in use in the United States of all sizes. This paper characterizes the commercial and industrial boilers in...

  17. Modelling and simulating fire tube boiler performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, K.; Condra, T.; Houbak, Niels

    2003-01-01

    A model for a flue gas boiler covering the flue gas and the water-/steam side has been formulated. The model has been formulated as a number of sub models that are merged into an overall model for the complete boiler. Sub models have been defined for the furnace, the convection zone (split in 2......: a zone submerged in water and a zone covered by steam), a model for the material in the boiler (the steel) and 2 models for resp. the water/steam zone (the boiling) and the steam. The dynamic model has been developed as a number of Differential-Algebraic-Equation system (DAE). Subsequently Mat......Lab/Simulink has been applied for carrying out the simulations. To be able to verify the simulated results experiments has been carried out on a full scale boiler plant....

  18. Fiscal 1997 report on the results of the research on the development of high-performance industrial furnaces. Volume 2; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho (koseino kogyoro no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusto)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    A R and D was conducted for the purpose of developing remarkable energy conservation/CO2 reduction technologies. In fiscal 1997, the five working groups about the following were formed to have animated discussions: the basic research, heating furnace, heat treatment furnace, melting furnace, and tubular heating furnace. The research subjects are the pursuit/deepening of the base study on flame structures in high temperature air combustion, critical heat recovery of the system in high temperature air combustion, examination of the basic common technology on the ultimate optimization of the material heat transfer, construction of general-purpose experimental database, setting-up of design standards for general-purpose high-performance industrial furnaces, presentation of examples of the actual trial design based on the design standards and feasibility study of the practical application, preparatory support of the field test project on high-performance industrial furnaces for commercialization/diffusion/spread, etc. Further, how to arrange the developmental results was studied to make the results of the project useful for study of the prompt commercialization. 442 refs., 1444 figs., 311 tabs

  19. Fiscal 1997 report on the results of the research on the development of high-performance industrial furnaces. Volume 3; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho (koseino kogyoro no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusto)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    A R and D was conducted for the purpose of developing remarkable energy conservation/CO2 reduction technologies. In fiscal 1997, the five working groups about the following were formed to have animated discussions: the basic research, heating furnace, heat treatment furnace, melting furnace, and tubular heating furnace. The research subjects are the pursuit/deepening of the base study on flame structures in high temperature air combustion, critical heat recovery of the system in high temperature air combustion, examination of the basic common technology on the ultimate optimization of the material heat transfer, construction of general-purpose experimental database, setting-up of design standards for general-purpose high-performance industrial furnaces, presentation of examples of the actual trial design based on the design standards and feasibility study of the practical application, preparatory support of the field test project on high-performance industrial furnaces for commercialization/diffusion/spread, etc. Further, how to arrange the developmental results was studied to make the results of the project useful for study of the prompt commercialization. 442 refs., 1444 figs., 311 tabs.

  20. Simulation of the thermal behaviour of electric industrial resistance furnaces using the I-DEAS/TMG code; Simulation du comportement thermique des fours electriques industriels a resistances a l`aide du code I-DEAS/TMG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plard, Ch; Branchu, K; Le Cloirec, B [Electricite de France, 77 - Moret sur Loing (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches

    1997-12-31

    In order to answer the modeling needs of manufacturers and users of electrical resistance furnaces, Electricite de France (EdF) has been appealed to search for a numerical simulation tool for the modeling of thermal phenomena and to carry out its qualification. The TNG software has been retained according to its modeling characteristics of radiant heat transfers and to the coupling with thermal conduction. After a description of the main characteristics of this code, two examples of application to electrical furnaces are presented. The first example illustrates how it can be possible to accurately reproduce the behaviour of a big industrial furnace. The second example is an illustration of numerical simulation possibilities for the optimization of processes performed with an electric furnace. (J.S.)

  1. Simulation of the thermal behaviour of electric industrial resistance furnaces using the I-DEAS/TMG code; Simulation du comportement thermique des fours electriques industriels a resistances a l`aide du code I-DEAS/TMG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plard, Ch.; Branchu, K.; Le Cloirec, B. [Electricite de France, 77 - Moret sur Loing (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches

    1996-12-31

    In order to answer the modeling needs of manufacturers and users of electrical resistance furnaces, Electricite de France (EdF) has been appealed to search for a numerical simulation tool for the modeling of thermal phenomena and to carry out its qualification. The TNG software has been retained according to its modeling characteristics of radiant heat transfers and to the coupling with thermal conduction. After a description of the main characteristics of this code, two examples of application to electrical furnaces are presented. The first example illustrates how it can be possible to accurately reproduce the behaviour of a big industrial furnace. The second example is an illustration of numerical simulation possibilities for the optimization of processes performed with an electric furnace. (J.S.)

  2. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers - Guidance for Calculating Emission Credits Resulting from Implementation of Energy Conservation Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this July 2012 document is to provide guidance for developing a consistent approach to documenting efficiency credits generated from energy conservation measures in the Implementation Plan for boilers covered by the Boiler MACT rule.

  3. An experimental investigation of concentrated slop combustion characteristics in cyclone furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panpokha, Suphaopich; Wongwuttanasatian, Tanakorn; Tangchaichit, Kiatfa

    2018-02-01

    Slop is a by-product in alcoholic industries requiring costly waste management. An idea of using slop as a fuel in a boiler for the industries was proposed. Due to high content of ash, a cyclone furnace was designed to combust the slop. This study aims to examine the concentrated slop combustion in a designed cyclone furnace, consisting of combustion temperature and exhaust gases. The tests were carried out under 4 different air-fuel ratios. Fuels injected into the furnace were 3 g/s of concentrated slop and 1 g/s of diesel. The air-fuel ratios were corresponding to 100, 120, 140 and 160 percent theoretical air. The results demonstrated that combustion of concentrated slop can gave temperature of 800-1000°C and a suitable theoretical air was 100%-120%, because the combustion temperature was higher than that of other cases. In cyclone combustion, excess air is not recommended because it affects a reduction in overall temperature inside the cyclone furnace. It is expected that utilization of the concentrated slop (by-product) will be beneficial in the development of green and zero waste factory.

  4. Increasing the Performance and Reliability of Power Boiler by Monitoring Thermal and Strength Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobota Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a method for determination of thermo-flow parameters for steam boilers. This method allows to perform the calculations of the boiler furnace chamber and heat flow rates absorbed by superheater stages. These parameters are important for monitoring the performance of the power unit. Knowledge of these parameters allows determining the degree of the furnace chamber slagging. The calculation can be performed in online mode and use to monitoring of steam boiler. The presented method allows to the operation of steam boiler with high efficiency.

  5. Simulation study on the maximum continuous working condition of a power plant boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Han, Jiting; Sun, Haitian; Cheng, Jiwei; Jing, Ying'ai; Li, Wenbo

    2018-05-01

    First of all, the boiler is briefly introduced to determine the mathematical model and the boundary conditions, then the boiler under the BMCR condition numerical simulation study, and then the BMCR operating temperature field analysis. According to the boiler actual test results and the hot BMCR condition boiler output test results, the simulation results are verified. The main conclusions are as follows: the position and size of the inscribed circle in the furnace and the furnace temperature distribution and test results under different elevation are compared and verified; Accuracy of numerical simulation results.

  6. Application of GPRS and GIS in Boiler Remote Monitoring System

    OpenAIRE

    Hongchao Wang; Yifeng Wu

    2012-01-01

    Application of GPRS and GIS in boiler remote monitoring system was designed in this paper by combining the advantage of GPRS and GIS in remote data transmission with configuration monitoring technology. The detail information of the operating conditions of the industrial boiler can be viewed by marking the location of boiler on the electronic map dynamically which can realize the unified management for industrial boiler of a region or city conveniently. Experimental application show that the ...

  7. Dynamic model of a natural water circulation boiler suitable for on-line monitoring of fossil/alternative fuel plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedić, Almir; Katulić, Stjepko; Pavković, Danijel

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Derivation of dynamic model of a natural water circulation boiler is presented. • Model is derived by employing basic laws of conservation of mass, energy and momentum. • Thus obtained boiler model does not include empirical relationships. • Model is validated against experimental data related to an external disturbance event. • The final model is used for simulation analysis/assessment of key boiler quantities. - Abstract: The environmental protection policies and legal obligations motivate process industries to implement new low-emission and high-efficiency technologies. For the purpose of production process optimization and related control system design it is worthwhile to first build an appropriate process model. Apart from favorable execution speed, accuracy, and reliability features, the model also needs to be straightforward and only include the physical and design characteristics of the overall plant and its individual components, instead of relying on empirical relationships. To this end, this paper presents a nonlinear dynamic model of the single-drum natural-circulation steam boiler evaporator circuit, based exclusively on the fundamental physical laws of conservation of mass, energy and momentum, wherein the reliance upon empirical relationships has been entirely avoided. The presented boiler system modeling approach is based on the analysis of the physical phenomena within the boiler drum, as well as within downcomer and furnace tubes, and it also takes into account the boiler system design-specific features such as cyclone steam separators, thus facilitating the derivation of a fully-physical process model. Due to the straightforwardness of the derived process model, it should also be useful for the analysis of similar steam boiler facilities, requiring only adjustments of key operational and design parameters such as operating pressure, temperature, steam capacity and characteristics of ancillary equipment such as pumps. To

  8. CFD Simulation On CFBC Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol S. Kinkar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Heavy industrialization amp modernization of society demands in increasing of power cause to research amp develop new technology amp efficient utilization of existing power units. Variety of sources are available for power generation such as conventional sources like thermal hydro nuclear and renewable sources like wind tidal biomass geothermal amp solar. Out of these most common amp economical way for producing the power is by thermal power stations. Various industrial boilers plays an important role to complete the power generation cycle such as CFBC Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion FBC Fluidized Bed Combustion AFBC Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion Boiler CO Boiler RG amp WHR Boiler Waster heat recovery Boiler. This paper is intended to comprehensively give an account of knowledge related to refractory amp its failure in CFBC boiler with due effect of flue gas flow during operation on refractory by using latest technology of CAD Computer aided Design amp CAE Computer aided Engineering. By conceptual application of these technology the full scale model is able to analyze in regards the flow of flue gas amp bed material flow inside the CFBC loop via CFD Computational Fluid Dynamics software. The results obtained are helpful to understand the impact of gas amp particles on refractory in different areas amp also helped to choose suitable refractory material in different regions.

  9. Robust control of an industrial boiler system; a comparison between two approaches: Sliding mode control and H∞ technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moradi, Hamed; Bakhtiari-Nejad, Firooz; Saffar-Avval, Majid

    2009-01-01

    To achieve a good performance of the utility boiler, dynamic variables such as drum pressure, steam temperature and water level of drum must be controlled. In this paper, a linear time invariant (LTI) model of a boiler system is considered in which the input variables are feed-water and fuel mass rates. However this dynamic model may associate with uncertainties. With considering the uncertainties of the dynamic model, a sliding mode controller is designed. After representation of the uncertain dynamic system in general control configuration and modelling the parametric uncertainties, nominal performance, robust stability and robust performance are analyzed by the concept of structured singular value μ. Using an algorithm for μ-analysis and applying an inversed-base controller, robust stability and nominal performance are guaranteed but robust performance is not satisfied. Finally, an optimal robust controller is designed based on μ-synthesis with DK-iteration algorithm. Both optimal robust and sliding mode controllers guarantee robust performance of the system against the uncertainties and result in desired time responses of the output variables. By applying H ∞ robust control, system tracks the desire reference inputs in a less time and with smoother time responses. However, less control efforts, feedwater and fuel mass rates, are needed when the sliding mode controller is applied.

  10. Reduction of heat losses on the skid pipe system of reheating furnaces in the steel industry; Verringerung der Waermeverluste am Tragrohrsystem von Waermeoefen in der Stahlindustrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, Michael; Huegel, Frank [FBB Engineering GmbH, Moenchengladbach (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    New technology can improve the energy efficiency of thermo processing equipment, innovative technology can ultimately help to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions from existing facilities and simultaneously ensure that the equipment can also operate more economically. The result of consequent development at FBB ENGINEERING GmbH for insulation of skid pipe systems of reheating furnaces in steel industry (walking beam -, pusher type furnace) are efficient pre-fabricated shells made of ultra-light weight castable FLB-11/150-I1 with thermo technical optimized sandwich design that lead to significant and sustainable reduction of heat losses and are responsible for high energy saving potential. Thermo technical CFD simulations, laboratory tests, field trials and complete installations of skid pipe systems show that compared to dense castable heat loss in the skid pipe cooling systems can be reduced up to 30 % and more with pre-fabricated shells made of ultra-light weight castable FLB-11/150-I1. (orig.)

  11. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers; Guidance for Calculating Efficiency Credits Resulting from Implementation of Energy Conservation Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Daryl [ORNL; Papar, Riyaz [Hudson Technologies; Wright, Dr. Anthony [ALW Consulting

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidance for developing a consistent approach to documenting efficiency credits generated from energy conservation measures in the Implementation Plan for boilers covered by the Boiler MACT rule (i.e., subpart DDDDD of CFR part 63). This document divides Boiler System conservation opportunities into four functional areas: 1) the boiler itself, 2) the condensate recovery system, 3) the distribution system, and 4) the end uses of the steam. This document provides technical information for documenting emissions credits proposed in the Implementation Plan for functional areas 2) though 4). This document does not include efficiency improvements related to the Boiler tune-ups.

  12. Hazardous air emissions potential from a wood-fired furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, A.J.

    1995-01-01

    During the first week of April, 1991 the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) conducted a series of air emissions tests of a small industrial wood-fired boiler in northern Wisconsin. The boiler was firing a virgin hogged wood/wood waste fuel with a moisture content of about 35 percent. The pollutants measured were particulates, nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (GO), total hydrocarbons (THC), benzene, formaldehyde (CHOH), polycyclic organic matter (POM, e.g. Benzo (a) pyrene), aldehydes, and trace metals (As, Ba, Cu, Pb, Mn, Ni, K, Se, Na, and Zn). For two and a half days continuous emissions data were recorded by laboratory-certified continuous emissions monitors for CO, NOx, 0-2, THC, and COq2 while the EPA reference method stack tests were being conducted for the other pollutants. In addition, a WDNR test team measured CO, 0-2, and flue gas temperature with a Rosemount portable combustion analyzer for several hours over the course of those two and a half days. The principal purpose behind the study was to evaluate the hazardous air emissions potential of a small industrial furnace firing a virgin wood fuel. To that end, it was hoped that a surrogate pollutant could be identified which would represent the levels of hazardous air emissions (e.g., benzene) present in the wood-fired furnace flue gases. If a readily monitorable pollutant could be identified, then a regulatory strategy of measuring one representative pollutant could be put in place to continually assess the hazardous emissions potential of virgin wood combustion. (UK)

  13. Environmental performance assessment of utility boiler energy conversion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Changchun; Gillum, Craig; Toupin, Kevin; Park, Young Ho; Donaldson, Burl

    2016-01-01

    solar boiler technology can be widely used in the United States’ utility power industry, its capital cost and the O&M cost should be reduced. Using the results of this research, decision-makers can make better-informed, environmentally-efficient selections of future utility scale boilers.

  14. Reduction of Nitrogen Oxides Emissions from a Coal-Fired Boiler Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuikov, Andrey V.; Feoktistov, Dmitry V.; Koshurnikova, Natalya N.; Zlenko, Lyudmila V.

    2016-02-01

    During combustion of fossil fuels a large amount of harmful substances are discharged into the atmospheres of cities by industrial heating boiler houses. The most harmful substances among them are nitrogen oxides. The paper presents one of the most effective technological solutions for suppressing nitrogen oxides; it is arrangement of circulation process with additional mounting of the nozzle directed into the bottom of the ash hopper. When brown high-moisture coals are burnt in the medium power boilers, generally fuel nitrogen oxides are produced. It is possible to reduce their production by two ways: lowering the temperature in the core of the torch or decreasing the excess-air factor in the boiler furnace. Proposed solution includes the arrangement of burning process with additional nozzle installed in the lower part of the ash hopper. Air supply from these nozzles creates vortex involving large unburned fuel particles in multiple circulations. Thereby time of their staying in the combustion zone is prolonging. The findings describe the results of the proposed solution; and recommendations for the use of this technological method are given for other boilers.

  15. Bed-To-Wall Heat Transfer in a Supercritical Circulating Fluidised Bed Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błaszczuk Artur

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to find a correlation for heat transfer to walls in a 1296 t/h supercritical circulating fluidised bed (CFB boiler. The effect of bed-to-wall heat transfer coefficient in a long active heat transfer surface was discussed, excluding the radiation component. Experiments for four different unit loads (i.e. 100% MCR, 80% MCR, 60% MCR and 40% MCR were conducted at a constant excess air ratio and high level of bed pressure (ca. 6 kPa in each test run. The empirical correlation of the heat transfer coefficient in a large-scale CFB boiler was mainly determined by two key operating parameters, suspension density and bed temperature. Furthermore, data processing was used in order to develop empirical correlation ranges between 3.05 to 5.35 m·s-1 for gas superficial velocity, 0.25 to 0.51 for the ratio of the secondary to the primary air, 1028 to 1137K for bed temperature inside the furnace chamber of a commercial CFB boiler, and 1.20 to 553 kg·m-3 for suspension density. The suspension density was specified on the base of pressure measurements inside the boiler’s combustion chamber using pressure sensors. Pressure measurements were collected at the measuring ports situated on the front wall of the combustion chamber. The obtained correlation of the heat transfer coefficient is in agreement with the data obtained from typical industrial CFB boilers.

  16. Reduction of Nitrogen Oxides Emissions from a Coal-Fired Boiler Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuikov Andrey V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During combustion of fossil fuels a large amount of harmful substances are discharged into the atmospheres of cities by industrial heating boiler houses. The most harmful substances among them are nitrogen oxides. The paper presents one of the most effective technological solutions for suppressing nitrogen oxides; it is arrangement of circulation process with additional mounting of the nozzle directed into the bottom of the ash hopper. When brown high-moisture coals are burnt in the medium power boilers, generally fuel nitrogen oxides are produced. It is possible to reduce their production by two ways: lowering the temperature in the core of the torch or decreasing the excess-air factor in the boiler furnace. Proposed solution includes the arrangement of burning process with additional nozzle installed in the lower part of the ash hopper. Air supply from these nozzles creates vortex involving large unburned fuel particles in multiple circulations. Thereby time of their staying in the combustion zone is prolonging. The findings describe the results of the proposed solution; and recommendations for the use of this technological method are given for other boilers.

  17. Boiler plants completed in record time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    Bubbling fluidised bed (BFB) combustion has steadily increased its share of the boiler market in recent years, particularly in the Nordic region, where it is particularly well-suited to handling the high moisture content biofuels produced and used by the forest products industry. Foster Wheeler is the world's leading supplier of fluidised bed combustion technology. Over 200 of the more than 300 fluidised bed boilers supplied by the company are circulating fluidised bed (CFB) designs, a market in which Foster Wheeler has more than a 40% share. Foster Wheeler Energia Oy supplied the Myllykoski project at Anjalankoski with a fluidised bed boiler, auxiliary steam boilers, and flue gas scrubber systems

  18. Computer simulation of processes in the dead–end furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavorin, A S; Khaustov, S A; Zaharushkin, Russia N A

    2014-01-01

    We study turbulent combustion of natural gas in the reverse flame of fire–tube boiler simulated with the ANSYS Fluent 12.1.4 engineering simulation software. Aerodynamic structure and volumetric pressure fields of the flame were calculated. The results are presented in graphical form. The effect of the twist parameter for a drag coefficient of dead–end furnace was estimated. Finite element method was used for simulating the following processes: the combustion of methane in air oxygen, radiant and convective heat transfer, turbulence. Complete geometric model of the dead–end furnace based on boiler drawings was considered

  19. Technical aspects of acid dew point measurement in furnace exhaust. Messtechnik fuer die Saeuretaupunktmessung in Feuerungsabgasen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struschka, M.; Baumbach, G.

    1986-01-01

    SO/sub 3/ formation in flue gases and the effect of furnace parameters, furnace type and design on the efficiency of SO/sub 2/ conversion were investigated in a detailed bibliographic study. Phase equilibrium data for the binary system H/sub 2/SO/sub 4//H/sub 2/O and equations for calculating the acid dew point are presented, and the available wet chemical methods for SO/sub 3/ concentration measurements in flue gases are reviewed. The SM1 acid dew point measuring instrument availabe at the authors' institute was modified by installing a new measuring probe, an external thermoelement intensifier, and a new PD control element for temperature control in the measuring surfaces. Acid dew point measurements were carried out in two different furnaces, i.e. a domestic boiler for light fuel oil and an industrial furnace fuelled with heavy oil at the Stuttgart University heat- and power plant. The measurements are compared with data from relevant publications. (orig./RB) With 80 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. Ecological boiler modernization, feasible energy solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krcek, F.; Matev, M.; Sykora, J.; Chladek, J.

    2005-01-01

    Alstom Power, s.r.o., ALSTOM GROUP in Brno, Czech Republic is a successor of PBS (First Brno Machine Works). PBS was a well-known company in Bulgaria - mainly as Heating Power Plant (HPP) and Industrial Plant supplier of boilers, industrial steam turbines, milling systems, heat exchangers Btc. PBS has been privatised in two stages starting at1993 year. Alstom recently deals with boiler and heat exchanger products. Industrial turbine but has been sold to Siemens in 2004

  1. Numerical modelling of a straw-fired grate boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of a 33 MW straw-fired grate boiler. Combustion on the grate plays akey-role in the analysis of these boilers and in this work a stand-alone code was used to provide inlet conditions for the CFD analysis. Modelpredictions were compa...... mixing in the furnace is a key issue leading to these problems. q 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  2. Atmospheric emission of nitrogen oxide from kraft recovery boilers in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjoerk, Anders; Herstad Swaerd, Solvie

    2000-05-01

    Recovery boiler NO x emissions are low compared with those from power boilers. However tighter environmental requirements to decrease the acidic emissions implies that all sources have to be addressed. There are an ongoing evaluation and development of NO x control technologies in the pulp industry. Basically air staging, selective catalytic reduction, SCR, and selective noncatalytic reduction, SNCR, have been discussed. Other NO x control options may be available as a result of ongoing research and development. As a background in the work to reduce the acid rain it has been considered necessary to have a good picture of the NO x emission from recovery boilers, and the Thermal Engineering Research Institute in Sweden have therefore sponsored this study. The intention is to give a good general view and try to explain the reasons for the large differences between boilers. Data from the 30 kraft recovery boilers which were in operation in Sweden during 1999 have been collected. Both NO x levels and specific conditions which could have an influence on the level have been included. The evaluation show a clear correlation between the nitrogen content in the liquor and the NO x level. It seams also that a long retention time in the furnace give an opportunity to reduce the amount of nitrogen oxide. For most boilers in Sweden the NO x levels are reported in mg/MJ and comparison could be done between different types of boilers. However for recovery boilers there could be a large uncertainty in the calculation which gives the amount (mg) of NO x , the definition of the heat input to be used (MJ) is either not clear. As a base for the study the measured concentration in ppm is used instead. The reported values are in the range of 30 - 100 ppm, however the majority of the boilers operate in a more narrow range 60-80 ppm. Air staging and other combustion methods could not reasonably reduce the NO x emission with more than 20% in the next decade. If the goal is higher other

  3. 10 CFR 431.82 - Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... gases. Manufacturer of a commercial packaged boiler means any person who manufactures, produces... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers. 431.82... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Packaged Boilers § 431.82 Definitions concerning commercial...

  4. FY 1998 Report on field test project study for introduction of high-performance industrial furnaces. Detailed measurement study of FY 1998 joint research demonstration data; Koseino kogyoro donyu field test jigyo. 1998 nendo kyodo kenkyu jissho data no shosaina sokutei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Described herein are the FY 1998 results of measurement and study for introduction of the high-performance industrial furnaces. The NEDO's works for development of the high-performance industrial furnaces have been almost completed. The field tests are conducted to verify leveling and increasing temperature in the high-performance industrial furnaces. The data are collected in the existing and modified furnaces at the standard treating rate for each of the selected furnaces. The measured items are heat patterns of the works, temperature distributions within the furnace, heat balances in the combustion furnace, waste heat at the regenerative heat recovery unit, and exhaust gas components. The investigated items are names, materials, shapes, weights and quantities of the works; charging/discharging temperature; heating time; temperature in each furnace; consumption, types and heating values of the fuels used; air/fuel ratios; presence or absence of recuperator and its conditions when adopted; air temperature upstream and downstream of the heat accumulator, and exhaust gas temperature and components; temperature of the heat accumulator's external walls; cooling water rates, and inlet/outlet temperature, surface temperature of the furnaces' external walls; and furnace dimensions and structures. The measurements are done by thermocouples for various types of temperature, and O{sub 2}, CO2, CO, NOx meters and other analyzers for the components. The data are collected on a continuous basis. (NEDO)

  5. Three-dimensional computer simulation for combustion and NO{sub x} emission in a grate fired boiler at Baeckhamars, Sweden. Technical report[(Baeckhammars Bruk)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong Wei [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Metallurgy

    2000-05-01

    This report describes the fundament of mathematical modeling for the grate fired boilers in Part A, and presents the results from the numerical simulations for the flow pattern, combustion and NO{sub x} emission in the Baeckhammars grate fired boiler in Part B. The simulated boiler is equipped with a new secondary air supply system called Ecotube. The objective of this project is to develop and experimentally verify tools for computer simulations of solid biomass fuel combustion processes in a grate fired boiler. The work focuses on the numerical simulation using CFD technique and development of a NO{sub x} post processor. The unstructured mesh technique also has been used to discretize the boiler. An unstructured grid with total 284399 tetrahedral cells describes the three dimensional geometry and is used for flow field and combustion simulations. In order to simulate the combustion process in the boiler, a simplified grate bed model -- black-box bed model is used, which is based on the balance analysis of mass and energy on the grate bed and needless to consider any detailed and very difficult dynamic processes which have not been valuable by mathematical modeling on the grate bed yet. Therefore, it is quite convenient for industrial applications. In this work, both the cyanide route and the ammonia route for modeling the fuel containing nitrogen NO{sub x} are developed, and the former has been used to predict the NO generation in Baeckhammars bark boiler. Two 3D cases corresponding to 15 MW and 11 MW output thermal power respectively are simulated in detail. Results show that a new air supply system called Ecotube gives a considerably more uniform velocity, temperature and concentration distribution from the secondary air tubes to the upper part of the furnace. The upper furnace works almost as a 'plug flow reactor' which gives sufficient residence time for CO conversion and low NO{sub x} emission. The calculations of flow and mixing patterns in the

  6. Measures on fireside emission reduction during wood combustion in industrial furnaces; Massnahmen zur feuerungsseitigen Emissionsminderung bei der Holzverbrennung in gewerblichen Feuerungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuberbuehler, U.

    2002-07-01

    The combustion of natural wood chips in current automatic firing systems leads to emissions of NO{sub x} < 200 mg/m{sup 3} and Particular Matter (PM)<50 mg/m{sup 3}. During the combustion of chipboard residues NO{sub x} emissions can reach 1000 mg/m{sup 3} and PM 500 mg/m{sup 3}, as they accrue particularly at furniture industry and carpenters. To achieve better particle burnout and lower NO{sub x} concentrations a new firing concept has been developed and tested. State of the art in the area of commercial wood firings was the {lambda}- and temperature controlled underfeed firing. Based on this firing type, a stage combustion was realized by a separation of the furnace in primary and secondary combustion chamber. Within the first step of development the burnout zone was optimised to improve particle burnout with simultaneous particle separation. Secondary air supply was made with a special fan to produce a swirl flow inside the cylindrical combustion chamber. Similar as in a cyclone particles were carried in a reverse flow to the furnace wall where is sufficient time for burnout. The good mixing performance of air and combustion gases is another benefit of the produced swirl flow. The aim of further development was to achieve the necessary conditions for primary NO{sub x} reduction with a new design of the primary zone of the furnace. Therefore hot gas from the end of combustion chamber or exhaust gas was recirculated to reduce the amount of primary air. The new primary zone of the combustion chamber was combined with the well working burnout zone with integrated particle separation. The combustion behaviour of this combined furnace was investigated and optimised on a test stand. During continuous combustion of coated chipboards (fuel N-content 4,3%) NO{sub x} concentrations of 450 mg/m{sup 3} were measured, which correspond to a 40% reduction in comparison with a common underfed firing. CO concentrations of 30 mg/m{sup 3} were on a very low level and particle

  7. Combustion of a fuel mix containing animal waste, industry and household waste in FB-boilers; Foerbraenning av en braenslemix bestaaende av animaliskt avfall, industri- och hushaallsavfall i FB-pannor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, Anita; Herstad Svaerd, Solvie; Moradian, Farzad

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this project is to evaluate how the operation conditions and the combustion chemistry is changed in a Bubbling Fluidized Bed (BFB) Boiler when adding approx. 20 wt-% Biomal into the fuel mixture. The following issues were addressed in the project: 1. How does the new chemical composition of the fuel mix influence bed agglomeration, deposit growth, ash flows, flue gases and particle size distribution? 2. Is it possible to run the boiler at a reduced bed temperature of about 750 deg C due to the increased moisture content originating from the biomal fuel? The project is based on combustion tests in the two Waste to Energy boilers at 20 MWth each owned by Boraas Energy and Environment AB (BEM). Furthermore, results from the Waste Refinery Project 'Reduced bed temperature in FB-boilers burning waste - part II' has been used as reference in some cases. At normal conditions the boilers are run on a fuel mixture containing 80 % sorted industrial waste and 20 % household waste. This fuel mixture consists mainly of paper, plastics and wood. In Boraas the organic part of the household waste is sorted out and used for biogas production. With the addition of biomal, which consists of animal by-products crushed to a pumpable fuel, the chemical composition of the fuel mixture is changed to some extent. The results from the combustion tests shows that biomal influences the chemical fuel composition, but also that there are large variations in the ordinary waste fuel composition as well. The most evident changes with addition of biomal are: 1. Increased moisture. 2. Reduced heat value. 3. Increased amount nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus. 4. Decreased amount lead due to the low concentration in biomal. However, there were no changes in sodium, potassium, sulphur and chlorine, elements important for increased/reduced fuel related problems, derived from biomal. The increase of calcium and phosphorus with biomal derive from bone and the calcium

  8. Failure analysis of boiler tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehmood, K.; Siddiqui, A.R.

    2007-01-01

    Boiler tubes are energy conversion components where heat energy is used to convert water into high pressure superheated steam, which is then delivered to a turbine for electric power generation in thermal power plants or to run plant and machineries in a process or manufacturing industry. It was reported that one of the tubes of a fire-tube boiler used in a local industry had leakage after the formation of pits at the external surface of the tube. The inner side of the fire tube was working with hot flue gasses with a pressure of 10 Kg/cm/sup 2/ and temperature 225 degree C. The outside of the tube was surrounded by feed water. The purpose of this study was to determine the cause of pits developed at the external surface of the failed boiler tube sample. In the present work boiler tube samples of steel grade ASTM AI61/ASTM A192 were analyzed using metallographic analysis, chemical analysis, and mechanical testing. It was concluded that the appearance of defects on the boiler tube sample indicates cavitation type corrosion failure. Cavitation damage superficially resembled pitting, but surface appeared considerably rougher and had many closely spaced pits. (author)

  9. Study of flame combustion of off-design binary coal blends in steam boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapustyanskii, A. A.

    2017-07-01

    Changes in the structure of the fuel consumption by the thermal power stations of Ukraine caused by failure in supplying anthracite from the Donets Basin are analyzed and the major tasks of maintaining the functioning of the coal industry are formulated. The possibility of using, in the near future, the flame combustion of off-design solid fuels in the power boilers of the thermal power plants and combined heat and power plants is studied. The article presents results of expert tests of the TPP-210A and TP-15 boilers under flame combustion of mixtures of anthracites, lean coal, and the coal from the RSA in various combinations. When combusting, such mixtures have higher values of the combustibles yield and the ash fusibility temperature. The existence of the synergetic effect in the flame combustion of binary coal blends with different degrees of metamorphism is discussed. A number of top-priority measures have been worked out that allow for switching over the boilers designed to be fired with anthracite to using blends of coals of different ranks. Zoned thermal analysis of the TP-15 boiler furnace was performed for numerical investigation of the temperature distribution between the furnace chamber zones and exploration of the possibility of the liquid slag disposal and the temperature conditions for realization of this process. A positive result was achieved by combusting anthracite culm (AC), the coal from the RSA, and their mixtures with lean coal within the entire range of the working loads of the boilers in question. The problems of normalization of the liquid slag flow were also successfully solved without closing the slag notch. The results obtained by balance experiments suggest that the characteristics of the flame combustion of a binary blend, i.e., the temperature conditions in the furnace, the support flame values, and the degree of the fuel burnout, are similar to the characteristics of the flame of the coal with a higher reactive capacity, which

  10. Energy recovery and emissions of PBDD/Fs and PBDEs from cocombustion of woodchip and wastewater sludge in an industrial boiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shun-Shiang Chang; Lee, Wen-Jhy Lee; Wang, Lin-Chi Wang; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping Chang-Chien; Wu, Chang-Yu

    2013-01-01

    The emissions of polybrominated dibenzo-pdioxins,dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) from trial combustion of 10 wt % dried industrial wastewater-treatment sludge (IWTS) and 90 wt % woodchip in an industrial boiler were investigated and compared to that from woodchip combustion. The PBDD/F toxic equivalent (TEQ) andPBDE emissions increased from 0.121 pg TEQ Nm−3 and 2260 pgNm−3, respectively, of the woodchip combustion to 0.211 pg TEQNm−3 and 4200 pg Nm−3, respectively, of the trial combustion.PBDD/F and PBDE congener profiles of inputs and outputs of the same type of combustion were similar; they also show similarity between woodchip and trial combustions, revealing that the destruction pathway was little affected by the introduction of the IWTS. The fates of PBDD/Fs and PBDEs show that the indigenous pollutants in the feed were effectively depleted (>93.5%). The dominant releasing route of PBDD/F and PBDE shifted from the stack flue gas of woodchip combustion to the ashes of trial combustion. This study demonstrates that co-combustion not only handles the fast growing sludge stream but also yields a saving of 26.3% in the fuel cost and treatment fees of sludge and ashes.

  11. Cross connecting absorber module inlets of multiple boiler units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirillo, A.J.; Sperber, P.K.; Belavadi, V.N.; Mukherji, A.

    1991-01-01

    The retrofitting of scrubbers downstream of existing balanced draft boilers is often accomplished by the addition of induced draft (ID) booster fans. By creating a common plenum between the ID fans and the ID booster fans of two or more boiler-absorber trains, absorber module capacity may be shared among multiple boiler units. At Harrison Power Station, three (3) 4,900,000 lb/hour boilers (640 MWe Gross) will be linked through a common plenum. This sharing capability precludes the need to add standby module capacity, thereby saving capital dollars and keeping project critical path schedules, which typically run through absorber procurement and construction, to a minimum. Through damper placement in the ductwork cross connections, unitized boiler-absorber module operation or common plenum operation may be obtained, thus providing both operational flexibility and reliability. Additionally, open plenum operation allows the removal of an absorber unit from service, while keeping its associated boiler on line, thereby precluding 'cold starts' and maintaining overall unit availabilities. As either unitized or common plenum operation is possible with the cross connection, the furnace draft control systems of each boiler must be examined for varying load operation and trip conditions. This paper addresses the means by which to analyze such cross connection operational scenarios while maintaining compliance with furnace flame out safety guidelines, and will discuss the physical design considerations, ramifications and benefits of same, with select emphasis on what is being implemented at the Harrison Power Station

  12. Metallurgy of mercury in Almaden: from aludel furnaces until Pacific furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejero-Manzanares, J.; Garrido Saenz, I.; Mata Cabrera, F.; Rubio Mesas, M. L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows the different types of furnaces for roasting cinnabar, used in the metallurgy of quicksilver over the centuries of exploitation of the Almaden Mines (Spain). Some of these techniques are part of our industrial heritage. They have contributed to name UNESCO World Heritage Site the vast technological legacy of these mines recently. This research contributes to close the long way of metallurgical activity from aludel furnaces until Pacif furnaces, first and lasted technology to produce on an industrial scale. It is delved into the most relevant aspects having to do with the type, evolution and number of furnaces existing on each of the periods. (Author)

  13. Influence of direct reduced iron on the energy balance of the electric arc furnace in steel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirschen, Marcus; Badr, Karim; Pfeifer, Herbert

    2011-01-01

    A model of the EAF energy efficiency was developed based on a closed mass and energy balance of the EAF melting process. This model was applied to industrial EAFs in steel industry charged with scrap or with mixes of scrap and DRI. Complex mass and energy conversion in the EAF was simplified with the introduction of mass and energy conversion efficiencies for the conversion of oxygen and the energy conversion of electrical energy in the electric arcs, chemical energy from the oxidation reactions in the melt and energy from the combustion of burner gas. It turned out that close agreement with observed process parameters from 16 EAFs is obtained by slight variations of the efficiency values. Especially the sensitivity of the steel temperature from the energy conversion efficiency of the electric arc energy indicates the importance of efficient foaming slag operation in EAF steel making. Characteristics and process parameters of DRI charged EAFs are discussed. Model results for a series of case studies illustrate the correlations between DRI chemical composition, DRI portion, oxygen consumption, etc. with electrical energy demand in order to indentify cost-effective EAF process conditions. -- Highlights: → Energy demand and carbon dioxide emission figures of EAF steelmaking processes based on steel scrap and DRI. → Complete energy balance of the EAF process using various input materials. → Application of the model to industrial EAF in steel industry in 4 case studies and discussion of model results. → Comparison with other models, critical discussion.

  14. CFD simulation of the combustion process of the low-emission vortex boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernov, A. A.; Maryandyshev, P. A.; Pankratov, E. V.; Lubov, V. K.

    2017-11-01

    Domestic heat and power engineering needs means and methods for optimizing the existing boiler plants in order to increase their technical, economic and environmental work. The development of modern computer technology, methods of numerical modeling and specialized software greatly facilitates the solution of many emerging problems. CFD simulation allows to obtaine precise results of thermochemical and aerodynamic processes taking place in the furnace of boilers in order to optimize their operation modes and develop directions for their modernization. The paper presents the results of simulation of the combustion process of a low-emission vortex coal boiler of the model E-220/100 using the software package Ansys Fluent. A hexahedral grid with a number of 2 million cells was constructed for the chosen boiler model. A stationary problem with a two-phase flow was solved. The gaseous components are air, combustion products and volatile substances. The solid phase is coal particles at different burnup stages. The Euler-Lagrange approach was taken as a basis. Calculation of the coal particles trajectories was carried out using the Discrete Phase Model which distribution of the size particle of coal dust was accounted for using the Rosin-Rammler equation. Partially Premixed combustion model was used as the combustion model which take into account elemental composition of the fuel and heat analysis. To take turbulence into account, a two-parameter k-ε model with a standard wall function was chosen. Heat transfer by radiation was calculated using the P1-approximation of the method of spherical harmonics. The system of spatial equations was numerically solved by the control volume method using the SIMPLE algorithm of Patankar and Spaulding. Comparison of data obtained during the industrial-operational tests of low-emission vortex boilers with the results of mathematical modeling showed acceptable convergence of the tasks of this level, which confirms the adequacy of the

  15. Developing Boiler Concepts as Integrated Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kim; Condra, Thomas Joseph; Houbak, Niels

    2004-01-01

    - consisting of pressure part, burner and control system. The Technical University of Denmark, MEK - Energy Engineering Section [12] has participated in the modelling process. The project has included static and dynamic modelling of the boiler concept. For optimization of operation, verication of performance......With the objective to be able to optimize the design and operation of steam boiler concepts Aalborg Industries A/S [1] has together with Aalborg University, Institute of Energy Technology [9] carried out a development project paying special attention to the boiler concept as an integrated unit......, emissions and to obtain long time operation experiences with the boiler concept, a full scale prototype has been built and these tests have been accomplished on the prototype. By applying this integrated unit approach to the boiler concept development it has been possible to optimize the different building...

  16. Activity concentrations of 238U and 226Ra in scales formed on pipes of industrial boilers in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poggi, Claudia M.B.; Farias, Emerson E.G. de; Gazineu, Maria H.P.

    2015-01-01

    The procedures employed in the industry can generate significant amounts of solid, liquid and gaseous wastes that usually contain toxic or materials of difficulty degradation. One of the facts that contribute to the formation of such wastes is the generation of steam used in operating processes and industry segments. Currently, steam supplied by boilers is the most economical and practical mode of heat transfer in industrial processes. Due to the high temperature of water used in these processes, compounds which were previously soluble become insoluble, generating residues called scales. This material, which contains stable ions, can also present naturally occurring radionuclides such as 238 U and 226 Ra, which concentrate over time in piping and equipment surfaces. If not disposed correctly, this material also can contaminate the environment. The main origin of these radionuclides is the use of groundwater in industrial processes. Thus, in regions of naturally enriched in radionuclides such as the Region of Pernambuco, including the municipalities of Paulista and Goiana, there is a greater possibility of radioactive scale formation. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the activity concentrations of 238 U and 226 Ra present in the solid wastes generated by industries situated in Paulista and Goiana, in order to assess radionuclide disequilibrium. For the sake of comparison, scale samples collected from industries located in the municipality of Caruaru, far from the previous municipalities, were also analyzed. The determination of the activity concentrations for 238 U and 226 Ra was performed by High Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectrometry. Samples were collected, prepared, packed in plastic containers and set aside for a minimum time of 21 days, for the secular equilibrium to occur between 226 Ra and its short lived descendants. The counting time was 80,000 seconds. Gamma energies used for determination of activity concentrations were 1001 keV for 238 U, and 352 ke

  17. Activity concentrations of {sup 238}U and {sup 226}Ra in scales formed on pipes of industrial boilers in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poggi, Claudia M.B.; Farias, Emerson E.G. de, E-mail: claudiapoggi04@gmail.com, E-mail: emersonemiliano@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear; Franca, Elvis J.; Hazin, Clovis A., E-mail: chazin@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Gazineu, Maria H.P., E-mail: helena@unicap.br [Universidade Catolica de Pernambuco (UNICAP), Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologia

    2015-07-01

    The procedures employed in the industry can generate significant amounts of solid, liquid and gaseous wastes that usually contain toxic or materials of difficulty degradation. One of the facts that contribute to the formation of such wastes is the generation of steam used in operating processes and industry segments. Currently, steam supplied by boilers is the most economical and practical mode of heat transfer in industrial processes. Due to the high temperature of water used in these processes, compounds which were previously soluble become insoluble, generating residues called scales. This material, which contains stable ions, can also present naturally occurring radionuclides such as {sup 238}U and {sup 226}Ra, which concentrate over time in piping and equipment surfaces. If not disposed correctly, this material also can contaminate the environment. The main origin of these radionuclides is the use of groundwater in industrial processes. Thus, in regions of naturally enriched in radionuclides such as the Region of Pernambuco, including the municipalities of Paulista and Goiana, there is a greater possibility of radioactive scale formation. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the activity concentrations of {sup 238}U and {sup 226}Ra present in the solid wastes generated by industries situated in Paulista and Goiana, in order to assess radionuclide disequilibrium. For the sake of comparison, scale samples collected from industries located in the municipality of Caruaru, far from the previous municipalities, were also analyzed. The determination of the activity concentrations for {sup 238}U and {sup 226}Ra was performed by High Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectrometry. Samples were collected, prepared, packed in plastic containers and set aside for a minimum time of 21 days, for the secular equilibrium to occur between {sup 226}Ra and its short lived descendants. The counting time was 80,000 seconds. Gamma energies used for determination of activity concentrations

  18. Influence of staged-air on airflow, combustion characteristics and NO(x) emissions of a down-fired pulverized-coal 300 MW(e) utility boiler with direct flow split burners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengqi; Kuang, Min; Zhang, Jia; Han, Yunfeng; Zhu, Qunyi; Yang, Lianjie; Kong, Weiguang

    2010-02-01

    Cold airflow experiments were conducted to investigate the aerodynamic field in a small-scale furnace of a down-fired pulverized-coal 300 MW(e) utility boiler arranged with direct flow split burners enriched by cyclones. By increasing the staged-air ratio, a deflected flow field appeared in the lower furnace; larger staged-air ratios produced larger deflections. Industrial-sized experiments on a full-scale boiler were also performed at different staged-air damper openings with measurements taken of gas temperatures in the burner region and near the right-side wall, wall heat fluxes, and gas components (O(2), CO, and NO(x)) in the near-wall region. Combustion was unstable at staged-air damper openings below 30%. For openings of 30% and 40%, late ignition of the pulverized coal developed and large differences arose in gas temperatures and heat fluxes between the regions near the front and rear walls. In conjunction, carbon content in the fly ash was high and boiler efficiency was low with high NO(x) emission above 1200 mg/m(3) (at 6% O(2) dry). For fully open dampers, differences in gas temperatures and heat fluxes, carbon in fly ash and NO(x) emission decreased yielding an increase in boiler efficiency. The optimal setting is fully open staged-air dampers.

  19. Model based energy benchmarking for glass furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sardeshpande, Vishal; Gaitonde, U.N.; Banerjee, Rangan

    2007-01-01

    Energy benchmarking of processes is important for setting energy efficiency targets and planning energy management strategies. Most approaches used for energy benchmarking are based on statistical methods by comparing with a sample of existing plants. This paper presents a model based approach for benchmarking of energy intensive industrial processes and illustrates this approach for industrial glass furnaces. A simulation model for a glass furnace is developed using mass and energy balances, and heat loss equations for the different zones and empirical equations based on operating practices. The model is checked with field data from end fired industrial glass furnaces in India. The simulation model enables calculation of the energy performance of a given furnace design. The model results show the potential for improvement and the impact of different operating and design preferences on specific energy consumption. A case study for a 100 TPD end fired furnace is presented. An achievable minimum energy consumption of about 3830 kJ/kg is estimated for this furnace. The useful heat carried by glass is about 53% of the heat supplied by the fuel. Actual furnaces operating at these production scales have a potential for reduction in energy consumption of about 20-25%

  20. Modelling of limestone injection for SO2 capture in a coal fired utility boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacik, G.J.; Reid, K.; McDonald, M.M.; Knill, K.

    1997-01-01

    A computer model was developed for simulating furnace sorbent injection for SO 2 capture in a full scale utility boiler using TASCFlow TM computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. The model makes use of a computational grid of the superheater section of a tangentially fired utility boiler. The computer simulations are three dimensional so that the temperature and residence time distribution in the boiler could be realistically represented. Results of calculations of simulated sulphur capture performance of limestone injection in a typical utility boiler operation were presented

  1. Boiler burden reduced at Bedford site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsley, Chris

    2011-10-01

    With the NHS aiming to reduce its 2007 carbon footprint by 10% by 2015, Chris Horsley, managing director of Babcock Wanson UK, a provider of industrial boilers and burners, thermal oxidisers, air treatment, water treatment, and associated services, looks at how one NHS Trust has approached the challenge, and considerably reduced its carbon emissions, by refurbishing its boiler house and moving from oil to gas-fired steam generation.

  2. Characterisation of the sintering behaviour of Waelz slag from electric arc furnace (EAF) dust recycling for use in the clay ceramics industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijorna, N; de Pedro, M; Romero, M; Andrés, A

    2014-01-01

    Waelz slag is an industrial by-product from the recovery of electric arc furnace (EAF) dust which is mainly sent to landfills. Despite the different chemical and mineralogical compositions of Waelz slag compared to traditional clays, previous experiments have demonstrated its potential use as a clay substitute in ceramic processes. Indeed, clayey products containing Waelz slag could improve mechanical and environmental performance, fixing most of the metallic species and moreover decreasing the release of some potential pollutants during firing. However, a deeper understanding of the complex phase transformations during its thermal treatment and the connection of this behaviour with the end properties is desirable in order to explain the role that is played by the Waelz slag and its potential contribution to the ceramic process. For this purpose, in the present study, the chemical, mineralogical, thermal and environmental behaviour of both (i) unfired powdered samples, and (ii) pressed specimen of Waelz slag fired up to different temperatures within the typical range of clay based ceramic production, has been studied. The effect of the heating temperature on the end properties of the fired samples has been assessed. In general, an increase of the firing temperature promotes sintering and densification of the products and decreases the open porosity and water absorption which also contributes to the fixation of heavy metals. On the contrary, an increase in the leaching of Pb, Cr and Mo from the fired specimens is observed. This can be attributed to the creation of Fe and Ca molybdates and chromates that are weakly retained in the alkali matrix. On the other side, at temperature above 950 °C a weight gain related to the emission of evolved gases is observed. In conclusion, the firing temperature of the ceramic process is a key parameter that affects not only the technical properties but also strongly affects the leaching behaviour and the process emissions

  3. Heat treatment furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Roland D; Parrott, Jeffrey G; DeMint, Paul D; Finney, Kevin R; Blue, Charles T

    2014-10-21

    A furnace heats through both infrared radiation and convective air utilizing an infrared/purge gas design that enables improved temperature control to enable more uniform treatment of workpieces. The furnace utilizes lamps, the electrical end connections of which are located in an enclosure outside the furnace chamber, with the lamps extending into the furnace chamber through openings in the wall of the chamber. The enclosure is purged with gas, which gas flows from the enclosure into the furnace chamber via the openings in the wall of the chamber so that the gas flows above and around the lamps and is heated to form a convective mechanism in heating parts.

  4. Experimental on fly ash recirculation with bottom feeding to improve the performance of a circulating fluidized bed boiler co-burning coal sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Lunbo; Xu, Guiling; Liu, Daoyin; Chen, Xiaoping; Zhao, Changsui [Southeast Univ., Nanjing (China). School of Energy and Environment

    2013-07-01

    With the aim of reducing carbon content in fly ash, fly ash recirculation with bottom feeding (FARBF) technology was applied to a 75 t/h Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boiler burning mixture of coal and coal sludge. And industrial experiments were carried out to investigate the influence of FARBF technology on the combustion performance and pollutant emission characteristics of the CFB boiler. Results show that as the recirculation rate of fly ash increases, the CFB dense bed temperature decreases while the furnace outlet temperature increases, and the temperature distribution in the furnace becomes uniform. Compared with the conditions without fly ash recirculation, the combustion efficiency increases from 92 to 95% when the recirculation rate increases to 8 t/h, and the desulfurization efficiency also increases significantly. As the recirculation rate increases, the emissions of NO and CO decrease, but the particulate emission increases. The present study indicates that FARBF technology can improve the combustion performance and desulfurization efficiency for the CFB boilers burning coal sludge, and this can bring large economical and environmental benefits in China.

  5. Refractory of Furnaces to Reduce Environmental Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzawa, Shigeru

    2011-10-01

    The energy load of furnaces used in the manufacturing process of ceramics is quite large. Most of the environmental impact of ceramics manufacturing is due to the CO2 produced from this high energy load. To improve this situation, R&D has focused on furnace systems and techniques of control in order to reduce energy load. Since furnaces are comprised of refractory, consideration of their mechanical and thermal characteristics is important. Herein are described several refractory types which were chosen through comparison of the characteristics which contribute to heat capacity reduction, heat insulating reinforcement and high emissivity, thereby improving thermal radiation heat transfer efficiency to the ceramic articles. One selected refractory material which will reduce the environmental impact of a furnace, chosen considering low heat capacity and high emissivity characteristics, is SiC. In this study, thermal radiation heat transfer efficiency improvement and its effect on ceramic articles in the furnace and oxidation behaviour were investigated at 1700K. A high density SiC refractory, built into the furnace at construction, has relatively high oxidation durability and has the ability to reduce environmental impact-CO2 by 10 percent by decreasing the furnace's energy load. However, new oxidation prevention techniques for SiC will be necessary for long-term use in industrial furnaces, because passive to active oxidation transition behaviour of commercial SiC refractory is coming to close ideal.

  6. Refractory of Furnaces to Reduce Environmental Impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanzawa, Shigeru

    2011-01-01

    The energy load of furnaces used in the manufacturing process of ceramics is quite large. Most of the environmental impact of ceramics manufacturing is due to the CO 2 produced from this high energy load. To improve this situation, R and D has focused on furnace systems and techniques of control in order to reduce energy load. Since furnaces are comprised of refractory, consideration of their mechanical and thermal characteristics is important. Herein are described several refractory types which were chosen through comparison of the characteristics which contribute to heat capacity reduction, heat insulating reinforcement and high emissivity, thereby improving thermal radiation heat transfer efficiency to the ceramic articles. One selected refractory material which will reduce the environmental impact of a furnace, chosen considering low heat capacity and high emissivity characteristics, is SiC. In this study, thermal radiation heat transfer efficiency improvement and its effect on ceramic articles in the furnace and oxidation behaviour were investigated at 1700K. A high density SiC refractory, built into the furnace at construction, has relatively high oxidation durability and has the ability to reduce environmental impact-CO 2 by 10 percent by decreasing the furnace's energy load. However, new oxidation prevention techniques for SiC will be necessary for long-term use in industrial furnaces, because passive to active oxidation transition behaviour of commercial SiC refractory is coming to close ideal.

  7. Numerical simulation of a biomass fired grate boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Rosendahl, Lasse; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2006-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis of the thermal flow in the combustion furnace of a biomass-fired grate boiler provides crucial insight into the boiler's performance. Quite a few factors play important roles in a general CFD analysis, such as grid, models, discretization scheme and so on....... For a grate boiler, the modeling the interaction of the fuel bed and the gas phase above the bed is also essential. Much effort can be found in literature on developing bed models whose results are introduced into CFD simulations of freeboard as inlet conditions. This paper presents a CFD analysis...... of the largest biomass-fired grate boiler in Denmark. The focus of this paper is to study how significantly an accurate bed model can affect overall CFD results, i.e., how necessarily it is to develop an accurate bed model in terms of the reliability of CFD results. The ultimate purpose of the study is to obtain...

  8. Advanced process control for solid fuel boilers. Phase 2; Avancerad processtyrning av fastbraensleeldade rostpannor. Etapp 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehleskog, Rickard; Lundborg, Rickard; Schuster, Robert; Wrangensten, Lars [AaF-Energikonsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-04-01

    AaF-Energikonsult AB runs within the research programme 'Applied combustion technology' a bigger project under the title 'Possibilities to improved operation of forest-industrial bark boilers by optimised combustion control'. In the project several measures have been identified, that can help to improve the conditions favourable for the combustion and fluid dynamic, for four selected reference grate boilers and grate boilers in general. The boiler at Billerud's paper mill, which is underlying to this project in several ways, is now being rebuilt. During the modifications of the boiler the existing control system will be modified with modern technique to enable operation with low emissions. The new control system consists of several parts, of witch the IR-based ones for fuel input and grate feeding are two totally separated systems. The pressure of the dome, i.e. the effect of the boiler, is the most superior parameter, and is regulated with the combustion air. Amounts of secondary and tertiary air are quoted to the total combustion airflow. The primary oxygen level is primarily regulated with the tertiary air. But if this won't be done without the tertiary air to diverge from de defined working area, the secondary air will assist. The oxygen set point is constantly decreasing until the CO-level exceeds a defined level. Then, the set point will be momentary increased. CFD-calculations have been performed for the modified boiler in Karlsborg for two different loads. The simulations clearly show that the flue gases have a more even retention time in the modified boiler and that the flow pattern is significantly improved. However, concentration gradients of oxygen and temperature gradients still exist. The conclusion is that there is a potential for further improving of the air and flue gas control strategies. The following new control strategies are proposed in the project based on conventional analyse technology; If the furnace

  9. Comparison of a burning mass ceramics coating in laboratory furnace and instrustrial furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, R.A.L.; Castro, J.R. de S.

    2012-01-01

    This work intends to analyze the differences obtained in the technological properties of a ceramic coating after firing in two distinct environments, laboratory furnace and industrial furnace. For this, was characterized a ceramic mass used in the production of porous coating. The analyzes were performed chemical, mineralogical and thermal mass in that. The specimens were obtained by compacting and burned in the maximum temperature of 1140 deg C in two furnaces, laboratory and industrial. The technological tests were performed linear shrinkage, water absorption, bulk density and mechanical strength. The microstructure was evaluated by ray-X diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that both furnaces provided significant differences in analyzed specimens, such as increased strength and low water absorption in the fired samples in a laboratory furnace, for example. (author)

  10. An experimental and numerical study of confined non-reacting and reacting turbulent jets to facilitate homogeneous combustion in industrial furnaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Insu

    Confined non-reacting turbulent jets are ideal for recirculating the hot flue gas back into the furnace from an external exhaust duct. Such jets are also used inside the furnace to internally entrain and recirculate the hot flue gas to preheat and dilute the reactants. Both internal and external implementation of confined turbulent jets increase the furnace thermal efficiency. For external implementation, depending on the circumstances, the exhaust gas flow may be co- or counter-flow relative to the jet flow. Inside the furnaces, fuel and air jets are injected separately. To create a condition which can facilitate near homogeneous combustion, these jets have to first mix with the burned gas inside the furnace and simultaneously being heated and diluted prior to combustion. Clearly, the combustion pattern and emissions from reacting confined turbulent jets are affected by jet interactions, mixing and entrainment of hot flue gas. In this work, the flow and mixing characteristics of a non-reacting and reacting confined turbulent jet are investigated experimentally and numerically. This work consists of two parts: (i) A study of flow and mixing characteristics of non-reacting confined turbulent jets with co- or counter-flowing exhaust/flue gas. Here the axial and radial distributions of temperature, velocity and NO concentration (used as a tracer gas) were measured. FLUENT was used to numerically simulate the experimental results. This work provides the basic understanding of the flow and mixing characteristics of confined turbulent jets and develops some design considerations for recirculating flue gas back into the furnace as expressed by the recirculation zone and the stagnation locations. (ii) Numerical calculations of near homogeneous combustion are performed for the existing furnace. The exact geometry of the furnace in the lab is used and the real dimensional boundary conditions are considered. The parameters such as air nozzle diameter (dair), fuel nozzle

  11. FY 2000 report on the basic survey to promote Joint Implementation, etc. Project for the modernization of general industry use boilers at the industrial complex in Namping City, Fujian Province, China; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Chugoku Fukkensho Namping shi danchi no ippan sangyoyo boiler kindaika jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    An investigational study was conducted of the project for energy conservation and greenhouse effect gas reduction by introducing the energy utilization system combined with CCS equipment and cogeneration system to general industry plants at the industrial complex in Namping City, Fujian Province, China. As a result of the field survey, it was concluded that the capacity suitable for CCS center was 200,000 t/y and the size suitable for pulverized coal boiler at each site was 35 t/h. The energy conservation amount in this project was the coal use reduction amount by 88,000 t/y (48,000 toe/y), and the greenhouse effect gas reduction amount was approximately 90,000 t-CO2/y. As to the economical efficiency of the project, the period of ROI was about 5.1 years, and the internal earning rate at each site was 14-23%. The materialization of the project was confirmed. However, in the case of raising the required funds from city banks in China, financing conditions are strict, and the financing seems to be difficult at each site. It is necessary to raise low-interest funds such as the special environment yen credit. (NEDO)

  12. Improved NOx emissions and combustion characteristics for a retrofitted down-fired 300-MWe utility boiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengqi; Ren, Feng; Chen, Zhichao; Liu, Guangkui; Xu, Zhenxing

    2010-05-15

    A new technique combining high boiler efficiency and low-NO(x) emissions was employed in a 300MWe down-fired boiler as an economical means to reduce NO(x) emissions in down-fired boilers burning low-volatile coals. Experiments were conducted on this boiler after the retrofit with measurements taken of gas temperature distributions along the primary air and coal mixture flows and in the furnace, furnace temperatures along the main axis and gas concentrations such as O(2), CO and NO(x) in the near-wall region. Data were compared with those obtained before the retrofit and verified that by applying the combined technique, gas temperature distributions in the furnace become more reasonable. Peak temperatures were lowered from the upper furnace to the lower furnace and flame stability was improved. Despite burning low-volatile coals, NO(x) emissions can be lowered by as much as 50% without increasing the levels of unburnt carbon in fly ash and reducing boiler thermal efficiency.

  13. Removal of boron from ceramic industry wastewater by adsorption-flocculation mechanism using palm oil mill boiler (POMB) bottom ash and polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Mei Fong; Lee, Kah Peng; Chieng, Hui Jiun; Syazwani Binti Ramli, Ili Izyan

    2009-07-01

    Boron is extensively used in the ceramic industry for enhancing mechanical strength of the tiles. The discharge of boron containing wastewater to the environment causes severe pollution problems. Boron is also dangerous for human consumption and causes organisms' reproductive impediments if the safe intake level is exceeded. Current methods to remove boron include ion-exchange, membrane filtration, precipitation-coagulation, biological and chemical treatment. These methods are costly to remove boron from the wastewater and hence infeasible for industrial wastewater treatment. In the present research, adsorption-flocculation mechanism is proposed for boron removal from ceramic wastewater by using Palm Oil Mill Boiler (POMB) bottom ash and long chain polymer or flocculant. Ceramic wastewater is turbid and milky in color which contains 15 mg/L of boron and 2000 mg/L of suspended solids. The optimum operating conditions for boron adsorption on POMB bottom ash and flocculation using polymer were investigated in the present research. Adsorption isotherm of boron on bottom ash was also investigated to evaluate the adsorption capacity. Adsorption isotherm modeling was conducted based on Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The results show that coarse POMB bottom ash with particle size larger than 2 mm is a suitable adsorbent where boron is removed up to 80% under the optimum conditions (pH=8.0, dosage=40 g bottom ash/300 ml wastewater, residence time=1h). The results also show that KP 1200 B cationic polymer is effective in flocculating the suspended solids while AP 120 C anionic polymer is effective in flocculating the bottom ash. The combined cationic and anionic polymers are able to clarify the ceramic wastewater under the optimum conditions (dosage of KP 1200 B cationic polymer=100 mg/L, dosage of AP 120 C anionic polymer=50 mg/L, mixing speed=200 rpm). Under the optimum operating conditions, the boron and suspended solids concentration of the treated wastewater were

  14. Optimal load allocation of multiple fuel boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Alex C; Du, Yan Yi

    2009-04-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for optimally allocating a set of multiple industrial boilers that each simultaneously consumes multiple fuel types. Unlike recent similar approaches in the utility industry that use soft computing techniques, this approach is based on a second-order gradient search method that is easy to implement without any specialized optimization software. The algorithm converges rapidly and the application yields significant savings benefits, up to 3% of the overall operating cost of industrial boiler systems in the examples given and potentially higher in other cases, depending on the plant circumstances. Given today's energy prices, this can yield significant savings benefits to manufacturers that raise steam for plant operations.

  15. Coal reburning technology for cyclone boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagiela, A.S.; Maringo, G.J.; Newell, R.J.; Farzan, H.

    1990-01-01

    Babcock and Wilcox has obtained encouraging results from engineering feasibility and pilot-scale proof-of-concept studies of coal reburning for cyclone boiler NO x control. Accordingly, B and W completed negotiations for a clean coal cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy to demonstrate coal reburning technology for cyclone boilers. The host site for the demonstration is the Wisconsin Power and Light (WP and L) Company's 100MWe Nelson Dewey Station. Reburning involves the injection of a supplemental fuel (natural gas, oil, or coal) into the main furnace to produce locally reducing stoichiometric conditions which convert the NO x produced therein to molecular nitrogen, thereby reducing overall NO x emissions. There are currently no commercially-demonstrated combustion modification techniques for cyclone boilers which reduce NO x emissions. The emerging reburning technology offers cyclone boiler operators a promising alternative to expensive flue gas cleanup techniques for NO x emission reduction. This paper reviews baseline testing results at the Nelson Dewey Station and pilot-scale results simulating Nelson Dewey operation using pulverized coal (PC) as the reburning fuel. Outcomes of the model studies as well as the full-scale demonstration preliminary design are discussed

  16. Recovery boiler model; Soodakattilan kehitystyoe III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janka, K.; Ylitalo, M.; Sundstroem, K.; Helke, R.; Heinola, M. [Kvaerner Pulping Oy, Tampere (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    The recovery boiler model was further tested and developed. At this moment the model includes submodels for: droplet drying, pyrolysis, char burning, gas burning and for droplet trajectory. During 1996 the formation of CH{sub 4} during pyrolysis and release of sulfur was included to the model. Further the formation of NO from fuel nitrogen and formation of thermal- NO were included to the model using Arrhenius type reaction rate equations. The calculated results are realistic and the model is used as a tool to find out methods to increase the efficiency and availability and decrease the emissions. Analysing the results of the earlier field study of 8 boilers showed that the furnace heat load, fuming rate, find the black liquor composition have influence on the enrichment of the potassium to the fly ash. (orig.)

  17. Boiler water regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khavanov, Pavel; Chulenyov, Anatoly

    2017-10-01

    Active development of autonomous heating the past 25 years has led to the widespread use of hot-water boilers of small capacity up to 2.5 MW. Rational use of the design of autonomous sources of heating boilers design features significantly improve their technical, economic and operational performance. This publication reviewed and analyzed a number of features of the design, operation and exploitation of boilers of small capacity, significantly affecting the efficiency and reliability of their application.

  18. Solar Convective Furnace for Metals Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patidar, Deepesh; Tiwari, Sheetanshu; Sharma, Piyush; Pardeshi, Ravindra; Chandra, Laltu; Shekhar, Rajiv

    2015-11-01

    Metals processing operations, primarily soaking, heat treatment, and melting of metals are energy-intensive processes using fossil fuels, either directly or indirectly as electricity, to operate furnaces at high temperatures. Use of concentrated solar energy as a source of heat could be a viable "green" option for industrial heat treatment furnaces. This paper introduces the concept of a solar convective furnace which utilizes hot air generated by an open volumetric air receiver (OVAR)-based solar tower technology. The potential for heating air above 1000°C exists. Air temperatures of 700°C have already been achieved in a 1.5-MWe volumetric air receiver demonstration plant. Efforts to retrofit an industrial aluminium soaking furnace for integration with a solar tower system are briefly described. The design and performance of an OVAR has been discussed. A strategy for designing a 1/15th-scale model of an industrial aluminium soaking furnace has been presented. Preliminary flow and thermal simulation results suggest the presence of recirculating flow in existing furnaces that could possibly result in non-uniform heating of the slabs. The multifarious uses of concentrated solar energy, for example in smelting, metals processing, and even fuel production, should enable it to overcome its cost disadvantage with respect to solar photovoltaics.

  19. 谈如何提高工业锅炉热效率%Talking about how to improve thermal efficiency of industrial boiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴文生

    2012-01-01

    以4t/h以上的链条锅炉为例,结合实践工作经验,从锅炉的选用、燃烧的调整、清垢、除灰方面阐述了如何提高锅炉的热效率,指出应加强锅炉的日常运行管理,发现问题及时处理,从而提高能源利用,实现节能减排。%Taking over 4 t/h chain boiler as an example, combining with working experience, the paper describes how to improve thermal efficiency of the boiler from aspects of boiler selection, burning adjustment, cleaning and dedusting and so on, and points out some suggestions, such as strengthening daily boiler operation management and finding and dealing with problems in time, so as to improve the energy utilization and to realize energy-saving and emission reduction.

  20. Modelling of a one pass smoke tube boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstensen, Claus M. S.; Sørensen, Kim

    2004-01-01

    A nonlinear state-space model with five states describing a one pass smoke tube boiler has been formulated. By means of mass- and energy-balance the model describes the dynamics of the Furnace, the Convection Zone and the Water/Steam Part and the three sub models are merged into an overall model....... The model is further linearized for use in a linear control design. The simulations have been carried out by means of MATLAB/SIMULINK and the models have been verified with measurements from a full scale boiler plant. Parameters in the model that are difficult to calculate have been estimated and the method...

  1. Oxy-Combustion Boiler Material Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagliano, Michael; Seltzer, Andrew; Agarwal, Hans; Robertson, Archie; Wang, Lun

    2012-01-31

    Under U.S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005262 Foster Wheeler North America Corp conducted a laboratory test program to determine the effect of oxy-combustion on boiler tube corrosion. In this program, CFD modeling was used to predict the gas compositions that will exist throughout and along the walls of air-fired and oxy-fired boilers operating with low to high sulfur coals. Test coupons of boiler tube materials were coated with deposits representative of those coals and exposed to the CFD predicted flue gases for up to 1000 hours. The tests were conducted in electric tube furnaces using oxy-combustion and air-fired flue gases synthesized from pressurized cylinders. Following exposure, the test coupons were evaluated to determine the total metal wastage experienced under air and oxy-combustions conditions and materials recommendations were made. Similar to air-fired operation, oxy-combustion corrosion rates were found to vary with the boiler material, test temperature, deposit composition, and gas composition. Despite this, comparison of air-fired and oxy-fired corrosion rates showed that oxy-firing rates were, for the most part, similar to, if not lower than those of air-firing; this finding applied to the seven furnace waterwall materials (wrought and weld overlay) and the ten superheater/reheater materials (wrought and weld overlay) that were tested. The results of the laboratory oxy-combustion tests, which are based on a maximum bulk flue gas SO2 level of 3200 ppmv (wet) / 4050 ppmv (dry), suggest that, from a corrosion standpoint, the materials used in conventional subcritical and supercritical, air-fired boilers should also be suitable for oxy-combustion retrofits. Although the laboratory test results are encouraging, they are only the first step of a material evaluation process and it is recommended that follow-on corrosion tests be conducted in coal-fired boilers operating under oxy-combustion to provide longer term (one to two year

  2. Oxy-Combustion Boiler Material Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Gagliano; Andrew Seltzer; Hans Agarwal; Archie Robertson; Lun Wang

    2012-01-31

    Under U.S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005262 Foster Wheeler North America Corp conducted a laboratory test program to determine the effect of oxy-combustion on boiler tube corrosion. In this program, CFD modeling was used to predict the gas compositions that will exist throughout and along the walls of air-fired and oxy-fired boilers operating with low to high sulfur coals. Test coupons of boiler tube materials were coated with deposits representative of those coals and exposed to the CFD predicted flue gases for up to 1000 hours. The tests were conducted in electric tube furnaces using oxy-combustion and air-fired flue gases synthesized from pressurized cylinders. Following exposure, the test coupons were evaluated to determine the total metal wastage experienced under air and oxy-combustions conditions and materials recommendations were made. Similar to air-fired operation, oxy-combustion corrosion rates were found to vary with the boiler material, test temperature, deposit composition, and gas composition. Despite this, comparison of air-fired and oxy-fired corrosion rates showed that oxy-firing rates were, for the most part, similar to, if not lower than those of air-firing; this finding applied to the seven furnace waterwall materials (wrought and weld overlay) and the ten superheater/reheater materials (wrought and weld overlay) that were tested. The results of the laboratory oxy-combustion tests, which are based on a maximum bulk flue gas SO{sub 2} level of 3200 ppmv (wet) / 4050 ppmv (dry), suggest that, from a corrosion standpoint, the materials used in conventional subcritical and supercritical, air-fired boilers should also be suitable for oxy-combustion retrofits. Although the laboratory test results are encouraging, they are only the first step of a material evaluation process and it is recommended that follow-on corrosion tests be conducted in coal-fired boilers operating under oxy-combustion to provide longer term (one to

  3. A review of temperature measurement in the steel reheat furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martocci, A.P.; Mihalow, F.A.

    1985-01-01

    The incentive for conducting research and development on reheat furnaces is substantial; the domestic steel industry spent approximately one billion dollars on fuel in reheat furnaces in 1981. Bethlehem Steel Corp. spent /145 million of that total, and neither figure includes fuel consumed in soaking pits or annealing furnaces. If the authors set a goal to save 10% of these annual fuel costs, that translates into /100 million for the domestic steel industry and /14.5 million for Bethlehem Steel. These large sums of money are significant incentives. The purpose of this paper is to review the historical heating practices and equipment at steel reheat furnaces along with current practices and instrumentation

  4. Data Analytics Based Dual-Optimized Adaptive Model Predictive Control for the Power Plant Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhao Tang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To control the furnace temperature of a power plant boiler precisely, a dual-optimized adaptive model predictive control (DoAMPC method is designed based on the data analytics. In the proposed DoAMPC, an accurate predictive model is constructed adaptively by the hybrid algorithm of the least squares support vector machine and differential evolution method. Then, an optimization problem is constructed based on the predictive model and many constraint conditions. To control the boiler furnace temperature, the differential evolution method is utilized to decide the control variables by solving the optimization problem. The proposed method can adapt to the time-varying situation by updating the sample data. The experimental results based on practical data illustrate that the DoAMPC can control the boiler furnace temperature with errors of less than 1.5% which can meet the requirements of the real production process.

  5. Using CFD to investigate heater fouling in a utility boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, L.; Sun, B.; Salcudean, M.

    2004-01-01

    A simulation investigation into the combustion and heat transfer process in a utility boiler is presented. The work is based on the commercial software Fluent 6.1.18. Flow, chemistry, energy, conservation and radiation models are used to simulate the process inside the furnace. Radiation and convection models are considered in the horizontal heater. The temperature and velocity fields are calculated to unveil the process inside and outside the furnace. The result shows that the fouling in reheater is formed because of the temperature and velocity field in the flue gas passage. A limited test is done to validate the simulation. (author)

  6. Firewood boiler operators and heat exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilson Bernardo Stollmeier

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an analysis of heat exposure work in boiler industry wood from a company in the industrial sector, focusing on the analysis of the environmental burden of the activity. Therefore, the methodological procedures consisted of document analysis, interviews, filming, evaluation problems of the effects of the hot environment and its prevention. The results show that the fuel to the boiler operators are exposed to heat and need guidance on their daily activities with prevention of diseases affected by excessive heat. Are also suggested training in technical and health to improve working conditions and the operator's health.

  7. Exergetic Modelling of Oil-Fired Steam Boilers | Ohijeagbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance variables and potential for energy savings in oil-fired industrial steam boilers were studied. Operational parameters of steam boilers using low pour fuel oil (LPFO) and diesel were used to determine thermodynamic properties of material streams and exergetic parameters. Analysis of thermodynamic ...

  8. DESIGN REPORT: LOW-NOX BURNERS FOR PACKAGE BOILERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report describes a low-NOx burner design, presented for residual-oil-fired industrial boilers and boilers cofiring conventional fuels and nitrated hazardous wastes. The burner offers lower NOx emission levels for these applications than conventional commercial burners. The bu...

  9. Assessment of physical workload in boiler operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Valéria Antônia Justino; Braga, Camila Soares; Campos, Julio César Costa; Souza, Amaury Paulo de; Minette, Luciano José; Sensato, Guilherme Luciano; Moraes, Angelo Casali de; Silva, Emília Pio da

    2012-01-01

    The use of boiler wood-fired is fairly common equipment utilized in steam generation for energy production in small industries. The boiler activities are considered dangerous and heavy, mainly due to risks of explosions and the lack of mechanization of the process. This study assessed the burden of physical labor that operators of boilers are subjected during the workday. Assessment of these conditions was carried out through quantitative and qualitative measurements. A heart rate monitor, a wet-bulb globe thermometer (WBGT), a tape-measure and a digital infrared camera were the instruments used to collect the quantitative data. The Nordic Questionnaire and the Painful Areas Diagram were used to relate the health problems of the boiler operator with activity. With study, was concluded that the boiler activity may cause pains in the body of intensity different, muscle fatigue and diseases due to excessive weight and the exposure to heat. The research contributed to improve the boiler operator's workplace and working conditions.

  10. Electric utility CFB boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairbanks, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boiler technology which caught the attention of boiler users: first for its technical advantages of reduced air emissions and low grade fuel tolerance, then later for its problems in becoming a reliable process. Refractory longevity and fuel feed reliability plagued a number of new installations. The efficacy of CFB technology is now more assured with the recent success of Texas-New Mexico Power Company's 160 MWe CFB based units, the world's largest operating CFB boilers. Most of the more notable CFB development problems have been successfully addressed by these units. The TNP units have demonstrated that CFB's can reliable produce high capacity factors at low emission rates using a fuel that has traditionally hampered the operation of pulverized coal (PC) boilers and without the attendant problems associated with sulfur scrubbers required by PC boilers

  11. Overall evaluation of combustion and NO(x) emissions for a down-fired 600 MW(e) supercritical boiler with multiple injection and multiple staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Min; Li, Zhengqi; Liu, Chunlong; Zhu, Qunyi

    2013-05-07

    To achieve significant reductions in NOx emissions and to eliminate strongly asymmetric combustion found in down-fired boilers, a deep-air-staging combustion technology was trialed in a down-fired 600 MWe supercritical utility boiler. By performing industrial-sized measurements taken of gas temperatures and species concentrations in the near wing-wall region, carbon in fly ash and NOx emissions at various settings, effects of overfire air (OFA) and staged-air damper openings on combustion characteristics, and NOx emissions within the furnace were experimentally determined. With increasing the OFA damper opening, both fluctuations in NOx emissions and carbon in fly ash were initially slightly over OFA damper openings of 0-40% but then lengthened dramatically in openings of 40-70% (i.e., NOx emissions reduced sharply accompanied by an apparent increase in carbon in fly ash). Decreasing the staged-air declination angle clearly increased the combustible loss but slightly influenced NOx emissions. In comparison with OFA, the staged-air influence on combustion and NOx emissions was clearly weaker. Only at a high OFA damper opening of 50%, the staged-air effect was relatively clear, i.e., enlarging the staged-air damper opening decreased carbon in fly ash and slightly raised NOx emissions. By sharply opening the OFA damper to deepen the air-staging conditions, although NOx emissions could finally reduce to 503 mg/m(3) at 6% O2 (i.e., an ultralow NOx level for down-fired furnaces), carbon in fly ash jumped sharply to 15.10%. For economical and environment-friendly boiler operations, an optimal damper opening combination (i.e., 60%, 50%, and 50% for secondary air, staged-air, and OFA damper openings, respectively) was recommended for the furnace, at which carbon in fly ash and NOx emissions attained levels of about 10% and 850 mg/m(3) at 6% O2, respectively.

  12. A numerical study on thermal behavior of a D-type water-cooled steam boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moghari, M.; Hosseini, S.; Shokouhmand, H.; Sharifi, H.; Izadpanah, S.

    2012-01-01

    To achieve a precise assessment on thermal performance of a D-type water-cooled natural gas-fired boiler the present paper was aimed at determining temperature distribution of water and flue gas flows in its different heat exchange equipment. Using the zonal method to predict thermal radiation treatment in the boiler furnace and a numerical iterative approach, in which heat and fluid flow relations associated with different heat surfaces in the boiler convective zone were employed to estimate heat transfer characteristics, enabled this numerical study to obtain results in good agreement with experimental data measured in the utility site during steady state operation. A constant flow rate for a natural gas fuel of specified chemical composition was assumed to be mixed with a given excess ratio of air flow at a full boiler load. Significant results attributed to distribution of heat flux on different furnace walls and that of flue gas and water/steam temperature in different convective stages including superheater, evaporating risers and downcomers modules, and economizer were obtained. Besides the rate of heat absorption in every stage and other essential parameters in the boiler design too, inherent thermal characteristics like radiative and convective heat transfer coefficients as well as overall heat transfer conductance and effectiveness of convective stages considered as cross-flow heat exchangers were eventually presented for the given operating condition. - Highlights: ► Detailed distribution of heat flux on all of the boiler furnace walls was obtained. ► Flue gas and water thermal behaviors in different heating sections were evaluated. ► A good agreement was made between numerical results and experimental data. ► Contribution of the boiler furnace to the total thermal absorption was 39%. ► Contribution of the boiler tube banks to the total thermal absorption was 61%.

  13. Modeling and optimization of processes for clean and efficient pulverized coal combustion in utility boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belošević Srđan V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulverized coal-fired power plants should provide higher efficiency of energy conversion, flexibility in terms of boiler loads and fuel characteristics and emission reduction of pollutants like nitrogen oxides. Modification of combustion process is a cost-effective technology for NOx control. For optimization of complex processes, such as turbulent reactive flow in coal-fired furnaces, mathematical modeling is regularly used. The NOx emission reduction by combustion modifications in the 350 MWe Kostolac B boiler furnace, tangentially fired by pulverized Serbian lignite, is investigated in the paper. Numerical experiments were done by an in-house developed three-dimensional differential comprehensive combustion code, with fuel- and thermal-NO formation/destruction reactions model. The code was developed to be easily used by engineering staff for process analysis in boiler units. A broad range of operating conditions was examined, such as fuel and preheated air distribution over the burners and tiers, operation mode of the burners, grinding fineness and quality of coal, boiler loads, cold air ingress, recirculation of flue gases, water-walls ash deposition and combined effect of different parameters. The predictions show that the NOx emission reduction of up to 30% can be achieved by a proper combustion organization in the case-study furnace, with the flame position control. Impact of combustion modifications on the boiler operation was evaluated by the boiler thermal calculations suggesting that the facility was to be controlled within narrow limits of operation parameters. Such a complex approach to pollutants control enables evaluating alternative solutions to achieve efficient and low emission operation of utility boiler units. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-33018: Increase in energy and ecology efficiency of processes in pulverized coal-fired furnace and optimization of utility steam boiler air preheater by using in

  14. Feasibility Study of Correcting Circuit Scheme for Automatic Control System of Total Air in Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Nazarov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains results of investigations on dynamic characteristics automatic control system (ACS for total air consumption (TAC in a boiler with corrections for О2 and СО. From transition process point of view the ACS TAC with correction for СО is considered as the most optimum one as with disturbance attack on fuel expenditure so discharging beyond boiler furnace.

  15. Advanced steel reheat furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyeda, D.; Sheldon, M.; Koppang, R. [Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Irvine, CA (United States); Lanyi, M.; Li, X.; Eleazer, B. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Energy and Environmental Research Corp. (EER) under a contract from the Department of Energy is pursuing the development and demonstration of an Advanced Steel Reheating Furnace. This paper reports the results of Phase 1, Research, which has evaluated an advanced furnace concept incorporating two proven and commercialized technologies previously applied to other high temperature combustion applications: EER`s gas reburn technology (GR) for post combustion NOx control; and Air Product`s oxy-fuel enrichment air (OEA) for improved flame heat transfer in the heating zones of the furnace. The combined technologies feature greater production throughput with associated furnace efficiency improvements; lowered NOx emissions; and better control over the furnace atmosphere, whether oxidizing or reducing, leading to better control over surface finish.

  16. Imulation of temperature field in swirl pulverized coal boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Wei; Wu, Weifeng; Chen, Chen; Chen, Weifeng; Qi, Guoli; Zhang, Songsong

    2018-02-01

    In order to achieve the goal of energy saving and emission reduction and energy efficient utilization, taking a 58MW swirl pulverized coal boiler as the research object, the three-dimensional model of the rotor is established. According to the principle of CFD, basic assumptions and boundary conditions are selected, the temperature field in the furnace of 6 kinds of working conditions is numerically solved, and the temperature distribution in the furnace is analyzed. The calculation results show that the temperature of the working condition 1 is in good agreement with the experimental data, and the error is less than 10%,the results provide a theoretical basis for the following calculation. Through the comparison of the results of the 6 conditions, it is found that the working condition 3 is the best operating condition of the pulverized coal boiler.

  17. Thermo hydraulics of a steam boiler forced circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucakovic, Dragan; Zivanovic, Titoslav; Stevanovic, Vladimir

    2006-01-01

    In order to minimize the dryout at the steam boiler furnace in the Thermal Power Plant Kolubara B, designed are inner rifled wall tubes. This type of tubes, with many spiral grooves cut into the bore, prevents film boiling and enables the nucleate boiling be still maintained under the condition of vapour quality being app. 1. To verify the choice of the rifled tubes instead of the cheaper, smooth tubes type being justified, analyzed is the change of the actual and critical vapour quality with the furnace height, under uniform and non-uniform heat flu through evaporator walls. Furthermore, made are hydraulic calculations for various steam boiler loads, in case of both rifled and smooth tubes types, with the purpose to check the rifles influence to pressure drop increase in comparison with the smooth tubes. Also, checked is the selection of the circulation pump. Key words: evaporator, forced circulation, rifled tubes, critical vapour quality, pressure drop

  18. Research on Marine Boiler's Pressurized Combustion and Heat Transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pingjian MING; Renqiu JIANG; Yanjun LI; Baozhi SUN

    2005-01-01

    The effect of pressure on combustion and heat transfer is analyzed. The research is based on the basic combustion and heat transfer theorem. A correction for the heat calculation method for pressurized furnace is made on the basis of the normal pressure case. The correction takes the effect of pressurizing into account. The results show that the correction is reasonable and the method is applicable to combustion and heat transfer of the marine supercharged boiler.

  19. The Aude Boiler. Experience on a 10 Mw Semi-Industrial Unit and Modeling Results La chaudière AUDE. Expérience sur un pilote semi-industriel de 10 MW et résultats de modélisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolignier J. C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available European legislation in 1988 concerning gaseous emissions by stationary combustion installations places much greater constraints on the use of petroleum residues, which are generally rich in sulfur and nitrogen. The AUDE (AUtoDEpolluting boiler, designed by Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP and developed in collaboration with Babcock Entreprise, is initiated to meet the new needs of consumers of heavy fuel oils and residues among both refiners and industry. With its especially equipped desulfurization and denitrification chamber after the furnace, this boiler provides in situ treatment of flue gas, which gives it the advantage of holding down investments and of being easy to implement. The present article describes the research undertaken by IFP and Babcock Entreprise to develop this new piece of equipment, from the laboratory phase up to a 10 MW semi-industrial unit. It also describes the modeling support used to gain a better understanding of the exact operating of the desulfurization chamber, which will subsequently be used as a support for the sizing of industrial installations. La législation européenne de 1988 sur les rejets gazeux des installations de combustion fixes rend beaucoup plus contraignante l'utilisation des résidus pétroliers, généralement riches en soufre et en azote. La chaudière AUDE (AUtoDEpolluante, conçue à l'Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP et développée en collaboration avec la société BABCOCK Entreprise, est destinée à répondre aux nouveaux besoins des consommateurs de fuels lourds et de résidus, aussi bien les raffineurs que l'industrie. Grâce à une chambre de désulfuration et de dénitrification spécialement aménagée après le foyer, cette chaudière assure un traitement in situ des fumées qui a pour avantage de limiter les investissements et d'être facile à mettre en oeuvre. Le présent article décrit les travaux de développement engagés par IFP et BABCOCK Entreprise pour mettre au

  20. CECIL lances Bruce's boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaugh, J.; Monaghan, D.

    1994-01-01

    Over the past few years Ontario Hydro has become increasingly concerned about accumulations of sludge in its nuclear plant boilers, so a comprehensive sludge management programme has been instituted to combat build-up. This included developing the tele-operated robot CECIL (Consolidated Edison Combined Inspection and Lancing) equipment, originally designed for work in PWRs, for CANDU boilers. This required a significantly reconfigured robotic system as well as modifications to the boilers themselves. Work on the Bruce A reactor is described. (4 figures). (author)

  1. Calculations in furnace technology

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, Clive; Hopkins, DW; Owen, WS

    2013-01-01

    Calculations in Furnace Technology presents the theoretical and practical aspects of furnace technology. This book provides information pertinent to the development, application, and efficiency of furnace technology. Organized into eight chapters, this book begins with an overview of the exothermic reactions that occur when carbon, hydrogen, and sulfur are burned to release the energy available in the fuel. This text then evaluates the efficiencies to measure the quantity of fuel used, of flue gases leaving the plant, of air entering, and the heat lost to the surroundings. Other chapters consi

  2. The heat exchanger of small pellet boiler for phytomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mičieta, Jozef; Lenhard, Richard; Jandačka, Jozef

    2014-08-01

    Combustion of pellets from plant biomass (phytomass) causes various troubles. Main problem is slagging ash because of low melting temperature of ash from phytomass. This problem is possible to solve either improving energetic properties of phytomass by additives or modification of boiler construction. A small-scale boiler for phytomass is different in construction of heat exchanger and furnace mainly. We solve major problem - slagging ash, by decreasing combustion temperature via redesign of pellet burner and boiler body. Consequence of lower combustion temperature is also lower temperature gradient of combustion gas. It means that is necessary to design larger heat exchanging surface. We plane to use underfed burner, so we would utilize circle symmetry heat exchanger. Paper deals design of heat exchanger construction with help of CFD simulation. Our purpose is to keep uniform water flux and combustion gas flux in heat exchanger without zone of local overheating and excess cooling.

  3. Statistical analysis of thermal efficiency in industrial furnaces in Japan and determination of CO2 reduction amount realized by improving the efficiency; Nippon no kogyoro ni okeru netsukoritsu no tokeiteki kaiseki to sono kaizen ni yoru CO2 sakugenryo no suitei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwabayashi, T.; Matsuhashi, T.; Ishitani, H. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Tanabe, K. [The Energy Conservation Center Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Tanaka, R. [The Japan Industrial Furnace Manufacturers Association, Tokyo (Japan); Takashima, T.

    1997-01-30

    Analyses and evaluations were given on heating furnaces and heat treatment furnaces used in the Japanese steel and iron industry to calculate amounts of energy and CO2 that could be reduced by introducing a new furnace. The analyses have derived factors affecting thermal efficiency of the heating furnaces by using regression analysis. Discussions were given on a high-temperature air combustion system and a stored heat combustion system as new furnace technologies. As a result, it was disclosed that the current fuel consumption could be reduced to about 40% to 80% only by performing air pre-heating ideally and suppressing heat loss from furnace walls. This concept is sufficiently payable in terms of economy. It was also revealed that fuel consumption could be reduced to about 12% to 36% and CO2 discharge could be reduced in proportion with reduction in the fuel consumption, if ideal preheating can be carried out on materials to be heated. Furthermore, a result was obtained that the present thermal efficiency of 26.86% in nonferrous industries such as for copper and aluminum could be increased up to 53.37%. 10 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Paired Straight Hearth Furnace - Transformational Ironmaking Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Wei-Kao [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada); Debski, Paul [Andritz Metals Inc.,Canonsburg, PA (United States)

    2014-11-19

    The U. S. steel industry has reduced its energy intensity per ton of steel shipped by 33% since 1990. However, further significant gains in energy efficiency will require the development of new, transformational iron and steelmaking processes. The Paired Straight Hearth Furnace (PSH) process is an emerging alternative high productivity, direct reduced iron (DRI) technology that may achieve very low fuel rates and has the potential to replace blast furnace ironmaking. The PSH furnace can operate independently or may be coupled with other melting technologies to produce liquid hot metal that is both similar to blast furnace iron and suitable as a feedstock for basic oxygen steelmaking furnaces. The PSH process uses non-metallurgical coal as a reductant to convert iron oxides such as iron ore and steelmaking by-product oxides to DRI pellets. In this process, a multi-layer, nominally 120mm tall bed of composite “green balls” made from oxide, coal and binder is built up and contained within a moving refractory hearth. The pellet bed absorbs radiant heat energy during exposure to the high temperature interior refractory surfaces of the PSH while generating a strongly reducing gas atmosphere in the bed that yields a highly metalized DRI product. The PSH concept has been well tested in static hearth experiments. A moving bed design is being developed. The process developers believe that if successful, the PSH process has the potential to replace blast furnaces and coke ovens at a fraction of the operating and capital cost while using about 30% less energy relative to current blast furnace technology. DRI output could also feed electric arc furnaces (EAFs) by displacing a portion of the scrap charge.

  5. Liquid flow in the hearth of the blast furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauje, P.; Nicolle, R.; Steiler, J.M.; Venturini, M.J.; Libralesso, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    The hearth of a blast furnace is poorly known. Our approach to characterize the hearth involves classical methods of chemical engineering, assessing the flow conditions by means of radioactive tracer techniques. The most important feature of this study is to combine measurements on industrial blast furnaces, experiments on a small scale model and flow model. calculations. 8 refs., 16 figs

  6. Design and Construction of Oil Fired Compact Crucible Furnace ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a prelude to necessary industrialization, foundries are springing up in various parts of Nigeria and most of these foundries rely on oil fired furnaces in their operation. This study is aimed at developing an oil fired crucible furnace from locally sourced materials for foundries in Nigeria. In our design, a new system of fuel ...

  7. Modelling transition states of a small once-through boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talonpoika, T [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland). Dept. of Energy Technology

    1998-12-31

    This article presents a model for the unsteady dynamic behaviour of a once-through counter flow boiler that uses an organic working fluid. The boiler is a compact waste-heat boiler without a furnace and it has a preheater, a vaporiser and a superheater. The relative lengths of the boiler parts vary with the operating conditions since they are all parts of a single tube. The boiler model is presented using a selected example case that uses toluene as the process fluid and flue gas from natural gas combustion as the heat source. The dynamic behaviour of the boiler means transition from the steady initial state towards another steady state that corresponds to the changed process conditions. The solution method chosen is to find such a pressure of the process fluid that the mass of the process fluid in the boiler equals the mass calculated using the mass flows into and out of the boiler during a time step, using the finite difference method. A special method of fast calculation of the thermal properties is used, because most of the calculation time is spent in calculating the fluid properties. The boiler is divided into elements. The values of the thermodynamic properties and mass flows are calculated in the nodes that connect the elements. Dynamic behaviour is limited to the process fluid and tube wall, and the heat source is regarded as to be steady. The elements that connect the preheater to the vaporiser and the vaporiser to the superheater are treated in a special way that takes into account a flexible change from one part to the other. The initial state of the boiler is received from a steady process model that is not a part of the boiler model. The known boundary values that may vary during the dynamic calculation were the inlet temperature and mass flow rates of both the heat source fluid and the process fluid. The dynamic boiler model is analysed for linear and step charges of the entering fluid temperatures and flow rates. The heat source side tests show that

  8. Modelling transition states of a small once-through boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talonpoika, T. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland). Dept. of Energy Technology

    1997-12-31

    This article presents a model for the unsteady dynamic behaviour of a once-through counter flow boiler that uses an organic working fluid. The boiler is a compact waste-heat boiler without a furnace and it has a preheater, a vaporiser and a superheater. The relative lengths of the boiler parts vary with the operating conditions since they are all parts of a single tube. The boiler model is presented using a selected example case that uses toluene as the process fluid and flue gas from natural gas combustion as the heat source. The dynamic behaviour of the boiler means transition from the steady initial state towards another steady state that corresponds to the changed process conditions. The solution method chosen is to find such a pressure of the process fluid that the mass of the process fluid in the boiler equals the mass calculated using the mass flows into and out of the boiler during a time step, using the finite difference method. A special method of fast calculation of the thermal properties is used, because most of the calculation time is spent in calculating the fluid properties. The boiler is divided into elements. The values of the thermodynamic properties and mass flows are calculated in the nodes that connect the elements. Dynamic behaviour is limited to the process fluid and tube wall, and the heat source is regarded as to be steady. The elements that connect the preheater to the vaporiser and the vaporiser to the superheater are treated in a special way that takes into account a flexible change from one part to the other. The initial state of the boiler is received from a steady process model that is not a part of the boiler model. The known boundary values that may vary during the dynamic calculation were the inlet temperature and mass flow rates of both the heat source fluid and the process fluid. The dynamic boiler model is analysed for linear and step charges of the entering fluid temperatures and flow rates. The heat source side tests show that

  9. The application of zonal trademark combustion monitoring and tuning system to coal boilers for efficiency improvement and emissions reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Guang; Zhou, Wei; Widmer, Neil C.; Moyeda, David K. [GE Energy, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Coal-fired boilers equipped with Low NO{sub x} Burner (LNB) and Overfire Air (OFA) are challenged with maintaining good combustion conditions. In many cases, the significant increases in carbon monoxide (CO) and unburned carbon levels can be attributed to local poor combustion conditions as a result of poorly controlled fuel-air distribution within the furnace. The Zonal trademark combustion monitoring and tuning system developed by GE is available to detect and correct the furnace air-fuel distribution imbalance. The system monitors the boiler excess oxygen (O{sub 2}) and combustible gases, primarily carbon monoxide (CO), by using spatially distributed multipoint sensors located in the boiler's high temperature upper convective backpass region. At these locations, the furnace flow is still significantly stratified allowing tracing of poor combustion zones to specific burners and OFA ports. Using a model-based tuning system, operators can rapidly respond to poor combustion conditions by redistributing airflows to select burners and OFA ports. By improving combustion at every point within the furnace, the boiler can operate at reduced excess O{sub 2} and reduced furnace exit gas temperature (FEGT) while also reducing localized hot spots, corrosive gas conditions, slag formation, and carbon-in-ash. Benefits include improving efficiency, reducing NO{sub X} emissions, increasing output and maximizing availability. This chapter presents the results from implementing the Zonal combustion monitoring and tuning system on a 460 MW tangential-fired coal boiler in the Western United States.

  10. ENERGY STAR Certified Boilers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Boilers that are effective as of October 1,...

  11. Dynamic Boiler Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kim

    Traditionally, boilers have been designed mainly focussing on the static operation of the plant. The dynamic capability has been given lower priority and the analysis has typically been limited to assuring that the plant was not over-stressed due to large temperature gradients. New possibilities...... developed. Analyzing boilers for dynamic operation gives rise to a number of opposing aims: shrinking and swelling, steam quality, stress levels, control system/philosophy, pressurization etc. Common for these opposing aims is that an optimum can be found for selected operation conditions. The framework has...... for buying and selling energy has increased the focus on the dynamic operation capability, efciency, emissions etc. For optimizing the design of boilers for dynamic operation a quantication of the dynamic capability is needed. A framework for optimizing design of boilers for dynamic operation has been...

  12. High Temperature Transparent Furnace Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Stephen C.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the use of novel techniques for heat containment that could be used to build a high temperature transparent furnace. The primary objective of the work was to experimentally demonstrate transparent furnace operation at 1200 C. Secondary objectives were to understand furnace operation and furnace component specification to enable the design and construction of a low power prototype furnace for delivery to NASA in a follow-up project. The basic approach of the research was to couple high temperature component design with simple concept demonstration experiments that modify a commercially available transparent furnace rated at lower temperature. A detailed energy balance of the operating transparent furnace was performed, calculating heat losses through the furnace components as a result of conduction, radiation, and convection. The transparent furnace shells and furnace components were redesigned to permit furnace operation at at least 1200 C. Techniques were developed that are expected to lead to significantly improved heat containment compared with current transparent furnaces. The design of a thermal profile in a multizone high temperature transparent furnace design was also addressed. Experiments were performed to verify the energy balance analysis, to demonstrate some of the major furnace improvement techniques developed, and to demonstrate the overall feasibility of a high temperature transparent furnace. The important objective of the research was achieved: to demonstrate the feasibility of operating a transparent furnace at 1200 C.

  13. Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling, five-year report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1996-08-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The project originated in October 1990 and was scheduled to run for four years. At that time, there was considerable emphasis on developing accurate predictions of the physical carryover of macroscopic particles of partially burnt black liquor and smelt droplets out of the furnace, since this was seen as the main cause of boiler plugging. This placed a major emphasis on gas flow patterns within the furnace and on the mass loss rates and swelling and shrinking rates of burning black liquor drops. As work proceeded on developing the recovery boiler furnace model, it became apparent that some recovery boilers encounter serious plugging problems even when physical carryover was minimal. After the original four-year period was completed, the project was extended to address this issue. The objective of the extended project was to improve the utility of the models by including the black liquor chemistry relevant to air emissions predictions and aerosol formation, and by developing the knowledge base and computational tools to relate furnace model outputs to fouling and plugging of the convective sections of the boilers. The work done to date includes CFD model development and validation, acquisition of information on black liquor combustion fundamentals and development of improved burning models, char bed model development, and model application and simplification.

  14. Multivariable robust adaptive sliding mode control of an industrial boiler-turbine in the presence of modeling imprecisions and external disturbances: A comparison with type-I servo controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghabraei, Soheil; Moradi, Hamed; Vossoughi, Gholamreza

    2015-09-01

    To guarantee the safety and efficient performance of the power plant, a robust controller for the boiler-turbine unit is needed. In this paper, a robust adaptive sliding mode controller (RASMC) is proposed to control a nonlinear multi-input multi-output (MIMO) model of industrial boiler-turbine unit, in the presence of unknown bounded uncertainties and external disturbances. To overcome the coupled nonlinearities and investigate the zero dynamics, input-output linearization is performed, and then the new decoupled inputs are derived. To tackle the uncertainties and external disturbances, appropriate adaption laws are introduced. For constructing the RASMC, suitable sliding surface is considered. To guarantee the sliding motion occurrence, appropriate control laws are constructed. Then the robustness and stability of the proposed RASMC is proved via Lyapunov stability theory. To compare the performance of the purposed RASMC with traditional control schemes, a type-I servo controller is designed. To evaluate the performance of the proposed control schemes, simulation studies on nonlinear MIMO dynamic system in the presence of high frequency bounded uncertainties and external disturbances are conducted and compared. Comparison of the results reveals the superiority of proposed RASMC over the traditional control schemes. RAMSC acts efficiently in disturbance rejection and keeping the system behavior in desirable tracking objectives, without the existence of unstable quasi-periodic solutions. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of residual swirl in tangentially-fired natural gas-boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasril Hasini; Muhammad Azlan Muad; Mohd Zamri Yusoff; Norshah Hafeez Shuaib

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the investigation on residual swirl flow in a 120 MW natural gas, full-scale, tangential-fired boiler. Emphasis is given towards the understanding of the behavior of the combustion gas flow pattern and temperature distribution as a result of the tangential firing system of the boiler. The analysis was carried out based on three-dimensional computational modeling on full scale boiler with validation from key design parameter as well as practical observation. Actual operating parameters of the actual boiler are taken as the boundary conditions for this modeling. The prediction of total heat flux was found to be in agreement with the key design parameter while the residual swirl predicted at the upper furnace agrees qualitatively with the practical observation. Based on this comparison, detail analysis was carried out for comprehensive understanding on the generation and destruction of the residual swirl behavior in boiler especially those with high capacity. (author)

  16. Hybrid system for fouling control in biomass boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romeo, Luis M.; Gareta, Raquel [Centro de Investigacin de Recursos y Consumos Energeticos (CIRCE), Universidad de Zaragoza, Centro Politecnico Superior, Mareda de Luna, 3, Zaragoza 50018, (Spain)

    2006-12-15

    Renewable energy sources are essential paths towards sustainable development and CO{sub 2} emission reduction. For example, the European Union has set the target of achieving 22% of electricity generation from renewable sources by 2010. However, the extensive use of this energy source is being avoided by some technical problems as fouling and slagging in the surfaces of boiler heat exchangers. Although these phenomena were extensively studied in the last decades in order to optimize the behaviour of large coal power boilers, a simple, general and effective method for fouling control has not been developed. For biomass boilers, the feedstock variability and the presence of new components in ash chemistry increase the fouling influence in boiler performance. In particular, heat transfer is widely affected and the boiler capacity becomes dramatically reduced. Unfortunately, the classical approach of regular sootblowing cycles becomes clearly insufficient for them. Artificial Intelligence (AI) provides new means to undertake this problem. This paper illustrates a methodology based on Neural Networks (NNs) and Fuzzy-Logic Expert Systems to select the moment for activating sootblowing in an industrial biomass boiler. The main aim is to minimize the boiler energy and efficiency losses with a proper sootblowing activation. Although the NN type used in this work is well-known and the Hybrid Systems had been extensively used in the last decade, the excellent results obtained in the use of AI in industrial biomass boilers control with regard to previous approaches makes this work a novelty. (Author)

  17. Numerical study of aerodynamics and brown coal combustion in the vortex furnace with air excess variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasinsky Denis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of numerical modelling of 3D turbulent two-phase reacting flow with account for all the principal heat and mass transfer processes during the pulverized brown coal combustion in the vortex furnace of a power plant boiler unit have been presented. For two computational cases where air excess coefficient α was varied (set to 1.15 and 1.25, the detailed aerothermochemical 3D structure of reacting flow in the furnace volume has been revealed. The comparison of integral heat engineering parameters and NOx emissions obtained in the two cases has shown a slightly improved vortex furnace performance in the case α=1.25.

  18. Thermal-hydraulic analysis of a 600 MW supercritical CFB boiler with low mass flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Jie; Yang Dong; Chen Gongming; Zhou Xu; Bi Qincheng

    2012-01-01

    Supercritical Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boiler becomes an important development trend for coal-fired power plant and thermal-hydraulic analysis is a key factor for the design and operation of water wall. According to the boiler structure and furnace-sided heat flux, the water wall system of a 600 MW supercritical CFB boiler is treated in this paper as a flow network consisting of series-parallel loops, pressure grids and connecting tubes. A mathematical model for predicting the thermal-hydraulic characteristics in boiler heating surface is based on the mass, momentum and energy conservation equations of these components, which introduces numerous empirical correlations available for heat transfer and hydraulic resistance calculation. Mass flux distribution and pressure drop data in the water wall at 30%, 75% and 100% of the boiler maximum continuous rating (BMCR) are obtained by iteratively solving the model. Simultaneity, outlet vapor temperatures and metal temperatures in water wall tubes are estimated. The results show good heat transfer performance and low flow resistance, which implies that the water wall design of supercritical CFB boiler is applicable. - Highlights: → We proposed a model for thermal-hydraulic analysis of boiler heating surface. → The model is applied in a 600 MW supercritical CFB boiler. → We explore the pressure drop, mass flux and temperature distribution in water wall. → The operating safety of boiler is estimated. → The results show good heat transfer performance and low flow resistance.

  19. Modelling of thermal processes and optimization of energy-ecology characteristics of the modern boiler plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filkoski, Risto V.

    2004-01-01

    The investigation accomplished in the framework of this work is concerned with the thermal processes in the furnaces of modern steam and hot-water boilers on fossil fuels. Aerodynamic and thermal conditions in the furnaces are described and models for separate processes and phenomena that occur there are presented. By using proper CFD technique, three-dimensional models of furnaces of coal-fired power boiler, hot-water boiler with circulating fluidized bed combustion and steam boiler on liquid/gaseous fuel are created. Graphical pre-processor is used for geometry creation and mesh generation of the investigated boiler plants. Mathematical model for the gas-solids mixture flow is based on Lagrange approach for the discrete phase simulations, in addition to the transport equations for the gas phase. A standard steady semi-empirical k-E model is employed for description of the turbulent flow. Coupling of velocity and pressure is achieved by the SIMPLEC method. Coal combustion is modelled as non-premixed kinetics/diffusion-limited process by the mixture fraction/probability density function approach for the reaction chemistry, with equilibrium assumption applied for description of the system chemistry. Radiation heat transfer is computed by means of the P-1 model, which is simplified variance of the P-N model, based on the expansion of the radiation intensity into an orthogonal series of spherical harmonics. Presence of discrete solid phase in the main gas stream is effectively taken into consideration through additional terms in the radiation energy transfer equation and in other model equations. Variable emissivity coefficient of the combustion products is modelled with the weighted-sum-of-grey gases-model. A model for NO x formation and reduction is included in the computations. Numerical simulations provide results concerning the boilers operation in several regimes. A methodology for optimisation of energetic-ecological characteristics of boiler plants is proposed

  20. MODELLING, SIMULATING AND OPTIMIZING BOILERS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kim; Condra, Thomas Joseph; Houbak, Niels

    2004-01-01

    In the present work a framework for optimizing the design of boilers for dynamic operation has been developed. A cost function to be minimized during the optimization has been formulated and for the present design variables related to the Boiler Volume and the Boiler load Gradient (i.e. ring rate...... on the boiler) have been dened. Furthermore a number of constraints related to: minimum and maximum boiler load gradient, minimum boiler size, Shrinking and Swelling and Steam Space Load have been dened. For dening the constraints related to the required boiler volume a dynamic model for simulating the boiler...... performance has been developed. Outputs from the simulations are shrinking and swelling of water level in the drum during for example a start-up of the boiler, these gures combined with the requirements with respect to allowable water level uctuations in the drum denes the requirements with respect to drum...

  1. Boiler house modernization through shared savings program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breault, R.W. [Tecogen, Waltham, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Throughout Poland as well as the rest of Eastern Europe, communities and industries rely on small heat only boilers to provide district and process heat. Together these two sectors produce about 85,000 MW from boilers in the 2 to 35 MW size range. The bulk of these units were installed prior to 1992 and must be completely overhauled to meet the emission regulations which will be coming into effect on January 1, 1998. Since the only practical fuel is coal in most cases, these boilers must be either retrofit with emission control technology or be replaced entirely. The question that arises is how to accomplish this given the current tight control of capital in Poland and other East European countries. A solution that we have for this problem is shared savings. These boilers are typically operating with a quiet low efficiency as compared to western standards and with excessive manual labor. Installing modernization equipment to improve the efficiency and to automate the process provides savings. ECOGY provides the funds for the modernization to improve the efficiency, add automation and install emission control equipment. The savings that are generated during the operation of the modernized boiler system are split between the client company and ECOGY for a number of years and then the system is turned over in entirety to the client. Depending on the operating capacity, the shared savings agreement will usually span 6 to 10 years.

  2. 78 FR 675 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedure for Residential Furnaces and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... WordPerfect, Microsoft Word, PDF, or ASCII file format, and avoid the use of special characters or any... furnaces and boilers is found at 10 CFR 430.23(n) and 10 CFR part 430, subpart B, appendix N, Uniform Test... such as fuel calorific value, weight of condensate, water flow and temperature, voltage, and flue gas...

  3. FY 2000 report on the survey of the project on field tests on the introduction of high performance industrial furnaces. Analysis/evaluation of the collected data; 2000 nendo koseino kogyoro donyu field test jigyo chosa hokokusho. Shushu data kaiseki hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of achieving the target of reduction in CO2 regarded as substance causing global warming which was agreed at COP3, the study has been made since FY 1993 on 'the development of high performance industrial furnaces (regenerative combustion furnace using heat storage type burner for realization of high temperature air combustion).' By applying the good results obtained, a field test project for introduction of high performance industrial furnace has been implemented for three years (FY 1998 - FY 2000) to confirm the actual performance, reliability, etc. Collection/arrangement were made mainly of the data obtained in this field test project for the introduction of high performance industrial furnaces in each fiscal year (1998, 1999 and 2000), and verification/evaluation and arrangement were made. In this R and D, energy conservation was achieved at a rate of more than 30% of the target. Also about NOx, the result was obtained that the NOx by energy saving can be reduced 50% in almost all kinds of furnace if adding the reduction amount in emission amount and the reduction amount by high temperature air combustion. About the quality, the good result was obtained. Downsizing was conducted in approximately 10 examples. (NEDO)

  4. FY 2000 report on the survey of the project on field tests on the introduction of high performance industrial furnaces. Analysis/evaluation of the collected data; 2000 nendo koseino kogyoro donyu field test jigyo chosa hokokusho. Shushu data kaiseki hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of achieving the target of reduction in CO2 regarded as substance causing global warming which was agreed at COP3, the study has been made since FY 1993 on 'the development of high performance industrial furnaces (regenerative combustion furnace using heat storage type burner for realization of high temperature air combustion).' By applying the good results obtained, a field test project for introduction of high performance industrial furnace has been implemented for three years (FY 1998 - FY 2000) to confirm the actual performance, reliability, etc. Collection/arrangement were made mainly of the data obtained in this field test project for the introduction of high performance industrial furnaces in each fiscal year (1998, 1999 and 2000), and verification/evaluation and arrangement were made. In this R and D, energy conservation was achieved at a rate of more than 30% of the target. Also about NOx, the result was obtained that the NOx by energy saving can be reduced 50% in almost all kinds of furnace if adding the reduction amount in emission amount and the reduction amount by high temperature air combustion. About the quality, the good result was obtained. Downsizing was conducted in approximately 10 examples. (NEDO)

  5. 10 CFR 431.72 - Definitions concerning commercial warm air furnaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions concerning commercial warm air furnaces. 431... CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Warm Air Furnaces § 431.72 Definitions concerning commercial warm air furnaces. The following definitions apply for purposes of this subpart D, and of subparts...

  6. Intensification of combustion in wood product industry; Huonekaluteollisuuden laemmityskattiloiden polton tehostaminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larjava, K; Siltanen, T [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland); Metsae, A [Suomen Puututkimus Oy, Espoo (Finland); Tormonen, K [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland); Kolsi, A; Orjala, M [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Muurinen, M [Enemi Oy, Lahti (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The study involved optimization of the burning process in furniture industry boilers and reduction of noxious emissions by simple remedies and adjustments. This was realized in four boilers whose initial concentration of carbon monoxide (CO) in the flue gas was 1500-2000 ppm. In addition some other similar boilers were measured and tuned. As a result, emissions due to incomplete burning diminished. The concentration of carbon monoxide in flue gas during the turning off phase was in the range 3 000 - 30 000 ppm in the on/off controlled boilers. It was observed that the CO-level in the flue gas correlated with the amount of fuel left on the grate at the end of each full output sequence. The emissions during the turning-off phase could not be reduced. Grate and control equipment showed defects and malfunction originating from negligence of maintenance and lack of proper operating instructions. The emissions from maintained boilers were reduced by adjusting the fuel stream and the primary and secondary air flows, with brickwork in the furnace over the grate and by insulating the secondary burning chamber. The flow adjustments were carried out on the basis of flue gas analysis. Mounting a catalyst into the convection part of one tested boiler reduced the CO concentration in of flue gas from the initial value 500 ppm to 300 ppm. However the tested catalyst was poisoned by pollutants in the wood chips. In addition to improving the burning phase, the total emissions of one boiler were minimised by removing the turning off phase completely and changing the burning to a continuous process. This required that the boiler automation was renewed and new automation equipment

  7. Intensification of combustion in wood product industry; Huonekaluteollisuuden laemmityskattiloiden polton tehostaminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larjava, K.; Siltanen, T. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland); Metsae, A. [Suomen Puututkimus Oy, Espoo (Finland); Tormonen, K. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland); Kolsi, A.; Orjala, M. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Muurinen, M. [Enemi Oy, Lahti (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    The study involved optimization of the burning process in furniture industry boilers and reduction of noxious emissions by simple remedies and adjustments. This was realized in four boilers whose initial concentration of carbon monoxide (CO) in the flue gas was 1500-2000 ppm. In addition some other similar boilers were measured and tuned. As a result, emissions due to incomplete burning diminished. The concentration of carbon monoxide in flue gas during the turning off phase was in the range 3 000 - 30 000 ppm in the on/off controlled boilers. It was observed that the CO-level in the flue gas correlated with the amount of fuel left on the grate at the end of each full output sequence. The emissions during the turning-off phase could not be reduced. Grate and control equipment showed defects and malfunction originating from negligence of maintenance and lack of proper operating instructions. The emissions from maintained boilers were reduced by adjusting the fuel stream and the primary and secondary air flows, with brickwork in the furnace over the grate and by insulating the secondary burning chamber. The flow adjustments were carried out on the basis of flue gas analysis. Mounting a catalyst into the convection part of one tested boiler reduced the CO concentration in of flue gas from the initial value 500 ppm to 300 ppm. However the tested catalyst was poisoned by pollutants in the wood chips. In addition to improving the burning phase, the total emissions of one boiler were minimised by removing the turning off phase completely and changing the burning to a continuous process. This required that the boiler automation was renewed and new automation equipment

  8. PROTOTYPE SCALE TESTING OF LIMB TECHNOLOGY FOR A PULVERIZED-COAL-FIRED BOILER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes results of an evaluation of furnace sorbent injection (FSI) to control sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. (NOTE: FSI of calcium-based sorbents has shown promise as a moderate SO2 removal technology.) The Electric Power Research I...

  9. Towards a generic, reliable CFD modelling methodology for waste-fired grate boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajh, Boštjan; Yin, Chungen; Samec, Niko

    of the increased CO2 and H2O vapour concentrations on radiative heat transfer in the boiler. The impacts of full buoyancy on turbulence are also investigated. As a validation effort, the temperature profiles at different ports inside the furnace are measured and the experimental values are compared with the CFD...

  10. Energy efficiency and the influence of gas burners to the energy related carbon dioxide emissions of electric arc furnaces in steel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirschen, Marcus; Risonarta, Victor; Pfeifer, Herbert

    2009-01-01

    Determining the complete energy balance of an electric arc furnace (EAF) provides an appropriate method to examine energy efficiency and identify energy saving potentials. However, the EAF energy balance is complex due to the combined input of electrical energy and chemical energy resulting from natural gas (NG) combustion and oxidation reactions in the steel melt. In addition, furnace off-gas measurements and slag analysis are necessary to reliably determine energy sinks. In this paper 70 energy balances and energy efficiencies from multiple EAFs are presented, including data calculated from plant measurements and compiled from the literature. Potential errors that can be incorporated in these calculations are also highlighted. The total energy requirement of these modern EAFs analysed ranged from 510 to 880 kWh/t, with energy efficiency values (η = ΔH Steel /E Total ) of between 40% and 75%. Furthermore, the focus was placed on the total energy related CO 2 emissions of EAF processes comprising NG combustion and electrical energy input. By assessing multiple EAF energy balances, a significant correlation between the total energy requirement and energy related specific CO 2 emissions was not evident. Whilst the specific consumption of NG in the EAF only had a minor impact on the EAF energy efficiency, it decreased the specific electrical energy requirement and increased EAF productivity where transformer power was restricted. The analysis also demonstrated that complementing and substituting electrical energy with NG was beneficial in reducing the total energy related CO 2 emissions when a certain level of substitution efficiency was achieved. Therefore, the appropriate use of NG burners in modern EAFs can result in an increased EAF energy intensity, whilst the total energy related CO 2 emissions remain constant or are even decreased.

  11. Establishing an energy efficiency recommendation for commercial boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, Michelle J.

    2000-01-01

    To assist the federal government in meeting its energy reduction goals, President Clinton's Executive Order 12902 established the Procurement Challenge, which directed all federal agencies to purchase equipment within the top 25th percentile of efficiency. Under the direction of DOE's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), the Procurement Challenge's goal is to create efficiency recommendations for all energy-using products that could substantially impact the government's energy reduction goals, like commercial boilers. A typical 5,000,000 Btuh boiler, with a thermal efficiency of 83.2%, can have lifetime energy cost savings of$40,000 when compared to a boiler with a thermal efficiency of 78%. For the federal market, which makes up 2% of the boiler market, this means lifetime energy cost savings of over$25,600,000. To establish efficiency recommendations, FEMP uses standardized performance ratings for products sold in the marketplace. Currently, the boiler industry uses combustion efficiency and, sometimes, thermal efficiency performance measures when specifying a commercial boiler. For many years, the industry has used these efficiency measures interchangeably, causing confusion about boiler performance measurements, and making it difficult for FEMP to establish the top 25th percentile of efficiency. This paper will illustrate the method used to establish FEMP's recommendation for boilers. The method involved defining a correlation between thermal and combustion efficiency among boiler classifications; using the correlation to model a data set of all the boiler types available in the market; and identifying how the correlation affected the top 25th percentile analysis. The paper also will discuss the applicability of this method for evaluating other equipment for which there are limited data on performance ratings

  12. Comprehensive Numerical Modeling of the Blast Furnace Ironmaking Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chenn; Tang, Guangwu; Wang, Jichao; Fu, Dong; Okosun, Tyamo; Silaen, Armin; Wu, Bin

    2016-05-01

    Blast furnaces are counter-current chemical reactors, widely utilized in the ironmaking industry. Hot reduction gases injected from lower regions of the furnace ascend, reacting with the descending burden. Through this reaction process, iron ore is reduced into liquid iron that is tapped from the furnace hearth. Due to the extremely harsh environment inside the blast furnace, it is difficult to measure or observe internal phenomena during operation. Through the collaboration between steel companies and the Center for Innovation through Visualization and Simulation, multiple computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models have been developed to simulate the complex multiphase reacting flow in the three regions of the furnace, the shaft, the raceway, and the hearth. The models have been used effectively to troubleshoot and optimize blast furnace operations. In addition, the CFD models have been integrated with virtual reality. An interactive virtual blast furnace has been developed for training purpose. This paper summarizes the developments and applications of blast furnace CFD models and the virtual blast furnace.

  13. Super Boiler: First Generation, Ultra-High Efficiency Firetube Boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-06-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop and demonstrate a first-generation ultra-high-efficiency, ultra-low emissions, compact gas-fired package boiler (Super Boiler), and formulate a long-range RD&D plan for advanced boiler technology out to the year 2020.

  14. Waste and dust utilisation in shaft furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senk, D.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Wastes and dusts from steel industry, non-ferrous metallurgy and other branches can be utilized e.g. in agglomeration processes (sintering, pelletizing or briquetting and by injection into shaft furnaces. This paper deals with the second way. Combustion and reduction behaviour of iron- and carbon-rich metallurgical dusts and sludges containing lead, zinc and alkali as well as other wastes with and without pulverized coal (PC has been studied when injecting into shaft furnaces. Following shaft furnaces have been examined: blast furnace, cupola furnace, OxiCup furnace and imperial-smelting furnace. Investigations have been done at laboratory and industrial scale. Some dusts and wastes under certain conditions can be not only reused but can also improve combustion efficiency at the tuyeres as well as furnace performance and productivity.

    Los residuos y polvos de filtro provenientes de la industria siderúrgica, de la obtención de metales no ferrosos y de otras industrias, pueden ser utilizados, por ejemplo, en procesos de aglomeración como sintetizado, peletizado o briqueteado. En su caso, estos pueden ser inyectados en los hornos de cuba. Este artículo se enfoca a la inyección de estos materiales en los hornos de cuba. El comportamiento de la combustión y reducción de los polvos ricos en hierro y carbono y también lodos que contienen plomo, zinc y compuestos alcalinos y otros residuos con o sin carbón pulverizado (CP fue examinado, cuando se inyectaron en hornos de cuba. Los siguientes hornos de cuba fueron examinados: Horno alto, cubilote, OxiCup y horno de cuba Imperial Smelting. Las investigaciones se llevaron a cabo a escala de laboratorio e industrial. Algunos residuos y polvos bajo ciertas condiciones, no sólo pueden ser reciclados, sino también mejoran la eficiencia de combustión en las toberas, la operación y productividad del horno.

  15. FY 2000 report on the results of the model project on facilities for the effective utilization of industrial waste from industrial complex. Separate Volume 3; 2000 nendo Kogyo danchi sangyo haikibutsu yuko riyo setsubi model jigyo. Dai 3 Bunsatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    For the purpose of promoting the effective utilization of industrial waste as petroleum substitution energy resource and reducing the consumption of fossil fuels in Thailand, a model project on facilities for the effective utilization of industrial waste from industrial complex was worked on, and the FY 2000 results were reported. In Separate Volume 3, drawings of the following were included: furnace, free board spray nozzle, dispersion air nozzle, secondary burner, sand make-up conveyor, sand discharge gate, boiler, silencer for boiler safety valve, steam header, steam accumulator, gas cooling tower, refuse drainage storage tank, small sized drainage pump, pressure tank, flue gas duct, air damper, incombustible conveyor 2, sand circulation system bag filter, weighing bridge, fan starter panel, control panel, control panel, local switch box, distributed control system, field instrument, flue gas analyzer. (NEDO)

  16. Intelligent soot blowing for boilers co-firing waste and biofuel; Behovsstyrd sotblaasning foer bio- och avfallseldade pannor - inventering och teknikval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjoerk, Anders [S.E.P. Scandinavian Energy Project AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2003-11-01

    To achieve optimum boiler operation and performance it is necessary to control the cleanliness and limit the fouling of the heat transfer surfaces. Historically, the heating surfaces in boilers firing biomass and waste are cleaned by steamblowing soot blowers on scheduled time-based and/or parameter-based intervals or by mechanical methods. With the advent of fuel switching strategies and use of mixed-in industrial waste, the control of heating surface cleanliness has become even more crucial for these boilers. Scheduled and/or parameter based approaches do not easily address operational changes. As plant operators push to achieve greater efficiency and performance from their boilers, the ability to more effectively optimize cleaning cycles has become increasingly important. If soot blowing is done only when and where it is required rather than at set intervals, unit performance can be maintained with reduced blowing, which saves steam. Two philosophical approaches toward intelligent soot blowing are currently being applied in the industry. One incorporates heat flux monitors to gather real-time heat transfer data to determine which areas of the furnace need cleaning. The other uses indirect temperature and pressure data to infer locations where soot blowing is needed, and is mainly applied for controlling soot blowers in the superheater and economiser area. The heat flux monitors are so fare used for control of the furnace wall blowers. A system using temperature, pressure and flow data does not require much additional instrumentation as compared with what is available on a standard boiler. However the blower control system must be capable of operating blowers on an individual basis. For advanced options it should also be possible to adjust the speed of the soot blower and the steam pressure. The control program could be more or less advanced but the ability to model heating surfaces and determine real-time cleanliness is crucial for an intelligent soot blowing

  17. Influence of glass furnace operational conditions on the evaporation from soda-lime and borosilicate glass melts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerkens, R.G.C.

    2000-01-01

    The evaporation of sodium and boron species from the melts in industrial glass furnaces leads to emissions of particulates (dust) and to furnace atmospheres containing reactive evaporation products. These reactive species, especially alkali vapors, can react with the superstructure refractories

  18. Energy efficiency in boilers; Eficiencia energetica em caldeiras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponte, Ricardo Silva The [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFCE), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica], email: ricthe@dee.ufc.br; Barbosa, Marcos Antonio Pinheiro; Rufino, Maria da Gracas [Universidade de Fortaleza (UNIFOR), CE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica], emails: marcos_apb@unifor.br, gsrufino@unifor.br

    2010-07-01

    The boiler is vapor generator equipment that has been widely used in industrial milieu as in electric energy generation in thermoelectric plants. Since their first conception, the boilers have been changed in order to provide security and energetic efficiency. They can present high losses of energy if they don't be operated according to some criteria. A considerable part of boilers operation cost include fuel expenses. So, the adoption of effective steps in order to reduce fuel consumption is important to industry economy, besides it brings environmental benefits through the reduction of pollution liberation. The present article has the objective of emphasizing the effective steps for the economy of energy in boilers, such as, the regulation of combustion; the control of soot and incrustations; the installation of economizers, air heaters and super heaters; the reduction in purges and reintroduction of condensed steam. (author)

  19. High gradient magnetic filters for boiler water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harland, J.R.; Nichols, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    Heavy metal oxide suspended solids in those steam condensates recycled to the boilers produce buildup within the boiler tubes which can lead to unequal and reduced heat transfer efficiency, and indirectly, to boiler tube failures. Recommended reductions in such suspended solids in feedwater to the economizers of modern high pressure boilers to levels of under 10 ppb have been published. The industrially-available SALA-HGMF magnetic filter has achieved these desired suspended solids levels in treating steam condensates. The high gradient magnetic filter has been shown in pilot tests to achieve and even exceed the recommended low level suspended solids in a practical and efficient industrial system. Such electromagnetic filters, when combined with good system chemistry, have achieved low single number parts per billion levels of several heavy metals with very high single-pass efficiencies

  20. Optimising boiler performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayoh, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Soaring fuel costs continue to put the squeeze on already tight health service budgets. Yet it is estimated that combining established good practice with improved technologies could save between 10% and 30% of fuel costs for boilers. Paul Mayoh, UK technical manager at Spirax Sarco, examines some of the practical measures that healthcare organisations can take to gain their share of these potential savings.

  1. [Emission characteristics of fine particles from grate firing boilers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Xiao; Zhao, Xiu-Juan; Li, Xing-Hua; Wei, Wei; Hao, Ji-Ming

    2009-04-15

    Grate firing boilers are the main type of Chinese industrial boilers, which accounts for 85% of the industrial boilers and is one of the most important emission sources of primary air pollutants in China. In this study, five boilers in three cities were selected and tested to measure the emission characteristics of PM2.5, and gaseous pollutants were applied by a compact dilution sampling system, which was developed for this field study. Results showed that particles mass size distributions for the five industrial boilers presented single peak or double peak, former peaks near 0.14 microm and the later peaks after 1.0 microm; the cyclone dust remover and wet scrubber dust remover had effective removal efficiencies not only to PM2.5, but also to PM1.0; and under the condition of same control techniques, grate firing boiler with high capacity has less PM2.5 emission than the boiler with low capacity. In the PM2.5 collected from flue gases, SO4(2-) was the most abundant ion, accounted for 20%-40% of the PM2.5; and C was the most abundant element (7.5%-31.8%), followed by S (8.4%-18.7%). Carbon balance method was applied to calculate the emission factors of these pollutants. The emission factors of PM2.5, NO, and SO2 were in the range of 0.046-0.486 g x kg(-1), 1.63-2.47 g x kg(-1), 1.35-9.95 g x kg(-1) respectively. The results are useful for the emission inventory development of industrial boilers and the source analysis of PM2.5 in atmospheric environment.

  2. Reducing NOx Emissions for a 600 MWe Down-Fired Pulverized-Coal Utility Boiler by Applying a Novel Combustion System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lun; Fang, Qingyan; Lv, Dangzhen; Zhang, Cheng; Chen, Yiping; Chen, Gang; Duan, Xuenong; Wang, Xihuan

    2015-11-03

    A novel combustion system was applied to a 600 MWe Foster Wheeler (FW) down-fired pulverized-coal utility boiler to solve high NOx emissions, without causing an obvious increase in the carbon content of fly ash. The unit included moving fuel-lean nozzles from the arches to the front/rear walls and rearranging staged air as well as introducing separated overfire air (SOFA). Numerical simulations were carried out under the original and novel combustion systems to evaluate the performance of combustion and NOx emissions in the furnace. The simulated results were found to be in good agreement with the in situ measurements. The novel combustion system enlarged the recirculation zones below the arches, thereby strengthening the combustion stability considerably. The coal/air downward penetration depth was markedly extended, and the pulverized-coal travel path in the lower furnace significantly increased, which contributed to the burnout degree. The introduction of SOFA resulted in a low-oxygen and strong-reducing atmosphere in the lower furnace region to reduce NOx emissions evidently. The industrial measurements showed that NOx emissions at full load decreased significantly by 50%, from 1501 mg/m3 (O2 at 6%) to 751 mg/m3 (O2 at 6%). The carbon content in the fly ash increased only slightly, from 4.13 to 4.30%.

  3. Biomass furnace: projection and construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Fernanda Augusta de Oliveira; Silva, Juarez Sousa e; Silva, Denise de Freitas; Sampaio, Cristiane Pires; Nascimento Junior, Jose Henrique do [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DEA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    Of all the ways to convert biomass into thermal energy, direct combustion is the oldest. The thermal-chemical technologies of biomass conversion such as pyrolysis and gasification, are currently not the most important alternatives; combustion is responsible for 97% of the bio-energy produced in the world (Demirbas, 2003). For this work, a small furnace was designed and constructed to use biomass as its main source of fuel, and the combustion chamber was coupled with a helical transporter which linked to the secondary fuel reservoir to continually feed the combustion chamber with fine particles of agro-industrial residues. The design of the stove proved to be technically viable beginning with the balance of mass and energy for the air heating system. The proposed heat generator was easily constructed as it made use of simple and easily acquired materials, demanding no specialized labor. (author)

  4. Metallurgy of mercury in Almaden: from aludel furnaces until Pacific furnaces; La metalurgia del mercurio en Almaden: desde los hornos de aludeles a los hornos Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tejero-Manzanares, J.; Garrido Saenz, I.; Mata Cabrera, F.; Rubio Mesas, M. L.

    2014-07-01

    This paper shows the different types of furnaces for roasting cinnabar, used in the metallurgy of quicksilver over the centuries of exploitation of the Almaden Mines (Spain). Some of these techniques are part of our industrial heritage. They have contributed to name UNESCO World Heritage Site the vast technological legacy of these mines recently. This research contributes to close the long way of metallurgical activity from aludel furnaces until Pacif furnaces, first and lasted technology to produce on an industrial scale. It is delved into the most relevant aspects having to do with the type, evolution and number of furnaces existing on each of the periods. (Author)

  5. Active brickworks - phase I[For application in biofuel boilers]; Aktiva murverk - etapp I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrangensten, Lars; Schuster, Robert; Ingman, Rolf; Sendelius, Mikael; Ehleskog, Rickard [AaF-Energikonsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-10-01

    This report is the first step of the R and D project 'Active brickworks' within the program 'Possibilities to improve the operation conditions in industrial bark boilers by optimised combustion control'. Good high temperature resistance is one of the major characteristics of ceramics. They are based on quartz and aluminium oxide, an attachment component (acid or cement) and also different types of additives which, together with the heating treatment, gives the ceramic materials their features. The brickwork in a boiler has several assignments. First of all resistance to corrosion, erosion and protection against fouling of the water tube walls, but also to significant affect the combustion process by energy saving features and heating radiation. This project has been focused on the last named features, namely to be able to make a more active choice of brickwork in order to utilise the ceramic features and hereby making it possible to lower the combustion process emissions. The material samples received from the manufactures have been tested in a small-scale laboratory rig. Features investigated are emissivity/reflection, heat conductivity and heat capacity. Mathematic simulations have also been performed with a representative type boiler model in order to make conclusions concerning how the results can be transformed to and applied in a real full-scale boiler. The most important designing case for ceramics in bark boilers is when boiler load rapidly increases or during a fast fuel moisture change from dry to wet fuel. It has been concluded in the study that that the ceramic walls in a boiler should be divided into different layers. The outer layer in the ceiling and sidewalls of the drying zone must consist of highly insulating material in order to get a high temperature of heating surfaces close to the furnace. To store heat during load transients the heating surfaces must have high emissivity factor and good heating capacity. From this point of

  6. Assessing the impact of primary measures for NOx reduction on the thermal power plant steam boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stupar, Goran; Tucaković, Dragan; Živanović, Titoslav; Belošević, Srdjan

    2015-01-01

    The European normatives prescribe content of 200 mg/Nm 3 NO x for pulverized coal combusting power plants. In order to reduce content of NO x in Serbian thermal power plant (TPP) 'Kostolac B' it's necessary to implement particular measures until 2016. The mathematical model of lignite combustion in the steam boiler furnace is defined and applied to analyze the possibility of implementing certain primary measures for reducing nitrogen oxides and their effects on the steam boiler operation. This model includes processes in the coal-fired furnace and defines radiating reactive two-phase turbulent flow. The model of turbulent flow also contains sub-model of fuel and thermal NO x formation and destruction. This complex mathematical model is related to thermal and aerodynamic calculations of the steam boiler within a unified calculation system in order to analyze the steam boiler overall work. This system provides calculations with a number of influential parameters. The steam boiler calculations for unit 1 (350 MWe) of TPP 'Kostolac B' are implemented for existing and modified combustion system in order to achieve effective, reliable and ecological facility work. The paper presents the influence analysis of large number of parameters on the steam boiler operation with an accepted concept of primary measures. Presented system of calculations is verified against measurements in TPP 'Kostolac B'. - Highlights: • Modern steam boilers need to operate according to ecological standards. • Possibility of applying some of the primary measures of NO x reduction. • Conventional calculations have no possibility to estimate sub-stoichiometric combustion. • Develop a new method of connecting the calculations. • Analysis shows the most favorable operation boiler regime (efficiency and ecology)

  7. Oxy-fired boiler unit and method of operating the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Xinsheng; Zhang, Jundong; Joshi, Abhinaya; McCombe, James A.; Levasseur, Armand A.

    2016-12-06

    An oxy-combustion boiler unit is disclosed which includes a furnace for combusting fuel and for emitting flue gas resulting from combustion. The furnace has first, second and third combustion zones, and an air separation unit for separating oxygen gas from air and providing a first portion of the separated oxygen to a first oxidant flow, a second portion to a second oxidant flow, and a third portion of the separated oxygen gas to the first, second, and third zones of the furnace. A controller can cause the separated oxygen gas to be distributed so that the first and second oxygen flows have a desired oxygen content, and so that the first, second, and third zones of the furnace receive a desired amount of oxygen based on a combustion zone stoichiometry control.

  8. Mod increases AGR boiler output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, W.K.C.; Rider, G.; Taylor, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    During the commissioning runs of the first reactor units at Heysham I and Hartlepool Advanced Gas-cooled Reactors (AGRs), non-uniform temperature distributions were observed across individual boiler units which were more severe than those predicted from the design analysis. This article describes the re-orificing (referruling) of the boilers to overcome this problem. The referruling has reduced boiler sensitivity and resulted in an increase of load of 7 or 8%. (U.K.)

  9. Integrating multi-objective optimization with computational fluid dynamics to optimize boiler combustion process of a coal fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xingrang; Bansal, R.C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A coal fired power plant boiler combustion process model based on real data. • We propose multi-objective optimization with CFD to optimize boiler combustion. • The proposed method uses software CORBA C++ and ANSYS Fluent 14.5 with AI. • It optimizes heat flux transfers and maintains temperature to avoid ash melt. - Abstract: The dominant role of electricity generation and environment consideration have placed strong requirements on coal fired power plants, requiring them to improve boiler combustion efficiency and decrease carbon emission. Although neural network based optimization strategies are often applied to improve the coal fired power plant boiler efficiency, they are limited by some combustion related problems such as slagging. Slagging can seriously influence heat transfer rate and decrease the boiler efficiency. In addition, it is difficult to measure slag build-up. The lack of measurement for slagging can restrict conventional neural network based coal fired boiler optimization, because no data can be used to train the neural network. This paper proposes a novel method of integrating non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA II) based multi-objective optimization with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to decrease or even avoid slagging inside a coal fired boiler furnace and improve boiler combustion efficiency. Compared with conventional neural network based boiler optimization methods, the method developed in the work can control and optimize the fields of flue gas properties such as temperature field inside a boiler by adjusting the temperature and velocity of primary and secondary air in coal fired power plant boiler control systems. The temperature in the vicinity of water wall tubes of a boiler can be maintained within the ash melting temperature limit. The incoming ash particles cannot melt and bond to surface of heat transfer equipment of a boiler. So the trend of slagging inside furnace is controlled. Furthermore, the

  10. Slagging and fouling evaluation of PC-fired boilers using AshPro{sup SM}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Zhanhua; Iman, Felicia; Lu, Pisi [SmartBurn, LLC, Madison, WI (United States)

    2013-07-01

    SmartBurn {sup registered} applied AshPro{sup SM} model to two 512 MW Tangential-fired (T-fired) boilers firing US western sub- bituminous coals to evaluate the boiler slagging behaviors with different operating conditions and OFA. The boiler convective pass fouling behaviors with three different coals were also evaluated. The slagging evaluation results indicate that the OFA configuration and air flow distribution have dramatically impacts on the ash impaction rates and slagging patterns on the furnace walls. Deposit growth and strength vary at the different regions of the furnace walls. The fouling evaluation reveals that the tube bank configuration, the amount of incoming ash, the profiles of flue gas temperature, velocity, and species all have significant impacts on fouling deposit formation, growth, and strength development. In addition, the varying ash particle sizes and chemical compositions from different coals also play important roles on the fouling deposit strength development and removal. The investigation demonstrated that AshPro{sup SM} model can be used to evaluate localized slagging and fouling problems that are related to specific boiler configuration and operating conditions. It can be used to identify the major causes of ash deposition and can guide changes in boiler operation.

  11. Improved Casting Furnace Conceptual Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fielding, Randall Sidney [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tolman, David Donald [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-02-01

    In an attempt to ensure more consistent casting results and remove some schedule variance associated with casting, an improved casting furnace concept has been developed. The improved furnace uses the existing arc melter hardware and glovebox utilities. The furnace concept was designed around physical and operational requirements such as; a charge sized of less than 30 grams, high heating rates and minimal additional footprint. The conceptual model is shown in the report as well as a summary of how the requirements were met.

  12. Modern power station practice mechanical boilers, fuel-, and ash-handling plant

    CERN Document Server

    Sherry, A; Cruddace, AE

    2014-01-01

    Modern Power Station Practice, Second Edition, Volume 2: Mechanical (Boilers, Fuel-, and Ash-Handling Plant) focuses on the design, manufacture and operation of boiler units and fuel-and ash-handling plants.This book is organized into five main topics-furnace and combustion equipment, steam and water circuits, ancillary plant and fittings, dust extraction and draught plant, and fuel-and ash-handling plant.In these topics, this text specifically discusses the influence of nature of coal on choice of firing equipment; oil-burner arrangements, ignition and control; disposition of the heating surf

  13. Reduction of NOx emission in tangential fired - furnace by changing the, mode of operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudnovsky, B.; Talanker, A.; Levin, L.; Kahana, S

    1998-01-01

    The present work analyses tile results of tests on 575 MW units with tangential firing furnace arrangement in sub-stoichiometric combustion. Tangential firing provides good conditions for implementing sub-stoichiometric combustion owing to the delivery scheme of pulverized coal and air. The furnace was tested in several different modes of operation (Over Fire Air, Bunkers Out Of Service, Excess air, Tilt etc.) to achieve low cost NOx reduction. Actual performance data are presented based on experiments made on lEC's boiler in M.D. 'B' power station

  14. Factors controlling deposits in recovery boilers -particle formation and deposition; Soodakattilan likaantuminen ja siihen vaikuttavien tekijoeiden hallinta. Hiukkasten muodostuminen ja depositio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauppinen, E I; Mikkanen, P; Tapper, U; Ylaetalo, S; Jaervinen, R [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland); Jokiniemi, J K; Pyykoenen, J; Eskola, A [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    In this project the aim is to find critical factors controlling the deposit formation in the recovery boilers. Focus is on particle formation, growth and deposition. During year 1995 the aerosol particle formation was studied by an experimental study within the recovery boiler furnace and by a sensitivity study with the ABC (Aerosol Behaviour in Combustion) computer code. During year 1996 the experimental studies on the aerosol particle formation continued within the furnace and the deposition mechanisms for carry over particles were included in the ABC code and sensitivity studies of the deposition were carried out. The experimental study confirmed the fact that the particles are already formed in the recovery boiler furnace. The particle formation is initiated in the boundary layer of the burning droplet or char bed, where metals are vaporised and oxidised to form tiny seed particles

  15. Boiler tube failure prevention in fossil fired boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    It is the common experience of power generating companies worldwide that the main causes of forced outages on power plant are those due to boiler tube failures on fossil units. The main reason for the large number of failures are the severe environmental conditions in fossil boilers as the effects of stress, temperature, temperature gradients, corrosion, erosion and vibration combine to produce degradation of the tube steel. Corrosion by oxidation, by combustion products and by impure boiler water can significantly reduce the tube wall thickness and result in failure of a tube many years before its designed service life. Errors can also occur in the design manufacturer, storage, operation, and maintenance of boiler tubing and the wrong material installed in a critical location can lead to premature failure. Altogether, experts in the US and UK, from many different disciplines, have identified seven broad categories of boiler tube failure mechanisms. 1 tab., 2 figs

  16. Improved nuclear boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierart, Robert.

    1980-01-01

    The improved nuclear boiler concerned in this invention is of the kind comprising, inter alia, a nuclear reactor supported by a metallic structure and of which the vessel is at least enclosed in part by a casing acting as a protective containment integrated in this structure. It is essentially characterized in that this casing is fitted into and maintained in position in the metallic structure by removable locking devices which enable the casing to be withdrawn from the remainder of the structure. Hence, after the casing has been withdrawn or removed from the metallic structure, access to the reactor vessel is readily obtained for inspection and/or testing from without [fr

  17. Comparison of possibilities the blast furnace and cupola slag utilization by concrete production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Baricová

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In process of pig iron and cast iron production secondary raw materials and industrial wastes are formed The most abundant secondaryproduct originating in these processes are furnace slag. Blast furnace slag and cupola furnace slag originates from melting of gangue parts of metal bearing materials, slag forming additions and coke ash. In general, slag are compounds of oxides of metallic and non-metallic elements, which form chemical compounds and solutions with each other and also contain small volume of metals, sulfides of metals and gases. Chemical, mineralogical and physical properties of slag determinate their utilisation in different fields of industry.The paper presents results from the research of the blast furnace and cupola furnace slag utilization in the concrete production. Pilotexperiments of the concrete production were performed, by that the blast furnace and cupola furnace slag with a fractions of 0–4mm;4–8mm; 8–16mm were used as a natural substitute. A cupola furnace slag and combination of the blast furnace and cupola furnace slagwere used in the experiments. The analysis results show that such concretes are suitable for less demanding applications.

  18. Development of Computational Capabilities to Predict the Corrosion Wastage of Boiler Tubes in Advanced Combustion Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kung, Steven; Rapp, Robert

    2014-08-31

    A comprehensive corrosion research project consisting of pilot-scale combustion testing and long-term laboratory corrosion study has been successfully performed. A pilot-scale combustion facility available at Brigham Young University was selected and modified to enable burning of pulverized coals under the operating conditions typical for advanced coal-fired utility boilers. Eight United States (U.S.) coals were selected for this investigation, with the test conditions for all coals set to have the same heat input to the combustor. In addition, the air/fuel stoichiometric ratio was controlled so that staged combustion was established, with the stoichiometric ratio maintained at 0.85 in the burner zone and 1.15 in the burnout zone. The burner zone represented the lower furnace of utility boilers, while the burnout zone mimicked the upper furnace areas adjacent to the superheaters and reheaters. From this staged combustion, approximately 3% excess oxygen was attained in the combustion gas at the furnace outlet. During each of the pilot-scale combustion tests, extensive online measurements of the flue gas compositions were performed. In addition, deposit samples were collected at the same location for chemical analyses. Such extensive gas and deposit analyses enabled detailed characterization of the actual combustion environments existing at the lower furnace walls under reducing conditions and those adjacent to the superheaters and reheaters under oxidizing conditions in advanced U.S. coal-fired utility boilers. The gas and deposit compositions were then carefully simulated in a series of 1000-hour laboratory corrosion tests, in which the corrosion performances of different commercial candidate alloys and weld overlays were evaluated at various temperatures for advanced boiler systems. Results of this laboratory study led to significant improvement in understanding of the corrosion mechanisms operating on the furnace walls as well as superheaters and reheaters in

  19. Particulate emission abatement for Krakow boiler houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wysk, R.

    1995-12-31

    Among the many strategies for improving air quality in Krakow, one possible method is to adapt new and improved emission control technology. This project focuses on such a strategy. In order to reduce dust emissions from coal-fueled boilers, a new device called a Core Separator has been introduced in several boiler house applications. This advanced technology has been successfully demonstrated in Poland and several commercial units are now in operation. Particulate emissions from the Core Separator are typically 3 to 5 times lower than those from the best cyclone collectors. It can easily meet the new standard for dust emissions which will be in effect in Poland after 1997. The Core Separator is a completely inertial collector and is based on a unique recirculation method. It can effectively remove dust particles below 10 microns in diameter, the so-called PM-10 emissions. Its performance approaches that of fabric filters, but without the attendant cost and maintenance. It is well-suited to the industrial size boilers located in Krakow. Core Separators are now being marketed and sold by EcoInstal, one of the leading environmental firms in Poland, through a cooperative agreement with LSR Technologies.

  20. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; R.W. Swindeman; J. Sarver; J. Blough; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2003-10-20

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

  1. Final stage of first supercritical 460MW{sub e} CFB boiler construction. First experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goral, Damian [Foster Wheeler Energia Polska (Poland); Ostrowski, Waldemar [PKE (Poland)

    2009-07-01

    Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler technology has been growing in size and number over the past two decades and it has established its position as utility scale boiler technology. Plant sizes up to 300 MW{sub e} are in operation today and designs for larger boilers are being developed. The next natural step for CFB technology is to go for supercritical steam parameters and larger boiler sizes. A Polish utility company Poludniowy Koncern Energetyczny SA (PKE) placed an order to Foster Wheeler Energia Oy for a 460 MW{sub e} supercritical CFB boiler for their Lagisza power plant. Contract was signed at the end of year 2002 and the engineering work is now ongoing. This will be the first supercritical once-through CFB boiler in the world. A modern power plant is designed for high efficiency not only for economical reasons but also for enhanced environmental performance in terms of reduced emissions and quantity of ash generated due to lower fuel consumption. Cutting CO{sub 2} emissions is one of the main drivers. To achieve these goals, supercritical steam parameters have been applied. Now this technology is available also for CFB technology. This combines a high plant efficiency with the other well known benefits of CFB technology, such as: fuel flexibility, low emissions and high availability. The boiler design for 460 MW{sub e} Lagisza power plant utilizes low mass flux BENSON Vertical once-through technology developed and licensed by Siemens AG, Germany. CFB boiler with low and uniform furnace heat flux is extremely well suited for the Benson technology providing a stable operation of the boiler also during load changes and abnormal operation conditions. The paper describes the 460 MW{sub e} supercritical CFB boiler concept and presents the technical solutions of the boiler design with auxiliary equipment, as well as first experiences from boiler erection period and commissioning. In spite of achieving this remarkable milestone the development of the CFB

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF MODERNIZATION OF HIGH POWER WATER-HEATING BOILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Glamazdin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Boilers of KVGM and PTVM series are characterized by high values of NOx and CO content in the combustion products. Reduction of NOx and CO content can be achieved by two ways: by installing the condensing heat recovery unit at the boiler outlet and by improving the heat and mass transfer processes in boiler furnaces. Application of the condensing heat recovery units causes pollution of resulting condensate by low-concentration acids. The authors conducted a study in order to determine the effectiveness of the previously applied methods of suppressing the emission of nitrogen oxides in the boilers of these types. Equalization of the temperature field and, consequently, enhancement of heat transfer in the furnace by substitution the used burners by the more advanced ones, the design of which facilitates reduction the emission of nitrogen oxides, were applied to all the upgraded facilities. The studies fulfilled demonstrate that a reduction of NOx emissions in water-heating high power boilers is fairly possible by means of modernization of the latter. The authors have developed the project of the PTVM-30 boiler modernization, which was implemented at a large boiler plant in the city of Vinnitsa (Ukraine. The project included a number of technical solutions. Six burners were replaced by the two ones that were located in the hearth; also the hearth screen was dismantled. At the same time, reducing the total surface area of the heating caused by the exclusion of hearth screen was compensated by filling the locations of the six embrasures of staff burners on the side screens with straightened furnace tubes. Installing the burners separate from the screen made it possible to eliminate the transfer of vibration to the furnace tubes, and – via them – to the boilers setting. Automation provided “associated regulations”. Draught machines were equipped with frequency regulators. During commissioning of the boiler the studies were carried out that

  3. Questions about the reliability of recovery boilers of steel smelting units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sazykin, Yu K; Mukhametzyanov, N K

    1979-01-01

    Because the main reason for failure of recovery boilers is contamination of the heating surfaces, the operational conditions of individual elements of boiler units, equipped with vibrational and pulsed cleaning are analyzed and the reliability of the cleaning systems in use today is evaluated. The recovery boilers from open hearth furnaces and two bath steel smelting units from the Magnitogorsk Metallurgic Combine were selected as the subjects of the study. It is established that the boiler heating surface cleaning system has a quite large number of failures. The vibrational cleaning readiness factor is rated at 0.9323 and that of the pulsed cleaning system, 0.9698. For the KU-100 recovery boilers with a mean productivity of 18-20 t/h, the losses caused by failures during operation with vibration and pulsed cleaning were 3,200 and 1,700 rubles per year, respectively. With reconstruction of the boilers, which is associated with an increase in their reliability, the vibration cleaning of the heating surface was replaced by pulsed cleaning.

  4. Market review. Pellet wood gasification boiler / combination boiler. 8. ed.; Marktuebersicht. Scheitholzvergaser-/Kombikessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uth, Joern

    2012-01-15

    In the market review under consideration on pellet wood gasification boilers and combination boilers, the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on planning and installation of wood-fired heating systems, recommendations regarding to the technical assessment of boiler systems, buffers/combination boilers, prices of pellet wood gasification boilers, data sheets of the compared pellet wood gasification boilers, pellet wood combination boilers, prices of pellet wood combination boilers, data sheets of the compared pellet wood gasification boilers, list of providers.

  5. Pellet wood gasification boiler / Combination boiler. Market review. 7. ed.; Scheitholzvergaser-/Kombikessel. Marktuebersicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uth, Joern

    2010-08-15

    In the market review under consideration on pellet wood gasification boilers and combination boilers, the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany) report on planning and installation of wood-fired heating systems, recommendations regarding to the technical assessment of boiler systems, buffers/combination boilers, prices of pellet wood gasification boilers, data sheets of the compared pellet wood gasification boilers, pellet wood combination boilers, prices of pellet wood combination boilers, data sheets of the compared pellet wood gasification boilers, list of providers.

  6. The influence of the furnace design on emissions from small wood pellet burners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspfors, Jonas; Larfeldt, Jenny

    1999-01-01

    Two pellet burners have been installed and tested in a small scale boiler for house heating. The boiler is representative for the Swedish households and the burners, upwards and forward burning, are commercially available on the Swedish market. This work focuses on the boiler operation and particularly the potential of improved emissions by changing the furnace design. An insulation of the fireplace lowered the emission of CO by 50% and the emission of OGC by 60% for the upwards burning burner at low load. Modifying the furnace using baffles did not have any influence on the emissions. It is concluded that an increased temperature in the furnace is more important than an increased residence time of the combustible gases to decrease the emissions. At full load both burners emit approximately 300 mg CO per nm 3 gas and the emission of OGC are negligible. At half load the emissions of CO increased to 1000 mg/m n 3 and OGC to 125 mg/m n 3 in the upward burning burner. The forwards burning burner had a small increase in OGC to about 10 mg/m n 3 at half load while the emission of CO increased to 800 mg/m n 3 . The forward burning burner is less influenced on the furnace design compared to the upward burning burner. The comparatively high emissions of OGC for the upward burning burner is explained by the intermittent operation. However, it was possible to reduce the emissions from this burner by ceramic insulation of the furnace Project report from the program: Small scale combustion of biofuels. 3 refs, 12 figs, 2 tab, 1 appendix with 33 figs and 12 tabs

  7. A study on the boiler efficiency influenced by the boiler operation parameter in fossil power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Y. S.; Suh, J. S.

    2002-01-01

    The main reason to analyze the boiler operation parameter in fossil power plant is to increase boiler high efficiency and energy saving movement in the government. This study intends to have trend and analyze the boiler efficiency influenced by the boiler parameter in sub-critical and super-critical type boiler

  8. The recovery boiler advisor. Combination of practical experience and advanced thermodynamic modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, R. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland); Eriksson, G. [LTH/RWTH (Germany); Sundstroem, K. [Tampella Power Oy, Tampere (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The Aabo Advisor is a computer based program intended to provide information about the high temperature ash and fluegas chemistry in pulping spent black liquor recovery boilers of kraft pulp mills. The program can be used for predictions of a variety of furnace and flue gas phenomena, such as fireside fouling of the heat exchanger surfaces caused by the flue gas particulate matter, emissions of SO{sub 2}(g), HCl(g) and NO{sub x}(g) with the flue gas etc. The program determines the composition of the fluegas as well as the amount and composition of the two typical fly ash fractions found in recovery boiler fluegases, the condensed fly ash particles and the carry over particles. These data are used for calculating the melting behavior of the fly ash present at different locations in the boiler and this characteristic behavior is used for the fireside fouling predictions. The program may also be used for studying how different mill processes affecting the black liquor composition affects on the fireside chemistry of the recovery boiler. As input data for the calculations only a few boiler operation parameters and the composition of the black liquor is required. The calculations are based on a one-dimensional, multi-stage chemistry model where both thermodynamic equilibrium calculations and stoichiometric material balances are used. The model calculates at first the chemistry in the lower furnace and smelt after which it moves to the upper furnace and the radiative parts of the fluegas channel. As the last block the program calculates the chemistry in the convective part, the electrostatic precipitator cath and stack. The results from each block are presented in tables, key numbers and melt curves representing the fluegas or fly ash fraction present at each location

  9. The recovery boiler advisor. Combination of practical experience and advanced thermodynamic modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, R [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland); Eriksson, G [LTH/RWTH (Germany); Sundstroem, K [Tampella Power Oy, Tampere (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The Aabo Advisor is a computer based program intended to provide information about the high temperature ash and fluegas chemistry in pulping spent black liquor recovery boilers of kraft pulp mills. The program can be used for predictions of a variety of furnace and flue gas phenomena, such as fireside fouling of the heat exchanger surfaces caused by the flue gas particulate matter, emissions of SO{sub 2}(g), HCl(g) and NO{sub x}(g) with the flue gas etc. The program determines the composition of the fluegas as well as the amount and composition of the two typical fly ash fractions found in recovery boiler fluegases, the condensed fly ash particles and the carry over particles. These data are used for calculating the melting behavior of the fly ash present at different locations in the boiler and this characteristic behavior is used for the fireside fouling predictions. The program may also be used for studying how different mill processes affecting the black liquor composition affects on the fireside chemistry of the recovery boiler. As input data for the calculations only a few boiler operation parameters and the composition of the black liquor is required. The calculations are based on a one-dimensional, multi-stage chemistry model where both thermodynamic equilibrium calculations and stoichiometric material balances are used. The model calculates at first the chemistry in the lower furnace and smelt after which it moves to the upper furnace and the radiative parts of the fluegas channel. As the last block the program calculates the chemistry in the convective part, the electrostatic precipitator cath and stack. The results from each block are presented in tables, key numbers and melt curves representing the fluegas or fly ash fraction present at each location

  10. 49 CFR 230.47 - Boiler number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boiler number. 230.47 Section 230.47..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.47 Boiler number. (a) Generally. The builder's number of the boiler, if known, shall...

  11. 30 CFR 77.413 - Boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boilers. 77.413 Section 77.413 Mineral... Mechanical Equipment § 77.413 Boilers. (a) Boilers shall be equipped with guarded, well-maintained water... the gages shall be kept clean and free of scale and rust. (b) Boilers shall be equipped with automatic...

  12. 30 CFR 56.13030 - Boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boilers. 56.13030 Section 56.13030 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 56.13030 Boilers. (a) Fired pressure vessels (boilers) shall be equipped with water level gauges, pressure gauges...

  13. 30 CFR 57.13030 - Boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boilers. 57.13030 Section 57.13030 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 57.13030 Boilers. (a) Fired pressure vessels (boilers) shall be equipped with water level gauges, pressure...

  14. Use of coal-water mixtures in blast furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malgarini, G; Giuli, M; Davide, A; Carlesi, C [Centro Sviluppo Materiali, Rome (Italy); Italsider, Genoa [Italy; Deltasider, Piombino [Italy

    1989-03-01

    At the present time, an ironworks blast furnace employing a pulverized coal injection (PCI) system is in operation at the Piombino Works (Italy). A wide development, within this industry, of PCI techniques is expected in the near future to limit, as much as possible, the rebuilding of coke ovens. Research activities and industrial trials aimed at maximizing the use of coal injection into blast furnaces are in course of development. This paper uses flowsheets to illustrate such a system and provides graphs to indicate the economic convenience of PCI systems as compared with systems using naphtha as an injected fuel.

  15. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL; SEMIANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2002-01-01

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period October 1, 2001 through March 31, 2002. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO(sub X) selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. This is the fifth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During the previous (fourth) period, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant) and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (at both Gavin and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO(sub 3) formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO(sub X) control than at removing SO(sub 3) formed in the furnace. The SO(sub 3) removal results were presented in the

  16. Materials and boiler rig testing to support chemical cleaning of once-through AGR boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tice, D.R.; Platts, N.; Raffel, A.S.; Rudge, A.

    2002-01-01

    An extensive programme of work has been carried out to evaluate two candidate inhibited cleaning solutions for possible implementation on plant, which would be the first chemical clean of an AGR boiler. The two candidate cleaning solutions considered were a Stannine-inhibited citric acid/formic acid mixture (GOM106) and inhibited hydrofluoric acid. Citric acid-based cleaning processes are widely used within the UK Power Industry. The GOM106 solution, comprising a mixture of 3% citric acid, 0.5% formic acid and 0.05% Stannine LTP inhibitor, buffered with ammonia to pH 3.5, was developed specifically for the AGR boilers during the 1970's. Although a considerable amount of materials testing work was carried out by British Energy's predecessor companies to produce a recommended cleaning procedure there were some remaining concerns with the use of GOM106, from these earlier studies, for example, an increased risk of pitting attack associated with the removal of thick 9Cr oxide deposits and a risk of unacceptable damage in critical locations such as the upper transition joints and other weld locations. Hence, additional testing was still required to validate the solution for use on plant. Inhibited hydrofluoric acid (HFA) was also evaluated as an alternative reagent to GOM106. HFA has been used extensively for cleaning mild and low'alloy steel boiler tubes in fossil-fired plant in the UK and elsewhere in Europe and is known to remove oxide quickly. Waste treatment is also easier than for the GOM106 process and some protection against damage to the boiler tube materials is provided by complexing of fluoride with ferric ion. Validation of the potential reagents and inhibitors was achieved by assessing the rate and effectiveness of oxide removal from specimens of helical boiler tubing and welds, together with establishing the extent of any metal loss or localised damage. The initial materials testing resulted in the inhibited ammoniated citric / formic acid reagent being

  17. Natural gas industry and global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staropoli, R.; Darras, M.

    1997-01-01

    Natural gas has a very good potential compared to other fossil fuels as regard to global warming because of its high content of hydrogen, and its versatility in uses. To take full advantage of this potential, further development of gas designed boilers and furnaces, gas catalytic combustion, fuel cells are needed, but progresses in the recent years have been very promising. The natural gas industry' environmental potential is discussed. Regarding methane emission, progresses have been done is Western Europe on the distribution network, and some improvement are underway. It is however important to rationalize the effort by acting on the most emitting subsystem: this can be achieved by cooperation along the whole gas chain. (R.P.)

  18. Fire-side corrosion in power-station boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutler, A J.B.; Flatley, T; Hay, K A

    1978-10-01

    The steel tubing of a modern power-station boiler operates at up to 650/sup 0/C (a dull red heat) in the very corrosive environment produced by the combustion gases and ash particles. Within the tubes, whose walls are around 5mm thick, 2000 tons of steam are generated per hour at temperatures up to 565/sup 0/C and pressures up to 170 bar. Several forms of metal corrosion may occur on the fireside surface of these tubes and on other boiler components. The designed 20-year operating life of the stainless-steel superheater and reheater tubes can be much reduced at temperatures above 600/sup 0/C by attack from molten salts formed beneath the deposited ash on the upstream tube surfaces. Mild steel evaporator tubes lining the furnace wall may suffer similarly if flame impingement allows the local release of volatile chlorine compounds from coal particles on the tube surface. Uncooled metal components supporting and aligning the boiler tubes may reach 1000/sup 0/C and are particularly susceptible to corrosion. CEGB research effort has been applied to quantify the rate of corrosion and to obtain an understanding of the complex corrosion mechanisms, so that ways of minimizing or preventing their occurrence may be found. These include the optimization of the combustion chemistry, design modifications such as shielding certain vulnerable tubes, and the selection of improved alloys and the use of ''co-extruded'' tubing.

  19. Two phase flow problems in power station boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firman, E.C.

    1974-01-01

    The paper outlines some of the waterside thermal and hydrodynamic phenomena relating to design and operation of large boilers in central power stations. The associated programme of work is described with an outline of some results already obtained. By way of introduction, the principal features of conventional and nuclear drum boilers and once-through nuclear heat exchangers are described in so far as they pertain to this area of work. This is followed by discussion of the relevant physical phenomena and problems which arise. For example, the problem of steam entrainment from the drum into the tubes connecting it to the furnace wall tubes is related to its effects on circulation and possible mechanisms of tube failure. Other problems concern the transient associated with start-up or low load operation of plant. The requirement for improved mathematical representation of steady and dynamic performance is mentioned together with the corresponding need for data on heat transfer, pressure loss, hydrodynamic stability, consequences of deposits, etc. The paper concludes with reference to the work being carried out within the C.E.G.B. in relation to the above problems. The facilities employed and the specific studies being made on them are described: these range from field trials on operational boilers to small scale laboratory investigations of underlying two phase flow mechanisms and include high pressure water rigs and a freon rig for simulation studies

  20. Report on survey for high-performance industrial furnace introduction field test project in fiscal 1999. Activities to promote proliferation of the introduction to subject project related business entities; 1999 nendo koseino kogyoro donyu field test jigyo chosa hokokusho. Taisho jigyosha eno fukyu sokushin katsudo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This paper reports the survey on high-performance industrial furnace introduction field test project in fiscal 1999. The development of a high-performance industrial furnace having been performed by NEDO since fiscal 1993 has completed the fundamental development research in fiscal 1998, and the planned achievements were verified (large energy saving, reduction of NOx emission, and down-sizing). Upon the result, the introduction field test project has started in fiscal 1998 for three years until fiscal 2000. The number of research items adopted in fiscal 1998 was 58, and those in fiscal 1999 was 51, which are progressing smoothly at the present. Reduction in CO2 emission of 50,000 tons was demonstrated as the achievement in fiscal 1998, and NOx emission realized the regulation value or lower in cities wherein each operator is executing the project. Several cases of down-sizing were also reported. In the proliferation promoting project in fiscal 1998, activities were made mainly to the subject project related business entities in relation with the development achievements and general technologies for the high-performance furnace. In fiscal 1999, communication transmission was continued by using information tools on introduction of the achievements and technologies. Attempts will be made on promoting the proliferation of the field test project in the future through a number of technology lecture meetings performed by specialists. (NEDO)

  1. Report on research achievement in relation with developing fundamental combustion control technologies in fiscal 1998. Research and development of high-performance industrial furnaces; 1998 nendo nensho seigyo kiban gijutsu no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho. Koseino kogyoro nado ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Development is intended to be made on fundamental combustion control technologies applicable to high-performance industrial furnaces that can reduce energy consumption and respond to environment preservation requirements. With an intention to achieve reduction in combustion exhaust gases such as carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides, fundamental studies will be made on factors to decide flame shapes as represented by high-temperature combustion and flame shape control by utilizing microgravity environment, and researches will be made on combustion systems. Devices required for the experiments were fabricated to evaluate critical combustion characteristics of flames in furnaces including industrial furnaces, analyze and evaluate flame control parameters, and study low-pollution combustion technologies. Experimental methods acquired by 1997 were used for the experiments under the microgravity environment. Evaluation experiments were performed on flame shape control technologies and flame radiation characteristics, and basic experiments on the low-pollution combustion technologies. With these experiments, elucidation of the combustion mechanisms was launched by analyzing and evaluating the acquired data. A flame experimenting device for high-temperature preheated air completed by fiscal 1997 was used to acquire such combustion characteristics data as NOx discharge characteristics when the high-temperature preheated air is used. Based on the result thereof, verification was carried out on simulation models. (NEDO)

  2. 46 CFR 61.05-10 - Boilers in service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boilers in service. 61.05-10 Section 61.05-10 Shipping... INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Boilers § 61.05-10 Boilers in service. (a) Each boiler, including superheater, reheater, economizer, auxiliary boiler, low-pressure heating boiler, and unfired steam boiler...

  3. Advanced technique for computing fuel combustion properties in pulverized-fuel fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotler, V.R. (Vsesoyuznyi Teplotekhnicheskii Institut (Russian Federation))

    1992-03-01

    Reviews foreign technical reports on advanced techniques for computing fuel combustion properties in pulverized-fuel fired boilers and analyzes a technique developed by Combustion Engineering, Inc. (USA). Characteristics of 25 fuel types, including 19 grades of coal, are listed along with a diagram of an installation with a drop tube furnace. Characteristics include burn-out intensity curves obtained using thermogravimetric analysis for high-volatile bituminous, semi-bituminous and coking coal. The patented LFP-SKM mathematical model is used to model combustion of a particular fuel under given conditions. The model allows for fuel particle size, air surplus, load, flame height, and portion of air supplied as tertiary blast. Good agreement between computational and experimental data was observed. The method is employed in designing new boilers as well as converting operating boilers to alternative types of fuel. 3 refs.

  4. New fuel air control strategy for reducing NOx emissions from corner-fired utility boilers at medium-low loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Sinan; Fang, Qingyan; Yin, Chungen

    2017-01-01

    Due to the rapidly growing renewable power, the fossil fuel power plants have to be increasingly operated under large and rapid load change conditions, which can induce various challenges. This work aims to reduce NOx emissions of large-scale corner-fired boilers operated at medium–low loads....... The combustion characteristics and NOx emissions from a 1000 MWe corner-fired tower boiler under different loads are investigated experimentally and numerically. A new control strategy for the annular fuel air is proposed and implemented in the boiler, in which the secondary air admitted to the furnace through...... the air annulus around each coal nozzle tip is controlled by the boiler load, instead of being controlled by the output of the connected mill as commonly used in this kind of power plant. Both the experimental and simulation results show that the new control strategy reduces NOx emissions at the entrance...

  5. Mathematical Determination of Thermal Load for Fluidised Bed Furnaces Using Sawdust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonescu Nicolae

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available For technical applications, a physical model capable of predicting the particle evolution in the burning process along its trajectory through the furnace is very useful. There are two major demands: all the thermo-dynamic processes that describe the particle burning process must be accounted and the model must be written in such equation terms to allow the intervention for parameter settings and particle definition. The computations were performed for the following parameters: furnace average temperature between 700 and 1200 °C, size of the sawdust particle from 4 to 6 mm and fix carbon ignition between 500 and 900 °C. The values obtained for the characteristic parameters of the burning process ranged from 30 to 60 [kg/(h·m3] for the gravimetrical burning speed WGh and from 150 to 280 [kW/m3] for the volumetric thermal load of the furnace QV. The main conclusion was that the calculus results are in good agreement with the experimental data from the pilot installations and the real-case measurements in the sawdust working boiler furnaces or pre-burning chambers. Another very important conclusion is that the process speed variation, when the furnace temperature changes, confirms the thermo-kinetic predictions, namely that the burning process speed decreases when the furnace temperature increases.

  6. Improving Gas Furnace Performance: A Field and Laboratory Study at End of Life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, L. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Des Plaines, IL (United States); Yee, S. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Des Plaines, IL (United States); Baker, J. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2015-02-01

    In 2010, natural gas provided 54% of total residential space heating energy the U.S. on a source basis, or 3.5 Quadrillion Btu. Natural gas burned in furnaces accounted for 92% of that total, and boilers and other equipment made up the remainder. A better understanding of installed furnace performance is a key to energy savings for this significant energy usage. In this project, the U.S. Department of Energy Building America team Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit examined the impact that common installation practices and age-induced equipment degradation may have on the installed performance of natural gas furnaces over the life of the product, as measured by steady-state efficiency and annual efficiency. The team identified 12 furnaces of various ages and efficiencies that were operating in residential homes in the Des Moines, Iowa, metropolitan area and worked with a local heating, ventilation, and air conditioning contractor to retrieve furnaces and test them at the Gas Technology Institute laboratory for steady-state efficiency and annual efficiency. Prior to removal, system airflow, static pressure, equipment temperature rise, and flue loss measurements were recorded for each furnace as installed in the house.

  7. Computational fluid dynamic simulations of coal-fired utility boilers: An engineering tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efim Korytnyi; Roman Saveliev; Miron Perelman; Boris Chudnovsky; Ezra Bar-Ziv [Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel)

    2009-01-15

    The objective of this study was to develop an engineering tool by which the combustion behavior of coals in coal-fired utility boilers can be predicted. We presented in this paper that computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes can successfully predict performance of - and emission from - full-scale pulverized-coal utility boilers of various types, provided that the model parameters required for the simulation are properly chosen and validated. For that purpose we developed a methodology combining measurements in a 50 kW pilot-scale test facility with CFD simulations using the same CFD code configured for both test and full-scale furnaces. In this method model parameters of the coal processes are extracted and validated. This paper presents the importance of the validation of the model parameters which are used in CFD codes. Our results show very good fit of CFD simulations with various parameters measured in a test furnace and several types of utility boilers. The results of this study demonstrate the viability of the present methodology as an effective tool for optimization coal burning in full-scale utility boilers. 41 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Thermal valorisation of automobile shredder residue: injection in blast furnace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabile, Daphne; Pistelli, Maria Ilaria; Marchesini, Marina; Falciani, Roberta; Chiappelli, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Wastes with residual heating value, according to the trend of the world legislation, could be thermally reused. The present study is conducted to verify the possibility of thermal valorisation of a waste, denominated fluff, by injection in blast furnace. The fluff, arising from the automobile shredder operations, is a waste characterised by a high organic matrix and is potentially dangerous due to the heavy metals, oils filter and halogenated plastics content. The first step of the work is the chemical, physical and toxicological characterisation of this material. Then the fluff injection in a blast furnace tuyere is theoretically analysed with a mathematical model. Finally, experimental trials are conducted in a pilot plant, simulating the most important part of the blast furnace: the raceway, in order to analyse process and industrial aspects. In view of an industrial application a first economical evaluation is carried out on the basis of model and experimental results.

  9. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Boilers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Boilers that are effective as of...

  10. Hybrid model of steam boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusinowski, Henryk; Stanek, Wojciech

    2010-01-01

    In the case of big energy boilers energy efficiency is usually determined with the application of the indirect method. Flue gas losses and unburnt combustible losses have a significant influence on the boiler's efficiency. To estimate these losses the knowledge of the operating parameters influence on the flue gases temperature and the content of combustible particles in the solid combustion products is necessary. A hybrid model of a boiler developed with the application of both analytical modelling and artificial intelligence is described. The analytical part of the model includes the balance equations. The empirical models express the dependence of the flue gas temperature and the mass fraction of the unburnt combustibles in solid combustion products on the operating parameters of a boiler. The empirical models have been worked out by means of neural and regression modelling.

  11. Summary of Energy Assessment Requirements under the Area Source Boiler Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document provides an overview of the energy assessment requirements for the national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) for area sources: industrial, commercial and Institutional boilers, 40 CFR Part 63, Subpart JJJJJJ.

  12. Furnaces. Manufacturers become engineering offices; Les fours, le constructeur devient bureau d`ingenierie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nivoche, C. [Salas SA (France)

    1997-12-31

    The example of Selas, a manufacturer of industrial furnaces for steel and glass industries, faced with the new european pollution regulations, is presented. It is shown how Selas has to develop optimal furnaces using low emission burners but also has to be involved in all the related aspects such as industrial implementation in the client`s plant, plant architecture, cooling systems, air conditioning, noise and vibration issues, operation procedures, safety, etc. Means for reducing NOx emissions are reviewed

  13. Boiler-turbine life extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natzkov, S. [TOTEMA, Ltd., Sofia (Bulgaria); Nikolov, M. [CERB, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1995-12-01

    The design life of the main power equipment-boilers and turbines is about 105 working hours. The possibilities for life extension are after normatively regulated control tests. The diagnostics and methodology for Boilers and Turbines Elements Remaining Life Assessment using up to date computer programs, destructive and nondestructive control of metal of key elements of units equipment, metal creep and low cycle fatigue calculations. As well as data for most common damages and some technical decisions for elements life extension are presented.

  14. Corrosion problems and solutions in oil refining and petrochemical industry

    CERN Document Server

    Groysman, Alec

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses corrosion problems and their solutions at facilities in the oil refining and petrochemical industry, including cooling water and boiler feed water units. Further, it describes and analyzes corrosion control actions, corrosion monitoring, and corrosion management. Corrosion problems are a perennial issue in the oil refining and petrochemical industry, as they lead to a deterioration of the functional properties of metallic equipment and harm the environment – both of which need to be protected for the sake of current and future generations. Accordingly, this book examines and analyzes typical and atypical corrosion failure cases and their prevention at refineries and petrochemical facilities, including problems with: pipelines, tanks, furnaces, distillation columns, absorbers, heat exchangers, and pumps. In addition, it describes naphthenic acid corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, hydrogen damages, sulfidic corrosion, microbiologically induced corrosion, erosion-corrosion, and corrosion...

  15. Energy efficiency and pollution control for thermal units in the Egyptian industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Said Abdel-wahab; Ismail, W.M.

    1999-01-01

    Energy conservation and environmental protection project (ECEP) is a Usaid sponsored project. Its main objective is to promote energy conservation and pollution protection in the egyptian industry through a group of demonstrated projects. One of the implemented activities is the boilers and furnaces tune-up program, which aims to increase energy efficiency and reduce pollution. To achieve this objective. (ECEP) distributed 100 electronic portable exhaust gas analyzers to cover eight industrial sectors at six different geographical locations in egypt. These analyzers were used to measure the contents of exhaust gases to help operators tune up their equipment on regular basis. The result is that the firing thermal units operate at the highest possible combustion efficiency to reduce the amount of fuel consumption as well as pollution emissions. The analyzer used measures two types of temperature, five different stack gases, draft and smoke density. moreover it computes the efficiency of combustion as well as Co2 and excess air percentage. Thermal units that rested by these analyzers were consuming a huge amount of fossil fuel from different types. The average combustion efficiency for thermal units tested was improved by 14%, 15% and 28% for boilers, furnaces and diesel respectively

  16. Heat losses in power boilers caused by thermal bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocot Monika

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the analysis of heat losses caused by thermal bridges that occur in the steam boiler OP-140 is presented. Identification of these bridges were conducted with use of thermographic camera. Heat losses were evaluated based on methodology of VDI 4610 standard, but instead of its simplified equations, criterial equations based on Nusselt number were used. Obtained values of annual heat losses and heat flux density corresponding to the fully insulated boiler surfaces were compared to heat losses generated by thermal bridges located in the same areas. The emphasis is put on the role of industrial insulation in heat losses reduction.

  17. Assessment of nitrogen oxide emission for designing boilers fired with coal dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotler, V.R.; Gusev, L.N.; Babii, V.I.

    1983-09-01

    A method for forecasting emission of nitrogen oxides from steam boilers fired with coal is described. The method produces accurate results when nitrogen oxide emission from furnaces with straight-flow burners and turbulent-type burners fired with coal dusts is forecast. Oxides formed by decomposition of chemical compounds in coal (so-called 'fuel' nitrogen oxides) and nitrogen oxides formed by oxidation of molecular nitrogen by atomic oxygen (so-called 'thermal' nitrogen oxides) are evaluated. Zones in which the two types of nitrogen oxide are formed in flames are characterized. Factors which influence formation of nitrogen oxides in a furnace are evaluated: excess air, flue gas recirculation, design of a furnace and burners, movement of air and coal dust mixture in a furnace, temperature, methods for coal dust preparation, coal dust properties. Equations for forecasting emission of nitrogen oxides from furnaces are derived. Nomograms for easy calculation of emission are also given. Examples of using the method for forecasting emission of nitrogen oxides from furnaces fired with coal from the Kuzbass, the Donbass and Ehkibastuz are discussed. Comparisons of emission of nitrogen oxides calculated on the basis of the method and emission determined experimentally show that forecasting accuracy is high and errors do not exceed 10%. 5 references.

  18. Waterwall corrosion evaluation in coal-fired boilers using electrochemical measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, K.; Lee, C.; Seeley, R.; Harding, S.; Heap, M.; Cox, W.

    2000-07-01

    Until recently, waterwall corrosion in North American coal-fired boilers was uncommon and relatively mild. However, the introduction of combustion modifications to reduce in-furnace NOx formation has led to notable increases in the frequency and severity of waterwall wastage. Reaction Engineering International (REI) has worked with the Department of Energy and EPRI to improve predictive capabilities and provide solutions for furnace wall wastage for a wide range of coal-fired furnaces. To date, this work has emphasized computational simulations. More recently, REI in partnership with Corrosion Management has begun complementary efforts to improve their services by evaluating technologies capable of determining the location/rate of high water wall wastage resulting from corrosion. After an evaluation of commercially available options, electrochemical noise (EN) technology has been chosen for continued development. This approach has been successfully applied to corrosion-related problems involving acid dewpoint corrosion in flue gas ductwork, FGD systems, cooling water systems, oil and gas production, and acid cleaning (Cox et al, 1999). This paper presents the results of preliminary testing of an EN probe in a high temperature environment typical of the lower furnace of a cyclone-fired boiler operating under staged conditions. The relationship between electrochemical responses and (1) stoichiometry and (2) local hydrogen sulfide concentration is investigated and the qualitative and quantitative usefulness of the approach for on-line risk management is considered.

  19. Numerical simulation of a 374 tons/h water-tube steam boiler following a feedwater line break

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deghal Cheridi, Amina Lyria; Chaker, Abla; Loubar, Ahcène

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We simulate the behavior of a steam boiler during feed-water line break accident. • To perform accident analysis of the steam boiler, Relap5/Mod3.2 system code is used. • A Relap5 model of the boiler is developed and qualified at the steady state level. • A good agreement between Relap5 results and available experimental data. • The Relap5 model predicts well the main transient features of the boiler. - Abstract: To ensure the operational safety of an industrial water-tube steam boiler it is very important to assess various accident scenarios in real plant working conditions. One of the most challenging scenarios is the loss of feedwater to the steam boiler. In this paper, a simulation of the behavior of an industrial water-tube radiant steam boiler during feedwater line break accident is discussed. The simulation is carried out using the RELAP5 system code. The steam boiler is installed in an Algerian natural gas liquefaction complex. The simulation shows the capabilities of RELAP5 system code in predicting the behavior of the steam boiler at both steady state and transient working conditions. From another side, the behavior of the steam boiler following the accident shows how the control system can successfully mitigate the effects and consequences of such accident and how the evaporator tubes can undergo a severe damage due to an uncontrolled increase of the wall temperature in case of failure of this system.

  20. Fossil fuel furnace reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, William J.

    1987-01-01

    A fossil fuel furnace reactor is provided for simulating a continuous processing plant with a batch reactor. An internal reaction vessel contains a batch of shale oil, with the vessel having a relatively thin wall thickness for a heat transfer rate effective to simulate a process temperature history in the selected continuous processing plant. A heater jacket is disposed about the reactor vessel and defines a number of independent controllable temperature zones axially spaced along the reaction vessel. Each temperature zone can be energized to simulate a time-temperature history of process material through the continuous plant. A pressure vessel contains both the heater jacket and the reaction vessel at an operating pressure functionally selected to simulate the continuous processing plant. The process yield from the oil shale may be used as feedback information to software simulating operation of the continuous plant to provide operating parameters, i.e., temperature profiles, ambient atmosphere, operating pressure, material feed rates, etc., for simulation in the batch reactor.

  1. Furnace for treating bituminous material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klotzer, M

    1922-04-28

    A furnace with saw-teeth-like profiled hearth, which by means of a kind of shaking slide executes a backward and forward motion, for carrying out the process according to Patent 422,391. It is characterized in that the stroke of the hearth moving in the furnace is smaller than the length of the profile tooth and the height of the feed is held less than the tooth height.

  2. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this project has been to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, along with EPRI, the American Electric Power Company (AEP), FirstEnergy Corporation, the Tennessee Valley Authority, and Carmeuse North America. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increased interest for coal-fired power generating units for a number of reasons. In particular, sulfuric acid can cause plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NOX control, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project tested the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different magnesium-based or dolomitic alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents were tested during one- to two-week tests conducted on two FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide slurry byproduct from a modified Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime wet flue gas desulfurization process. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercially available magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners. The other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles inserted through the front wall of the upper furnace. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests on two different units. The longer-term tests were conducted to confirm sorbent effectiveness over extended operation on two

  3. Analysis of a waste-heat boiler by CFD simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yongziang; Jokilaakso, A. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Waste-heat boilers play important roles in the continuous operation of a smelter and in the conservation of energy. However, the fluid flow and heat transfer behaviour has not been well studied, concerning the boiler performance and design. This presentation describes simulated gas flow and heat transfer of a waste-heat boiler in the Outokumpu copper flash smelting process. The governing transport equations for the conservation of mass, momentum and enthalpy were solved with a commercial CFD-code PHOENICS. The standard k-{epsilon} turbulence model and a composite-flux radiation model were used in the computations. The computational results show that the flow is strongly recirculating and distinctly three-dimensional in most part of the boiler, particularly in the radiation section. The predicted flow pattern and temperature distribution were in a good agreement with laboratory models and industrial measurements. The results provide detailed information of flow pattern, the temperature distribution and gas cooling efficiency. The CFD proved to be a useful tool in analysing the boiler operation. (author)

  4. Analysis of a waste-heat boiler by CFD simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yongziang; Jokilaakso, A [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Waste-heat boilers play important roles in the continuous operation of a smelter and in the conservation of energy. However, the fluid flow and heat transfer behaviour has not been well studied, concerning the boiler performance and design. This presentation describes simulated gas flow and heat transfer of a waste-heat boiler in the Outokumpu copper flash smelting process. The governing transport equations for the conservation of mass, momentum and enthalpy were solved with a commercial CFD-code PHOENICS. The standard k-{epsilon} turbulence model and a composite-flux radiation model were used in the computations. The computational results show that the flow is strongly recirculating and distinctly three-dimensional in most part of the boiler, particularly in the radiation section. The predicted flow pattern and temperature distribution were in a good agreement with laboratory models and industrial measurements. The results provide detailed information of flow pattern, the temperature distribution and gas cooling efficiency. The CFD proved to be a useful tool in analysing the boiler operation. (author)

  5. Studies Concerning Water-Surface Deposits in Recovery Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strandberg, O; Arvesen, J; Dahl, L

    1971-11-15

    The Feed-water Committee of the Stiftelsen Svensk Cellulosaforskning (Foundation for Swedish Cellulose Research) has initiated research and investigations which aim to increase knowledge about water-surface deposits in boiler tubes, and the resulting risks of gas-surface corrosion in chemical recovery boilers (sulphate pulp industry). The Committee has arranged with AB Atomenergi, Studsvik, for investigations into the water-surface deposits on tubes from six Scandinavian boilers. These investigations have included direct measurements of the thermal conductivity of the deposits, and determinations of their quantity, thickness and structure have been carried out. Previous investigations have shown that gas-surface corrosion can occur at tube temperatures above 330 deg C. The measured values for the thermal conductivity of the deposits indicate that even with small quantities of deposit (c. 1 g/dm2 ) and a moderate boiler pressure (40 atm), certain types of deposit can give rise to the above-mentioned surface temperature, at which the risk of gas-surface corrosion becomes appreciable. For higher boiler pressures the risk is great even with a minimal layer of deposit. The critical deposit thickness can be as low as 0.1 mm

  6. Visualisation of the velocity field in a scaled water model for validation of numerical calculations for a powder fuelled boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumortier, Laurent [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden)

    2001-01-01

    Validation of numerical predictions of the flow field in a powder fired industry boiler by flow visualisation in a water model has been studied. The bark powder fired boiler at AssiDomaen Kraftliner in Piteaa has been used as a case study. A literature study covering modelling of combusting flows by water models and different flow visualisation techniques has been carried out. The main conclusion as regards the use of water models is that only qualitative information can be expected. As far as turbulent flow is assured in the model as well as the real furnace, the same Reynolds number is not required. Geometrical similarity is important but modelling of burner jets requires adaptation of the jet diameters in the model. Guidelines for this are available and are presented in the report. The review of visualisation techniques shows that a number of methods have been used successfully for validation of flow field predictions. The conclusion is that the Particle Image Velocimetry and Particle Tracking Velocimetry methods could be very suitable for validation purposes provided that optical access is possible. The numerical predictions include flow fields in a 1130 scale model of the AssiDomaen furnace with water flow as well as flow and temperature fields in the actual furnace. Two burner arrangements were considered both for the model and the actual furnace, namely the present configuration with four front burners and a proposed modification where an additional burner is positioned at a side wall below the other burners. There are many similarities between the predicted flow fields in the model and the full scale furnace but there are also some differences, in particular in the region above the burners and the effects of the low region re-circulation on the lower burner jets. The experiments with the water model have only included the arrangement with four front burners. There were problems determining the velocities in the jets and the comparisons with predictions are

  7. Boiler using combustible fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, H.; Meier, J.G.

    1974-07-03

    A fluid fuel boiler is described comprising a combustion chamber, a cover on the combustion chamber having an opening for introducing a combustion-supporting gaseous fluid through said openings, means to impart rotation to the gaseous fluid about an axis of the combustion chamber, a burner for introducing a fluid fuel into the chamber mixed with the gaseous fluid for combustion thereof, the cover having a generally frustro-conical configuration diverging from the opening toward the interior of the chamber at an angle of between 15/sup 0/ and 55/sup 0/; means defining said combustion chamber having means defining a plurality of axial hot gas flow paths from a downstream portion of the combustion chamber to flow hot gases into an upstream portion of the combustion chamber, and means for diverting some of the hot gas flow along paths in a direction circumferentially of the combustion chamber, with the latter paths being immersed in the water flow path thereby to improve heat transfer and terminating in a gas outlet, the combustion chamber comprising at least one modular element, joined axially to the frustro-conical cover and coaxial therewith. The modular element comprises an inner ring and means of defining the circumferential, radial, and spiral flow paths of the hot gases.

  8. Mechanical Properties of High Strength Concrete Containing Coal Bottom Ash and Oil-Palm Boiler Clinker as Fine Aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soofinajafi Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to utilize Coal Furnace Bottom ash (CBA and Oil-Palm Boiler Clinker (OPBC as fine aggregate in concrete mix proportions. They are solid wastes from power plant and Oil Palm industry, respectively. Since these by-products do not have any primary use and are pure waste, an opportunity to use them as aggregate in concrete industry not only is economical but also will be an environmental friendly opportunity leading towards a more sustainable production chain. CBA and OPBC sands had similar grading to normal sand but have lower density and higher water absorption. In a high strength concrete, normal sand was replaced up to 25% with either CBA or OPBC. Test results showed that although water absorption of these wastes was more than normal sand but the slump value of concrete containing each of these wastes showed that these concretes had good workability. All mixes containing these wastes had slightly lower compressive strength at early ages and equivalent or higher compressive strength at later ages compared to control mix. The 28-day compressive strength of these concretes was in the range of 69–76 MPa which can be categorized as high strength concrete. In general, the performance of OPBC was better than CBA at 25% replacement level. However, it is recommended that at least 12.5% of total volume of fine aggregate in a high strength concrete is used of CBA or OPBC.

  9. Concrete with steel furnace slag and fractionated reclaimed asphalt pavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Steel furnace slag (SFS) is an industrial by-product material that can contain free calcium oxide (CaO) and free magnesium oxide (MgO), both : of which can cause significant expansion when hydrated. SFS aggregates are therefore not commonly used in c...

  10. Fuzzy diagnosis of float-glass production furnace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaanenburg, L; TerHaseborg, H; Nijhuis, JAG; Reusch, B

    1997-01-01

    The industrial production of high-quality float-glass is usually supervised by the single human expert. It is of interest to formalize his empirical knowledge to support the furnace operator at all times during the day. The paper describes the systematic development of a fuzzy expert with 6 blocks

  11. Desulphurization in peat-fired circulating and bubbling fluidized bed boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouvo, P. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Salmenoja, K. [Kvaerner Pulping Oy, Tampere (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The new emission limit values for large combustion plants are under consideration both at the EU level and in Finland. Peat and wood are the only indigenous fuels of Finland. In 1995 appr. 8 % of electricity was produced with peat. The lower heating value of peat is around 10 MJ/kg. The moisture content varies between 35-55 % and sulphur content in dry solids between 0.15-0.35 %. The total peat power capacity of Finland in 1995 was 1400 MW. Because there was not enough information available about the desulphurization of the flue gases from peat-fired fluidized bed boilers, a group of Finnish companies and Ministry of Trade and Industry decided to carry out the full-scale desulphurisation study. In the project the desulphurization with limestone injection into the furnace of two types of peat-fired boilers were studied. The goal of the project was to investigate: what the technically and economically feasible emission level is by limestone injection in the fluidized bed combustion; how the limestone injection affects the other flue gas emissions and the fouling of the boiler and, what the economy of desulphurisation is. The tests were carried out at Kokkola and Kemi power plants in Finland. At Kokkola (108 MW{sub f}) circulating fluidized bed boiler, the emission limit of 200 mg/m{sup 3}n was leached at a Ca/S-molar ratio of appr. 10, with limestone containing 92 % of calcium carbonate, CaCO{sub 3}. At Kemi (267 MW{sub f}) bubbling fluidized bed boiler, the emission limit of 280 mg/m{sup 3}n with limestone containing appr. 95 % of CaCO{sub 3} was reached at a Ca/S-molar ratio of appr. 7.0. Emissions of NO{sub x}, N{sub 2}O, NH{sub 3} and dust after the ESP were not elevated due to the limestone feed. At the Kokkola power plant the NO{sub x} emissions varied from 300 to 400 mg/m{sup 3}n, and, at the Kemi power station the NO{sub x} emissions were around 200 mg/m{sup 3}n. The fouling of the Kemi boiler was found to be significant in the scheduled outage after the test

  12. Numerical investigation of heat transfer characteristics in utility boilers of oxy-coal combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Yukun; Li, Hailong; Yan, Jinyue

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Air-coal and oxy-coal combustion in an industrial scale PF boiler were simulated in ANSYS FLUENT. • The O 2 concentration of 33 vol% in the oxy-coal combustion case matches the air-coal combustion case most closely. • The moisture in the flue gas has little impact on flame temperature, but positive impact on surface incident radiation. - Abstract: Oxy-coal combustion has different flue gas composition from the conventional air-coal combustion. The different composition further results in different properties, such as the absorption coefficient, emissivity, and density, which can directly affect the heat transfer in both radiation and convection zones of utility boilers. This paper numerically studied a utility boiler of oxy-coal combustion and compares with air-coal combustion in terms of flame profile and heat transferred through boiler side walls in order to understand the effects of different operating conditions on oxy-coal boiler retrofitting and design. Based on the results, it was found that around 33 vol% of effective O 2 concentration ([O 2 ] effective ) the highest flame temperature and total heat transferred through boiler side walls in the oxy-coal combustion case match to those in the air-coal combustion case most; therefore, the 33 vol% of [O 2 ] effective could result in the minimal change for the oxy-coal combustion retrofitting of the existing boiler. In addition, the increase of the moisture content in the flue gas has little impact on the flame temperature, but results in a higher surface incident radiation on boiler side walls. The area of heat exchangers in the boiler was also investigated regarding retrofitting. If boiler operates under a higher [O 2 ] effective , to rebalance the load of each heat exchanger in the boiler, the feed water temperature after economizer can be reduced or part of superheating surfaces can be moved into the radiation zone to replace part of the evaporators

  13. Technical and environmental performance of 10 kW understocker boiler during combustion of biomass and conventional fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Junga Robert; Wzorek Małgorzata; Kaszubska Mirosława

    2017-01-01

    This paper treats about the impact fuels from biomass wastes and coal combustion on a small boiler operation and the emission of pollutants in this process. Tests were performed in laboratory conditions on a water boiler with retort furnace and the capacity of 10 kW. Fuels from sewage sludge and agriculture wastes (PBZ fuel) and a blend of coal with laying hens mature (CLHM) were taken into account. The results in emission changes of NOx, CO2, CO and SO2 and operating parameters of the tested...

  14. Characteristics modeling for supercritical circulating fluidized bed boiler working in oxy-combustion technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balicki Adrian

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the technologies which allow to reduce greenhouse gas emission, mainly carbon dioxide, special attention deserves the idea of ‘zeroemission’ technology based on boilers working in oxy-combustion technology. In the paper the results of analyses of the influence of changing two quantities, namely oxygen share in oxidant produced in the air separation unit, and oxygen share in oxidant supplied to the furnace chamber on the selected characteristics of a steam boiler including the degree of exhaust gas recirculation, boiler efficiency and adiabatic flame temperature, was examined. Due to the possibility of the integration of boiler model with carbon dioxide capture, separation and storage installation, the subject of the analysis was also to determine composition of the flue gas at the outlet of a moisture condensation installation. Required calculations were made using a model of a supercritical circulating fluidized bed boiler working in oxy-combustion technology, which was built in a commercial software and in-house codes.

  15. A computer code for the prediction of mill gases and hot air distribution between burners sections as input parameters for 3D CFD furnace calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucakovic, Dragan; Zivanovic, Titoslav; Beloshevic, Srdjan

    2006-01-01

    Current computer technology development enables application of powerful software packages that can provide a reliable insight into real operating conditions of a steam boiler in the Thermal Power Plant. Namely, an application of CFD code to the 3D analysis of combustion and heat transfer in a furnace provides temperature, velocity and concentration fields in both cross sectional and longitudinal planes of the observed furnace. In order to obtain reliable analytical results, which corresponds to real furnace conditions, it is necessary to accurately predict a distribution of mill gases and hot air between burners' sections, because these parameters are input values for the furnace 3D calculation. Regarding these tasks, the computer code for the prediction of mill gases and hot air distribution has been developed at the Department for steam boilers of the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering in Belgrade. The code is based on simultaneous calculations of material and heat balances for fan mill and air tracts. The aim of this paper is to present a methodology of performed calculations and results obtained for the steam boiler furnace of 350 MWe Thermal Power Plant equipped with eight fan mills. Key words: mill gases, hot air, aerodynamic calculation, air tract, mill tract.

  16. New controls spark boiler efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engels, T. (Monsanto, University Park, IL (United States))

    1993-09-01

    Monsanto's NutraSweet plant in University Park, IL, produces aspartame, the patented NutraSweet artificial sweetener product. Until recently, boiler control was managed by a '60s-era Fireye jackshaft system in which air and natural gas were mechanically linked with an offset to compensate for oxygen trim. The interlocking devices on the Fireye system were becoming obsolete, and the boiler needed a new front end retrofitted for low emissions. In order to improve boiler control efficiency, we decided to modernize and automate the entire boiler control system. We replaced the original jackshaft system, and installed a Gordon-Piet burner system, including gas valves, air dampers, blowers, and burner. The upgrade challenges included developing a control strategy and selecting and implementing a process control system. Since our plant has standardized on the PROVOX process management information system from Fisher Controls (now Fisher-Rosemount Systems) to support most of our process, it was a natural and logical choice for boiler controls as well. 2 figs.

  17. ULTRA LOW NOx INTEGRATED SYSTEM FOR NOx EMISSION CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galen H. Richards; Charles Q. Maney; Richard W. Borio; Robert D. Lewis

    2002-12-30

    ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories, working in concert with ALSTOM Power's Performance Projects Group, has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) to conduct a comprehensive study to develop/evaluate low-cost, efficient NOx control technologies for retrofit to pulverized coal fired utility boilers. The objective of this project was to develop retrofit NOx control technology to achieve less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx (for bituminous coals) and 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx (for subbituminous coals) from existing pulverized coal fired utility boilers at a cost which is at least 25% less than SCR technology. Efficient control of NOx is seen as an important, enabling step in keeping coal as a viable part of the national energy mix in this century, and beyond. Presently 57% of U.S. electrical generation is coal based, and the Energy Information Agency projects that coal will maintain a lead in U.S. power generation over all other fuel sources for decades (EIA 1998 Energy Forecast). Yet, coal-based power is being strongly challenged by society's ever-increasing desire for an improved environment and the resultant improvement in health and safety. The needs of the electric-utility industry are to improve environmental performance, while simultaneously improving overall plant economics. This means that emissions control technology is needed with very low capital and operating costs. This project has responded to the industry's need for low NOx emissions by evaluating ideas that can be adapted to present pulverized coal fired systems, be they conventional or low NOx firing systems. The TFS 2000{trademark} firing system has been the ALSTOM Power Inc. commercial offering producing the lowest NOx emission levels. In this project, the TFS 2000{trademark} firing system served as a basis for comparison to other low NOx systems evaluated and was the foundation upon which refinements were made to further

  18. Production of blast furnace coke from soft brown coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz, G.; Wundes, H.; Schkommodau, F.; Zinke, H.-G. (VEB Gaskombinat Schwarze Pumpe (German Democratic Republic))

    1988-01-01

    Reviews experimental production and utilization of high quality brown coal coke in the GDR during 1985 and 1986. The technology of briquetting and coking brown coal dust is described; the superior parameters of produced coke quality are listed in comparison to those of regular industrial coke made from brown and black coal. Dust emission from high quality brown coal coke was suppressed by coke surface treatment with dispersion foam. About 4,200 t of this coke were employed in black coal coke substitution tests in a blast furnace. Substitution rate was 11%, blast furnace operation was positive, a substitution factor of 0.7 t black coal coke per 1 t of brown coal coke was calculated. Technology development of high quality brown coal coke production is regarded as complete; blast furnace coke utilization, however, requires further study. 8 refs.

  19. Prediction method of unburnt carbon for coal fired utility boiler using image processing technique of combustion flame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoda, M.; Sugano, A.; Kimura, T.; Watanabe, Y.; Ishiyama, K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a method predicting unburnt carbon in a coal fired utility boiler developed using an image processing technique. The method consists of an image processing unit and a furnace model unit. temperature distribution of combustion flames can be obtained through the former unit. The later calculates dynamics of the carbon reduction from the burner stages to the furnace outlet using coal feed rate, air flow rate, chemical and ash content of coal. An experimental study shows that the prediction error of the unburnt carbon can be reduced to 10%

  20. Materials analyses of ceramics for glass furnace recuperators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, G.W.; Tennery, V.J.

    1979-11-01

    The use of waste heat recuperation systems offers significant promise for meaningful energy conservation in the process heat industries. This report details the analysis of candidate ceramic recuperator materials exposed to simulated industrial glass furnace hot flue gas environments. Several candidate structural ceramic materials including various types of silicon carbide, several grades of alumina, mullite, cordierite, and silicon nitride were exposed to high-temperature flue gas atmospheres from specially constructed day tank furnaces. Furnace charging, operation, and batch composition were selected to closely simulate industrial practice. Material samples were exposed in flues both with and without glass batch in the furnace for times up to 116 d at temperatures from 1150 to 1550/sup 0/C (2100 to 2800/sup 0/F). Exposed materials were examined by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray analysis, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray fluorescence to identify material degradation mechanisms. The materials observations were summarized as: Silicon carbide exhibited enhanced corrosion at lower temperatures (1150/sup 0/C) when alkalies were deposited on the carbide from the flue gas and less corrosion at higher temperatures (1550/sup 0/C) when alkalies were not deposited on the carbide; alumina corrosion depended strongly upon purity and density and alumina contents less than 99.8% were unsatisfactory above 1400/sup 0/C; and mullite and cordierite are generally unacceptable for application in soda-lime glass melting environments at temperatures above 1100/sup 0/C.

  1. Additive for reducing operational problems in waste fired grate boilers; Additiv foer att minska driftproblem vid rostfoerbraenning av avfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyllenhammar, Marianne; Herstad Svaerd, Solvie; Davidsson, Kent; Hermansson, Sven; Liske, Jesper; Larsson, Erik; Jonsson, Torbjoern; Zhao, Dongmei

    2013-09-01

    The combustion of waste implies a risk for deposits and corrosion in different parts of the combustion facility. In recent years, research and tests have been performed in order to find ways to mitigate these problems in waste-fired plants. Most waste-fired plants in Sweden are grates whereas most of the research has been carried out in fluidized bed plants. The purpose of this project is to examine whether co-firing of sewage sludge and waste can reduce deposition and corrosion also in grate-fired boilers as has been shown in fludised beds. The objective is to determine the deposit growth and its composition as well as describing the initial corrosion attack. Representing sulphur-rich waste, elementary sulphur is also added to the waste and thereby compared with sludge as an additive. The target groups for this project are plant owners, researchers, consultants and authorities. Tests were performed in a 15 MWth waste-fired boiler with moving grate at Gaerstadverket, Tekniska Verken (Linkoeping). The boiler produces saturated steam of 17 bars and 207 deg C, and the normal fuel mixture contains of household and industry waste. The results show that co-firing with as heigh as 20 weight-% SLF (25 energy-%) was possible from an operational point of view, but the deposit rate increased especially at the two warmest positions. Generally the deposit rate was highest in the position closest to the boiler and decreased further downstream. During the tests a lot higher amount of SLF than normal was used (recommended mix is 5-10 % of SLF) this to be able to see effects of the different measures. Up to 23 weight-% of the rather moist sewage sludge was possible to fire when co-firing waste and SLF, without addition of oil. By adding sludge the deposit rate decreased but the increase upon adding SLF to ordinary waste was not totally eliminated. In the tests 'Avfall and SLF' the deposits were rich in chlorine. High concentrations of metal chlorides were found in the

  2. A new compact fixed-point blackbody furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraka, K.; Oikawa, H.; Shimizu, T.; Kadoya, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Yamada, Y.; Ishii, J.

    2013-01-01

    More and more NMIs are realizing their primary scale themselves with fixed-point blackbodies as their reference standard. However, commercially available fixed-point blackbody furnaces of sufficient quality are not always easy to obtain. CHINO Corp. and NMIJ, AIST jointly developed a new compact fixed-point blackbody furnace. The new furnace has such features as 1) improved temperature uniformity when compared to previous products, enabling better plateau quality, 2) adoption of the hybrid fixed-point cell structure with internal insulation to improve robustness and thereby to extend lifetime, 3) easily ejectable and replaceable heater unit and fixed-point cell design, leading to reduced maintenance cost, 4) interchangeability among multiple fixed points from In to Cu points. The replaceable cell feature facilitates long term maintenance of the scale through management of a group of fixed-point cells of the same type. The compact furnace is easily transportable and therefore can also function as a traveling standard for disseminating the radiation temperature scale, and for maintaining the scale at the secondary level and industrial calibration laboratories. It is expected that the furnace will play a key role of the traveling standard in the anticipated APMP supplementary comparison of the radiation thermometry scale

  3. Mathematical modeling and experimental study of biomass combustion in a thermal 108 MW grate-fired boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Rosendahl, Lasse; Kær, Søren K.

    2008-01-01

    Grate boilers are widely used to fire biomass for heat and power production. However grate-firing systems are often reported to have relatively high un-burnout, low efficiency and high emissions, and need to be optimized and modernized. This paper presents the efforts towards a reliable baseline...... computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for an industrial biomass-fired grate boiler, which can be used for diagnosis and optimization of the grate boiler as well as design of new grate boilers. First, based on the design conditions, a thorough sensitivity analysis is done to evaluate the relative importance...... of different factors in CFD analysis of the grate boiler. In a late stage, a two-day measuring campaign is carried out to measure the gas temperatures and gas concentrations in the boiler using a fiber optic probe connected to a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. A baseline model is then defined...

  4. Boiler Operator Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Stanton S.

    1978-01-01

    This program, developed by the Nalco Chemical Company, helps with energy conservation in industrial plants. The program takes four to six weeks to complete. The training sessions last for about two hours. (BB)

  5. Development of vacuum brazing furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Rajvir; Yedle, Kamlesh; Jain, A.K.

    2005-01-01

    In joining of components where welding process is not possible brazing processes are employed. Value added components, high quality RF systems, UHV components of high energy accelerators, carbide tools etc. are produced using different types of brazing methods. Furnace brazing under vacuum atmosphere is the most popular and well accepted method for production of the above mentioned components and systems. For carrying out vacuum brazing successfully it is essential to have a vacuum brazing furnace with latest features of modern vacuum brazing technology. A vacuum brazing furnace has been developed and installed for carrying out brazing of components of copper, stainless steel and components made of dissimilar metals/materials. The above furnace has been designed to accommodate jobs of 700mm diameter x 2000mm long sizes with job weight of 500kgs up to a maximum temperature of 1250 degC at a vacuum of 5 x 10 -5 Torr. Oil diffusion pumping system with a combination of rotary and mechanical booster pump have been employed for obtaining vacuum. Molybdenum heating elements, radiation shield of molybdenum and Stainless Steel Grade 304 have been used. The above furnace is computer controlled with manual over ride facility. PLC and Pentium PC are integrated together to maneuver steps of operation and safety interlocks of the system. Closed loop water supply provides cooling to the system. The installation of the above system is in final stage of completion and it will be ready for use in next few months time. This paper presents insights of design and fabrication of a modern vacuum brazing furnace and its sub-system. (author)

  6. Cracking and corrosion recovery boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suik, H. [Tallinn Technical University, Horizon Pulp and Paper, Tallinn (Estonia)

    1998-12-31

    The corrosion of heat surfaces and the cracking the drums are the main problems of the recovery boiler. These phenomena have been appeared during long-term operation of boiler `Mitsubishi - 315` erected at 1964. Depth of the crack is depending on the number of shutdowns and on operation time. Corrosion intensity of different heat surfaces is varying depend on the metal temperature and the conditions at place of positioning of tube. The lowest intensity of corrosion is on the bank tubes and the greatest is on the tubes of the second stage superheater and on the tubes at the openings of air ports. (orig.) 5 refs.

  7. Cracking and corrosion recovery boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suik, H [Tallinn Technical University, Horizon Pulp and Paper, Tallinn (Estonia)

    1999-12-31

    The corrosion of heat surfaces and the cracking the drums are the main problems of the recovery boiler. These phenomena have been appeared during long-term operation of boiler `Mitsubishi - 315` erected at 1964. Depth of the crack is depending on the number of shutdowns and on operation time. Corrosion intensity of different heat surfaces is varying depend on the metal temperature and the conditions at place of positioning of tube. The lowest intensity of corrosion is on the bank tubes and the greatest is on the tubes of the second stage superheater and on the tubes at the openings of air ports. (orig.) 5 refs.

  8. Sootblowing optimization for improved boiler performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John Robert; McDermott, John; Piche, Stephen; Pickard, Fred; Parikh, Neel J.

    2012-12-25

    A sootblowing control system that uses predictive models to bridge the gap between sootblower operation and boiler performance goals. The system uses predictive modeling and heuristics (rules) associated with different zones in a boiler to determine an optimal sequence of sootblower operations and achieve boiler performance targets. The system performs the sootblower optimization while observing any operational constraints placed on the sootblowers.

  9. Optimizing the Integrated Design of Boilers - Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, K.; Karstensen, C.; Condra, T.

    2004-01-01

    Boilers can be considered as consisting of three main components: (i) the pressure part, (ii) the burner and (iii) the control system. To be able to develop the boilers of the future (i.e. the boilers with the lowest emissions, the highest efciency, the best dynamic performance etc.) it is import...

  10. Methodology for the physical and chemical exergetic analysis of steam boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohijeagbon, Idehai O.; Waheed, M. Adekojo; Jekayinfa, Simeon O.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a framework of thermodynamic, energy and exergy, analyses of industrial steam boilers. Mass, energy, and exergy analysis were used to develop a methodology for evaluating thermodynamic properties, energy and exergy input and output resources in industrial steam boilers. Determined methods make available an analytic procedure for the physical and chemical exergetic analysis of steam boilers for appropriate applications. The energy and exergy efficiencies obtained for the entire boiler was 69.56% and 38.57% at standard reference state temperature of 25 °C for an evaporation ratio of 12. Chemical exergy of the material streams was considered to offer a more comprehensive detail on energy and exergy resource allocation and losses of the processes in a steam boiler. - Highlights: ► We evaluated thermodynamic properties and performance variables associated with material streams. ► We analysed resources allocation, and magnitude of exergetic losses in steam boilers. ► Chemical exergy of material streams contributed to improved exergy values. ► High operational parameter will lead to higher boiler exergy. ► Exergy destroyed was higher in the combustion as against the heat exchanging unit

  11. Factors controlling alkalisalt deposition in recovery boiler- release mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeough, P.; Kylloenen, H.; Kurkela, M. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Process Technology Group

    1996-12-01

    As part of a cooperative effort to develop a model to describe the behaviour of inorganic compounds in kraft recovery boilers, an experimental investigation of the release of sulphur during black liquor pyrolysis has been undertaken. Previous to these studies, the mechanisms of sulphur release and the reasons for the observed effects of process conditions on sulphur release were very poorly understood. On the basis of the experimental results, the main reactions leading to sulphur release have been elucidated with a fair degree of certainty. Logical explanations for the variations of sulphur release with temperature and with liquor solids content have been proposed. The influence of pressure has been investigated in order to gain insights into the effects of mass transfer on the sulphur-release rate. In the near future, the research will be aimed at generating the kinetic data necessary for modelling the release of sulphur in the recovery furnace. (author)

  12. MULTIPLE LINEAR REGRESSION ANALYSIS FOR PREDICTION OF BOILER LOSSES AND BOILER EFFICIENCY

    OpenAIRE

    Chayalakshmi C.L

    2018-01-01

    MULTIPLE LINEAR REGRESSION ANALYSIS FOR PREDICTION OF BOILER LOSSES AND BOILER EFFICIENCY ABSTRACT Calculation of boiler efficiency is essential if its parameters need to be controlled for either maintaining or enhancing its efficiency. But determination of boiler efficiency using conventional method is time consuming and very expensive. Hence, it is not recommended to find boiler efficiency frequently. The work presented in this paper deals with establishing the statistical mo...

  13. Environment protection by coupling of a municipal waste incinerator to an existing coal fire steam boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ionel, I.; Stanescu, P.D.O.; Gruescu, C.; Savu, A.; Ungureanu, C. [University of Politehnic Timisoara, Timisoara (Romania)

    2006-12-15

    The paper offers an analysis of the potential coupling of a municipal waste incinerator in Romania, to an existing coal fired steam boiler. Considering the retention of heavy metals as well as HCl from the waste flue gases before entering the boiler, the simulation analysis of the boiler, under the situation that the gases from the scrubber are introduced, are presented As general conclusion one notes that it is possible to apply the concept even if the analysed case is of less importance, but more potential application are viewed for larger industrial application, for new concepts of modern power plants, to meet EU environmental regulations, especially for CO{sub 2} reduction.

  14. Automated, High Temperature Furnace for Glovebox Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neikirk, K.

    2001-01-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP), to be located at the Savannah River Site SRS, is a combined development and testing effort by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and the Australian National Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO). The Plutonium Immobilization process involves the disposition of excess plutonium by incorporation into ceramic pucks. As part of the immobilization process, furnaces are needed for sintering the ceramic pucks. The furnace being developed for puck sintering is an automated, bottom loaded furnace with insulating package and resistance heating elements located within a nuclear glovebox. Other furnaces types considered for the application include retort furnaces and pusher furnaces. This paper, in part, will discuss the furnace technologies considered and furnace technology selected to support reliable puck sintering in a glovebox environment

  15. Design of a rotating-hearth furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, H A [Verein Deutscher Eisenhuettenleute (VDEh), Duesseldorf (Germany, F.R.)

    1979-10-01

    Presented in two parts, this paper is intended to provide an outline of the theoretical fundamentals for the design of rotating-hearth furnaces for heating round stock and deals with the characteristic design features of such furnaces.

  16. Electrostatic Levitation Furnace for the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Keiji; Koshikawa, Naokiyo; Shibasaki, Kohichi; Ishikawa, Takehiko; Okada, Junpei; Takada, Tetsuya; Arai, Tatsuya; Fujino, Naoki; Yamaura, Yukiko

    2012-01-01

    JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) has just started the development of Electrostatic Levitation Furnace to be launched in 2014 for the ISS. This furnace can control the sample position with electrostatic force and heat it above 2000 degree Celsius using semiconductor laser from four different directions. The announcement of Opportunity will be issued soon for this furnace. In this paper, we will show the specifications of this furnace and also the development schedule

  17. Sulphur recirculation for reduced boiler corrosion; Minskad pannkorrosion med svavelrecirkulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Sven; Karlsson, Martin (Goetaverken Miljoe AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Blomqvist, Evalena; Baefver, Linda; Claesson, Frida; Davidsson, Kent (SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Boraas (Sweden)); Froitzheim, Jan; Pettersson, Jesper; Steenari, Britt-Marie (Chalmers Tekniska Hoegskola, Oorganisk miljoekemi, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2010-03-15

    Sulphur recirculation is a new technology for reducing boiler corrosion and dioxin formation, which was demonstrated in full-scale tests performed at the Renova Waste to Energy plant at Saevenaes in Goeteborg (Sweden). Sulphur is recirculated from the flue gas cleaning back to the boiler, which reduces the chloride content of the deposits, which in turn reduces boiler corrosion and dioxin formation. Sulphur dioxide was separated from the flue gas in a wet scrubber by adding hydrogen peroxide, producing sulphuric acid. The sulphuric acid was injected into the furnace using nozzles with atomization air, surrounded by recirculated flue gas for improved mixing. By recirculating the sulphur, the sulphur dioxide concentration was increased in the boiler. Each sulphur atom passed the boiler several times and no external sulphur had to be added. Dioxin, ash, deposits and particle samplings together with 1000 h corrosion probe measurements were performed for normal operation (reference) and with sulphur recirculation respectively. During spring 2009, reference measurements were made and the recirculation system was installed and tested. During autumn 2009, a long term test with sulphur recirculation was made. An SO{sub 2} concentration of approximately 800 mg/m3 (n, d.g.) was maintained in the boiler by the system except during a period of extremely low sulphur content in the waste. The sulphur dioxide stack concentrations have been far below the emission limit. Sulphuric acid dew point measurements have shown that the sulphuric acid dosage did not lead to elevated SO{sub 3} concentrations, which may otherwise lead to low temperature corrosion. The chlorine content of both fly ash and boiler ash decreased and the sulphur content increased during the sulphur recirculation tests. The molar chlorine/sulphur ratio (Cl/S) decreased by two thirds in the fly ash as well as in the boiler ash, except for one sample. With sulphur recirculation in operation, the deposit growth was

  18. A cylindrical furnace for absorption spectral studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A cylindrical furnace with three heating zones, capable of providing a temperature of 1100°C, has been fabricated to enable recording of absorption spectra of high temperature species. The temperature of the furnace can be controlled to ± 1°C of the set temperature. The salient feature of this furnace is that the material ...

  19. Analysis of a furnace for heat generation using polydisperse biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Edney Alves; Silva, Juarez de Sousa e; Silva, Jadir Nogueira da; Oliveira Filho, Delly [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DEA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola; Donzeles, Sergio Mauricio Lopes [Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuaria de Minas Gerais (EPAMIG), Vicosa, MG (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In many agro-industrial activities, the processing of raw material generates a substantial amount of fine materials. Examples include the production of soluble coffee, processing of rice, and wood processing, among others. In many regions, these by-products keep piling up on the courtyard of companies or become an environmental problem for land dumps. However, detailed tests of these byproducts indicate that they are excellent sources of energy. With this in mind, a furnace was developed to generate clean and hot air, using the alimentation system for pneumatic transport. Wood sawdust was used as fuel for analysis. The obtained results were considered satisfactory, proven by the small heat losses, primarily by the non-burned carbon monoxide (less than 0.2%) and the cooling of the furnace (less than 2.5%) whereas the losses by the exhaust gases were a little more than 23%. The thermal efficiency of the furnace was considered high when compared to others with an indirect heating system, obtaining an average value of 73%. The developed furnace, beyond being efficient, allows the use of the waste from the wood industry, which is important in the reduction of environmental impacts and minimizing production costs associated with the acquisition of conventional energy. (author)

  20. Minimization of Blast furnace Fuel Rate by Optimizing Burden and Gas Distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Chenn Zhou

    2012-08-15

    The goal of the research is to improve the competitive edge of steel mills by using the advanced CFD technology to optimize the gas and burden distributions inside a blast furnace for achieving the best gas utilization. A state-of-the-art 3-D CFD model has been developed for simulating the gas distribution inside a blast furnace at given burden conditions, burden distribution and blast parameters. The comprehensive 3-D CFD model has been validated by plant measurement data from an actual blast furnace. Validation of the sub-models is also achieved. The user friendly software package named Blast Furnace Shaft Simulator (BFSS) has been developed to simulate the blast furnace shaft process. The research has significant benefits to the steel industry with high productivity, low energy consumption, and improved environment.

  1. Modeling of glass fusion furnaces; Modelisation des fours de fusion de verre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mechitoua, N. [Electricite de France (EDF), 78 - Chatou (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches; Plard, C. [Electricite de France, 77 - Moret sur Loing (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches

    1997-12-31

    The furnaces used for glass melting are industrial installations inside which complex and coupled physical and chemical phenomena occur. Thermal engineering plays a major role and numerical simulation is a precious tool for the analysis of the different coupling, of their interaction and of the influence of the different parameters. In order to optimize the functioning of glass furnaces and to improve the quality of the glass produced, Electricite de France (EdF) has developed a specialized version of the ESTET fluid mechanics code, called `Joule`. This paper describes the functioning principle of glass furnaces, the interactions between heat transfers and flows inside the melted glass, the interactions between heat transfers and the thermal regulation of the furnace, the interactions between heat transfers and glass quality and the heat transfer interactions between the melted glass, the furnace walls and the combustion area. (J.S.)

  2. A risk approach to the management of boiler tube thinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noori, Soudabeh A.; Price, John W.H.

    2006-01-01

    A large set of industrial thickness inspection data covering four boiler units of a power station over a period of five years was made available to the authors. The measurements were made in regions of the boiler where corrosion/erosion was the major cause of failure of the boiler tubes. There were over 40,000 separately measured data points in the data and all were collected with some care and expense. In the development of maintenance strategies for equipment, this type of data is typical of the data that must be collected and assessed. This data thus represents an opportunity to evaluate the ability to generate a useful risk approach to the management of the tubing. An important example of a risk-based approach is the American Petroleum Institute (API) Risk Based Inspection ('RBI'), API 581. A variety of problems were encountered applying this to boiler tubes. The problems include irrelevant API 581 corrosion rate tables, lack of information on how to analyse inspection data, difficulty of dealing with multiple inspection categories and lack of suitable direction for programming inspection intervals

  3. Environment-friendly type energy and coordinated community development project. Feasibility study for industrialization of high efficiency waste-fired power generation system using animal waste; Kankyo chowagata energy community keisei sokushin. Kokoritsu haikibutsu hatsuden (chikusan haikibutsu riyo) jigyoka FS chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    To introduce the power generation system fueled by animal waste (excrements), one of the so-called industrial waste, its feasibility has been studied in Koyu and surrounding area located in Miyazaki Prefecture. This report includes the technical feasibility of available quantity of animal waste, chemical analysis of the waste, and basic design of the power generation system containing the furnace model and also its economical feasibility. The available quantity of animal waste in Koyu area is about 169,000 tons a year, which can generate 10.5 MW of electric power. That including the surrounding area is about 219,000 tons a year, which can generate 15.0 MW. The heating values of animal excrements in average and as received are 970 kcal/kg for pigs and 1,230 to 2,700 kcal/kg for broilers. In the case of combustion of mixed broiler and pig excrements, both of the stoker and fluidized-bed model furnaces become refractory furnace construction and provide with heat recovery boiler due to their high moisture content. In addition, the stoker furnace model requires an excrement dryer system as pre-treatment of fuel. For the fluidized-bed furnace of 15 MW grade power plant using the mixed fuel of 50% broiler excrements and 50% pig excrements, the power generation efficiency of 23% can be expected at generator end. The generating cost is around 10 yen/kWh. 27 refs., 61 tabs.

  4. Stepwise commissioning of a steam boiler with stability guarantees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Simon Vestergaard; Kallesøe, Carsten Skovmose; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to make the commissioning of an industrial MIMO controller more straightforward by gradually commissioning it from a set of SISO controllers, after the system has been started. For this purpose a stepwise commissioning strategy based on the Youla-Kucera parametrization has been de...... been commissioned from a SISO controller using the developed method on a real steam boiler and measurements show a clear performance improvement after transition....

  5. Behavior of coke in large blast furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, N

    1978-01-01

    Three blast furnaces were quenched in operation and the contents were examined; the temperature distribution was also measured, using Tempil pellets. The furnaces examined included a low productivity one, which was examined to see what was wrong. Changes in the quality of coke as it descends in the furnace, and coke behavior in the raceway and hearth are reported. The functions required of coke, and the effects of poor coke quality, are explained, together with the coke quality required in large blast furnaces. A theoretical study of the role of coke in large blast furnaces is included.

  6. Alkaline carbonates in blast furnace process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Besta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The production of iron in blast furnaces is a complex of physical, chemical and mechanical processes. The input raw materials contain not only metallic components, but also a number of negative elements. The most important negative elements include alkaline carbonates. They can significantly affect the course of the blast furnace process and thus the overall performance of the furnace. As a result of that, it is essential to accurately monitor the alkali content in the blast furnace raw materials. The article analyzes the alkali content in input and output raw materials and their impact on the blast furnace process.

  7. Biomass boiler still best choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Full text: The City of Mount Gambier upgraded its boiler in September after analysis showed that biomass was still the optimal energy option. The Mount Gambier Aquatic Centre was built by the local city council in the 1980s as an outdoor pool facility for the public. The complex has three pools — an Olympic-sized, toddler and a learner pool — for a total volume of 1.38ML (including balance tanks). The large pool is heated to 27-28°C, the smaller one 30-32°C. From the very beginning, the pool water was heated by a biomass boiler, and via two heat exchangers whose combined capacity is 520 kW. The original biomass boiler ran on fresh sawdust from a local timber mill. After thirty years of dedicated service the original boiler had become unreliable and difficult to operate. Replacement options were investigated and included a straight gas boiler, a combined solar hot water and gas option, and biomass boilers. The boiler only produces heat, not electricity. All options were subjected to a triple bottom line assessment, which included potential capital costs, operating costs, community and environmental benefits and costs. The project was also assessed using a tool developed by Mount Gambier City Council that considers the holistic benefits — the CHAT Tool, which stands for Comprehensive Holistic Assessment Tool. “Basically it is a survey that covers environmental, social, economic and governance factors,” the council's environmental sustainability officer, Aaron Izzard told WME. In relation to environmental considerations, the kinds of questions explored by the CHAT Tool included: Sustainable use of resources — objective is to reduce council's dependence on non-renewable resources; Greenhouse emissions — objective is to reduce council's contribution of GHG into the atmosphere; Air quality — objective is to improve local air quality. The conclusion of these analyses was that while a biomass boiler would have a higher capital cost than a straight gas

  8. Radiative heat transfer in coal-fired furnaces and oxycoal retrofit considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erfurth, Jens

    2012-07-01

    Oxycoal combustion is the combustion of coal using a mixture of oxygen and cooled recycled flue gas in place of air. In the last years it has gained interest as a means of CO{sub 2} capture from stationary point sources. In particular, under emission mitigation regimes the retrofit of existing coal-fired power plants may help avoid ''stranded assets'' through lower emissions and thus costs if certain technical criteria can be met. Among these is the need to keep total heat transfer in the boiler constant while not raising the furnace exit temperature. The altered gas composition in oxycoal combustion leads to changes in both convective and radiative heat transfer, of which the latter, while of overwhelming importance in the furnace, poses a particular challenge to modellers. This work is thus primarily concerned with the simulation of radiative heat transfer. After a short introduction to oxycoal combustion, a general discussion of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models for coal combustion is given. Emphasis is placed on the physics of molecular gas band radiation, respective modelling approaches and their application within a CFD context. Based on this analysis, it is concluded that for the purposes of this work, a non-grey CFD implementation of the Exponential Wide Band Model is most suitable. Then the results of CFD simulations of the furnace of a state-of-the-art coal-fired USC boiler with a thermal power of 1,210 MW are presented, which were carried out using the commercial software FLUENT {sup registered} 6.3, combined with some User-Defined Functions. In addition to air combustion, the cases studied include variations of the burner oxygen concentration and the mode of flue gas recycling (wet and dry), the two additional parameters that present themselves in oxycoal combustion to meet the retrofit criteria. The same burner geometry optimised for oxycoal combustion was used in all cases, while the overall boiler geometry designed for air

  9. Multikilowatt variable frequency microwave furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bible, D.W.; Lauf, R.J.; Everleigh, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors describe a new type of microwave processing furnace in which the frequency can be varied continuously from 4 to 8 GHz and the power level varied from zero up to 2.5 kW. The extraordinary bandwidth of this furnace is achieved by using a traveling wave tube (TWT) amplifier originally developed for electronic warfare applications. The TWT is a linear beam device characterized by a traveling electromagnetic wave that continuously extracts energy longitudinally along the path of an electron beam. The TWT, unlike other microwave tubes such as the magnetron, klystron, gyrotron, and others, does not depend upon resonant RF fields and is therefore capable of wide bandwidth operation.operation

  10. Measurements and numerical simulations for optimization of the combustion process in a utility boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vikhansky, A.; Bar-Ziv, E. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Dept. of Biotechnology and Environmental Engineering, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Chudnovsky, B.; Talanker, A. [Israel Electric Corp. (IEC),, Mechanical Systems Div., Haifa (Israel); Eddings, E.; Sarofim, A. [Reaction Engineering International, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Utah Univ., Dept. of Chemical and Fuel Engineering, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2004-07-01

    A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics code was used to analyse the performance of 550MW pulverized coal combustion opposite a wall-fired boiler (of IEC) at different operation modes. The main objective of this study was to prove that connecting plant measurements with three-dimensional furnace modelling is a cost-effective method for design, optimization and problem solving in power plant operation. Heat flux results from calculations were compared with measurements in the boiler and showed good agreement. Consequently, the code was used to study hydrodynamic aspects of air-flue gases mixing in the upper part of the boiler. It was demonstrated that effective mixing between flue gases and overfire air is of essential importance for CO reburning. From our complementary experimental-numerical effort, IEC considers a possibility to improve the boiler performance by replacing the existing OFA nozzles by those with higher penetration depth of the air jets, with the aim to ensure proper mixing to achieve better CO reburning. (Author)

  11. Measurements and numerical simulations for optimization of the combustion process in a utility boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Vikhansky; E. Bar-Ziv; B. Chudnovsky; A. Talanker; E. Eddings; A. Sarofim [Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel). Department of Biotechnology and Environmental Engineering

    2004-04-01

    A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics code was used to analyse the performance of 550MW pulverized coal combustion opposite a wall-fired boiler (of the Israel Electric Corporation (IEC)) at different operation modes. The main objective of this study was to prove that connecting plant measurements with three-dimensional furnace modelling is a cost-effective method for design, optimization and problem solving in power plant operation. Heat flux results from calculations were compared with measurements in the boiler and showed good agreement. Consequently, the code was used to study hydrodynamic aspects of air-flue gases mixing in the upper part of the boiler. It was demonstrated that effective mixing between flue gases and overfire air is of essential importance for CO reburning. From the complementary experimental-numerical effort, IEC considers a possibility to improve the boiler performance by replacing the existing OFA nozzles by those with higher penetration depth of the air jets, with the aim to ensure proper mixing to achieve better CO reburning. 7 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Model-Based Water Wall Fault Detection and Diagnosis of FBC Boiler Using Strong Tracking Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluidized bed combustion (FBC boilers have received increasing attention in recent decades. The erosion issue on the water wall is one of the most common and serious faults for FBC boilers. Unlike direct measurement of tube thickness used by ultrasonic methods, the wastage of water wall is reconsidered equally as the variation of the overall heat transfer coefficient in the furnace. In this paper, a model-based approach is presented to estimate internal states and heat transfer coefficient dually from the noisy measurable outputs. The estimated parameter is compared with the normal value. Then the modified Bayesian algorithm is adopted for fault detection and diagnosis (FDD. The simulation results demonstrate that the approach is feasible and effective.

  13. Co-firing straw and coal in a 150-MWe utility boiler: in situ measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P. F.B.; Andersen, Karin Hedebo; Wieck-Hansen, K.

    1998-01-01

    A 2-year demonstration program is carried out by the Danish utility I/S Midtkraft at a 150-MWe PF-boiler unit reconstructed for co-firing straw and coal. As a part of the demonstration program, a comprehensive in situ measurement campaign was conducted during the spring of 1996 in collaboration...... with the Technical University of Denmark. Six sample positions have been established between the upper part of the furnace and the economizer. The campaign included in situ sampling of deposits on water/air-cooled probes, sampling of fly ash, flue gas and gas phase alkali metal compounds, and aerosols as well...... deposition propensities and high temperature corrosion during co-combustion of straw and coal in PF-boilers. Danish full scale results from co-firing straw and coal, the test facility and test program, and the potential theoretical support from the Technical University of Denmark are presented in this paper...

  14. Numerical analysis of loads effect on combustion performance and NO{sub x} emissions of a 220 MW pulverized coal boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jun; Yang, Weihong; Blasiak, Wlodzimierz [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Energy and Furnace Technology; Jankowski, Radoslaw; Kotecki, Michal; Szewczyk, Dariusz [Industrial Combustion Systems (ICS) Company, Poznan (Poland); Brzdekiewicz, Artur [Remak-Rozruch SA, Opole (Poland)

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents numerical study on the combustion performance and NO{sub x} emissions of a 220 MW pulverized coal boiler. Three different loads have been simulated with combusting coal, 200, 170 and 140 MW, respectively. In order to get as precise as possible numerical analysis results, two-step simulation method has been adopted in this work, namely, air supply system simulation and furnace simulation. After air supply system simulation, the results have been taken as the initial and boundary conditions for furnace simulation. The comparison between the measured values and predicted results from 200 MW case shows much better agreement. According to the simulation results, the adopted two-step simulation method is reasonable and suitable for predicting the characters of the flow and combustion process. It is concluded that the distributions of temperature, O{sub 2} and CO concentration inside furnace with different loads shows good similarly. The total NOx emissions decreased with the boiler load reducing, and fuel NO{sub x} has the same trend as total NO{sub x}, and fuel NO{sub x} account for about 66% in total NO{sub x} in all the three cases. More important, thermal NO{sub x} slowly decreased with the rise of boiler load. More detailed results presented in this paper enhance the understanding of combustion processes and complex flow patterns of front-wall pulverized coal boilers.

  15. Numerical Research of Nitrogen Oxides Formation for Justification of Modernization of P-49 Nazarovsky State District Power Plant Boiler on the Low-temperature Swirl Technology of Burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinchenko, A. A.; Paramonov, A. P.; Skouditskiy, V. E.; Anoshin, R. G.

    2017-11-01

    Compliance with increasingly stringent normative requirements to the level of pollutants emissions when using organic fuel in the energy sector as a main source of heat, demands constant improvement of the boiler and furnace equipment and the power equipment in general. The requirements of the current legislation in the field of environmental protection prescribe compliance with established emission standards for both new construction and the improvement of energy equipment. The paper presents the results of numerical research of low-temperature swirl burning in P-49 Nazarovsky state district power plant boiler. On the basis of modern approaches of the diffusion and kinetic theory of burning and the analysis physical and chemical processes of a fuel chemically connected energy transition in thermal, generation and transformation of gas pollutants, the technological method of nitrogen oxides decomposition on the surface of carbon particles with the formation of environmentally friendly carbonic acid and molecular nitrogen is considered during the work of low-temperature swirl furnace. With the use of the developed model, methodology and computer program, variant calculations of the combustion process were carried out and a quantitative estimate of the emission level of the nitrogen oxides of the boiler being modernized. The simulation results the and the experimental data obtained during the commissioning and balance tests of the P-49 boiler with a new furnace are confirmed that the organization of swirl combustion has allowed to increase the efficiency of work, to reduce slagging, to significantly reduce nitrogen oxide emissions, to improve ignition and burnout of fuel.

  16. New algorithm for controlling electric arc furnaces using their vibrational and acoustic characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherednichenko, V. S.; Bikeev, R. A.; Serikov, V. A.; Rechkalov, A. V.; Cherednichenko, A. V.

    2016-12-01

    The processes occurring in arc discharges are analyzed as the sources of acoustic radiation in an electric arc furnace (EAF). Acoustic vibrations are shown to transform into mechanical vibrations in the furnace laboratory. The shielding of the acoustic energy fluxes onto water-cooled wall panels by a charge is experimentally studied. It is shown that the rate of charge melting and the depth of submergence of arc discharges in the slag and metal melt can be monitored by measuring the vibrational characteristics of furnaces and using them in a universal industrial process-control system, which was developed for EAFs.

  17. 46 CFR 52.25-20 - Exhaust gas boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust gas boilers. 52.25-20 Section 52.25-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Other Boiler Types § 52.25-20 Exhaust gas boilers. Exhaust gas boilers with a maximum allowable working pressure...

  18. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic auxiliary boilers. Small automatic auxiliary boilers defined as having heat-input ratings of 400,000 Btu/hr...

  19. Ash particle erosion on steam boiler convective section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meuronen, V

    1998-12-31

    In this study, equations for the calculation of erosion wear caused by ash particles on convective heat exchanger tubes of steam boilers are presented. A new, three-dimensional test arrangement was used in the testing of the erosion wear of convective heat exchanger tubes of steam boilers. When using the sleeve-method, three different tube materials and three tube constructions could be tested. New results were obtained from the analyses. The main mechanisms of erosion wear phenomena and erosion wear as a function of collision conditions and material properties have been studied. Properties of fossil fuels have also been presented. When burning solid fuels, such as pulverized coal and peat in steam boilers, most of the ash is entrained by the flue gas in the furnace. In bubbling and circulating fluidized bed boilers, particle concentration in the flue gas is high because of bed material entrained in the flue gas. Hard particles, such as sharp edged quartz crystals, cause erosion wear when colliding on convective heat exchanger tubes and on the rear wall of the steam boiler. The most important ways to reduce erosion wear in steam boilers is to keep the velocity of the flue gas moderate and prevent channelling of the ash flow in a certain part of the cross section of the flue gas channel, especially near the back wall. One can do this by constructing the boiler with the following components. Screen plates can be used to make the velocity and ash flow distributions more even at the cross-section of the channel. Shield plates and plate type constructions in superheaters can also be used. Erosion testing was conducted with three types of tube constructions: a one tube row, an in- line tube bank with six tube rows, and a staggered tube bark with six tube rows. Three flow velocities and two particle concentrations were used in the tests, which were carried out at room temperature. Three particle materials were used: quartz, coal ash and peat ash particles. Mass loss

  20. Fluidized bed boiler feed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brian C.

    1981-01-01

    A fluidized bed boiler feed system for the combustion of pulverized coal. Coal is first screened to separate large from small particles. Large particles of coal are fed directly to the top of the fluidized bed while fine particles are first mixed with recycled char, preheated, and then fed into the interior of the fluidized bed to promote char burnout and to avoid elutriation and carryover.

  1. FY 1999 report on the potential survey of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system. Potential survey of the spread of high efficiency coal boiler; 1999 nendo kankyo chowa gata sekitan system kanosei chosa. Kokoritsu sekitan boira fukyu kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of reducing the coal consumption amount and reducing the emission amount of environmental pollutants, study of small stoker boilers in China was made in terms of sampling of the data on changes in boiler efficiency caused by combustion conditions and how to improve efficiency. As objects of survey, one boiler use plant in Beijing city and two in Taiyuan city, Shanxi province, were selected to make site survey on the state of installation and operational management of coal boiler. As a result of the actual measurement of boiler efficiency at the plants, the boiler efficiency was the maximum, about 76%, in Beijing city and the minimum, about 51%, in Taiyuan city. In China, the number of boiler with the Beijing city level was extremely small, and most of the boilers were the same as the Taiyuan city level. As a result of studying how to improve efficiency based on the survey results, the following were cited as the main measures for improvement: selection of coal by boiler type and supply of the secondary air, strengthening of the combustion management by controlling furnace pressure and air amount, etc. For the selection of coal, it is necessary to set up a system to be supported by the whole country or the whole department. (NEDO)

  2. Improving Gas Furnace Performance: A Field and Laboratory Study at End of Life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, L. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Yee, S. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Baker, J. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2015-02-01

    In 2010, natural gas provided 54% of total residential space heating energy the U.S. on a source basis, or 3.5 Quadrillion Btu. Natural gas burned in furnaces accounted for 92% of that total, and boilers and other equipment made up the remainder. A better understanding of installed furnace performance is a key to energy savings for this significant energy usage. Natural gas furnace performance can be measured in many ways. The annual fuel utilization efficiency (AFUE) rating provides a fixed value under specified conditions, akin to the EPA miles per gallon rating for new vehicles. The AFUE rating is provided by the manufacturer to the consumer and is a way to choose between models tested on the same basis. This value is commonly used in energy modeling calculations. ASHRAE 103 is a consensus furnace testing standard developed by the engineering community. The procedure provided in the standard covers heat-up, cool down, condensate heat loss, and steady-state conditions and an imposed oversize factor. The procedure can be used to evaluate furnace performance with specified conditions or with some variation chosen by the tester. In this report the ASHRAE 103 test result will be referred to as Annualized Efficiency (AE) to avoid confusion, and any non-standard test conditions will be noted. Aside from these two laboratory tests, steady state or flue loss efficiency can be measured in the field under many conditions; typically as found or tuned to the manufacturers recommended settings. In this report, AE and steady-state efficiency will be used as measures of furnace performance.

  3. Automated handling for SAF batch furnace and chemistry analysis operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, W.W.; Sherrell, D.L.; Wiemers, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Secure Automated Fabrication Program is developing a remotely operated breeder reactor fuel pin fabrication line. The equipment will be installed in the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility being constructed at Hanford, Washington. Production is scheduled to start in mid-1986. The application of small pneumatically operated industrial robots for loading and unloading product into and out of batch furnaces and for distribution and handling of chemistry samples is described

  4. Calcinating petroleum coke in a furnace with a rotating hearth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhmetov, M M; Ezhov, B M; Galeeva, Z G; Goriunov, V S; Karpinskaia, N N; Zaitseva, S A

    1980-01-01

    A scheme is described for an industrial device with a bottom furnace for calcinating coke from slow coking. The consumption and operational indicators of the process during the calcination of standard and needle cokes are given, together with data on the quality of dry and calcinated cokes under different conditions. The basic drawbacks in the operation of the device are described, and measures are proposed for increasing its operational effectiveness.

  5. A REVIEW OF MILD COMBUSTION AND OPEN FURNACE DESIGN CONSIDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Noor

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Combustion is still very important to generate energy. Moderate or Intense Low-oxygen Dilution (MILD combustion is one of the best new technologies for clean and efficient combustion. MILD combustion has been proven to be a promising combustion technology in industrial applications with decreased energy consumption due to the uniformity of its temperature distribution. It is clean compared to traditional combustion due to producing low NOx and CO emissions. This article provides a review and discussion of recent research and developments in MILD. The issue and applications are summarized, with some suggestions presented on the upgrading and application of MILD in the future. Currently MILD combustion has been successfully applied in closed furnaces. The preheating of supply air is no longer required since the recirculation inside the enclosed furnace already self-preheats the supply air and self-dilutes the oxygen in the combustion chamber. The possibility of using open furnace MILD combustion will be reviewed. The design consideration for open furnace with exhaust gas re-circulation (EGR was discussed.

  6. METHANE de-NOX for Utility PC Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce Bryan; Serguei Nester; Joseph Rabovitser; Stan Wohadlo

    2005-09-30

    The overall project objective is the development and validation of an innovative combustion system, based on a novel coal preheating concept prior to combustion, that can reduce NO{sub x} emissions to 0.15 lb/million Btu or less on utility pulverized coal (PC) boilers. This NO{sub x} reduction should be achieved without loss of boiler efficiency or operating stability, and at more than 25% lower levelized cost than state-of-the-art SCR technology. A further objective is to ready technology for full-scale commercial deployment to meet the market demand for NO{sub x} reduction technologies. Over half of the electric power generated in the U.S. is produced by coal combustion, and more than 80% of these units utilize PC combustion technology. Conventional measures for NOx reduction in PC combustion processes rely on combustion and post-combustion modifications. A variety of combustion-based NO{sub x} reduction technologies are in use today, including low-NO{sub x} burners (LNBs), flue gas recirculation (FGR), air staging, and natural gas or other fuel reburning. Selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) are post-combustion techniques. NO{sub x} reduction effectiveness from these technologies ranges from 30 to 60% and up to 90-93% for SCR. Typically, older wall-fired PC burner units produce NO{sub x} emissions in the range of 0.8-1.6 lb/million Btu. Low-NO{sub x} burner systems, using combinations of fuel staging within the burner and air staging by introduction of overfire air in the boiler, can reduce NO{sub x} emissions by 50-60%. This approach alone is not sufficient to meet the desired 0.15 lb/million Btu NO{sub x} standard with a range of coals and boiler loads. Furthermore, the heavy reliance on overfire air can lead to increased slagging and corrosion in furnaces, particularly with higher-sulfur coals, when LNBs are operated at sub-stoichiometric conditions to reduce fuel-derived NOx in the flame. Therefore, it is desirable

  7. Advanced CFD modelling of air and recycled flue gas staging in a waste wood-fired grate boiler for higher combustion efficiency and greater environmental benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajh, Boštjan; Yin, Chungen; Samec, Niko; Hriberšek, Matjaž; Kokalj, Filip; Zadravec, Matej

    2018-07-15

    Grate-fired boilers are commonly used to burn biomass/wastes for heat and power production. In spite of the recent breakthrough in integration of advanced secondary air systems in grate boilers, grate-firing technology needs to be advanced for higher efficiency and lower emissions. In this paper, innovative staging of combustion air and recycled flue gas in a 13 MW th waste wood-fired grate boiler is comprehensively studied based on a numerical model that has been previously validated. In particular, the effects of the jet momentum, position and orientation of the combustion air and recycled flue gas streams on in-furnace mixing, combustion and pollutant emissions from the boiler are examined. It is found that the optimized air and recycled flue gas jets remarkably enhance mixing and heat transfer, result in a more uniform temperature and velocity distribution, extend the residence time of the combustibles in the hot zone and improve burnout in the boiler. Optimizing the air and recycled flue gas jet configuration can reduce carbon monoxide emission from the boiler by up to 86%, from the current 41.0 ppm to 5.7 ppm. The findings of this study can serve as useful guidelines for novel design and optimization of the combustion air supply and flue gas recycling for grate boilers of this type. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Experimental Investigations of the Energy and Environmental Indices of Operation of a Low-Capacity Combined Gas Producer and Hot-Water Boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, L. A.; Stepanov, D. V.; Dovgal‧, A. N.

    2015-07-01

    It has been shown that the introduction of combined gas producers and boilers on renewable energy sources is a pressing issue. A structural diagram of a low-capacity combined gas producer and boiler on renewable energy sources has been given; a bench and procedures for investigation and processing of results have been developed. Experimental investigations of the energy and environmental indices of a 40-kW combined gas producer and hotwater boiler burning wood have been carried out. Results of the experimental investigations have been analyzed. Distinctive features have been established and a procedure of thermal calculation of the double furnace of a lowcapacity combined gas producer and boiler burning solid fuel has been proposed. The calculated coefficients of heat transfer from the gases in the convection bank have been compared with the obtained experimental results. A calculation dependence for the heat transfer from the gases in convection banks of low-capacity hot-water boilers has been proposed. The quantities of harmful emissions from the combined gas producer and boiler on renewable energy sources have been compared with the existing Ukrainian and foreign standards. It has been established that the environmental efficiency of the boiler under study complies with most of the standard requirements of European countries.

  9. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

    2003-01-20

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to

  10. Coal-fired boiler houses in Cracow present state and possibilities to improve their efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cyklis, P. [Institute of Industrial Equipment and Power Engineering, Cracow (Poland); Butcher, T.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A significant amount of heat energy both for heating and process purposes is generated in Cracow, Poland in small-and medium size local boiler houses. The operating procedure of these boiler houses is most often economically and ecologically ineffective because of the bad condition of boilers and lack of funds to install automation, control and measurement equipment. Within the Polish-American Program of Elimination of Low Emission Sources financed by the US Department of Energy, the ENERGOEKSPERT Co., Ltd. investigated chosen boiler houses in Cracow, commissioned by the Cracow Development Office. The results of these investigations were subject of engineering analysis carried out at the Institute of Industrial Equipment and Power Engineering, Technical University, Cracow. The analysis proved that the low-cost improvement of economic efficiency and reduction of air pollutant emission is feasible for combustion of coal fuels.

  11. Super low NO.sub.x, high efficiency, compact firetube boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnacki, Dennis A.; Rabovitser, Iosif K.; Knight, Richard A.; Cygan, David F.; Korenberg, Jacob

    2005-12-06

    A firetube boiler furnace having two combustion sections and an in-line intermediate tubular heat transfer section between the two combustion sections and integral to the pressure vessel. This design provides a staged oxidant combustion apparatus with separate in-line combustion chambers for fuel-rich primary combustion and fuel-lean secondary combustion and sufficient cooling of the combustion products from the primary combustion such that when the secondary combustion oxidant is added in the secondary combustion stage, the NO.sub.x formation is less than 5 ppmv at 3% O.sub.2.

  12. Inception report and gap analysis. Boiler inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-06-01

    This inception and gap analysis report on boilers in Latvia, has been prepared in the framework of the 'Implementation of the EU directive on energy performance of buildings: development of the Latvian Scheme for energy auditing of building and inspection of boilers'. The report is the basis for the establishment of training of boiler inspectors; it develops a gap analysis for better understanding and estimating the number of installations in Latvia and develops suggestions for the institutional set up. In particular includes information on existing standard and regulation on boiler, suggestion for the content of the training material of experts for boiler inspections and a syllabus of the training course. A specific section is dedicated to the suggestion for certification system of trained boiler inspectors. (au)

  13. Inception report and gap analysis. Boiler inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-06-01

    This inception and gap analysis report on boilers in Latvia, has been prepared in the framework of the 'Implementation of the EU directive on energy performance of buildings: development of the Latvian Scheme for energy auditing of building and inspection of boilers'. The report is the basis for the establishment of training of boiler inspectors; it develops a gap analysis for better understanding and estimating the number of installations in Latvia and develops suggestions for the institutional set up. In particular includes information on existing standard and regulation on boiler, suggestion for the content of the training material of experts for boiler inspections and a syllabus of the training course. A specific section is dedicated to the suggestion for certification system of trained boiler inspectors. (au)

  14. Further development of recovery boiler; Soodakattilan kehitystyoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janka, K.; Siiskonen, P.; Sundstroem, K. [Tampella Power Oy, Tampere (Finland)] [and others

    1996-12-01

    The global model of a recovery boiler was further developed. The aim is to be able to model the velocity, temperature and concentration fields in a boiler. At this moment the model includes submodels for: droplet drying, pyrolysis, char burning, gas burning and for droplet trajectory. The preliminary study of NO{sub x} and fly ash behaviour in a boiler was carried out. The study concerning flow field in the superheater area was carried out a 2-dimensional case in which the inflow parameters were taken from global model of a recovery boiler. Further the prediction methods of fouling in a recovery boiler were developed based on theoretical calculations of smelting behaviour of multicomponent mixtures and measurements at operating recovery boilers. (author)

  15. Experiment research of slag renovation in the corner-fired boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Zhijun; Wu, Wenfei [Inner Mongolia Univ. of Science and Technology, Baotou (China). School of Energy and Environment

    2013-07-01

    Aiming at serious slag on the water wall around the burner of corner-fired boiler with low-ash-fusion-point coal, cold experimental model has been established. In this experiment, particle image velocimetry (PIV) has been employed to accurately measure aerodynamic field of burner region, and the experimental research of furnace slag renovation has been conducted through changing the burner jet arrangement. The experiment results show that it has significantly effect on aerodynamic field in the furnace by changing burner jet deflection angle. A reasonable actual tangential circle diameter can be formed through adjusting the burner jet deflection angle, to prevent primary air attacking the wall, and further more, to effectively prevent serious slag on the water wall around the burner.

  16. Operating experience - electrostatic precipitators as deduster for circulating fluidized bed boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, M.J.; Bork, G. [Lurgi Lentjes Bischoff GmbH (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    Electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) are widely used for dedusting flue gases generated by steam generators with circulating fluidized bed (CFB) furnaces. In such applications, limestone is used as a desulphurisation additive in the furnace, eliminating the need for further desulphurisation systems downstream. However, the additive changes the physical properties of the particulate matter to be removed by the ESP, mostly unfavourably as regards ash resistivity. In this paper, design criteria and operating experiences are discussed, showing the main influences attributable to the additive and the CFB operating regime. Specific reference is made to the Heizkraftwerk 1 CFB power plant (Germany). Designed for domestic coals, on switching to import coals boiler output at the plant had to be limited due to unacceptably high dust emissions. ESP efficiency was optimised in two ways: (1) flow distribution was improved; and (2) new microprocessor controllers installed. Results of the modifications are discussed.

  17. Automated, High Temperature Furnace for Glovebox Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neikirk, K.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy will immobilize excess plutonium in the proposed Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as part of a two track approach for the disposition of weapons usable plutonium. As such, the Department of Energy is funding a development and testing effort for the PIP. This effort is being performed jointly by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The Plutonium Immobilization process involves the disposition of excess plutonium by incorporation into ceramic pucks. As part of the immobilization process, furnaces are needed for sintering the ceramic pucks. The furnace being developed for puck sintering is an automated, bottom loaded furnace with insulting package and resistance heating elements located within a nuclear glovebox. Other furnaces considered for the application include retort furnaces and pusher furnaces. This paper, in part, will discuss the furnace technologies considered and furnace technology selected to support reliable puck sintering in a glovebox environment. Due to the radiation levels and contamination associated with the plutonium material, the sintering process will be fully automated and contained within nuclear material gloveboxes. As such, the furnace currently under development incorporates water and air cooling to minimize heat load to the glovebox. This paper will describe the furnace equipment and systems needed to employ a fully automated puck sintering process within nuclear gloveboxes as part of the Plutonium Immobilization Plant

  18. CHP Integrated with Burners for Packaged Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaldini, Carlo; Darby, Eric

    2013-09-30

    The objective of this project was to engineer, design, fabricate, and field demonstrate a Boiler Burner Energy System Technology (BBEST) that integrates a low-cost, clean burning, gas-fired simple-cycle (unrecuperated) 100 kWe (net) microturbine (SCMT) with a new ultra low-NOx gas-fired burner (ULNB) into one compact Combined Heat and Power (CHP) product that can be retrofit on new and existing industrial and commercial boilers in place of conventional burners. The Scope of Work for this project was segmented into two principal phases: (Phase I) Hardware development, assembly and pre-test and (Phase II) Field installation and demonstration testing. Phase I was divided into five technical tasks (Task 2 to 6). These tasks covered the engineering, design, fabrication, testing and optimization of each key component of the CHP system principally, ULNB, SCMT, assembly BBEST CHP package, and integrated controls. Phase I work culminated with the laboratory testing of the completed BBEST assembly prior to shipment for field installation and demonstration. Phase II consisted of two remaining technical tasks (Task 7 and 8), which focused on the installation, startup, and field verification tests at a pre-selected industrial plant to document performance and attainment of all project objectives. Technical direction and administration was under the management of CMCE, Inc. Altex Technologies Corporation lead the design, assembly and testing of the system. Field demonstration was supported by Leva Energy, the commercialization firm founded by executives at CMCE and Altex. Leva Energy has applied for patent protection on the BBEST process under the trade name of Power Burner and holds the license for the burner currently used in the product. The commercial term Power Burner is used throughout this report to refer to the BBEST technology proposed for this project. The project was co-funded by the California Energy Commission and the Southern California Gas Company (SCG), a

  19. Factors controlling alkali salt deposition in recovery boilers - particle formation and deposition; Soodakattilan likaantuminen ja siihen vaikuttavien tekijoeiden hallinta - hiukkasten muodostuminen ja depositio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauppinen, E.I.; Mikkanen, P.; Ylaetalo, S. [VTT Chemistry, Espoo (Finland); Jokiniemi, J.K.; Lyyraenen, J.; Pyykoenen, J.; Saastamoinen, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    In this project, the aim was to find out those critical factors that control the deposit formation in the recovery boilers. We focus on the particle formation, growth and deposition as well as the single black liquor particle combustion behaviour. The final goal is the development of the predictive model to be used to describe deposit growth and subsequent behaviour as well as the dependence of deposition on black liquor characteristics and boiler operation conditions. During year 1995 an experimental study on the aerosol particle formation within the recovery boiler furnace and a sensitivity study with the Aerosol Behaviour in Combustion (ABC) code were carried out. The experimental study confirmed the fact that the particles are already formed in the recovery boiler furnace. The particle formation is initiated in the boundary layer of the burning droplet or smelt bed, where metals are vaporised and oxidised to form tiny seed particles. Trace amounts of metals were measured in all particle sizes and the sensitivity study with the ABC model gave further evidence of the seed formation was necessary primary step in the particle formation. At the furnace outlet the sintration ratio and the sulfation ratio of the particles were dependent on the furnace temperature and the residence time in the furnace. At ESP inlet three types of particles were observed (1) fine particles with the major mass mode at about 1-2 {mu}m, (2) large agglomerates in sizes larger than 8 {mu}m, and (3) spherical particles about 2-4 {mu}m in size. The fine particles were formed from vapours and the large agglomerates were formed from fine particles agglomerated on heat exchanger surfaces and re-entrained back to flue gas flow. The large agglomerates also contain vapours that have directly condensed to surfaces. The large spherical particles contain silicon and pass the process almost unchanged. (Abstract Truncated)

  20. a Study of Using Hydrogen Gas for Steam Boiler in CHOLOR- Alkali Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peantong, Sasitorn; Tangjitsitcharoen, Somkiat

    2017-06-01

    Main products of manufacturing of Cholor - Alkali, which commonly known as industrial chemical, are chlorine gas (Cl2), Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) and hydrogen gas (H2). Chorine gas and sodium hydroxide are two main products for commercial profit; where hydrogen gas is by product. Most industries release hydrogen gas to atmosphere as it is non-profitable and less commercial scale. This study aims to make the most use of hydrogen as a substitute energy of natural gas for steam boiler to save energy cost. The second target of this study is to reduce level of CO2 release to air as a consequence of boiler combustion. This study suggests to install boiler that bases on hydrogen as main power with a high turndown ratio of at least 1:6. However, this case study uses boiler with two mode such as natural gas (NG) mode and mixed mode as they need to be flexible for production. Never the less, the best boiler selection is to use single mode energy of hydrogen. The most concerned issue about hydrogen gas is explosion during combustion stage. Stabilization measures at emergency stop is introduced to control H2 pressure to protect the explosion. This study varies ratio of natural gas to hydrogen gas to find the optimal level of two energy sources for boiler and measure total consumption through costing model; where CO2 level is measured at the boiler stack. The result of this study shows that hydrogen gas can be a substitute energy with natural gas and can reduce cost. Natural gas cost saving is 248,846 baht per month and reduce level of NOx is 80 ppm 7% O2 and 2 % of CO2 release to air as a consequence of boiler combustion.

  1. Characterizing and modeling of an 88 MW grate-fired boiler burning wheat straw: Experience and lessons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup; Clausen, Sønnik

    2012-01-01

    and availability. To better understand grate-firing of biomass and to establish a reliable but relatively simple Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling methodology for industrial applications, biomass combustion in a number of different grate boilers has been measured and modeled. As one of the case studies......, modeling effort on an 88 MW grate-fired boiler burning wheat straw is presented in this paper. Different modeling issues and their expected impacts on CFD analysis of the kind of grate boilers are discussed. The modeling results are compared with in-flame measurements in the 88 MW boiler, which shows...... measures will be tested in a modern 500 kW grate boiler rig...

  2. The Technology Introduction of Chain Boiler Energy Conservation Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Henan; Liu, Xiwen; Yuan, Hong; Lin, Jiadai; Zhang, Yu

    2017-12-01

    Introduced the present status of chain boiler efficiency is low, the system analysis of the chain boiler optimization and upgrading of technology, for the whole progress of chain boiler to provide some ideas and reference.

  3. Elevated temperature failures in boiler tubes - case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gowrisankar, I.; Bandyopadhyay, G.

    1989-01-01

    Metallurgical investigation of boiler tube failures enables identification of failure mechanisms and the underlying cause related to boiler conditions. Some case studies in short term overheating, prolonged overheating and low cycle fatigue failures in boiler tubes are discussed. (author)

  4. Technical and environmental performance of 10 kW understocker boiler during combustion of biomass and conventional fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junga Robert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper treats about the impact fuels from biomass wastes and coal combustion on a small boiler operation and the emission of pollutants in this process. Tests were performed in laboratory conditions on a water boiler with retort furnace and the capacity of 10 kW. Fuels from sewage sludge and agriculture wastes (PBZ fuel and a blend of coal with laying hens mature (CLHM were taken into account. The results in emission changes of NOx, CO2, CO and SO2 and operating parameters of the tested boiler during combustion were investigated. The obtained results were compared with corresponding results of flame coal (GFC. Combustion of the PBZ fuel turned out to be a stable process in the tested boiler but the thermal output has decreased in about 30% compared to coal combustion, while CO and NOx emission has increased. Similar effect was observed when 15% of the poultry litter was added to the coal. In this case thermal output has also decreased (in about 20% and increase of CO and NOx emission was observed. As a conclusion, it can be stated that more effective control system with an adaptive air regulation and a modified heat exchanger could be useful in order to achieve the nominal power of the tested boiler.

  5. Technical and environmental performance of 10 kW understocker boiler during combustion of biomass and conventional fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junga, Robert; Wzorek, Małgorzata; Kaszubska, Mirosława

    2017-10-01

    This paper treats about the impact fuels from biomass wastes and coal combustion on a small boiler operation and the emission of pollutants in this process. Tests were performed in laboratory conditions on a water boiler with retort furnace and the capacity of 10 kW. Fuels from sewage sludge and agriculture wastes (PBZ fuel) and a blend of coal with laying hens mature (CLHM) were taken into account. The results in emission changes of NOx, CO2, CO and SO2 and operating parameters of the tested boiler during combustion were investigated. The obtained results were compared with corresponding results of flame coal (GFC). Combustion of the PBZ fuel turned out to be a stable process in the tested boiler but the thermal output has decreased in about 30% compared to coal combustion, while CO and NOx emission has increased. Similar effect was observed when 15% of the poultry litter was added to the coal. In this case thermal output has also decreased (in about 20%) and increase of CO and NOx emission was observed. As a conclusion, it can be stated that more effective control system with an adaptive air regulation and a modified heat exchanger could be useful in order to achieve the nominal power of the tested boiler.

  6. Hazardous emissions, operating practices, and air regulations at industrial wood-fired facilities in Wisconsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, A.J.

    1993-01-01

    Since October of 1988 the State of Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources has regulated over four hundred substances as hazardous air pollutants. The rule regulates new as well as existing sources of air pollution in Wisconsin. Consequently, all permits to operate an air pollution source in Wisconsin must address the hazardous air emissions potential of the source. While widely perceived as a clean-burning fuel, wood is often burned in a manner which clearly results in significant emissions of very hazardous air pollutants. Research conducted on a 20 million BTU per hour wood-fired spreader stoker boiler in northern Wisconsin showed that this boiler has the potential to emit 0.022 pound of benzene and 0.012 pound of formaldehyde per ton (lb/ton) of wood fired. Recent stack tests at more than a dozen other small industrial wood-fired facilities in Wisconsin show a range of formaldehyde emissions of 0.0007--0.1950 lb/ton. Work at Birchwood Lumber ampersand Veneer showed that the benzene and formaldehyde emission rates under good firing conditions are an order of magnitude lower than the benzene and formaldehyde emission rates under poor firing conditions. This finding has supported Wisconsin's regulatory approach of encouraging wood-fired facilities to enhance the quality of the combustion process as a technique to minimize the hazardous air pollution potential of industrial wood combustion. The Wisconsin strategy is to define open-quotes good combustion technologyclose quotes through easily measurable combustion parameters rather than emission standards. This paper presents several techniques in use in Wisconsin to comply with open-quotes good combustion technologyclose quotes for industrial wood-fired furnaces. These techniques include fuel blending overfire air, furnace insulation, and proper grate design

  7. The movement of the burden in submerged-arc furnaces for the production of high-carbon ferromanganese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyason, G.J.; See, J.B.

    1978-01-01

    The mechanism by which the burden moves in a submerged-arc furnace was investigated in two large industrial furnaces by the stimulus-response technique with a radiotracer of the radio-isotope 5 Fe as the stimulus. As this radio-isotope was suitable only for the measurement of residence-time distributions in the alloy phase, the analysis of the experiments was limited to that phase. The residence-time distributions obtained by the measurement of alloy samples obtained during tapping were analysed by various techniques. This analysis verified the existence of stagnant zones within the furnace, and showed that the movement of the burden through the furnace could not be described by either of the two idealized patterns of flow, i.e., plug flow or mixed flow. A composite model to describe the movement of the burden through the furnace was developed by consideration of the mechanism and position of heat generation within the furnace, the inner structure of the furnace, the general form of the measured residence-time distributions, and the mode of burden descent through the furnace. The composite model consisted of a dispersed plug-flow region in the upper regions of the furnace discharging into a constantly stirred tank reactor beneath the electrode tips. Non-linear regression analysis of the equations developed from the composite model permitted the selection of optimum values of model parameters to give computed curves that approximated to the residence-time distributions [af

  8. MODELLING, SIMULATING AND OPTIMIZING BOILERS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, K.; Condra, T.; Houbak, Niels

    2003-01-01

    , and the total stress level (i.e. stresses introduced due to internal pressure plus stresses introduced due to temperature gradients) must always be kept below the allowable stress level. In this way, the increased water-/steam space that should allow for better dynamic performance, in the end causes limited...... freedom with respect to dynamic operation of the plant. By means of an objective function including as well the price of the plant as a quantification of the value of dynamic operation of the plant an optimization is carried out. The dynamic model of the boiler plant is applied to define parts...

  9. Wood fuelled boiler operating costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandars, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report is a management study into the operating costs of wood-fired boilers. Data obtained from existing wood-fired plant has been analysed and interpreted using the principles of machinery management and the science that underlies the key differences between this fuel and any other. A set of budgeting principles has been developed for the key areas of labour requirement, insurance, maintenance and repair and electricity consumption. Other lesser cost centres such as the provision of shelter and the effects of neglect and accidents have also been considered, and a model constructed. (author)

  10. Raising the Reliability, Efficiency, and Ecological Safety of Operation of the BKZ-210-140F Boiler Transferred to Stage Firing of Kuznetsk Coal in a U-Shape Flame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagner, A. A.

    2004-01-01

    The BKZ-210-140F boiler of the West-Siberian Cogeneration Plant was equipped initially with four uniflow tangentially oriented burners and tertiary air nozzles. In order to raise the efficiency of operation and lower harmful emissions the boiler was reconstructed. U-shape aerodynamics was organized in the furnace by mounting 8 burners, 8 secondary air nozzles, and 8 tertiary air nozzles on the front and rear walls of the furnace. The reconstruction ensured higher stability of ignition of pulverized coal without flame division and rated temperatures of the superheater metal, lowered the optimum excess air factor at the outlet from the superheater to 1.2 - 1.25, decreased the concentration of nitrogen oxides in the combustion products to 360 - 380 mg/m 3 , and increased the gross efficiency of the boiler to 91.5 - 91.7%

  11. Industrial ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mengelle, Ch.

    1999-04-01

    After having given the definition of the term 'ceramics', the author describes the different manufacturing processes of these compounds. These materials are particularly used in the fields of 1)petroleum industry (in primary and secondary reforming units, in carbon black reactors and ethylene furnaces). 2)nuclear industry (for instance UO 2 and PuO 2 as fuels; SiC for encapsulation; boron carbides for control systems..)

  12. Economic evaluation of a coal fired boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briem, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    This paper provides basic information on boiler economics which will assist steam users in analyzing the feasibility of using coal to generate steam - in either new or existing facilities. The information presented covers boilers ranging in size from 10,000 to 100,000 pounds per hour steaming capacity

  13. 46 CFR 109.555 - Propulsion boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Propulsion boilers. 109.555 Section 109.555 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.555 Propulsion boilers. The master or person in charge and the engineer in charge shall...

  14. 29 CFR 1915.162 - Ship's boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship's boilers. 1915.162 Section 1915.162 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Ship's Machinery and Piping Systems § 1915.162 Ship's boilers. (a) Before...

  15. A Water Model Study on Mixing Behavior of the Two-Layered Bath in Bottom Blown Copper Smelting Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shui, Lang; Cui, Zhixiang; Ma, Xiaodong; Jiang, Xu; Chen, Mao; Xiang, Yong; Zhao, Baojun

    2018-05-01

    The bottom-blown copper smelting furnace is a novel copper smelter developed in recent years. Many advantages of this furnace have been found, related to bath mixing behavior under its specific gas injection scheme. This study aims to use an oil-water double-phased laboratory-scale model to investigate the impact of industry-adjustable variables on bath mixing time, including lower layer thickness, gas flow rate, upper layer thickness and upper layer viscosity. Based on experimental results, an overall empirical relationship of mixing time in terms of these variables has been correlated, which provides the methodology for industry to optimize mass transfer in the furnace.

  16. Applied Gaussian Process in Optimizing Unburned Carbon Content in Fly Ash for Boiler Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlin Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Gaussian Process (GP has attracted generous attention from industry. This article focuses on the application of coal fired boiler combustion and uses GP to design a strategy for reducing Unburned Carbon Content in Fly Ash (UCC-FA which is the most important indicator of boiler combustion efficiency. With getting rid of the complicated physical mechanisms, building a data-driven model as GP is an effective way for the proposed issue. Firstly, GP is used to model the relationship between the UCC-FA and boiler combustion operation parameters. The hyperparameters of GP model are optimized via Genetic Algorithm (GA. Then, served as the objective of another GA framework, the predicted UCC-FA from GP model is utilized in searching the optimal operation plan for the boiler combustion. Based on 670 sets of real data from a high capacity tangentially fired boiler, two GP models with 21 and 13 inputs, respectively, are developed. In the experimental results, the model with 21 inputs provides better prediction performance than that of the other. Choosing the results from 21-input model, the UCC-FA decreases from 2.7% to 1.7% via optimizing some of the operational parameters, which is a reasonable achievement for the boiler combustion.

  17. Furnaces. The manufacturer turns to the engineering office; Les fours. Le constructeur devient bureau d`ingenierie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nivoche, C. [Selas SA, 92 - Gennevilliers (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the actions carried out by the Selas company involved in the manufacturing of industrial furnaces in order to respect the environmental regulations of the French 2910 by-law: particularity of industrial furnaces, activities of the Selas company (surface cleaning process for iron and stainless steel sheets, quenching of glass panes), reduction of dust, SO{sub x}, NO{sub x} and organic compound emissions from combustion systems and burners. (J.S.)

  18. Simulating the heat transfer process of horizontal anode baking furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.Q. Zhang; C.G. Zheng; M.H. Xu [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion

    2005-07-01

    A transient two-dimensional mathematical model of a horizontal baking furnace is presented. The model combines complex thermal phenomena in a baking process such as air infiltration, evolution and combustion of volatile matters, combustion of packing coke, and heat losses. The predicted results are in good agreement with measured data. Furthermore, the process is simulated under different operating conditions such as firing cycle time, airflow and air infiltration. The simulated results indicate that the fuel consumption decreases as the firing cycle time decreases. It is also found that reducing the airflow and air infiltration will help to save fuel. The model is proved to be a useful tool for the process optimisation of the baking furnace in the aluminum industry.

  19. Simulation, optimization and control of a thermal cracking furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masoumi, M.E.; Sadrameli, S.M.; Towfighi, J.; Niaei, A.

    2006-01-01

    The ethylene production process is one of the most important aspect of a petrochemical plant and the cracking furnace is the heart of the process. Since, ethylene is one of the raw materials in the chemical industry and the market situation of not only the feed and the product, but also the utility is rapidly changing, the optimal operation and control of the plant is important. A mathematical model, which describes the static and dynamic operations of a pilot plant furnace, was developed. The static simulation was used to predict the steady-state profiles of temperature, pressure and products yield. The dynamic simulation of the process was used to predict the transient behavior of thermal cracking reactor. Using a dynamic programming technique, an optimal temperature profile was developed along the reactor. Performances of temperature control loop were tested for different controller parameters and disturbances. The results of the simulation were tested experimentally in a computer control pilot plant

  20. CFD simulation of ash deposit formation in fixed bed biomass furnaces and boilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forstner, M.; Hofmeister, G.; Joeller, M.; Dahl, J.; Braun, M.; Kleditzsch, S.; Scharler, R.; Obernberger, I.

    2006-01-01

    In order to describe and predict the formation of ash deposits in biomass fired combustion plants, a mathematical model is being developed and implemented into the CFD code Fluent¿ as a post processing tool. At the present state of development the model covers the release of coarse ash particles and