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Sample records for induce protective cellular

  1. Cellular stress induces a protective sleep-like state in C. elegans.

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    Hill, Andrew J; Mansfield, Richard; Lopez, Jessie M N G; Raizen, David M; Van Buskirk, Cheryl

    2014-10-20

    Sleep is recognized to be ancient in origin, with vertebrates and invertebrates experiencing behaviorally quiescent states that are regulated by conserved genetic mechanisms. Despite its conservation throughout phylogeny, the function of sleep remains debated. Hypotheses for the purpose of sleep include nervous-system-specific functions such as modulation of synaptic strength and clearance of metabolites from the brain, as well as more generalized cellular functions such as energy conservation and macromolecule biosynthesis. These models are supported by the identification of synaptic and metabolic processes that are perturbed during prolonged wakefulness. It remains to be seen whether perturbations of cellular homeostasis in turn drive sleep. Here we show that under conditions of cellular stress, including noxious heat, cold, hypertonicity, and tissue damage, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans engages a behavioral quiescence program. The stress-induced quiescent state displays properties of sleep and is dependent on the ALA neuron, which mediates the conserved soporific effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) ligand overexpression. We characterize heat-induced quiescence in detail and show that it is indeed dependent on components of EGF signaling, providing physiological relevance to the behavioral effects of EGF family ligands. We find that after noxious heat exposure, quiescence-defective animals show elevated expression of cellular stress reporter genes and are impaired for survival, demonstrating the benefit of stress-induced behavioral quiescence. These data provide evidence that cellular stress can induce a protective sleep-like state in C. elegans and suggest that a deeply conserved function of sleep is to mitigate disruptions of cellular homeostasis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Antioxidant properties of Taraxacum officinale fruit extract are involved in the protective effect against cellular death induced by sodium nitroprusside in brain of rats.

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    Colle, Dirleise; Arantes, Letícia Priscilla; Rauber, Ricardo; de Mattos, Sérgio Edgar Campos; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira da; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne; Soares, Félix Alexandre Antunes

    2012-07-01

    Taraxacum officinale Weber (Asteraceae), known as dandelion, is used for medicinal purposes due to its choleretic, diuretic, antitumor, antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and hepatoprotective properties. We sought to investigate the protective activity of T. officinale fruit extract against sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced decreased cellular viability and increased lipid peroxidation in the cortex, hippocampus, and striatum of rats in vitro. To explain the mechanism of the extract's antioxidant activity, its putative scavenger activities against NO, DPPH·, OH·, and H(2)O(2) were determined. Slices of cortex, hippocampus, and striatum were treated with 50 μM SNP and T. officinale fruit ethanolic extract (1-20 µg/mL) to determine cellular viability by MTT reduction assay. Lipid peroxidation was measure in cortical, hippocampal and striatal slices incubates with SNP (5 µM) and T. officinale fruit extract (1-20 µg/mL). We also determined the scavenger activities of T. officinale fruit extract against NO·, DPPH·, OH·, and H(2)O(2), as well as its iron chelating capacity. The extract (1, 5, 10, and 20 μg/mL) protected against SNP-induced decreases in cellular viability and increases in lipid peroxidation in the cortex, hippocampus, and striatum of rats. The extract had scavenger activity against DPPH· and NO· at low concentrations and was able to protect against H(2)O(2) and Fe(2+)-induced deoxyribose oxidation. T. officinale fruit extract has antioxidant activity and protects brain slices against SNP-induced cellular death. Possible mechanisms of action include its scavenger activities against reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), which are attributed to the presence of phenolic compounds in the extract.

  3. Protective effect of gallic acid and Syzygium cumini extract against oxidative stress-induced cellular injury in human lymphocytes.

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    De Bona, Karine Santos; Bonfanti, Gabriela; Bitencourt, Paula Eliete Rodrigues; da Silva, Thainan Paz; Borges, Raphaela Maleski; Boligon, Aline; Pigatto, Aline; Athayde, Margareth Lynde; Moretto, Maria Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Syzygium cumini (Myrtaceae) presents antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic and antibacterial effects; however, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of action in the immune system are not yet completely elucidated. This study evaluates the in vitro effect of gallic acid and aqueous S. cumini leaf extract (ASc) on adenosine deaminase (ADA) and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) activities, cell viability and oxidative stress parameters in lymphocytes exposed to 2, 2'-azobis-2-amidinopropane dihydrochloride (AAPH). Lymphocytes were incubated with ASc (100 and 500 µg/ml) and gallic acid (50 and 200 µM) at 37 °C for 30 min followed by incubation with AAPH (1 mM) at 37 °C for 2 h. After the incubation time, the lymphocytes were used for determinations of ADA, DPP-IV and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, lipid peroxidation, protein thiol (P-SH) group levels and cellular viability by colorimetric methods. (i) HPLC fingerprinting of ASc revealed the presence of catechin, epicatechin, rutin, quercitrin, isoquercitrin, quercetin, kaempferol and chlorogenic, caffeic, gallic and ellagic acids; (ii) for the first time, ASc reduced the AAPH-induced increase in ADA activity, but no effect was observed on DPP-IV activity; (iii) ASc increased P-SH groups and cellular viability and decreased LDH activity, but was not able to reduce the AAPH-induced lipid peroxidation; (iv) gallic acid showed less protective effects than ASc. ASc affects the purinergic system and may modulate adenosine levels, indicating that the extract of this plant exhibits immunomodulatory properties. ASc also may potentially prevent the cellular injury induced by oxidative stress, highlighting its cytoprotective effects.

  4. Protective effect of gallic acid in experimental model of ketamine-induced psychosis: possible behaviour, biochemical, neurochemical and cellular alterations.

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    Yadav, Monu; Jindal, Deepak Kumar; Dhingra, Mamta Sachdeva; Kumar, Anil; Parle, Milind; Dhingra, Sameer

    2018-04-01

    Gallic acid has been reported to possess a number of psychopharmacological activities. These activities are attributed to the antioxidant potential due to the presence of phenolic moeity. The present study was carried out to investigate the protective effects of gallic acid in an experimental model of ketamine-induced psychosis in mice. Ketamine (50 mg/kg, i.p.) was used to induce stereotyped psychotic behavioural symptoms in mice. Behavioural studies (locomotor activity, stereotype behaviour, immobility duration and memory retention) were carried out to investigate the protective of gallic acid on ketamine-induced psychotic symptoms, followed by biochemical and neurochemical changes and cellular alterations in the brain. Chronic treatment with gallic acid for 15 consecutive days significantly attenuated stereotyped behavioural symptoms in mice. Biochemical estimations revealed that gallic acid reduced the lipid peroxidation and restored the total brain proteins. Furthermore, gallic acid remarkably reduced the dopamine levels, AChE activity and inflammatory surge (serum TNF-α), and increased the levels of GABA and increased glutathione in mice. The study revealed that gallic acid could ameliorate psychotic symptoms and biochemical changes in mice, indicating protective effects in psychosis.

  5. Nitrosothiol Formation and Protection against Fenton Chemistry by Nitric Oxide-induced Dinitrosyliron Complex Formation from Anoxia-initiated Cellular Chelatable Iron Increase*

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    Li, Qian; Li, Chuanyu; Mahtani, Harry K.; Du, Jian; Patel, Aashka R.; Lancaster, Jack R.

    2014-01-01

    Dinitrosyliron complexes (DNIC) have been found in a variety of pathological settings associated with •NO. However, the iron source of cellular DNIC is unknown. Previous studies on this question using prolonged •NO exposure could be misleading due to the movement of intracellular iron among different sources. We here report that brief •NO exposure results in only barely detectable DNIC, but levels increase dramatically after 1–2 h of anoxia. This increase is similar quantitatively and temporally with increases in the chelatable iron, and brief •NO treatment prevents detection of this anoxia-induced increased chelatable iron by deferoxamine. DNIC formation is so rapid that it is limited by the availability of •NO and chelatable iron. We utilize this ability to selectively manipulate cellular chelatable iron levels and provide evidence for two cellular functions of endogenous DNIC formation, protection against anoxia-induced reactive oxygen chemistry from the Fenton reaction and formation by transnitrosation of protein nitrosothiols (RSNO). The levels of RSNO under these high chelatable iron levels are comparable with DNIC levels and suggest that under these conditions, both DNIC and RSNO are the most abundant cellular adducts of •NO. PMID:24891512

  6. Nitrosothiol formation and protection against Fenton chemistry by nitric oxide-induced dinitrosyliron complex formation from anoxia-initiated cellular chelatable iron increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Li, Chuanyu; Mahtani, Harry K; Du, Jian; Patel, Aashka R; Lancaster, Jack R

    2014-07-18

    Dinitrosyliron complexes (DNIC) have been found in a variety of pathological settings associated with (•)NO. However, the iron source of cellular DNIC is unknown. Previous studies on this question using prolonged (•)NO exposure could be misleading due to the movement of intracellular iron among different sources. We here report that brief (•)NO exposure results in only barely detectable DNIC, but levels increase dramatically after 1-2 h of anoxia. This increase is similar quantitatively and temporally with increases in the chelatable iron, and brief (•)NO treatment prevents detection of this anoxia-induced increased chelatable iron by deferoxamine. DNIC formation is so rapid that it is limited by the availability of (•)NO and chelatable iron. We utilize this ability to selectively manipulate cellular chelatable iron levels and provide evidence for two cellular functions of endogenous DNIC formation, protection against anoxia-induced reactive oxygen chemistry from the Fenton reaction and formation by transnitrosation of protein nitrosothiols (RSNO). The levels of RSNO under these high chelatable iron levels are comparable with DNIC levels and suggest that under these conditions, both DNIC and RSNO are the most abundant cellular adducts of (•)NO. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Glutamine's protection against cellular injury is dependent on heat shock factor-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Angela L; Dinges, Martin; Singleton, Kristen D; Odoms, Kelli; Wong, Hector R; Wischmeyer, Paul E

    2006-06-01

    Glutamine (GLN) has been shown to protect cells, tissues, and whole organisms from stress and injury. Enhanced expression of heat shock protein (HSP) has been hypothesized to be responsible for this protection. To date, there are no clear mechanistic data confirming this relationship. This study tested the hypothesis that GLN-mediated activation of the HSP pathway via heat shock factor-1 (HSF-1) is responsible for cellular protection. Wild-type HSF-1 (HSF-1(+/+)) and knockout (HSF-1(-/-)) mouse fibroblasts were used in all experiments. Cells were treated with GLN concentrations ranging from 0 to 16 mM and exposed to heat stress injury in a concurrent treatment model. Cell viability was assayed with phenazine methosulfate plus tetrazolium salt, HSP-70, HSP-25, and nuclear HSF-1 expression via Western blot analysis, and HSF-1/heat shock element (HSE) binding via EMSA. GLN significantly attenuated heat-stress induced cell death in HSF-1(+/+) cells in a dose-dependent manner; however, the survival benefit of GLN was lost in HSF-1(-/-) cells. GLN led to a dose-dependent increase in HSP-70 and HSP-25 expression after heat stress. No inducible HSP expression was observed in HSF-1(-/-) cells. GLN increased unphosphorylated HSF-1 in the nucleus before heat stress. This was accompanied by a GLN-mediated increase in HSF-1/HSE binding and nuclear content of phosphorylated HSF-1 after heat stress. This is the first demonstration that GLN-mediated cellular protection after heat-stress injury is related to HSF-1 expression and cellular capacity to activate an HSP response. Furthermore, the mechanism of GLN-mediated protection against injury appears to involve an increase in nuclear HSF-1 content before stress and increased HSF-1 promoter binding and phosphorylation.

  8. Enhancing repair of radiation-induced strand breaks in cellular DNA as a radiotherapeutic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, C.K.K.

    2014-01-01

    Protection of mammalian organisms including man from deleterious effects of ionizing radiation is of paramount importance and development of effective approaches to combat radiation damages using non-toxic radioprotectors is of considerable interest for defence, nuclear industries, radiation accidents, space travels, etc., besides the protection of normal tissues during radiotherapy of tumours. Many synthetic as well as natural compounds have been investigated in the recent past for their efficacy to protect the biological systems from radiation induced damages. They include sulfhydryl compounds, antioxidants, plant extracts, immune-modulators, and other agents. However, the inherent toxicity of many of the synthetic agents at the effective radio-protective concentration warranted further search for safer and more effective radio-protectors. In this context, therapeutic radioprotectors which are effective on post irradiation administration are of special relevance. One of the property that can be applied while screening for such radiation protective therapeutics is their ability to enhance repair of radiation-induced lesions in cellular DNA in terms of cellular repair index based on the parameters of the DNA following comet assay. Post irradiation administration of some natural and synthetic agents have shown their potential to enhance repair of radiation-induced strand breaks in cellular DNA in mice. These include phytoceuticals such as gallic acid, sesamol etc., extracts of medicinal plants such as Andrographis panniculata, and a few synthetic compounds such as tocopherol-mono-glucoside. The talk will give an overview of the work on DNA repair enhancement by a few natural and synthetic agents. (author)

  9. Mechanisms of stress-induced cellular HSP72 release: implications for exercise-induced increases in extracellular HSP72.

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    Lancaster, Graeme I; Febbraio, Mark A

    2005-01-01

    The heat shock proteins are a family of highly conserved proteins with critical roles in maintaining cellular homeostasis and in protecting the cell from stressful conditions. While the critical intracellular roles of heat shock proteins are undisputed, evidence suggests that the cell possess the necessary machinery to actively secrete specific heat shock proteins in response to cellular stress. In this review, we firstly discuss the evidence that physical exercise induces the release of heat shock protein 72 from specific tissues in humans. Importantly, it appears as though this release is the result of an active secretory process, as opposed to non-specific processes such as cell lysis. Next we discuss recent in vitro evidence that has identified a mechanistic basis for the observation that cellular stress induces the release of a specific subset of heat shock proteins. Importantly, while the classical protein secretory pathway does not seem to be involved in the stress-induced release of HSP72, we discuss the evidence that lipid-rafts and exosomes are important mediators of the stress-induced release of HSP72.

  10. Furfural induces reactive oxygen species accumulation and cellular damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

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    Slininger Patricia J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biofuels offer a viable alternative to petroleum-based fuel. However, current methods are not sufficient and the technology required in order to use lignocellulosic biomass as a fermentation substrate faces several challenges. One challenge is the need for a robust fermentative microorganism that can tolerate the inhibitors present during lignocellulosic fermentation. These inhibitors include the furan aldehyde, furfural, which is released as a byproduct of pentose dehydration during the weak acid pretreatment of lignocellulose. In order to survive in the presence of furfural, yeast cells need not only to reduce furfural to the less toxic furan methanol, but also to protect themselves and repair any damage caused by the furfural. Since furfural tolerance in yeast requires a functional pentose phosphate pathway (PPP, and the PPP is associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS tolerance, we decided to investigate whether or not furfural induces ROS and its related cellular damage in yeast. Results We demonstrated that furfural induces the accumulation of ROS in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In addition, furfural was shown to cause cellular damage that is consistent with ROS accumulation in cells which includes damage to mitochondria and vacuole membranes, the actin cytoskeleton and nuclear chromatin. The furfural-induced damage is less severe when yeast are grown in a furfural concentration (25 mM that allows for eventual growth after an extended lag compared to a concentration of furfural (50 mM that prevents growth. Conclusion These data suggest that when yeast cells encounter the inhibitor furfural, they not only need to reduce furfural into furan methanol but also to protect themselves from the cellular effects of furfural and repair any damage caused. The reduced cellular damage seen at 25 mM furfural compared to 50 mM furfural may be linked to the observation that at 25 mM furfural yeast were able to exit the furfural-induced

  11. Creatine protects against mitochondrial dysfunction associated with HIV-1 Tat-induced neuronal injury

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    Stevens, Patrick R.; Gawryluk, Jeremy W.; Hui, Liang; Chen, Xuesong; Geiger, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    HIV-1 infected individuals are living longer but experiencing a prevalence rate of over 50% for HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) for which no effective treatment is available. Viral and cellular factors secreted by HIV-1 infected cells leads to neuronal injury and HIV-1 Tat continues to be implicated in the pathogenesis of HAND. Here we tested the hypothesis that creatine protected against HIV-1 Tat-induced neuronal injury by preventing mitochondrial bioenergetic crisis and/or redox catastrophe. Creatine blocked HIV-1 Tat1-72-induced increases in neuron cell death and synaptic area loss. Creatine protected against HIV-1 Tat-induced decreases in ATP. Creatine and creatine plus HIV-1 Tat increased cellular levels of creatine, and creatine plus HIV-1 Tat further decreased ratios of phosphocreatine to creatine observed with creatine or HIV-1 Tat treatments alone. Additionally, creatine protected against HIV-1 Tat-induced mitochondrial hypopolarization and HIV-1 Tat-induced mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening. Thus, creatine may be a useful adjunctive therapy against HAND. PMID:25613139

  12. Antioxidant Activity of Lawsonia inermis Extracts Inhibits Chromium(VI-Induced Cellular and DNA Toxicity

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    Gunjan Guha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hexavalent chromium Cr(VI is a very strong oxidant which consequently causes high cytotoxicity through oxidative stress. Prevention of Cr(VI-induced cellular damage has been sought in this study in aqueous and methanolic extracts of Lawsonia inermis Linn. (Lythraceae, commonly known as Henna. The extracts showed significant (P < .05 potential in scavenging free radicals (DPPH• and ABTS•+ and Fe3+, and in inhibiting lipid peroxidation. DNA damage caused by exposure of pBR322 to Cr(VI-UV is markedly inhibited by both extracts in varying degrees. A distinct decline in Cr(VI-induced cytotoxicity was noticed in MDA-MB-435S (human breast carcinoma cells with an increase in dosage of both extracts individually. Furthermore, both extracts proved to contain a high content of phenolic compounds which were found to have a strong and significant (P < .05 positive correlation to the radical scavenging potential, lipid peroxidation inhibition capacity and cyto-protective efficiency against Cr(VI-induced oxidative cellular damage. HPLC analysis identified some of the major phenolic compounds in both extracts, which might be responsible for the antioxidant potential and the properties of DNA and cyto-protection. This study contributes to the search for natural resources that might yield potent therapeutic drugs against Cr(VI-induced oxidative cell damage.

  13. Study on cellular survival adaptive response induced by low dose irradiation of 153Sm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shoupeng; Xiao Dong

    1999-01-01

    The present study engages in determining whether low dose irradiation of 153 Sm could cut down the responsiveness of cellular survival to subsequent high dose exposure of 153 Sm so as to make an inquiry into approach the protective action of adaptive response by second irradiation of 153 Sm. Experimental results indicate that for inductive low dose of radionuclide 153 Sm 3.7 kBq/ml irradiated beforehand to cells has obvious resistant effect in succession after high dose irradiation of 153 Sm 3.7 x 10 2 kBq/ml was observed. Cells exposed to low dose irradiation of 153 Sm become adapted and therefore the subsequent cellular survival rate induced by high dose of 153 Sm is sufficiently higher than high dose of 153 Sm merely. It is evident that cellular survival adaptive response could be induced by pure low dose irradiation of 153 Sm only

  14. Methimazole-induced hypothyroidism causes cellular damage in the spleen, heart, liver, lung and kidney.

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    Cano-Europa, Edgar; Blas-Valdivia, Vanessa; Franco-Colin, Margarita; Gallardo-Casas, Carlos Angel; Ortiz-Butrón, Rocio

    2011-01-01

    It is known that a hypothyroidism-induced hypometabolic state protects against oxidative damage caused by toxins. However, some workers demonstrated that antithyroid drug-induced hypothyroidism can cause cellular damage. Our objective was to determine if methimazole (an antithyroid drug) or hypothyroidism causes cellular damage in the liver, kidney, lung, spleen and heart. Twenty-five male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups: euthyroid, false thyroidectomy, thyroidectomy-induced hypothyroidism, methimazole-induced hypothyroidism (60 mg/kg), and treatment with methimazole (60 mg/kg) and a T₄ injection (20 μg/kg/d sc). At the end of the treatments (4 weeks for the pharmacological groups and 8 weeks for the surgical groups), the animals were anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital and they were transcardially perfused with 10% formaldehyde. The spleen, heart, liver, lung and kidney were removed and were processed for embedding in paraffin wax. Coronal sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin. At the end of treatment, animals with both the methimazole- and thyroidectomy-induced hypothyroidism had a significant reduction of serum concentration of thyroid hormones. Only methimazole-induced hypothyroidism causes cellular damage in the kidney, lung, liver, heart, kidney and spleen. In addition, animals treated with methimazole and T₄ showed cellular damage in the lung, spleen and renal medulla with lesser damage in the liver, renal cortex and heart. The thyroidectomy only altered the lung structure. The alterations were prevented by T₄ completely in the heart and partially in the kidney cortex. These results indicate that tissue damage found in hypothyroidism is caused by methimazole. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Curcumin enhances recovery of pancreatic islets from cellular stress induced inflammation and apoptosis in diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, Kahkashan; Sil, Parames C.

    2015-01-01

    The phytochemical, curcumin, has been reported to play many beneficial roles. However, under diabetic conditions, the detail mechanism of its beneficial action in the glucose homeostasis regulatory organ, pancreas, is poorly understood. The present study has been designed and carried out to explore the role of curcumin in the pancreatic tissue of STZ induced and cellular stress mediated diabetes in eight weeks old male Wistar rats. Diabetes was induced with a single intraperitoneal dose of STZ (65 mg/kg body weight). Post to diabetes induction, animals were treated with curcumin at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight for eight weeks. Underlying molecular and cellular mechanism was determined using various biochemical assays, DNA fragmentation, FACS, histology, immunoblotting and ELISA. Treatment with curcumin reduced blood glucose level, increased plasma insulin and mitigated oxidative stress related markers. In vivo and in vitro experimental results revealed increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL1-β and IFN-γ), reduced level of cellular defense proteins (Nrf-2 and HO-1) and glucose transporter (GLUT-2) along with enhanced levels of signaling molecules of ER stress dependent and independent apoptosis (cleaved Caspase-12/9/8/3) in STZ administered group. Treatment with curcumin ameliorated all the adverse changes and helps the organ back to its normal physiology. Results suggest that curcumin protects pancreatic beta-cells by attenuating inflammatory responses, and inhibiting ER/mitochondrial dependent and independent pathways of apoptosis and crosstalk between them. This uniqueness and absence of any detectable adverse effect proposes the possibility of using this molecule as an effective protector in the cellular stress mediated diabetes mellitus. - Highlights: • STZ induced cellular stress plays a vital role in pancreatic dysfunction. • Cellular stress causes inflammation, pancreatic islet cell death and diabetes. • Deregulation of Nrf-2

  16. Curcumin enhances recovery of pancreatic islets from cellular stress induced inflammation and apoptosis in diabetic rats

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    Rashid, Kahkashan; Sil, Parames C., E-mail: parames@jcbose.ac.in

    2015-02-01

    The phytochemical, curcumin, has been reported to play many beneficial roles. However, under diabetic conditions, the detail mechanism of its beneficial action in the glucose homeostasis regulatory organ, pancreas, is poorly understood. The present study has been designed and carried out to explore the role of curcumin in the pancreatic tissue of STZ induced and cellular stress mediated diabetes in eight weeks old male Wistar rats. Diabetes was induced with a single intraperitoneal dose of STZ (65 mg/kg body weight). Post to diabetes induction, animals were treated with curcumin at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight for eight weeks. Underlying molecular and cellular mechanism was determined using various biochemical assays, DNA fragmentation, FACS, histology, immunoblotting and ELISA. Treatment with curcumin reduced blood glucose level, increased plasma insulin and mitigated oxidative stress related markers. In vivo and in vitro experimental results revealed increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL1-β and IFN-γ), reduced level of cellular defense proteins (Nrf-2 and HO-1) and glucose transporter (GLUT-2) along with enhanced levels of signaling molecules of ER stress dependent and independent apoptosis (cleaved Caspase-12/9/8/3) in STZ administered group. Treatment with curcumin ameliorated all the adverse changes and helps the organ back to its normal physiology. Results suggest that curcumin protects pancreatic beta-cells by attenuating inflammatory responses, and inhibiting ER/mitochondrial dependent and independent pathways of apoptosis and crosstalk between them. This uniqueness and absence of any detectable adverse effect proposes the possibility of using this molecule as an effective protector in the cellular stress mediated diabetes mellitus. - Highlights: • STZ induced cellular stress plays a vital role in pancreatic dysfunction. • Cellular stress causes inflammation, pancreatic islet cell death and diabetes. • Deregulation of Nrf-2

  17. Creatine affords protection against glutamate-induced nitrosative and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Mauricio P; Lieberknecht, Vicente; Ramos-Hryb, Ana Belén; Olescowicz, Gislaine; Ludka, Fabiana K; Tasca, Carla I; Gabilan, Nelson H; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S

    2016-05-01

    Creatine has been reported to exert beneficial effects in several neurodegenerative diseases in which glutamatergic excitotoxicity and oxidative stress play an etiological role. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of creatine, as compared to the N-Methyl-d-Aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist dizocilpine (MK-801), against glutamate or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced injury in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Exposure of cells to glutamate (60-80 mM) or H2O2 (200-300 μM) for 24 h decreased cellular viability and increased dichlorofluorescein (DCF) fluorescence (indicative of increased reactive oxygen species, ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) production (assessed by mono-nitrogen oxides, NOx, levels). Creatine (1-10 mM) or MK-801 (0.1-10 μM) reduced glutamate- and H2O2-induced toxicity. The protective effect of creatine against glutamate-induced toxicity involves its antioxidant effect, since creatine, similar to MK-801, prevented the increase on DCF fluorescence induced by glutamate or H2O2. Furthermore, creatine or MK-801 blocked glutamate- and H2O2-induced increases in NOx levels. In another set of experiments, the repeated, but not acute, administration of creatine (300 mg/kg, po) in mice prevented the decreases on cellular viability and mitochondrial membrane potential (assessed by tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester, TMRE, probe) of hippocampal slices incubated with glutamate (10 mM). Creatine concentration-dependent decreased the amount of nitrite formed in the reaction of oxygen with NO produced from sodium nitroprusside solution, suggesting that its protective effect against glutamate or H2O2-induced toxicity might be due to its scavenger activity. Overall, the results suggest that creatine may be useful as adjuvant therapy for neurodegenerative disease treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Lysosomal Re-acidification Prevents Lysosphingolipid-Induced Lysosomal Impairment and Cellular Toxicity.

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    Christopher J Folts

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs are severe and untreatable, and mechanisms underlying cellular dysfunction are poorly understood. We found that toxic lipids relevant to three different LSDs disrupt multiple lysosomal and other cellular functions. Unbiased drug discovery revealed several structurally distinct protective compounds, approved for other uses, that prevent lysosomal and cellular toxicities of these lipids. Toxic lipids and protective agents show unexpected convergence on control of lysosomal pH and re-acidification as a critical component of toxicity and protection. In twitcher mice (a model of Krabbe disease [KD], a central nervous system (CNS-penetrant protective agent rescued myelin and oligodendrocyte (OL progenitors, improved motor behavior, and extended lifespan. Our studies reveal shared principles relevant to several LSDs, in which diverse cellular and biochemical disruptions appear to be secondary to disruption of lysosomal pH regulation by specific lipids. These studies also provide novel protective strategies that confer therapeutic benefits in a mouse model of a severe LSD.

  19. Cellular and humoral immunity are synergistic in protection against types A and B Francisella tularensis.

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    Sebastian, Shite; Pinkham, Jessica T; Lynch, Jillian G; Ross, Robin A; Reinap, Barbara; Blalock, Leeann T; Conlan, J Wayne; Kasper, Dennis L

    2009-01-22

    Herein we report studies with a novel combination vaccine that, when administered to mice, conferred protection against highly virulent strains of Francisella tularensis by stimulating both arms of the immune system. Our earlier studies with Ft.LVS::wbtA, an O-polysaccharide (OPS)-negative mutant derived from the available live vaccine strain of F. tularensis (Ft.LVS), elucidated the role of antibodies to the OPS - a key virulence determinant - in protection against virulent type A organisms. However, when expressed on the organism, the OPS enhances virulence. In contrast, in purified form, the OPS is completely benign. We hypothesized that a novel combination vaccine containing both a component that induces humoral immunity and a component that induces cellular immunity to this intracellular microbe would have an enhanced protective capacity over either component alone and would be much safer than the LVS vaccine. Thus we developed a combination vaccine containing both OPS (supplied in an OPS-tetanus toxoid glycoconjugate) to induce a humoral antibody response and strain Ft.LVS::wbtA (which is markedly attenuated by its lack of OPS) to induce a cell-mediated protective response. This vaccine protected mice against otherwise-lethal intranasal and intradermal challenge with wild-type F. tularensis strains Schu S4 (type A) and FSC 108 (type B). These results represent a significant advance in our understanding of immunity to F. tularensis and provide important insight into the development of a safer vaccine effective against infections caused by clinical type A and B strains of F. tularensis.

  20. Cellular Basis for ADT-Induced Acceleration of Sarcopenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0454 TITLE: Cellular Basis for ADT-Induced Acceleration of Sarcopenia PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Joe V...AND SUBTITLE Cellular Basis for ADT-Induced Acceleration of Sarcopenia 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0454 5c. PROGRAM...cell function and thereby regenerative capability contribute to the acceleration of sarcopenia observed in prostate cancer patients undergoing ADT

  1. Gymnemagenin-a triterpene saponin prevents γ-radiation induced cellular DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunachalam, Kantha Deivi; Arun, Lilly Baptista; Annamalai, Sathesh Kumar; Hari, Shanmugasundaram

    2014-01-01

    Gymnema sylvestre an ethno-medicinally important plant was investigated for its protecting activity against radiation induced DNA damage. The major bioactive component present in Gymnema sylvestre such as gymnemic acid and gymnemagenin a triterpene saponin, were tested for its radioprotective effects against 60 Co irradiation induced DNA damage in fish model using fresh water fish Pangasius sutchi. Fishes subjected to a dose of 133 Gy of gamma radiation and observed for eight days. The genotoxic assessment by micronucleus assay showed us that that the plant extract helped in reducing the frequency of micronucleated and binucleated erythrocytes compared to the irradiated control group. The genotoxic assessment by alkaline comet assay by single gel electrophoresis shows that pretreatment with the plant extract appreciably decreased the percentage of tail DNA towards the levels close to those of normal control group. The gradual increase in the level of the antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) during the course of the experiment indicates that the antioxidant enzyme activities play an important role in protecting organisms against gamma radiation-induced cellular oxidative stress. In conclusion the leaf extracts of Gymnema sylvstre exerts its radio protective potential by suppressing the toxic assault of ROS generated by the ionizing radiation through its ability to boost the levels of antioxidant enzymes (CAT and SOD) due to the presence of its phytochemicals like gymnemgenenin- a Triterpene Saponin. (author)

  2. Doxycycline Impairs Mitochondrial Function and Protects Human Glioma Cells from Hypoxia-Induced Cell Death: Implications of Using Tet-Inducible Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luger, Anna-Luisa; Sauer, Benedikt; Lorenz, Nadja I; Engel, Anna L; Braun, Yannick; Voss, Martin; Harter, Patrick N; Steinbach, Joachim P; Ronellenfitsch, Michael W

    2018-05-17

    Inducible gene expression is an important tool in molecular biology research to study protein function. Most frequently, the antibiotic doxycycline is used for regulation of so-called tetracycline (Tet)-inducible systems. In contrast to stable gene overexpression, these systems allow investigation of acute and reversible effects of cellular protein induction. Recent reports have already called for caution when using Tet-inducible systems as the employed antibiotics can disturb mitochondrial function and alter cellular metabolism by interfering with mitochondrial translation. Reprogramming of energy metabolism has lately been recognized as an important emerging hallmark of cancer and is a central focus of cancer research. Therefore, the scope of this study was to systematically analyze dose-dependent metabolic effects of doxycycline on a panel of glioma cell lines with concomitant monitoring of gene expression from Tet-inducible systems. We report that doxycycline doses commonly used with inducible expression systems (0.01⁻1 µg/mL) substantially alter cellular metabolism: Mitochondrial protein synthesis was inhibited accompanied by reduced oxygen and increased glucose consumption. Furthermore, doxycycline protected human glioma cells from hypoxia-induced cell death. An impairment of cell growth was only detectable with higher doxycycline doses (10 µg/mL). Our findings describe settings where doxycycline exerts effects on eukaryotic cellular metabolism, limiting the employment of Tet-inducible systems.

  3. Taurine Protects Lens Epithelial Cells Against Ultraviolet B-Induced Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayang, Wu; Dongbo, Pang

    2017-10-01

    The massive uptake of compatible osmolytes is a self-protective response shared by lens exposed to hypertonic stress and ultraviolet stress. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of taurine against ultraviolet B-induced cytotoxicity in the lens epithelial cells. Real-time PCR was used to measure osmolytes transport. Radioimmunoassay was used to measure osmolytes uptake. Cell counting kit-8 assays were used to measure cellular viability. Flow cytometry analysis was used to measure apoptosis level. Compared with normotonic stress, hypertonic stress-induced osmolytes uptake into the lens epithelial cells such as betaine, myoinositol and taurine. UVB exposure increased osmolytes transporter mRNA expression together with osmolytes uptake. Moreover, taurine suppressed UVB-induced cell apoptosis in the lens epithelial cells significantly. The effect of compatible osmolyte taurine on cell survival rate may play an important role in cell resistance and adaption to UVB exposure.

  4. Protective Effect of HSP25 on Radiation Induced Tissue Damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hae-June; Lee, Yoon-Jin; Kwon, Hee-Choong; Bae, Sang-Woo; Lee, Yun-Sil; Kim, Sung Ho

    2007-01-01

    Control of cancer by irradiation therapy alone or in conjunction with combination chemotherapy is often limited by organ specific toxicity. Ionizing irradiation toxicity is initiated by damage to normal tissue near the tumor target and within the transit volume of radiotherapy beams. Irradiation-induced cellular, tissue, and organ damage is mediated by acute effects, which can be dose limiting. A latent period follows recovery from the acute reaction, then chronic irradiation fibrosis (late effects) pose a second cause of organ failure. HSP25/27 has been suggested to protect cells against apoptotic cell death triggered by hyperthermia, ionizing radiation, oxidative stress, Fas ligand, and cytotoxic drugs. And several mechanisms have been proposed to account for HSP27-mediated apoptotic protection. However radioprotective effect of HSP25/27 in vivo system has not yet been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of exogenous HSP25 expression, as delivered by adenoviral vectors, to protect animal from radiation induced tissue damage

  5. The prospective protective effect of selenium nanoparticles against chromium-induced oxidative and cellular damage in rat thyroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassanin KMA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Kamel MA Hassanin,1 Samraa H Abd El-Kawi,2 Khalid S Hashem1 1Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, 2Department of Histology, Faculty of Medicine, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt Background: Nanotechnology has enabled researchers to synthesize nanosize particles that possess increased surface areas. Compared to conventional microparticles, it has resulted in increased interactions with biological targets. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the protective ability of selenium nanoparticles against hexavalent chromium-induced thyrotoxicity. Design: Twenty male rats were used in the study, and arbitrarily assigned to four groups. Group 1 was the control group, and was given phosphate-buffered saline. Group 2 was the chromium-treated group and was given K2Cr2O7 60 µg/kg body weight intraperitoneally as a single dose on the third day of administration. Group 3 was the nano-selenium-treated group and was given selenium nanoparticles (size 3–20 nm 0.5 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally daily for 5 consecutive days. Group 4 was the nano-selenium chromium-treated group, which received selenium nanoparticles for 5 days and a single dose of K2Cr2O7 on the third day of administration. Materials and methods: Blood samples were collected from rats for measuring thyroid hormones (free triiodothyronine [T3] and free thyroxine [T4] and oxidative and antioxidant parameters (malondialdehyde [MDA], reduced glutathione [GSH], catalase, and superoxide dismutase [SOD]. Upon dissection, thyroid glands were taken for histopathological examination by using paraffin preparations stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E and Masson’s trichrome. Immunohistochemical staining was performed for detecting cellular proliferation using Ki67 antibodies. Results: The present study shows that K2Cr2O7 has a toxic effect on the thyroid gland as a result of inducing a marked oxidative damage and release of reactive oxygen species

  6. Tat-antioxidant 1 protects against stress-induced hippocampal HT-22 cells death and attenuate ischaemic insult in animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Mi; Hwang, In Koo; Yoo, Dae Young; Eum, Won Sik; Kim, Dae Won; Shin, Min Jea; Ahn, Eun Hee; Jo, Hyo Sang; Ryu, Eun Ji; Yong, Ji In; Cho, Sung-Woo; Kwon, Oh-Shin; Lee, Keun Wook; Cho, Yoon Shin; Han, Kyu Hyung; Park, Jinseu; Choi, Soo Young

    2015-06-01

    Oxidative stress-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) are responsible for various neuronal diseases. Antioxidant 1 (Atox1) regulates copper homoeostasis and promotes cellular antioxidant defence against toxins generated by ROS. The roles of Atox1 protein in ischaemia, however, remain unclear. In this study, we generated a protein transduction domain fused Tat-Atox1 and examined the roles of Tat-Atox1 in oxidative stress-induced hippocampal HT-22 cell death and an ischaemic injury animal model. Tat-Atox1 effectively transduced into HT-22 cells and it protected cells against the effects of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced toxicity including increasing of ROS levels and DNA fragmentation. At the same time, Tat-Atox1 regulated cellular survival signalling such as p53, Bad/Bcl-2, Akt and mitogen-activate protein kinases (MAPKs). In the animal ischaemia model, transduced Tat-Atox1 protected against neuronal cell death in the hippocampal CA1 region. In addition, Tat-Atox1 significantly decreased the activation of astrocytes and microglia as well as lipid peroxidation in the CA1 region after ischaemic insult. Taken together, these results indicate that transduced Tat-Atox1 protects against oxidative stress-induced HT-22 cell death and against neuronal damage in animal ischaemia model. Therefore, we suggest that Tat-Atox1 has potential as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of oxidative stress-induced ischaemic damage. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  7. Silymarin Suppresses Cellular Inflammation By Inducing Reparative Stress Signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovelace, Erica S.; Wagoner, Jessica; MacDonald, James; Bammler, Theo; Bruckner, Jacob; Brownell, Jessica; Beyer, Richard; Zink, Erika M.; Kim, Young-Mo; Kyle, Jennifer E.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Waters, Katrina M.; Metz, Thomas O.; Farin, Federico; Oberlies, Nicholas H.; Polyak, Steve

    2015-08-28

    Silymarin (SM), a natural product, is touted as a liver protectant and preventer of both chronic inflammation and diseases. To define how SM elicits these effects at a systems level, we performed transcriptional profiling, metabolomics, and signaling studies in human liver and T cell lines. Multiple pathways associated with cellular stress and metabolism were modulated by SM treatment within 0.5 to four hours: activation of Activating Transcription Factor 4 (ATF-4) and adenosine monophosphate protein kinase (AMPK) and inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling, the latter being associated with induction of DNA-damage-inducible transcript 4 (DDIT4). Metabolomics analyses revealed suppression of glycolytic, TCA cycle, and amino acid metabolism by SM treatment. Antiinflammatory effects arose with prolonged (i.e. 24 hours) SM exposure, with suppression of multiple proinflammatory mRNAs and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and forkhead box O (FOXO) signaling. Studies with murine knock out cells revealed that SM inhibition of both mTOR and NF-κB was partially AMPK dependent, while SM inhibition of the mTOR pathway in part required DDIT4. Thus, SM activates stress and repair responses that culminate in an anti-inflammatory phenotype. Other natural products induced similar stress responses, which correlated with their ability to suppress inflammation. Therefore, natural products like SM may be useful as tools to define how metabolic, stress, and repair pathways regulate cellular inflammation.

  8. Metformin protects rat hepatocytes against bile acid-induced apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titia E Woudenberg-Vrenken

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metformin is used in the treatment of Diabetes Mellitus type II and improves liver function in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Metformin activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, the cellular energy sensor that is sensitive to changes in the AMP/ATP-ratio. AMPK is an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR. Both AMPK and mTOR are able to modulate cell death. AIM: To evaluate the effects of metformin on hepatocyte cell death. METHODS: Apoptotic cell death was induced in primary rat hepatocytes using either the bile acid glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA or TNFα in combination with actinomycin D (actD. AMPK, mTOR and phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K/Akt were inhibited using pharmacological inhibitors. Apoptosis and necrosis were quantified by caspase activation, acridine orange staining and Sytox green staining respectively. RESULTS: Metformin dose-dependently reduces GCDCA-induced apoptosis, even when added 2 hours after GCDCA, without increasing necrotic cell death. Metformin does not protect against TNFα/ActD-induced apoptosis. The protective effect of metformin is dependent on an intact PI3-kinase/Akt pathway, but does not require AMPK/mTOR-signaling. Metformin does not inhibit NF-κB activation. CONCLUSION: Metformin protects against bile acid-induced apoptosis and could be considered in the treatment of chronic liver diseases accompanied by inflammation.

  9. Small molecular antioxidants effectively protect from PUVA-induced oxidative stress responses underlying fibroblast senescence and photoaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briganti, Stefania; Wlaschek, Meinhard; Hinrichs, Christina; Bellei, Barbara; Flori, Enrica; Treiber, Nicolai; Iben, Sebastian; Picardo, Mauro; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin

    2008-09-01

    Exposure of human fibroblasts to 8-methoxypsoralen plus ultraviolet-A irradiation (PUVA) results in stress-induced cellular senescence in fibroblasts. We here studied the role of the antioxidant defense system in the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the effect of the antioxidants alpha-tocopherol, N-acetylcysteine, and alpha-lipoic acid on PUVA-induced cellular senescence. PUVA treatment induced an immediate and increasing generation of intracellular ROS. Supplementation of PUVA-treated fibroblasts with alpha-tocopherol (alpha-Toc), N-acetylcysteine (NAC), or alpha-lipoic acid (alpha-LA) abrogated the increased ROS generation and rescued fibroblasts from the ROS-dependent changes into the cellular senescence phenotype, such as cytoplasmic enlargement, enhanced expression of senescence-associated-beta-galactosidase and matrix-metalloproteinase-1, hallmarks of photoaging and intrinsic aging. PUVA treatment disrupted the integrity of cellular membranes and impaired homeostasis and function of the cellular antioxidant system with a significant decrease in glutathione and hydrogen peroxide-detoxifying enzymes activities. Supplementation with NAC, alpha-LA, and alpha-Toc counteracted these changes. Our data provide causal evidence that (i) oxidative stress due to an imbalance in the overall cellular antioxidant capacity contributes to the induction and maintenance of the PUVA-induced fibroblast senescence and that (ii) low molecular antioxidants protect effectively against these deleterious alterations.

  10. Total Leishmania antigens with Poly(I:C) induce Th1 protective response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, M V; Eliçabe, R J; Di Genaro, M S; Germanó, M J; Gea, S; García Bustos, M F; Salomón, M C; Scodeller, E A; Cargnelutti, D E

    2017-11-01

    Our proposal was to develop a vaccine based on total Leishmania antigens (TLA) adjuvanted with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [Poly(I:C)] able to induce a Th1 response which can provide protection against Leishmania infection. Mice were vaccinated with two doses of TLA-Poly(I:C) administered by subcutaneous route at 3-week interval. Humoral and cellular immune responses induced by the immunization were measured. The protective efficacy of the vaccine was evaluated by challenging mice with infective promastigotes of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis into the footpad. Mice vaccinated with TLA-Poly(I:C) showed a high anti-Leishmania IgG titre, as well as increased IgG1 and IgG2a subclass titres compared with mice vaccinated with the TLA alone. The high IgG2a indicated a Th1 bias response induced by the TLA-Poly(I:C) immunization. Accordingly, the cellular immune response elicited by the formulation was characterized by an increased production of IFN-γ and no significant production of IL-4. The TLA-Poly(I:C) immunization elicited good protection, which was associated with decreased footpad swelling, a lower parasite load and a reduced histopathological alteration in the footpad. Our findings demonstrate a promising vaccine against cutaneous leishmaniasis that is relatively economic and easy to develop and which should be taken into account for preventing leishmaniasis in developing countries. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Polyhydroxylated fatty alcohols derived from avocado suppress inflammatory response and provide non-sunscreen protection against UV-induced damage in skin cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblat, Gennady; Meretski, Shai; Segal, Joseph; Tarshis, Mark; Schroeder, Avi; Zanin-Zhorov, Alexandra; Lion, Gilead; Ingber, Arieh; Hochberg, Malka

    2011-05-01

    Exposing skin to ultraviolet (UV) radiation contributes to photoaging and to the development of skin cancer by DNA lesions and triggering inflammatory and other harmful cellular cascades. The present study tested the ability of unique lipid molecules, polyhydroxylated fatty alcohols (PFA), extracted from avocado, to reduce UVB-induced damage and inflammation in skin. Introducing PFA to keratinocytes prior to their exposure to UVB exerted a protective effect, increasing cell viability, decreasing the secretion of IL-6 and PGE(2), and enhancing DNA repair. In human skin explants, treating with PFA reduced significantly UV-induced cellular damage. These results support the idea that PFA can play an important role as a photo-protective agent in UV-induced skin damage.

  12. Dietary lecithin potentiates thermal tolerance and cellular stress protection of milk fish (Chanos Chanos) reared under low dose endosulfan-induced stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Neeraj; Minhas, P S; Ambasankar, K; Krishnani, K K; Rana, R S

    2014-12-01

    Endosulfan is an organochlorine pesticide commonly found in aquatic environments that has been found to reduce thermal tolerance of fish. Lipotropes such as the food additive, Lecithin has been shown to improve thermal tolerance in fish species. This study was conducted to evaluate the role of lipotropes (lecithin) for enhancing the thermal tolerance of Chanos chanos reared under sublethal low dose endosulfan-induced stress. Two hundred and twenty-five fish were distributed randomly into five treatments, each with three replicates. Four isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets were prepared with graded levels of lecithin: normal water and fed with control diet (En0/L0), endosulfan-treated water and fed with control diet (En/L0), endosulfan-treated water and fed with 1% (En/L1%), 1.5% (En/L 1.5%) and 2% (En/L 2%) lecithin supplemented feed. The endosulfan in treated water was maintained at the level of 1/40th of LC50 (0.52ppb). At the end of the five weeks, critical temperature maxima (CTmax), lethal temperature maxima (LTmax), critical temperature minima (CTmin) and lethal temperature minima (LTmin) were Determined. There was a significant (Plecithin on temperature tolerance (CTmax, LTmax, CTmin and LTmin) of the groups fed with 1, 1.5 and 2% lecithin-supplemented diet compared to control and endosulfan-exposed groups. Positive correlations were observed between CT max and LTmax (R(2)=0.934) as well as between CTmin and LTmin (R(2)=0.9313). At the end of the thermal tolerance study, endosulfan-induced changes in cellular stress enzymes (Catalase, SOD and GST in liver and gill and neurotansmitter enzyme, brain AChE) were significantly (plecithin. We herein report the role of lecithin in enhancing the thermal tolerance and protection against cellular stress in fish exposed to an organochlorine pesticide. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 19-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and isoniazid protect against angiotensin II-induced cardiac hypertrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkhatali, Samya; El-Sherbeni, Ahmed A.; Elshenawy, Osama H. [Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E1 (Canada); Abdelhamid, Ghada [Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E1 (Canada); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Helwan University, Helwan (Egypt); El-Kadi, Ayman O.S., E-mail: aelkadi@ualberta.ca [Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E1 (Canada)

    2015-12-15

    We have recently demonstrated that 19-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (19-HETE) is the major subterminal-HETE formed in the heart tissue, and its formation was decreased during cardiac hypertrophy. In the current study, we examined whether 19-HETE confers cardioprotection against angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced cardiac hypertrophy. The effect of Ang II, with and without 19-HETE (20 μM), on the development of cellular hypertrophy in cardiomyocyte RL-14 cells was assessed by real-time PCR. Also, cardiac hypertrophy was induced in Sprague–Dawley rats by Ang II, and the effect of increasing 19-HETE by isoniazid (INH; 200 mg/kg/day) was assessed by heart weight and echocardiography. Also, alterations in cardiac cytochrome P450 (CYP) and their associated arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites were determined by real-time PCR, Western blotting and liquid-chromatography–mass-spectrometry. Our results demonstrated that 19-HETE conferred a cardioprotective effect against Ang II-induced cellular hypertrophy in vitro, as indicated by the significant reduction in β/α-myosin heavy chain ratio. In vivo, INH improved heart dimensions, and reversed the increase in heart weight to tibia length ratio caused by Ang II. We found a significant increase in cardiac 19-HETE, as well as a significant reduction in AA and its metabolite, 20-HETE. In conclusion, 19-HETE, incubated with cardiomyocytes in vitro or induced in the heart by INH in vivo, provides cardioprotection against Ang II-induced hypertrophy. This further confirms the role of CYP, and their associated AA metabolites in the development of cardiac hypertrophy. - Highlights: • We found 19-hydroxy arachidonic acid to protect cardiomyocytes from hypertrophy. • We validated the use of isoniazid as a cardiac 19-hydroxy arachidonic acid inducer. • We found isoniazid to increase protective and inhibit toxic eicosanoides. • We found isoniazid to protect against angiotensin-induced cardiac hypertrophy. • This will help to

  14. Histone H2AX is a critical factor for cellular protection against DNA alkylating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, J A; Zhao, M; Su, Y; Narayan, G; Geard, C R; Balajee, A S

    2008-09-25

    Histone H2A variant H2AX is a dose-dependent suppressor of oncogenic chromosome translocations. H2AX participates in DNA double-strand break repair, but its role in other DNA repair pathways is not known. In this study, role of H2AX in cellular response to alkylation DNA damage was investigated. Cellular sensitivity to two monofunctional alkylating agents (methyl methane sulfonate and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)) was dependent on H2AX dosage, and H2AX null cells were more sensitive than heterozygous cells. In contrast to wild-type cells, H2AX-deficient cells displayed extensive apoptotic death due to a lack of cell-cycle arrest at G(2)/M phase. Lack of G(2)/M checkpoint in H2AX null cells correlated well with increased mitotic irregularities involving anaphase bridges and gross chromosomal instability. Observation of elevated poly(ADP) ribose polymerase 1 (PARP-1) cleavage suggests that MNNG-induced apoptosis occurs by PARP-1-dependent manner in H2AX-deficient cells. Consistent with this, increased activities of PARP and poly(ADP) ribose (PAR) polymer synthesis were detected in both H2AX heterozygous and null cells. Further, we demonstrate that the increased PAR synthesis and apoptotic death induced by MNNG in H2AX-deficient cells are due to impaired activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Collectively, our novel study demonstrates that H2AX, similar to PARP-1, confers cellular protection against alkylation-induced DNA damage. Therefore, targeting either PARP-1 or histone H2AX may provide an effective way of maximizing the chemotherapeutic value of alkylating agents for cancer treatment.

  15. Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound Protects Retinal Ganglion Cell From Optic Nerve Injury Induced Apoptosis via Yes Associated Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Xing Zhou

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS has been used in clinical studies. But little is known about its effects on the central nervous system (CNS, or its mechanism of action. Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs are CNS neuronal cells that can be utilized as a classic model system to evaluate outcomes of LIPUS protection from external trauma-induced retinal injury. In this study, we aim to: (1 determine the pulse energy and the capability of LIPUS in RGC viability, (2 ascertain the protective role of LIPUS in optic nerve (ON crush-induced retinal injury, and 3 explore the cellular mechanisms of RGC apoptosis prevention by LIPUS.Methods: An ON crush model was set up to induce RGC death. LIPUS was used to treat mice eyes daily, and the retina samples were dissected for immunostaining and Western blot. The expression of yes-associated protein (YAP and apoptosis-related proteins was detected by immunostaining and Western blot in vitro and in vivo. Apoptosis of RGCs was evaluated by TUNEL staining, the survival of RGCs and retained axons were labeled by Fluoro-gold and Tuj1 antibody, respectively. Rotenone was used to set up an in vitro cellular degenerative model and siYAP was used to interfering the expression of YAP to detect the LIPUS protective function.Results: LIPUS protected RGC from loss and apoptosis in vivo and in vitro. The ratio of cleaved/pro-caspase3 also decreased significantly under LIPUS treatment. As a cellular mechanical sensor, YAP expression increased and YAP translocated to nucleus in LIPUS stimulation group, however, phospho-YAP was found to be decreased. When YAP was inhibited, the LIPUS could not protect RGC from caspase3-dependent apoptosis.Conclusion: LIPUS prevented RGCs from apoptosis in an ON crush model and in vitro cellular degenerative model, which indicates a potential treatment for further traumatic ON injury. The mechanism of protection is dependent on YAP activation and correlated with caspase-3 signaling.

  16. Histamine protects bone marrow against cellular damage induced by Ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, Vanina; Sambuco, Lorena; Massari, Noelia; Cricco, Graciela; Martin, Gabriela; Bergoc, Rosa; Rivera, Elena S.

    2008-01-01

    After surgery, radiotherapy is arguably one of the most important treatments for cancer, especially for localized disease that has not spread. However, ionizing radiation is toxic not only to tumor cells but also to healthy tissues causing serious adverse effects to patients. We have recently reported that histamine prevents ionizing radiation-induced toxicity on mouse small intestine. The aim of the present work was to determine whether histamine is able to protect bone marrow cells against ionizing radiation damage. For that purpose 56 mice were divided into 4 groups. Histamine and Histamine-10Gy groups received a daily subcutaneous histamine injection (0.1 mg/kg) starting 20 hours before irradiation and continued till the end of experimental period; untreated group received saline. Histamine-10Gy and untreated-10Gy groups were irradiated with a single dose on whole-body using Cesium-137 source (7 Gy/min) and were sacrificed 3 days after irradiation. Bone marrow was removed, fixed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The number of megacariocytes per 40x field, bone marrow tropism, edema, vascular damage, and other histological characteristics of bone marrow cells were evaluated. We further determined by immunohistochemistry the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and cells in the S phase of the cell cycle were identified by immunohistochemical detection of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation. Results indicate that histamine treatment substantially reduced the grade of aplasia, the edema and the vascular damage induced by ionizing radiation on bone marrow. Additionally, histamine preserved medullar components increasing significantly the number of megacariocytes per field (5.4 ± 0.4 vs. 2.8 ± 0.4 in Control-10 Gy, P<0.01). This effect was associated with an increased proliferation rate determined by the augmented PCNA expression and BrdU incorporation of bone marrow cells. On the basis of these results, we conclude that histamine

  17. Ginsenoside Rb1 Attenuates Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation-Induced Apoptosis in SH-SY5Y Cells via Protection of Mitochondria and Inhibition of AIF and Cytochrome c Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Ge

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the role of mitochondria in the protective effects of ginsenoside Rb1 on cellular apoptosis caused by oxygen-glucose deprivation, in this study, MTT assay, TUNEL staining, flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry and western blotting were used to examine the cellular viability, apoptosis, ROS level, mitochondrial membrane potential, and the distribution of apoptosis inducing factor, cytochrome c, Bax and Bcl-2 in nucleus, mitochondria and cytoplasm. We found that pretreatment with GRb1 improved the cellular viability damaged by OGD. Moreover, GRb1 inhibited apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells induced by OGD. Further studies showed that the elevation of cellular reactive oxygen species levels and the reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential caused by OGD were both counteracted by GRb1. Additionally, GRb1 not only suppressed the translocation of apoptosis inducing factor into nucleus and cytochrome c into cytoplasm, but also inhibited the increase of Bax within mitochondria and alleviated the decrease of mitochondrial Bcl-2. Our study indicates that the protection of GRb1 on OGD-induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells is associated with its protection on mitochondrial function and inhibition of release of AIF and cytochrome c.

  18. Cellular membrane accommodation of copper-induced oxidative conditions in the coral Seriatopora caliendrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Chuan-Ho, E-mail: chtang@nmmba.gov.tw [Institute of Marine Biodiversity and Evolutionary Biology, National Dong Hwa University, Pingtung, Taiwan, ROC (China); National Museum of Marine Biology and Aquarium, Pingtung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Ching-Yu [Institute of Environmental Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei City, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lee, Shu-Hui [Center of General Education, National Kaohsiung Marine University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wang, Wei-Hsien [National Museum of Marine Biology and Aquarium, Pingtung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Marine Biotechnology and Resources and Asia-Pacific Ocean Research Center, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Coral cells alter membrane lipid to accommodate copper-induce oxidative conditions • Coral membrane repair occur due to lipid alterations • Zooxanthellae release results from membrane repair by symbiosome fusion • Copper-induced lipid alterations perturb membrane-related functions in coral cells • Copper chronic effect on coral fitness are related to long-term membrane perturbation - Abstract: Oxidative stress has been associated with copper-induced toxicity in scleractinian corals. To gain insight into the accommodation of the cellular membrane to oxidative conditions, a pocilloporid coral, Seriatopora caliendrum, was exposed to copper at distinct, environmentally relevant dose for various lengths of time. Glycerophosphocholine profiling of the response of the coral to copper exposure was characterized using a validated method. The results indicate that coral lipid metabolism is programmed to induce membrane alterations in response to the cellular deterioration that occurs during the copper exposure period. Decreasing lyso-phosphatidylcholines and exchanging polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholines for polyunsaturated plasmanylcholines were the initial actions taken to prevent membrane permeabilization. To relax/resist the resulting membrane strain caused by cell/organelle swelling, the coral cells inversely exchanged polyunsaturated plasmanylcholines for polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholines and further increased the levels of monounsaturated glycerophosphocholines. At the same time, the levels of saturated phosphatidylcholines were also increased to increase membrane rigidity and protect against oxidative attack. Interestingly, such alterations in lipid metabolism were also required for membrane fusion to repair the deteriorated membranes by repopulating them with proximal lipid reservoirs, similar to symbiosome membranes. Additionally, increasing saturated and monounsaturated plasmanylcholines and inhibiting the suppression of saturated lyso

  19. Cellular membrane accommodation of copper-induced oxidative conditions in the coral Seriatopora caliendrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Chuan-Ho; Lin, Ching-Yu; Lee, Shu-Hui; Wang, Wei-Hsien

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Coral cells alter membrane lipid to accommodate copper-induce oxidative conditions • Coral membrane repair occur due to lipid alterations • Zooxanthellae release results from membrane repair by symbiosome fusion • Copper-induced lipid alterations perturb membrane-related functions in coral cells • Copper chronic effect on coral fitness are related to long-term membrane perturbation - Abstract: Oxidative stress has been associated with copper-induced toxicity in scleractinian corals. To gain insight into the accommodation of the cellular membrane to oxidative conditions, a pocilloporid coral, Seriatopora caliendrum, was exposed to copper at distinct, environmentally relevant dose for various lengths of time. Glycerophosphocholine profiling of the response of the coral to copper exposure was characterized using a validated method. The results indicate that coral lipid metabolism is programmed to induce membrane alterations in response to the cellular deterioration that occurs during the copper exposure period. Decreasing lyso-phosphatidylcholines and exchanging polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholines for polyunsaturated plasmanylcholines were the initial actions taken to prevent membrane permeabilization. To relax/resist the resulting membrane strain caused by cell/organelle swelling, the coral cells inversely exchanged polyunsaturated plasmanylcholines for polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholines and further increased the levels of monounsaturated glycerophosphocholines. At the same time, the levels of saturated phosphatidylcholines were also increased to increase membrane rigidity and protect against oxidative attack. Interestingly, such alterations in lipid metabolism were also required for membrane fusion to repair the deteriorated membranes by repopulating them with proximal lipid reservoirs, similar to symbiosome membranes. Additionally, increasing saturated and monounsaturated plasmanylcholines and inhibiting the suppression of saturated lyso

  20. Skin protection against UVA-induced iron damage by multiantioxidants and iron chelating drugs/prodrugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reelfs, Olivier; Eggleston, Ian M; Pourzand, Charareh

    2010-03-01

    In humans, prolonged sunlight exposure is associated with various pathological states. The continuing drive to develop improved skin protection involves not only approaches to reduce DNA damage by solar ultraviolet B (UVB) but also the development of methodologies to provide protection against ultraviolet A (UVA), the oxidising component of sunlight. Furthermore identification of specific cellular events following ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is likely to provide clues as to the mechanism of the development of resulting pathologies and therefore strategies for protection. Our discovery that UVA radiation, leads to an immediate measurable increase in 'labile' iron in human skin fibroblasts and keratinocytes provides a new insight into UVA-induced skin damage, since iron is a catalyst of biological oxidations. The main purpose of this overview is to bring together some of the new findings related to mechanisms underlying UVA-induced iron release and to discuss novel approaches based on the use of multiantioxidants and light-activated caged-iron chelators for efficient protection of skin cells against UVA-induced iron damage.

  1. Combinatorial approaches to evaluate nanodiamond uptake and induced cellular fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldawud, Reem; Reitzig, Manuela; Opitz, Jörg; Rojansakul, Yon; Jiang, Wenjuan; Nangia, Shikha; Zoica Dinu, Cerasela

    2016-02-01

    Nanodiamonds (NDs) are an emerging class of engineered nanomaterials that hold great promise for the next generation of bionanotechnological products to be used for drug and gene delivery, or for bio-imaging and biosensing. Previous studies have shown that upon their cellular uptake, NDs exhibit high biocompatibility in various in vitro and in vivo set-ups. Herein we hypothesized that the increased NDs biocompatibility is a result of minimum membrane perturbations and their reduced ability to induce disruption or damage during cellular translocation. Using multi-scale combinatorial approaches that simulate ND-membrane interactions, we correlated NDs real-time cellular uptake and kinetics with the ND-induced membrane fluctuations to derive energy requirements for the uptake to occur. Our discrete and real-time analyses showed that the majority of NDs internalization occurs within 2 h of cellular exposure, however, with no effects on cellular viability, proliferation or cellular behavior. Furthermore, our simulation analyses using coarse-grained models identified key changes in the energy profile, membrane deformation and recovery time, all functions of the average ND or ND-based agglomerate size. Understanding the mechanisms responsible for ND-cell membrane interactions could possibly advance their implementation in various biomedical applications.

  2. Combinatorial approaches to evaluate nanodiamond uptake and induced cellular fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldawud, Reem; Reitzig, Manuela; Opitz, Jörg; Rojansakul, Yon; Jiang, Wenjuan; Nangia, Shikha; Dinu, Cerasela Zoica

    2016-01-01

    Nanodiamonds (NDs) are an emerging class of engineered nanomaterials that hold great promise for the next generation of bionanotechnological products to be used for drug and gene delivery, or for bio-imaging and biosensing. Previous studies have shown that upon their cellular uptake, NDs exhibit high biocompatibility in various in vitro and in vivo set-ups. Herein we hypothesized that the increased NDs biocompatibility is a result of minimum membrane perturbations and their reduced ability to induce disruption or damage during cellular translocation. Using multi-scale combinatorial approaches that simulate ND-membrane interactions, we correlated NDs real-time cellular uptake and kinetics with the ND-induced membrane fluctuations to derive energy requirements for the uptake to occur. Our discrete and real-time analyses showed that the majority of NDs internalization occurs within 2 h of cellular exposure, however, with no effects on cellular viability, proliferation or cellular behavior. Furthermore, our simulation analyses using coarse-grained models identified key changes in the energy profile, membrane deformation and recovery time, all functions of the average ND or ND-based agglomerate size. Understanding the mechanisms responsible for ND-cell membrane interactions could possibly advance their implementation in various biomedical applications. PMID:26820775

  3. Combinatorial approaches to evaluate nanodiamond uptake and induced cellular fate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldawud, Reem; Dinu, Cerasela Zoica; Reitzig, Manuela; Opitz, Jörg; Rojansakul, Yon; Jiang, Wenjuan; Nangia, Shikha

    2016-01-01

    Nanodiamonds (NDs) are an emerging class of engineered nanomaterials that hold great promise for the next generation of bionanotechnological products to be used for drug and gene delivery, or for bio-imaging and biosensing. Previous studies have shown that upon their cellular uptake, NDs exhibit high biocompatibility in various in vitro and in vivo set-ups. Herein we hypothesized that the increased NDs biocompatibility is a result of minimum membrane perturbations and their reduced ability to induce disruption or damage during cellular translocation. Using multi-scale combinatorial approaches that simulate ND-membrane interactions, we correlated NDs real-time cellular uptake and kinetics with the ND-induced membrane fluctuations to derive energy requirements for the uptake to occur. Our discrete and real-time analyses showed that the majority of NDs internalization occurs within 2 h of cellular exposure, however, with no effects on cellular viability, proliferation or cellular behavior. Furthermore, our simulation analyses using coarse-grained models identified key changes in the energy profile, membrane deformation and recovery time, all functions of the average ND or ND-based agglomerate size. Understanding the mechanisms responsible for ND-cell membrane interactions could possibly advance their implementation in various biomedical applications. (paper)

  4. Combinatorial approaches to evaluate nanodiamond uptake and induced cellular fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldawud, Reem; Reitzig, Manuela; Opitz, Jörg; Rojansakul, Yon; Jiang, Wenjuan; Nangia, Shikha; Dinu, Cerasela Zoica

    2016-02-26

    Nanodiamonds (NDs) are an emerging class of engineered nanomaterials that hold great promise for the next generation of bionanotechnological products to be used for drug and gene delivery, or for bio-imaging and biosensing. Previous studies have shown that upon their cellular uptake, NDs exhibit high biocompatibility in various in vitro and in vivo set-ups. Herein we hypothesized that the increased NDs biocompatibility is a result of minimum membrane perturbations and their reduced ability to induce disruption or damage during cellular translocation. Using multi-scale combinatorial approaches that simulate ND-membrane interactions, we correlated NDs real-time cellular uptake and kinetics with the ND-induced membrane fluctuations to derive energy requirements for the uptake to occur. Our discrete and real-time analyses showed that the majority of NDs internalization occurs within 2 h of cellular exposure, however, with no effects on cellular viability, proliferation or cellular behavior. Furthermore, our simulation analyses using coarse-grained models identified key changes in the energy profile, membrane deformation and recovery time, all functions of the average ND or ND-based agglomerate size. Understanding the mechanisms responsible for ND-cell membrane interactions could possibly advance their implementation in various biomedical applications.

  5. Humoral and cellular immune responses to modified hepatitis B ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These findings indicate that the vaccine induced both a humoral and cellular ... Keywords: Hepatitis B virus, Plasmid DNA, Vaccine, Spleen cytokines, Humoral and cellular immune responses ... produced in mice. ... were performed and HBsAg specific IgM and IgG ..... and protection elicited against Plasmodium berghei.

  6. Protective Efficacy of Emodin against γ-Rays Induced Acute Hepatorenal Injury in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, S.I.; Lotfi, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Emodin(C 16 H 12 O 5 ), an active principle extracted from Rheum palmatum. Its protective effect was evaluated against γ-rays-induced biochemical alterations in rats. The purpose of recent study is to demonstrate protective efficacy of emodin against γ-rays induced acute hepatorenal injury in rats.γ -irradiation (6 Gy) caused significant elevation in the release of serum alanine and aspartate transaminases, (ALT and AST), alkaline phosphatase (SALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), bilirubin (Br) and glucose (Gu) with concomitant decrease in haemoglobin (Hb) after 24 h of its exposure. Toxicant exposure intensified the lipid peroxidation (LPO, measured as MDA units), total cholesterol (TC) and activity of acid phosphatase (TAC) and altered glutathione status (GSH), activities of adenosine triphosphatase (ATP), alkaline phosphatase (TALP), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) as well as major cellular constituents; total proteins (TP) and glycogen (Gn) in liver and kidney, compared to control measures. Emodin, oral treatment, significantly lessened the toxicity by protecting γ-rays-induced alterations in various blood and tissue biochemical variables, compared to irradiated groups. Thus, the study concluded that emodin at a dose of 40 mg/ kg body wt possesses optimum hepatorenal protective ability in γ-irradiated toxicant rats

  7. Edaravone protects human peripheral blood lymphocytes from γ-irradiation-induced apoptosis and DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liming; Liu, Yinghui; Dong, Liangliang; Chu, Xiaoxia

    2015-03-01

    Radiation-induced cellular injury is attributed primarily to the harmful effects of free radicals, which play a key role in irradiation-induced apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the radioprotective efficacy of edaravone, a licensed clinical drug and a powerful free radical scavenger that has been tested against γ-irradiation-induced cellular damage in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes in studies of various diseases. Edaravone was pre-incubated with lymphocytes for 2 h prior to γ-irradiation. It was found that pretreatment with edaravone increased cell viability and inhibited generation of γ-radiation-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) in lymphocytes exposed to 3 Gy γ-radiation. In addition, γ-radiation decreased antioxidant enzymatic activity, such as superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, as well as the level of reduced glutathione. Conversely, treatment with 100 μM edaravone prior to irradiation improved antioxidant enzyme activity and increased reduced glutathione levels in irradiated lymphocytes. Importantly, we also report that edaravone reduced γ-irradiation-induced apoptosis through downregulation of Bax, upregulation of Bcl-2, and consequent reduction of the Bax:Bcl-2 ratio. The current study shows edaravone to be an effective radioprotector against γ-irradiation-induced cellular damage in lymphocytes in vitro. Finally, edaravone pretreatment significantly reduced DNA damage in γ-irradiated lymphocytes, as measured by comet assay (% tail DNA, tail length, tail moment, and olive tail moment) (p edaravone offers protection from radiation-induced cytogenetic alterations.

  8. Protective effects of andrographolide analogue AL-1 on ROS-induced RIN-mβ cell death by inducing ROS generation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Rong Yan

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is considered to be a major factor contributing to pathogenesis and progression of many diseases. A novel andrographolide-lipoic acid conjugate (AL-1 could protect pancreatic β-cells from reactive oxygen species (ROS-induced oxidative injury. However, its protective mechanism is still unclear. In this work, we used proteomics to identify AL-1-regulated proteins in β-cells and found that 13 of the 71 proteins regulated by AL-1 were closely associated with antioxidation. These differential proteins were mainly involved in the ERK1/2 and AKT1 signaling pathways. Functional investigation demonstrated that AL-1 exerted its protective effects on H2O2-induced cell death of β-cells by generating NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS to activate ERK1/2 and AKT1 signaling pathways. As a consequence, the expressions of antioxidant proteins including Trx1, Prx1 and Prx5, and anti-apoptotic proteins including PDCD6IP, prohibitin, galectin-1 and HSP were upregulated. AL-1 probably worked as a "vaccinum" to activate the cellular antioxidant system by inducing the generation of low concentration ROS which then reciprocally protected β-cells from oxidative damage caused by high-level ROS from H2O2. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive proteomic analysis illustrating a novel molecular mechanism for the protective effects of antioxidants on β-cells from H2O2-induced cell death.

  9. Barrier protective effects of withaferin A in HMGB1-induced inflammatory responses in both cellular and animal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Wonhwa; Kim, Tae Hoon; Ku, Sae-Kwang; Min, Kyoung-jin; Lee, Hyun-Shik; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Bae, Jong-Sup

    2012-01-01

    Withaferin A (WFA), an active compound from Withania somnifera, is widely researched for its anti-inflammatory, cardioactive and central nervous system effects. In this study, we first investigated the possible barrier protective effects of WFA against pro-inflammatory responses in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and in mice induced by high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) and the associated signaling pathways. The barrier protective activities of WFA were determined by measuring permeability, leukocytes adhesion and migration, and activation of pro-inflammatory proteins in HMGB1-activated HUVECs. We found that WFA inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced HMGB1 release and HMGB1-mediated barrier disruption, expression of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) and adhesion/transendothelial migration of leukocytes to human endothelial cells. WFA also suppressed acetic acid-induced hyperpermeability and carboxymethylcellulose-induced leukocytes migration in vivo. Further studies revealed that WFA suppressed the production of interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) by HMGB1. Collectively, these results suggest that WFA protects vascular barrier integrity by inhibiting hyperpermeability, expression of CAMs, adhesion and migration of leukocytes, thereby endorsing its usefulness as a therapy for vascular inflammatory diseases. -- Highlights: ► Withaferin A inhibited LPS induced HMGB1 release. ► Withaferin A reduced HMGB1-mediated hyperpermeability. ► Withaferin A inhibited HMGB1-mediated adhesion and migration of leukocytes. ► Withaferin A inhibited HMGB1-mediated activation of NF-κB, IL-6 and TNF-α.

  10. Barrier protective effects of withaferin A in HMGB1-induced inflammatory responses in both cellular and animal models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Wonhwa [College of Pharmacy, Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Hoon [Department of Herbal Medicinal Pharmacology, Daegu Haany University (Korea, Republic of); Ku, Sae-Kwang [Department of Anatomy and Histology, College of Oriental Medicine, Daegu Haany University, Gyeongsan 712-715 (Korea, Republic of); Min, Kyoung-jin [Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Keimyung University, Daegu 704-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun-Shik [School of Life Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Taeg Kyu [Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Keimyung University, Daegu 704-701 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Jong-Sup, E-mail: baejs@knu.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-01

    Withaferin A (WFA), an active compound from Withania somnifera, is widely researched for its anti-inflammatory, cardioactive and central nervous system effects. In this study, we first investigated the possible barrier protective effects of WFA against pro-inflammatory responses in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and in mice induced by high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) and the associated signaling pathways. The barrier protective activities of WFA were determined by measuring permeability, leukocytes adhesion and migration, and activation of pro-inflammatory proteins in HMGB1-activated HUVECs. We found that WFA inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced HMGB1 release and HMGB1-mediated barrier disruption, expression of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) and adhesion/transendothelial migration of leukocytes to human endothelial cells. WFA also suppressed acetic acid-induced hyperpermeability and carboxymethylcellulose-induced leukocytes migration in vivo. Further studies revealed that WFA suppressed the production of interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) by HMGB1. Collectively, these results suggest that WFA protects vascular barrier integrity by inhibiting hyperpermeability, expression of CAMs, adhesion and migration of leukocytes, thereby endorsing its usefulness as a therapy for vascular inflammatory diseases. -- Highlights: ► Withaferin A inhibited LPS induced HMGB1 release. ► Withaferin A reduced HMGB1-mediated hyperpermeability. ► Withaferin A inhibited HMGB1-mediated adhesion and migration of leukocytes. ► Withaferin A inhibited HMGB1-mediated activation of NF-κB, IL-6 and TNF-α.

  11. Cellular inactivation of nitric oxide induces p53-dependent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research August 2016; 15 (8): 1595-1603 ... Cellular inactivation of nitric oxide induces p53-dependent apoptosis in ... apoptosis induced by a selective iNOS inhibitor, N-[(3-aminomethyl) benzyl] acetamidine (1400W), .... and nitrate. ... Nitrite production was measured in culture media.

  12. Cellular mechanisms of noise-induced hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurabi, Arwa; Keithley, Elizabeth M; Housley, Gary D; Ryan, Allen F; Wong, Ann C-Y

    2017-06-01

    Exposure to intense sound or noise can result in purely temporary threshold shift (TTS), or leave a residual permanent threshold shift (PTS) along with alterations in growth functions of auditory nerve output. Recent research has revealed a number of mechanisms that contribute to noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). The principle cause of NIHL is damage to cochlear hair cells and associated synaptopathy. Contributions to TTS include reversible damage to hair cell (HC) stereocilia or synapses, while moderate TTS reflects protective purinergic hearing adaptation. PTS represents permanent damage to or loss of HCs and synapses. While the substrates of HC damage are complex, they include the accumulation of reactive oxygen species and the active stimulation of intracellular stress pathways, leading to programmed and/or necrotic cell death. Permanent damage to cochlear neurons can also contribute to the effects of NIHL, in addition to HC damage. These mechanisms have translational potential for pharmacological intervention and provide multiple opportunities to prevent HC damage or to rescue HCs and spiral ganglion neurons that have suffered injury. This paper reviews advances in our understanding of cellular mechanisms that contribute to NIHL and their potential for therapeutic manipulation. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Naphthazarin protects against glutamate-induced neuronal death via activation of the Nrf2/ARE pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Tae Gen; Kawamoto, Elisa M.; Yu, Qian-Sheng; Greig, Nigel H. [Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging, Intramural Research Program, 251 Bayview Blvd., Baltimore, MD 21224 (United States); Mattson, Mark P. [Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging, Intramural Research Program, 251 Bayview Blvd., Baltimore, MD 21224 (United States); Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Camandola, Simonetta, E-mail: camandolasi@mail.nih.gov [Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging, Intramural Research Program, 251 Bayview Blvd., Baltimore, MD 21224 (United States)

    2013-04-19

    Highlights: •Naphthazarin activates the Nrf2/ARE pathway. •Naphthazarin induces Nrf2-driven genes in neurons and astrocytes. •Naphthazarin protects neurons against excitotoxicity. -- Abstract: Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway is an important cellular stress response pathway involved in neuroprotection. We previously screened several natural phytochemicals and identified plumbagin as a novel activator of the Nrf2/ARE pathway that can protect neurons against ischemic injury. Here we extended our studies to natural and synthetic derivatives of plumbagin. We found that 5,8-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (naphthazarin) is a potent activator of the Nrf2/ARE pathway, up-regulates the expression of Nrf2-driven genes in primary neuronal and glial cultures, and protects neurons against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity.

  14. Naphthazarin protects against glutamate-induced neuronal death via activation of the Nrf2/ARE pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Tae Gen; Kawamoto, Elisa M.; Yu, Qian-Sheng; Greig, Nigel H.; Mattson, Mark P.; Camandola, Simonetta

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Naphthazarin activates the Nrf2/ARE pathway. •Naphthazarin induces Nrf2-driven genes in neurons and astrocytes. •Naphthazarin protects neurons against excitotoxicity. -- Abstract: Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway is an important cellular stress response pathway involved in neuroprotection. We previously screened several natural phytochemicals and identified plumbagin as a novel activator of the Nrf2/ARE pathway that can protect neurons against ischemic injury. Here we extended our studies to natural and synthetic derivatives of plumbagin. We found that 5,8-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (naphthazarin) is a potent activator of the Nrf2/ARE pathway, up-regulates the expression of Nrf2-driven genes in primary neuronal and glial cultures, and protects neurons against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity

  15. Protection against UVA-induced photooxidative damage in mammalian cell lines expressing increased levels of metallothionein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudek, E.J.; Roth, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    Metallothionein (MT) is an endogenous low molecular weight protein that is inducible in a variety of eukaryotic cells and has the ability to selectivity bind heavy metal ions such as zinc and the cadmium. Although the exact physiological role of MT is still not understood, there is strong evidence that MT is involved in providing cellular resistance against the damaging effects of heavy metals and in the regulation of intracellular zinc and copper. Recently, it has been demonstrated that MT can scavenge radiation-induced reactive oxygen intermediates in vitro, specifically hydroxyl and superoxide radicals, and because of these observations it has been suggested that MT may provide protection against radiation-induced oxidative stress in vivo. Cell lines expressing increased levels of MT have demonstrated resistance to ionizing radiation, to ultraviolet radiation, and also to various DNA damaging agents including melphalan and cis-diaminedichloroplatinum. It is therefore important to gain some insight into the relationship between cellular MT content and cellular resistance to radiation and other DNA damaging agents. In this study we investigated the role of MT in providing protection against monochromatic 365-nm UVA radiation, which is known to generate intracellular reactive oxygen species that are involved in both DNA damage and cell killing. For this purpose, we used zinc acetate, a potent inducer of MT, to elevate MT levels in V79 Chinese hamster fibroblasts prior to UVA exposure and determined cell survival for uninduced and induced cultures. In order to eliminate any zinc effects other than MT induction, we also isolated and characterized cadmium chloride-resistant clones of V79 cells that have increased steady-state levels of both MT mRNA and protein, and we examined their survival characteristics against 365-nm radiation in the absence of zinc acetate. 14 refs., 3 figs

  16. Optimal channel utilization and service protection in cellular communication systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Villy Bæk

    1997-01-01

    In mobile communications an efficient utilization of the channels is of great importance.In this paper we consider the basic principles for obtaining the maximum utilization, and we study strategies for obtaining these limits.In general a high degree of sharing is efficient, but requires service...... protection mechanisms for protecting services and subscriber groups.We study cellular systems with overlaid cells, and the effect of overlapping cells, and we show that by dynamic channel allocation we obtain a high utilization.The models are generalizations of the Erlang-B formula, and can be evaluated...

  17. Hyperglycemia Induces Cellular Hypoxia through Production of Mitochondrial ROS Followed by Suppression of Aquaporin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sada, Kiminori; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Kukidome, Daisuke; Yoshinaga, Tomoaki; Kajihara, Nobuhiro; Sonoda, Kazuhiro; Senokuchi, Takafumi; Motoshima, Hiroyuki; Matsumura, Takeshi; Araki, Eiichi

    2016-01-01

    We previously proposed that hyperglycemia-induced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) generation is a key event in the development of diabetic complications. Interestingly, some common aspects exist between hyperglycemia and hypoxia-induced phenomena. Thus, hyperglycemia may induce cellular hypoxia, and this phenomenon may also be involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. In endothelial cells (ECs), cellular hypoxia increased after incubation with high glucose (HG). A similar phenomenon was observed in glomeruli of diabetic mice. HG-induced cellular hypoxia was suppressed by mitochondria blockades or manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) overexpression, which is a specific SOD for mtROS. Overexpression of MnSOD also increased the expression of aquaporin-1 (AQP1), a water and oxygen channel. AQP1 overexpression in ECs suppressed hyperglycemia-induced cellular hypoxia, endothelin-1 and fibronectin overproduction, and apoptosis. Therefore, hyperglycemia-induced cellular hypoxia and mtROS generation may promote hyperglycemic damage in a coordinated manner.

  18. Hyperglycemia Induces Cellular Hypoxia through Production of Mitochondrial ROS Followed by Suppression of Aquaporin-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiminori Sada

    Full Text Available We previously proposed that hyperglycemia-induced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS generation is a key event in the development of diabetic complications. Interestingly, some common aspects exist between hyperglycemia and hypoxia-induced phenomena. Thus, hyperglycemia may induce cellular hypoxia, and this phenomenon may also be involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. In endothelial cells (ECs, cellular hypoxia increased after incubation with high glucose (HG. A similar phenomenon was observed in glomeruli of diabetic mice. HG-induced cellular hypoxia was suppressed by mitochondria blockades or manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD overexpression, which is a specific SOD for mtROS. Overexpression of MnSOD also increased the expression of aquaporin-1 (AQP1, a water and oxygen channel. AQP1 overexpression in ECs suppressed hyperglycemia-induced cellular hypoxia, endothelin-1 and fibronectin overproduction, and apoptosis. Therefore, hyperglycemia-induced cellular hypoxia and mtROS generation may promote hyperglycemic damage in a coordinated manner.

  19. Mulberry Fruit Extract Affords Protection against Ethyl Carbamate-Induced Cytotoxicity and Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethyl carbamate (EC is a food and environmental toxicant and is a cause of concern for human exposure. Several studies indicated that EC-induced toxicity was associated with oxidative stress. Mulberry fruits are reported to have a wide range of bioactive compounds and pharmacological activities. The present study was therefore aimed to investigate the protective property of mulberry fruit extract (MFE on EC-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress. Chemical composition analysis showed that total phenolic content and total flavonoid content in MFE were 502.43 ± 5.10 and 219.12 ± 4.45 mg QE/100 g FW. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside were the major anthocyanins in MFE. In vitro antioxidant studies (DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays jointly exhibited the potent antioxidant capacity of MFE. Further study indicated that MFE protected human liver HepG2 cells from EC-induced cytotoxicity by scavenging overproduced cellular ROS. EC treatment promoted intracellular glutathione (GSH depletion and caused mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP collapse, as well as mitochondrial membrane lipid peroxidation, whereas MFE pretreatment significantly inhibited GSH depletion and restored the mitochondrial membrane function. Overall, our study suggested that polyphenolic-rich MFE could afford a potent protection against EC-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress.

  20. δ- and γ-tocopherols inhibit phIP/DSS-induced colon carcinogenesis by protection against early cellular and DNA damages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jayson X; Liu, Anna; Lee, Mao-Jung; Wang, Hong; Yu, Siyuan; Chi, Eric; Reuhl, Kenneth; Suh, Nanjoo; Yang, Chung S

    2017-01-01

    Tocopherols, the major forms of vitamin E, are a family of fat-soluble compounds that exist in alpha (α-T), beta (β-T), gamma (γ-T), and delta (δ-T) variants. A cancer preventive effect of vitamin E is suggested by epidemiological studies. However, past animal studies and human intervention trials with α-T, the most active vitamin E form, have yielded disappointing results. A possible explanation is that the cancer preventive activity of α-T is weak compared to other tocopherol forms. In the present study, we investigated the effects of δ-T, γ-T, and α-T (0.2% in diet) in a novel colon cancer model induced by the meat-derived dietary carcinogen, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and promoted by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in CYP1A-humanized (hCYP1A) mice. PhIP/DSS treatments induced multiple polypoid tumors, mainly tubular adenocarcinomas, in the middle to distal colon of the hCYP1A mice after 10 wk. Dietary supplementation with δ-T and γ-T significantly reduced colon tumor formation and suppressed markers of oxidative and nitrosative stress (i.e., 8-oxo-dG and nitrotyrosine) as well as pro-inflammatory mediators (i.e., NF-κB p65 and p-STAT3) in tumors and adjacent tissues. By administering δ-T at different time periods, we obtained results suggesting that the inhibitory effect of δ-T against colon carcinogenesis is mainly due to protection against early cellular and DNA damages caused by PhIP. α-T was found to be ineffective in inhibiting colon tumors and less effective in attenuating the molecular changes. Altogether, we demonstrated strong cancer preventive effects of δ-T and γ-T in a physiologically relevant model of human colon cancer. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Protective Roles of N-acetyl Cysteine and/or Taurine against Sumatriptan-Induced Hepatotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Khalili Fard

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Triptans are the drug category mostly prescribed for abortive treatment of migraine. Most recent cases of liver toxicity induced by triptans have been described, but the mechanisms of liver toxicity of these medications have not been clear. Methods: In the present study, we obtained LC50 using dose-response curve and investigated cell viability, free radical generation, lipid peroxide production, mitochondrial injury, lysosomal membrane damage and the cellular glutathione level as toxicity markers as well as the beneficial effects of taurine and/or N-acetyl cysteine in the sumatriptan-treated rat parenchymal hepatocytes using accelerated method of cytotoxicity mechanism screening. Results: It was revealed that liver toxicity induced by sumatriptan in in freshly isolated parenchymal hepatocytes is dose-dependent. Sumatriptan caused significant free radical generation followed by lipid peroxide formation, mitochondrial injury as well as lysosomal damage. Moreover, sumatriptan reduced cellular glutathione content. Taurine and N-acetyl cysteine were able to protect hepatocytes against sumatriptan-induced harmful effects. Conclusion: It is concluded that sumatriptan causes oxidative stress in hepatocytes and the decreased hepatocytes glutathione has a key role in the sumatriptan-induced harmful effects. Also, N-acetyl cysteine and/or taurine could be used as treatments in sumatriptan-induced side effects.

  2. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) protects against chromate-induced toxicity in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Fen; Sun, Hong; Kluz, Thomas; Clancy, Hailey A.; Kiok, Kathrin; Costa, Max, E-mail: Max.Costa@nyumc.org

    2012-01-15

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a human carcinogen that results in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a variety of DNA lesions leading to cell death. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major polyphenol present in green tea, possesses potent antioxidative activity capable of protecting normal cells from various stimuli-induced oxidative stress and cell death. Here we demonstrated that co-treatment with EGCG protected human normal bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells from Cr(VI)-induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner. Cr(VI) induces apoptosis as the primary mode of cell death. Co-treatment of BEAS-2B cells with EGCG dose-dependently suppressed Cr(VI)-induced apoptosis. Fluorescence microscopic analyses and quantitative measurement revealed that EGCG significantly decreased intracellular levels of ROS induced by Cr(VI) exposure. Using a well-established K{sup +}/SDS precipitation assay, we further showed that EGCG was able to dose-dependently reduce DNA–protein cross-links (DPC), lesions that could be partially attributed to Cr(VI)-induced oxidative stress. Finally, analyses of Affymetrix microarray containing 28,869 well-annotated genes revealed that, among the 3412 genes changed more than 1.5-fold by Cr(VI) treatment, changes of 2404 genes (70%) were inhibited by pretreatment of EGCG. Real-time PCR confirmed the induction of 3 genes involved in cell death and apoptosis by Cr(VI), which was eliminated by EGCG. In contrast, Cr(VI) reduced the expression of 3 genes related to cellular defense, and this reduction was inhibited by EGCG. Our results indicate that EGCG protects BEAS-2B cells from Cr(VI)-induced cytotoxicity presumably by scavenging ROS and modulating a subset of genes. EGCG, therefore, might serve as a potential chemopreventive agent against Cr(VI) carcinogenesis. -- Highlights: ► EGCG protected human normal bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells from Cr(VI)-induced cell death and apoptosis. ► EGCG significantly decreased

  3. Nitric oxide protects carbon assimilation process of watermelon from boron-induced oxidative injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Mohamed; Najeeb, Ullah; Yang, Jinghua; Hu, Zhongyuan; Fang, Zhang Ming

    2017-02-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) mediates plant response to a variety of abiotic stresses; however, limited information is available on its effect on boron (B)-stressed watermelon plants. The present study investigates the mechanism through which NO protects watermelon seedlings from B deficiency and toxicity stresses. Five days old watermelon seedlings were exposed to B (0, 0.5 and 10 mg L -1 ) alone or with 75 μmole of NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) for 30 days. Both low and high B concentrations in the media altered nutrient accumulation and impaired various physiological processes of watermelon seedlings, leading to a significant reduction in biomass production. The plants exposed to B deficient or toxic concentrations had 66 and 69% lower shoot dry weight, respectively compared with optimum B levels. B toxicity-induced growth inhibition of watermelon seedlings was associated with high B translocation to shoot tissues, which caused lipid membrane peroxidation (12% increase) and chlorophyll destruction (25% reduction). In contrast, B deficiency accelerated generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), specifically OH -1 and induced cellular oxidative injury. Exogenously applied SNP promoted leaf chlorophyll, photosynthesis and consequently biomass production in B-stressed watermelon seedlings by reducing B accumulation, lipid membrane peroxidation and ROS generation. It also activated antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, POD and APX, and protected the seedlings from ROS-induced cellular burst. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  4. Long-Term Exercise Protects against Cellular Stresses in Aged Mice

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    Irina Belaya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study examined the effect of aging and long-term wheel-running on the expression of heat shock protein (HSP, redox regulation, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress markers in tibialis anterior (T.A. and soleus muscle of mice. Male mice were divided into young (Y, 3-month-old, old-sedentary (OS, 24-month-old, and old-exercise (OE, 24-month-old groups. The OE group started voluntary wheel-running at 3 months and continued until 24 months of age. Aging was associated with a higher thioredoxin-interacting protein (TxNiP level, lower thioredoxin-1 (TRX-1 to TxNiP ratio—a determinant of redox regulation and increased CHOP, an indicator of ER stress-related apoptosis signaling in both muscles. Notably, GRP78, a key indicator of ER stress, was selectively elevated in T.A. Long-term exercise decreased TxNiP in T.A. and soleus muscles and increased the TRX-1/TxNiP ratio in soleus muscle of aged mice. Inducible HSP70 and constituent HSC70 were upregulated, whereas CHOP was reduced after exercise in soleus muscle. Thus, our data demonstrated that aging induced oxidative stress and activated ER stress-related apoptosis signaling in skeletal muscle, whereas long-term wheel-running improved redox regulation, ER stress adaptation and attenuated ER stress-related apoptosis signaling. These findings suggest that life-long exercise can protect against age-related cellular stress.

  5. FK506 protects against articular cartilage collagenous extra-cellular matrix degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebelt, M; van der Windt, A E; Groen, H C; Sandker, M; Waarsing, J H; Müller, C; de Jong, M; Jahr, H; Weinans, H

    2014-04-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a non-rheumatologic joint disease characterized by progressive degeneration of the cartilage extra-cellular matrix (ECM), enhanced subchondral bone remodeling, activation of synovial macrophages and osteophyte growth. Inhibition of calcineurin (Cn) activity through tacrolimus (FK506) in in vitro monolayer chondrocytes exerts positive effects on ECM marker expression. This study therefore investigated the effects of FK506 on anabolic and catabolic markers of osteoarthritic chondrocytes in 2D and 3D in vitro cultures, and its therapeutic effects in an in vivo rat model of OA. Effects of high and low doses of FK506 on anabolic (QPCR/histochemistry) and catabolic (QPCR) markers were evaluated in vitro on isolated (2D) and ECM-embedded chondrocytes (explants, 3D pellets). Severe cartilage damage was induced unilaterally in rat knees using papain injections in combination with a moderate running protocol. Twenty rats were treated with FK506 orally and compared to twenty untreated controls. Subchondral cortical and trabecular bone changes (longitudinal microCT) and macrophage activation (SPECT/CT) were measured. Articular cartilage was analyzed ex vivo using contrast enhanced microCT and histology. FK506 treatment of osteoarthritic chondrocytes in vitro induced anabolic (mainly collagens) and reduced catabolic ECM marker expression. In line with this, FK506 treatment clearly protected ECM integrity in vivo by markedly decreasing subchondral sclerosis, less development of subchondral pores, depletion of synovial macrophage activation and lower osteophyte growth. FK506 protected cartilage matrix integrity in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, FK506 treatment in vivo reduced OA-like responses in different articular joint tissues and thereby makes Cn an interesting target for therapeutic intervention of OA. Copyright © 2014 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. N-Acetyl Cysteine Protects against Methamphetamine-Induced Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration via Modulation of Redox Status and Autophagy in Dopaminergic Cells

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    Prashanth Chandramani Shivalingappa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine- (MA- induced neurotoxicity is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and enhanced oxidative stress. Our previous study demonstrated that MA induces autophagy in a dopaminergic neuronal cell model (N27 cells. The cellular mechanisms underlying MA-induced autophagy and apoptosis remain poorly characterized. In the present study we sought to investigate the importance of GSH redox status in MA-induced neurotoxicity using a thiol antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine (NAC. Morphological and biochemical analysis revealed that MA-induced autophagy in N27 dopaminergic cells was associated with pronounced depletion of GSH levels. Moreover, pretreatment with NAC reduced MA-induced GSH depletion and autophagy, while depletion of GSH using L-buthionine sulfoximine (L-BSO enhanced autophagy. Furthermore, treatment with NAC significantly attenuated MA-induced apoptotic cell death as well as oxidative stress markers, namely, 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE. Together, these results suggest that NAC exhibits significant protective effects against MA-induced dopaminergic cell death, presumably via modulation of the GSH level and autophagy. Collectively, our data provide mechanistic insights into the role of cellular GSH redox status in MA-induced autophagy and apoptotic cell death, and additional studies are needed to determine the therapeutic effectiveness of cellular redox modifiers in attenuating dopaminergic neurodegeneration in vivo.

  7. Inhibition of Methylglyoxal-Induced AGEs/RAGE Expression Contributes to Dermal Protection by N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine

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    Chun-tao Yang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs is a major cause of diabetes mellitus (DM skin complications. Methylglyoxal (MGO, a reactive dicarbonyl compound, is a crucial intermediate of AGEs generation. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC, an active ingredient of some medicines, can induce endogenous GSH and hydrogen sulfide generation, and set off a condensation reaction with MGO. However, there is rare evidence to show NAC can alleviate DM-induced skin injury through inhibition of AGEs generation or toxicity. The present study aimed to observe the effects of NAC on MGO-induced inflammatory injury and investigate the roles of AGEs and its receptor (RAGE in NAC’s dermal protection in human HaCaT keratinocytes. Methods: The cells were exposed to MGO to simulate a high MGO status in diabetic blood or tissues. The content of AGEs in serum or cell medium was measured with ELISA. The protective effects of NAC against MGO-induce injury were evaluated by administration before MGO one hour, in virtue of cell viability, mitochondrial membrane potential, inflammation reaction, nuclear factor (NF-κB activation, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9 expression, as well as cellular behavioral function. Results: We found the AGEs levels of patients with DM were elevated comparing with healthy volunteers. The in vitro AGEs generation was also able to be enhanced by the exposure of HaCaT cells to MGO, which reduced dose-dependently cellular viability, damaged mitochondrial function, triggered secretion of interleukin (IL-6 and IL-8, activated NF-κB and upregulated MMP-9 expression. Furthermore, the exposure caused cellular adhesion and migration dysfunction, as well as collagen type I inhibition. Importantly, before the exposure to MGO, the preconditioning with NAC significantly attenuated MGO-induced AGEs generation, improved cellular viability and mitochondrial function, partially reversed the overexpression of proinflammatory factors and MMP-9

  8. Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells by which Total Saponin Extracted from Tribulus Terrestris Protects Against Artherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengquan Li

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Total saponin extracted from Tribulus terrestris (TSETT has been reported to protect against atherosclerosis. We here investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms of TSETT underlying protection against atherosclerosis. Methods: Cell proliferation was measured with Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT; Intracellular H2O2 was measured with DCFH-DA, a fluorescent dye; Intracellular free Ca2+ was measured with a confocal laser scanning microscopy; Genes expression was measured with gene array and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR; Phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (phospho-ERK1/2 was measured with cell-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and western blotting. Results: TSETT significantly suppressed the increase in cells proliferation induced by angiotensin II, significantly suppressed the increase in the intracellular production of H2O2 induced by angiotensin II, significantly inhibited the increase in intracellular free Ca2+ induced by H2O2, significantly inhibited the increase in phospho-ERK1/2 induced by angiotensin II; significantly inhibited the increase in mRNA expression of c-fos, c-jun and pkc-α induced by angiotensin II. Conclusion: These findings provide a new insight into the antiatherosclerotic properties of TSETT and provide a pharmacological basis for the clinical application of TSETT in anti-atherosclerosis.

  9. Cellular and molecular mechanisms in vascular smooth muscle cells by which total saponin extracted from Tribulus terrestris protects against artherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengquan; Guan, Yue; Liu, Jiaqi; Zhai, Fengguo; Zhang, Xiuping; Guan, Lixin

    2013-01-01

    Total saponin extracted from Tribulus terrestris (TSETT) has been reported to protect against atherosclerosis. We here investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms of TSETT underlying protection against atherosclerosis. Cell proliferation was measured with Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT); Intracellular H2O2 was measured with DCFH-DA, a fluorescent dye; Intracellular free Ca(2+) was measured with a confocal laser scanning microscopy; Genes expression was measured with gene array and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); Phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (phospho-ERK1/2) was measured with cell-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blotting. TSETT significantly suppressed the increase in cells proliferation induced by angiotensin II, significantly suppressed the increase in the intracellular production of H2O2 induced by angiotensin II, significantly inhibited the increase in intracellular free Ca(2+) induced by H2O2, significantly inhibited the increase in phospho-ERK1/2 induced by angiotensin II; significantly inhibited the increase in mRNA expression of c-fos, c-jun and pkc-α induced by angiotensin II. These findings provide a new insight into the antiatherosclerotic properties of TSETT and provide a pharmacological basis for the clinical application of TSETT in anti-atherosclerosis. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Anthocyanins Protect SK-N-SH Cells Against Acrolein-Induced Toxicity by Preserving the Cellular Redox State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkacemi, Abdenour; Ramassamy, Charles

    2016-01-01

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients, by-products of lipid peroxidation such as acrolein accumulated in vulnerable regions of the brain. We have previously shown that acrolein is a highly reactive and neurotoxic aldehyde and its toxicity involves the alteration of several redox-sensitive pathways. Recently, protein-conjugated acrolein in cerebrospinal fluid has been proposed as a biomarker to distinguish between MCI and AD. With growing evidence of the early involvement of oxidative stress in AD etiology, one would expect that a successful therapy should prevent brain oxidative damage. In this regard, several studies have demonstrated that polyphenol-rich extracts exert beneficial effect on cognitive impairment and oxidative stress. We have recently demonstrated the efficacy of an anthocyanin formulation (MAF14001) against amyloid-β-induced oxidative stress. The aim of this study is to investigate the neuroprotective effect of MAF14001 as a mixture of anthocyanins, a particular class of polyphenols, against acrolein-induced oxidative damage in SK-N-SH neuronal cells. Our results demonstrated that MAF14001, from 5μM, was able to efficiently protect SK-N-SH cells against acrolein-induced cell death. MAF14001 was able to lower reactive oxygen species and protein carbonyl levels induced by acrolein. Moreover, MAF1401 prevented glutathione depletion and positively modulated, in the presence of acrolein, some oxidative stress-sensitive pathways including the transcription factors NF-κB and Nrf2, the proteins γ-GCS and GSK3β, and the protein adaptator p66Shc. Along with its proven protective effect against amyloid-β toxicity, these results demonstrate that MAF14001 could target multiple mechanisms and could be a promising agent for AD prevention.

  11. [Stress-induced cellular adaptive mutagenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Linjiang; Li, Qi

    2014-04-01

    The adaptive mutations exist widely in the evolution of cells, such as antibiotic resistance mutations of pathogenic bacteria, adaptive evolution of industrial strains, and cancerization of human somatic cells. However, how these adaptive mutations are generated is still controversial. Based on the mutational analysis models under the nonlethal selection conditions, stress-induced cellular adaptive mutagenesis is proposed as a new evolutionary viewpoint. The hypothetic pathway of stress-induced mutagenesis involves several intracellular physiological responses, including DNA damages caused by accumulation of intracellular toxic chemicals, limitation of DNA MMR (mismatch repair) activity, upregulation of general stress response and activation of SOS response. These responses directly affect the accuracy of DNA replication from a high-fidelity manner to an error-prone one. The state changes of cell physiology significantly increase intracellular mutation rate and recombination activity. In addition, gene transcription under stress condition increases the instability of genome in response to DNA damage, resulting in transcription-associated DNA mutagenesis. In this review, we summarize these two molecular mechanisms of stress-induced mutagenesis and transcription-associated DNA mutagenesis to help better understand the mechanisms of adaptive mutagenesis.

  12. TSA protects H9c2 cells against thapsigargin-induced apoptosis related to endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated mitochondrial injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiping; Liu, Yan; Dai, Xinlun; Zhou, Qiangqiang; Liu, Xueli; Li, Zeyu; Chen, Xia

    2017-05-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) activates an adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR) that facilitates cellular repair, however, under prolonged ER stress, the UPR can ultimately trigger apoptosis thereby terminating damaged cells. Recently, TSA has shown protective effects on ERS and its mechanisms related to ER pathway has been previously characterized. However, whether TSA exerts its protective role via metabolic events remain largely undefined. Objectives : To explore the possible involvement of the metabolic changes during ERS and to better understand how TSA influence mitochondrial function to facilitate cellular adaptation. Results : TSA is an inhibitor of histone deacetylase which could significantly inhibit H9c2 cell apoptosis induced by Thapsigargin (TG). It also intervene the decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential. By immunofluorescence staining, we have shown that GRP78 was concentrated in the perinuclear region and co-localized with ER. However, treatments with TG and TSA could let it overlap with the mitochondrial marker MitoTracker. Cellular fractionation also confirmed the location of GRP78 in mitochondrion. TSA decreases ERS-induced cell apoptosis and mitochondrial injury may related to enhance the location of GRP78 in mitochondrion.

  13. Cellular sources and targets of IFN-γ-mediated protection against viral demyelination and neurological deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Paul D.; McGavern, Dorian B.; Pease, Larry R.; Rodriguez, Moses

    2017-01-01

    IFN-γ is an anti-viral and immunomodulatory cytokine critical for resistance to multiple pathogens. Using mice with targeted disruption of the gene for IFN-γ, we previously demonstrated that this cytokine is critical for resistance to viral persistence and demyelination in the Theiler’s virus model of multiple sclerosis. During viral infections, IFN-γ is produced by natural killer (NK) cells, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells; however, the proportions of lymphocyte subsets responding to virus infection influences the contributions to IFN-γ-mediated protection. To determine the lymphocyte subsets that produce IFN-γ to maintain resistance, we used adoptive transfer strategies to generate mice with lymphocyte-specific deficiencies in IFN-γ-production. We demonstrate that IFN-γ production by both CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets is critical for resistance to Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV)-induced demyelination and neurological disease, and that CD4+ T cells make a greater contribution to IFN-γ-mediated protection. To determine the cellular targets of IFN-γ-mediated responses, we used adoptive transfer studies and bone marrow chimerism to generate mice in which either hematopoietic or somatic cells lacked the ability to express IFN-γ receptor. We demonstrate that IFN-γ receptor must be present on central nervous system glia, but not bone marrow-derived lymphocytes, in order to maintain resistance to TMEV-induced demyelination. PMID:11857334

  14. Potentiation of lead-induced cell death in PC12 cells by glutamate: Protection by N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA), a novel thiol antioxidant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penugonda, Suman; Mare, Suneetha; Lutz, P.; Banks, William A.; Ercal, Nuran

    2006-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated as an important factor in many neurological diseases. Oxidative toxicity in a number of these conditions is induced by excessive glutamate release and subsequent glutamatergic neuronal stimulation. This, in turn, causes increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, and neuronal damage. Recent studies indicate that the glutamatergic neurotransmitter system is involved in lead-induced neurotoxicity. Therefore, this study aimed to (1) investigate the potential effects of glutamate on lead-induced PC12 cell death and (2) elucidate whether the novel thiol antioxidant N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA) had any protective abilities against such cytotoxicity. Our results suggest that glutamate (1 mM) potentiates lead-induced cytotoxicity by increased generation of ROS, decreased proliferation (MTS), decreased glutathione (GSH) levels, and depletion of cellular adenosine-triphosphate (ATP). Consistent with its ability to decrease ATP levels and induce cell death, lead also increased caspase-3 activity, an effect potentiated by glutamate. Exposure to glutamate and lead elevated the cellular malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and phospholipase-A 2 (PLA 2 ) activity and diminished the glutamine synthetase (GS) activity. NACA protected PC12 cells from the cytotoxic effects of glutamate plus lead, as evaluated by MTS assay. NACA reduced the decrease in the cellular ATP levels and restored the intracellular GSH levels. The increased levels of ROS and MDA in glutamate-lead treated cells were significantly decreased by NACA. In conclusion, our data showed that glutamate potentiated the effects of lead-induced PC12 cell death by a mechanism involving mitochondrial dysfunction (ATP depletion) and oxidative stress. NACA had a protective role against the combined toxic effects of glutamate and lead by inhibiting lipid peroxidation and scavenging ROS, thus preserving intracellular GSH

  15. Sporothrix schenckii Immunization, but Not Infection, Induces Protective Th17 Responses Mediated by Circulating Memory CD4+ T Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto García-Lozano

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Sporotrichosis is a chronic subcutaneous mycosis caused by the Sporothrix schenckii species complex and it is considered an emerging opportunistic infection in countries with tropical and subtropical climates. The host’s immune response has a main role in the development of this disease. However, it is unknown the features of the memory cellular immune response that could protect against the infection. Our results show that i.d. immunization in the ears of mice with inactivated S. schenckii conidia (iC combined with the cholera toxin (CT induces a cellular immune response mediated by circulating memory CD4+ T cells, which mainly produce interleukin 17 (IL-17. These cells mediate a strong delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH reaction. Systemic and local protection against S. schenckii was mediated by circulating CD4+ T cells. In contrast, the infection induces a potent immune response in the skin mediated by CD4+ T cells, which have an effector phenotype that preferentially produce interferon gamma (IFN-γ and mediate a transitory DTH reaction. Our findings prove the potential value of the CT as a potent skin adjuvant when combined with fungal antigens, and they also have important implications for our better understanding of the differences between the memory immune response induced by the skin immunization and those induced by the infection; this knowledge enhances our understanding of how a protective immune response against a S. schenckii infection is developed.

  16. An immunoproteomic approach revealing peptides from Sporothrix brasiliensis that induce a cellular immune response in subcutaneous sporotrichosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, José Roberto Fogaça; Jannuzzi, Grasielle Pereira; Kaihami, Gilberto Hideo; Breda, Leandro Carvalho Dantas; Ferreira, Karen Spadari; de Almeida, Sandro Rogério

    2018-03-08

    Sporothrix brasiliensis is the most virulent fungus of the Sporothrix complex and is the main species recovered in the sporotrichosis zoonotic hyperendemic area in Rio de Janeiro. A vaccine against S. brasiliensis could improve the current sporotrichosis situation. Here, we show 3 peptides from S. brasiliensis immunogenic proteins that have a higher likelihood for engaging MHC-class II molecules. We investigated the efficiency of the peptides as vaccines for preventing subcutaneous sporotrichosis. In this study, we observed a decrease in lesion diameters in peptide-immunized mice, showing that the peptides could induce a protective immune response against subcutaneous sporotrichosis. ZR8 peptide is from the GP70 protein, the main antigen of the Sporothrix complex, and was the best potential vaccine candidate by increasing CD4 + T cells and higher levels of IFN-γ, IL-17A and IL-1β characterizing a strong cellular immune response. This immune environment induced a higher number of neutrophils in lesions that are associated with fungus clearance. These results indicated that the ZR8 peptide induces a protective immune response against subcutaneous sporotrichosis and is a vaccine candidate against S. brasiliensis infection.

  17. Protective effects of the aqueous extract of Scutellaria baicalensis against acrolein-induced oxidative stress in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xing-Wei; Li, Wei-Fen; Li, Wei-Wei; Ren, Kan-Han; Fan, Chao-Ming; Chen, Ying-Ying; Shen, Yue-Liang

    2011-03-01

     Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (Labiatae) (SbG), one of the fifty fundamental herbs of Chinese herbology, has been reported to have anti-asthmatic, antifungal, antioxidative, and anti-inflammatory activities.  This study was designed to determine the protective effects of the extract of SbG against the acrolein-induced oxidative stress in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC).  The MTT reduction assay was employed to determine cell viability. The total cellular glutathione (GSH) level was detected using a colorimetric GSH assay kit. Cellular GSH production was conducted by detecting the mRNA expression levels of γ-glutamylcysteine ligase catalytic subunit and modifier subunit.  Concentration-dependent cytotoxic effects of acrolein were observed while SbG could effectively protect the acrolein-induced oxidative damage. The protective mechanism was investigated, showing that the increased GSH content in the SbG-incubated HUVE cells was associated with the protective effects of SbG-treated cells. Further RT-PCR data confirmed the elevated mRNA expressions of GSH synthesis enzymes.  The current study strongly indicated that SbG could be a potential antioxidant against oxidative stress in treating cardiovascular diseases.

  18. Yeast CUP1 protects HeLa cells against copper-induced stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, X.X. [Department of Animal Sciences, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Shanghai (China); College of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou (China); Ma, Y.F.; Wang, Q.S.; Chen, Z.L.; Liao, R.R.; Pan, Y.C. [Department of Animal Sciences, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Shanghai (China)

    2015-06-12

    As an essential trace element, copper can be toxic in mammalian cells when present in excess. Metallothioneins (MTs) are small, cysteine-rich proteins that avidly bind copper and thus play an important role in detoxification. YeastCUP1 is a member of the MT gene family. The aim of this study was to determine whether yeast CUP1 could bind copper effectively and protect cells against copper stress. In this study,CUP1 expression was determined by quantitative real-time PCR, and copper content was detected by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was evaluated using the 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein-diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay. Cellular viability was detected using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, and the cell cycle distribution of CUP1 was analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The data indicated that overexpression of yeast CUP1 in HeLa cells played a protective role against copper-induced stress, leading to increased cellular viability (P<0.05) and decreased ROS production (P<0.05). It was also observed that overexpression of yeast CUP1 reduced the percentage of G1 cells and increased the percentage of S cells, which suggested that it contributed to cell viability. We found that overexpression of yeast CUP1 protected HeLa cells against copper stress. These results offer useful data to elucidate the mechanism of the MT gene on copper metabolism in mammalian cells.

  19. Molecular Insights into SIRT1 Protection Against UVB-Induced Skin Fibroblast Senescence by Suppression of Oxidative Stress and p53 Acetylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ki Wung; Choi, Yeon Ja; Park, Min Hi; Jang, Eun Ji; Kim, Dae Hyun; Park, Byung Hyun; Yu, Byung Pal; Chung, Hae Young

    2015-08-01

    Stresses, such as exposure to ultraviolet radiation and those associated with aging, are known to cause premature cellular senescence that is characterized by growth arrest and morphological and gene expression changes. This study was designed to investigate the protective effect of Sirtuin1 (SIRT1) on the UVB-induced premature senescence. Under in vitro experimental conditions, exposure to a subcytotoxic dose of UVB enhanced human skin fibroblasts senescence, as characterized by increased β-galactosidase activity and increased levels of senescence-associated proteins. However, adenovirus-mediated SIRT1 overexpression significantly protected fibroblasts from UVB-induced cellular deterioration. Exposure to UVB-induced cell senescence was associated with oxidative stress and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. Molecular analysis demonstrated that deacetylation of Forkhead box O3α (FOXO3α) by SIRT1 changed the transcriptional activity of FOXO3α and increased resistance to the oxidative stress. In addition, SIRT1 suppressed UVB-induced p53 acetylation and its transcriptional activity, which directly affected the cell cycle arrest induced by UVB. Further study demonstrated that SIRT1 activation inhibited cell senescence in the skin of the HR1 hairless mouse exposed to UVB. The study identifies a new role for SIRT1 in the UVB-induced senescence of skin fibroblats and provides a potential target for skin protection through molecuar insights into the mechanisms responsible for UVB-induced photoaging. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Recombinant proteins of Zaire ebolavirus induce potent humoral and cellular immune responses and protect against live virus infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Axel T; Wong, Teri-Ann S; Lieberman, Michael M; Humphreys, Tom; Clements, David E; Bakken, Russell R; Hart, Mary Kate; Pratt, William D; Dye, John M

    2018-05-24

    Infections with filoviruses in humans are highly virulent, causing hemorrhagic fevers which result in up to 90% mortality. In addition to natural infections, the ability to use these viruses as bioterrorist weapons is of significant concern. Currently, there are no licensed vaccines or therapeutics available to combat these infections. The pathogenesis of disease involves the dysregulation of the host's immune system, which results in impairment of the innate and adaptive immune responses, with subsequent development of lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, hemorrhage, and death. Questions remain with regard to the few survivors of infection, who manage to mount an effective adaptive immune response. These questions concern the humoral and cellular components of this response, and whether such a response can be elicited by an appropriate prophylactic vaccine. The data reported herein describe the production and evaluation of a recombinant subunit Ebola virus vaccine candidate consisting of insect cell expressed Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) surface glycoprotein (GP) and the matrix proteins VP24 and VP40. The recombinant subunit proteins are shown to be highly immunogenic in mice, yielding both humoral and cellular responses, as well as highly efficacious, providing up to 100% protection against a lethal challenge with live virus. These results demonstrate proof of concept for such a recombinant non-replicating vaccine candidate in the mouse model of EBOV which helps to elucidate immune correlates of protection and warrants further development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Cellular adhesion signal transduction network of tumor necrosis factor-alpha induced hepatocellular carcinoma cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yongchang; Du, Shunda; Xu, Haifeng; Xu, Yiyao; Zhao, Haitao; Chi, Tianyi; Lu, Xin; Sang, Xinting; Mao, Yilei

    2014-11-18

    To systemically explore the cellular adhesion signal transduction network of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-induced hepatocellular carcinoma cells with bioinformatics tools. Published microarray dataset of TNF-α-induced HepG2, human transcription factor database HTRI and human protein-protein interaction database HPRD were used to construct and analyze the signal transduction network. In the signal transduction network, MYC and SP1 were the key nodes of signaling transduction. Several genes from the network were closely related with cellular adhesion.Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a possible key gene of effectively regulating cellular adhesion during the induction of TNF-α. EGFR is a possible key gene for TNF-α-induced metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  2. Schisandrin B protects against solar irradiation-induced oxidative injury in BJ human fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Po Yee; Lam, Philip Y; Yan, Chung Wai; Ko, Kam Ming

    2011-06-01

    The effects of schisandrin B (Sch B) and its analogs on solar irradiation-induced oxidative injury were examined in BJ human fibroblasts. Sch B and schisandrin C (Sch C) increased cellular reduced glutathione (GSH) level and protected against solar irradiation-induced oxidative injury. The photoprotection was paralleled by decreases in the elastases-type protease activity and matrix-metalloproteinases-1 expression in solar-irradiated fibroblasts. The cytochrome P-450-mediated metabolism of Sch B or Sch C caused ROS production. The results suggest that by virtue of its pro-oxidant action and the subsequent glutathione antioxidant response, Sch B or Sch C may offer the prospect of preventing skin photo-aging. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Protective effects of nelumbo nucifera against {gamma}-irradiation-induced lipid peroxidation in mice urine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Il Yun; Park, Yong Dae; Jin, Caang Hyun; Choi, Dae Seong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyo Jung [Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    The radioprotective effect of isoquercitrin-abundant fraction (IAF) of N. nucifera Gaertn. Ieaf extract against {gamma}-irradiation-induced oxidative stress was evaluated by the lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes (LPDAs) as a marker for oxidative risk in mice urine, and the DNA damage using comet assay in RAW 264.7 cells. Mice that were treated with IAF (50 mg/kg) and {gamma}-irradiation showed considerably decreased LPDA levels relative to those that had received {gamma}-irradiation alone. Furthermore, pretreatment with IAF resulted in a significant decrease in the amount of DNA damage in cells. It is demonstrated that pretreatment with IAF of N. nucifera Gaertn. gives protection against irradiation-induced cellular damage.

  4. Protective and detrimental bystander effects induced by x-irradiation in the limb bud cell cultures of fetal mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, B.; Ohyama, H.; Shang, Y.; Yukawa, O.; Aizawa, S.; Hayata, I.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Radioadaptive response and bystander effect represent important phenomena in radiobiology with an impact on the novel bioresponse mechanisms and risk estimates. The micromass cultures of limb bud cells (LBCs) provide an in vitro cellular maturation system, in which progress of cellular proliferation and differentiation is comparably paralleled to that of in vivo. This paper reports for the first time the evidential correlation and interaction, which simultaneously exist in the micromass culture system, between radioadaptive response and bystander effect. A radioadaptive response was induced in LBCs of embryonic day 11 (E11) ICR mice. Conditioning irradiation of the E11 cells with 30 cGy resulted in a significant protective effect against the occurrence of apoptosis, inhibition of cellular proliferation and differentiation induced by a challenging dose of 5 Gy given next day. Both protective and detrimental bystander effects were observed, namely, irradiating 50% of the E11 cells with 30 cGy led to a successful induction of radioadaptive response, and irradiating 70% of the E12 cells with 5 Gy produced comparably the detrimental effect to that of when all the cells were irradiated. Further, the bystander effects were markedly vanished by pretreatment of the cells with inhibitors to block the gap junction-mediated intracellular communication. These results indicated that the bystander effect played an important role in both the induction of a protective effect by the conditioning dose and the detrimental effect by the challenging irradiation. Concerning the underlying mechanism, the gap junction-mediated intracellular communication was suggested being involved in the induction of the bystander effects

  5. Methamphetamine induces apoptosis in immortalized neural cells: protection by the proto-oncogene, bcl-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadet, J L; Ordonez, S V; Ordonez, J V

    1997-02-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is an amphetamine analog that produces degeneration of the dopaminergic system in mammals. The neurotoxic effects of the drug are thought to be mediated by oxygen-based free radicals. In the present report, we have used immortalized neural cells obtained from rat mesencephalon in order to further assess the role of oxidative stress in METH-induced neurotoxicity. We thus tested if the anti-death proto-oncogene, bcl-2 could protect against METH-induced cytotoxicity. METH caused dose-dependent loss of cellular viability in control cells while bcl-2-expressing cells were protected against these deleterious effects. Using flow cytometry, immunofluorescent staining, and DNA electrophoresis, we also show that METH exposure can cause DNA strand breaks, chromatin condensation, nuclear fragmentation, and DNA laddering. All these changes were prevented by bcl-2 expression. These observations provide further support for the involvement of oxidative stress in the toxic effects of amphetamine analogs. They also document that METH-induced cytotoxicity is secondary to apoptosis. These findings may be of relevance to the cause(s) of Parkinson's disease which involves degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway.

  6. Moringa oleifera-based diet protects against nickel-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen Adeyemi, Oluyomi; Sokolayemji Aroge, Cincin; Adewumi Akanji, Musbau

    2017-01-01

    Multiple health-promoting effects have been attributed to the consumption of Moringa oleifera leaves, as part of diet without adequate scientific credence. This study evaluated the effect of M. oleifera-based diets on nickel (Ni) - induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Male rats assigned into six groups were given oral administration of 20 mg/kg body weight nickel sulfate in normal saline and either fed normal diet orM. oleifera-based diets for 21 days. All animals were sacrificed under anesthesia 24 hours after the last treatment. Ni exposure elevated the rat plasma activities of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase significantly. Ni exposure also raised the levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol while depleting the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration. Further, Ni exposure raised rat plasma malondialdehyde but depleted reduced glutathione concentrations. The histopathological presentations revealed inflammation and cellular degeneration caused by Ni exposure. We show evidence thatM. oleifera-based diets protected against Ni-induced hepatotoxicity by improving the rat liver function indices, lipid profile as well as restoring cellular architecture and integrity. Study lends credence to the health-promoting value ofM. oleifera as well as underscores its potential to attenuate hepatic injury. PMID:28808207

  7. Protective Effects of Black Rice Extracts on Oxidative Stress Induced by tert-Butyl Hydroperoxide in HepG2 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seon-Mi; Choi, Youngmin; Sung, Jeehye; Kim, Younghwa; Jeong, Heon-Sang; Lee, Junsoo

    2014-01-01

    Black rice contains many biologically active compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of black rice extracts (whole grain extract, WGE and rice bran extract, RBE) on tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP)-induced oxidative injury in HepG2 cells. Cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), antioxidant enzyme activities, malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) concentrations were evaluated as biomarkers of cellular oxidative status. Cells pretreated with 50 and 100 μg/mL of WGE or RBE were more resistant to oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner. The highest WGE and BRE concentrations enhanced GSH concentrations and modulated antioxidant enzyme activities (glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase) compared to TBHP-treated cells. Cells treated with RBE showed higher protective effect compared to cells treated with WGE against oxidative insult. Black rice extracts attenuated oxidative insult by inhibiting cellular ROS and MDA increase and by modulating antioxidant enzyme activities in HepG2 cells. PMID:25580401

  8. Inhibition of Rac1 reduces store overload-induced calcium release and protects against ventricular arrhythmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lili; Lu, Xiangru; Gui, Le; Wu, Yan; Sims, Stephen M; Wang, Guoping; Feng, Qingping

    2016-08-01

    Rac1 is a small GTPase and plays key roles in multiple cellular processes including the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, whether Rac1 activation during myocardial ischaemia and reperfusion (I/R) contributes to arrhythmogenesis is not fully understood. We aimed to study the effects of Rac1 inhibition on store overload-induced Ca(2+) release (SOICR) and ventricular arrhythmia during myocardial I/R. Adult Rac1(f/f) and cardiac-specific Rac1 knockdown (Rac1(ckd) ) mice were subjected to myocardial I/R and their electrocardiograms (ECGs) were monitored for ventricular arrhythmia. Myocardial Rac1 activity was increased and ventricular arrhythmia was induced during I/R in Rac1(f/f) mice. Remarkably, I/R-induced ventricular arrhythmia was significantly decreased in Rac1(ckd) compared to Rac1(f/f) mice. Furthermore, treatment with Rac1 inhibitor NSC23766 decreased I/R-induced ventricular arrhythmia. Ca(2+) imaging analysis showed that in response to a 6 mM external Ca(2+) concentration challenge, SOICR was induced with characteristic spontaneous intracellular Ca(2+) waves in Rac1(f/f) cardiomyocytes. Notably, SOICR was diminished by pharmacological and genetic inhibition of Rac1 in adult cardiomyocytes. Moreover, I/R-induced ROS production and ryanodine receptor 2 (RyR2) oxidation were significantly inhibited in the myocardium of Rac1(ckd) mice. We conclude that Rac1 activation induces ventricular arrhythmia during myocardial I/R. Inhibition of Rac1 suppresses SOICR and protects against ventricular arrhythmia. Blockade of Rac1 activation may represent a new paradigm for the treatment of cardiac arrhythmia in ischaemic heart disease. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  9. Cellular structure formed by ion-implantation-induced point defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitta, N.; Taniwaki, M.; Hayashi, Y.; Yoshiie, T.

    2006-01-01

    The authors have found that a cellular defect structure is formed on the surface of Sn + ion implanted GaSb at a low temperature and proposed its formation mechanism based on the movement of the induced point defects. This research was carried out in order to examine the validity of the mechanism by clarifying the effect of the mobility of the point defects on the defect formation. The defect structure on the GaSb surfaces implanted at cryogenic temperature and room temperature was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation. In the sample implanted at room temperature, the sponge-like structure (a pileup of voids) was formed and the cellular structure, as observed at a low temperature, did not develop. This behavior was explained by the high mobility of the vacancies during implantation at room temperature, and the proposed idea that the defect formation process is dominated by the induced point defects was confirmed

  10. Naphthazarin protects against glutamate-induced neuronal death via activation of the Nrf2/ARE pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Tae Gen; Kawamoto, Elisa M; Yu, Qian-Sheng; Greig, Nigel H; Mattson, Mark P; Camandola, Simonetta

    2013-04-19

    Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway is an important cellular stress response pathway involved in neuroprotection. We previously screened several natural phytochemicals and identified plumbagin as a novel activator of the Nrf2/ARE pathway that can protect neurons against ischemic injury. Here we extended our studies to natural and synthetic derivatives of plumbagin. We found that 5,8-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (naphthazarin) is a potent activator of the Nrf2/ARE pathway, up-regulates the expression of Nrf2-driven genes in primary neuronal and glial cultures, and protects neurons against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress axis induces cellular oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jereme G. Spiers

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoids released from the adrenal gland in response to stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis induce activity in the cellular reduction-oxidation (redox system. The redox system is a ubiquitous chemical mechanism allowing the transfer of electrons between donor/acceptors and target molecules during oxidative phosphorylation while simultaneously maintaining the overall cellular environment in a reduced state. The objective of this review is to present an overview of the current literature discussing the link between HPA axis-derived glucocorticoids and increased oxidative stress, particularly focussing on the redox changes observed in the hippocampus following glucocorticoid exposure.

  12. Lycopene: An antioxidant and radioprotector against γ-radiation-induced cellular damages in cultured human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, M.; Devipriya, N.; Kalpana, K.B.; Menon, Venugopal P.

    2009-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the radioprotective effect of lycopene, a naturally occurring dietary carotenoid on γ-radiation-induced toxicity. The cellular changes were estimated by using lipid peroxidative indices like thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), hydroperoxides (HP), the antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reduced glutathione (GSH). The DNA damage was analyzed by cytokinesis blocked micronucleus assay (CBMN), dicentric aberration (DC) and translocation frequency. The γ-radiation at different doses (1, 2 and 4 Gy) resulted in a significant increase in the number of micronuclei (MN), DC, translocation frequency, TBARS and HP level, whereas the levels of GSH and antioxidant enzymes were significantly decreased when compared with normal control. The maximum damage to lymphocytes was observed at 4 Gy irradiation. Lycopene pretreatment (1, 5 and 10 μg/ml) significantly decreased the frequency of MN, DC and translocation when compared with γ-radiation control. The levels of TBARS, HP were also decreased and activities of SOD, CAT and GPx were significantly increased along with GSH levels when compared with γ-radiation control. The dose of 5 μg/ml of lycopene was found to be more effective than the other two doses. Thus, our result shows that pretreatment with lycopene offers protection to normal lymphocytes against γ-radiation-induced cellular damage.

  13. Microneedle delivery of trivalent influenza vaccine to the skin induces long-term cross-protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeu-Chun; Lee, Su-Hwa; Choi, Won-Hyung; Choi, Hyo-Jick; Goo, Tae-Won; Lee, Ju-Hie; Quan, Fu-Shi

    2016-12-01

    A painless self-immunization method with effective and broad cross-protection is urgently needed to prevent infections against newly emerging influenza viruses. In this study, we investigated the cross-protection efficacy of trivalent influenza vaccine containing inactivated A/PR/8/34 (H1N1), A/Hong Kong/68 (H3N2) and B/Lee/40 after skin vaccination using microneedle patches coated with this vaccine. Microneedle vaccination of mice in the skin provided 100% protection against lethal challenges with heterologous pandemic strain influenza A/California/04/09, heterogeneous A/Philippines/2/82 and B/Victoria/287 viruses 8 months after boost immunization. Cross-reactive serum IgG antibody responses against heterologous influenza viruses A/California/04/09, A/Philippines/2/82 and B/Victoria/287 were induced at high levels. Hemagglutination inhibition titers were also maintained at high levels against these heterogeneous viruses. Microneedle vaccination induced substantial levels of cross-reactive IgG antibody responses in the lung and cellular immune responses, as well as cross-reactive antibody-secreting plasma cells in the spleen. Viral loads in the lung were significantly (p skin vaccination with trivalent vaccine using a microneedle array could provide protection against seasonal epidemic or new pandemic strain of influenza viruses.

  14. Sulforaphane Protects against High Cholesterol-Induced Mitochondrial Bioenergetics Impairments, Inflammation, and Oxidative Stress and Preserves Pancreatic β-Cells Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Carrasco-Pozo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol plays an important role in inducing pancreatic β-cell dysfunction, leading to an impaired insulin secretory response to glucose. This study aimed to determine the protective effects of sulforaphane, a natural isothiocyanate Nrf2-inducer, against cholesterol-induced pancreatic β-cells dysfunction, through molecular and cellular mechanisms involving mitochondrial bioenergetics. Sulforaphane prevented cholesterol-induced alterations in the coupling efficiency of mitochondrial respiration, improving ATP turnover and spare capacity, and averted the impairment of the electron flow at complexes I, II, and IV. Sulforaphane also attenuated the cholesterol-induced activation of the NFκB pathway, normalizing the expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, it also inhibited the decrease in sirtuin 1 expression and greatly increased Pgc-1α expression in Min6 cells. Sulforaphane increased the expression of antioxidant enzymes downstream of the Nrf2 pathway and prevented lipid peroxidation induced by cholesterol. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of sulforaphane and its ability to protect and improve mitochondrial bioenergetic function contribute to its protective action against cholesterol-induced pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. Our data provide a scientifically tested foundation upon which sulforaphane can be developed as nutraceutical to preserve β-cell function and eventually control hyperglycemia.

  15. Geldanamycin induces heat shock protein 70 and protects against MPTP-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hai-Ying; He, Jin-Cai; Wang, Yumei; Huang, Qing-Yuan; Chen, Jiang-Fan

    2005-12-02

    As key molecular chaperone proteins, heat shock proteins (HSPs) represent an important cellular protective mechanism against neuronal cell death in various models of neurological disorders. In this study, we investigated the effect as well as the molecular mechanism of geldanamycin (GA), an inhibitor of Hsp90, on 1-methyl-4-pheny-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity, a mouse model of Parkinson disease. Neurochemical analysis showed that pretreatment with GA (via intracerebral ventricular injection 24 h prior to MPTP treatment) increased residual dopamine content and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in the striatum 24 h after MPTP treatment. To dissect out the molecular mechanism underlying this neuroprotection, we showed that the GA-mediated protection against MPTP was associated with a reduction of cytosolic Hsp90 and an increase in Hsp70, with no significant changes in Hsp40 and Hsp25 levels. Furthermore, in parallel with the induction of Hsp70, striatal nuclear HSF1 levels and HSF1 binding to heat shock element sites in the Hsp70 promoter were significantly enhanced by the GA pretreatment. Together these results suggested that the molecular cascade leading to the induction of Hsp70 is critical to the neuroprotection afforded by GA against MPTP-induced neurotoxicity in the brain and that pharmacological inhibition of Hsp90 may represent a potential therapeutic strategy for Parkinson disease.

  16. Bursopentin (BP5 protects dendritic cells from lipopolysaccharide-induced oxidative stress for immunosuppression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Qin

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs play a vital role in the regulation of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. Thus, DCs have been regarded as a major target for the development of immunomodulators. However, oxidative stress could disturb inflammatory regulation in DCs. Here, we examined the effect of bursopentine (BP5, a novel pentapeptide isolated from chicken bursa of fabricius, on the protection of DCs against oxidative stress for immunosuppression. BP5 showed potent protective effects against the lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced oxidative stress in DCs, including nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, BP5 elevated the level of cellular reductive status through increasing the reduced glutathione (GSH and the GSH/GSSG ratio. Concomitant with these, the activities of several antioxidative redox enzymes, including glutathione peroxidase (GPx, catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD, were obviously enhanced. BP5 also suppressed submucosal DC maturation in the LPS-stimulated intestinal epithelial cells (ECs/DCs coculture system. Finally, we found that heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1 was remarkably upregulated by BP5 in the LPS-induced DCs, and played an important role in the suppression of oxidative stress and DC maturation. These results suggested that BP5 could protect the LPS-activated DCs against oxidative stress and have potential applications in DC-related inflammatory responses.

  17. Recombinant thrombomodulin protects mice against histone-induced lethal thromboembolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayumi Nakahara

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Recent studies have shown that histones, the chief protein component of chromatin, are released into the extracellular space during sepsis, trauma, and ischemia-reperfusion injury, and act as major mediators of the death of an organism. This study was designed to elucidate the cellular and molecular basis of histone-induced lethality and to assess the protective effects of recombinant thrombomodulin (rTM. rTM has been approved for the treatment of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC in Japan, and is currently undergoing a phase III clinical trial in the United States. METHODS: Histone H3 levels in plasma of healthy volunteers and patients with sepsis and DIC were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Male C57BL/6 mice were injected intravenously with purified histones, and pathological examinations were performed. The protective effects of rTM against histone toxicity were analyzed both in vitro and in mice. RESULTS: Histone H3 was not detectable in plasma of healthy volunteers, but significant levels were observed in patients with sepsis and DIC. These levels were higher in non-survivors than in survivors. Extracellular histones triggered platelet aggregation, leading to thrombotic occlusion of pulmonary capillaries and subsequent right-sided heart failure in mice. These mice displayed symptoms of DIC, including thrombocytopenia, prolonged prothrombin time, decreased fibrinogen, fibrin deposition in capillaries, and bleeding. Platelet depletion protected mice from histone-induced death in the first 30 minutes, suggesting that vessel occlusion by platelet-rich thrombi might be responsible for death during the early phase. Furthermore, rTM bound to extracellular histones, suppressed histone-induced platelet aggregation, thrombotic occlusion of pulmonary capillaries, and dilatation of the right ventricle, and rescued mice from lethal thromboembolism. CONCLUSIONS: Extracellular histones cause massive

  18. Rebamipide suppresses diclofenac-induced intestinal permeability via mitochondrial protection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Lei; Mei, Qiao; Xu, Jian-Ming; Liu, Xiao-Chang; Hu, Jing; Jin, Juan; Yao, Qiang; Chen, Mo-Li

    2012-03-14

    To investigate the protective effect and mechanism of rebamipide on small intestinal permeability induced by diclofenac in mice. Diclofenac (2.5 mg/kg) was administered once daily for 3 d orally. A control group received the vehicle by gavage. Rebamipide (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg) was administered intragastrically once a day for 3 d 4 h after diclofenac administration. Intestinal permeability was evaluated by Evans blue and the FITC-dextran method. The ultrastructure of the mucosal barrier was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Mitochondrial function including mitochondrial swelling, mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-reduced (NADH) levels, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and ATPase activities were measured. Small intestinal mucosa was collected for assessment of malondialdehyde (MDA) content and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Compared with the control group, intestinal permeability was significantly increased in the diclofenac group, which was accompanied by broken tight junctions, and significant increases in MDA content and MPO activity. Rebamipide significantly reduced intestinal permeability, improved inter-cellular tight junctions, and was associated with decreases in intestinal MDA content and MPO activity. At the mitochondrial level, rebamipide increased SDH and ATPase activities, NADH level and decreased mitochondrial swelling. Increased intestinal permeability induced by diclofenac can be attenuated by rebamipide, which partially contributed to the protection of mitochondrial function.

  19. Hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling: cellular and molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenmark, Kurt R; Fagan, Karen A; Frid, Maria G

    2006-09-29

    Chronic hypoxic exposure induces changes in the structure of pulmonary arteries, as well as in the biochemical and functional phenotypes of each of the vascular cell types, from the hilum of the lung to the most peripheral vessels in the alveolar wall. The magnitude and the specific profile of the changes depend on the species, sex, and the developmental stage at which the exposure to hypoxia occurred. Further, hypoxia-induced changes are site specific, such that the remodeling process in the large vessels differs from that in the smallest vessels. The cellular and molecular mechanisms vary and depend on the cellular composition of vessels at particular sites along the longitudinal axis of the pulmonary vasculature, as well as on local environmental factors. Each of the resident vascular cell types (ie, endothelial, smooth muscle, adventitial fibroblast) undergo site- and time-dependent alterations in proliferation, matrix protein production, expression of growth factors, cytokines, and receptors, and each resident cell type plays a specific role in the overall remodeling response. In addition, hypoxic exposure induces an inflammatory response within the vessel wall, and the recruited circulating progenitor cells contribute significantly to the structural remodeling and persistent vasoconstriction of the pulmonary circulation. The possibility exists that the lung or lung vessels also contain resident progenitor cells that participate in the remodeling process. Thus the hypoxia-induced remodeling of the pulmonary circulation is a highly complex process where numerous interactive events must be taken into account as we search for newer, more effective therapeutic interventions. This review provides perspectives on each of the aforementioned areas.

  20. Layer-by-layer immobilized catalase on electrospun nanofibrous mats protects against oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rong; Deng, Hongbing; Cai, Tongjian; Zhan, Yingfei; Wang, Xiankai; Chen, Xuanxuan; Ji, Ailing; Lil, Xueyong

    2014-07-01

    Catalase, a kind of redox enzyme and generally recognized as an efficient agent for protecting cells against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cytotoxicity. The immobilization of catalase was accomplished by depositing the positively charged chitosan and the negatively charged catalase on electrospun cellulose nanofibrous mats through electrospining and layer-by-layer (LBL) techniques. The morphology obtained from Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) indicated that more orderly arranged three-dimension (3D) structure and roughness formed with increasing the number of coating bilayers. Besides, the enzyme-immobilized nanofibrous mats were found with high enzyme loading and activity, moreover, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results further demonstrated the successful immobilization of chitosan and catalase on cellulose nanofibers support. Furthermore, we evaluated the cytotoxicity induced by hydrogen peroxide in the Human umbilical vascular endothelial cells with or without pretreatment of nanofibrous mats by MTT assay, LDH activity and Flow cytometric evaluation, and confirmed the pronounced hydrogen peroxide-induced toxicity, but pretreatment of immobilized catalase reduced the cytotoxicity and protected cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxic effects which were further demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) images. The data pointed toward a role of catalase-immobilized nanofibrous mats in protecting cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced cellular damage and their potential application in biomedical field.

  1. Understanding Key Mechanisms of Exercise-Induced Cardiac Protection to Mitigate Disease: Current Knowledge and Emerging Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Bianca C; Ooi, Jenny Y Y; Weeks, Kate L; Patterson, Natalie L; McMullen, Julie R

    2018-01-01

    The benefits of exercise on the heart are well recognized, and clinical studies have demonstrated that exercise is an intervention that can improve cardiac function in heart failure patients. This has led to significant research into understanding the key mechanisms responsible for exercise-induced cardiac protection. Here, we summarize molecular mechanisms that regulate exercise-induced cardiac myocyte growth and proliferation. We discuss in detail the effects of exercise on other cardiac cells, organelles, and systems that have received less or little attention and require further investigation. This includes cardiac excitation and contraction, mitochondrial adaptations, cellular stress responses to promote survival (heat shock response, ubiquitin-proteasome system, autophagy-lysosomal system, endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response, DNA damage response), extracellular matrix, inflammatory response, and organ-to-organ crosstalk. We summarize therapeutic strategies targeting known regulators of exercise-induced protection and the challenges translating findings from bench to bedside. We conclude that technological advancements that allow for in-depth profiling of the genome, transcriptome, proteome and metabolome, combined with animal and human studies, provide new opportunities for comprehensively defining the signaling and regulatory aspects of cell/organelle functions that underpin the protective properties of exercise. This is likely to lead to the identification of novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets for heart disease.

  2. Protective Role of Spirulina on Gamma Rays Induced Haematological and Biochemical Disorders in Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, R.M.; Kamal El-Dein, E.M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study reports the haematological and biochemical protective effect of Salipriina on Swiss albino mice exposed to gamma radiation. Swiss albino mice (8 weeks old) were administered intraperitoneally Sanepil (800 mg/kg b.wt.) prior to whole body gamma-irradiation (7.5 Gy). Radiation exposure resulted in a significant decline in different bone marrow cells (pro-and normoblasts) and blood constituents (erythrocytes, leukocytes, differential leukocyte count, haematocrit,haemoglobin and erythrocyte sedimentation rate). Pro- and normoblasts, erythrocytes, leukocytes, haematocrit and haemoglobin values showed a significant (p<0.05) decline during the first 3 days, followed by a gradual recovery starting from day 7, but normal values were not recorded until 14 days post-exposure. Treatment of mice with Spirulina also caused a significant decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA) formation in the liver, suggesting its role in protection against radiation induced membrane and cellular damage. Similarly, pretreatment of mice with Spirulina caused a significant increase in serum glutathione (GSH) level in comparison with that of irradiated animals. Results suggest that Spirulina modulate the radiation induced hematological and biochemical alterations in Swiss albino mice

  3. Protective immunity to UV radiation-induced skin tumours induced by skin grafts and epidermal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronald Sluyter; Kylie S Yuen; Gary M Halliday

    2001-01-01

    There is little evidence that cutaneous dendritic cells (DC), including epidermal Langerhans cells (LC), can induce immunity to UV radiation (UVR)-induced skin tumours. Here, it is shown that cells within skin can induce protective antitumour immunity against a UVR-induced fibrosarcoma. Transplantation of the skin overlying subcutaneous tumours onto naive recipients could induce protective antitumour immunity, probably because the grafting stimulated the tumour Ag-loaded DC to migrate to local lymph nodes. This suggests that cutaneous APC can present tumour Ag to induce protective antitumour immunity. Previously, it has been shown that immunization of mice with MHC class II+ epidermal cells (EC) pulsed with tumour extracts could induce delayed-type hypersensitivity against tumour cells. Here, this same immunization protocol could induce protective immunity against a minimum tumorigenic dose of UVR-induced fibrosarcoma cells, but not higher doses. Epidermal cells obtained from semiallogeneic donors and pulsed with tumour extract could also induce protective immunity. However, presentation of BSA Ag from the culture medium was found to contribute to this result using semiallogeneic EC. The results suggest that LC overlying skin tumours may be able to induce protective immunity to UVR-induced tumours if stimulated to migrate from the skin. Copyright (2001) Australasian Society of Immunology Inc

  4. Protective effect of mild endoplasmic reticulum stress on radiation-induced bystander effects in hepatocyte cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yuexia; Ye, Shuang; Zhang, Jianghong; He, Mingyuan; Dong, Chen; Tu, Wenzhi; Liu, Peifeng; Shao, Chunlin

    2016-01-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) has important implications for secondary cancer risk assessment during cancer radiotherapy, but the defense and self-protective mechanisms of bystander normal cells are still largely unclear. The present study found that micronuclei (MN) formation could be induced in the non-irradiated HL-7702 hepatocyte cells after being treated with the conditioned medium from irradiated hepatoma HepG2 cells under either normoxia or hypoxia, where the ratio of the yield of bystander MN induction to the yield of radiation-induced MN formation under hypoxia was much higher than that of normoxia. Nonetheless, thapsigargin induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and dramatically suppressed this bystander response manifested as the decrease of MN and apoptosis inductions. Meanwhile, the interference of BiP gene, a major ER chaperone, amplified the detrimental RIBE. More precisely, thapsigargin provoked ER sensor of PERK to initiate an instantaneous and moderate ER stress thus defensed the hazard form RIBE, while BiP depletion lead to persistently destroyed homeostasis of ER and exacerbated cell injury. These findings provide new insights that the mild ER stress through BiP-PERK-p-eIF2α signaling pathway has a profound role in protecting cellular damage from RIBE and hence may decrease the potential secondary cancer risk after cancer radiotherapy. PMID:27958308

  5. Liposomal inhibition of acrolein-induced injury in rat cultured urothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmal, J; Wolf-Johnston, A S; Chancellor, M B; Tyagi, P; Anthony, M; Kaufman, J; Birder, L A

    2014-10-01

    To study the protection offered by empty liposomes (LPs) alone against acrolein-induced changes in urothelial cell viability and explored uptake of LPs by primary (rat) urothelial cells. Acrolein was used as a means to induce cellular damage and reduce urothelial cellular viability. The effect of acrolein or liposomal treatment on cellular proliferation was studied using 5-bromo-2'-deoxy-uridine assay. Cytokine release was measured after urothelial cells were exposed to acrolein. Temperature-dependent uptake study was carried out for fluorescent-labeled LPs using confocal microscopy. Liposome pretreatment protected against acrolein-induced decrease in urothelial cell proliferation. LPs also significantly affected the acrolein-induced cytokine (interferon-gamma) release offering protection to the urothelial cells against acrolein damage. We also observed a temperature-dependent urothelial uptake of fluorescent-labeled LPs occurred at 37 °C (but not at 4 °C). Empty LPs alone provide a therapeutic efficacy against acrolein-induced changes in urothelial cell viability and may be a promising local therapy for bladder diseases. Hence, our preliminary evidence provides support for liposome-therapy for urothelial protection and possible repair.

  6. Strawberry-Based Cosmetic Formulations Protect Human Dermal Fibroblasts against UVA-Induced Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Gasparrini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Extreme exposure of skin to Ultraviolet A (UVA-radiation may induce a dysregulated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS which can interact with cellular biomolecules leading to oxidative stress, inflammation, DNA damage, and alteration of cellular molecular pathways, responsible for skin photoaging, hyperplasia, erythema, and cancer. For these reasons, the use of dietary natural bioactive compounds with remarkable antioxidant activity could be a strategic tool to counteract these UVA-radiation-caused deleterious effects. Thus, the purpose of the present work was to test the efficacy of strawberry (50 μg/mL-based formulations supplemented with Coenzyme Q10 (100 μg/mL and sun protection factor 10 in human dermal fibroblasts irradiated with UVA-radiation. The apoptosis rate, the amount of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS production, the expression of proteins involved in antioxidant and inflammatory response, and mitochondrial functionality were evaluated. The results showed that the synergic topical use of strawberry and Coenzyme Q10 provided a significant (p < 0.05 photoprotective effect, reducing cell death and ROS, increasing antioxidant defense, lowering inflammatory markers, and improving mitochondrial functionality. The obtained results suggest the use of strawberry-based formulations as an innovative, natural, and useful tool for the prevention of UVA exposure-induced skin diseases in order to decrease or substitute the amount of synthetic sunscreen agents.

  7. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor protects against high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis by suppressing hepatic PPAR-γ expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwangi, Simon Musyoka; Peng, Sophia; Nezami, Behtash Ghazi; Thorn, Natalie; Farris, Alton B; Jain, Sanjay; Laroui, Hamed; Merlin, Didier; Anania, Frank; Srinivasan, Shanthi

    2016-01-15

    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) protects against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hepatic steatosis in mice, however, the mechanisms involved are not known. In this study we investigated the effects of GDNF overexpression and nanoparticle delivery of GDNF in mice on hepatic steatosis and fibrosis and the expression of genes involved in the regulation of hepatic lipid uptake and de novo lipogenesis. Transgenic overexpression of GDNF in liver and other metabolically active tissues was protective against HFD-induced hepatic steatosis. Mice overexpressing GDNF had significantly reduced P62/sequestosome 1 protein levels suggestive of accelerated autophagic clearance. They also had significantly reduced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) and CD36 gene expression and protein levels, and lower expression of mRNA coding for enzymes involved in de novo lipogenesis. GDNF-loaded nanoparticles were protective against short-term HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and attenuated liver fibrosis in mice with long-standing HFD-induced hepatic steatosis. They also suppressed the liver expression of steatosis-associated genes. In vitro, GDNF suppressed triglyceride accumulation in Hep G2 cells through enhanced p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent signaling and inhibition of PPAR-γ gene promoter activity. These results show that GDNF acts directly in the liver to protect against HFD-induced cellular stress and that GDNF may have a role in the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

  8. Nitric oxide protects anterior pituitary cells from cadmium-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliandri, Ariel H B; Velardez, Miguel O; Cabilla, Jimena P; Bodo, Cristian C A; Machiavelli, Leticia I; Quinteros, Alnilan F; Duvilanski, Beatriz H

    2004-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd2+) is a potent toxic metal for both plants and animals. Chronic exposure to low doses of Cd2+ results in damage to several organs. We have previously reported that Cd2+ induces apoptosis in anterior pituitary cells by a caspase- and oxidative stress-dependent mechanism. Nitric oxide (NO) synthesis is affected by Cd2+ in several systems. NO has been shown to be either cytoprotective or cytotoxic in many systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible participation of NO in the cytotoxic effect of Cd2+ on rat anterior pituitary cells. Cell viability was evaluated by mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity assay and confirmed by microscopy, studying nuclear morphology. Here we show that DETA NONOate ((Z)-1-[2 (2-aminoethyl)-N-(2-ammonioethyl)amino]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate), a long-term NO donor, at concentrations below 0.5 mM, reduces nuclear condensation and fragmentation and reverses the decrease in cellular activity induced by Cd2+. Cd2+, by itself, induced NO synthesis, and inhibition of this synthesis enhanced Cd2+ cytotoxicity. NO also prevented caspase-3 activation and lipidic peroxidation induced by Cd2+. The NO/cGMP pathway does not seem to be involved in the cytoprotective effect of NO. These results indicate that NO has a cytoprotective role in Cd2+ -induced apoptosis, suggesting that endogenous NO could have a physiological role in protecting anterior pituitary cells.

  9. Resveratrol induces cellular senescence with attenuated mono-ubiquitination of histone H2B in glioma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Zhen; Xu, Michael S.; Barnett, Tamara L.; Xu, C. Wilson

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Resveratrol induces cellular senescence in glioma cell. → Resveratrol inhibits mono-ubiquitination of histone H2B at K120. → Depletion of RNF20, phenocopies the inhibitory effects of resveratrol. → Mono-ubiquitination of histone H2B at K120 is a novel target of resveratrol. → RNF20 inhibits cellular senescence in proliferating glioma cells. -- Abstract: Resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene), a polyphenol naturally occurring in grapes and other plants, has cancer chemo-preventive effects and therapeutic potential. Although resveratrol modulates multiple pathways in tumor cells, how resveratrol or its affected pathways converge on chromatin to mediate its effects is not known. Using glioma cells as a model, we showed here that resveratrol inhibited cell proliferation and induced cellular hypertrophy by transforming spindle-shaped cells to enlarged, irregular and flatten-shaped ones. We further showed that resveratrol-induced hypertrophic cells expressed senescence-associated-β-galactosidase, suggesting that resveratrol-induced cellular senescence in glioma cells. Consistent with these observations, we demonstrated that resveratrol inhibited clonogenic efficiencies in vitro and tumor growth in a xenograft model. Furthermore, we found that acute treatment of resveratrol inhibited mono-ubiquitination of histone H2B at K120 (uH2B) in breast, prostate, pancreatic, lung, brain tumor cells as well as primary human cells. Chronic treatment with low doses of resveratrol also inhibited uH2B in the resveratrol-induced senescent glioma cells. Moreover, we showed that depletion of RNF20, a ubiquitin ligase of histone H2B, inhibited uH2B and induced cellular senescence in glioma cells in vitro, thereby recapitulated the effects of resveratrol. Taken together, our results suggest that uH2B is a novel direct or indirect chromatin target of resveratrol and RNF20 plays an important role in inhibiting cellular senescence programs that are

  10. Resveratrol induces cellular senescence with attenuated mono-ubiquitination of histone H2B in glioma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhen; Xu, Michael S.; Barnett, Tamara L. [Nevada Cancer Institute, Las Vegas, NV 89135 (United States); Xu, C. Wilson, E-mail: wxu@nvcancer.org [Nevada Cancer Institute, Las Vegas, NV 89135 (United States)

    2011-04-08

    Research highlights: {yields} Resveratrol induces cellular senescence in glioma cell. {yields} Resveratrol inhibits mono-ubiquitination of histone H2B at K120. {yields} Depletion of RNF20, phenocopies the inhibitory effects of resveratrol. {yields} Mono-ubiquitination of histone H2B at K120 is a novel target of resveratrol. {yields} RNF20 inhibits cellular senescence in proliferating glioma cells. -- Abstract: Resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene), a polyphenol naturally occurring in grapes and other plants, has cancer chemo-preventive effects and therapeutic potential. Although resveratrol modulates multiple pathways in tumor cells, how resveratrol or its affected pathways converge on chromatin to mediate its effects is not known. Using glioma cells as a model, we showed here that resveratrol inhibited cell proliferation and induced cellular hypertrophy by transforming spindle-shaped cells to enlarged, irregular and flatten-shaped ones. We further showed that resveratrol-induced hypertrophic cells expressed senescence-associated-{beta}-galactosidase, suggesting that resveratrol-induced cellular senescence in glioma cells. Consistent with these observations, we demonstrated that resveratrol inhibited clonogenic efficiencies in vitro and tumor growth in a xenograft model. Furthermore, we found that acute treatment of resveratrol inhibited mono-ubiquitination of histone H2B at K120 (uH2B) in breast, prostate, pancreatic, lung, brain tumor cells as well as primary human cells. Chronic treatment with low doses of resveratrol also inhibited uH2B in the resveratrol-induced senescent glioma cells. Moreover, we showed that depletion of RNF20, a ubiquitin ligase of histone H2B, inhibited uH2B and induced cellular senescence in glioma cells in vitro, thereby recapitulated the effects of resveratrol. Taken together, our results suggest that uH2B is a novel direct or indirect chromatin target of resveratrol and RNF20 plays an important role in inhibiting cellular

  11. Abscisic-acid-induced cellular apoptosis and differentiation in glioma via the retinoid acid signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nan; Yao, Yu; Ye, Hongxing; Zhu, Wei; Chen, Liang; Mao, Ying

    2016-04-15

    Retinoid acid (RA) plays critical roles in regulating differentiation and apoptosis in a variety of cancer cells. Abscisic acid (ABA) and RA are direct derivatives of carotenoids and share structural similarities. Here we proposed that ABA may also play a role in cellular differentiation and apoptosis by sharing a similar signaling pathway with RA that may be involved in glioma pathogenesis. We reported for the first time that the ABA levels were twofold higher in low-grade gliomas compared with high-grade gliomas. In glioma tissues, there was a positive correlation between the ABA levels and the transcription of cellular retinoic acid-binding protein 2 (CRABP2) and a negative correlation between the ABA levels and transcription of fatty acid-binding protein 5 (FABP5). ABA treatment induced a significant increase in the expression of CRABP2 and a decrease in the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) in glioblastoma cells. Remarkably, both cellular apoptosis and differentiation were increased in the glioblastoma cells after ABA treatment. ABA-induced cellular apoptosis and differentiation were significantly reduced by selectively silencing RAR-α, while RAR-α overexpression exaggerated the ABA-induced effects. These results suggest that ABA may play a role in the pathogenesis of glioma by promoting cellular apoptosis and differentiation through the RA signaling pathway. © 2015 UICC.

  12. IN0523 (Urs-12-ene-3α,24β-diol) a plant based derivative of boswellic acid protect Cisplatin induced urogenital toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Amarinder; Arvinda, S; Singh, Surjeet; Suri, Jyotsna; Koul, Surinder; Mondhe, Dilip M.; Singh, Gurdarshan; Vishwakarma, Ram

    2017-01-01

    The limiting factor for the use of Cisplatin in the treatment of different type of cancers is its toxicity and more specifically urogenital toxicity. Oxidative stress is a well-known phenomenon associated with Cisplatin toxicity. However, in Cisplatin treated group, abnormal animal behavior, decreased body weight, cellular and sub-cellular changes in the kidney and sperm abnormality were observed. Our investigation revealed that Cisplatin when administered in combination with a natural product derivative (Urs-12-ene-3α,24β-diol, labeled as IN0523) resulted in significant restoration of body weight and protection against the pathological alteration caused by Cisplatin to kidney and testis. Sperm count and motility were significantly restored near to normal. Cisplatin caused depletion of defense system i.e. glutathione peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase, which were restored close to normal by treatment of IN0523. Reduction in excessive lipid peroxidation induced by Cisplatin was also found by treatment with IN0523. The result suggests that IN0523 is a potential candidate for ameliorating Cisplatin induced toxicity in the kidney and testes at a dose of 100 mg/kg p.o. via inhibiting the oxidative stress/redox status imbalance and may be improving the efflux mechanism. - Highlights: • Synthesis of a novel boswellic acid derivative (IN0523) • Counter oxidative stress induced due to Cisplatin • Protect against urogenital toxicity induced by Cisplatin

  13. IN0523 (Urs-12-ene-3α,24β-diol) a plant based derivative of boswellic acid protect Cisplatin induced urogenital toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Amarinder [Academy of Scientific & Innovative Research (AcSIR), New Delhi (India); PK-PD-Toxicology and Formulation Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Canal Road, Jammu 180001, J& K (India); Arvinda, S [Deptt. of Pathology, Govt. Medical College, Jammu 180001, J& K (India); Singh, Surjeet [PK-PD-Toxicology and Formulation Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Canal Road, Jammu 180001, J& K (India); Suri, Jyotsna [Deptt. of Pathology, Govt. Medical College, Jammu 180001, J& K (India); Koul, Surinder [Bio-Organic Chemistry Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Canal Road, Jammu 180001, J& K (India); Mondhe, Dilip M. [Cancer Pharmacology Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Canal Road, Jammu 180001, J& K (India); Singh, Gurdarshan, E-mail: singh_gd@iiim.ac.in [PK-PD-Toxicology and Formulation Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Canal Road, Jammu 180001, J& K (India); Vishwakarma, Ram [Bio-Organic Chemistry Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Canal Road, Jammu 180001, J& K (India)

    2017-03-01

    The limiting factor for the use of Cisplatin in the treatment of different type of cancers is its toxicity and more specifically urogenital toxicity. Oxidative stress is a well-known phenomenon associated with Cisplatin toxicity. However, in Cisplatin treated group, abnormal animal behavior, decreased body weight, cellular and sub-cellular changes in the kidney and sperm abnormality were observed. Our investigation revealed that Cisplatin when administered in combination with a natural product derivative (Urs-12-ene-3α,24β-diol, labeled as IN0523) resulted in significant restoration of body weight and protection against the pathological alteration caused by Cisplatin to kidney and testis. Sperm count and motility were significantly restored near to normal. Cisplatin caused depletion of defense system i.e. glutathione peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase, which were restored close to normal by treatment of IN0523. Reduction in excessive lipid peroxidation induced by Cisplatin was also found by treatment with IN0523. The result suggests that IN0523 is a potential candidate for ameliorating Cisplatin induced toxicity in the kidney and testes at a dose of 100 mg/kg p.o. via inhibiting the oxidative stress/redox status imbalance and may be improving the efflux mechanism. - Highlights: • Synthesis of a novel boswellic acid derivative (IN0523) • Counter oxidative stress induced due to Cisplatin • Protect against urogenital toxicity induced by Cisplatin.

  14. Human immunodeficiency virus-induced pathology favored by cellular transmission and activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, D.E.; Yoffe, B.; Bosworth, C.G.; Hollinger, F.B.; Rich, R.R.

    1988-01-01

    Epidemiological data suggest that transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) occurs primarily by transference of virally infected cells. However, the efficiency of lytic productive infection induced by HIV after transmission of cell-associated virus vs. free virus is difficult to assess. The present studies compare the extent of depletion of CD4+ (helper/inducer) T cells after mixing uninfected cells with either free HIV or irradiated HIV-infected allogeneic or autologous cells in vitro. Rapid CD4+ cellular depletion occurred only in cultures containing allogeneic infected cells or after addition of a nonspecific T cell activation signal to cultures with autologous infected cells. These in vitro observations strongly support the epidemiological implication that interactions between infected and uninfected cells are the most efficient means of transmission and HIV-induced cytopathology in vivo. They also provide direct support for the concept that immunological stimulation by foreign cells infected with HIV dramatically increases the likelihood of transmission. These in vitro observations suggest a model for the acquisition of HIV in vivo and the role of cellular activation in dissemination of the virus to uninfected cells in an infected individual

  15. l-Ergothioneine Protects Skin Cells against UV-Induced Damage—A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Bazela

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Many changes related to aging at the cellular level may be due to the physiological condition of mitochondria. One of the most common types of damage of mtDNA is the so-called “common deletion” referring to a deletion of 4977 base pairs. In the skin cells this phenomenon probably is caused by oxidative damage of mtDNA induced by UV. The present study was aimed at evaluating the effect of the antioxidant l-ergothioneine on UV-induced damage in skin cells. The effect of l-ergothioneine on the reduced glutathione level was studied. The presence of the “common deletion” in human fibroblasts irradiated with UVA and treated with l-ergothioneine was evaluated by a polymerase chain reaction. We have demonstrated that l-ergothioneine enhanced the level of reduced glutathione and protected cells from the induction of a photoaging-associated mtDNA “common deletion”. In view of our results, l-ergothioneine could be an effective skin care and anti-photoaging ingredient.

  16. Protective Role of Emodin in Reducing The Gamma Rays Induced Hazardous Effects On The Tongue of Diabetic or Normoglycaemic Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haggag, M.G.; Kazem, H.H.

    2013-01-01

    Ionizing radiation leads to damage at various cellular and sub-cellular levels and can be prevented by radio protectors. There is a need for natural prospective radio protectors that protect normal tissues from ionizing radiation in patients receiving high doses of radiation for treating malignant neoplasms. The study aimed to evaluate the potential protective role of emodin in reducing the severity of gamma rays-induced hazardous damage in the tongue of normoglycaemic and diabetic mice. Sixty-four male mice were randomly divided into 8 experimental groups: control group received vehicle, emodin group received daily emodin dose of 4g/kg orally for a week, diabetes mellitus (DM) group in which DM was induced by streptozotocin (STZ) treatment, emodin + DM received emodin for a week + STZ treatment, irradiated group submitted to 4 Gy of gamma rays and received vehicle for a week, gamma rays + DM group received gamma rays + STZ treatment, gamma rays + emodin group received gamma rays + emodin for a week, and gamma rays + DM + emodin group received gamma rays + STZ treatment + emodin for a week. Tongue and serum of mice were biochemically examined for screening gamma radiation and diabetic damages and the efficacy of emodin in ameliorating these damaging effects. The levels of cellular thiols such as reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), total thiols (TT) and lipid peroxidation products; malondialdehyde (MDA) and conjugated dienes (CD), were assessed in tongue tissues. Tongue antioxidant enzymes; gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-P), were measured and serum glucose level was estimated. The results revealed alterations of the levels of cellular thiols and antioxidant enzymes in tongue and the level of glucose in serum of gamma irradiated diabetic mice were ameliorated in mice groups received emodin treatment. The results suggest that emodin treatment (4 g

  17. Microsomal Glutathione Transferase 1 Protects Against Toxicity Induced by Silica Nanoparticles but Not by Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Microsomal glutathione transferase 1 (MGST1) is an antioxidant enzyme located predominantly in the mitochondrial outer membrane and endoplasmic reticulum and has been shown to protect cells from lipid peroxidation induced by a variety of cytostatic drugs and pro-oxidant stimuli. We hypothesized that MGST1 may also protect against nanomaterial-induced cytotoxicity through a specific effect on lipid peroxidation. We evaluated the induction of cytotoxicity and oxidative stress by TiO2, CeO2, SiO2, and ZnO in the human MCF-7 cell line with or without overexpression of MGST1. SiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles caused dose- and time-dependent toxicity, whereas no obvious cytotoxic effects were induced by nanoparticles of TiO2 and CeO2. We also noted pronounced cytotoxicity for three out of four additional SiO2 nanoparticles tested. Overexpression of MGST1 reversed the cytotoxicity of the main SiO2 nanoparticles tested and for one of the supplementary SiO2 nanoparticles but did not protect cells against ZnO-induced cytotoxic effects. The data point toward a role of lipid peroxidation in SiO2 nanoparticle-induced cell death. For ZnO nanoparticles, rapid dissolution was observed, and the subsequent interaction of Zn2+ with cellular targets is likely to contribute to the cytotoxic effects. A direct inhibition of MGST1 by Zn2+ could provide a possible explanation for the lack of protection against ZnO nanoparticles in this model. Our data also showed that SiO2 nanoparticle-induced cytotoxicity is mitigated in the presence of serum, potentially through masking of reactive surface groups by serum proteins, whereas ZnO nanoparticles were cytotoxic both in the presence and in the absence of serum. PMID:22303956

  18. A synthetic ion transporter that disrupts autophagy and induces apoptosis by perturbing cellular chloride concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busschaert, Nathalie; Park, Seong-Hyun; Baek, Kyung-Hwa; Choi, Yoon Pyo; Park, Jinhong; Howe, Ethan N. W.; Hiscock, Jennifer R.; Karagiannidis, Louise E.; Marques, Igor; Félix, Vítor; Namkung, Wan; Sessler, Jonathan L.; Gale, Philip A.; Shin, Injae

    2017-07-01

    Perturbations in cellular chloride concentrations can affect cellular pH and autophagy and lead to the onset of apoptosis. With this in mind, synthetic ion transporters have been used to disturb cellular ion homeostasis and thereby induce cell death; however, it is not clear whether synthetic ion transporters can also be used to disrupt autophagy. Here, we show that squaramide-based ion transporters enhance the transport of chloride anions in liposomal models and promote sodium chloride influx into the cytosol. Liposomal and cellular transport activity of the squaramides is shown to correlate with cell death activity, which is attributed to caspase-dependent apoptosis. One ion transporter was also shown to cause additional changes in lysosomal pH, which leads to impairment of lysosomal enzyme activity and disruption of autophagic processes. This disruption is independent of the initiation of apoptosis by the ion transporter. This study provides the first experimental evidence that synthetic ion transporters can disrupt both autophagy and induce apoptosis.

  19. Redox Role of Lactobacillus casei Shirota Against the Cellular Damage Induced by 2,2′-Azobis (2-Amidinopropane Dihydrochloride-Induced Oxidative and Inflammatory Stress in Enterocytes-Like Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Finamore

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In western societies where most of the day is spent in the postprandial state, the existence of oxidative and inflammatory stress conditions makes postprandial stress an important factor involved in the development of cardiovascular risk factors. A large body of evidence have been accumulated on the anti-inflammatory effects of probiotics, but no information is available on the mechanisms through which intestinal microbiota modulates redox unbalance associated with inflammatory stress. Here, we aimed to investigate the ability of Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LS to induce an antioxidant response to counteract oxidative and inflammatory stress in an in vitro model of enterocytes. Our results show that pretreatment of enterocytes with LS prevents membrane barrier disruption and cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS accumulation inside the cells, modulates the expression of the gastro-intestinal glutathione peroxidase (GPX2 antioxidant enzyme, and reduces p65 phosphorylation, supporting the involvement of the Nfr2 and nuclear factor kappa B pathways in the activation of antioxidant cellular defenses by probiotics. These results suggest, for the first time, a redox mechanism by LS in protecting intestinal cells from AAPH-induced oxidative and inflammatory stress.

  20. Interference of silibinin with IGF-1R signalling pathways protects human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells from UVB-induced apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Weiwei; Otkur, Wuxiyar; Li, Lingzhi; Wang, Qiong; He, Hao; Zang, Linghe; Hayashi, Toshihiko; Tashiro, Shin-ichi; Onodera, Satoshi; Xia, Mingyu; Ikejima, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Silibinin protects A431 cells from UVB irradiation-induced apoptosis. ► Up-regulation of the IGF-1R-JNK/ERK pathways by UVB induces cell apoptosis. ► Silibinin inhibits IGF-1R pathways to repress caspase-8-mediated apoptosis. -- Abstract: Ultraviolet B (UVB) from sunlight is a major cause of cutaneous lesion. Silibinin, a traditional hepatic protectant, elicits protective effects against UVB-induced cellular damage. In A431 cells, the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) was markedly up-regulated by UVB irradiation. The activation of the IGF-1R signalling pathways contributed to apoptosis of the cells rather than rescuing the cells from death. Up-regulated IGF-1R stimulated downstream mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), such as c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2). The subsequent activation of caspase-8 and caspase-3 led to apoptosis. The activation of IGF-1R signalling pathways is the cause of A431 cell death. The pharmacological inhibitors and the small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting IGF-1R suppressed the downstream activation of JNK/ERK-caspases to help the survival of the UVB-irradiated A431 cells. Indeed, silibinin treatment suppressed the IGF-1R-JNK/ERK pathways and thus protected the cells from UVB-induced apoptosis

  1. Celastrol Protects against Antimycin A-Induced Insulin Resistance in Human Skeletal Muscle Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Hafizi Abu Bakar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation are widely accepted as key hallmarks of obesity-induced skeletal muscle insulin resistance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the functional roles of an anti-inflammatory compound, celastrol, in mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance induced by antimycin A (AMA in human skeletal muscle cells. We found that celastrol treatment improved insulin-stimulated glucose uptake activity of AMA-treated cells, apparently via PI3K/Akt pathways, with significant enhancement of mitochondrial activities. Furthermore, celastrol prevented increased levels of cellular oxidative damage where the production of several pro-inflammatory cytokines in cultures cells was greatly reduced. Celastrol significantly increased protein phosphorylation of insulin signaling cascades with amplified expression of AMPK protein and attenuated NF-κB and PKC θ activation in human skeletal muscle treated with AMA. The improvement of insulin signaling pathways by celastrol was also accompanied by augmented GLUT4 protein expression. Taken together, these results suggest that celastrol may be advocated for use as a potential therapeutic molecule to protect against mitochondrial dysfunction-induced insulin resistance in human skeletal muscle cells.

  2. Protection from ionizing radiation induced damages by phytoceuticals and nutraceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, C.K.K.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure of living systems to ionizing radiation cause a variety of damages to DNA and membranes due to generation of free radicals and reactive oxygen species. The radiation induced lesions in the cellular DNA are mainly strand breaks, damage to sugar moiety, alterations and elimination of bases, cross links of the intra and inter strand type and cross links to proteins while peroxidation of the lipids and oxidation of proteins constitute the major lesions in the membranes. The radioprotectors elicit their action by various mechanisms such as i) by suppressing the formation of reactive species, ii) detoxification of radiation induced species, iii) target stabilization and iv) enhancing the repair and recovery processes. The radioprotective compounds are of importance in medical, industrial, environmental, military and space science applications. Radiation protection might offer a tactical advantage on the battlefield in the event of a nuclear warfare. Radioprotectors might reduce the cancer risk to populations exposed to radiations directly or indirectly through industrial and military applications. The antioxidant and radioprotective properties a few of these agents under in vitro and in vivo conditions in animal models will be discussed

  3. Isorhynchophylline Protects PC12 Cells Against Beta-Amyloid-Induced Apoptosis via PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Fang Xian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The neurotoxicity of amyloid-β (Aβ has been implicated as a critical cause of Alzheimer’s disease. Isorhynchophylline (IRN, an oxindole alkaloid isolated from Uncaria rhynchophylla, exerts neuroprotective effect against Aβ25–35-induced neurotoxicity in vitro. However, the exact mechanism for its neuroprotective effect is not well understood. The present study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the protective action of IRN against Aβ25–35-induced neurotoxicity in cultured rat pheochromocytoma (PC12 cells. Pretreatment with IRN significantly increased the cell viability, inhibited the release of lactate dehydrogenase and the extent of DNA fragmentation in Aβ25–35-treated cells. IRN treatment was able to enhance the protein levels of phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (p-GSK-3β. Lithium chloride blocked Aβ25–35-induced cellular apoptosis in a similar manner as IRN, suggesting that GSK-3β inhibition was involved in neuroprotective action of IRN. Pretreatment with LY294002 completely abolished the protective effects of IRN. Furthermore, IRN reversed Aβ25–35-induced attenuation in the level of phosphorylated cyclic AMP response element binding protein (p-CREB and the effect of IRN could be blocked by the PI3K inhibitor. These experimental findings unambiguously suggested that the protective effect of IRN against Aβ25–35-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells was associated with the enhancement of p-CREB expression via PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β signaling pathway.

  4. Isorhynchophylline Protects PC12 Cells Against Beta-Amyloid-Induced Apoptosis via PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Yan-Fang; Lin, Zhi-Xiu; Mao, Qing-Qiu; Chen, Jian-Nan; Su, Zi-Ren; Lai, Xiao-Ping; Ip, Paul Siu-Po

    2013-01-01

    The neurotoxicity of amyloid-β (Aβ) has been implicated as a critical cause of Alzheimer's disease. Isorhynchophylline (IRN), an oxindole alkaloid isolated from Uncaria rhynchophylla, exerts neuroprotective effect against Aβ 25–35-induced neurotoxicity in vitro. However, the exact mechanism for its neuroprotective effect is not well understood. The present study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the protective action of IRN against Aβ 25–35-induced neurotoxicity in cultured rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. Pretreatment with IRN significantly increased the cell viability, inhibited the release of lactate dehydrogenase and the extent of DNA fragmentation in Aβ 25–35-treated cells. IRN treatment was able to enhance the protein levels of phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (p-GSK-3β). Lithium chloride blocked Aβ 25–35-induced cellular apoptosis in a similar manner as IRN, suggesting that GSK-3β inhibition was involved in neuroprotective action of IRN. Pretreatment with LY294002 completely abolished the protective effects of IRN. Furthermore, IRN reversed Aβ 25–35-induced attenuation in the level of phosphorylated cyclic AMP response element binding protein (p-CREB) and the effect of IRN could be blocked by the PI3K inhibitor. These experimental findings unambiguously suggested that the protective effect of IRN against Aβ 25–35-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells was associated with the enhancement of p-CREB expression via PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β signaling pathway. PMID:24319473

  5. The Protective Role of Curcumin against Gamma-Irradiation Induced Oxidative Stress in Diabetic Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagiub, N.I.; Alkady, M.M.; Emam, W.A.

    2012-01-01

    The present work was aimed to evaluate the radioprotective effect of curcumin (CMN), a yellow pigment of turmeric on γ-radiation (IRR)-induced toxicity in diabetic mice and evaluate the anti-hyper glycemic properties of this compound on streptozotocin (STZ) (65 mg/kg of body weight)-induced diabetes. Serum lipid profiles, glucose level and Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were determined. The level of blood glucose was elevated in diabetic animals. Circulatory lipid profiles, and TNF-α were increased significantly. Pretreatment with CMN (200 mg/kg, i.p.) for 5 consecutive days, resulted in a significant decrease in the levels of blood glucose and lipid profiles along with a significant decrease in the levels of TNF-α. The histological results obtained revealed that exposure to ionizing radiation or treatment with STZ caused histopathological damage, in the eye tissue, manifested as congestion in retinal blood capillaries, vacuolation in ganglionic cells and degeneration in nuclear cells of retina. The lens became coagulated, homogenous and oesinophilic. While the cornea showed vacuolations in its epithelium, edema and hyalinosis of substantia propria. Administration of CMN revealed a remarkable protective effect in biochemical and histological levels. Thus, pretreatment with CMN helps in protecting eye tissues against IRR and/or diabetic-induced cellular damage and can be developed in near future as an effective radioprotector during radiotherapy.

  6. FGFR antagonist induces protective autophagy in FGFR1-amplified breast cancer cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yi; Xie, Xiaoyan; Li, Xinyi; Wang, Peiqi; Jing, Qian; Yue, Jiaqi; Liu, Yang; Cheng, Zhong; Li, Jingyi; Song, Haixing; Li, Guoyu; Liu, Rui; Wang, Jinhui

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer, representing approximately 30% of all gynecological cancer cases diagnosed yearly, is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality for women. Amplification of FGFR1 is frequently observed in breast cancers and is associated with poor prognosis. Though FGFRs have long been considered as anti-cancer drug targets, and a cluster of FGFR antagonists are currently under clinical trials, the precise cellular responses under the treatment of FGFR antagonists remains unclear. Here, we show that PD166866, an FGFR1-selective inhibitor, inhibits proliferation and triggers anoikis in FGFR1-amplified breast cancer cell lines. Notably, we demonstrate that PD166866 induces autophagy in FGFR1-amplified breast cancer cell lines, while blockage of autophagy by Atg5 knockdown further enhances the anti-proliferative activities of PD166866. Moreover, mechanistic study reveals that PD166866 induces autophagy through repressing Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. Together, the present study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-tumor activities of FGFR antagonists, and may further assist the FGFRs-based drug discovery. -- Highlights: •FGFR1 antagonist inhibits cell viability in FGFR1-amplified breast cancer cells. •FGFR1 antagonist induces autophagy in FGFR1-amplified breast cancer cells. •FGFR1 antagonist-induced autophagy is protective. •FGFR1 antagonist induces autophagy by inhibiting Akt/mTOR pathway.

  7. FGFR antagonist induces protective autophagy in FGFR1-amplified breast cancer cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yi [The School of Biomedical Sciences, Chengdu Medical College, Chengdu 610083 (China); Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Xie, Xiaoyan; Li, Xinyi; Wang, Peiqi [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China College of Stomatology, Sichuan University (China); Jing, Qian; Yue, Jiaqi; Liu, Yang [The School of Biomedical Sciences, Chengdu Medical College, Chengdu 610083 (China); Cheng, Zhong [Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Li, Jingyi, E-mail: li--jingyi@hotmail.com [The School of Biomedical Sciences, Chengdu Medical College, Chengdu 610083 (China); Song, Haixing [The School of Biomedical Sciences, Chengdu Medical College, Chengdu 610083 (China); Li, Guoyu, E-mail: liguoyulisa@163.com [School of Pharmacy, Shihezi University, Shihezi 832003 (China); Liu, Rui, E-mail: liurui_scu@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China College of Stomatology, Sichuan University (China); Wang, Jinhui [School of Pharmacy, Shihezi University, Shihezi 832003 (China)

    2016-05-20

    Breast cancer, representing approximately 30% of all gynecological cancer cases diagnosed yearly, is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality for women. Amplification of FGFR1 is frequently observed in breast cancers and is associated with poor prognosis. Though FGFRs have long been considered as anti-cancer drug targets, and a cluster of FGFR antagonists are currently under clinical trials, the precise cellular responses under the treatment of FGFR antagonists remains unclear. Here, we show that PD166866, an FGFR1-selective inhibitor, inhibits proliferation and triggers anoikis in FGFR1-amplified breast cancer cell lines. Notably, we demonstrate that PD166866 induces autophagy in FGFR1-amplified breast cancer cell lines, while blockage of autophagy by Atg5 knockdown further enhances the anti-proliferative activities of PD166866. Moreover, mechanistic study reveals that PD166866 induces autophagy through repressing Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. Together, the present study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-tumor activities of FGFR antagonists, and may further assist the FGFRs-based drug discovery. -- Highlights: •FGFR1 antagonist inhibits cell viability in FGFR1-amplified breast cancer cells. •FGFR1 antagonist induces autophagy in FGFR1-amplified breast cancer cells. •FGFR1 antagonist-induced autophagy is protective. •FGFR1 antagonist induces autophagy by inhibiting Akt/mTOR pathway.

  8. Accelerated Telomere Shortening in Acromegaly; IGF-I Induces Telomere Shortening and Cellular Senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Ryusaku; Fukuoka, Hidenori; Iguchi, Genzo; Odake, Yukiko; Yoshida, Kenichi; Bando, Hironori; Suda, Kentaro; Nishizawa, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Michiko; Yamada, Shozo; Ogawa, Wataru; Takahashi, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    Patients with acromegaly exhibit reduced life expectancy and increased prevalence of age-related diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. However, the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Telomere shortening is reportedly associated with reduced life expectancy and increased prevalence of these age-related diseases. We measured telomere length in patients with acromegaly using quantitative PCR method. The effect of GH and IGF-I on telomere length and cellular senescence was examined in human skin fibroblasts. Patients with acromegaly exhibited shorter telomere length than age-, sex-, smoking-, and diabetes-matched control patients with non-functioning pituitary adenoma (0.62 ± 0.23 vs. 0.75 ± 0.35, respectively, P = 0.047). In addition, telomere length in acromegaly was negatively correlated with the disease duration (R2 = 0.210, P = 0.003). In vitro analysis revealed that not GH but IGF-I induced telomere shortening in human skin fibroblasts. Furthermore, IGF-I-treated cells showed increased senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity and expression of p53 and p21 protein. IGF-I-treated cells reached the Hayflick limit earlier than GH- or vehicle-treated cells, indicating that IGF-I induces cellular senescence. Shortened telomeres in acromegaly and cellular senescence induced by IGF-I can explain, in part, the underlying mechanisms by which acromegaly exhibits an increased morbidity and mortality in association with the excess secretion of IGF-I.

  9. Monoacylated Cellular Prion Proteins Reduce Amyloid-β-Induced Activation of Cytoplasmic Phospholipase A2 and Synapse Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewan West

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by the accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ and the loss of synapses. Aggregation of the cellular prion protein (PrPC by Aβ oligomers induced synapse damage in cultured neurons. PrPC is attached to membranes via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI anchor, the composition of which affects protein targeting and cell signaling. Monoacylated PrPC incorporated into neurons bound “natural Aβ”, sequestering Aβ outside lipid rafts and preventing its accumulation at synapses. The presence of monoacylated PrPC reduced the Aβ-induced activation of cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2 and Aβ-induced synapse damage. This protective effect was stimulus specific, as treated neurons remained sensitive to α-synuclein, a protein associated with synapse damage in Parkinson’s disease. In synaptosomes, the aggregation of PrPC by Aβ oligomers triggered the formation of a signaling complex containing the cPLA2.a process, disrupted by monoacylated PrPC. We propose that monoacylated PrPC acts as a molecular sponge, binding Aβ oligomers at the neuronal perikarya without activating cPLA2 or triggering synapse damage.

  10. The right choice of antihypertensives protects primary human hepatocytes from ethanol- and recombinant human TGF-β1-induced cellular damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehnert S

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sabrina Ehnert,1 Teresa Lukoschek,2 Anastasia Bachmann,2 Juan J Martínez Sánchez,1 Georg Damm,3 Natascha C Nussler,4 Stefan Pscherer,5 Ulrich Stöckle,1 Steven Dooley,2 Sebastian Mueller,6 Andreas K Nussler11Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, BG Trauma Center, Tübingen, Germany; 2Mol Hepatology - Alcohol Associated Diseases, Department of Medicine II, Medical Faculty, Mannheim, Germany; 3Department of General, Visceral, and Transplantation Surgery, Charité University Medicine, Berlin, Germany; 4Clinic for General, Visceral, Endocrine Surgery and Coloproctology, Clinic Neuperlach, Städtisches Klinikum München GmbH, Munich, Germany; 5Department of Diabetology, Klinikum Traunstein, Kliniken Südostbayern AG, Traunstein, Germany; 6Department of Medicine, Salem Medical Center, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität, Heidelberg, GermanyBackground: Patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD often suffer from high blood pressure and rely on antihypertensive treatment. Certain antihypertensives may influence progression of chronic liver disease. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the impact of the commonly used antihypertensives amlodipine, captopril, furosemide, metoprolol, propranolol, and spironolactone on alcohol-induced damage toward human hepatocytes (hHeps.Methods: hHeps were isolated by collagenase perfusion. Reactive oxygen species (ROS were measured by fluorescence-based assays. Cellular damage was determined by lactate-dehydrogenase (LDH-leakage. Expression analysis was performed by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Transforming growth factor (TGF-β signaling was investigated by a Smad3/4-responsive luciferase-reporter assay.Results: Ethanol and TGF-β1 rapidly increased ROS in hHeps, causing a release of 40%–60% of total LDH after 72 hours. All antihypertensives dose dependently reduced ethanol-mediated oxidative stress and cellular damage. Similar results were observed for TGF-β1-dependent

  11. Cellular defense against UVB-induced phototoxicity by cytosolic NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Seung-Hee; Lee, So-Hyun; Suk Chun, Hang; Min Lee, Su; Koh, Ho-Jin; Lee, Sung-Eun; Chun, Jang-Soo; Park, Jeen-Woo; Huh, Tae-Lin

    2002-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is known as a major cause of skin photoaging and photocarcinogenesis. Many harmful effects of UV radiation are associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species. Recently, we have shown that NADP + -dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase is involved in the supply of NADPH needed for GSH production against cellular oxidative damage. In this study we investigated the role of cytosolic form of NADP + -dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPc) against UV radiation-induced cytotoxicity by comparing the relative degree of cellular responses in three different NIH3T3 cells with stable transfection with the cDNA for mouse IDPc in sense and antisense orientations, where IDPc activities were 2.3-fold higher and 39% lower, respectively, than that in the parental cells carrying the vector alone. Upon exposure to UVB (312 nm), the cells with low levels of IDPc became more sensitive to cell killing. Lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, oxidative DNA damage, and intracellular peroxide generation were higher in the cell-line expressing the lower level of IDPc. However, the cells with the highly overexpressed IDPc exhibited enhanced resistance against UV radiation, compared to the control cells. The data indicate that IDPc plays an important role in cellular defense against UV radiation-induced oxidative injury

  12. Cellular defense against UVB-induced phototoxicity by cytosolic NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Seung-Hee; Lee, So-Hyun; Chun, Hang Suk; Lee, Su Min; Koh, Ho-Jin; Lee, Sung-Eun; Chun, Jang-Soo; Park, Jeen-Woo; Huh, Tae-Lin

    2002-03-29

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is known as a major cause of skin photoaging and photocarcinogenesis. Many harmful effects of UV radiation are associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species. Recently, we have shown that NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase is involved in the supply of NADPH needed for GSH production against cellular oxidative damage. In this study we investigated the role of cytosolic form of NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPc) against UV radiation-induced cytotoxicity by comparing the relative degree of cellular responses in three different NIH3T3 cells with stable transfection with the cDNA for mouse IDPc in sense and antisense orientations, where IDPc activities were 2.3-fold higher and 39% lower, respectively, than that in the parental cells carrying the vector alone. Upon exposure to UVB (312 nm), the cells with low levels of IDPc became more sensitive to cell killing. Lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, oxidative DNA damage, and intracellular peroxide generation were higher in the cell-line expressing the lower level of IDPc. However, the cells with the highly overexpressed IDPc exhibited enhanced resistance against UV radiation, compared to the control cells. The data indicate that IDPc plays an important role in cellular defense against UV radiation-induced oxidative injury. (c)2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  13. Role of NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP+-ICDH) on cellular defence against oxidative injury by gamma-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S H; Jo, S H; Lee, S M; Koh, H J; Song, H; Park, J W; Lee, W H; Huh, T L

    2004-09-01

    To investigate the regulation of NADPH-producing isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) in cytosol (IDPc) and mitochondria (IDPm) upon gamma-ray irradiation, and the roles of IDPc and IDPm in the protection against cellular damage induced by gamma-ray irradiation. Changes of IDPc and IDPm proteins upon gamma-ray irradiation to NIH3T3 cells were analysed by immunoblotting. To increase or decrease the expression of IDPc or IDPm, NIH3T3 cells were stably transfected with mouse IDPc or IDPm cDNA in either the sense or the antisense direction. The transfected cells with either increased or decreased IDPc or IDPm were exposed to gamma-rays, and the levels of reactive oxygen species generation, protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation were measured. Both IDPc and IDPm activities were induced by gamma-ray in NIH3T3 cells. Cells with decreased expression of IDPc or IDPm had elevated reactive oxygen species generation, lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation. Conversely, overproduction of IDPc or IDPm protein partially protected the cells from oxidative damage induced by gamma-ray irradiation. The protective role of IDPc and IDPm against gamma-ray-induced cellular damage can be attributed to elevated NADPH, reducing equivalents needed for recycling reduced glutathione in the cytosol and mitochondria. Thus, a primary biological function of the ICDHs may be production of NADPH, which is a prerequisite for some cellular defence systems against oxidative damage.

  14. Competitive inhibitor of cellular alpha-glucosidases protects mice from lethal dengue virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Jinhong; Schul, Wouter; Yip, Andy; Xu, Xiaodong; Guo, Ju-Tao; Block, Timothy M.

    2011-01-01

    Dengue virus infection causes diseases in people, ranging from the acute febrile illness Dengue fever, to life-threatening Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever/Dengue Shock Syndrome. We previously reported that a host cellular α-glucosidases I and II inhibitor, imino sugar CM-10-18, potently inhibited dengue virus replication in cultured cells, and significantly reduced viremia in dengue virus infected AG129 mice. In this report we show that CM-10-18 also significantly protects mice from death and/or dis...

  15. Cellular defense against singlet oxygen-induced oxidative damage by cytosolic NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Yee; Park, Jeen-Woo

    2003-03-01

    Singlet oxygen (1O2) is a highly reactive form of molecular oxygen that may harm living systems by oxidizing critical cellular macromolecules. Recently, we have shown that NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase is involved in the supply of NADPH needed for GSH production against cellular oxidative damage. In this study, we investigated the role of cytosolic form of NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPc) against singlet oxygen-induced cytotoxicity by comparing the relative degree of cellular responses in three different NIH3T3 cells with stable transfection with the cDNA for mouse IDPc in sense and antisense orientations, where IDPc activities were 2.3-fold higher and 39% lower, respectively, than that in the parental cells carrying the vector alone. Upon exposure to singlet oxygen generated from photoactivated dye, the cells with low levels of IDPc became more sensitive to cell killing. Lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, oxidative DNA damage and intracellular peroxide generation were higher in the cell-line expressing the lower level of IDPc. However, the cells with the highly over-expressed IDPc exhibited enhanced resistance against singlet oxygen, compared to the control cells. The data indicate that IDPc plays an important role in cellular defense against singlet oxygen-induced oxidative injury.

  16. Cellular Response to Bleomycin-Induced DNA Damage in Human Fibroblast Cells in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tao; Zhang, Ye; Wong, Michael; Stodieck, Louis; Karouia, Fathi; Wu, Honglu

    2015-01-01

    Outside the protection of the geomagnetic field, astronauts and other living organisms are constantly exposed to space radiation that consists of energetic protons and other heavier charged particles. Whether spaceflight factors, microgravity in particular, have effects on cellular responses to DNA damage induced by exposure to radiation or cytotoxic chemicals is still unknown, as is their impact on the radiation risks for astronauts and on the mutation rate in microorganisms. Although possible synergistic effects of space radiation and other spaceflight factors have been investigated since the early days of the human space program, the published results were mostly conflicting and inconsistent. To investigate effects of spaceflight on cellular responses to DNA damages, human fibroblast cells flown to the International Space Station (ISS) were treated with bleomycin for three hours in the true microgravity environment, which induced DNA damages including double-strand breaks (DSB) similar to the ionizing radiation. Damages in the DNA were measured by the phosphorylation of a histone protein H2AX (g-H2AX), which showed slightly more foci in the cells on ISS than in the ground control. The expression of genes involved in DNA damage response was also analyzed using the PCR array. Although a number of the genes, including CDKN1A and PCNA, were significantly altered in the cells after bleomycin treatment, no significant difference in the expression profile of DNA damage response genes was found between the flight and ground samples. At the time of the bleomycin treatment, the cells on the ISS were found to be proliferating faster than the ground control as measured by the percentage of cells containing positive Ki-67 signals. Our results suggested that the difference in g-H2AX focus counts between flight and ground was due to the faster growth rate of the cells in space, but spaceflight did not affect initial transcriptional responses of the DNA damage response genes to

  17. Selective transcription and cellular proliferation induced by PDGF require histone deacetylase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catania, Annunziata; Iavarone, Carlo; Carlomagno, Stella M.; Chiariello, Mario

    2006-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are key regulatory enzymes involved in the control of gene expression and their inhibition by specific drugs has been widely correlated to cell cycle arrest, terminal differentiation, and apoptosis. Here, we investigated whether HDAC activity was required for PDGF-dependent signal transduction and cellular proliferation. Exposure of PDGF-stimulated NIH3T3 fibroblasts to the HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) potently repressed the expression of a group of genes correlated to PDGF-dependent cellular growth and pro-survival activity. Moreover, we show that TSA interfered with STAT3-dependent transcriptional activity induced by PDGF. Still, neither phosphorylation nor nuclear translocation and DNA-binding in vitro and in vivo of STAT3 were affected by using TSA to interfere with PDGF stimulation. Finally, TSA treatment resulted in the suppression of PDGF-dependent cellular proliferation without affecting cellular survival of NIH3T3 cells. Our data indicate that inhibition of HDAC activity antagonizes the mitogenic effect of PDGF, suggesting that these drugs may specifically act on the expression of STAT-dependent, PDGF-responsive genes

  18. Protection from cyanide-induced brain injury by the Nrf2 transcriptional activator carnosic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongxian; Lee, Brian; Nutter, Anthony; Song, Paul; Dolatabadi, Nima; Parker, James; Sanz-Blasco, Sara; Newmeyer, Traci; Ambasudhan, Rajesh; McKercher, Scott R; Masliah, Eliezer; Lipton, Stuart A

    2015-06-01

    Cyanide is a life-threatening, bioterrorist agent, preventing cellular respiration by inhibiting cytochrome c oxidase, resulting in cardiopulmonary failure, hypoxic brain injury, and death within minutes. However, even after treatment with various antidotes to protect cytochrome oxidase, cyanide intoxication in humans can induce a delayed-onset neurological syndrome that includes symptoms of Parkinsonism. Additional mechanisms are thought to underlie cyanide-induced neuronal damage, including generation of reactive oxygen species. This may account for the fact that antioxidants prevent some aspects of cyanide-induced neuronal damage. Here, as a potential preemptive countermeasure against a bioterrorist attack with cyanide, we tested the CNS protective effect of carnosic acid (CA), a pro-electrophilic compound found in the herb rosemary. CA crosses the blood-brain barrier to up-regulate endogenous antioxidant enzymes via activation of the Nrf2 transcriptional pathway. We demonstrate that CA exerts neuroprotective effects on cyanide-induced brain damage in cultured rodent and human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons in vitro, and in vivo in various brain areas of a non-Swiss albino mouse model of cyanide poisoning that simulates damage observed in the human brain. Cyanide, a potential bioterrorist agent, can produce a chronic delayed-onset neurological syndrome that includes symptoms of Parkinsonism. Here, cyanide poisoning treated with the proelectrophillic compound carnosic acid, results in reduced neuronal cell death in both in vitro and in vivo models through activation of the Nrf2/ARE transcriptional pathway. Carnosic acid is therefore a potential treatment for the toxic central nervous system (CNS) effects of cyanide poisoning. ARE, antioxidant responsive element; Nrf2 (NFE2L2, Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2). © 2015 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  19. Cellular characterization of compression induced-damage in live biological samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Chiara; Balzer, Jens; Hahnel, Mark; Rankin, Sara M.; Brown, Katherine A.; Proud, William G.

    2011-06-01

    Understanding the dysfunctions that high-intensity compression waves induce in human tissues is critical to impact on acute-phase treatments and requires the development of experimental models of traumatic damage in biological samples. In this study we have developed an experimental system to directly assess the impact of dynamic loading conditions on cellular function at the molecular level. Here we present a confinement chamber designed to subject live cell cultures in liquid environment to compression waves in the range of tens of MPa using a split Hopkinson pressure bars system. Recording the loading history and collecting the samples post-impact without external contamination allow the definition of parameters such as pressure and duration of the stimulus that can be related to the cellular damage. The compression experiments are conducted on Mesenchymal Stem Cells from BALB/c mice and the damage analysis are compared to two control groups. Changes in Stem cell viability, phenotype and function are assessed flow cytometry and with in vitro bioassays at two different time points. Identifying the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the damage caused by dynamic loading in live biological samples could enable the development of new treatments for traumatic injuries.

  20. Photoprotection beyond ultraviolet radiation--effective sun protection has to include protection against infrared A radiation-induced skin damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, P; Calles, C; Benesova, T; Macaluso, F; Krutmann, J

    2010-01-01

    Solar radiation is well known to damage human skin, for example by causing premature skin ageing (i.e. photoageing). We have recently learned that this damage does not result from ultraviolet (UV) radiation alone, but also from longer wavelengths, in particular near-infrared radiation (IRA radiation, 760-1,440 nm). IRA radiation accounts for more than one third of the solar energy that reaches human skin. While infrared radiation of longer wavelengths (IRB and IRC) does not penetrate deeply into the skin, more than 65% of the shorter wavelength (IRA) reaches the dermis. IRA radiation has been demonstrated to alter the collagen equilibrium of the dermal extracellular matrix in at least two ways: (a) by leading to an increased expression of the collagen-degrading enzyme matrix metalloproteinase 1, and (b) by decreasing the de novo synthesis of the collagen itself. IRA radiation exposure therefore induces similar biological effects to UV radiation, but the underlying mechanisms are substantially different, specifically, the cellular response to IRA irradiation involves the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Effective sun protection requires specific strategies to prevent IRA radiation-induced skin damage. 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Accelerated Telomere Shortening in Acromegaly; IGF-I Induces Telomere Shortening and Cellular Senescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryusaku Matsumoto

    Full Text Available Patients with acromegaly exhibit reduced life expectancy and increased prevalence of age-related diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. However, the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Telomere shortening is reportedly associated with reduced life expectancy and increased prevalence of these age-related diseases.We measured telomere length in patients with acromegaly using quantitative PCR method. The effect of GH and IGF-I on telomere length and cellular senescence was examined in human skin fibroblasts.Patients with acromegaly exhibited shorter telomere length than age-, sex-, smoking-, and diabetes-matched control patients with non-functioning pituitary adenoma (0.62 ± 0.23 vs. 0.75 ± 0.35, respectively, P = 0.047. In addition, telomere length in acromegaly was negatively correlated with the disease duration (R2 = 0.210, P = 0.003. In vitro analysis revealed that not GH but IGF-I induced telomere shortening in human skin fibroblasts. Furthermore, IGF-I-treated cells showed increased senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity and expression of p53 and p21 protein. IGF-I-treated cells reached the Hayflick limit earlier than GH- or vehicle-treated cells, indicating that IGF-I induces cellular senescence.Shortened telomeres in acromegaly and cellular senescence induced by IGF-I can explain, in part, the underlying mechanisms by which acromegaly exhibits an increased morbidity and mortality in association with the excess secretion of IGF-I.

  2. Accelerated Telomere Shortening in Acromegaly; IGF-I Induces Telomere Shortening and Cellular Senescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Ryusaku; Fukuoka, Hidenori; Iguchi, Genzo; Odake, Yukiko; Yoshida, Kenichi; Bando, Hironori; Suda, Kentaro; Nishizawa, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Michiko; Yamada, Shozo; Ogawa, Wataru; Takahashi, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    Objective Patients with acromegaly exhibit reduced life expectancy and increased prevalence of age-related diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. However, the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Telomere shortening is reportedly associated with reduced life expectancy and increased prevalence of these age-related diseases. Methods We measured telomere length in patients with acromegaly using quantitative PCR method. The effect of GH and IGF-I on telomere length and cellular senescence was examined in human skin fibroblasts. Results Patients with acromegaly exhibited shorter telomere length than age-, sex-, smoking-, and diabetes-matched control patients with non-functioning pituitary adenoma (0.62 ± 0.23 vs. 0.75 ± 0.35, respectively, P = 0.047). In addition, telomere length in acromegaly was negatively correlated with the disease duration (R 2 = 0.210, P = 0.003). In vitro analysis revealed that not GH but IGF-I induced telomere shortening in human skin fibroblasts. Furthermore, IGF-I-treated cells showed increased senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity and expression of p53 and p21 protein. IGF-I-treated cells reached the Hayflick limit earlier than GH- or vehicle-treated cells, indicating that IGF-I induces cellular senescence. Conclusion Shortened telomeres in acromegaly and cellular senescence induced by IGF-I can explain, in part, the underlying mechanisms by which acromegaly exhibits an increased morbidity and mortality in association with the excess secretion of IGF-I. PMID:26448623

  3. Autophagy Facilitates IFN-γ-induced Jak2-STAT1 Activation and Cellular Inflammation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Ping; Tsai, Cheng-Chieh; Huang, Wei-Ching; Wang, Chi-Yun; Chen, Chia-Ling; Lin, Yee-Shin; Kai, Jui-In; Hsieh, Chia-Yuan; Cheng, Yi-Lin; Choi, Pui-Ching; Chen, Shun-Hua; Chang, Shih-Ping; Liu, Hsiao-Sheng; Lin, Chiou-Feng

    2010-01-01

    Autophagy is regulated for IFN-γ-mediated antimicrobial efficacy; however, its molecular effects for IFN-γ signaling are largely unknown. Here, we show that autophagy facilitates IFN-γ-activated Jak2-STAT1. IFN-γ induces autophagy in wild-type but not in autophagy protein 5 (Atg5−/−)-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), and, autophagy-dependently, IFN-γ induces IFN regulatory factor 1 and cellular inflammatory responses. Pharmacologically inhibiting autophagy using 3-methyladenine, a known inhibitor of class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, confirms these effects. Either Atg5−/− or Atg7−/− MEFs are, independent of changes in IFN-γ receptor expression, resistant to IFN-γ-activated Jak2-STAT1, which suggests that autophagy is important for IFN-γ signal transduction. Lentivirus-based short hairpin RNA for Atg5 knockdown confirmed the importance of autophagy for IFN-γ-activated STAT1. Without autophagy, reactive oxygen species increase and cause SHP2 (Src homology-2 domain-containing phosphatase 2)-regulated STAT1 inactivation. Inhibiting SHP2 reversed both cellular inflammation and the IFN-γ-induced activation of STAT1 in Atg5−/− MEFs. Our study provides evidence that there is a link between autophagy and both IFN-γ signaling and cellular inflammation and that autophagy, because it inhibits the expression of reactive oxygen species and SHP2, is pivotal for Jak2-STAT1 activation. PMID:20592027

  4. Acute dyskerin depletion triggers cellular senescence and renders osteosarcoma cells resistant to genotoxic stress-induced apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Ping; Mobasher, Maral E.; Alawi, Faizan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Dyskerin depletion triggers cellular senescence in U2OS osteosarcoma cells. • Dyskerin-depleted cells are resistant to apoptosis induced by genotoxic stress. • Chromatin relaxation sensitizes dyskerin-depleted cells to apoptosis. - Abstract: Dyskerin is a conserved, nucleolar RNA-binding protein implicated in an increasing array of fundamental cellular processes. Germline mutation in the dyskerin gene (DKC1) is the cause of X-linked dyskeratosis congenita (DC). Conversely, wild-type dyskerin is overexpressed in sporadic cancers, and high-levels may be associated with poor prognosis. It was previously reported that acute loss of dyskerin function via siRNA-mediated depletion slowed the proliferation of transformed cell lines. However, the mechanisms remained unclear. Using human U2OS osteosarcoma cells, we show that siRNA-mediated dyskerin depletion induced cellular senescence as evidenced by proliferative arrest, senescence-associated heterochromatinization and a senescence-associated molecular profile. Senescence can render cells resistant to apoptosis. Conversely, chromatin relaxation can reverse the repressive effects of senescence-associated heterochromatinization on apoptosis. To this end, genotoxic stress-induced apoptosis was suppressed in dyskerin-depleted cells. In contrast, agents that induce chromatin relaxation, including histone deacetylase inhibitors and the DNA intercalator chloroquine, sensitized dyskerin-depleted cells to apoptosis. Dyskerin is a core component of the telomerase complex and plays an important role in telomere homeostasis. Defective telomere maintenance resulting in premature senescence is thought to primarily underlie the pathogenesis of X-linked DC. Since U2OS cells are telomerase-negative, this leads us to conclude that loss of dyskerin function can also induce cellular senescence via mechanisms independent of telomere shortening

  5. Protection of cisplatin-induced spermatotoxicity, DNA damage and chromatin abnormality by selenium nano-particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezvanfar, Mohammad Amin; Rezvanfar, Mohammad Ali [Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahverdi, Ahmad Reza [Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and Biotechnology Research Centre, Faculty of Pharmacy, TUMS, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ahmadi, Abbas [Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Baeeri, Maryam; Mohammadirad, Azadeh [Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdollahi, Mohammad, E-mail: mohammad.abdollahi@utoronto.ca [Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-02-01

    Cisplatin (CIS), an anticancer alkylating agent, induces DNA adducts and effectively cross links the DNA strands and so affects spermatozoa as a male reproductive toxicant. The present study investigated the cellular/biochemical mechanisms underlying possible protective effect of selenium nano-particles (Nano-Se) as an established strong antioxidant with more bioavailability and less toxicity, on reproductive toxicity of CIS by assessment of sperm characteristics, sperm DNA integrity, chromatin quality and spermatogenic disorders. To determine the role of oxidative stress (OS) in the pathogenesis of CIS gonadotoxicity, the level of lipid peroxidation (LPO), antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and peroxynitrite (ONOO) as a marker of nitrosative stress (NS) and testosterone (T) concentration as a biomarker of testicular function were measured in the blood and testes. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were equally divided into four groups. A single IP dose of CIS (7 mg/kg) and protective dose of Nano-Se (2 mg/kg/day) were administered alone or in combination. The CIS-exposed rats showed a significant increase in testicular and serum LPO and ONOO level, along with a significant decrease in enzymatic antioxidants levels, diminished serum T concentration and abnormal histologic findings with impaired sperm quality associated with increased DNA damage and decreased chromatin quality. Coadministration of Nano-Se significantly improved the serum T, sperm quality, and spermatogenesis and reduced CIS-induced free radical toxic stress and spermatic DNA damage. In conclusion, the current study demonstrated that Nano-Se may be useful to prevent CIS-induced gonadotoxicity through its antioxidant potential. Highlights: ► Cisplatin (CIS) affects spermatozoa as a male reproductive toxicant. ► Effect of Nano-Se on CIS-induced spermatotoxicity was investigated. ► CIS-exposure induces oxidative sperm DNA damage

  6. Sirt3 confers protection against acrolein-induced oxidative stress in cochlear nucleus neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Juan; Wu, Yong-Xiang; Zhang, Ting; Qiu, Yang; Ding, Zhong-Jia; Zha, Ding-Jun

    2018-03-01

    Acrolein is a ubiquitous dietary and environmental pollutant, which can also be generated endogenously during cellular stress. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying acrolein-induced neurotoxicity, especially in ototoxicity conditions, have not been fully determined. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms on acrolein-induced toxicity in primary cultured cochlear nucleus neurons with focus on Sirt3, a mitochondrial deacetylase. We found that acrolein treatment induced neuronal injury and programmed cell death (PCD) in a dose dependent manner in cochlear nucleus neurons, which was accompanied by increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and lipid peroxidation. Acrolein exposure also significantly reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) levels, promoted cytochrome c release and decreased mitochondrial ATP production. In addition, increased ER tracker fluorescence and activation of ER stress factors were observed after acrolein treatment, and the ER stress inhibitors were shown to attenuate acrolein-induced toxicity in cochlear nucleus neurons. The results of western blot and RT-PCR showed that acrolein markedly decreased the expression of Sirt3 at both mRNA and protein levels, and reduced the activity of downstream mitochondrial enzymes. Furthermore, overexpression of Sirt3 by lentivirus transfection partially prevented acrolein-induced neuronal injury in cochlear nucleus neurons. These results demonstrated that acrolein induces mitochondrial dysfunction and ER stress in cochlear nucleus neurons, and Sirt3 acts as an endogenous protective factor in acrolein-induced ototoxicity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Protective effects of physical exercise on MDMA-induced cognitive and mitochondrial impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeh, Ghorban; Pourahmad, Jalal; Mehdizadeh, Hajar; Foroumadi, Alireza; Torkaman-Boutorabi, Anahita; Hassani, Shokoufeh; Naserzadeh, Parvaneh; Shariatmadari, Reyhaneh; Gholami, Mahdi; Rouini, Mohammad Reza; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad

    2016-10-01

    Debate continues about the effect of 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) on cognitive and mitochondrial function through the CNS. It has been shown that physical exercise has an important protective effect on cellular damage and death. Therefore, we investigated the effect of physical exercise on MDMA-induced impairments of spatial learning and memory as well as MDMA effects on brain mitochondrial function in rats. Male wistar rats underwent short-term (2 weeks) or long-term (4 weeks) treadmill exercise. After completion of exercise duration, acquisition and retention of spatial memory were evaluated by Morris water maze (MWM) test. Rats were intraperitoneally (I.P) injected with MDMA (5, 10, and 15mg/kg) 30min before the first training trial in 4 training days of MWM. Different parameters of brain mitochondrial function were measured including the level of ROS production, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), mitochondrial swelling, mitochondrial outermembrane damage, the amount of cytochrome c release from the mitochondria, and ADP/ATP ratio. MDMA damaged the spatial learning and memory in a dose-dependent manner. Brain mitochondria isolated from the rats treated with MDMA showed significant increase in ROS formation, collapse of MMP, mitochondrial swelling, and outer membrane damage, cytochrome c release from the mitochondria, and finally increased ADP/ATP ratio. This study also found that physical exercise significantly decreased the MDMA-induced impairments of spatial learning and memory and also mitochondrial dysfunction. The results indicated that MDMA-induced neurotoxicity leads to brain mitochondrial dysfunction and subsequent oxidative stress is followed by cognitive impairments. However, physical exercise could reduce these deleterious effects of MDMA through protective effects on brain mitochondrial function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Dysfunction of different cellular degradation pathways contributes to specific β-amyloid42-induced pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xuan-Ru; Cheng, Kuan-Chung; Chen, Yu-Ru; Lin, Tzu-Yu; Cheung, Chun Hei Antonio; Wu, Chia-Lin; Chiang, Hsueh-Cheng

    2018-03-01

    The endosomal-lysosomal system (ELS), autophagy, and ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) are cellular degradation pathways that each play a critical role in the removal of misfolded proteins and the prevention of the accumulation of abnormal proteins. Recent studies on Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis have suggested that accumulation of aggregated β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides in the AD brain results from a dysfunction in these cellular clearance systems. However, the specific roles of these pathways in the removal of Aβ peptides and the pathogenesis underlying AD are unclear. Our in vitro and in vivo genetic approaches revealed that ELS mainly removed monomeric β-amyloid42 (Aβ42), while autophagy and UPS clear oligomeric Aβ42. Although overproduction of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate-5 increased Aβ42 clearance, it reduced the life span of Aβ42 transgenic flies. Our behavioral studies further demonstrated impaired autophagy and UPS-enhanced Aβ42-induced learning and memory deficits, but there was no effect on Aβ42-induced reduction in life span. Results from genetic fluorescence imaging showed that these pathways were damaged in the following order: UPS, autophagy, and finally ELS. The results of our study demonstrate that different degradation pathways play distinct roles in the removal of Aβ42 aggregates and in disease progression. These findings also suggest that pharmacologic treatments that are designed to stimulate cellular degradation pathways in patients with AD should be used with caution.-Ji, X.-R., Cheng, K.-C., Chen, Y.-R., Lin, T.-Y., Cheung, C. H. A., Wu, C.-L., Chiang, H.-C. Dysfunction of different cellular degradation pathways contributes to specific β-amyloid42-induced pathologies.

  9. Scavenging capacity of medicinal plants against free radical-induced cellular damage by radiation and photoactivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadkar, Shalaka [Ruia College, Mumbai (India); Mohan, H [Chemistry Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Kamat, J P [Radiation Biology and Health Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2004-01-01

    The scavenging capacity of medicinal plants. Andrographis paniculata (Ap) and Swertia chirata (Sc) was examined against cellular damage, induced by radiation and photo-activation in sub-cellular membranes. The results demonstrated significant radical scavenging capacity of the extracts. The rate constants as evaluated by deoxyribose degradation studies and the pulse radiolysis studies carried in presence of ABTS radical well supported the antioxidant properties of the extracts. (author)

  10. Autophagy Protects against CYP2E1/Chronic Ethanol-Induced Hepatotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongke Lu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is an intracellular pathway by which lysosomes degrade and recycle long-lived proteins and cellular organelles. The effects of ethanol on autophagy are complex but recent studies have shown that autophagy serves a protective function against ethanol-induced liver injury. Autophagy was found to also be protective against CYP2E1-dependent toxicity in vitro in HepG2 cells which express CYP2E1 and in vivo in an acute alcohol/CYPE1-dependent liver injury model. The goal of the current report was to extend the previous in vitro and acute in vivo experiments to a chronic ethanol model to evaluate whether autophagy is also protective against CYP2E1-dependent liver injury in a chronic ethanol-fed mouse model. Wild type (WT, CYP2E1 knockout (KO or CYP2E1 humanized transgenic knockin (KI, mice were fed an ethanol liquid diet or control dextrose diet for four weeks. In the last week, some mice received either saline or 3-methyladenine (3-MA, an inhibitor of autophagy, or rapamycin, which stimulates autophagy. Inhibition of autophagy by 3-MA potentiated the ethanol-induced increases in serum transaminase and triglyceride levels in the WT and KI mice but not KO mice, while rapamycin prevented the ethanol liver injury. Treatment with 3-MA enhanced the ethanol-induced fat accumulation in WT mice and caused necrosis in the KI mice; little or no effect was found in the ethanol-fed KO mice or any of the dextrose-fed mice. 3-MA treatment further lowered the ethanol-decrease in hepatic GSH levels and further increased formation of TBARS in WT and KI mice, whereas rapamycin blunted these effects of ethanol. Neither 3-MA nor rapamycin treatment affected CYP2E1 catalytic activity or content or the induction CYP2E1 by ethanol. The 3-MA treatment decreased levels of Beclin-1 and Atg 7 but increased levels of p62 in the ethanol-fed WT and KI mice whereas rapamycin had the opposite effects, validating inhibition and stimulation of autophagy, respectively. These

  11. A comprehensive review of metal-induced cellular transformation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiao Yi; Costa, Max

    2017-09-15

    In vitro transformation assays not only serve practical purposes in screening for potential carcinogenic substances in food, drug, and cosmetic industries, but more importantly, they provide a means of understanding the critical biological processes behind in vivo cancer development. In resemblance to cancer cells in vivo, successfully transformed cells display loss of contact inhibition, gain of anchorage independent growth, resistant to proper cell cycle regulation such as apoptosis, faster proliferation rate, potential for cellular invasion, and ability to form tumors in experimental animals. Cells purposely transformed using metal exposures enable researchers to examine molecular changes, dissect various stages of tumor formation, and ultimately elucidate metal induced cancer mode of action. For practical purposes, this review specifically focuses on studies incorporating As-, Cd-, Cr-, and Ni-induced cell transformation. Through investigating and comparing an extensive list of studies using various methods of metal-induced transformation, this review serves to bridge an information gap and provide a guide for avoiding procedural discrepancies as well as maximizing experimental efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Protection of betulin against cadmium-induced apoptosis in hepatoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Seon-Hee; Choi, Jeong-Eun; Lim, Sung-Chul

    2006-01-01

    The protective effects of betulin (BT) against cadmium (Cd)-induced cytotoxicity have been previously reported. However, the mechanisms responsible for these protective effects are unclear. Therefore, this study investigated the mechanisms responsible for the protection of BT against Cd-induced cytotoxicity in human hepatoma cell lines. The protection of BT against Cd cytotoxicity was more effective in the HepG2 than in the Hep3B cells. The protection of BT on Cd-induced cytotoxicity in the HepG2 cells appeared to be related to the inhibition of apoptosis, as determined by PI staining and DNA fragmentation analysis. The anti-apoptosis exerted by BT involved the blocking of Cd-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, the abrogation of the Cd-induced Fas upregulation, the blocking of caspase-8-dependent Bid activation, and subsequent inhibition of mitochondrial pathway. The BT pretreatment did not affect the p21 and p53 expression levels, when compared with those of the treated cells with Cd alone. BT induced the transient S phase arrest at an early stage and the G /G 1 arrest at a relatively late stage, but it did not observe the sub-G1 apoptotic peak. In the Hep3B cells, Cd did not induce ROS generation. The BT pretreatment partially inhibited the Cd-induced apoptosis, which was related with the incomplete blockage in caspase-9 or -3 activation, as well as in Bax activation. Taken together, it was found that Cd can induce apoptosis via the Fas-dependent and -independent apoptosis pathways. However, the observed protective effects of BT were clearly more sensitive to Fas-expressing HepG2 cells than to Fas-deficient Hep3B cells

  13. Overexpression of glutaredoxin protects cardiomyocytes against nitric oxide-induced apoptosis with suppressing the S-nitrosylation of proteins and nuclear translocation of GAPDH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inadomi, Chiaki; Murata, Hiroaki; Ihara, Yoshito; Goto, Shinji; Urata, Yoshishige; Yodoi, Junji; Kondo, Takahito; Sumikawa, Koji

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► GRX1 overexpression protects myocardiac H9c2 cells against NO-induced apoptosis. ► NO-induced nuclear translocation of GAPDH is suppressed in GRX overexpressors. ► Oxidation of GAPDH by NO is less in GRX overexpressors than in controls. -- Abstract: There is increasing evidence demonstrating that glutaredoxin 1 (GRX1), a cytosolic enzyme responsible for the catalysis of protein deglutathionylation, plays distinct roles in inflammation and apoptosis by inducing changes in the cellular redox system. In this study, we investigated whether and how the overexpression of GRX1 protects cardiomyocytes against nitric oxide (NO)-induced apoptosis. Cardiomyocytes (H9c2 cells) were transfected with the expression vector for mouse GRX1 cDNA, and mock-transfected cells were used as a control. Compared with the mock-transfected cells, the GRX1-transfected cells were more resistant to NO-induced apoptosis. Stimulation with NO significantly increased the nuclear translocation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), a pro-apoptotic protein, in the mock-transfected cells, but did not change GAPDH localization in the GRX1-transfected cells. Furthermore, we found that NO stimulation clearly induced the oxidative modification of GAPDH in the mock-transfected cells, whereas less modification of GAPDH was observed in the GRX1-transfected cells. These data suggest that the overexpression of GRX1 could protect cardiomyocytes against NO-induced apoptosis, likely through the inhibition of the oxidative modification and the nuclear translocation of GAPDH.

  14. Glucocorticoid-Induced Leucine Zipper Protects the Retina From Light-Induced Retinal Degeneration by Inducing Bcl-xL in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ruiping; Tang, Wenyi; Lei, Boya; Ding, Xinyi; Jiang, Cheng; Xu, Gezhi

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) in a light-induced retinal degeneration model and to explore the underlying mechanisms. Intravitreal injection of recombinant GILZ-overexpressing lentivirus (OE-GILZ-rLV) and short hairpin RNA targeting GILZ recombinant lentivirus (shRNA-GILZ-rLV) was performed to up- and downregulate retinal GILZ, respectively. Three days after stable transduction, rats were exposed to continuous bright light (5000 lux) for 2 days. Retinal function was assessed by full-field electroretinography (ERG), and the retinal structure was examined for photoreceptor survival and death in rats kept under a 12-hour light:2-hour dark cycle following light exposure. The expression levels of retinal Bcl-xL, caspase-9, and caspase-3 were examined by Western blotting or real-time PCR at 1, 3, 5, and 7 days after light exposure. Exposure to bright light downregulated retinal GILZ in parallel with the downregulation of Bcl-xL and the upregulation of active caspase-3. Overexpression of retinal GILZ attenuated the decrease of Bcl-xL and the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 at 1, 3, 5, and 7 days after bright light exposure, respectively. GILZ silencing aggravated the downregulation of Bcl-xL induced by bright light exposure. Bright light exposure reduced the amplitude of ERG, increased the number of apoptotic photoreceptor cells, and decreased retinal thickness; and GILZ overexpression could attenuate all these effects. Overexpression of GILZ by OE-GILZ-rLV transduction protected the retina from light-induced cellular damage by activating antiapoptotic pathways.

  15. Protective Effects of Hesperidin (Citrus Flavonone on High Glucose Induced Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis in a Cellular Model for Diabetic Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Young Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects and mechanisms of hesperidin, a plant based active flavanone found in citrus fruits, under the oxidative stress and apoptosis induced by high levels of glucose in retinal ganglial cells (RGCs. RGC-5 cells were pretreated with hesperidin (12.5, 25, or 50 μmol/L for 6 h followed by exposure to high (33.3 mmol/L d-glucose for 48 h. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay was adopted to evaluate cell viability. Mitochondrial function was estimated by measuring the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm. A fluorescent probe was employed to evaluate the intercellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Colorimetric assay kits were used to evaluate lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities, and protein carbonyls formation. The expression of apoptosis-related proteins and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK were measured with Western blotting. Hesperidin inhibited high glucose-mediated cell loss and restored mitochondrial function including a reversion of ΔΨm loss and cytochrome c release. Treated with hesperidin, high glucose-induced increase in ROS, malondialdehyde, and protein carbonyl levels were blocked in RGC-5 cells. Hesperidin was found to elevate the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and to recover glutathione levels. Hesperidin inhibited high glucose-induced cell apoptosis by attenuating the downregulation of caspase-9, caspase-3, and Bax/Bcl-2. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK and p38 MAPK triggered by high glucose were attenuated in RGC-5 cells after their incubation with hesperdin. We concluded that hesperidin may protect RGC-5 cells from high glucose-induced injury since it owns the properties of antioxidant action and blocks mitochondria-mediated apoptosis.

  16. Pomegranate protects against arsenic-induced p53-dependent ROS-mediated inflammation and apoptosis in liver cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Sreetama; Ghosh, Sayan; Mukherjee, Sudeshna; Gupta, Payal; Bhattacharya, Saurav; Adhikary, Arghya; Chattopadhyay, Sreya

    2016-12-01

    Molecular mechanisms involved in arsenic-induced toxicity are complex and elusive. Liver is one of the most favored organs for arsenic toxicity as methylation of arsenic occurs mostly in the liver. In this study, we have selected a range of environmentally relevant doses of arsenic to examine the basis of arsenic toxicity and the role of pomegranate fruit extract (PFE) in combating it. Male Swiss albino mice exposed to different doses of arsenic presented marked hepatic injury as evident from histological and electron microscopic studies. Increased activities of enzymes alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase corroborated extensive liver damage. It was further noted that arsenic exposure initiated reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent apoptosis in the hepatocytes involving loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Arsenic significantly increased nuclear translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), coupled with increase in phosphorylated Iκ-B, possibly as adaptive cellular survival strategies. Arsenic-induced oxidative DNA damage to liver cells culminated in p53 activation and increased expression of p53 targets like miR-34a and Bax. Pomegranate polyphenols are known to possess remarkable antioxidant properties and are capable of protecting normal cells from various stimuli-induced oxidative stress and toxicities. We explored the protective role of PFE in ameliorating arsenic-induced hepatic damage. PFE was shown to reduce ROS generation in hepatocytes, thereby reducing arsenic-induced Nrf2 activation. PFE also inhibited arsenic-induced NF-κB-inflammatory pathway. Data revealed that PFE reversed arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity and apoptosis by modulating the ROS/Nrf2/p53-miR-34a axis. For the first time, we have mapped the possible signaling pathways associated with arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity and its rescue by pomegranate polyphenols. Copyright

  17. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of alcohol-induced osteopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhenhua; Liu, Yao; Liu, Yitong; Chen, Hui; Shi, Songtao; Liu, Yi

    2017-12-01

    Alcoholic beverages are widely consumed, resulting in a staggering economic cost in different social and cultural settings. Types of alcohol consumption vary from light occasional to heavy, binge drinking, and chronic alcohol abuse at all ages. In general, heavy alcohol consumption is widely recognized as a major epidemiological risk factor for chronic diseases and is detrimental to many organs and tissues, including bones. Indeed, recent findings demonstrate that alcohol has a dose-dependent toxic effect in promoting imbalanced bone remodeling. This imbalance eventually results in osteopenia, an established risk factor for osteoporosis. Decreased bone mass and strength are major hallmarks of osteopenia, which is predominantly attributed not only to inhibition of bone synthesis but also to increased bone resorption through direct and indirect pathways. In this review, we present knowledge to elucidate the epidemiology, potential pathogenesis, and major molecular mechanisms and cellular effects that underlie alcoholism-induced bone loss in osteopenia. Novel therapeutic targets for correcting alcohol-induced osteopenia are also reviewed, such as modulation of proinflammatory cytokines and Wnt and mTOR signaling and the application of new drugs.

  18. Effects of wearing bio-active material coated fabric against γ-irradiation-induced cellular damaged in Sprague-Dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Jung Ae; Kim, Hye Rim; Yoon, Sun Hye; Nam, Sang Hyun; Park, Sang Hyun; Jang, Beom Su; Go, Kyung Chan; Yang, Gwang Wung; Rho, Young Hwan; Park, Hyo Suk

    2016-01-01

    Ionizing radiation causes cellular damage and death through the direct damage and/or indirectly the production of ROS, which induces oxidative stress. This study was designed to evaluate the in vivo radioprotective effects of a bio-active material coated fabric (BMCF) against γ-irradiation-induced cellular damage in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Healthy male SD rats wore bio-active material coated (concentrations in 10% and 30%) fabric for 7 days after 3 Gy of γ-irradiation. Radioprotective effects were evaluated by performing various biochemical assays including spleen and thymus index, WBC count, hepatic damage marker enzymes [aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT)] in plasma, liver antioxidant enzymes, and mitochondrial activity in muscle. Exposure to γ-irradiation resulted in hepatocellular and immune systemic damage. Gamma-irradiation induced decreases in antioxidant enzymes. However, wearing the BMCF-30% decreased significantly AST and ALT activities in plasma. Furthermore, wearing the BMCF-30% increased SOD (superoxide dismutase) and mitochondrial activity. These results suggest that wearing BMCF offers effective radioprotection against γ-irradiation-induced cellular damage in SD rats

  19. Effects of wearing bio-active material coated fabric against γ-irradiation-induced cellular damaged in Sprague-Dawley rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Jung Ae; Kim, Hye Rim; Yoon, Sun Hye; Nam, Sang Hyun; Park, Sang Hyun; Jang, Beom Su [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Go, Kyung Chan; Yang, Gwang Wung; Rho, Young Hwan; Park, Hyo Suk [Research and Development Center, VENTEX Co. Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Ionizing radiation causes cellular damage and death through the direct damage and/or indirectly the production of ROS, which induces oxidative stress. This study was designed to evaluate the in vivo radioprotective effects of a bio-active material coated fabric (BMCF) against γ-irradiation-induced cellular damage in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Healthy male SD rats wore bio-active material coated (concentrations in 10% and 30%) fabric for 7 days after 3 Gy of γ-irradiation. Radioprotective effects were evaluated by performing various biochemical assays including spleen and thymus index, WBC count, hepatic damage marker enzymes [aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT)] in plasma, liver antioxidant enzymes, and mitochondrial activity in muscle. Exposure to γ-irradiation resulted in hepatocellular and immune systemic damage. Gamma-irradiation induced decreases in antioxidant enzymes. However, wearing the BMCF-30% decreased significantly AST and ALT activities in plasma. Furthermore, wearing the BMCF-30% increased SOD (superoxide dismutase) and mitochondrial activity. These results suggest that wearing BMCF offers effective radioprotection against γ-irradiation-induced cellular damage in SD rats.

  20. Edaravone Protected Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells from Methylglyoxal-Induced Injury by Inhibiting AGEs/RAGE/Oxidative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenlu; Xu, Hongjiao; Hu, Yangmin; He, Ping; Ni, Zhenzhen; Xu, Huimin; Zhang, Zhongmiao; Dai, Haibin

    2013-01-01

    Subjects with diabetes experience an increased risk of cerebrovascular disease and stroke compared with nondiabetic age-matched individuals. Increased formation of reactive physiological dicarbonyl compound methylglyoxal (MGO) seems to be implicated in the development of diabetic vascular complication due to its protein glycation and oxidative stress effect. Edaravone, a novel radical scavenger, has been reported to display the advantageous effects on ischemic stroke both in animals and clinical trials; however, little is known about whether edaravone has protective effects on diabetic cerebrovascular injury. Using cultured human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC), protective effects of edaravone on MGO and MGO enhancing oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) induced injury were investigated. Cell injury was measured by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) formation, cell account, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and Rhodamine 123 staining. Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) formation and receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) expression were measured by western blotting. Cellular oxidative stress was measured by reactive oxygen species (ROS) release. Treatment of MGO for 24 h significantly induced HBMEC injury, which was inhibited by pretreatment of edaravone from 10–100 µmol/l. What’s more, treatment of MGO enhanced AGEs accumulation, RAGE expression and ROS release in the cultured HBMEC, which were inhibited by 100 µmol/l edaravone. Finally, treatment of MGO for 24 h and then followed by 3 h OGD insult significantly enhanced cell injury when compared with OGD insult only, which was also protected by 100 µmol/l edaravone. Thus, edaravone protected HBMEC from MGO and MGO enhancing OGD-induced injury by inhibiting AGEs/RAGE/oxidative stress. PMID:24098758

  1. Edaravone protected human brain microvascular endothelial cells from methylglyoxal-induced injury by inhibiting AGEs/RAGE/oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenlu Li

    Full Text Available Subjects with diabetes experience an increased risk of cerebrovascular disease and stroke compared with nondiabetic age-matched individuals. Increased formation of reactive physiological dicarbonyl compound methylglyoxal (MGO seems to be implicated in the development of diabetic vascular complication due to its protein glycation and oxidative stress effect. Edaravone, a novel radical scavenger, has been reported to display the advantageous effects on ischemic stroke both in animals and clinical trials; however, little is known about whether edaravone has protective effects on diabetic cerebrovascular injury. Using cultured human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC, protective effects of edaravone on MGO and MGO enhancing oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD induced injury were investigated. Cell injury was measured by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT formation, cell account, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH release and Rhodamine 123 staining. Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs formation and receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE expression were measured by western blotting. Cellular oxidative stress was measured by reactive oxygen species (ROS release. Treatment of MGO for 24 h significantly induced HBMEC injury, which was inhibited by pretreatment of edaravone from 10-100 µmol/l. What's more, treatment of MGO enhanced AGEs accumulation, RAGE expression and ROS release in the cultured HBMEC, which were inhibited by 100 µmol/l edaravone. Finally, treatment of MGO for 24 h and then followed by 3 h OGD insult significantly enhanced cell injury when compared with OGD insult only, which was also protected by 100 µmol/l edaravone. Thus, edaravone protected HBMEC from MGO and MGO enhancing OGD-induced injury by inhibiting AGEs/RAGE/oxidative stress.

  2. Cytosolic NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase protects macrophages from LPS-induced nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Oky; Kim, Yong Chan; Shin, Han-Jae; Lee, Jie-Oh; Huh, Tae-Lin; Kang, Kwang-il; Kim, Young Sang; Paik, Sang-Gi; Lee, Hayyoung

    2004-04-30

    Macrophages activated by microbial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) produce bursts of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Redox protection systems are essential for the survival of the macrophages since the nitric oxide and ROS can be toxic to them as well as to pathogens. Using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) we found that cytosolic NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPc) is strongly upregulated by nitric oxide in macrophages. The levels of IDPc mRNA and of the corresponding enzymatic activity were markedly increased by treatment of RAW264.7 cells or peritoneal macrophages with LPS or SNAP (a nitric oxide donor). Over-expression of IDPc reduced intracellular peroxide levels and enhanced the survival of H2O2- and SNAP-treated RAW264.7 macrophages. IDPc is known to generate NADPH, a cellular reducing agent, via oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate. The expression of enzymes implicated in redox protection, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, was relatively unaffected by LPS and SNAP. We propose that the induction of IDPc is one of the main self-protection mechanisms of macrophages against LPS-induced oxidative stress.

  3. Fungicidal Drugs Induce a Common Oxidative-Damage Cellular Death Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Belenky

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Amphotericin, miconazole, and ciclopirox are antifungal agents from three different drug classes that can effectively kill planktonic yeast, yet their complete fungicidal mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we employ a systems biology approach to identify a common oxidative-damage cellular death pathway triggered by these representative fungicides in Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This mechanism utilizes a signaling cascade involving the GTPases Ras1 and Ras2 and protein kinase A, and it culminates in death through the production of toxic reactive oxygen species in a tricarboxylic-acid-cycle- and respiratory-chain-dependent manner. We also show that the metabolome of C. albicans is altered by antifungal drug treatment, exhibiting a shift from fermentation to respiration, a jump in the AMP/ATP ratio, and elevated production of sugars; this coincides with elevated mitochondrial activity. Lastly, we demonstrate that DNA damage plays a critical role in antifungal-induced cellular death and that blocking DNA-repair mechanisms potentiates fungicidal activity.

  4. High-Concentrate Diet-Induced Change of Cellular Metabolism Leads to Decreases of Immunity and Imbalance of Cellular Activities in Rumen Epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhongyan; Shen, Hong; Shen, Zanming

    2018-01-01

    In animals, the immune and cellular processes of tissue largely depend on the status of local metabolism. However, in the rumen epithelium, how the cellular metabolism affects epithelial immunity, and cellular processes, when the diet is switched from energy-rich to energy-excess status, with regard to animal production and health, have not as yet been reported. RNA-seq was applied to compare the biological processes altered by an increase of dietary concentration from 10% to 35% with those altered by an increase of dietary concentration from 35% to 65% (dietary concentrate: the non-grass component in diet, including corn, soya bean meal and additive. High concentrate diet composed of 35% grass, 55% corn, 8% soya bean meal and 2% additive). In addition to the functional analysis of enriched genes in terms of metabolism, the immune system, and cellular process, the highly correlated genes to the enriched metabolism genes were identified, and the function and signaling pathways related to the differentially expressed neighbors were compared among the groups. The variation trends of molar proportions of ruminal SCFAs and those of enriched pathways belonging to metabolism, immune system, and cellular process were altered with the change of diets. With regard to metabolism, lipid metabolism and amino acid metabolism were most affected. According to the correlation analysis, both innate and adaptive immune responses were promoted by the metabolism genes enriched under the 65% concentrate diet. However, the majority of immune responses were suppressed under the 35% concentrate diet. Moreover, the exclusive upregulation of cell growth and dysfunction of cellular transport and catabolism were induced by the metabolism genes enriched under the 65% concentrate diet. On the contrary, a balanced regulation of cellular processes was detected under the 35% concentrate diet. These results indicated that the alterations of cellular metabolism promote the alterations in cellular

  5. High-Concentrate Diet-Induced Change of Cellular Metabolism Leads to Decreases of Immunity and Imbalance of Cellular Activities in Rumen Epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongyan Lu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: In animals, the immune and cellular processes of tissue largely depend on the status of local metabolism. However, in the rumen epithelium, how the cellular metabolism affects epithelial immunity, and cellular processes, when the diet is switched from energy-rich to energy-excess status, with regard to animal production and health, have not as yet been reported. Methods: RNA-seq was applied to compare the biological processes altered by an increase of dietary concentration from 10% to 35% with those altered by an increase of dietary concentration from 35% to 65% (dietary concentrate: the non-grass component in diet, including corn, soya bean meal and additive. High concentrate diet composed of 35% grass, 55% corn, 8% soya bean meal and 2% additive. In addition to the functional analysis of enriched genes in terms of metabolism, the immune system, and cellular process, the highly correlated genes to the enriched metabolism genes were identified, and the function and signaling pathways related to the differentially expressed neighbors were compared among the groups. Results: The variation trends of molar proportions of ruminal SCFAs and those of enriched pathways belonging to metabolism, immune system, and cellular process were altered with the change of diets. With regard to metabolism, lipid metabolism and amino acid metabolism were most affected. According to the correlation analysis, both innate and adaptive immune responses were promoted by the metabolism genes enriched under the 65% concentrate diet. However, the majority of immune responses were suppressed under the 35% concentrate diet. Moreover, the exclusive upregulation of cell growth and dysfunction of cellular transport and catabolism were induced by the metabolism genes enriched under the 65% concentrate diet. On the contrary, a balanced regulation of cellular processes was detected under the 35% concentrate diet. Conclusions: These results indicated that the

  6. Black rice extract protected HepG2 cells from oxidative stress-induced cell death via ERK1/2 and Akt activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jaemin; Ham, Hyeonmi; Sung, Jeehye; Kim, Younghwa; Choi, Youngmin; Lee, Jeom-Sig; Jeong, Heon-Sang; Lee, Junsoo

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of black rice extract (BRE) on tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP)-induced oxidative injury in HepG2 cells. MATERIALS/METHODS Methanolic extract from black rice was evaluated for the protective effect on TBHP-induced oxidative injury in HepG2 cells. Several biomarkers that modulate cell survival and death including reactive oxygen species (ROS), caspase-3 activity, and related cellular kinases were determined. RESULTS TBHP induced cell death and apoptosis by a rapid increase in ROS generation and caspase-3 activity. Moreover, TBHP-induced oxidative stress resulted in a transient ERK1/2 activation and a sustained increase of JNK1/2 activation. While, BRE pretreatment protects the cells against oxidative stress by reducing cell death, caspase-3 activity, and ROS generation and also by preventing ERKs deactivation and the prolonged JNKs activation. Moreover, pretreatment of BRE increased the activation of ERKs and Akt which are pro-survival signal proteins. However, this effect was blunted in the presence of ERKs and Akt inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that activation of ERKs and Akt pathway might be involved in the cytoprotective effect of BRE against oxidative stress. Our findings provide new insights into the cytoprotective effects and its possible mechanism of black rice against oxidative stress. PMID:24741394

  7. JC virus induces altered patterns of cellular gene expression: Interferon-inducible genes as major transcriptional targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Saguna; Ziegler, Katja; Ananthula, Praveen; Co, Juliene K.G.; Frisque, Richard J.; Yanagihara, Richard; Nerurkar, Vivek R.

    2006-01-01

    Human polyomavirus JC (JCV) infects 80% of the population worldwide. Primary infection, typically occurring during childhood, is asymptomatic in immunocompetent individuals and results in lifelong latency and persistent infection. However, among the severely immunocompromised, JCV may cause a fatal demyelinating disease, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Virus-host interactions influencing persistence and pathogenicity are not well understood, although significant regulation of JCV activity is thought to occur at the level of transcription. Regulation of the JCV early and late promoters during the lytic cycle is a complex event that requires participation of both viral and cellular factors. We have used cDNA microarray technology to analyze global alterations in gene expression in JCV-permissive primary human fetal glial cells (PHFG). Expression of more than 400 cellular genes was altered, including many that influence cell proliferation, cell communication and interferon (IFN)-mediated host defense responses. Genes in the latter category included signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), interferon stimulating gene 56 (ISG56), myxovirus resistance 1 (MxA), 2'5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS), and cig5. The expression of these genes was further confirmed in JCV-infected PHFG cells and the human glioblastoma cell line U87MG to ensure the specificity of JCV in inducing this strong antiviral response. Results obtained by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analyses supported the microarray data and provide temporal information related to virus-induced changes in the IFN response pathway. Our data indicate that the induction of an antiviral response may be one of the cellular factors regulating/controlling JCV replication in immunocompetent hosts and therefore constraining the development of PML

  8. Osteoblasts Protect AML Cells from SDF-1-Induced Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Kimberly N.; Dudakovic, Amel; McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E.; Philips, Rachael L.; Hess, Allan D.; Smith, B. Douglas; van Wijnen, Andre J.; Karp, Judith E.; Kaufmann, Scott H.; Westendorf, Jennifer J.; Hedin, Karen E.

    2014-01-01

    The bone marrow provides a protective environment for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells that often allows leukemic stem cells to survive standard chemotherapeutic regimens. Targeting these leukemic stem cells within the bone marrow is critical for preventing relapse. We recently demonstrated that SDF-1, a chemokine abundant in the bone marrow, induces apoptosis in AML cell lines and in patient samples expressing high levels of its receptor, CXCR4. Here we show that a subset of osteoblast lineage cells within the bone marrow can protect AML cells from undergoing apoptosis in response to the SDF-1 naturally present in that location. In co-culture systems, osteoblasts at various stages of differentiation protected AML cell lines and patient isolates from SDF-1-induced apoptosis. The differentiation of the osteoblast cell lines, MC3T3 and W-20-17, mediated this protection via a cell contact-independent mechanism. In contrast, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal cells, the precursors of osteoblasts, induced apoptosis in AML cells via a CXCR4-dependent mechanism and failed to protect AML cells from exogenously added SDF-1. These results indicate that osteoblasts in the process of differentiation potently inhibit the SDF-1-driven apoptotic pathway of CXCR4-expressing AML cells residing in the bone marrow. Drugs targeting this protective mechanism could potentially provide a new approach to treating AML by enhancing the SDF-1-induced apoptosis of AML cells residing within the bone marrow microenvironment. PMID:24851270

  9. Fungal beta glucan protects radiation induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Thulasi G; Maurya, Dharmendra K; Salvi, Veena P; Janardhanan, Krishnankutty K; Nair, Cherupally K K

    2014-02-01

    Ganoderma lucidum (Ling Zhi), a basidiomycete white rot macrofungus has been used extensively for therapeutic use in China, Japan, Korea and other Asian countries for 2,000 years. The present study is an attempt to investigate its DNA protecting property in human lymphocytes. Beta glucan (BG) was isolated by standard procedure and the structure and composition were studied by infrared radiation (IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, gel filtration chromatography and paper chromatography. The radioprotective properties of BG isolated from the macro fungi Ganoderma lucidum was assessed by single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). Human lymphocytes were exposed to 0, 1, 2 and 4 Gy gamma radiation in the presence and absence of BG. The comet parameters were reduced by BG. The results indicate that the BG of G. lucidum possessed significant radioprotective activity with DNA repairing ability and antioxidant activity as the suggestive mechanism. The findings suggest the potential use of this mushroom for the prevention of radiation induced cellular damages.

  10. Quercetin protects human hepatoma HepG2 against oxidative stress induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alia, Mario; Ramos, Sonia; Mateos, Raquel; Granado-Serrano, Ana Belen; Bravo, Laura; Goya, Luis

    2006-01-01

    Flavonols such as quercetin, have been reported to exhibit a wide range of biological activities related to their antioxidant capacity. The objective of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of quercetin on cell viability and redox status of cultured HepG2 cells submitted to oxidative stress induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide. Concentrations of reduced glutathione and malondialdehyde, generation of reactive oxygen species and activity and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes were used as markers of cellular oxidative status. Pretreatment of HepG2 with 10 μM quercetin completely prevented lactate dehydrogenase leakage from the cells. Pretreatment for 2 or 20 h with all doses of quercetin (0.1-10 μM) prevented the decrease of reduced glutathione and the increase of malondialdehyde evoked by tert-butyl hydroperoxide in HepG2 cells. Reactive oxygen species generation induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide was significantly reduced when cells were pretreated for 2 or 20 h with 10 μM and for 20 h with 5 μM quercetin. Finally, some of the quercetin treatments prevented the significant increase of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and catalase activities induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide. Gene expression of antioxidant enzymes was also affected by the treatment with the polyphenol. The results of the biomarkers analyzed clearly show that treatment of HepG2 cells in culture with the natural dietary antioxidant quercetin strongly protects the cells against an oxidative insult

  11. Nardostachys Jatamansi root extract protects of radiation induced glycogen depletion in Albino Wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damodara Gowda, K.M.; Krishna, A.P.; Shetty, Lathika; Suchetha Shetty, N.; Sanjeev, Ganesh

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation cause variety of pathological processes in irradiated cells. The killing action of ionizing radiation is mainly mediated through the free radicals generated from the radiolysis of cellular water. In the present study, protective effects of Nardostachys Jatamansi root extract (NJE) on radiation induced depletion of glycogen in rats exposed to 3 Gy whole body electron beam irradiation (EBR) was investigated. EBR was performed at Microtron centre, Mangalore University. Treatment of rats with NJE at a dosage of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg bw respectively once daily for 15 days before, after and both before and after irradiation was done. The liver, kidney and muscle was separated and used for the estimation of total glycogen content using standard procedures and also for the histochemical localization of glycogen by PAS staining method. The data was analyzed by paired t test and Kruskal Wallis test. P<0.05 was the level of significance. The irradiated rats exhibited significant decline (p=0.000) in the level of total glycogen content in the tissues of liver, kidney and muscle whereas, a nonsignificant variation was recorded in rats treated with NJE. This study indicated that treatment with NJE both before and after irradiation for 15 consecutive days provided significant protection against irradiation induced depletion of glycogen. (author)

  12. Aluminium-induced excessive ROS causes cellular damage and metabolic shifts in black gram Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowra, Umakanta; Yanase, Emiko; Koyama, Hiroyuki; Panda, Sanjib Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Aluminium-induced oxidative damage caused by excessive ROS production was evaluated in black gram pulse crop. Black gram plants were treated with different aluminium (Al 3+ ) concentrations (10, 50 and 100 μM with pH 4.7) and further the effects of Al 3+ were characterised by means of root growth inhibition, histochemical assay, ROS content analysis, protein carbonylation quantification and 1 H-NMR analysis. The results showed that aluminium induces excessive ROS production which leads to cellular damage, root injury, stunt root growth and other metabolic shifts. In black gram, Al 3+ induces cellular damage at the earliest stage of stress which was characterised from histochemical analysis. From this study, it was observed that prolonged stress can activate certain aluminium detoxification defence mechanism. Probably excessive ROS triggers such defence mechanism in black gram. Al 3+ can induce excessive ROS initially in the root region then transported to other parts of the plant. As much as the Al 3+ concentration increases, the rate of cellular injury and ROS production also increases. But after 72 h of stress, plants showed a lowered ROS level and cellular damage which indicates the upregulation of defensive mechanisms. Metabolic shift analysis also showed that the black gram plant under stress has less metabolic content after 24 h of treatment, but gradually, it was increased after 72 h of treatment. It was assumed that ROS played the most important role as a signalling molecule for aluminium stress in black gram.

  13. PI3K/AKT and ERK regulate retinoic acid-induced neuroblastoma cellular differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao, Jingbo [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Paul, Pritha; Lee, Sora [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Qiao, Lan; Josifi, Erlena; Tiao, Joshua R. [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Chung, Dai H., E-mail: dai.chung@vanderbilt.edu [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States)

    2012-08-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Retinoic acid (RA) induces neuroblastoma cells differentiation, which is accompanied by G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RA resulted in neuroblastoma cell survival and inhibition of DNA fragmentation; this is regulated by PI3K pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RA activates PI3K and ERK1/2 pathway; PI3K pathway mediates RA-induced neuroblastoma cell differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Upregulation of p21 is necessary for RA-induced neuroblastoma cell differentiation. -- Abstract: Neuroblastoma, the most common extra-cranial solid tumor in infants and children, is characterized by a high rate of spontaneous remissions in infancy. Retinoic acid (RA) has been known to induce neuroblastoma differentiation; however, the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways that are responsible for RA-mediated neuroblastoma cell differentiation remain unclear. Here, we sought to determine the cell signaling processes involved in RA-induced cellular differentiation. Upon RA administration, human neuroblastoma cell lines, SK-N-SH and BE(2)-C, demonstrated neurite extensions, which is an indicator of neuronal cell differentiation. Moreover, cell cycle arrest occurred in G1/G0 phase. The protein levels of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, p21 and p27{sup Kip}, which inhibit cell proliferation by blocking cell cycle progression at G1/S phase, increased after RA treatment. Interestingly, RA promoted cell survival during the differentiation process, hence suggesting a potential mechanism for neuroblastoma resistance to RA therapy. Importantly, we found that the PI3K/AKT pathway is required for RA-induced neuroblastoma cell differentiation. Our results elucidated the molecular mechanism of RA-induced neuroblastoma cellular differentiation, which may be important for developing novel therapeutic strategy against poorly differentiated neuroblastoma.

  14. Liposomal Antioxidants for Protection against Oxidant-Induced Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zacharias E. Suntres

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS, including superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radical, can be formed as normal products of aerobic metabolism and can be produced at elevated rates under pathophysiological conditions. Overproduction and/or insufficient removal of ROS result in significant damage to cell structure and functions. In vitro studies showed that antioxidants, when applied directly and at relatively high concentrations to cellular systems, are effective in conferring protection against the damaging actions of ROS, but results from animal and human studies showed that several antioxidants provide only modest benefit and even possible harm. Antioxidants have yet to be rendered into reliable and safe therapies because of their poor solubility, inability to cross membrane barriers, extensive first-pass metabolism, and rapid clearance from cells. There is considerable interest towards the development of drug-delivery systems that would result in the selective delivery of antioxidants to tissues in sufficient concentrations to ameliorate oxidant-induced tissue injuries. Liposomes are biocompatible, biodegradable, and nontoxic artificial phospholipid vesicles that offer the possibility of carrying hydrophilic, hydrophobic, and amphiphilic molecules. This paper focus on the use of liposomes for the delivery of antioxidants in the prevention or treatment of pathological conditions related to oxidative stress.

  15. Overexpression of glutaredoxin protects cardiomyocytes against nitric oxide-induced apoptosis with suppressing the S-nitrosylation of proteins and nuclear translocation of GAPDH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inadomi, Chiaki, E-mail: inadomic@nagasaki-u.ac.jp [Department of Anesthesiology, Nagasaki University School of Medicine, Nagasaki 852-8501 (Japan); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology in Disease, Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Murata, Hiroaki [Department of Anesthesiology, Nagasaki University School of Medicine, Nagasaki 852-8501 (Japan); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology in Disease, Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Ihara, Yoshito [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology in Disease, Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Department of Biochemistry, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama 641-8509 (Japan); Goto, Shinji; Urata, Yoshishige [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology in Disease, Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Department of Stem Cell Biology, Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Yodoi, Junji [Department of Biological Responses, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Kondo, Takahito [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology in Disease, Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Sumikawa, Koji [Department of Anesthesiology, Nagasaki University School of Medicine, Nagasaki 852-8501 (Japan)

    2012-08-31

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GRX1 overexpression protects myocardiac H9c2 cells against NO-induced apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NO-induced nuclear translocation of GAPDH is suppressed in GRX overexpressors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxidation of GAPDH by NO is less in GRX overexpressors than in controls. -- Abstract: There is increasing evidence demonstrating that glutaredoxin 1 (GRX1), a cytosolic enzyme responsible for the catalysis of protein deglutathionylation, plays distinct roles in inflammation and apoptosis by inducing changes in the cellular redox system. In this study, we investigated whether and how the overexpression of GRX1 protects cardiomyocytes against nitric oxide (NO)-induced apoptosis. Cardiomyocytes (H9c2 cells) were transfected with the expression vector for mouse GRX1 cDNA, and mock-transfected cells were used as a control. Compared with the mock-transfected cells, the GRX1-transfected cells were more resistant to NO-induced apoptosis. Stimulation with NO significantly increased the nuclear translocation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), a pro-apoptotic protein, in the mock-transfected cells, but did not change GAPDH localization in the GRX1-transfected cells. Furthermore, we found that NO stimulation clearly induced the oxidative modification of GAPDH in the mock-transfected cells, whereas less modification of GAPDH was observed in the GRX1-transfected cells. These data suggest that the overexpression of GRX1 could protect cardiomyocytes against NO-induced apoptosis, likely through the inhibition of the oxidative modification and the nuclear translocation of GAPDH.

  16. Furan induced ovarian damage in non-diabetic and diabetic rats and cellular protective role of lycopene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uçar, Semra; Pandir, Dilek

    2017-11-01

    In our work, furan, lycopene, and furan + lycopene treatments were applied to non-diabetic and diabetic female rats via gavage. Ovarian tissue alterations with histopathology, immunohistochemistry, malondialdehyde levels, oxidative stress parameters such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase and harmful effect on ovarian tissue DNA were evaluated in all groups for 28 days. Furan caused the changes histological, ovarian cell's DNA structure, malondialdehyde levels, antioxidant enzymes activities as in a statistically significant manner in each group. Useful effect of lycopene was determined both in non-diabetic and diabetic treatment groups against furan according to the used experimental parameters. Although some histopathological alterations were seen in diabetic and non-diabetic/diabetic plus furan-treated group's ovarians, lycopene restored these variations near to normal levels in furan + lycopene treated groups for in 28 days. Additionally, the results of our immunohistochemical analysis and alterations of the oxidative stress parameters results also supported these findings. Our result confirms that lycopene has protective effect and significantly altered diabetes and furan-induced toxicity in the rat ovarian tissue.

  17. Proteomic analysis of cellular response induced by boron neutron capture reaction in human squamous cell carcinoma SAS cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Akira; Itoh, Tasuku; Imamichi, Shoji; Kikuhara, Sota; Fujimori, Hiroaki; Hirai, Takahisa; Saito, Soichiro; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Hiroki; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    To understand the mechanism of cell death induced by boron neutron capture reaction (BNCR), we performed proteome analyses of human squamous tumor SAS cells after BNCR. Cells were irradiated with thermal neutron beam at KUR after incubation under boronophenylalanine (BPA)(+) and BPA(−) conditions. BNCR mainly induced typical apoptosis in SAS cells 24 h post-irradiation. Proteomic analysis in SAS cells suggested that proteins functioning in endoplasmic reticulum, DNA repair, and RNA processing showed dynamic changes at early phase after BNCR and could be involved in the regulation of cellular response to BNCR. We found that the BNCR induces fragments of endoplasmic reticulum-localized lymphoid-restricted protein (LRMP). The fragmentation of LRMP was also observed in the rat tumor graft model 20 hours after BNCT treatment carried out at the National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan. These data suggest that dynamic changes of LRMP could be involved during cellular response to BNCR. - Highlights: • BNCR in human squamous carcinoma cells caused typical apoptotic features. • BNCR induced fragments of LRMP, in human squamous carcinoma and rat tumor model. • The fragmentation of LRMP could be involved in cellular response to BNCR.

  18. Oleic acid blocks EGF-induced [Ca2+]i release without altering cellular metabolism in fibroblast EGFR T17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zugaza, J L; Casabiell, X A; Bokser, L; Casanueva, F F

    1995-02-06

    EGFR-T17 cells were pretreated with oleic acid and 5-10 minutes later stimulated with EGF, to study if early ionic signals are instrumental in inducing metabolic cellular response. Oleic acid blocks EGF-induced [Ca2+]i rise and Ca2+ influx without altering 2-deoxyglucose and 2-aminobutiryc acid uptake nor acute, nor chronically. Oleic acid it is shown, in the first minutes favors the entrance of both molecules to modify the physico-chemical membrane state. On the other hand, oleic acid is unable to block protein synthesis. The results suggest that EGF-induced Ins(1,4,5)P3/Ca2+ pathway does not seem to be decisive in the control of cellular metabolic activity.

  19. A celiac cellular phenotype, with altered LPP sub-cellular distribution, is inducible in controls by the toxic gliadin peptide P31-43.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merlin Nanayakkara

    Full Text Available Celiac disease (CD is a frequent inflammatory intestinal disease, with a genetic background, caused by gliadin-containing food. Undigested gliadin peptides P31-43 and P57-68 induce innate and adaptive T cell-mediated immune responses, respectively. Alterations in the cell shape and actin cytoskeleton are present in celiac enterocytes, and gliadin peptides induce actin rearrangements in both the CD mucosa and cell lines. Cell shape is maintained by the actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesions, sites of membrane attachment to the extracellular matrix. The locus of the human Lipoma Preferred Partner (LPP gene was identified as strongly associated with CD using genome-wide association studies (GWAS. The LPP protein plays an important role in focal adhesion architecture and acts as a transcription factor in the nucleus. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that a constitutive alteration of the cell shape and the cytoskeleton, involving LPP, occurs in a cell compartment far from the main inflammation site in CD fibroblasts from skin explants. We analyzed the cell shape, actin organization, focal adhesion number, focal adhesion proteins, LPP sub-cellular distribution and adhesion to fibronectin of fibroblasts obtained from CD patients on a Gluten-Free Diet (GFD and controls, without and with treatment with A-gliadin peptide P31-43. We observed a "CD cellular phenotype" in these fibroblasts, characterized by an altered cell shape and actin organization, increased number of focal adhesions, and altered intracellular LPP protein distribution. The treatment of controls fibroblasts with gliadin peptide P31-43 mimics the CD cellular phenotype regarding the cell shape, adhesion capacity, focal adhesion number and LPP sub-cellular distribution, suggesting a close association between these alterations and CD pathogenesis.

  20. Fisetin inhibits cellular proliferation and induces mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in human gastric cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabarwal, Akash; Agarwal, Rajesh; Singh, Rana P

    2017-02-01

    The anticancer effects of fisetin, a dietary agent, are largely unknown against human gastric cancer. Herein, we investigated the mechanisms of fisetin-induced inhibition of growth and survival of human gastric carcinoma AGS and SNU-1 cells. Fisetin (25-100 μM) caused significant decrease in the levels of G1 phase cyclins and CDKs, and increased the levels of p53 and its S15 phosphorylation in gastric cancer cells. We also observed that growth suppression and death of non-neoplastic human intestinal FHs74int cells were minimally affected by fisetin. Fisetin strongly increased apoptotic cells and showed mitochondrial membrane depolarization in gastric cancer cells. DNA damage was observed as early as 3 h after fisetin treatment which was accompanied with gamma-H2A.X(S139) phosphorylation and cleavage of PARP. Fisetin-induced apoptosis was observed to be independent of p53. DCFDA and MitoSOX analyses showed an increase in mitochondrial ROS generation in time- and dose-dependent fashion. It also increased cellular nitrite and superoxide generation. Pre-treatment with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) inhibited ROS generation and also caused protection from fisetin-induced DNA damage. The formation of comets were observed in only fisetin treated cells which was blocked by NAC pre-treatment. Further investigation of the source of ROS, using mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) complex inhibitors, suggested that fisetin caused ROS generation specifically through complex I. Collectively, these results for the first time demonstrated that fisetin possesses anticancer potential through ROS production most likely via MRC complex I leading to apoptosis in human gastric carcinoma cells. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. In vitro studies of cellular response to DNA damage induced by boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perona, M.; Pontiggia, O.; Carpano, M.; Thomasz, L.; Thorp, S.; Pozzi, E.; Simian, M.; Kahl, S.; Juvenal, G.; Pisarev, M.; Dagrosa, A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of these studies was to evaluate the mechanisms of cellular response to DNA damage induced by BNCT. Thyroid carcinoma cells were incubated with 10 BPA or 10 BOPP and irradiated with thermal neutrons. The surviving fraction, the cell cycle distribution and the expression of p53 and Ku70 were analyzed. Different cellular responses were observed for each irradiated group. The decrease of Ku70 in the neutrons +BOPP group could play a role in the increase of sensitization to radiation.

  2. Arctigenin preferentially induces tumor cell death under glucose deprivation by inhibiting cellular energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yuan; Qi, Chunting; Sun, Xiaoxiao; Ma, Xiuquan; Zhang, Haohao; Hu, Lihong; Yuan, Junying; Yu, Qiang

    2012-08-15

    Selectively eradicating cancer cells with minimum adverse effects on normal cells is a major challenge in the development of anticancer therapy. We hypothesize that nutrient-limiting conditions frequently encountered by cancer cells in poorly vascularized solid tumors might provide an opportunity for developing selective therapy. In this study, we investigated the function and molecular mechanisms of a natural compound, arctigenin, in regulating tumor cell growth. We demonstrated that arctigenin selectively promoted glucose-starved A549 tumor cells to undergo necrosis by inhibiting mitochondrial respiration. In doing so, arctigenin elevated cellular level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and blocked cellular energy metabolism in the glucose-starved tumor cells. We also demonstrated that cellular ROS generation was caused by intracellular ATP depletion and played an essential role in the arctigenin-induced tumor cell death under the glucose-limiting condition. Furthermore, we combined arctigenin with the glucose analogue 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) and examined their effects on tumor cell growth. Interestingly, this combination displayed preferential cell-death inducing activity against tumor cells compared to normal cells. Hence, we propose that the combination of arctigenin and 2DG may represent a promising new cancer therapy with minimal normal tissue toxicity. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Protective Effects of Costunolide against Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Injury in PC12 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong-Un Cheong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress-mediated cellular injury has been considered as a major cause of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. The scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS mediated by antioxidants may be a potential strategy for retarding the diseases’ progression. Costunolide (CS is a well-known sesquiterpene lactone, used as a popular herbal remedy, which possesses anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity. This study aimed to investigate the protective role of CS against the cytotoxicity induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and to elucidate potential protective mechanisms in PC12 cells. The results showed that the treatment of PC12 cells with CS prior to H2O2 exposure effectively increased the cell viability. Furthermore, it decreased the intracellular ROS, stabilized the mitochondria membrane potential (MMP, and reduced apoptosis-related protein such as caspase 3. In addition, CS treatment attenuated the cell injury by H2O2 through the inhibition of phosphorylation of p38 and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK. These results demonstrated that CS is promising as a potential therapeutic candidate for neurodegenerative diseases resulting from oxidative damage and further research on this topic should be encouraged.

  4. Ligand Binding Induces Conformational Changes in Human Cellular Retinol-binding Protein 1 (CRBP1) Revealed by Atomic Resolution Crystal Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvaroli, Josie A; Arne, Jason M; Chelstowska, Sylwia; Kiser, Philip D; Banerjee, Surajit; Golczak, Marcin

    2016-04-15

    Important in regulating the uptake, storage, and metabolism of retinoids, cellular retinol-binding protein 1 (CRBP1) is essential for trafficking vitamin A through the cytoplasm. However, the molecular details of ligand uptake and targeted release by CRBP1 remain unclear. Here we report the first structure of CRBP1 in a ligand-free form as well as ultra-high resolution structures of this protein bound to either all-trans-retinol or retinylamine, the latter a therapeutic retinoid that prevents light-induced retinal degeneration. Superpositioning of human apo- and holo-CRBP1 revealed major differences within segments surrounding the entrance to the retinoid-binding site. These included α-helix II and hairpin turns between β-strands βC-βD and βE-βF as well as several side chains, such as Phe-57, Tyr-60, and Ile-77, that change their orientations to accommodate the ligand. Additionally, we mapped hydrogen bond networks inside the retinoid-binding cavity and demonstrated their significance for the ligand affinity. Analyses of the crystallographic B-factors indicated several regions with higher backbone mobility in the apoprotein that became more rigid upon retinoid binding. This conformational flexibility of human apo-CRBP1 facilitates interaction with the ligands, whereas the more rigid holoprotein structure protects the labile retinoid moiety during vitamin A transport. These findings suggest a mechanism of induced fit upon ligand binding by mammalian cellular retinol-binding proteins. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Reduction of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 viremia by a reformulated inactivated chimeric PCV1-2 vaccine-induced humoral and cellular immunity after experimental PCV2 challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seo Hwi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of the present study was to elucidate the humoral and cellular immune response mechanisms by which a reformulated inactivated chimeric PCV1-2 vaccine reduces the PCV2 viremia. Forty PCV2 seronegative 3-week-old pigs were randomly divided into the following four groups: vaccinated challenged (T01, vaccinated non-challenged (T02, non-vaccinated challenged (T03, and non-vaccinated non-challenged (T04 animals. The pigs in groups T01 and T02 were immunized with a reformulated inactivated chimeric PCV1-2 vaccine (Fostera™ PCV; Pfizer Animal Health administered as a 2.0 ml dose at 21 days of age. At 35 days of age (0 days post-challenge, the pigs in groups T01 and T03 were inoculated intranasally with 2 ml each of PCV2b. Results A reduction of PCV2 viremia coincided with the appearance of both PCV2-specific neutralizing antibodies (NA and interferon-γ-secreting cells (IFN-γ-SCs in the vaccinated animals. However, the presence of anti-PCV2 IgG antibodies did not correlate with the reduction of PCV2 viremia. Lymphocyte subset analysis indicated that the numbers of CD3+ and CD4+ cells increased in vaccinated animals but the numbers of CD4+ cells decreased transiently in non-vaccinated animals. The observation of a delayed type hypersensitivity response in only the vaccinated animals also supports a CD4+ cell-associated protective cellular immune response induced by the reformulated inactivated chimeric PCV1-2 vaccine. Conclusions The induction of PCV2-specific NA and IFN-γ-SCs, and CD4+ cells by the reformulated inactivated chimeric PCV1-2 vaccine is the important protective immune response leading to reduction of the PCV2 viremia and control of the PCV2 infection. To our knowledge this is the first demonstration of protective humoral and cellular immunity induced by the reformulated inactivated chimeric PCV1-2 vaccine and its effect on reduction of PCV2 viremia by vaccination.

  6. Squalene Selectively Protects Mouse Bone Marrow Progenitors Against Cisplatin and Carboplatin-Induced Cytotoxicity In Vivo Without Protecting Tumor Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikul Das

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Squalene, an isoprenoid antioxidant is a potential cytoprotective agent against chemotherapy-induced toxicity. We have previously published that squalene protects light-density bone marrow cells against cis-diamminedichloroplatinum( II (cisplatin-induced toxicity without protecting tumor cells in vitro. Here, we developed an in vivo mouse model of cisplatin and cis-diammine (cyclobutane-1,1-dicarboxylato platinum(II (carboplatin-induced toxicity to further investigate squalene-mediated LD-BM cytoprotection including the molecular mechanism behind selective cytoprotection. We found that squalene significantly reduced the body weight loss of cisplatin and carboplatin-treated mice. Light-density bone marrow cells from squalene-treated mice exhibited improved formation of hematopoietic colonies (colony-forming unit-granulocyte macrophage. Furthermore, squalene also protected mesenchymal stem cell colonies (colony-forming unit-fibroblast from cisplatin and carboplatin-induced toxicity. Squalene-induced protection was associated with decreased reactive oxygen species and increased levels of glutathione and glutathione peroxidase/glutathione-S-transferase. Importantly, squalene did not protect neuroblastoma, small cell carcinoma, or medulloblastoma xenografts against cisplatin-induced toxicity. These results suggest that squalene is a potential candidate for future development as a cytoprotective agent against chemotherapeutic toxicity.

  7. Cellular irradiation during phase S: a study of induced chromosomic damage and its transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoine, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    The author examines the effects of ionizing radiation on the chromosomes during phase S (synthesis) in which DNA progressively duplicates itself. He analyses disturbances in the cellular cycle of human lymphocytes caused by the type and number of radiologically induced lesions on the chromosomes [fr

  8. Hantavirus Gc induces long-term immune protection via LAMP-targeting DNA vaccine strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dong-Bo; Zhang, Jin-Peng; Cheng, Lin-Feng; Zhang, Guan-Wen; Li, Yun; Li, Zi-Chao; Lu, Zhen-Hua; Zhang, Zi-Xin; Lu, Yu-Chen; Zheng, Lian-He; Zhang, Fang-Lin; Yang, Kun

    2018-02-01

    Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) occurs widely throughout Eurasia. Unfortunately, there is no effective treatment, and prophylaxis remains the best option against the major pathogenic agent, hantaan virus (HTNV), which is an Old World hantavirus. However, the absence of cellular immune responses and immunological memory hampers acceptance of the current inactivated HFRS vaccine. Previous studies revealed that a lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1)-targeting strategy involving a DNA vaccine based on the HTNV glycoprotein Gn successfully conferred long-term immunity, and indicated that further research on Gc, another HTNV antigen, was warranted. Plasmids encoding Gc and lysosome-targeted Gc, designated pVAX-Gc and pVAX-LAMP/Gc, respectively, were constructed. Proteins of interest were identified by fluorescence microscopy following cell line transfection. Five groups of 20 female BALB/c mice were subjected to the following inoculations: inactivated HTNV vaccine, pVAX-LAMP/Gc, pVAX-Gc, and, as the negative controls, pVAX-LAMP or the blank vector pVAX1. Humoral and cellular immunity were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and 15-mer peptide enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) epitope mapping assays. Repeated immunization with pVAX-LAMP/Gc enhanced adaptive immune responses, as demonstrated by the specific and neutralizing antibody titers and increased IFN-γ production. The inactivated vaccine induced a comparable humoral reaction, but the negative controls only elicited insignificant responses. Using a mouse model of HTNV challenge, the in vivo protection conferred by the inactivated vaccine and Gc-based constructs (with/without LAMP recombination) was confirmed. Evidence of pan-epitope reactions highlighted the long-term cellular response to the LAMP-targeting strategy, and histological observations indicated the safety of the LAMP-targeting vaccines. The long-term protective immune responses induced by pVAX-LAMP/Gc may be

  9. Investigating the role of melanin in UVA/UVB- and hydrogen peroxide-induced cellular and mitochondrial ROS production and mitochondrial DNA damage in human melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swalwell, Helen; Latimer, Jennifer; Haywood, Rachel M; Birch-Machin, Mark A

    2012-02-01

    Skin cancer incidence is dramatically increasing worldwide, with exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) a predominant factor. The UVA component initiates oxidative stress in human skin, although its exact role in the initiation of skin cancer, particularly malignant melanoma, remains unclear and is controversial because there is evidence for a melanin-dependent mechanism in UVA-linked melanoma studies. Nonpigmented (CHL-1, A375), moderately pigmented (FM55, SKmel23), and highly pigmented (FM94, hyperpigmented FM55) human melanoma cell lines have been used to investigate UVA-induced production of reactive oxygen species using FACS analysis, at both the cellular (dihydrorhodamine-123) and the mitochondrial (MitoSOX) level, where most cellular stress is generated. For the first time, downstream mtDNA damage (utilizing a quantitative long-PCR assay) has been investigated. Using UVA, UVB, and H(2)O(2) as cellular stressors, we have explored the dual roles of melanin as a photoprotector and photosensitizer. The presence of melanin has no influence over cellular oxidative stress generation, whereas, in contrast, melanin protects against mitochondrial superoxide generation and mtDNA damage (one-way ANOVA with post hoc Tukey's analysis, Pmelanin binds directly to DNA, it acts as a direct photosensitizer of mtDNA damage during UVA irradiation (Pmelanin. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Protective mechanism of turmeric (Curcuma longa) on carbofuran-induced hematological and hepatic toxicities in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossen, Md Sakib; Tanvir, E M; Prince, Maruf Billah; Paul, Sudip; Saha, Moumoni; Ali, Md Yousuf; Gan, Siew Hua; Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Karim, Nurul

    2017-12-01

    Turmeric (Curcuma longa L. [Zingiberaceae]) is used in the treatment of a variety of conditions including pesticide-induced toxicity. The study reports the antioxidant properties and the protective effects of turmeric against carbofuran (CF)-induced toxicity in rats. The antioxidant potential was determined by using free radicals scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power values. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups, designated as control, turmeric (100 mg/kg/day), CF (1 mg/kg/day) and turmeric (100 mg/kg/day) + CF (1 mg/kg/day) treatments. All of the doses were administered orally for 28 consecutive days. The biological activity of the turmeric and CF was determined by using several standard biochemical methods. Turmeric contains high concentrations of polyphenols (8.97 ± 0.15 g GAEs), flavonoids (5.46 ± 0.29 g CEs), ascorbic acid (0.06 ± 0.00 mg AEs) and FRAP value (1972.66 ± 104.78 μM Fe 2+ ) per 100 g of sample. Oral administration of CF caused significant changes in some of the blood indices, such as, mean corpuscular volume, corpuscular hemoglobin, white blood cell, platelet distribution width and induced severe hepatic injuries associated with oxidative stress, as observed by the significantly higher lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels when compared to control, while the activities of cellular antioxidant enzymes (including superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) were significantly suppressed in the liver tissue. Turmeric supplementation could protect against CF-induced hematological perturbations and hepatic injuries in rats, plausibly by the up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes and inhibition of LPO to confer the protective effect.

  11. Induced hypernatraemia is protective in acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihari, Shailesh; Dixon, Dani-Louise; Lawrence, Mark D; Bersten, Andrew D

    2016-06-15

    Sucrose induced hyperosmolarity is lung protective but the safety of administering hyperosmolar sucrose in patients is unknown. Hypertonic saline is commonly used to produce hyperosmolarity aimed at reducing intra cranial pressure in patients with intracranial pathology. Therefore we studied the protective effects of 20% saline in a lipopolysaccharide lung injury rat model. 20% saline was also compared with other commonly used fluids. Following lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury, male Sprague Dawley rats received either 20% hypertonic saline, 0.9% saline, 4% albumin, 20% albumin, 5% glucose or 20% albumin with 5% glucose, i.v. During 2h of non-injurious mechanical ventilation parameters of acute lung injury were assessed. Hypertonic saline resulted in hypernatraemia (160 (1) mmol/l, mean (SD)) maintained through 2h of ventilation, and in amelioration of lung oedema, myeloperoxidase, bronchoalveolar cell infiltrate, total soluble protein and inflammatory cytokines, and lung histological injury score, compared with positive control and all other fluids (p ≤ 0.001). Lung physiology was maintained (conserved PaO2, elastance), associated with preservation of alveolar surfactant (p ≤ 0.0001). Independent of fluid or sodium load, induced hypernatraemia is lung protective in lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. DPP4 deficiency exerts protective effect against H2O2 induced oxidative stress in isolated cardiomyocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Chun Ku

    Full Text Available Apart from the antihyperglycemic effects, DPP4 inhibitors and GLP-1 molecules are involved in the preservation of cardiac functions. We have demonstrated that DPP4-deficient rats possess resistance to endotoxemia and ischemia/reperfusion stress. However, whether the decrease of DPP4 activity simply augmented the GLP-1 signaling or that such decrease resulted in a change of cellular function remain unclear. Accordingly, we investigated the responses of H(2O(2-induced oxidative stress in adult wild-type and DPP4-deficient rats isolated cardiomyocytes. The coadministration of GLP-1 or DPP4 inhibitor was also performed to define the mechanisms. Cell viability, ROS concentration, catalase activity, glucose uptake, prosurvival, proapoptotic signaling, and contractile function were examined after cells exposed to H(2O(2. DPP4-deficient cardiomyocytes were found to be resistant to H(2O(2-induced cell death via activating AKT signaling, enhancing glucose uptake, preserving catalase activity, diminishing ROS level and proapoptotic signaling. GLP-1 concentration-dependently improved cell viability in wild-type cardiomyocyte against ROS stress, and the ceiling response concentration (200 nM was chosen for studies. GLP-1 was shown to decrease H(2O(2-induced cell death by its receptor-dependent AKT pathway in wild-type cardiomyocytes, but failed to cause further activation of AKT in DPP4-deficient cardiomyocytes. Acute treatment of DPP4 inhibitor only augmented the protective effect of low dose GLP-1, but failed to alter fuel utilization or ameliorate cell viability in wild-type cardiomyocytes after H(2O(2 exposure. The improvement of cell viability after H(2O(2 exposure was correlated with the alleviation of cellular contractile dysfunction in both DPP4-deficient and GLP-1 treated wild-type cardiomyocytes. These findings demonstrated that GLP-1 receptor-dependent pathway is important and exert protective effect in wild-type cardiomyocyte. Long term loss of

  13. The protection of acetylcholinesterase inhibitor on β-amyloid-induced injury of neurite outgrowth via regulating axon guidance related genes expression in neuronal cells

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Jiao-Ning; Wang, Deng-Shun; Wang, Rui

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in AD correlate with progressive synaptic dysfunction and loss. The Rho family of small GTPases, including Rho, Rac, and Cdc42, has a central role in cellular motility and cytokinesis. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor has been found to protect cells against a broad range of reagents-induced injuries. Present studies examined if the effect of HupA on neurite outgrowth in Aβ-treated neuronal cells executed via regulating Rho-GTPase mediated axon guidance relative gene expressio...

  14. Cellular Mechanism Underlying Hypothermia-Induced VT/VF in the Setting of Early Repolarization and the Protective Effect of Quinidine, Cilostazol and Milrinone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurabi, Zsolt; Koncz, István; Patocskai, Bence; Nesterenko, Vladislav V.; Antzelevitch, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Background Hypothermia has been reported to induce ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation (VT/VF) in patients with early repolarization (ER) pattern. This study examines the cellular mechanisms underlying VT/VF associated with hypothermia in an experimental model of ER syndrome (ERS) and examines the effectiveness of quinidine, cilostazol and milrinone to prevent hypothermia-induced arrhythmias. Method and Results Transmembrane action potentials (AP) were simultaneously recorded from 2 epicardial and 1 endocardial site of coronary-perfused canine left-ventricular wedge preparations, together with a pseudo-ECG. A combination of NS5806 (3–10 µM) and verapamil (1µM) was used to pharmacologically model the genetic mutations responsible for ERS. Acetylcholine (3µM) was used to simulate increased parasympathetic tone, which is known to promote ER. In control, lowering the temperature of the coronary perfusate to induce mild hypothermia (32°C-34°C) resulted in increased J wave area on the ECG and accentuated epicardial AP notch but no arrhythmic activity. In the setting of ER, hypothermia caused further accentuation of the epicardial AP notch, leading to loss of the AP dome at some sites but not others, thus creating the substrate for development of phase-2-reentry and VT/VF. Addition of the Ito antagonist quinidine (5 µM) or the phosphodiesterase III inhibitors cilostazol (10 µM) or milrinone (5 µM), diminished the ER manifestations and prevented the hypothermia-induced phase 2 reentry and VT/VF. Conclusions Hypothermia leads to VT/VF in the setting of ER by exaggerating repolarization abnormalities, leading to development of phase-2-reentry. Quinidine, cilostazol and milrinone suppress the hypothermia-induced VT/VF by reversing the repolarization abnormalities. PMID:24429494

  15. Depletion of gamma-glutamylcyclotransferase in cancer cells induces autophagy followed by cellular senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Keiko; Matsumura, Kengo; Ii, Hiromi; Kageyama, Susumu; Ashihara, Eishi; Chano, Tokuhiro; Kawauchi, Akihiro; Yoshiki, Tatsuhiro; Nakata, Susumu

    2018-01-01

    Gamma-glutamylcyclotransferase (GGCT) was originally identified as a protein highly expressed in bladder cancer tissues by proteomic analysis, and its higher expression in a variety of cancers compared to normal tissues have been shown. Depletion of GGCT in various cancer cells results in antiproliferative effects both in vitro and in vivo ; thus it is considered a promising therapeutic target. Although it has been shown that knockdown of GGCT induces cellular senescence and non-apoptotic cell death, associated with upregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs) including p21 WAF1/CIP1 , the cellular events that follow GGCT depletion are not fully understood. Here, we show that GGCT depletion induced autophagy in MCF7 breast and PC3 prostate cancer cells. Conversely, overexpression of GGCT in NIH3T3 fibroblast under conditions of serum deprivation inhibited autophagy and increased proliferation. Simultaneous knockdown of autophagy related-protein 5, a critical effector of autophagy, along with GGCT in MCF7 and PC3 cells led to significant attenuation of the multiple cellular responses, including upregulation of CDKIs, increased numbers of senescence-associated β-galactosidase positive senescent cells, and growth inhibition. Furthermore, we show that autophagy-promoting signaling cascades including activation of the AMPK-ULK1 pathway and/or inactivation of the mTORC2-Akt pathway were triggered in GGCT-depleted cells. These results indicate that autophagy plays an important role in the growth inhibition of cancer cells caused by GGCT depletion.

  16. Protective Effects of an Ancient Chinese Kidney-Tonifying Formula against H2O2-Induced Oxidative Damage to MES23.5 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yihui; Lin, Wei; Ye, Shuifen; Wang, Huajin; Wang, Tingting; Su, Youyan; Wu, Liangning; Wang, Yuanwang; Xu, Qian; Xu, Chuanshan; Cai, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative damage plays a critical role in the etiology of neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease (PD). In our study, an ancient Chinese kidney-tonifying formula, which consists of Cistanche , Epimedii, and Polygonatum cirrhifolium , was investigated to protect MES23.5 dopaminergic neurons against hydrogen peroxide- (H 2 O 2 -) induced oxidative damage. The damage effects of H 2 O 2 on MES23.5 cells and the protective effects of KTF against oxidative stress were evaluated using MTT assay, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), immunocytochemistry (ICC), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and immunoblotting. The results showed that cell viability was dramatically decreased after a 12 h exposure to 150  μ M H 2 O 2 . TEM observation found that the H 2 O 2 -treated MES23.5 cells presented cellular organelle damage. However, when cells were incubated with KTF (3.125, 6.25, and 12.5  μ g/ml) for 24 h after H 2 O 2 exposure, a significant protective effect against H 2 O 2 -induced damage was observed in MES23.5 cells. Using ICC, we found that KTF inhibited the reduction of the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) induced by H 2 O 2 , upregulated the mRNA and protein expression of HO-1, CAT, and GPx-1, and downregulated the expression of caspase 3. These results indicated that KTF may provide neuron protection against H 2 O 2 -induced cell damage through ameliorating oxidative stress, and our findings provide a new potential strategy for the prevention and treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  17. Agmatine Protects Against 6-OHDA-Induced Apoptosis, and ERK and Akt/GSK Disruption in SH-SY5Y Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Esmat; Ghasemi, Rasoul; Moosavi, Maryam

    2016-08-01

    6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), a metabolite of dopamine is known to induce dopaminergic cell toxicity which makes that a suitable agent inducing an experimental model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Agmatine has been shown to protect against some cellular and animal PD models. This study was aimed to assess whether agmatine prevents 6-OHDA-induced SH-SY5Y cell death and if yes, then how it affects Akt/glycogen synthesis kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) signals. The cells were treated with different drugs, and their viability was examined via MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay and morphological observation. Western blot studies were done to assess cleaved caspase-3, Akt/GSK-3β, and ERK proteins. 6-OHDA-induced cell death and caspase-3 cleavage, while agmatine prevented those changes. 6-OHDA also decreased the amount of phosphorylated Akt (pAkt)/Akt while increased GSK-3β activity which was prevented by agmatine. Additionally, this toxin increased pERK/ERK ratio which was averted again by agmatine. The PI3/Akt inhibitor, LY294002, impeded the changes induced by agmatine, while ERK inhibitor (PD98059) did not disturb the effects of agmatine, and by itself, it preserved the cells against 6-OHDA toxicity. This study revealed that agmatine is protective in 6-OHDA model of PD and affects Akt/GSK-3β and ERK pathways.

  18. Cellular Changes during Renal Failure-Induced Inflammatory Aortic Valve Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mony Shuvy

    Full Text Available Aortic valve calcification (AVC secondary to renal failure (RF is an inflammation-regulated process, but its pathogenesis remains unknown. We sought to assess the cellular processes that are involved in the early phases of aortic valve disease using a unique animal model of RF-associated AVC.Aortic valves were obtained from rats that were fed a uremia-inducing diet exclusively for 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 weeks as well as from controls. Pathological examination of the valves included histological characterization, von Kossa staining, and antigen expression analyses.After 2 weeks, we noted a significant increase in urea and creatinine levels, reflecting RF. RF parameters exacerbated until the Week 5 and plateaued. Whereas no histological changes or calcification was observed in the valves of any study group, macrophage accumulation became apparent as early as 2 weeks after the diet was started and rose after 3 weeks. By western blot, osteoblast markers were expressed after 2 weeks on the diet and decreased after 6 weeks. Collagen 3 was up-regulated after 3 weeks, plateauing at 4 weeks, whereas collagen 1 levels peaked at 2 and 4 weeks. Fibronectin levels increased gradually until Week 5 and decreased at 6 weeks. We observed early activation of the ERK pathway, whereas other pathways remained unchanged.We concluded that RF induces dramatic changes at the cellular level, including macrophage accumulation, activation of cell signaling pathway and extracellular matrix modification. These changes precede valve calcification and may increase propensity for calcification, and have to be investigated further.

  19. Inhibition of microRNA-153 protects neurons against ischemia/reperfusion injury in an oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation cellular model by regulating Nrf2/HO-1 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Qiong; Gao, Jianbo; Zheng, Yan; Liu, Xueli; Zhou, Qiangqiang; Shi, Canxia; Yao, Meng; Chen, Xia

    2017-07-01

    MicroRNAs are emerging as critical regulators in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury; however, their exact roles remain poorly understood. miR-153 is reported to be a neuron-related miRNA involved in neuroprotection. In this study, we aimed to investigate the precise role of miR-153 in regulating neuron survival during cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury using an oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R) cellular model. We found that miR-153 was significantly upregulated in neurons subjected to OGD/R treatment. Inhibition of miR-153 significantly attenuated OGD/R-induced injury and oxidative stress in neurons. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) was identified as a target gene of miR-153. Inhibition of miR-153 significantly promoted the expression of Nrf2 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). However, silencing of Nrf2 significantly blocked the protective effects of miR-153 inhibition. Our study indicates that the inhibition of miR-153 protects neurons against OGD/R-induced injury by regulating Nrf2/HO-1 signaling and suggests a potential therapeutic target for cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Protective effect of N-acetyl-L-cysteine against disulfiram-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in V79 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosicka-Maciag, Emilia; Kurpios-Piec, Dagmara; Grzela, Tomasz; Czeczot, Hanna; Skrzycki, Michal; Szumilo, Maria; Rahden-Staron, Iwonna

    2010-01-01

    This work investigated the effect of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) on disulfiram (DSF) induced oxidative stress in Chinese hamster fibroblast cells (V79). An increase in oxidative stress induced by DSF was observed up to a 200 μM concentration. It was evidenced by a statistically significant increase of both GSH t and GSSG levels, as well as elevated protein carbonyl (PC) content. There was no increase in lipid peroxidation (measured as TBARS). DSF increased CAT activity, but did not change SOD1 and SOD2 activities. Analysis of GSH related enzymes showed that DSF significantly increased GR activity, did not change Se-dependent GPx, but statistically significantly decreased non-Se-dependent GPx activity. DSF showed also pro-apoptotic activity. NAC alone did not produce any significant changes, besides an increase of GSH t level, in any of the variables measured. However, pre-treatment of cells with NAC ameliorated DSF-induced changes. NAC pre-treatment restored the viability of DSF-treated cells evaluated by Trypan blue exclusion assay and MTT test, GSSG level, and protein carbonyl content to the control values as well as it reduced pro-apoptotic activity of DSF. The increase of CAT and GR activity was not reversed. Activity of both GPx was significantly increased compared to their values after DSF treatment. In conclusion, oxidative properties are at least partially attributable to the cellular effects of disulfiram and mechanisms induced by NAC pre-treatment may lower or even abolish the observed effects. These observations illustrate the importance of the initial cellular redox state in terms of cell response to disulfiram exposure. -- Research Highlights: →This report explores biological properties of disulfiram under a condition of modulated intra-cellular GSH level. It shows a protective role of N-acetyl-L-cysteine in V79 cells exposed to disulfiram (in GSH metabolism as well as in changes of antioxidant enzyme activity).

  1. Common effects of lithium and valproate on mitochondrial functions: protection against methamphetamine-induced mitochondrial damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Rosilla F; Wang, Yun; Yuan, Peixiong; Zhou, Rulun; Li, Xiaoxia; Alesci, Salvatore; Du, Jing; Manji, Husseini K

    2009-07-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a critical role in the progression of a variety of neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. Thus, enhancing mitochondrial function could potentially help ameliorate the impairments of neural plasticity and cellular resilience associated with a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. A series of studies was undertaken to investigate the effects of mood stabilizers on mitochondrial function, and against mitochondrially mediated neurotoxicity. We found that long-term treatment with lithium and valproate (VPA) enhanced cell respiration rate. Furthermore, chronic treatment with lithium or VPA enhanced mitochondrial function as determined by mitochondrial membrane potential, and mitochondrial oxidation in SH-SY5Y cells. In-vivo studies showed that long-term treatment with lithium or VPA protected against methamphetamine (Meth)-induced toxicity at the mitochondrial level. Furthermore, these agents prevented the Meth-induced reduction of mitochondrial cytochrome c, the mitochondrial anti-apoptotic Bcl-2/Bax ratio, and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase (COX) activity. Oligoarray analysis demonstrated that the gene expression of several proteins related to the apoptotic pathway and mitochondrial functions were altered by Meth, and these changes were attenuated by treatment with lithium or VPA. One of the genes, Bcl-2, is a common target for lithium and VPA. Knock-down of Bcl-2 with specific Bcl-2 siRNA reduced the lithium- and VPA-induced increases in mitochondrial oxidation. These findings illustrate that lithium and VPA enhance mitochondrial function and protect against mitochondrially mediated toxicity. These agents may have potential clinical utility in the treatment of other diseases associated with impaired mitochondrial function, such as neurodegenerative diseases and schizophrenia.

  2. Salivary a-amylase protects enamel surface against acid induced softening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazovic, Maja Bruvo; Moe, Dennis; Kirkeby, Svend

    Objectives: Recently we have demonstrated individual differences in protection against acid-induced enamel softening offered by experimentally developed saliva pellicles. Although ethnicity seemed to be related to protection level, the saliva proteins responsible for the differences were not iden......Objectives: Recently we have demonstrated individual differences in protection against acid-induced enamel softening offered by experimentally developed saliva pellicles. Although ethnicity seemed to be related to protection level, the saliva proteins responsible for the differences were......, and one Chinese. After collection, saliva was dialysed and lyophilised and re-dissolved at 0.5% in Type I water. Next, four polished bovine enamel specimens were immersed into each sample under gentle and constant shaking for 12 hours. Last, specimens were exposed to an erosive challenge of pH 2.3 for 4......-TOF mass fingerprinting following trypsin digestion. Each persistent peak in the HPLC chromatograms was related to the protective effect against acid-induced enamel softening obtained by the corresponding saliva sample by multiple regression analysis. Results: One peak identified as a-amylase had...

  3. Bee Venom Protects against Rotenone-Induced Cell Death in NSC34 Motor Neuron Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Young Jung

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Rotenone, an inhibitor of mitochondrial complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, is known to elevate mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and induce apoptosis via activation of the caspase-3 pathway. Bee venom (BV extracted from honey bees has been widely used in oriental medicine and contains melittin, apamin, adolapin, mast cell-degranulating peptide, and phospholipase A2. In this study, we tested the effects of BV on neuronal cell death by examining rotenone-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. NSC34 motor neuron cells were pretreated with 2.5 μg/mL BV and stimulated with 10 μM rotenone to induce cell toxicity. We assessed cell death by Western blotting using specific antibodies, such as phospho-ERK1/2, phospho-JNK, and cleaved capase-3 and performed an MTT assay for evaluation of cell death and mitochondria staining. Pretreatment with 2.5 μg/mL BV had a neuroprotective effect against 10 μM rotenone-induced cell death in NSC34 motor neuron cells. Pre-treatment with BV significantly enhanced cell viability and ameliorated mitochondrial impairment in rotenone-treated cellular model. Moreover, BV treatment inhibited the activation of JNK signaling and cleaved caspase-3 related to cell death and increased ERK phosphorylation involved in cell survival in rotenone-treated NSC34 motor neuron cells. Taken together, we suggest that BV treatment can be useful for protection of neurons against oxidative stress or neurotoxin-induced cell death.

  4. Anti-apoptotic peptides protect against radiation-induced cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, Kevin W.; Muenzer, Jared T.; Chang, Kathy C.; Davis, Chris G.; McDunn, Jonathan E.; Coopersmith, Craig M.; Hilliard, Carolyn A.; Hotchkiss, Richard S.; Grigsby, Perry W.; Hunt, Clayton R.

    2007-01-01

    The risk of terrorist attacks utilizing either nuclear or radiological weapons has raised concerns about the current lack of effective radioprotectants. Here it is demonstrated that the BH4 peptide domain of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL can be delivered to cells by covalent attachment to the TAT peptide transduction domain (TAT-BH4) and provide protection in vitro and in vivo from radiation-induced apoptotic cell death. Isolated human lymphocytes treated with TAT-BH4 were protected against apoptosis following exposure to 15 Gy radiation. In mice exposed to 5 Gy radiation, TAT-BH4 treatment protected splenocytes and thymocytes from radiation-induced apoptotic cell death. Most importantly, in vivo radiation protection was observed in mice whether TAT-BH4 treatment was given prior to or after irradiation. Thus, by targeting steps within the apoptosis signaling pathway it is possible to develop post-exposure treatments to protect radio-sensitive tissues

  5. Functions of NQO1 in Cellular Protection and CoQ10 Metabolism and its Potential Role as a Redox Sensitive Molecular Switch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ross

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available NQO1 is one of the two major quinone reductases in mammalian systems. It is highly inducible and plays multiple roles in cellular adaptation to stress. A prevalent polymorphic form of NQO1 results in an absence of NQO1 protein and activity so it is important to elucidate the specific cellular functions of NQO1. Established roles of NQO1 include its ability to prevent certain quinones from one electron redox cycling but its role in quinone detoxification is dependent on the redox stability of the hydroquinone generated by two-electron reduction. Other documented roles of NQO1 include its ability to function as a component of the plasma membrane redox system generating antioxidant forms of ubiquinone and vitamin E and at high levels, as a direct superoxide reductase. Emerging roles of NQO1 include its function as an efficient intracellular generator of NAD+ for enzymes including PARP and sirtuins which has gained particular attention with respect to metabolic syndrome. NQO1 interacts with a growing list of proteins, including intrinsically disordered proteins, protecting them from 20S proteasomal degradation. The interactions of NQO1 also extend to mRNA. Recent identification of NQO1 as a mRNA binding protein have been investigated in more detail using SERPIN1A1 (which encodes the serine protease inhibitor α-1-antitrypsin as a target mRNA and indicate a role of NQO1 in control of translation of α-1-antitrypsin, an important modulator of COPD and obesity related metabolic syndrome. NQO1 undergoes structural changes and alterations in its ability to bind other proteins as a result of the cellular reduced/oxidized pyridine nucleotide ratio. This suggests NQO1 may act as a cellular redox switch potentially altering its interactions with other proteins and mRNA as a result of the prevailing redox environment.

  6. Cellular cytotoxic response induced by highly purified multi-wall carbon nanotube in human lung cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukahara, Tamotsu; Haniu, Hisao

    2011-06-01

    Carbon nanotubes, a promising nanomaterial with unique characteristics, have applications in a variety of fields. The cytotoxic effects of carbon nanotubes are partially due to the induction of oxidative stress; however, the detailed mechanisms of nanotube cytotoxicity and their interaction with cells remain unclear. In this study, the authors focus on the acute toxicity of vapor-grown carbon fiber, HTT2800, which is one of the most highly purified multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) by high-temperature thermal treatment. The authors exposed human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) to HTT2800 and measured the cellular uptake, mitochondrial function, cellular LDH release, apoptotic signaling, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and pro-inflammatory cytokine release. The HTT2800-exposed cells showed cellular uptake of the carbon nanotube, increased cell death, enhanced DNA damage, and induced cytokine release. However, the exposed cells showed no obvious intracellular ROS generation. These cellular and molecular findings suggest that HTT2800 could cause a potentially adverse inflammatory response in BEAS-2B cells.

  7. Autophagy induced by silica nanoparticles protects RAW264.7 macrophages from cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Clarissa; Fritsch-Decker, Susanne; Al-Rawi, Marco; Diabaté, Silvia; Weiss, Carsten

    2017-03-15

    Although the technological and economic benefits of engineered nanomaterials are obvious, concerns have been raised about adverse effects if such material is inhaled, ingested, applied to the skin or even released into the environment. Here we studied the cytotoxic effects of the most abundant nanomaterial, silica nanoparticles (SiO 2 -NPs), in murine RAW264.7 macrophages. SiO 2 -NPs dose-dependently induce membrane leakage and cell death without obvious involvement of reactive oxygen species. Interestingly, at low concentrations SiO 2 -NPs trigger autophagy, evidenced by morphological and biochemical hallmarks such as autophagolysosomes or increased levels of LC3-II, which serves to protect cells from cytotoxicity. Hence SiO 2 -NPs initiate an adaptive stress response which dependent on dose serve to balance survival and death and ultimately dictates the cellular fate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Differential Requirements for T Cells in Viruslike Particle- and Rotavirus-Induced Protective Immunity▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blutt, Sarah E.; Warfield, Kelly L.; Estes, Mary K.; Conner, Margaret E.

    2008-01-01

    Correlates of protection from rotavirus infection are controversial. We compared the roles of B and T lymphocytes in protective immunity induced either by intranasally administered nonreplicating viruslike particles or inactivated virus or by orally administered murine rotavirus. We found that protection induced by nonreplicating vaccines requires CD4+ T cells and CD40/CD40L. In contrast, T cells were not required for short-term protective immunity induced by infection, but both T-cell-dependent and -independent mechanisms contributed to long-term maintenance of protection. Our findings indicate that more than one marker of protective immunity exists and that these markers depend on the vaccine that is administered. PMID:18184712

  9. Protective Effect of Rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis Extract on Naphthalene Induced Nephrotoxicity in Adult Male Albino Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neveen M. El-Sherif

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Naphthalene (NA is a common environmental contaminant and is abundant in tobacco smoke. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis is a herb commonly used as a spice and flavoring agents in food processing and is useful in the treatment of many diseases. Aim of the work: To study the nephrotoxicity of NA and to evaluate the possible protective role of rosemary extract in adult male albino rat. Materials and Methods: 25 animals were divided into three groups: Group I (Control group, Group II (NA treated group received NA at a dose of 200 mg/kg/day dissolved in 5 ml/kg corn oil orally by gastric tube, Group III (protected group received rosemary extract (10 ml/kg/day followed after 60 min by NA at the same previous dose orally by gastric tube. The experiment lasted 30 days. The following parameters were studied: Biochemical assessment of renal function, histological, immunohistochemical, morphometric studies and statistical analysis of the results. Results: NA treatment resulted in a highly significant increase in the mean values of serum urea and creatinine. NA induced histological changes in the form of glomerular congestion. Some glomeruli demonstrated marked mesangial expansion and hence that Bowman's spaces were almost completely obliterated. Shrinkage of renal glomeruli with widening of Bowman's spaces could also be seen. Focal tubular dilatation with appearance of casts inside the tubules was observed. Congested peritubular blood vessels and interstitial hemorrhage were also seen. The medullary region demonstrated vascular congestion and fibrosis. Focal cellular infiltration was presented in the interstitium. The renal cortex of NA treated rats showed a noticeable down regulation in alkaline phosphatase positive immunoreactive cells in some proximal convoluted tubules. NA induced up regulation of positive immunoreaction for inducible nitric oxide synthase in the proximal and distal convoluted tubules as well as in the collecting tubules

  10. MicroRNA-145 protects cardiomyocytes against hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂-induced apoptosis through targeting the mitochondria apoptotic pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruotian Li

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs, a class of small and non-encoding RNAs that transcriptionally or post-transcriptionally modulate the expression of their target genes, has been implicated as critical regulatory molecules in many cardiovascular diseases, including ischemia/reperfusion induced cardiac injury. Here, we report microRNA-145, a tumor suppressor miRNA, can protect cardiomyocytes from hydrogen peroxide H₂O₂-induced apoptosis through targeting the mitochondrial pathway. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR demonstrated that the expression of miR-145 in either ischemia/reperfused mice myocardial tissues or H₂O₂-treated neonatal rat ventricle myocytes (NRVMs was markedly down-regulated. Over-expression of miR-145 significantly inhibited the H₂O₂-induced cellular apoptosis, ROS production, mitochondrial structure disruption as well as the activation of key signaling proteins in mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. These protective effects of miR-145 were abrogated by over-expression of Bnip3, an initiation factor of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in cardiomyocytes. Finally, we utilized both luciferase reporter assay and western blot analysis to identify Bnip3 as a direct target of miR-145. Our results suggest miR-145 plays an important role in regulating mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in heart challenged with oxidative stress. MiR-145 may represent a potential therapeutic target for treatment of oxidative stress-associated cardiovascular diseases, such as myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury.

  11. The zebrafish miR-462/miR-731 cluster is induced under hypoxic stress via hypoxia-inducible factor 1α and functions in cellular adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Xiao; Chen, Nan; Wu, Xin-Jie; Huang, Cui-Hong; He, Yan; Tang, Rong; Wang, Wei-Min; Wang, Huan-Ling

    2015-12-01

    Hypoxia, a unique and essential environmental stress, evokes highly coordinated cellular responses, and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) 1 in the hypoxia signaling pathway, an evolutionarily conserved cellular signaling pathway, acts as a master regulator of the transcriptional response to hypoxic stress. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a major class of posttranscriptional gene expression regulators, also play pivotal roles in orchestrating hypoxia-mediated cellular adaptations. Here, global miRNA expression profiling and quantitative real-time PCR indicated that the up-regulation of the miR-462/miR-731 cluster in zebrafish larvae is induced by hypoxia. It was further validated that miR-462 and miR-731 are up-regulated in a Hif-1α-mediated manner under hypoxia and specifically target ddx5 and ppm1da, respectively. Overexpression of miR-462 and miR-731 represses cell proliferation through blocking cell cycle progress of DNA replication, and induces apoptosis. In situ detection revealed that the miR-462/miR-731 cluster is highly expressed in a consistent and ubiquitous manner throughout the early developmental stages. Additionally, the transcripts become restricted to the notochord, pharyngeal arch, liver, and gut regions from postfertilization d 3 to 5. These data highlight a previously unidentified role of the miR-462/miR-731 cluster as a crucial signaling mediator for hypoxia-mediated cellular adaptations and provide some insights into the potential function of the cluster during embryonic development. © FASEB.

  12. A synthetic eicosanoid LX-mimetic unravels host-donor interactions in allogeneic BMT-induced GvHD to reveal an early protective role for host neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devchand, Pallavi R; Schmidt, Birgitta A; Primo, Valeria C; Zhang, Qing-yin; Arnaout, M Amin; Serhan, Charles N; Nikolic, Boris

    2005-02-01

    Lipoxin A(4) (LXA(4)) and aspirin-triggered 15-epi-LXA(4) are potent endogenous lipid mediators thought to define the inflammatory set-point. We used single prophylactic administrations of a synthetic aspirin-triggered lipoxin A(4) signal mimetic, ATLa, to probe dynamics of early host-donor interactions in a mouse model for the inflammation-associated multifactorial disease of allogeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) -induced graft-vs.-host disease (GvHD). We first demonstrated that both host and donor are responsive to the ATLa signals. The simple and restricted regimen of a single prophylactic administration of ATLa [100 ng/mL to donor cells or 1 microg (approximately 50 microg/kg) i.v. to host] was sufficient to delay death. Clinical indicators of weight, skin lesions, diarrhea and eye inflammation were monitored. Histological analyses on day 45 post-BMT showed that the degree of cellular trafficking, particularly neutrophil infiltrate, and protection of end-organ target pathology are different, depending on whether the host or donor was treated with ATLa. Taken together, these results chart some ATLa protective effects on GvHD cellular dynamics over time and identify a previously unrecognized effect of host neutrophils in the early phase post-BMT as important determinants in the dynamics of GvHD onset and progression.-Devchand, P. R., Schmidt, B. A., Primo, V. C., Zhang, Q.-y., Arnaout, M. A., Serhan, C. N., Nikolic, B. A synthetic eicosanoid LX-mimetic unravels host-donor interactions in allogeneic BMT-induced GvHD to reveal an early protective role for host neutrophils.

  13. Bifidobacterium animalis AHC7 protects against pathogen-induced NF-kappaB activation in vivo

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Mahony, David

    2010-12-22

    Abstract Background Bifidobacteria and lactobacilli are among the early and important colonizers of the gastrointestinal tract and are generally considered to be part of a normal, healthy microbiota. It is believed that specific strains within the microbiota can influence host immune-reactivity and may play a role in protection from infection and aberrant inflammatory activity. One such strain, Bifidobacterium animalis AHC7, has been previously shown to protect against Salmonella typhimurium infection in mice and helps resolve acute idiopathic diarrhea in dogs. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential molecular and cellular mechanisms underpinning the Bifidobacterium animalis AHC7 protective effect. Results Following 4 hours of infection with Salmonella typhimurium, NF-κB activation was significantly elevated in vivo in placebo and Enterococcus faecium-fed animals while Bifidobacterium animalis AHC7 consumption significantly attenuated the NF-κB response. In vitro anti-CD3\\/CD28 stimulated Peyer\\'s patch cells secreted significantly less TNF-α and IFN-γ following Bifidobacterium animalis AHC7 consumption. Stimulated cells released more IL-12p70 but this difference did not reach statistical significance. No alteration in mucosal IL-6, IL-10 or MCP-1 levels were observed. No statistically significant change in the cytokine profile of mesenteric lymph node cells was noted. In vitro, Bifidobacterium animalis AHC7 was bound by dendritic cells and induced secretion of both IL-10 and IL-12p70. In addition, co-culture of CD4+ T cells with Bifidobacterium animalis AHC7-stimulated dendritic cells resulted in a significant increase in CD25+Foxp3+ T cell numbers. Conclusion Bifidobacterium animalis AHC7 exerts an anti-inflammatory effect via the attenuation of pro-inflammatory transcription factor activation in response to an infectious insult associated with modulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine production within the mucosa. The cellular mechanism

  14. Radiation, nitric oxide and cellular death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubner, D.; Perez, M.R. Del; Michelin, S.C.; Gisone, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    The mechanisms of radiation induced cellular death constitute an objective of research ever since the first biological effects of radiation were first observed. The explosion of information produced in the last 20 years calls for a careful analysis due to the apparent contradictory data related to the cellular system studied and the range of doses used. This review focuses on the role of the active oxygen species, in particular the nitric oxides, in its relevance as potential mediator of radiation induced cellular death

  15. Alphavirus Replicon DNA Vectors Expressing Ebola GP and VP40 Antigens Induce Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoufeng Ren

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus (EBOV causes severe hemorrhagic fevers in humans, and no approved therapeutics or vaccine is currently available. Glycoprotein (GP is the major protective antigen of EBOV, and can generate virus-like particles (VLPs by co-expression with matrix protein (VP40. In this study, we constructed a recombinant Alphavirus Semliki Forest virus (SFV replicon vector DREP to express EBOV GP and matrix viral protein (VP40. EBOV VLPs were successfully generated and achieved budding from 293 cells after co-transfection with DREP-based GP and VP40 vectors (DREP-GP+DREP-VP40. Vaccination of BALB/c mice with DREP-GP, DREP-VP40, or DREP-GP+DREP-VP40 vectors, followed by immediate electroporation resulted in a mixed IgG subclass production, which recognized EBOV GP and/or VP40 proteins. This vaccination regimen also led to the generation of both Th1 and Th2 cellular immune responses in mice. Notably, vaccination with DREP-GP and DREP-VP40, which produces both GP and VP40 antigens, induced a significantly higher level of anti-GP IgG2a antibody and increased IFN-γ secreting CD8+ T-cell responses relative to vaccination with DREP-GP or DREP-VP40 vector alone. Our study indicates that co-expression of GP and VP40 antigens based on the SFV replicon vector generates EBOV VLPs in vitro, and vaccination with recombinant DREP vectors containing GP and VP40 antigens induces Ebola antigen-specific humoral and cellular immune responses in mice. This novel approach provides a simple and efficient vaccine platform for Ebola disease prevention.

  16. Cellular anomalies underlying retinoid-induced phocomelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian; Kochhar, Devendra M

    2004-11-01

    The question of how alterations in cell behavior produced by retinoic acid (RA) influenced the development of skeletogenic mesenchyme of the limb bud was examined in this study. Our established model was employed, which involves treatment of pregnant mice with a teratogenic dose of RA (100 mg/kg) on 11 days postcoitum (dpc) resulting in a severe truncation of all long bones of the forelimbs in virtually every exposed fetus. It is shown that RA, administered at a stage to induce phocomelia in virtually all exposed embryos, resulted in immediate appearance of enhanced cell death within the mesenchyme in the central core of the limb bud, an area destined for chondrogenesis. The central core mesenchyme, which in the untreated limb buds experiences a sharp decline in cell proliferation heralding the onset of chondrogenesis, demonstrated a reversal of the process; this mesenchyme maintained a higher rate of cell proliferation upon RA exposure. These events resulted in a truncation and disorganization of the chondrogenic anlage, more pronounced in zeugopodal mesenchyme than in the autopod. We conclude that an inhibition of chondrogenesis was secondary to a disruption in cellular behavior caused by RA, a likely consequence of misregulation in the growth factor signaling cascade.

  17. ZL006 protects spinal cord neurons against ischemia-induced oxidative stress through AMPK-PGC-1α-Sirt3 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Guang; Wang, Yun-Mei; Zhang, Yan-Jun; He, Xi-Jing; Ma, Tao; Song, Wei; Zhang, Yu-Min

    2017-09-01

    Spinal cord ischemia (SCI) induces a range of cellular and molecular cascades, including activation of glutamate receptors and downstream signaling. Post-synaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95) links neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) with the N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors to form a ternary complex in the CNS. This molecular complex-mediated cytotoxicity has been implicated in brain ischemia, but its role in SCI has not been determined. The goal of the study was to investigate the potential protective effects of ZL006, a small-molecule inhibitor of the PSD-95/nNOS interaction, in an in vitro SCI model induced by oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) in cultured spinal cord neurons. We found that ZL006 reduced OGD-induced lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, neuronal apoptosis and loss of cell viability. This protection was accompanied by the preservation of mitochondrial function, as evidenced by reduced mitochondrial oxidative stress, attenuated mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) loss, and enhanced ATP generation. In addition, ZL006 stimulated mitochondrial enzyme activities and SOD2 deacetylation in a Sirt3-dependent manner. The results of western blot analysis showed that ZL006 increased the activation of AMPK-PGC-1α-Sirt3 pathway, and the beneficial effects of ZL006 was partially abolished by AMPK inhibitor and PGC-1α knockdown. Therefore, our present data showed that, by the AMPK-PGC-1α-Sirt3 pathway, ZL006 protects spinal cord neurons against ischemia through reducing mitochondrial oxidative stress to prevent apoptosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cellular Development Associated with Induced Mycotoxin Synthesis in the Filamentous Fungus Fusarium graminearum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, Jon; Weber, Jakob; Broz, Karen; Kistler, H. Corby

    2013-01-01

    Several species of the filamentous fungus Fusarium colonize plants and produce toxic small molecules that contaminate agricultural products, rendering them unsuitable for consumption. Among the most destructive of these species is F. graminearum, which causes disease in wheat and barley and often infests the grain with harmful trichothecene mycotoxins. Synthesis of these secondary metabolites is induced during plant infection or in culture in response to chemical signals. Our results show that trichothecene biosynthesis involves a complex developmental process that includes dynamic changes in cell morphology and the biogenesis of novel subcellular structures. Two cytochrome P-450 oxygenases (Tri4p and Tri1p) involved in early and late steps in trichothecene biosynthesis were tagged with fluorescent proteins and shown to co-localize to vesicles we provisionally call “toxisomes.” Toxisomes, the inferred site of trichothecene biosynthesis, dynamically interact with motile vesicles containing a predicted major facilitator superfamily protein (Tri12p) previously implicated in trichothecene export and tolerance. The immediate isoprenoid precursor of trichothecenes is the primary metabolite farnesyl pyrophosphate. Changes occur in the cellular localization of the isoprenoid biosynthetic enzyme HMG CoA reductase when cultures non-induced for trichothecene biosynthesis are transferred to trichothecene biosynthesis inducing medium. Initially localized in the cellular endomembrane system, HMG CoA reductase, upon induction of trichothecene biosynthesis, increasingly is targeted to toxisomes. Metabolic pathways of primary and secondary metabolism thus may be coordinated and co-localized under conditions when trichothecene biosynthesis occurs. PMID:23667578

  19. Risk of radiation-induced cancer at low doses and low dose rates for radiation protection purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this report is to provide an updated, comprehensive review of the data available for assessing the risk of radiation-induced cancer for radiation protection purposes. Particular emphasis is placed on assessing risks at low doses and low dose rates. The review brings together the results of epidemiological investigations and fundamental studies on the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in radiation damage. Additionally, this information is supplemented by studies with experimental animals which provide further guidance on the form of the dose-response relationship for cancer induction, as well as on the effect of dose rate on the tumour yield. The emphasis of the report is on cancer induction resulting from exposure to radiations with a low linear energy transfer (LET). The work was performed under contract for the Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses, Paris, France, whose agreement to publish is gratefully ackowledged. It extends the advice on radiation risks given in Documents of the NRPB, 4 No. 4 (1993). (Author)

  20. Protective effects of quercetin on nicotine induced oxidative stress in 'HepG2 cells'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarahmadi, Amir; Zal, Fatemeh; Bolouki, Ayeh

    2017-10-01

    Nicotine is a natural component of tobacco plants and is responsible for the addictive properties of tobacco. Nicotine has been recognized to result in oxidative stress by inducing the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The purpose of this work was to estimate the hepatotoxicity effect of nicotine on viability and on antioxidant defense system in cultures of HepG2 cell line and the other hand, ameliorative effect of quercetin (Q) as an antioxidant was analyzed. Nicotine induced concentration dependent loss in HepG2 cell line viability. The results indicated that nicotine decreased activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR) and increased activities of catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione (GSH) content in the HepG2 cells. Q significantly increased activity of SOD, GR and GSH content and decreased activity of GPX in nicotine + Q groups. Our data demonstrate that Q plays a protective role against the imbalance elicited by nicotine between the production of free radicals and antioxidant defense systems, and suggest that administration of this antioxidant may find clinical application where cellular damage is a consequence of ROS.

  1. Vanillin protects human keratinocyte stem cells against ultraviolet B irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jienny; Cho, Jae Youl; Lee, Sang Yeol; Lee, Kyung-Woo; Lee, Jongsung; Song, Jae-Young

    2014-01-01

    Ultraviolet-B (UVB) irradiation is one of major factors which induce cellular damages in the epidermis. We investigated protective effects and mechanisms of vanillin, a main constituent of vanilla beans, against UVB-induced cellular damages in keratinocyte stem cells (KSC). Here, vanillin significantly attenuated UVB irradiation-induced cytotoxicity. The vanillin effects were also demonstrated by the results of the senescence-associated β-galactosidase and alkaline comet assays. In addition, vanillin induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Attempts to elucidate a possible mechanism underlying the vanillin-mediated effects revealed that vanillin significantly reduced UVB-induced phosphorylation of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), serine threonine kinase checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2), tumor suppressor protein 53 (p53), p38/mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38), c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase (JNK), S6 ribosomal protein (S6RP), and histone 2A family member X (H2A.X). UVB-induced activation of p53 luciferase reporter was also significantly inhibited by vanillin. In addition, while ATM inhibitor had no effect on the vanillin effects, mouse double minute 2 homolog (MDM2) inhibitor significantly attenuated suppressive effects of vanillin on UVB-induced activation of p53 reporter in KSC. Taken together, these findings suggest that vanillin protects KSC from UVB irradiation and its effects may occur through the suppression of downstream step of MDM2 in UVB irradiation-induced p53 activation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Protective Effect of Thymoquinone against Cyclophosphamide-Induced Hemorrhagic Cystitis through Inhibiting DNA Damage and Upregulation of Nrf2 Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Prashant R.; Prajapati, Chaitali P.; Mahajan, Umesh B.; Goyal, Sameer N.; Belemkar, Sateesh; Ojha, Shreesh; Patil, Chandragouda R.

    2016-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CYP) induced hemorrhagic cystitis is a dose-limiting side effect involving increased oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokines and suppressed activity of nuclear factor related erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2). Thymoquinone (TQ), an active constituent of Nigella sativa seeds, is reported to increase the expression of Nrf2, exert antioxidant action, and anti-inflammatory effects in the experimental animals. The present study was designed to explore the effects of TQ on CYP-induced hemorrhagic cystitis in Balb/c mice. Cystitis was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of CYP (200 mg/kg). TQ was administered intraperitoneally at 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg doses twice a day, for three days before and three days after the CYP administration. The efficacy of TQ was determined in terms of the protection against the CYP-induced histological perturbations in the bladder tissue, reduction in the oxidative stress, and inhibition of the DNA fragmentation. Immunohistochemistry was performed to examine the expression of Nrf2. TQ protected against CYP-induced oxidative stress was evident from significant reduction in the lipid peroxidation, restoration of the levels of reduced glutathione, catalase and superoxide dismutase activities. TQ treatment significantly reduced the DNA damage evident as reduced DNA fragmentation. A significant decrease in the cellular infiltration, edema, epithelial denudation and hemorrhage were observed in the histological observations. There was restoration and rise in the Nrf2 expression in the bladder tissues of mice treated with TQ. These results confirm that, TQ ameliorates the CYP-induced hemorrhagic cystitis in mice through reduction in the oxidative stress, inhibition of the DNA damage and through increased expression of Nrf2 in the bladder tissues. PMID:27489498

  3. Rodent malaria: BCG-induced protection and immunosuppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smrkovski, L.L.; Strickland, G.T.

    1978-01-01

    One dose of 10 7 viable units of Mycobacterium bovis, strain BCG, protected a significant number of Swiss mice from a primary challenge with 10 4 thoracic sporozoites of Plasmodium berghei. Immunization with irradiated sporozoites induced greater protection than that observed in BCG-treated animals. Mice treated with BCG and surviving a primary sporozoite challenge were not protected from rechallenge, whereas mice immunized with irradiated sporozoites and surviving initial challenge of sporozoites were solidly immune to further challenge. Immunizing mice with BCG and irradiated sporozoites simulataneously resulted in a synergistic effect of increased protection against a primary challenge of sporozoites only if the two immunogens were administered on the same day and if the mice were challenged 1 to 3 days later. Mice given BCG and irradiated sporozoites and surviving a primary challenge of sporozoites were unable to survive rechallenge. BCG given to mice previously immunized with irradiated sporozoites suppressed their protective immunity against sporozoite challenge

  4. Cellular mechanisms of IL-17-induced blood-brain barrier disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppert, Jula; Closhen, Dorothea; Croxford, Andrew; White, Robin; Kulig, Paulina; Pietrowski, Eweline; Bechmann, Ingo; Becher, Burkhard; Luhmann, Heiko J; Waisman, Ari; Kuhlmann, Christoph R W

    2010-04-01

    Recently T-helper 17 (Th17) cells were demonstrated to disrupt the blood-brain barrier (BBB) by the action of IL-17A. The aim of the present study was to examine the mechanisms that underlie IL-17A-induced BBB breakdown. Barrier integrity was analyzed in the murine brain endothelial cell line bEnd.3 by measuring the electrical resistance values using electrical call impedance sensing technology. Furthermore, in-cell Western blots, fluorescence imaging, and monocyte adhesion and transendothelial migration assays were performed. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) was induced in C57BL/6 mice. IL-17A induced NADPH oxidase- or xanthine oxidase-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. The resulting oxidative stress activated the endothelial contractile machinery, which was accompanied by a down-regulation of the tight junction molecule occludin. Blocking either ROS formation or myosin light chain phosphorylation or applying IL-17A-neutralizing antibodies prevented IL-17A-induced BBB disruption. Treatment of mice with EAE using ML-7, an inhibitor of the myosin light chain kinase, resulted in less BBB disruption at the spinal cord and less infiltration of lymphocytes via the BBB and subsequently reduced the clinical characteristics of EAE. These observations indicate that IL-17A accounts for a crucial step in the development of EAE by impairing the integrity of the BBB, involving augmented production of ROS.-Huppert, J., Closhen, D., Croxford, A., White, R., Kulig, P., Pietrowski, E., Bechmann, I., Becher, B., Luhmann, H. J., Waisman, A., Kuhlmann, C. R. W. Cellular mechanisms of IL-17-induced blood-brain barrier disruption.

  5. Protective Effects of Cilastatin against Vancomycin-Induced Nephrotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Humanes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vancomycin is a very effective antibiotic for treatment of severe infections. However, its use in clinical practice is limited by nephrotoxicity. Cilastatin is a dehydropeptidase I inhibitor that acts on the brush border membrane of the proximal tubule to prevent accumulation of imipenem and toxicity. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential protective effect of cilastatin on vancomycin-induced apoptosis and toxicity in cultured renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (RPTECs. Porcine RPTECs were cultured in the presence of vancomycin with and without cilastatin. Vancomycin induced dose-dependent apoptosis in cultured RPTECs, with DNA fragmentation, cell detachment, and a significant decrease in mitochondrial activity. Cilastatin prevented apoptotic events and diminished the antiproliferative effect and severe morphological changes induced by vancomycin. Cilastatin also improved the long-term recovery and survival of RPTECs exposed to vancomycin and partially attenuated vancomycin uptake by RPTECs. On the other hand, cilastatin had no effects on vancomycin-induced necrosis or the bactericidal effect of the antibiotic. This study indicates that cilastatin protects against vancomycin-induced proximal tubule apoptosis and increases cell viability, without compromising the antimicrobial effect of vancomycin. The beneficial effect could be attributed, at least in part, to decreased accumulation of vancomycin in RPTECs.

  6. Posintro™-HBsAg, a modified ISCOM including HBsAg, induces strong cellular and humoral responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiött, Asa; Larsson, Kristina; Manniche, Søren

    2011-01-01

    HBsAg vaccine formulation, Posintro™-HBsAg, was compared to two commercial hepatitis B vaccines including aluminium or monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) and the two adjuvant systems MF59 and QS21 in their efficiency to prime both cellular and humoral immune responses. The Posintro™-HBsAg induced...

  7. PDGF-AA-induced filamentous mitochondria benefit dermal papilla cells in cellular migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mifude, C; Kaseda, K

    2015-06-01

    Human dermal papilla cells (HDPCs) play essential roles in hair follicular morphogenesis and postnatal hair growth cycles. Previous reports demonstrated that platelet-derived growth factor-AA (PDGF-AA) enhanced the formation of dermal condensates in hair follicular development. Additionally, PDGF-AA induces/maintains the anagen phase of the hair cycle. It is likely that mitochondrial morphology and functions are tightly coupled with maintenance of these energy-demanding activities. However, little is known about the mitochondrial regulation in HDPCs. Thus, we investigated the PDGF-involved mitochondrial regulation in HDPCs. The mitochondrial morphologies of HDPCs were examined in the presence or absence of PDGF-AA under a fluorescent microscope. ATP production and cellular motility were investigated. The relationship between mitochondrial morphology and the cellular functions was discussed. We observed that primary HDPCs contained mitochondria with filamentous and/or rounded morphologies. Both types of mitochondria showed similar membrane potentials. Interestingly, in the presence of PDGF-AA, but not PDGF-BB, the balance between the two morphologies shifted towards the filamentous form. Concomitantly, both mitochondrial enzymatic activity and total cellular ATP level were augmented by PDGF-AA. These two parameters were closely correlated, suggesting the mitochondrial involvement in the PDGF-augmented ATP production. Moreover, PDGF-AA accelerated the migration of HDPCs in a gap-filling assay, but did not change the rate of cellular proliferation. Notably, filamentous mitochondria dominated migrating HDPCs. PDGF-AA benefits HDPCs in the process of migration, by increasing the number of filamentous mitochondria. © 2014 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  8. Activation of Nrf2 protects against triptolide-induced hepatotoxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Li

    Full Text Available Triptolide, the major active component of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook f. (TWHF, has a wide range of pharmacological activities. However, the toxicities of triptolide, particularly the hepatotoxicity, limit its clinical application. The hepatotoxicity of triptolide has not been well characterized yet. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 in triptolide-induced toxicity and whether activation of Nrf2 could protect against triptolide-induced hepatotoxicity. The results showed that triptolide caused oxidative stress and cell damage in HepG2 cells, and these toxic effects could be aggravated by Nrf2 knockdown or be counteracted by overexpression of Nrf2. Treatment with a typical Nrf2 agonist, sulforaphane (SFN, attenuated triptolide-induced liver dysfunction, structural damage, glutathione depletion and decrease in antioxidant enzymes in BALB/C mice. Moreover, the hepatoprotective effect of SFN on triptolide-induced liver injury was associated with the activation of Nrf2 and its downstream targets. Collectively, these results indicate that Nrf2 activation protects against triptolide-induced hepatotoxicity.

  9. Dynamic cellular uptake of mixed-monolayer protected nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Randy P; Carney, Tamara M; Mueller, Marie; Stellacci, Francesco

    2012-12-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are gaining increasing attention for potential application in medicine; consequently, studying their interaction with cells is of central importance. We found that both ligand arrangement and composition on gold nanoparticles play a crucial role in their cellular internalization. In our previous investigation, we showed that 66-34OT nanoparticles coated with stripe-like domains of hydrophobic (octanethiol, OT, 34%) and hydrophilic (11-mercaptoundecane sulfonate, MUS, 66%) ligands permeated through the cellular lipid bilayer via passive diffusion, in addition to endo-/pino-cytosis. Here, we show an analysis of NP internalization by DC2.4, 3T3, and HeLa cells at two temperatures and multiple time points. We study four NPs that differ in their surface structures and ligand compositions and report on their cellular internalization by intracellular fluorescence quantification. Using confocal laser scanning microscopy we have found that all three cell types internalize the 66-34OT NPs more than particles coated only with MUS, or particles coated with a very similar coating but lacking any detectable ligand shell structure, or 'striped' particles but with a different composition (34-66OT) at multiple data points.

  10. The ROS-mediated activation of IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway is involved in the 27-hydroxycholesterol-induced cellular senescence in nerve cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiao; Liu, Yun; Chen, Juan; Hu, Chunyan; Teng, Mengying; Jiao, Kailin; Shen, Zhaoxia; Zhu, Dongmei; Yue, Jia; Li, Zhong; Li, Yuan

    2017-12-01

    The oxysterol 27-hydroxycholesterol (27HC) is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERMs), which like endogenous estrogen 17β-estradiol (E 2 ) induces the proliferation of ER-positive breast cancer cells in vitro. Interestingly, the observation that 27HC induces adverse effects in neural system, distinguishing it from E 2 . It has been suggested that high levels of circulating cholesterol increase the entry of 27HC into the brain, which may induce learning and memory impairment. Based on this evidence, 27HC may be associated with neurodegenerative processes and interrupted cholesterol homeostasis in the brain. However, the biological events that participate in this process remain largely elusive. In the present study, we demonstrated that 27HC induced apparent cellular senescence in nerve cells. Senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-Gal) assay revealed that 27HC induced senescence in both BV2 cells and PC12 cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that 27HC promoted the accumulation of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in nerve cells and subsequently activation of IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway. Notably, treatment with the ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC) markedly blocked 27HC-induced ROS production and activation of IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway. Either blocking the generation of ROS or inhibition of IL-6/STAT3 both attenuated 27HC-induced cellular senescence. In sum, these findings not only suggested a mechanism whereby 27HC induced cellular senescence in nerve cells, but also helped to recognize the 27HC as a novel harmful factor in neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Lithium protects ethanol-induced neuronal apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Jin; Yang Xianlin; Yao Weiguo; Lee Weihua

    2006-01-01

    Lithium is widely used for the treatment of bipolar disorder. Recent studies have demonstrated its neuroprotective effect. Ethanol is a potent neurotoxin that is particularly harmful to the developing nervous system. In this study, we evaluated lithium's neuroprotection against ethanol-induced apoptosis. Transient exposure of infant mice to ethanol caused apoptotic cell death in brain, which was prevented significantly by administering a low dose of lithium 15 min later. In cultured cerebellar granule neurons, ethanol-induced apoptosis and activation of caspase-3/9, both of which were prevented by lithium. However, lithium's protection is not mediated by its commonly known inhibition of glycogen synthase3β, because neither ethanol nor lithium has significant effects on the phosphorylation of Akt (ser473) or GSK3β (ser9). In addition, the selective GSK-3β inhibitor SB-415286 was unable to prevent ethanol-induced apoptosis. These data suggest lithium may be used as a potential preventive measure for ethanol-induced neurological deficits

  12. Identifying the cellular mechanisms of symbiont-induced epithelial morphogenesis in the squid-Vibrio association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koropatnick, Tanya; Goodson, Michael S; Heath-Heckman, Elizabeth A C; McFall-Ngai, Margaret

    2014-02-01

    The symbiotic association between the Hawaiian bobtail squid Euprymna scolopes and the luminous marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri provides a unique opportunity to study epithelial morphogenesis. Shortly after hatching, the squid host harvests bacteria from the seawater using currents created by two elaborate fields of ciliated epithelia on the surface of the juvenile light organ. After light organ colonization, the symbiont population signals the gradual loss of the ciliated epithelia through apoptosis of the cells, which culminates in the complete regression of these tissues. Whereas aspects of this process have been studied at the morphological, biochemical, and molecular levels, no in-depth analysis of the cellular events has been reported. Here we describe the cellular structure of the epithelial field and present evidence that the symbiosis-induced regression occurs in two steps. Using confocal microscopic analyses, we observed an initial epithelial remodeling, which serves to disable the function of the harvesting apparatus, followed by a protracted regression involving actin rearrangements and epithelial cell extrusion. We identified a metal-dependent gelatinolytic activity in the symbiont-induced morphogenic epithelial fields, suggesting the involvement of Zn-dependent matrix metalloproteinase(s) (MMP) in light organ morphogenesis. These data show that the bacterial symbionts not only induce apoptosis of the field, but also change the form, function, and biochemistry of the cells as part of the morphogenic program.

  13. Irradiation With Carbon Ion Beams Induces Apoptosis, Autophagy, and Cellular Senescence in a Human Glioma-Derived Cell Line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinno-Oue, Atsushi; Shimizu, Nobuaki; Hamada, Nobuyuki; Wada, Seiichi; Tanaka, Atsushi; Shinagawa, Masahiko; Ohtsuki, Takahiro; Mori, Takahisa; Saha, Manujendra N.; Hoque, Ariful S.; Islam, Salequl; Kogure, Kimitaka; Funayama, Tomoo; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: We examined biological responses of human glioma cells to irradiation with carbon ion beams (C-ions). Methods and Materials: A human glioma-derived cell line, NP-2, was irradiated with C-ions. Apoptotic cell nuclei were stained with Hoechst 33342. Induction of autophagy was examined either by staining cells with monodansylcadaverine (MDC) or by Western blotting to detect conversion of microtuble-associated protein light chain 3 (MAP-LC3) (LC3-I) to the membrane-bound form (LC3-II). Cellular senescence markers including induction of senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) were examined. The mean telomere length of irradiated cells was determined by Southern blot hybridization. Expression of tumor suppressor p53 and cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 WAF1/CIP1 in the irradiated cells was analyzed by Western blotting. Results: When NP-2 cells were irradiated with C-ions at 6 Gy, the major population of the cells died of apoptosis and autophagy. The residual fraction of attached cells ( WAF1/CIP1 was induced in NP-2 cells after irradiation. Furthermore, we found that irradiation with C-ions induced cellular senescence in a human glioma cell line lacking functional p53. Conclusions: Irradiation with C-ions induced apoptosis, autophagy, and cellular senescence in human glioma cells.

  14. Protection against cyanide-induced convulsions with alpha-ketoglutarate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, H

    1990-04-30

    Protection against convulsions induced by cyanide was observed after treatment with alpha-ketoglutarate, either alone or in combination with sodium thiosulfate, a classical antagonist for cyanide intoxication. However, sodium thiosulfate alone did not protect against cyanide (30 mg/kg)-induced convulsions. gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels in brain were decreased by 31% in KCN-treated mice exhibiting convulsions. The combined administration of alpha-ketoglutarate and sodium thiosulfate completely abolished the decrease of GABA levels induced by cyanide. Furthermore, sodium thiosulfate alone also completely abolished the decrease of GABA levels. These results suggest that the depletion of brain GABA levels may not directly contribute to the development of convulsions induced by cyanide. On the other hand, cyanide increased calcium levels by 32% in brain crude mitochondrial fractions in mice with convulsions. The increased calcium levels were completely abolished by the combined administration of alpha-ketoglutarate and sodium thiosulfate, but not affected by sodium thiosulfate alone. These findings support the hypothesis proposed by Johnson et al. (Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., 84 (1986) 464) and Robinson et al. (Toxicology, 35 (1985) 59) that calcium may play an important role in mediating cyanide neurotoxicity.

  15. Cytoskeleton-interacting LIM-domain protein CRP1 suppresses cell proliferation and protects from stress-induced cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latonen, Leena; Jaervinen, Paeivi M.; Laiho, Marikki

    2008-01-01

    Members of the cysteine-rich protein (CRP) family are actin cytoskeleton-interacting LIM-domain proteins known to act in muscle cell differentiation. We have earlier found that CRP1, a founding member of this family, is transcriptionally induced by UV radiation in human diploid fibroblasts [M. Gentile, L. Latonen, M. Laiho, Cell cycle arrest and apoptosis provoked by UV radiation-induced DNA damage are transcriptionally highly divergent responses, Nucleic Acids Res. 31 (2003) 4779-4790]. Here we show that CRP1 is induced by growth-inhibitory signals, such as increased cellular density, and cytotoxic stress induced by UV radiation or staurosporine. We found that high levels of CRP1 correlate with differentiation-associated morphology towards the myofibroblast lineage and that expression of ectopic CRP1 suppresses cell proliferation. Following UV- and staurosporine-induced stresses, expression of CRP1 provides a survival advantage evidenced by decreased cellular death and increased cellular metabolic activity and attachment. Our studies identify that CRP1 is a novel stress response factor, and provide evidence for its growth-inhibitory and cytoprotective functions

  16. Protective effects of Tribulus terrestris L extract against acute kidney injury induced by reperfusion injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Houshang; Firouzifar, Mohammad Reza; Shafaat, Omid; Changizi Ashtiyani, Saeed; Hosseini, Nasser

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of aerial parts of the Tribulus terrestris L extract on acute kidney injury (AKI) induced by ischemia for 30 minutes and reperfusion for 24 hours in rats. Ten male Sprague-Dawley rats in the AKI and 10 in the Tribulus terrestris groups received the extract solvent and extract of the plant (11 mg/kg), respectively, for 13 days (oral administration). On day 14, ischemia for 30 minutes and reperfusion for 24 hours were induced on the rats. In the last 6 hours of the reperfusion period (24 hours), urine samples were collected in metabolic cages. At the end of this period, blood samples were also taken to determine plasma urea nitrogen, creatinine, and electrolyte concentrations. The kidney tissues were collected for measuring the level of oxidative stress and histological studies. They were compared with the sham operation group and a control group with normal diet and no operation. In the Tribulus terrestris group, the increase in plasma creatinine and urea nitrogen concentrations was significantly less following reperfusion, and their values reached the same level as that in the sham group. Creatinine clearance and urine osmolarity in the Tribulus terrestris group was higher in comparison with the AKI group, whereas sodium absolute excretion, fractional excretion of potassium, oxidative stress, and cellular damages were less. Oral administration of Tribulus terrestris extract for 2 weeks can decrease kidney functional disturbance, oxidative stress, and cellular damages following reperfusion injury in rats.

  17. Naringin Protects Against High Glucose-Induced Human Endothelial Cell Injury Via Antioxidation and CX3CL1 Downregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilin Li

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The induction of endothelial injury by hyperglycemia in diabetes has been widely accepted. Naringin is a bio-flavonoid. Some studies showed that naringin alleviates diabetic complications, but the exact mechanisms by which naringin improves diabetic anomalies are not yet fully understood. The aim of this research was to study the protective effect of naringin on high glucose-induced injury of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. Methods: HUVECs were cultured with or without high glucose in the absence or presence of naringin for 5 days. The expression of CX3CL1 was determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR and western blot. The cellular bioenergetic analysis oxygen consumption rate (OCR was measured with a Seahorse Bioscience XF analyzer. Results: The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, the expression of CX3CL1 and the level of AKT phosphorylation were increased in HUVECs cultured with high glucose compared with controls. However, naringin rescued these increases in ROS production, CX3CL1 expression and AKT phosphorylation. Nitric oxide (NO production and OCR were lower in the high glucose group, and naringin restored the changes induced by high glucose. Molecular docking results suggested that Naringin might interact with the CX3CL1 protein. Conclusion: Naringin protects HUVECs from high-glucose-induced damage through its antioxidant properties by downregulating CX3CL1 and by improving mitochondrial function.

  18. Ischemia-induced glomerular parietal epithelial cells hyperplasia: Commonly misdiagnosed cellular crescent in renal biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yeting; Wang, Xinrui; Xie, Feilai; Zheng, Zhiyong

    2017-08-01

    Ischemic pseudo-cellular crescent (IPCC) that is induced by ischemia and composed of hyperplastic glomerular parietal epithelial cells resembles cellular crescent. In this study, we aimed to assess the clinical and pathological features of IPCC in renal biopsy to avoid over-diagnosis and to determine the diagnostic basis. 4 IPCC cases diagnosed over a 4-year period (2012-2015) were evaluated for the study. Meanwhile, 5 cases of ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis and 5 cases of lupus nephritis (LN) were selected as control. Appropriate clinical data, morphology, and immunohistochemical features of all cases were retrieved. Results showed that the basement membrane of glomerulus with IPCC appeared as a concentric twisted ball, and glomerular cells of the lesion were reduced even entirely absent, and the adjacent afferent arterioles showed sclerosis or luminal stenosis. Furthermore, immune globulin deposition, vasculitis, and fibrinous exudate have not been observed in IPCC. While the cellular crescents showed diverse characteristics in both morphology and immunostaining in the control group. Therefore, these results indicated that IPCC is a sort of ischemic reactive hyperplasia and associated with sclerosis, stenosis, or obstruction of adjacent afferent arterioles, which is clearly different from cellular crescents result from glomerulonephritis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Novel vanillin derivatives: Synthesis, anti-oxidant, DNA and cellular protection properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scipioni, Matteo; Kay, Graeme; Megson, Ian; Kong Thoo Lin, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Antioxidants have been the subject of intense research interest mainly due to their beneficial properties associated with human health and wellbeing. Phenolic molecules, such as naturally occurring Resveratrol and Vanillin, are well known for their anti-oxidant properties, providing a starting point for the development of new antioxidants. Here we report, for the first time, the synthesis of a number of new vanillin through the reductive amination reaction between vanillin and a selection of amines. All the compounds synthesised, exhibited strong antioxidant properties in DPPH, FRAP and ORAC assays, with compounds 1b and 2c being the most active. The latter also demonstrated the ability to protect plasmid DNA from oxidative damage in the presence of the radical initiator AAPH. At cellular level, neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were protected from oxidative damage (H 2 O 2 , 400 μM) with both 1b and 2c. The presence of a tertiary amino group, along with the number of vanillin moieties in the molecule contribute for the antioxidant activity. Furthermore, the delocalization of the electron pair of the nitrogen and the presence of an electron donating substituent to enhance the antioxidant properties of this new class of compounds. In our opinion, vanillin derivatives 1b and 2c described in this work can provide a viable platform for the development of antioxidant based therapeutics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Riluzole protects against glutamate-induced slowing of neurofilament axonal transport.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stevenson, Alison

    2009-04-24

    Riluzole is the only drug approved for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) but its precise mode of action is not properly understood. Damage to axonal transport of neurofilaments is believed to be part of the pathogenic mechanism in ALS and this has been linked to defective glutamate handling and increased phosphorylation of neurofilament side-arm domains. Here, we show that riluzole protects against glutamate-induced slowing of neurofilament transport. Protection is associated with decreased neurofilament side-arm phosphorylation and inhibition of the activities of two neurofilament kinases, ERK and p38 that are activated in ALS. Thus, the anti-glutamatergic properties of riluzole include protection against glutamate-induced changes to neurofilament phosphorylation and transport.

  1. Fatty Acid Mixtures from Nigella sativa Protects PC12 Cells from Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis Induced by Doxorubicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Hosseinzadeh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fatty acids (FAs, the key structural elements of dietary lipids, are notable in the nutritional value of plants. Black cumin, a popular anti-inflammatory and antioxidant food seasoning, contains nonpolar constituents such as FAs. Methods: Seeds were extracted using hexane and their cytoprotective activity was assessed against doxorubicin (DOX-mediated oxidative stress and apoptosis in PC12 cell line. Results: In spite of the cellular death induced by DOX toward PC12 cells, bioassay-guided purification showed that pretreatment with FAs mixtures (24h attenuated DOX-mediated apoptosis, which could be attributed to the inhibited caspase 3 activity and enhanced mitochondrial membrane potential. Palmitic acid, caprylic acid and oleic acid each 1/3 in the mixture, also suppressed DOX-induced ROS generation. Conclusion: Our observation indicated that the subtoxic concentration of FAs from Nigella sativa could effectively protect the cells against oxidative stress, due to their antioxidant activity, and could be regarded as a dietary supplement.

  2. Prediction of lung cells oncogenic transformation for induced radon progeny alpha particles using sugarscape cellular automata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baradaran, Samaneh; Maleknasr, Niaz; Setayeshi, Saeed; Akbari, Mohammad Esmaeil

    2014-01-01

    Alpha particle irradiation from radon progeny is one of the major natural sources of effective dose in the public population. Oncogenic transformation is a biological effectiveness of radon progeny alpha particle hits. The biological effects which has caused by exposure to radon, were the main result of a complex series of physical, chemical, biological and physiological interactions. The cellular and molecular mechanisms for radon-induced carcinogenesis have not been clear yet. Various biological models, including cultured cells and animals, have been found useful for studying the carcinogenesis effects of radon progeny alpha particles. In this paper, sugars cape cellular automata have been presented for computational study of complex biological effect of radon progeny alpha particles in lung bronchial airways. The model has included mechanism of DNA damage, which has been induced alpha particles hits, and then formation of transformation in the lung cells. Biomarkers were an objective measure or evaluation of normal or abnormal biological processes. In the model, the metabolism rate of infected cell has been induced alpha particles traversals, as a biomarker, has been followed to reach oncogenic transformation. The model results have successfully validated in comparison with "in vitro oncogenic transformation data" for C3H 10T1/2 cells. This model has provided an opportunity to study the cellular and molecular changes, at the various stages in radiation carcinogenesis, involving human cells. It has become well known that simulation could be used to investigate complex biomedical systems, in situations where traditional methodologies were difficult or too costly to employ.

  3. Acute Pre-/Post-Treatment with 8th Day SOD-Like Supreme (a Free Radical Scavenging Health Product Protects against Oxidant-Induced Injury in Cultured Cardiomyocytes and Hepatocytes In Vitro as Well as in Mouse Myocardium and Liver In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pou Kuan Leong

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available 8th Day superoxide dismutase (SOD-Like Supreme (SOD-Like Supreme, a free radical scavenging health product is an antioxidant-enriched fermentation preparation with free radical scavenging properties. In the present study, the cellular/tissue protective actions of SOD-Like Supreme against menadione toxicity in cultured H9c2 cardiomyocytes and in AML12 hepatocytes as well as oxidant-induced injury in the mouse myocardium and liver were investigated. SOD-Like Supreme was found to possess potent free radical scavenging activity in vitro as assessed by an oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay. Incubation with SOD-Like Supreme (0.5–3% (v/v was shown to protect against menadione-induced toxicity in H9c2 and AML12 cells, as evidenced by increases in cell viability. The ability of SOD-Like Supreme to protect against menadione cytotoxicity was associated with an elevation in the cellular reduced glutathione (GSH/oxidized glutathione (GSSG ratio in menadione-challenged cells. Consistent with the cell-based studies, pre-/post-treatment with SOD-Like Supreme (0.69 and 2.06 mL/kg, three intermittent doses per day for two consecutive days was found to protect against isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury and carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity in mice. The cardio/hepatoprotection afforded by SOD-Like Supreme was also paralleled by increases in myocardial/hepatic mitochondrial GSH/GSSG ratios in the SOD-Like Supreme-treated/oxidant-challenged mice. In conclusion, incubation/treatment with SOD-Like Supreme was found to protect against oxidant-induced injury in vitro and in vivo, presumably by virtue of its free radical scavenging activity.

  4. Memory Th1 Cells Are Protective in Invasive Staphylococcus aureus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalor, Stephen J.; Leech, John M.; O’Keeffe, Kate M.; Mac Aogáin, Micheál; O’Halloran, Dara P.; Lacey, Keenan A.; Tavakol, Mehri; Hearnden, Claire H.; Fitzgerald-Hughes, Deirdre; Humphreys, Hilary; Fennell, Jérôme P.; van Wamel, Willem J.; Foster, Timothy J.; Geoghegan, Joan A.; Lavelle, Ed C.; Rogers, Thomas R.; McLoughlin, Rachel M.

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms of protective immunity to Staphylococcus aureus infection in humans remain elusive. While the importance of cellular immunity has been shown in mice, T cell responses in humans have not been characterised. Using a murine model of recurrent S. aureus peritonitis, we demonstrated that prior exposure to S. aureus enhanced IFNγ responses upon subsequent infection, while adoptive transfer of S. aureus antigen-specific Th1 cells was protective in naïve mice. Translating these findings, we found that S. aureus antigen-specific Th1 cells were also significantly expanded during human S. aureus bloodstream infection (BSI). These Th1 cells were CD45RO+, indicative of a memory phenotype. Thus, exposure to S. aureus induces memory Th1 cells in mice and humans, identifying Th1 cells as potential S. aureus vaccine targets. Consequently, we developed a model vaccine comprising staphylococcal clumping factor A, which we demonstrate to be an effective human T cell antigen, combined with the Th1-driving adjuvant CpG. This novel Th1-inducing vaccine conferred significant protection during S. aureus infection in mice. This study notably advances our understanding of S. aureus cellular immunity, and demonstrates for the first time that a correlate of S. aureus protective immunity identified in mice may be relevant in humans. PMID:26539822

  5. Memory Th1 Cells Are Protective in Invasive Staphylococcus aureus Infection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brown, Aisling F

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms of protective immunity to Staphylococcus aureus infection in humans remain elusive. While the importance of cellular immunity has been shown in mice, T cell responses in humans have not been characterised. Using a murine model of recurrent S. aureus peritonitis, we demonstrated that prior exposure to S. aureus enhanced IFNγ responses upon subsequent infection, while adoptive transfer of S. aureus antigen-specific Th1 cells was protective in naïve mice. Translating these findings, we found that S. aureus antigen-specific Th1 cells were also significantly expanded during human S. aureus bloodstream infection (BSI). These Th1 cells were CD45RO+, indicative of a memory phenotype. Thus, exposure to S. aureus induces memory Th1 cells in mice and humans, identifying Th1 cells as potential S. aureus vaccine targets. Consequently, we developed a model vaccine comprising staphylococcal clumping factor A, which we demonstrate to be an effective human T cell antigen, combined with the Th1-driving adjuvant CpG. This novel Th1-inducing vaccine conferred significant protection during S. aureus infection in mice. This study notably advances our understanding of S. aureus cellular immunity, and demonstrates for the first time that a correlate of S. aureus protective immunity identified in mice may be relevant in humans.

  6. Radiation-induced DNA damage and cellular lethality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, K.; Okada, S.

    1984-01-01

    Radiation-induced DNA scissions and their repair were investigated in mammalian cells using an alkaline separation method. DNA breaks in mouse L5178Y cells and Chinese hamster V79 cells were grouped into three in terms of their repair profile; fast-reparable breaks (FRBs; T1/2 = 5 min), slow-reparable breaks (SRBs; T1/2 = 70 min) and non-reparable breaks (NRBs). The three types of DNA lesions were studied under conditions where cellular radiosensitivity was modified. The authors obtained the following results: 1. Cell cycle fluctuation: L5178Y showed maximum sensitivity at M and G/sub 1/-S boundary, and minimum sensitivity at G/sub 1/ and late S. Cycle dependency was not found for FRBs or SRBs, but NRBs showed bimodal fluctuation with peaks at M and G/sub 1/-S, and with bottoms at G/sub 1/ and late S. 2. Different sensitivity of L5178Y and V79: L5178Y cells were more sensitive to X-rays (D/sub ο/ = 0.9 Gy) than V79 (D/sub ο/ = 1.8 Gy). The amount of FRBs or SRBs was identical in the two cell lines. However, the amount of NRBs in L5178Y was greater than that in V79. 3. Split dose irradiation: The time interval between two doses resulted in a gradual decrease of NRBs. The time course of the decrease was similar to the split dose recovery in terms of cell death. The parallel relationship between NRBs and cell killing implies that NRBs could play an important role in radiation-induced cell death

  7. Ebselen alters cellular oxidative status and induces endoplasmic reticulum stress in rat hippocampal astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santofimia-Castaño, Patricia; Izquierdo-Alvarez, Alicia; de la Casa-Resino, Irene; Martinez-Ruiz, Antonio; Perez-Lopez, Marcos; Portilla, Juan C; Salido, Gines M; Gonzalez, Antonio

    2016-05-16

    Ebselen (2-phenyl-1,2-benzisoselenazol-3(2H)-one) is an organoselenium radical scavenger compound, which has strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Because of its properties, it may be protective against injury to the nervous tissue. However, evidence suggests that its glutathione peroxidase activity could underlie certain deleterious actions on cell physiology. In this study we have analyzed the effect of ebselen on rat hippocampal astrocytes in culture. Cellular oxidative status, cytosolic free-Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]c), setting of endoplasmic reticulum stress and phosphorylation of glial fibrillary acidic protein and major mitogen-activated protein kinases were analyzed. Our results show that ebselen induced a concentration-dependent increase in the generation of reactive oxygen species in the mitochondria. We observed a concentration-dependent increase in global cysteine oxidation and in the level of malondialdehyde in the presence of ebselen. We also detected increases in catalase, glutathione S-transferase and glutathione reductase activity. Ebselen also evoked a concentration-dependent increase in [Ca(2+)]c. Moreover, we observed a concentration-dependent increase in the phosphorylation of the unfolded protein response markers, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α and X-box binding protein 1. Finally, ebselen also induced an increase in the phosphorylation of glial fibrillary acidic protein, SAPK/JNK, p38 MAPK and p44/42 MAPK. Our results provide strong evidence that implicate endoplasmic reticulum stress and activation of crucial mitogen-activated protein kinases in an oxidative damage of cells in the presence of ebselen. The compound thus might exert deleterious actions on astrocyte physiology that could compromise their function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Recombinant Forms of Leishmania amazonensis Excreted/Secreted Promastigote Surface Antigen (PSA Induce Protective Immune Responses in Dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Petitdidier

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Preventive vaccination is a highly promising strategy for interrupting leishmaniasis transmission that can, additionally, contribute to elimination. A vaccine formulation based on naturally excreted secreted (ES antigens was prepared from L. infantum promastigote culture supernatant. This vaccine achieved successful results in Phase III trials and was licensed and marketed as CaniLeish. We recently showed that newly identified ES promastigote surface antigen (PSA, from both viable promastigotes and axenically-grown amastigotes, represented the major constituent and the highly immunogenic antigen of L. infantum and L. amazonensis ES products. We report here that three immunizations with either the recombinant ES LaPSA-38S (rPSA or its carboxy terminal part LaPSA-12S (Cter-rPSA, combined with QA-21 as adjuvant, confer high levels of protection in naive L. infantum-infected Beagle dogs, as checked by bone marrow parasite absence in respectively 78.8% and 80% of vaccinated dogs at 6 months post-challenge. The parasite burden in infected vaccinated dogs was significantly reduced compared to placebo group, as measured by q-PCR. Moreover, our results reveal humoral and cellular immune response clear-cut differences between vaccinated and control dogs. An early increase in specific IgG2 antibodies was observed in rPSA/QA-21- and Cter-rPSA/QA-21-immunized dogs only. They were found functionally active in vitro and were highly correlated with vaccine protection. In vaccinated protected dogs, IFN-γ and NO productions, as well as anti-leishmanial macrophage activity, were increased. These data strongly suggest that ES PSA or its carboxy-terminal part, in recombinant forms, induce protection in a canine model of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis by inducing a Th1-dominant immune response and an appropriate specific antibody response. These data suggest that they could be considered as important active components in vaccine candidates.

  9. Ischemic conditioning-induced endogenous brain protection: Applications pre-, per- or post-stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuechun; Reis, Cesar; Applegate, Richard; Stier, Gary; Martin, Robert; Zhang, John H

    2015-10-01

    In the area of brain injury and neurodegenerative diseases, a plethora of experimental and clinical evidence strongly indicates the promise of therapeutically exploiting the endogenous adaptive system at various levels like triggers, mediators and the end-effectors to stimulate and mobilize intrinsic protective capacities against brain injuries. It is believed that ischemic pre-conditioning and post-conditioning are actually the strongest known interventions to stimulate the innate neuroprotective mechanism to prevent or reverse neurodegenerative diseases including stroke and traumatic brain injury. Recently, studies showed the effectiveness of ischemic per-conditioning in some organs. Therefore the term ischemic conditioning, including all interventions applied pre-, per- and post-ischemia, which spans therapeutic windows in 3 time periods, has recently been broadly accepted by scientific communities. In addition, it is extensively acknowledged that ischemia-mediated protection not only affects the neurons but also all the components of the neurovascular network (consisting of neurons, glial cells, vascular endothelial cells, pericytes, smooth muscle cells, and venule/veins). The concept of cerebroprotection has been widely used in place of neuroprotection. Intensive studies on the cellular signaling pathways involved in ischemic conditioning have improved the mechanistic understanding of tolerance to cerebral ischemia. This has added impetus to exploration for potential pharmacologic mimetics, which could possibly induce and maximize inherent protective capacities. However, most of these studies were performed in rodents, and the efficacy of these mimetics remains to be evaluated in human patients. Several classical signaling pathways involving apoptosis, inflammation, or oxidation have been elaborated in the past decades. Newly characterized mechanisms are emerging with the advances in biotechnology and conceptual renewal. In this review we are going to focus on

  10. Persistent Low-Level Replication of SIVΔnef Drives Maturation of Antibody and CD8 T Cell Responses to Induce Protective Immunity against Vaginal SIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, Sama; Reeves, R Keith; Gillis, Jacqueline; Wong, Fay E; Yu, Yi; Camp, Jeremy V; Li, Qingsheng; Connole, Michelle; Li, Yuan; Piatak, Michael; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Li, Wenjun; Keele, Brandon F; Kozlowski, Pamela A; Desrosiers, Ronald C; Haase, Ashley T; Johnson, R Paul

    2016-12-01

    Defining the correlates of immune protection conferred by SIVΔnef, the most effective vaccine against SIV challenge, could enable the design of a protective vaccine against HIV infection. Here we provide a comprehensive assessment of immune responses that protect against SIV infection through detailed analyses of cellular and humoral immune responses in the blood and tissues of rhesus macaques vaccinated with SIVΔnef and then vaginally challenged with wild-type SIV. Despite the presence of robust cellular immune responses, animals at 5 weeks after vaccination displayed only transient viral suppression of challenge virus, whereas all macaques challenged at weeks 20 and 40 post-SIVΔnef vaccination were protected, as defined by either apparent sterile protection or significant suppression of viremia in infected animals. Multiple parameters of CD8 T cell function temporally correlated with maturation of protection, including polyfunctionality, phenotypic differentiation, and redistribution to gut and lymphoid tissues. Importantly, we also demonstrate the induction of a tissue-resident memory population of SIV-specific CD8 T cells in the vaginal mucosa, which was dependent on ongoing low-level antigenic stimulation. Moreover, we show that vaginal and serum antibody titers inversely correlated with post-challenge peak viral load, and we correlate the accumulation and affinity maturation of the antibody response to the duration of the vaccination period as well as to the SIVΔnef antigenic load. In conclusion, maturation of SIVΔnef-induced CD8 T cell and antibody responses, both propelled by viral persistence in the gut mucosa and secondary lymphoid tissues, results in protective immune responses that are able to interrupt viral transmission at mucosal portals of entry as well as potential sites of viral dissemination.

  11. Sulforaphane Protects the Liver against CdSe Quantum Dot-Induced Cytotoxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    Full Text Available The potential cytotoxicity of cadmium selenide (CdSe quantum dots (QDs presents a barrier to their use in biomedical imaging or as diagnostic and therapeutic agents. Sulforaphane (SFN is a chemoprotective compound derived from cruciferous vegetables which can up-regulate antioxidant enzymes and induce apoptosis and autophagy. This study reports the effects of SFN on CdSe QD-induced cytotoxicity in immortalised human hepatocytes and in the livers of mice. CdSe QDs induced dose-dependent cell death in hepatocytes with an IC50 = 20.4 μM. Pre-treatment with SFN (5 μM increased cell viability in response to CdSe QDs (20 μM from 49.5 to 89.3%. SFN induced a pro-oxidant effect characterized by depletion of intracellular reduced glutathione during short term exposure (3-6 h, followed by up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes and glutathione levels at 24 h. SFN also caused Nrf2 translocation into the nucleus, up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes and autophagy. siRNA knockdown of Nrf2 suggests that the Nrf2 pathway plays a role in the protection against CdSe QD-induced cell death. Wortmannin inhibition of SFN-induced autophagy significantly suppressed the protective effect of SFN on CdSe QD-induced cell death. Moreover, the role of autophagy in SFN protection against CdSe QD-induced cell death was confirmed using mouse embryonic fibroblasts lacking ATG5. CdSe QDs caused significant liver damage in mice, and this was decreased by SFN treatment. In conclusion, SFN attenuated the cytotoxicity of CdSe QDs in both human hepatocytes and in the mouse liver, and this protection was associated with the induction of Nrf2 pathway and autophagy.

  12. Mitochondrial dysfunction induced by frataxin deficiency is associated with cellular senescence and abnormal calcium metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arantxa eBolinches-Amorós

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Friedreich ataxia is considered a neurodegenerative disorder involving both the peripheral and central nervous systems. Dorsal root ganglia (DRG are the major target tissue structures. This neuropathy is caused by mutations in the FXN gene that encodes frataxin. Here, we investigated the mitochondrial and cell consequences of frataxin depletion in a cellular model based on frataxin silencing in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells, a cell line that has been used widely as in vitro models for studies on neurological diseases. We showed that the reduction of frataxin induced mitochondrial dysfunction due to a bioenergetic deficit and abnormal Ca2+ homeostasis in the mitochondria that were associated with oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stresses. The depletion of frataxin did not cause cell death but increased autophagy, which may have a cytoprotective effect against cellular insults such as oxidative stress. Frataxin silencing provoked slow cell growth associated with cellular senescence, as demonstrated by increased SA-βgal activity and cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. We postulate that cellular senescence might be related to a hypoplastic defect in the DRG during neurodevelopment, as suggested by necropsy studies.

  13. Cellular mechanism underlying hypothermia-induced ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation in the setting of early repolarization and the protective effect of quinidine, cilostazol, and milrinone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurabi, Zsolt; Koncz, István; Patocskai, Bence; Nesterenko, Vladislav V; Antzelevitch, Charles

    2014-02-01

    Hypothermia has been reported to induce ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation (VT/VF) in patients with early repolarization (ER) pattern. This study examines the cellular mechanisms underlying VT/VF associated with hypothermia in an experimental model of ER syndrome and examines the effectiveness of quinidine, cilostazol, and milrinone to prevent hypothermia-induced arrhythmias. Transmembrane action potentials were simultaneously recorded from 2 epicardial and 1 endocardial site of coronary-perfused canine left ventricular wedge preparations, together with a pseudo-ECG. A combination of NS5806 (3-10 μmol/L) and verapamil (1 μmol/L) was used to pharmacologically model the genetic mutations responsible for ER syndrome. Acetylcholine (3 μmol/L) was used to simulate increased parasympathetic tone, which is known to promote ER. In controls, lowering the temperature of the coronary perfusate to induce mild hypothermia (32°C-34°C) resulted in increased J-wave area on the ECG and accentuated epicardial action potential notch but no arrhythmic activity. In the setting of ER, hypothermia caused further accentuation of the epicardial action potential notch, leading to loss of the action potential dome at some sites but not others, thus creating the substrate for development of phase 2 reentry and VT/VF. Addition of the transient outward current antagonist quinidine (5 μmol/L) or the phosphodiesterase III inhibitors cilostazol (10 μmol/L) or milrinone (5 μmol/L) diminished the ER manifestations and prevented the hypothermia-induced phase 2 reentry and VT/VF. Hypothermia leads to VT/VF in the setting of ER by exaggerating repolarization abnormalities, leading to development of phase 2 reentry. Quinidine, cilostazol, and milrinone suppress the hypothermia-induced VT/VF by reversing the repolarization abnormalities.

  14. Alpha-ketoglutarate and N-acetyl cysteine protect PC12 cells from cyanide-induced cytotoxicity and altered energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satpute, R M; Hariharakrishnan, J; Bhattacharya, R

    2008-01-01

    Cyanide is a rapidly acting neurotoxin that inhibits cellular respiration and energy metabolism leading to histotoxic hypoxia. This results in the dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) accompanied by decreased cellular ATP content which in turn is responsible for increased levels of intracellular calcium ions ([Ca(2+)](i)) and total lactic acid content of the cells. Rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells possess much of the biochemical machinery associated with synaptic neurons. In the present study, we evaluated the cytoprotective effects of alpha-ketoglutarate (A-KG) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) against cyanide-induced cytotoxicity and altered energy metabolism in PC12 cells. Cyanide-antagonism by A-KG is attributed to cyanohydrin formation whereas NAC is known for its antioxidant properties. Data on leakage of intracellular lactate dehydrogenase and mitochondrial function (MTT assay) revealed that simultaneous treatment of A-KG (0.5 mM) and NAC (0.25 mM) significantly prevented the cytotoxicity of cyanide. Also, cellular ATP content was found to improve, followed by restoration of MMP, intracellular calcium [Ca(2+)](i) and lactic acid levels. Treatment with A-KG and NAC also attenuated the levels of peroxides generated by cyanide. The study indicates that combined administration of A-KG and NAC protected the cyanide-challenged PC12 cells by resolving the altered energy metabolism. The results have implications in the development of new treatment regimen for cyanide poisoning.

  15. Activated α2 -Macroglobulin Induces Mesenchymal Cellular Migration Of Raw264.7 Cells Through Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Darío G; Dato, Virginia Actis; Fincati, Javier R Jaldín; Lorenc, Valeria E; Sánchez, María C; Chiabrando, Gustavo A

    2017-07-01

    Distinct modes of cell migration contribute to diverse types of cell movements. The mesenchymal mode is characterized by a multistep cycle of membrane protrusion, the formation of focal adhesion, and the stabilization at the leading edge associated with the degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) components and with regulated extracellular proteolysis. Both α 2 -Macroglobulin (α 2 M) and its receptor, low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1), play important roles in inflammatory processes, by controlling the extracellular activity of several proteases. The binding of the active form of α 2 M (α 2 M*) to LRP1 can also activate different signaling pathways in macrophages, thus inducing extracellular matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activation and cellular proliferation. In the present study, we investigated whether the α 2 M*/LRP1 interaction induces cellular migration of the macrophage-derived cell line, Raw264.7. By using the wound-scratch migration assay and confocal microscopy, we demonstrate that α 2 M* induces LRP1-mediated mesenchymal cellular migration. This migration exhibits the production of enlarged cellular protrusions, MT1-MMP distribution to these leading edge protrusions, actin polymerization, focal adhesion formation, and increased intracellular LRP1/β1-integrin colocalization. Moreover, the presence of calphostin-C blocked the α 2 M*-stimulated cellular protrusions, suggesting that the PKC activation is involved in the cellular motility of Raw264.7 cells. These findings could constitute a therapeutic target for inflammatory processes with deleterious consequences for human health, such as rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis and cancer. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 1810-1818, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Taurine protects HK-2 cells from oxidized LDL-induced cytotoxicity via the ROS-mediated mitochondrial and p53-related apoptotic pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chun-Yu [Graduate Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Shen, Chao-Yu [School of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); School of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Kang, Chao-Kai [Department of Life Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan, (China); Sher, Yuh-Pyng [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Center for Molecular Medicine, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 404, Taiwan (China); Sheu, Wayne H.-H. [Graduate Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); School of Medicine, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); School of Medicine, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, Chia-Che, E-mail: chia_che@dragon.nchu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Agricultural Biotechnology Center, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lee, Tsung-Han, E-mail: thlee@email.nchu.edu.tw [Department of Life Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan, (China); Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Agricultural Biotechnology Center, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Biological Science and Technology, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2014-09-15

    Oxidized LDL (oxLDL) induces a pro-oxidative environment and promotes apoptosis, causing the progression of renal diseases in humans. Taurine is a semi-essential amino acid in mammals and has been shown to be a potent endogenous antioxidant. The kidney plays a pivotal role in maintaining the balance of taurine. However, the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of taurine against oxLDL-induced injury in renal epithelial cells have not been clarified. In the present study, we investigated the anti-apoptotic effects of taurine on human proximal tubular epithelial (HK-2) cells exposed to oxLDL and explored the related mechanisms. We observed that oxLDL increased the contents of ROS and of malondialdehyde (MDA), which is a lipid peroxidation by-product that acts as an indicator of the cellular oxidation status. In addition, oxLDL induced cell death and apoptosis in HK-2 cells. Pretreatment with taurine at 100 μM significantly attenuated the oxLDL-induced cytotoxicity. We determined that oxLDL triggered the phosphorylation of ERK and, in turn, the activation of p53 and other apoptosis-related events, including calcium accumulation, destabilization of the mitochondrial permeability and disruption of the balance between pro-apoptotic Bax and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins. The malfunctions induced by oxLDL were effectively blocked by taurine. Thus, our results suggested that taurine exhibits potential therapeutic activity by preventing oxLDL-induced nephrotoxicity. The inhibition of oxLDL-induced epithelial apoptosis by taurine was at least partially due to its anti-oxidant activity and its ability to modulate the ERK and p53 apoptotic pathways. - Highlights: • Oxidized LDL induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in HK-2 cells. • Pretreatment with taurine attenuated oxLDL-induced nephrotoxicity. • Taurine protected against renal damages through inhibition of ROS generation. • Taurine prevented apoptosis through modulation of the p53 phosphorylation.

  17. Taurine protects HK-2 cells from oxidized LDL-induced cytotoxicity via the ROS-mediated mitochondrial and p53-related apoptotic pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Chun-Yu; Shen, Chao-Yu; Kang, Chao-Kai; Sher, Yuh-Pyng; Sheu, Wayne H.-H.; Chang, Chia-Che; Lee, Tsung-Han

    2014-01-01

    Oxidized LDL (oxLDL) induces a pro-oxidative environment and promotes apoptosis, causing the progression of renal diseases in humans. Taurine is a semi-essential amino acid in mammals and has been shown to be a potent endogenous antioxidant. The kidney plays a pivotal role in maintaining the balance of taurine. However, the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of taurine against oxLDL-induced injury in renal epithelial cells have not been clarified. In the present study, we investigated the anti-apoptotic effects of taurine on human proximal tubular epithelial (HK-2) cells exposed to oxLDL and explored the related mechanisms. We observed that oxLDL increased the contents of ROS and of malondialdehyde (MDA), which is a lipid peroxidation by-product that acts as an indicator of the cellular oxidation status. In addition, oxLDL induced cell death and apoptosis in HK-2 cells. Pretreatment with taurine at 100 μM significantly attenuated the oxLDL-induced cytotoxicity. We determined that oxLDL triggered the phosphorylation of ERK and, in turn, the activation of p53 and other apoptosis-related events, including calcium accumulation, destabilization of the mitochondrial permeability and disruption of the balance between pro-apoptotic Bax and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins. The malfunctions induced by oxLDL were effectively blocked by taurine. Thus, our results suggested that taurine exhibits potential therapeutic activity by preventing oxLDL-induced nephrotoxicity. The inhibition of oxLDL-induced epithelial apoptosis by taurine was at least partially due to its anti-oxidant activity and its ability to modulate the ERK and p53 apoptotic pathways. - Highlights: • Oxidized LDL induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in HK-2 cells. • Pretreatment with taurine attenuated oxLDL-induced nephrotoxicity. • Taurine protected against renal damages through inhibition of ROS generation. • Taurine prevented apoptosis through modulation of the p53 phosphorylation

  18. Molecular and cellular mechanisms of vitamin D3 protection in experimental prednisolone-induced osteoporosis

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    I.O. Shymanskyi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Osteoporosis is the most common side effect of glucocorticoid (GC therapy. Vitamin D is known to play a crucial role in bone remodeling, but the precise molecular mechanisms of its action on GC-induced impairments of cytokine systems, in particular RANK (receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B/RANKL (RANK ligand/OPG (osteoprotegerin, are still controversial. Thus, the purpose of the study was to evaluate GC-induced changes in the RANK/RANKL/OPG system and osteocalcin synthesis in rat bone depending on vitamin D bioavailability and vitamin D receptor (VDR expression. Materials and methods. Female Wistar rats received prednisolone (5 mg/kg b.w. with or without 100 IU of vitamin D3 (for 30 days. The levels of VDR, osteocalcin, RANK, RANKL and OPG in bone tissue were determined by western blotting. Blood serum 25OHD was assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The levels of Ca2+, Pi, activity of alkaline phosphatase (AP and its bone isoenzyme were determined using spectrophotometry. Results. Prednisolone significantly lowered 25OHD content in the blood serum and VDR level in bone tissue that has been accompanied by an elevation of the AP bone isoenzyme activity in the blood serum, hypocalcemia and hypophosphatemia. A significant decrease in the expression of osteocalcin, a well-known marker of bone formation, was also observed. GC-induced disturbances in vitamin D status led to a reduction of the RANK and OPG level, while RANKL level was unaffected. Vitamin D3 administration restored 25OHD and VDR levels that resulted in amelioration of GC-induced changes in bone tissue and normalization of mineral metabolism through elevation of RANK, OPG and osteocalcin levels. Conclusions. Prednisolone-induced imbalance in the RANK/RANKL/OPG and osteocalcin systems is related to the reduction of vitamin D bioavailability and impairments in VDR signaling. Thus, normalization of vitamin D bioavailability might be perspective in reducing the

  19. Protective effect of hemin against cadmium-induced testicular damage in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouad, Amr A.; Qureshi, Habib A.; Al-Sultan, Ali Ibrahim; Yacoubi, Mohamed T.; Ali, Abdellah Abusrie

    2009-01-01

    The protective effect of hemin, the heme oxygenase-1 inducer, was investigated in rats with cadmium induced-testicular injury, in which oxidative stress and inflammation play a major role. Testicular damage was induced by a single i.p. injection of cadmium chloride (2 mg/kg). Hemin was given for three consecutive days (40 μmol/kg/day, s.c.), starting 1 day before cadmium administration. Hemin treatment significantly increased serum testosterone level that was reduced by cadmium. Hemin compensated deficits in the antioxidant defense mechanisms (reduced glutathione, and catalase and superoxide dismutase activities), and suppressed lipid peroxidation in testicular tissue resulted from cadmium administration. Also, hemin attenuated the cadmium-induced elevations in testicular tumor necrosis factor-α and nitric oxide levels, and caspase-3 activity. Additionally, hemin ameliorated cadmium-induced testicular tissue damage observed by light and electron microscopic examinations. The protective effect afforded by hemin was abolished by prior administration of zinc protoporphyrin-IX, the heme oxygenase-1 inhibitor. It was concluded that hemin, through its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic effects, represents a potential therapeutic option to protect the testicular tissue from the detrimental effects of cadmium

  20. Zinc-Dependent Protection of Tobacco and Rice Cells From Aluminum-Induced Superoxide-Mediated Cytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cun; Hara, Ayaka; Comparini, Diego; Bouteau, François; Kawano, Tomonori

    2015-01-01

    Al3+ toxicity in growing plants is considered as one of the major factors limiting the production of crops on acidic soils worldwide. In the last 15 years, it has been proposed that Al3+ toxicity are mediated with distortion of the cellular signaling mechanisms such as calcium signaling pathways, and production of cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) causing oxidative damages. On the other hand, zinc is normally present in plants at high concentrations and its deficiency is one of the most widespread micronutrient deficiencies in plants. Earlier studies suggested that lack of zinc often results in ROS-mediated oxidative damage to plant cells. Previously, inhibitory action of Zn2+ against lanthanide-induced superoxide generation in tobacco cells have been reported, suggesting that Zn2+ interferes with the cation-induced ROS production via stimulation of NADPH oxidase. In the present study, the effect of Zn2+ on Al3+-induced superoxide generation in the cell suspension cultures of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L., cell-line, BY-2) and rice (Oryza sativa L., cv. Nipponbare), was examined. The Zn2+-dependent inhibition of the Al3+-induced oxidative burst was observed in both model cells selected from the monocots and dicots (rice and tobacco), suggesting that this phenomenon (Al3+/Zn2+ interaction) can be preserved in higher plants. Subsequently induced cell death in tobacco cells was analyzed by lethal cell staining with Evans blue. Obtained results indicated that presence of Zn2+ at physiological concentrations can protect the cells by preventing the Al3+-induced superoxide generation and cell death. Furthermore, the regulation of the Ca2+ signaling, i.e., change in the cytosolic Ca2+ ion concentration, and the cross-talks among the elements which participate in the pathway were further explored. PMID:26648960

  1. Combined virus-like particle and fusion protein-encoding DNA vaccination of cotton rats induces protection against respiratory syncytial virus without causing vaccine-enhanced disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Hye Suk; Lee, Young-Tae; Kim, Ki-Hye; Park, Soojin; Kwon, Young-Man; Lee, Youri; Ko, Eun-Ju; Jung, Yu-Jin [Center for Inflammation, Immunity & Infection, Institute for Biomedical Sciences and Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Lee, Jong Seok [Center for Inflammation, Immunity & Infection, Institute for Biomedical Sciences and Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA (United States); National Institute of Biological Resources, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yu-Jin [Center for Inflammation, Immunity & Infection, Institute for Biomedical Sciences and Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Lee, Yu-Na; Kim, Min-Chul [Center for Inflammation, Immunity & Infection, Institute for Biomedical Sciences and Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, Gyeonggi-do, Gimcheon, Gyeongsangbukdo (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Minkyoung [Center for Inflammation, Immunity & Infection, Institute for Biomedical Sciences and Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Kang, Sang-Moo, E-mail: skang24@gsu.edu [Center for Inflammation, Immunity & Infection, Institute for Biomedical Sciences and Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-07-15

    A safe and effective vaccine against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) should confer protection without causing vaccine-enhanced disease. Here, using a cotton rat model, we investigated the protective efficacy and safety of an RSV combination vaccine composed of F-encoding plasmid DNA and virus-like particles containing RSV fusion (F) and attachment (G) glycoproteins (FFG-VLP). Cotton rats with FFG-VLP vaccination controlled lung viral replication below the detection limit, and effectively induced neutralizing activity and antibody-secreting cell responses. In comparison with formalin inactivated RSV (FI-RSV) causing severe RSV disease after challenge, FFG-VLP vaccination did not cause weight loss, airway hyper-responsiveness, IL-4 cytokines, histopathology, and infiltrates of proinflammatory cells such as eosinophils. FFG-VLP was even more effective in preventing RSV-induced pulmonary inflammation than live RSV infections. This study provides evidence that FFG-VLP can be developed into a safe and effective RSV vaccine candidate. - Highlights: • Combined RSV FFG VLP vaccine is effective in inducing F specific responses. • FFG VLP vaccine confers RSV neutralizing activity and viral control in cotton rats. • Cotton rats with RSV FFG VLP vaccination do not show vaccine-enhanced disease. • Cotton rats with FFG VLP vaccine induce F specific antibody secreting cell responses. • Cotton rats with FFG VLP do not induce lung cellular infiltrates and Th2 cytokine.

  2. Combined virus-like particle and fusion protein-encoding DNA vaccination of cotton rats induces protection against respiratory syncytial virus without causing vaccine-enhanced disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Hye Suk; Lee, Young-Tae; Kim, Ki-Hye; Park, Soojin; Kwon, Young-Man; Lee, Youri; Ko, Eun-Ju; Jung, Yu-Jin; Lee, Jong Seok; Kim, Yu-Jin; Lee, Yu-Na; Kim, Min-Chul; Cho, Minkyoung; Kang, Sang-Moo

    2016-01-01

    A safe and effective vaccine against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) should confer protection without causing vaccine-enhanced disease. Here, using a cotton rat model, we investigated the protective efficacy and safety of an RSV combination vaccine composed of F-encoding plasmid DNA and virus-like particles containing RSV fusion (F) and attachment (G) glycoproteins (FFG-VLP). Cotton rats with FFG-VLP vaccination controlled lung viral replication below the detection limit, and effectively induced neutralizing activity and antibody-secreting cell responses. In comparison with formalin inactivated RSV (FI-RSV) causing severe RSV disease after challenge, FFG-VLP vaccination did not cause weight loss, airway hyper-responsiveness, IL-4 cytokines, histopathology, and infiltrates of proinflammatory cells such as eosinophils. FFG-VLP was even more effective in preventing RSV-induced pulmonary inflammation than live RSV infections. This study provides evidence that FFG-VLP can be developed into a safe and effective RSV vaccine candidate. - Highlights: • Combined RSV FFG VLP vaccine is effective in inducing F specific responses. • FFG VLP vaccine confers RSV neutralizing activity and viral control in cotton rats. • Cotton rats with RSV FFG VLP vaccination do not show vaccine-enhanced disease. • Cotton rats with FFG VLP vaccine induce F specific antibody secreting cell responses. • Cotton rats with FFG VLP do not induce lung cellular infiltrates and Th2 cytokine.

  3. Protection of cortical cells by equine estrogens against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity is mediated through a calcium independent mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrella Joel

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High concentrations of glutamate can accumulate in the brain and may be involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. This form of neurotoxicity involves changes in the regulation of cellular calcium (Ca2+ and generation of free radicals such as peroxynitrite (ONOO-. Estrogen may protect against glutamate-induced cell death by reducing the excitotoxic Ca2+ influx associated with glutamate excitotoxicity. In this study, the inhibition of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor and nitric oxide synthase (NOS along with the effect of 17β-estradiol (17β-E2 and a more potent antioxidant Δ8, 17β-estradiol (Δ8, 17β-E2 on cell viability and intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i, following treatment of rat cortical cells with glutamate, was investigated. Results Primary rat cortical cells were cultured for 7–12 days in Neurobasal medium containing B27 supplements. Addition of glutamate (200 μM decreased cell viability to 51.3 ± 0.7% compared to control. Treatment with the noncompetitive NMDAR antagonist, MK-801, and the NOS inhibitor, L-NAME, completely prevented cell death. Pretreatment (24 hrs with 17β-E2 and Δ8, 17β-E2 (0.01 to 10 μM significantly reduced cell death. 17β-E2 was more potent than Δ8, 17β-E2. Glutamate caused a rapid 2.5 fold increase in [Ca2+]i. Treatment with 0.001 to 10 μM MK-801 reduced the initial Ca2+ influx by 14–41% and increased cell viability significantly. Pretreatment with 17β-E2 and Δ8, 17β-E2 had no effect on Ca2+ influx but protected the cortical cells against glutamate-induced cell death. Conclusion Glutamate-induced cell death in cortical cultures can occur through NMDAR and NOS-linked mechanisms by increasing nitric oxide and ONOO-. Equine estrogens: 17β-E2 and Δ8, 17β-E2, significantly protected cortical cells against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity by a mechanism that appears to be independent of Ca2+ influx. To our knowledge, this is a first

  4. Cellular stress-induced up-regulation of FMRP promotes cell survival by modulating PI3K-Akt phosphorylation cascades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wells David

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fragile X syndrome (FXS, the most commonly inherited mental retardation and single gene cause of autistic spectrum disorder, occurs when the Fmr1 gene is mutated. The product of Fmr1, fragile X linked mental retardation protein (FMRP is widely expressed in HeLa cells, however the roles of FMRP within HeLa cells were not elucidated, yet. Interacting with a diverse range of mRNAs related to cellular survival regulatory signals, understanding the functions of FMRP in cellular context would provide better insights into the role of this interesting protein in FXS. Using HeLa cells treated with etoposide as a model, we tried to determine whether FMRP could play a role in cell survival. Methods Apoptotic cell death was induced by etoposide treatment on Hela cells. After we transiently modulated FMRP expression (silencing or enhancing by using molecular biotechnological methods such as small hairpin RNA virus-induced knock down and overexpression using transfection with FMRP expression vectors, cellular viability was measured using propidium iodide staining, TUNEL staining, and FACS analysis along with the level of activation of PI3K-Akt pathway by Western blot. Expression level of FMRP and apoptotic regulator BcL-xL was analyzed by Western blot, RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry. Results An increased FMRP expression was measured in etoposide-treated HeLa cells, which was induced by PI3K-Akt activation. Without FMRP expression, cellular defence mechanism via PI3K-Akt-Bcl-xL was weakened and resulted in an augmented cell death by etoposide. In addition, FMRP over-expression lead to the activation of PI3K-Akt signalling pathway as well as increased FMRP and BcL-xL expression, which culminates with the increased cell survival in etoposide-treated HeLa cells. Conclusions Taken together, these results suggest that FMRP expression is an essential part of cellular survival mechanisms through the modulation of PI3K, Akt, and Bcl-xL signal

  5. Cuz1/Ynl155w, a Zinc-dependent Ubiquitin-binding Protein, Protects Cells from Metalloid-induced Proteotoxicity*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, John; Waterman, David; Isasa, Marta; Elsasser, Suzanne; Shi, Yuan; Gygi, Steven; Finley, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Protein misfolding is a universal threat to cells. The ubiquitin-proteasome system mediates a cellular stress response capable of eliminating misfolded proteins. Here we identify Cuz1/Ynl155w as a component of the ubiquitin system, capable of interacting with both the proteasome and Cdc48. Cuz1/Ynl155w is regulated by the transcription factor Rpn4, and is required for cells to survive exposure to the trivalent metalloids arsenic and antimony. A related protein, Yor052c, shows similar phenotypes, suggesting a multicomponent stress response pathway. Cuz1/Ynl155w functions as a zinc-dependent ubiquitin-binding protein. Thus, Cuz1/Ynl155w is proposed to protect cells from metalloid-induced proteotoxicity by delivering ubiquitinated substrates to Cdc48 and the proteasome for destruction. PMID:24297164

  6. Mechanisms of CDDO-imidazolide-mediated cytoprotection against acrolein-induced neurocytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells and primary human astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speen, Adam; Jones, Colton; Patel, Ruby; Shah, Halley; Nallasamy, Palanisamy; Brooke, Elizabeth A S; Zhu, Hong; Li, Y Robert; Jia, Zhenquan

    2015-10-01

    Acrolein is a ubiquitous unsaturated aldehyde has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various neurological disorders. However, limited study has been conducted into potential therapeutic protection and underlying mechanism against acrolein-induced cytotoxicity via upregulation of cellular aldehyde-detoxification defenses. In this study we have utilized RA-differentiated human SH-SY5Y cells and primary human astrocytes to investigate the induction of glutathione (GSH) by the synthetic triterpenoid 2-cyano-3,12-dixooleana-1,9-dien-28-imidazolide (CDDO-Im) and the protective effects CDDO-Im-mediated antioxidant defenses on acrolein toxicity. Acrolein exposure to RA-differentiated SH-SY5Y cells resulted in a significant time dependent depletion of cellular GSH preceding a reduction in cell viability and LDH release. Further, we demonstrated the predominance of cellular GSH in protection against acrolein-induced cytotoxicity. Buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) at 25μM dramatically depleted GSH and significantly potentiated acrolein-induced cytotoxicity. Pretreatment of the cells with 100nM CDDO-Im afforded a dramatic protection against acrolein-induced cytotoxicity. Pretreatment of BSO and CDDO was found to prevent the CDDO-Im-mediated GSH induction and partially reversed the cytoprotective effects of CDDO-Im against acrolein cytotoxicity. Overall, this study represents for the first time the CDDO-Im mediated upregulation of GSH is a predominant mechanism against acrolein-induced neurotoxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Supplemental dietary phytosterin protects against 4-nitrophenol-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in rat testes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghui Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available 4-Nitrophenol (PNP, is generally regarded as an environmental endocrine disruptor (EED. Phytosterin (PS, a new feed additive, possesses highly efficient antioxidant activities. The transcription factor, nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2, is an important regulator of cellular oxidative stress. Using rats, this study examined PNP-induced testicular oxidative damage and PS-mediated protection against that damage. The generation of MDA and H2O2 upon PNP and PS treatment was milder than that upon treatment with PNP alone. This mitigation was accompanied by partially reversed changes in SOD, CAT, GSH and GSH-Px. Moreover, PNP significantly reduced the caudal epididymal sperm counts and serum testosterone levels. Typical morphological changes were also observed in the testes of PNP-treated animals. PNP reduced the transcriptional level of Nrf2, as evaluated by RT-PCR, but it promoted the dissociation from the Nrf2 complex, stabilization and translocation into the nucleus, as evaluated by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. In addition, PNP enhanced the Nrf2-dependent gene expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 and glutamate–cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC. These results suggest that the Nrf2 pathway plays an important role in PNP-induced oxidative damage and that PS possesses modulatory effects on PNP-induced oxidative damage in rat testes.

  8. Protective effects of kaempferol against reactive oxygen species-induced hemolysis and its antiproliferative activity on human cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wenzhen; Chen, Luying; Ma, Xiang; Jiao, Rui; Li, Xiaofeng; Wang, Yong

    2016-05-23

    The protective effects of kaempferol against reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced hemolysis and its antiproliferative activity on human cancer cells were evaluated in this study. Kaempferol exhibited strong cellular antioxidant ability (CAA) with a CAA value of 59.80 ± 0.379 μM of quercetin (QE)/100 μM (EC50 = 7.74 ± 0.049 μM). Pretreatment with kaempferol significantly attenuated the ROS-induced hemolysis of human erythrocyte (87.4% hemolysis suppressed at 100 μg/mL) and reduced the accumulation of toxic lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA). The anti-hemolytic activity of kaempferol was mainly through scavenging excessive ROS and preserving the intrinsic antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; and glutathione peroxidase, GPx) activities in normal levels. Additionally, kaempferol showed significant antiproliferative activity on a panel of human cancer cell lines including human breast carcinoma (MCF-7) cells, human stomach carcinoma (SGC-7901) cells, human cervical carcinoma (Hela) cells and human lung carcinoma (A549) cells. Kaemperol induced apoptosis of MCF-7 cells accompanied with nuclear condensation and mitochondria dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Short day photoperiod protects against acetaminophen-induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    blood was collected by cardiac puncture for the estimation of liver enzymes activities. Liver ... revealed the protective effects of short photoperiod against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity and lipid .... homogenized in ice cold KCl (100mM) containing. 0.003M ... This was followed by the addition of 1.0ml water and 5.0ml ...

  10. Recombinant heat shock protein 27 (HSP27/HSPB1) protects against cadmium-induced oxidative stress and toxicity in human cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Olmedo, Daiana G; Biaggio, Veronica S; Koumbadinga, Geremy A; Gómez, Nidia N; Shi, Chunhua; Ciocca, Daniel R; Batulan, Zarah; Fanelli, Mariel A; O'Brien, Edward R

    2017-05-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a carcinogen with several well-described toxicological effects in humans, but its molecular mechanisms are still not fully understood. Overexpression of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27/HSPB1)-a multifunctional protein chaperone-has been shown to protect cells from oxidative damage and apoptosis triggered by Cd exposure. The aims of this work were to investigate the potential use of extracellular recombinant HSP27 to prevent/counteract Cd-induced cellular toxicity and to evaluate if peroxynitrite was involved in the development of Cd-induced toxicity. Here, we report that the harmful effects of Cd correlated with changes in oxidative stress markers: upregulation of reactive oxygen species, reduction in nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, increment in lipid peroxidation, peroxynitrite (PN), and protein nitration; intracellular HSP27 was reduced. Treatments with Cd (100 μM) for 24 h or with the peroxynitrite donor, SIN-1, decreased HSP27 levels (~50%), suggesting that PN formation is responsible for the reduction of HSP27. Pre-treatments of the cells either with Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) (a pharmacological inhibitor of NO synthase) or with recombinant HSP27 (rHSP27) attenuated the disruption of the cellular metabolism induced by Cd, increasing in a 55 and 52%, respectively, the cell viability measured by CCK-8. Cd induced necrotic cell death pathways, although apoptosis was also activated; pre-treatment with L-NAME or rHSP27 mitigated cell death. Our findings show for the first time a direct relationship between Cd-induced toxicity and PN production and a role for rHSP27 as a potential therapeutic agent that may counteract Cd toxicity.

  11. Cell-permeable intrinsic cellular inhibitors of apoptosis protect and rescue intestinal epithelial cells from radiation-induced cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzaki-Horibuchi, Shiori; Yasuda, Takeshi; Sakaguchi, Nagako; Yamaguchi, Yoshihiro; Akashi, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    One of the important mechanisms for gastrointestinal (GI) injury following high-dose radiation exposure is apoptosis of epithelial cells. X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) and cellular IAP2 (cIAP2) are intrinsic cellular inhibitors of apoptosis. In order to study the effects of exogenously added IAPs on apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells, we constructed bacterial expression plasmids containing genes of XIAP (full-length, BIR2 domain and BIR3-RING domain with and without mutations of auto-ubiquitylation sites) and cIAP2 proteins fused to a protein-transduction domain (PTD) derived from HIV-1 Tat protein (TAT) and purified these cell-permeable recombinant proteins. When the TAT-conjugated IAPs were added to rat intestinal epithelial cells IEC6, these proteins were effectively delivered into the cells and inhibited apoptosis, even when added after irradiation. Our results suggest that PTD-mediated delivery of IAPs may have clinical potential, not only for radioprotection but also for rescuing the GI system from radiation injuries. (author)

  12. Protective Activity of Dendropanax Morbifera Against Cisplatin-Induced Acute Kidney Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Sun Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Drug-induced acute kidney injury (AKI has been a severe threat to hospitalized patients, raising the urgent needs to develop strategies to reduce AKI. We investigated the protective activity of Dendropanax morbifera (DP, a medicinal plant which has been widely used to treat infectious and pain diseases, on acute kidney injury (AKI using cisplatin-induced nephropathic models. Methods: Both in vitro renal tubular cells (NRK-52E and in vivo rat models were used to demonstrate the nephroprotective effect of DP. Results: Methanolic extract from DP significantly reduced cisplatin-induced toxicity in renal tubular cells. Through successive liquid extraction, the extract of DP was separated into n-hexane, CHCl3, EtOAc, n-BuOH, and H2O fractions. Among these, the CHCl3 fraction (DPCF was found to be most potent. The protective activity of DPCF was found to be mediated through anti-oxidant, mitochondrial protective, and anti-apoptotic activities. In in vivo rat models of AKI, treatment with DPCF significantly reversed the cisplatin-induced increase in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine and histopathologic damage, recovered the level of anti-oxidant enzymes, and inhibited renal apoptosis. Conclusion: We demonstrated that DP extracts decreased cisplatin-induced renal toxicity, indicating its potential to ameliorate drug-associated acute kidney damage.

  13. Persistent Low-Level Replication of SIVΔnef Drives Maturation of Antibody and CD8 T Cell Responses to Induce Protective Immunity against Vaginal SIV Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sama Adnan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Defining the correlates of immune protection conferred by SIVΔnef, the most effective vaccine against SIV challenge, could enable the design of a protective vaccine against HIV infection. Here we provide a comprehensive assessment of immune responses that protect against SIV infection through detailed analyses of cellular and humoral immune responses in the blood and tissues of rhesus macaques vaccinated with SIVΔnef and then vaginally challenged with wild-type SIV. Despite the presence of robust cellular immune responses, animals at 5 weeks after vaccination displayed only transient viral suppression of challenge virus, whereas all macaques challenged at weeks 20 and 40 post-SIVΔnef vaccination were protected, as defined by either apparent sterile protection or significant suppression of viremia in infected animals. Multiple parameters of CD8 T cell function temporally correlated with maturation of protection, including polyfunctionality, phenotypic differentiation, and redistribution to gut and lymphoid tissues. Importantly, we also demonstrate the induction of a tissue-resident memory population of SIV-specific CD8 T cells in the vaginal mucosa, which was dependent on ongoing low-level antigenic stimulation. Moreover, we show that vaginal and serum antibody titers inversely correlated with post-challenge peak viral load, and we correlate the accumulation and affinity maturation of the antibody response to the duration of the vaccination period as well as to the SIVΔnef antigenic load. In conclusion, maturation of SIVΔnef-induced CD8 T cell and antibody responses, both propelled by viral persistence in the gut mucosa and secondary lymphoid tissues, results in protective immune responses that are able to interrupt viral transmission at mucosal portals of entry as well as potential sites of viral dissemination.

  14. Ionizing Radiation Induces Cellular Senescence of Articular Chondrocytes via Negative Regulation of SIRT1 by p38 Kinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Eun Hee; Hwang, Sang Gu [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    Senescent cells exhibit irreversible growth arrest, large flat morphology, and up-regulated senescence-associated {beta}-galactosidase activity at pH 6.0. Several conditions, including oncogenic stress, oxidative stress, and DNA damage are associated with cellular senescence. Massive acute DNA double-strand breaks occurring as a result of mechanical and chemical stress can be repaired, but some DNA damage persists, eventually triggering premature senescence. Since ionizing radiation directly induces DBS, it is possible that cellular senescence is activated under these conditions. The biological events in chondrocytes following irradiation are poorly understood, and limited information is available on the molecular signal transduction mechanisms of cellular senescence at present. In this study, we identify SIRT1 as a target molecule of p38 kinase and demonstrate that the interactions between p38 kinase and SIRT1 protein play an important role in the regulation of cellular senescence in response to IR.

  15. The Emerging Role of Skeletal Muscle Metabolism as a Biological Target and Cellular Regulator of Cancer-Induced Muscle Wasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, James A.; Hardee, Justin P.; VanderVeen, Brandon N.

    2015-01-01

    While skeletal muscle mass is an established primary outcome related to understanding cancer cachexia mechanisms, considerable gaps exist in our understanding of muscle biochemical and functional properties that have recognized roles in systemic health. Skeletal muscle quality is a classification beyond mass, and is aligned with muscle’s metabolic capacity and substrate utilization flexibility. This supplies an additional role for the mitochondria in cancer-induced muscle wasting. While the historical assessment of mitochondria content and function during cancer-induced muscle loss was closely aligned with energy flux and wasting susceptibility, this understanding has expanded to link mitochondria dysfunction to cellular processes regulating myofiber wasting. The primary objective of this article is to highlight muscle mitochondria and oxidative metabolism as a biological target of cancer cachexia and also as a cellular regulator of cancer-induced muscle wasting. Initially, we examine the role of muscle metabolic phenotype and mitochondria content in cancer-induced wasting susceptibility. We then assess the evidence for cancer-induced regulation of skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis, dynamics, mitophagy, and oxidative stress. In addition, we discuss environments associated with cancer cachexia that can impact the regulation of skeletal muscle oxidative metabolism. The article also examines the role of cytokine-mediated regulation of mitochondria function regulation, followed by the potential role of cancer-induced hypogonadism. Lastly, a role for decreased muscle use in cancer-induced mitochondrial dysfunction is reviewed. PMID:26593326

  16. The nociception genes painless and Piezo are required for the cellular immune response of Drosophila larvae to wasp parasitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokusumi, Yumiko; Tokusumi, Tsuyoshi; Schulz, Robert A

    2017-05-13

    In vertebrates, interaction between the nervous system and immune system is important to protect a challenged host from stress inputs from external sources. In this study, we demonstrate that sensory neurons are involved in the cellular immune response elicited by wasp infestation of Drosophila larvae. Multidendritic class IV neurons sense contacts from external stimuli and induce avoidance behaviors for host defense. Our findings show that inactivation of these sensory neurons impairs the cellular response against wasp parasitization. We also demonstrate that the nociception genes encoding the mechanosensory receptors Painless and Piezo, both expressed in class IV neurons, are essential for the normal cellular immune response to parasite challenge. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. IN0523 (Urs-12-ene-3α,24β-diol) a plant based derivative of boswellic acid protect Cisplatin induced urogenital toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amarinder; Arvinda, S; Singh, Surjeet; Suri, Jyotsna; Koul, Surinder; Mondhe, Dilip M; Singh, Gurdarshan; Vishwakarma, Ram

    2017-03-01

    The limiting factor for the use of Cisplatin in the treatment of different type of cancers is its toxicity and more specifically urogenital toxicity. Oxidative stress is a well-known phenomenon associated with Cisplatin toxicity. However, in Cisplatin treated group, abnormal animal behavior, decreased body weight, cellular and sub-cellular changes in the kidney and sperm abnormality were observed. Our investigation revealed that Cisplatin when administered in combination with a natural product derivative (Urs-12-ene-3α,24β-diol, labeled as IN0523) resulted in significant restoration of body weight and protection against the pathological alteration caused by Cisplatin to kidney and testis. Sperm count and motility were significantly restored near to normal. Cisplatin caused depletion of defense system i.e. glutathione peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase, which were restored close to normal by treatment of IN0523. Reduction in excessive lipid peroxidation induced by Cisplatin was also found by treatment with IN0523. The result suggests that IN0523 is a potential candidate for ameliorating Cisplatin induced toxicity in the kidney and testes at a dose of 100mg/kg p.o. via inhibiting the oxidative stress/redox status imbalance and may be improving the efflux mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Overexpression of HDAC1 induces cellular senescence by Sp1/PP2A/pRb pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuang, Jian-Ying; Hung, Jan-Jong

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Overexpression of HDAC1 induces Sp1 deacetylation and raises Sp1/p300 complex formation to bind to PP2Ac promoter. → Overexpression of HDAC1 strongly inhibits the phosphorylation of pRb through up-regulation of PP2A. → Overexpressed HDAC1 restrains cell proliferaction and induces cell senescence though a novel Sp1/PP2A/pRb pathway. -- Abstract: Senescence is associated with decreased activities of DNA replication, protein synthesis, and cellular division, which can result in deterioration of cellular functions. Herein, we report that the growth and division of tumor cells were significantly repressed by overexpression of histone deacetylase (HDAC) 1 with the Tet-off induced system or transient transfection. In addition, HDAC1 overexpression led to senescence through both an accumulation of hypophosphorylated active retinoblastoma protein (pRb) and an increase in the protein level of protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit (PP2Ac). HDAC1 overexpression also increased the level of Sp1 deacetylation and elevated the interaction between Sp1 and p300, and subsequently that Sp1/p300 complex bound to the promoter of PP2Ac, thus leading to induction of PP2Ac expression. Similar results were obtained in the HDAC1-Tet-off stable clone. Taken together, these results indicate that HDAC1 overexpression restrained cell proliferation and induced premature senescence in cervical cancer cells through a novel Sp1/PP2A/pRb pathway.

  19. Overexpression of HDAC1 induces cellular senescence by Sp1/PP2A/pRb pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, Jian-Ying [Department of Pharmacology, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Hung, Jan-Jong, E-mail: petehung@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Pharmacology, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Institute of Bioinformatics and Biosignal Transduction, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)

    2011-04-15

    Highlights: {yields} Overexpression of HDAC1 induces Sp1 deacetylation and raises Sp1/p300 complex formation to bind to PP2Ac promoter. {yields} Overexpression of HDAC1 strongly inhibits the phosphorylation of pRb through up-regulation of PP2A. {yields} Overexpressed HDAC1 restrains cell proliferaction and induces cell senescence though a novel Sp1/PP2A/pRb pathway. -- Abstract: Senescence is associated with decreased activities of DNA replication, protein synthesis, and cellular division, which can result in deterioration of cellular functions. Herein, we report that the growth and division of tumor cells were significantly repressed by overexpression of histone deacetylase (HDAC) 1 with the Tet-off induced system or transient transfection. In addition, HDAC1 overexpression led to senescence through both an accumulation of hypophosphorylated active retinoblastoma protein (pRb) and an increase in the protein level of protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit (PP2Ac). HDAC1 overexpression also increased the level of Sp1 deacetylation and elevated the interaction between Sp1 and p300, and subsequently that Sp1/p300 complex bound to the promoter of PP2Ac, thus leading to induction of PP2Ac expression. Similar results were obtained in the HDAC1-Tet-off stable clone. Taken together, these results indicate that HDAC1 overexpression restrained cell proliferation and induced premature senescence in cervical cancer cells through a novel Sp1/PP2A/pRb pathway.

  20. Melatonin protects against myocardial hypertrophy induced by lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qi; Yi, Xin; Cheng, Xiang; Sun, Xiaohui; Yang, Xiangjun

    2015-04-01

    Melatonin is thought to have the ability of antiatherogenic, antioxidant, and vasodilatory. It is not only a promising protective in acute myocardial infarction but is also a useful tool in the treatment of pathological remodeling. However, its role in myocardial hypertrophy remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of melatonin on myocardial hypertrophy induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and to identify their precise mechanisms. The cultured myocardial cell was divided into six groups: control group, LPS group, LPS + ethanol (4%), LPS + melatonin (1.5 mg/ml) group, LPS + melatonin (3 mg/ml) group, and LPS + melatonin (6 mg/ml) group. The morphologic change of myocardial cell was observed by inverted phase contrast microscope. The protein level of myocardial cell was measured by Coomassie brilliant blue protein kit. The secretion level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Ca(2+) transient in Fura-2/AM-loaded cells was measured by Till image system. The expression of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) and calcineurin (CaN) was measured by Western blot analysis. Our data demonstrated that LPS induced myocardial hypertrophy, promoted the secretion levels of TNF-α, and increased Ca(2+) transient level and the expression of CaMKII and CaN. Administration of melatonin 30 min prior to LPS stimulation dose-dependently attenuated myocardial hypertrophy. In conclusion, the results revealed that melatonin had the potential to protect against myocardial hypertrophy induced by LPS in vitro through downregulation of the TNF-α expression and retains the intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis.

  1. AMP-activated protein kinase reduces inflammatory responses and cellular senescence in pulmonary emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiao-Yu; Li, Yang-Yang; Huang, Cheng; Li, Jun; Yao, Hong-Wei

    2017-04-04

    Current drug therapy fails to reduce lung destruction of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has emerged as an important integrator of signals that control energy balance and lipid metabolism. However, there are no studies regarding the role of AMPK in reducing inflammatory responses and cellular senescence during the development of emphysema. Therefore, we hypothesize that AMPK reduces inflammatroy responses, senescence, and lung injury. To test this hypothesis, human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) and small airway epithelial cells (SAECs) were treated with cigarette smoke extract (CSE) in the presence of a specific AMPK activator (AICAR, 1 mM) and inhibitor (Compound C, 5 μM). Elastase injection was performed to induce mouse emphysema, and these mice were treated with a specific AMPK activator metformin as well as Compound C. AICAR reduced, whereas Compound C increased CSE-induced increase in IL-8 and IL-6 release and expression of genes involved in cellular senescence. Knockdown of AMPKα1/α2 increased expression of pro-senescent genes (e.g., p16, p21, and p66shc) in BEAS-2B cells. Prophylactic administration of an AMPK activator metformin (50 and 250 mg/kg) reduced while Compound C (4 and 20 mg/kg) aggravated elastase-induced airspace enlargement, inflammatory responses and cellular senescence in mice. This is in agreement with therapeutic effect of metformin (50 mg/kg) on airspace enlargement. Furthermore, metformin prophylactically protected against but Compound C further reduced mitochondrial proteins SOD2 and SIRT3 in emphysematous lungs. In conclusion, AMPK reduces abnormal inflammatory responses and cellular senescence, which implicates as a potential therapeutic target for COPD/emphysema.

  2. Protective Effect of Tetrandrine on Sodium Taurocholate-Induced Severe Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-lin Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tet is a type of alkaloid extracted from Stephania tetrandra, and it has recently been demonstrated that Tet can protect against inflammation and free radical injury and inhibit the release of inflammatory mediators. The present study was designed to observe the protective effect of Tet on sodium taurocholate-induced severe acute pancreatitis (SAP. The rat model of SAP was induced by retrograde bile duct injection of sodium taurocholate and then treated with Verapamil and Tet. The results showed that Tet can reduce NF-κB activation in pancreas issue, inhibit the SAP cascade, and improve SAP through inducing pancreas acinar cell apoptosis and stabilizing intracellular calcium in the pancreas, thus mitigating the damage to the pancreas. Our study revealed that Tet may reduce systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS and multiple organ dysfunction syndromes (MODS to protect against damage, and these roles may be mediated through the NF-κB pathway to improve the proinflammatory/anti-inflammatory imbalance.

  3. The cellular memory disc of reprogrammed cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjamrooz, Seyed Hadi

    2013-04-01

    The crucial facts underlying the low efficiency of cellular reprogramming are poorly understood. Cellular reprogramming occurs in nuclear transfer, induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) formation, cell fusion, and lineage-switching experiments. Despite these advances, there are three fundamental problems to be addressed: (1) the majority of cells cannot be reprogrammed, (2) the efficiency of reprogramming cells is usually low, and (3) the reprogrammed cells developed from a patient's own cells activate immune responses. These shortcomings present major obstacles for using reprogramming approaches in customised cell therapy. In this Perspective, the author synthesises past and present observations in the field of cellular reprogramming to propose a theoretical picture of the cellular memory disc. The current hypothesis is that all cells undergo an endogenous and exogenous holographic memorisation such that parts of the cellular memory dramatically decrease the efficiency of reprogramming cells, act like a barrier against reprogramming in the majority of cells, and activate immune responses. Accordingly, the focus of this review is mainly to describe the cellular memory disc (CMD). Based on the present theory, cellular memory includes three parts: a reprogramming-resistance memory (RRM), a switch-promoting memory (SPM) and a culture-induced memory (CIM). The cellular memory arises genetically, epigenetically and non-genetically and affects cellular behaviours. [corrected].

  4. Rhizobacterially induced protection of watermelon against Didymella bryoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nga, N T T; Giau, N T; Long, N T; Lübeck, M; Shetty, N P; de Neergaard, E; Thuy, T T T; Kim, P V; Jørgensen, H J L

    2010-08-01

    To identify rhizobacteria from the Mekong Delta of Vietnam, which can systemically protect watermelon against Didymella bryoniae and elucidate the mechanisms involved in the protection conferred by isolate Pseudomonas aeruginosa 23(1-1). Bacteria were isolated from watermelon roots and their antagonistic ability tested in vitro. Of 190 strains, 68 were able to inhibit D. bryoniae by production of antibiotics. Four strains were able to reduce foliar infection by D. bryoniae when applied to watermelon seeds before sowing. Strain Ps. aeruginosa 23(1-1) was chosen for investigations of the mechanisms involved in protection and ability to control disease under field conditions. In the field, the bacterium was able to significantly reduce disease in two consecutive seasons and increase yield. Furthermore, it colonized watermelon plants endophytically, with higher numbers in plants infected by D. bryoniae than in noninoculated plants. To elucidate the mechanisms involved in protection, the infection biology of the pathogen was studied in bacterially treated and control plants. Pseudomonas aeruginosa 23(1-1) treatment inhibited pathogen penetration and this was associated with hydrogen peroxide accumulation, increased peroxidase activity and occurrence of new peroxidase isoforms, thus indicating that resistance was induced. The endophytic bacterium Ps. aeruginosa 23(1-1) can control D. bryoniae in watermelon by antibiosis and induced resistance under greenhouse and field conditions. These findings suggest that rhizobacteria from native soils in Vietnam can be used to control gummy stem blight of watermelon through various mechanisms including induction of resistance.

  5. Hydrogen-rich saline protects retina against glutamate-induced excitotoxic injury in guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lihua; Ge, Li; Qin, Shucun; Shi, Yunzhi; Du, Changqing; Du, Hui; Liu, Liwei; Yu, Yang; Sun, Xuejun

    2012-01-01

    Molecular hydrogen (H(2)) is an efficient antioxidant that can selectively reduce hydroxyl radicals and inhibit oxidative stress-induced injuries. We investigated the protective effects and mechanism of hydrogen-rich saline in a glutamate-induced retinal injury model. Retinal excitotoxicity was induced in healthy guinea pigs by injecting glutamate into the vitreous cavity. After 30 min, hydrogen-rich saline was injected into the vitreous cavity, the peritoneal cavity or both. Seven days later, the retinal stress response was evaluated by examining the stress biomarkers, inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) and glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78). The impaired glutamate uptake was assessed by the expression of the excitatory amino acid transporter 1(EAAT-1). The retinal histopathological changes were investigated, focusing on the thicknesses of the entire retina and its inner layer, the number of cells in the retinal ganglion cell layer (GCL) and the ultrastructure of the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and glial cells. Compared with the glutamate-induced injury group, the hydrogen-rich saline treatment reduced the loss of cells in the GCL and thinning of the retina and attenuated cellular morphological damage. These improvements were greatest in animals that received H(2) injections into both the vitreous and the peritoneal cavities. The hydrogen-rich saline also inhibited the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in Müller cells, CD11b in microglia, and iNOS and GRP78 in glial cells. Moreover, the hydrogen-rich saline increased the expression of EAAT-1. In conclusion, the administration of hydrogen-rich saline through the intravitreal or/and intraperitoneal routes could reduce the retinal excitotoxic injury and promote retinal recovery. This result likely occurs by inhibiting the activation of glial cells, decreasing the production of the iNOS and GRP78 and promoting glutamate clearance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Inactivation of AKT Induces Cellular Senescence in Uterine Leiomyoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaofei; Lu, Zhenxiao; Qiang, Wenan; Vidimar, Vania; Kong, Beihua

    2014-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomas (fibroids) are a major public health problem. Current medical treatments with GnRH analogs do not provide long-term benefit. Thus, permanent shrinkage or inhibition of fibroid growth via medical means remains a challenge. The AKT pathway is a major growth and survival pathway for fibroids. We propose that AKT inhibition results in a transient regulation of specific mechanisms that ultimately drive cells into cellular senescence or cell death. In this study, we investigated specific mechanisms of AKT inhibition that resulted in senescence. We observed that administration of MK-2206, an allosteric AKT inhibitor, increased levels of reactive oxygen species, up-regulated the microRNA miR-182 and several senescence-associated genes (including p16, p53, p21, and β-galactosidase), and drove leiomyoma cells into stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS). Moreover, induction of SIPS was mediated by HMGA2, which colocalized to senescence-associated heterochromatin foci. This study provides a conceivable molecular mechanism of SIPS by AKT inhibition in fibroids. PMID:24476133

  7. The induced expression of heat shock proteins as a part of the early cellular response to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankova, K.; Ivanova, K.; Georgieva, R.; Rupova, I.; Boteva, R.

    2008-01-01

    A variety of stressful stimuli including gamma radiation can induce increase in the synthesis of heat shock proteins (Hsp). This family of molecular chaperones includes members with molecular masses ranging from 10 to 150 kDa and has been identified in all organisms from bacteria to humans. Hsp70 chaperones are very important. The present study aimed to characterize the radiation-induced changes in Hsp70 synthesis in human lymphocytes as a part of the early cellular response to gamma irradiation. The expression of Hsp70 was determined with Western blot and the radiation-induced apoptotic changes were registered by staining with fluorescent dyes. Part of the experiments were performed in the presence of the organic solvent DMSO. At low concentrations this reagent shows antioxidant activity and can reduce the level of the radiation-induced oxidant stress which determines the predominant biological effects of the ionizing radiation. Irradiation with 0.5 to 8 Gy caused statistically significant increase in the synthesis of Hsp70 which was strongest after irradiation with 4 Gy. In the range 0.5-2 Gy the enhancement of the radiation-induced synthesis of Hsp70 reached 60%. Our experimental results characterize changes in the Hsp70 synthesis after gamma irradiation as a part of the early cellular stress response in lymphocytes. (authors)

  8. Protection against dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy is related to modulation by testosterone of FOXO1 and PGC-1{alpha}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Weiping, E-mail: weiping.qin@mssm.edu [Center of Excellence for the Medical Consequences of Spinal Cord Injury, James J. Peters VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States); Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, NY (United States); Pan, Jiangping; Wu, Yong [Center of Excellence for the Medical Consequences of Spinal Cord Injury, James J. Peters VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States); Bauman, William A. [Center of Excellence for the Medical Consequences of Spinal Cord Injury, James J. Peters VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States); Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, NY (United States); Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, NY (United States); Cardozo, Christopher, E-mail: Chris.Cardozo@mssm.edu [Center of Excellence for the Medical Consequences of Spinal Cord Injury, James J. Peters VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States); Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, NY (United States); Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, NY (United States)

    2010-12-17

    Research highlights: {yields} In rat gastrocnemius muscle, dexamethasone reduced PGC-1{alpha} cellular and nuclear levels without altering mRNA levels for this factor. {yields} Dexamethasone reduced phosphorylating of p38 MAPK, which stabilizes PGC-1{alpha} and promotes its nuclear entry. {yields} Co-administration of testosterone with dexamethasone increased cellular and nuclear levels of PGC-1{alpha} protein without changing its mRNA levels. {yields} Co-administration of testosterone restored p38 MAPK levels to those of controls. -- Abstract: Glucocorticoid-induced muscle atrophy results from muscle protein catabolism and reduced protein synthesis, associated with increased expression of two muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases (MAFbx and MuRF1), and of two inhibitors of protein synthesis, REDD1 and 4EBP1. MAFbx, MuRF1, REDD1 and 4EBP1 are up-regulated by the transcription factors FOXO1 and FOXO3A. The transcriptional co-activator PGC-1{alpha} has been shown to attenuate many forms of muscle atrophy and to repress FOXO3A-mediated transcription of atrophy-specific genes. Dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy can be prevented by testosterone, which blocks up-regulation by dexamethasone of FOXO1. Here, an animal model of dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy was used to further characterize effects of testosterone to abrogate adverse actions of dexamethasone on FOXO1 levels and nuclear localization, and to determine how these agents affect PGC-1{alpha}, and its upstream activators, p38 MAPK and AMPK. In rat gastrocnemius muscle, testosterone blunted the dexamethasone-mediated increase in levels of FOXO1 mRNA, and FOXO1 total and nuclear protein. Dexamethasone reduced total and nuclear PGC-1{alpha} protein levels in the gastrocnemius; co-administration of testosterone with dexamethasone increased total and nuclear PGC-1{alpha} levels above those present in untreated controls. Testosterone blocked dexamethasone-induced decreases in activity of p38 MAPK in the gastrocnemius

  9. Protective effects of tenuigenin on Staphylococcus aureus-induced pneumonia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bin; Qiao, Jiutao; Shen, Yongbin; Li, Lianyong

    2017-09-01

    Pneumonia is the leading cause of death in infants and young children. Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus) is one of the most important bacteria that leads to pneumonia. Tenuigenin (TGN), a major active component isolated from the root of the Chinese herb Polygala tenuifolia, has been known to have anti-inflammatory effect. In this study, we aimed to investigate the protective effects of TGN on S.aureus-induced pneumonia in mice. The results showed that TGN significantly attenuated S.aureus-induced lung histopathological changes. TGN also inhibited lung wet/dry (W/D) ratio, and inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β production. Furthermore, S.aureus-induced NF-κB activation was significantly inhibited by the treatment of TGN. In conclusion, the results of this study showed that TGN protected against S.aureus-induced pneumonia by inhibiting NF-κB activation. TGN might be a potential agent in the treatment of pneumonia induced by S.aureus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Angiotensin II protects primary rat hepatocytes against bile salt-induced apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golnar Karimian

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Angiotensin II (AT-II is a pro-fibrotic compound that acts via membrane-bound receptors (AT-1R/AT-2R and thereby activates hepatic stellate cells (HSCs. AT-II receptor blockers (ARBs are thus important candidates in the treatment of liver fibrosis. However, multiple case reports suggest that AT-1R blockers may induce hepatocyte injury. Therefore, we investigated the effect of AT-II and its receptor blockers on cytokine-, oxidative stress- and bile salt-induced cell death in hepatocytes. Primary rat hepatocytes were exposed to TNF-α/Actinomycin D, the ROS-generating agent menadione or the bile salts: glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA and tauro-lithocholic acid-3 sulfate (TLCS, to induce apoptosis. AT-II (100 nmol/L was added 10 minutes prior to the cell death-inducing agent. AT-1R antagonists (Sartans and the AT-2R antagonist PD123319 were used at 1 µmol/L. Apoptosis (caspase-3 activity, acridine orange staining and necrosis (Sytox green staining were quantified. Expression of CHOP (marker for ER stress and AT-II receptor mRNAs were quantified by Q-PCR. AT-II dose-dependently reduced GCDCA-induced apoptosis of hepatocytes (-50%, p<0.05 without inducing necrosis. In addition, AT-II reduced TLCS-induced apoptosis of hepatocytes (-50%, p<0.05. However, AT-II did not suppress TNF/Act-D and menadione-induced apoptosis. Only the AT-1R antagonists abolished the protective effect of AT-II against GCDCA-induced apoptosis. AT-II increased phosphorylation of ERK and a significant reversal of the protective effect of AT-II was observed when signaling kinases, including ERK, were inhibited. Moreover, AT-II prevented the GCDCA-induced expression of CHOP (the marker of the ER-mediated apoptosis. CONCLUSION: Angiotensin II protects hepatocytes from bile salt-induced apoptosis through a combined activation of PI3-kinase, MAPKs, PKC pathways and inhibition of bile salt-induced ER stress. Our results suggest a mechanism for the observed hepatocyte

  11. Low concentration of exogenous carbon monoxide protects mammalian cells against proliferation induced by radiation-induced bystander effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, Liping; Yu, K.N.; Bao, Lingzhi; Wu, Wenqing; Wang, Hongzhi; Han, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We show the possibility of modulate proliferation induced by radiation-induced bystander effect with low concentration carbon monoxide. • Carbon monoxide inhibited proliferation via modulating the transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1)/nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathway. • Exogenous carbon monoxide has potential application in clinical radiotherapy. - Abstract: Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) has been proposed to have tight relationship with the irradiation-caused secondary cancers beyond the irradiation-treated area after radiotherapy. Our previous studies demonstrated a protective effect of low concentration carbon monoxide (CO) on the genotoxicity of RIBE after α-particle irradiation. In the present work, a significant inhibitory effect of low-dose exogenous CO, generated by tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimer [CO-releasing molecule (CORM-2)], on both RIBE-induced proliferation and chromosome aberration was observed. Further studies on the mechanism revealed that the transforming growth factor β1/nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathway, which mediated RIBE signaling transduction, could be modulated by CO involved in the protective effects. Considering the potential of exogenous CO in clinical applications and its protective effect on RIBE, the present work aims to provide a foundation for potential application of CO in radiotherapy

  12. Low concentration of exogenous carbon monoxide protects mammalian cells against proliferation induced by radiation-induced bystander effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, Liping [Center of Medical Physics and Technology, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Yu, K.N. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Center of Medical Physics and Technology, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Bao, Lingzhi; Wu, Wenqing; Wang, Hongzhi [Center of Medical Physics and Technology, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Han, Wei, E-mail: hanw@hfcas.cn [Center of Medical Physics and Technology, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • We show the possibility of modulate proliferation induced by radiation-induced bystander effect with low concentration carbon monoxide. • Carbon monoxide inhibited proliferation via modulating the transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1)/nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathway. • Exogenous carbon monoxide has potential application in clinical radiotherapy. - Abstract: Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) has been proposed to have tight relationship with the irradiation-caused secondary cancers beyond the irradiation-treated area after radiotherapy. Our previous studies demonstrated a protective effect of low concentration carbon monoxide (CO) on the genotoxicity of RIBE after α-particle irradiation. In the present work, a significant inhibitory effect of low-dose exogenous CO, generated by tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimer [CO-releasing molecule (CORM-2)], on both RIBE-induced proliferation and chromosome aberration was observed. Further studies on the mechanism revealed that the transforming growth factor β1/nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathway, which mediated RIBE signaling transduction, could be modulated by CO involved in the protective effects. Considering the potential of exogenous CO in clinical applications and its protective effect on RIBE, the present work aims to provide a foundation for potential application of CO in radiotherapy.

  13. Protection of power transformers against geomagnetically induced currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurevich Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the problem of saturation and failure of power transformers under geomagnetically induced currents and currents of the E3 component of high-altitude nuclear explosions. It also describes a special protective relay reacting on DC component in the transformer neutral current.

  14. Ectopic AP4 expression induces cellular senescence via activation of p53 in long-term confluent retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiping; Wong, Matthew Man-Kin; Zhang, Xiaojian; Chiu, Sung-Kay

    2015-11-15

    When cells are grown to confluence, cell-cell contact inhibition occurs and drives the cells to enter reversible quiescence rather than senescence. Confluent retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells exhibiting contact inhibition was used as a model in this study to examine the role of overexpression of transcription factor AP4, a highly expressed transcription factor in many types of cancer, in these cells during long-term culture. We generated stable inducible RPE cell clones expressing AP4 or AP4 without the DNA binding domain (DN-AP4) and observed that, when cultured for 24 days, RPE cells with a high level of AP4 exhibit a large, flattened morphology and even cease proliferating; these changes were not observed in DN-AP4-expressing cells or non-induced cells. In addition, AP4-expressing cells exhibited senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity and the senescence-associated secretory phenotype. We demonstrated that the induced cellular senescence was mediated by enhanced p53 expression and that AP4 regulates the p53 gene by binding directly to two of the three E-boxes present on the promoter of the p53 gene. Moreover, we showed that serum is essential for AP4 in inducing p53-associated cellular senescence. Collectively, we showed that overexpression of AP4 mediates cellular senescence involving in activation of p53 in long-term post-confluent RPE cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in endotoxemic rat hepatocytes is dependent on the cellular glutathione status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, TA; van Goor, H; Tuyt, L; de Jager-Krikken, A; Leuvenink, R; Kuipers, F; Jansen, PLM; Moshage, H

    The inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) promoter contains nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B) binding sites. NF-kappa B activation is determined, in part, by the intracellular redox status, The aim of this study was to determine the importance of the cellular glutathione status in relation to

  16. Protective Effect of Vitamin E on Nicotine Induced Reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protective Effect of Vitamin E on Nicotine Induced Reproductive Toxicity in ... The health implications of cigarette smoking and ..... toxic byproducts of many metabolic processes in ... Male infertility, clinical ... rats: A possible role of cessation.

  17. Protection of swimming-induced oxidative stress in some vital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protection of swimming-induced oxidative stress in some vital organs by the treatment of composite extract of Withania somnifera, Ocimum sanctum and Zingiber officinalis in male rat. D Misra, B Maiti, D Ghosh ...

  18. Exercise does not protect against MPTP-induced neurotoxicity in BDNF haploinsufficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim M Gerecke

    Full Text Available Exercise has been demonstrated to potently protect substantia nigra pars compacta (SN dopaminergic neurons from 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP-induced neurotoxicity. One mechanism proposed to account for this neuroprotection is the upregulation of neurotrophic factors. Several neurotrophic factors, including Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF, have been shown to upregulate in response to exercise. In order to determine if exercise-induced neuroprotection is dependent upon BDNF, we compared the neuroprotective effects of voluntary exercise in mice heterozygous for the BDNF gene (BDNF+/- with strain-matched wild-type (WT mice. Stereological estimates of SNpc DA neurons from WT mice allowed 90 days exercise via unrestricted running demonstrated complete protection against the MPTP-induced neurotoxicity. However, BDNF+/- mice allowed 90 days of unrestricted exercise were not protected from MPTP-induced SNpc DA neuron loss. Proteomic analysis comparing SN and striatum from 90 day exercised WT and BDNF+/- mice showed differential expression of proteins related to energy regulation, intracellular signaling and trafficking. These results suggest that a full genetic complement of BDNF is critical for the exercise-induced neuroprotection of SNpc DA neurons.

  19. Factors affecting UV-B-induced changes in Arabidopsis thaliana L. gene expression: The role of development, protective pigments and the chloroplast signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, B.R.; James, P.E.; Mackerness, S.A.H.

    1998-01-01

    Gene expression is known to change in response to UV-B radiation. In this paper, we have investigated three factors in Arabidopsis leaves that are likely to influence these changes: development, protective pigments and the 'chloroplast signal'. During late leaf development the major change in pigment composition, after exposure to UV-B radiation, is an increase in UV-absorbing pigments. Chl and Chl a/b ratio do not change substantially. Similarly Chl fluorescence is not altered. In contrast, RNA transcripts of photosynthetic proteins are reduced more in older leaves than in young leaves. To determine the role of flavonoids in UV-B protection, plants of Arabidopsis mutant tt-5, which have reduced flavonoids and sinapic esters, were exposed to UV-B and RNA transcript levels determined. The tt-mutants were more sensitive to UV-B radiation than wild-type. To examine the role of the chloroplast signal in regulating UV-B induced changes in gene expression, Arabidopsis gun mutants (genome uncoupled) have been used. The results show that UV-B-induced down-regulation still takes place in gun mutants and strongly suggests that the chloroplast signal is not required. Overall, this study clearly demonstrates that UV-B-induced changes in gene expression are influenced by both developmental and cellular factors but not chloroplastic factors

  20. Taurine protects against methotrexate-induced toxicity and inhibits leukocyte death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetiner, Mustafa; Sener, Goeksel; Sehirli, A. Ozer; Eksioglu-Demiralp, Emel; Ercan, Feriha; Sirvanci, Serap; Gedik, Nursal; Akpulat, Sertac; Tecimer, Tuelay; Yegen, Berrak C.

    2005-01-01

    The efficacy of methotrexate (MTX), a widely used cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agent, is often limited by severe side effects and toxic sequelae. Regarding the mechanisms of these side effects, several hypotheses have been put forward, among which oxidative stress is noticeable. The present study was undertaken to determine whether taurine, a potent free radical scavenger, could ameliorate MTX-induced oxidative injury and modulate immune response. Following a single dose of methotrexate (20 mg/kg), either saline or taurine (50 mg/kg) was administered for 5 days. After decapitation of the rats, trunk blood was obtained and the ileum, liver, and kidney were removed to measure malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and collagen content, as well as histological examination. Our results showed that MTX administration increased the MDA, MPO activity, and collagen contents and decreased GSH levels in all tissues (P < 0.001), while these alterations were reversed in taurine-treated group (P < 0.05-0.01). Elevated (P < 0.001) TNF-α level observed following MTX treatment was depressed with taurine (P < 0.01). Oxidative burst of neutrophils stimulated by phorbol myristate acetate was reduced in saline-treated MTX group (P < 0.001), while taurine abolished this effect. Similarly, flow cytometric measurements revealed that leukocyte apoptosis and cell death were increased in MTX-treated animals, while taurine reversed these effects (P < 0.05). Reduced cellularity in bone marrow samples of MTX-treated group (P < 0.01) was reversed back to control levels in taurine-treated rats. Severe degeneration of the intestinal mucosa, liver parenchyma, glomerular, and tubular epithelium observed in saline-treated group was improved by taurine treatment. In conclusion, it appears that taurine protects against methotrexate-induced oxidant organ injury and inhibits leukocyte apoptosis and may be of therapeutic potential in alleviating the systemic

  1. Cellular Automata Modelling of Photo-Induced Oxidation Processes in Molecularly Doped Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Goldie

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of employing cellular automata (CA to model photo-induced oxidation processes in molecularly doped polymers is explored. It is demonstrated that the oxidation dynamics generated using CA models exhibit stretched-exponential behavior. This dynamical characteristic is in general agreement with an alternative analysis conducted using standard rate equations provided the molecular doping levels are sufficiently low to prohibit the presence of safe-sites which are impenetrable to dissolved oxygen. The CA models therefore offer the advantage of exploring the effect of dopant agglomeration which is difficult to assess from standard rate equation solutions. The influence of UV-induced bleaching or darkening upon the resulting oxidation dynamics may also be easily incorporated into the CA models and these optical effects are investigated for various photo-oxidation product scenarios. Output from the CA models is evaluated for experimental photo-oxidation data obtained from a series of hydrazone-doped polymers.

  2. Protective effect of vanillic acid on ovariectomy-induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The need for an anti-osteoporotic agent is in high demand since osteoporosis contributes to high rates of disability or impairment (high osteoporotic fracture), morbidity and mortality. Hence, the present study is designed to evaluate the protective effects of vanillic acid (VA) against bilateral ovariectomy-induced ...

  3. Pre-Treatment with Amifostine Protects against Cyclophosphamide-Induced Disruption of Taste in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Nabanita; Carroll, Brittany L.; Spees, Jeffrey L.; Delay, Eugene R.

    2013-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CYP), a commonly prescribed chemotherapy drug, has multiple adverse side effects including alteration of taste. The effects on taste are a cause of concern for patients as changes in taste are often associated with loss of appetite, malnutrition, poor recovery and reduced quality of life. Amifostine is a cytoprotective agent that was previously shown to be effective in preventing chemotherapy-induced mucositis and nephrotoxicity. Here we determined its ability to protect against chemotherapy-induced damage to taste buds using a mouse model of CYP injury. We conducted detection threshold tests to measure changes in sucrose taste sensitivity and found that administration of amifostine 30 mins prior to CYP injection protected against CYP-induced loss in taste sensitivity. Morphological studies showed that pre-treatment with amifostine prevented CYP-induced reduction in the number of fungiform taste papillae and increased the number of taste buds. Immunohistochemical assays for markers of the cell cycle showed that amifostine administration prevented CYP-induced inhibition of cell proliferation and also protected against loss of mature taste cells after CYP exposure. Our results indicate that treatment of cancer patients with amifostine prior to chemotherapy may improve their sensitivity for taste stimuli and protect the taste system from the detrimental effects of chemotherapy. PMID:23626702

  4. Pre-treatment with amifostine protects against cyclophosphamide-induced disruption of taste in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabanita Mukherjee

    Full Text Available Cyclophosphamide (CYP, a commonly prescribed chemotherapy drug, has multiple adverse side effects including alteration of taste. The effects on taste are a cause of concern for patients as changes in taste are often associated with loss of appetite, malnutrition, poor recovery and reduced quality of life. Amifostine is a cytoprotective agent that was previously shown to be effective in preventing chemotherapy-induced mucositis and nephrotoxicity. Here we determined its ability to protect against chemotherapy-induced damage to taste buds using a mouse model of CYP injury. We conducted detection threshold tests to measure changes in sucrose taste sensitivity and found that administration of amifostine 30 mins prior to CYP injection protected against CYP-induced loss in taste sensitivity. Morphological studies showed that pre-treatment with amifostine prevented CYP-induced reduction in the number of fungiform taste papillae and increased the number of taste buds. Immunohistochemical assays for markers of the cell cycle showed that amifostine administration prevented CYP-induced inhibition of cell proliferation and also protected against loss of mature taste cells after CYP exposure. Our results indicate that treatment of cancer patients with amifostine prior to chemotherapy may improve their sensitivity for taste stimuli and protect the taste system from the detrimental effects of chemotherapy.

  5. Regulation of singlet oxygen-induced apoptosis by cytosolic NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Yee; Lee, Su Min; Tak, Jean Kyoung; Choi, Kyeong Sook; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Park, Jeen-Woo

    2007-08-01

    Singlet oxygen is a highly reactive form of molecular oxygen that may harm living systems by oxidizing critical cellular macromolecules and it also promotes deleterious processes such as cell death. Recently, we demonstrated that the control of redox balance and the cellular defense against oxidative damage are the primary functions of cytosolic NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPc) through supplying NADPH for antioxidant systems. In this report, we demonstrate that modulation of IDPc activity in HL-60 cells regulates singlet oxygen-induced apoptosis. When we examined the protective role of IDPc against singlet oxygen-induced apoptosis with HL-60 cells transfected with the cDNA for mouse IDPc in sense and antisense orientations, a clear inverse relationship was observed between the amount of IDPc expressed in target cells and their susceptibility to apoptosis. The results suggest that IDPc plays an important protective role in apoptosis of HL-60 cells induced by singlet oxygen.

  6. Matriptase autoactivation is tightly regulated by the cellular chemical environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jehng-Kang Wang

    Full Text Available The ability of cells to rapidly detect and react to alterations in their chemical environment, such as pH, ionic strength and redox potential, is essential for cell function and survival. We present here evidence that cells can respond to such environmental alterations by rapid induction of matriptase autoactivation. Specifically, we show that matriptase autoactivation can occur spontaneously at physiological pH, and is significantly enhanced by acidic pH, both in a cell-free system and in living cells. The acid-accelerated autoactivation can be attenuated by chloride, a property that may be part of a safety mechanism to prevent unregulated matriptase autoactivation. Additionally, the thio-redox balance of the environment also modulates matriptase autoactivation. Using the cell-free system, we show that matriptase autoactivation is suppressed by cytosolic reductive factors, with this cytosolic suppression being reverted by the addition of oxidizing agents. In living cells, we observed rapid induction of matriptase autoactivation upon exposure to toxic metal ions known to induce oxidative stress, including CoCl2 and CdCl2. The metal-induced matriptase autoactivation is suppressed by N-acetylcysteine, supporting the putative role of altered cellular redox state in metal induced matriptase autoactivation. Furthermore, matriptase knockdown rendered cells more susceptible to CdCl2-induced cell death compared to control cells. This observation implies that the metal-induced matriptase autoactivation confers cells with the ability to survive exposure to toxic metals and/or oxidative stress. Our results suggest that matriptase can act as a cellular sensor of the chemical environment of the cell that allows the cell to respond to and protect itself from changes in the chemical milieu.

  7. New approach to modulate retinal cellular toxic effects of high glucose using marine epa and dha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fagon Roxane

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protective effects of omega-3 fatty acids against cellular damages of high glucose were studied on retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE cells. Methods Retinal epithelial cells were incubated with omega-3 marine oils rich in EPA and DHA and then with high glucose (25 mM for 48 hours. Cellular responses were compared to normal glucose (5 mM: intracellular redox status, reactive oxygen species (ROS, mitochondrial succinate deshydrogenase activity, inflammatory cytokines release and caveolin-1 expression were evaluated using microplate cytometry, ELISA and flow cytometry techniques. Fatty acids incorporation in retinal cell membranes was analysed using chromatography. Results Preincubation of the cells with fish oil decreased ROS overproduction, mitochondrial alterations and TNFα release. These protective effects could be attributed to an increase in caveolin-1 expression induced by marine oil. Conclusion Marine formulations rich in omega-3 fatty acids represent a promising therapeutic approach for diabetic retinopathy.

  8. IBMX protects human proximal tubular epithelial cells from hypoxic stress through suppressing hypoxia-inducible factor-1α expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Arif Ul; Kittikulsuth, Wararat; Yamaguchi, Fuminori; Musarrat Ansary, Tuba; Rahman, Asadur; Shibayama, Yuki; Nakano, Daisuke; Hitomi, Hirofumi; Tokuda, Masaaki; Nishiyama, Akira

    2017-09-15

    Hypoxia predisposes renal fibrosis. This study was conducted to identify novel approaches to ameliorate the pathogenic effect of hypoxia. Using human proximal tubular epithelial cells we showed that a pan-phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) dose and time dependently downregulated hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) mRNA expression, which was further augmented by addition of a transcriptional inhibitor, actinomycin D. IBMX also increased the cellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) level. Luciferase assay showed that blocking of protein kinase A (PKA) using H89 reduced, while 8-Br-cAMP agonized the repression of HIF-1α promoter activity in hypoxic condition. Deletion of cAMP response element binding sites from the HIF-1α promoter abrogated the effect of IBMX. Western blot and immunofluorescent study confirmed that the CoCl 2 induced increased HIF-1α protein in whole cell lysate and in nucleus was reduced by the IBMX. Through this process, IBMX attenuated both CoCl 2 and hypoxia induced mRNA expressions of two pro-fibrogenic factors, platelet-derived growth factor B and lysyl oxidase. Moreover, IBMX reduced production of a mesenchymal transformation factor, β-catenin; as well as protected against hypoxia induced cell-death. Taken together, our study showed novel evidence that the PDE inhibitor IBMX can downregulate the transcription of HIF-1α, and thus may attenuate hypoxia induced renal fibrosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Sucralfate protects intestinal epithelial cells from radiation-induced apoptosis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuu-Matsuyama, Mutsumi; Shichijo, Kazuko; Okaichi, Kumio

    2006-01-01

    Radiotherapy for malignant pelvic disease is often followed by acute radiation colitis (ARC). It has been reported that sucralfate treatment has a protective effect against ARC, though the mechanisms of action are unknown. The effects of sucralfate on X-ray radiation-induced apoptosis was studied at 4 Gy in the colonic crypt cells of rats. Sucralfate enemas given prior to radiation resulted in the following: reduction in number of apoptotic colonic crypt cells; reduction in number of caspase-3 positive cells; decreases in p53 accumulation and p21 expression; decreases of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. The protective effects of sucralfate against ARC may be partially due to the suppression of radiation-induced apoptosis by way of p53 in the colon and the protection of the colonic epithelial stem cell region. (author)

  10. Ultraviolet Radiation: Cellular Antioxidant Response and the Role of Ocular Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchitti, Satori A.; Chen, Ying; Thompson, David C.; Vasiliou, Vasilis

    2011-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposes the human eye to near constant oxidative stress. Evidence suggests that UVR is the most important environmental insult leading to the development of a variety of ophthalmoheliosis disorders. UVR-induced reactive oxygen species are highly reactive with DNA, proteins and cellular membranes, resulting in cellular and tissue damage. Antioxidant defense systems present in ocular tissues function to combat reactive oxygen species and protect the eye from oxidative damage. Important enzymatic antioxidants are the superoxide dismutases, catalase, glutathione peroxidases, glutathione reductase and members of the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) superfamily. Glutathione, ascorbic and uric acids, α-tocopherol, NADPH and ferritin serve as small molecule, nonenzymatic antioxidants. Ocular tissues have high levels of these antioxidants which are essential for the maintenance of redox homeostasis in the eye and protection against oxidative damage. ALDH1A1 and ALDH3A1, present abundantly in the cornea and lens, have been shown to have unique roles in the defense against UVR and the downstream effects of oxidative stress. This review presents the properties and functions of ocular antioxidants that play critical roles in the cellular response to UVR exposure, including a focused discussion of the unique roles that the ALDH1A1 and ALDH3A1 enzymes have as multi-functional ocular antioxidants. PMID:21670692

  11. Cellular MR Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Modo

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Cellular MR imaging is a young field that aims to visualize targeted cells in living organisms. In order to provide a different signal intensity of the targeted cell, they are either labeled with MR contrast agents in vivo or prelabeled in vitro. Either (ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide [(USPIO] particles or (polymeric paramagnetic chelates can be used for this purpose. For in vivo cellular labeling, Gd3+- and Mn2+- chelates have mainly been used for targeted hepatobiliary imaging, and (USPIO-based cellular imaging has been focused on imaging of macrophage activity. Several of these magneto-pharmaceuticals have been FDA-approved or are in late-phase clinical trials. As for prelabeling of cells in vitro, a challenge has been to induce a sufficient uptake of contrast agents into nonphagocytic cells, without affecting normal cellular function. It appears that this issue has now largely been resolved, leading to an active research on monitoring the cellular biodistribution in vivo following transplantation or transfusion of these cells, including cell migration and trafficking. New applications of cellular MR imaging will be directed, for instance, towards our understanding of hematopoietic (immune cell trafficking and of novel guided (stem cell-based therapies aimed to be translated to the clinic in the future.

  12. Hormone-induced protection against mammary tumorigenesis is conserved in multiple rat strains and identifies a core gene expression signature induced by pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, Collin M; Stoddard, Alexander J; Belka, George K; Dugan, Katherine D; Notarfrancesco, Kathleen L; Moody, Susan E; D'Cruz, Celina M; Chodosh, Lewis A

    2006-06-15

    Women who have their first child early in life have a substantially lower lifetime risk of breast cancer. The mechanism for this is unknown. Similar to humans, rats exhibit parity-induced protection against mammary tumorigenesis. To explore the basis for this phenomenon, we identified persistent pregnancy-induced changes in mammary gene expression that are tightly associated with protection against tumorigenesis in multiple inbred rat strains. Four inbred rat strains that exhibit marked differences in their intrinsic susceptibilities to carcinogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis were each shown to display significant protection against methylnitrosourea-induced mammary tumorigenesis following treatment with pregnancy levels of estradiol and progesterone. Microarray expression profiling of parous and nulliparous mammary tissue from these four strains yielded a common 70-gene signature. Examination of the genes constituting this signature implicated alterations in transforming growth factor-beta signaling, the extracellular matrix, amphiregulin expression, and the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor I axis in pregnancy-induced alterations in breast cancer risk. Notably, related molecular changes have been associated with decreased mammographic density, which itself is strongly associated with decreased breast cancer risk. Our findings show that hormone-induced protection against mammary tumorigenesis is widely conserved among divergent rat strains and define a gene expression signature that is tightly correlated with reduced mammary tumor susceptibility as a consequence of a normal developmental event. Given the conservation of this signature, these pathways may contribute to pregnancy-induced protection against breast cancer.

  13. Rutin protects against neuronal damage in vitro and ameliorates doxorubicin-induced memory deficits in vivo in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramalingayya GV

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Grandhi Venkata Ramalingayya, Sri Pragnya Cheruku, Pawan G Nayak, Anoop Kishore, Rekha Shenoy, Chamallamudi Mallikarjuna Rao, Nandakumar Krishnadas Department of Pharmacology, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, India Abstract: Doxorubicin (DOX is the most widely used broad-spectrum anticancer agent, either alone or in combination, for most cancers including breast cancer. Long-term use of chemotherapeutic agents to treat breast cancer patients results in cognitive complications with a negative impact on survivors’ quality of life. The study objective was to evaluate rutin (RUT for its neuroprotective effect against DOX in human neuroblastoma (IMR32 cells in vitro and study its potential to ameliorate DOX-induced cognitive dysfunction in Wistar rats. Cell viability assay (3-[4,5 dimethyl thiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide, neurite growth assay, detection of apoptosis by (acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS assay, and flowcytometric analysis were carried out to assess neuroprotective potential against DOX. An in vivo study was conducted for assessing protective effect of RUT against memory deficit associated with DOX-induced chemobrain using object recognition task (ORT. Locomotion was assessed using open field test. Serum biochemistry, acetylcholinesterase, oxidative stress markers in hippocampus, and frontal cortex were assessed. Histopathological analysis of major organ systems was also carried out. Prior exposure to RUT at 100 µM protected IMR32 cells from DOX (1 µM neurotoxicity. DOX exposure resulted in increased cellular death, apoptosis, and intracellular ROS generation with inhibition of neurite growth in differentiated IMR32 cells, which was significantly ameliorated by RUT. Cognitive dysfunction was induced in Wistar rats by administering ten cycles of DOX (2.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneal, once in 5 days, as we observed

  14. Aldolase B knockdown prevents high glucose-induced methylglyoxal overproduction and cellular dysfunction in endothelial cells.

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    Jianghai Liu

    Full Text Available We used cultured endothelial cells as a model to examine whether up-regulation of aldolase B and enhanced methylglyoxal (MG formation play an important role in high glucose-induced overproduction of advanced glycosylation endproducts (AGEs, oxidative stress and cellular dysfunction. High glucose (25 mM incubation up-regulated mRNA levels of aldose reductase (an enzyme converting glucose to fructose and aldolase B (a key enzyme that catalyzes MG formation from fructose and enhanced MG formation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs and HUVEC-derived EA. hy926 cells. High glucose-increased MG production in EA. hy926 cells was completely prevented by siRNA knockdown of aldolase B, but unaffected by siRNA knockdown of aldolase A, an enzyme responsible for MG formation during glycolysis. In addition, inhibition of cytochrome P450 2E1 or semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase which produces MG during the metabolism of lipid and proteins, respectively, did not alter MG production. Both high glucose (25 mM and MG (30, 100 µM increased the formation of N(ε-carboxyethyl-lysine (CEL, a MG-induced AGE, oxidative stress (determined by the generation of oxidized DCF, H(2O(2, protein carbonyls and 8-oxo-dG, O-GlcNAc modification (product of the hexosamine pathway, membrane protein kinase C activity and nuclear translocation of NF-κB in EA. hy926 cells. However, the above metabolic and signaling alterations induced by high glucose were completely prevented by knockdown of aldolase B and partially by application of aminoguanidine (a MG scavenger or alagebrium (an AGEs breaker. In conclusion, efficient inhibition of aldolase B can prevent high glucose-induced overproduction of MG and related cellular dysfunction in endothelial cells.

  15. Specific behavioral and cellular adaptations induced by chronic morphine are reduced by dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

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    Joshua Hakimian

    Full Text Available Opiates, one of the oldest known drugs, are the benchmark for treating pain. Regular opioid exposure also induces euphoria making these compounds addictive and often misused, as shown by the current epidemic of opioid abuse and overdose mortalities. In addition to the effect of opioids on their cognate receptors and signaling cascades, these compounds also induce multiple adaptations at cellular and behavioral levels. As omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs play a ubiquitous role in behavioral and cellular processes, we proposed that supplemental n-3 PUFAs, enriched in docosahexanoic acid (DHA, could offset these adaptations following chronic opioid exposure. We used an 8 week regimen of n-3 PUFA supplementation followed by 8 days of morphine in the presence of this diet. We first assessed the effect of morphine in different behavioral measures and found that morphine increased anxiety and reduced wheel-running behavior. These effects were reduced by dietary n-3 PUFAs without affecting morphine-induced analgesia or hyperlocomotion, known effects of this opiate acting at mu opioid receptors. At the cellular level we found that morphine reduced striatal DHA content and that this was reversed by supplemental n-3 PUFAs. Chronic morphine also increased glutamatergic plasticity and the proportion of Grin2B-NMDARs in striatal projection neurons. This effect was similarly reversed by supplemental n-3 PUFAs. Gene analysis showed that supplemental PUFAs offset the effect of morphine on genes found in neurons of the dopamine receptor 2 (D2-enriched indirect pathway but not of genes found in dopamine receptor 1(D1-enriched direct-pathway neurons. Analysis of the D2 striatal connectome by a retrogradely transported pseudorabies virus showed that n-3 PUFA supplementation reversed the effect of chronic morphine on the innervation of D2 neurons by the dorsomedial prefontal and piriform cortices. Together these changes outline specific behavioral and

  16. Protective Mechanisms of Nitrone Antioxidants in Kanic Acid Induced Neurodegeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Shin, E.J., Suh, J.H., Floyd, R.A., Bing, G. (1999) Protection of methamphetamine nigrostriatal toxicity by dietary selenium. Brain Res. 851:76-86...HC, and Bing, GY. (2004) Interleukin-10 protects against lipopolysaccharide-mediated neurotoxicity in substantia nigra Neurosci. Abstr. 29:677.18. 71...2004) Roles of the cyclooxygenase-2 and oxidative stress in the methamphetamine - induced neurotoxicity Neurosci. Abstr. 29:235.4.

  17. MDMA-induced neurotoxicity of serotonin neurons involves autophagy and rilmenidine is protective against its pathobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Linda D; Higgins, Gavin C; Lau, Chew L; Lawrence, Andrew J; Beart, Philip M

    2017-05-01

    Toxicity of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) towards biogenic amine neurons is well documented and in primate brain predominantly affects serotonin (5-HT) neurons. MDMA induces damage of 5-HT axons and nerve fibres and intracytoplasmic inclusions. Whilst its pathobiology involves mitochondrially-mediated oxidative stress, we hypothesised MDMA possessed the capacity to activate autophagy, a proteostatic mechanism for degradation of cellular debris. We established a culture of ventral pons from embryonic murine brain enriched in 5-HT neurons to explore mechanisms of MDMA neurotoxicity and recruitment of autophagy, and evaluated possible neuroprotective actions of the clinically approved agent rilmenidine. MDMA (100 μM-1 mM) reduced cell viability, like rapamycin (RM) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Immunocytochemistry revealed dieback of 5-HT arbour: MDMA-induced injury was slower than for RM and H 2 O 2 , neuritic blebbing occurred at 48 and 72 h and Hoechst labelling revealed nuclear fragmentation with 100 μM MDMA. MDMA effected concentration-dependent inhibition of [ 3 H]5-HT uptake with 500 μM MDMA totally blocking transport. Western immunoblotting for microtubule associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) revealed autophagosome formation after treatment with MDMA. Confocal analyses and immunocytochemistry for 5-HT, Hoechst and LC3 confirmed MDMA induced autophagy with abundant LC3-positive puncta within 5-HT neurons. Rilmenidine (1 μM) protected against MDMA-induced injury and image analysis showed full preservation of 5-HT arbours. MDMA had no effect on GABA neurons, indicating specificity of action at 5-HT neurons. MDMA-induced neurotoxicity involves autophagy induction in 5-HT neurons, and rilmenidine via beneficial actions against toxic intracellular events represents a potential treatment for its pathobiology in sustained usage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. MAPK/JNK1 activation protects cells against cadmium-induced autophagic cell death via differential regulation of catalase and heme oxygenase-1 in oral cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Keum-Young; Kim, Sang-Hun; Jung, Ki-Tae; Lee, Hyun-Young; Oh, Seon-Hee

    2017-10-01

    Antioxidant enzymes are related to oral diseases. We investigated the roles of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and catalase in cadmium (Cd)-induced oxidative stress and the underlying molecular mechanism in oral cancer cells. Exposing YD8 cells to Cd reduced the expression levels of catalase and superoxide dismutase 1/2 and induced the expression of HO-1 as well as autophagy and apoptosis, which were reversed by N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC). Cd-exposed YD10B cells exhibited milder effects than YD8 cells, indicating that Cd sensitivity is associated with antioxidant enzymes and autophagy. Autophagy inhibition via pharmacologic and genetic modulations enhanced Cd-induced HO-1 expression, caspase-3 cleavage, and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Ho-1 knockdown increased autophagy and apoptosis. Hemin treatment partially suppressed Cd-induced ROS production and apoptosis, but enhanced autophagy and CHOP expression, indicating that autophagy induction is associated with cellular stress. Catalase inhibition by pharmacological and genetic modulations increased Cd-induced ROS production, autophagy, and apoptosis, but suppressed HO-1, indicating that catalase is required for HO-1 induction. p38 inhibition upregulated Cd-induced phospho-JNK and catalase, but suppressed HO-1, autophagy, apoptosis. JNK suppression exhibited contrary results, enhancing the expression of phospho-p38. Co-suppression of p38 and JNK1 failed to upregulate catalase and procaspase-3, which were upregulated by JNK1 overexpression. Overall, the balance between the responses of p38 and JNK activation to Cd appears to have an important role in maintaining cellular homeostasis via the regulation of antioxidant enzymes and autophagy induction. In addition, the upregulation of catalase by JNK1 activation can play a critical role in cell protection against Cd-induced oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Regulation of radiation protective agents on cell damage induced by reactive oxygen species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Hee; Lee, Si Eun; Ju, Eun Mi; Gao, Eu Feng [Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea)

    2002-04-01

    In this study, we developed candidates of new radio-protective agents and elucidated the regulation mechanism of these candidates on cell damage induced by reactive oxygen species. The methanol extracts and ethylacetate fractions of NP-1, NP-5, NP-7, NP-11, NP-12 and NP-14 showed higher radical scavenging activity. The extracts of NP-7, NP-12 and NP-14 showed strong protective effect against oxidative damage induced by UV and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The most of samples enhanced SOD, CAT and GPX activity in V79-4 cells. The protective effect of samples on H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced apoptosis was observed with microscope and flow cytometer. Cells exposed to H{sub 2}O{sub 2} exhibit distinct morphological features of programmed cell death, such as nuclear fragmentation and increase in the percentage of cells with a sub-G1 DNA content. However, cells which was pretreated with samples significantly reduced the characteristics of apoptotic cells. Their morphological observation and DNA profiles were similar to those of the control cells. NP-14 which had excellent antioxidant activity restored G2/M arrest induced by oxidative stress. These data suggested that natural medicinal plants protected H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced apoptosis. 42 refs., 29 figs., 11 tabs. (Author)

  20. Obeticholic acid protects mice against lipopolysaccharide-induced liver injury and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xi; Ren, Yuqian; Cui, Yun; Li, Rui; Wang, Chunxia; Zhang, Yucai

    2017-12-01

    Cholestasis, as a main manifestation, induces liver injury during sepsis. The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) plays an important role in regulating bile acid homeostasis. Whether FXR activation by its agonist obeticholic acid (OCA) is contributed to improve sepsis-induced liver injury remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of OCA on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute liver injury in mice. 8-week old male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into control group, LPS group, oral OCA group and LPS plus oral OCA (LPS + OCA) group. The serum and livers were collected for further analysis. Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bile acid (TBA) and total bilirubin (TBIL) were measured at indicated time after LPS administration. Liver sections were stained with hematoxylin & eosin (H&E). Orally OCA pretreatment stimulated the expression of FXR and BSEP in livers and protected mice from LPS-induced hepatocyte apoptosis and inflammatory infiltration. Consistently, LPS-induced higher serum levels of ALT, AST, TBA and TBIL were significantly reversed by OCA administration. Meanwhile, the mRNA levels of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and IL-6 were decreased in livers of mice in LPS + OCA group compared with LPS group. Further investigation indicated that the higher expression of ATF4 and LC3II/I were associated with the protective effect of OCA on LPS-induced liver injury. Orally OCA pretreatment protects mice from LPS-induced liver injury possibly contributed by improved bile acid homeostasis, decreased inflammatory factors and ATF4-mediated autophagy activity in hepatocytes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. A Salmonella typhimurium ghost vaccine induces cytokine expression in vitro and immune responses in vivo and protects rats against homologous and heterologous challenges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagarajan Vinod

    Full Text Available Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium are important food-borne bacterial pathogens, which are responsible for diarrhea and gastroenteritis in humans and animals. In this study, S. typhimurium bacterial ghost (STG was generated based on minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of sodium hydroxide (NaOH. Experimental studies performed using in vitro and in vivo experimental model systems to characterize effects of STG as a vaccine candidate. When compared with murine macrophages (RAW 264.7 exposed to PBS buffer (98.1%, the macrophages exposed to formalin-killed inactivated cells (FKC, live wild-type bacterial cells and NaOH-induced STG at 1 × 108 CFU/mL showed 85.6%, 66.5% and 84.6% cell viability, respectively. It suggests that STG significantly reduces the cytotoxic effect of wild-type bacterial cells. Furthermore, STG is an excellent inducer for mRNAs of pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α, IL-1β and factor (iNOS, anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10 and dual activities (IL-6 in the stimulated macrophage cells. In vivo, STG vaccine induced humoral and cellular immune responses and protection against homologous and heterologous challenges in rats. Furthermore, the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of STG vaccine were compared with those of FKC and non-vaccinated PBS control groups. The vaccinated rats from STG group exhibited higher levels of serum IgG antibody responses, serum bactericidal antibodies, and CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell populations than those of the FKC and PBS control groups. Most importantly, after challenge with homologous and heterologous strains, the bacterial loads in the STG group were markedly lower than the FKC and PBS control groups. In conclusion, these findings suggest that the STG vaccine induces protective immunity against homologous and heterologous challenges.

  2. Role of Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and the Protective Effect of Silymarin in Cisplatin-Induced Acute Renal Failure in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohamed El-Tantawy; Bana, Eman El; El-Kerdasy, Hanan I

    2018-01-01

    Cisplatin is a highly effective antitumor agent whose clinical application is limited by its nephrotoxicity, which is associated with high mortality and morbidity rates. We aimed to study the protective role of silymarin and mesenchymal stem cells as a therapeutic tool of cisplatin nephrotoxicity. We injected rats with cisplatin in a dose of 5mg/kg body weight for 5 days to induce acute renal failure (ARF). Silymarin was administrated 6 hours before cisplatin injection and mesenchymal stem cells were injected 24 hours after cisplatin-induced ARF. We assessed the ARF biochemically by elevation of kidney function tests and histopathologically by an alteration of the histological architecture of the renal cortex in the form of shrinkage of glomeruli, lobulated tufts and glomerular hypertrophy with narrowing capsular space. The tubules showed extensive tubular degeneration with cellular hyaline materials and debris in the lumen of the renal tubules. The renal blood vessels appeared sclerotic with marked thickened walls. When silymarin was given in different doses before cisplatin, it decreased the toxic effect of cisplatin in the kidney but sclerotic blood vessels remained. Injection of mesenchymal stem cells in rats with cisplatin-induced ARF improved the histopathological effects of cisplatin in renal tissues and kidney function tests were significantly improved. There was a significant improvement in kidney function tests and renal histopathology by using silymarin as protective mechanism in cisplatin-induced ARF. Administration of mesenchymal stem cells denoted a more remarkable therapeutic effect in ARF. Copyright © 2018 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Vitamin-C protect ethanol induced apoptotic neuro degeneration in postnatal rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naseer, M.I.; Najeebullah; Ikramullah; Zubair, H.; Hassan, M.; Yang, B.C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate ethanol effects to induced activation of caspsae-3, and to observe the protective effects of Vitamin C (vit-C) on ethanol-induced apoptotic neuro degeneration in rat cortical area of brain. Methodology: Administration of a single dose of ethanol in 7-d postnatal (P7) rats triggers activation of caspase-3 and widespread apoptotic neuronal death. Western blot analysis, cells counting and Nissl staining were used to elucidate possible protective effect of vit-C against ethanol-induced apoptotic neuro degeneration in brain. Results: The results showed that ethanol significantly increased caspase-3 expression and neuronal apoptosis. Furthermore, the co-treatment of vit-C along with ethanol showed significantly decreased expression of caspase-3 as compare to control group. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that vit-C can prevent some of the deleterious effect of ethanol on developing rat brain when given after ethanol exposure and can be used as an effective protective agent for Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). (author)

  4. Exercise-induced circulating extracellular vesicles protect against cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, Yihua; Xu, Tianzhao; Lv, Dongchao; Yu, Pujiao; Xu, Jiahong; Che, Lin; Das, Avash; Tigges, John; Toxavidis, Vassilios; Ghiran, Ionita; Shah, Ravi; Li, Yongqin; Zhang, Yuhui; Das, Saumya; Xiao, Junjie

    2017-07-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) serve an important function as mediators of intercellular communication. Exercise is protective for the heart, although the signaling mechanisms that mediate this cardioprotection have not been fully elucidated. Here using nano-flow cytometry, we found a rapid increase in plasma EVs in human subjects undergoing exercise stress testing. We subsequently identified that serum EVs were increased by ~1.85-fold in mice after 3-week swimming. Intramyocardial injection of equivalent quantities of EVs from exercised mice and non-exercised controls provided similar protective effects against acute ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in mice. However, injection of exercise-induced EVs in a quantity equivalent to the increase seen with exercise (1.85 swim group) significantly enhanced the protective effect. Similarly, treatment with exercise-induced increased EVs provided additional anti-apoptotic effect in H 2 O 2 -treated H9C2 cardiomyocytes mediated by the activation of ERK1/2 and HSP27 signaling. Finally, by treating H9C2 cells with insulin-like growth factor-1 to mimic exercise stimulus in vitro, we found an increased release of EVs from cardiomyocytes associated with ALIX and RAB35 activation. Collectively, our results show that exercise-induced increase in circulating EVs enhances the protective effects of endogenous EVs against cardiac I/R injury. Exercise-derived EVs might serve as a potent therapy for myocardial injury in the future.

  5. AMPK activation protects cells from oxidative stress-induced senescence via autophagic flux restoration and intracellular NAD(+) elevation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiaojuan; Tai, Haoran; Wang, Xiaobo; Wang, Zhe; Zhou, Jiao; Wei, Xiawei; Ding, Yi; Gong, Hui; Mo, Chunfen; Zhang, Jie; Qin, Jianqiong; Ma, Yuanji; Huang, Ning; Xiang, Rong; Xiao, Hengyi

    2016-06-01

    AMPK activation is beneficial for cellular homeostasis and senescence prevention. However, the molecular events involved in AMPK activation are not well defined. In this study, we addressed the mechanism underlying the protective effect of AMPK on oxidative stress-induced senescence. The results showed that AMPK was inactivated in senescent cells. However, pharmacological activation of AMPK by metformin and berberine significantly prevented the development of senescence and, accordingly, inhibition of AMPK by Compound C was accelerated. Importantly, AMPK activation prevented hydrogen peroxide-induced impairment of the autophagic flux in senescent cells, evidenced by the decreased p62 degradation, GFP-RFP-LC3 cancellation, and activity of lysosomal hydrolases. We also found that AMPK activation restored the NAD(+) levels in the senescent cells via a mechanism involving mostly the salvage pathway for NAD(+) synthesis. In addition, the mechanistic relationship of autophagic flux and NAD(+) synthesis and the involvement of mTOR and Sirt1 activities were assessed. In summary, our results suggest that AMPK prevents oxidative stress-induced senescence by improving autophagic flux and NAD(+) homeostasis. This study provides a new insight for exploring the mechanisms of aging, autophagy and NAD(+) homeostasis, and it is also valuable in the development of innovative strategies to combat aging. © 2016 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The zebrafish miR-125c is induced under hypoxic stress via hypoxia-inducible factor 1α and functions in cellular adaptations and embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yan; Huang, Chun-Xiao; Chen, Nan; Wu, Meng; Huang, Yan; Liu, Hong; Tang, Rong; Wang, Wei-Min; Wang, Huan-Ling

    2017-09-26

    Hypoxia is a unique environmental stress. Hypoxia inducible factor-lα (HIF-lα) is a major transcriptional regulator of cellular adaptations to hypoxic stress. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) as posttranscriptional gene expression regulators occupy a crucial role in cell survival under low-oxygen environment. Previous evidences suggested that miR-125c is involved in hypoxia adaptation, but its precise biological roles and the regulatory mechanism underlying hypoxic responses remain unknown. The present study showed that zebrafish miR-125c is upregulated by hypoxia in a Hif-lα-mediated manner in vitro and in vivo . Dual-luciferase assay revealed that cdc25a is a novel target of miR-125c. An inverse correlation between miR-125c and cdc25a was further confirmed in vivo , suggesting miR-125c as a crucial physiological inhibitor of cdc25a which responds to cellular hypoxia. Overexpression of miR-125c suppressed cell proliferation, led to cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase in ZF4 cells and induced apoptotic responses during embryo development. More importantly, miR-125c overexpression resulted in severe malformation and reduction of motility during zebrafish embryonic development. Taken together, we conclude that miR-125c plays a pivotal role in cellular adaptations to hypoxic stress at least in part through the Hif-1α/miR-125c/cdc25a signaling and has great impact on zebrafish early embryonic development.

  7. Protective Activity of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) against Cellular Oxidative Stress Induced by Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Min; Hyun, Kyung Man; Kim, Jin Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Nili, Mohammad [Dawnesh Radiation Research Institute, Barcelona (Spain); Aroutiounian, Rouben [Yerevan State University, Yerevan (Armenia)

    2009-10-15

    Oxidative stress occurs due to numerous factors such as irradiation, redox decomposition by ions of hydroperoxides or hydrogen peroxide, and thermal decomposition of free radical initiators including peroxides and hyponitrites. The antioxidant and free-radical scavenger N-acetyl- L-cysteine (NAC) is used extensively as a conditional nutrient. NAC acts as a cysteine donor and maintains or even increases the intracellular levels of glutathione (GSH), a tripeptide which protects cells from toxins such as free-radicals. With regard to the radioprotective effects of NAC, the majority of studies have been performed in vitro. NAC were used to protect the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells from radiationinduced apoptosis by controlling the enzyme that triggers programmed cell death. Some studies have successfully demonstrated sporadic radioprotection following low-level chronic administration of NAC, though the mode and optimal dose of NAC are yet to be fully determined. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of NAC in different doses on the activity levels of GSH and the cell viability in the fish cell line against ionizing radiation.

  8. Activation of glutathione peroxidase via Nrf1 mediates genistein's protection against oxidative endothelial cell injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Montes, Eva; Pollard, Susan E.; Vauzour, David; Jofre-Montseny, Laia; Rota, Cristina; Rimbach, Gerald; Weinberg, Peter D.; Spencer, Jeremy P.E.

    2006-01-01

    Cellular actions of isoflavones may mediate the beneficial health effects associated with high soy consumption. We have investigated protection by genistein and daidzein against oxidative stress-induced endothelial injury. Genistein but not daidzein protected endothelial cells from damage induced by oxidative stress. This protection was accompanied by decreases in intracellular glutathione levels that could be explained by the generation of glutathionyl conjugates of the oxidised genistein metabolite, 5,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxyisoflavone. Both isoflavones evoked increased protein expression of γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase-heavy subunit (γ-GCS-HS) and increased cytosolic accumulation and nuclear translocation of Nrf2. However, only genistein led to increases in the cytosolic accumulation and nuclear translocation of Nrf1 and the increased expression of and activity of glutathione peroxidase. These results suggest that genistein-induced protective effects depend primarily on the activation of glutathione peroxidase mediated by Nrf1 activation, and not on Nrf2 activation or increases in glutathione synthesis

  9. Carvedilol-mediated antioxidant protection against doxorubicin-induced cardiac mitochondrial toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Paulo J.; Bjork, James A.; Santos, Maria S.; Leino, Richard L.; Froberg, M. Kent; Moreno, Antonio J.; Wallace, Kendall B.

    2004-01-01

    The cardiotoxicity associated with doxorubicin (DOX) therapy limits the total cumulative dose and therapeutic success of active anticancer chemotherapy. Cardiac mitochondria are implicated as primary targets for DOX toxicity, which is believed to be mediated by the generation of highly reactive free radical species of oxygen from complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The objective of this study was to determine if the protection demonstrated by carvedilol (CV), a β-adrenergic receptor antagonist with strong antioxidant properties, against DOX-induced mitochondrial-mediated cardiomyopathy [Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 185 (2002) 218] is attributable to its antioxidant properties or its β-adrenergic receptor antagonism. Our results confirm that DOX induces oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and histopathological lesions in the cardiac tissue, all of which are inhibited by carvedilol. In contrast, atenolol (AT), a β-adrenergic receptor antagonist lacking antioxidant properties, preserved phosphate energy charge but failed to protect against any of the indexes of DOX-induced oxidative mitochondrial toxicity. We therefore conclude that the cardioprotective effects of carvedilol against DOX-induced mitochondrial cardiotoxicity are due to its inherent antioxidant activity and not to its β-adrenergic receptor antagonism

  10. Nickel, lead, and cadmium induce differential cellular responses in sea urchin embryos by activating the synthesis of different HSP70s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraci, Fabiana; Pinsino, Annalisa; Turturici, Guiseppina; Savona, Rosalia; Giudice, Giovanni; Sconzo, Gabriella

    2004-01-01

    Treatment with heavy metals, such as nickel, lead or cadmium, elicits different cellular stress responses according to the metal used and the length of treatment. In Paracentrotus lividus embryos the inducible forms of HSP70 (HSP70/72) are different in molecular mass from the constitutively expressed HSP75, and they can be used as markers of cellular stress. Even a short treatment with each metal induces the synthesis of HSP70/72 which remain stable for at least 20 h and differ little in their isoelectric points. Continuous treatment from fertilization with nickel or lead produces late irregular pluteus embryos, with peak HSP70/72 synthesis at blastula followed by the arrest of synthesis by pluteus. On the contrary, the same treatment with cadmium induces continuous HSP70/72 synthesis and produces irregular gastrula embryos which then degenerate. Moreover, a long treatment induces over control embryos a slight increase in the amount of constitutive HSP75 during development while lead treatment depresses constitutive HSP75 at early stages and doubles its quantity at late stages

  11. Ursolic Acid-enriched herba cynomorii extract induces mitochondrial uncoupling and glutathione redox cycling through mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation: protection against menadione cytotoxicity in h9c2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jihang; Wong, Hoi Shan; Ko, Kam Ming

    2014-01-27

    Herba Cynomorii (Cynomorium songaricum Rupr., Cynomoriaceae) is one of the most commonly used 'Yang-invigorating' tonic herbs in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). An earlier study in our laboratory has demonstrated that HCY2, an ursolic acid-enriched fraction derived from Herba Cynomorii, increased mitochondrial ATP generation capacity (ATP-GC) and induced mitochondrial uncoupling as well as a cellular glutathione response, thereby protecting against oxidant injury in H9c2 cells. In this study, we demonstrated that pre-incubation of H9c2 cells with HCY2 increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in these cells, which is likely an event secondary to the stimulation of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The suppression of mitochondrial ROS by the antioxidant dimethylthiourea abrogated the HCY2-induced enhancement of mitochondrial uncoupling and glutathione reductase (GR)-mediated glutathione redox cycling, and also protected against menadione-induced cytotoxicity. Studies using specific inhibitors of uncoupling protein and GR suggested that the HCY2-induced mitochondrial uncoupling and glutathione redox cycling play a determining role in the cytoprotection against menadione-induced oxidant injury in H9c2 cells. Experimental evidence obtained thus far supports the causal role of HCY2-induced mitochondrial ROS production in eliciting mitochondrial uncoupling and glutathione antioxidant responses, which offer cytoprotection against oxidant injury in H9c2 cells.

  12. Sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction and myocardial protection from ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Kathleen H; Virag, Jitka Ismail

    2006-01-01

    Sepsis, bacteremia and inflammation cause myocardial depression. The mechanism of the dysfunction is not clearly established partly because dysfunction can be elicited by many different mechanisms which can all manifest in disruption of myocardial mechanical function. In addition the models of sepsis and bacteremia and inflammation may vary drastically in the sequence of the coordinated immune response to the inflammatory or septic stimulus. Patterns of cytokine expression can vary as can other responses of the immune system. Patterns of neurohumoral activation in response to the stress of sepsis or bacteremia or inflammation can also vary in both magnitude of response and temporal sequence of response. Stress induced activation of the sympathetic nervous system and humoral responses to stress have a wide range of intensity that can be elicited. The fairly uniform response of the myocardium indicating cardiac dysfunction is surprisingly constant. Systolic performance, as measured by stroke volume or cardiac output and pressure work as estimated by ventricular pressure, are impaired when myocardial contraction is compromised. At times, diastolic function, assessed by ventricular relaxation and filling, is impaired. In addition to the dysfunction that occurs, there is a longer term response of the myocardium to sepsis, and this response is similar to that which is elicited in the heart by multiple brief ischemia/reperfusion episodes and by numerous pharmacological agents as well as heat stress and modified forms of lipopolysaccharide. The myocardium develops protection after an initial stress such that during a second stress, the myocardium does not exhibit as much damage as does a non-protected heart. Many agents can induce this protection which has been termed preconditioning. Both early preconditioning (protection that is measurable min to hours after the initial stimulus) and late preconditioning (protection that is measurable hours to days after the initial

  13. Protective effect of zinc aspartate against acetaminophen induced hepato-renal toxicity in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, E.T.; Said, A.I.; El-Sayed, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Zinc is an essential nutrient that is required in humans and animals for many physiological functions, including antioxidant functions. The evidence to date indicates that zinc is an important element that links antioxidant system and tissue damage. Acetaminophen (AP), a widely used analgesic and antipyretic, produces hepatocyte and renal tubular necrosis in human and animals following overdose. In human, AP is one of the most common causes of acute liver failure as a result of accidental or deliberate overdose. Moreover, the initial event in AP toxicity is a toxic metabolic injury with the release of free radicals and subsequent cellular death by necrosis and apoptosis. This study was designed to evaluate the potential protective role of zinc aspartate in case of acetaminophen induced hepato-renal toxicity in rats. A total number of 32 adult male albino rats were divided into 4 equal groups: group I (control group), group II (zinc aspartate treated group), group III (acetaminophen treated group; by a single oral dose of 750 mg/kg body weight) and group IV acetaminophen plus zinc treated group; (zinc aspartate was intraperitoneally given one hour after acetaminophen administration in a dose of 30 mg/kg body weight). Serum levels of: alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, direct bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, uric acid, xanthine oxidase (XO), glutathione (GSH), malonaldehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) were assessed in all groups. The results of this study showed that treatment with acetaminophen alone (group III) produced a significant increase in serum levels of the liver enzymes and direct bilirubin. Moreover, in the same group there was a significant increase in the blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine compared to the control group. In addition, there was a significant increase in XO and MDA and a significant decrease in GSH and NO level. Injection of rats with zinc aspartate after acetaminophen treatment could produce a

  14. Portulaca oleracea extracts protect human keratinocytes and fibroblasts from UV-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suyeon; Kim, Ki Ho; Park, Changhoon; Lee, Jong-Suk; Kim, Young Heui

    2014-10-01

    Portulaca oleracea extracts, known as Ma Chi Hyun in the traditional Korean medicine, show a variety of biomedical efficacies including those in anti-inflammation and anti-allergy. In this study, we investigate the protective activity of the P. oleracea extracts against UVB-induced damage in human epithelial keratinocytes and fibroblasts by several apoptosis-related tests. The results suggest that P. oleracea extracts have protective effects from UVB-induced apoptosis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Coupling mechanisms between nucleosome assembly and the cellular response to DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lautrette, Aurelie

    2006-01-01

    Cells are continuously exposed to genotoxic stresses that induce a variety of DNA lesions. To protect their genome, cells have specific pathways that orchestrate the detection, signaling and repair of DNA damages. This work is dedicated to the characterization of such pathways that couple the DNA damage response to the assembly of chromatin, a complex that protects and regulates DNA accessibility. We have focused our study on two multifunctional proteins: Rad53, a central checkpoint kinase in the cellular response to DNA damage and Asf1, a histone chaperone involved in chromatin assembly. We have characterized in vitro the binding mode of Asf1 with Rad53 and Asfl with histones. This study is associated with the functional analysis of the role of these interactions in vivo in yeast cells. (author) [fr

  16. Compound C prevents Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α protein stabilization by regulating the cellular oxygen availability via interaction with Mitochondrial Complex I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagen Thilo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The transcription factor Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α is a master regulator of the cellular response to low oxygen concentration. Compound C, an inhibitor of AMP-activated kinase, has been reported to inhibit hypoxia dependent Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α activation via a mechanism that is independent of AMP-activated kinase but dependent on its interaction with the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The objective of this study is to characterize the interaction of Compound C with the mitochondrial electron transport chain and to determine the mechanism through which the drug influences the stability of the Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α protein. We found that Compound C functions as an inhibitor of complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain as demonstrated by its effect on mitochondrial respiration. It also prevents hypoxia-induced Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α stabilization in a dose dependent manner. In addition, Compound C does not have significant effects on reactive oxygen species production from complex I via both forward and reverse electron flux. This study provides evidence that similar to other mitochondrial electron transport chain inhibitors, Compound C regulates Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α stability by controlling the cellular oxygen concentration.

  17. N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine Affords Protection against Lead-Induced Cytotoxicity and Oxidative Stress in Human Liver Carcinoma (HepG2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Although lead exposure has declined in recent years as a result of change to lead-free gasoline, several epidemiological have pointed out that it represents a medical and public health emergency, especially in young children consuming high amounts of lead-contaminated flake paints. A previous study in our laboratory indicated that lead exposure induces cytotoxicity in human liver carcinoma cells. In the present study, we evaluated the role of oxidative stress in lead-induced toxicity, and the protective effect of the anti-oxidant n-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC. We hypothesized that oxidative stress plays a role in lead-induced cytotoxicity, and that NAC affords protection against this adverse effect. To test this hypothesis, we performed the MTT [3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay and the trypan blue exclusion test for cell viability. We also performed the thiobarbituric acid test for lipid peroxidation. Data obtained from the MTT assay indicated that NAC significantly increased the viability of HepG2 cells in a dosedependent manner upon 48 hours of exposure. Similar trend was obtained with the trypan blue exclusion test. Data generated from the thiobarbituric acid test showed a significant (p ≤ 0.05 increase of MDA levels in lead nitrate-treated HepG2 cells compared to control cells. Interestingly, the addition of NAC to lead nitrate-treated HepG2 cells significantly decreased cellular content of reactive oxygen species (ROS, as evidenced by the decrease in lipid peroxidation byproducts. Overall, findings from this study suggest that NAC inhibits lead nitrate-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in HepG2 cells. Hence, NAC may be used as a salvage therapy for lead-induced toxicity in exposed persons.

  18. Melatonin protects against lead-induced hepatic and renal toxicity in male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sokkary, Gamal H.; Abdel-Rahman, Gamal H.; Kamel, Esam S.

    2005-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the potential protective effect of melatonin against the hepatic and renal toxicity of lead in male rats. Three groups of animals were used in this study (control, lead acetate-treated (100 mg/kg), and lead acetate plus melatonin (10 mg/kg) for 30 days. Levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) products, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, total glutathione (GSH), histopathological changes in the liver and kidneys were investigated. In addition, nuclear area (NA), nuclear volume (NV) and the ratio of nuclear volume/cellular volume (N/C) were measured in the liver. The results revealed increased LPO and decreased SOD, GSH, NA, NV and N/C in the studied organs of lead-treated rats. Histopathological observations showed severe damage in the liver and kidneys. Melatonin co-treatment to the lead-administered rats attenuated the increase of LPO and restored the activity of SOD and levels of GSH as well as the mean values of NA, NV and N/C. Also, the morphological damage in the liver and kidneys was reduced and the tissues appeared like those of controls. The present study suggests that melatonin may be useful in combating free radical-induced damage due to lead toxicity

  19. Co-administration of plasmid expressing IL-12 with 14-kDa Schistosoma mansoni fatty acid-binding protein cDNA alters immune response profiles and fails to enhance protection induced by Sm14 DNA vaccine alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Cristina T; Pacífico, Lucila G G; Barsante, Michele M; Rassi, Tatiana; Cassali, Geovanni D; Oliveira, Sérgio C

    2006-08-01

    Schistosomiasis is an endemic disease that affects 200 million people worldwide. DNA-based vaccine is a promising strategy to induce protective immunity against schistosomiasis, since both humoral and cellular immune responses are involved in parasite elimination. In this study, we evaluated the ability of Sm14 cDNA alone or in association with a plasmid expressing murine interleukin (IL)-12 to induce protection against challenge infection. Mice were immunized with four doses of the DNA vaccine and the levels of protection were determined by worm burden recovery after challenge infection. Specific antibody production to rSm14 was determined by ELISA, and cytokine production was measured in splenocyte culture supernatants stimulated with rSm14 and in bronchoalveolar lavage of vaccinated mice after challenge infection. DNA immunization with pCI/Sm14 alone induced 40.5% of worm reduction. However, the use of pCI/IL-12 as adjuvant to pCI/Sm14 immunization failed to enhance protection against challenge infection. Protection induced by pCI/Sm14 immunization correlates with specific IgG antibody production against Sm14, Th1 type of immune response with high levels of interferon (IFN)-gamma and low levels of IL-4 in splenocyte culture supernatants and in bronchoalveolar lavage after challenge infection. IL-12 co-administration with pCI/Sm14 induced a significant production of nitric oxide in splenocyte culture supernatants and also lymphocyte suppression, with reduced percentage of T cells producing IFN-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

  20. Protection against methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity to neostriatal dopaminergic neurons by adenosine receptor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delle Donne, K T; Sonsalla, P K

    1994-12-01

    Methamphetamine (METH)-induced neurotoxicity to nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons in experimental animals appears to have a glutamatergic component because blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors prevents the neuropathologic consequences. Because adenosine affords neuroprotection against various forms of glutamate-mediated neuronal damage, the present studies were performed to investigate whether adenosine plays a protective role in METH-induced toxicity. METH-induced decrements in neostriatal dopamine content and tyrosine hydroxylase activity in mice were potentiated by concurrent treatment with caffeine, a nonselective adenosine antagonist that blocks both A1 and A2 adenosine receptors. In contrast, chronic treatment of mice with caffeine through their drinking water for 4 weeks, which increased the number of adenosine A1 receptors in the neostriatum and frontal cortex, followed by drug washout, prevented the neurochemical changes produced by the treatment of mice with METH treatment. In contrast, this treatment did not prevent 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6- tetrahydropyridine-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity. Furthermore, concurrent administration of cyclopentyladenosine, an adenosine A1 receptor agonist, attenuated the METH-induced neurochemical changes. This protection by cyclopentyladenosine was blocked by cyclopentyltheophylline, an A1 receptor antagonist. These results indicate that activation of A1 receptors can protect against METH-induced neurotoxicity in mice.

  1. Multiple repair pathways mediate cellular tolerance to resveratrol-induced DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Wu, Xiaohua; Hu, Xiaoqing; Chen, Ziyuan; Liu, Hao; Takeda, Shunichi; Qing, Yong

    2017-08-01

    Resveratrol (RSV) has been reported to exert health benefits for the prevention and treatment of many diseases, including cancer. The anticancer mechanisms of RSV seem to be complex and may be associated with genotoxic potential. To better understand the genotoxic mechanisms, we used wild-type (WT) and a panel of isogenic DNA-repair deficient DT40 cell lines to identify the DNA damage effects and molecular mechanisms of cellular tolerance to RSV. Our results showed that RSV induced significant formation of γ-H2AX foci and chromosome aberrations (CAs) in WT cells, suggesting direct DNA damage effects. Comparing the survival of WT with isogenic DNA-repair deficient DT40 cell lines demonstrated that single strand break repair (SSBR) deficient cell lines of Parp1 -/- , base excision repair (BER) deficient cell lines of Polβ -/- , homologous recombination (HR) mutants of Brca1 -/- and Brca2 -/- and translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) mutants of Rev3 -/- and Rad18 -/- were more sensitive to RSV. The sensitivities of cells were associated with enhanced DNA damage comparing the accumulation of γ-H2AX foci and number of CAs of isogenic DNA-repair deficient DT40 cell lines with WT cells. These results clearly demonstrated that RSV-induced DNA damage in DT40 cells, and multiple repair pathways including BER, SSBR, HR and TLS, play critical roles in response to RSV- induced genotoxicity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. High-resolution sub-cellular imaging by correlative NanoSIMS and electron microscopy of amiodarone internalisation by lung macrophages as evidence for drug-induced phospholipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Haibo; Passarelli, Melissa K; Munro, Peter M G; Kilburn, Matt R; West, Andrew; Dollery, Colin T; Gilmore, Ian S; Rakowska, Paulina D

    2017-01-26

    Correlative NanoSIMS and EM imaging of amiodarone-treated macrophages shows the internalisation of the drug at a sub-cellular level and reveals its accumulation within the lysosomes, providing direct evidence for amiodarone-induced phospholipidosis. Chemical fixation using tannic acid effectively seals cellular membranes aiding intracellular retention of diffusible drugs.

  3. HPN-07, a free radical spin trapping agent, protects against functional, cellular and electrophysiological changes in the cochlea induced by acute acoustic trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ning; Du, Xiaoping; Li, Wei; West, Matthew B.; Choi, Chul-Hee; Floyd, Robert; Kopke, Richard D.

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress is considered a major cause of the structural and functional changes associated with auditory pathologies induced by exposure to acute acoustic trauma AAT). In the present study, we examined the otoprotective effects of 2,4-disulfophenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone (HPN-07), a nitrone-based free radical trap, on the physiological and cellular changes in the auditory system of chinchilla following a six-hour exposure to 4 kHz octave band noise at 105 dB SPL. HPN-07 has been shown to suppress oxidative stress in biological models of a variety of disorders. Our results show that administration of HPN-07 beginning four hours after acoustic trauma accelerated and enhanced auditory/cochlear functional recovery, as measured by auditory brainstem responses (ABR), distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE), compound action potentials (CAP), and cochlear microphonics (CM). The normally tight correlation between the endocochlear potential (EP) and evoked potentials of CAP and CM were persistently disrupted after noise trauma in untreated animals but returned to homeostatic conditions in HPN-07 treated animals. Histological analyses revealed several therapeutic advantages associated with HPN-07 treatment following AAT, including reductions in inner and outer hair cell loss; reductions in AAT-induced loss of calretinin-positive afferent nerve fibers in the spiral lamina; and reductions in fibrocyte loss within the spiral ligament. These findings support the conclusion that early intervention with HPN-07 following an AAT efficiently blocks the propagative ototoxic effects of oxidative stress, thereby preserving the homeostatic and functional integrity of the cochlea. PMID:28832600

  4. Exposure to low infective doses of HCV induces cellular immune responses without consistently detectable viremia or seroconversion in chimpanzees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shata, Mohamed Tarek; Tricoche, Nancy; Perkus, Marion; Tom, Darley; Brotman, Betsy; McCormack, Patricia; Pfahler, Wolfram; Lee, Dong-Hun; Tobler, Leslie H.; Busch, Michael; Prince, Alfred M.

    2003-01-01

    In hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, there is accumulating data suggesting the presence of cellular immune responses to HCV in exposed but seemingly uninfected populations. Some studies have suggested cross-reactive antigens rather than prior HCV exposure as the main reason for the immune responses. In this study we address this question by analyzing the immune response of chimpanzees that have been sequentially exposed to increasing doses of HCV virions. The level of viremia, as well as the immune responses to HCV at different times after virus inoculation, were examined. Our data indicate that HCV infective doses as low as 1-10 RNA (+) virions induce detectable cellular immune responses in chimpanzees without consistently detectable viremia or persistent seroconversion. However, increasing the infective doses of HCV to 100 RNA (+) virions overcame the low-inoculum-induced immune response and produced high-level viremia followed by seroconversion

  5. Protective effect of bicyclol on tetracycline-induced fatty liver in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Hong-Yan; Wang, Bao-Lian; Zhao, Jing; Yao, Xiao-Min; Gu, Yu; Li, Yan

    2009-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor α (PPARα) and oxidative stress are two important pathological factors in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Tetracycline-induced fatty liver was partly due to the disturbance of mitochondrial fatty acids β-oxidation regulated by PPARα. Bicyclol was found to protect against high fat diet-induced fatty liver through modulating PPARα and clearing reactive oxygen species (ROS). The present study was performed to further investigate the effect of bicyclol on tetracycline-induced fatty liver and related mechanism in mice. Bicyclol (75, 150, 300 mg/kg) was given orally three times in two consecutive days. Tetracycline (200 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally 1 h after the last administration of bicyclol. Oxidative stress, mitochondrial function, PPARα and its target genes were evaluated by biochemical and RT-PCR analysis. The activity of CYP4A was assessed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) method. Bicyclol significantly protected against tetracycline-induced fatty liver by reducing the accumulation of hepatic lipids and elevation of serum aminotransferase. In addition, bicyclol remarkably alleviated the over-production of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance. The reduced activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) complexes I and IV and mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) were also improved by bicyclol. Furthermore, bicyclol inhibited the decrease of PPARα expression and its target genes, including long-chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase (LCAD), acetyl CoA oxidase (AOX) and CYP4A at mRNA and enzyme activity level. Bicyclol protected against tetracycline-induced fatty liver mainly through modulating the disturbance of PPARα pathway and ameliorating mitochondrial function.

  6. Antioxidant-Rich Fraction of Urtica dioica Mediated Rescue of Striatal Mito-Oxidative Damage in MPTP-Induced Behavioral, Cellular, and Neurochemical Alterations in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisht, Rohit; Joshi, Bhuwan Chandra; Kalia, Ajudhiya Nath; Prakash, Atish

    2017-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) having a complex and multi-factorial neuropathology includes mainly the degeneration of the dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway, which is a cumulative effect of depleted endogenous antioxidant enzymes, increased oxidative DNA damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, excitotoxicity, and neuroinflammation. The present study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective effect of a potent antioxidant from Urtica dioica in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model of parkinsonism. MPTP was administered intranigrally for the induction of PD in male Wistar rats. Behavioral alterations were assessed in between the study period. Animals were sacrificed immediately after behavioral session, and different biochemical, cellular, and neurochemical parameters were measured. Intranigrally repeated administration of MPTP showed significant impairment of motor co-ordination and marked increase of mito-oxidative damage and neuroinflammation in rats. Intranigral MPTP significantly decreases the dopamine and its metabolites with impairment of dopaminergic cell density in rat brain. However, post-treatment with the potent antioxidant fraction of Urtica dioica Linn. (UD) (20, 40, 80 mg/kg) improved the motor function, mito-oxidative defense alteration significantly and dose dependently in MPTP-treated rats. In addition, the potent antioxidant fraction of UD attenuated the pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-β) and restored the level of dopamine and its metabolites in MPTP-induced PD in rats. Moreover, minocycline (30 mg/kg) with lower dose of UD (20 mg/kg) had significantly potentiated the protective effect of minocycline as compared to its effect with other individual drug-treated groups. In conclusion, Urtica dioica protected the dopaminergic neurons probably by reducing mito-oxidative damage, neuroinflammation, and cellular alteration along with enhanced neurotrophic potential. The above results revealed that the antioxidant rich

  7. Arsenic-induced oxidative myocardial injury: protective role of arjunolic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manna, Prasenjit; Sinha, Mahua; Sil, Parames C. [Bose Institute, Department of Chemistry, Kolkata, West Bengal (India)

    2008-03-15

    Arsenic, one of the most harmful metalloids, is ubiquitous in the environment. The present study has been carried out to investigate the protective role of a triterpenoid saponin, arjunolic acid (AA) against arsenic-induced cardiac oxidative damage. In the study, NaAsO{sub 2} was chosen as the source of arsenic. The free radical scavenging activity and the effect of AA on the intracellular antioxidant power were determined from its 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl radical scavenging ability and ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay, respectively. Oral administration of NaAsO{sub 2} at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight for 2 days caused significant accumulation of arsenic in cardiac tissues of the experimental mice in association with the reduction in cardiac antioxidant enzymes activities, namely superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase. Arsenic intoxication also decreased the cardiac glutathione (GSH) and total thiol contents and increased the levels of oxidized glutathione (GSSG), lipid peroxidation end products and protein carbonyl content. Treatment with AA at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight for 4 days prior to NaAsO{sub 2} intoxication protected the cardiac tissue from arsenic-induced oxidative impairment. In addition to oxidative stress, arsenic administration increased total cholesterol level as well as the reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level in the sera of the experimental mice. AA pretreatment, however, could prevent this hyperlipidemia. Histological studies on the ultrastructural changes in cardiac tissue supported the protective activity of AA also. Combining all, results suggest that AA could protect cardiac tissues against arsenic-induced oxidative stress probably due to its antioxidant property. (orig.)

  8. A DNA vaccine against chikungunya virus is protective in mice and induces neutralizing antibodies in mice and nonhuman primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthik Mallilankaraman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is an emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus indigenous to tropical Africa and Asia. Acute illness is characterized by fever, arthralgias, conjunctivitis, rash, and sometimes arthritis. Relatively little is known about the antigenic targets for immunity, and no licensed vaccines or therapeutics are currently available for the pathogen. While the Aedes aegypti mosquito is its primary vector, recent evidence suggests that other carriers can transmit CHIKV thus raising concerns about its spread outside of natural endemic areas to new countries including the U.S. and Europe. Considering the potential for pandemic spread, understanding the development of immunity is paramount to the development of effective counter measures against CHIKV. In this study, we isolated a new CHIKV virus from an acutely infected human patient and developed a defined viral challenge stock in mice that allowed us to study viral pathogenesis and develop a viral neutralization assay. We then constructed a synthetic DNA vaccine delivered by in vivo electroporation (EP that expresses a component of the CHIKV envelope glycoprotein and used this model to evaluate its efficacy. Vaccination induced robust antigen-specific cellular and humoral immune responses, which individually were capable of providing protection against CHIKV challenge in mice. Furthermore, vaccine studies in rhesus macaques demonstrated induction of nAb responses, which mimicked those induced in convalescent human patient sera. These data suggest a protective role for nAb against CHIKV disease and support further study of envelope-based CHIKV DNA vaccines.

  9. Role of Nrf2 antioxidant defense in mitigating cadmium-induced oxidative stress in the olfactory system of zebrafish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lu; Gallagher, Evan P., E-mail: evang3@uw.edu

    2013-01-15

    Exposure to trace metals can disrupt olfactory function in fish leading to a loss of behaviors critical to survival. Cadmium (Cd) is an olfactory toxicant that elicits cellular oxidative stress as a mechanism of toxicity while also inducing protective cellular antioxidant genes via activation of the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) pathway. However, the molecular mechanisms of Cd-induced olfactory injury have not been characterized. In the present study, we investigated the role of the Nrf2-mediated antioxidant defense pathway in protecting against Cd-induced olfactory injury in zebrafish. A dose-dependent induction of Nrf2-regulated antioxidant genes associated with cellular responses to oxidative stress was observed in the olfactory system of adult zebrafish following 24 h Cd exposure. Zebrafish larvae exposed to Cd for 3 h showed increased glutathione S-transferase pi (gst pi), glutamate–cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (gclc), heme oxygenase 1 (hmox1) and peroxiredoxin 1 (prdx1) mRNA levels indicative of Nrf2 activation, and which were blocked by morpholino-mediated Nrf2 knockdown. The inhibition of antioxidant gene induction in Cd-exposed Nrf2 morphants was associated with disruption of olfactory driven behaviors, increased cell death and loss of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). Nrf2 morphants also exhibited a downregulation of OSN-specific genes after Cd exposure. Pre-incubation of embryos with sulforaphane (SFN) partially protected against Cd-induced olfactory tissue damage. Collectively, our results indicate that oxidative stress is an important mechanism of Cd-mediated injury in the zebrafish olfactory system. Moreover, the Nrf2 pathway plays a protective role against cellular oxidative damage and is important in maintaining zebrafish olfactory function. -- Highlights: ► Oxidative stress is an important mechanism of Cd-mediated olfactory injury. ► Cd induces antioxidant gene expression in the zebrafish olfactory system. ► The

  10. Genetic Ablation of CD38 Protects against Western Diet-Induced Exercise Intolerance and Metabolic Inflexibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shian-Huey Chiang

    Full Text Available Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ is a key cofactor required for essential metabolic oxidation-reduction reactions. It also regulates various cellular activities, including gene expression, signaling, DNA repair and calcium homeostasis. Intracellular NAD+ levels are tightly regulated and often respond rapidly to nutritional and environmental changes. Numerous studies indicate that elevating NAD+ may be therapeutically beneficial in the context of numerous diseases. However, the role of NAD+ on skeletal muscle exercise performance is poorly understood. CD38, a multi-functional membrane receptor and enzyme, consumes NAD+ to generate products such as cyclic-ADP-ribose. CD38 knockout mice show elevated tissue and blood NAD+ level. Chronic feeding of high-fat, high-sucrose diet to wild type mice leads to exercise intolerance and reduced metabolic flexibility. Loss of CD38 by genetic mutation protects mice from diet-induced metabolic deficit. These animal model results suggest that elevation of tissue NAD+ through genetic ablation of CD38 can profoundly alter energy homeostasis in animals that are maintained on a calorically-excessive Western diet.

  11. Nrf2 protects human bladder urothelial cells from arsenite and monomethylarsonous acid toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaojun; Sun Zheng; Chen Weimin; Eblin, Kylee E.; Gandolfi, Jay A.; Zhang, Donna D.

    2007-01-01

    Arsenic is widely spread in our living environment and imposes a big challenge on human health worldwide. Arsenic damages biological systems through multiple mechanisms including the generation of reactive oxygen species. The transcription factor Nrf2 regulates the cellular antioxidant response that protects cells from various insults. In this study, the protective role of Nrf2 in arsenic toxicity was investigated in a human bladder urothelial cell line, UROtsa. Using a UROtsa cell line stably infected with Nrf2-siRNA, we clearly demonstrate that compromised Nrf2 expression sensitized the cells to As(III)- and MMA(III)-induced toxicity. On the other hand, the activation of the Nrf2 pathway by tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ) and sulforaphane (SF), the known Nrf2-inducers, rendered UROtsa cells more resistant to As(III) and MMA(III). Furthermore, the wild-type mouse embryo fibroblast (WT-MEF) cells were protected from As(III)- and MMA(III)-induced toxicity following Nrf2 activation by tBHQ or SF, whereas neither tBHQ nor SF conferred protection in the Nrf2 -/- MEF cells, demonstrating that tBHQ- or SF-mediated protection against As(III)- and MMA(III)-induced toxicity depends on Nrf2 activation. These results, obtained by both loss of function and gain of function analyses, clearly demonstrate the protective role of Nrf2 in arsenic-induced toxicity. The current work lays the groundwork for using Nrf2 activators for therapeutic and dietary interventions against adverse effects of arsenic

  12. Paracetamol: overdose-induced oxidative stress toxicity, metabolism, and protective effects of various compounds in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Wu, Qinghua; Liu, Aimei; Anadón, Arturo; Rodríguez, José-Luis; Martínez-Larrañaga, María-Rosa; Yuan, Zonghui; Martínez, María-Aránzazu

    2017-11-01

    Paracetamol (APAP) is one of the most widely used and popular over-the-counter analgesic and antipyretic drugs in the world when used at therapeutic doses. APAP overdose can cause severe liver injury, liver necrosis and kidney damage in human beings and animals. Many studies indicate that oxidative stress is involved in the various toxicities associated with APAP, and various antioxidants were evaluated to investigate their protective roles against APAP-induced liver and kidney toxicities. To date, almost no review has addressed the APAP toxicity in relation to oxidative stress. This review updates the research conducted over the past decades into the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), and oxidative stress as a result of APAP treatments, and ultimately their correlation with the toxicity and metabolism of APAP. The metabolism of APAP involves various CYP450 enzymes, through which oxidative stress might occur, and such metabolic factors are reviewed within. The therapeutics of a variety of compounds against APAP-induced organ damage based on their anti-oxidative effects is also discussed, in order to further understand the role of oxidative stress in APAP-induced toxicity. This review will throw new light on the critical roles of oxidative stress in APAP-induced toxicity, as well as on the contradictions and blind spots that still exist in the understanding of APAP toxicity, the cellular effects in terms of organ injury and cell signaling pathways, and finally strategies to help remedy such against oxidative damage.

  13. Inducing repetitive action potential firing in neurons via synthesized photoresponsive nanoscale cellular prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Siyuan; Madhukar, Anupam

    2013-02-01

    Recently we reported an analysis that examined the potential of synthesized photovoltaic functional abiotic nanosystems (PVFANs) to modulate membrane potential and activate action potential firing in neurons. Here we extend the analysis to delineate the requirements on the electronic energy levels and the attendant photophysical properties of the PVFANs to induce repetitive action potential under continuous light, a capability essential for the proposed potential application of PVFANs as retinal cellular prostheses to compensate for loss of photoreceptors. We find that repetitive action potential firing demands two basic characteristics in the electronic response of the PVFANs: an exponential dependence of the PVFAN excited state decay rate on the membrane potential and a three-state system such that, following photon absorption, the electron decay from the excited state to the ground state is via intermediate state(s) whose lifetime is comparable to the refractory time following an action potential. In this study, the potential of synthetic photovoltaic functional abiotic nanosystems (PVFANs) is examined under continuous light to modulate membrane potential and activate action potential firing in neurons with the proposed potential application of PVFANs as retinal cellular prostheses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. EGCG Protects against 6-OHDA-Induced Neurotoxicity in a Cell Culture Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Parkinson’s disease (PD is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that causes severe brain dopamine depletion. Disruption of iron metabolism may be involved in the PD progression. Objective. To test the protective effect of (−-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG against 6-hydroxydopamine- (6-OHDA- induced neurotoxicity by regulating iron metabolism in N27 cells. Methods. Protection by EGCG in N27 cells was assessed by SYTOX green assay, MTT, and caspase-3 activity. Iron regulatory gene and protein expression were measured by RT-PCR and Western blotting. Intracellular iron uptake was measured using 55Fe. The EGCG protection was further tested in primary mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons by immunocytochemistry. Results. EGCG protected against 6-OHDA-induced cell toxicity. 6-OHDA treatment significantly (p<0.05 increased divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1 and hepcidin and decreased ferroportin 1 (Fpn1 level, whereas pretreatment with EGCG counteracted the effects. The increased 55Fe (by 96%, p<0.01 cell uptake confirmed the iron burden by 6-OHDA and was reduced by EGCG by 27% (p<0.05, supporting the DMT1 results. Pretreatment with EGCG and 6-OHDA significantly increased (p<0.0001 TH+ cell count (~3-fold and neurite length (~12-fold compared to 6-OHDA alone in primary mesencephalic neurons. Conclusions. Pretreatment with EGCG protected against 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity by regulating genes and proteins involved in brain iron homeostasis, especially modulating hepcidin levels.

  15. UV-blocking spectacle lens protects against UV-induced decline of visual performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Jyh-Cheng; Teng, Mei-Ching; Tsai, Yun-Shan; Lin, En-Chieh; Chen, Bo-Yie

    2015-01-01

    Excessive exposure to sunlight may be a risk factor for ocular diseases and reduced visual performance. This study was designed to examine the ability of an ultraviolet (UV)-blocking spectacle lens to prevent visual acuity decline and ocular surface disorders in a mouse model of UVB-induced photokeratitis. Mice were divided into 4 groups (10 mice per group): (1) a blank control group (no exposure to UV radiation), (2) a UVB/no lens group (mice exposed to UVB rays, but without lens protection), (3) a UVB/UV400 group (mice exposed to UVB rays and protected using the CR-39™ spectacle lens [UV400 coating]), and (4) a UVB/photochromic group (mice exposed to UVB rays and protected using the CR-39™ spectacle lens [photochromic coating]). We investigated UVB-induced changes in visual acuity and in corneal smoothness, opacity, and lissamine green staining. We also evaluated the correlation between visual acuity decline and changes to the corneal surface parameters. Tissue sections were prepared and stained immunohistochemically to evaluate the structural integrity of the cornea and conjunctiva. In blank controls, the cornea remained undamaged, whereas in UVB-exposed mice, the corneal surface was disrupted; this disruption significantly correlated with a concomitant decline in visual acuity. Both the UVB/UV400 and UVB/photochromic groups had sharper visual acuity and a healthier corneal surface than the UVB/no lens group. Eyes in both protected groups also showed better corneal and conjunctival structural integrity than unprotected eyes. Furthermore, there were fewer apoptotic cells and less polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration in corneas protected by the spectacle lenses. The model established herein reliably determines the protective effect of UV-blocking ophthalmic biomaterials, because the in vivo protection against UV-induced ocular damage and visual acuity decline was easily defined.

  16. Different immunization routes induce protection against Aeromonas salmonicida through different immune mechanisms in rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Kasper Rømer; Raida, Martin Kristian

    in fish immunology and vaccinology, resulting in the development of both oral, immersion and injectable vaccine strategies over time. Applying mineral oil adjuvants, injectable vaccines inducing high levels of protection in salmon (Salmo salar) rose to prominence in the 1990’s. In general injectable......, adjuvanted vaccines have been shown to induce long-lasting increases in specific antibody levels. In general the majority of the published work concerning vaccination against A. salmonicida has been conducted on salmon. Using injectable oil-adjuvanted vaccines, we have previously shown that the induced level...... against A. salmonicida. The effect of immersion vaccination against A. salmonicida has been questioned over time. While some have presented excellent protection as a result of immersion vaccines, others have reported limited or absent protective effects. We have performed experiments on the protection...

  17. Protective effects of C-phycocyanin on alcohol-induced acute liver injury in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dong; Liu, Bing; Luan, Xiying; Sun, Junyan; Liu, Nana; Qin, Song; Du, Zhenning

    2016-03-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption leads to liver disease. Extensive evidence suggests that C-phycocyanin (C-PC), a chromophore phycocyanobilin derived from Spirulina platensis, exerts protective effects against chemical-induced organ damage. In this study, we investigated whether C-PC could protect against ethanol-induced acute liver injury. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (CHOL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), liver homogenate malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) content were measured, and pathological examination of liver sections were examined. C-PC showed obvious inhibitory effects on serum ALT, AST, TG, CHOL, LDL and MDA, and SOD content significantly increased in the liver. The structure of hepatic lobules was clear, liver sinus returned to normal, and liver cell cords were arranged in neat rows. Cloudiness, swelling, inflammatory cell infiltration and spotty necrosis of liver cells were significantly reduced. Therefore, C-PC can significantly protect against ethanol-induced acute liver injury.

  18. Variations in constitutive and inducible UV-B tolerance; dissecting photosystem II protection in Arabidopsis thaliana accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Marcel A K; Martret, Bénedicte Le; Koornneef, Maarten

    2010-01-01

    The rise in ultraviolet-B (UV-B) (280-315 nm) radiation levels, that is a consequence of stratospheric ozone layer depletion, has triggered extensive research on the effects of UV-B on plants. Plants raised under natural sunlight conditions are generally well protected from the potentially harmful effects of UV-B radiation. However, it is mostly unknown to which extent UV protection is constitutive and/or induced. In this study, we have analysed the role of constitutive and inducible protection responses in avoiding UV-B damage to photosystem II of photosynthesis. We have assayed the UV susceptibility of photosystem II in 224 Arabidopsis thaliana accessions from across the Northern hemisphere, and found a continuum of constitutive UV-protection levels, with some accessions being UV sensitive and others UV tolerant. Statistical analysis showed only very weak associations between constitutive UV tolerance and the geographic origin of accessions. Instead, most of the variance in constitutive UV-B protection of photosynthesis is present at the level of local Arabidopsis populations originating in the same geographic and climatic area. The variance in constitutive UV protection is, however, small compared to the amplitude of environmentally induced changes in UV protection. Thus, our data emphasise the importance of inducible responses for the protection of photosystem II against UV-B. Remarkably, the conditions that induce UV-protective responses vary; accessions from lower latitudes were found to switch-on UV defences more readily than those of higher latitudes. Such altered regulation of induction may comprise a suitable adaptation response when levels of a stressor are fluctuating in the short term, but predictable over longer periods.

  19. An examination of adaptive cellular protective mechanisms using a multi-stage carcinogenesis model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schollnberger, H.; Stewart, R. D.; Mitchel, R. E. J.; Hofmann, W.

    2004-01-01

    A multi-stage cancer model that describes the putative rate-limiting steps in carcinogenesis was developed and used to investigate the potential impact on lung cancer incidence of the hormesis mechanisms suggested by Feinendegen and Pollycove. In this deterministic cancer model, radiation and endogenous processes damage the DNA of target cells in the lung. Some fraction of the misrepaired our unrepaired DNA damage induces genomic instability and, ultimately, leads to the accumulation of malignant cells. The model accounts for cell birth and death processes. Ita also includes a rate of malignant transformation and a lag period for tumour formation. Cellular defence mechanisms are incorporated into the model by postulating dose and dose rate dependent radical scavenging. The accuracy of DNA damage repair also depends on dose and dose rate. Sensitivity studies were conducted to identify critical model inputs and to help define the shapes of the cumulative lung cancer incidence curves that may arise when dose and dose rate dependent cellular defence mechanisms are incorporated into a multi-stage cancer model. For lung cancer, both linear no-threshold (LNT) and non-LNT shaped responses can be obtained. The reported studied clearly show that it is critical to know whether or not and to what extent multiply damaged DNA sites are formed by endogenous processes. Model inputs that give rise to U-shaped responses are consistent with an effective cumulative lung cancer incidence threshold that may be as high as 300 mGy (4 mGy per year for 75 years). (Author) 11 refs

  20. A reassortment vaccine candidate as the improved formulation to induce protection against very virulent infectious bursal disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiaole; Chen, Yuming; Ren, Xiangang; Zhang, Lizhou; Gao, Li; Wang, Nian; Qin, Liting; Wang, Yongqiang; Gao, Yulong; Wang, Xiaomei

    2014-03-14

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is a highly contagious immunosuppressive disease affecting all major poultry producing areas of the world. Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is genetically prone to mutation so that vaccines have to be changed accordingly. However, the traditional method of vaccine development with blind passage could not fit the style of the emergency prevention of IBDV. In this study, for the first time, a segment-reassortment attenuated IBDV rXATB, consisting of modified segment A of a prevalent strain and segment B of an attenuated strain, was designed and rescued; rXATB was stable and could induce good humoral and cellular immune responses which resulted in excellent protection against the lethal challenge of vvIBDV without obvious immunosuppression in chicken. This study revolutionarily provides a new formulation based on reverse genetics to develop new vaccine against prevalent IBDV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Rat testicular impairment induced by electromagnetic radiation from a conventional cellular telephone and the protective effects of the antioxidants vitamins C and E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Damegh, Mona Abdullah

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of electromagnetic radiation from conventional cellular phone use on the oxidant and antioxidant status in rat blood and testicular tissue and determine the possible protective role of vitamins C and E in preventing the detrimental effects of electromagnetic radiation on the testes. The treatment groups were exposed to an electromagnetic field, electromagnetic field plus vitamin C (40 mg/kg/day) or electromagnetic field plus vitamin E (2.7 mg/kg/day). All groups were exposed to the same electromagnetic frequency for 15, 30, and 60 min daily for two weeks. There was a significant increase in the diameter of the seminiferous tubules with a disorganized seminiferous tubule sperm cycle interruption in the electromagnetism-exposed group. The serum and testicular tissue conjugated diene, lipid hydroperoxide, and catalase activities increased 3-fold, whereas the total serum and testicular tissue glutathione and glutathione peroxidase levels decreased 3-5 fold in the electromagnetism-exposed animals. Our results indicate that the adverse effect of the generated electromagnetic frequency had a negative impact on testicular architecture and enzymatic activity. This finding also indicated the possible role of vitamins C and E in mitigating the oxidative stress imposed on the testes and restoring normality to the testes.

  2. Adjuvant activity of peanut, cottonseed and rice oils on cellular and humoral response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Freitas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The potentiality of the usage of vegetable oils such as soybean, corn, olive, sesame, murici seed, rapeseed, linseed, rice and cashew nuts as adjuvant of the humoral and cellular immune response has been recently shown. In the present work, besides of evaluating the adjuvant action of peanut, cottonseed and rice oils on humoral and cellular immune responses against ovalbumin (OVA we also evaluated the protective immune response induced by Leishmania antigens. The peanut oil significantly increased the synthesis of anti-ovalbumin antibodies in the primary response, but it did not favor cellular response. Concerning mice immunized with L. amazonensis antigens emulsified with peanut oil exacerbated skin lesions and lymph node parasite load what suggests stimulation of the Th2 immune response and down regulation of Th1 response. The cottonseed oil was shown to have adjuvant effect to the humoral response, stimulating a secondary response and also favored the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH response to OVA. The rice oil stimulated a strong DTH reaction to OVA and enhanced the synthesis of antibodies after the third dose. Mice immunized with L. amazonensis antigens emulsified with rice oil or cotton seed oil were protected from developing skin lesions and lymph node parasite load. These results emphasize the interest and importance of the vegetable oils as tools in different procedures of immunization and their differential role in relation to the other adjuvant under usage.

  3. Bacterial RNA induces myocyte cellular dysfunction through the activation of PKR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleiblo, Farag; Michael, Paul; Brabant, Danielle; Ramana, Chilakamarti V.; Tai, TC; Saleh, Mazen; Parrillo, Joseph E.; Kumar, Anand

    2012-01-01

    Severe sepsis and the ensuing septic shock are serious life threatening conditions. These diseases are triggered by the host's over exuberant systemic response to the infecting pathogen. Several surveillance mechanisms have evolved to discriminate self from foreign RNA and accordingly trigger effective cellular responses to target the pathogenic threats. The RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) is a key component of the cytoplasmic RNA sensors involved in the recognition of viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). Here, we identify bacterial RNA as a distinct pathogenic pattern recognized by PKR. Our results indicate that natural RNA derived from bacteria directly binds to and activates PKR. We further show that bacterial RNA induces human cardiac myocyte apoptosis and identify the requirement for PKR in mediating this response. In addition to bacterial immunity, the results presented here may also have implications in cardiac pathophysiology. PMID:22833816

  4. The protective effect of ebselen on radiocontrast-induced nephrotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgur, Tumay; Tutanc, Murat; Zararsiz, Ismail; Motor, Sedat; Ozturk, Oktay Hasan; Yaldiz, Mehmet; Kurtgoz, Ozgur Yildirim

    2012-01-01

    Radiocontrast-induced nephropathy has become one of the most important causes of renal acute failure. The most effective management of reducing the incidence of contrast nephropathy is to understand and prevent its causes. We aimed to investigate the protective role of ebselen against radiocontrast-induced nephrotoxicity in terms of tissue oxidant/antioxidant parameters and light microscopy in rats. Albino Wistar rats were randomly separated into four groups. The Group 1 rats were treated with sodium chloride as the control group, Group 2 with radiocontrast, Group 3 with radiocontrast plus ebselen, and Group 4 with ebselen alone. After 24 h, the animals over the experimental period were euthanized and blood samples were analyzed for blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (Cr) levels. Kidney sections were analyzed for malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities, as well as histopathological changes. In the radiocontrast group, BUN, MDA, and GSH-Px levels increased while SOD activity decreased compared with the control group. These decays were improved by ebselen administration in the radiocontrast group. Significant histological deteriorations were observed in the radiocontrast group. We noted improvement in the histologic findings with ebselen administration. These results indicate that ebselen might produce a protective mechanism against radiocontrast-induced nephrotoxicity.

  5. Effect of top ligament blanking on reducing flow induced vibration of protective grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eom, Kyong Bo; Ryu, Joo Young; Kwon, Oh Joon; Park, Joon Kyoo; Jeon, Sang Youn; Suh, Jung Min [KEPCO NF Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The protective grid is a Inconel 718 spacer grid located just above the bottom nozzle in many kinds of fuel assemblies for PWR. The purpose of using protective grid is to capture debris before they flow up into the fuel assembly and get trapped by the other grids causing fuel rod damages as well as to provide support at the lower end plugs of fuel rods. Recently, it has been reported that strap failure has occurred in the protective grids and the flow induced vibration of the strap has resulted in the strap fatigue failure. After the root cause of the protective grid failure was found to be the flow induced vibration of the strap, KEPCO NF has made an effort to find the vibration tendencies of grid strap and draw vibration mitigation concepts of the protective grid strap. The vibration tendency and the effect of the vibration mitigation concept of the protective grid which have been found by the results of the loop tests and simulations in KEPCO NF are presented herein.

  6. Cellular responses to modified Plasmodium falciparum MSP119 antigens in individuals previously exposed to natural malaria infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awobode Henrietta O

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MSP1 processing-inhibitory antibodies bind to epitopes on the 19 kDa C-terminal region of the Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP119, inhibiting erythrocyte invasion. Blocking antibodies also bind to this antigen but prevent inhibitory antibodies binding, allowing invasion to proceed. Recombinant MSP119 had been modified previously to allow inhibitory but not blocking antibodies to continue to bind. Immunization with these modified proteins, therefore, has the potential to induce more effective protective antibodies. However, it was unclear whether the modification of MSP119 would affect critical T-cell responses to epitopes in this antigen. Methods The cellular responses to wild-type MSP119 and a panel of modified MSP119 antigens were measured using an in-vitro assay for two groups of individuals: the first were malaria-naïve and the second had been naturally exposed to Plasmodium falciparum infection. The cellular responses to the modified proteins were examined using cells from malaria-exposed infants and adults. Results Interestingly, stimulation indices (SI for responses induced by some of the modified proteins were at least two-fold higher than those elicited by the wild-type MSP119. A protein with four amino acid substitutions (Glu27→Tyr, Leu31→Arg, Tyr34→Ser and Glu43→Leu had the highest stimulation index (SI up to 360 and induced large responses in 64% of the samples that had significant cellular responses to the modified proteins. Conclusion This study suggests that specific MSP119 variants that have been engineered to improve their antigenicity for inhibitory antibodies, retain T-cell epitopes and the ability to induce cellular responses. These proteins are candidates for the development of MSP1-based malaria vaccines.

  7. Protective Effects of Lemon Juice on Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic excessive alcohol consumption (more than 40–80 g/day for males and more than 20–40 g/day for females could induce serious liver injury. In this study, effects of lemon juice on chronic alcohol-induced liver injury in mice were evaluated. The serum biochemical profiles and hepatic lipid peroxidation levels, triacylglycerol (TG contents, antioxidant enzyme activities, and histopathological changes were examined for evaluating the hepatoprotective effects of lemon juice in mice. In addition, the in vitro antioxidant capacities of lemon juice were determined. The results showed that lemon juice significantly inhibited alcohol-induced increase of alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, hepatic TG, and lipid peroxidation levels in a dose-dependent manner. Histopathological changes induced by alcohol were also remarkably improved by lemon juice treatment. These findings suggest that lemon juice has protective effects on alcohol-induced liver injury in mice. The protective effects might be related to the antioxidant capacity of lemon juice because lemon juice showed in vitro antioxidant capacity.

  8. Creatine phosphate disodium salt protects against Dox-induced cardiotoxicity by increasing calumenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Sun, Ying; Guo, Xin; Fu, Yao; Long, Jie; Wei, Cheng-Xi; Zhao, Ming

    2018-06-01

    Inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS)-induced apoptosis may be a new therapeutic target in cardiovascular diseases. Creatine phosphate disodium salt (CP) has been reported to have cardiovascular protective effect, but its effects on ERS are unknown. The aim of this study was to identify the mechanism by which CP exerts its cardioprotection in doxorubicin (Dox)-induced cardiomyocytes injury. In our study, neonatal rats cardiomyocytes (NRC) was randomly divided into control group, model group, and treatment group. The cell viability and apoptosis were detected. grp78, grp94, and calumenin of the each group were monitored. To investigate the role of calumenin, Dox-induced ERS was compared in control and down-regulated calumenin cardiomyocytes. Our results showed that CP decreased Dox-induced apoptosis and relieved ERS. We found calumenin increased in Dox-induced apoptosis with CP. ERS effector C/EBP homologous protein was down-regulated by CP and it was influenced by calumenin. CP could protect NRC by inhibiting ERS, this mechanisms may be associated with its increasing of calumenin.

  9. CCN2/CTGF is required for matrix organization and to protect growth plate chondrocytes from cellular stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall-Glenn, Faith; Aivazi, Armen; Akopyan, Lusi; Ong, Jessica R; Baxter, Ruth R; Benya, Paul D; Goldschmeding, Roel; van Nieuwenhoven, Frans A; Hunziker, Ernst B; Lyons, Karen M

    2013-08-01

    CCN2 (connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2)) is a matricellular protein that utilizes integrins to regulate cell proliferation, migration and survival. The loss of CCN2 leads to perinatal lethality resulting from a severe chondrodysplasia. Upon closer inspection of Ccn2 mutant mice, we observed defects in extracellular matrix (ECM) organization and hypothesized that the severe chondrodysplasia caused by loss of CCN2 might be associated with defective chondrocyte survival. Ccn2 mutant growth plate chondrocytes exhibited enlarged endoplasmic reticula (ER), suggesting cellular stress. Immunofluorescence analysis confirmed elevated stress in Ccn2 mutants, with reduced stress observed in Ccn2 overexpressing transgenic mice. In vitro studies revealed that Ccn2 is a stress responsive gene in chondrocytes. The elevated stress observed in Ccn2-/- chondrocytes is direct and mediated in part through integrin α5. The expression of the survival marker NFκB and components of the autophagy pathway were decreased in Ccn2 mutant growth plates, suggesting that CCN2 may be involved in mediating chondrocyte survival. These data demonstrate that absence of a matricellular protein can result in increased cellular stress and highlight a novel protective role for CCN2 in chondrocyte survival. The severe chondrodysplasia caused by the loss of CCN2 may be due to increased chondrocyte stress and defective activation of autophagy pathways, leading to decreased cellular survival. These effects may be mediated through nuclear factor κB (NFκB) as part of a CCN2/integrin/NFκB signaling cascade.

  10. Use of a Vaccinia Construct Expressing the Circumsporozoite Protein in the Analysis of Protective Immunity to Plasmodium yoelii

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    William R. Majarian, 2 ,5 Frank A. Robey, 3 Walter Weiss, 1 and Stephen L. Hoffman 1 lInfectious Diseases Department, Naval Medical Research Institute...autoradiography. Recombinant viruses which were positive in this assay were subject to 3 rounds of plaque purification. Finally, plaque purified virus was...mechanisms in the protective immunity elicited by inmunization with irradiated sporozoites (3,7,8,9). In an attempt to induce a protective cellular immune

  11. Protective Effect of Bauhinia purpurea on Gentamicin-induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, B. V. S.; Neelima, N.; Kasthuri, N.; Umarani, V.; Sudhakar, M.

    2009-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the ethanol extract of leaves of Bauhinia purpurea and unripe pods of Bauhinia purpurea for its protective effects on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Nephrotoxicity was induced in Wistar rats by intraperitoneal administration of gentamicin 100 mg/kg/d for eight days. Effect of concurrent administration of ethanol extract of leaves of Bauhinia purpurea and unripe pods of Bauhinia purpurea at a dose of 300 mg/kg/d given by oral route was determined using serum creatinine, serum uric acid, blood urea nitrogen and serum urea as indicators of kidney damage. The study groups contained six rats in each group. It was observed that the ethanol extract of leaves of Bauhinia purpurea and unripe pods of Bauhinia purpurea significantly protect rat kidneys from gentamicin-induced histopathological changes. Gentamicin-induced glomerular congestion, blood vessel congestion, epithelial desquamation, accumulation of inflammatory cells and necrosis of the kidney cells were found to be reduced in the groups receiving the leaf and unripe pods extract of Bauhinia purpurea along with gentamicin. The extracts also normalized the gentamicin-induced increase in serum creatinine, serum uric acid and blood urea nitrogen levels. This is also evidenced by the histopathological studies. PMID:20502576

  12. Increasing Optimism Protects Against Pain-Induced Impairment in Task-Shifting Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boselie, Jantine J L M; Vancleef, Linda M G; Peters, Madelon L

    2017-04-01

    Persistent pain can lead to difficulties in executive task performance. Three core executive functions that are often postulated are inhibition, updating, and shifting. Optimism, the tendency to expect that good things happen in the future, has been shown to protect against pain-induced performance deterioration in executive function updating. This study tested whether this protective effect of a temporary optimistic state by means of a writing and visualization exercise extended to executive function shifting. A 2 (optimism: optimism vs no optimism) × 2 (pain: pain vs no pain) mixed factorial design was conducted. Participants (N = 61) completed a shifting task once with and once without concurrent painful heat stimulation after an optimism or neutral manipulation. Results showed that shifting performance was impaired when experimental heat pain was applied during task execution, and that optimism counteracted pain-induced deterioration in task-shifting performance. Experimentally-induced heat pain impairs shifting task performance and manipulated optimism or induced optimism counteracted this pain-induced performance deterioration. Identifying psychological factors that may diminish the negative effect of persistent pain on the ability to function in daily life is imperative. Copyright © 2016 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Protection against radiation-induced oxidative stress in cultured human epithelial cells by treatment with antioxidant agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, X. Steven; Ware, Jeffrey H.; Zhou, Zhaozong; Donahue, Jeremiah J.; Guan, Jun; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the protective effects of antioxidant agents against space radiation-induced oxidative stress in cultured human epithelial cells. Methods and Materials: The effects of selected concentrations of N-acetylcysteine, ascorbic acid, sodium ascorbate, co-enzyme Q10, α-lipoic acid, L-selenomethionine, and vitamin E succinate on radiation-induced oxidative stress were evaluated in MCF10 human breast epithelial cells exposed to radiation with X-rays, γ-rays, protons, or high mass, high atomic number, and high energy particles using a dichlorofluorescein assay. Results: The results demonstrated that these antioxidants are effective in protecting against radiation-induced oxidative stress and complete or nearly complete protection was achieved by treating the cells with a combination of these agents before and during the radiation exposure. Conclusion: The combination of antioxidants evaluated in this study is likely be a promising countermeasure for protection against space radiation-induced adverse biologic effects

  14. The lipid lowering drug lovastatin protects against doxorubicin-induced hepatotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henninger, Christian; Huelsenbeck, Johannes; Huelsenbeck, Stefanie; Grösch, Sabine; Schad, Arno; Lackner, Karl J.; Kaina, Bernd; Fritz, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Liver is the main detoxifying organ and therefore the target of high concentrations of genotoxic compounds, such as environmental carcinogens and anticancer drugs. Here, we investigated the usefulness of lovastatin, which is nowadays widely used for lipid lowering purpose, as a hepatoprotective drug following the administration of the anthracycline derivative doxorubicin in vivo. To this end, BALB/c mice were exposed to either a single high dose or three consecutive low doses of doxorubicin. Acute and subacute hepatotoxicities were analyzed with or without lovastatin co-treatment. Lovastatin protected the liver against doxorubicin-induced acute pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic stress responses as indicated by an attenuated mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), respectively. Hepatoprotection by lovastatin was due to a reduced induction of DNA damage following doxorubicin treatment. The statin also mitigated subacute anthracycline-provoked hepatotoxicity as shown on the level of doxorubicin- and epirubicin-stimulated CTGF mRNA expression as well as histopathologically detectable fibrosis and serum concentration of marker enzymes of hepatotoxicity (GPT/GLDH). Kidney damage following doxorubicin exposure was not detectable under our experimental conditions. Moreover, lovastatin showed multiple inhibitory effects on doxorubicin-triggered hepatic expression of genes involved in oxidative stress response, drug transport, DNA repair, cell cycle progression and cell death. Doxorubicin also stimulated the formation of ceramides. Ceramide production, however, was not blocked by lovastatin, indicating that hepatoprotection by lovastatin is independent of the sphingolipid metabolism. Overall, the data show that lovastatin is hepatoprotective following genotoxic stress induced by anthracyclines. Based on the data, we hypothesize that statins might be suitable to lower hepatic injury following anthracycline

  15. The lipid lowering drug lovastatin protects against doxorubicin-induced hepatotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henninger, Christian [Institute of Toxicology, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Obere Zahlbacher Str. 67, D-55131 Mainz (Germany); Institute of Toxicology, University Duesseldorf, Medical Faculty, Universitätsstrasse 1, D-40225 Duesseldorf (Germany); Huelsenbeck, Johannes; Huelsenbeck, Stefanie [Institute of Toxicology, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Obere Zahlbacher Str. 67, D-55131 Mainz (Germany); Grösch, Sabine [Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University Frankfurt, Theodor Stern Kai 7, D-60590 Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Schad, Arno [Institute of Pathology, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Obere Zahlbacher Str. 67, D-55131 Mainz (Germany); Lackner, Karl J. [Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Obere Zahlbacher Str. 67, D-55131 Mainz (Germany); Kaina, Bernd [Institute of Toxicology, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Obere Zahlbacher Str. 67, D-55131 Mainz (Germany); Fritz, Gerhard, E-mail: fritz@uni-duesseldorf.de [Institute of Toxicology, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Obere Zahlbacher Str. 67, D-55131 Mainz (Germany); Institute of Toxicology, University Duesseldorf, Medical Faculty, Universitätsstrasse 1, D-40225 Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    Liver is the main detoxifying organ and therefore the target of high concentrations of genotoxic compounds, such as environmental carcinogens and anticancer drugs. Here, we investigated the usefulness of lovastatin, which is nowadays widely used for lipid lowering purpose, as a hepatoprotective drug following the administration of the anthracycline derivative doxorubicin in vivo. To this end, BALB/c mice were exposed to either a single high dose or three consecutive low doses of doxorubicin. Acute and subacute hepatotoxicities were analyzed with or without lovastatin co-treatment. Lovastatin protected the liver against doxorubicin-induced acute pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic stress responses as indicated by an attenuated mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), respectively. Hepatoprotection by lovastatin was due to a reduced induction of DNA damage following doxorubicin treatment. The statin also mitigated subacute anthracycline-provoked hepatotoxicity as shown on the level of doxorubicin- and epirubicin-stimulated CTGF mRNA expression as well as histopathologically detectable fibrosis and serum concentration of marker enzymes of hepatotoxicity (GPT/GLDH). Kidney damage following doxorubicin exposure was not detectable under our experimental conditions. Moreover, lovastatin showed multiple inhibitory effects on doxorubicin-triggered hepatic expression of genes involved in oxidative stress response, drug transport, DNA repair, cell cycle progression and cell death. Doxorubicin also stimulated the formation of ceramides. Ceramide production, however, was not blocked by lovastatin, indicating that hepatoprotection by lovastatin is independent of the sphingolipid metabolism. Overall, the data show that lovastatin is hepatoprotective following genotoxic stress induced by anthracyclines. Based on the data, we hypothesize that statins might be suitable to lower hepatic injury following anthracycline

  16. RNase L mediated protection from virus induced demyelination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek D C Ireland

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available IFN-alpha/beta plays a critical role in limiting viral spread, restricting viral tropism and protecting mice from neurotropic coronavirus infection. However, the IFN-alpha/beta dependent mechanisms underlying innate anti-viral functions within the CNS are poorly understood. The role of RNase L in viral encephalomyelitis was explored based on its functions in inhibiting translation, inducing apoptosis, and propagating the IFN-alpha/beta pathway through RNA degradation intermediates. Infection of RNase L deficient (RL(-/- mice with a sub-lethal, demyelinating mouse hepatitis virus variant revealed that the majority of mice succumbed to infection by day 12 p.i. However, RNase L deficiency did not affect overall control of infectious virus, or diminish IFN-alpha/beta expression in the CNS. Furthermore, increased morbidity and mortality could not be attributed to altered proinflammatory signals or composition of cells infiltrating the CNS. The unique phenotype of infected RL(-/- mice was rather manifested in earlier onset and increased severity of demyelination and axonal damage in brain stem and spinal cord without evidence for enhanced neuronal infection. Increased tissue damage coincided with sustained brain stem infection, foci of microglia infection in grey matter, and increased apoptotic cells. These data demonstrate a novel protective role for RNase L in viral induced CNS encephalomyelitis, which is not reflected in overall viral control or propagation of IFN-alpha/beta mediated signals. Protective function is rather associated with cell type specific and regional restriction of viral replication in grey matter and ameliorated neurodegeneration and demyelination.

  17. Immunization with Clinical HIV-1 Env Proteins Induces Broad Antibody Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity-Mediating Antibodies in a Rabbit Vaccination Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Ingrid; Borggren, Marie; Jensen, Sanne Skov

    2018-01-01

    The induction of both neutralizing antibodies and non-neutralizing antibodies with effector functions, for example, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), is desired in the search for effective vaccines against HIV-1. In the pursuit of novel immunogens capable of inducing an efficient a...

  18. Protective effects of ebselen on sodium-selenite-induced experimental cataract in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydemir, Orhan; Güler, Mete; Kaya, Mehmet Kaan; Deniz, Nurettin; Üstündağ, Bilal

    2012-12-01

    To determine whether ebselen has a protective effect or antioxidative potential in a sodium-selenite-induced experimental cataract model. Fırat University, Elazığ, Turkey. Experimental study. Twenty-one Sprague-Dawley rat pups were randomly divided into a control group, a sodium-selenite-induced-cataract group, and an ebselen-treated group; each group contained 7 rat pups. Rats in the control group received dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) intraperitoneally only and rats in the sodium-selenite-induced-cataract group received 30 nmol/g body weight sodium selenite subcutaneously and DMSO intraperitoneally 10 days postpartum. Rats in the ebselen group received 30 nmol/g body weight sodium selenite subcutaneously 10 days postpartum and were treated with 5 mg/kg body weight ebselen once a day for 4 consecutive days. Cataract development was assessed weekly for 3 weeks by slitlamp examination and graded using a scale. Reduced glutathione (GSH), total nitrite, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in lens supernatants were measured at the end of 3 weeks. In the control group, all lenses were clear. In the ebselen-treated group, the mean cataract stage was significantly lower than in the sodium-selenite-induced-cataract group (P = .022). The GSH levels were significantly lower in the sodium-selenite-induced-cataract group than in the control and ebselen groups (P ebselen group than in the sodium-selenite-induced-cataract group (P ebselen group (P = .001). Ebselen had a protective effect on cataract development in a sodium-selenite-induced experimental model. The protective effect of ebselen appears to be due to inhibition of oxidative stress. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2012 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Fructose and tagatose protect against oxidative cell injury by iron chelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeri, F; Boess, F; Wolf, A; Göldlin, C; Boelsterli, U A

    1997-01-01

    To further investigate the mechanism by which fructose affords protection against oxidative cell injury, cultured rat hepatocytes were exposed to cocaine (300 microM) or nitrofurantoin (400 microM). Both drugs elicited massively increased lactate dehydrogenase release. The addition of the ketohexoses D-fructose (metabolized via glycolysis) or D-tagatose (poor glycolytic substrate) significantly attenuated cocaine- and nitrofurantoin-induced cell injury, although both fructose and tagatose caused a rapid depletion of ATP and compromised the cellular energy charge. Furthermore, fructose, tagatose, and sorbose all inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner (0-16 mM) luminolenhanced chemiluminescence (CL) in cell homogenates, indicating that these compounds inhibit the iron-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated peroxidation of luminol. Indeed, both Fe2+ and Fe3+ further increased cocaine-stimulated CL, which was markedly quenched following addition of the ketohexoses. The iron-independent formation of superoxide anion radicals (acetylated cytochrome c reduction) induced by the prooxidant drugs remained unaffected by fructose or tagatose. The iron-chelator deferoxamine similarly protected against prooxidant-induced cell injury. In contrast, the nonchelating aldohexoses D-glucose and D-galactose did not inhibit luminol CL nor did they protect against oxidative cell injury. These data indicate that ketohexoses can effectively protect against prooxidant-induced cell injury, independent of their glycolytic metabolism, by suppressing the iron-catalyzed formation of ROS.

  20. Protection against Radiotherapy-Induced Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Hall

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Radiation therapy is a highly utilized therapy in the treatment of malignancies with up to 60% of cancer patients receiving radiation therapy as a part of their treatment regimen. Radiation therapy does, however, cause a wide range of adverse effects that can be severe and cause permanent damage to the patient. In an attempt to minimize these effects, a small number of compounds have been identified and are in use clinically for the prevention and treatment of radiation associated toxicities. Furthermore, there are a number of emerging therapies being developed for use as agents that protect against radiation-induced toxicities. The aim of this review was to evaluate and summarise the evidence that exists for both the known radioprotectant agents and the agents that show promise as future radioprotectant agents.

  1. Pharmacological Protection From Radiation ± Cisplatin-Induced Oral Mucositis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotrim, Ana P.; Yoshikawa, Masanobu; Sunshine, Abraham N.; Zheng Changyu; Sowers, Anastasia L.; Thetford, Angela D.; Cook, John A.; Mitchell, James B.; Baum, Bruce J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate if two pharmacological agents, Tempol and D-methionine (D-met), are able to prevent oral mucositis in mice after exposure to ionizing radiation ± cisplatin. Methods and Materials: Female C3H mice, ∼8 weeks old, were irradiated with five fractionated doses ± cisplatin to induce oral mucositis (lingual ulcers). Just before irradiation and chemotherapy, mice were treated, either alone or in combination, with different doses of Tempol (by intraperitoneal [ip] injection or topically, as an oral gel) and D-met (by gavage). Thereafter, mice were sacrificed and tongues were harvested and stained with a solution of Toluidine Blue. Ulcer size and tongue epithelial thickness were measured. Results: Significant lingual ulcers resulted from 5 × 8 Gy radiation fractions, which were enhanced with cisplatin treatment. D-met provided stereospecific partial protection from lingual ulceration after radiation. Tempol, via both routes of administration, provided nearly complete protection from lingual ulceration. D-met plus a suboptimal ip dose of Tempol also provided complete protection. Conclusions: Two fairly simple pharmacological treatments were able to markedly reduce chemoradiation-induced oral mucositis in mice. This proof of concept study suggests that Tempol, alone or in combination with D-met, may be a useful and convenient way to prevent the severe oral mucositis that results from head-and-neck cancer therapy.

  2. Ameliorating reactive oxygen species-induced in vitro lipid peroxidation in brain, liver, mitochondria and DNA damage by Zingiber officinale Roscoe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajith, T A

    2010-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient for a number of cellular activities. However, excess cellular iron can be toxic by producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide anion (O(2) (-)) and hydroxyl radical (HO(·)) that damage proteins, lipids and DNA. Mutagenic and genotoxic end products of lipid peroxidation can induce the decline of mitochondrial respiration and are associated with various human ailments including aging, neurodegenerative disorders, cancer etc. Zingiber officinale Roscoe (ginger) is a widely used spice around the world. The protective effect of aqueous ethanol extract of Z. officinale against ROS-induced in vitro lipid peroxidation and DNA damage was evaluated in this study. The lipid peroxidation was induced by hydroxyl radical generated from Fenton's reaction in rat liver and brain homogenates and mitochondrial fraction (isolated from rat liver). The DNA protection was evaluated using H(2)O(2)-induced changes in pBR-322 plasmid and Fenton reaction-induced DNA fragmentation in rat liver. The results indicated that Z. officinale significantly (Pofficinale in the liver homogenate was 94 %. However, the extract could partially alleviate the DNA damage. The protective mechanism can be correlated to the radical scavenging property of Z. officinale. The results of the study suggest the possible nutraceutical role of Z. officinale against the oxidative stress induced human ailments.

  3. Shock enhancement of cellular materials subjected to intensive pulse loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Fan, J.; Wang, Z.; Zhao, L.; Li, Z.

    2018-03-01

    Cellular materials can dissipate a large amount of energy due to their considerable stress plateau, which contributes to their extensive applications in structural design for crashworthiness. However, in some experiments with specimens subjected to intense impact loads, transmitted stress enhancement has been observed, leading to severe damage to the objects protected. Transmitted stress through two-dimensional Voronoi cellular materials as a protective device is qualitatively studied in this paper. Dimensionless parameters of material properties and loading parameters are defined to give critical conditions for shock enhancement and clarify the correlation between the deformations and stress enhancement. The effect of relative density on this amplifying phenomenon is investigated as well. In addition, local strain fields are calculated by using the optimal local deformation gradient, which gives a clear presentation of deformations and possible local non-uniformity in the crushing process. This research provides valuable insight into the reliability of cellular materials as protective structures.

  4. Nebivolol and chrysin protect the liver against ischemia/reperfusion-induced injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed M. Mizar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathogenesis of hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R-induced injury, one of the leading causes of liver damage post-surgical intervention, trauma and transplantation. This study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of nebivolol and chrysin against I/R-induced liver injury via their vasodilator and antioxidant effects, respectively. Adult male Wister rats received nebivolol (5 mg/kg and/or chrysin (25 mg/kg by oral gavage daily for one week then subjected to ischemia via clamping the portal triad for 30 min then reperfusion for 30 min. Liver function enzymes, alanine transaminase (ALT and aspartate transaminase (AST, as well as hepatic Myeloperoxidase (MPO, total nitrate (NOx, glutathione (GSH and liver malondialdehyde (MDA were measured at the end of the experiment. Liver tissue damage was examined by histopathology. In addition, the expression levels of nitric oxide synthase (NOS subtypes, endothelial (eNOS and inducible (iNOS in liver samples were assessed by Western blotting and confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis. Both chrysin and nebivolol significantly counteracted I/R-induced oxidative stress and tissue damage biomarkers. The combination of these agents caused additive liver protective effect against I/R-induced damage via the up regulation of nitric oxide expression and the suppression of oxidative stress. Chrysin and nebivolol combination showed a promising protective effect against I/R-induced liver injury, at least in part, via decreasing oxidative stress and increasing nitric oxide levels.

  5. Protective Effect of Morocco Carob Honey Against Lead-Induced Anemia and Hepato-Renal Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aicha Fassi Fihri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Natural honey has many biological activities including protective effect against toxic materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of carob honey against lead-induced hepato-renal toxicity and lead-induced anemia in rabbits. Methods: Twenty four male rabbits were allocated into four groups six rabbits each; group 1: control group, received distilled water (0.1 ml / kg.b.wt /daily; group 2: received oral lead acetate (2 g/kg.b.wt/daily; group 3: treated with oral honey (1g /kg.b.wt/daily and oral lead (2 g/kg.b.wt/daily, and group 4: received oral honey (1 g/kg.b.wt/daily. Honey and lead were given daily during 24 days of experimentation. Laboratory tests and histopathological evaluations of kidneys were done. Results: Oral administration of lead induced hepatic and kidney injury and caused anemia during three weeks of the exposure. Treatment with honey prevented hepato-renal lead toxicity and ameliorated lead-induced anemia when honey was given to animals during lead exposure. Conclusion: It might be concluded that honey has a protective effect against lead-induced blood, hepatic and renal toxic effects.

  6. Protective Effect of Morocco Carob Honey Against Lead-Induced Anemia and Hepato-Renal Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fihri, Aicha Fassi; Al-Waili, Noori S; El-Haskoury, Redouan; Bakour, Meryem; Amarti, Afaf; Ansari, Mohammad J; Lyoussi, Badiaa

    2016-01-01

    Natural honey has many biological activities including protective effect against toxic materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of carob honey against lead-induced hepato-renal toxicity and lead-induced anemia in rabbits. Twenty four male rabbits were allocated into four groups six rabbits each; group 1: control group, received distilled water (0.1 ml / kg.b.wt /daily); group 2: received oral lead acetate (2 g/kg.b.wt/daily); group 3: treated with oral honey (1g /kg.b.wt/daily) and oral lead (2 g/kg.b.wt/daily), and group 4: received oral honey (1 g/kg.b.wt/daily). Honey and lead were given daily during 24 days of experimentation. Laboratory tests and histopathological evaluations of kidneys were done. Oral administration of lead induced hepatic and kidney injury and caused anemia during three weeks of the exposure. Treatment with honey prevented hepato-renal lead toxicity and ameliorated lead-induced anemia when honey was given to animals during lead exposure. It might be concluded that honey has a protective effect against lead-induced blood, hepatic and renal toxic effects. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Dexmedetomidine May Produce Extra Protective Effects on Sepsis-induced Diaphragm Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective was to evaluate the protective effects of dexmedetomidine (DEX, a selective agonist of α2-adrenergic receptor, on sepsis-induced diaphragm injury and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Data Sources: The data used in this review were mainly from PubMed articles published in English from 1990 to 2015. Study Selection: Clinical or basic research articles were selected mainly according to their level of relevance to this topic. Results: Sepsis could induce severe diaphragm dysfunction and exacerbate respiratory weakness. The mechanism of sepsis-induced diaphragm injury includes the increased inflammatory cytokines and excessive oxidative stress and superfluous production of nitric oxide (NO. DEX can reduce inflammatory cytokines, inhibit nuclear factor-kappaB signaling pathways, suppress the activation of caspase-3, furthermore decrease oxidative stress and inhibit NO synthase. On the basis of these mechanisms, DEX may result in a shorter period of mechanical ventilation in septic patients in clinical practice. Conclusions: Based on this current available evidence, DEX may produce extra protective effects on sepsis-induced diaphragm injury. Further direct evidence and more specific studies are still required to confirm these beneficial effects.

  8. Evaluation of Radio-Protective Effect of Melatonin on Whole Body Irradiation Induced Liver Tissue Damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shirazi, Alireza; Mihandoost, Ehsan; Ghobadi, Ghazaleh; Mohseni, Mehran; Ghazi-Khansari, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Ionizing radiation interacts with biological systems to induce excessive fluxes of free radicals that attack various cellular components. Melatonin has been shown to be a direct free radical scavenger and indirect antioxidant via its stimulatory actions on the antioxidant system. The aim

  9. A protective effect of anthocyanins and xanthophylls on UVB-induced damage in retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silván, Jose Manuel; Reguero, Marina; de Pascual-Teresa, Sonia

    2016-02-01

    Increased exposure to solar ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation causes oxidative damage that may promote age related macular degeneration (AMD) and other ocular pathologies. This study is aimed to demonstrate the protective effects of some anthocyanins and xanthophylls against the UVB-induced oxidative damage to retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. ARPE-19 cells were treated with 5 μM cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, delphinidin-3-O-glucoside, lutein, zeaxanthin or a mixture of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside:zeaxanthin prior to UVB exposure (500 J m(-2)). Cell viability and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation were determined by MTT assay and western blot analysis, respectively. Oxidative damage was evaluated by measuring the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). The data showed that UVB irradiation reduces the cell viability to 46% with increasing of intracellular ROS levels and phosphorylation of MAPKs. However, pre-treatment (60 min) with 5 μM cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, lutein or zeaxanthin significantly reduced cellular ROS levels and phosphorylation of MAPKs (JNK1/2 and p38) mediated by UVB irradiation and subsequently increased cell viability. Thus, results show that UVB irradiation is able to induce apoptosis in ARPE-19 cells through oxidative stress; however anthocyanins and xanthophylls pre-treatment can attenuate this damage. This suggests that cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, lutein and zeaxanthin are effective in preventing UVB-induced damage in RPE cells and may be suitable as chemoprotective factors for the prevention of ocular damage. The use of natural dietary antioxidants might reduce ocular oxidative damage caused by UVB radiation.

  10. Melatonin protects against taurolithocholic-induced oxidative stress in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Broto, Lorena; Miana-Mena, Francisco J; Piedrafita, Eduardo; Berzosa, César; Martínez-Ballarín, Enrique; García-Gil, Francisco A; Reiter, Russel J; García, Joaquín J

    2010-08-01

    Cholestasis, encountered in a variety of clinical disorders, is characterized by intracellular accumulation of toxic bile acids in the liver. Furthermore, oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of bile acids. Taurolithocholic acid (TLC) was revealed in previous studies as the most pro-oxidative bile acid. Melatonin, a well-known antioxidant, is a safe and widely used therapeutic agent. Herein, we investigated the hepatoprotective role of melatonin on lipid and protein oxidation induced by TLC alone and in combination with FeCl(3) and ascorbic acid in rat liver homogenates and hepatic membranes. The lipid peroxidation products, malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxyalkenals (MDA + 4-HDA), and carbonyl levels were quantified as indices of oxidative damage to hepatic lipids and proteins, respectively. In the current study, the rise in MDA + 4-HDA levels induced by TLC was inhibited by melatonin in a concentration-dependent manner in both liver homogenates and in hepatic membranes. Melatonin also had protective effects against structural damage to proteins induced by TLC in membranes. These results suggest that the indoleamine melatonin may potentially act as a protective agent in the therapy of those diseases that involve bile acid toxicity. Published 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Impaired CK1 delta activity attenuates SV40-induced cellular transformation in vitro and mouse mammary carcinogenesis in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidrun Hirner

    Full Text Available Simian virus 40 (SV40 is a powerful tool to study cellular transformation in vitro, as well as tumor development and progression in vivo. Various cellular kinases, among them members of the CK1 family, play an important role in modulating the transforming activity of SV40, including the transforming activity of T-Ag, the major transforming protein of SV40, itself. Here we characterized the effects of mutant CK1δ variants with impaired kinase activity on SV40-induced cell transformation in vitro, and on SV40-induced mammary carcinogenesis in vivo in a transgenic/bi-transgenic mouse model. CK1δ mutants exhibited a reduced kinase activity compared to wtCK1δ in in vitro kinase assays. Molecular modeling studies suggested that mutation N172D, located within the substrate binding region, is mainly responsible for impaired mutCK1δ activity. When stably over-expressed in maximal transformed SV-52 cells, CK1δ mutants induced reversion to a minimal transformed phenotype by dominant-negative interference with endogenous wtCK1δ. To characterize the effects of CK1δ on SV40-induced mammary carcinogenesis, we generated transgenic mice expressing mutant CK1δ under the control of the whey acidic protein (WAP gene promoter, and crossed them with SV40 transgenic WAP-T-antigen (WAP-T mice. Both WAP-T mice as well as WAP-mutCK1δ/WAP-T bi-transgenic mice developed breast cancer. However, tumor incidence was lower and life span was significantly longer in WAP-mutCK1δ/WAP-T bi-transgenic animals. The reduced CK1δ activity did not affect early lesion formation during tumorigenesis, suggesting that impaired CK1δ activity reduces the probability for outgrowth of in situ carcinomas to invasive carcinomas. The different tumorigenic potential of SV40 in WAP-T and WAP-mutCK1δ/WAP-T tumors was also reflected by a significantly different expression of various genes known to be involved in tumor progression, specifically of those involved in wnt-signaling and DNA

  12. Inhibition of CD38/Cyclic ADP-ribose Pathway Protects Rats against Ropivacaine-induced Convulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zou

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: The CD38/cADPR pathway is activated in ropivacaine-induced convulsion. Inhibiting this pathway alleviates ropivacaine-induced convulsion and protects the brain from apoptosis and oxidative stress.

  13. Britanin Ameliorates Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Inducing the Nrf2 Protective Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guozhen; Zhu, Lili; Yuan, Xing; Chen, Hao; Xiong, Rui; Zhang, Shoude; Cheng, Hao; Shen, Yunheng; An, Huazhang; Li, Tiejun; Li, Honglin; Zhang, Weidong

    2017-10-10

    Oxidative stress is considered the major cause of tissue injury after cerebral ischemia. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway is one of the most important defensive mechanisms against oxidative stresses and has been confirmed as a target for stroke treatment. Thus, we desired to find new Nrf2 activators and test their neuronal protective activity both in vivo and in vitro. The herb-derived compound, Britanin, is a potent inducer of the Nrf2 system. Britanin can induce the expression of protective enzymes and reverse oxygen-glucose deprivation, followed by reperfusion (OGD-R)-induced neuronal injury in primary cortical neurons in vitro. Furthermore, the administration of Britanin significantly ameliorated middle cerebral artery occlusion-reperfusion (MCAO-R) insult in vivo. We report here the crystal structure of the complex of Britanin and the BTB domain of Keap1. Britanin selectively binds to a conserved cysteine residue, cysteine 151, of Keap1 and inhibits Keap1-mediated ubiquitination of Nrf2, leading to induction of the Nrf2 pathway. Britanin is a potent inducer of Nrf2. The complex crystal structure of Britanin and the BTB domain of Keap1 help clarify the mechanism of Nrf2 induction. Britanin was proven to protect primary cortical neurons against OGD-R-induced injury in an Nrf2-dependant way. Additionally, Britanin had excellent cerebroprotective effect in an MCAO-R model. Our results demonstrate that the natural product Britanin with potent Nrf2-activating and neural protective activities both in vitro and in vivo could be developed into a cerebroprotective therapeutic agent. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 27, 754-768.

  14. The effects of cellular glutathione elevation on the oxygen enhancement ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, J.B.; Russo, A.

    1984-01-01

    It has recently been demonstrated for Chinese hamster and human A549 cells that depletion of cellular glutathione (GSH) by buthionine sulfoximine sensitizes both aerated and hypoxic cells to X-rays. While the extent of sensitization was minimal for both conditions, there was no overall reduction in the oxygen enhancement ratio (OER). The authors have investigated the effect of cellular GSH elevation on the OER by treating cells for 2 hours with 10 mM L-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylate (OTZ) or face 24 hours with 0.06 mM cobalt chloride (CoCl/sub 2/) in complete medium. These treatments resulted in cellular concentrations of GSH to approximately 150-250% for OTZ and 150-300% for CoCl/sub 2/ when compared to controls. X-ray survival curves were determined following these treatments for aerated and hypoxic conditions. Hypoxia was induced by metabolic utilization of oxygen at high cell densities (10/sup 8//ml) in glass syringes. For both methods of GSH elevation, there was no protection observed for either aerated or hypoxic cells and consequently no change in the OER when compared to controls. These data are discussed in the context of the radical-scavenging hypothesis involving chemical repair following X-rays of compounds such as GSH

  15. Protection against ionizing radiation by antioxidant nutrients and phytochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, Joseph F.; Landauer, Michael R.

    2003-01-01

    The potential of antioxidants to reduce the cellular damage induced by ionizing radiation has been studied in animal models for more than 50 years. The application of antioxidant radioprotectors to various human exposure situations has not been extensive although it is generally accepted that endogenous antioxidants, such as cellular non-protein thiols and antioxidant enzymes, provide some degree of protection. This review focuses on the radioprotective efficacy of naturally occurring antioxidants, specifically antioxidant nutrients and phytochemicals, and how they might influence various endpoints of radiation damage. Results from animal experiments indicate that antioxidant nutrients, such as vitamin E and selenium compounds, are protective against lethality and other radiation effects but to a lesser degree than most synthetic protectors. Some antioxidant nutrients and phytochemicals have the advantage of low toxicity although they are generally protective when administered at pharmacological doses. Naturally occurring antioxidants also may provide an extended window of protection against low-dose, low-dose-rate irradiation, including therapeutic potential when administered after irradiation. A number of phytochemicals, including caffeine, genistein, and melatonin, have multiple physiological effects, as well as antioxidant activity, which result in radioprotection in vivo. Many antioxidant nutrients and phytochemicals have antimutagenic properties, and their modulation of long-term radiation effects, such as cancer, needs further examination. In addition, further studies are required to determine the potential value of specific antioxidant nutrients and phytochemicals during radiotherapy for cancer

  16. Cellular Oxygen Sensing: Crystal Structure of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor Prolyl Hydroxylase (PHD2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonough,M.; Li, V.; Flashman, E.; Chowdhury, R.; Mohr, C.; Lienard, B.; Zondlo, J.; Oldham, N.; Clifton, I.; et al.

    2006-01-01

    Cellular and physiological responses to changes in dioxygen levels in metazoans are mediated via the posttranslational oxidation of hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF). Hydroxylation of conserved prolyl residues in the HIF-{alpha} subunit, catalyzed by HIF prolyl-hydroxylases (PHDs), signals for its proteasomal degradation. The requirement of the PHDs for dioxygen links changes in dioxygen levels with the transcriptional regulation of the gene array that enables the cellular response to chronic hypoxia; the PHDs thus act as an oxygen-sensing component of the HIF system, and their inhibition mimics the hypoxic response. We describe crystal structures of the catalytic domain of human PHD2, an important prolyl-4-hydroxylase in the human hypoxic response in normal cells, in complex with Fe(II) and an inhibitor to 1.7 Angstroms resolution. PHD2 crystallizes as a homotrimer and contains a double-stranded {beta}-helix core fold common to the Fe(II) and 2-oxoglutarate-dependant dioxygenase family, the residues of which are well conserved in the three human PHD enzymes (PHD 1-3). The structure provides insights into the hypoxic response, helps to rationalize a clinically observed mutation leading to familial erythrocytosis, and will aid in the design of PHD selective inhibitors for the treatment of anemia and ischemic disease.

  17. Elastomeric Cellular Structure Enhanced by Compressible Liquid Filler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yueting; Xu, Xiaoqing; Xu, Chengliang; Qiao, Yu; Li, Yibing

    2016-05-01

    Elastomeric cellular structures provide a promising solution for energy absorption. Their flexible and resilient nature is particularly relevant to protection of human bodies. Herein we develop an elastomeric cellular structure filled with nanoporous material functionalized (NMF) liquid. Due to the nanoscale infiltration in NMF liquid and its interaction with cell walls, the cellular structure has a much enhanced mechanical performance, in terms of loading capacity and energy absorption density. Moreover, it is validated that the structure is highly compressible and self-restoring. Its hyper-viscoelastic characteristics are elucidated.

  18. Hemin activation of innate cellular response blocks human immunodeficiency virus type-1-induced osteoclastogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Kazuyo; Adhikari, Rewati; Yamada, Kenneth M.; Dhawan, Subhash

    2015-01-01

    The normal skeletal developmental and homeostatic process termed osteoclastogenesis is exacerbated in numerous pathological conditions and causes excess bone loss. In cancer and HIV-1-infected patients, this disruption of homeostasis results in osteopenia and eventual osteoporesis. Counteracting the factors responsible for these metabolic disorders remains a challenge for preventing or minimizing this co-morbidity associated with these diseases. In this report, we demonstrate that a hemin-induced host protection mechanism not only suppresses HIV-1 associated osteoclastogenesis, but it also exhibits anti-osteoclastogenic activity for non-infected cells. Since the mode of action of hemin is both physiological and pharmacological through induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an endogenous host protective response to an FDA-licensed therapeutic used to treat another disease, our study suggests an approach to developing novel, safe and effective therapeutic strategies for treating bone disorders, because hemin administration in humans has previously met required FDA safety standards. - Highlights: • HIV-1 infection induced osteoclastogenesis in primary human macrophages. • Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) induction inhibited HIV-1-induced osteoclastogenesis in macrophages. • HO-1 induction suppressed RANKL-enhanced osteoclastogenesis in HIV-1-infected macrophages. • This inverse relationship between HO-1 and HIV-1 pathogenesis may define a novel host defense response against HIV-1 infection

  19. Hemin activation of innate cellular response blocks human immunodeficiency virus type-1-induced osteoclastogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Kazuyo [Microscopy and Imaging Core Facility, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD (United States); Adhikari, Rewati [Division of Transfusion Transmitted Diseases, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD (United States); Yamada, Kenneth M. [National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Dhawan, Subhash, E-mail: subhash.dhawan@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Transfusion Transmitted Diseases, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2015-08-14

    The normal skeletal developmental and homeostatic process termed osteoclastogenesis is exacerbated in numerous pathological conditions and causes excess bone loss. In cancer and HIV-1-infected patients, this disruption of homeostasis results in osteopenia and eventual osteoporesis. Counteracting the factors responsible for these metabolic disorders remains a challenge for preventing or minimizing this co-morbidity associated with these diseases. In this report, we demonstrate that a hemin-induced host protection mechanism not only suppresses HIV-1 associated osteoclastogenesis, but it also exhibits anti-osteoclastogenic activity for non-infected cells. Since the mode of action of hemin is both physiological and pharmacological through induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an endogenous host protective response to an FDA-licensed therapeutic used to treat another disease, our study suggests an approach to developing novel, safe and effective therapeutic strategies for treating bone disorders, because hemin administration in humans has previously met required FDA safety standards. - Highlights: • HIV-1 infection induced osteoclastogenesis in primary human macrophages. • Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) induction inhibited HIV-1-induced osteoclastogenesis in macrophages. • HO-1 induction suppressed RANKL-enhanced osteoclastogenesis in HIV-1-infected macrophages. • This inverse relationship between HO-1 and HIV-1 pathogenesis may define a novel host defense response against HIV-1 infection.

  20. Protective effects of persian honey, Apis Mellifera Meda Skorikov on side effects of chemotherapy and ischemia/reperfusion induced testicular injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Mohammadreza; Abbaszadeh, Abolfazl; Baharvand, Parastoo; Hasanvand, Afshin; Hasanvand, Amin; Gharravi, Anneh Mohammad

    2018-05-23

    Introduction The aim of the present study was to survey the protective effect of pretreatment with Persian honey on amelioration of side effects of chemotherapy and ischemia/reperfusion induced testicular injury. Materials and methods Forty adult's male wistar rats were divided into four groups of ischemia-reperfusion (IR), honey + ischemia-reperfusion (HIR), Busulfan (B) and Busulfan intraperitoneally+ honey (BH). The seminiferous tubules were rated for their modified spermatogenesis index (SI) by Johnsons score. Detection of single- and double-stranded DNA breaks at the early stages of apoptosis was performed using the in-situ cell death detection kit. Total serum concentration of Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) , Luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone was measured using ELISA. All data were expressed as mean ± SD and significance was set at p≤0.05. Results Honey improved SI in the HIR and BH groups and serum levels of FSH and LH in the BH and HIR groups (phoney protect testis against chemotherapy and testicular IR injury, increase FSH and LH and testosterone and decrease the cellular damage and apoptosis. Honey can decrease the side effects of chemotherapy on reproductive system and prevent sterility.

  1. Quercitrin protects skin from UVB-induced oxidative damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Yuanqin [Cancer Institute, The First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang (China); Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY (United States); Li, Wenqi; Son, Young-Ok; Sun, Lijuan; Lu, Jian; Kim, Donghern; Wang, Xin [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY (United States); Yao, Hua [Department of Stomatology, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Wang, Lei; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Hitron, Andrew J. [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY (United States); Luo, Jia [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kentucky, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY (United States); Gao, Ning [Department of Pharmacognos, College of Pharmacy, 3rd Military Medical University, Chongqing (China); Shi, Xianglin [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY (United States); Zhang, Zhuo, E-mail: zhuo.zhang@uky.edu [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Exposure of the skin to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation causes oxidative damage to skin, resulting in sunburn, photoaging, and skin cancer. It is generally believed that the skin damage induced by UV irradiation is a consequence of generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recently, there is an increased interest in the use of natural products as chemopreventive agents for non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) due to their antioxidants and anti-inflammatory properties. Quercitrin, glycosylated form of quercetin, is the most common flavonoid in nature with antioxidant properties. The present study investigated the possible beneficial effects of quercitrin to inhibit UVB irradiation-induced oxidative damage in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed that quercitrin decreased ROS generation induced by UVB irradiation in JB6 cells. Quercitrin restored catalase expression and GSH/GSSG ratio reduced by UVB exposure, two major antioxidant enzymes, leading to reductions of oxidative DNA damage and apoptosis and protection of the skin from inflammation caused by UVB exposure. The present study demonstrated that quercitrin functions as an antioxidant against UVB irradiation-induced oxidative damage to skin. - Highlights: • Oxidative stress plays a key role in UV-induced cell and tissue injuries. • Quercitrin decreases ROS generation and restores antioxidants irradiated by UVB. • Quercitrin reduces UVB-irradiated oxidative DNA damage, apoptosis, and inflammation. • Quercitrin functions as an antioxidant against UVB-induced skin injuries.

  2. Quercitrin protects skin from UVB-induced oxidative damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Yuanqin; Li, Wenqi; Son, Young-Ok; Sun, Lijuan; Lu, Jian; Kim, Donghern; Wang, Xin; Yao, Hua; Wang, Lei; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Hitron, Andrew J.; Luo, Jia; Gao, Ning; Shi, Xianglin; Zhang, Zhuo

    2013-01-01

    Exposure of the skin to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation causes oxidative damage to skin, resulting in sunburn, photoaging, and skin cancer. It is generally believed that the skin damage induced by UV irradiation is a consequence of generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recently, there is an increased interest in the use of natural products as chemopreventive agents for non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) due to their antioxidants and anti-inflammatory properties. Quercitrin, glycosylated form of quercetin, is the most common flavonoid in nature with antioxidant properties. The present study investigated the possible beneficial effects of quercitrin to inhibit UVB irradiation-induced oxidative damage in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed that quercitrin decreased ROS generation induced by UVB irradiation in JB6 cells. Quercitrin restored catalase expression and GSH/GSSG ratio reduced by UVB exposure, two major antioxidant enzymes, leading to reductions of oxidative DNA damage and apoptosis and protection of the skin from inflammation caused by UVB exposure. The present study demonstrated that quercitrin functions as an antioxidant against UVB irradiation-induced oxidative damage to skin. - Highlights: • Oxidative stress plays a key role in UV-induced cell and tissue injuries. • Quercitrin decreases ROS generation and restores antioxidants irradiated by UVB. • Quercitrin reduces UVB-irradiated oxidative DNA damage, apoptosis, and inflammation. • Quercitrin functions as an antioxidant against UVB-induced skin injuries

  3. Protection against radiation-induced performance decrement in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, S.K.; Pant, Kanchan; Goel, H.C.; Jain, Viney

    1997-01-01

    Recognizing that there is lack of information on the effects of low-level ionizing radiations and the modifying role of radioprotectors, an attempt has been made in this study to explore the relationship between impairment of spatial learning and low level of radiation exposure. A radial arm maze was utilised to evaluate radiation-induced behavioural alterations and performance decrement in mice. Immediately after whole body exposure to gamma radiation (absorbed dose, 1 Gy) significant perturbations in the learned behaviour of the animals were observed. The regular control movement became irregular and the food consumption time was reduced appreciably (40%). Recovery took place in four days. If diltiazem (7 mg/kg b.w.), a Ca 2+ channel blocker and a radioprotector, was administered i.p. 20-30 min prior to irradiation, radiation-induced behavioural abnormalities were reduced. Mechanisms underlying protection by diltiazem against radiation-induced performance decrement observed in the present study need to be investigated. (author). 23 refs., 2 figs

  4. Saponin-based adjuvants induce cross-presentation in dendritic cells by intracellular lipid body formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brok, M.H. den; Bull, C.; Wassink, M.; Graaf, A.M.A. de; Wagenaars, J.A.L.; Minderman, M.; Thakur, M.; Amigorena, S.; Rijke, E.O.; Schrier, C.C.; Adema, G.J.

    2016-01-01

    Saponin-based adjuvants (SBAs) are being used in animal and human (cancer) vaccines, as they induce protective cellular immunity. Their adjuvant potency is a factor of inflammasome activation and enhanced antigen cross-presentation by dendritic cells (DCs), but how antigen cross-presentation is

  5. Epidemiology of noise-induced tinnitus and the attitudes and beliefs towards noise and hearing protection in adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annick Gilles

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Previous research showed an increase of noise-induced symptoms in adolescents. Permanent tinnitus as a consequence of loud music exposure is usually considered as noise-induced damage. The objective was to perform an epidemiological study in order to obtain prevalence data of permanent noise-induced tinnitus as well as temporary tinnitus following noise exposure in a young population. In addition the attitudes and beliefs towards noise and hearing protection were evaluated in order to explain the use/non-use of hearing protection in a young population. METHODS: A questionnaire was completed by 3892 high school students (mean age: 16.64 years old, SD: 1.29 years. The prevalence of temporary and permanent tinnitus was assessed. In addition the 'Youth Attitudes to Noise Scale' and the 'Beliefs About Hearing Protection and Hearing Loss' were used in order to assess the attitudes and beliefs towards noise and hearing protection respectively. RESULTS: The prevalence of temporary noise-induced tinnitus and permanent tinnitus in high school students was respectively 74.9% and 18.3%. An increasing prevalence of temporary tinnitus with age was present. Most students had a 'neutral attitude' towards loud music and the use of hearing protection was minimal (4.7%. The limited use of hearing protection is explained by a logistic regression analysis showing the relations between certain parameters and the use of hearing protection. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the very high prevalence of tinnitus in such a young population, the rate of hearing protection use and the knowledge about the risks of loud music is extremely low. Future preventive campaigns should focus more on tinnitus as a warning signal for noise-induced damage and emphasize that also temporary symptoms can result in permanent noise-induced damage.

  6. Bio-based resistance inducers for sustainable plant protection against pathogens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burketová, Lenka; Trdá, Lucie; Ott, P.G.; Valentová, O.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 6 (2015), s. 994-1004 ISSN 0734-9750 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD14056 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Induced resistance * Elicitor * Chitosan Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection Impact factor: 9.848, year: 2015

  7. Rat testicular impairment induced by electromagnetic radiation from a conventional cellular telephone and the protective effects of the antioxidants vitamins C and E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Abdullah Al-Damegh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of electromagnetic radiation from conventional cellular phone use on the oxidant and antioxidant status in rat blood and testicular tissue and determine the possible protective role of vitamins C and E in preventing the detrimental effects of electromagnetic radiation on the testes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The treatment groups were exposed to an electromagnetic field, electromagnetic field plus vitamin C (40 mg/kg/day or electromagnetic field plus vitamin E (2.7 mg/kg/day. All groups were exposed to the same electromagnetic frequency for 15, 30, and 60 min daily for two weeks. RESULTS: There was a significant increase in the diameter of the seminiferous tubules with a disorganized seminiferous tubule sperm cycle interruption in the electromagnetism-exposed group. The serum and testicular tissue conjugated diene, lipid hydroperoxide, and catalase activities increased 3-fold, whereas the total serum and testicular tissue glutathione and glutathione peroxidase levels decreased 3-5 fold in the electromagnetism-exposed animals. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that the adverse effect of the generated electromagnetic frequency had a negative impact on testicular architecture and enzymatic activity. This finding also indicated the possible role of vitamins C and E in mitigating the oxidative stress imposed on the testes and restoring normality to the testes.

  8. Vaccination with an Attenuated Mutant of Ehrlichia chaffeensis Induces Pathogen-Specific CD4+ T Cell Immunity and Protection from Tick-Transmitted Wild-Type Challenge in the Canine Host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi L McGill

    Full Text Available Ehrlichia chaffeensis is a tick-borne rickettsial pathogen and the causative agent of human monocytic ehrlichiosis. Transmitted by the Amblyomma americanum tick, E. chaffeensis also causes disease in several other vertebrate species including white-tailed deer and dogs. We have recently described the generation of an attenuated mutant strain of E. chaffeensis, with a mutation in the Ech_0660 gene, which is able to confer protection from secondary, intravenous-administered, wild-type E. chaffeensis infection in dogs. Here, we extend our previous results, demonstrating that vaccination with the Ech_0660 mutant protects dogs from physiologic, tick-transmitted, secondary challenge with wild-type E. chaffeensis; and describing, for the first time, the cellular and humoral immune responses induced by Ech_0660 mutant vaccination and wild-type E. chaffeensis infection in the canine host. Both vaccination and infection induced a rise in E. chaffeensis-specific antibody titers and a significant Th1 response in peripheral blood as measured by E. chaffeensis antigen-dependent CD4+ T cell proliferation and IFNγ production. Further, we describe for the first time significant IL-17 production by peripheral blood leukocytes from both Ech_0660 mutant vaccinated animals and control animals infected with wild-type E. chaffeensis, suggesting a previously unrecognized role for IL-17 and Th17 cells in the immune response to rickettsial pathogens. Our results are a critical first step towards defining the role of the immune system in vaccine-induced protection from E. chaffeensis infection in an incidental host; and confirm the potential of the attenuated mutant clone, Ech_0660, to be used as a vaccine candidate for protection against tick-transmitted E. chaffeensis infection.

  9. Protective effects of escin against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tian; Zhao, Shanshan; Wang, Yucun; Yang, Yujiao; Yao, Le; Chu, Liuxiang; Du, Hanhan; Fu, Fenghua

    2014-12-01

    Escin, a natural mixture of triterpenoid saponin isolated from the seed of the horse chestnut, is reported to have a potent antiulcer activity against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions. This study investigated the possible mechanisms underlying the gastroprotective effect of escin against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in mice. Gastric ulceration was induced by a single intragastric administration of indomethacin (18 mg/kg). The mice underwent intragastric treatment with escin at doses of 0.45, 0.9 or 1.8 mg/kg. Gastric lesion was estimated morphometrically and histopathologically 6 h after the indomethacin administration. The antioxidative parameters in gastric mucosa were measured. Moreover, the activity of myeloperoxidase and the contents of TNF-α, P-selectin and VCAM-1 in gastric tissues were determined. The results showed that escin protected gastric tissues against indomethacin-induced gastropathy as demonstrated from a reduction in the ulcer index and an attenuation of histopathologic changes. Escin caused significant reductions of the contents of malondialdehyde, TNF-α, P-selectin, VCAM-1 and myeloperoxidase activity. The altered activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in the stomach tissues were also ameliorated by escin treatment. The present study demonstrated that escin had a protective effect against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in mice, not only by virtue of its antioxidant potential, but also due to its anti-inflammatory effect.

  10. Peroxiredoxin IV Protects Cells From Radiation-Induced Apoptosis in Head-and-Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jung Je; Chang, Hyo Won; Jeong, Eun-Jeong; Roh, Jong-Lyel; Choi, Seung-Ho; Jeon, Sea-Yuong; Ko, Gyung Hyuck; Kim, Sang Yoon

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Human peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are known as a family of thiol-specific antioxidant enzymes, among which Prx-I and -II play an important role in protecting cells from irradiation-induced cell death. It is not known whether Prx-IV also protects cells from ionizing radiation (IR). Methods and Materials: To evaluate the protective role of Prx-IV in IR, we transfected full-length Prx-IV cDNA into AMC-HN3 cells, which weakly express endogenous Prx-IV, and knocked down the expression of Prx-IV with siRNA methods using AMC-HN7 cells, which express high levels of endogenous Prx-IV. Radiosensitivity profiles in these cells were evaluated using clonogenic assay, FACS analysis, cell viability, and TUNEL assay. Results: Three Prx-IV expressing clones were isolated. Prx-IV regulated intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and made cells more resistant to IR-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, the knockdown of Prx-IV with siRNA made cells more sensitive to IR-induced apoptosis. Conclusion: The results of these studies suggest that Prx-IV may play an important role in protecting cells from IR-induced apoptosis in head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma

  11. Protective effect of chlorpromazine on TNF-mediated hapten-induced irritant reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erroi, A; Fantuzzi, G; Demitri, M T; Echtenacher, B; Gnocchi, P; Isetta, A; Ghezzi, P

    1995-01-01

    Picryl chloride-induced irritant reaction (IR) was shown to be mediated by tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Anti-TNF monoclonal antibodies, but not interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1 Ra), had a protective effect. Chlorpromazine (CPZ), an inhibitor of TNF synthesis, protected against IR and inhibited the IR-associated TNF induction in ear homogenates. Investigation of the role of polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) in neutropenic mice showed that neutropenia did not prevent the development of the IR.

  12. TVP1022 Protects Neonatal Rat Ventricular Myocytes against Doxorubicin-Induced Functional Derangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdichevski, Alexandra; Meiry, Gideon; Milman, Felix; Reiter, Irena; Sedan, Oshra; Eliyahu, Sivan; Duffy, Heather S.; Youdim, Moussa B.; Binah, Ofer

    2010-01-01

    Our recent studies demonstrated that propargylamine derivatives such as rasagiline (Azilect, Food and Drug Administration-approved anti-Parkinson drug) and its S-isomer TVP1022 protect cardiac and neuronal cell cultures against apoptotic-inducing stimuli. Studies on structure-activity relationship revealed that their neuroprotective effect is associated with the propargylamine moiety, which protects mitochondrial viability and prevents apoptosis by activating Bcl-2 and protein kinase C-ε and by down-regulating the proapoptotic protein Bax. Based on the established cytoprotective and neuroprotective efficacies of propargylamine derivatives, as well as on our recent study showing that TVP1022 attenuates serum starvation-induced and doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs), we tested the hypothesis that TVP1022 will also provide protection against doxorubicin-induced NRVM functional derangements. The present study demonstrates that pretreatment of NRVMs with TVP1022 (1 μM, 24 h) prevented doxorubicin (0.5 μM, 24 h)-induced elevation of diastolic [Ca2+]i, the slowing of [Ca2+]i relaxation kinetics, and the decrease in the rates of myocyte contraction and relaxation. Furthermore, pretreatment with TVP1022 attenuated the doxorubicin-induced reduction in the protein expression of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium (Ca2+) ATPase, Na+/Ca2+ exchanger 1, and total connexin 43. Finally, TVP1022 diminished the inhibitory effect of doxorubicin on gap junctional intercellular coupling (measured by means of Lucifer yellow transfer) and on conduction velocity, the amplitude of the activation phase, and the maximal rate of activation (dv/dtmax) measured by the Micro-Electrode-Array system. In summary, our results indicate that TVP1022 acts as a novel cardioprotective agent against anthracycline cardiotoxicity, and therefore potentially can be coadmhence, the inistered with doxorubicin in the treatment of malignancies in humans. PMID:19915070

  13. Rosiglitazone protects human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells against acetaldehyde-induced cytotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Tae Woo; Lee, Ji Young; Shim, Wan Sub; Kang, Eun Seok; Kim, Soo Kyung; Ahn, Chul Woo; Lee, Hyun Chul; Cha, Bong Soo

    2006-01-01

    Acetaldehyde, an inhibitor of mitochondrial function, has been widely used as a neurotoxin because it elicits a severe Parkinson's disease-like syndrome with elevation of the intracellular reactive oxygen species level and apoptosis. Rosiglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonist, has been known to show various non-hypoglycemic effects, including anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic, and anti-apoptotic. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of rosiglitazone on acetaldehyde-induced apoptosis in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells and attempted to examine its mechanism. Acetaldehyde-induced apoptosis was moderately reversed by rosiglitazone treatment. Our results suggest that the protective effects of rosiglitazone on acetaldehyde-induced apoptosis may be ascribed to ability to induce the expression of anti-oxidant enzymes and to regulate Bcl-2 and Bax expression. These data indicate that rosiglitazone may provide a useful therapeutic strategy for the prevention of progressive neurodegenerative disease such as Parkinson's disease

  14. Protective effect of curcumin and its analog on γ-radiation induced DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in cultured human lymphocytes and isolated rat hepatocytes in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, Venugopal P.

    2007-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is known to induce oxidative stress through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulting in an imbalance of the pro-oxidant and antioxidant status in the cells, which is suggested to culminate in cell death. The present work was aimed to evaluate the radioprotective effect of curcumin and its analog on γ-radiation induced toxicity in cultured human lymphocytes and rat hepatocytes. Hepatocytes were isolated from the liver of rats by collagenase perfusion. The cellular changes were estimated using lipid peroxidative indices like thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), the antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reduced glutathione (GSH). The DNA damage was analyzed by comet assay, cytokinesis blocked micro nucleus assay, dicentric aberrations and translocation frequency. Cell cycle distribution and measurement of the percentage of apoptotic cells were performed by flow cytometry analysis. To investigate whether the dietary agents like curcumin and its analog have a role on cell cycle regulation, we analyzed the changes in cell cycle profiles by using fluorescence activated cell sorter. The increase in the severity of DNA damage was observed with the increase dose (1, 2 and 4 Gy) of γ-radiation in cultured lymphocytes and hepatocytes. TBARS were increased significantly, whereas the levels of GSH and antioxidant enzymes were significantly decreased in γ-irradiated hepatocytes and lymphocytes. On pretreatment with curcumin and its analog (1, 5 and 10 μg/ml) showed a significant decrease in the levels of TBARS and DNA damage. The antioxidant enzymes were increased significantly along with the levels of GSH. The maximum protection of hepatocytes and lymphocytes was observed at 10 μg/ml curcumin and 5 μg/ml curcumin analog pretreatment. Thus, pretreatment with curcumin and its analog helps in protecting the normal hepatocytes and lymphocytes against γ-radiation induced cellular

  15. Standardized extracts of Bacopa monniera protect against MPP+- and paraquat-induced toxicity by modulating mitochondrial activities, proteasomal functions, and redox pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manjeet; Murthy, Ven; Ramassamy, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common age-related neurodegenerative diseases and affects millions of people worldwide. Strong evidence supports the role of free radicals, oxidative stress, mitochondrial, and proteasomal dysfunctions underlying neuronal death in PD. Environmental factors, especially pesticides, represent one of the primary classes of neurotoxic agents associated with PD, and several epidemiological studies have identified the exposure of the herbicide paraquat (PQ) as a potential risk factor for the onset of PD. The objective of our study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of the standardized extracts of Bacopa monniera (BM) against PQ-induced and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-pyridinium iodide (MPP(+))-induced toxicities and to elucidate the mechanisms underlying this protection. Our results show that a pretreatment with the BM extract from 50 μg/ml protected the dopaminergic SK-N-SH cell line against MPP(+)- and PQ-induced toxicities in various cell survival assays. We demonstrate that BM pretreatment prevented the depletion of glutathione (GSH) besides preserving the mitochondrial membrane potential and maintaining the mitochondrial complex I activity. BM pretreatment from 10.0 μg/ml also prevented the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and decreased the mitochondrial superoxide level. BM treatment activated the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 pathway by modulating the expression of Keap1, thereby upregulating the endogenous GSH synthesis. The effect of BM on the phosphorylation of Akt further strengthens its role in the promotion of cell survival. By preserving the cellular redox homeostasis and mitochondrial activities and by promoting cell survival pathways, BM extract may have therapeutic uses in various age-related neurodegenerative diseases such as PD.

  16. Hypoxic preconditioning protects photoreceptors against light damage independently of hypoxia inducible transcription factors in rods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kast, Brigitte; Schori, Christian; Grimm, Christian

    2016-05-01

    Hypoxic preconditioning protects photoreceptors against light-induced degeneration preserving retinal morphology and function. Although hypoxia inducible transcription factors 1 and 2 (HIF1, HIF2) are the main regulators of the hypoxic response, photoreceptor protection does not depend on HIF1 in rods. Here we used rod-specific Hif2a single and Hif1a;Hif2a double knockout mice to investigate the potential involvement of HIF2 in rods for protection after hypoxic preconditioning. To identify potential HIF2 target genes in rods we determined the retinal transcriptome of hypoxic control and rod-specific Hif2a knockouts by RNA sequencing. We show that rods do not need HIF2 for hypoxia-induced increased survival after light exposure. The transcriptomic analysis revealed a number of genes that are potentially regulated by HIF2 in rods; among those were Htra1, Timp3 and Hmox1, candidates that are interesting due to their connection to human degenerative diseases of the retina. We conclude that neither HIF1 nor HIF2 are required in photoreceptors for protection by hypoxic preconditioning. We hypothesize that HIF transcription factors may be needed in other cells to produce protective factors acting in a paracrine fashion on photoreceptor cells. Alternatively, hypoxic preconditioning induces a rod-intrinsic response that is independent of HIF transcription factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Humoral and cellular immune responses in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice immunized with cytoplasmic (CRA) and flagellar (FRA) recombinant repetitive antigens, in acute experimental Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Valéria R A; Lorena, Virginia M B; Nakazawa, Mineo; Luna, Carlos F; Silva, Edimilson D; Ferreira, Antonio G P; Krieger, Marco Aurélio; Goldenberg, Samuel; Soares, Milena B P; Coutinho, Eridan M; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Gomes, Yara M

    2005-06-01

    In previous studies, cytoplasmic repetitive antigen (CRA) and flagellar repetitive antigen (FRA) proteins induced specific humoral and cellular immune responses in susceptible and resistant mice in the absence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection with a significant induction of the Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production in those animals. In this follow-up paper, the immunostimulatory and protective effects of these proteins were evaluated by immunizing with CRA or FRA antigens, BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice and challenging with a T. cruzi (Y strain). Both proteins induced humoral response with high levels of IgG isotypes as well as cellular immunity with high levels of IFN-gamma when compared to controls. However, the lymphocyte proliferative response was minimal. The survival rate at 30 days post-infection was significant in CRA (60%) or FRA (50%)--immunized BALB/c mice and CRA (83.3%)--immunized C57BL/6 mice. Taken as a whole these findings indicate that CRA and FRA are immunogenic and potentially important for protective immunity.

  18. Functional analysis of molecular mechanisms of radiation induced apoptosis, that are not mediated by DNA damages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angermeier, Marita; Moertl, Simone

    2012-01-01

    The effects of low-dose irradiation pose new challenges on the radiation protection efforts. Enhanced cellular radiation sensitivity is displayed by disturbed cellular reactions and resulting damage like cell cycle arrest, DNA repair and apoptosis. Apoptosis serves as genetically determinate parameter for the individual radiation sensitivity. In the frame of the project the radiation-induced apoptosis was mechanistically investigated. Since ionizing radiation induced direct DNA damage and generates a reactive oxygen species, the main focus of the research was the differentiation and weighting of DNA damage mediated apoptosis and apoptosis caused by the reactive oxygen species (ROS).

  19. Skin cell protection against UVA by Sideroxyl, a new antioxidant complementary to sunscreens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pygmalion, Marie-Jocelyne; Ruiz, Laetitia; Popovic, Evelyne; Gizard, Julie; Portes, Pascal; Marat, Xavier; Lucet-Levannier, Karine; Muller, Benoit; Galey, Jean-Baptiste

    2010-12-01

    Oxidative stress resulting from photosensitized ROS production in skin is widely accepted as the main contributor to the deleterious effects of UVA exposure. Among the mechanisms known to be involved in UVA-induced oxidative damage, iron plays a central role. UVA radiation of skin cells induces an immediate release of iron, which can then act as a catalyst for uncontrolled oxidation reactions of cell components. Such site-specific damage can scarcely be counteracted by classical antioxidants. In contrast, iron chelators potentially offer an effective way to protect skin against UVA insults. However, iron chelation is very difficult to achieve without disturbing iron homeostasis or inducing iron depletion. A novel compound was developed to avoid these potentially harmful side effects. Sideroxyl was designed to acquire its strong chelating capability only during oxidative stress according to an original process of intramolecular hydroxylation. Herein, we describe in vitro results demonstrating the protective efficiency of Sideroxyl against deleterious effects of UVA at the molecular, cellular, and tissular levels. First, the Sideroxyl diacid form protects a model protein against UVA-induced photosensitized carbonylation. Second, intracellular ROS are dose-dependently decreased in the presence of Sideroxyl in both human cultured fibroblasts and human keratinocytes. Third, Sideroxyl protects normal human fibroblasts against UVA-induced DNA damage as measured by the comet assay and MMP-1 production. Finally, Sideroxyl provides protection against UVA-induced alterations in human reconstructed skin. These results suggest that Sideroxyl may prevent UVA-induced damage in human skin as a complement to sunscreens, especially in the long-wavelength UVA range. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Anti-Glycoprotein G Antibodies of Herpes Simplex Virus 2 Contribute to Complete Protection after Vaccination in Mice and Induce Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity and Complement-Mediated Cytolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staffan Görander

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the role of antibodies against the mature portion of glycoprotein G (mgG-2 of herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2 in protective immunity after vaccination. Mice were immunized intramuscularly with mgG-2 and oligodeoxynucleotides containing two CpG motifs plus alum as adjuvant. All C57BL/6 mice survived and presented no genital or systemic disease. High levels of immunoglobulin G subclass 1 (IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies were detected and re-stimulated splenic CD4+ T cells proliferated and produced IFN-γ. None of the sera from immunized mice exhibited neutralization, while all sera exerted antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC and complement-mediated cytolysis (ACMC activity. Passive transfer of anti-mgG-2 monoclonal antibodies, or immune serum, to naive C57BL/6 mice did not limit disease progression. Immunized B‑cell KO mice presented lower survival rate and higher vaginal viral titers, as compared with vaccinated B-cell KO mice after passive transfer of immune serum and vaccinated C57BL/6 mice. Sera from mice that were vaccinated subcutaneously and intranasally with mgG-2 presented significantly lower titers of IgG antibodies and lower ADCC and ACMC activity. We conclude that anti-mgG-2 antibodies were of importance to limit genital HSV‑2 infection. ADCC and ACMC activity are potentially important mechanisms in protective immunity, and could tentatively be evaluated in future animal vaccine studies and in clinical trials.