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Sample records for indocyanine green clearance

  1. Liver volume, portal vein flow, and clearance of indocyanine green and antipyrine in hyperthyroidism before and after antithyroid treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vibeke; Sonne, J; Court-Payen, M

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine liver volume, portal vein flow, and indocyanine green (ICG) and antipyrine clearance in hyperthyroidism before and after antithyroid drug treatment.......The aim of the study was to examine liver volume, portal vein flow, and indocyanine green (ICG) and antipyrine clearance in hyperthyroidism before and after antithyroid drug treatment....

  2. Comparison of measurements of plasma clearance of Mebrofenine and of indocyanine green

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurel, G.; Coutris, G.; Vaubourdolle, M.; Attal, P.; Patureau, R.; Tabsoba, Th.; Mensch, B.; Askienazy, Pr.S.

    1997-01-01

    The importance of clearance measurements in evaluating renal or hepatic function needs not further demonstration. The isotopic methods were proved in renal exploration but their utilization in exploration of hepato-biliary function needs to be evaluated. In this work we have compared the measurement of plasma clearance by Mebrofenine, a radiopharmaceutical of specifically hepatic elimination, with the reference method, the clearance of indocyanine green. On the basis of scintigraphic data from 23 patients who benefited by a hepato-biliary exploration by Mebrofenine- 99m Tc for pre-surgery account and surveillance, we have determined the plasma clearance of this radiopharmaceutical. The method makes use of the curve of normalized cardiac activity by a blood sampling, taken 60 minutes after injection. The measurement of the clearance of indocyanine green was effected within a delay inferior to 1 month from the moment of biliary scintigraphy. The average clearance of Mebrofenine- 99m Tc is of 553 ml/min for 1.73 m 2 of corporal surface (typical interval is 374 ml/min), the value of indocyanine green is of 450 ml/min (typical interval is 229 ml/min). The two measurements of clearance are correlated (p = 0.05). In conclusion, the measurement of clearance by Mebrofenine- 99m appears to be adapted to the evaluation of hepato-biliary function

  3. Antipyrine, oxazepam, and indocyanine green clearance in patients with chronic pancreatitis and healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vibeke; Sonne, J; Larsen, S

    1999-01-01

    Hepatic drug metabolism was examined in patients with chronic pancreatitis and healthy controls by using a cocktail design with three different model compounds: antipyrine to express phase-I oxidation, oxazepam to express phase-II conjugation, and indocyanine green (ICG), a high-clearance compound....

  4. Hepatectomy Based on Future Liver Remnant Plasma Clearance Rate of Indocyanine Green

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichiro Uchida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hepatectomy, an important treatment modality for liver malignancies, has high perioperative morbidity and mortality rates. Safe, comprehensive criteria for selecting patients for hepatectomy are needed. Since June 2011, we have used a cut-off value of ≧ 0.05 for future liver remnant plasma clearance rate of indocyanine green as a criterion for hepatectomy. The aim of this study was to verify the validity of this criterion. Methods. From June 2011 to December 2015, 212 hepatectomies were performed in Tenri Yorozu Hospital. Of these 212 patients, 107 who underwent preoperative computed tomography imaging volumetry, indocyanine green clearance test, and hepatectomy (excluding partial resection or enucleation were retrospectively analyzed. Results. There was no postoperative mortality. Posthepatectomy liver failure occurred in 59 patients (55.1% (International Study Group of Liver Surgery Grade A: 43 cases (40.2%, Grade B: 16 cases (15.0%, and Grade C: no cases. Operative morbidity greater than Clavien-Dindo Grade 3 occurred in 23 patients (21.5%. A low future liver remnant plasma clearance rate of indocyanine green was a good predictor for Grade B cases (area under curve = 0.804; 95% confidence interval, 0.712–0.895. Conclusion. Liver remnant plasma clearance rate of indocyanine green is a valid criterion for hepatectomy.

  5. Comparison of indocyanine green clearance with Child's-Pugh score and hepatic histology: a multivariate analysis.

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    Mukherjee, Sandeep; Rogers, Mary A M; Buniak, Borys

    2006-01-01

    Indocyanine green clearance, measured by percentage disappearance rate, detects alterations in liver function and may be used as a non-invasive determinant of hepatic reserve. The aims of this study were to compare liver histology and Child's-Pugh score with percentage disappearance rate and determine which variables correlated with PDR. Child's-Pugh score, liver function tests, liver biopsies and indocyanine green testing (0.5mg/kg) were performed in 102 consecutive patients with cirrhosis of diverse etiologies. Indocyanine green concentration was determined using spectrophotometric analysis (806nm) and plotted logarithmically with Michaelis-Menten kinetics to calculate the percentage disappearance rate. Liver biopsies were graded using the modified Knodell score to obtain a histological activity index. In bivariable analysis, percentage disappearance rate significantly correlated with Child's-Pugh score, albumin, bilirubin, prothrombin time and histological activity index. Albumin, prothrombin time and histological activity index were independent predictors of percentage disappearance rate in the final model (albumin ptime ptime and histological activity index.

  6. The Predictive Value of Indocyanine Green Clearance in Future Liver Remnant for Posthepatectomy Liver Failure Following Hepatectomy with Extrahepatic Bile Duct Resection.

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    Yokoyama, Yukihiro; Ebata, Tomoki; Igami, Tsuyoshi; Sugawara, Gen; Mizuno, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Junpei; Nagino, Masato

    2016-06-01

    Postoperative liver failure (PHLF) is one of the most common complications following major hepatectomy. The preoperative assessment of future liver remnant (FLR) function is critical to predict the incidence of PHLF. To determine the efficacy of the plasma clearance rate of indocyanine green clearance of FLR (ICGK-F) in predicting PHLF in cases of highly invasive hepatectomy with extrahepatic bile duct resection. Five hundred and eighty-five patients who underwent major hepatectomy with extrahepatic bile duct resection, from 2002 to 2014 in a single institution, were evaluated. Among them, 192 patients (33 %) had PHLF. The predictive value of ICGK-F for PHLF was determined and compared with other risk factors for PHLF. The incidence of PHLF was inversely proportional to the level of ICGK-F. With multivariate logistic regression analysis, ICGK-F, combined pancreatoduodenectomy, the operation time, and blood loss were identified as independent risk factors of PHLF. The risk of PHLF increased according to the decrement of ICGK-F (the odds ratio of ICGK-F for each decrement of 0.01 was 1.22; 95 % confidence interval 1.12-1.33; P bile duct resection. This criterion may be useful for highly invasive hepatectomy, such as that with extrahepatic bile duct resection.

  7. Dynamic indocyanine green angiography measurements

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    Holmes, Timothy; Invernizzi, Alessandro; Larkin, Sean; Staurenghi, Giovanni

    2012-11-01

    Dynamic indocyanine green imaging uses a scanning laser ophthalmoscope and a fluorescent dye to produce movies of the dye-filling pattern in the retina and choroid of the eye. It is used for evaluating choroidal neovascularization. Movies are examined to identify the anatomy of the pathology for planning treatment and to evaluate progression or response to treatment. The popularity of this approach is affected by the complexity and difficulty in interpreting the movies. Software algorithms were developed to produce images from the movies that are easy to interpret. A mathematical model is formulated of the flow dynamics, and a fitting algorithm is designed that solves for the flow parameters. The images provide information about flow and perfusion, including regions of change between examinations. Imaged measures include the dye fill-time, temporal dispersion, and magnitude of the dye dilution temporal curves associated with image pixels. Cases show how the software can help to identify clinically relevant anatomy such as feeder vessels, drain vessels, capillary networks, and normal choroidal draining vessels. As a potential tool for research into the character of neovascular conditions and treatments, it reveals the flow dynamics and character of the lesion. Future varieties of this methodology may be used for evaluating the success of engineered tissue transplants, surgical flaps, reconstructive surgery, breast surgery, and many other surgical applications where flow, perfusion, and vascularity of tissue are important.

  8. Indocyanine green for intraoperative localization of ureter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddighi, Sam; Yune, Junchan Joshua; Hardesty, Jeffrey

    2014-10-01

    Intraurethral injection of indocyanine green (ICG; Akorn, Lake Forest, IL) and visualization under near-infrared (NIR) light allows for real-time delineation of the ureter. This technology can be helpful to prevent iatrogenic ureteral injury during pelvic surgery. Patients were scheduled to undergo robot-assisted laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy. Before the robotic surgery started, the tip of a 6-F ureteral catheter was inserted into the ureteral orifice. Twenty-five milligrams of ICG was dissolved in 10-mL of sterile water and injected through the open catheter. The same procedure was repeated on the opposite side. The ICG reversibly stained the inside lining of the ureter by binding to proteins on urothelial layer. During the course of robotic surgery, the NIR laser on the da Vinci Si surgical robot (Intuitive Surgical, Inc, Sunnyvale, CA) was used to excite ICG molecules, and infrared emission was captured by the da Vinci filtered lens system and electronically converted to green color. Thus, the ureter fluoresced green, which allowed its definitive identification throughout the entire case. In all cases of >10 patients, we were able to visualize bilateral ureters with this technology, even though there was some variation in brightness that depended on the depth of the ureter from the peritoneal surface. For example, in a morbidly obese patient, the ureters were not as bright green. There were no intraoperative or postoperative adverse effects attributable to ICG administration for up to 2 months of observation. In our experience, this novel method of intraurethral ICG injection was helpful to identify the entire course of ureter and allowed a safe approach to tissues that were adjacent to the urinary tract. The advantage of our technique is that it requires the insertion of just the tip of ureteral catheter. Despite our limited cohort of patients, our findings are consistent with previous reports of the excellent safety profile of intravenous and intrabiliary ICG

  9. Labeling of indocyanine green with carrier-free iodine-123

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, A.N.; Lambrecht, R.M.; Redvanly, C.S.; Wolf, A.P.

    1976-01-01

    The method is described for labeling indocyanine green (ICG) with carrier-free iodine-123 by condensing xenon-123 on crystals of ICG followed by permitting decay of the 123 Xe a sufficient length of time to produce 123 I-electronically excited ions and atoms which subsequently label ICG. 4 claims, no drawings

  10. A Review of Indocyanine Green Fluorescent Imaging in Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmo T. Alander

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the recent surgical intraoperational applications of indocyanine green fluorescence imaging methods, the basics of the technology, and instrumentation used. Well over 200 papers describing this technique in clinical setting are reviewed. In addition to the surgical applications, other recent medical applications of ICG are briefly examined.

  11. Indocyanine green labeled with 123I for dynamic studies of the hepato-biliary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrecht, R.M.; Ansari, A.N.; Wolf, A.P.; Atkins, H.L.

    1975-01-01

    This report summarizes the results to develop an iodine-123 labeled agent for dynamic studies of the hepato-biliary system. Iodine-123 is an ideal nuclide for radiopharmaceuticals, because of its short half-life (T/sub 1 / 2 / = 13.3 hr); its decay with a high abundance (83%) of 159 keV photons; and the reduced patient radiation exposure (a factor of 100 less than iodine-131). Indocyanine green, a tricarbanocyanine dye, was introduced by Heseltine and co-workers in 1956, has several characteristics which suggested that iodine-123 labeled ICG might be potentially useful for hepatic functional evaluation. The plasma clearance and biliary excretion kinetics of 123 I-ICG (in dogs) will be compared to 131 I-rose bengal and bromosulphalein labeled with iodine-125

  12. Indocyanine Green Videoangiography in Negative: Spinal Dural Arteriovenous Fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simal Julián, Juan Antonio; Miranda Lloret, Pablo; Sanromán Álvarez, Pablo; Pérez de San Román, Laila; Beltrán Giner, Andrés; Botella Asunción, Carlos

    2015-08-01

    Introduction This work reports the first indocyanine green videoangiography (IGV) in negative published with video format support. This technique, so called because its first phase is performed with occlusion of the vessel suspected of being pathologic, is used for the diagnosis of spinal arteriovenous fistula (sDAVF). Case Report The authors present the case of a 68-year-old man with an sDAVF fed by the right T7 segmentary artery. IGV was initially performed with the presumptive fistula feeder occluded for less than 1 minute, which provided both diagnostic and postexclusion control in one procedure. This technique therefore is reversible by not prolonging vascular exclusion times. Discussion IGV in negative is an extremely visual and intuitive procedure that represents an improvement over conventional IGV. Conclusion Studies with larger sample sizes are necessary to determine whether IGV in negative can further reduce the need for postoperative digital subtraction angiography.

  13. [Indocyanine green angiography in "multiple evanescent white dot syndrome" (MEWDS)].

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    Desarnaulds, A B; Borruat, F X; Herbort, C P; de Courten, C

    1998-05-01

    Multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS) is a benign acquired chorioretinal disorder occurring mostly in young adults. Its pathophysiology is unknown. To describe the results of indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) in MEWDS. Four patients with MEWDS were investigated by ICGA. In all cases, ICGA revealed numerous choroidal hypofluorescent lesions that largely outnumbered the lesions visible with either fundoscopy or fluorescein angiography. Three cases showed a blind spot enlargement on perimetry associated with the presence of a large peripapillary hypofluorescent zone on ICGA. Three cases showed macular granularity on fundoscopy correlating with a significant subfoveal hypfluorescent lesion on ICGA. Evolution was always favorable with disappearance of the hypofluorescent choroidal lesions. Our results confirm that MEWDS is primarily a choroidal disorder. The blind spot enlargement and the macular granularity, frequently detected in MEWDS, result from larger peripapillary and subfoveal choroidal lesions.

  14. Indocyanine green staining facilitates detection of bleb leakage during trabeculectomy.

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    Okazaki, Teruhiko; Kiuchi, Takahiro; Kawana, Keisuke; Oshika, Tetsuro

    2007-03-01

    To report a new technique to visualize bleb leakage using indocyanine green (ICG) staining during trabeculectomy. The ICG solution was widely applied over the filtering bleb including the conjunctival wound before completion of trabeculectomy. This procedure was performed in 48 eyes of 44 consecutive patients undergoing trabeculectomy between December 2004 and October 2005. Without staining, bleb leakage was not identified by the direct observation under the operating microscope. ICG staining clearly visualized aqueous leakage from the bleb in 5 eyes (10.4%). The bleb leakage in these eyes was easily repaired with 10-0 nylon sutures, and no eyes, including these 5 cases, showed bleb leakage after surgery. There were no intraoperative and postoperative complications related to ICG application. The application of ICG during trabeculectomy is a simple and useful technique to facilitate detection and repair of the bleb leakage.

  15. Application of Indocyanine Green in Flap Surgery: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Zhang, Zheng; Nicoli, Fabio; D'Ambrosia, Christopher; Xi, Wenjing; Lazzeri, Davide; Feng, Shaoqing; Su, Weijie; Li, Hua; Ciudad, Pedro; Tremp, Mathias; Zhang, Yi Xin

    2018-02-01

     The vascularization of the distal portions of transferred tissue represents the most critical factor in the success of reconstructive surgery. In recent years, indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence imaging techniques have been applied during surgery to evaluate flap perfusion. However, this investigation has found that there is little consensus regarding the standard dose of ICG as well as the pre-operative requirements of ICG allergy testing. The aim of this study is to summarize the applications of ICG to tissue transfers and safe dosing practices and to provide insight to the possible adverse effects of ICG on flap surgery with the goal of helping clinicians apply ICG safely and efficiently to tissue transfer procedures.  A literature search was performed using, Wiley InterScience, and Springer with the key words, 'Flap,' 'indocyanine green,' 'surgery,' and related mesh words for all publications between 2005 and 2015. Title and abstract screening was performed using predefined in- and exclusion criteria.  Seventy-three articles were included. These were classified as "application of ICG in flap surgery" and "the security of applying ICG in flap surgery".  ICG fluorescence imaging preoperatively facilitates the detection of perforators in tissue flaps with thickness <20 mm, aids in the evaluation of flap microcirculation and perfusion, and allows surgeons to select dominant cutaneous nerves while evaluating the quality of vascular anastomoses and locating thromboses. The literature also concluded that potential allergic reactions to ICG should be taken into consideration. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  16. Model and methods to assess hepatic function from indocyanine green fluorescence dynamical measurements of liver tissue.

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    Audebert, Chloe; Vignon-Clementel, Irene E

    2018-03-30

    The indocyanine green (ICG) clearance, presented as plasma disappearance rate is, presently, a reliable method to estimate the hepatic "function". However, this technique is not instantaneously available and thus cannot been used intra-operatively (during liver surgery). Near-infrared spectroscopy enables to assess hepatic ICG concentration over time in the liver tissue. This article proposes to extract more information from the liver intensity dynamics by interpreting it through a dedicated pharmacokinetics model. In order to account for the different exchanges between the liver tissues, the proposed model includes three compartments for the liver model (sinusoids, hepatocytes and bile canaliculi). The model output dependency to parameters is studied with sensitivity analysis and solving an inverse problem on synthetic data. The estimation of model parameters is then performed with in-vivo measurements in rabbits (El-Desoky et al. 1999). Parameters for different liver states are estimated, and their link with liver function is investigated. A non-linear (Michaelis-Menten type) excretion rate from the hepatocytes to the bile canaliculi was necessary to reproduce the measurements for different liver conditions. In case of bile duct ligation, the model suggests that this rate is reduced, and that the ICG is stored in the hepatocytes. Moreover, the level of ICG remains high in the blood following the ligation of the bile duct. The percentage of retention of indocyanine green in blood, which is a common test for hepatic function estimation, is also investigated with the model. The impact of bile duct ligation and reduced liver inflow on the percentage of ICG retention in blood is studied. The estimation of the pharmacokinetics model parameters may lead to an evaluation of different liver functions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Photoacoustic tomography of human hepatic malignancies using intraoperative indocyanine green fluorescence imaging.

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    Miyata, Akinori; Ishizawa, Takeaki; Kamiya, Mako; Shimizu, Atsushi; Kaneko, Junichi; Ijichi, Hideaki; Shibahara, Junji; Fukayama, Masashi; Midorikawa, Yutaka; Urano, Yasuteru; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2014-01-01

    Recently, fluorescence imaging following the preoperative intravenous injection of indocyanine green has been used in clinical settings to identify hepatic malignancies during surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of photoacoustic tomography using indocyanine green as a contrast agent to produce representative fluorescence images of hepatic tumors by visualizing the spatial distribution of indocyanine green on ultrasonographic images. Indocyanine green (0.5 mg/kg, intravenous) was preoperatively administered to 9 patients undergoing hepatectomy. Intraoperatively, photoacoustic tomography was performed on the surface of the resected hepatic specimens (n = 10) under excitation with an 800 nm pulse laser. In 4 hepatocellular carcinoma nodules, photoacoustic imaging identified indocyanine green accumulation in the cancerous tissue. In contrast, in one hepatocellular carcinoma nodule and five adenocarcinoma foci (one intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and 4 colorectal liver metastases), photoacoustic imaging delineated indocyanine green accumulation not in the cancerous tissue but rather in the peri-cancerous hepatic parenchyma. Although photoacoustic tomography enabled to visualize spatial distribution of ICG on ultrasonographic images, which was consistent with fluorescence images on cut surfaces of the resected specimens, photoacoustic signals of ICG-containing tissues decreased approximately by 40% even at 4 mm depth from liver surfaces. Photoacoustic tomography using indocyanine green also failed to identify any hepatocellular carcinoma nodules from the body surface of model mice with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. In conclusion, photoacoustic tomography has a potential to enhance cancer detectability and differential diagnosis by ultrasonographic examinations and intraoperative fluorescence imaging through visualization of stasis of bile-excreting imaging agents in and/or around hepatic tumors. However, further technical advances are needed

  18. Photoacoustic tomography of human hepatic malignancies using intraoperative indocyanine green fluorescence imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinori Miyata

    Full Text Available Recently, fluorescence imaging following the preoperative intravenous injection of indocyanine green has been used in clinical settings to identify hepatic malignancies during surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of photoacoustic tomography using indocyanine green as a contrast agent to produce representative fluorescence images of hepatic tumors by visualizing the spatial distribution of indocyanine green on ultrasonographic images. Indocyanine green (0.5 mg/kg, intravenous was preoperatively administered to 9 patients undergoing hepatectomy. Intraoperatively, photoacoustic tomography was performed on the surface of the resected hepatic specimens (n = 10 under excitation with an 800 nm pulse laser. In 4 hepatocellular carcinoma nodules, photoacoustic imaging identified indocyanine green accumulation in the cancerous tissue. In contrast, in one hepatocellular carcinoma nodule and five adenocarcinoma foci (one intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and 4 colorectal liver metastases, photoacoustic imaging delineated indocyanine green accumulation not in the cancerous tissue but rather in the peri-cancerous hepatic parenchyma. Although photoacoustic tomography enabled to visualize spatial distribution of ICG on ultrasonographic images, which was consistent with fluorescence images on cut surfaces of the resected specimens, photoacoustic signals of ICG-containing tissues decreased approximately by 40% even at 4 mm depth from liver surfaces. Photoacoustic tomography using indocyanine green also failed to identify any hepatocellular carcinoma nodules from the body surface of model mice with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. In conclusion, photoacoustic tomography has a potential to enhance cancer detectability and differential diagnosis by ultrasonographic examinations and intraoperative fluorescence imaging through visualization of stasis of bile-excreting imaging agents in and/or around hepatic tumors. However, further technical

  19. Development of ultrasound-assisted fluorescence imaging of indocyanine green.

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    Morikawa, Hiroyasu; Toyota, Shin; Wada, Kenji; Uchida-Kobayashi, Sawako; Kawada, Norifumi; Horinaka, Hiromichi

    2017-01-01

    Indocyanine green (ICG) accumulation in hepatocellular carcinoma means tumors can be located by fluorescence. However, because of light scattering, it is difficult to detect ICG fluorescence from outside the body. We propose a new fluorescence imaging method that detects changes in the intensity of ICG fluorescence by ultrasound-induced temperature changes. ICG fluorescence intensity decreases as the temperature rises. Therefore, it should theoretically be possible to detect tissue distribution of ICG using ultrasound to heat tissue, moving the point of ultrasound transmission, and monitoring changes in fluorescence intensity. A new probe was adapted for clinical application. It consisted of excitation light from a laser, fluorescence sensing through a light pipe, and heating by ultrasound. We applied the probe to bovine liver to image the accumulation of ICG. ICG emits fluorescence (820 nm) upon light irradiation (783 nm). With a rise in temperature, the fluorescence intensity of ICG decreased by 0.85 %/°C. The distribution of fluorescent ICG was detected using an ultrasonic warming method in a new integrated probe. Modulating fluorescence by changing the temperature using ultrasound can determine where ICG accumulates at a depth, highlighting its potential as a means to locate hepatocellular carcinoma.

  20. Multiphoton photodegradation of indocyanine green: Solvent protolysis effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuyuki, Masanori, E-mail: mn.fuyuki@kio.ac.jp

    2016-02-15

    The multiphoton photodegradation mechanism of indocyanine green (ICG) was investigated by using femtosecond near-infrared (NIR) pump and probe pulses. In the pump fluence region from 2 mJ/cm{sup 2} to 4 mJ/cm{sup 2}, the photodegradation rate was higher in acetic acid than in ethanol, and the rate was proportional to pump fluence to the 2.3th power in acetic acid and the 3.9th in ethanol. Considering that the degree of auto-protolysis of acetic acid is much higher than that of ethanol, the experimental results indicate that self-ionized solvent molecules played an essential role in the degradation of ICG molecules excited by NIR multiphoton process. - Highlights: • Photodegradation of ICG by femtosecond near-infrared pulses. • Photodegradation rate of ICG was higher in acetic acid than in ethanol. • Photodegradation rate was proportional to pump fluence to 2.3th power in acetic acid. • Photodegradation rate was proportional to pump fluence to 3.9th power in ethanol. • Self-ionized solvent molecules promoted ICG photodegradation in acetic acid.

  1. Indocyanine green plasma disappearance rate during the anhepatic phase of orthotopic liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruegger, Lukas; Studer, Peter; Schmid, Stefan W; Pestel, Gunther; Reichen, Juerg; Seiler, Christian; Candinas, Daniel; Inderbitzin, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Non-invasive pulse spectrophotometry to measure indocyanine green (ICG) elimination correlates well with the conventional invasive ICG clearance test. Nevertheless, the precision of this method remains unclear for any application, including small-for-size liver remnants. We therefore measured ICG plasma disappearance rate (PDR) during the anhepatic phase of orthotopic liver transplantation using pulse spectrophotometry. Measurements were done in 24 patients. The median PDR after exclusion of two outliers and two patients with inconstant signal was 1.55%/min (95% confidence interval [CI]=0.8-2.2). No correlation with patient age, gender, body mass, blood loss, administration of fresh frozen plasma, norepinephrine dose, postoperative albumin (serum), or difference in pre and post transplant body weight was detected. In conclusion, we found an ICG-PDR different from zero in the anhepatic phase, an overestimation that may arise in particular from a redistribution into the interstitial space. If ICG pulse spectrophotometry is used to measure functional hepatic reserve, the verified average difference from zero (1.55%/min) determined in our study needs to be taken into account.

  2. Blood volume measurement with indocyanine green pulse spectrophotometry: dose and site of dye administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Germans, Menno R.; de Witt Hamer, Philip C.; van Boven, Leonard J.; Zwinderman, Koos A. H.; Bouma, Gerrit J.

    2010-01-01

    (1) To determine the optimal administration site and dose of indocyanine green (ICG) for blood volume measurement using pulse spectrophotometry, (2) to assess the variation in repeated blood volume measurements for patients after subarachnoid hemorrhage and (3) to evaluate the safety and efficacy of

  3. Impact of the time window on plasma volume measurement with indocyanine green

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, M; Chappell, D; Conzen, P; Finsterer, U; Rehm, M; Krafft, A; Becker, B F

    2008-01-01

    Recent reports have questioned the accuracy of the indocyanine green dilution technique for measuring plasma volume. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of different time windows for monoexponential extrapolation. We retrospectively analysed 31 indocyanine green decay curves to investigate the problem in principle (group 1) and prospectively performed another 21 plasma volume measurements to estimate its practical impact (group 2). To monoexponentially extrapolate back to the specific extinction at the time of dye injection, two different time windows were applied to each decay curve, comparing the plasma volumes resulting from sampling within a short (≤5 min) versus a longer (>5 min) period of time. Extrapolating back from the longer period led to a higher apparent plasma volume relative to the shorter period in both groups, the difference being 348 ± 171 ml (group 1) and 384 ± 131 ml (group 2; mean ± SD; p < 0.05 each). This result was due to a reliable monoexponentiality of decay only up to the 5th min after dye injection. Thus, to estimate the initial distribution space of indocyanine green via monoexponential extrapolation, the first linear kinetic of indocyanine green decay should be taken

  4. Microencapsulation of indocyanine green for potential applications in image-guided drug delivery.

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    Zhu, Zhiqiang; Si, Ting; Xu, Ronald X

    2015-02-07

    We present a novel process to encapsulate indocyanine green (ICG) in liposomal droplets at high concentration for potential applications in image-guided drug delivery. The microencapsulation process follows two consecutive steps of droplet formation by liquid-driven coaxial flow focusing (LDCFF) and solvent removal by oil phase dewetting. These biocompatible lipid vesicles may have important applications in drug delivery and fluorescence imaging.

  5. Lethal photosensitization of wound-associated microbes using indocyanine green and near-infrared light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omar, Ghada Said Mohammed; Wilson, Michael; Nair, Sean P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The increase in resistance to antibiotics among disease-causing bacteria necessitates the development of alternative antimicrobial approaches such as the use of light-activated antimicrobial agents (LAAAs). Light of an appropriate wavelength activates the LAAA to produce cytotoxic...... of the bacteria. Conclusion: These findings imply that indocyanine green in combination with light from a nearinfrared laser may be an effective means of eradicating bacteria from wounds and burns....

  6. Gastric Tube Reconstruction with Superdrainage Using Indocyanine Green Fluorescence During Esophagectomy

    OpenAIRE

    KITAGAWA, HIROYUKI; NAMIKAWA, TSUTOMU; IWABU, JUN; HANAZAKI, KAZUHIRO

    2017-01-01

    We report a case of gastric tube reconstruction with superdrainage using indocyanine green fluorescence during esophagectomy for esophageal cancer. A 53-year-old man with a history of early esophageal cancer treated with endoscopic mucosal dissection experienced esophageal cancer recurrence. There was no evidence of lymph node involvement or distant metastasis on computed tomography; therefore, we performed thoracoscopic esophagectomy. After thoracoscopic esophagectomy, we created a gastric t...

  7. Gastric Tube Reconstruction with Superdrainage Using Indocyanine Green Fluorescence During Esophagectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Namikawa, Tsutomu; Iwabu, Jun; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2017-01-01

    We report a case of gastric tube reconstruction with superdrainage using indocyanine green fluorescence during esophagectomy for esophageal cancer. A 53-year-old man with a history of early esophageal cancer treated with endoscopic mucosal dissection experienced esophageal cancer recurrence. There was no evidence of lymph node involvement or distant metastasis on computed tomography; therefore, we performed thoracoscopic esophagectomy. After thoracoscopic esophagectomy, we created a gastric tube. When pulling up the gastric tube through the post-mediastinum route, a root of the right gastroepiploic vein was injured. We subsequently performed superdrainage to avoid congestion of the gastric tube with omental vein and pre-tracheal vein anastomosis at the neck, and confirmed venous flow using the indocyanine green fluorescence method. No postoperative anastomotic leakage was observed, and the patient was discharged 22 days after surgery. Thus, we recommend the indocyanine green fluorescence method in cases involving superdrainage during esophagectomy. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  8. Retinal pigment epithelial atrophy following indocyanine green dye-assisted surgery for serous macular detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Nazimul

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available To report subretinal migration of indocyanine green dye (ICG and subsequent retinal pigment epithelial (RPE atrophy during macular surgery for serous macular detachment. A 65-year-old woman presented with residual epiretinal membrane and serous detachment of the macula following vitreoretinal surgery for epiretinal membrane. She underwent resurgery with ICG-assisted internal limiting membrane peeling and intraocular tamponade. Intraoperatively a large area of subretinal ICG was seen with subsequent RPE mottling and atrophy of the macula in the area involved during follow-up. This case demonstrates that subretinal migration of ICG is possible and can be toxic to RPE.

  9. Indocyanine green fluorescence angiography for intraoperative assessment of gastrointestinal anastomotic perfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degett, Thea Helene; Andersen, Helene Schou; Gögenur, Ismail

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Anastomotic leakage following gastrointestinal surgery remains a frequent and serious complication associated with a high morbidity and mortality. Indocyanine green fluorescence angiography (ICG-FA) is a newly developed technique to measure perfusion intraoperatively. The aim of this paper...... included in the review if they assessed anastomotic perfusion intraoperatively with ICG-FA in order to predict anastomotic leakage in humans. RESULTS: Of 790 screened papers 14 studies were included in this review. Ten studies (n = 916) involved patients with colorectal anastomoses and four studies (n...

  10. Lethal photosensitization of wound-associated microbes using indocyanine green and near-infrared light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Michael

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increase in resistance to antibiotics among disease-causing bacteria necessitates the development of alternative antimicrobial approaches such as the use of light-activated antimicrobial agents (LAAAs. Light of an appropriate wavelength activates the LAAA to produce cytotoxic species which can then cause bacterial cell death via loss of membrane integrity, lipid peroxidation, the inactivation of essential enzymes, and/or exertion of mutagenic effects due to DNA modification. In this study, the effect of the LAAA indocyanine green excited with high or low intensity light (808 nm from a near-infrared laser (NIR on the viability of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was investigated. Results All species were susceptible to killing by the LAAA, the bactericidal effect being dependent on both the concentration of indocyanine green and the light dose. Indocyanine green photosensitization using both high (1.37 W cm-2 and low (0.048 W cm-2 intensity NIR laser light was able to achieve reductions of 5.6 log10 (>99.99% and 6.8 log10 (>99.99% in the viable counts of Staph. aureus and Strep. pyogenes (using starting concentrations of 106–107 CFU ml-1. Kills of 99.99% were obtained for P. aeruginosa (initial concentration 108–109 CFU ml-1 photosensitized by the high intensity light (1.37 W cm-2; while a kill of 80% was achieved using low intensity irradiation (0.07 W cm-2. The effects of L-tryptophan (a singlet oxygen scavenger and deuterium oxide (as an enhancer of the life span of singlet oxygen on the survival of Staph. aureus was also studied. L-tryptophan reduced the proportion of Staph. aureus killed; whereas deuterium oxide increased the proportion killed suggesting that singlet oxygen was involved in the killing of the bacteria. Conclusion These findings imply that indocyanine green in combination with light from a near-infrared laser may be an effective means of eradicating bacteria

  11. The Role of Indocyanine Green for Robotic Partial Nephrectomy: Early Results, Limitations and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Klaassen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The surgical management of small renal masses has continued to evolve, particularly with the advent of the robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN. Recent studies at high volume institutions utilizing near infrared imaging with indocyanine green (ICG fluorescent dye to delineate renal tumor anatomy has generated interest among robotic surgeons for improving warm ischemia times and positive margin rate for RPN. To date, early studies suggest positive margin rate using ICG is comparable to traditional RPN, however this technology improves visualization of the renal vasculature allowing selective clamping or zero ischemia. The precise combination of fluorescent compound, dose, and optimal tumor anatomy for ICG RPN has yet to be elucidated.

  12. Phototoxic effect of conjugates of plasmon-resonance nanoparticles with indocyanine green dye on Staphylococcus aureus induced by IR laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuchina, E S; Tuchin, Valerii V; Khlebtsov, B N; Khlebtsov, Nikolai G

    2011-01-01

    The effect of IR laser radiation (λ = 805 - 808 nm) on the bacteria of the strain Staphylococcus aureus 209 P, incubated in indocyanine green solutions, is studied, as well as that of colloid gold nanoshells, nanocages and their conjugates with indocyanine green. It is found that the S. aureus 209 P cells are equally subjected to the IR laser radiation (λ = 805 nm) after preliminary sensitisation with indocyanine green and gold nanoparticles separately and with conjugates of nanoparticles and indocyanine green. The enhancement of photodynamic and photothermal effects by 5 % is observed after 30 min of laser illumination (λ = 808 nm) of bacteria, treated with conjugates of indocyanine green and nanocages. (optical technologies in biophysics and medicine)

  13. Indocyanine green videoangiography "in negative": definition and usefulness in spinal dural arteriovenous fistulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simal Julián, Juan Antonio; Miranda Lloret, Pablo; López González, Antonio; Evangelista Zamora, Rocío; Botella Asunción, Carlos

    2013-05-01

    Indocyanine green videoangiography (IGV) has proven its effectiveness in the field of exovascular neurosurgery, both in the intracranial and spinal compartment, but is necessary to define a systematic process for the performance of the IGV to facilitate its interpretation during the procedure. We have defined and applied the concept of videoangiography "in negative" (INIGV) to spinal dural arteriovenous fistulae (dAVF) for the detection and treatment of arteriovenous shunts, so called because the first phase is performed with the vessel suggestive of being pathological occluded. A Pentero-operating microscope with near-infrared IGV-integrated system (Carl Zeiss Co., Germany) was used. At our institution, 24 patients were treated for a spinal dAVF between 1995 and 2011, only in the last 4 cases, INIGV was performed. We describe the IGV in negative procedure and show the most illustrative cases. In all cases, the fistula occlusion was confirmed by postoperative selective digital subtraction angiography (DSA). INIGV demonstrate its capacity in detecting vessels not actually arterialized that should be respected and avoid some of the main limitations of the conventional IGV. This is a technical description about an Indocyanine green (ICG) videoangiographic procedure modification that is superior to merely performing ICG before and after clipping of a dAVF. The INIGV results are rapid and easy to interpret procedure and provide great advantages to the dAVF treatment. Nevertheless, further studies are needed with a larger sample size to determine if INIGV may reduce the need to perform immediate postoperative DSA.

  14. Indocyanine green labeled with /sup 123/I for dynamic studies of the hepato-biliary system. [/sup 131/I, /sup 125/I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambrecht, R.M.; Ansari, A.N.; Wolf, A.P.; Atkins, H.L.

    1975-01-01

    This report summarizes the results to develop an iodine-123 labeled agent for dynamic studies of the hepato-biliary system. Iodine-123 is an ideal nuclide for radiopharmaceuticals, because of its short half-life (T/sub /sup 1///sub 2// = 13.3 hr); its decay with a high abundance (83%) of 159 keV photons; and the reduced patient radiation exposure (a factor of 100 less than iodine-131). Indocyanine green, a tricarbanocyanine dye, was introduced by Heseltine and co-workers in 1956, has several characteristics which suggested that iodine-123 labeled ICG might be potentially useful for hepatic functional evaluation. The plasma clearance and biliary excretion kinetics of /sup 123/I-ICG (in dogs) will be compared to /sup 131/I-rose bengal and bromosulphalein labeled with iodine-125.

  15. Lipid nanoparticle vectorization of indocyanine green improves fluorescence imaging for tumor diagnosis and lymph node resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Fabrice P; Berger, Michel; Guillermet, Stéphanie; Josserand, Véronique; Guyon, Laurent; Neumann, Emmanuelle; Vinet, Françoise; Texier, Isabelle

    2012-10-01

    Fluorescence imaging is opening a new era in image-guided surgery and other medical applications. The only FDA approved contrast agent in the near infrared is IndoCyanine Green (ICG), which despites its low toxicity, displays poor chemical and optical properties for long-term and sensitive imaging applications in human. Lipid nanoparticles are investigated for improving ICG optical properties and in vivo fluorescence imaging sensitivity. 30 nm diameter lipid nanoparticles (LNP) are loaded with ICG. Their characterization and use for tumor and lymph node imaging are described. Nano-formulation benefits dye optical properties (6 times improved brightness) and chemical stability (>6 months at 4 degrees C in aqueous buffer). More importantly, LNP vectorization allows never reported sensitive and prolonged (>1 day) labeling of tumors and lymph nodes. Composed of human-use approved ingredients, this novel ICG nanometric formulation is foreseen to expand rapidly the field of clinical fluorescence imaging applications.

  16. Application of indocyanine green video angiography in surgical treatment of intracranial aneurysms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Hendrik Pahl

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Indocyanine green (ICG video angiography has been used for several medical indications in the last decades. It allows a real time evaluation of vascular structures during the surgery. This study describes the surgical results of a senior vascular neurosurgeon. We retrospectively searched our database for all aneurysm cases treated with the aid of intraoperative ICG from 2009 to 2014. A total of 61 aneurysms in 56 patients were surgically clipped using intraoperative ICG. Clip reposition after ICG happened in 2 patients (3.2%. Generally, highly variable clip adjustment rates of 2%–38% following ICG have been reported since the introduction of this imaging technique. The application of ICG in vascular neurosurgery is still an emerging challenge. It is an adjunctive strategy which facilitates aneurismal evaluation and treatment in experienced hands. Nevertheless, a qualified vascular neurosurgeon is still the most important component of a high quality work.

  17. Relevance of intraoperative indocyanine green injection in breast reconstruction using DIEP procedure for abdominal scars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louges, M A; Bellaiche, J; Correia, N; Chiriac, S; François, C

    2016-06-01

    The presence of midline sub-umbilical and/or suprapubic scar can sometimes hinder breast reconstruction using deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) procedure. We report the use of indocyanine green injection in a 60-year-old woman in the context of deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) procedure for unilateral breast reconstruction (bilateral breast cancer) with abdominal scar (midline sub-umbilical scar and Pfannenstiel incision scar). This technique underlines the importance of neoangiogenesis mechanisms and helped simplify the surgical gesture initially planned (in order to ensure volume in spite of the scars as a DIEP procedure with double anastomoses was initially planned). This intraoperative vascular imaging technique is a minimally invasive, simple and quick procedure allowing the precise visualization of vascularized territories. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. In Vivo Photoacoustic and Fluorescence Cystography Using Clinically Relevant Dual Modal Indocyanine Green

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungjo Park

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Conventional X-ray-based cystography uses radio-opaque materials, but this method uses harmful ionizing radiation and is not sensitive. In this study, we demonstrate nonionizing and noninvasive photoacoustic (PA and fluorescence (FL cystography using clinically relevant indocyanine green (ICG in vivo. After transurethral injection of ICG into rats through a catheter, their bladders were photoacoustically and fluorescently visualized. A deeply positioned bladder below the skin surface (i.e., ~1.5–5 mm was clearly visible in the PA and FL image using a laser pulse energy of less than 2 mJ/cm2 (1/15 of the safety limit. Then, the in vivo imaging results were validated through in situ studies. Our results suggest that dual modal cystography can provide a nonionizing and noninvasive imaging tool for bladder mapping.

  19. Utility of Indocyanine Green Fluorescence Imaging for Intraoperative Localization in Reoperative Parathyroid Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sound, Sara; Okoh, Alexis; Yigitbas, Hakan; Yazici, Pinar; Berber, Eren

    2015-10-27

    Due to the variations in anatomic location, the identification of parathyroid glands may be challenging. Although there have been advances in preoperative imaging modalities, there is still a need for an accurate intraoperative guidance. Indocyanine green (ICG) is a new agent that has been used for intraoperative fluorescence imaging in a number of general surgical procedures. Its utility for parathyroid localization in humans has not been reported in the literature. We report 3 patients who underwent reoperative neck surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism. Using a video-assisted technique with intraoperative ICG fluorescence imaging, the parathyroid glands were recognized and removed successfully in all cases. Surrounding soft tissue structures remained nonfluorescent, and could be distinguished from the parathyroid glands. This report suggests a potential utility of ICG imaging in intraoperative localization of parathyroid glands in reoperative neck surgery. Future work is necessary to assess its benefit for first-time parathyroid surgery. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Near-infrared-fluorescence imaging of lymph nodes by using liposomally formulated indocyanine green derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Taro; Fujito, Hiromichi; Suganami, Akiko; Ouchi, Tomoki; Ooishi, Aki; Aoki, Akira; Onoue, Kazutaka; Muraki, Yutaka; Madono, Tomoyuki; Fujinami, Masanori; Tamura, Yutaka; Hayashi, Hideki

    2014-01-15

    Liposomally formulated indocyanine green (LP-ICG) has drawn much attention as a highly sensitive near-infrared (NIR)-fluorescence probe for tumors or lymph nodes in vivo. We synthesized ICG derivatives tagged with alkyl chains (ICG-Cn), and we examined NIR-fluorescence imaging for lymph nodes in the lower extremities of mice by using liposomally formulated ICG-Cn (LP-ICG-Cn) as well as conventional liposomally formulated ICG (LP-ICG) and ICG. Analysis with a noninvasive preclinical NIR-fluorescence imaging system revealed that LP-ICG-Cn accumulates in only the popliteal lymph node 1h after injection into the footpad, whereas LP-ICG and ICG accumulate in the popliteal lymph node and other organs like the liver. This result indicates that LP-ICG-Cn is a useful NIR-fluorescence probe for noninvasive in vivo bioimaging, especially for the sentinel lymph node. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Application of indocyanine green-fluorescence imaging to full-thickness cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Kiyomi; Ishizawa, Takeaki; Tani, Keigo; Harada, Nobuhiro; Shimizu, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Takemura, Nobuyuki; Kaneko, Junichi; Aoki, Taku; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Sugawara, Yasuhiko; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2014-05-01

    Fluorescence imaging using indocyanine green (ICG) has recently been applied to laparoscopic surgery to identify cancerous tissues, lymph nodes, and vascular anatomy. Here we report the application of ICG-fluorescence imaging to visualize the boundary between the liver and subserosal tissues of the gallbladder during laparoscopic full-thickness cholecystectomy. A patient with a potentially malignant gallbladder lesion was administered 2.5-mg intravenous ICG just before laparoscopic full-thickness cholecystectomy. Intraoperative fluorescence imaging enabled the real-time delineation of both extrahepatic bile duct anatomy and hepatic parenchyma throughout the procedure, which resulted in complete removal of subserosal tissues between liver and gallbladder. Safe and feasible ICG-fluorescence imaging can be widely applied to laparoscopic hepatobiliary surgery by utilizing a biliary excretion property of ICG. © 2014 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. Indocyanine green enhanced surgery; principle, clinical applications and future research directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Alius

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade a new emergent technology has become very popular in all fields of surgery using Indocyanine green and near infrared fluorescent optical systems. This revolutionary approach overlaps conventional and near infrared images to produce highly informative intraoperative images on the anatomy and physiology of various tissues. Near infrared fluorescence is employed for perioperative angiography in vascular mapping, assessment of anastomoses, location of sentinel lymph nodes and delineation of biliary tree anatomy, highlighting tumours and metastatic deposits, improving surgical techniques and for many other uses. A lot of researchers have reported better surgical outcomes and technique innovations facilitated by this novel technology which although in its early stages, it lights up great interest worldwide. This article reviews the principle of the method, the properties of the fluorescent dye, the main clinical applications and discusses future research directions.

  3. Photodynamic actions of indocyanine green and trypan blue on human lens epithelial cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melendez, Robert F; Kumar, Neeru; Maswadi, Saher M; Zaslow, Kenneth; Glickmank, Randolph D

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the toxicity and photodynamic activity of indocyanine green (ICG) and trypan blue (TryB) on cultured human lensepithelial cells (LECs). Experimental study. Lens epithelial cell viability was assessed after treatment with ICG and TryB concentrations ranging from 0.025 to 5.0 mg/ml, and exposure to 806 nm diode laser. At ICG concentrations below 0.5 mg/ml, there was > or =75% cell viability; at higher ICG concentrations there was dose-dependent cytotoxicity in addition to loss of cellular viability due to ICG photosensitization. TryB had little cytotoxicity to the LECs: >80% cells were viable irrespective of the dye concentration or laser treatment. These data indicate that ICG may have application as a photosensitizer in the selective eradication of residual LECs after cataract surgery to reduce the incidence of posterior capsule opacification.

  4. A standardized model for predicting flap failure using indocyanine green dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Terence M.; Moore, Lindsay S.; Warram, Jason M.; Greene, Benjamin J.; Nakhmani, Arie; Korb, Melissa L.; Rosenthal, Eben L.

    2016-03-01

    Techniques that provide a non-invasive method for evaluation of intraoperative skin flap perfusion are currently available but underutilized. We hypothesize that intraoperative vascular imaging can be used to reliably assess skin flap perfusion and elucidate areas of future necrosis by means of a standardized critical perfusion threshold. Five animal groups (negative controls, n=4; positive controls, n=5; chemotherapy group, n=5; radiation group, n=5; chemoradiation group, n=5) underwent pre-flap treatments two weeks prior to undergoing random pattern dorsal fasciocutaneous flaps with a length to width ratio of 2:1 (3 x 1.5 cm). Flap perfusion was assessed via laser-assisted indocyanine green dye angiography and compared to standard clinical assessment for predictive accuracy of flap necrosis. For estimating flap-failure, clinical prediction achieved a sensitivity of 79.3% and a specificity of 90.5%. When average flap perfusion was more than three standard deviations below the average flap perfusion for the negative control group at the time of the flap procedure (144.3+/-17.05 absolute perfusion units), laser-assisted indocyanine green dye angiography achieved a sensitivity of 81.1% and a specificity of 97.3%. When absolute perfusion units were seven standard deviations below the average flap perfusion for the negative control group, specificity of necrosis prediction was 100%. Quantitative absolute perfusion units can improve specificity for intraoperative prediction of viable tissue. Using this strategy, a positive predictive threshold of flap failure can be standardized for clinical use.

  5. Green technology; only Forest Clearance is needed

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. How was Forest Clearance granted before the procedures for constitution of ESZ was completed? How was Forest Clearance granted before the procedures for constitution of ESZ was completed? How was land in Murmurwadi still under litigation made available? How was ...

  6. DIEP flap customization using Fluobeam® indocyanine green tissue perfusion assessment with large previous abdominal scar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Fallucco

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Fluobeam® is a portable, near-infrared camera that is held and controlled by the surgeon to visualize tissue perfusion using indocyanine green (ICG fluorescence imaging. This case report describes how data obtained from ICG imaging allows intraoperative customization in a previously surgically scarred abdomen during autologous Deep Inferior Epigastric Artery Perforator (DIEP flap bilateral breast reconstruction. The outcome was successful breast mound recreation without fat necrosis.

  7. In Vitro Efficacy and Mechanistic Role of Indocyanine Green as a Photodynamic Therapy Agent for Human Melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamoon, A.; Gamal-Eldeen, A; Ruppel, M; Smith, R; Tsang, T; Miller, L

    2009-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising treatment for superficial cancer. However, poor therapeutic results have been reported for melanoma, due to the high melanin content. Indocyanine green (ICG) has near infrared absorption (700-800nm) and melanins do not absorb strongly in this area. This study explores the efficiency of ICG as a PDT agent for human melanoma, and its mechanistic role in the cell death pathway.

  8. Effects of indocyanine green videoangiography and electrophysiological monitoring on surgery for intracranial aneurysms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Yoshikazu; Kitai, Ryuhei; Awara, Kosuke

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed the outcome of 62 consecutive patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysm treated by surgical clipping. Thirty-one cases were operated without intraoperative monitoring, 17 cases with indocyanine green videoangiography (ICGA), and 14 cases with electrophysiological monitoring (EPM) in addition to ICGA. Complete obliteration of the aneurysm was confirmed in all 62 cases. Diffusion-weighted imaging of MRI disclosed no ischemic lesions after surgery in any of the cases. Asymptomatic venous infarction was detected by CT study in 2 cases. Cranial nerve palsy occurred in 4 cases but EPM could not detect it. There was no difference among the group without monitoring, the group with ICGA and the group with ICGA and EPM. The mortality and morbidity of all cases was calculated as 0% and 6.5%, respectively. ICGA appeared to be useful in surgery for aneurysms encasing perforators or for repair of problems such as premature rupture. eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) seemed effective in surgery for anterior choroidal artery aneurysms or aneurysms requiring trapping before clipping. However, monitoring would not have been effective without extensive dissection of aneurysms, suggesting that basic microsurgical techniques are crucial for successful surgery. (author)

  9. Indocyanine green loaded graphene oxide for high-efficient photoacoustic tumor therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoyun Yan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Photoacoustic therapy, using the photoacoustic effect of agents for selectively killing tumor cells, has shown promising for treating tumor. Utilization of high optical absorption probes can help to effectively improve the photoacoustic therapy efficiency. Herein, we report a novel high-absorption photoacoustic probe that is composed of indocyanine green (ICG and graphene oxide (GO, entitled GO-ICG, for photoacoustic therapy. The attached ICG with narrow absorption spectral profile has strong optical absorption in the infrared region. The absorption spectrum of the GO-ICG solution reveals that the GO-ICG particles exhibited a 10-fold higher absorbance at 780nm (its peak absorbance as compared with GO. Importantly, ICG’s fluorescence is quenched by GO via fluorescence resonance energy transfer. As a result, GO-ICG can high-efficiently convert the absorbed light energy to acoustic wave under pulsed laser irradiation. We further demonstrate that GO-ICG can produce stronger photoacoustic wave than the GO and ICG alone. Moreover, we conjugate this contrast agent with integrin αvβ3 mono-clonal antibody to molecularly target the U87-MG human glioblastoma cells for selective tumor cell killing. Finally, our results testify that the photoacoustic therapy efficiency of GO-ICG is higher than the existing photoacoustic therapy agent. Our work demonstrates that GO-ICG is a high-efficiency photoacoustic therapy agent. This novel photoacoustic probe is likely to be an available candidate for tumor therapy.

  10. Tracheal anastomosis using indocyanine green dye enhanced fibrinogen with a near-infrared diode laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auteri, Joseph S.; Jeevanandam, Valluvan; Oz, Mehmet C.; Libutti, Steven K.; Kirby, Thomas J.; Smith, Craig R.; Treat, Michael R.

    1990-06-01

    A major obstacle to lung transplantation and combined heart- lung transplantation is dehiscence of the tracheobronchial anastomosis. We explored the possibility of laser welded anastomoses in canine tracheas in vivo. Laser anastomoses were performed on three-quarter circumferential anterior tracheotomies. A continous wave diode laser (808 +1 nm) at a power density of 9.6 watts/cm was used. Human fibrinogen was mixed with indocyanine green dye (ICG, max absorbance 805 nm) and applied to the anastomosis site prior to laser exposure. Animals were sacrificed at 0, 21 and 28 days post-operatively. At sacrifice weld bursting pressures were measured by raising intratracheal pressure using forced ventilation via an endotracheal tube. Sutured and laser welded anastomoses had similar bursting pressures, and exhibited satisfactory histologic evidence of healing. However, compared to polypropylene sutured controls, the laser welded anastomoses exhibited less peritracheal inflammatory reaction and showed visibly smoother luminal surfaces at 21 and 28 days post- operatively. Tracheal anastomosis using ICG dye enhanced fibrinogen combined with the near-infrared diode laser is a promising extension of the technology of laser tissue fusion and deserves further study.

  11. Targeted imaging of ovarian cancer cells using viral nanoparticles doped with indocyanine green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Yadir; Bahmani, Baharak; Jung, Bonsu; Vullev, Valentine; Kundra, Vikas; Anvari, Bahman

    2013-03-01

    Our group has constructed a new type of viral nanoparticles (VNPs) from genome-depleted plant infecting brome mosaic virus (BMV) that encapsulates the FDA-approved near infrared (NIR) indocyanine green (ICG)[1]. We refer to these VNPs as optical viral ghosts (OVGs) since the constructs lack the genomic content of wild-type BMV. One of our areas of interest is the application of OVGs for real-time intraoperative NIR fluorescence imaging of small peritoneal ovarian tumor nodules. We target human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2) expression in ovarian cancer as a biomarker associated with ovarian cancer, since its over-expression is linked to the disease's progression to death. We functionalize the OVGs with anti-HER-2 monoclonal antibodies using reductive amination methods. We used fluorescence imaging to visualize the SKOV-3 cells (high HER-2 expression) after incubation with free ICG, OVGs, and functionalized OVGs. Our results suggest the possibility of using anti-HER2 conjugated OVGs in conjunction with cytoreductive surgery to detect small tumor nodules (<5cm) which currently are not excised during surgery.

  12. Indocyanine green videoangiography "in negative": definition and usefulness in intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simal Julián, Juan Antonio; Miranda Lloret, Pablo; Aparici Robles, Fernando; Beltrán Giner, Andrés; Botella Asunción, Carlos

    2013-09-01

    Indocyanine green videoangiography (IGV) raises important limitations when we use it in vascular pathology, especially in cases with arterialization of the venous system such as arteriovenous malformations and fistulae. Our objective was to provide a simple procedure that overcomes the limitations of conventional IGV. We define IGV in negative (IGV-IN), so-called because, in its first phase, the vessel to analyze is clipped, and we report 3 cases of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulae treated with this procedure. In 2011, we applied IGV-IN to 3 patients at our center with Borden type III intracranial arteriovenous fistulae. In all 3 cases, IGV-IN enabled both diagnosis and post-dural arteriovenous fistula exclusion control in 1 integrated procedure no longer than 1 minute, requiring only 1 visualization. IGV-IN is an improvement over the conventional IGV method and is able to provide more information in a shorter period of time. It is an intuitive and highly visual procedure, and, more importantly, it is reversible. Studies with larger samples are necessary to determine whether IGV-IN can further reduce the need for postoperative digital subtraction angiography.

  13. Leveraging Engineering of Indocyanine Green-Encapsulated Polymeric Nanocomposites for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ya-Hui; Kankala, Ranjith Kumar; Wang, Shi-Bin; Chen, Ai-Zheng

    2018-05-24

    In recent times, photo-induced therapeutics have attracted enormous interest from researchers due to such attractive properties as preferential localization, excellent tissue penetration, high therapeutic efficacy, and minimal invasiveness, among others. Numerous photosensitizers have been considered in combination with light to realize significant progress in therapeutics. Along this line, indocyanine green (ICG), a Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved near-infrared (NIR, >750 nm) fluorescent dye, has been utilized in various biomedical applications such as drug delivery, imaging, and diagnosis, due to its attractive physicochemical properties, high sensitivity, and better imaging view field. However, ICG still suffers from certain limitations for its utilization as a molecular imaging probe in vivo, such as concentration-dependent aggregation, poor in vitro aqueous stability and photodegradation due to various physicochemical attributes. To overcome these limitations, much research has been dedicated to engineering numerous multifunctional polymeric composites for potential biomedical applications. In this review, we aim to discuss ICG-encapsulated polymeric nanoconstructs, which are of particular interest in various biomedical applications. First, we emphasize some attractive properties of ICG (including physicochemical characteristics, optical properties, metabolic features, and other aspects) and some of its current limitations. Next, we aim to provide a comprehensive overview highlighting recent reports on various polymeric nanoparticles that carry ICG for light-induced therapeutics with a set of examples. Finally, we summarize with perspectives highlighting the significant outcome, and current challenges of these nanocomposites.

  14. Recent advances in near-infrared fluorescence-guided imaging surgery using indocyanine green.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namikawa, Tsutomu; Sato, Takayuki; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2015-12-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging has better tissue penetration, allowing for the effective rejection of excitation light and detection deep inside organs. Indocyanine green (ICG) generates NIR fluorescence after illumination by an NIR ray, enabling real-time intraoperative visualization of superficial lymphatic channels and vessels transcutaneously. The HyperEye Medical System (HEMS) can simultaneously detect NIR rays under room light to provide color imaging, which enables visualization under bright light. Thus, NIR fluorescence imaging using ICG can provide for excellent diagnostic accuracy in detecting sentinel lymph nodes in cancer and microvascular circulation in various ischemic diseases, to assist us with intraoperative decision making. Including HEMS in this system could further improve the sentinel lymph node mapping and intraoperative identification of blood supply in reconstructive organs and ischemic diseases, making it more attractive than conventional imaging. Moreover, the development of new laparoscopic imaging systems equipped with NIR will allow fluorescence-guided surgery in a minimally invasive setting. Future directions, including the conjugation of NIR fluorophores to target specific cancer markers might be realistic technology with diagnostic and therapeutic benefits.

  15. Visualization of subcapsular hepatic malignancy by indocyanine-green fluorescence imaging during laparoscopic hepatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Hiroki; Ishizawa, Takeaki; Tani, Keigo; Harada, Nobuhiro; Ichida, Akihiko; Shimizu, Atsushi; Kaneko, Junichi; Aoki, Taku; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Sugawara, Yasuhiko; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2014-08-01

    Although laparoscopic hepatectomy has increasingly been used to treat cancers in the liver, the accuracy of intraoperative diagnosis may be inferior to that of open surgery because the ability to visualize and palpate the liver surface during laparoscopy is relatively limited. Fluorescence imaging has the potential to provide a simple compensatory diagnostic tool for identification of cancers in the liver during laparoscopic hepatectomy. In 17 patients who were to undergo laparoscopic hepatectomy, 0.5 mg/kg body weight of indocyanine green (ICG) was administered intravenously within the 2 weeks prior to surgery. Intraoperatively, a laparoscopic fluorescence imaging system obtained fluorescence images of its surfaces during mobilization of the liver. In all, 16 hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) and 16 liver metastases (LMs) were resected. Of these, laparoscopic ICG fluorescence imaging identified 12 HCCs (75%) and 11 LMs (69%) on the liver surfaces distributed over Couinaud's segments 1-8, including the 17 tumors that had not been identified by visual inspections of normal color images. The 23 tumors that were identified by fluorescence imaging were located closer to the liver surfaces than another nine tumors that were not identified by fluorescence imaging (median [range] depth 1 [0-5] vs. 11 [8-30] mm; p fluorescence imaging enables real-time identification of subcapsular liver cancers, thus facilitating estimation of the required extent of hepatic mobilization and determination of the location of an appropriate hepatic transection line.

  16. [Place of indocyanine green coupled with fluorescence imaging in research of breast cancer sentinel node].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermersch, Charlotte; Raia Barjat, Tiphaine; Perrot, Marianne; Lima, Suzanne; Chauleur, Céline

    2016-04-01

    The sentinel node has a fundamental role in the management of early breast cancer. Currently, the double detection of blue and radioisotope is recommended. But in common practice, many centers use a single method. However, with a single detection, the risk of false negatives and the identification failure rate increase to a significant extent and the number of sentinel lymph node detected and removed is not enough. Furthermore, the tracers used until now show inconveniences. The purpose of this work is to present a new method of detection, using the green of indocyanine coupled with fluorescence imaging, and to compare it with the already existing methods. The method combined by fluorescence and isotopic is reliable, sure, of fast learning and could constitute a good strategy of detection. The major interest is to obtain a satisfactory number of sentinel nodes. The profit could be even more important for overweight patients. The fluorescence used alone is at the moment not possible. Wide ranging studies are necessary. The FLUOTECH, randomized study of 100 patients, comparing the isotopic method of double isotope technique and fluorescence, is underway to confirm these data. Copyright © 2016 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. In vitro efficiency and mechanistic role of indocyanine green as photodynamic therapy agent for human melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamoon, A.M.; Miller, L.; Gamal-Eldeen, A. M.; Ruppel, M. E.; Smith, R. J.; Tsang, T.; Miller, L. M.

    2009-05-02

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising treatment for superficial cancer. However, poor therapeutic results have been reported for melanoma, due to the high melanin content. Indocyanine green (ICG) has near infrared absorption (700-800 nm) and melanins do not absorb strongly in this area. This study explores the efficiency of ICG as a PDT agent for human melanoma, and its mechanistic role in the cell death pathway. Human skin melanoma cells (Sk-Mel-28) were incubated with ICG and exposed to a low power Ti:Sapphire laser. Synchrotron-assisted Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy and hierarchical cluster analysis were used to assess the cell damage and changes in lipid, protein, and nucleic acids. The cell death pathway was determined by analysis of cell viability and apoptosis and necrosis markers. In the cell death pathway, {sup 1}O{sub 2} generation evoked rapid multiple consequences that trigger apoptosis after laser exposure for only 15min including the release of cytochrome c, the activation of total caspases, caspase-3, and caspase-9, the inhibition of NF-{Kappa}B P65, and the enhancement of DNA fragmentation, and histone acetylation. ICG/PDT can efficiently and rapidly induce apoptosis in human melanoma cells and it can be considered as a new therapeutic approach for topical treatment of melanoma.

  18. Toxicity profiles of subretinal indocyanine green, Brilliant Blue G, and triamcinolone acetonide: a comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejstrup, Rasmus; Dornonville de la Cour, Morten; Heegaard, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study introduces a novel porcine model to examine the histopathological and electrophysiological consequences of retinotoxicity exerted by dyes commonly used for internal limiting membrane (ILM) staining. METHODS: Indocyanine green (ICG) 0.5 mg/ml, Brilliant Blue G (BBG) 0.25 mg....../ml and triamcinolone acetonide (TA) 13 mg/ml was injected subretinally in 12 vitrectomized pig eyes. At 6 weeks, retinas were examined by multifocal electroretinography (mfERG), ophthalmoscopy, fluorescein angiograpy, histopathology, and apoptosis assay. RESULTS: mfERG responses were significantly lower in ICG......-injected eyes than in healthy fellow eyes (p¿=¿0.039). The ratio between injected eyes and healthy fellow eyes was lower in the ICG group than in the BBG (p¿=¿0.009) and TA group (p¿=¿0.025). No difference between BBG and TA existed. All retinas were reattached, and fluorescein angiographies showed a window...

  19. Symmetricity analysis of time to peak parameter of indocyanine green dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yuri; Lee, Jungsul; Choi, Chulhee

    2013-03-01

    We have previously discovered that near-infrared optical imaging of indocyanine green (ICG) signal and analyzing its dynamics can be applied for measurement of blood perfusion rate and detection of Raynaud's phenomenon (RP). Especially, RP is closely associated with abnormal vasomotor responses and can progress to tissue necrosis due to excessively sustained vasoconstriction. Therefore, early detecting of RP is one of important implication to prevent tissue damage from peripheral vascular disorders. In the present study, we propose new analysis and scoring method of symmetricity of Tmax value of left and right extremities. Moreover, this symmetricity analysis can give further information about microvascular insufficiency. For validation of the proposed method, we tested whether the segmental and paired analysis of Tmax value (time-to-peak) of ICG dynamics can be used for sensitive diagnosis of microvascular abnormalities which cannot be detected by conventional methods. From the near-infrared images of diabetes mellitus patients with vascular complications, the trend of asymmetry in Tmax value was observed. We assumed that decreasing local blood perfusion by autonomic nerve dysfunction causes the asymmetric Tmax value of right and left feet. These results collectively indicate that the proposed method can be used as a useful diagnostic tool for RP or other microvascular disorders.

  20. Indocyanine green videoangiography (ICGV)-guided surgery of parasagittal meningiomas occluding the superior sagittal sinus (SSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Avella, Elena; Volpin, Francesco; Manara, Renzo; Scienza, Renato; Della Puppa, Alessandro

    2013-03-01

    Maximal safe resection is the goal of correct surgical treatment of parasagittal meningiomas, and it is intimately related to the venous anatomy both near and directly involved by the tumor. Indocyanine green videoangiography (ICGV) has already been advocated as an intra-operative resourceful technique in brain tumor surgery for the identification of vessels. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of ICGV in surgery of parasagittal meningiomas occluding the superior sagittal sinus (SSS). In this study, we prospectively analyzed clinical, radiological and intra-operative findings of patients affected by parasagittal meningioma occluding the SSS, who underwent ICGV assisted-surgery. Radiological diagnosis of complete SSS occlusion was pre-operatively established in all cases. ICGV was performed before dural opening, before and during tumor resection, at the end of the procedure. Five patients were included in our study. In all cases, ICGV guided dural opening, tumor resection, and venous management. The venous collateral pathway was easily identified and preserved in all cases. Radical resection was achieved in four cases. Surgery was uneventful in all cases. Despite the small number of patients, our study shows that ICG videoangiography could play a crucial role in guiding surgery of parasagittal meningioma occluding the SSS. Further studies are needed to define the role of this technique on functional and oncological outcome of these patients.

  1. Development and validation of a custom made indocyanine green fluorescence lymphatic vessel imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallotta, Olivia J.; van Zanten, Malou; McEwen, Mark; Burrow, Lynne; Beesley, Jack; Piller, Neil

    2015-06-01

    Lymphoedema is a chronic progressive condition often producing significant morbidity. An in-depth understanding of an individual's lymphatic architecture is valuable both in the understanding of underlying pathology and for targeting and tailoring treatment. Severe lower limb injuries resulting in extensive loss of soft tissue require transposition of a flap consisting of muscle and/or soft tissue to close the defect. These patients are at risk of lymphoedema and little is known about lymphatic regeneration within the flap. Indocyanine green (ICG), a water-soluble dye, has proven useful for the imaging of lymphatic vessels. When injected into superficial tissues it binds to plasma proteins in lymph. By exposing the dye to specific wavelengths of light, ICG fluoresces with near-infrared light. Skin is relatively transparent to ICG fluorescence, enabling the visualization and characterization of superficial lymphatic vessels. An ICG fluorescence lymphatic vessel imager was manufactured to excite ICG and visualize real-time fluorescence as it travels through the lymphatic vessels. Animal studies showed successful ICG excitation and detection using this imager. Clinically, the imager has assisted researchers to visualize otherwise hidden superficial lymphatic pathways in patients postflap surgery. Preliminary results suggest superficial lymphatic vessels do not redevelop in muscle flaps.

  2. Indocyanine green retention test (ICG-r15) as a noninvasive predictor of portal hypertension in patients with different severity of cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pind, Marie-Louise L; Bendtsen, Flemming; Kallemose, Thomas; Møller, Søren

    2016-08-01

    Portal hypertension is a severe consequence of chronic liver disease, responsible for the main clinical complications of cirrhosis. Measurement of the hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) provides important clinical information, but the procedure is invasive and demands expert skills of the staff.In the present study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between the constant infusion indocyanine green (ICG) clearance, the calculated ICG retention test after 15 min (ICG-r15), and HVPG in patients with different severity of cirrhosis for validation of ICG-r15 as a noninvasive predictor of portal hypertension. A total of 325 patients were studied. During a hemodynamic investigation, the ICG clearance was determined using the constant infusion technique and ICG-r15 was calculated. Assessment of the diagnostic performance of ICG clearance and ICG-r15 as predictors of HVPG above 10 mmHg was performed by receiver operating characteristic curve analyses.The ICG clearance and ICG-r15 performed well in all three Child classes, with the most significant results among Child class A patients [area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC)=0.832] and less significant results in Child class B (AUROC=0.7448) and Child class C patients (AUROC=0.7392). Only six out of 102 patients in Child class C had HVPG of less than 12 mmHg. ICG-r15 can be used as an indirect assessment of significant portal hypertension in compensated cirrhotic patients. ICG-r15 may be suitable as a screening tool for the identification of patients for endoscopy and measurement of HVPG.Further validation of ICG-r15 together with other predictors of portal hypertension and its clinical use is encouraged.

  3. Thermal and infrared-diode laser effects on indocyanine-green-treated corneal collagen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timberlake, George T.; Patmore, Ann; Shallal, Assaad; McHugh, Dominic; Marshall, John

    1993-07-01

    It has been suggested that laser welds of collagenous tissues form by interdigitation and chemical bonding of thermally 'unraveled' collagen fibrils. We investigated this proposal by attempting to weld highly collagenous, avascular corneal tissue with an infrared (IR) diode laser as follows. First, the temperature at which corneal collagen shrinks and collagen fibrils 'split' into subfibrillary components was determined. Second, since use of a near-IR laser wavelength necessitated addition of an absorbing dye (indocyanine green (ICG) to the cornea, we measured absorption spectra of ICG-treated tissue to ensure that peak ICG absorbance did not change markedly when ICG was present in the cornea. Third, using gel electrophoresis of thermally altered corneal collagen, we searched for covalently crosslinked compounds predicted by the proposed welding mechanism. Finally, we attempted to weld partial thickness corneal incisions infused with ICG. Principal experimental findings were as follows: (1) Human corneal (type I) collagen splits into subfibrillary components at approximately 63 degree(s)C, the same temperature that produces collagen shrinkage. (2) Peak ICG absorption does not change significantly in corneal stroma or with laser heating. (3) No evidence was found for the formation of novel compounds or the loss of proteins as a result of tissue heating. All tissue treated with ICG, however, exhibited a novel 244 kD protein band indicating chemical activity between collagen and corneal stromal components. (4) Laser welding corneal incisions was unsuccessful possibly due to shrinkage of the sides of the incision, lack of incision compression during heating, or a less than optimal combination of ICG concentration and radiant exposure. In summary, these experiments demonstrate the biochemical and morphological complexity of ICG-enhanced IR laser-tissue welding and the need for further investigation of laser welding mechanisms.

  4. Review of fluorescence guided surgery systems: identification of key performance capabilities beyond indocyanine green imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    DSouza, Alisha V.; Lin, Huiyun; Henderson, Eric R.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2016-08-01

    There is growing interest in using fluorescence imaging instruments to guide surgery, and the leading options for open-field imaging are reviewed here. While the clinical fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS) field has been focused predominantly on indocyanine green (ICG) imaging, there is accelerated development of more specific molecular tracers. These agents should help advance new indications for which FGS presents a paradigm shift in how molecular information is provided for resection decisions. There has been a steady growth in commercially marketed FGS systems, each with their own differentiated performance characteristics and specifications. A set of desirable criteria is presented to guide the evaluation of instruments, including: (i) real-time overlay of white-light and fluorescence images, (ii) operation within ambient room lighting, (iii) nanomolar-level sensitivity, (iv) quantitative capabilities, (v) simultaneous multiple fluorophore imaging, and (vi) ergonomic utility for open surgery. In this review, United States Food and Drug Administration 510(k) cleared commercial systems and some leading premarket FGS research systems were evaluated to illustrate the continual increase in this performance feature base. Generally, the systems designed for ICG-only imaging have sufficient sensitivity to ICG, but a fraction of the other desired features listed above, with both lower sensitivity and dynamic range. In comparison, the emerging research systems targeted for use with molecular agents have unique capabilities that will be essential for successful clinical imaging studies with low-concentration agents or where superior rejection of ambient light is needed. There is no perfect imaging system, but the feature differences among them are important differentiators in their utility, as outlined in the data and tables here.

  5. Laparoscopic Sentinel Node Mapping in Endometrial Cancer After Hysteroscopic Injection of Indocyanine Green.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Fabio; Ditto, Antonino; Bogani, Giorgio; Signorelli, Mauro; Chiappa, Valentina; Lorusso, Domenica; Haeusler, Edward; Raspagliesi, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    To report the detection rate (DR) of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in endometrial cancer (EC) patients after hysteroscopic injection of indocyanine green (ICG) and laparoscopic near-infrared (L-NIR) fluorescence mapping. Prospectively collected data (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). Gynecologic oncology referral center. Consecutive patients with apparent early-stage endometrioid EC scheduled for surgical treatment: total laparoscopic hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, SLN mapping. The mapping technique consisted in an intraoperative hysteroscopic peritumoral injection of 5 mg ICG followed by L-NIR fluorescence mapping. Evaluations of the SLN DR and sites of mapping were performed. A total of 57 procedures was performed. Patient mean age was 60 years (range, 28-80) and mean body mass index was 28.2 kg/m 2 (range, 19-43). At least 1 SLN was detected in 89.5% of the whole population (51/57). After the first 16 cases, L-NIR camera technical improvement led to a 95% DR (39/41). The mean number of harvested SLNs was 4.1 (range. 1-8), and in 47% of cases SLNs mapped to aortic nodes (24/51). Bilateral pelvic mapping was found in 74.5% of cases (38/51). Three patients had SLN metastases: 1 in the pelvic area only, 1 both in the pelvic and aortic area, and 1 presented with 2 metastatic aortic SLNs with negative pelvic SLNs. Overall, 2 of 3 node-positive patients (67%) had aortic SLN involvement. No adverse events were reported. Laparoscopic SLN mapping after the hysteroscopic injection of ICG has comparable DRs with both radioactive tracer series and ICG series with cervical injection, overcoming the need for radioactive substances. Hysteroscopic injection leads to a higher mapping in the aortic area compared with cervical injection. Further investigation is warranted on this topic. Copyright © 2016 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Mechanistic background and clinical applications of indocyanine green fluorescence imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizawa, Takeaki; Masuda, Koichi; Urano, Yasuteru; Kawaguchi, Yoshikuni; Satou, Shouichi; Kaneko, Junichi; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Shibahara, Junji; Fukayama, Masashi; Tsuji, Shingo; Midorikawa, Yutaka; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2014-02-01

    Although clinical applications of intraoperative fluorescence imaging of liver cancer using indocyanine green (ICG) have begun, the mechanistic background of ICG accumulation in the cancerous tissues remains unclear. In 170 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HCC), the liver surfaces and resected specimens were intraoperatively examined by using a near-infrared fluorescence imaging system after preoperative administration of ICG (0.5 mg/kg i.v.). Microscopic examinations, gene expression profile analysis, and immunohistochemical staining were performed for HCCs, which showed ICG fluorescence in the cancerous tissues (cancerous-type fluorescence), and HCCs showed fluorescence only in the surrounding non-cancerous liver parenchyma (rim-type fluorescence). ICG fluorescence imaging enabled identification of 273 of 276 (99%) HCCs in the resected specimens. HCCs showed that cancerous-type fluorescence was associated with higher cancer cell differentiation as compared with rim-type HCCs (P Fluorescence microscopy identified the presence of ICG in the canalicular side of the cancer cell cytoplasm, and pseudoglands of the HCCs showed a cancerous-type fluorescence pattern. The ratio of the gene and protein expression levels in the cancerous to non-cancerous tissues for Na(+)/taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) and organic anion-transporting polypeptide 8 (OATP8), which are associated with portal uptake of ICG by hepatocytes that tended to be higher in the HCCs that showed cancerous-type fluorescence than in those that showed rim-type fluorescence. Preserved portal uptake of ICG in differentiated HCC cells by NTCP and OATP8 with concomitant biliary excretion disorders causes accumulation of ICG in the cancerous tissues after preoperative intravenous administration. This enables highly sensitive identification of HCC by intraoperative ICG fluorescence imaging.

  7. Review of fluorescence guided surgery systems: identification of key performance capabilities beyond indocyanine green imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    DSouza, Alisha V.; Lin, Huiyun; Henderson, Eric R.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. There is growing interest in using fluorescence imaging instruments to guide surgery, and the leading options for open-field imaging are reviewed here. While the clinical fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS) field has been focused predominantly on indocyanine green (ICG) imaging, there is accelerated development of more specific molecular tracers. These agents should help advance new indications for which FGS presents a paradigm shift in how molecular information is provided for resection decisions. There has been a steady growth in commercially marketed FGS systems, each with their own differentiated performance characteristics and specifications. A set of desirable criteria is presented to guide the evaluation of instruments, including: (i) real-time overlay of white-light and fluorescence images, (ii) operation within ambient room lighting, (iii) nanomolar-level sensitivity, (iv) quantitative capabilities, (v) simultaneous multiple fluorophore imaging, and (vi) ergonomic utility for open surgery. In this review, United States Food and Drug Administration 510(k) cleared commercial systems and some leading premarket FGS research systems were evaluated to illustrate the continual increase in this performance feature base. Generally, the systems designed for ICG-only imaging have sufficient sensitivity to ICG, but a fraction of the other desired features listed above, with both lower sensitivity and dynamic range. In comparison, the emerging research systems targeted for use with molecular agents have unique capabilities that will be essential for successful clinical imaging studies with low-concentration agents or where superior rejection of ambient light is needed. There is no perfect imaging system, but the feature differences among them are important differentiators in their utility, as outlined in the data and tables here. PMID:27533438

  8. Intraoperative Detection of Superficial Liver Tumors by Fluorescence Imaging Using Indocyanine Green and 5-aminolevulinic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaibori, Masaki; Matsui, Kosuke; Ishizaki, Morihiko; Iida, Hiroya; Okumura, Tadayoshi; Sakaguchi, Tatsuma; Inoue, Kentaro; Ikeura, Tsukasa; Asano, Hiroaki; Kon, Masanori

    2016-04-01

    Indocyanine green (ICG) and the porphyrin precursor 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) have been approved as fluorescence imaging agents in the clinical setting. This study evaluated the usefulness of fluorescence imaging with both ICG and 5-ALA for intraoperative identification of latent small liver tumors. There were 48 patients who had main tumors within 5 mm of the liver surface. 5-ALA hydrochloride was orally administered to patients 3 h before surgery. ICG had been intravenously injected within 14 days prior to surgery. Intraoperatively, after visual inspection, manual palpation and ultrasonography fluorescence images of the liver surface were obtained with ICG and 5-ALA prior to resection. With ICG, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for detecting the preoperatively identified main tumors were 96%, 50% and 94%, respectively. Twelve latent small tumors were newly detected on the liver surface using ICG, five of which proved to be carcinomas. With 5-ALA, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for detecting the main tumors were 57%, 100% and 58%, respectively. Five latent small tumors were newly detected using 5-ALA; all were carcinomas. Overall, five new tumors were detected by both ICG and 5-ALA fluorescence imaging; two were hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) and three were metastases of colorectal cancer. The sensitivity and specificity of ICG fluorescence imaging for main tumor detection were relatively high and low, respectively, but the opposite was true of 5-ALA imaging. Fluorescence imaging using 5-ALA may provide greater specificity in the detection of surface-invisible malignant liver tumors than using ICG fluorescence imaging alone. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  9. Intradermal indocyanine green for in vivo fluorescence laser scanning microscopy of human skin: a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanze Jonak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In clinical diagnostics, as well as in routine dermatology, the increased need for non-invasive diagnosis is currently satisfied by reflectance laser scanning microscopy. However, this technique has some limitations as it relies solely on differences in the reflection properties of epidermal and dermal structures. To date, the superior method of fluorescence laser scanning microscopy is not generally applied in dermatology and predominantly restricted to fluorescein as fluorescent tracer, which has a number of limitations. Therefore, we searched for an alternative fluorophore matching a novel skin imaging device to advance this promising diagnostic approach. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a Vivascope®-1500 Multilaser microscope, we found that the fluorophore Indocyanine-Green (ICG is well suited as a fluorescent marker for skin imaging in vivo after intradermal injection. ICG is one of few fluorescent dyes approved for use in humans. Its fluorescence properties are compatible with the application of a near-infrared laser, which penetrates deeper into the tissue than the standard 488 nm laser for fluorescein. ICG-fluorescence turned out to be much more stable than fluorescein in vivo, persisting for more than 48 hours without significant photobleaching whereas fluorescein fades within 2 hours. The well-defined intercellular staining pattern of ICG allows automated cell-recognition algorithms, which we accomplished with the free software CellProfiler, providing the possibility of quantitative high-content imaging. Furthermore, we demonstrate the superiority of ICG-based fluorescence microscopy for selected skin pathologies, including dermal nevi, irritant contact dermatitis and necrotic skin. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results introduce a novel in vivo skin imaging technique using ICG, which delivers a stable intercellular fluorescence signal ideal for morphological assessment down to sub-cellular detail. The application of

  10. Indocyanine green-assisted internal limiting membrane peeling in macular hole surgery: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The opinion of application of indocyanine green (ICG in the macular hole surgery was contradictory. Here we conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of in internal limiting membrane (ILM peeling for macular hole surgery. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We searched electronic databases for comparative studies published before July 2012 of ILM peeling with and without ICG. Twenty-two studies including 1585 eyes were included. Visual acuity (VA improvement, including the postoperative rate of ≥20/40 VA gained (OR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.97; P = 0.033 and increased LogMAR (WMD, -0.09; 95% CI, -0.16 to -0.02; P = 0.011, was less in the ICG group. The risk of visual field defects was greater in the ICG group than in the non-ICG group. There was no significant difference in the rate of anatomical outcomes between ILM peeling procedures performed with and without ICG. RPE changes and other postoperative complications were not significantly different between the ICG and non-ICG groups. An additional analysis showed that the VA improvement of the ICG group was less than the non-ICG group only within the first year of follow up. A subgroup analysis showed that the rate of VA improvement was lower in the ICG group than in other adjuncts group. A higher rate of secondary closure and less VA improvement were observed in a high proportion (>0.1% of the ICG group. A sensitivity analysis after the randomized-controlled trials were excluded from the meta-analysis demonstrated no differences compared with the overall results. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis demonstrated that there is no evidence of clinical superiority in outcomes for ICG-assisted ILM peeling procedure over the non-ICG one. The toxicity of ICG should be considered when choosing the various staining methods.

  11. [Sentinel node detection using optonuclear probe (gamma and fluorescence) after green indocyanine and radio-isotope injections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poumellec, M-A; Dejode, M; Figl, A; Darcourt, J; Haudebourg, J; Sabah, Y; Voury, A; Martaens, A; Barranger, E

    2016-04-01

    Assess the biopsy's feasibility of the sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) using optonuclear probe after of indocyanine green (ICG) and radio-isotope (RI) injections. Twenty-one patients with a localized breast cancer and unsuspicious axillary nodes underwent a SLNB after both injections of ICG and radio-isotope. One or more SLN were identified on the 21 patients (identification rate of 100%). The median number SLN was 2 (1-3). Twenty SLN were both radio-actives and fluorescents (54.1%), 11 fluorescent only (29.7%) and 6 were only radio-actives (16.2%). Seven patients had a metastatic SLN (8 SLN overall). Among them, only one had a micrometastasic SLN, 5 others had a macrometastatic SLN and one patient had two macrometastatic SLNs. Among the 8 metastatic SLN, 5 were both fluorescent and radioactive, 2 were only fluorescent and 1 was only radioactive. Detection SLN using optonuclear probe after indocyanine green and radio-isotope injections is effective and could be, after validation by randomized trial, a reliable alternative to the blue dye injection for teams who consider that combined detection as the reference. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Feasibility of simultaneous sodium fluorescein and indocyanine green injection in neurosurgical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acerbi, F; Restelli, F; Broggi, M; Schiariti, M; Ferroli, P

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the feasibility of simultaneous Sodium Fluorescein (SF) and Indocyanine Green (ICG) injection during neurosurgical procedures. Three patients harboring a high-grade glioma (HGG) were retrospectively identified in the surgical database of the Neurosurgical Unit 2 at the Foundation IRCCS Istituto Neurologico C. Besta in Milan, by having received intraoperatively both SF for tumor resection and ICG for vasculature angiographic studies in the same surgical procedure. We identified 2 males and 1 female (age range 25-60). Lesions were located in the left temporo-polar area and hippocampus (1 case), right superior frontal gyrus (1 case), left supplementary motor area (1 case). All the three lesions showed Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) characteristics of HGG and, for this reason, in all patients a fluorescein-guided tumor removal was proposed. In the same surgical procedure ICG videoangiography was considered necessary in order to study arterial and venous vasculature, given by the strict relation of the tumor with an unexpected Posterior Communicating Artery (PComA) aneurysm in one case and with cortical drainage veins complexes in the other two cases. In all cases a microscope equipped with both YELLOW560 and IR800 integrated filters (Pentero 900, Carl Zeiss, Oberkorchen, Germany) was used. Fluorescein was i.v. injected at a dose of 5mg/kg immediately after patient intubation. ICG was i.v. injected in bolus on demand of the operating surgeon at a dose of 12.5mg. No side-effects related to simultaneous injection of SF and ICG were identified. In all three cases, the use of SF allowed to better visualize the tumor areas during surgical removal, thus leading to a radical resection until no macroscopic appearance of residual tumor mass and no fluorescence was visible in the surgical cavity. ICG videoangiography confirmed the patency of branches of internal carotid artery after clipping of an unexpected small PComA aneurysm found

  13. Two Cases of Severe Degeneration of the Macula Following Vitrectomy with Indocyanine Green-Assisted Internal Limiting Membrane Peeling for Idiopathic Macular Hole

    OpenAIRE

    Inoue, Junji; Sakuma, Toshiro; Kiyokawa, Masatoshi; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Takebayashi, Hiroshi; Mizota, Atsushi; Tanaka, Minoru

    2008-01-01

    We describe three eyes of two cases of severe degeneration of the macula following vitrectomy with indocyanine green-assisted internal limiting membrane peeling for idiopathic macular hole. We need to remember the possibility of these complications and have to select the procedures that are safest to use for macular hole surgery.

  14. Hepatic blood flow determination. A comparison of 99mTc-diethyl-IDA and indocyanine green as hepatic blood flow indicators in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Winkler, K

    1987-01-01

    99mTc-diethyl-acetanilide-iminodiacetic acid (IDA) was compared with indocyanine green (ICG) as an indicator of hepatic blood flow (HBF). Twelve subjects (8 with cirrhosis, 2 with fatty liver, one with pancreatitis, and one with intestinal angina) were studied during hepatic vein catheterization...

  15. Laser-assisted indocyanine green dye angiography accurately predicts the split-thickness graft timing of integra artificial dermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourman, Mitchell S; Phillips, Brett T; Fritz, Jason R; Conkling, Nicole; McClain, Steve A; Simon, Marcia; Dagum, Alexander B

    2014-08-01

    The use of an artificial dermal substitute such as Integra-a bilaminate combination of thin silicone and cross-linked bovine tendon collagen and chondroitin-6-sulfate-has become a popular method to address large surface area wounds or smaller, complex wounds devoid of a vascular bed. The incorporation of Integra depends on a vascular wound bed or periphery and can take 4 weeks or longer to occur. If the Integra has not fully incorporated at the time of placement of the split-thickness graft, complete graft loss may result. The availability of a minimally invasive method to assess the incorporation of Integra would be of great value. Two 5 × 10-cm paraspinal full-thickness wounds were created on 3 female swine. Wounds were randomly assigned full-thickness skin graft or Integra (Plainsboro, NJ) treatment. Both types of grafts were placed after the application of fibrin glue (Tisseel, Deerfield, Ill) to the wound bed. Laser Doppler imaging (LDI) (Moor), indocyanine green dye (ICG) angiography (LifeCell SPY), and clinical scoring were performed weekly for a period of 8 weeks after grafting. At 4 weeks, the silicone layer of the Integra was removed, and a culture of autologous keratinocytes was applied. A 4-mm punch biopsy sample of each graft was taken 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, and 8 weeks postoperatively for histologic analysis. Both ICG angiography and LDI perfusion measurements noted an increase in perfusion at the Integra graft site that peaked 3 weeks after grafting, corresponding with the start of neovascularization and the optimal time for the application of a split-thickness skin graft. indocyanine green dye angiography measurements exhibit greater reproducibility between animals at late time points as compared with LDI. This decrease in LDI precision is directly related to increases in scar tissue thickness of greater than 5 mm as determined via histologic analysis and corresponds with the accepted maximum penetration depth of the LDI laser. Indocyanine green dye

  16. Intraoperative indocyanine green fluorescent angiography-assisted modified superior gluteal artery perforator flap for reconstruction of sacral pressure sores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chun-Kai; Wu, Chien-Ju; Chen, Chun-Yu; Wang, Chi-Yu; Chu, Tzi-Shiang; Hsu, Kuo-Feng; Chiu, Han-Ting; Liu, Hung-Hui; Chou, Chang-Yi; Wang, Chih-Hsin; Lin, Chin-Ta; Dai, Niann-Tzyy; Tzeng, Yuan-Sheng

    2017-12-01

    Pressure sores are often observed in patients who are bedridden. They can be a severe problem not only for patients and their caregivers but also for plastic surgeons. Here, we describe a new method of superior gluteal artery perforator flap harvesting and anchoring with the assistance of intraoperative indocyanine green fluorescent angiography. In this report, we describe the procedure and outcomes for 19 patients with grades III and IV sacral pressure sores who underwent the operation between September 2015 and November 2016. All flaps survived, and two experienced wound-edge partial dehiscence. With the assistance of this imaging device, we were able to acquire a reliable superior gluteal artery perforator flap and perform modified operations with it that are safe, easy to learn and associated with fewer complications than are traditional. © 2017 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. infrared spectrophotometer for simultaneous detection of traces of heavy water and indocyanine green in flowing blood. In vivo experimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capitini, R.; Roveyaz, P.

    1981-07-01

    We have developed an infrared absorption method for the pulmonary extravascular water and cardiac output determination by the multiple indicator technique. This led us to construct an original double differential spectrophotometer (DUPLEX) for simultaneous detection of traces of heavy water (D 2 O) and indocyanine green (ICG) in circulating blood in a single absorption cell. This DUPLEX is connected to a computer and results are treated on line. D 2 O and ICG are used as non toxic diffusible and vascular tracers respectively. Performances of the DUPLEX are given and show a high accuracy with D 2 O (x 10) and ICG (x 2) compared with the commercial optical analysers. We show the validity of the method for determining the cardiac output and the pulmonary extravascular water in the course of numerous experiments on human and rats subjects. Preliminary results concerning the measurement of global water on rats are also given [fr

  18. New technique for laryngotracheal mucosa transplantation. 'Stamp' welding using indocyanine green dye and albumin interaction with diode laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z; Pankratov, M M; Gleich, L L; Rebeiz, E E; Shapshay, S M

    1995-07-01

    To investigate (1) the possibility of survival of free mucosa "stamp" grafts fixed in the airway with a new technique using indocyanine green-dyed albumin solder activated with a diode laser and (2) the degree of improvement of wound healing in the airway by applying modified microskin transplantation techniques from burn surgery to cover a relatively large wound with a few small pieces of mucosa anchored in place with the previously mentioned technique. Three (one control and two experimental) rectangular (10 x 8 mm) wounds in tracheal mucosa were produced in four experimental animals (dogs) using a carbon dioxide laser. The control wound was left uncovered. In the first experimental wound, a mucosal flap was raised and then fixed in place by a trapdoor flap method. In the second experimental wound, two small (each 2 x 3 mm) autogenous mucosa grafts were anchored onto the surface with indocyanine green-dyed albumin activated with an 810-nm diode laser. Histomorphologically, the postoperative results from three wounds were compared. The experimental wounds were completely covered by regenerated squamous cells in 1 week and by ciliated epithelium in 2 weeks after the operation despite the discrepancy in size of the graft to wound area (1:6.7) covered with the stamp mucosa. No thermal damage from the diode laser was noted in the second experimental wounds. In the control wounds, no coverage was observed at 1 week, and only squamous cells were noted 2 weeks postoperatively. All the wounds had normal ciliated epithelium coverage at 4 weeks. Transplanted stamp grafts provided similar or better healing than trapdoor flap transplants. This new technique made endoscopic mucosal grafting possible and offers a potential breakthrough in the management of laryngotracheal stenosis.

  19. Blood flow index using near-infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green as a minimally invasive tool to assess respiratory muscle blood flow in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guenette, Jordan A; Henderson, William R; Dominelli, Paolo B

    2011-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in combination with indocyanine green (ICG) dye has recently been used to measure respiratory muscle blood flow (RMBF) in humans. This method is based on the Fick principle and is determined by measuring ICG in the respiratory muscles using transcutaneous NIRS...... relationships with the work of breathing and EMG for both respiratory muscles. The coefficients of determination (R(2)) comparing BFI vs. the work of breathing for the intercostal and sternocleidomastoid muscles were 0.887 (P

  20. Effect of ranibizumab on high-speed indocyanine green angiography and minimum intensity projection optical coherence tomography findings in neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Benjamin P; Nigam, Divya; Toy, Brian; Stetson, Paul F; Agrón, Elvira; Jacobs-El, Naima; Cunningham, Denise; Cukras, Catherine; Wong, Wai; Wiley, Henry; Chew, Emily; Ferris, Frederick; Meyerle, Catherine B

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this 1-year prospective study was to investigate how induction/pro re nata ranibizumab intravitreal treatment of eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration affects the anatomy of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and the overlying outer retinal tissue. High-speed indocyanine green (HS-ICG) angiography measurements provided quantification of the CNV size in 60 patients followed for 1 year. Minimum intensity projection optical coherence tomography (MinIP OCT), a novel algorithm assessing minimum optical intensity between the internal limiting membrane and retinal pigment epithelium, measured the area of outer retinal disruption overlying the CNV. Fluorescein angiography was also assessed to evaluate late retinal leakage. After 1 year, the mean area of CNV measured with indocyanine green angiography decreased by 5.8%. The mean area of MinIP OCT of outer retinal disruption overlying the CNV decreased by 4.2%. Mean area of fluorescein angiography leakage decreased by 6.3%. Both the area of outer retinal disruption measured with MinIP OCT and the area of leakage on fluorescein angiography typically exceeded the area of CNV on indocyanine green angiography at baseline and 1 year. Choroidal neovascularization treated with induction/pro re nata intravitreal ranibizumab for 1 year essentially remained static. Minimum intensity projection optical coherence tomography suggests that the area of outer retinal disruption overlying the CNV may be greater than the CNV itself and often correlates with the leakage area on fluorescein angiography. Additionally, there was minimal change in the area of outer retinal disruption on MinIP OCT even when fluid resolved. Measurements of the extent of CNV lesions based on indocyanine green angiography and MinIP OCT may provide useful outcome variables to help assess the CNV complex longitudinally and warrant further validation.

  1. Indocyanine Green-Loaded Polydopamine-Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites with Amplifying Photoacoustic and Photothermal Effects for Cancer Theranostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dehong; Zhang, Jingnan; Gao, Guanhui; Sheng, Zonghai; Cui, Haodong; Cai, Lintao

    2016-01-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) imaging and photothermal therapy (PTT) as light-induced theranostic platforms have been attracted much attention in recent years. However, the development of highly efficient and integrated phototheranostic nanoagents for amplifying PA imaging and PTT treatments poses great challenges. Here, we report a novel phototheranostic nanoagent using indocyanine green-loaded polydopamine-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites (ICG-PDA-rGO) with amplifying PA and PTT effects for cancer theranostics. The results demonstrate that the PDA layer coating on the surface of rGO could effectively absorb a large number of ICG molecules, quench ICG's fluorescence, and enhance the PDA-rGO's optical absorption at 780 nm. The obtained ICG-PDA-rGO exhibits stronger PTT effect and higher PA contrast than that of pure GO and PDA-rGO. After PA imaging-guided PTT treatments, the tumors in 4T1 breast subcutaneous and orthotopic mice models are suppressed completely and no treatment-induced toxicity being observed. It illustrates that the ICG-PDA-rGO nanocomposites constitute a new class of theranostic nanomedicine for amplifying PA imaging and PTT treatments.

  2. Use of invisible near infrared light fluorescence with indocyanine green and methylene blue in urology. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polom, Wojciech; Markuszewski, Marcin; Rho, Young Soo; Matuszewski, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    In the second part of this paper, concerning the use of invisible near infrared light (NIR) fluorescence with indocyanine green (ICG) and methylene blue (MB) in urology, other possible uses of this new technique will be presented. In kidney transplantation, this concerns allograft perfusion and real time NIR-guided angiography; moreover, perfusion angiography of tissue flaps, NIRF visualization of ureters, NIR-guided visualization of urinary calcifications, NIRF in male infertility and semen quality assessment. In this part, we have also analysed cancer targeting and imaging fluorophores as well as cost benefits associated with the use of these new techniques. PubMed and Medline databases were searched for ICG and MB use in urological settings, along with data published in abstracts of urological conferences. Although NIR-guided ICG and MB are still in their initial phases, there have been significant developments in a few more major domains of urology, including 1) kidney transplantation: kidney allograft perfusion and vessel reconstruction; 2) angiography perfusion of tissue flaps; 3) visualization of ureters; 4) visualization of urinary calcifications; and 5) NIRF in male infertility and semen quality assessment. Near infrared technology in urology is at its early stages. More studies are needed to assess the true potential and limitations of the technology. Initial studies show that this pioneering tool may influence various aspects of urology.

  3. Preliminary study of laser welding for aortic dissection in a porcine model using a diode laser with indocyanine green.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Masanori; Morimoto, Yuji; Ohmori, Sayaka; Usami, Noriko; Arai, Tsunenori; Maehara, Tadaaki; Kikuchi, Makoto

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether a dissected aorta could be welded by a diode laser with a solder using an in vitro porcine aortic dissection model. Porcine aortic strips were dissected into two flaps and the dissected faces were immersed in a solution of indocyanine green. The two flaps were pressed at 0.2 kg/cm2 with contact between the two immersed faces. The pressed flaps were irradiated with a diode laser (810 nm) at intensities of 170-425 W/cm2 for 8 seconds. The welded flaps were studied by light microscopy and the adhesive strengths were measured. The irradiated flaps were successfully welded. The breaking stress, the maximum stress recorded in a stress-strain curve, increased with increase in irradiation intensity up to 396 W/cm2 (2.7 x 10(2) mmHg) and decreased when the intensity reached 425 W/cm2. In the specimen irradiated at 396 W/cm2, the welded faces showed continuous fusion of elastin layers, while some voids were seen between the welded faces in the specimen irradiated at 425 W/cm2. The dissected porcine aortas were successfully welded using a laser with solder. The results suggest that the welded aorta can bear physiological blood pressure. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Detection of posterior vortex veins in eyes with pathologic myopia by ultra-widefield indocyanine green angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Muka; Cao, Kejia; Ogata, Satoko; Ohno-Matsui, Kyoko

    2017-09-01

    To analyse the characteristics of posterior vortex veins detected in highly myopic eyes by wide-field indocyanine green angiography (ICGA). One hundred and fifty-eight consecutive patients (302 eyes) with high myopia (myopic refractive error >8.0 dioptres (D) or axial length ≥26.5 mm) were studied. Wide-field ICGA was performed with the Spectralis HRA module. Posterior vortex veins were found in 80 eyes (26%). The prevalence of posterior staphyloma was significantly higher in eyes in which posterior vortex vein was detected than in eyes without posterior vortex vein. The posterior vortex veins were classified into five types according to the site of exit from the eye; around the optic nerve in 28%, in the macular area in 17%, along the border of staphyloma in 6%, along the margin of macular atrophy or large peripapillary conus in 21%, and elsewhere in 28%. In one eye, two posterior vortex veins collected the choroidal venous blood from the entire fundus. Wide-field ICGA can analyse the characteristic features of choroidal blood outflow system through posterior vortex veins in highly myopic eyes. They may play an important role as routes of choroidal outflow in highly myopic eyes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Comparison of indocyanine green fluorescence and parathyroid autofluorescence imaging in the identification of parathyroid glands during thyroidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahramangil, Bora; Berber, Eren

    2017-12-01

    Indocyanine green fluorescence (ICGF) and parathyroid autofluorescence (AF) are two new techniques that aid in the identification of parathyroid glands (PG) intraoperatively during thyroidectomy. There is no study comparing the efficacy of these techniques. This was an IRB-approved clinical study comparing the utility of ICGF and AF for identification of PGs during thyroidectomy. Data were collected prospectively. Both techniques were compared to naked eye (NE) for PG detection. Standard statistical methods were used for data analysis. Twenty-two patients in each group underwent a total of 39 total thyroidectomies and 5 thyroid lobectomies. AF and ICGF had similar detection rates for PGs [98% (61 of 62) and 95% (60 of 63) of PGs, respectively; P=0.31]. The location of PGs was suggested before detection with NE more frequently by AF than ICGF [52% (32 of 62) vs. 6% (4 of 63) of PGs; P0.99]. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comparative study between parathyroid AF and ICGF in detection of PGs during thyroidectomy. Our data suggest both techniques have similarly high detection rates and that the main difference lies in the timing of detection. AF more frequently detects PGs before recognition with NE compared to ICGF.

  6. A novel duct-lobular segmentectomy for breast tumors with nipple discharge using near-infrared indocyanine green fluorescence imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Ohno

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A 44-year-old woman was referred to our hospital with pathological nipple discharge from her left breast. Ultrasonography revealed a solid tumor beneath her left areola that measured 17 mm in diameter with a dilated mammary duct. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging showed an early-enhanced cystic tumor and a dilated mammary duct. We performed a duct-lobular segmentectomy using near-infrared indocyanine green (ICG-fluorescence imaging. Under general anesthesia, a silicone tube was inserted into an orifice of a fluid-discharging mammary duct, and 1 mL dye-fluorescence liquid containing ICG and indigo carmine was injected into the mammary duct. A periareolar incision was made, and the fluorescence image of the demarcated mammary duct segment was obtained. The mammary duct segment was dissected, along with the demarcation line. The cystic lesion and dilated mammary duct were fully resected, and the pathological diagnosis was intraductal papilloma of the breast. We report that near-infrared ICG fluorescence could be applied for imaging of the mammary duct segment, and the fluorescence image allowed for easier duct-lobular segmentectomy for nipple discharge.

  7. 1,213 Cases of Treatment of Facial Acne Using Indocyanine Green and Intense Pulsed Light in Asian Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kui Young Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Photodynamic therapy (PDT has been used for acne, with various combinations of photosensitizers and light sources. Objective. We evaluated the effectiveness and safety of indocyanine green (ICG and intense pulsed light (IPL in the treatment of acne. Materials and Methods. A total of 1,213 patients with facial acne were retrospectively reviewed. Patients received three or five treatments of ICG and IPL at two-week intervals. Clinical response to treatment was assessed by comparing pre- and posttreatment clinical photographs and patient satisfaction scores. Results. Marked to excellent improvement was noted in 483 of 1,213 (39.8% patients, while minimal to moderate improvement was achieved in the remaining 730 (60.2% patients. Patient satisfaction scores revealed that 197 (16.3% of 1,213 patients were highly satisfied, 887 (73.1% were somewhat satisfied, and 129 (10.6% were unsatisfied. There were no significant side effects. Conclusion. These results suggest that PDT with ICG and IPL can be effectively and safely used in the treatment of acne.

  8. Indocyanine Green Angiographic and Multifocal Electroretinographic Features in the Diffuse and Regional Form of Bietti′s Crystalline Retinopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Libin Jiang; Feng Wen; Lezheng Wu; Hong Yan; Shixing Hu

    2002-01-01

    Prpose: To observe different features of indocyanine green angiography(ICGA) andtifocal electroretinography (ERG) in the diffuse and regional type of Bieti′sc stalline retinopathy (BCR). Thods: ICGA and the multifocal ERG were performed in two cases of the diffuse andregional type of BCR respectively. These data were compared with fluoresceinangiography (FA), standard Ganzfeld ERG, and visual field testing. Results: In the regional case, ICGA revealed reduced perfusion of the choroidalcirculation in the early phase and multiple hypofluorescent spots in the posterior pole in the late phase, due to choriocapillaris filling defect; the extent of choroiocapillaris losswas shown in early phase of ICGA and there were multifocal hyperfluorescent dotssurrounding hypofluorescent spots in late phase in the diffuse case. The multifocal ERGshowed that the central responses were markedly depressed, corresponding to the visualfield defects, while the findings of Ganzfeld ERG were normal in the regional BCR;however, both the multifocal ERG and Ganzfeld ERG were severely subnormal in thediffuse case.Conclusions: The features of ICGA and multifocal ERG are different between the diffuseand regional BCR. In the meantime, the two tools are also useful to differentiate the typeand assess the extentof evolution in BCR.

  9. Management of peripheral polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy with intravitreal bevacizumab and indocyanine green angiography-guided laser photocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pukhraj Rishi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 69-year-old lady presented with complaints of decreased vision in left eye since one month. Best Corrected Visual Acuity (BCVA was 6/18 in that eye. Fundus examination revealed non-central geographic atrophy and soft drusens at macula in both eyes. Temporal periphery of left eye revealed subretinal exudates with altered sub-RPE hemorrhage mimicking peripheral exudative hemorrhagic chorioretinopathy (PEHCR. Fundus Fluorescein Angiogram showed window defects at macula and blocked fluorescence at temporal periphery in left eye. However, Indocyanine green angiography (ICGA revealed active peripheral choroidal polyps. The patient was successfully treated with intravitreal bevacizumab and ICGA-guided laser photocoagulation. 27 months after laser treatment, BCVA improved to 6/9. Rationale of consecutive anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF treatment followed by more definitive laser photocoagulation is that anti-VEGF aids in resolution of subretinal fluid, thus making the polyp more amenable to focal laser photocoagulation which stabilizes the choroidal vasculature and prevents further leakage.

  10. Assessing pharmacokinetics of indocyanine green-loaded nanoparticle in tumor with a dynamic diffuse fluorescence tomography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanqi; Yin, Guoyan; Zhao, Huijuan; Ma, Wenjuan; Gao, Feng; Zhang, Limin

    2018-02-01

    Real-time and continuous monitoring of drug release in vivo is an important task in pharmaceutical development. Here, we devoted to explore a real-time continuous study of the pharmacokinetics of free indocyanine green (ICG) and ICG loaded in the shell-sheddable nanoparticles in tumor based on a dynamic diffuse fluorescence tomography (DFT) system: A highly-sensitive dynamic DFT system of CT-scanning mode generates informative and instantaneous sampling datasets; An analysis procedure extracts the pharmacokinetic parameters from the reconstructed time curves of the mean ICG concentration in tumor, using the Gauss-Newton scheme based on two-compartment model. Compared with the pharmacokinetic parameters of free ICG in tumor, the ICG loaded in the shell-sheddable nanoparticles shows efficient accumulation in tumor. The results demonstrate our proposed dynamic-DFT can provide an integrated and continuous view of the drug delivery of the injected agents in different formulations, which is helpful for the development of diagnosis and therapy for tumors.

  11. Utility of Indocyanine Green Video Angiography for Sylvian Fissure Dissection in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Patients - Sylvian ICG Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toi, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Nobuhisa; Ogawa, Yukari; Kinoshita, Keita; Satoh, Kohei; Takai, Hiroki; Hirai, Satoshi; Hara, Keijiro; Matsubara, Shunji; Uno, Masaaki

    2018-02-15

    Indocyanine green (ICG) emits fluorescence in the far-red domain under light excitation. ICG video angiography (ICG-VA) has been established as a useful method to evaluate blood flow in the operative field. We report the usefulness of ICG-VA for Sylvian fissure dissection in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Subjects comprised 7 patients who underwent ICG-VA before opening the Sylvian fissure during neck clipping for ruptured cerebral aneurysm. We observed contrasted Sylvian veins before opening the Sylvian fissure using surgical microscopes. This procedure was termed "Sylvian ICG". We observed ICG fluorescence quickly in all cases. Sylvian veins that appeared unclear in the standard microscopic operative field covered with subarachnoid hemorrhage were extremely clearly depicted. These Sylvian ICG findings were helpful in identifying entry points and the dissecting course of the Sylvian fissure. At the time of clipping, no residual fluorescence from Sylvian ICG was present, and aneurysm clipping was not impeded. Sylvian ICG for SAH patients is a novel technique to facilitate dissection of the Sylvian fissure. We believe that this technique will contribute to improved safety of clipping surgery for ruptured aneurysms.

  12. Effects of nanoencapsulation and PEGylation on biodistribution of indocyanine green in healthy mice: quantitative fluorescence imaging and analysis of organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahmani B

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Baharak Bahmani,1 Christian Y Lytle,2 Ameae M Walker,2 Sharad Gupta,1 Valentine I Vullev,1 Bahman Anvari1 1Department of Bioengineering, 2Division of Biomedical Sciences, University of California, Riverside, CA, USA Abstract: Near-infrared nanoconstructs present a potentially effective platform for site-specific and deep tissue optical imaging and phototherapy. We have engineered a polymeric nanocapsule composed of polyallylamine hydrochloride (PAH chains cross-linked with sodium phosphate and doped with indocyanine green (ICG toward such endeavors. The ICG-doped nanocapsules were coated covalently with polyethylene glycol (5000 daltons through reductive amination. We administrated the constructs by tail vein injection to healthy mice. To characterize the biodistribution of the constructs, we performed in vivo quantitative fluorescence imaging and subsequently analyzed the various extracted organs. Our results suggest that encapsulation of ICG in these PEGylated constructs is an effective approach to prolong the circulation time of ICG and delay its hepatic accumulation. Increased bioavailability of ICG, due to encapsulation, offers the potential of extending the clinical applications of ICG, which are currently limited due to rapid elimination of ICG from the vasculature. Our results also indicate that PAH and ICG-doped nanocapsules (ICG-NCs are not cytotoxic at the levels used in this study. Keywords: cancer, fluorescent imaging, nanoprobes, near infrared, pharmacokinetics, phototherapy, vascular imaging

  13. Indocyanine Green Videoangiography for Surgery of a Ruptured Dissecting Aneurysm in the Precommunicating Anterior Cerebral Artery: A Technical Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Yasunori; Goto, Masanori; Toda, Hiroki; Nishida, Namiko; Yoshimoto, Naoya; Iwasaki, Koichi

    2017-08-01

    Indocyanine green videoangiography (ICG-VA) is an important intraoperative adjunct for saccular aneurysm surgery, but its efficacy in surgery for dissecting aneurysms has rarely been reported. The authors describe the usefulness of preclipping ICG-VA in a rare case of a ruptured dissecting aneurysm located at the precommunicating (A1) segment of the anterior cerebral artery. A 52-year-old woman, with no history of connective tissue diseases or vascular disorders, presented with sudden headache and convulsion. The CT scan showed that the patient had subarachnoid hemorrhage. Angiography showed a dissecting aneurysm in the left A1 segment of the anterior cerebral artery. Thus, the patient underwent trapping of the dissecting aneurysm. ICG-VA was used as an intraoperative adjunct before and after clipping. The preclipping ICG-VA showed the heterogeneously bright dissecting aneurysm and branching arteries even in the presence of hematoma. Preclipping ICG-VA may enhance the advantage of direct surgery for dissecting aneurysm by allowing visualization of the extent of the dissected vascular wall and the related branching arteries. ICG-VA can be an indispensable adjunct to minimize the compromise from the surgical treatment for intracranial dissecting aneurysms. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  14. Multiwavelength time-resolved detection of fluorescence during the inflow of indocyanine green into the adult's brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerega, Anna; Milej, Daniel; Weigl, Wojciech; Botwicz, Marcin; Zolek, Norbert; Kacprzak, Michal; Wierzejski, Wojciech; Toczylowska, Beata; Mayzner-Zawadzka, Ewa; Maniewski, Roman; Liebert, Adam

    2012-08-01

    Optical technique based on diffuse reflectance measurement combined with indocyanine green (ICG) bolus tracking is extensively tested as a method for clinical assessment of brain perfusion in adults at the bedside. Methodology of multiwavelength and time-resolved detection of fluorescence light excited in the ICG is presented and advantages of measurements at multiple wavelengths are discussed. Measurements were carried out: 1. on a physical homogeneous phantom to study the concentration dependence of the fluorescence signal, 2. on the phantom to simulate the dynamic inflow of ICG at different depths, and 3. in vivo on surface of the human head. Pattern of inflow and washout of ICG in the head of healthy volunteers after intravenous injection of the dye was observed for the first time with time-resolved instrumentation at multiple emission wavelengths. The multiwavelength detection of fluorescence signal confirms that at longer emission wavelengths, probability of reabsorption of the fluorescence light by the dye itself is reduced. Considering different light penetration depths at different wavelengths, and the pronounced reabsorption at longer wavelengths, the time-resolved multiwavelength technique may be useful in signal decomposition, leading to evaluation of extra- and intracerebral components of the measured signals.

  15. Prefabricated Cervical Skin Flaps for Hemi-Facial Resurfacing: Elucidating the Natural History of Postoperative Edema Using Indocyanine Green.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Min, Peiru; Sadigh, Parviz; Grassetti, Luca; Lazzeri, Davide; Torresetti, Matteo; Marsili, Riccardo; Feng, Shaoqing; Liu, Ningfei; Zhang, Yi Xin

    2018-02-01

    The increases in capillary wall permeability and capillary hydrostatic pressure are considered to be the causes for the acute swelling seen in flaps; however, disruption of the circulating flap lymphatics could be another contributory factor. In this study we monitor the development of flap edema in a series of 18 prefabricated flaps and aim to delineate the natural history of this phenomenon by use of lymphography. Postoperative swelling was monitored in a series of 18 pre-expanded prefabricated cervical skin flaps used for hemi-facial burns-scar resurfacing. Time to spontaneous resolution, presence or absence of venous congestion, and clinical outcome were recorded. In two cases, indocyanine-green (ICG) lymphography was used to monitor the dermal backflow pattern until swelling had completely resolved. Average moving velocity of ICG after injection as well as flap thickness was also recorded over the follow-up period. The average moving velocity of ICG in the flap lymphatics improved from 0.48 cm/min to 1.5 cm/min in the first 12 days after flap transfer. The dermal backflow pattern was stardust in the first 12 days, indicating moderate lymphedema, transforming to splash from week three, and a robust collecting lymphatic vessel occurring from the fifth month, indicating mild lymphedema and lymphatic channel recovery, respectively. Transient swelling was observed in all prefabricated flaps in our series. We postulate that this is mostly secondary to lymphatic disruption that subsides as lymphangiogenesis takes place. ICG lymphography is an inexpensive, safe, and easy-to-use imaging technology that could be used in the monitoring of postoperative lymphedema seen in prefabricated flaps.

  16. Near-infrared fluorescence imaging and photodynamic therapy with indocyanine green lactosome has antineoplastic effects for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takumi Tsuda

    Full Text Available Anticancer agents and operating procedures have been developed for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC patients, but their prognosis remains poor. It is necessary to develop novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for HCC to improve its prognosis. Lactosome is a core-shell-type polymeric micelle, and enclosing labeling or anticancer agents into this micelle enables drug delivery. In this study, we investigated the diagnostic and therapeutic efficacies of indocyanine green (ICG-loaded lactosome for near-infrared fluorescence (NIF imaging and photodynamic therapy (PDT for HCC.The human HCC cell line HuH-7 was treated with ICG or ICG-lactosome, followed by PDT, and the cell viabilities were measured (in vitro PDT efficiency. For NIF imaging, HuH-7 cells were subcutaneously transplanted into BALB/c nude mice, followed by intravenous administration of ICG or ICG-lactosome. The transplanted animals were treated with PDT, and the antineoplastic effects were analyzed (in vivo PDT efficiency.PDT had toxic effects on HuH-7 cells treated with ICG-lactosome, but not ICG alone. NIF imaging revealed that the fluorescence of tumor areas in ICG-lactosome-treated animals was higher than that of contralateral regions at 24 h after injection and thereafter. PDT exerted immediate and continuous phototoxic effects in the transplanted mice treated with ICG-lactosome.Our results demonstrate that ICG-lactosome accumulated in xenograft tumors, and that PDT had antineoplastic effects on these malignant implants. NIF imaging and PDT with ICG-lactosome could be useful diagnostic and/or therapeutic strategies for HCC.

  17. Intraoperative use of indocyanine green angiography for selecting the more reliable perforator of the anterolateral thigh flap: A comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Padula, Simone; Hersant, Barbara; Meningaud, Jean Paul

    2018-03-30

    Anatomical variability of anterolateral thigh flap (ALT) perforators has been reported. The aim of this study is to assess if the use of intraoperative indocyanine green angiography (iICGA) can help surgeons to choose the ALT flap best perforator to be preserved. A retrospective study was conducted in 28 patients with open tibial fracture, following a road traffic crash, who had undergone ALT flap. Patients were classified into two groups: ICGA group (iICGA was used to select the more reliable perforator) and control group. The mean tissue loss size of the ICGA group (n = 13, 11 men and 2 women, mean age: 52 ± 6 years) was of 16.6 cm × 12.2 cm. The mean defect size of the control group (n = 15, 14 men and 1 women, mean age: 50 ± 5.52 years) was of 15.3 cm × 11.1 cm. Statistical analysis was performed to analyze and compare the results. ICGA allowed preserving only the most functional perforator, that provided the best ALT flap perfusion in 10 out of the 13 cases (77%). ICGA allowed a significant operative time reduction (160 ± 23 vs. 202 ± 48 minutes; P < .001). One case of distal necrosis was observed in the ICGA group (mean follow-up 12.3 months), while partial skin necrosis occurred in three cases of the control group (mean follow-up 13.1 months); P = .35. No additional coverage was required and a successful bone healing was observed in both groups. These findings suggest that iICGA is an effective method that allows to select the most reliable ALT flap perforators and to reduce operative time. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Pilot Assessment of the Repeatability of Indocyanine Green Fluorescence Imaging and Correlation with Traditional Foot Perfusion Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venermo, M; Settembre, N; Albäck, A; Vikatmaa, P; Aho, P-S; Lepäntalo, M; Inoue, Y; Terasaki, H

    2016-10-01

    Ankle brachial index (ABI), toe pressures (TP), and transcutaneous oxygen pressure (TcPO 2 ) are traditionally used in the assessment of critical limb ischemia (CLI). Indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence imaging can be used to evaluate local circulation in the foot and to evaluate the severity of ischemia. This prospective study analyzed the suitability of a fluorescence imaging system (photodynamic eye [PDE]) in CLI. Forty-one patients with CLI were included. Of the patients, 66% had diabetes and there was an ischemic tissue lesion in 70% of the limbs. ABI, toe pressures, TcPO 2 and ICG-fluorescence imaging (ICG-FI) were measured in each leg. To study the repeatability of the ICG-FI, each patient underwent the study twice. After the procedure, foot circulation was measured using a time-intensity curve, where T1/2 (the time needed to achieve half of the maximum fluorescence intensity) and PDE10 (increase of the intensity during the first 10 s) were determined. A time-intensity curve was plotted using the same areas as for the TcPO 2 probes (n=123). The mean ABI was 0.43, TP 21 mmHg, TcPO 2 23 mmHg, T1/2 38 s, and PDE10 19 AU. Time-intensity curves were repeatable. In a Bland-Altman scatter plot, the 95% limits of agreement of PDE10 was 9.9 AU and the corresponding value of T1/2 was 14 s. Correlation between ABI and TP was significant (R=.73, p<.001), and it was weaker in diabetic patients (R=.47, p=.048) compared with non-diabetic patients (R=.89, p=.002). Correlations between ABI and TcPO 2 and TP and TcPO 2 were weak (R=.37, p=.05 and R=.43, p=.037, respectively). Correlation between TcPO 2 and PDE10 was strong in diabetic patients (R=.70, p=.003). According to this pilot study, ICG-FI with PDE can be used in the assessment of blood supply in the ischemic foot. Copyright © 2016 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Imaging of pharmacokinetic rates of indocyanine green in mouse liver with a hybrid fluorescence molecular tomography/x-ray computed tomography system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guanglei; Liu, Fei; Zhang, Bin; He, Yun; Luo, Jianwen; Bai, Jing

    2013-04-01

    Pharmacokinetic rates have the potential to provide quantitative physiological and pathological information for biological studies and drug development. Fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) is an attractive imaging tool for three-dimensionally resolving fluorophore distribution in small animals. In this letter, pharmacokinetic rates of indocyanine green (ICG) in mouse liver are imaged with a hybrid FMT and x-ray computed tomography (XCT) system. A recently developed FMT method using structural priors from an XCT system is adopted to improve the quality of FMT reconstruction. In the in vivo experiments, images of uptake and excretion rates of ICG in mouse liver are obtained, which can be used to quantitatively evaluate liver function. The accuracy of the results is validated by a fiber-based fluorescence measurement system.

  20. Development of PLGA-lipid nanoparticles with covalently conjugated indocyanine green as a versatile nanoplatform for tumor-targeted imaging and drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Y

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Yu Xin, Tie Liu, Chenlong Yang Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: We have prepared novel poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA lipid nanoparticles (PNPs that covalently conjugate folic acid (FA and indocyanine green (ICG, in addition to encapsulating resveratrol (RSV (FA-RSV/ICG-PLGA-lipid NPs, abbreviated as FA-RIPNPs; these nanoparticles have been developed for simultaneous targeted delivery of anticancer drug and fluorescence imaging. The FA-RIPNPs, with an average particle size of 92.8±2.1 nm, were prepared by a facile self-assembly-and-nanoprecipitation method, and they showed excellent stability and biocompatibility characteristics. The FA-RIPNPs exhibited an RSV encapsulation efficiency of approximately 65.6%±4.7% and a maximum release ratio of 78.2%±4.1% at pH 5.0 and 37°C. Confocal fluorescence images showed that FA-RIPNPs may facilitate a high cellular uptake via FA receptor-mediated endocytosis. Furthermore, FA-RIPNPs (containing 50 µg/mL RSV induced a 81.4%±2.1% U87 cell inhibition rate via apoptosis, a value that proved to be higher than what has been shown for free RSV (53.1%±1.1%, equivalent RSV concentration. With a formulated polyethylene glycol (PEG shell around the PLGA core, FA-RIPNPs prolonged the blood circulation of both free RSV and ICG, which approximately increased 6.96- and 39.4-fold (t1/2, respectively. Regarding FA-RIPNP use as a near-infrared probe, in vivo fluorescence images indicated a highly efficient accumulation of FA-RIPNPs in the tumor tissue, which proved to be approximately 2.8- and 12.6-fold higher than the RIPNPs and free ICG, respectively. Intravenous injection of FA-RIPNPs into U87 tumor-bearing mice demonstrated the best tumor inhibition effect for all tested drugs, including free RSV and RIPNPs, with no relapse, showing high biocompatibility and with no significant systemic in vivo toxicity over the

  1. Real-time navigation system for sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer patients using projection mapping with indocyanine green fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Masahiro; Takeuchi, Megumi; Suzuki, Eiji; Sato, Fumiaki; Matsumoto, Yoshiaki; Torii, Masae; Kawaguchi-Sakita, Nobuko; Nishino, Hiroto; Seo, Satoru; Hatano, Etsuro; Toi, Masakazu

    2018-05-09

    Inability to visualize indocyanine green fluorescence images in the surgical field limits the application of current near-infrared fluorescence imaging (NIR) systems for real-time navigation during sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy in breast cancer patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the Medical Imaging Projection System (MIPS), which uses active projection mapping, for SLN biopsy. A total of 56 patients (59 procedures) underwent SLN biopsy using the MIPS between March 2016 and November 2017. After SLN biopsy using the MIPS, residual SLNs were removed using a conventional NIR camera and/or radioisotope method. The primary endpoint of this study was identification rate of SLNs using the MIPS. In all procedures, at least one SLN was detected by the MIPS, giving an SLN identification rate of 100% [95% confidence interval (CI) 94-100%]. SLN biopsy was successfully performed without operating lights in all procedures. In total, 3 positive SLNs were excised using MIPS, but were not included in the additional SLNs excised by other methods. The median number of SLNs excised using the MIPS was 3 (range 1-7). Of procedures performed after preoperative systemic therapy, the median number of SLNs excised using the MIPS was 3 (range 2-6). The MIPS is effective in detecting SLNs in patients with breast cancer, providing continuous and accurate projection of fluorescence signals in the surgical field, without need for operating lights, and could be useful in real-time navigation surgery for SLN biopsy.

  2. Prussian blue/serum albumin/indocyanine green as a multifunctional nanotheranostic agent for bimodal imaging guided laser mediated combinatorial phototherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Abhishek; Lee, Jong Hyun; Lee, Hye Gyeong; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Tae, Giyoong

    2016-08-28

    Developing novel nanotheranostic agent using only clinically approved materials is highly desirable and challenging. In this study, we combined three clinically approved materials, Prussian blue (PB), serum albumin (BSA), and indocyanine green (ICG), by a simple and biocompatible method to prepare a multifunctional theranostic PB-BSA-ICG nanoparticle. The multifunctional nanoparticle system could provide dual mode magnetic resonance (MR) and near infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging as well as combined photothermal and photodynamic (PTT-PDT) therapy in response to a single NIR laser. This nanoparticle showed an excellent stability in physiological solutions and could suppress the photo-instability of ICG. In the absence of light, the nanoparticles showed no cytotoxicity, but significant cell death was induced through combined PTT-PDT effect after irradiation with NIR laser light. A high tumor accumulation and minimal nonspecific uptake by other major organs of PB-BSA-ICG nanoparticle were observed in vivo, analyzed by T1-weighted MR and NIR fluorescence bimodal imaging in tumor xenograft mice after intravenous injection. The nanoparticles efficiently suppressed the tumor growth through combinatorial phototherapy with no tumor recurrence upon a single NIR laser irradiation. These results demonstrated that PB-BSA-ICG is potentially an interesting nanotheranostic agent for imaging guided cancer therapy by overcoming the limitations of each technology and enhancing the therapeutic efficiency as well as reducing side effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A Near-Infrared Photothermal Effect-Responsive Drug Delivery System Based on Indocyanine Green and Doxorubicin-Loaded Polymeric Micelles Mediated by Reversible Diels-Alder Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Li, Junjie; Ke, Wendong; Ge, Zhishen

    2015-10-01

    Near-infrared light (NIR) possesses great advantages for light-responsive controllable drug release, such as deep tissue penetration and low damage to healthy tissues. Herein, a NIR-responsive drug delivery system is developed based on a NIR dye, indocyanine green (ICG), and anticancer drug, doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded thermoresponsive block copolymer micelles, in which the drug release can be controlled via NIR irradiation. First, block copolymers, poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate)-block-poly(furfuryl methacrylate) (POEGMA-b-PFMA), are synthesized by sequential reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization, followed by modification with N-octyl maleimide through Diels-Alder (DA) reaction to produce POEGMA-b-POMFMA. The self-assembly of POEGMA-b-POMFMA by nano-precipitation in aqueous solution affords the polymeric micelles which are used to simultaneously encapsulate ICG and DOX. Upon irradiation by NIR light (805 nm), the loaded DOX is released rapidly from the micelles due to partial retro DA reaction and local temperature increase-induced faster drug diffusion by the photothermal effect. Cytotoxicity evaluation and intracellular distribution observation demonstrate significant synergistic effects of NIR-triggered drug release, photothermal, and chemotherapy toward cancer cells under NIR irradiation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Detection of peritoneal dissemination with near-infrared fluorescence laparoscopic imaging using a liposomal formulation of a synthesized indocyanine green liposomal derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Isamu; Maruyama, Tetsuro; Fujito, Hiromichi; Tamura, Yutaka; Suganami, Akiko; Hayashi, Hideki; Toyota, Taro; Akutsu, Yasunori; Murakami, Kentaro; Isozaki, Yuka; Akanuma, Naoki; Takeshita, Nobuyoshi; Toyozumi, Takeshi; Komatsu, Aki; Matsubara, Hisahiro

    2015-03-01

    Although conventional staging laparoscopy (SL) has improved the diagnostic accuracy of peritoneal dissemination, novel technology is needed to increase the sensitivity of SL. We herein describe a new imaging method employing near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging using a liposomal synthesized indocyanine green (ICG) liposomal derivative, LP-ICG-C18. LP-ICG-C18 is a NIR-photoactivating probe in which an ICG fluorophore is covalently conjugated with a phospholipid moiety. Nude mice were intraperitoneally injected with gastric cancer cells. Twelve days later, the mice were given intravenous injections of LP-ICG-C18 at a dose of 0.15 mg/kg. A NIR imaging system was used to identify the disseminated tumors. The disseminated nodules in mice were detected without any difficulties. Disseminated tumor nodules were collected from mice with or without injections of liposomal formulation and were transferred into the swine peritoneal cavity. The nodules in the swine peritoneal cavity were clearly and promptly defined by the NIR imaging system. NIR-fluorescing liposomal probes can effectively target peritoneal disseminated tumors and can be easily detected by a NIR imaging system. These results warrant future clinical trials of our imaging system and may contribute to a more precise diagnosis and therapeutic approach for gastric cancer patients. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  5. In silico identification of a therapeutic target for photo-activated disinfection with indocyanine green: Modeling and virtual screening analysis of Arg-gingipain from Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourhajibagher, Maryam; Bahador, Abbas

    2017-06-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a momentous bacterial etiological agent associated with periodontitis, peri-implantitis as well as endodontic infections. The potential advantage of Photo-activated disinfection (PAD) as a promising novel approach is the choice of a suitable target site, specific photosensitizer, and wavelength of light for delivery of the light from source to target. Since Arg-gingipain is a cysteine proteinase that is involved in the virulence of P. gingivalis, it was evaluated as a target site for PAD with indocyanine green (ICG) as a photosensitizer. In this study, we used a range of in silico strategies, bioinformatics tools, biological databases, and computer simulation molecular modeling to evaluate the capacity of Arg-gingipain. The predicted structure of Arg-gingipain indicated that it is located outside the cell and has nine domains and 17 ligands, including two calcium ions and three sodium ions with positive charges which can be a site of interaction for anionic ICG. Based on the results of this study, anionic ICG desires to bind and interact with residues of Arg-gingipain during PAD as a main site to enhance the yield of treatment of endo-periodontal lesions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Flash fluorescence with indocyanine green videoangiography to identify the recipient artery for bypass with distal middle cerebral artery aneurysms: operative technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Hernández, Ana; Lawton, Michael T

    2012-06-01

    Distal middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms frequently have nonsaccular morphology that necessitates trapping and bypass. Bypasses can be difficult because efferent arteries lie deep in the opercular cleft and may not be easily identifiable. We introduce the "flash fluorescence" technique, which uses videoangiography with indocyanine green (ICG) dye to identify an appropriate recipient artery on the cortical surface for the bypass, enabling a more superficial and easier anastomosis. Flash fluorescence requires 3 steps: (1) temporary clip occlusion of the involved afferent artery; (2) videoangiography demonstrating fluorescence in uninvolved arteries on the cortical surface; and (3) removal of the temporary clip with flash fluorescence in the involved efferent arteries on the cortical surface, thereby identifying a recipient. Alternatively, temporary clips can occlude uninvolved arteries, and videoangiography will demonstrate initial fluorescence in efferent arteries during temporary occlusion and flash fluorescence in uninvolved arteries during reperfusion. From a consecutive series of 604 MCA aneurysms treated microsurgically, 22 (3.6%) were distal aneurysms and 11 required a bypass. The flash fluorescence technique was used in 3 patients to select the recipient artery for 2 superficial temporal artery-to-MCA bypasses and 1 MCA-MCA bypass. The correct recipient was selected in all cases. The flash fluorescence technique provides quick, reliable localization of an appropriate recipient artery for bypass when revascularization is needed for a distal MCA aneurysm. This technique eliminates the need for extensive dissection of the efferent artery and enables a superficial recipient site that makes the anastomosis safer, faster, and less demanding.

  7. Cranial nerve contrast using nerve-specific fluorophores improved by paired-agent imaging with indocyanine green as a control agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Veronica C.; Vuong, Victoria D.; Wilson, Todd; Wewel, Joshua; Byrne, Richard W.; Tichauer, Kenneth M.

    2017-09-01

    Nerve preservation during surgery is critical because damage can result in significant morbidity. This remains a challenge especially for skull base surgeries where cranial nerves (CNs) are involved because visualization and access are particularly poor in that location. We present a paired-agent imaging method to enhance identification of CNs using nerve-specific fluorophores. Two myelin-targeting imaging agents were evaluated, Oxazine 4 and Rhodamine 800, and coadministered with a control agent, indocyanine green, either intravenously or topically in rats. Fluorescence imaging was performed on excised brains ex vivo, and nerve contrast was evaluated via paired-agent ratiometric data analysis. Although contrast was improved among all experimental groups using paired-agent imaging compared to conventional, solely targeted imaging, Oxazine 4 applied directly exhibited the greatest enhancement, with a minimum 3 times improvement in CNs delineation. This work highlights the importance of accounting for nonspecific signal of targeted agents, and demonstrates that paired-agent imaging is one method capable of doing so. Although staining, rinsing, and imaging protocols need to be optimized, these findings serve as a demonstration for the potential use of paired-agent imaging to improve contrast of CNs, and consequently, surgical outcome.

  8. A Real-Time Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging Method for the Detection of Oral Cancers in Mice Using an Indocyanine Green-Labeled Podoplanin Antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Akihiro; Ohta, Mitsuhiko; Kato, Yukinari; Inada, Shunko; Kato, Toshio; Nakata, Susumu; Yatabe, Yasushi; Goto, Mitsuo; Kaneda, Norio; Kurita, Kenichi; Nakanishi, Hayao; Yoshida, Kenji

    2018-01-01

    Podoplanin is distinctively overexpressed in oral squamous cell carcinoma than oral benign neoplasms and plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis and metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinoma but its diagnostic application is quite limited. Here, we report a new near-infrared fluorescence imaging method using an indocyanine green (ICG)-labeled anti-podoplanin antibody and a desktop/a handheld ICG detection device for the visualization of oral squamous cell carcinoma-xenografted tumors in nude mice. Both near-infrared imaging methods using a desktop (in vivo imaging system: IVIS) and a handheld device (photodynamic eye: PDE) successfully detected oral squamous cell carcinoma tumors in nude mice in a podoplanin expression-dependent manner with comparable sensitivity. Of these 2 devices, only near-infrared imaging methods using a handheld device visualized oral squamous cell carcinoma xenografts in mice in real time. Furthermore, near-infrared imaging methods using the handheld device (PDE) could detect smaller podoplanin-positive oral squamous cell carcinoma tumors than a non-near-infrared, autofluorescence-based imaging method. Based on these results, a near-infrared imaging method using an ICG-labeled anti-podoplanin antibody and a handheld detection device (PDE) allows the sensitive, semiquantitative, and real-time imaging of oral squamous cell carcinoma tumors and therefore represents a useful tool for the detection and subsequent monitoring of malignant oral neoplasms in both preclinical and some clinical settings.

  9. The use of indocyanine green lymphography for the treatment of postoperative chylothorax with lipiodol lymphangiography in a 2-year-old child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoi Kato

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative chylothorax in infants prolongs hospital stay and possibly causes developmental delay because of its conservative treatment including inanition. Several medical and surgical treatments may be applied, but none constitute the absolute solution. Treatment with lipiodol during lymphangiography for postoperative chylothorax has been reported to be highly effective and less invasive in adults. On the other hand, few cases have been reported in infants. We demonstrate successful blockage of chyle leakage with lipiodol injection through the inguinal lymph node in a 2-year-old infant. The patient had undergone on-pump coarctectomy and chylothorax developed soon after surgery. Several medical treatments were partially effective, but the chest tube could not be removed because sequential aspiration was required to maintain a normal respiratory status. With the patient under general anesthesia, lipiodol injection combined with indocyanine green (ICG lymphography was performed. Lymphography combined with ICG significantly contributed not only to intraoperative detection of the inguinal lymph nodes but also to postoperative early detection of lymphedema caused by this procedure. This procedure required a simple maneuver and is probably applicable to other cases of traumatic chylothorax, such as after surgeries on the esophagus, trachea, or other components of the posterior mediastinum.

  10. Dynamic infrared thermography (DIRT) for assessment of skin blood perfusion in cranioplasty: a proof of concept for qualitative comparison with the standard indocyanine green video angiography (ICGA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathmann, P; Chalopin, C; Halama, D; Giri, P; Meixensberger, J; Lindner, D

    2018-03-01

    Complications in wound healing after neurosurgical operations occur often due to scarred dehiscence with skin blood perfusion disturbance. The standard imaging method for intraoperative skin perfusion assessment is the invasive indocyanine green video angiography (ICGA). The noninvasive dynamic infrared thermography (DIRT) is a promising alternative modality that was evaluated by comparison with ICGA. The study was carried out in two parts: (1) investigation of technical conditions for intraoperative use of DIRT for its comparison with ICGA, and (2) visual and quantitative comparison of both modalities in a proof of concept on nine patients. Time-temperature curves in DIRT and time-intensity curves in ICGA for defined regions of interest were analyzed. New perfusion parameters were defined in DIRT and compared with the usual perfusion parameters in ICGA. The visual observation of the image data in DIRT and ICGA showed that operation material, anatomical structures and skin perfusion are represented similarly in both modalities. Although the analysis of the curves and perfusion parameter values showed differences between patients, no complications were observed clinically. These differences were represented in DIRT and ICGA equivalently. DIRT has shown a great potential for intraoperative use, with several advantages over ICGA. The technique is passive, contactless and noninvasive. The practicability of the intraoperative recording of the same operation field section with ICGA and DIRT has been demonstrated. The promising results of this proof of concept provide a basis for a trial with a larger number of patients.

  11. Impact of Indocyanine Green Concentration, Exposure Time, and Degree of Dissolution in Creating Toxic Anterior Segment Syndrome: Evaluation in a Rabbit Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer Tandogan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the role of indocyanine green (ICG dye as a causative material of toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS in an experimental rabbit model. Method. Eight eyes of four rabbits were allocated to this study. Capsular staining was performed using ICG dye, after which the anterior chamber was irrigated with a balanced salt solution. The effects of different concentrations (control, 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0%, exposure times (10 and 60 seconds, and the degree of dissolution (differently vortexed were investigated. The analysis involved anterior segment photography, ultrasound pachymetry, prostaglandin assay (PGE2 Parameter Assay, R&D systems, Inc., and scanning electron microscopy of each iris. Result. There was no reaction in the control eye. A higher aqueous level of PGE2 and more severe inflammatory reaction were observed in cases of eyes with higher concentration, longer exposure time, and poorly dissolved dye. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy revealed larger and coarser ICG particles. Conclusion. TASS occurrence may be associated with the concentration, exposure time, and degree of dissolution of ICG dye during cataract surgery.

  12. Rapid measurement of indocyanine green retention by pulse spectrophotometry: a validation study in 70 patients with Child-Pugh A cirrhosis before hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Tan To; Chan, See Ching; Chok, Kenneth S H; Chan, Albert C Y; Yu, Wan Ching; Poon, Ronnie T P; Lo, Chung Mau; Fan, Sheung Tat

    2012-06-01

    The indocyanine green (ICG) retention test is the most popular liver function test for selecting patients for major hepatectomy. Traditionally, it is done using spectrophotometry with serial blood sampling. The newly-developed pulse spectrophotometry is a faster alternative, but its accuracy on Child-Pugh A cirrhotic patients undergoing hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma has not been well documented. This study aimed to assess the accuracy of the LiMON(®), one of the pulse spectrophotometry systems, in measuring preoperative ICG retention in these patients and to devise an easy formula for conversion of the results so that they can be compared with classical literature records where ICG retention was measured by the traditional method. We measured the liver function of 70 Child-Pugh A cirrhotic patients before hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma from September 2008 to January 2009. ICG retention at 15 minutes measured by traditional spectrophotometry (ICGR15) was compared with ICG retention at 15 minutes measured by the LiMON (ICGR15(L)). The median ICGR15 was 14.7% (5.6%-32%) and the median ICGR15(L) was 10.4% (1.2%-28%). The mean difference between them was -4.3606. There was a strong correlation between ICGR15 and ICGR15(L) (correlation coefficient, 0.844; 95% confidence interval, 0.762-0.899). The following formula was devised: ICGR15=1.16XICGR15(L)+2.73. The LiMON provides a fast and repeatable way to measure ICG retention at 15 minutes, but with constant underestimation of the real value. Therefore, when comparing results obtained by traditional spectrophotometry and the LiMON, adjustment of results from the latter is necessary, and this can be done with a simple mathematical calculation using the above formula.

  13. Comparison between the indocyanine green fluorescence and blue dye methods for sentinel lymph node biopsy using novel fluorescence image-guided resection equipment in different types of hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Kunshan; Chi, Chongwei; Kou, Deqiang; Huang, Wenhe; Wu, Jundong; Wang, Yabing; He, Lifang; Ye, Jinzuo; Mao, Yamin; Zhang, Guo-Jun; Wang, Jiandong; Tian, Jie

    2016-12-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has become a standard of care to detect axillary lymph metastasis in early-stage breast cancer patients with clinically negative axillary lymph nodes. Current SLNB detection modalities comprising a blue dye, a radioactive tracer, or a combination of both have advantages as well as disadvantages. Thus, near-infrared fluorescence imaging using indocyanine green (ICG) has recently been regarded as a novel method that has generated interest for SLNB around the world. However, the lack of appropriate fluorescence imaging systems has hindered further research and wide application of this method. Therefore, we developed novel fluorescence image-guided resection equipment (FIRE) to detect sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs). Moreover, to compare the ICG fluorescence imaging method with the blue dye method and to explore the universal feasibility of the former, a different type of hospital study was conducted. Ninety-nine eligible patients participated in the study at 3 different types of hospitals. After subcutaneous ICG allergy testing, all the patients were subcutaneously injected with methylene blue and ICG into the subareolar area. Consequently, 276 SLNs (range 1-7) were identified in 98 subjects (detection rate: 99%) by using the ICG fluorescence imaging method. In contrast, the blue dye method only identified 202 SLNs (range 1-7) in 91 subjects (detection rate: 91.92%). Besides, the results of the fluorescence imaging method were similar in the 3 hospitals. Our findings indicate the universal feasibility of the ICG fluorescence imaging method for SLNB using the fluorescence image-guided resection equipment in early breast cancer detection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Superselective intra-arterial hepatic injection of indocyanine green (ICG) for fluorescence image-guided segmental positive staining: experimental proof of the concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diana, Michele; Liu, Yu-Yin; Pop, Raoul; Kong, Seong-Ho; Legnèr, Andras; Beaujeux, Remy; Pessaux, Patrick; Soler, Luc; Mutter, Didier; Dallemagne, Bernard; Marescaux, Jacques

    2017-03-01

    Intraoperative liver segmentation can be obtained by means of percutaneous intra-portal injection of a fluorophore and illumination with a near-infrared light source. However, the percutaneous approach is challenging in the minimally invasive setting. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of fluorescence liver segmentation by superselective intra-hepatic arterial injection of indocyanine green (ICG). Eight pigs (mean weight: 26.01 ± 5.21 kg) were involved. Procedures were performed in a hybrid experimental operative suite equipped with the Artis Zeego ® , multiaxis robotic angiography system. A pneumoperitoneum was established and four laparoscopic ports were introduced. The celiac trunk was catheterized, and a microcatheter was advanced into different segmental hepatic artery branches. A near-infrared laparoscope (D-Light P, Karl Storz) was used to detect the fluorescent signal. To assess the correspondence between arterial-based fluorescence demarcation and liver volume, metallic markers were placed along the fluorescent border, followed by a 3D CT-scanning, after injecting intra-arterial radiological contrast (n = 3). To assess the correspondence between arterial and portal supplies, percutaneous intra-portal angiography and intra-arterial angiography were performed simultaneously (n = 1). Bright fluorescence signal enhancing the demarcation of target segments was obtained from 0.1 mg/mL, in matter of seconds. Correspondence between the volume of hepatic segments and arterial territories was confirmed by CT angiography. Higher background fluorescence noise was found after positive staining by intra-portal ICG injection, due to parenchymal accumulation and porto-systemic shunting. Intra-hepatic arterial ICG injection, rapidly highlights hepatic target segment borders, with a better signal-to-background ratio as compared to portal vein injection, in the experimental setting.

  15. Smart human serum albumin-indocyanine green nanoparticles generated by programmed assembly for dual-modal imaging-guided cancer synergistic phototherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Zonghai; Hu, Dehong; Zheng, Mingbin; Zhao, Pengfei; Liu, Huilong; Gao, Duyang; Gong, Ping; Gao, Guanhui; Zhang, Pengfei; Ma, Yifan; Cai, Lintao

    2014-12-23

    Phototherapy, including photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photothermal therapy (PTT), is a light-activated local treatment modality that is under intensive preclinical and clinical investigations for cancer. To enhance the treatment efficiency of phototherapy and reduce the light-associated side effects, it is highly desirable to improve drug accumulation and precision guided phototherapy for efficient conversion of the absorbed light energy to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and local hyperthermia. In the present study, a programmed assembly strategy was developed for the preparation of human serum albumin (HSA)-indocyanine green (ICG) nanoparticles (HSA-ICG NPs) by intermolecular disulfide conjugations. This study indicated that HSA-ICG NPs had a high accumulation with tumor-to-normal tissue ratio of 36.12±5.12 at 24 h and a long-term retention with more than 7 days in 4T1 tumor-bearing mice, where the tumor and its margin, normal tissue were clearly identified via ICG-based in vivo near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence and photoacoustic dual-modal imaging and spectrum-resolved technology. Meanwhile, HSA-ICG NPs efficiently induced ROS and local hyperthermia simultaneously for synergetic PDT/PTT treatments under a single NIR laser irradiation. After an intravenous injection of HSA-ICG NPs followed by imaging-guided precision phototherapy (808 nm, 0.8 W/cm2 for 5 min), the tumor was completely suppressed, no tumor recurrence and treatments-induced toxicity were observed. The results suggest that HSA-ICG NPs generated by programmed assembly as smart theranostic nanoplatforms are highly potential for imaging-guided cancer phototherapy with PDT/PTT synergistic effects.

  16. Near-infrared fluorescence cholangiography with indocyanine green for biliary atresia. Real-time imaging during the Kasai procedure: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Yutaka; Iinuma, Yasushi; Yokoyama, Naoyuki; Otani, Tetsuya; Masui, Daisuke; Komatsuzaki, Naoko; Higashidate, Naruki; Tsuruhisa, Shiori; Iida, Hisataka; Nakaya, Kengo; Naito, Shinichi; Nitta, Koju; Yagi, Minoru

    2015-12-01

    Hepatoportoenterostomy (HPE) with the Kasai procedure is the treatment of choice for biliary atresia (BA) as the initial surgery. However, the appropriate level of dissection level of the fibrous cone (FC) of the porta hepatis (PH) is frequently unclear, and the procedure sometimes results in unsuccessful outcomes. Recently, indocyanine green near-infrared fluorescence imaging (ICG-FCG) has been developed as a form of real-time cholangiography. We applied this technique in five patients with BA to visualize the biliary flow at the PH intraoperatively. ICG was injected intravenously the day before surgery as the liver function test, and the liver was observed with a near-infrared camera system during the operation while the patient's feces was also observed. In all patients, the whole liver fluoresced diffusely with ICG-containing stagnant bile, whereas no extrahepatic structures fluoresced. The findings of the ICG fluorescence pattern of the PH after dissection of the FC were classified into three types: spotty fluorescence, one patient; diffuse weak fluorescence, three patients; and diffuse strong fluorescence, one patient. In all five patients, the feces evacuated after HPE showed distinct fluorescent spots, although that obtained before surgery showed no fluorescence. One patient with diffuse strong fluorescence who did not achieve JF underwent living related liver transplantation six months after the initial HPE procedure. Four patients, including three cases involving diffuse weak fluorescence and one case involving spotty fluorescence showed weak fluorescence compared to that of the surrounding liver surface. We were able to detect the presence of bile excretion at the time of HPE intraoperatively and successfully evaluated the extent of bile excretion using this new technique. Furthermore, the ICG-FCG findings may provide information leading to a new classification and potentially function as an indicator predicting the clinical outcomes after HPE.

  17. Tailoring through Technology: A Retrospective Review of a Single Surgeon's Experience with Implant-Based Breast Reconstruction before and after Implementation of Laser-Assisted Indocyanine Green Angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harless, Christin A; Jacobson, Steven R

    2016-05-01

    Reported complication rates of implant-based breast reconstruction in the literature exceed 50%, with mastectomy skin flap necrosis reported to occur in up to 25% of cases. Laser-assisted indocyanine green angiography (LA-ICGA) technology allows the surgeon to optimize preservation of the mastectomy skin flap while avoiding skin necrosis. The purpose of this study was to determine if outcomes of breast reconstruction are beneficially affected by using LA-ICGA. A total 269 consecutive women (467 breast reconstructions) undergoing implant-based breast reconstruction from 2008 to 2013 were examined. The complication rates of those who underwent reconstruction prior to the implementation of LA-ICGA were compared with those who were reconstructed after implementation of LA-ICGA. A total of 254 consecutive breast reconstructions were performed prior to implementation of LA-ICGA, and 213 breasts were reconstructed with the use of LA-ICGA. After implementation of LA-ICGA System, the rate of mastectomy skin flap necrosis decreased by 86% (6.7% versus 0.9%, p = 0.02). The overall complication rate prior to LA-ICGA was 13.8% compared with 6.6% with the use of LA-ICGA (p = 0.01). After LA-ICGA was incorporated, the percentage of patients undergoing single-stage reconstruction increased from 12% to 32% (p = <0.001). Implementation of LA-ICGA provides the surgeon with an objective assessment of mastectomy flap perfusion resulting in a trend toward overall reduction in complications as well as an 86% decrease in the rate of subsequent skin necrosis. The objective assessment of mastectomy flap perfusion allows the surgeon to tailor breast reconstruction intraoperatively, in real-time, adjusting for the individual patient's mastectomy flap perfusion. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Effect of isolated hepatic ischemia on organic anion clearance and oxidative metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minard, G; Bynoe, R; Wood, G C; Fabian, T C; Croce, M; Kudsk, K A

    1992-04-01

    Hepatic failure is frequently seen following severe hemorrhagic shock, sepsis, and trauma. Clearance of various drugs has been used to evaluate hepatocellular dysfunction, including indocyanine green (ICG), an organic anionic dye that is transported similarly to bilirubin, and antipyrine (AP), a marker of oxidative phosphorylation. Previous investigators have noted a decrease in ICG excretion following systemic hemorrhage. The effect of isolated hepatic ischemia on the clearances of ICG and AP was studied in 16 pigs after 90 minutes of vascular occlusion to the liver. Antipyrine clearance decreased almost 50% from baseline values at 24 and 72 hours after the ischemia procedure, indicating a significant depression in the cytochrome P-450 system. On the other hand, ICG clearance did not change significantly. In conclusion, ICG clearance is not depressed after isolated hepatic ischemia in pigs. Changes in organic anion clearance after systemic hemorrhage may be because of release of toxic products from ischemic peripheral tissue.

  19. Sentinel Node Mapping Using Indocyanine Green and Near-infrared Fluorescence Imaging Technology for Uterine Malignancies: Preliminary Experience With the Da Vinci Xi System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siesto, Gabriele; Romano, Fabrizio; Fiamengo, Barbara; Vitobello, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping has emerged as the new frontier for the surgical staging of apparently early-stage cervical and endometrial cancer. Different colorimetric and radioactive tracers, alone and in combination, have been proposed with encouraging results. Fluorometric mapping using indocyanine green (ICG) appears to be a suitable and attractive alternative to provide reliable staging [1-4]. In this video, we present the technique of SLN mapping in 2 cases (1 endometrial and 1 cervical cancer, respectively) using ICG and the near-infrared technology provided by the newest Da Vinci Xi robotic system (Intuitive Surgical Inc., Sunnyvale, CA). Together we report the results of our preliminary experience on the first 20 cases performed. The new robotic Da Vinci Xi system was available at our institution since May 2015. Upon institutional review board/ethical committee approval, all consecutive patients with early-stage endometrial and cervical cancer who were judged suitable for robotic surgery have been enrolled for SLN mapping with ICG. We adopted the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center SLN algorithm; the tracer was delivered into the cervix in all cases. Four milliliters (1.25 mg/mL) of ICG was injected divided into the 3- and 9-o'clock positions of the cervix alone, with 1 mL deep into the stroma and 1 mL submucosally at the skin incision. Sentinel lymph nodes were examined with a protocol including both ultrastaging with immunohistochemistry [3] and 1-step nucleic acid amplification assay [5,6] under a parallel protocol of study. During the study period, 20 cases were managed; 14 and 6 patients had endometrial and cervical cancer, respectively. SLN was detected in all cases (20/20, 100%). Bilateral SLNs were detected in 17 of 20 (85.0%) cases. Based on preoperative and intraoperative findings, 13 (65.0%) patients received systematic pelvic lymphadenectomy after SLN mapping. Three (15.0%) patients had microscopic nodal metastases on SLN. No

  20. Complex microcirculation patterns detected by confocal indocyanine green angiography predict time to growth of small choroidal melanocytic tumors: MuSIC Report II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Arthur J; Freeman, William R; Schaller, Ulrich C; Kampik, Anselm; Folberg, Robert

    2002-12-01

    Multiple independent laboratories have confirmed the histologic observation that some tumor microcirculation patterns (MCPs) in uveal melanomas are associated strongly with death resulting from metastatic disease. Because these patterns are imageable with confocal indocyanine green angiography (ICG), we designed a prospective study to evaluate whether these angiographically detectable MCPs predict time to tumor growth. Observational case series, prospective, non-randomized. Ninety-eight patients with unilateral, small, choroidal melanocytic tumors. The following information and tumor characteristics were recorded for each patient: demographic parameters, best-corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure, related visual symptoms, location and dimension of tumor, pigmentation, orange pigment, drusen, tumor-associated hemorrhage, subretinal fluid, and confocal ICG angiographically determined microcirculation patterns-silent (avascularity), normal (preexisting normal choroidal vessels within the tumor), straight vessels, parallel without and with cross-linking, arcs without and with branching, loops, and networks. Time to growth of the tumor, with growth defined as an increase in the maximal apical tumor height of 0.5 mm measured by standardized A-scan ultrasonography, photographic documentation of an increase of the largest basal diameter of at least 1.5 mm, advancement of one tumor border of at least 0.75 mm, or a combination thereof. Twenty-eight of the 98 tumors in this study (29%) met the predetermined criteria for tumor growth. The median time to growth was 127 days (range, 51-625 days). The following tumor characteristics were significantly associated with time to tumor growth: flashes (P = 0.0224), orange pigment (P = 0.012), subretinal fluid (P < 0.001), maximum basal tumor diameter at initial examination (P = 0.015), maximum apical tumor height (P < 0.001), parallel with cross-linking MCP (P < 0.001), arcs with branching MCP (P = 0.006), loops (P < 0

  1. Association between pretreatment retention rate of indocyanine green 15 min after administration and life prognosis in patients with HCC treated by proton beam therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumoto, Masashi; Oshiro, Yoshiko; Okumura, Toshiyuki; Fukuda, Kuniaki; Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi; Abei, Masato; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Ohnishi, Kayoko; Numajiri, Haruko; Tsuboi, Koji; Sakurai, Hideyuki

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The Child-Pugh score is often used to judge the outcome of radiotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The retention rate of indocyanine green 15 min after administration (ICG R15) can also be used to predict prognosis after liver resection. We evaluated the utility of ICG R15 for prediction of outcomes after proton beam therapy (PBT) for HCC. Methods and materials: A retrospective evaluation was performed in 250 patients who received PBT between 2002 and 2007. The patients (178 males and 72 females) had a median age of 71 years (range: 43–88). Child-Pugh categories were A (score 5–6), B (7–9), and C (10–15) in 197, 51, and 2 patients, respectively. ICG scores were 0–<10, 10–<20, 20–<30, 30–<40 and ⩾40 in 27, 99, 59, 28 and 37 patients, respectively; including 26, 92, 45, 16 and 18 Child-Pugh A patients and 1, 8, 14, 11, and 17 Child-Pugh B patients, respectively. Survival times from the start of PBT were compared between Child-Pugh A and B patients, and among each ICG group. Results: The median survival times were 61 months (95% CI: 50–72 months) in all patients, and 64 and 20 months in Child-Pugh A and B patients, respectively (p = 0.001), The 3-year survival rates were 72%, 72%, 75%, 63%, and 26% in patients with ICG scores of 0–<10, 10–<20, 20–<30, 30–<40, and ⩾40 (p = 0.001); 70%, 75%, 77%, 65%, and 38% in these respective groups in Child-Pugh A patients (p = 0.02); and 100%, 57%, 67%, 36%, and 14% in Child-Pugh B patients (p = 0.173, not significant). Multivariate analysis showed that low ICG R15 and the absence of portal vein tumor thrombus were associated with good survival. Conclusions: Pretreatment ICG R15 is a useful prognostic factor for prediction of outcome of PBT in HCC patients, especially in those with Child-Pugh A liver function

  2. Correlation between HBsAg, prothrombin time activity, and indocyanine green retention rate at 15 minutes in patients with HBeAg-positive chronic HBV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAN Wenhai

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the correlation between HBsAg, prothrombin time activity (PTA, and indocyanine green retention rate at 15 minutes (ICG R15 in patients with HBeAg-positive chronic HBV infection. MethodsA total of 92 patients with HBeAg-positive chronic HBV infection who were admitted to The First Hospital of Lanzhou University from December 2015 to April 2016 were enrolled and divided into chronic hepatitis B (CHB group (24 patients, compensated liver cirrhosis group (38 patients, and decompensated liver cirrhosis group (30 patients. Serum HBsAg quantitation, PTA test, and liver reserve function test (ICG R15 were performed for all patients. The chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups, an analysis of variance was used for comparison of continuous data between multiple groups, and a Pearson correlation analysis was also performed. ResultsThere were significant differences between the three groups in serum HBsAg quantitation (3.82±0.43 log10IU/ml vs 2.88±0.36 log10IU/ml vs 2.60±0.27 log10IU/ml, F=25.19, P<0.001, ICG R15 (7.51%±3.10% vs 9.57%±8.18% vs 24.13%±14.28%, F=24.00, P=0.001, and PTA (8100%±1762% vs 83.08%±9.64% vs 62.32%±16.90%, F=13.42, P=0.009. The correlation analysis showed that PTA was negatively correlated with ICG R15 in all three groups (r=-0.948, -0.602, and -0.735, all P<0.01. In the compensated liver cirrhosis group and decompensated liver cirrhosis group, HBsAg was positively correlated with PTA (r=0.410 and 0.473, both P<0.05 and negatively correlated with ICG R15 (r=-0.427 and -0.768, P<0.01. ConclusionIn HBeAg positive patients, there are certain correlations between HBsAg, PTA, and ICG R15, which, to a certain degree, reflects the liver reserve function in patients with chronic HBV infection.

  3. 20 g PPV with indocyanine green-assisted ILM peeling versus 23 g PPV with brilliant blue G-assisted ILM peeling for epiretinal membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manousaridis, Kleanthis; Peter, Silvia; Mennel, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    To compare the anatomical and visual outcomes of 20 gauge (g) pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with indocyanine green (ICG)-assisted internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling and 23 g PPV with brilliant blue G (BBG)-assisted ILM peeling for idiopathic epiretinal membrane (ERM). 38 eyes of 38 patients with idiopathic ERM were included. They were divided in two groups: group 1 (18 eyes) underwent 20 g PPV with ICG-assisted ILM peeling and group 2 (20 eyes) 23 g PPV with BBG-assisted ILM peeling. Postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central macular thickness (CMT) were compared. Average BCVA in group 1 improved significantly from 0.60 logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution (log MAR) at baseline to 0.3 log MAR postoperatively. Average BCVA in group 2 improved significantly from 0.60 log MAR at baseline to 0.3 log MAR postoperatively. Mean CMT reduced significantly from 473 to 375 μm in group 1 and from 486 to 396 μm in group 2. There were no significant differences in the BCVA and CMT between the groups. Both surgical methods appeared to be safe and provided similar anatomical and visual outcomes.

  4. Indocyanine green retention test (ICG-r15) as a noninvasive predictor of portal hypertension in patients with different severity of cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pind, Marie-Louise Lindberg; Bendtsen, Flemming; Kallemose, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Portal hypertension is a severe consequence of chronic liver disease, responsible for the main clinical complications of cirrhosis. Measurement of the hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) provides important clinical information, but the procedure is invasive and demands...... as a noninvasive predictor of portal hypertension. METHODS: A total of 325 patients were studied. During a hemodynamic investigation, the ICG clearance was determined using the constant infusion technique and ICG-r15 was calculated. RESULTS: Assessment of the diagnostic performance of ICG clearance and ICG-r15...... significant results in Child class B (AUROC=0.7448) and Child class C patients (AUROC=0.7392). Only six out of 102 patients in Child class C had HVPG of less than 12 mmHg. CONCLUSION: ICG-r15 can be used as an indirect assessment of significant portal hypertension in compensated cirrhotic patients. ICG-r15...

  5. Hepatic drug clearance following traumatic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, R L; Hassett, J M

    1985-11-01

    Trauma is a complex disease state associated with physiologic changes that have the potential to alter hepatic drug clearance mechanisms. These responses include alterations in hepatic blood flow, reduction in hepatic microsomal activity, reduction in hepatic excretion processes, and changes in protein binding. Hepatic blood flow is influenced by sympathomimetic activity. Both animal and human studies demonstrate an initial reduction and subsequent increase in hepatic blood flow, which coincides with an observed increase and subsequent return to normal in serum catecholamine concentrations. Unfortunately, there are no human studies that address the importance these findings may have to the clearance processes of high intrinsic clearance compounds. Animal studies of trauma indicate that hepatic microsomal activity is depressed during the post-traumatic period. Reduction in the hepatic clearance of antipyrine, a model low intrinsic compound, has also been demonstrated in animal models of trauma. In addition to these effects, hepatic excretion of substances such as indocyanine green and bilirubin have been demonstrated to be impaired in both traumatized animals and humans. Finally, substantial increases in the serum concentration of the binding protein alpha 1-acid glycoprotein occur in trauma patients. This has been reported to be associated with subsequent decreases in the free fraction of lidocaine and quinidine. In addition to changing serum drug concentration/response relationships, the pharmacokinetic behavior of drugs bound to alpha 1-acid glycoprotein should also change. Preliminary observations in our laboratory in a dog model of surgically-induced trauma have shown a reduction in the total clearance of lidocaine and reduction in free lidocaine concentration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Recirculatory modeling in man using Indocyanine green

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reekers, Marije

    2012-01-01

    Titration to effect is the most important action anesthesiologists use to assure adequacy of anesthesia and safeguard their patients from serious side effects. For a proper titration to effect the anesthesiologist takes into consideration the historical response to a given dose to estimate the

  7. Sympathetic ophthalmia - histopathological correlation with fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography: case report Oftalmia simpática - correlação da histopatologia com a angiografia por fluoresceína e indocianina verde: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Marcelo Barbante Casella

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study correlates fluorescein angiography (FA and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA to histopathologic findings in a patient with sympathetic ophtalmia. A male with a perforated trauma in right eye presented after two months a decrease in visual acuity of the left eye. FA and ICGA were performed and the images were correlated with the histopathologic findings of the enucleated eye; FA showed background areas of homogeneous hypofluorescence in the arterial and venous phases, as well as areas of granular progressive hyperfluorescence and leakage from the optic disc. ICGA showed areas of hypofluorescence in the early and intermediate phases of the examination, which persisted until the late phase. During the early phase, there was also diffuse hypofluorescence caused by blockage that allowed observation of areas of partial choroidal circulation. The histopathology of the enucleated right eye showed diffuse choriocapillaris edema and inflammation of the choroids, focal areas of hyperplasia of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE as well as foci of epithelioid cells located between the choroid and the RPE. Furthermore, lymphocytic infiltration of the episcleral veins and retinal detachment were present. The hyperfluorescence observed on FA was correlated to retinal detachment and optic nerve inflammation. The hypofluorescence noted on FA and ICGA corresponded to the presence of blocking inflammatory cells (Dalen-Fuchs-like nodules and to diffuse choriocapillaris edema.O objetivo deste relato de caso foi correlacionar achados da histopatologia com a angiografia por fluoresceína (AF e por indocianina verde (AIV em um paciente com oftalmia simpática. Após dois meses de trauma perfurante no olho direito, o paciente apresentou baixa acuidade visual no olho esquerdo (OE. A AF do OE mostrou áreas de hipofluorescência homogênea na fase arterial e venosa, áreas de progressiva hiperfluorescência granular e vazamento do disco. A AIV mostrou

  8. Fully integrated high-speed intravascular optical coherence tomography/near-infrared fluorescence structural/molecular imaging in vivo using a clinically available near-infrared fluorescence-emitting indocyanine green to detect inflamed lipid-rich atheromata in coronary-sized vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunki; Lee, Min Woo; Cho, Han Saem; Song, Joon Woo; Nam, Hyeong Soo; Oh, Dong Joo; Park, Kyeongsoon; Oh, Wang-Yuhl; Yoo, Hongki; Kim, Jin Won

    2014-08-01

    Lipid-rich inflamed coronary plaques are prone to rupture. The purpose of this study was to assess lipid-rich inflamed plaques in vivo using fully integrated high-speed optical coherence tomography (OCT)/near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) molecular imaging with a Food and Drug Administration-approved indocyanine green (ICG). An integrated high-speed intravascular OCT/NIRF imaging catheter and a dual-modal OCT/NIRF system were constructed based on a clinical OCT platform. For imaging lipid-rich inflamed plaques, the Food and Drug Administration-approved NIRF-emitting ICG (2.25 mg/kg) or saline was injected intravenously into rabbit models with experimental atheromata induced by balloon injury and 12- to 14-week high-cholesterol diets. Twenty minutes after injection, in vivo OCT/NIRF imaging of the infrarenal aorta and iliac arteries was acquired only under contrast flushing through catheter (pullback speed up to ≤20 mm/s). NIRF signals were strongly detected in the OCT-visualized atheromata of the ICG-injected rabbits. The in vivo NIRF target-to-background ratio was significantly larger in the ICG-injected rabbits than in the saline-injected controls (Pfluorescence reflectance imaging, which correlated well with the in vivo target-to-background ratios (Pfluorescence microscopy, and histopathology also corroborated the in vivo imaging findings. Integrated OCT/NIRF structural/molecular imaging with a Food and Drug Administration -approved ICG accurately identified lipid-rich inflamed atheromata in coronary-sized vessels. This highly translatable dual-modal imaging approach could enhance our capabilities to detect high-risk coronary plaques. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Mucociliary clearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Mathias; Mortensen, Jann

    2014-01-01

    Mucociliary clearance has long been known to be a significant innate defence mechanism against inhaled microbes and irritants. Important knowledge has been gathered regarding the anatomy and physiology of this system, and in recent years, extensive studies of the pathophysiology related to lung...... pharmacological interventions on clearance rate, to study the importance of defective mucus clearance in different lung diseases or as a diagnostic tool in the work-up of patients with recurrent airway diseases. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the anatomy, physiology, pathophysiology...

  10. Creatinine clearance test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum creatinine clearance; Kidney function - creatinine clearance; Renal function - creatinine clearance ... Creatinine is a chemical waste product of creatine. Creatine is a chemical the body makes to supply ...

  11. green

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The “green” topic follows the “youngsters”, which is quite natural for the Russian language.Traditionally these words put together sound slightly derogatory. However, “green” also means fresh, new and healthy.For Russia, and for Siberia in particular, “green” architecture does sound new and fresh. Forced by the anxious reality, we are addressing this topic intentionally. The ecological crisis, growing energy prices, water, air and food deficits… Alexander Rappaport, our regular author, writes: “ It has been tolerable until a certain time, but under transition to the global civilization, as the nature is destroyed, and swellings of megapolises expand incredibly fast, the size and the significance of all these problems may grow a hundredfold”.However, for this very severe Siberian reality the newness of “green” architecture may turn out to be well-forgotten old. A traditional Siberian house used to be built on principles of saving and environmental friendliness– one could not survive in Siberia otherwise.Probably, in our turbulent times, it is high time to fasten “green belts”. But we should keep from enthusiastic sticking of popular green labels or repainting of signboards into green color. We should avoid being drowned in paper formalities under “green” slogans. And we should prevent the Earth from turning into the planet “Kin-dza-dza”.

  12. Monomer adsorption of indocyanine green to gold nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerrini, Luca; Hartsuiker, Liesbeth; Manohar, Srirang; Otto, Cornelis

    2011-01-01

    NIR-dye encoded gold nanoparticles (GNP) are rapidly emerging as contrast agents in many bio-imaging/sensing applications. The coding process is usually carried out without control or a clear understanding of the metal–liquid interface properties which, in contrast, are critical in determining the

  13. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... Treatments and Therapies Airway Clearance Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs) There are different ways to clear your airways. ... or caregiver. Older kids and adults can choose ACTs that they can do on their own. Share ...

  14. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... to loosen mucus from airway walls. See how different airway clearance techniques work to help you clear the thick, sticky mucus ... Offer their tips for fitting ACTs into daily life Airway Clearance Techniques | Webcast ... Facebook Twitter ...

  15. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... today. ANNUAL FUND Become a Corporate Supporter Cause Marketing Make a Charitable Gift Our Corporate Supporters Workplace ... Clearance Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs) There are different ways to clear your airways. Most are easy to ...

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    Full Text Available ... D Structure Consortium CFTR Folding Consortium Epithelial Stem Cell Consortium Mucociliary Clearance Consortium SUCCESS WITH THERAPIES RESEARCH ... clapping) or vibration to loosen mucus from airway walls. See how different airway clearance techniques work to ...

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  19. Lung mucociliary clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortensen, J.; Lange, P.; Nyboe, J.; Groth, S.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish reference values for mucociliary clearance and mucociliary clearance reserve capacity as determined by β 2 -adrenergic agonist-induced increase in mucociliary clearance. We studied 62 healthy females (n=33) and males (n=29). Their ages ranged evenly between 18 and 84 years. Fifty-three of the subjects were life-long non-smokers, while nine were ex-smokers. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that mucociliary clearance was significantly faster when the radioaerosol was deposited in the central airways than when it was deposited in the peripheral airways, and faster in life-long non-smokers than in ex-smokers. There was no influence of age, and no convincing association with sex. The variation was less within than between subjects. Mean mucociliary clearance reserve capacity was 21.3% (SD: 10.0%, P 2 agonist-induced increase in lung mucociliary clearance was significantly larger (P<0.05) than the stimulation which has previously been reported in patients with asthma, bronchiectasis or cystic fibrosis. The signal-to-noise ratio of the mucociliary clearance reserve capacity in relation to measurement of baseline mucociliary clearance indicates that measurement of mucociliary clearance reserve capacity may be a more efficient means of distinguishing between ''normal'' and ''abnormal'' mucociliary clearance than single measurement of baseline mucociliary clearance. (orig.)

  20. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... Cell Consortium Mucociliary Clearance Consortium SUCCESS WITH THERAPIES RESEARCH CONSORTIUM Therapeutics Development Network TDN Coordinating Center Study Services Working With the TDN Tools and Resources ...

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  3. Security Clearance Tracking System

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    National Archives and Records Administration — SCTS supports the adjudication process of private background investigations and clearances for potential employees, contractors, interns and student workers.

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  15. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... Clinical Care Guidelines Liver Disease Clinical Care Guidelines Respiratory Care Guidelines CF Airway Clearance Therapies Clinical Care ... attack bacteria. Choose What's Best for You Your respiratory therapist or another member of your CF care ...

  16. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... Clinician Career Development Awards Clinician Training Awards Mutation Analysis Program Network News Network News: June 2018 Network ... for airway clearance. Facebook Twitter Email More Related Content Medications Autogenic Drainage Positive Expiratory Pressure High-Frequency ...

  17. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... decisions about your health care. CF Genetics: The Basics CF Mutations Video Series Find Out More About ... of Breathing Technique Airway Clearance Techniques Autogenic Drainage Basics of Lung Care Chest Physical Therapy Coughing and ...

  18. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 3-D Structure Consortium CFTR Folding Consortium Epithelial Stem Cell Consortium Mucociliary Clearance Consortium SUCCESS WITH THERAPIES RESEARCH ... ACTs involve coughing or huffing . Many of them use percussion (clapping) or vibration to loosen mucus from ...

  19. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... people with cystic fibrosis so that they make smart decisions about CF-related research, treatment, and access ... Facebook Twitter YouTube Instagram Email DONATE Breadcrumb Navigation Home Life With CF Treatments and Therapies Airway Clearance ...

  20. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in part to specialized CF care and a range of treatment options. Airway Clearance Active Cycle of ... a cure for CF and supports a broad range of research initiatives to tackle the disease from ...

  1. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ACTs involve coughing or huffing . Many of them use percussion (clapping) or vibration to loosen mucus from airway walls. See how different airway clearance techniques work to help you clear the thick, sticky mucus ...

  2. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physical Therapy Coughing and Huffing High-Frequency Chest Wall Oscillation Positive Expiratory Pressure Clinical Trials Clinical Trials ... clapping) or vibration to loosen mucus from airway walls. See how different airway clearance techniques work to ...

  3. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... CFTR Modulator Therapies Mucus Thinners Nebulizer Care at Home Vascular Access Devices PICCs and Ports Partnerships for ... Facebook Twitter YouTube Instagram Email DONATE Breadcrumb Navigation Home Life With CF Treatments and Therapies Airway Clearance ...

  4. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... many challenges, including medical, social, and financial. By learning more about how you can manage your disease every day, you can ultimately help find a ... Cycle of Breathing Technique Airway Clearance Techniques Autogenic ...

  5. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cycle of Breathing Technique Airway Clearance Techniques Autogenic Drainage Basics of Lung Care Chest Physical Therapy Coughing ... Facebook Twitter Email More Related Content Medications Autogenic Drainage Positive Expiratory Pressure High-Frequency Chest Wall Oscillation ( ...

  6. Generic clearance values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossio, M.C.; Muniz, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the Generic Clearance Values established for natural and artificial radionuclides with the objective of evaluating their degree of conservatism in views of adopting them into the regulatory body. Generic clearance values for natural radionuclides have been chosen by experts judgments as the optimum boundary between, on one hand, the ubiquitous unmodified soil concentrations and, on the other hand, activity concentrations in ores, mineral sands, industrial residues and wastes. For artificial radionuclides the clearance levels have been derived from the scenarios postulated in the document 'Safety Reports Series Nr 44' of the IAEA considering quantitative exemption criteria. A set of 8 scenarios were postulated covering external, ingestion and inhalation exposure pathways. For each radionuclide, the generic clearance level was derived as the more restrictive value obtained from the scenarios, that is the lowest ratio between the applicable individual dose and the dose per unit activity concentration (Bq/g). The individual dose was calculated by a formula depending on each scenario and pathway, with different parameters, such as exposure time, dosimetric factors, dilution factor, density of the material, geometric factors, etc. It was concluded that the basis and parameters used for the derivation of the generic clearance levels are quite conservative and therefore its the adoption in Argentina has been recommended. It is expected that their implementation will contribute to optimize the regulatory management system. (author)

  7. Generic Clearance Values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossio, M.C.; Muniz, C.C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the Generic Clearance Values established for natural and artificial radionuclides with the objective of evaluating their degree of conservatism in views of adopting them into the regulatory body. Generic clearance values for natural radionuclides have been chosen by experts judgments as the optimum boundary between, on the one hand, the ubiquitous unmodified soil concentrations and, on the other hand, activity concentrations in ores, mineral sands, industrial residues and wastes. For artificial radionuclides the clearance levels have been derived from the scenarios postulated in the document Safety Reports Series 44 of the IAEA considering quantitative exemption criteria. A set of 8 scenarios were postulated covering external, ingestion and inhalation exposure pathways. For each radionuclide, the generic clearance level was derived as the more restrictive value obtained from the scenarios, that is the lowest ratio between the applicable individual dose and the dose per unit activity concentration (Bq/g). The individual dose was calculated by a formula depending on each scenario and pathway, with different parameters, such as exposure time, dosimetric factors, dilution factor, density of the material, geometric factors, etc. It was concluded that the basis and parameters used for the derivation of the generic clearance levels are quite conservative and therefore its the adoption in Argentina has been recommended. It is expected that their implementation will contribute to optimize the regulatory management system. (authors) [es

  8. Study on clearance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Yuko; Miura, Hiroshi; Kawasaki, Satoru

    2011-01-01

    The clearance system is a legal system to release 'the radioactive waste not requiring treatment as radioactive waste' from the regulatory control. JNES supports NISA on approval and confirmation of clearance measurement and judgment developed by the operator. The objective of this study is to establish technical base of the validation method of the clearance measurement for various objects. In reactor facilities, the bulk measurement technique or the statistical sampling measurement technique may be applied to large scale objects or concrete walls. In this study, the criteria of those techniques were examined. In uranium processing facilities, it is important to confirm surface state of the object in case of detecting alpha rays. The result of the examination about the influence of the surface rust in the uranium clearance measurement by the alpha ray measurement showed that the pollution was distributed in rust layer uniformly. This result will be reflected to the revision of the Ministerial Ordinance on Clearance in 2011FY. To develop a manual for unexpected incidents, the response procedure for an unexpected incident was prepared, including a response system. (author)

  9. Solvent effect on indocyanine dyes: A computational approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolino, Chiara A.; Ferrari, Anna M.; Barolo, Claudia; Viscardi, Guido; Caputo, Giuseppe; Coluccia, Salvatore

    2006-01-01

    The solvatochromic behaviour of a series of indocyanine dyes (Dyes I-VIII) was investigated by quantum chemical calculations. The effect of the polymethine chain length and of the indolenine structure has been satisfactorily reproduced by semiempirical Pariser-Parr-Pople (PPP) calculations. The solvatochromism of 3,3,3',3'-tetramethyl-N,N'-diethylindocarbocyanine iodide (Dye I) has been deeply investigated within the ab initio time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) approach. Dye I undergoes non-polar solvation and a linear correlation has been individuated between absorption shifts and refractive index. Computed absorption λ max and oscillator strengths obtained by TD-DFT are in good agreement with the experimental data

  10. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NACFC Carolyn and C Richard Mattingly Leadership in Mental Health Care Award Mary M. Kontos Award NACFC Reflections ... help your infant or child manage their lung health, watch parents of children with CF and a respiratory therapist talk about the different techniques they use for airway clearance. ... Instagram Email Find a Clinical Trial Help us blaze ...

  11. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... how you can help your infant or child manage their lung health, watch parents of children with CF and a respiratory therapist talk about the different techniques they use for airway clearance. Facebook Twitter Email More Related Content Medications Autogenic Drainage ...

  12. Study on clearance system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The clearance system is a legal system to release 'the radioactive waste not requiring treatment as radioactive waste' from the regulatory control. JNES supports Nuclear Regulatory Agency on approval and confirmation of clearance measurement and judgment developed by the operator. The objective of this study is to establish technical base of the validation method of the clearance measurement for various objects. In uranium processing facilities, simulation sources emitting alpha-rays is used in a validity confirmation examination of the measuring equipment. In this study, these sources were examined by measuring alpha and beta spectra to evaluate the applicability and problem of these sources. In addition, the measuring method detecting gamma-rays was examined. This method can be applied to complicated objects. As a part to develop a manual for unexpected incidents in clearance system, a quick method for measurement of Strontium 90 was examined. In addition, the measuring methods for the judgment of the influence of fallout and for NR (Non-Radioactive) confirmation were examined. (author)

  13. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cystic fibrosis. CF CARE CENTER finder We provide funding for and accredit more than 120 care centers ... Community in Health Care Reform Milestones in Health Care Reform How Tax Reform Could Impact People With CF The ... Home Life With CF Treatments and Therapies Airway Clearance ...

  14. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Offer their tips for fitting ACTs into daily life Airway Clearance Techniques | Webcast To learn more about how you can help your infant or child manage their lung health, watch parents of children with CF and a respiratory therapist ...

  15. Isotope determinations of renal clearance equivalent with physiological clearance measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junges, R.

    1983-01-01

    The concept of renal clearance in nuclear medicine describes the tubular secretion and glomerular filtration of a substance being removed from the blood plasma. The concept of clearance as used physiologically is rather wider and includes consideration of the outflow of the substances remained back in the kidneys. The present paper discusses clearance measurements as seen from a thermodynamic point of view, in which isotope clearances become equivalent with the physiological concept of clearance. In addition, it is possible to quantify each single step of the excretory function of each kidney separately. (orig.) [de

  16. Clearance of labelled creatinine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberstadt, P.; Liverant, J.

    1982-01-01

    Creatinine, extensively used in clinical work to evaluate glomerular filtration rate (G.F.R.) has caused controversy. Using simultaneously on dogs a gamma emitting agent measuring G.F.R., creatinine clearance proved to be higher. Aided by quantitative determinations and compartmental analysis fortunately the respective dilution spaces can be calculated. In the majority of these animals creatinine spaces are larger but in some equal to the ones of inulin

  17. Indocyanine green fluorescence angiography during laparoscopic low anterior resection: results of a case-matched study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boni, Luigi; Fingerhut, Abe; Marzorati, Alessandro; Rausei, Stefano; Dionigi, Gianlorenzo; Cassinotti, Elisa

    2017-04-01

    Colorectal anastomoses after anterior resection for cancer carry a high risk of leakage. Different factors might influence the correct healing of anastomosis, but adequate perfusion of the bowel is highlighted as one of the most important elements. Fluorescence angiography (FA) is a new technique that allows the surgeon to perform real-time intraoperative angiography to evaluate the perfusion of the anastomosis and hence, potentially, reduce leak rate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of FA of the bowel on postoperative complications and anastomotic leakage after laparoscopic anterior resection with total mesorectal excision (TME). FA was performed in all patients undergoing laparoscopic anterior resection with TME for cancer followed by colorectal or coloanal anastomosis. Results were compared to a historical controls group of 38 patients previously operated by the same surgeon for the same indication but without the use of FA. From October 2014 to November 2015, 42 patients underwent laparoscopic anterior resection with TME and FA of the bowel. The surgeon subjectively decided to change the planned anastomotic level of the descending colon due to hypoperfused distal segment in two out of 42 patients in the FA group (4.7 %). Anastomotic leakage, confirmed by postoperative CT scan and water-soluble contrast enema, was found in two cases of a historical controls group and none in the FA group. No adverse events (side effects or allergic reaction) related to FA were recorded. All the other postoperative complications were comparable between the two groups. In our experience, ICG FA was safe and effective in low rectal cancer resection, possibly leading to a reduction in the anastomotic leakage rate after TME.

  18. Intra-Operative Indocyanine Green-Videoangiography (ICG-VA) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Fifteen consecutive patients with anterior circulation aneurysms who underwent craniotomy and clipping of the aneurysms were included in this study. Intraoperative ICG-VA was performed in all cases after exposure of the aneurysm and the branches in the vicinity of the aneurysm or the parent vessel before ...

  19. Spectral triangulation molecular contrast optical coherence tomography with indocyanine green as the contrast agent

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Changhuei; McGuckin, Laura E. L.; Simon, John D.; Choma, Michael A.; Applegate, Brian E.; Izatt, Joseph A.

    2004-01-01

    We report a new molecular contrast optical coherence tomography (MCOCT) implementation that profiles the contrast agent distribution in a sample by measuring the agent's spectral differential absorption. The method, spectra triangulation MCOCT, can effectively suppress contributions from spectrally dependent scatterings from the sample without a priori knowledge of the scattering properties. We demonstrate molecular imaging with this new MCOCT modality by mapping the distribution of indocyani...

  20. Enhanced visualization of the bile duct via parallel white light and indocyanine green fluorescence laparoscopic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demos, Stavros G.; Urayama, Shiro

    2014-03-01

    Despite best efforts, bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a major potential complication. Precise detection method of extrahepatic bile duct during laparoscopic procedures would minimize the risk of injury. Towards this goal, we have developed a compact imaging instrumentation designed to enable simultaneous acquisition of conventional white color and NIR fluorescence endoscopic/laparoscopic imaging using ICG as contrast agent. The capabilities of this system, which offers optimized sensitivity and functionality, are demonstrated for the detection of the bile duct in an animal model. This design could also provide a low-cost real-time surgical navigation capability to enhance the efficacy of a variety of other image-guided minimally invasive procedures.

  1. Metaphysical green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    to adapt to urban environment. It explores the potential of Sensation of Green in the city. The paper questions whether the Sensation of Green could introduce a new spectrum of greens, beside the real green. It develops the term of metaphysical green – does green have to be green or can it be only...

  2. Rational customs clearance technology choice

    OpenAIRE

    Shramenko, N.; Andriets, V.

    2008-01-01

    Issues concerning cargo delivery efficiencyincrease by choice of rational customs clearance technology have been considered. Three possible variants of customs clearance andmethods which allow to define the most rational version of cargo delivery in international road communication based on main efficiency criteria for definite distance have been presented.

  3. Green(ing) infrastructure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available the generation of electricity from renewable sources such as wind, water and solar. Grey infrastructure – In the context of storm water management, grey infrastructure can be thought of as the hard, engineered systems to capture and convey runoff..., pumps, and treatment plants.  Green infrastructure reduces energy demand by reducing the need to collect and transport storm water to a suitable discharge location. In addition, green infrastructure such as green roofs, street trees and increased...

  4. Clearance, a powerful tool in optimizing the volume of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blommaert, W.; Teunckens, L.

    1997-01-01

    In the framework its activities in decommissioning nuclear installations, Belgoprocess applies the clearance practice in optimizing the volume of radioactive wastes. The applied clearance methodology is discussed with special emphasis to different types of materials and to the associated measurements. Four practical cases are elaborated, dealing with the decommissioning and decontamination of two small buildings up to green field conditions, the unconditional release of large quantities of slightly contaminated active carbon, the melting and clearance of stainless steel fuel racks and of aluminium heat exchangers. The attention is drawn on practical problems associated with sampling and measurement strategies, in relation to the proposed low limits for unconditional release. (author)

  5. Towards green loyalty: the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisjatmiko, K.

    2018-01-01

    The paper aims to present a comprehensive framework for the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction to green loyalty. The paper also seeks to account explicitly for the differences in green perceived risk, green image, green trust, green satisfaction and green loyalty found among green products customers. Data were obtained from 155 green products customers. Structural equation modeling was used in order to test the proposed hypotheses. The findings show that green image, green trust and green satisfaction has positive effects to green loyalty. But green perceived risk has negative effects to green image, green trust and green satisfaction. However, green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction also seems to be a good device to gain green products customers from competitors. The contributions of the paper are, firstly, a more complete framework of the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction to green loyalty analyses simultaneously. Secondly, the study allows a direct comparison of the difference in green perceived risk, green image, green trust, green satisfaction and green loyalty between green products customers.

  6. Lithium clearance in chronic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Leyssac, P P

    1989-01-01

    1. Lithium clearance measurements were made in 72 patients with chronic nephropathy of different aetiology and moderate to severely reduced renal function. 2. Lithium clearance was strictly correlated with glomerular filtration rate, and there was no suggestion of distal tubular reabsorption...... of lithium or influence of osmotic diuresis. 3. Fractional reabsorption of lithium was reduced in most patients with glomerular filtration rates below 25 ml/min. 4. Calculated fractional distal reabsorption of sodium was reduced in most patients with glomerular filtration rates below 50 ml/min. 5. Lithium...... that lithium clearance may be a measure of the delivery of sodium and water from the renal proximal tubule. With this assumption it was found that adjustment of the sodium excretion in chronic nephropathy initially takes place in the distal parts of the nephron (loop of Henle, distal tubule and collecting duct...

  7. [51Cr]EDTA plasma clearance and endogenous creatinine clearance in advanced renal insufficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svendsen, U.G.; Munck, O.; Czartoryski, A.; Stafanger, G.

    1978-01-01

    Comparison of [ 51 Cr]EDTA plasma clearance corrected for extrarenal elimination with 24 h endogenous creatinine clearance in patients with advanced renal failure showed that the corrected [ 51 Cr]EDTA clearance was lower than creatinine clearance, and thus might be a better approximation to the glomerular filtration rate in uraemic patients. The corrections cannot be used on [ 51 Cr]EDTA clearance values below the mean extrarenal clearance, averaging 3.7 ml/min. (Auth.)

  8. Refrigeration system with clearance seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, N. J.

    1985-01-01

    In a refrigeration system such as a split Stirling system, fluid seals associated with the reciprocating displacer are virtually dragless clearance seals. Movement of the displacer relative to the pressure variations in the working volume of gas is retarded by a discrete braking element. Because it is not necessary that the brake providing any sealing action, the brake can be designed for greater durability and less dependence on ambient and operating temperatures. Similarly, the clearance seal can be formed of elements having low thermal expansion such that the seal is not temperature dependent. In the primary embodiments the braking element is a split friction brake

  9. Inherited Disorders of Bilirubin Clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Naureen; Weinberger, Barry I; Hegyi, Thomas; Aleksunes, Lauren M

    2016-01-01

    Inherited disorders of hyperbilirubinemia may be caused by increased bilirubin production or decreased bilirubin clearance. Reduced hepatic bilirubin clearance can be due to defective 1) unconjugated bilirubin uptake and intrahepatic storage, 2) conjugation of glucuronic acid to bilirubin (e.g. Gilbert syndrome, Crigler-Najjar syndrome, Lucey-Driscoll syndrome, breast milk jaundice), 3) bilirubin excretion into bile (Dubin-Johnson syndrome), or 4) conjugated bilirubin re-uptake (Rotor syndrome). In this review, the molecular mechanisms and clinical manifestations of these conditions are described, as well as current approaches to diagnosis and therapy. PMID:26595536

  10. Relationship between silicon concentration and creatinine clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Y.; Nakai, K.; Itoh, C.; Horikiri, J.; Sera, K.; Sato, M.

    1998-01-01

    Silicon levels in dialysis patients are markedly increasing. Using PIXE we determined the relationship between silicon concentration and creatinine clearance in 30 samples. Urine silicon concentration were significantly correlated to creatinine clearance (p<0.001). And also serum silicon concentration were significantly correlated to creatinine clearance (p<0.0001). (author)

  11. Comparison of the endogenous creatinine clearance, the creatinin clearance calculated without urine collection and the isotope clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohacsi, Gabor; Lang, Jenoe; Csernay, Laszlo; Sonkodi, Sandor; Orvostudomanyi Egyetem, Szeged

    1987-01-01

    Observations are reported relating to the endogenous creatinine clearance, the Tc-99m-EDTA-complex clearance and the creatinine clearance estimated via a selected mathematical formula, with special regard to the problems of renal insufficiency and the nephrotic syndrome. The activity applied was in the range of 3.7-7.4 MBq. It was observed that measurement of the isotope clearance can also be applied to determine the endogeneous creatinine clearance in otherwise less suitable patients. A reliable result is obtained even if the renal function is restricted, but the accuracy of the method may be reduced in nephrotic syndrome cases. (author) 24 refs

  12. Green Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Green tourism is defined as environmentally friendly tourism activities with various focuses and meanings. In a broad term, green tourism is about being an environmentally friendly tourist or providing environmentally friendly tourist services. The green tourism concept would be highly appealing to tourism enterprises and operators owing to increasing governmental pressure to improve environmental performance by adopting effective and tangible environmental management techniques. Green to...

  13. Metaphysical green

    OpenAIRE

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    “Sensation of Green is about the mental process like touching, seeing, hearing, or smelling, resulting from the immediate stimulation of landscape forms, plants, trees, wind and water. Sensation of Green triggers a feeling of scale, cheerfulness, calmness and peace. The spatial performance of Sensation of Green is created by a physical interaction between the language of space and the language of nature” The notion of Sensation of Green was developed through a previous study ‘Learning from th...

  14. Development of the clearance level verification evaluation system. 2. Construction of the clearance data management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Shintaro; Usui, Hideo; Kawagoshi, Hiroshi

    2014-06-01

    Clearance is defined as the removal of radioactive materials or radioactive objects within authorized practices from any further regulatory control by the regulatory body. In Japan, clearance level and a procedure for its verification has been introduced under the Laws and Regulations, and solid clearance wastes inspected by the national authority can be handled and recycled as normal wastes. The most prevalent type of wastes have generated from the dismantling of nuclear facilities, so the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been developing the Clearance Level Verification Evaluation System (CLEVES) as a convenient tool. The Clearance Data Management System (CDMS), which is a part of CLEVES, has been developed to support measurement, evaluation, making and recording documents with clearance level verification. In addition, validation of the evaluation result of the CDMS was carried out by inputting the data of actual clearance activities in the JAEA. Clearance level verification is easily applied by using the CDMS for the clearance activities. (author)

  15. Metaphysical green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    example is a tiny Danish summer house from 1918 . The second example is ‘House before House’ , in Tokyo. The third example is a prefabricated house ‘CHU’ . The analysis evaluates the characteristics of diverse tones of green – from green image to green sensation. The analysis is based on the original...... of Sensation of Green is created by a physical interaction between the language of space and the language of nature” The notion of Sensation of Green was developed through a previous study ‘Learning from the Summer House’ investigating the unique architectural characteristics of the Danish summer houses...... the Sensation of Green? Three existing examples are agents to this discussion. The first example is a Danish summer house. The other two are international urban examples. While the summer house articulates the original meaning of Sensation of Green, the urban examples illustrate its urban context. The first...

  16. 32 CFR 154.16 - Security clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... part. The Director, Washington Headquarters Services (WHS) will initiate the required investigation... clearance, as appropriate. The Assistant Secretary of Defense (Legislative Affairs) will be notified by WHS...

  17. Green Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, Melanie

    2011-05-15

    Green chemistry is the science of chemistry used in a way that will not use or create hazardous substances. Dr. Rui Resendes is working in this field at GreenCentre Canada, an offshoot of PARTEQ Innovations in Kingston, Ontario. GreenCentre's preliminary findings suggest their licensed product {sup S}witchable Solutions{sup ,} featuring 3 classes of solvents and a surfactant, may be useful in bitumen oil sands extraction.

  18. Green roofs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available , beetles and spiders); and the number of birds that nest in vegetated roofs (including kestrels, swallows, and wagtails). Objective The primary objective of a green roof is to create a living habitat in an otherwise barren environment, hence the use... the negative environmental impacts including plant and insect specie loss. Thus at a philosophical level green roofs support the notion “replace what you displace”. Key ecological issues that can be addressed through green roofs include: Negative effects...

  19. Green thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Frank Woolsey, III

    Many people around the world have observed green light apparently emanating from severe thunderstorms, but until recently there has been no scientific study of the phenomenon. Green thunderstorms have been observed from time to time in association with deep convection or severe weather events. Some skeptics who have not personally observed a green thunderstorm suggest that they are some kind of illusion. The existence of green thunderstorms has been objectively demonstrated by recording spectra of light from thunderstorms using a handheld spectrophotometer. During the spring and summer of 1995 and the spring of 1996 numerous storms were observed and spectra of the light emanating from these storms were recorded. Observations were made both at the ground and aboard research aircraft. Furthermore, time series of spectra were recorded as the observed color of some storms changed from dark blue to a bluish-green. Several hypotheses have been advanced to explain the occurrence of green light in connection with severe storms. Fankhauser gave some observational support to the belief that green light from thunderstorms is possible and believed that the source of the light is from the blue sky penetrating thin regions in the clouds. Fraser believes that light from the setting sun, in combination with the process of scattering by atmospheric molecules, creates the green light associated with severe weather and the thunderstorm acts only as a black backdrop. Unfortunately, no cloud illuminated by the sun is black and the green airlight produced by the Fraser theory is in reality overwhelmed by light reflected by the cloud. Often the unusual coloration has been attributed to hail or to reflection of light from foliage on the ground. The quantitative measurements made during the observation period fail to support these assumptions. We have observed thunderstorms to be green over ground that was not green and we have observed blue thunderstorms over ground that was green

  20. Behaviorally Green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass; Reisch, Lucia A.

    2016-01-01

    of suggestion, inertia, and loss aversion. If well-chosen, green defaults are likely to have large effects in reducing the economic and environmental harms associated with various products and activities. Such defaults may or may not be more expensive to consumers. In deciding whether to establish green...

  1. Green Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and cancer. Green tea is consumed as a beverage. It is also sold in liquid extracts, capsules, and tablets and is sometimes used in topical products (intended to be applied to the skin). How Much Do We Know? Although many studies have been done on green tea and its ...

  2. 2015 Annual Report on Security Clearance Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-28

    only have delegated investigative authority over their civilian employee population and therefore, can only report the overall timeliness for that...completed or pending security clearance determinations for government employees and contractors during the preceding fiscal year that have taken longer...Clearance Determinations to Congress. The IAA directs this report to include the number of United States Government (USG) employees who held a

  3. Green consumerism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Groot, Judith I.M.; Schuitema, Geertje; Garson, Carrie Lee

    and biospheric values influence the importance of such ‘green’ product characteristics on purchasing intentions. In two within-subjects full-factorial experimental studies (N = 100 and N = 107), we found that purchase intentions of products were only steered by green characteristics if prices were low...... and the brand was familiar. Green product characteristics did not influence purchase intentions at all when these proself product characteristics were not fulfilled (i.e., high prices and unfamiliar brands). The importance of proself and green product characteristics on purchasing intentions was also......Our presentation will focus on the influence of product characteristics and values on green consumerism. Although generally a majority of consumers support the idea of purchasing green products, we argue, based on social dilemma theory, that proself product characteristics and egoistic...

  4. Green lights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Peter Kielberg

    This study investigates the effect of drought on economic activity globally using remote sensing data. In particular, predicted variation in greenness is correlated with changes in the density of artificial light observed at night on a grid of 0.25 degree latitude-longitude pixels. I define drought...... as greenness estimated by lagged variation in monthly rainfall and temperature. This definition of drought performs well in identifying self-reported drought events since 2000 compared with measures of drought that do not take greenness into account, and the subsequent analysis indicates that predicted...... variation in greenness is positively associated with year-on-year changes in luminosity: If a unit of observation experiences a predicted variation in greenness that lies 1 standard deviation below the global mean, on average 1.5 - 2.5 light pixels out of 900 are extinguished that year. Finally, an attempt...

  5. Clearance of materials from accelerator facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokni Sayed H.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new Technical Standard that supports the clearance of materials and equipment (personal property from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE accelerator facilities has been developed. The Standard focuses on personal property that has the potential to be radiologically impacted by accelerator operations. It addresses material clearance programs and protocols for off-site releases without restriction on use. Common metals with potential volumetric activation are of main interest with technical bases provided in Appendices of the Standard. The clearance protocols in the Standard include three elements: 1 clearance criteria, 2 process knowledge, and 3 measurement methods. This paper presents the technical aspects of the new Standard, discusses operational experience gained in clearance of materials and equipment from several accelerator facilities at SLAC and examples as to how this Standard can be applied to benefit the entirety of the DOE Accelerator Complex.

  6. Fluorescent Imaging With Indocyanine Green During Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy in Patients at Increased Risk of Bile Duct Injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ankersmit, M.; Dam, D.A. van; Rijswijk, A.S. van; Tuynman, J.B.; Meijerink, W.J.H.J.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although rare, injury to the common bile duct (CBD) during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) can be reduced by better intraoperative visualization of the cystic duct (CD) and CBD. The aim of this study was to establish the efficacy of early visualization of the CD and the added value of

  7. Green Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green Engineering is the design, commercialization and use of processes and products that are feasible and economical while reducing the generation of pollution at the source and minimizing the risk to human health and the environment.

  8. Green Roofs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-08-01

    A New Technology Demonstration Publication Green roofs can improve the energy performance of federal buildings, help manage stormwater, reduce airborne emissions, and mitigate the effects of urban heat islands.

  9. Going Green

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is for a general audience and provides information on how to recycle, re-use, and restore. It also covers the benefits of “Going Green" on the environment, health, and social interaction.

  10. Green lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin

    2010-01-01

    Well over a dozen papers at this year's Photonics West meeting in San Francisco boasted improvements in harmonic generation to produce visible laser beams, most of them in the green spectral range......Well over a dozen papers at this year's Photonics West meeting in San Francisco boasted improvements in harmonic generation to produce visible laser beams, most of them in the green spectral range...

  11. Green Nudging

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Nicholas; Eickers, Stephanie; Geene, Leonie; Todorovic, Marijana; Villmow, Annika; Forschungsstelle für Umweltpolitik (FFU), Freie Universität Berlin

    2018-01-01

    Traditional environmental policy instruments have not always proven successful in fostering environmentally friendly behaviour. The question remains: how can policymakers tackle the attitude-behaviour gap when it comes to pro-environmental choices and sustainable lifestyles? One solution that has emerged is green nudging, a new and potentially promising policy tool born of behavioural economics and experimental psychology. This paper contributes to the current discussion surrounding green nud...

  12. Plasma Creatinine Clearance in the Dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Loy W.

    1977-01-01

    Lists materials and methods for an experiment that demonstrates the concept of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using anesthesized dogs. In the dog, GFR is equivalent to the renal plasma clearance of exogenous creatinine. (CS)

  13. Low ground clearance vehicle detection and warning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    A Low Ground Clearance Vehicle Detection : System (LGCVDS) determines if a commercial : motor vehicle can successfully clear a highwayrail : grade crossing and notifies the driver when : his or her vehicle cannot safely traverse the : crossing. That ...

  14. Exclusion, exemption, clearance European Union approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssens, A.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation overviews the following issues: Euratom Basic Safety Standards; administrative requirements; radiation protection of the population. Scope of the Standards: natural radiation sources; exclusion. Exemption; Clearance; Import of radioactive scrap metal

  15. Compressor airfoil tip clearance optimization system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, David A.; Pu, Zhengxiang

    2015-08-18

    A compressor airfoil tip clearance optimization system for reducing a gap between a tip of a compressor airfoil and a radially adjacent component of a turbine engine is disclosed. The turbine engine may include ID and OD flowpath boundaries configured to minimize compressor airfoil tip clearances during turbine engine operation in cooperation with one or more clearance reduction systems that are configured to move the rotor assembly axially to reduce tip clearance. The configurations of the ID and OD flowpath boundaries enhance the effectiveness of the axial movement of the rotor assembly, which includes movement of the ID flowpath boundary. During operation of the turbine engine, the rotor assembly may be moved axially to increase the efficiency of the turbine engine.

  16. Noninvasive determination of individual renal clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanard, J.; Brunois, J.P.; Ruiz, J.C.; Assailly, J.

    1980-01-01

    A noninvasive method for measurement of individual renal clearance is presented, based on analysis of the early rise of the kidneys' time-activity curves after injection of an appropriate tracer ( 131 I-ortho-iodohippurate for tubular function or 111 In DTPA for glomerular clearance). The analysis is based on the assumption that an insignificant amount of tracer leaves the kidney during the first few moments following injection. Therefore, the kidney activity during this period is directly proportional to the integral of the blood (heart) activity. After blood background subtraction, the linear correlation between the early part of the renogram and the corresponding blood integral activity curve allows calculation of an angular coefficient. The ratio of these coefficients calculated for each kidney is proportional to the ratio of the individual clearances. The latter are calculated from the total clearance simultaneously measured using a simplified method without urine collection. In control subjects with normal renal function individual renal clearances were not significantly different. In uninephrectomized patients a precision of 5% in calculating individual clearance was estimated from data recorded at the level of the remaining kidney. In patients with functional asymmetry, results were compared with 197 HgCl 2 quantitative renal fixation. A linear correlation was found (r = 0.95). The method we propose seems valuable for clinical investigation and allows sequential measurements. (orig.)

  17. Green banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Drobnjaković

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to march towards “low - carbon economy”. Global challenges of diminishing fossil fuel reserves, climate change, environmental management and finite natural resources serving an expanding world population - these reasons mean that urgent action is required to transition to solutions which minimize environmental impact and are sustainable. We are at the start of the low - carbon revolution and those that have started on their low - carbon journey already are seeing benefits such as new markets and customers, improved economic, social and environmental performance, and reduced bills and risks. Green investment banks offer alternative financial services: green car loans, energy efficiency mortgages, alternative energy venture capital, eco - savings deposits and green credit cards. These items represent innovative financial products.

  18. Green times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasenclever, W.D.; Hasenclever, C.

    1982-01-01

    The authors, founding members of the ''Green Party'' have in mind to make a very personal contribution to a better understanding of the present political situation which, although it seems to have reached a deadlock, still offers positive chances and prospects. New approaches in policy are mentioned which may help to overcome the present state of resignation of many adolescents and adults. Among other things, they describe themselves setting out for new pathways, the ''Greens'' in Parliament, prospect for the future, opportunities of the ecologically oriented economic policy. Finally, they call upon the reader to think and develop further under the motto ''What we all can do''. (HSCH) [de

  19. Going Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowsky, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Going green saves money and can even make money. Sustainable practices promote better health, less absenteeism, and more productivity. They also attract students, who are paying increasing attention to schools' environmental policies. Beyond being the smart thing to do, administrators at the University of Washington say repeatedly, it's the right…

  20. Buying Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layng, T. V. Joe

    2010-01-01

    In "Buying Green," Joe Layng recognizes that, like all choices we make, our decisions as consumers are more likely to be influenced by their short-term consequences for us as individuals (price, quality) than they are by their long-term consequences for society (environmental impact). He believes that the equation can be tilted in favor of greener…

  1. Green pioneers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueland, Jennifer

    The government has set tough targets for the NHS in England to reduce its carbon footprint. In this article, nurses and managers at Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust explain how a programme of 'greening' initiatives - including a trial of electric cars for community staff - have slashed the trust's CO2 output.

  2. Automatically Green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Reisch, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    reasons include the power of suggestion; inertia and procrastination; and loss aversion. If well-chosen, green defaults are likely to have large effects in reducing the economic and environmental harms associated with various products and activities. Such defaults may or may not be more expensive...

  3. Automatically Green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Reisch, Lucia

    reasons include the power of suggestion; inertia and procrastination; and loss aversion. If well-chosen, green defaults are likely to have large effects in reducing the economic and environmental harms associated with various products and activities. Such defaults may or may not be more expensive...

  4. Going Green

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-04-18

    This podcast is for a general audience and provides information on how to recycle, re-use, and restore. It also covers the benefits of “Going Green" on the environment, health, and social interaction.  Created: 4/18/2008 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH), ATSDR.   Date Released: 5/8/2008.

  5. Recent activities on clearance in IAEA and clearance automatic laser inspection system (CLALIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Takatoshi; Sasaki, Michiya

    2005-01-01

    Exemption levels for bulk amounts of materials have been described in RS-G-1.7 published as a safety guide in IAEA on August 2004. In Japan, the Nuclear Safety Commission adopted the RS-G-1.7 values as Japanese clearance levels after the careful review of dose assessment results. After completing revises of regulatory laws in relation to clearance level, solid wastes from decommissioning and operating nuclear power plants will be targets of clearance inspection. In CRIEPI, Clearance Automatic Laser Inspection System (CLALIS) has been developed, which can give high reliability and objectivity to the measurement data. The CLALIS is a new monitoring system coupling with 3D laser shape measurement, Monte-Carlo calculation and gamma measurement techniques, which can keep a high accuracy in the measurement data using an automatic correction technique for self-shielding effects of metal waste itself and is expected to apply as a practical use in actual clearance inspections. (author)

  6. Centrifugal compressor tip clearance and impeller flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaatinen-Varri, Ahti; Tiainen, Jonna; Turunen-Saaresti, Teemu; Gronman, Aki; Ameli, Alireza; Backman, Jari [Laboratory of Fluid Dynamics, LUT School of Energy Systems, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Lappeenranta (Finland); Engeda, Abraham [Turbomachinery Laboratory, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Compressors consume a considerable portion of the electricity used in the industrial sector. Hence, improvements in compressor efficiency lead to energy savings and reduce environmental impacts. The efficiency of an unshrouded centrifugal compressor suffers from leakage flow over the blade tips. The effect of tip leakage flow on the passage flow differs between the full and splitter blade passages. In this study, the differences in the flow fields between the full and splitter blade passages were studied numerically in detail. An industrial high-speed compressor with a design pressure ratio of 1.78 was modelled. Numerical studies were conducted with six different tip clearances and three different diffuser widths. The results show that increasing tip clearance considerably increases the reversed flow into the impeller with an unpinched diffuser. The reversed flow then partly mixes into the flow in the same blade passage it entered the impeller and the rest migrates over the blade, mixing with the tip clearance flow. Furthermore, as the reversed and clearance flow mix into the wake, the wake is weakened. As pinch reduces both the reversed flow and clearance flow, the passage wakes are stronger with pinches. However, the pinch is beneficial as the losses at the impeller outlet decrease.

  7. Centrifugal compressor tip clearance and impeller flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaatinen-Varri, Ahti; Tiainen, Jonna; Turunen-Saaresti, Teemu; Gronman, Aki; Ameli, Alireza; Backman, Jari; Engeda, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Compressors consume a considerable portion of the electricity used in the industrial sector. Hence, improvements in compressor efficiency lead to energy savings and reduce environmental impacts. The efficiency of an unshrouded centrifugal compressor suffers from leakage flow over the blade tips. The effect of tip leakage flow on the passage flow differs between the full and splitter blade passages. In this study, the differences in the flow fields between the full and splitter blade passages were studied numerically in detail. An industrial high-speed compressor with a design pressure ratio of 1.78 was modelled. Numerical studies were conducted with six different tip clearances and three different diffuser widths. The results show that increasing tip clearance considerably increases the reversed flow into the impeller with an unpinched diffuser. The reversed flow then partly mixes into the flow in the same blade passage it entered the impeller and the rest migrates over the blade, mixing with the tip clearance flow. Furthermore, as the reversed and clearance flow mix into the wake, the wake is weakened. As pinch reduces both the reversed flow and clearance flow, the passage wakes are stronger with pinches. However, the pinch is beneficial as the losses at the impeller outlet decrease

  8. Clearance Laboratory - Capability and measurement sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedemann Jensen, P.; Lauridsen, B.; Silva, J.; Soegaard-Hansen, J.; Warming, L.

    2005-09-01

    A new low-level Clearance Laboratory has been built at the Risoe-site. Building materials with a low content of naturally occurring radionuclides have been used. To minimize transport of radon gas from soil into the laboratory the foundation has been supplied with a membrane. The laboratory has been equipped with two high-efficiency germanium detectors. These detectors will be used for clearance measurements on the predicted amount of 15,000 - 18,000 tonnes of non-active or nearly non-active materials, which will originate from the decommissioning of all the nuclear facilities at the Risoe-site. They will be used also for clearance measurements on buildings and land. Objects and materials to be measured for clearance are placed on a rotation table that can carry up to one tonne and can rotate once a minute to simulate some averaging of inhomogeneously distributed activity. Sensitivity and background measurements reveal that measuring times of 20 - 50 minutes would normally be sufficient to detect radionuclide concentrations of only a small fraction of the nuclide-specific clearance levels with a sufficiently low uncertainty. Probability calculations of the measurement capacity of the Clearance Laboratory indicate that the mean value of the total measuring time for all materials that potentially can be cleared would be 13 years with a 95% probability of being less than 25 years. The mean value of the annual amount of materials that can be measured in the laboratory is 600 tonnes with a 95% probability of being less than 1,200 tonnes. If needed, there is room for additional measuring systems to increase the capacity of the laboratory. (au)

  9. Clearance Laboratory - Capability and measurement sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedemann Jensen, P.; Lauridsen, B.; Silva, J.; Soegaard-Hansen, J.; Warming, L.

    2005-08-01

    A new low-level Clearance Laboratory has been built at the Risoe-site. Building materials with a low content of naturally occurring radionuclides have been used. To minimize transport of radon gas from soil into the laboratory the foundation has been supplied with a membrane. The laboratory has been equipped with two high-efficiency germanium detectors. These detectors will be used for clearance measurements on the predicted amount of 15,000 - 18,000 tonnes of non-active or nearly non-active materials, which will originate from the decommissioning of all the nuclear facilities at the Risoe-site. They will be used also for clearance measurements on buildings and land. Objects and materials to be measured for clearance are placed on a rotation table that can carry up to one tonne and can rotate once a minute to simulate some averaging of inhomogeneously distributed activity. Sensitivity and background measurements reveal that measuring times of 20 - 50 minutes would normally be sufficient to detect radionuclide concentrations of only a small fraction of the nuclide-specific clearance levels with a sufficiently low uncertainty. Probability calculations of the measurement capacity of the Clearance Laboratory indicate that the mean value of the total measuring time for all materials that potentially can be cleared would be 13 years with a 95% probability of being less than 25 years. The mean value of the annual amount of materials that can be measured in the laboratory is 600 tonnes with a 95% probability of being less than 1,200 tonnes. If needed, there is room for additional measuring systems to increase the capacity of the laboratory. (au)

  10. Pengaruh Green Marketing Hotel Terhadap Green Consumer Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Yo Fernandez, Eunike Christe; Tjoanda, Evelyn

    2017-01-01

    Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh dari green marketing hotel terhadap green consumer behavior. Green marketing memiliki 3 dimensi, yaitu green product, green price, dan green promotion. Penelitian ini melibatkan 272 responden masyarakat Surabaya dan menggunakan metode regresi linear berganda. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa green product dan green price berpengaruh secara positif dan signifikan sedangkan green promotion berpengaruh namun tidak signifikan terhadap green con...

  11. Tear clearance implications for ocular surface health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paiva, Cintia Sade; Pflugfelder, Stephen C

    2004-03-01

    Tear clearance/turnover provides a global assessment of the function of the lacrimal functional unit and of tear exchange on the ocular surface. It is an indirect measure of dry eye induced inflammation on the ocular surface. It shows better correlation with the severity of ocular irritation symptoms and corneal epithelial disease in dry eye than the Schirmer 1 test. Delayed tear clearance may prove to be the best measure for identifying patients with tear film disorders who may respond to anti-inflammatory therapy.

  12. Green Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Shalini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Green computing is all about using computers in a smarter and eco-friendly way. It is the environmentally responsible use of computers and related resources which includes the implementation of energy-efficient central processing units, servers and peripherals as well as reduced resource consumption and proper disposal of electronic waste .Computers certainly make up a large part of many people lives and traditionally are extremely damaging to the environment. Manufacturers of computer and its parts have been espousing the green cause to help protect environment from computers and electronic waste in any way.Research continues into key areas such as making the use of computers as energy-efficient as Possible, and designing algorithms and systems for efficiency-related computer technologies.

  13. Green toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maertens, Alexandra; Anastas, Nicholas; Spencer, Pamela J; Stephens, Martin; Goldberg, Alan; Hartung, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Historically, early identification and characterization of adverse effects of industrial chemicals was difficult because conventional toxicological test methods did not meet R&D needs for rapid, relatively inexpensive methods amenable to small amounts of test material. The pharmaceutical industry now front-loads toxicity testing, using in silico, in vitro, and less demanding animal tests at earlier stages of product development to identify and anticipate undesirable toxicological effects and optimize product development. The Green Chemistry movement embraces similar ideas for development of less toxic products, safer processes, and less waste and exposure. Further, the concept of benign design suggests ways to consider possible toxicities before the actual synthesis and to apply some structure/activity rules (SAR) and in silico methods. This requires not only scientific development but also a change in corporate culture in which synthetic chemists work with toxicologists. An emerging discipline called Green Toxicology (Anastas, 2012) provides a framework for integrating the principles of toxicology into the enterprise of designing safer chemicals, thereby minimizing potential toxicity as early in production as possible. Green Toxicology`s novel utility lies in driving innovation by moving safety considerations to the earliest stage in a chemical`s lifecycle, i.e., to molecular design. In principle, this field is no different than other subdisciplines of toxicology that endeavor to focus on a specific area - for example, clinical, environmental or forensic toxicology. We use the same principles and tools to evaluate an existing substance or to design a new one. The unique emphasis is in using 21st century toxicology tools as a preventative strategy to "design out" undesired human health and environmental effects, thereby increasing the likelihood of launching a successful, sustainable product. Starting with the formation of a steering group and a series of workshops

  14. Green Gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salamandra Martinez, Carlos

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to offer a general panoramic of the processes or experiences pilot that are carried out in the Project Green Gold, as strategy of environmental sustainability and organizational invigoration in Choco, especially in the 12 communities of the municipalities of Tado and Condoto. It is also sought to offer a minimum of information on the techniques of handmade production and to show the possibilities to carry out in a rational way the use and use of the natural resources. The Project Green Gold is carried out by the Corporation Green Gold (COV) and co-financed with resources of international and national character, the intervention of the financial resources it achievement mainly for the use of clean processes in the extraction stages and metals benefit. The project is centered primarily in the absence of use of products or toxic substances as the mercury, fair trade, organizational invigoration, execution of 11 approaches and certification of the metals Gold and Platinum. The COV, it has come executing the proposal from the year 2001 with the premise of contributing to the balance between the rational exploitation of the natural resources and the conservation of the environment in the Choco. In the project they are used technical handmade characteristic of the region framed inside the mining activity and production activities are diversified in the productive family units. Those producing with the support of entities of juridical character, specify the necessary game rules for the extraction and products commercialization

  15. Greens of the European Green Capitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cömertler, Seval

    2017-10-01

    Well established and maintained green areas have a key role on reaching the high quality of life and sustainability in urban environments. Therefore, green areas must be carefully accounted and evaluated in the urban planning affairs. In this context, the European Green Capitals, which attach a great importance to the green areas, have a great potential to act as a role model for both small and big cities in all around the world. These leading cities (chronologically, Stockholm, Hamburg, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Nantes, Copenhagen, Bristol, Ljubljana, Essen and Nijmegen) are inspiring for the other cities which seek to achieve more sustainable and environmentally friendly places through green areas. From this point of view, the aim of this paper was to investigate the green areas of the European Green Capitals. The paper covered whole European Green Capitals, and the application form of each Green Capital was used as a primary data source. Consequently, the paper put forwarded that the European Green Capitals have considerably large amount and high proportion of green areas. Further, these cities provide an excellent access to the public green areas. As a result of abundant provision and proper distribution, the almost all citizens in most of the Green Capitals live within a distance of 300 meters to a green area. For further researches, the paper suggested that these green capitals should be investigated in terms of their efforts, measures, goals and plans, policies and implications to administer, to protect, to enhance and to expand the green areas.

  16. Aspects of supervision of the clearance of nuclear fuel production sites in the Hanau area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hummel, L.; Ibach, T.M.; Lehmann, K.-H.

    2002-01-01

    Five nuclear fuel production facilities in the Hanau area are shut down and have to be dismantled. The activities and the licenses for these activities are carried out and issued step by step. In charge of the licensing authorities, TUeV Sueddeutschland evaluated clearance limits as far as they were not given by law and carried out the on-site supervision. This includes independent measurements, the control of a safe clearance strategy and the solution of the specific problems that arise by the characteristics of nuclear fuel. These problems were solved, mainly by specific gamma spectrometric measuring and evaluation techniques, such as adapted in situ spectrometry and a conveyor belt device. At the end of this process is a green field or a site with buildings which can be re-used for purposes not subject to the atomic law. (author)

  17. Frequency of stone clearance after extracorporeal shockwave ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the rate of stone clearance after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) for renal stones in adult patients with renal insufficiency. Subjects and methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study of 117 adult patients who underwent ESWL. The indications for ESWL were determined by the ...

  18. Bromsulphalein (BSP) clearance in ageing rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, C.F.; Leeuw-Israel, F.R. de; Arp-Neefjes, J.M.

    1968-01-01

    Liver function in ageing rats was studied, using the bromsulphalein (BSP) clearance test. The test was done on ultramicro scale. This made it possible to repeat the test several times in the same animal and to start a longitudinal study. In 3-month-old rats the BSP retentions, measured 15, 30 and 45

  19. DOD PERSONNEL CLEARANCES: Additional OMB Actions Are Needed to Improve the Security Clearance Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2006-01-01

    Our independent analysis of timeliness data showed that industry personnel contracted to work for the federal government waited more than one year on average to receive top secret clearances, longer...

  20. 19 CFR 122.26 - Entry and clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Private Aircraft § 122.26 Entry and clearance. Private aircraft, as defined... information as set forth in § 122.22(c), and grants electronic clearance via electronic mail or telephone...

  1. Diminished creatinine clearance in anorexia nervosa: reversal with weight gain.

    OpenAIRE

    Boag, F; Weerakoon, J; Ginsburg, J; Havard, C W; Dandona, P

    1985-01-01

    To assess whether patients with anorexia nervosa have abnormalities in creatinine clearance, we measured plasma creatinine concentration, urinary creatinine excretion, and creatinine clearance in 10 patients with anorexia nervosa before and during treatment. Urinary creatinine excretion and creatinine clearance were diminished in all patients. Nine patients had significant decreases in their plasma creatinine and creatinine clearance was increased even when corrected for body weight and body ...

  2. Green Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patten, John

    2013-12-31

    Green Manufacturing Initiative (GMI): The initiative provides a conduit between the university and industry to facilitate cooperative research programs of mutual interest to support green (sustainable) goals and efforts. In addition to the operational savings that greener practices can bring, emerging market demands and governmental regulations are making the move to sustainable manufacturing a necessity for success. The funding supports collaborative activities among universities such as the University of Michigan, Michigan State University and Purdue University and among 40 companies to enhance economic and workforce development and provide the potential of technology transfer. WMU participants in the GMI activities included 20 faculty, over 25 students and many staff from across the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences; the College of Arts and Sciences' departments of Chemistry, Physics, Biology and Geology; the College of Business; the Environmental Research Institute; and the Environmental Studies Program. Many outside organizations also contribute to the GMI's success, including Southwest Michigan First; The Right Place of Grand Rapids, MI; Michigan Department of Environmental Quality; the Michigan Department of Energy, Labor and Economic Growth; and the Michigan Manufacturers Technical Center.

  3. Green chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, John C.; Cannon, Amy S.; Dye, Kevin M.

    2004-01-01

    A grand challenge facing government, industry, and academia in the relationship of our technological society to the environment is reinventing the use of materials. To address this challenge, collaboration from an interdisciplinary group of stakeholders will be necessary. Traditionally, the approach to risk management of materials and chemicals has been through inerventions intended to reduce exposure to materials that are hazardous to health and the environment. In 1990, the Pollution Prevention Act encouraged a new tact-elimination of hazards at the source. An emerging approach to this grand challenge seeks to embed the diverse set of environmental perspectives and interests in the everyday practice of the people most responsible for using and creating new materials--chemists. The approach, which has come to be known as Green Chemistry, intends to eliminate intrinsic hazard itself, rather than focusing on reducing risk by minimizing exposure. This chapter addresses the representation of downstream environmental stakeholder interests in the upstream everyday practice that is reinventing chemistry and its material inputs, products, and waste as described in the '12 Principles of Green Chemistry'

  4. Green urbanity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Fikfak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism and other culture-based types of small business, which are the leitmotif in the planning of the Europark Ruardi, are becoming the guiding motif in the spatial development of urban centres that are influenced by dynamic transformation processes. The system should build upon the exploitation of both local and regional environmental features. This would encourage the quest for special environmental features, with an emphasis on their conservation, i.e. sustainable development, and connections in a wider context.The Europark is seen as a new strategic point of the Zasavje Region (the region of the central Sava Valley, which is linked to other important points in a region relevant for tourism. Due to the "smallness" of the region and/or the proximity of such points, development can be fast and effective. The interaction of different activities in space yields endless opportunities for users, who choose their own goals and priorities in the use of space. Four theme areas of the Europark area planning are envisaged. The organisation of activities is based on the composition of the mosaic field patterns, where green fields intertwine with areas of different, existing and new, urban functions. The fields of urban and recreation programmes are connected with a network of green areas and walking trails, along which theme park settings are arranged.

  5. Green shipping management

    CERN Document Server

    Lun, Y H Venus; Wong, Christina W Y; Cheng, T C E

    2016-01-01

    This book presents theory-driven discussion on the link between implementing green shipping practices (GSP) and shipping firm performance. It examines the shipping industry’s challenge of supporting economic growth while enhancing environmental performance. Consisting of nine chapters, the book covers topics such as the conceptualization of green shipping practices (GSPs), measurement scales for evaluating GSP implementation, greening capability, greening and performance relativity (GPR), green management practice, green shipping network, greening capacity, and greening propensity. In view of the increasing quest for environment protection in the shipping sector, this book provides a good reference for firms to understand and evaluate their capability in carrying out green operations on their shipping activities.

  6. From green architecture to architectural green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    that describes the architectural exclusivity of this particular architecture genre. The adjective green expresses architectural qualities differentiating green architecture from none-green architecture. Currently, adding trees and vegetation to the building’s facade is the main architectural characteristics...... they have overshadowed the architectural potential of green architecture. The paper questions how a green space should perform, look like and function. Two examples are chosen to demonstrate thorough integrations between green and space. The examples are public buildings categorized as pavilions. One......The paper investigates the topic of green architecture from an architectural point of view and not an energy point of view. The purpose of the paper is to establish a debate about the architectural language and spatial characteristics of green architecture. In this light, green becomes an adjective...

  7. 48 CFR 801.602-76 - Business clearance review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Business clearance review... GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career Development, Contracting Authority, and Responsibilities 801.602-76 Business clearance review. (a) A business clearance review is a...

  8. 7 CFR 1927.55 - Title clearance services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS TITLE CLEARANCE AND LOAN CLOSING Real Estate Title Clearance and Loan Closing § 1927.55 Title clearance services. (a) Responsibilities of closing agents. Services to be provided to the agency and the borrower by a closing agent in connection with the transaction vary depending on whether a title insurance...

  9. 48 CFR 2452.237-75 - Clearance of contractor personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Clearance of contractor... Clauses 2452.237-75 Clearance of contractor personnel. As prescribed in 2437.110(e), insert the following clause in solicitations and contracts. Clearance of Contractor Personnel (OCT 1999) (a) General. This...

  10. 14 CFR 1260.63 - Customs clearance and visas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Customs clearance and visas. 1260.63 Section 1260.63 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Special Conditions § 1260.63 Customs clearance and visas. Customs Clearance and Visas (For...

  11. CO2 clearance by membrane lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liqun; Kaesler, Andreas; Fernando, Piyumindri; Thompson, Alex J; Toomasian, John M; Bartlett, Robert H

    2018-05-01

    Commercial membrane lungs are designed to transfer a specific amount of oxygen per unit of venous blood flow. Membrane lungs are much more efficient at removing CO 2 than adding oxygen, but the range of CO 2 transfer is rarely reported. Commercial membrane lungs were studied with the goal of evaluating CO 2 removal capacity. CO 2 removal was measured in 4 commercial membrane lungs under standardized conditions. CO 2 clearance can be greater than 4 times that of oxygen at a given blood flow when the gas to blood flow ratio is elevated to 4:1 or 8:1. The CO 2 clearance was less dependent on surface area and configuration than oxygen transfer. Any ECMO system can be used for selective CO 2 removal.

  12. Clearance Kinetics and Clearance Routes of Molecules From the Suprachoroidal Space After Microneedle Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Bryce; Wang, Ke; Ethier, C Ross; Prausnitz, Mark R

    2017-01-01

    To determine clearance kinetics and routes of clearance of molecules from the suprachoroidal space (SCS) of live New Zealand White rabbits. Suprachoroidal space collapse rate and pressure changes after microneedle injection into SCS were determined. Fluorescent fundus images were acquired to determine clearance rates of molecules ranging in size from 332 Da to 2 MDa. Microneedle injections of fluorescein were performed, and samples were taken from various sites over time to determine amount of fluorescein exiting the eye. Clearance transport was modeled theoretically and compared with experimental data. After injection, pressures in SCS and vitreous humor spiked and returned to baseline within 20 minutes; there was no difference between these two pressures. Suprachoroidal space collapse occurred within 40 minutes. One hour after fluorescein injection, 46% of fluorescein was still present in the eye, 15% had transported across sclera, 6% had been cleared by choroidal vasculature, and 4% had exited via leakage pathways. Characteristic clearance time increased in proportion with molecular radius, but total clearance of 2 MDa FITC-dextran was significantly slower (21 days) than smaller molecules. These data generally agreed with predictions from a theoretical model of molecular transport. Guided by experimental data in the context of model predictions, molecular clearance from SCS occurred in three regimes: (1) on a time scale of approximately 10 minutes, fluid and molecules exited SCS by diffusion into sclera and choroid, and by pressure-driven reflux via transscleral leakage sites; (2) in approximately 1 hour, molecules cleared from choroid by blood flow; and (3) in 1 to 10 hours, molecules cleared from sclera by diffusion and convection.

  13. Green business will remain green

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcan, P.

    2008-01-01

    It all started with two words. Climate change. The carbon dioxide trading scheme, which was the politicians' idea on solving the number one global problem, followed. Four years ago, when the project was begun, there was no data for project initiation. Quotas for polluters mainly from energy production and other energy demanding industries were distributed based on spreadsheets, maximum output and expected future development of economies. Slovak companies have had a chance to profit from these arrangements since 2005. Many of them took advantage of the situation and turned the excessive quotas into an extraordinary profit which often reached hundreds of million Sk. The fact that the price of free quotas offered for sale dropped basically to 0 in 2006 only proved that the initial distribution was too generous. And the market reacted to the first official measurements of emissions. Slovak companies also contributed to this development. However, when planning the maximum emission volumes for 2008-2012 period, in spite of the fact that actual data were available, their expectations were not realistic. A glance at the figures in the proposal of the Ministry of Environment is sufficient to realize that there will be no major change in the future. And so for many Slovak companies business with a green future will remain green for the next five years. The state decided to give to selected companies even more free space as far as emissions are concerned. The most privileged companies can expect quotas increased by tens of percent. (author)

  14. Pipeline dynamics subject to restraints with clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loula, A.F.D.; Guerreiro, J.N.C.

    1980-12-01

    The principle of virtual works at its incremental form, is utilized for the formulation of flat pipeline vibration problems, of elastic-plastic behavior, submitted to restraints with clearance (also with elastic-plastic behavior) and with viscous damping. The possibility of uniform movement of the support, that simulates the seismic action is also considered. The finite element method and an integration time algorithm, are utilized for the problem resolution. Some examples ilustrate the application of the development program. (Author) [pt

  15. Tip Clearance Control Using Plasma Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    Clearance Control Using Plasma Actuators 4 posed by Denton (1993). A number of investigators have used partial shrouds, or " winglet " designs to...SDBD actuator Plasma enhanced aerodynamics has been demonstrated in a range of applications involving sepa- ration control, lift enhancement, drag... aerodynamic benefits of a squealer tip geometry. Specifically, the squealer tip is known to reduce the discharge coefficient of the tip gap, thereby

  16. Green Power Partner Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA Green Power Partners can access tools and resources to help promote their green power commitments. Partners use these tools to communicate the benefits of their green power use to their customers, stakeholders, and the general public.

  17. Green Vehicle Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... label Buy green. Save green. Learn about MPG math Discover fuel-saving tips Promote green ... U.S. consumers who have already purchased new vehicles under the fuel economy & greenhouse gas standard! More about the standards » Check ...

  18. Green Transformational Leadership and Green Performance: The Mediation Effects of Green Mindfulness and Green Self-Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Chen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available No prior literature explores the influence of green transformational leadership on green performance, thus, this study develops a novel research framework to fill the research gap. This study investigates the influence of green transformational leadership on green performance and discusses the mediation effects of green mindfulness and green self-efficacy by means of structural equation modeling (SEM. The results indicate that green transformational leadership positively influences green mindfulness, green self-efficacy, and green performance. Moreover, this study demonstrates that the positive relationship between green transformational leadership and green performance is partially mediated by the two mediators: green mindfulness and green self-efficacy. It means that green transformational leadership can not only directly affect green performance positively but also indirectly affect it positively through green mindfulness and green self-efficacy. Therefore, firms need to raise their green transformational leadership, green mindfulness, and green self-efficacy to increase their green performance.

  19. Clearance level and industrial waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Toichi

    1999-01-01

    Defining the clearance level enables the radioactive waste with lower radioactivity than a certain level to be the general industrial waste and therefore consideration for public acceptance is essential. For this, it is necessary to understand laws concerning not only atomic power and radioactivity but also disposal and cleaning of general waste. It is also necessary that the waste below the clearance level should be as much as possible handled in the modern common concept of recycling of resources. In 1996, the weight of industrial waste was about 400 million tons, of which 40% was disposed by burning and dehydration, 39% was re-used and 21% was subjected to the final disposal like reclamation. Reduction, re-use and recycling of the generated waste are required for making the society with recycling of resources. Scrap concrete materials below the clearance level of 0.6 million tons are estimated to be generated by dismantling the light water reactor of 1 million kW output and profitable technology for recycling the scrap is under investigation. (K.H.)

  20. Establishing exemption and clearance criteria by the regulatory authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salih, A.E.A.

    2012-04-01

    This Project work discusses the relationship between the concepts of exemption and clearance, and their practical use in the overall scheme of regulatory control of practices. It also discusses how exemptions and clearance is established and the scope of its applications for regulatory control. The concept of general clearance levels for any type of material and any possible pathway of disposal is also introduced in this work. Guidance of the Group of Experts establishing scenarios for general clearance, parameter values, and a nuclide-specific list of calculated clearance levels is also presented. Regulatory authorities are required to develop guidance on exemption and clearance levels to assist licensees and registrants to know which practices and sources within practices are exempted from regulatory control and those to be cleared from further controls. Exemption and clearance levels are tools for assisting the Regulatory Authority to optimize the use of resources. (author)

  1. Central Region Green Infrastructure

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This Green Infrastructure data is comprised of 3 similar ecological corridor data layers ? Metro Conservation Corridors, green infrastructure analysis in counties...

  2. The green building envelope : Vertical greening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottelé, M.

    2011-01-01

    Planting on roofs and façades is one of the most innovative and fastest developing fields of green technologies with respect to the built environment and horticulture. This thesis is focused on vertical greening of structures and to the multi-scale benefits of vegetation. Vertical green can improve

  3. How Green is 'Green' Energy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Luke; Wilman, Elspeth N; Laurance, William F

    2017-12-01

    Renewable energy is an important piece of the puzzle in meeting growing energy demands and mitigating climate change, but the potentially adverse effects of such technologies are often overlooked. Given that climate and ecology are inextricably linked, assessing the effects of energy technologies requires one to consider their full suite of global environmental concerns. We review here the ecological impacts of three major types of renewable energy - hydro, solar, and wind energy - and highlight some strategies for mitigating their negative effects. All three types can have significant environmental consequences in certain contexts. Wind power has the fewest and most easily mitigated impacts; solar energy is comparably benign if designed and managed carefully. Hydropower clearly has the greatest risks, particularly in certain ecological and geographical settings. More research is needed to assess the environmental impacts of these 'green' energy technologies, given that all are rapidly expanding globally. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Clearance and release from control - An international perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thierfeldt, S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper tries to give an overview of the clearance, or release from regulatory control, on an international scale, including some of those countries where clearance has become or is about to become vital for D and D. The emphasis lies on the impact of clearance, and in particular of differences between clearance levels of various countries, on D and D. Relevance of clearance for D and D of nuclear installations Clearance is an essential part of waste management (or more general, material management) in nuclear installations, and in particular during the decommissioning phase where waste streams continues to arise. Of course, the relevance of clearance in a particular country depends on a number of factors, like: availability of a final repository and its price; prevailing decommissioning strategy; number of nuclear installations reaching decommissioning phase. This small selection of reasons why clearance may be of varying importance for different countries may already suffice to illustrate why up to now clearance has been developed and implemented in quite different ways. If one thinks of additional reasons that may influence clearance, like politics, the public opinion, availability of funds etc., the situation becomes even more complex. It is, however safe to draw the conclusion that countries with a certain number of nuclear installations which have been or will soon be shut down or which are already in the decommissioning phase will need to implement provisions for clearance. This has indeed been the case with countries like the UK, Germany, the USA, Sweden, and a number of others. It is not essential for clearance levels to be exactly equal between various countries. They may differ as long as the difference is not too large, e.g. the values fall into the same order of magnitude. This is the reason why for example Germany has no problems with clearance levels which differ from the EU recommendation RP 122 partially adopted in a number of EU countries

  5. Investigations of renal clearance in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberhausen, E.

    1981-01-01

    Comparative investigations of PAH- and inulin-clearance and results of investigations with J-131-hippurate and Cr-51-EDTA, which were performed by a partly screened whole body counter including measurements of activity retention of blood samples, are showing good correlation. If the radio-isotope nephrography is worked out together with the decreased retention curve, separate results of the function of both kidneys can be given. Modifications which were tried to analyze a small part of the retention curve instead of the whole body are inaccurate, if they are below 300 ml/min. (orig.) [de

  6. Glial K(+) Clearance and Cell Swelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macaulay, Nanna; Zeuthen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    An important feature of neuronal signalling is the increased concentration of K(+) in the extracellular space. The K(+) concentration is restored to its original basal level primarily by uptake into nearby glial cells. The molecular mechanisms by which K(+) is transferred from the extracellular...... space into the glial cell are debated. Although spatial buffer currents may occur, their quantitative contribution to K(+) clearance is uncertain. The concept of spatial buffering of K(+) precludes intracellular K(+) accumulation and is therefore (i) difficult to reconcile with the K(+) accumulation...

  7. Unfolding Green Defense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian Knus

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, many states have developed and implemented green solutions for defense. Building on these initiatives NATO formulated the NATO Green Defence Framework in 2014. The framework provides a broad basis for cooperation within the Alliance on green solutions for defense. This report aims...... to inform and support the further development of green solutions by unfolding how green technologies and green strategies have been developed and used to handle current security challenges. The report, initially, focuses on the security challenges that are being linked to green defense, namely fuel...... consumption in military operations, defense expenditure, energy security, and global climate change. The report then proceeds to introduce the NATO Green Defence Framework before exploring specific current uses of green technologies and green strategies for defense. The report concludes that a number...

  8. Selected pharmacokinetic parameters for Cefovecin in hens and green iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuesen, L R; Bertelsen, M F; Brimer, L; Skaanild, M T

    2009-12-01

    The third generation cephalosporin cefovecin has been shown to have an exceptionally long elimination half-life in dogs and cats, making it suitable for antibacterial treatment with a 14-day dosing interval in these species. Pharmacokinetic parameters for cefovecin were investigated in juvenile hens and green iguanas, following subcutaneous injections with 10 mg cefovecin/kg bodyweight. Preliminary studies in eight additional species of birds and reptiles were performed and results were compared with the parameters found in hens and green iguanas. The kinetics were characterized by rapid absorption with peak plasma concentration of 6 +/- 2 microg/mL in hens and 35 +/- 12 microg/mL in green iguanas. The mean plasma half-life for cefovecin was 0.9 +/- 0.3 h for hens and 3.9 h in green iguanas. Volume of distribution was 1.6 +/- 0.5 L/kg for hens and 0.3 L/kg for green iguanas and clearance was 1252 +/- 185 mL.h/kg for hens and 53 mL.h/kg for green iguanas. Results from preliminary studies did not differ notably from those seen in hens and green iguanas. Cefovecin is not suitable for the treatment of bacterial infections with a 14-day dosing interval in hens or green iguanas and seems not to be in a number of other bird and retile species either.

  9. Green industrial policy

    OpenAIRE

    Dani Rodrik

    2014-01-01

    Green growth requires green technologies: production techniques that economize on exhaustible resources and emit fewer greenhouse gases. The availability of green technologies both lowers social costs in the transition to a green growth path and helps achieve a satisfactory rate of material progress under that path. The theoretical case in favour of using industrial policy to facilitate green growth is quite strong. Economists’ traditional scepticism on industrial policy is grounded instead o...

  10. Liver haemodynamics and function in alcoholic cirrhosis. Relation to testosterone treatment and ethanol consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Henriksen, J H

    1987-01-01

    group, a significant change in median values of portal pressure (-23%, n = 34, P less than 0.005), hepatic blood flow (-22%, n = 28, P less than 0.001), indocyanine green clearance (+16%, n = 29, P less than 0.01), and galactose elimination capacity (+8%, n = 31, P less than 0.05) was observed. However...

  11. Alanine metabolism in acute falciparum malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pukrittayakamee, S.; Krishna, S.; ter Kuile, F.; Wilaiwan, O.; Williamson, D. H.; White, N. J.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the integrity of the gluconeogenic pathway in severe malaria using alanine metabolism as a measure. Alanine disposition and liver blood flow, assessed by indocyanine green (ICG) clearance, were measured simultaneously in 10 patients with falciparum malaria (six severe and four

  12. Voluntary Exercise Promotes Glymphatic Clearance of Amyloid Beta and Reduces the Activation of Astrocytes and Microglia in Aged Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiao-Fei; Liu, Dong-Xu; Zhang, Qun; Liang, Feng-Ying; Dai, Guang-Yan; Zeng, Jin-Sheng; Pei, Zhong; Xu, Guang-Qing; Lan, Yue

    2017-01-01

    Age is characterized by chronic inflammation, leading to synaptic dysfunction and dementia because the clearance of protein waste is reduced. The clearance of proteins depends partly on the permeation of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) or on the exchange of water and soluble contents between the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the interstitial fluid (ISF). A wealth of evidence indicates that physical exercise improves memory and cognition in neurodegenerative diseases during aging, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the influence of physical training on glymphatic clearance, BBB permeability and neuroinflammation remains unclear. In this study, glymphatic clearance and BBB permeability were evaluated in aged mice using in vivo two-photon imaging. The mice performed voluntary wheel running exercise and their water-maze cognition was assessed; the expression of the astrocytic water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4), astrocyte and microglial activation, and the accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) were evaluated with immunofluorescence or an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); synaptic function was investigated with Thy1 -green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice and immunofluorescent staining. Voluntary wheel running significantly improved water-maze cognition in the aged mice, accelerated the efficiency of glymphatic clearance, but which did not affect BBB permeability. The numbers of activated astrocytes and microglia decreased, AQP4 expression increased, and the distribution of astrocytic AQP4 was rearranged. Aβ accumulation decreased, whereas dendrites, dendritic spines and postsynaptic density protein (PSD95) increased. Our study suggests that voluntary wheel running accelerated glymphatic clearance but not BBB permeation, improved astrocytic AQP4 expression and polarization, attenuated the accumulation of amyloid plaques and neuroinflammation, and ultimately protected mice against synaptic dysfunction and a decline in spatial cognition. These data suggest

  13. Voluntary Exercise Promotes Glymphatic Clearance of Amyloid Beta and Reduces the Activation of Astrocytes and Microglia in Aged Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-fei He

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Age is characterized by chronic inflammation, leading to synaptic dysfunction and dementia because the clearance of protein waste is reduced. The clearance of proteins depends partly on the permeation of the blood–brain barrier (BBB or on the exchange of water and soluble contents between the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and the interstitial fluid (ISF. A wealth of evidence indicates that physical exercise improves memory and cognition in neurodegenerative diseases during aging, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD, but the influence of physical training on glymphatic clearance, BBB permeability and neuroinflammation remains unclear. In this study, glymphatic clearance and BBB permeability were evaluated in aged mice using in vivo two-photon imaging. The mice performed voluntary wheel running exercise and their water-maze cognition was assessed; the expression of the astrocytic water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4, astrocyte and microglial activation, and the accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ were evaluated with immunofluorescence or an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA; synaptic function was investigated with Thy1–green fluorescent protein (GFP transgenic mice and immunofluorescent staining. Voluntary wheel running significantly improved water-maze cognition in the aged mice, accelerated the efficiency of glymphatic clearance, but which did not affect BBB permeability. The numbers of activated astrocytes and microglia decreased, AQP4 expression increased, and the distribution of astrocytic AQP4 was rearranged. Aβ accumulation decreased, whereas dendrites, dendritic spines and postsynaptic density protein (PSD95 increased. Our study suggests that voluntary wheel running accelerated glymphatic clearance but not BBB permeation, improved astrocytic AQP4 expression and polarization, attenuated the accumulation of amyloid plaques and neuroinflammation, and ultimately protected mice against synaptic dysfunction and a decline in spatial cognition

  14. Numerical investigation of hub clearance flow in a Kaplan turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H.; Feng, J. J.; Wu, G. K.; Luo, X. Q.

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, the flow field considering the hub clearance flow in a Kaplan turbine has been investigated through using the commercial CFD code ANSYS CFX based on high-quality structured grids generated by ANSYS ICEM CFD. The turbulence is simulated by k-ω based shear stress transport (SST) turbulence model together with automatic near wall treatments. Four kinds of simulations have been conducted for the runner geometry without hub clearance, with only the hub front clearance, with only the rear hub clearance, and with both front and rear clearance. The analysis of the obtained results is focused on the flow structure of the hub clearance flow, the effect on the turbine performance including hydraulic efficiency and cavitation performance, which can improve the understanding on the flow field in a Kaplan turbine.

  15. Numerical investigation of hub clearance flow in a Kaplan turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, H; Feng, J J; Wu, G K; Luo, X Q

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the flow field considering the hub clearance flow in a Kaplan turbine has been investigated through using the commercial CFD code ANSYS CFX based on high-quality structured grids generated by ANSYS ICEM CFD. The turbulence is simulated by k-ω based shear stress transport (SST) turbulence model together with automatic near wall treatments. Four kinds of simulations have been conducted for the runner geometry without hub clearance, with only the hub front clearance, with only the rear hub clearance, and with both front and rear clearance. The analysis of the obtained results is focused on the flow structure of the hub clearance flow, the effect on the turbine performance including hydraulic efficiency and cavitation performance, which can improve the understanding on the flow field in a Kaplan turbine.

  16. Evaluation of serum iohexol clearance for use in predicting carboplatin clearance in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Dennis B; Rassnick, Kenneth M; Prey, Joshua D; Dykes, Nathan L

    2009-09-01

    To determine whether a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) assay based on serum iohexol clearance can be used to predict carboplatin clearance in cats. 10 cats with tumors. GFR was measured concurrently by use of plasma clearance of technetium Tc 99m-labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid ((99m)Tc-DTPA) to yield GFR(99mTc-DTPA) and serum clearance of iohexol to yield GFR(Iohexol). A single dose of carboplatin was administered IV as a bolus. Dose was calculated by use of a target value for the area under the plasma platinum concentration-versus-time curve (AUC(Target)) and estimation of platinum clearance (CL(PT)) derived from GFR(99mTc-DTPA) as follows: dose = AUC(Target) x 2.6 x GFR(99mTc-DTPA) x body weight, where AUC(Target) is 2.75 min.mg.mL(-1). Plasma platinum concentrations were measured via atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Values for GFR(99mTc-DTPA) and GFR(Iohexol) were compared by use of least-squares regression and Bland-Altman analysis. Least-squares regression was used to determine whether CL(PT) could be predicted from GFR(99mTc-DTPA) or GFR(Iohexol) (or both). GFR(99mTc-DTPA) and GFR(Iohexol) were strongly correlated (r = 0.90), but GFR(Iohexol) values were significantly larger by a factor of approximately 1.4. Platinum clearance had a significant linear relationship to GFR(99mTc-DTPA) (CL(PT) = 2.5 x GFR(99mTc-DTPA)) and to GFR(Iohexol) (CL(PT) = [1.3 x GFR(Iohexol)] + 1.4). In cats, serum iohexol clearance was an accurate predictor of CL(PT) and can be used to calculate the carboplatin dose as follows: dose = AUC(Target) x ([1.3 x GFR(Iohexol)] + 1.4) x body weight.

  17. Surfactant secretion and clearance in the newborn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, P.A.; Wright, J.R.; Clements, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Pregnant rabbits (30 days) were injected intravenously with [3H]choline 8 h before delivery. The fetuses were delivered, and lung lavage and lamellar body phospholipids (PL) were analyzed. Some newborns also received radioactively labeled surfactant intratracheally on delivery and were permitted to breathe. With time, intratracheal label decreased in lavage and appeared in the lamellar body fraction, and intravenous label accumulated in both pools. Using a tracer analysis for non-steady state, we calculated surfactant secretion and clearance rates for the newborn period. Before birth, both rates rose slightly from 1.8 micrograms PL.g body wt-1.h-1 at 6 h before birth to 7.3 at birth. Immediately after birth, secretion rate rose to 37.7 micrograms PL.g body wt-1.h-1. Between 1.5 and 2 h after birth it fell to a minimum of 1.8 micrograms PL.g body wt-1.h-1 and then rose slowly to 6.0 at 12 h. After birth, clearance rate increased less than secretion rate (maximum 24.7 micrograms PL.g body wt-1.h-1 shortly after birth) then followed the same pattern but did not balance secretion rate in the 1st day

  18. Improved drainage with active chest tube clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiose, Akira; Takaseya, Tohru; Fumoto, Hideyuki; Arakawa, Yoko; Horai, Tetsuya; Boyle, Edward M; Gillinov, A Marc; Fukamachi, Kiyotaka

    2010-05-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of a novel chest drainage system. This system employs guide wire-based active chest tube clearance to improve drainage and maintain patency. A 32 Fr chest tube was inserted into pleural cavities of five pigs. On the left, a tube was connected to the chest canister, and on the right, the new system was inserted between the chest tube and chest canister. Acute bleeding was mimicked by periodic infusion of blood. The amount of blood drained from each chest cavity was recorded every 15 min for 2 h. After completion of the procedure, all residual blood and clots in each chest cavity were assessed. The new system remained widely patent, and the amount of drainage achieved with this system (670+/-105 ml) was significantly (P=0.01) higher than that with the standard tube (239+/-131 ml). The amount of retained pleural blood and clots with this system (150+/-107 ml) was significantly (P=0.04) lower than that with the standard tube (571+/-248 ml). In conclusion, a novel chest drainage system with active tube clearance significantly improved drainage without tube manipulations. 2010 Published by European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  19. Green corridors basics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagakos, George

    2016-01-01

    SuperGreen project, which aimed at advancing the green corridor concept through a benchmarking exercise involving Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). The chapter discusses the available definitions of green corridors and identifies the characteristics that distinguish a green corridor from any other...... efficient surface transportation corridor. After providing examples of green corridor projects in Europe, it focuses on the KPIs that have been proposed by various projects for monitoring the performance of a freight corridor. Emphasis is given to the SuperGreen KPIs, covering the economic, technical...

  20. Cerebrospinal Fluid Clearance in Alzheimer Disease Measured with Dynamic PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leon, Mony J; Li, Yi; Okamura, Nobuyuki; Tsui, Wai H; Saint-Louis, Les A; Glodzik, Lidia; Osorio, Ricardo S; Fortea, Juan; Butler, Tracy; Pirraglia, Elizabeth; Fossati, Silvia; Kim, Hee-Jin; Carare, Roxana O; Nedergaard, Maiken; Benveniste, Helene; Rusinek, Henry

    2017-09-01

    Evidence supporting the hypothesis that reduced cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) clearance is involved in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer disease (AD) comes primarily from rodent models. However, unlike rodents, in which predominant extracranial CSF egress is via olfactory nerves traversing the cribriform plate, human CSF clearance pathways are not well characterized. Dynamic PET with 18 F-THK5117, a tracer for tau pathology, was used to estimate the ventricular CSF time-activity as a biomarker for CSF clearance. We tested 3 hypotheses: extracranial CSF is detected at the superior turbinates; CSF clearance is reduced in AD; and CSF clearance is inversely associated with amyloid deposition. Methods: Fifteen subjects, 8 with AD and 7 normal control volunteers, were examined with 18 F-THK5117. Ten subjects additionally underwent 11 C-Pittsburgh compound B ( 11 C-PiB) PET scanning, and 8 were 11 C-PiB-positive. Ventricular time-activity curves of 18 F-THK5117 were used to identify highly correlated time-activity curves from extracranial voxels. Results: For all subjects, the greatest density of CSF-positive extracranial voxels was in the nasal turbinates. Tracer concentration analyses validated the superior nasal turbinate CSF signal intensity. AD patients showed ventricular tracer clearance reduced by 23% and 66% fewer superior turbinate CSF egress sites. Ventricular CSF clearance was inversely associated with amyloid deposition. Conclusion: The human nasal turbinate is part of the CSF clearance system. Lateral ventricle and superior nasal turbinate CSF clearance abnormalities are found in AD. Ventricular CSF clearance reductions are associated with increased brain amyloid depositions. These data suggest that PET-measured CSF clearance is a biomarker of potential interest in AD and other neurodegenerative diseases. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  1. Validation of Dose Calculation Codes for Clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, S.; Wirendal, B.; Bjerler, J.; Studsvik; Teunckens, L.

    2003-01-01

    Various international and national bodies such as the International Atomic Energy Agency, the European Commission, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission have put forward proposals or guidance documents to regulate the ''clearance'' from regulatory control of very low level radioactive material, in order to allow its recycling as a material management practice. All these proposals are based on predicted scenarios for subsequent utilization of the released materials. The calculation models used in these scenarios tend to utilize conservative data regarding exposure times and dose uptake as well as other assumptions as a safeguard against uncertainties. None of these models has ever been validated by comparison with the actual real life practice of recycling. An international project was organized in order to validate some of the assumptions made in these calculation models, and, thereby, better assess the radiological consequences of recycling on a practical large scale

  2. Green Power Partnership 100 Green Power Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. Partners on this list use green power to meet 100 of their U.S. organization-wide electricity use.

  3. Allometric scaling for predicting human clearance of bisphenol A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collet, Séverine H., E-mail: s.collet@envt.fr; Picard-Hagen, Nicole, E-mail: n.hagen-picard@envt.fr; Lacroix, Marlène Z., E-mail: m.lacroix@envt.fr; Puel, Sylvie, E-mail: s.puel@envt.fr; Viguié, Catherine, E-mail: c.viguie@envt.fr; Bousquet-Melou, Alain, E-mail: a.bousquet-Melou@envt.fr; Toutain, Pierre-Louis, E-mail: pltoutain@wanadoo.fr; Gayrard, Véronique, E-mail: v.gayrard@envt.fr

    2015-05-01

    The investigation of interspecies differences in bisphenol A (BPA) pharmacokinetics (PK) may be useful for translating findings from animal studies to humans, identifying major processes involved in BPA clearance mechanisms, and predicting BPA PK parameters in man. For the first time, a large range of species in terms of body weight, from 0.02 kg (mice) to 495 kg (horses) was used to predict BPA clearance in man by an allometric approach. BPA PK was evaluated after intravenous administration of BPA in horses, sheep, pigs, dogs, rats and mice. A non-compartmental analysis was used to estimate plasma clearance and steady state volume of distribution and predict BPA PK parameters in humans from allometric scaling. In all the species investigated, BPA plasma clearance was high and of the same order of magnitude as their respective hepatic blood flow. By an allometric scaling, the human clearance was estimated to be 1.79 L/min (equivalent to 25.6 mL/kg.min) with a 95% prediction interval of 0.36 to 8.83 L/min. Our results support the hypothesis that there are highly efficient and hepatic mechanisms of BPA clearance in man. - Highlights: • Allometric scaling was used to predict BPA pharmacokinetic parameters in humans. • In all species, BPA plasma clearance approached hepatic blood flow. • Human BPA clearance was estimated to be 1.79 L/min.

  4. Clearance of building structures for conventional non-nuclear reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buss, K.; Boehringer, S.

    1998-01-01

    At the example of a fuel assembly plant the strategy of control measurements on building surfaces, which shall be conventionally reused after their clearance, is regarded. Based on the given clearance levels the used measuring methods, especially with regard of possibly covered or intruded uranium contamination, are shown. The possibility of using the in-situ-γ-spectroscopy is discussed. (orig.) [de

  5. Discrepancy between circadian rhythms of inulin and creatinine clearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Acker, B. A.; Koomen, G. C.; Koopman, M. G.; Krediet, R. T.; Arisz, L.

    1992-01-01

    To elucidate the disparity between circadian rhythmicity of inulin and creatinine clearance, we simultaneously measured inulin and creatinine clearances every 3 hours during 1 day in 14 normal subjects and in 8 patients with nephrotic syndrome. All patients and normal subjects had a circadian rhythm

  6. 20 CFR 655.150 - Interstate clearance of job order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interstate clearance of job order. 655.150... job order. (a) SWA posts in interstate clearance system. The SWA must promptly place the job order in... transmit a copy of its active job order to all States listed in the job order as anticipated worksites...

  7. 78 FR 77027 - Overhead Clearance (Air-Draft) Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... No. USCG-2013-0466] Overhead Clearance (Air-Draft) Accidents AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... clearance (air-draft) accidents. In its petition, which calls for vessel masters to be provided with... accidents that it says were avoidable and that resulted in damage to or destruction of waterway...

  8. 48 CFR 1432.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 1432.502-2 Section 1432.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... finance office clearance. The CO shall obtain approval of the bureau finance office prior to taking...

  9. 48 CFR 32.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 32.502-2 Section 32.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... finance office clearance. The contracting officer shall obtain the approval of the contract finance office...

  10. 48 CFR 832.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 832.502-2 Section 832.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... finance office clearance. Contracting officers must obtain approval from the DSPE before taking the...

  11. Allometric scaling for predicting human clearance of bisphenol A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collet, Séverine H.; Picard-Hagen, Nicole; Lacroix, Marlène Z.; Puel, Sylvie; Viguié, Catherine; Bousquet-Melou, Alain; Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Gayrard, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    The investigation of interspecies differences in bisphenol A (BPA) pharmacokinetics (PK) may be useful for translating findings from animal studies to humans, identifying major processes involved in BPA clearance mechanisms, and predicting BPA PK parameters in man. For the first time, a large range of species in terms of body weight, from 0.02 kg (mice) to 495 kg (horses) was used to predict BPA clearance in man by an allometric approach. BPA PK was evaluated after intravenous administration of BPA in horses, sheep, pigs, dogs, rats and mice. A non-compartmental analysis was used to estimate plasma clearance and steady state volume of distribution and predict BPA PK parameters in humans from allometric scaling. In all the species investigated, BPA plasma clearance was high and of the same order of magnitude as their respective hepatic blood flow. By an allometric scaling, the human clearance was estimated to be 1.79 L/min (equivalent to 25.6 mL/kg.min) with a 95% prediction interval of 0.36 to 8.83 L/min. Our results support the hypothesis that there are highly efficient and hepatic mechanisms of BPA clearance in man. - Highlights: • Allometric scaling was used to predict BPA pharmacokinetic parameters in humans. • In all species, BPA plasma clearance approached hepatic blood flow. • Human BPA clearance was estimated to be 1.79 L/min

  12. Clearance systems in the brain—implications for Alzheimer disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasoff-Conway, Jenna M.; Carare, Roxana O.; Osorio, Ricardo S.; Glodzik, Lidia; Butler, Tracy; Fieremans, Els; Axel, Leon; Rusinek, Henry; Nicholson, Charles; Zlokovic, Berislav V.; Frangione, Blas; Blennow, Kaj; Ménard, Joël; Zetterberg, Henrik; Wisniewski, Thomas; de Leon, Mony J.

    2015-01-01

    Accumulation of toxic protein aggregates—amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques and hyperphosphorylated tau tangles—is the pathological hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD). Aβ accumulation has been hypothesized to result from an imbalance between Aβ production and clearance; indeed, Aβ clearance seems to be impaired in both early and late forms of AD. To develop efficient strategies to slow down or halt AD, it is critical to understand how Aβ is cleared from the brain. Extracellular Aβ deposits can be removed from the brain by various clearance systems, most importantly, transport across the blood–brain barrier. Findings from the past few years suggest that astroglial-mediated interstitial fluid (ISF) bulk flow, known as the glymphatic system, might contribute to a larger portion of extracellular Aβ (eAβ) clearance than previously thought. The meningeal lymphatic vessels, discovered in 2015, might provide another clearance route. Because these clearance systems act together to drive eAβ from the brain, any alteration to their function could contribute to AD. An understanding of Aβ clearance might provide strategies to reduce excess Aβ deposits and delay, or even prevent, disease onset. In this Review, we describe the clearance systems of the brain as they relate to proteins implicated in AD pathology, with the main focus on Aβ. PMID:26195256

  13. Clearance systems in the brain-implications for Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasoff-Conway, Jenna M; Carare, Roxana O; Osorio, Ricardo S; Glodzik, Lidia; Butler, Tracy; Fieremans, Els; Axel, Leon; Rusinek, Henry; Nicholson, Charles; Zlokovic, Berislav V; Frangione, Blas; Blennow, Kaj; Ménard, Joël; Zetterberg, Henrik; Wisniewski, Thomas; de Leon, Mony J

    2015-08-01

    Accumulation of toxic protein aggregates-amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques and hyperphosphorylated tau tangles-is the pathological hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD). Aβ accumulation has been hypothesized to result from an imbalance between Aβ production and clearance; indeed, Aβ clearance seems to be impaired in both early and late forms of AD. To develop efficient strategies to slow down or halt AD, it is critical to understand how Aβ is cleared from the brain. Extracellular Aβ deposits can be removed from the brain by various clearance systems, most importantly, transport across the blood-brain barrier. Findings from the past few years suggest that astroglial-mediated interstitial fluid (ISF) bulk flow, known as the glymphatic system, might contribute to a larger portion of extracellular Aβ (eAβ) clearance than previously thought. The meningeal lymphatic vessels, discovered in 2015, might provide another clearance route. Because these clearance systems act together to drive eAβ from the brain, any alteration to their function could contribute to AD. An understanding of Aβ clearance might provide strategies to reduce excess Aβ deposits and delay, or even prevent, disease onset. In this Review, we describe the clearance systems of the brain as they relate to proteins implicated in AD pathology, with the main focus on Aβ.

  14. Intercalibration of mussel Mytilus edulis clearance rate measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kjerulf Petersen, J.; Bougrier, S.; Smaal, A.C.; Garen, P.; Robert, S.; Larsen, J.E.N.; Brummelhuis, E.B.M.

    2004-01-01

    Clearance rate (CR) was measured in blue mussels Mytilus edulis L. from Aiguillon Bay and the Oosterschelde using 3 different methods: the flow-through method, the bio-deposition method and the indirect or clearance method. CR differed significantly as a function of the method used and of the origin

  15. 32 CFR 644.522 - Clearance of military scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Clearance of military scrap. 644.522 Section 644... Excess Land and Improvements § 644.522 Clearance of military scrap. Military scrap can contain or be... destruction, by using command, of all military scrap and scrap metal from lands suitable for cultivation or...

  16. Factors affecting lower calyceal stone clearance after Extracorporeal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    shanker

    have been identified [1,3]. These include stone characteristics, the type of lithotripter used, LPC anatomy and body habitus. For iso- lated LPC stones, the pelvicalyceal angle, infundibulum length and width are considered important determinants for stone clearance. The impact of body habitus on stone clearance has so far ...

  17. Urban Greening Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the San Francisco Bay Water Quality Project (SFBWQP) Urban Greening Bay Area, a large-scale effort to re-envision urban landscapes to include green infrastructure (GI) making communities more livable and reducing stormwater runoff.

  18. Tribal Green Building Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Tribal Green Building Toolkit (Toolkit) is designed to help tribal officials, community members, planners, developers, and architects develop and adopt building codes to support green building practices. Anyone can use this toolkit!

  19. Green Power Partner List

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. There are thousands of Green Power Partners, all listed on this page.

  20. Green Power Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    GPCs are towns, villages, cities, counties, or tribal governments in which the local government, businesses, and residents collectively use green power in amounts that meet or exceed EPA's Green Power Community purchase requirements.

  1. Blue-Green Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that taking a specific blue-green algae product (Super Blue-Green Algae, Cell Tech, Klamath Falls, OR) ... system. Premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Depression. Digestion. Heart disease. Memory. Wound healing. Other conditions. More evidence is needed ...

  2. Green Bank Observatory (GBO)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The largest fully steerable telescope in the world - the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT), began observations in Green Bank, West Virginia in 2000and is a...

  3. Green Infrastructure Modeling Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green infrastructure, such as rain gardens, green roofs, porous pavement, cisterns, and constructed wetlands, is becoming an increasingly attractive way to recharge aquifers and reduce the amount of stormwater runoff that flows into wastewater treatment plants or into waterbodies...

  4. Estimation of 131I hippuran clearance during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, R.; Stoll, W.; Zenner, I.; Arndt, J.; Friedrich-Schiller-Univ., Jena

    1979-01-01

    Changes in 131 I hippuran clearance were estimated by a non-catheter method, as well as total clearance and clearance of each kidney, in 43 women at various stages of pregnancy and in 13 non-pregnant women who were not using hormonal contraceptives. The results are demonstrated in graph form. The methods used are described in detail. The procedure for determining clearance in separate kidneys is indicated. It was found that clearance values increased up to the 35th and 26th weeks of pregnancy. The difference between the sides that were found corresponds with the previously known difference in the function of the right and left kidneys and ureters. (orig.) [de

  5. The influence of body posture on lithium clearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Strandgaard, S; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1988-01-01

    To establish appropriate standard circumstances for lithium clearance measurements, a study was undertaken in 12 healthy volunteers. In each subject, the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), as estimated by [51Cr]EDTA plasma clearance, and the renal clearances of lithium, sodium and potassium were...... during moderate physical activity. Hence, when renal tubular function is studied with the lithium clearance method, standardization of posture and physical activity is important. In such studies physical activity such as walking should particularly be avoided....... measured four times at 1-week intervals: two in the supine and one in the sitting position, and one when the subject was walking around. Glomerular filtration rate was not influenced by posture changes. On the contrary, lithium clearance, which in the supine position was 30 +/- 9 ml/min (1 SD), tended...

  6. The influence of body posture on lithium clearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Strandgaard, S; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1988-01-01

    To establish appropriate standard circumstances for lithium clearance measurements, a study was undertaken in 12 healthy volunteers. In each subject, the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), as estimated by [51Cr]EDTA plasma clearance, and the renal clearances of lithium, sodium and potassium were...... measured four times at 1-week intervals: two in the supine and one in the sitting position, and one when the subject was walking around. Glomerular filtration rate was not influenced by posture changes. On the contrary, lithium clearance, which in the supine position was 30 +/- 9 ml/min (1 SD), tended...... during moderate physical activity. Hence, when renal tubular function is studied with the lithium clearance method, standardization of posture and physical activity is important. In such studies physical activity such as walking should particularly be avoided....

  7. Analysis of conservativity analysis for clearance levels. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deckert, A.; Thierfeldt, S.

    1997-07-01

    When deriving clearance levels for material from nuclear installations it is necessary to proceed with a certain degree of conservativity. This can, however, differ between various sets of clearance levels leading to inconsistencies between clearance pathways. The aim of the work therefore is to compare levels of conservativity for the following two sets of clearance levels: clearance levels for disposal as conventional waste and for metallic materials for recycling/reuse. A method was developed to quantify the degree of conservativity and make it comparable. The actual and future situation for disposal of (conventional) wastes in Germany was analysed. In addition, the masses, nuclide vectors, geographical distribution etc. for slightly radioactive material being cleared for conventional disposal was analysed and modelled and the resulting dose distributions were calculated. The values for the clearance levels were taken from the 1995 recommendation by the German Commission on Radiation Protection (SSK). By using realistic scenarios, the exposure was calculated for the personnel on the landfills and for persons of the general public being exposed via groundwater pathways. It could be shown that the trivial dose range will not be exceeded even if the masses of cleared material per landfill site exceed 100 Mg/a. Because of the types and distribution of nuclear installations in Germany and because of the nuclide vectors it is therefore not necessary to limit the masses per landfill sites. Clearance levels that are determined by the exposure pathways external exposure to and the inhalation of dust by the landfill personnel show a similar level of conservativity as those for metal scrap. This means that the clearance levels for gamma emitting nuclides are not overly restrictive. Although radiologically justified, raising the clearance levels would not lead to an increase of the material quantities because other nuclides of the respective nuclide vectors are limiting. In

  8. A model of clearance rate regulation in mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fréchette, Marcel

    2012-10-01

    Clearance rate regulation has been modelled as an instantaneous response to food availability, independent of the internal state of the animals. This view is incompatible with latent effects during ontogeny and phenotypic flexibility in clearance rate. Internal-state regulation of clearance rate is required to account for these patterns. Here I develop a model of internal-state based regulation of clearance rate. External factors such as suspended sediments are included in the model. To assess the relative merits of instantaneous regulation and internal-state regulation, I modelled blue mussel clearance rate and growth using a DEB model. In the usual standard feeding module, feeding is governed by a Holling's Type II response to food concentration. In the internal-state feeding module, gill ciliary activity and thus clearance rate are driven by internal reserve level. Factors such as suspended sediments were not included in the simulations. The two feeding modules were compared on the basis of their ability to capture the impact of latent effects, of environmental heterogeneity in food abundance and of physiological flexibility on clearance rate and individual growth. The Holling feeding module was unable to capture the effect of any of these sources of variability. In contrast, the internal-state feeding module did so without any modification or ad hoc calibration. Latent effects, however, appeared transient. With simple annual variability in temperature and food concentration, the relationship between clearance rate and food availability predicted by the internal-state feeding module was quite similar to that observed in Norwegian fjords. I conclude that in contrast with the usual Holling feeding module, internal-state regulation of clearance rate is consistent with well-documented growth and clearance rate patterns.

  9. Show Me the Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Gone are the days when green campus initiatives were a balm to the soul and a drain on the wallet. Today's environmental initiatives are all about saving lots of green--in every sense of the word. The environmental benefits of green campus projects--whether wind turbines or better insulation--are pretty clear. Unfortunately, in today's…

  10. Green roof Malta

    OpenAIRE

    Gatt, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    In Malta, buildings cover one third of the Island, leaving greenery in the dirt track. Green roofs are one way to bring plants back to urban areas with loads of benefits. Antoine Gatt, who manages the LifeMedGreenRoof project at the University of Malta, tells us more. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/green-roof-malta/

  11. EPA's Green Roof Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a presentation on the basics of green roof technology. The presentation highlights some of the recent ORD research projects on green roofs and provices insight for the end user as to the benefits for green roof technology. It provides links to currently available EPA re...

  12. In the Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Education officials used to debate whether they could afford to pursue green design and construction. Now the green movement has gained a foothold not just in education, but in society at large, and the prevailing attitude seems to have shifted. Can schools afford "not" to go green? As budgets are slashed repeatedly, education administrators must…

  13. The green agenda

    CERN Document Server

    Calder, Alan

    2009-01-01

    This business guide to Green IT was written to introduce, to a business audience, the opposing groups and the key climate change concepts, to provide an overview of a Green IT strategy and to set out a straightforward, bottom line-orientated Green IT action plan.

  14. The Green Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson-Newlin, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The Jolly Green Giant. Robin Hood. The Bamberg Cathedral. Tales of King Arthur. Ecology. What do they have in common? What legends and ancient myths are shrouded in the tales of the Green Man? Most often perceived as an ancient Celtic symbol as the god of spring and summer, the Green Man disappears and returns year after year, century after…

  15. Green Transformational Leadership and Green Performance: The Mediation Effects of Green Mindfulness and Green Self-Efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Shan Chen; Ching-Hsun Chang; Yu-Hsien Lin

    2014-01-01

    No prior literature explores the influence of green transformational leadership on green performance, thus, this study develops a novel research framework to fill the research gap. This study investigates the influence of green transformational leadership on green performance and discusses the mediation effects of green mindfulness and green self-efficacy by means of structural equation modeling (SEM). The results indicate that green transformational leadership positively influences green min...

  16. Creatinine clearance during cimetidine administration for measurement of glomerular filtration rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Acker, B. A.; Koomen, G. C.; Koopman, M. G.; de Waart, D. R.; Arisz, L.

    1992-01-01

    Creatinine clearance inaccurately estimates true glomerular filtration rate (GFR) because of tubular secretion of creatinine. We studied the ability of oral cimetidine, a blocker of tubular creatinine secretion, to improve the accuracy of measuring creatinine clearance. Clearances of inulin and

  17. 76 FR 59379 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for Research in Development...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ...-XXXX. Type of Review: Generic Clearance Request. Title: Generic Clearance for Research in Development... information collected through qualitative evaluation methods will inform the disclosure form's design and... Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for Research in Development of...

  18. Nuclear regulation. NRC's security clearance program can be strengthened

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fultz, Keith O.; Kruslicky, Mary Ann; Bagnulo, John E.

    1988-12-01

    Because of the national security implications of its programs, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) investigates the background of its employees and consultants as well as others to ensure that they are reliable and trustworthy. If the investigation indicates that an employee will not endanger national security, NRC grants a security clearance that allows access to classified information, material, and facilities. NRC also requires periodic checks for some clearance holders to ensure their continued clearance eligibility. The Chairman, Subcommittee on Environment, Energy, and Natural Resources, House Committee on Government Operations, asked GAO to review NRC's personnel security clearance program and assess the procedures that NRC uses to ensure that those who operate nuclear power plants do not pose a threat to the public. The Atomic Energy Act of 1954 requires NRC to conduct background investigations of its employees and consultants as well as others who have access to classified information, material, or facilities. To do this, NRC established a personnel security clearance program. Under NRC policies, a security clearance is granted after the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) or the Federal Bureau of Investigation checks the background of those applying for an NRC clearance. NRC also periodically reassesses the integrity of those holding the highest level clearance. NRC employees, consultants, contractors, and licensees as well as other federal employees hold approximately 10,600 NRC clearances. NRC does not grant clearances to commercial nuclear utility employees unless they require access to classified information or special nuclear material. However, the utilities have voluntarily established screening programs to ensure that their employees do not pose a threat to nuclear plants. NRC faces a dilemma when it hires new employees. Although its policy calls for new hires to be cleared before they start work, the security clearance process takes so long

  19. Green Thunderstorms Observed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Frank W., III; Beasley, William H.; Bohren, Craig F.

    1996-12-01

    Green thunderstorms have been observed from time to time in association with deep convection or severe weather events. Often the green coloration has been attributed to hail or to reflections of light from green foliage on the ground. Some skeptics who have not personally observed a green thunderstorm do not believe that green thunderstorms exist. They suggest that the green storms may be fabrications by excited observers. The authors have demonstrated the existence of green thunderstorms objectively using a spectrophotometer. During the spring and summer of 1995 the authors observed numerous storms and recorded hundreds of spectra of the light emanating corn these storms. It was found that the subjective judgment of colors can vary somewhat between observers, but the variation is usually in the shade of green. The authors recorded spectra of green and nongreen thunderstorms and recorded spectral measurements as a storm changed its appearance from dark blue to a bluish green. The change in color is gradual when observed from a stationary position. Also, as the light from a storm becomes greener, the luminance decreases. The authors also observed and recorded the spectrum of a thunderstorm during a period of several hours as they flew in an aircraft close to a supercell that appeared somewhat green. The authors' observations refute the ground reflection hypothesis and raise questions about explanations that require the presence of hail.

  20. Secretin enhances [14C]erythritol clearance in unanesthetized dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.H.; Baker, A.L.; Dhorajiwala, J.; Moossa, A.R.

    1982-01-01

    To determine the effect of secretin infusion on clearance of inert markers into bile, unanesthetized dogs fitted with Thomas cannulas received continuous infusions of [ 14 C]erythritol and [ 3 H]inulin throughout study. Taurocholic acid administered sequentially at 9.0, 20.0, and 40.0 mumol/min enhanced [ 14 C]erythritol clearance, and GIH secretin (3 units/min) administered along with TCA (40.0 mumol/min) increased [ 14 C]erythritol clearance from 4.9 +/- 1.2 ml/10 min to 6.8 +/- 1.3 ml/10 min (P less than 0.001), but simultaneously measured [ 3 H]inulin clearance was unaltered. Secretin alone also increased [ 14 C]erythritol clearance but did not alter [ 3 H]inulin clearance. The increase in [ 14 C]erythritol clearance per unit increase in bile flow was less during secretin infusion than TCA. Thus, secretin increases [ 14 C]erythritol transport through restricted channels, probably distal to the canaliculi. [ 14 C]Erythritol may not be an accurate marker for canalicular bile flow in dogs during secretin infusion

  1. Dynamic modelling and experimental study of cantilever beam with clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, B; Jin, W; Han, L; He, Z

    2012-01-01

    Clearances occur in almost all mechanical systems, typically such as the clearance between slide plate of gun barrel and guide. Therefore, to study the clearances of mechanisms can be very important to increase the working performance and lifetime of mechanisms. In this paper, rigid dynamic modelling of cantilever with clearance was done according to the subject investigated. In the rigid dynamic modelling, clearance is equivalent to the spring-dashpot model, the impact of beam and boundary face was also taken into consideration. In ADAMS software, the dynamic simulation was carried out according to the model above. The software simulated the movement of cantilever with clearance under external excitation. Research found: When the clearance is larger, the force of impact will become larger. In order to study how the stiffness of the cantilever's supporting part influences natural frequency of the system, A Euler beam which is restricted by a draught spring and a torsion spring at its end was raised. Through numerical calculation, the relationship between natural frequency and stiffness was found. When the value of the stiffness is close to the limit value, the corresponding boundary condition is illustrated. An ADAMS experiment was carried out to check the theory and the simulation.

  2. Dynamic modelling and experimental study of cantilever beam with clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, B.; Jin, W.; Han, L.; He, Z.

    2012-05-01

    Clearances occur in almost all mechanical systems, typically such as the clearance between slide plate of gun barrel and guide. Therefore, to study the clearances of mechanisms can be very important to increase the working performance and lifetime of mechanisms. In this paper, rigid dynamic modelling of cantilever with clearance was done according to the subject investigated. In the rigid dynamic modelling, clearance is equivalent to the spring-dashpot model, the impact of beam and boundary face was also taken into consideration. In ADAMS software, the dynamic simulation was carried out according to the model above. The software simulated the movement of cantilever with clearance under external excitation. Research found: When the clearance is larger, the force of impact will become larger. In order to study how the stiffness of the cantilever's supporting part influences natural frequency of the system, A Euler beam which is restricted by a draught spring and a torsion spring at its end was raised. Through numerical calculation, the relationship between natural frequency and stiffness was found. When the value of the stiffness is close to the limit value, the corresponding boundary condition is illustrated. An ADAMS experiment was carried out to check the theory and the simulation.

  3. Comparative evaluation of iohexol and inulin clearance for glomerular filtration rate determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindblad, H.G.; Berg, U.B.

    1994-01-01

    The authors have evaluated iohexol as a filtration marker in 150 children. The clearance of iohexol was compared with that of inulin or with a formula clearance. The single-sample clearance of iohexol showed a good correlation with the clearance of inulin. The clearance of iohexol correlated well with the formula clearance. The optimal blood sampling time for iohexol clearance determinations appears to be between 120 and 180 min after injection, at least in patient with relatively normal filtration rates. It is concluded that iohexol clearance is an accurate method of determining the glomerular filtration rate in clinical practice. 25 refs., 5 figs

  4. Wind Power and Fault Clearance. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vikesjoe, Johnny; Messing, Lars (Gothia Power (Sweden))

    2011-04-15

    The increased penetration of wind power will increase the impact of wind power on the grid and thereby increase the importance of a clear guidance concerning the requirements on the protection system of the wind power units and the grid protection in connection to wind power units. The protection system should be able to satisfy the grid connection requirements, set by the TSO (Transmission System Operator) and the grid owners, as well as the general safety and security requirements, such as; personal safety, operational security and economic insurance, i.e. an insurance against economic losses. Vindforsk has appointed Gothia Power AB to perform a study concerning the fault clearance function in connection to wind power installations. The study is divided into two parts; Part 1: The first stage of the project handled the present praxis for the protection, including investigation of legal requirements, operational requirement and personal safety requirement applicable to wind power applications. Proposals for protection requirement for wind power units and the connecting grid are given. Basically 'normal' fault clearance requirements regarding speed, selectivity and redundancy can be used also in applications in connection to wind power. Part 2: The second part of the project results in a guideline for design of protection systems in connection to wind power. In this report mainly part 2 is covered. The main focus is given to clearance of faults in the grid connecting the wind power plants. Regarding internal faults and critical operation states within the wind power plant, a short discussion of feasible protection functions is given. Some critical fault cases in the grid have been identified and discussed: - Undetected islanding and failure of reclosing. There can be a risk of undetected island operation. In such cases it is recommended to use controlled autoreclosing in the vicinity of wind power generation. - Unwanted disconnection of a healthy feeder

  5. UGT polymorphisms and lamotrigine clearance during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrenaite, Vaiva; Öhman, Inger; Ekström, Lena

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of maternal UGT1A4 and UGT2B7 genetic polymorphisms and sex of foetus on gestation-induced changes in lamotrigine (LTG) clearance during pregnancy and post-partum (PP). METHODS: Single nucleotide polymorphisms UGT1A4 142T > G, L48V (*3), UGT1A4 70C > A, P24T (*2......), and post-partum (PP) as well as the sex of the foetus. RESULTS: Reductions in the LTG concentration-to-dose ratio (C/D ratio) during pregnancy were seen in all genotype panels and varied between -53% and -74% in T3. Genetic polymorphism of UGT1A4 T142G (*3) and UGT2B7 C802T (*2) had the most pronounced.......015) as well as in T3 compared to the heterozygous carriers (802CT) (p = 0.04). Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that women who carried a female foetus had a significantly higher reductions in the LTG C/D ratio from T0 to the end of pregnancy than those with a male foetus (p = 0...

  6. Clearance from the anterior chamber of RBCs from human diabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, G.A.; Hatchell, D.L.; Collier, B.D.; Knobel, J.

    1984-01-01

    Erythrocytes from diabetic patients manifest decreased deformability and increased adherence. These abnormal membrane properties may diminish the ability of erythrocytes (RBCs) from diabetics to undergo deformation in passage through the trabecular meshwork. Using sodium chromate Cr 51-labeled RBCs from type I diabetic patients with proliferative retinopathy and normal control subjects, we studied RBC clearance from the rabbit anterior chamber. The mean time for 50% clearance (T50) of RBCs from diabetics (76 hours) was significantly longer than that for RBCs from normal subjects (19.5 hours). In this model, RBCs from diabetics have a slower clearance from the anterior chamber than do RBCs from normal subjects

  7. Applicability of Clearance Automatic Laser Inspection System to Clearance Measurement of Concrete Segments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, M.; Ogino, H.; Hattori, T.

    2009-01-01

    In the decommissioning of a nuclear power plant, large amounts of metal scrap and concrete segments require disposal when dismantling the nuclear reactor and surrounding facilities. When their activity level is negligible or sufficiently small, they can be regarded as general industrial waste. To distinguish between radioactive and nonradioactive materials, the clearance level for each radionuclide has been determined in units of activity concentration. These clearance levels are indicated in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safety Standards Series No. RS-G-1.7. The Japanese regulatory authority decided in 2005 to adopt the values given in RS-G-1.7 as clearance levels in legislation. Recently, a Clearance Automatic Laser Inspection System (CLALIS) has been developed utilizing gamma-ray measurement, automatic laser shape measurement and Monte Carlo calculation. CLALIS comprises four laser scanners and eight large plastic scintillation detectors surrounded by a 5-cm-thick lead shield. Using three-dimensional (3D) laser scanning, a measurement target, which is placed on the measuring tray, is represented as a dot image. The dot image is converted into voxels after noise removal, and is written in MCNP (A General Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code System) input files. When the gamma-ray measurement is carried out, the MCNP calculations are also carried out to obtain the calibration factor and background (BG) correction factors. For the clearance measurement of concrete segments, the effect of gamma-rays from natural radionuclides in the measurement target, such as K-40 and the radioactive decay products of Th-232 and U-238, should be taken into account to ensure adequate waste management. Since NE102A plastic scintillation detectors are used for gamma-ray measurement in CLALIS, it is impossible to distinguish between the count rates of natural radionuclides and contaminants on the basis of gamma-ray energy information. To overcome this problem, the

  8. GREEN MANAGEMENT: THE REALITY OF BEING GREEN IN BUSINESS

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Ben

    2009-01-01

    Green management and going green are not as clear cut and easy as hyped by the general media. While going ecologically green is indeed beneficial and appropriate, the process and procedure of becoming green is anything but easy. Firstly, turning green is largely not a legal requirement, but a voluntary process. Thus, even though LEED (which is by far the more publicly known green certification standard) governs the certification of the green management effort, it is not a compulsory condition...

  9. Metabolic clearance rate and urinary clearance of purified beta-core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehmann, R.E.; Blithe, D.L.; Flack, M.R.; Nisula, B.C.

    1989-01-01

    We injected a highly purified preparation of the beta-core molecule, a fragment of hCG beta excreted in pregnancy urine, into five men and three women to determine its kinetic parameters, MCR, and urinary clearance. The beta-core molecule was distributed in an initial volume [1950 +/- 156 (mean +/- SEM) mL/m2 body surface area] approximately equal to the estimated plasma volume. Its disappearance was multiexponential on a semilogarithmic plot, with a rapid phase t1/2 of 3.5 +/- 0.7 min and a slow phase t1/2 of 22.4 +/- 4.2 min. The transit time (the mean time spent by a molecule of beta-core in transit) was 20.6 +/- 2.1 min. The MCR was 192.0 +/- 8.0 mL/min.m2 body surface area. About 5% of the injected dose of beta-core was excreted into the urine in the first 30 min after injection, and low levels of excretion persisted for up to 7 days. The urinary clearance rate of beta-core was 13.7 +/- 1.4 mL/min.m2, accounting for about 8% of the elimination of beta-core from the plasma. The beta-core immunoreactivity in serum and urine was characterized by gel filtration and three independent RIA systems to show that its properties were indistinguishable from those of the injected beta-core. Serum levels of beta-core in pregnant women were less than 0.2 ng/mL, while the amounts excreted in their urine were as much as 5 mg/day. Based on these clearance parameters of beta-core in normal subjects, less than 0.2% of the beta-core excreted in pregnancy urine is derived by urinary clearance of plasma beta-core. Therefore, more than 99% of the beta-core excreted in pregnancy urine is derived from beta-core in a compartment separate from plasma. In particular, these data indicate that there is relatively little placental secretion of beta-core into plasma and that placental secretion does not account for the vast majority of beta-core in pregnancy urine

  10. Interleukin-10 Modulation of Virus Clearance and Disease in Mice with Alphaviral Encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nina M; Griffin, Diane E

    2018-03-15

    Alphaviruses are an important cause of mosquito-borne outbreaks of arthritis, rash, and encephalomyelitis. Previous studies in mice with a virulent strain (neuroadapted SINV [NSV]) of the alphavirus Sindbis virus (SINV) identified a role for Th17 cells and regulation by interleukin-10 (IL-10) in the pathogenesis of fatal encephalomyelitis (K. A. Kulcsar, V. K. Baxter, I. P. Greene, and D. E. Griffin, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111:16053-16058, 2014, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1418966111). To determine the role of virus virulence in generation of immune responses, we analyzed the modulatory effects of IL-10 on disease severity, virus clearance, and the CD4 + T cell response to infection with a recombinant strain of SINV of intermediate virulence (TE12). The absence of IL-10 during TE12 infection led to longer morbidity, more weight loss, higher mortality, and slower viral clearance than in wild-type mice. More severe disease and impaired virus clearance in IL-10 -/- mice were associated with more Th1 cells, fewer Th2 cells, innate lymphoid type 2 cells, regulatory cells, and B cells, and delayed production of antiviral antibody in the central nervous system (CNS) without an effect on Th17 cells. Therefore, IL-10 deficiency led to more severe disease in TE12-infected mice by increasing Th1 cells and by hampering development of the local B cell responses necessary for rapid production of antiviral antibody and virus clearance from the CNS. In addition, the shift from Th17 to Th1 responses with decreased virus virulence indicates that the effects of IL-10 deficiency on immunopathologic responses in the CNS during alphavirus infection are influenced by virus strain. IMPORTANCE Alphaviruses cause mosquito-borne outbreaks of encephalomyelitis, but determinants of outcome are incompletely understood. We analyzed the effects of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 on disease severity and virus clearance after infection with an alphavirus strain of intermediate virulence

  11. Green energy in Europe: selling green energy with green certificates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouillet, L.

    2002-01-01

    Sales of green power products are booming in Europe: 50,000 customers in the United Kingdom, 775,000 in the Netherlands and 300,000 in Germany. Laws of physics are however formal: the way in which electricity flows within the grid does not allow suppliers to assure customers that they are directly receiving electricity produced exclusively from renewable energy sources. What are marketers selling their customers then? Laetitia Ouillet, Greenprices, takes a closer look and focuses on the potential of selling green energy in the forms of renewable energy certificates. (Author)

  12. Automated Real-Time Clearance Analyzer (ARCA), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Automated Real-Time Clearance Analyzer (ARCA) addresses the future safety need for Real-Time System-Wide Safety Assurance (RSSA) in aviation and progressively...

  13. Determination of renal clearance of 131I-hippuran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridzon, S.

    1982-01-01

    The author presents his own method for the determination of total renal clearance of 131 I-hippuran under conditions of its diminishing plasma concentration following single intravenous administration. Total renal clearance is determined as the ratio of the amount of activity excreted into the urine over a certain time interval and of the area limited by the curve of activity decrease in plasma and by the time axis in the corresponding interval. The results are demonstrated in five investigated healthy subjects, and very good agreement of the calculated values of total renal clearance for different time intervals in the same subject is pointed out. When isotope nephrography is simultaneously performed, the method allows to determine also the values of isolated renal clearance for each kidney separately. (author)

  14. IFNL4 affects clearance of hepatitis C virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientists have discovered a new human interferon gene, Interferon Lambda 4 (IFNL4), that affects clearance of the hepatitis C virus. They also identified an inherited genetic variant within IFNL4 that predicts how people respond to treatment for hepatit

  15. Non-destructive clearance measuring in closed joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doucelance, C.; Manaranche, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    Two methods for clearance measuring in closed joints are described. The first one is based on the mechanical impedance concept, while the other one requires a shock test on shaker. Both are illustrated with an example of application [fr

  16. 77 FR 44641 - Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    .... DHS Sector Specialists or Protective Security Advisors email the form to the individual who then... clearance request form is signed by both the Federal official who nominated the applicant and the Assistant...

  17. Intraarticular volume and clearance in human synovial effusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallis, W.J.; Simkin, P.A.; Nelp, W.B.; Foster, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    Intraarticular volumes were measured by radiolabeled albumin (RISA) distribution in chronic knee effusions from 11 rheumatoid arthritis patients and 9 osteoarthritis patients. Volumes of synovial fluid obtained at joint aspiration were substantially less than those found by RISA dilution. Up to 24 hours was needed for full distribution of RISA throughout the intraarticular compartment. Measured 123I and RISA radioactivity over the knee described monoexponential rate constants, lambda (minute-1). The clearance of 123I and RISA from synovial effusions was derived by the formulation volume (ml) X lambda (minute-1) = clearance (ml/minute). RISA clearance in rheumatoid effusions was significantly greater than that found in osteoarthritis effusions. Intraarticular volume and isotope clearance were easily quantified and provide measures for further evaluating the microvascular physiology of synovial effusions

  18. Airway Clearance Devices for Cystic Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The purpose of this evidence-based analysis is to examine the safety and efficacy of airway clearance devices (ACDs) for cystic fibrosis and attempt to differentiate between devices, where possible, on grounds of clinical efficacy, quality of life, safety and/or patient preference. Background Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a common, inherited, life-limiting disease that affects multiple systems of the human body. Respiratory dysfunction is the primary complication and leading cause of death due to CF. CF causes abnormal mucus secretion in the airways, leading to airway obstruction and mucus plugging, which in turn can lead to bacterial infection and further mucous production. Over time, this almost cyclical process contributes to severe airway damage and loss of respiratory function. Removal of airway secretions, termed airway clearance, is thus an integral component of the management of CF. A variety of methods are available for airway clearance, some requiring mechanical devices, others physical manipulation of the body (e.g. physiotherapy). Conventional chest physiotherapy (CCPT), through the assistance of a caregiver, is the current standard of care for achieving airway clearance, particularly in young patients up to the ages of six or seven. CF patients are, however, living much longer now than in decades past. The median age of survival in Canada has risen to 37.0 years for the period of 1998-2002 (5-year window), up from 22.8 years for the 5-year window ending in 1977. The prevalence has also risen accordingly, last recorded as 3,453 in Canada in 2002, up from 1,630 in 1977. With individuals living longer, there is a greater need for independent methods of airway clearance. Airway Clearance Devices There are at least three classes of airway clearance devices: positive expiratory pressure devices (PEP), airway oscillating devices (AOD; either handheld or stationary) and high frequency chest compression (HFCC)/mechanical percussion (MP

  19. Green growth in fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Max; Ravensbeck, Lars; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    harming the environment. Fishery is an environment-dependent sector and it has been argued that there is no potential for green growth in the sector owing to global overexploitation, leaving no scope for production growth. The purpose of this paper is to explain what green growth is and to develop......Climate change and economic growth have gained a substantial amount of attention over the last decade. Hence, in order to unite the two fields of interest, the concept of green growth has evolved. The concept of green growth focuses on how to achieve growth in environment-dependent sectors, without...... a conceptual framework. Furthermore, the aim is to show that a large green growth potential actually exists in fisheries and to show how this potential can be achieved. The potential green growth appears as value-added instead of production growth. The potential can be achieved by reducing overcapacity...

  20. Experience and lessons learnt from clearance in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thierfeldt, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    Clearance is an important corner-stone of waste management in nuclear installations in Germany. It has been practised successfully for around two decades. The importance of clearance can also be judged from the fact that it has been included detailedly in the new German Radiation Protection Ordinance. Currently, there are 19 NPPs and a number of fuel cycle installations in operation in Germany. The main waste quantities, however, arise from the dismantling of NPPs and fuel cycle installations which are currently in decommissioning. As most of the decommissioning projects are targeted for early dismantling instead of safe enclosure, there is already considerable experience with the application of clearance procedures and verification of clearance levels. The German waste management strategy is governed by two options: Clearance of the material (after decontamination and release measurement). After clearance, the material is no longer regarded as radioactive in a legal sense. Final disposal of the material as radioactive waste in a deep geological repository (no near-surface disposal facilities exist or are planned in Germany). A deep geological repository is planned to be operable around 2030. Stefan Thierfeldt described German clearance requirements and lessons learned from their application to decommissioning of power reactors. The great majority of the waste was in fact recycled, although the costs were dominated by the small fraction that had to be disposed of as radioactive waste. Among the lessons learned from the German experience were some revealing insights into the public perception of both clearance and of recycling of material from decommissioning of a nuclear installation

  1. Cerebrospinal fluid clearance in Alzheimer disease measured with dynamic PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Leon, Mony J.; Li, Yi; Okamura, Nobuyuki

    2017-01-01

    Evidence supporting the hypothesis that reduced cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) clearance is involved in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer disease (AD) comes primarily from rodent models. However, unlike rodents, in which predominant extracranial CSF egress is via olfactory nerves traversing the cribrif......Evidence supporting the hypothesis that reduced cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) clearance is involved in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer disease (AD) comes primarily from rodent models. However, unlike rodents, in which predominant extracranial CSF egress is via olfactory nerves traversing...

  2. Clearance of insoluble dust from the lower respiratory tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrow, P E; Gibb, F R; Johnson, L

    1964-01-01

    Clearance of tagged heavy metal aerosols (Fe, Hg, Mn, Ba, and U) in female beagles by in vivo counting was assessed. Fecal excretion paralleled lower respiratory tract clearance of Fe. No Fe was found in blood, indicating its biological insolubility. Ultrafiltration tests (an indication of biological solubility) ranked the heavy metals as: Hg, Mn, Fe, and U in order of decreasing solubility. The solubility ratios were remarkably similar to the ratios of inverse biological half-times.

  3. A review and comparison of international exemption and clearance levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, J.R.; Mobbs, S.F.

    1997-01-01

    The publication of new European Basic Safety Standards by the European Commission and of new International Basic Safety Standards by the IAEA together with other international agencies, has led to increased interest in the application of the concepts of exemption and clearance. This paper discusses the derivation of radionuclide-specific exemption and clearance values for application in various areas of the regulation of radioactive materials. (author)

  4. Bronchoscintigraphy and pulmonary clearance of 99mTc-albumin colloid in study of mucociliary clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortensen, Jann

    1998-01-01

    A radioaerosol based method for measuring MC was introduced. It included an inhalation protocol that resulted in a predominant deposition of radioaerosol in the central bronchi and two simple procedures of evaluation: 1) a visual semi-quantitative bronchoscintigraphic analysis, and 2) a quantitative analysis of the retention of the radioactivity at different points after the inhalation. The results showed that bronchoscintigraphy was a simple technique that may be used to visualize a stimulation of mucociliary transport in the central airways of individuals that do not suffer from too much mucus hypersecretion. Comparison of the MC between individuals, however, should preferably be performed by the method of quantitative analysis of the radioactivity disappearance. A change of MC was found to be one of the first detectable effects on lung function of tobacco smoking. It could be effectively detected by measurement of radioaerosol clearance both by bronchoscintigraphy and simple quantification of the MC. The MC may be either acutely enhanced, reduced or not changed by smoking. Long-term smoking impairs MC. The enhancement of MC by β 2 -agonists was very limited in most patients with CF. In the hope of increasing mucus transport in patients with CF, these are treated with various chest physiotherapy techniques. The radioaerosol based method of measurement of MC could assess mucus clearance by chest physiotherapy and cough. (au)

  5. Dynamic characteristics analysis of deployable space structures considering joint clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tuanjie; Guo, Jian; Cao, Yuyan

    2011-04-01

    The clearance in joints influences the dynamic stability and the performance of deployable space structures (DSS). A virtual experimental modal analysis (VEMA) method is proposed to deal with the effects of joint clearance and link flexibility on the dynamic characteristics of the DSS in this paper. The focus is on the finite element modeling of the clearance joint, VEMA and the modal parameters identification of the DSS. The finite element models (FEM) of the clearance joint and the deployable structure are established in ANSYS. The transient dynamic analysis is conducted to provide the time history data of excitation and response for the VEMA. The fast Fourier transform (FFT) technique is used to transform the data from time domain to frequency domain. The frequency response function is calculated to identify the modal parameters of the deployable structure. Experimental verification is provided to indicate the VEMA method is both a cost and time efficient approach to obtain the dynamic characteristics of the DSS. Finally, we analyze the effects of clearance size and gravity on the dynamic characteristics of the DSS. The analysis results indicate that the joint clearance and gravity strongly influence the dynamic characteristics of the DSS.

  6. The tear turnover and tear clearance tests - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaszczuk, Izabela K; Montes Mico, Robert; Iskander, D Robert; Expósito, Alejandro Cerviño

    2018-03-01

    The aim is to provide a summary of methods available for the assessment of tear turnover and tear clearance rates. The review defines tear clearance and tear turnover and describes their implication for ocular surface health. Additionally, it describes main types of techniques for measuring tear turnover, including fluorescein tear clearance tests, techniques utilizing electromagnetic spectrum and tracer molecule and novel experimental techniques utilizing optical coherence tomography and fluorescein profilometry. Areas covered: Internet databases (PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar) and most frequently cited references were used as a principal resource of information on tear turnover rate and tear clearance rate, presenting methodologies and equipment, as well as their definition and implications for the anterior eye surface health and function. Keywords used for data-search were as follows: tear turnover, tear clearance, fluorescein clearance, scintigraphy, fluorophotometry, tear flow, drainage, tear meniscus dynamics, Krehbiel flow and lacrimal functional unit. Expert commentary: After decades, the topic of tear turnover assessment has been reintroduced. Recently, new techniques have been developed to propose less invasive, less time consuming and simpler methodologies for the assessment of tear dynamics that have the potential to be utilized in clinical practice.

  7. Depressed reticuloendothelial clearance of platelets in rats after trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, J E; Moon, D G; Minnear, F L; Saba, T M

    1984-02-01

    Platelet microembolization may contribute to microcirculatory and organ damage following trauma and shock. It is hypothesized that posttraumatic reticuloendothelial depression predisposes to such microembolization by failure to clear altered platelets from the circulation. The present study evaluated the short-term (1 h) clearance and organ localization of radiolabeled homologous damaged platelets in normal rats and in rats following sublethal Noble-Collip drum trauma. Platelets were collected in citrated platelet-rich plasma from normal rats and labeled with 51Cr in citrated saline. Platelets were altered by repeated centrifugation in protein-free medium. These platelets differed functionally and morphologically from normal platelets. Disappearance of iv injected damaged platelets conformed to a two-compartment exponential clearance. Velocity of clearance in the rapid compartment correlated with hepatic platelet localization, whereas velocity of clearance in the second compartment correlated with splenic platelet localization. Clearance rate of the rapid compartment was depressed at 1 h after trauma and elevated at 24 h. These changes were associated with a decrease in hepatic platelet localization at 1 h and an increase above normal at 24 h. Splenic platelet localization was decreased by 3 h following trauma. Pulmonary platelet localization was increased at all times following trauma. It is concluded that the posttrauma state is associated with a defect in the reticuloendothelial system clearance of altered platelets, which may augment embolization of platelets in the lung.

  8. Domiciliary humidification improves lung mucociliary clearance in patients with bronchiectasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasani, A; Chapman, T H; McCool, D; Smith, R E; Dilworth, J P; Agnew, J E

    2008-01-01

    Inspired air humidification has been reported to show some benefit in bronchiectatic patients. We have investigated the possibility that one effect might be to enhance mucociliary clearance. Such enhancement might, if it occurs, help to lessen the risks of recurrent infective episodes. Using a radioaerosol technique, we measured lung mucociliary clearance before and after 7 days of domiciliary humidification. Patients inhaled high flow saturated air at 37 degrees C via a patient-operated humidification nasal inhalation system for 3 h per day. We assessed tracheobronchial mucociliary clearance from the retention of (99m)Tc-labelled polystyrene tracer particles monitored for 6 h, with a follow-up 24-h reading. Ten out of 14 initially recruited patients (age 37-75 years; seven females) completed the study (two withdrew after their initial screening and two prior to the initial clearance test). Seven patients studied were non-smokers; three were ex-smokers (1-9 pack-years). Initial tracer radioaerosol distribution was closely similar between pre- and post-treatment. Following humidification, lung mucociliary clearance significantly improved, the area under the tracheobronchial retention curve decreased from 319 +/- 50 to 271 +/- 46%h (p humidification treatment improved lung mucociliary clearance in our bronchiectatic patients. Given this finding plus increasing laboratory and clinical interest in humidification mechanisms and effects, we believe further clinical trials of humidification therapy are desirable, coupled with analysis of humidification effects on mucus properties and transport.

  9. Green electricity buyer's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, B.; Klein, S.; Olivastri, B.

    2002-06-01

    The electricity produced in whole or in large part from renewable energy sources like wind, small hydro electricity and solar energy, is generally referred to as green electricity. The authors designed this buyer's guide to assist customers in their understanding of green electricity, as the customers can now choose their electricity supplier. The considerations and steps involved in the purchasse of green electricity are identified, and advice is provided on ways to maximize the benefits from the purchase of green electricity. In Alberta and Ontario, customers have access to a competitive electricity market. The emphasis when developing this guide was placed firmly on the large buyers, as they can have enormous positive influence on the new market for green electricity. The first chapter of the document provides general information on green electricity. In chapter two, the authors explore the opportunity for environmental leadership. Chapter three reviews the basics of green electricity, which provides the link to chapter four dealing with the creation of a policy. Purchasing green electricity is dealt with in Chapter five, and maximizing the benefits of green electricity are examined in Chapter Six. 24 refs., 3 tabs

  10. GREEN PACKAGING, GREEN PRODUCT, GREEN ADVERTISING, PERSEPSI, DAN MINAT BELI KONSUMEN

    OpenAIRE

    Imam Santoso; Rengganis Fitriani

    2016-01-01

    Environmental problems become one of the strategic issues in achieving global competitiveness. One of the issues is products that are made from environmental friendly materials or known as green product. Furthermore, in green products marketing, the company also uses green packaging and green advertising concept. This study aimed to analyze the effect of green packaging, green products, and green advertising on consumer perception and purchasing intention. The study was conducted in Ketawangg...

  11. Modified Augmented Renal Clearance Score Predicts Rapid Piperacillin and Tazobactam Clearance in Critically Ill Surgery and Trauma Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-24

    collision; VAP , ventilator-associated pneumonia. TABLE 2. PK Parameter Estimates for Free Piperacillin and Tazobactam in Patients Stratified by ARC Score...SOFA score are typically generated during routine care of the most severely ill patients . Positive screening test results (high ARC scores) can be...Modified Augmented Renal Clearance score predicts rapid piperacillin and tazobactam clearance in critically ill surgery and trauma patients Kevin S

  12. Customers’ Intention to Use Green Products: the Impact of Green Brand Dimensions and Green Perceived Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doszhanov Aibek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the relationships between green brand dimension (green brand awareness, green brand image, and green brand trust, green perceived value and customer’s intention to use green products. Data was collected through structured survey questionnaire from 384 customers of three hypermarkets in Kuala-Lumpur. Data was analyzed based on multiple regression analysis. The results indicate that there are significant relationships between green brand awareness, green brand trust, green perceived value, and customer’s intention to use green products. However, green brand image was not found to have significant relationship with customer’s intention to use green products. The discussion presented suggestions for marketers and researchers interested in green branding.

  13. Greening the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Norma Velia

    2011-01-01

    Because educators vicariously touch the future through their students, the author believes that they sometimes have the uncanny ability to see the future. One common future forecast is the phenomenal growth of green jobs in the emerging green economy, leading to the creation of the "Reach of the Sun" Solar Energy Academy at La Mirada…

  14. Green Buildings and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Joseph G; MacNaughton, Piers; Laurent, Jose Guillermo Cedeno; Flanigan, Skye S; Eitland, Erika Sita; Spengler, John D

    2015-09-01

    Green building design is becoming broadly adopted, with one green building standard reporting over 3.5 billion square feet certified to date. By definition, green buildings focus on minimizing impacts to the environment through reductions in energy usage, water usage, and minimizing environmental disturbances from the building site. Also by definition, but perhaps less widely recognized, green buildings aim to improve human health through design of healthy indoor environments. The benefits related to reduced energy and water consumption are well-documented, but the potential human health benefits of green buildings are only recently being investigated. The objective of our review was to examine the state of evidence on green building design as it specifically relates to indoor environmental quality and human health. Overall, the initial scientific evidence indicates better indoor environmental quality in green buildings versus non-green buildings, with direct benefits to human health for occupants of those buildings. A limitation of much of the research to date is the reliance on indirect, lagging and subjective measures of health. To address this, we propose a framework for identifying direct, objective and leading "Health Performance Indicators" for use in future studies of buildings and health.

  15. Green product innovation strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, P.H.

    2005-01-01

    Over the last decades, companies have started to incorporate green issues in product innovation strategies. This dissertation studies green product innovation strategy, its antecedents and its outcomes. A three-stage approach is followed. In the first stage, the topic is explored and a preliminary

  16. Green for rarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raal, F.A.; Robinson, D.N.

    1980-01-01

    Green diamonds once recovered from Witwatersrand gold/uranium deposits, are now a thing of the past with the modernisation of extraction metallurgy methods. The green colouration has been shown to be due to radiation from uranium present in the ore

  17. Green Building Research Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sailor, David Jean [Portland State Univ., Portland, OR (United States)

    2013-12-29

    This project provided support to the Green Building Research Laboratory at Portland State University (PSU) so it could work with researchers and industry to solve technical problems for the benefit of the green building industry. It also helped to facilitate the development of PSU’s undergraduate and graduate-level training in building science across the curriculum.

  18. Green Cleaning Label Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balek, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Green cleaning plays a significant and supportive role in helping education institutions meet their sustainability goals. However, identifying cleaning products, supplies and equipment that truly are environmentally preferable can be daunting. The marketplace is inundated with products and services purporting to be "green" or environmentally…

  19. Introduction: Experimental Green Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Terri

    2011-01-01

    Defining new ways in which archietcts are responding to the challenge of creating sustainable architecture , Experimental Green Strategies present a state of the art in applied ecological architectural research.......Defining new ways in which archietcts are responding to the challenge of creating sustainable architecture , Experimental Green Strategies present a state of the art in applied ecological architectural research....

  20. Respiratory clearance of aerosolized radioactive solutes of varying molecular weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huchon, G.J.; Montgomery, A.B.; Lipavsky, A.; Hoeffel, J.M.; Murray, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    To determine the influence of varying molecular weight (mol wt) on respiratory clearance of aerosolized solutes, we studied eight radiopharmaceuticals, each administered to four dogs: sodium /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate (TcO4), /sup 99m/Tc glucoheptonate ([/sup 99m/Tc]GH), 51Cr-ethylenedinitrotetraacetate ([51Cr]EDTA), /sup 99m/Tc diethylenetriaminepentaacetate ([99mTc] DTPA), 111 In diethylenetriaminepentaacetate ([ 111 In]DTPA), 67 Ga desferoxaminemesylate ([ 67 Ga]DFOM), /sup 99m/Tc dextran ([/sup 99m/Tc]DX) and 111 In transferrin ([ 111 In]TF). After aerosolization (0.8 m MMD, 2.4 GSD), clearance was determined for 30 min and then corrected by intravenous injection for nonairspace radioactivity. In-TF clearance (0.11 +/- 0.10%/min) was lower than TcO4 (6.32 +/- 0.62%/min), [/sup 99m/Tc]GH (1.50 +/- 0.37%/min), [ 51 Cr]EDTA (2.38 +/- 1.02%/min), [/sup 99m/Tc]DTPA (3.51 +/- 0.40%/min), [ 111 In]DTPA (2.35 +/- 0.42%/min), [ 67 Ga] DFOM (1.99 +/- 0.49%/min) and [/sup 99m/Tc]DX (1.81 +/- 0.75%/min) clearances (p less than 0.001). TcO4 clearance was higher than others (p less than 0.001). Technetium binding to DX was unsatisfactory; aerosolization caused unbinding from DTPA. We conclude that respiratory clearance of large mol wt solutes within 30 min is negligible and, that clearance of molecules between 347-5099 daltons differs greatly, suggesting that binding and/or intrapulmonary retention affect transfer

  1. Green heterogeneous wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ismail, Muhammad; Nee, Hans-Peter; Qaraqe, Khalid A; Serpedin, Erchin

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on the emerging research topic "green (energy efficient) wireless networks" which has drawn huge attention recently from both academia and industry. This topic is highly motivated due to important environmental, financial, and quality-of-experience (QoE) considerations. Specifically, the high energy consumption of the wireless networks manifests in approximately 2% of all CO2 emissions worldwide. This book presents the authors’ visions and solutions for deployment of energy efficient (green) heterogeneous wireless communication networks. The book consists of three major parts. The first part provides an introduction to the "green networks" concept, the second part targets the green multi-homing resource allocation problem, and the third chapter presents a novel deployment of device-to-device (D2D) communications and its successful integration in Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets). The book is novel in that it specifically targets green networking in a heterogeneous wireless medium, which re...

  2. Building the green way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Charles

    2006-06-01

    Just five or six years ago, the term "green building" evoked visions of barefoot, tie-dyed, granola-munching denizens. There's been a large shift in perception. Of course, green buildings are still known for conserving natural resources by, for example, minimizing on-site grading, using alternative materials, and recycling construction waste. But people now see the financial advantages as well. Well-designed green buildings yield lower utility costs, greater employee productivity, less absenteeism, and stronger attraction and retention of workers than standard buildings do. Green materials, mechanical systems, and furnishings have become more widely available and considerably less expensive than they used to be-often cheaper than their standard counterparts. So building green is no longer a pricey experiment; just about any company can do it on a standard budget by following the ten rules outlined by the author. Reliable building-rating systems like the U.S. Green Building Council's rigorous Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program have done much to underscore the benefits of green construction. LEED evaluates buildings and awards points in several areas, such as water efficiency and indoor environmental quality. Other rating programs include the UK's BREEAM (Building Research Establishment's Environmental Assessment Method) and Australia's Green Star. Green construction is not simply getting more respect; it is rapidly becoming a necessity as corporations push it fully into the mainstream over the next five to ten years. In fact, the author says, the owners of standard buildings face massive obsolescence. To avoid this problem, they should carry out green renovations. Corporations no longer have an excuse for eschewing environmental and economic sustainability. They have at their disposal tools proven to lower overhead costs, improve productivity, and strengthen the bottom line.

  3. Clarkesville Green Infrastructure Implementation Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report outlines the 2012 technical assistance for Clarkesville, GA to develop a Green Infrastructure Implementation Strategy, which provides the basic building blocks for a green infrastructure plan:

  4. Approaches towards establishing of clearance levels in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumitani, N.; Watanabe, I.; Okoshi, M.

    1998-01-01

    It is important to establish necessary regulatory systems for decommissioning waste management, especially to establish clearance levels from regulatory control. To establish the regulatory systems, the Nuclear Safety Commission (NSC) has been discussing the unconditional clearance levels for materials from nuclear reactors since May 1997. The NSC tries to derive unconditional clearance levels for the materials such as concrete and ferrous metal, arising from nuclear reactor decommissioning. In the derivation, both disposal and recycle/reuse of the materials are considered. Typical scenarios and parameter values for dose estimation are selected considering the Japanese natural and social conditions. Preliminary clearance levels were derived from 10 μSv/yr of individual dose criterion and deterministic analysis. For most radionuclides, the preliminary results are the same order of magnitude recommended in IAEA-TECDOC-855. Some radionuclides such as β emitters, however, are different order of magnitude from those recommended in IAEA-TECDOC-855. It is necessary that international organizations lead the discussions on the clearance levels to conclude final consensus. (author)

  5. Predicting Human Clearance of OATP substrates using Cynomolgus monkey: In vitro-in vivo scaling of hepatic uptake clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruyn, Tom; Ufuk, Ayse; Cantrill, Carina; Kosa, Rachel E; Bi, Yi-An; Niosi, Mark; Modi, Sweta; Rodrigues, A David; Tremaine, Larry M; Varma, Manthena Vs; Galetin, Aleksandra; Houston, J Brian

    2018-05-02

    This work explores the utility of the cynomolgus monkey as a preclinical model to predict hepatic uptake clearance mediated by organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) transporters. Nine OATP substrates (rosuvastatin, pravastatin, repaglinide, fexofenadine, cerivastatin, telmisartan, pitavastatin, bosentan and valsartan) were investigated in plated cynomolgus monkey and human hepatocytes. Total uptake clearance and passive diffusion were measured in vitro from initial rates in the absence and presence of the OATP inhibitor rifamycin SV, respectively. Total uptake clearance values in plated hepatocytes ranged over three orders of magnitude in both species with a similar rank order and good agreement in the relative contribution of active transport to total uptake between cynomolgus monkey and human. In vivo hepatic clearance for these nine drugs was determined in cynomolgus monkey after intravenous dosing. Hepatic clearances showed a similar range to human parameters and good predictions from respective hepatocyte parameters (with 2.7 and 3.8-fold bias on average, respectively). The use of cross species empirical scaling factors (based on either dataset average or individual drug scaling factor from cynomolgus monkey data) improved prediction (less bias, better concordance) of human hepatic clearance from human hepatocyte data alone. In vitro intracellular binding in hepatocytes also correlated well between species. It is concluded that the minimal species differences observed for the current dataset between cynomolgus monkey and human hepatocyte uptake, both in vitro and in vivo, support future use of this preclinical model to delineate drug hepatic uptake and enable prediction of human in vivo intrinsic hepatic clearance. The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  6. Selling the green dream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, E.

    2005-01-01

    The article discusses the marketing and sales of energy generated from renewable energy sources. To purchase environmental energy in the USA, the consumer need do no more than tick a box on a sheet of paper. But, it is not just households that opt for green energy: businesses are also willing customers. A factor in the success in selling green energy to big business is that the retail price of wind power can be held constant over periods of several years, whereas fossil fuel prices can fluctuate wildly. Details of sources and sales of the top ten companies selling green energy are given

  7. Manufacturing Green Consensus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulsrud, Natalie Marie; Ooi, Can Seng

    2014-01-01

    In an increasingly global economy, being green, or having an environmentally sustainbale place brand, provides a competitive advantage. Singapore, long known as the ``garden city´´ has been a leader in green city imaging since the founding of the equatorial city-state, contributing, in large part...... to the city’s profile as the economic giant of Southeast Asia. Using a political ecology lens, the paper aims to uncover the contested socio-economic narratives of green city imaging by examining the evolution of the garden city branding scheme since Singapore’s independence in 1959. Results show...

  8. About green political parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlović Slobodan P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the author refers to some legal and political questions in connection with green political parties. Those questions cover: the ideology of green political parties, their number and influence, both in general and in Serbia. The first part of work is generally speaking about political parties - their definition, ideology, role and action. Main thesis in this work is that green political parties, by their appearance, were something new on the political scene. But quickly, because of objective and subjective reasons, they were changing original ideas and were beginning to resemble to all other political parties. In this way, they lost their vanguard and political alternativeness.

  9. Scan Manifestations and Blood Clearance Rates in Typhoid Liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahk, Yong Whee; Ahn, Jae Sung; Kim, Soon Hi

    1970-01-01

    Fourteen patients with typhoid fever studied by scanning and clearance-rate measurements of subcritical dose colloidal radiogold ( 198 Au). Mild to moderate enlargement of the liver and spleen was noted in 78.6 and 64.3 percent of patients, respectively; and splenic and spinal bone-marrow uptake was seen in 78.6 and 57.1 percent of cases, respectively. Typically, these scan changes occurred concomitantly (57.1%) and are considered to represent increased phagocytic activity of the RE cells which is characteristic of typhoid fever. The half clearance-time was significantly shortened during the first 10-day period of the illness indicating an increase in the hepatic blood in the early phase of typhoid infection. Hepatomegaly, splenomegaly and extrahepatic uptakes along with an accelerated (or less a normal) clearance time are characteristic of typhoid fever.

  10. Scan Manifestations and Blood Clearance Rates in Typhoid Liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Yong Whee; Ahn, Jae Sung; Kim, Soon Hi [St. Mary' s Hospital, Catholic Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1970-09-15

    Fourteen patients with typhoid fever studied by scanning and clearance-rate measurements of subcritical dose colloidal radiogold ({sup 198}Au). Mild to moderate enlargement of the liver and spleen was noted in 78.6 and 64.3 percent of patients, respectively; and splenic and spinal bone-marrow uptake was seen in 78.6 and 57.1 percent of cases, respectively. Typically, these scan changes occurred concomitantly (57.1%) and are considered to represent increased phagocytic activity of the RE cells which is characteristic of typhoid fever. The half clearance-time was significantly shortened during the first 10-day period of the illness indicating an increase in the hepatic blood in the early phase of typhoid infection. Hepatomegaly, splenomegaly and extrahepatic uptakes along with an accelerated (or less a normal) clearance time are characteristic of typhoid fever.

  11. HPT Clearance Control: Intelligent Engine Systems-Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The following work has been completed to satisfy the Phase I Deliverables for the "HPT Clearance Control" project under NASA GRC's "Intelligent Engine Systems" program: (1) Need for the development of an advanced HPT ACC system has been very clearly laid out, (2) Several existing and potential clearance control systems have been reviewed, (3) A scorecard has been developed to document the system, performance (fuel burn, range, payload, etc.), thermal, and mechanical characteristics of the existing clearance control systems, (4) Engine size and flight cycle selection for the advanced HPT ACC system has been reviewed with "large engine"/"long range mission" combination showing the most benefit, (5) A scoring criteria has been developed to tie together performance parameters for an objective, data driven comparison of competing systems, and (6) The existing HPT ACC systems have been scored based on this scoring system.

  12. Clearance potential of ITER vacuum vessel activated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepraga, D.G.; Cambi, G.; Frisoni, M.

    2002-01-01

    To demonstrate fusion's environmental attractiveness over the entire life cycle, a waste analysis is mandatory. The clearance is recommended by IAEA for releasing activated solid materials from regulatory control and for waste management policy. The paper focuses on the approach used to support waste analyses for ITER Generic Site Safety Report. The Material Unconditional Clearance Index of all the materials/zones on the equatorial mid-plane of ITER machine have been evaluated, based on IAEA-TECDOC-855. The Bonami-Nitawl-XSDNRPM sequence of the Scale-4.4a code system (using Vitenea-J library) has been firstly used for radiation transport analyses. Then the Anita-2000 code package is used for the activation calculation. The paper presents also, as an example, an application of the clearance indexes estimation for the ITER vacuum vessel materials. The results of the Anita-2000 have been compared with those obtained using the Fispact-99 activation code. (author)

  13. APPLICATION OF DSM IN OBSTACLE CLEARANCE SURVEYING OF AERODROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Qiao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Compared to the wide use of digital elevation model (DEM, digital surface model (DSM receives less attention because that it is composed by not only terrain surface, but also vegetations and man-made objects which are usually regarded as useless information. Nevertheless, these objects are useful for the identification of obstacles around an aerodrome. The primary objective of the study was to determine the applicability of DSM in obstacle clearance surveying of aerodrome. According to the requirements of obstacle clearance surveying at QT airport, aerial and satellite imagery were used to generate DSM, by means of photogrammetry, which was spatially analyzed with the hypothetical 3D obstacle limitation surfaces (OLS to identify the potential obstacles. Field surveying was then carried out to retrieve the accurate horizontal position and height of the obstacles. The results proved that the application of DSM could make considerable improvement in the efficiency of obstacle clearance surveying of aerodrome.

  14. Regulation Concepts for Clearance Level of Radionuclide in Solid Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanang Triagung Edi Hermawan

    2008-01-01

    Practices of nuclear energy have expanded in some fields such as researches and development, educations, agricultures, medicines and industries. Every practice beside give much benefit, could generate residue or waste. Radioactive waste needs management to ensure the safety of workers, member of the public, and for the eternal of environment. The product of radioactive waste management, in generally, is some containment of radionuclide concentration in solid matrix material after immobilization or conditioning process. Some kind of processed radioactive wastes with short half live then decay faster to stabile condition. The decay will reach clearance level in sometimes, so from the radiation protection views is harmless. This materials above didn’t need control and must be cleared from all determinate and regulation aspects of radioactive material practices. There is clearance for harmless material off course will be simplify management task and efficiency of money. So the regulation about clearance levels will be important as law basic for technical practices in field. (author)

  15. Exaggerated natriuresis and lithium clearance in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Kanters, J K; Leyssac, P P

    1988-01-01

    Since hypertension is associated with changes in the handling of various cations (including sodium and lithium) across the cell membrane, the present study investigated the validity of the lithium clearance method in hypertension by comparing two measures of proximal reabsorption. Thus, fractional...... lithium excretion and transit time (TT)-occlusion time (OT; e-TT/T) were determined successively in the same spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR, Okamoto strain). The rats were examined both before and after an acute saline load. The results show that the lithium clearance method can be used...... for the determination of proximal reabsorption in SHR. Utilizing the lithium clearance method, the changes in renal sodium handling underlying the exaggerated natriuresis were investigated in unanaesthetized catheterized rats. It was found that the exaggerated natriuresis was associated with an increased output from...

  16. Kinematics Simulation Analysis of Packaging Robot with Joint Clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y. W.; Meng, W. J.; Wang, L. Q.; Cui, G. H.

    2018-03-01

    Considering the influence of joint clearance on the motion error, repeated positioning accuracy and overall position of the machine, this paper presents simulation analysis of a packaging robot — 2 degrees of freedom(DOF) planar parallel robot based on the characteristics of high precision and fast speed of packaging equipment. The motion constraint equation of the mechanism is established, and the analysis and simulation of the motion error are carried out in the case of turning the revolute clearance. The simulation results show that the size of the joint clearance will affect the movement accuracy and packaging efficiency of the packaging robot. The analysis provides a reference point of view for the packaging equipment design and selection criteria and has a great significance on the packaging industry automation.

  17. Sustainable green urban planning: the Green Credit Tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cilliers, E.J.; Diemont, E.; Stobbelaar, D.J.; Timmermans, W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The Green Credit Tool is evaluated as a method to quantify the value of green-spaces and to determine how these green-space-values can be replaced or compensated for within urban spatial planning projects. Design/methodology/approach – Amersfoort Local Municipality created the Green Credit

  18. Nuclear security. DOE actions to improve the personnel clearance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fultz, Keith O.; Bannerman, Carl J.; Daniel, Beverly A.

    1988-11-01

    The status of the Department of Energy's (DOE) implementation of recommendations in our two reports on DOE's personnel security clearance program was determined. The recommendations were aimed at improving the timeliness, accuracy, and efficiency of personnel security clearance decisions. Specifically, the objective was to determine and report on steps DOE is taking to implement these recommendations. In summary, it was found that DOE has either initiated action or is studying ways to address all the recommendations, but none of the recommendations have been completely implemented. The effectiveness of the DOE actions will depend, in part, on the adequacy of its internal control system for overseeing and evaluating program operations. DOE's personnel security clearance program is intended to provide reasonable assurance that personnel with access to classified information and materials are trustworthy. The Department requests that the Office of Personnel Management or the Federal Bureau of Investigation collect personal data on each person who requires such access to do his or her job. Based on these background investigations, DOE officials authorize individuals whose personal histories indicate that they are trustworthy to have access to classified information, secured facilities, and controlled materials as needed to perform their jobs. DOE has five types of these authorizations or personnel security clearances and must update information on personnel holding each type at 5-year intervals to confirm their continuing reliability. The five types are based on the types of security interests to which the person needs access, e.g., persons needing nuclear weapons-related data must have a Q clearance, and persons with a top secret clearance can have access to national security data classified as top secret

  19. Clearance of the cervical spine in clinically unevaluable trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Casey H; Milby, Andrew H; Guo, Wensheng; Schuster, James M; Gracias, Vicente H; Stein, Sherman C

    2010-08-15

    Meta-analytic costeffectiveness analysis. Our goal was to compare the results of different management strategies for trauma patients in whom the cervical spine was not clinically evaluable due to impaired consciousness, endotracheal intubation, or painful distracting injuries. We performed a structured literature review related to cervical spine trauma, radiographic clearance techniques (plain radiography, flexion/extension, CT, and MRI), and complications associated with semirigid collar use. Meta-analytic techniques were used to pool data from multiple sources to calculate pooled mean estimates of sensitivities and specificities of imaging techniques for cervical spinal clearance, rates of complications from various clearance strategies and from empirical use of semirigid collars. A decision analysis model was used to compare outcomes and costs among these strategies. Slightly more than 7.5% of patients who are clinically unevaluable have cervical spine injuries, and 42% of these injuries are associated with spinal instability. Sensitivity of plain radiography or fluoroscopy for spinal clearance was 57% (95% CI: 57%-60%). Sensitivities for CT and MRI alone were 83% (82%-84%) and 87% (84%-89%), respectively. Complications associated with collar use ranged from 1.3% (2 days) to 7.1% (10 days) but were usually minor and short-lived. Quadriplegia resulting from spinal instability missed by a clearance test had enormous impacts on longevity, quality of life, and costs. These impacts overshadowed the effects of prolonged collar application, even when the incidence of quadriplegia was extremely low. As currently used, neuroimaging studies for cervical spinal clearance in clinically unevaluable patients are not cost-effective compared with empirical immobilization in a semirigid collar.

  20. Clearance of slightly radioactive material from radiological control in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thierfeldt, S.

    1995-01-01

    Clearance from radiological control of slightly radioactive material arising from operation or decommissioning of nuclear installations has been practiced in Germany for nearly two decades. Meanwhile, for the clearance of metal generally approved and applicable recommendations for clearance levels have been issued. For other materials like building waste, case-by-case decisions are made by the state licensing authorities. Efforts to implement consistent sets of clearance levels for all kinds of material are under way. As several decommissioning projects will soon generate large amounts of materials from dismantling, a solution needs to be reached soon. The legal framework in Germany governing the use of atomic energy consists of the Atomic Energy Act and several ordinances. Rules and guidelines including the recommendations of the German Commission for Radiation Protection (SSK) exist on a lower level and are not legally binding. Several generic studies for the derivation of clearance levels for metals and building debris with alpha, beta, and gamma contamination have been performed on behalf of the Federal Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, which oriented themselves on an individual dose of 10 microSv/a in agreement with IAEA recommendations. Stochastic models have been used for establishing the connection between specific activity of the material to be released and the resulting individual doses, with significant advantages over deterministic scenarios. In the future, for new SSK recommendations or an ordinance on clearance, the increase of masses from demolition of installations, higher recycling rates in the conventional sector and harmonization with international regulations and standards have to be taken into account

  1. Determining vancomycin clearance in an overweight and obese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Julie V B; Boro, Maureen S; Winter, Michaele

    2011-04-01

    Two methods of calculating vancomycin clearance were compared to determine the best body weight measure to use when dosing vancomycin for overweight and obese patients. Hospitalized veterans weighing more than 120% of their ideal body weight (IBW) with serum vancomycin concentrations (SVCs) drawn between January 1, 2003, and June 30, 2005, were eligible for study inclusion. Exclusion criteria included weight of more than 300% the IBW, unstable renal function, dialysis, uncertain vancomycin dosing or sampling times, and distribution-phase sampling. Data from January 1 through December 31, 2003 (phase 1) determined the best-fit weight for vancomycin clearance for the Leonard and Boro method. The bias and precision of the modified Leonard and Boro method using the best-fit weight for vancomycin clearance were then compared with those of the Rushing and Ambrose method for predicting SVCs from January 1, 2004, through June 30, 2005 (phase 2). Forty-eight patients were included in phase 1, with 67 SVCs for analysis. During phase 1, adjusted body weight (ABW), using the Leonard and Boro method, was superior in predicting vancomycin clearance and the resultant SVCs. A total of 96 patients were included in phase 2 of the study, with 160 SVCs for analysis. The modified Leonard and Boro method was significantly more precise than the Rushing and Ambrose method in predicting vancomycin clearance. Use of ABW proved to be superior compared with total body weight when estimating vancomycin clearance in overweight and obese patients. While there was no difference in bias between methods, the modified Leonard and Boro method was significantly more precise than the Rushing and Ambrose method in predicting SVCs when dosing vancomycin for obese patients.

  2. Acute exposure to acid fog. Effects on mucociliary clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laube, B.L.; Bowes, S.M. III; Links, J.M.; Thomas, K.K.; Frank, R.

    1993-01-01

    Submicrometric sulfuric acid (H2SO4) aerosol can affect mucociliary clearance without eliciting irritative symptoms or changes in pulmonary function. The effect of larger fog droplets containing H2SO4 on mucociliary clearance is unknown. We quantified mucociliary clearance from the trachea (n = 4) and small airways (n = 7) of young healthy male adults after an acute exposure to H2SO4 fog (MMAD = 10.3 microns; pH = 2.0; liquid water content = 481 +/- 65 mg/m3; osmolarity = 30 mOsm). Acid fog (AF) or saline fog (SF) (10.9 microns; 492 +/- 116 mg/m3; 30 mOsm) was administered for 40 min of unencumbered breathing (no mouth-piece) at rest and for 20 min of exercise sufficient to produce oronasal breathing. Fog exposures were followed by a methacholine (MCh) challenge (a measure of airway reactivity) or inhalation of technetium-99M radioaerosol (MMAD = 3.4 microns) on 2 study days each. Changes in symptoms and forced ventilatory function were also assessed. Clearance was quantified from computer-assisted analyses of gamma camera images of the lower respiratory tract in terms of %removal/min of the radiolabel from the trachea 25 min after inhalation and from the outer zone of the right lung after 1.9 to 3 h. Symptoms, forced ventilatory function, and MCh response were unaffected by either fog. Tracheal clearance was more rapid in four of four subjects after AF (0.83 +/- 1.58% removal/min) compared with that after SF (-0.54 +/- 0.85% removal/min). Outer zone clearance was more rapid in six of seven subjects after AF (0.22 +/- 0.15% removal/min) compared with that after SF (0.01 +/- 0.09% removal/min)

  3. Mucociliary clearance, airway inflammation and nasal symptoms in urban motorcyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza C.S. Brant

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: There is evidence that outdoor workers exposed to high levels of air pollution exhibit airway inflammation and increased airway symptoms. We hypothesized that these workers would experience increased airway symptoms and decreased nasal mucociliary clearance associated with their exposure to air pollution. METHODS: In total, 25 non-smoking commercial motorcyclists, aged 18-44 years, were included in this study. These drivers work 8-12 hours per day, 5 days per week, driving on urban streets. Nasal mucociliary clearance was measured by the saccharine transit test; airway acidification was measured by assessing the pH of exhaled breath condensate; and airway symptoms were measured by the Sino-nasal Outcome Test-20 questionnaire. To assess personal air pollution exposure, the subjects used a passive-diffusion nitrogen dioxide (NO2 concentration-monitoring system during the 14 days before each assessment. The associations between NO2 and the airway outcomes were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test and the Chi-Square test. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01976039. RESULTS: Compared with clearance in healthy adult males, mucociliary clearance was decreased in 32% of the motorcyclists. Additionally, 64% of the motorcyclists had airway acidification and 92% experienced airway symptoms. The median personal NO2 exposure level was 75 mg/m3 for these subjects and a significant association was observed between NO2 and impaired mucociliary clearance (p = 0.036. CONCLUSION: Non-smoking commercial motorcyclists exhibit increased airway symptoms and airway acidification as well as decreased nasal mucociliary clearance, all of which are significantly associated with the amount of exposure to air pollution.

  4. Further training in the fields of radiological characterisation and clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bothe, M.; Feinhals, J.; Neukaeter, E.

    2016-01-01

    Radiological characterisation and clearance require specific knowledge and skills. Targeted further training of the staff is one possibility to get this knowledge and skills. A modular concept was established, which allows adaption to specific requests of the institution and state of knowledge and skills of participants. The modules have following focuses: ''radiological characterisation and clearance'', ''sampling'' and ''measurement and sampling plans'' and consist half-and-half of lectures and group works. In group works participants apply new knowledge to examples of the installation or simulated scenarios and afterwards they present and discuss the results. This concept was carried out for different institutions and is planned for some more.

  5. Derivation methods for clearance levels applied to reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okoshi, Minoru; Seki, Takeo

    2001-01-01

    In order to support the discussion by the Nuclear Safety Commission, JAERI derived the unconditional clearance levels for concrete and metal arising from the operation and dismantling of nuclear reactors. The clearance levels of 20 radionuclides were derived from 10 μSv/y of individual doses by deterministic approach. In this approach, calculation models were established to assess individual doses resulting from 73 exposure pathways related to disposal and recycle/reuse, and realistic parameter values were selected considering Japanese natural and social conditions. The appropriateness of selected parameter values was confirmed by stochastic analyses. (author)

  6. The influence of body posture on lithium clearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Strandgaard, S; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1988-01-01

    measured four times at 1-week intervals: two in the supine and one in the sitting position, and one when the subject was walking around. Glomerular filtration rate was not influenced by posture changes. On the contrary, lithium clearance, which in the supine position was 30 +/- 9 ml/min (1 SD), tended...... during moderate physical activity. Hence, when renal tubular function is studied with the lithium clearance method, standardization of posture and physical activity is important. In such studies physical activity such as walking should particularly be avoided....

  7. TAM receptors in apoptotic cell clearance, autoimmunity, and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Khanh-Quynh; Tsou, Wen-I; Kotenko, Sergei; Birge, Raymond B

    2013-08-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases, Tyro-3, Axl and Mer, collectively designated as TAM, are involved in the clearance of apoptotic cells. TAM ligands, Gas6 and Protein S, bind to the surfaces of apoptotic cells, and at the same time, interact directly with TAM expressed on phagocytes, impacting the engulfment and clearance of apoptotic cells and debris. The well-tuned and balanced actions of TAM may affect a variety of human pathologies including autoimmunity, retinal degeneration, and cancer. This article emphasizes some of the emerging findings and mechanistic insights into TAM functions that are clinically relevant and possibly therapeutically targeted.

  8. Radioactive clearance discharge of effluent from nuclear and radiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xinhua; Xu Chunyan

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of the basic concepts of radiation safety management system exemption, exclusion and clearance, we expound that the general industrial gaseous and liquid effluent discharges are exempted or excluded, gaseous and liquid effluent discharged from nuclear and radiation facilities are clearance, and non-radioactive. The main purpose of this paper is to clarify the concepts, reach a consensus that the gaseous and liquid effluent discharged from nuclear and radiation facilities are non-radioactive and have no hazard to human health and natural environment. (authors)

  9. Dependence of 'CT clearance' on dosage and time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaltenborn, H.A.; Klose, K.J.; Dexheimer, C.; Steinijans, V.

    1989-01-01

    The contrast medium dose used in CT renal function analysis corresponds to about 1 ml/kg body weight at a measurement interval of 5 or 10 minutes. In the present study the dependence of 'CT clearance' on dosage and time was examined in 12 healthy subjects. The amount of clearance was directly proportional to the employed contrast medium dose and to the length of the measurement interval. On account of the superior signal-to-noise ratio, the higher dose (1 ml/kg body weight) will continue to be prefered in future. The measurement interval can be limited to 10 minutes. (orig.) [de

  10. Green Supplier Selection Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Izabela Ewa; Banaeian, Narges; Golinska, Paulina

    2014-01-01

    Green supplier selection (GSS) criteria arise from an organization inclination to respond to any existing trends in environmental issues related to business management and processes, so GSS is integrating environmental thinking into conventional supplier selection. This research is designed...... to determine prevalent general and environmental supplier selection criteria and develop a framework which can help decision makers to determine and prioritize suitable green supplier selection criteria (general and environmental). In this research we considered several parameters (evaluation objectives......) to establish suitable criteria for GSS such as their production type, requirements, policy and objectives instead of applying common criteria. At first a comprehensive and deep review on prevalent and green supplier selection literatures performed. Then several evaluation objectives defined to assess the green...

  11. Green Building Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many organizations have developed model codes or rating systems that communities may use to develop green building programs or revise building ordinances. Some of the major options are listed on this page.

  12. Introduction: Green Building Handbook

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available By recognising the specific environmental challenges facing South Africa, mindful of the government‘s commitment to reducing South Africa‘s Greenhouse gas emissions, and acknowledging the need to build social cohesion, the Green Building Handbook...

  13. Green certificates causing inconvenience?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torgersen, Lasse

    2002-01-01

    From early 2002, producers of green energy in selected countries have been able to benefit from generous financial support in the Netherlands. Thus, there has been increased sale of green certificates from Norway and Sweden. But the condition that physical energy delivery should accompany the certificates has caused a marked rise in the price of energy in transit through Germany to the Netherlands. This article discusses the green certificate concept and the experience gained from the Netherlands. One conclusion is that if large-scale trade with green certificates is introduced in Europe without the condition of accompanying energy delivery, then producers of hydro-electric power in Norway and Sweden may be the losers

  14. Green space as classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, Peter; Schipperijn, Jasper; Jensen, Frank Søndergaard

    2013-01-01

    More and more Danish teachers have started introducing curriculum-based outdoor learning as a weekly or biweekly ‘outdoor school’ day for school children. This move towards schooling in non-classroom spaces presents a challenge for green space managers. Basic managerial knowledge related to what......, who, when and where has thus far only been supported by anecdotal evidence, but seems fundamental to the decision-making of a range of green space providers. The present study aims to describe, characterise and discuss outdoor teachers’ use, preferences and ecostrategies in relation to green space....... A nationwide survey was conducted among Danish teachers practising outdoor teaching (107 respondents), and it showed that a majority used and preferred forest areas. The outdoor teachers used mainly school grounds and local green space for their outdoor teaching with a majority using the same place or mostly...

  15. Green by Default

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Reisch, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    The article offers information on the two sources of energy including green energy and gray energy. It discusses several facts which includes lower levels of greenhouse gases and conventional pollutants, relationship between economic incentives and underlying preferences and potential effects...

  16. Green Sturgeon Acoustic Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database is used to hold tracking data for green sturgeon tagged in Central California. The data collection began in late 2002 and is ongoing.

  17. Green Turtle Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the critical habitat for green turtle as designated by Federal Register Vol. 63, No. 46701, September 2, 1998, Rules and Regulations.

  18. Green Turtle Trophic Ecology

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — SWFSC is currently conducting a study of green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) trophic ecology in the eastern Pacific. Tissue samples and stable carbon and stable...

  19. Decon Green (trademark)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wagner, George W; Procell, Lawrence R; Henderson, Vikki D; Sorrick, David C; Hess, Zoe A; Gehring, David G; Brickhouse, Mark D

    2004-01-01

    ...; it affords the broad-spectrum decontamination of chemical and biological warfare agents. Composed entirely of ingredients commonly found in cosmetics, detergents, laundry boosters, and vitamins, Decon Green (trademark...

  20. Superfund Green Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green remediation is the practice of considering all environmental effects of site cleanup and incorporating options – like the use of renewable energy resources – to maximize the environmental benefits of cleanups.

  1. ADVANTAGES OF GREEN TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Ghanshyam Das Soni

    2017-01-01

    Technology is application of knowledge to practical requirements. Green technologies encompass various aspects of technology which help us reduce the human impact on the environment and create ways of sustainable development. Social equitability, economic feasibility and sustainability are the key parameters for green technologies. Today the environment is racing towards the tipping point at which we would have done permanent irreversible damage to the planet earth. Our current actions are pu...

  2. What is a green building?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreenegoor, R.C.P.; Krikke, T.; Mierlo, van B.P.; Pluijm, van der W.M.P.; Poortvliet, R.; Hensen, J.L.M.; Loomans, M.G.L.C.

    2009-01-01

    What is a green building? A large amount of definitions and green rating tools prove that an exact definition is still a point of discussion. To research the differences between green rating tools, four different buildings are assessed with: EPN, BREEAM, LEED, GreenCalc+ and EcoQuantum. These tools

  3. The Influence of Proactive Green Innovation and Reactive Green Innovation on Green Product Development Performance: The Mediation Role of Green Creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study fills the research gap in the exploration of the relationships between both proactive and reactive green innovations and green product development performance, and examines the mediating effect of green creativity. Structural equation modeling (SEM is utilized to test the hypotheses. From the sample of 146 valid respondents, the results show that proactive green innovation positively affects green creativity and green product development performance, and green creativity positively affects green product development performance. In addition, our findings also indicate that the relationship between proactive green innovation and green product development performance is partially mediated by green creativity. Accordingly, green creativity plays a critical role for companies to achieve a great green product development performance. However, reactive green innovation does not significantly influence green creativity and green product development performance. Companies should develop proactive green innovation rather than reactive green innovation in order to enhance their green creativity and increase their product development performance.

  4. Decision Assessment of Clearance Level on Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainus Salimin; Gunandjar

    2007-01-01

    Radioactive waste on the safe level activity containing very small radioactive material gives small radiology influence to the human, it is not necessary to control by regulatory body. The radioactive waste on the safe level activity is safe to release as the common waste. For exemption of the control, it is required the safe activity level limits in which the value of clearance level is fulfilled by regulatory body, however until now it is not decided yet. The exemption decision is obtained if its activity is lower than or same with clearance level based on the annual effective dose receiving by public on the value is lower than or same with 0,01 mSv. The exposure pathways of radioactive waste to the human have important role for determination of clearance level. The decision assessment of clearance level on the radioactive waste management has been done by analysis of radioactive exposure pathways to the human for activities of the disposal and the recycle of solid wastes, also the release of liquid and gas effluent. For solid waste disposal, the exposure pathway was evaluated since the transportation of packed waste from the treatment facility to the disposal facility and during its operation. Exposure pathways for solid waste recycle consist of the pathways for handling and transportation of cleared material to the recycling facility, the fabrication and the utilization of its product. Exposure pathways for liquid and gas releases occur since its releases to the environment up to the human (public) by specific traffic lane. (author)

  5. Spontaneous Clearance of Hepatitis C after Liver and Renal Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CH Dale

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV is rare in immunocompromised patients, such as those who have undergone organ transplantation. It has been recognized that patients receiving liver transplantation for HCV-related disease have decreased graft and patient survival compared with those transplanted for other etiologies. There is a growing trend toward treating HCV recurrence aggressively after liver transplantation. For other organ transplant recipients with concurrent HCV, treatment is not often an option, given the high rates of graft rejection and loss secondary to interferon and its immunomodulatory effects. Although spontaneous clearance of HCV has been reported in recipients of solitary liver and renal transplants, a common factor arising in these cases has been previous exposure to interferon. To date, no reports of spontaneous clearance of HCV RNA have been reported in a multiorgan transplant recipient. A case of spontaneous clearance of HCV RNA in an immunocompromised patient, within five months of simultaneous liver and kidney retransplantation is described. Importantly, this patient had no previous exposure to interferon.

  6. Hyperinsulinism and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): role of insulin clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, M C; Vesco, R; Vigneri, E; Ciresi, A; Giordano, C

    2015-12-01

    Insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinism are the predominant metabolic defects in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, hyperinsulinism, as well as being compensatory, can also express a condition of reduced insulin clearance. Our aim was to evaluate the differences in insulin action and metabolism between women with PCOS (with normal glucose tolerance) and age- and BMI-matched women with prediabetes (without hyperandrogenism and ovulatory disorders). 22 women with PCOS and 21 age/BMI-matched women with prediabetes were subjected to a Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp and an Oral Glucose tolerance Test (OGTT). Insulin sensitivity was assessed by the glucose infusion rate during clamp (M value); insulin secretion by Insulinogenic index, Oral Disposition Index (DIo) and AUC(2h-insulin) during OGTT; and insulin clearance by the metabolic clearance rate of insulin (MCRI) during clamp. Women with PCOS showed significantly higher levels of AUC(2h-insulin) (p PCOS [420 (IQR 227-588) vs. 743 (IQR 597-888) ml m(-2) min(-1): p PCOS group, a strong independent inverse correlation was only observed between MCRI and AUC(2h-insulin) (PCOS: β:-0.878; p PCOS there is peripheral insulin sensitivity similar to that of women with prediabetes. What sets PCOS apart is the hyperinsulinism, today still simplistically defined "compensatory"; actually this is mainly related to decreased insulin clearance whose specific causes and dynamics have yet to be clarified.

  7. Royalty Fees Part I: The Copyright Clearance Center and Publishers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiblum, Paula; Ardito, Stephanie C.

    1998-01-01

    Discussion of copyrights, royalty fees, and intellectual property focuses on the Copyright Clearance Center and publishers. Topics include results of a survey of library and information science journal publishers; how users verify royalty fees; how publishers determine fees; royalty fee reporting; and terms and conditions imposed on electronic…

  8. 50 CFR 14.52 - Clearance of imported wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Clearance of imported wildlife. 14.52 Section 14.52 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND...

  9. Online feedback-controlled renal constant infusion clearances in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schock-Kusch, Daniel; Shulhevich, Yury; Xie, Qing; Hesser, Juergen; Stsepankou, Dzmitry; Neudecker, Sabine; Friedemann, Jochen; Koenig, Stefan; Heinrich, Ralf; Hoecklin, Friederike; Pill, Johannes; Gretz, Norbert

    2012-08-01

    Constant infusion clearance techniques using exogenous renal markers are considered the gold standard for assessing the glomerular filtration rate. Here we describe a constant infusion clearance method in rats allowing the real-time monitoring of steady-state conditions using an automated closed-loop approach based on the transcutaneous measurement of the renal marker FITC-sinistrin. In order to optimize parameters to reach steady-state conditions as fast as possible, a Matlab-based simulation tool was established. Based on this, a real-time feedback-regulated approach for constant infusion clearance monitoring was developed. This was validated by determining hourly FITC-sinistrin plasma concentrations and the glomerular filtration rate in healthy and unilaterally nephrectomized rats. The transcutaneously assessed FITC-sinistrin fluorescence signal was found to reflect the plasma concentration. Our method allows the precise determination of the onset of steady-state marker concentration. Moreover, the steady state can be monitored and controlled in real time for several hours. This procedure is simple to perform since no urine samples and only one blood sample are required. Thus, we developed a real-time feedback-based system for optimal regulation and monitoring of a constant infusion clearance technique.

  10. Measuring Clearance Mechanics Based on Dynamic Leg Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamis, Sam; Danino, Barry; Hayek, Shlomo; Carmeli, Eli

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify clearance mechanics during gait. Seventeen children diagnosed with hemiplegic cerebral palsy underwent a three-dimensional gait analysis evaluation. Dynamic leg lengths were measured from the hip joint center to the heel, to the ankle joint center and to the forefoot throughout the gait cycle. Significant…

  11. Dynamic analysis of cross shaft type universal joint with clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Jian Wei; Wang, Gong Cheng; Chen, Hao; Vakakis, Alexander F.; Bergman, Lawrence A.

    2013-01-01

    Cross shaft type universal joint is widely used in ground vehicles to transfer torque between two intersecting axes, and its transmission feature can make a great contribution to NVH performance of the vehicle. We looked at the assembling clearance at cross shaft neck, and presented a dynamic model of cross shaft type universal joint with clearance at cross shaft neck. Two-state model is applied to describe the contact force between the cross shaft and driving joint fork based on Hertz theorem, and lumped mass method is applied to build up the dynamic model of the universal joint. Based on this model, numerical analysis is carried out to discuss the transmission feature of the universal joint with clearance at cross shaft neck, and the influence of clearance on the dynamic behavior of the system is evaluated with numerical results based on time history, power spectrum, and phase portrait. The method and conclusions presented are helpful to improvement of the transmission feature of cross shaft type universal joint.

  12. 75 FR 52798 - State-07, Cryptographic Clearance Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ... Information Programs and Services, A/GIS/ IPS, Department of State, SA-2, 515 22nd Street, NW., Washington, DC... Department of State and Agency for International Development who have applied for cryptographic clearances as... that apply to all of its Privacy Act systems of records. These notices appear in the form of a...

  13. [Airway clearance techniques in chronic obstructive pulmonary syndrome : 2011 update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opdekamp, C

    2011-09-01

    For many years the airway clearance techniques used in chest physical therapy were assimilated with the singular technique of postural drainage, percussions and vibrations. However the side effects and counter indications and the lack of scientific proof regarding this technique have forced reflection and development of other techniques more comfortable and without deleterious effects. If all these techniques show a high efficiency in terms of improved mucociliary clearance, the literature is unanimous on how little effect these techniques have in the short and the long-term with regards to lung function and arterial blood gases. In view of the scientific literature, it is clear that the airway clearance techniques don't have the same recognition concerning their efficiency in all obstructive pulmonary diseases. As the cornerstone in the management of cystic fibrosis, the efficiency of the bronchial hygiene techniques are in general poorly documented in the management of the non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis, bronchitis or emphysema. The use of the chest physical therapy seems more to do with the interpretation of the imagery and symptomatology. The airway clearance techniques should be individualised according to symptoms, the amount of expectorated mucus and the objectives signs of secretions retention or subjective signs of difficulty expectorating secretions with progression of the disease.

  14. 24 CFR 58.22 - Limitations on activities pending clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limitations on activities pending clearance. 58.22 Section 58.22 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing... RESPONSIBILITIES General Policy: Environmental Review Procedures § 58.22 Limitations on activities pending...

  15. Antipyrine clearance during experimental and occupational exposure to toluene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, M; Bælum, Jesper; Lundqvist, G R

    1983-01-01

    into four groups. Eighteen printers and 21 controls were exposed to 100 ppm of toluene during 6.5 hours in an exposure chamber. The remaining 18 printers and 18 controls were exposed to 0 ppm of toluene under similar conditions. The salivary clearance of antipyrine was measured immediately after the stay...

  16. Factors affecting lower calyceal stone clearance after Extracorporeal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is one of the most commonly used procedures to remove renal calculi from the lower calyces. The aim of this work is to study the impact of radiological, anatomical and demographic factors on stone clearance after ESWL of lower calyceal calculi. Patients and ...

  17. 46 CFR 61.20-23 - Tailshaft clearance; bearing weardown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tailshaft clearance; bearing weardown. 61.20-23 Section...; bearing weardown. (a) Water lubricated bearings, other than rubber, must be rebushed as follows: (1) Where the propelling machinery is located amidship, the after stern tube bearing must be rebushed when it is...

  18. The Influence of Environmental Friendliness on Green Trust: The Mediation Effects of Green Satisfaction and Green Perceived Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Chen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As global green trends became more prevalent, green marketing also developed into an important issue. Although prior literature explored the main factors affecting green trust, it was inconclusive as to how environmental friendliness could affect the green trust in green marketing. This study aims to focus on the positive influence of environmental friendliness on green trust, and explore the mediation effects of green satisfaction and green perceived quality. This study undertakes an empirical study by means of questionnaire survey. The respondents are consumers who have experience purchasing green products. This study applies structural equation modeling (SEM to test the hypotheses. The findings of this study indicate that (1 environmental friendliness has a significant positive impact on green satisfaction, green perceived quality, and green trust; (2 both green satisfaction and green perceived quality positively affect green trust; and (3 green satisfaction and green perceived quality partially mediate the positive relationship between environmental friendliness and green trust.

  19. Oxygen Tension Beneath Scleral Lenses of Different Clearances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giasson, Claude J; Morency, Jeanne; Melillo, Marc; Michaud, Langis

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the relative partial pressure in oxygen (pO2) at the corneal surface under Boston XO2 scleral lenses (SL) fitted with targeted clearances of 200 and 400 μm (SL200 and SL400). During this prospective study, the right eyes of eight normal subjects were fitted with SL200 and SL400. Clearance, validated after 5 minutes of wear with an optical coherence tomograph, was used with lens thicknesses to calculate transmissibility and estimate pO2. Corneal pO2s were measured with an oxygen electrode after 5 minutes of (1) corneal exposure to calibrating gases with various pO2 or of (2) SL wear. Decays in pO2 were modeled to an exponential. Linear regression between exponent k of these decays and calibrating gas pO2s allowed for the calculation of corneal pO2 under SL. Differences between pO2s beneath SL200 and SL400 were tested with a mixed ANOVA. The estimated transmissibility based on thicknesses and clearances (239.7 ± 34.7; 434.5 ± 33.2 μm) predicted a corneal pO2 of 8.52 ± 0.51 and 6.37 ± 0.28% for SL200 and SL400. These values were close to measured pO2: 9.07 ± 0.86 and 6.19 ± 0.87% (mean ± SEM) (P time, an 18-mm scleral lens fitted with a 400-μm clearance reduces the oxygen tension available to the cornea by 30% compared to a similar lens fitted with a 200-μm clearance after 5 minutes of wear.

  20. Production of plastic scintillation survey meter for clearance verification measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, Mitsuo; Shiraishi, Kunio; Ishigami, Tsutomu; Tomii, Hiroyuki

    2008-03-01

    In the Nuclear Science Research Institute, the decommissioning of various nuclear facilities is carried out according to the plan for meeting the midterm goal of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). An increase in the clearance verification measurement of concrete on buildings and the radiation measurement for releasing controlled areas will be expected along with the dismantlement of nuclear facilities in the future. The radiation measurement for releasing controlled areas has been carried out in small-scale nuclear facilities including the JPDR (Japan Power Demonstration Reactor). However, the radiation measurement with an existing measuring device was difficult in effects of radiation from radioactive materials that remains in buried piping. On the other hand, there is no experience that the clearance verification measurement is executed in the JAEA. The generation of a large amount of clearance object will be expected along with the decommissioning of the nuclear facilities in the future. The plastic scintillation survey meter (hereafter, 'PL measuring device') was produced to apply to the clearance verification measurement and the radiation measurement for releasing controlled areas. The basic characteristic test and the actual test were confirmed using the PL measuring device. As a result of these tests, it was found that the evaluation value of radioactivity with the PL measuring device was accuracy equal with the existing measuring device. The PL measuring device has feature of the existing measuring device with a light weight and easy operability. The PL measuring device can correct the gamma ray too. The PL measuring device is effective to the clearance verification measurement of concrete on buildings and the radiation measurement for releasing controlled areas. (author)

  1. Impairment of paravascular clearance pathways in the aging brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, Benjamin T; Iliff, Jeffrey J; Xia, Maosheng; Wang, Minghuan; Wei, Helen S; Zeppenfeld, Douglas; Xie, Lulu; Kang, Hongyi; Xu, Qiwu; Liew, Jason A; Plog, Benjamin A; Ding, Fengfei; Deane, Rashid; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2014-12-01

    In the brain, protein waste removal is partly performed by paravascular pathways that facilitate convective exchange of water and soluble contents between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and interstitial fluid (ISF). Several lines of evidence suggest that bulk flow drainage via the glymphatic system is driven by cerebrovascular pulsation, and is dependent on astroglial water channels that line paravascular CSF pathways. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the efficiency of CSF-ISF exchange and interstitial solute clearance is impaired in the aging brain. CSF-ISF exchange was evaluated by in vivo and ex vivo fluorescence microscopy and interstitial solute clearance was evaluated by radiotracer clearance assays in young (2-3 months), middle-aged (10-12 months), and old (18-20 months) wild-type mice. The relationship between age-related changes in the expression of the astrocytic water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and changes in glymphatic pathway function was evaluated by immunofluorescence. Advancing age was associated with a dramatic decline in the efficiency of exchange between the subarachnoid CSF and the brain parenchyma. Relative to the young, clearance of intraparenchymally injected amyloid-β was impaired by 40% in the old mice. A 27% reduction in the vessel wall pulsatility of intracortical arterioles and widespread loss of perivascular AQP4 polarization along the penetrating arteries accompanied the decline in CSF-ISF exchange. We propose that impaired glymphatic clearance contributes to cognitive decline among the elderly and may represent a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases associated with accumulation of misfolded protein aggregates. © 2014 American Neurological Association.

  2. Comparison of renal clearance of 99mTc-DTPA and inulin 131I-hippurate and PAH as well as creatinine clearance in Wistar-rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagemann, J.; Li Min Su; Strangfeld, D.; Schuerer, M.; Siewert, H.; Pietsch, R.; Kruse, I.; Priem, F.

    1988-01-01

    Averages and standard deviations of 99m Tc-DTPA and 131 I-hippurate slope clearance were consecutively determined for 56 male Wistar rats, with a body-weight of 271 ± 69 g in a single investigation. Clearance of 99m Tc-DTPA was 17.4 ± 3.4, that of 131 I-hippurate was 34.3 ± 7.2 μl · s -1 per 100 g body weight. For 17 rats inulin and PAH clearances were determined after 3 days with the steady-state method with continuous infusion and 3-4 periods of urine collection. During the same periods endogeneous creatinine clearance was determined. 99m Tc-DTPA slope clearance correlated well with inulin clearance, also the hippurate with the PAH clearance. The high values of the filtration fraction, calculated from radioisotope and chemical methods, and the low PAH extraction of 42% lead to the conclusion, that PAH and hippurate are incompletely eliminated by the rat kidney from plasma and therefore are inadequate for determining renal blood flow in rats. Creatinine clearance was 4.7 ± 1.38 μl · s -1 per 100 g body weight, much lower than that of inulin and 99m Tc-DTPA. Therefore is assumed, that tubular reabsorption of creatinine occurs and creatinine clearance cannot serve for the evaluation of GFR in rats. For this, however, the clearance of 99m Tc-DTPA seems well applicable in Wistar rats. (author)

  3. Comparison of renal clearance of 99mTc-DTPA and inulin, 131I-hippurate and PAH as well as of the creatinine clearance in Wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagemann, J.; Li Min Su; Strangfeld, D.; Schuerer, M.; Siewert, H.; Pietsch, R.; Kruse, I.; Priem, F.

    1988-01-01

    Order of magnitude and standard deviation of 99m Tc-DTPA and 131 I-hippurate slope clearance were analyzed successively in 56 male Wistar rats. The clearance of 99m Tc-DTPA was 17.4 ± 3.43 μl · s -1 (100 g b-w) -1 , of 131 I-hippurate 34.3 ± 7.21 μl · s -1 (100 g b-w) -1 . In 17 rats inulin and PAH clearances were analyzed by steady state method with permanent infusion and 3 to 4 urine collection periods 3 days later. The endogeneous creatinine clearance was determined within the same periods. The 99m Tc-DTPA slope clearance corresponded to the inulin clearance, as well as the hippurate clearance to the PAH clearance. The high filtration fraction calculated from nuclear medicine and chemical clearance methods and the low PAH extraction (42%) let suggest that PAH and hippurate are eliminated only incompletely from plasma in rat kidney and are unsuitable for determination of renal blood supply in rats. The creatinine clearance with 4.7 ± 1.38 μl · s -1 (100 g b-w) -1 was far beneath the clearance of inulin and 99m Tc-DTPA, supposing that creatinine is reabsorbed tubularly in part and the creatinine clearance can not be used for valuation of the GFR in rats. However, for this the 99m Tc-DTPA clearance in Wistar rats seems to be well suited. (author)

  4. Green technology meets ecotoxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Radošević

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available By applying concept and principles of green chemistry into different technological processes, green technologies are developed. The environmental and economic benefits of “green” approach is achieved through several directions, such as the use of renewable raw materials, creation of economic efficiency, the use of alternative reaction conditions, as well as the application of non-conventional solvents. From the point view of green chemistry, alternative solvents, in order to be a “green“ substitution to hazardous organic solvents, should be: non-volatile, non-flammable, stabile, synthesized by an environmentally friendly procedure, nontoxic and biodegradable. The toxic impact of all newly synthesized chemicals, such as alternative solvents, could be determined by methods and techniques of ecotoxicology. Ecotoxicology, an interdisciplinary scientific field, can serve as a way of monitoring the greenness of the processes. In vivo and in vitro experiments are used to study the effects of chemicals on different levels of organizations, from molecules to communities and ecosystem. The usage of in vitro methods is encouraged by a scientific community and regulatory agencies as an alternative to in vivo studies in order to reduce the number of laboratory animals used in the toxicological studies. Therefore, in this paper we gave a brief overview on the usage of animal cell cultures within the field of green chemistry and technology.

  5. Labelling it green

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, S.; Brocklehurst, F. [ETSU, Didcot (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    The first two rounds of contracts awarded through the NFFO will expire in December 1998. These generators will then be looking for new contracts to supply renewable electricity. Since these projects were initiated the renewable energy market has grown steadily, but it is still mainly restricted to the protected market within NFFO. Consumer interest has grown steadily too, fuelled by the emergence of green energy supply companies. Market research has indicated that consumers would like the choice of green electricity, what remains unclear is if they would exercise this choice and to what extent they might pay a premium price for the privilege. From September 1998 the phased introduction of domestic sector franchise de-regulation commences. In principle, consumers can purchase their electricity from any supplier. This provides a golden opportunity for green generation. To make the most of this opportunity generators and suppliers will need to clearly explain to the public what their product is, how it is different and how everyone benefits from its use. A major marketing issue will be to provide assurance to the general public, that for example, they can indeed purchase energy from a windfarm in Wales, despite living in areas other than Wales. The DTI is assisting the expansion of the green market into the domestic sector via funding a project which plans to deliver an accreditation scheme in September 1998. This will provide a means of verifying the green claims of generators/supply companies. (Author)

  6. 78 FR 74175 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... precision requirements or power calculations that justify the proposed sample size, the expected response...: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on... Information Collection Request (Generic ICR): ``Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback...

  7. A comparison of analytic procedures for measurement of fractional dextran clearances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmelder, MH; de Jong, PE; de Zeeuw, D

    Fractional dextran clearances have been extensively used to study glomerular size selectivity. We report on an analysis of different laboratory procedures involved in measuring fractional dextran clearances. The deproteinization of plasma samples by 20% trichloroacetic acid (TCA) revealed a protein

  8. 76 FR 45645 - 10-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Technology Security/Clearance Plans, Screening...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ...: Technology Security/Clearance Plans, Screening Records, and Non-Disclosure Agreements ACTION: Notice of... Information Collection: Technology Security/ Clearance Plans, Screening Records, and Non-Disclosure Agreements...: None. Respondents: Business and Nonprofit Organizations, Foreign Governments. Estimated Number of...

  9. Trading green electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, M.

    1997-01-01

    A study has been carried out into the feasibility of developing an electricity trading mechanism which would allow consumers to purchase electricity which has been derived from renewable energy resources. This study was part funded by the European Commission (ALTENER), the Department of Trade and Industry and a number of private sector companies. The trading mechanism is known as the Green Pool. As a result of the findings of this study discussions are being held with potential generators and suppliers to establish a Green Pool plc. The aim is to encourage the development of new renewable energy projects outside the NFFO and SRO schemes. The Green Pool plc will be owned by the generators and its main objective will be to market the electricity produced by its members. (Author)

  10. Certified: green power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, S.; Brown, L.

    1999-01-01

    Deregulation of the energy industry in the USA may be a force favouring the environment but for the consumer it is something of a nightmare since there are so many options with respect to both price, service and environmental awareness. However, there is now a marked tendency for companies wishing to be seen as 'green' to favour environmentally aware suppliers. Indeed, some suppliers holding formal qualifications in 'greenness' believe they are justified in charging a premium for their energy. The question is asked 'what is green?' and the authors discuss the answers at some length: the hydro industry fares well in such a discussion. The authors (from Scientific Certification Systems) believe that certification provides a rational explanation of prices and why charging a premium may be justifiable.(UK)

  11. GREEN BANKING IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitrascu Mihaela

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the green banking in Romania, a new approach of conducting the banking business through considering the corporate social responsibility and environmental aspects. Nowadays, it is difficult to face the globalization and competition in order to asssure the implementation of the green banking practices. The aim of the present study is to identify corporations that have sustainability concerns. To achieve this objective, we set some hypothesis and after this we showed that the corporations are more likely to be included in the list of top banks in the world. Our study is relevant for future research in this area, because of the importance of such aspects in corporations nowadays.The conclusions of our study is that green banking practices in Romania is in an incipient stage

  12. Green Logistics Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yoon S.; Oh, Chang H.

    Nowadays, environmental management becomes a critical business consideration for companies to survive from many regulations and tough business requirements. Most of world-leading companies are now aware that environment friendly technology and management are critical to the sustainable growth of the company. The environment market has seen continuous growth marking 532B in 2000, and 590B in 2004. This growth rate is expected to grow to 700B in 2010. It is not hard to see the environment-friendly efforts in almost all aspects of business operations. Such trends can be easily found in logistics area. Green logistics aims to make environmental friendly decisions throughout a product lifecycle. Therefore for the success of green logistics, it is critical to have real time tracking capability on the product throughout the product lifecycle and smart solution service architecture. In this chapter, we introduce an RFID based green logistics solution and service.

  13. Why Green Taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjøllund, Lene; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2001-01-01

    According to economists solving environmental problems is simple. Politicians should simply impose a uniform tax on harmful emissions. However, the actual design of such green taxation shows that politicians do not follow their advice. CO2 taxation in OECD, for example, is highly differentiated...... and much in favour of industry. In fact, CO2 tax rates for industry are, on average, six times lower than those for households. We argue that the reason for this tax differentiation is that industry, in contrast to households, has a strong capability to lobby. Therefore, green taxation is effectively...... blocked and the desired environmental results are not being achieved. Why then is green taxation persistently applied in relation to industry? We argue that strong fiscal incentives drive this policy choice at the expense of environmental concerns because it allows environmental bureaucracies to budget-maximize....

  14. 7 CFR 1927.53 - Costs of title clearance and closing of transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Costs of title clearance and closing of transactions... and Loan Closing § 1927.53 Costs of title clearance and closing of transactions. The borrower or the... payment of all costs of title clearance and closing of the transaction and will arrange for payment before...

  15. Online monitoring of dynamic tip clearance of turbine blades in high temperature environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yu; Zhong, Chong; Zhu, Xiaoliang; Zhe, Jiang

    2018-04-01

    Minimized tip clearance reduces the gas leakage over turbine blade tips and improves the thrust and efficiency of turbomachinery. An accurate tip clearance sensor, measuring the dynamic clearances between blade tips and the turbine case, is a critical component for tip clearance control. This paper presents a robust inductive tip clearance sensor capable of monitoring dynamic tip clearances of turbine machines in high-temperature environments and at high rotational speeds. The sensor can also self-sense the temperature at a blade tip in situ such that temperature effect on tip clearance measurement can be estimated and compensated. To evaluate the sensor’s performance, the sensor was tested for measuring the tip clearances of turbine blades under various working temperatures ranging from 700 K to 1300 K and at turbine rotational speeds ranging from 3000 to 10 000 rpm. The blade tip clearance was varied from 50 to 2000 µm. The experiment results proved that the sensor can accurately measure the blade tip clearances with a temporal resolution of 10 µm. The capability of accurately measuring the tip clearances at high temperatures (~1300 K) and high turbine rotation speeds (~30 000 rpm), along with its compact size, makes it promising for online monitoring and active control of blade tip clearances of high-temperature turbomachinery.

  16. 49 CFR 236.22 - Semaphore signal arm; clearance to other objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Semaphore signal arm; clearance to other objects... Rules and Instructions: All Systems Roadway Signals and Cab Signals § 236.22 Semaphore signal arm; clearance to other objects. At least one-half inch clearance shall be provided between semaphore signal arm...

  17. 48 CFR 245.7101-4 - DD Form 1640, Request for Plant Clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false DD Form 1640, Request for Plant Clearance. 245.7101-4 Section 245.7101-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... Forms 245.7101-4 DD Form 1640, Request for Plant Clearance. Use to request plant clearance assistance or...

  18. Whole body and regional clearances of noradrenaline and adrenaline in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, N J; Galbo, H; Gjerris, Anne Cathrine Roslev

    1984-01-01

    we found no correlation between clearance values based on venous and arterial sampling. In other experiments we measured the influence of physical exercise in young healthy subjects on the clearance rate of plasma adrenaline (A). The clearance of A, which at rest averaged 1.9 l/min tended to increase...

  19. Green Chemistry Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolopajlo, Larry

    2017-02-01

    This chapter attempts to show how the practice of chemistry teaching and learning is enriched by the incorporation of green chemistry (GC) into lectures and labs. To support this viewpoint, evidence from a wide range of published papers serve as a cogent argument that GC attracts and engages both science and nonscience students, enhances chemistry content knowledge, and improves the image of the field, while preparing the world for a sustainable future. Published pedagogy associated with green and sustainable chemistry is critically reviewed and discussed.

  20. GREEN CORE HOUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NECULAI Oana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Green Core House is a construction concept with low environmental impact, having as main central element a greenhouse. The greenhouse has the innovative role to use the biomass energy provided by plants to save energy. Although it is the central piece, the greenhouse is not the most innovative part of the Green Core House, but the whole building ensemble because it integrates many other sustainable systems as "waste purification systems", "transparent photovoltaic panels" or "double skin façades".

  1. Green in software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Calero Munoz, Coral

    2015-01-01

    This is the first book that presents a comprehensive overview of sustainability aspects in software engineering. Its format follows the structure of the SWEBOK and covers the key areas involved in the incorporation of green aspects in software engineering, encompassing topics from requirement elicitation to quality assurance and maintenance, while also considering professional practices and economic aspects. The book consists of thirteen chapters, which are structured in five parts. First the "Introduction" gives an overview of the primary general concepts related to Green IT, discussing wha

  2. Green Chemistry Metrics with Special Reference to Green Analytical Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Tobiszewski; Mariusz Marć; Agnieszka Gałuszka; Jacek Namieśnik

    2015-01-01

    The concept of green chemistry is widely recognized in chemical laboratories. To properly measure an environmental impact of chemical processes, dedicated assessment tools are required. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge in the field of development of green chemistry and green analytical chemistry metrics. The diverse methods used for evaluation of the greenness of organic synthesis, such as eco-footprint, E-Factor, EATOS, and Eco-Scale are described. Both the well-establis...

  3. Sustainable house construction and green financing. Explanation for 'green mortgages'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    The Dutch government finances the sustainable construction of new houses by means of so-called 'green loans'. Extra costs for the construction of a sustainable house are compensated by a lower interest rate for a green loan. In this brochure it is explained when green financing of house construction is possible and how to apply for such loans

  4. Semen amyloids participate in spermatozoa selection and clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roan, Nadia R; Sandi-Monroy, Nathallie; Kohgadai, Nargis; Usmani, Shariq M; Hamil, Katherine G; Neidleman, Jason; Montano, Mauricio; Ständker, Ludger; Röcker, Annika; Cavrois, Marielle; Rosen, Jared; Marson, Kara; Smith, James F; Pilcher, Christopher D; Gagsteiger, Friedrich; Sakk, Olena; O'Rand, Michael; Lishko, Polina V; Kirchhoff, Frank; Münch, Jan; Greene, Warner C

    2017-06-27

    Unlike other human biological fluids, semen contains multiple types of amyloid fibrils in the absence of disease. These fibrils enhance HIV infection by promoting viral fusion to cellular targets, but their natural function remained unknown. The similarities shared between HIV fusion to host cell and sperm fusion to oocyte led us to examine whether these fibrils promote fertilization. Surprisingly, the fibrils inhibited fertilization by immobilizing sperm. Interestingly, however, this immobilization facilitated uptake and clearance of sperm by macrophages, which are known to infiltrate the female reproductive tract (FRT) following semen exposure. In the presence of semen fibrils, damaged and apoptotic sperm were more rapidly phagocytosed than healthy ones, suggesting that deposition of semen fibrils in the lower FRT facilitates clearance of poor-quality sperm. Our findings suggest that amyloid fibrils in semen may play a role in reproduction by participating in sperm selection and facilitating the rapid removal of sperm antigens.

  5. Preparation of iodine-125-labeled iothalamate for renal clearance measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, S.A.; Herold, T.J.; Dewanjee, M.K.

    1983-01-01

    Iothalamate, a derivative of benzoic acid, is used as a contrast medium for renal function studies, particularly for measurement of glomerular filtration rate. Its chemical composition and clearance properties are similar to those of diatrizoate. The structural differences between these groups of iodinated benzoic acid derivatives are dependent on the groups attached at the 3- and 5-positions of 2,4,6-tri-iodobenzoic acid. The renal clearance of sodium iothalamate in humans closely approximates that of inulin, and it is used as a replacement for inulin in determining glomerular filtration rate. /sup 125/I-labeled iothalamate sodium can be prepared by the exchange-labeling method at pH 4.0. Iothalamate must first be isolated from the contrast medium preparation and purified before radioiodination. After radioiodination, the product is purified by means of precipitation and is then converted to the sodium salt

  6. Diesel Engine Valve Clearance Detection Using Acoustic Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathi Elamin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated, using experimental method, the suitability of acoustic emission (AE technique for the condition monitoring of diesel engine valve faults. The clearance fault was adjusted experimentally in an exhaust valve and successfully detected and diagnosed in a Ford FSD 425 four-cylinder, four-stroke, in-line OHV, direct injection diesel engine. The effect of faulty exhaust valve clearance on engine performance was monitored and the difference between the healthy and faulty engine was observed from the recorded AE signals. The measured results from this technique show that using only time domain and frequency domain analysis of acoustic emission signals can give a superior measure of engine condition. This concludes that acoustic emission is a powerful and reliable method of detection and diagnosis of the faults in diesel engines and this is considered to be a unique approach to condition monitoring of valve performance.

  7. Quantitative static scintigraphy for the evaluation of mucociliary clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maini, C.L.; Marchetti, L.; Giordano, A.; Antonelli Incalzi, R.; Fuso, L.

    1988-01-01

    Mucociliary clearance can be evaluated by radionuclide techniques, but such approaches have been usually implemented only in research-oriented laboratories because of technical difficulties. A very practical radionuclide method is here presented which requires only three static acquisitions after the inhalation of a polydisperse radioaerosol produced by a commercial generator. Data processing is also very simple. The diagnostic performance of the method was tested on a study population of 10 healthy subjects and 10 patients with athrophic bronchitis; a higly significance difference between normal and pathological patients was found. Its simple implementation and diagnostic yield recommend this radionuclide method for the routine assessment of mucociliary clearance also in busy clinical-oriented laboratories

  8. Plants as green phones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soler, R.; Harvey, J.A.; Bezemer, T.M.; Stuefer, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    Plants can act as vertical communication channels or `green phones¿ linking soil-dwelling insects and insects in the aboveground ecosystem. When root-feeding insects attack a plant, the direct defense system of the shoot is activated, leading to an accumulation of phytotoxins in the leaves. The

  9. Putting on the green

    Science.gov (United States)

    The green chemistry movement is scrutinized for marks of tangible success in this short perspective. Beginning with the easily identified harm of the Union Carbide Bhopal, India disaster and the concerns of Love Canal site in Niagara Falls, NY the public can begin to more easily ...

  10. Green, Brown, and probability

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, Kai Lai

    1995-01-01

    This volume shows modern probabilistic methods in action: Brownian Motion Process as applied to the electrical phenomena investigated by Green et al., beginning with the Newton-Coulomb potential and ending with solutions by first and last exits of Brownian paths from conductors.

  11. Why Green Taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjøllund, Lene; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2001-01-01

    According to economists solving environmental problems is simple. Politicians should simply impose a uniform tax on harmful emissions. However, the actual design of such green taxation shows that politicians do not follow their advice. CO2 taxation in OECD, for example, is highly differentiated...

  12. News: Green Chemistry & Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of 21 articles focused on different features of green chemistry in a recent issue of Chemical Reviews. Topics extended over a wide range to include the design of sustainable synthetic processes to biocatalysis. A selection of perspectives follows as part of this colu

  13. The Green Obligation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Cameron

    2007-01-01

    As the green movement grows, studies provide conclusive evidence about the benefits of environmentally conscious practices indoors and outdoors. Schools are no exception. Many of these studies demonstrate how poor indoor air quality (IAQ) in schools adversely affects many of the nation's 55 million students with health problems such as asthma and…

  14. A green chemistry approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    One-pot synthesis of quinaldine derivatives by using microwave irradiation without any solvent – A green chemistry approach. JAVAD SAFARI*, SAYED HOSSEIN BANITABA and SEPEHR SADEGH SAMIEI. Department of Chemistry, The Faculty of sciences, University of Kashan, Kashan,. P.O. Box 87317-51167, I.R. Iran.

  15. Between green and grey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeanet Kullberg

    2016-01-01

    Original title: Tussen groen en grijs Taking cuttings is cool. Growing vegetables is all the rage. Green oases can now be found scattered throughout Dutch towns and cities: community gardens and roof gardens where residents can go to relax and enjoy themselves, improve the appearance of their

  16. Developing Green Line Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz-Marin, Ana Maria; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig

    2011-01-01

    This publication is based on the Master thesis “User-driven ecoinnovation process: Towards the implementation of the Green product line at JELD-WEN” written by Ana Maria Muñoz-Marin as her Graduation Project for the MSc. Global Innovation Management degree. The company-based experiment was carried...

  17. Being 'green' helps profitability?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, D.

    1999-01-01

    Pollution reduction beyond regulatory compliance is gaining momentum among firms, but managers ask if being 'green' helps profitability. Evidence suggests it doesn't hurt, but when we see environmentally attractive firms with sound financial performance, it cannot yet say which is cause and which is effect [it

  18. Lean Green Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villano, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Colleges and universities have been among the leaders nationwide in adopting green initiatives, partly due to their demographics, but also because they are facing their own budget pressures. Virtualization has become the poster child of many schools' efforts, because it provides significant bang for the buck. However, more and more higher…

  19. Greening China Naturally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shixiong Cao; Ge Sun; Zhiqiang Zhang; Liding Che; Qi Feng; et. al.

    2011-01-01

    China leads the world in afforestation, and is one of the few countries whose forested area is increasing. However, this massive “greening” effort has been less effective than expected; afforestation has sometimes produced unintended environmental, ecological, and socioeconomic consequences, and has failed to achieve the desired ecological benefits. Where afforestation...

  20. Nanoreactors for green catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Martino, M.T.; Abdelmohsen, L.K.E.A.; Rutjes, Floris P.J.T.; van Hest, J.C.M.; Hessel, V.

    2018-01-01

    Sustainable and environmentally benign production are key drivers for developments in the chemical industrial sector, as protecting our planet has become a significant element that should be considered for every industrial breakthrough or technological advancement. As a result, the concept of green

  1. Green Maritime Logistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    2016-01-01

    By green maritime logistics we mean achieving an acceptable environmental performance of the maritime transport logistical supply chain while at the same time respecting traditional economic criteria. In this paper the environmental focus is on maritime emissions. Achieving such goal may involve ...

  2. Green Software Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagroep, E.A.

    2017-01-01

    The rising energy consumption of the ICT industry has triggered a quest for more green, energy efficient ICT solutions. The role of software as the true consumer of power and its potential contribution to reach sustainability goals has increasingly been acknowledged. At the same time, it is shown to

  3. Frobenius Green functors

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    These notes provide an informal introduction to a type of Mackey functor that arises naturally in algebraic topology in connection with Morava $K$-theory of classifying spaces of finite groups. The main aim is to identify key algebraic aspects of the Green functor structure obtained by applying a Morava $K$-theory to such classifying spaces.

  4. Global Green Growth Institute

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Anders Riel

    2017-01-01

    Har man fulgt historien om Venstres gruppeformand Lars Løkkes rejser på 1. klasse i forbindelse med formandsposten for Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI) er der sikkert nogle der undrer sig over, hvad GGGI er for en størrelse. Medierne præsenterer GGGI som en international klimaorganisation, der...

  5. Green Building Tools for Tribes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribal green building tools and funding information to support tribal building code adoption, healthy building, siting, energy efficiency, renewable energy, water conservation, green building materials, recycling and adaptation and resilience.

  6. Green Manufacturing Fundamentals and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Green Manufacturing: Fundamentals and Applications introduces the basic definitions and issues surrounding green manufacturing at the process, machine and system (including supply chain) levels. It also shows, by way of several examples from different industry sectors, the potential for substantial improvement and the paths to achieve the improvement. Additionally, this book discusses regulatory and government motivations for green manufacturing and outlines the path for making manufacturing more green as well as making production more sustainable. This book also: • Discusses new engineering approaches for manufacturing and provides a path from traditional manufacturing to green manufacturing • Addresses regulatory and economic issues surrounding green manufacturing • Details new supply chains that need to be in place before going green • Includes state-of-the-art case studies in the areas of automotive, semiconductor and medical areas as well as in the supply chain and packaging areas Green Manufactu...

  7. Benefits of Green Power Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary partnership program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. Learn about the benefits of becoming a Green Power Partner.

  8. Prognostic value of lactate clearance in severe community acquired pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Kamel Abd Elaziz; Ahmed, Dief Abd Elgalil

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Severe community acquired pneumonia (SCAP) occurs in approximately 18–36% of all CAP and the mortality rate could be as high as 67% in patients with SCAP. Several studies have described a correlation between baseline lactate concentration and mortality of ICU patients. Aim of the work: To follow lactate clearance after admission for 24 h which could be an indicator of outcome in severe community acquired pneumonia. Patients and methods: Forty-six consecutively admitted adu...

  9. Numerical investigation of tip clearance cavitation in Kaplan runners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiforova, K.; Semenov, G.; Kuznetsov, I.; Spiridonov, E.

    2016-11-01

    There is a gap between the Kaplan runner blade and the shroud that makes for a special kind of cavitation: cavitation in the tip leakage flow. Two types of cavitation caused by the presence of clearance gap are known: tip vortex cavitation that appears at the core of the rolled up vortex on the blade suction side and tip clearance cavitation that appears precisely in the gap between the blade tip edge and the shroud. In the context of this work numerical investigation of the model Kaplan runner has been performed taking into account variable tip clearance for several cavitation regimes. The focus is put on investigation of structure and origination of mechanism of cavitation in the tip leakage flow. Calculations have been performed with the help of 3-D unsteady numerical model for two-phase medium. Modeling of turbulent flow in this work has been carried out using full equations of Navier-Stokes averaged by Reynolds with correction for streamline curvature and system rotation. For description of this medium (liquid-vapor) simplification of Euler approach is used; it is based on the model of interpenetrating continuums, within the bounds of this two- phase medium considered as a quasi-homogeneous mixture with the common velocity field and continuous distribution of density for both phases. As a result, engineering techniques for calculation of cavitation conditioned by existence of tip clearance in model turbine runner have been developed. The detailed visualization of the flow was carried out and vortex structure on the suction side of the blade was reproduced. The range of frequency with maximum value of pulsation was assigned and maximum energy frequency was defined; it is based on spectral analysis of the obtained data. Comparison between numerical computation results and experimental data has been also performed. The location of cavitation zone has a good agreement with experiment for all analyzed regimes.

  10. Dextran fractional clearance studies in acute dengue infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Nguyen-Pouplin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Although increased capillary permeability is the major clinical feature associated with severe dengue infections the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain unclear. Dextran clearance methodology has been used to investigate the molecular sieving properties of the microvasculature in clinical situations associated with altered permeability, including during pregnancy and in various renal disorders. In order to better understand the characteristics of the vascular leak associated with dengue we undertook formal dextran clearance studies in Vietnamese dengue patients and healthy volunteers.We carried out serial clearance studies in 15 young adult males with acute dengue and evidence of vascular leakage a during the phase of maximal leakage and b one and three months later, as well as in 16 healthy control subjects. Interestingly we found no difference in the clearance profiles of neutral dextran solutions among the dengue patients at any time-point or in comparison to the healthy volunteers.The surface glycocalyx layer, a fibre-matrix of proteoglycans, glycosaminoglycans, and plasma proteins, forms a complex with the underlying endothelial cells to regulate plasma volume within circumscribed limits. It is likely that during dengue infections loss of plasma proteins from this layer alters the permeability characteristics of the complex; physical and/or electrostatic interactions between the dextran molecules and the glycocalyx structure may temporarily restore normal function, rendering the technique unsuitable for assessing permeability in these patients. The implications for resuscitation of patients with dengue shock syndrome (DSS are potentially important. It is possible that continuous low-dose infusions of dextran may help to stabilize the permeability barrier in patients with profound or refractory shock, reducing the need for repeated boluses, limiting the total colloid volume required. Formal clinical studies should help to assess

  11. Surface code—biophysical signals for apoptotic cell clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biermann, Mona; Maueröder, Christian; Brauner, Jan M; Chaurio, Ricardo; Herrmann, Martin; Muñoz, Luis E; Janko, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Apoptotic cell death and the clearance of dying cells play an important and physiological role in embryonic development and normal tissue turnover. In contrast to necrosis, apoptosis proceeds in an anti-inflammatory manner. It is orchestrated by the timed release and/or exposure of so-called ‘find-me’, ‘eat me’ and ‘tolerate me’ signals. Mononuclear phagocytes are attracted by various ‘find-me’ signals, including proteins, nucleotides, and phospholipids released by the dying cell, whereas the involvement of granulocytes is prevented via ‘stay away’ signals. The exposure of anionic phospholipids like phosphatidylserine (PS) by apoptotic cells on the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane is one of the main ‘eat me’ signals. PS is recognized by a number of innate receptors as well as by soluble bridging molecules on the surface of phagocytes. Importantly, phagocytes are able to discriminate between viable and apoptotic cells both exposing PS. Due to cytoskeleton remodeling PS has a higher lateral mobility on the surfaces of apoptotic cells thereby promoting receptor clustering on the phagocyte. PS not only plays an important role in the engulfment process, but also acts as ‘tolerate me’ signal inducing the release of anti-inflammatory cytokines by phagocytes. An efficient and fast clearance of apoptotic cells is required to prevent secondary necrosis and leakage of intracellular danger signals into the surrounding tissue. Failure or prolongation of the clearance process leads to the release of intracellular antigens into the periphery provoking inflammation and development of systemic inflammatory autoimmune disease like systemic lupus erythematosus. Here we review the current findings concerning apoptosis-inducing pathways, important players of apoptotic cell recognition and clearance as well as the role of membrane remodeling in the engulfment of apoptotic cells by phagocytes. (paper)

  12. The green highway forum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    In late 2004, as part of American Coal Ash Association's (ACAA) strategic planning process, a plan was approved by its Board of Directors implementing a 'green highways' concept which emphasized use of coal combustion products (CCPs) in highways in a variety of ways including being used alone, in combination with other forms of CCPs, and combined with non ash materials. The incentives behind the developed concept were the derived advantages from beneficial technical economic and environmental impacts. Although the primary use of fly ash is concrete, other forms of CCPs could be considered for more non-traditional highway applications. For example, these might include soils stabilization, binders for in-place pavement recycling, use in flowable fills, aggregates, source materials for structural fills and embankments, components in manufactured soils, and for granular base courses beneath pavements. At this same time, unknown to ACCA, EPA Region 3 in Philadelphia was working with the Wetlands and Watershed Work Group, a non-profit organization involved in wetlands policy and management along with the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) on their own Green Highways initiative. These groups were planning a conference, the 'Green Highway Forum'. This was held in College Park, Maryland at the University of Maryland, Nov 8-10 2005. At the conference a draft 'roadmap' was presented as a guide to executive level participants bringing the diverse viewpoints of many agencies and interest groups together. Ten guiding principals were considered. The 'Green Highways' is a new effort to recognize the 'greenness' of many projects already completed and those to be initiated. 2 photos.

  13. Green function on product networks

    OpenAIRE

    Arauz Lombardía, Cristina; Carmona Mejías, Ángeles; Encinas Bachiller, Andrés Marcos

    2012-01-01

    Our objective is to determine the Green function of product networks in terms of the Green function of one of the factor networks and the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the Schr odinger operator of the other factor network, which we consider that are known. Moreover, we use these results to obtain the Green function of spider networks in terms of Green functions over cicles and paths. Peer Reviewed

  14. RENAL CLEARANCE AND URINARY EXCRETION OF CIPROFLOXACIN IN GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. IQBAL, I. JAVED, B. ASLAM, F. MUHAMMAD AND I. U. JAN

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The renal clearance and urinary excretion of ciprofloxacin were investigated in eight healthy female goats. In each animal, ciprofloxacin was administered intramuscularly at the rate of 5 mg/kg body weight. Following drug administration, blood and urine samples were collected at different time intervals and analyzed for ciprofloxacin and creatinine. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to determine the drug concentration in the plasma and urine. The value of diuresis after single administration of ciprofloxacin was 0.073 ± 0.014 ml/min/kg. Mean (± SE values for renal clearance of creatinine and ciprofloxacin were 1.870 ± 0.385 and 0.982 ± 0.166 ml/min/kg, respectively. The ratio between the renal clearance of ciprofloxacin and that of creatinine remained less than one, which was indicative of back diffusion. The mean (± SE value for the cumulative percent of ciprofloxacin dose excreted at 10 hours following its intramuscular administration was 13.03 ± 2.07. Based on these results, it was evident that besides glomerular filtration, renal handling of drug involved back diffusion also. It was concluded that in local goats glomerular filtration rate (GFR was lower than that reported for their foreign counterparts.

  15. Losses and blade tip clearance for a centrifugal compressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana DUMITRESCU

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper presents the numerical analysis for a transonic centrifugal compressor using steady state CFD. The blade tip clearance effect over the position of shock waves, tip losses and the performances of the impeller are studied. Numerical simulations have been performed using RANS modelling, with the k-omega SST turbulence model (Shear Stress Transport. Eight cases were taken into consideration for the impeller with the following blade tip clearances values: 0 mm, 0.1 mm, 0.3 mm, 0.4 mm, 0.5mm, 0.7 mm, 1 mm, 2 mm, at the same operating conditions. For the entire stage only seven cases were studied, without the value for 0.1 mm because of its abnormal behaviour, as can be seen in the case of the impeller simulations. Results showed that the position of the shock wave does not change with the increase of the tip clearance. Aerodynamic losses due to shock wave, secondary flow and turbulence can be seen in the polytropic efficiency of the centrifugal impeller and the difference between the two extreme cases is about 3.2 %.

  16. Railway clearance intrusion detection method with binocular stereo vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xingfang; Guo, Baoqing; Wei, Wei

    2018-03-01

    In the stage of railway construction and operation, objects intruding railway clearance greatly threaten the safety of railway operation. Real-time intrusion detection is of great importance. For the shortcomings of depth insensitive and shadow interference of single image method, an intrusion detection method with binocular stereo vision is proposed to reconstruct the 3D scene for locating the objects and judging clearance intrusion. The binocular cameras are calibrated with Zhang Zhengyou's method. In order to improve the 3D reconstruction speed, a suspicious region is firstly determined by background difference method of a single camera's image sequences. The image rectification, stereo matching and 3D reconstruction process are only executed when there is a suspicious region. A transformation matrix from Camera Coordinate System(CCS) to Track Coordinate System(TCS) is computed with gauge constant and used to transfer the 3D point clouds into the TCS, then the 3D point clouds are used to calculate the object position and intrusion in TCS. The experiments in railway scene show that the position precision is better than 10mm. It is an effective way for clearance intrusion detection and can satisfy the requirement of railway application.

  17. Characterization and Clearance of m/s Sigyn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiselmark, Jonatan; Vreede, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    M/s Sigyn was a 2044 ton ship that transported contaminated material between 1982 and 2013. Most of the transports were with spent nuclear fuel between Swedish nuclear power plants and the Swedish fuel repository, Clab. In addition to spent fuel, m/s Sigyn also transported big contaminated components, from nuclear power plants in Europe, to Studsvik for analysis or decontamination and melting. She also transported components from Swedish nuclear power plants to final disposal of short lived waste, SFR. Even though all transported items have been cleaned, checked and wrapped with plastics, some activity ended up as contamination onboard. In December 2013 it was decided that m/s Sigyn was subject for decommissioning due to her age. This Paper describes the method in which the activity onboard m/s Sigyn was characterized and clearance levels were calculated. This method for radiological characterization and clearance has recently been developed in Sweden, the method is efficient in that it does not need a big pre characterization survey. Only the nuclide distribution and history of the object, is needed to start the final survey. In the future there will be further development of the method, making it possible to reduce the number of measurements even more. This will further optimize the method and reduce the cost for final surveys and clearance. (authors)

  18. Rate-Based Model Predictive Control of Turbofan Engine Clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCastro, Jonathan A.

    2006-01-01

    An innovative model predictive control strategy is developed for control of nonlinear aircraft propulsion systems and sub-systems. At the heart of the controller is a rate-based linear parameter-varying model that propagates the state derivatives across the prediction horizon, extending prediction fidelity to transient regimes where conventional models begin to lose validity. The new control law is applied to a demanding active clearance control application, where the objectives are to tightly regulate blade tip clearances and also anticipate and avoid detrimental blade-shroud rub occurrences by optimally maintaining a predefined minimum clearance. Simulation results verify that the rate-based controller is capable of satisfying the objectives during realistic flight scenarios where both a conventional Jacobian-based model predictive control law and an unconstrained linear-quadratic optimal controller are incapable of doing so. The controller is evaluated using a variety of different actuators, illustrating the efficacy and versatility of the control approach. It is concluded that the new strategy has promise for this and other nonlinear aerospace applications that place high importance on the attainment of control objectives during transient regimes.

  19. Dysregulation of Nutrient Sensing and CLEARance in Presenilin Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavya Reddy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Attenuated auto-lysosomal system has been associated with Alzheimer disease (AD, yet all underlying molecular mechanisms leading to this impairment are unknown. We show that the amino acid sensing of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1 is dysregulated in cells deficient in presenilin, a protein associated with AD. In these cells, mTORC1 is constitutively tethered to lysosomal membranes, unresponsive to starvation, and inhibitory to TFEB-mediated clearance due to a reduction in Sestrin2 expression. Normalization of Sestrin2 levels through overexpression or elevation of nuclear calcium rescued mTORC1 tethering and initiated clearance. While CLEAR network attenuation in vivo results in buildup of amyloid, phospho-Tau, and neurodegeneration, presenilin-knockout fibroblasts and iPSC-derived AD human neurons fail to effectively initiate autophagy. These results propose an altered mechanism for nutrient sensing in presenilin deficiency and underline an importance of clearance pathways in the onset of AD.

  20. Kupffer cell complement receptor clearance function and host defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loegering, D J

    1986-01-01

    Kupffer cells are well known to be important for normal host defense function. The development of methods to evaluate the in vivo function of specific receptors on Kupffer cells has made it possible to assess the role of these receptors in host defense. The rationale for studying complement receptors is based on the proposed important role of these receptors in host defense and on the observation that the hereditary deficiency of a complement receptor is associated with recurrent severe bacterial infections. The studies reviewed here demonstrate that forms of injury that are associated with depressed host defense including thermal injury, hemorrhagic shock, trauma, and surgery also cause a decrease in complement receptor clearance function. This decrease in Kupffer cell receptor clearance function was shown not to be the result of depressed hepatic blood flow or depletion of complement components. Complement receptor function was also depressed following the phagocytosis of particulates that are known to depress Kupffer cell host defense function. Endotoxemia and bacteremia also were associated with a depression of complement receptor function. Complement receptor function was experimentally depressed in uninjured animals by the phagocytosis of IgG-coated erythrocytes. There was a close association between the depression of complement receptor clearance function and increased susceptibility to the lethal effects of endotoxin and bacterial infection. These studies support the hypotheses that complement receptors on Kupffer cells are important for normal host defense and that depression of the function of these receptors impairs host defense.

  1. Hepatic macrophage complement receptor clearance function following injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddy, B G; Loegering, D J; Blumenstock, F A; Shah, D M

    1986-03-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that in vivo hepatic macrophage complement receptor clearance function is depressed following thermal injury. The present study was carried out to determine if complement receptor function depression is associated with other states of depressed host defense. Hepatic complement receptor clearance function was determined from the hepatic uptake of rat erythrocytes coated with antierythrocyte IgM (EIgM) in rats. Receptor function was determined following cannulation of a carotid artery, laparotomy plus enterotomy, hemorrhagic shock, trauma, thermal injury, acute bacteremia, acute endotoxemia, and injection of erythrocyte stroma, gelatinized lipid emulsion, or colloidal carbon. Hepatic uptake of EIgM was depressed following each of these experimental interventions except arterial cannulation. This effect was shown not to be due to a decrease in hepatic blood flow or depletion of complement and was therefore due to a depression in hepatic macrophage complement receptor clearance function. Thus, impairment of hepatic macrophage complement receptor function is associated with several states of depressed host defense.

  2. Turbine Engine Clearance Control Systems: Current Practices and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattime, Scott B.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2002-01-01

    Improved blade tip sealing in the high pressure compressor (HPC) and high pressure turbine (HPT) can provide dramatic reductions in specific fuel consumption (SFC), time-on-wing, compressor stall margin, and engine efficiency as well as increased payload and mission range capabilities. Maintenance costs to overhaul large commercial gas turbine engines can easily exceed $1M. Engine removal from service is primarily due to spent exhaust gas temperature (EGT) margin caused mainly by the deterioration of HPT components. Increased blade tip clearance is a major factor in hot section component degradation. As engine designs continue to push the performance envelope with fewer parts and the market drives manufacturers to increase service life, the need for advanced sealing continues to grow. A review of aero gas turbine engine HPT performance degradation and the mechanisms that promote these losses are discussed. Benefits to the HPT due to improved clearance management are identified. Past and present sealing technologies are presented along with specifications for next generation engine clearance control systems.

  3. The provision of clearances accuracy in piston - cylinder mating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glukhov, V. I.; Shalay, V. V.

    2017-08-01

    The paper is aimed at increasing the quality of the pumping equipment in oil and gas industry. The main purpose of the study is to stabilize maximum values of productivity and durability of the pumping equipment based on the selective assembly of the cylinder-piston kinematic mating by optimization criterion. It is shown that the minimum clearance in the piston-cylinder mating is formed by maximum material dimensions. It is proved that maximum material dimensions are characterized by their own laws of distribution within the tolerance limits for the diameters of the cylinder internal mirror and the outer cylindrical surface of the piston. At that, their dispersion zones should be divided into size groups with a group tolerance equal to half the tolerance for the minimum clearance. The techniques for measuring the material dimensions - the smallest cylinder diameter and the largest piston diameter according to the envelope condition - are developed for sorting them into size groups. Reliable control of the dimensions precision ensures optimal minimum clearances of the piston-cylinder mating in all the size groups of the pumping equipment, necessary for increasing the equipment productivity and durability during the production, operation and repair processes.

  4. Smoking produced mucus and clearance of particulates in the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterling, T.D.; Poland, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    Some studies of miners have shown a lesser relative lung-cancer risk for smokers than for nonsmokers. For example, experiments by Cross and associates with dogs have shown an apparent protective effect of cigarette smoke against radon-daughter and dust exposure. One reason for these changes may be the thickened mucus layer in the tracheobronchial region of smokers. Physiological changes in the lung due to smoking may decrease the effects of radioactive particles in cancers in the bronchial region by apparently promoting faster clearance, in that region, of radioactive particles and by decreasing the radiation dose through reduced penetration to the sensitive basal epithelial cells. Because of the short half-life of radon daughters, even if there is possible tobacco-related delay of particle clearance from the alveolar region it cannot affect radon clearance. Therefore, the possible mitigating effect of tobacco on radon-produced cancer appears to be limited to the tracheobronchial region. It would be of value to a number of occupations if the same changes in the lungs due to smoking could be produced in exposed workers in the absence of cigarette-smoking. Beta-carotene and vitamin A, which affect maintenance and secretion of the mucosal lining, appear to thicken mucus, thereby providing protection against radon-induced lung cancers that is similar to smoking-related changes in the lung

  5. Effect of Guide Vane Clearance Gap on Francis Turbine Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Koirala

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Francis turbine guide vanes have pivoted support with external control mechanism, for conversion of pressure to kinetic energy and to direct them to runner vanes. This movement along the support is dependent on variation of load and flow (operating conditions. Small clearance gaps between facing plates and the upper and lower guide vane tips are available to aid this movement, through which leakage flow occurs. This secondary flow disturbs the main flow stream, resulting performance loss. Additionally, these increased horseshoe vortex, in presence of sand, when crosses through the gaps, both the surfaces are eroded. This causes further serious effect on performance and structural property by increasing gaps. This paper discusses the observation of the severity in hydropower plants and effect of clearance gaps on general performance of the Francis turbine through computational methods. It also relates the primary result with the empirical relation for leakage flow prediction. Additionally, a possible method to computationally estimate thickness depletion has also been presented. With increasing clearance gap, leakage increases, which lowers energy conversion and turbine efficiency along with larger secondary vortex.

  6. Quantitative assessment of caffeine partial clearances in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelo, A; Miners, J O; Robson, R A; Birkett, D J

    1986-01-01

    Five subjects who participated in an earlier study (Lelo et al., 1986b) of the comparative pharmacokinetics of caffeine (CA) and its primary monodemethylated metabolites paraxanthine (PX), theobromine (TB) and theophylline (TP) were administered CA to steady-state. Using areas under the plasma concentration-time curves for each of the dimethylxanthines derived from CA in the steady-state study and individual plasma clearances of PX, TB and TP determined in the previous study, the fractional conversion of CA to PX, TB and TP and the individual partial clearances of CA have been defined. The mean (+/- s.d.) fractional conversion of CA to PX, TB and TP was 79.6 +/- 21.0%, 10.8 +/- 2.4% and 3.7 +/- 1.3%, respectively. When only demethylation pathways are considered PX, TB and TP accounted for 83.9 +/- 5.4%, 12.1 +/- 4.1% and 4.0 +/- 1.4%, respectively of the CA demethylations. The mean partial clearance of CA to PX was approximately 8-fold and 23-fold greater than those to TB and TP respectively. These data confirm earlier reports that PX is the major metabolite of CA in humans but suggest that PX formation is quantitatively more important than previously believed. PMID:3756066

  7. Dynamic Studies of Lung Fluid Clearance with Phase Contrast Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitchen, Marcus J.; Williams, Ivan; Irvine, Sarah C.; Morgan, Michael J.; Paganin, David M.; Lewis, Rob A.; Pavlov, Konstantin; Hooper, Stuart B.; Wallace, Megan J.; Siu, Karen K. W.; Yagi, Naoto; Uesugi, Kentaro

    2007-01-01

    Clearance of liquid from the airways at birth is a poorly understood process, partly due to the difficulties of observing and measuring the distribution of air within the lung. Imaging dynamic processes within the lung in vivo with high contrast and spatial resolution is therefore a major challenge. However, phase contrast X-ray imaging is able to exploit inhaled air as a contrast agent, rendering the lungs of small animals visible due to the large changes in the refractive index at air/tissue interfaces. In concert with the high spatial resolution afforded by X-ray imaging systems (<100 μm), propagation-based phase contrast imaging is ideal for studying lung development. To this end we have utilized intense, monochromatic synchrotron radiation, together with a fast readout CCD camera, to study fluid clearance from the lungs of rabbit pups at birth. Local rates of fluid clearance have been measured from the dynamic sequences using a single image phase retrieval algorithm

  8. GREEN PACKAGING, GREEN PRODUCT, GREEN ADVERTISING, PERSEPSI, DAN MINAT BELI KONSUMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Santoso

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental problems become one of the strategic issues in achieving global competitiveness. One of the issues is products that are made from environmental friendly materials or known as green product. Furthermore, in green products marketing, the company also uses green packaging and green advertising concept. This study aimed to analyze the effect of green packaging, green products, and green advertising on consumer perception and purchasing intention. The study was conducted in Ketawanggede Village, Lowokwaru Sub-district, Malang City. The sampling method used nonprobability accidential sampling techniques. The numbers of respondents were 113 consumers in study site. Data were collected by interview using questionnaires. The method of analysis used Generalized Structured Component Analysis (GSCA. The analysis showed that the green packaging, green products, and green advertising had positive significant influence on consumer perceptions. Meanwhile, green product and consumer perception had positive significant influence on purchasing interest, but the green packaging and green advertising has not found sufficient evidence in influencing purchasing intention.

  9. Veterinary Medicine Needs New Green Antimicrobial Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Louis TOUTAIN

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Given that: (1 the worldwide consumption of antimicrobial drugs (AMDs used in food-producing animals will increase over the coming decades; (2 the prudent use of AMDs will not suffice to stem the rise in human antimicrobial resistance (AMR of animal origin; (3 alternatives to AMD use are not available or not implementable, there is an urgent need to develop novel AMDs for food-producing animals. This is not for animal health reasons, but to break the link between human and animal resistomes. In this review we establish the feasibility of developing for veterinary medicine new AMDs, termed green antibiotics, having minimal ecological impact on the animal commensal and environmental microbiomes.We first explain why animal and human commensal microbiota comprise a turnstile exchange, between the human and animal resistomes. We then outline the ideal physico-chemical, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of a veterinary green antibiotic and conclude that they can be developed through a rational screening of currently used AMD classes. The ideal drug will be hydrophilic, of relatively low potency, slow clearance and small volume of distribution. It should be eliminated principally by the kidney as inactive metabolite(s. For oral administration, bioavailability can be enhanced by developing lipophilic pro-drugs. For parenteral administration, slow-release formulations of existing eco-friendly AMDs with a short elimination half-life can be developed. These new eco-friendly veterinary AMDs can be developed from currently used drug classes to provide alternative agents to those currently used in veterinary medicine and mitigate animal contributions to the human AMR problem.

  10. It's Not Easy Building Green.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    Discusses green buildings, facilities designed, constructed, and operated in an environmentally friendly and resource-efficient way. Discusses reasons for campuses to "go green," the "shades of green" or variations in environmental-friendliness, certification through the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating system, financial…

  11. Green mortgages in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosch, N.

    1997-01-01

    Since November 1996 sustainable building of houses is also part of the fiscal Regulation for Green Projects (i.e. the stimulation of environment-friendly investments). The extension of that financial regulation resulted in a new product: Green Mortgages. The conditions that have to be met to be qualified for a Green Mortgage are briefly outlined

  12. Green economy and related concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loiseau, Eleonore; Saikku, Laura; Antikainen, Riina; Droste, Nils; Hansjürgens, Bernd; Pitkänen, Kati; Leskinen, Pekka; Kuikman, Peter; Thomsen, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    For the last ten years, the notion of a green economy has become increasingly attractive to policy makers. However, green economy covers a lot of diverse concepts and its links with sustainability are not always clear. In this article, we focus on definitions of green economy and related concepts

  13. Guide to Purchasing Green Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Guide for Purchasing Green Power is a comprehensive guide for current and potential buyers of green power with information about green power purchasing. The Guide is created cooperatively between the EPA, the U.S. Department of Energy, the World Resou

  14. Investing in a green future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, Christa

    2018-01-01

    The growing green bond market reflects the financial sector's awakening to climate risk. New research examining the US municipal bond market suggests a positive green bond premium in recent years, driven by differences in credit quality. As climate-risk disclosure becomes more widespread, investors may show willingness to pay green premiums.

  15. Green Roofs for Stormwater Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project evaluated green roofs as a stormwater management tool. Results indicate that the green roofs are capable of removing 40% of the annual rainfall volume from a roof through retention and evapotranspiration. Rainfall not retained by green roofs is detained, effectively...

  16. Test Rig for Evaluating Active Turbine Blade Tip Clearance Control Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattime, Scott B.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Robbie, Malcolm G.

    2003-01-01

    Improved blade tip sealing in the high pressure compressor and high pressure turbine can provide dramatic improvements in specific fuel consumption, time-on-wing, compressor stall margin and engine efficiency as well as increased payload and mission range capabilities of both military and commercial gas turbine engines. The preliminary design of a mechanically actuated active clearance control (ACC) system for turbine blade tip clearance management is presented along with the design of a bench top test rig in which the system is to be evaluated. The ACC system utilizes mechanically actuated seal carrier segments and clearance measurement feedback to provide fast and precise active clearance control throughout engine operation. The purpose of this active clearance control system is to improve upon current case cooling methods. These systems have relatively slow response and do not use clearance measurement, thereby forcing cold build clearances to set the minimum clearances at extreme operating conditions (e.g., takeoff, re-burst) and not allowing cruise clearances to be minimized due to the possibility of throttle transients (e.g., step change in altitude). The active turbine blade tip clearance control system design presented herein will be evaluated to ensure that proper response and positional accuracy is achievable under simulated high-pressure turbine conditions. The test rig will simulate proper seal carrier pressure and temperature loading as well as the magnitudes and rates of blade tip clearance changes of an actual gas turbine engine. The results of these evaluations will be presented in future works.

  17. Plasma catecholamine level and portal venous pressure as guides to prognosis in patients with cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tage-Jensen, U; Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Christensen, E

    1988-01-01

    clinical and biochemical variables and survival. Forty-seven (58%) of the patients died during the follow-up period. Univariate analysis showed that plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline concentrations, portal pressure, indocyanine green clearance, serum sodium, bilirubin, and albumin concentrations......, and the presence of ascites or cardiovascular disease were of significant prognostic value. In a multivariate analysis (Cox regression model), plasma noradrenaline concentration, portal pressure, serum bilirubin concentration, and the presence of ascites and cardiovascular disease remained significant independent...

  18. Green Consumerism : an Eco-Friendly Behaviour Form Through The Green Product Consumption and Green Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Handayani, Wiwik

    2017-01-01

    This research is referred to analyse the influence of consumer attitude of green product towards purchase intention. The consumer attitude of green product is a psychological tendencies that is expressed by evaluating a certain entity with some advantage or disadvantage considerations. The problem of this research is the low of cunsumer awareness to consume green product, because the lack to comprehend the importance of green product usage for health and eco-friendly. The purpose of this rese...

  19. Green roofs; Les toitures vegetalisees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seghier, C.

    2006-03-15

    Impervious surface coverage keeps spreading in cities. Streets, sidewalks, parking lots and roofs are waterproof, meaning greater amounts of water to channel and treat and higher flood risks during heavy rainfalls. Green roofing can play a key part in addressing this alarming issue. There are three types of green roofs: extensive, semi-intensive and intensive. The extensive green roof technique uses a thin soil covering with a variety of species providing year-round plant coverage. The plants are not necessarily horticultural in which case routine maintenance is minimal. No watering is needed. Usually extensive green roofs create an ecosystem. The semi-intensive green roof technique uses a soil covering of average thickness and serves to create decorative roofing. Although maintenance is moderate, watering is essential. The intensive green roof technique produces a terrace roof garden. Another advantage of green roofs is they increase the life cycle of the sealing. Roof sealing protection may see the span of its life cycle, now at about fifteen years, doubled if the building has a green roof. planning professionals still know very little about green roofing solutions. Yet, green roofing provides unquestionable ecological qualities and thermal and acoustic performance that have proven to be environmentally friendly. Yet France lags behind northern European countries in green roofing. The Germans, Swiss, Austrians, Scandinavians and Dutch have been using the technique for more than twenty years. (A.L.B.)

  20. Green buildings pay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naboni, Emanuele; Edwards, Brian

    The new edition of ‘Green Buildings Pay’ authored by Brian Edwards and Emanuele Naboni explores the business and professional benefits which derive from architectural design driven by sustainability. With a new sub-title ‘Green Buildings Pay: design, productivity and ecology’ the book argues...... that environmental design has altered how we design, construct and manage buildings. The book has relevance to those who not only design and engineer buildings but to those who commission architecture and those who occupy the products of this process. Hence, the user is a key consideration. The book examines via...... a number of LEED and BREEAM cases the buildings which flow from corporate environmental responsibility. A number of office and university buildings are examined from three main perspectives- the architect, client and user. One key finding is that architectural innovation has been driven by ecological...