Full Text Available There are hopes that new learning technologies will help to transform university learning and teaching into a more engaging experience for twenty-first-century students. But since 2000 the changes in campus university teaching have been more limited than expected. I have drawn on ideas from organisational change management research to investigate why this is happening in one particular campus university context. My study examines the strategies of individual lecturers for adopting e-learning within their disciplinary, departmental and university work environments to develop a conceptual framework for analysing university learning and teaching as a complex adaptive system. This conceptual framework links the processes through which university teaching changes, the resulting forms of learning activity and the learning technologies used – all within the organisational context of the university. The framework suggests that systemic transformation of a university's learning and teaching requires coordinated change across activities that have traditionally been managed separately in campus universities. Without such coordination, established ways of organising learning and teaching will reassert themselves, as support staff and lecturers seek to optimise their own work locally. The conceptual framework could inform strategies for realising the full benefits of new learning technologies in other campus universities.
Oleksandr Yu. Burov
Full Text Available This paper describes new and emerging technologies in education, learning environments and methods that have to satisfy lifelong learning, from school age to retirement, on the basis of the psychophysiological model of the cognitive abilities formation. It covers such topics as: evaluation of a human (accounting schoolchildren, youth and adults features abilities and individual propensities, individual trajectory of learning, adaptive learning strategy and design, recommendation on curriculum design, day-to-day support for individual’s learning, assessment of a human learning environment and performance, recommendation regards vocational retraining and/or further carrier etc.. The specific goal is to facilitate a broader understanding of the promise and pitfalls of these technologies and working (learning/teaching environments in global education/development settings, with special regard to the human as subject in the system and to the collaboration of humans and technical, didactic and organizational subsystems.
Intan Soraya Rosdi
Full Text Available The knowledge-based economy of today heralds an era where the business environment is characterized by complex and ever-changing conditions, driven by rapid technological advancements. With knowledge regarded as the main competitive resource, continuous learning becomes critical to firms as they try to keep up with the latest technology and business practices. Moreover, knowledge resides within individual employees, and the challenge is to ensure that knowledge is acquired, applied, and shared to benefit the firm. The situation becomes more complex when it is established that there exists different human capital in firms at any one time, differentiated based on the types of knowledge they contribute to the firm. Further, scant literature exists on the relationship dynamics between the different human capital groups and their influences on individual learning. This paper aims to propose a potential system to manage interaction between the different human capital groups within firms, and its link to enhancing different types of individual learning and intellectual capital.
Alharthi, Ahmed D.; Spichkova, Maria
Internationalization of the higher education has created the so-called borderless university, which provides better opportunities for learning and increases the human and social sustainability. eLearning systems are a special kind of software systems, developed to provide a platform for accessible teaching and learning, including also online access to learning materials and online support for learning and teaching. The aim of our current work is to extract, analyse, and combine the results fr...
Liao, Peiwen; Yu, Chien; Yi, Chincheh
This study investigated the impact of contingent variables on the relationship between four predictors and employees' behavioral intention with e-learning. Seven hundred and twenty-two employees in online training and education were asked to answer questionnaires about their learning styles, perceptions of the quality of the proposed predictors and behavioral intention with e-learning systems. The results of analysis showed that three contingent variables, gender, job title and industry, significantly influenced the perceptions of predictors and employees' behavioral intention with the e-learning system. This study also found a statistically significant moderating effect of two contingent variables, gender, job title and industry, on the relationship between predictors and e-learning system behavioral intention. The results suggest that a serious consideration of contingent variables is crucial for improving e-learning system behavioral intention. The implications of these results for the management of e-learning systems are discussed.
Hung, Yu Hsin; Lin, Chun Fu; Chang, Ray I.
In response to the rapid growth of information in recent decades, knowledge-based systems have become an essential tool for organizational learning. The application of electronic performance-support systems in learning activities has attracted considerable attention from researchers. Nevertheless, the vast, ever-increasing amount of information is…
Nakic, Jelena; Granic, Andrina; Glavinic, Vlado
This study brings an evidence-based review of user individual characteristics employed as sources of adaptation in recent adaptive learning systems. Twenty-two user individual characteristics were explored in a systematically designed search procedure, while 17 of them were identified as sources of adaptation in final selection. The content…
Cheng, Bo; Wang, Minhong; Yang, Stephen J. H.; Kinshuk; Peng, Jun
Current endeavors to integrate competency-based learning approaches with e-learning systems designed for delivery of training to adult learners in the workplace are growing. However, academic efforts in examining learners' perceptions of, and reactions toward, this technology-delivered pedagogical innovation are limited. Drawing together…
Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.
In this module the student will learn to apply the rules previously learned for series and parallel circuits to more complex circuits called series-parallel circuits, discover the utility of a common reference when making reference to voltage values, and learn how to obtain a required voltage from a voltage divider network. The module is divided…
The general aim is to promote the use of individual-based models (biological agent-based models) in teaching and learning contexts in life sciences and to make their progressive incorporation into academic curricula easier, complementing other existing modelling strategies more frequently used in the classroom. Modelling activities for the study of a predator-prey system for a mathematics classroom in the first year of an undergraduate program in biosystems engineering have been designed and implemented. These activities were designed to put two modelling approaches side by side, an individual-based model and a set of ordinary differential equations. In order to organize and display this, a system with wolves and sheep in a confined domain was considered and studied. With the teaching material elaborated and a computer to perform the numerical resolutions involved and the corresponding individual-based simulations, the students answered questions and completed exercises to achieve the learning goals set. Students' responses regarding the modelling of biological systems and these two distinct methodologies applied to the study of a predator-prey system were collected via questionnaires, open-ended queries and face-to-face dialogues. Taking into account the positive responses of the students when they were doing these activities, it was clear that using a discrete individual-based model to deal with a predator-prey system jointly with a set of ordinary differential equations enriches the understanding of the modelling process, adds new insights and opens novel perspectives of what can be done with computational models versus other models. The complementary views given by the two modelling approaches were very well assessed by students.
Lu, Hsi-Peng; Chiou, Ming-Jen
This study investigated the impact of contingent variables on the relationship between four predictors and students' satisfaction with e-learning. Five hundred and twenty-two university students from 10 intact classes engaging in online instruction were asked to answer questionnaires about their learning styles, perceptions of the quality of the…
There are hopes that new learning technologies will help to transform university learning and teaching into a more engaging experience for twenty-first-century students. But since 2000 the changes in campus university teaching have been more limited than expected. I have drawn on ideas from organisational change management research to investigate…
Full Text Available Reinforcement Learning has greatly influenced models of conditioning, providing powerful explanations of acquired behaviour and underlying physiological observations. However, in recent autoshaping experiments in rats, variation in the form of Pavlovian conditioned responses (CRs and associated dopamine activity, have questioned the classical hypothesis that phasic dopamine activity corresponds to a reward prediction error-like signal arising from a classical Model-Free system, necessary for Pavlovian conditioning. Over the course of Pavlovian conditioning using food as the unconditioned stimulus (US, some rats (sign-trackers come to approach and engage the conditioned stimulus (CS itself - a lever - more and more avidly, whereas other rats (goal-trackers learn to approach the location of food delivery upon CS presentation. Importantly, although both sign-trackers and goal-trackers learn the CS-US association equally well, only in sign-trackers does phasic dopamine activity show classical reward prediction error-like bursts. Furthermore, neither the acquisition nor the expression of a goal-tracking CR is dopamine-dependent. Here we present a computational model that can account for such individual variations. We show that a combination of a Model-Based system and a revised Model-Free system can account for the development of distinct CRs in rats. Moreover, we show that revising a classical Model-Free system to individually process stimuli by using factored representations can explain why classical dopaminergic patterns may be observed for some rats and not for others depending on the CR they develop. In addition, the model can account for other behavioural and pharmacological results obtained using the same, or similar, autoshaping procedures. Finally, the model makes it possible to draw a set of experimental predictions that may be verified in a modified experimental protocol. We suggest that further investigation of factored representations in
Lesaint, Florian; Sigaud, Olivier; Flagel, Shelly B.; Robinson, Terry E.; Khamassi, Mehdi
Reinforcement Learning has greatly influenced models of conditioning, providing powerful explanations of acquired behaviour and underlying physiological observations. However, in recent autoshaping experiments in rats, variation in the form of Pavlovian conditioned responses (CRs) and associated dopamine activity, have questioned the classical hypothesis that phasic dopamine activity corresponds to a reward prediction error-like signal arising from a classical Model-Free system, necessary for Pavlovian conditioning. Over the course of Pavlovian conditioning using food as the unconditioned stimulus (US), some rats (sign-trackers) come to approach and engage the conditioned stimulus (CS) itself – a lever – more and more avidly, whereas other rats (goal-trackers) learn to approach the location of food delivery upon CS presentation. Importantly, although both sign-trackers and goal-trackers learn the CS-US association equally well, only in sign-trackers does phasic dopamine activity show classical reward prediction error-like bursts. Furthermore, neither the acquisition nor the expression of a goal-tracking CR is dopamine-dependent. Here we present a computational model that can account for such individual variations. We show that a combination of a Model-Based system and a revised Model-Free system can account for the development of distinct CRs in rats. Moreover, we show that revising a classical Model-Free system to individually process stimuli by using factored representations can explain why classical dopaminergic patterns may be observed for some rats and not for others depending on the CR they develop. In addition, the model can account for other behavioural and pharmacological results obtained using the same, or similar, autoshaping procedures. Finally, the model makes it possible to draw a set of experimental predictions that may be verified in a modified experimental protocol. We suggest that further investigation of factored representations in
Lesaint, Florian; Sigaud, Olivier; Flagel, Shelly B; Robinson, Terry E; Khamassi, Mehdi
Reinforcement Learning has greatly influenced models of conditioning, providing powerful explanations of acquired behaviour and underlying physiological observations. However, in recent autoshaping experiments in rats, variation in the form of Pavlovian conditioned responses (CRs) and associated dopamine activity, have questioned the classical hypothesis that phasic dopamine activity corresponds to a reward prediction error-like signal arising from a classical Model-Free system, necessary for Pavlovian conditioning. Over the course of Pavlovian conditioning using food as the unconditioned stimulus (US), some rats (sign-trackers) come to approach and engage the conditioned stimulus (CS) itself - a lever - more and more avidly, whereas other rats (goal-trackers) learn to approach the location of food delivery upon CS presentation. Importantly, although both sign-trackers and goal-trackers learn the CS-US association equally well, only in sign-trackers does phasic dopamine activity show classical reward prediction error-like bursts. Furthermore, neither the acquisition nor the expression of a goal-tracking CR is dopamine-dependent. Here we present a computational model that can account for such individual variations. We show that a combination of a Model-Based system and a revised Model-Free system can account for the development of distinct CRs in rats. Moreover, we show that revising a classical Model-Free system to individually process stimuli by using factored representations can explain why classical dopaminergic patterns may be observed for some rats and not for others depending on the CR they develop. In addition, the model can account for other behavioural and pharmacological results obtained using the same, or similar, autoshaping procedures. Finally, the model makes it possible to draw a set of experimental predictions that may be verified in a modified experimental protocol. We suggest that further investigation of factored representations in computational
Lubchak, Vladimir; Kupenko, Olena; Kuzikov, Borys
E-learning students are generally heterogeneous and have different capabilities knowledge base and needs. The aim of the Sumy State University (SSU) e-learning system project is to cater to these individual needs by assembling individual learning path. This paper shows current situation with e-learning in Ukraine, state-of-art of development of…
Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.
In this module the student will learn the rules that govern the characteristics of parallel circuits; the relationships between voltage, current, resistance and power; and the results of common troubles in parallel circuits. The module is divided into four lessons: rules of voltage and current, rules for resistance and power, variational analysis,…
Bear, Anne A. Ghost
The learning needs for adults that result from the constant increase in technology are rooted in the adult learning concepts of (a) andragogy, (b) self-directed learning, (c) learning-how-to-learn, (d) real-life learning, and (e) learning strategies. This study described the learning strategies that adults use in learning to engage in an online…
Full Text Available This paper presents a system for an interactive multimodal environment able (i to train the listening comprehension in various populations of pupils, both Italian and immigrants, having different disabilities and (ii to assess speech production and discrimination. The proposed system is the result of a research project focused on pupils with sensorial, neuropsychological, and relational impairments. The project involves innovative technological systems that the users (speech terabits psychologists and preprimary and primary schools teachers could adopt for training and assessment of language and speech. Because the system is used in a real scenario (the Italian schools are often affected by poor funding for education and teachers without informatics skills, the guidelines adopted are low-cost technology; usability; customizable system; robustness.
Seidler, R D; Carson, R G
Here we provide an overview of findings and viewpoints on the mechanisms of sensorimotor learning presented at the 2016 Biomechanics and Neural Control of Movement (BANCOM) conference in Deer Creek, OH. This field has shown substantial growth in the past couple of decades. For example it is now well accepted that neural systems outside of primary motor pathways play a role in learning. Frontoparietal and anterior cingulate networks contribute to sensorimotor adaptation, reflecting strategic aspects of exploration and learning. Longer term training results in functional and morphological changes in primary motor and somatosensory cortices. Interestingly, re-engagement of strategic processes once a skill has become well learned may disrupt performance. Efforts to predict individual differences in learning rate have enhanced our understanding of the neural, behavioral, and genetic factors underlying skilled human performance. Access to genomic analyses has dramatically increased over the past several years. This has enhanced our understanding of cellular processes underlying the expression of human behavior, including involvement of various neurotransmitters, receptors, and enzymes. Surprisingly our field has been slow to adopt such approaches in studying neural control, although this work does require much larger sample sizes than are typically used to investigate skill learning. We advocate that individual differences approaches can lead to new insights into human sensorimotor performance. Moreover, a greater understanding of the factors underlying the wide range of performance capabilities seen across individuals can promote personalized medicine and refinement of rehabilitation strategies, which stand to be more effective than "one size fits all" treatments.
Lu, Zhihong; Wen, Fuan; Li, Ping
Teaching listening and speaking in English in China has been given top priority on the post-secondary level. This has lead to the question of how learners develop communicative language ability (CLA) effectively in computer-assisted language learning (CALL) environments. The authors demonstrate a self-developed language skill learning system with…
The general aim is to promote the use of individual-based models (biological agent-based models) in teaching and learning contexts in life sciences and to make their progressive incorporation into academic curricula easier, complementing other existing modelling strategies more frequently used in the classroom. Modelling activities for the study…
Manouselis, Nikos; Verbert, Katrien; Duval, Erik
Technology enhanced learning (TEL) aims to design, develop and test sociotechnical innovations that will support and enhance learning practices of both individuals and organisations. It is therefore an application domain that generally covers technologies that support all forms of teaching and learning activities. Since information retrieval (in terms of searching for relevant learning resources to support teachers or learners) is a pivotal activity in TEL, the deployment of recommender systems has attracted increased interest. This brief attempts to provide an introduction to recommender systems for TEL settings, as well as to highlight their particularities compared to recommender systems for other application domains.
Sitar, Aleša Saša; Cerne, Matej; Aleksic, Darija; Mihelic, Katarina Katja
Business schools are in need of developing creative graduates. This article explores how creativity among business students can be stimulated. Because a considerable amount of knowledge is required for creative ideas to emerge, the learning process has a significant impact on creativity. This, in turn, indicates that learning style is important…
Thursfield, Denise; Smith, Vikki; Holden, Rick; Hamblett, John
Evaluation of the implementation of Individual Learning Accounts in Britain revealed five themes that may explain the program's lack of success: individualistic approach to adult education, conflict of individualism with partnership, ineffective targeting of low-skilled populations, lack of linkage with a lifelong commitment to learning, and…
Kandel, Eric R.; Hawkins, Robert D.
Describes the biological basis of learning and individuality. Presents an overview of recent discoveries that suggest learning engages a simple set of rules that modify the strength of connection between neurons in the brain. The changes are cited as playing an important role in making each individual unique. (MCO)
Purpose: Since the end of the previous century social partners in different branches of industry have laid down measures to stimulate individual learning and competence development of workers in collective labour agreements. Special attention is given to stimulating learning demand among traditional non-participants to lifelong learning, such as…
Schuetze, Hans G.
To answer the question "Financing what?" this article distinguishes several models of lifelong learning as well as a variety of lifelong learning activities. Several financing methods are briefly reviewed, however the principal focus is on Individual Learning Accounts (ILAs) which were seen by some analysts as a promising model for…
Mitsel, A. A.; Cherniaeva, N. V.
The article discusses models, methods and algorithms of determining student's optimal individual educational trajectory. A new method of controlling the learning trajectory has been developed as a dynamic model of learning trajectory control, which uses score assessment to construct a sequence of studied subjects.
Noemí Martínez Caraballo
Full Text Available During the last two decades, there has been a profusion of articles dealing with the topics organizational learning and knowledge management, on the academic and managerial side. For this reason, the present paper is focused on further analysing these concepts. In particular, the purpose is studying the link between individual and organizational learning, taking into account the literature about knowledge management, and trying to establish the application field and the intersection of them. Finally, it is pursued to point out several managerial implications for the companies that must have in consideration that individual and organizational learning are two phenomena different but indissolubly united
Shariff, Sya Azmeela Binti
Promoting active learning among students may result in greater learning and more positive attitudes in university-level large lecture classes. One way of promoting active learning in large lecture classes is via the use of a think-pair-share instructional strategy, which combines student participation in class discussions via clicker technology…
Noemí Martínez Caraballo
During the last two decades, there has been a profusion of articles dealing with the topics organizational learning and knowledge management, on the academic and managerial side. For this reason, the present paper is focused on further analysing these concepts. In particular, the purpose is studying the link between individual and organizational learning, taking into account the literature about knowledge management, and trying to establish the application field and the intersection of them. ...
Goh, Adeline Yuen Sze
In this paper, I address a perceived gap in the lifelong learning literature. There is very little research which addresses how learning should be construed, when individuals transition across a longitudinal span of their working life. This transition which could be viewed as a process of "becoming somebody", often oversimplifies the…
The occurrence of organizational and interorganizational learning processes is not only the result of management endeavors. Industry structures and market related issues have substantial spill-over effects. The article reviews literature, and it establishes a learning model in which elements from...... organizational environments are included into a systematic conceptual framework. The model allows four types of learning to be identified: P-learning (professional/craft systems learning), T-learning (technology embedded learning), D-learning (dualistic learning systems, where part of the labor force is exclude...... from learning), and S-learning (learning in social networks or clans). The situation related to service industries illustrates the typology....
The purpose of this study is to compare the communication skills of individuals with different disabilities with athletes and sedentary people and to examine their learning abilities which influence the development of communication. A total of 159 male subjects 31 sedentary, 30 visually impaired, 27 hearing impaired, 40 physically impaired and 31…
Colbaugh, Rich; Glass, Kristin
There is growing awareness that user-generated social media content contains valuable health-related information and is more convenient to collect than typical health data. For example, Twitter has been employed to predict aggregate-level outcomes, such as regional rates of diabetes and child poverty, and to identify individual cases of depression and food poisoning. Models which make aggregate-level inferences can be induced from aggregate data, and consequently are straightforward to build. In contrast, learning models that produce individual-level (IL) predictions, which are more informative, usually requires a large number of difficult-to-acquire labeled IL examples. This paper presents a new machine learning method which achieves the best of both worlds, enabling IL models to be learned from aggregate labels. The algorithm makes predictions by combining unsupervised feature extraction, aggregate-based modeling, and optimal integration of aggregate-level and IL information. Two case studies illustrate how to learn health-relevant IL prediction models using only aggregate labels, and show that these models perform as well as state-of-the-art models trained on hundreds or thousands of labeled individuals.
Full Text Available The MOPEM project includes two fixed scenarios that have been defined to convey the idea of "learning paths". Our aim in this paper is to demonstrate the contexts and conditions for flexible learning paths that can be tailored to meet individual needs. The concept of this kind of specialised path is to enable learners to individualise the learning process and to adjust it to their personal needs. We will outline the background and pro- vide examples to explain the concept of learning stations which we use in our four courses: Online Marketing, CRM Systems, Business Communications and Event Marketing. This idea of "freely" combining subject matter naturally leads to the ques- tion of multi-applicability for the learning blocks in various educational contexts. The answers to this question are interest- ing not only in terms of the feasibility of learning paths from a content and didactic point of view, but also with regard to the economic viability of E-Learning or Blended Learning Systems, which ultimately require technical implementation. In addition we will present some first thoughts on the design of a prototype "Content Pool". It would, however, only make sense to develop and implement this within the scope of a follow-up project.
There is a prime necessity to make a distinction between "education" and "learning." Learning is a human instinct. Education is not. Education is about learning processes designed by adults for the young. In the past two centuries in the industrial era, education has developed into society-wide "school" systems. Young…
McMurray, Sharon; Thompson, Ross
For many lower ability children, inclusion in the mainstream setting does not guarantee that that their individual needs will be met. With increased numbers of children with well-below average ability being placed in mainstream schools, it is imperative that teachers understand factors which impact on learning for this group of children. Current…
Dietz, Franziska; Hofer, Manfred; Fries, Stefan
Academic procrastination, the tendency to postpone learning activities, is regarded as a consequence of postmodern values that are prominent in post-industrialized societies. When students strive for leisure goals and have no structured routines for academic tasks, delaying strenuous learning activities becomes probable. The model tested in this study posits that postmodern value orientations are positively related to procrastination and to a lack of daily routines concerning the performance of academic activities. In contrast, modern values are negatively related to procrastination and positively to learning routines. Academic procrastination, in-turn, should be associated with the tendency to prefer leisure activities to schoolwork in case of conflicts between these two life domains. Seven hundred and four students from 6th and 8th grade with a mean age of 13.5 years participated in the study. The sample included students from all tracks of the German educational system. Students completed a questionnaire containing two value prototypes as well as scales on learning routines and procrastination. Decisions in motivational conflicts were measured using two vignettes. Results from structural equation modelling supported the proposed model for the whole sample as well as for each school track. A planned course of the day can prevent procrastination and foster decisions for academic tasks in case of conflicts. Students' learning takes place within a societal context and reflects the values held in the respective culture.
Full Text Available While the need to adapt teaching to the needs of a student is generally acknowledged (see Corno and Snow, 1986, for a wide review of the literature, little is known about the impact of individual learner-differences on the quality of learning attained within computer-based learning environments (CBLEs. What evidence there is appears to support the notion that individual differences have implications for the degree of success or failure experienced by students (Ford and Ford, 1992 and by trainee end-users of software packages (Bostrom et al, 1990. The problem is to identify the way in which specific individual characteristics of a student interact with particular features of a CBLE, and how the interaction affects the quality of the resultant learning. Teaching in a CBLE is likely to require a subset of teaching strategies different from that subset appropriate to more traditional environments, and the use of a machine may elicit different behaviours from those normally arising in a classroom context.
Yu, Tai-Kuei; Yu, Tai-Yi
Understanding learners' behaviour, perceptions and influence in terms of learner performance is crucial to predict the use of electronic learning systems. By integrating the task-technology fit (TTF) model and the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), this paper investigates the online learning utilisation of Taiwanese students. This paper provides a…
Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System. CANTRAC A-100-0010. Module Five: Relationships of Current, Voltage, and Resistance. Study Booklet.
Chief of Naval Education and Training Support, Pensacola, FL.
This individualized learning module on the relationships of current, voltage, and resistance is one in a series of modules for a course in basic electricity and electronics. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptaticn to vocational instructional and curriculum development in a civilian setting.…
Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System. CANTRAC A-100-0010. Module Fourteen: Parallel AC Resistive-Reactive Circuits. Study Booklet.
Chief of Naval Education and Training Support, Pensacola, FL.
This individualized learning module on parallel alternating current resistive-reaction circuits is one in a series of modules for a course in basic electricity and electronics. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instructional and curriculum development in a civilian…
Chief of Naval Education and Training Support, Pensacola, FL.
This individualized learning module on parallel circuits is one in a series of modules for a course in basic electricity and electronics. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instructional and curriculum development in a civilian setting. Four lessons are included in the…
Chief of Naval Education and Training Support, Pensacola, FL.
This individualized learning module on transformers is one in a series of modules for a course in basic electricity and electronics. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instructional and curriculum development in a civilian setting. Six lessons are included in the module:…
Siu Loon Hoe
Organisational learning has over the years been subject of much study by scholars and managers. In the process, the organisational learning concept has been linked to many other knowledge concepts such as individual learning, learning organisation, and knowledge management. This paper draws from existing literature in organisational behaviour, human resource management, marketing, and information management, to further develop the conceptual links between organisational learning and these kno...
Chen, Yunxiao; Li, Xiaoou; Liu, Jingchen; Ying, Zhiliang
An adaptive learning system aims at providing instruction tailored to the current status of a learner, differing from the traditional classroom experience. The latest advances in technology make adaptive learning possible, which has the potential to provide students with high-quality learning benefit at a low cost. A key component of an adaptive learning system is a recommendation system, which recommends the next material (video lectures, practices, and so on, on different skills) to the learner, based on the psychometric assessment results and possibly other individual characteristics. An important question then follows: How should recommendations be made? To answer this question, a mathematical framework is proposed that characterizes the recommendation process as a Markov decision problem, for which decisions are made based on the current knowledge of the learner and that of the learning materials. In particular, two plain vanilla systems are introduced, for which the optimal recommendation at each stage can be obtained analytically.
Poell, R.F.; van der Krogt, F.J.
Background A relatively new theoretical concept is proposed in this paper, namely, the individual learning path. Learning paths are created by individual employees and comprise a set of learning-relevant activities that are both coherent as a whole and meaningful to them. Objectives To explore the
Byrom, Nicola C.
Associative learning has provided fundamental insights to understanding psychopathology. However, psychopathology occurs along a continuum and as such, identification of disruptions in processes of associative learning associated with aspects of psychopathology illustrates a general flexibility in human associative learning. A handful of studies have looked specifically at individual differences in human associative learning, but while much work has concentrated on accounting for flexibility ...
... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Individual systems. 35.918 Section 35... Individual systems. (a) For references to individual systems, the following definitions apply: (1) Individual... a function of individual systems where cost-effective. (2) Principal residence. Normally the voting...
Schmidt, B. June
Discusses a study which indicated that relationships exist between students' learning styles and their attitudes toward individualized, competency-based typewriting instruction, particularly for beginning students. (JOW)
To the best of our knowledge, the genetic foundations that guide human brain development have not changed fundamentally during the past 50,000 years. However, because of their cognitive potential, humans have changed the world tremendously in the past centuries. They have invented technical devices, institutions that regulate cooperation and competition, and symbol systems, such as script and mathematics, that serve as reasoning tools. The exceptional learning ability of humans allows newborns to adapt to the world they are born into; however, there are tremendous individual differences in learning ability among humans that become obvious in school at the latest. Cognitive psychology has developed models of memory and information processing that attempt to explain how humans learn (general perspective), while the variation among individuals (differential perspective) has been the focus of psychometric intelligence research. Although both lines of research have been proceeding independently, they increasingly converge, as both investigate the concepts of working memory and knowledge construction. This review begins with presenting state-of-the-art research on human information processing and its potential in academic learning. Then, a brief overview of the history of psychometric intelligence research is combined with presenting recent work on the role of intelligence in modern societies and on the nature-nurture debate. Finally, promising approaches to integrating the general and differential perspective will be discussed in the conclusion of this review.
Yu. B. Popova
Full Text Available Using of information technologies and, in particular, learning management systems, increases opportunities of teachers and students in reaching their goals in education. Such systems provide learning content, help organize and monitor training, collect progress statistics and take into account the individual characteristics of each user. Currently, there is a huge inventory of both paid and free systems are physically located both on college servers and in the cloud, offering different features sets of different licensing scheme and the cost. This creates the problem of choosing the best system. This problem is partly due to the lack of comprehensive classification of such systems. Analysis of more than 30 of the most common now automated learning management systems has shown that a classification of such systems should be carried out according to certain criteria, under which the same type of system can be considered. As classification features offered by the author are: cost, functionality, modularity, keeping the customer’s requirements, the integration of content, the physical location of a system, adaptability training. Considering the learning management system within these classifications and taking into account the current trends of their development, it is possible to identify the main requirements to them: functionality, reliability, ease of use, low cost, support for SCORM standard or Tin Can API, modularity and adaptability. According to the requirements at the Software Department of FITR BNTU under the guidance of the author since 2009 take place the development, the use and continuous improvement of their own learning management system.
Zimmerer, Vitor C; Cowell, Patricia E; Varley, Rosemary A
One factor in syntactic impairment in aphasia might be damage to general structure processing systems. In such a case, deficits would be evident in the processing of syntactically structured non-linguistic information. To explore this hypothesis, we examined performances on artificial grammar learning (AGL) tasks in which the grammar was expressed in non-linguistic visual forms. In the first experiment, AGL behavior of four aphasic participants with severe syntactic impairment, five aphasic participants without syntactic impairment, and healthy controls was examined. Participants were trained on sequences of nonsense stimuli with the structure A(n)B(n). Data were analyzed at an individual level to identify different behavioral profiles and account for heterogeneity in aphasic as well as healthy groups. Healthy controls and patients without syntactic impairment were more likely to learn configurational (item order) than quantitative (counting) regularities. Quantitative regularities were only detected by individuals who also detected the configurational properties of the stimulus sequences. By contrast, two individuals with syntactic impairment learned quantitative regularities, but showed no sensitivity towards configurational structure. They also failed to detect configurational structure in a second experiment in which sequences were structured by the grammar A(+)B(+). We discuss the potential relationship between AGL and processing of word order as well as the potential of AGL in clinical practice. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Dietz, Franziska; Hofer, Manfred; Fries, Stefan
Background: Academic procrastination, the tendency to postpone learning activities, is regarded as a consequence of postmodern values that are prominent in post-industrialized societies. When students strive for leisure goals and have no structured routines for academic tasks, delaying strenuous learning activities becomes probable. Aims: The…
Full Text Available The paper explains the evolution of e-Learning and related concepts and tools and its connection with other concepts such as Knowledge Management, Human Resources Management, Enterprise Resource Planning, and Information Technology. The paper also distinguished Learning Content Management Systems from Learning Management Systems and Content Management Systems used for general web-based content. The newest Learning Content Management System, very expensive and yet very little implemented is one of the best tools that helps us to cope with the realities of the 21st Century in what learning concerns. The debates over how beneficial one or another system is for an organization, can be driven by costs involved, efficiency envisaged, and availability of the product on the market.
Suhoyo, Yoyo; Schönrock-Adema, Johanna; Emilia, Ova; Kuks, Jan B M; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke
BACKGROUND: Feedback is essential for workplace learning. Most papers in this field concern individual feedback. In collectivistic cultures, however, group feedback is common educational practice. This study was conducted to investigate the perceived learning value and characteristics of individual
Dao, Li Thuy; Napier, Nancy
This paper examines micro (individual-level) aspects of knowledge transfer and learning in international joint ventures in an emerging economy context. Learning by expatriate and local managers appears far more complex, mutually dependent, and significant to the knowledge transfer process than...... suggested in existing literature. Building upon conceptualizations of individual learning and cognitive – behavioural effects in an organisational context while drawing evidence from two cases of Danish – Vietnamese joint ventures, we propose a model of individual-level knowledge transfer and learning...
Gokaydin, Beria; Baglama, Basak; Uzunboylu, Huseyin
This study aims to carry out a content analysis of the studies on language learning of gifted individuals and determine the trends in this field. Articles on language learning of gifted individuals published in the Scopus database were examined based on certain criteria including type of publication, year of publication, language, research…
Byrom, Nicola C
Associative learning has provided fundamental insights to understanding psychopathology. However, psychopathology occurs along a continuum and as such, identification of disruptions in processes of associative learning associated with aspects of psychopathology illustrates a general flexibility in human associative learning. A handful of studies have looked specifically at individual differences in human associative learning, but while much work has concentrated on accounting for flexibility in learning caused by external factors, there has been limited work considering how to model the influence of dispositional factors. This review looks at the range of individual differences in human associative learning that have been explored and the attempts to account for, and model, this flexibility. To fully understand human associative learning, further research needs to attend to the causes of variation in human learning.
Nicola C Byrom
Full Text Available Associative learning has provided fundamental insights to understanding psychopathology. However, psychopathology occurs along a continuum and as such, identification of disruptions in processes of associative learning associated with aspects of psychopathology illustrates a general flexibility in human associative learning. A handful of studies have looked specifically at individual differences in human associative learning, but while much work has concentrated on accounting for flexibility in learning caused by external factors, there has been limited work considering how to model the influence of dispositional factors. This review looks at the range of individual differences in human associative learning that have been explored and the attempts to account for, and model, this flexibility. To fully understand human associative learning, further research needs to attend to the causes of variation in human learning.
Full Text Available Associative learning in insects has been studied extensively by a multitude of classical conditioning protocols. However, so far little emphasis has been put on the dynamics of learning in individuals. The honeybee is a well-established animal model for learning and memory. We here studied associative learning as expressed in individual behavior based on a large collection of data on olfactory classical conditioning (25 datasets, 3,298 animals. We show that the group-averaged learning curve and memory retention score confound three attributes of individual learning: the ability or inability to learn a given task, the generally fast acquisition of a conditioned response in learners, and the high stability of the conditioned response during consecutive training and memory retention trials. We reassessed the prevailing view that more training results in better memory performance and found that 24h memory retention can be indistinguishable after single-trial and multiple-trial conditioning in individuals. We explain how inter-individual differences in learning can be accommodated within the Rescorla-Wagner theory of associative learning. In both data-analysis and modeling we demonstrate how the conflict between population-level and single-animal perspectives on learning and memory can be disentangled.
Pamir, Evren; Szyszka, Paul; Scheiner, Ricarda; Nawrot, Martin P
Associative learning in insects has been studied extensively by a multitude of classical conditioning protocols. However, so far little emphasis has been put on the dynamics of learning in individuals. The honeybee is a well-established animal model for learning and memory. We here studied associative learning as expressed in individual behavior based on a large collection of data on olfactory classical conditioning (25 datasets, 3298 animals). We show that the group-averaged learning curve and memory retention score confound three attributes of individual learning: the ability or inability to learn a given task, the generally fast acquisition of a conditioned response (CR) in learners, and the high stability of the CR during consecutive training and memory retention trials. We reassessed the prevailing view that more training results in better memory performance and found that 24 h memory retention can be indistinguishable after single-trial and multiple-trial conditioning in individuals. We explain how inter-individual differences in learning can be accommodated within the Rescorla-Wagner theory of associative learning. In both data-analysis and modeling we demonstrate how the conflict between population-level and single-animal perspectives on learning and memory can be disentangled.
The construct of "addiction memory" (AM) and its importance for relapse occurrence has been the subject of discussion for the past 30 years. Neurobiological findings from "social neuroscience" and biopsychological learning theory, in conjunction with construct-valid behavioral pharmacological animal models, can now also provide general confirmation of addiction memory as a pathomorphological correlate of addiction disorders. Under multifactorial influences, experience-driven neuronal learning and memory processes of emotional and cognitive processing patterns in the specific individual "set" and "setting" play an especially pivotal role in this connection. From a neuropsychological perspective, the episodic (biographical) memory, located at the highest hierarchical level, is of central importance for the formation of the AM in certain structural and functional areas of the brain and neuronal networks. Within this context, neuronal learning and conditioning processes take place more or less unconsciously and automatically in the preceding long-term-memory systems (in particular priming and perceptual memory). They then regulate the individually programmed addiction behavior implicitly and thus subsequently stand for facilitated recollection of corresponding, previously stored cues or context situations. This explains why it is so difficult to treat an addiction memory, which is embedded above all in the episodic memory, from the molecular carrier level via the neuronal pattern level through to the psychological meaning level, and has thus meanwhile become a component of personality.
Gray, Michael; Peters, Jane; Fletcher, Mick; Kirk, Gordon
The impact of individual learning accounts (ILAs) on the success of learners in post-16 education sector in the United Kingdom was explored through an examination of available research on ILAs. The following were among the study's 12 messages for providers, the Department for Education and Skills, and the Individual Learning Account Centre: (1)…
With the dramatic rise of expert systems has come a renewed interest in the fuel that drives them-knowledge. For it is specialist knowledge which gives expert systems their power. But extracting knowledge from human experts in symbolic form has proved arduous and labour-intensive. So the idea of machine learning is enjoying a renaissance. Machine learning is any automatic improvement in the performance of a computer system over time, as a result of experience. Thus a learning algorithm seeks to do one or more of the following: cover a wider range of problems, deliver more accurate solutions, obtain answers more cheaply, and simplify codified knowledge. 6 references.
Willis, Matt; Tucker, Eilish Marie; Raybourn, Elaine Marie; Glickman, Matthew R.; Fabian, Nathan
Military training utilizing serious games or virtual worlds potentially generate data that can be mined to better understand how trainees learn in experiential exercises. Few data mining approaches for deployed military training games exist. Opportunities exist to collect and analyze these data, as well as to construct a full-history learner model. Outcomes discussed in the present document include results from a quasi-experimental research study on military game-based experiential learning, the deployment of an online game for training evidence collection, and results from a proof-of-concept pilot study on the development of individualized training vectors. This Lab Directed Research & Development (LDRD) project leveraged products within projects, such as Titan (Network Grand Challenge), Real-Time Feedback and Evaluation System, (America's Army Adaptive Thinking and Leadership, DARWARS Ambush! NK), and Dynamic Bayesian Networks to investigate whether machine learning capabilities could perform real-time, in-game similarity vectors of learner performance, toward adaptation of content delivery, and quantitative measurement of experiential learning.
Lee, M.D.; Wetzels, R.
A central idea in many successful models of category learning—including the Generalized Context Model (GCM)—is that people selectively attend to those dimensions of stimuli that are relevant for dividing them into categories. We use the GCM to re-examine some previously analyzed category learning
Molleman, Lucas; van den Berg, Pieter; Weissing, Franz J
Social learning has allowed humans to build up extensive cultural repertoires, enabling them to adapt to a wide variety of environmental and social conditions. However, it is unclear which social learning strategies people use, especially in social contexts where their payoffs depend on the behaviour of others. Here we show experimentally that individuals differ in their social learning strategies and that they tend to employ the same learning strategy irrespective of the interaction context. Payoff-based learners focus on their peers' success, while decision-based learners disregard payoffs and exclusively focus on their peers' past behaviour. These individual differences may be of considerable importance for cultural evolution. By means of a simple model, we demonstrate that groups harbouring individuals with different learning strategies may be faster in adopting technological innovations and can be more efficient through successful role differentiation. Our study highlights the importance of individual variation for human interactions and sheds new light on the dynamics of cultural evolution.
Gershman, Samuel J; Hartley, Catherine A
Using a laboratory analogue of learned fear (Pavlovian fear conditioning), we show that there is substantial heterogeneity across individuals in spontaneous recovery of fear following extinction training. We propose that this heterogeneity might stem from qualitative individual differences in the nature of extinction learning. Whereas some individuals tend to form a new memory during extinction, leaving their fear memory intact, others update the original threat association with new safety information, effectively unlearning the fear memory. We formalize this account in a computational model of fear learning and show that individuals who, according to the model, are more likely to form new extinction memories tend to show greater spontaneous recovery compared to individuals who appear to only update a single memory. This qualitative variation in fear and extinction learning may have important implications for understanding vulnerability and resilience to fear-related psychiatric disorders.
Full Text Available This study aims to carry out a content analysis of the studies on language learning of gifted individuals and determine the trends in this field. Articles on language learning of gifted individuals published in the Scopus database were examined based on certain criteria including type of publication, year of publication, language, research discipline, countries of research, institutions of authors, key words, and resources. Data were analyzed with the content analysis method. Results showed that the number of studies on language learning of gifted individuals has increased throughout the years. Recommendations for further research and practices are provided.
Full Text Available Learning is one of the most important aspects of children's behaviour. A new theory that emerged from evolutionary principles and information-processing models assumes learning to be run by two basic mechanisms: variability and selection. The theory is based on the underlying assumption that intra-individual variability of strategies that children use to solve a problem, is a core mechanism of learning change. This assumption was tested in the case of multiple classification (MC task. 30 6-year-old children were tested for intelligence, short-term memory, and MC. Procedure followed classical pre-test/learning/post-test scheme. Amount of learning was measured through percentage of correct answers before and after learning sessions, whereas intra-individual variability was assessed through children's explanations of their answers on MC problems. The results yielded intra-individual variability to explain learning changes beyond inter-individual differences in intelligence or short-term memory. Although the results rose some new questions to be considered in further research, the data supported the hypothesis of intra-individual variability as predictor of learning change.
Yarandi, Maryam; Tawil, Abdel-Rahman; Jahankhani, Hossein
This paper proposes an innovative ontological approach to design a personalised e-learning system which creates a tailored workflow for individual learner. Moreover, the learning content and sequencing logic is separated into content model and pedagogical model to increase the reusability and flexibility of the system.
Vogler, Jane S.; Robinson, Daniel H.
In two experiments, 90 undergraduates took six tests as part of an educational psychology course. Using a crossover design, students took three tests individually without feedback and then took the same test again, following the process of team-based testing (TBT), in teams in which the members reached consensus for each question and answered…
Matheus, Christopher J.; Hohensee, William E.
This paper presents an overview and analysis of learning in Artificial Neural Systems (ANS's). It begins with a general introduction to neural networks and connectionist approaches to information processing. The basis for learning in ANS's is then described, and compared with classical Machine learning. While similar in some ways, ANS learning deviates from tradition in its dependence on the modification of individual weights to bring about changes in a knowledge representation distributed across connections in a network. This unique form of learning is analyzed from two aspects: the selection of an appropriate network architecture for representing the problem, and the choice of a suitable learning rule capable of reproducing the desired function within the given network. The various network architectures are classified, and then identified with explicit restrictions on the types of functions they are capable of representing. The learning rules, i.e., algorithms that specify how the network weights are modified, are similarly taxonomized, and where possible, the limitations inherent to specific classes of rules are outlined.
The concept of 'andragogy' is the basis of the adult education which is different from pedagogy in several aspects, particularly in the autonomy of the adult learner in choosing the educational programmes and the methodologies and sites in where learning occurs. This happens very often in the worksite. The professionals have to learn permanently during their active lives in order to maintain their competence updated. In this sense, continuing education correlates with continuing professional development, which is an attempt to enlarge the traditional domains of continuing education. Continuing education must be clearly differentiated from formal education, which is a requirement for granting professional degrees or titles. Very often it arises from the changing health needs and for this reason is necessary to avoid the institutionalization of continuing education programmes. Professional associations should be actively involved in providing and accrediting continuing education-continuing professional development programmes, because this involvement is an essential component of the professionals' self-regulation in the context of the current medical professionalism ideology.
Reviews British political party proposals for individual learning accounts, designed to give adults purchasing power for further education and training. Raises concerns about effects on existing employee development programs and other potential problems. (SK)
Kinchin, Ian M.; Baysan, Aylin; Cabot, Lyndon Bruce
The development of teaching in higher education towards a more learner-orientated model has been supported by the literature on individual learning differences and on learning styles in particular. This has contributed to the evolution of university pedagogy away from a medieval transmission model than runs counter to contemporary understanding of…
Stark-Inbar, Alit; Raza, Meher; Taylor, Jordan A; Ivry, Richard B
In standard taxonomies, motor skills are typically treated as representative of implicit or procedural memory. We examined two emblematic tasks of implicit motor learning, sensorimotor adaptation and sequence learning, asking whether individual differences in learning are correlated between these tasks, as well as how individual differences within each task are related to different performance variables. As a prerequisite, it was essential to establish the reliability of learning measures for each task. Participants were tested twice on a visuomotor adaptation task and on a sequence learning task, either the serial reaction time task or the alternating reaction time task. Learning was evident in all tasks at the group level and reliable at the individual level in visuomotor adaptation and the alternating reaction time task but not in the serial reaction time task. Performance variability was predictive of learning in both domains, yet the relationship was in the opposite direction for adaptation and sequence learning. For the former, faster learning was associated with lower variability, consistent with models of sensorimotor adaptation in which learning rates are sensitive to noise. For the latter, greater learning was associated with higher variability and slower reaction times, factors that may facilitate the spread of activation required to form predictive, sequential associations. Interestingly, learning measures of the different tasks were not correlated. Together, these results oppose a shared process for implicit learning in sensorimotor adaptation and sequence learning and provide insight into the factors that account for individual differences in learning within each task domain. We investigated individual differences in the ability to implicitly learn motor skills. As a prerequisite, we assessed whether individual differences were reliable across test sessions. We found that two commonly used tasks of implicit learning, visuomotor adaptation and the
Our aim is to ensure individualized learning that is fun, inspiring and innovative. We believe that when you enjoy, your brain will open up and learning will be easier and more effective. The methods use a non-linear learning environment based on self-contained learning objects which are pieced t...
Vasiliy M. Trembach
Full Text Available In the article issues of engineering intelligent tutoring systems of University with adaptation are considered. The article also dwells on some modern approaches to engineering of information systems. It shows the role of engineering e-learning devices (systems in system engineering. The article describes the basic principles of system engineering and these principles are expanded regarding to intelligent information systems. The structure of intelligent learning systems with adaptation of the individual learning environments based on services is represented in the article.
Poell, Rob F; Van der Krogt, Ferd J
A relatively new theoretical concept is proposed in this paper, namely, the individual learning path. Learning paths are created by individual employees and comprise a set of learning-relevant activities that are both coherent as a whole and meaningful to them. To explore the empirical basis of this theoretical concept. A qualitative study involving semi-structured interviews. Two academic medical centers (university hospitals) and two general hospitals in the Netherlands. A total of 89 nurses were involved in the study. Semi-structured interviews were analyzed qualitatively; cluster analysis was then performed on quantified data from the interviews. Four types of learning path emerged, namely, the formal-external, self-directed, social-emotional, and information-oriented learning paths. The relatively new theoretical concept of an individual learning path can be observed in practice and a number of different learning-path types can be distinguished. Nurses were found to create their own learning paths, that is, select a theme that is relevant primarily to themselves, conduct a variety of learning activities around this theme, participate in social contexts that might help them, and mobilize learning facilities provided by their organization. These activities go way beyond the notion of employees as self-directed learners merely in a didactic sense (establishing learning goals, choosing the right learning activities for these goals, evaluating to what extent their goals have been met as a result). The findings can be interpreted as evidence of employees acting strategically when it comes to their professional development. Providers of continuing professional education/development need to take this into account. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The purpose of this study was to explore how midlevel managers in student affairs learn supervisory skills. Student affairs professionals are given tremendous responsibility for the lives of students outside the classroom. The Association of College Personnel Administrators and other sources outlined the necessary competencies for student affairs…
Full Text Available New materials, use of sophisticated technologies and increased customer demands, in combination with growing competition among construction companies, have led to a high organizational boundaries. The results indicate that personal networks are the most common source of learning for all professions. While clients, architects, and designers also engage in reading and attending courses, site managers and workers are less engaged in these activities. Experimenting and organizing for learning appear to be underutilized strategies by all professions. This leads to the conclusion that attempts to increase learning have to address the differences in learning behaviours of the various groups. Further, focus on experimenting and organizing for learning is a possibility to change the learning behaviour from learning as a consequence of problems to learning for future improvement.degree of specialization. For successful integration of the different professional specialists, there is a need for shared learning between project co-workers. Based on twenty eight interviews in six different Swedish construction projects, this paper illustrates strategies for individual and shared learning, among different actors and across various
Full Text Available The concept of learning has been increasingly gaining importance for individuals, businesses and communities in the age of information. On the other hand, developments in information and communication technologies take effect in the field of learning activities. With these technologies, barriers of time and space against the learning activities largely disappear and these technologies make it easier to carry out these activities more effectively. There remain a lot of questions regarding selection of learning management system (LMS to be used for the management of e-learning processes by all organizations conducing educational practices including universities, companies, non-profit organizations, etc. The main questions are as follows: Shall we choose open source LMS or commercial LMS? Can the selected LMS meet existing needs and future potential needs for the organization? What are the possibilities of technical support in the management of LMS? What kind of problems may be experienced in the use of LMS and how can these problems be solved? How much effective can officials in the organization be in the management of LMS? In this study, primarily e-learning and the concept of LMS will be discussed, and in the next section, as for answers to these questions, open source LMSs and centrally developed LMSs will be examined and their advantages and disadvantages relative to each other will be discussed.
Full Text Available Computational learning models are critical for understanding mechanisms of adaptive behavior. However, the two major current frameworks, reinforcement learning (RL and Bayesian learning, both have certain limitations. For example, many Bayesian models are agnostic of inter-individual variability and involve complicated integrals, making online learning difficult. Here, we introduce a generic hierarchical Bayesian framework for individual learning under multiple forms of uncertainty (e.g., environmental volatility and perceptual uncertainty. The model assumes Gaussian random walks of states at all but the first level, with the step size determined by the next higher level. The coupling between levels is controlled by parameters that shape the influence of uncertainty on learning in a subject-specific fashion. Using variational Bayes under a mean field approximation and a novel approximation to the posterior energy function, we derive trial-by-trial update equations which (i are analytical and extremely efficient, enabling real-time learning, (ii have a natural interpretation in terms of RL, and (iii contain parameters representing processes which play a key role in current theories of learning, e.g., precision-weighting of prediction error. These parameters allow for the expression of individual differences in learning and may relate to specific neuromodulatory mechanisms in the brain. Our model is very general: it can deal with both discrete and continuous states and equally accounts for deterministic and probabilistic relations between environmental events and perceptual states (i.e., situations with and without perceptual uncertainty. These properties are illustrated by simulations and analyses of empirical time series. Overall, our framework provides a novel foundation for understanding normal and pathological learning that contextualizes RL within a generic Bayesian scheme and thus connects it to principles of optimality from probability
Mathys, Christoph; Daunizeau, Jean; Friston, Karl J; Stephan, Klaas E
Computational learning models are critical for understanding mechanisms of adaptive behavior. However, the two major current frameworks, reinforcement learning (RL) and Bayesian learning, both have certain limitations. For example, many Bayesian models are agnostic of inter-individual variability and involve complicated integrals, making online learning difficult. Here, we introduce a generic hierarchical Bayesian framework for individual learning under multiple forms of uncertainty (e.g., environmental volatility and perceptual uncertainty). The model assumes Gaussian random walks of states at all but the first level, with the step size determined by the next highest level. The coupling between levels is controlled by parameters that shape the influence of uncertainty on learning in a subject-specific fashion. Using variational Bayes under a mean-field approximation and a novel approximation to the posterior energy function, we derive trial-by-trial update equations which (i) are analytical and extremely efficient, enabling real-time learning, (ii) have a natural interpretation in terms of RL, and (iii) contain parameters representing processes which play a key role in current theories of learning, e.g., precision-weighting of prediction error. These parameters allow for the expression of individual differences in learning and may relate to specific neuromodulatory mechanisms in the brain. Our model is very general: it can deal with both discrete and continuous states and equally accounts for deterministic and probabilistic relations between environmental events and perceptual states (i.e., situations with and without perceptual uncertainty). These properties are illustrated by simulations and analyses of empirical time series. Overall, our framework provides a novel foundation for understanding normal and pathological learning that contextualizes RL within a generic Bayesian scheme and thus connects it to principles of optimality from probability theory.
Weiss, Jeremy; Kuusisto, Finn; Boyd, Kendrick; Liu, Jie; Page, David
Clinical studies model the average treatment effect (ATE), but apply this population-level effect to future individuals. Due to recent developments of machine learning algorithms with useful statistical guarantees, we argue instead for modeling the individualized treatment effect (ITE), which has better applicability to new patients. We compare ATE-estimation using randomized and observational analysis methods against ITE-estimation using machine learning, and describe how the ITE theoretically generalizes to new population distributions, whereas the ATE may not. On a synthetic data set of statin use and myocardial infarction (MI), we show that a learned ITE model improves true ITE estimation and outperforms the ATE. We additionally argue that ITE models should be learned with a consistent, nonparametric algorithm from unweighted examples and show experiments in favor of our argument using our synthetic data model and a real data set of D-penicillamine use for primary biliary cirrhosis.
Van Hedger, Stephen C; Heald, Shannon L M; Koch, Rachelle; Nusbaum, Howard C
Absolute pitch (AP) is typically defined as the ability to label an isolated tone as a musical note in the absence of a reference tone. At first glance the acquisition of AP note categories seems like a perceptual learning task, since individuals must assign a category label to a stimulus based on a single perceptual dimension (pitch) while ignoring other perceptual dimensions (e.g., loudness, octave, instrument). AP, however, is rarely discussed in terms of domain-general perceptual learning mechanisms. This is because AP is typically assumed to depend on a critical period of development, in which early exposure to pitches and musical labels is thought to be necessary for the development of AP precluding the possibility of adult acquisition of AP. Despite this view of AP, several previous studies have found evidence that absolute pitch category learning is, to an extent, trainable in a post-critical period adult population, even if the performance typically achieved by this population is below the performance of a "true" AP possessor. The current studies attempt to understand the individual differences in learning to categorize notes using absolute pitch cues by testing a specific prediction regarding cognitive capacity related to categorization - to what extent does an individual's general auditory working memory capacity (WMC) predict the success of absolute pitch category acquisition. Since WMC has been shown to predict performance on a wide variety of other perceptual and category learning tasks, we predict that individuals with higher WMC should be better at learning absolute pitch note categories than individuals with lower WMC. Across two studies, we demonstrate that auditory WMC predicts the efficacy of learning absolute pitch note categories. These results suggest that a higher general auditory WMC might underlie the formation of absolute pitch categories for post-critical period adults. Implications for understanding the mechanisms that underlie the
Zandi, Hamed; Kaivanpanah, Shiva; Alavi, Sayyed Mohammad
Contract learning as an approach to individualizing education in the context of assessment for learning is relatively underexplored in English as a Foreign Language instruction. The present study used a mixed-methods design to investigate its efficacy to provide feedback to students and improve self-directed learning. Furthermore, it studied…
Tobler, Philippe N; Fletcher, Paul C; Bullmore, Edward T; Schultz, Wolfram
A basic tenet of microeconomics suggests that the subjective value of financial gains decreases with increasing assets of individuals ("marginal utility"). Using concepts from learning theory and microeconomics, we assessed the capacity of financial rewards to elicit behavioral and neuronal changes during reward-predictive learning in participants with different financial backgrounds. Behavioral learning speed during both acquisition and extinction correlated negatively with the assets of the participants, irrespective of education and age. Correspondingly, response changes in midbrain and striatum measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging were slower during both acquisition and extinction with increasing assets and income of the participants. By contrast, asymptotic magnitudes of behavioral and neuronal responses after learning were unrelated to personal finances. The inverse relationship of behavioral and neuronal learning speed with personal finances is compatible with the general concept of decreasing marginal utility with increasing wealth.
Tamura, Kohei; Kobayashi, Yutaka; Ihara, Yasuo
A number of studies have investigated the roles played by individual and social learning in cultural phenomena and the relative advantages of the two learning strategies in variable environments. Because social learning involves the acquisition of behaviours from others, its utility depends on the availability of 'cultural models' exhibiting adaptive behaviours. This indicates that social networks play an essential role in the evolution of learning. However, possible effects of social structure on the evolution of learning have not been fully explored. Here, we develop a mathematical model to explore the evolutionary dynamics of learning strategies on social networks. We first derive the condition under which social learners (SLs) are selectively favoured over individual learners in a broad range of social network. We then obtain an analytical approximation of the long-term average frequency of SLs in homogeneous networks, from which we specify the condition, in terms of three relatedness measures, for social structure to facilitate the long-term evolution of social learning. Finally, we evaluate our approximation by Monte Carlo simulations in complete graphs, regular random graphs and scale-free networks. We formally show that whether social structure favours the evolution of social learning is determined by the relative magnitudes of two effects of social structure: localization in competition, by which competition between learning strategies is evaded, and localization in cultural transmission, which slows down the spread of adaptive traits. In addition, our estimates of the relatedness measures suggest that social structure disfavours the evolution of social learning when selection is weak. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
Slone, Lauren K; Sandhofer, Catherine M
The spacing effect refers to increased retention following learning instances that are spaced out in time compared with massed together in time. By one account, the advantages of spaced learning should be independent of task particulars and previous learning experiences given that spacing effects have been demonstrated in a variety of tasks across the lifespan. However, by another account, spaced learning should be affected by previous learning because past learning affects the memory and attention processes that form the crux of the spacing effect. The current study investigated whether individuals' learning histories affect the role of spacing in category learning. We examined the effect of spacing on 24 2- to 3.5-year-old children's learning of categories organized by properties to which children's previous learning experiences have biased them to attend (i.e., shape) and properties to which children are less biased to attend (i.e., texture and color). Spaced presentations led to significantly better learning of shape categories, but not of texture or color categories, compared with massed presentations. In addition, generalized estimating equations analyses revealed positive relations between the size of children's "shape-side" productive vocabularies and their shape category learning and between the size of children's "against-the-system" productive vocabularies and their texture category learning. These results suggest that children's attention to and memory for novel object categories are strongly related to their individual word-learning histories. Moreover, children's learned attentional biases affected the types of categories for which spacing facilitated learning. These findings highlight the importance of considering how learners' previous experiences may influence future learning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kristoffer Carl Aberg
Full Text Available Learning how to gain rewards (approach learning and avoid punishments (avoidance learning is fundamental for everyday life. While individual differences in approach and avoidance learning styles have been related to genetics and aging, the contribution of personality factors, such as traits, remains undetermined. Moreover, little is known about the computational mechanisms mediating differences in learning styles. Here, we used a probabilistic selection task with positive and negative feedbacks, in combination with computational modelling, to show that individuals displaying better approach (vs. avoidance learning scored higher on measures of approach (vs. avoidance trait motivation, but, paradoxically, also displayed reduced learning speed following positive (vs. negative outcomes. These data suggest that learning different types of information depend on associated reward values and internal motivational drives, possibly determined by personality traits.
Carl Aberg, Kristoffer; Doell, Kimberly C.; Schwartz, Sophie
Learning how to gain rewards (approach learning) and avoid punishments (avoidance learning) is fundamental for everyday life. While individual differences in approach and avoidance learning styles have been related to genetics and aging, the contribution of personality factors, such as traits, remains undetermined. Moreover, little is known about the computational mechanisms mediating differences in learning styles. Here, we used a probabilistic selection task with positive and negative feedbacks, in combination with computational modelling, to show that individuals displaying better approach (vs. avoidance) learning scored higher on measures of approach (vs. avoidance) trait motivation, but, paradoxically, also displayed reduced learning speed following positive (vs. negative) outcomes. These data suggest that learning different types of information depend on associated reward values and internal motivational drives, possibly determined by personality traits. PMID:27851807
Hsu, Jack Shih-Chieh; Huang, Hsieh-Hong; Linden, Lars P.
This study explores a de-bias function for a decision support systems (DSS) that is designed to help a user avoid confirmation bias by increasing the user's learning opportunities. Grounded upon the theory of mental models, the use of DSS is viewed as involving a learning process, whereby a user is directed to build mental models so as to reduce…
Kardan, Ahmad A.; Speily, Omid R. B.; Modaberi, Somayyeh
The majority of current web-based learning systems are closed learning environments where courses and learning materials are fixed, and the only dynamic aspect is the organization of the material that can be adapted to allow a relatively individualized learning environment. In this paper, we propose an evolving web-based learning system which can…
Hefny, Ahmed; Downey, Carlton; Gordon, Geoffrey J
Recently there has been substantial interest in spectral methods for learning dynamical systems. These methods are popular since they often offer a good tradeoff between computational and statistical efficiency. Unfortunately, they can be difficult to use and extend in practice: e.g., they can make it difficult to incorporate prior information such as sparsity or structure. To address this problem, we present a new view of dynamical system learning: we show how to learn dynamical systems by solving a sequence of ordinary supervised learning problems, thereby allowing users to incorporate prior knowledge via standard techniques such as L 1 regularization. Many existing spectral methods are special cases of this new framework, using linear regression as the supervised learner. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our framework by showing examples where nonlinear regression or lasso let us learn better state representations than plain linear regression does; the correctness of these instances follows directly from our general analysis.
Jost, Jürgen; Li, Wei
We study the effects of learning by imitating others within the framework of an iterated game in which the members of two complementary populations interact via random pairing at each round. This allows us to compare both the fitness of different strategies within a population and the performance of populations in which members have access to different types of strategies. Previous studies reveal some emergent dynamics at the population level, when players learn individually. We here investigate a different mechanism in which players can choose between two different learning strategies, individual or social. Imitating behavior can spread within a mixed population, with the frequency of imitators varying over generation time. When compared to a pure population with solely individual learners, a mixed population with both individual and social learners can do better, independently of the precise learning scheme employed. We can then search for the best imitating strategy. Imitating the neighbor with the highest payoff turns out to be consistently superior. This is in agreement with findings in experimental and model studies that have been carried out in different settings.
Shute, Valerie J.
"Smithtown" is an intelligent computer program designed to enhance an individual's scientific inquiry skills as well as to provide an environment for learning principles of basic microeconomics. It was hypothesized that intelligent computer instruction on applying effective interrogative skills (e.g., changing one variable at a time…
This article evaluates three early intervention approaches--applied behavior analysis, TEAACH (Treatment and Education of Autistic and Related Communication Handicapped Children), a structured classroom-based program, and relationship therapy/"floor time"--to identify which aspects of each approach complement individual learning styles…
This book mainly aims at solving the problems in both cooperative and competitive multi-agent systems (MASs), exploring aspects such as how agents can effectively learn to achieve the shared optimal solution based on their local information and how they can learn to increase their individual utility by exploiting the weakness of their opponents. The book describes fundamental and advanced techniques of how multi-agent systems can be engineered towards the goal of ensuring fairness, social optimality, and individual rationality; a wide range of further relevant topics are also covered both theoretically and experimentally. The book will be beneficial to researchers in the fields of multi-agent systems, game theory and artificial intelligence in general, as well as practitioners developing practical multi-agent systems.
Borenstein, Elhanan; Feldman, Marcus W; Aoki, Kenichi
Cumulative cultural change requires organisms that are capable of both exploratory individual learning and faithful social learning. In our model, an organism's phenotype is initially determined innately (by its genotypic value) or by social learning (copying a phenotype from the parental generation), and then may or may not be modified by individual learning (exploration around the initial phenotype). The environment alternates periodically between two states, each defined as a certain range of phenotypes that can survive. These states may overlap, in which case the same phenotype can survive in both states, or they may not. We find that a joint social and exploratory individual learning strategy-the strategy that supports cumulative culture-is likely to spread when the environmental states do not overlap. In particular, when the environmental states are contiguous and mutation is allowed among the genotypic values, this strategy will spread in either moderately or highly stable environments, depending on the exact nature of the individual learning applied. On the other hand, natural selection often favors a social learning strategy without exploration when the environmental states overlap. We find only partial support for the "consensus" view, which holds that individual learning, social learning, and innate determination of behavior will evolve at short, intermediate, and long environmental periodicities, respectively.
Graf, Sabine; Kinshuk; Liu, Tzu-Chien
In learning management systems (LMSs), teachers have more difficulties to notice and know how individual students behave and learn in a course, compared to face-to-face education. Enabling teachers to know their students' learning styles and making students aware of their own learning styles increases teachers' and students' understanding about…
Full Text Available Teori belajar merupakan hal yang sangat penting dalam Manajmen Pendidikan dan Pelatihan apabila ingin meraih hasil yang maksimal dalam proses transformasi pengetahuan. Adult Learning dan Ekspriental Learning Cycle salah satu teori yang paling masyhur di dalamnya. Dalam upaya meraih hasil yang maksimal juga perlu adanya pengetahuan tentang motivasi dan faktor-faktor dalam pengembangan individu, perubahan performanya, serta dinamika individu kelompok. Sehingga dengan pengetahuan yang dimilikiakan dengan mudah merealisasikan yang diinginkan. Kata kunci: Adult learning, expriental learning cycle, performance. Learning theory is very important in Management of Education and Training if you want to achieve the maximum results in the transformation process of knowledge. Adult Learning and Expriental Learning Cycle are the most famous theories within it. In the effort to achieve the maximum results also needs the knowledge about motivation, the factors in the development of individuals, the changes of performance, and the dynamics of individual groups. So with this knowledge you will easily realize the thing you desired. Keywords: Adult learning, expriental learning cycle, performance.
Manrique, Pedro D; Johnson, Neil F
Individual heterogeneity is a key characteristic of many real-world systems, from organisms to humans. However, its role in determining the system's collective dynamics is not well understood. Here we study how individual heterogeneity impacts the system network dynamics by comparing linking mechanisms that favor similar or dissimilar individuals. We find that this heterogeneity-based evolution drives an unconventional form of explosive network behavior, and it dictates how a polarized population moves toward consensus. Our model shows good agreement with data from both biological and social science domains. We conclude that individual heterogeneity likely plays a key role in the collective development of real-world networks and communities, and it cannot be ignored.
Manrique, Pedro D.; Johnson, Neil F.
Individual heterogeneity is a key characteristic of many real-world systems, from organisms to humans. However, its role in determining the system's collective dynamics is not well understood. Here we study how individual heterogeneity impacts the system network dynamics by comparing linking mechanisms that favor similar or dissimilar individuals. We find that this heterogeneity-based evolution drives an unconventional form of explosive network behavior, and it dictates how a polarized population moves toward consensus. Our model shows good agreement with data from both biological and social science domains. We conclude that individual heterogeneity likely plays a key role in the collective development of real-world networks and communities, and it cannot be ignored.
A. A. Mitsel
Full Text Available In connection with the transition of the educational system to a competence-oriented approach, the problem of learning outcomes assessment and creating an individual learning trajectory of a student has become relevant. Its solution requires the application of modern information technologies. The third generation of Federal state educational standards of higher professional education (FSES HPE defines the requirements for the results of Mastering the basic educational programs (BEP. According to FSES HPE up to 50% of subjects have a variable character, i.e. depend on the choice of a student. It significantly influences on the results of developing various competencies. The problem of forming student’s learning trajectory is analyzed in general and the choice of an individual direction was studied in details. Various methods, models and algorithms of the student’s individual learning trajectory formation were described. The analysis of the model of educational process organization in terms of individual approach makes it possible to develop a decision support system (DSS. DSS is a set of interrelated programs and data used for analysis of situation, development of alternative solutions and selection of the most acceptable alternative. DSSs are often used when building individual learning path, because this task can be considered as a discrete multi-criteria problem, creating a significant burden on the decision maker. A new method of controlling the learning trajectory has been developed. The article discusses problem statement and solution of determining student’s optimal individual educational trajectory as a dynamic model of learning trajectory control, which uses score assessment to construct a sequence of studied subjects. A new model of management learning trajectory is based on dynamic models for tracking the reference trajectory. The task can be converted to an equivalent model of linear programming, for which a reliable solution
Web-based learning support system offers many benefits over traditional learning environments and has become very popular. The Web is a powerful environment for distributing information and delivering knowledge to an increasingly wide and diverse audience. Typical Web-based learning environments, such as Web-CT, Blackboard, include course content delivery tools, quiz modules, grade reporting systems, assignment submission components, etc. They are powerful integrated learning management systems (LMS) that support a number of activities performed by teachers and students during the learning process . However, students who study a course on the Internet tend to be more heterogeneously distributed than those found in a traditional classroom situation. In order to achieve optimal efficiency in a learning process, an individual learner needs his or her own personalized assistance. For a web-based open and dynamic learning environment, personalized support for learners becomes more important. This chapter demonstrates how to realize personalized learning support in dynamic and heterogeneous learning environments by utilizing Adaptive Web technologies. It focuses on course personalization in terms of contents and teaching materials that is according to each student's needs and capabilities. An example of using Rough Set to analyze student personal information to assist students with effective learning and predict student performance is presented.
Doolittle, Peter E.; Mariano, Gina J.
The present study examined the effects of individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) on learning from an historical inquiry multimedia tutorial in stationary versus mobile learning environments using a portable digital media player (i.e., iPod). Students with low (n = 44) and high (n = 40) working memory capacity, as measured by the…
Tagarelli, Kaitlyn M.; Ruiz, Simón; Vega, José Luis Moreno; Rebuschat, Patrick
Second language learning outcomes are highly variable, due to a variety of factors, including individual differences, exposure conditions, and linguistic complexity. However, exactly how these factors interact to influence language learning is unknown. This article examines the relationship between these three variables in language learners.…
This article examines how individual differences (giftedness) interact with learning contexts (favorite versus least favorite courses) to influence learning processes and outcomes. The findings show that gifted and typically developing students differ solely in their expectancies for success and grades among a large variety of measures, including…
Haugen, Harald; Ask, Bodil; Bjørke, Sven Åke
School surveys and reports on integration of ICT in teaching and learning indicate that the technology is mainly used in traditional learning environments. Furthermore, the most frequently used software in the classrooms are general tools like word processors, presentation tools and Internet browsers. Recent attention among youngsters on social software / web 2.0, contemporary pedagogical approaches like social constructivism and long time experiences with system dynamics and simulations, seem to have a hard time being accepted by teachers and curriculum designers. How can teachers be trained to understand and apply these possibilities optimally that are now available in the classroom and online, on broadband connections and with high capacity computers? Some views on practices with the above-mentioned alternative approaches to learning are presented in this paper, focusing particularly on the options for online work and learning programmes. Here we have first hand experience with adult and mature academics, but also some background with other target groups.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to recognize the relationships between individual and organizational learning while considering team learning as a mediator of these relationships. The research object is a large Polish enterprise specializing in the production of cast-iron items. In order to test assumed research hypotheses, statistical analyses were conducted using the IBM SPSS Statistics Suite, version 20. The suite helped conduct correlation analyses concatenation, line regression analyses and mediation analyses using the PROCESS macro by Hayes and Preacher. The research results show a statistically significant relationship between individual learning and each of the five dimensions of organizational learning [clarity of purpose and mission; leadership commitment and empowerment; knowledge transfer; experimentation and rewards; and teamwork and group problem solving]. What is more, they prove that team learning is a mediator of a relationship between individual and organizational learning. Interestingly, only one full mediation has been observed while researching the mediative effect of team learning in relation to each out of the five dimensions of organizational learning. It occurred in relation to experimentation and rewards. In the remaining cases these were partial mediations.
Full Text Available Visualization of data has recently gained great importance in education and use of infographics is regarded as an important tool in teaching mathematics since it presents information in a clear and abstract way. Therefore, use of infographics for helping individuals with mathematical learning difficulties has become an important research question. This study aims to provide an overview on the use of infographics in teaching mathematics to individuals with mathematical learning difficulties. This is a qualitative study in which document analysis was used the collect the data. Results provided information about the definition of infographics, effectiveness of using infographics in education and facilitative role of infographics in enhancing learning of individuals with mathematical learning difficulties, namely dyscalculia. Results were discussed with relevant literature and recommendations for further research and practices were also presented.
Avgeriou, Paris; Retalis, Symeon; Papaspyrou, Nikolaos
The design of Learning Technology Systems, and the Software Systems that support them, is largely conducted on an intuitive, ad hoc basis, thus resulting in inefficient systems that defectively support the learning process. There is now justifiable, increasing effort in formalizing the engineering
Full Text Available Developmental learning disorders affect many children, impairing their experience in the classroom and hindering many aspects of their life. Once a bleak sentence associated with life-long difficulties, several learning disorders can now be successfully alleviated, directly benefiting from promising interventions. In this review, we focus on two of the most prevalent learning disorders, dyslexia and ADHD. Recent advances have refined our understanding of the specific neural networks that are altered in these disorders, yet questions remain regarding causal links between neural changes and behavioral improvements. After briefly reviewing the theoretical foundations of dyslexia and ADHD, we explore their distinct and shared characteristics, and discuss the comorbidity of the two disorders. We then examine current interventions, and consider the benefits of approaches that integrate remediation within other activities to encourage sustained motivation and improvements. Finally, we conclude with a reflection on the potential for remediation programs to be personalized by taking into account the specificities and demands of each individual. The effective remediation of learning disorders is critical to modern societies, especially considering the far-reaching ramifications of successful early interventions.
Byrom, Nicola C; Murphy, Robin A
Though much work has studied how external factors, such as stimulus properties, influence generalization of associative strength, there has been limited exploration of the influence that internal dispositions may contribute to stimulus processing. Here we report 2 studies using a modified negative patterning discrimination to test the relationship between global processing and generalization. Global processing was associated with stronger negative patterning discrimination, indicative of limited generalization between distinct stimulus compounds and their constituent elements. In Experiment 2, participants pretrained to adopt global processing similarly showed strong negative patterning discrimination. These results demonstrate considerable individual difference in capacity to engage in negative patterning discrimination and suggest that the tendency toward global processing may be one factor explaining this variability. The need for models of learning to account for this variability in learning is discussed.
Guinand, B.; Topchy, A.; Page, K.S.; Burnham-Curtis, M. K.; Punch, W.F.; Scribner, K.T.
Classification methods used in machine learning (e.g., artificial neural networks, decision trees, and k-nearest neighbor clustering) are rarely used with population genetic data. We compare different nonparametric machine learning techniques with parametric likelihood estimations commonly employed in population genetics for purposes of assigning individuals to their population of origin (“assignment tests”). Classifier accuracy was compared across simulated data sets representing different levels of population differentiation (low and high FST), number of loci surveyed (5 and 10), and allelic diversity (average of three or eight alleles per locus). Empirical data for the lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) exhibiting levels of population differentiation comparable to those used in simulations were examined to further evaluate and compare classification methods. Classification error rates associated with artificial neural networks and likelihood estimators were lower for simulated data sets compared to k-nearest neighbor and decision tree classifiers over the entire range of parameters considered. Artificial neural networks only marginally outperformed the likelihood method for simulated data (0–2.8% lower error rates). The relative performance of each machine learning classifier improved relative likelihood estimators for empirical data sets, suggesting an ability to “learn” and utilize properties of empirical genotypic arrays intrinsic to each population. Likelihood-based estimation methods provide a more accessible option for reliable assignment of individuals to the population of origin due to the intricacies in development and evaluation of artificial neural networks. In recent years, characterization of highly polymorphic molecular markers such as mini- and microsatellites and development of novel methods of analysis have enabled researchers to extend investigations of ecological and evolutionary processes below the population level to the level of
Fogg, J. L.; Howell, C. A.; Smith, J. H.; Vining, G. E.
An individual nuclear fuel rod weighing system for rods carried on a tray which moves along a materials handling conveyor. At a first tray position on the conveyor, a lifting device raises the rods off the tray and places them on an overhead ramp. A loading mechanism conveys the rods singly from the overhead ramp onto an overhead scale for individual weighing. When the tray is at a second position on the conveyor, a transfer apparatus transports each weighed rod from the scale back onto the tray
Fogg, J.L.; Smith, J.H.; Vining, G.E.; Howell, C.A.
An individual nuclear fuel rod weighing system for rods carried on a tray which moves along a materials handling conveyor is discussed. At a first tray position on the conveyor, a lifting device raises the rods off the tray and places them on an overhead ramp. A loading mechanism conveys the rods singly from the overhead ramp onto an overhead scale for individual weighing. When the tray is at a second position on the conveyor, a transfer apparatus transports each weighed rod from the scale back onto the tray
Full Text Available Development of current society requires integration of information technology to every sector, including education. The idea of adaptive teaching in e-learning environment is based on paying attention and giving support to various learning styles. More effective, user friendly thus better quality education can be achieved through such an environment. Learning can be influenced by many factors. In the paper we deal with such factors as student’s personality and qualities – particularly learning style and motivation. In addition we want to prepare study materials and study environment which respects students’ differences. Adaptive e-learning means an automated way of teaching which adapts to different qualities of students which are characteristic for their learning styles. In the last few years we can see a gradual individualization of study not only in distance forms of study but also with full-time study students. Instructional supports, namely those of e-learning, should take this trend into account and adapt the educational processes to individual students’ qualities. The present learning management systems (LMS offers this possibility only to a very limited extent. This paper deals with a design of intelligent virtual tutor behavior, which would adapt its learning ability to both static and dynamically changing student’s qualities. Virtual tutor, in order to manage all that, has to have a sufficiently rich supply of different styles and forms of teaching, with enough information about styles of learning, kinds of memory and other student’s qualities. This paper describes a draft adaptive education model and the results of the first part of the solution – definition of learning styles, pilot testing on students and an outline of further research.
Schuchard, Julia; Thompson, Cynthia K
We examined sequential learning in individuals with agrammatic aphasia ( n = 12) and healthy age-matched participants ( n = 12) using an artificial grammar. Artificial grammar acquisition, 24-hour retention, and the potential benefits of additional training were examined by administering an artificial grammar judgment test (1) immediately following auditory exposure-based training, (2) one day after training, and (3) after a second training session on the second day. An untrained control group ( n = 12 healthy age-matched participants) completed the tests on the same time schedule. The trained healthy and aphasic groups showed greater sensitivity to the detection of grammatical items than the control group. No significant correlations between sequential learning and language abilities were observed among the aphasic participants. The results suggest that individuals with agrammatic aphasia show sequential learning, but the underlying processes involved in this learning may be different than for healthy adults.
The aim of this paper is to recognize the relationships between individual and organizational learning while considering team learning as a mediator of these relationships. The research object is a large Polish enterprise specializing in the production of cast-iron items. In order to test assumed research hypotheses, statistical analyses were conducted using the IBM SPSS Statistics Suite, version 20. The suite helped conduct correlation analyses concatenation, line regression analyses and med...
Patzer, Yasmin; Pinkwart, Niels
At first sight there seem to be issues combining technical accessibility guidelines and educational needs when designing inclusive E-Learning. Furthermore Universal Design for Learning seems to contradict individualization. In this paper we address both issues with an inclusive E-Learning design for the LAYA system, which targets disabled and non-disabled learners.
Describes the development of learning companion systems and their contributions to the class of social learning systems that integrate artificial intelligence agents and use machine learning to tutor and interact with students. Outlines initial social learning projects, their programming languages, and weakness. Future improvements will include…
Magni, Massimo; Paolino, Chiara; Cappetta, Rossella; Proserpio, Luigi
Since organizations and educational institutions are moving toward a training approach which emphasizes the active involvement of participants, there is growing interest in understanding how individual engagement in the training experience affects practicing managers’ individual learning. We identify cognitive absorption as the construct that better describes the state of full engagement and immersion that new approaches in management training require of learners. While some research has emph...
Pakpahan, N. F. D. B.
All articles must contain an abstract. The research methodology is a subject in which the materials must be understood by the students who will take the thesis. Implementation of learning should create the conditions for active learning, interactive and effective are called Team Assisted Individualization (TAI) cooperative learning. The purpose of this study: 1) improving student learning outcomes at the course research methodology on TAI cooperative learning. 2) improvement of teaching activities. 3) improvement of learning activities. This study is a classroom action research conducted at the Department of Civil Engineering Universitas Negeri Surabaya. The research subjects were 30 students and lecturer of courses. Student results are complete in the first cycle by 20 students (67%) and did not complete 10 students (33%). In the second cycle students who complete being 26 students (87%) and did not complete 4 students (13%). There is an increase in learning outcomes by 20%. Results of teaching activities in the first cycle obtained the value of 3.15 with the criteria enough well. In the second cycle obtained the value of 4.22 with good criterion. The results of learning activities in the first cycle obtained the value of 3.05 with enough criterion. In the second cycle was obtained 3.95 with good criterion.
Suhoyo, Yoyo; Schönrock-Adema, Johanna; Emilia, Ova; Kuks, Jan B M; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke
Feedback is essential for workplace learning. Most papers in this field concern individual feedback. In collectivistic cultures, however, group feedback is common educational practice. This study was conducted to investigate the perceived learning value and characteristics of individual and group feedback in a collectivistic culture. During two weeks, on a daily basis, clerkship students (n = 215) from 12 clinical departments at Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, recorded individual and group feedback moments by using a structured form: the providers, focus and perceived learning value of feedback. Data were analysed with logistic regression and multilevel techniques. Students reported 2687 group and 1535 individual feedback moments. Group feedback more often focused on history taking, clinical judgment, patient management, patient counselling, and professional behaviour (OR ranging from 1.232, p cultures, group feedback may add to the array of educational measures that optimize student learning. Congruence between culture and type of feedback may be important for the effectiveness of feedback.
Griepentrog, Hans W.; Nørremark, Michael; Nielsen, Henning; Blackmore, Simon
Individual plant care cropping systems, embodied in precision farming, may lead to new opportunities in agricultural crop management. The objective of the project was to provide high accuracy seed position mapping of a field of sugar beet. An RTK GPS was retrofitted on to a precision seeder to map the seeds as they were planted. The average error between the seed map and the actual plant map was about 32 mm to 59 mm. The results showed that the overall accuracy of the estimated plant position...
Hedén, Lena; Ahlstrom, Linda
One major challenge in delivering lectures to large and diverse classes is the maintenance of a high standard of lecturing in order to engage students and increase their participation and involvement. The lecturer's assignment is to arrange and prepare the lecture before teaching, hence enabling students' enhanced learning. Individual response technology could encourage students' active learning and activate higher cognitive levels. The aim of this study was to evaluate individual response technology as a complement during lectures for students in higher education, in terms of the students' experiences of participation, engagement, and active learning. Also of interest was whether this technology can be considered a supportive technical system. Data were collected through a questionnaire where levels of each condition were reported on a numeric rating scale (0-10) at baseline and after the introduction of individual response technology. To get a broader perspective, two types of lectures (pediatric and statistical) were included, giving a total of four assessment times. The participants comprised 59 students in Bachelor of Nursing program at a Swedish metropolitan university. Overall, when individual response technology was used, students reported increased experience of engagement (n=82, mean 6.1 vs. n=65, mean 7.3, pactive learning (n=92, mean 7.3 vs. n=79, mean 8.2 plearning within the caring sciences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Anderson, Lorin W.
Results show that student differences in time-on-task to learn to criterion are alterable and can be minimized over a sequence of learning units given appropriate adaptive learning strategies. (Author/DEP)
Smith, Andrew C
Full Text Available Conference Proceedings Paul Cunningham and Miriam Cunningham (Eds) IIMC International Information Management Corporation, 2011 ISBN: 978-1-905824-24-3 An Intelligent Fractions Learning System: Implementation Andrew Cyrus SMITH1, Teemu H. LAINE2 1CSIR... to fractions. Our aim with the current research project is to extend the existing UFractions learning system to incorporate automatic data capturing. ?Intelligent UFractions? allows a teacher to remotely monitor the children?s progress during...
Mouri, Kousuke; Uosaki, Noriko; Ogata, Hiroaki
Seamless learning has been recognized as an effective learning approach across various dimensions including formal and informal learning contexts, individual and social learning, and physical world and cyberspace. With the emergence of seamless learning, the majority of the current research focuses on realizing a seamless learning environment at…
Coutanche, Marc N; Koch, Griffin E
An approach to learning words known as "fast mapping" has been linked to unique neurobiological and behavioral markers in adult humans, including rapid lexical integration. However, the mechanisms supporting fast mapping are still not known. In this study, we sought to help change this by examining factors that modulate learning outcomes. In 90 subjects, we systematically manipulated the typicality of the items used to support fast mapping (foils), and quantified learners' inclination to employ semantic, episodic, and spatial memory through the Survey of Autobiographical Memory (SAM). We asked how these factors affect lexical competition and recognition performance, and then asked how foil typicality and lexical competition are related in an independent dataset. We find that both the typicality of fast mapping foils, and individual differences in how different memory systems are employed, influence lexical competition effects after fast mapping, but not after other learning approaches. Specifically, learning a word through fast mapping with an atypical foil led to lexical competition, while a typical foil led to lexical facilitation. This effect was particularly evident in individuals with a strong tendency to employ semantic memory. We further replicated the relationship between continuous foil atypicality and lexical competition in an independent dataset. These findings suggest that semantic properties of the foils that support fast mapping can influence the degree and nature of subsequent lexical integration. Further, the effects of foils differ based on an individual's tendency to draw-on the semantic memory system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kumaran, Dharshan; Hassabis, Demis; McClelland, James L
We update complementary learning systems (CLS) theory, which holds that intelligent agents must possess two learning systems, instantiated in mammalians in neocortex and hippocampus. The first gradually acquires structured knowledge representations while the second quickly learns the specifics of individual experiences. We broaden the role of replay of hippocampal memories in the theory, noting that replay allows goal-dependent weighting of experience statistics. We also address recent challenges to the theory and extend it by showing that recurrent activation of hippocampal traces can support some forms of generalization and that neocortical learning can be rapid for information that is consistent with known structure. Finally, we note the relevance of the theory to the design of artificial intelligent agents, highlighting connections between neuroscience and machine learning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available More than two decades of work in vision posits the existence of dual-learning systems of category learning. The reflective system uses working memory to develop and test rules for classifying in an explicit fashion, while the reflexive system operates by implicitly associating perception with actions that lead to reinforcement. Dual-learning systems models hypothesize that in learning natural categories, learners initially use the reflective system and, with practice, transfer control to the reflexive system. The role of reflective and reflexive systems in auditory category learning and more specifically in speech category learning has not been systematically examined. In this article we describe a neurobiologically-constrained dual-learning systems theoretical framework that is currently being developed in speech category learning and review recent applications of this framework. Using behavioral and computational modeling approaches, we provide evidence that speech category learning is predominantly mediated by the reflexive learning system. In one application, we explore the effects of normal aging on non-speech and speech category learning. We find an age related deficit in reflective-optimal but not reflexive-optimal auditory category learning. Prominently, we find a large age-related deficit in speech learning. The computational modeling suggests that older adults are less likely to transition from simple, reflective, uni-dimensional rules to more complex, reflexive, multi-dimensional rules. In a second application we summarize a recent study examining auditory category learning in individuals with elevated depressive symptoms. We find a deficit in reflective-optimal and an enhancement in reflexive-optimal auditory category learning. Interestingly, individuals with elevated depressive symptoms also show an advantage in learning speech categories. We end with a brief summary and description of a number of future directions.
Guerrero, A; Jones, R; Savioz, J J
The Individual Bunch Measurement System (IBMS) allows the intensity of each bunch in an LHC batch to be the measured both in the PS to SPS transfer lines and in the SPS ring itself. The method is vased on measuring the peak and valley of the analogue signal supplied by a Fast Beam Current Transformer at a frequency of 40 MHz. A 12 bit acquisition system is required to obtain a 1% resolution for the intensity range of 5X10`9 to 1.7X10`11 protons per bunch, corresponding to the pilot and ultimate LHC bunch intensities. The acquisition selection and external trigger adjustment system is driven by the 200MHz RF, which is distributed using a single-mode fibre-optic link. A local oscilloscope, controlled via a GPIB interface, allows the remote adjustment of the timing signals. The low-level software consists of a real-time task and a communication server run on a VME Power PC, which is accessed using a graphical user interface. This paper describes the system as a whole and presents some recent uses and results fro...
Schuchard, Julia; Thompson, Cynthia K.
Implicit learning is a process of acquiring knowledge that occurs without conscious awareness of learning, whereas explicit learning involves the use of overt strategies. To date, research related to implicit learning following stroke has been largely restricted to the motor domain and has rarely addressed implications for language. The present…
learning style theories (e.g., Kolb , 1984) are often enthusiastic devotees. There is a thriving industry publishing learning -styles instruments and...and understanding (pp. 31–64). Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum. Kolb , D. A. (1984). Experiential learning : experience as the source of learning and...opportunities to have control over their learning experience than traditional classroom instruction (Sitzmann et al., 2006), using self-regulation theories
Shroff, Ronnie H.; Vogel, Douglas R.
Research has established that individual student interest has a positive effect on learning and academic achievement. However, little is known about the impact of a blended learning approach on individual student interest and whether combinations of online and face-to-face learning activities significantly enhance student interest. This paper…
Full Text Available There is no explanation in the source about the insurance and the private pension system, which are not known at the time of the formation of the fiqh and the period of the support. Upon the spread of the insurance, The provision of insurance in the geography of Islam has also begun to be discussed. There are contracts that have the elements and conditions that must be found in itself and that are not contradictory to the basic principles of Islam. In this respect, without accumulating life insurance that protects the person against sudden risks is permissible. The provision of cumulative life insurance and the individual pension system depends on the area where the premiums are deposited and the type of payment. Provided that the premiums are assessed in halal areas; a at the end of the period premiums and interests are paid back in full or on a specific plan, or b all or part of the premiums and interests are left in the company and the income share is paid as salary, these are permissible. However, it is not permissible if all or part of the premiums and duties are left in the company and a fixed salary is attached. It is permissible for the State to contribute to the entry into the private pension system in order to incentivize the savings, and it is permissible for them to receive this contribution.
Deliyska, B.; Rozeva, A.
The learner model in an intelligent learning system (ILS) has to ensure the personalization (individualization) and the adaptability of e-learning in an online learner-centered environment. ILS is a distributed e-learning system whose modules can be independent and located in different nodes (servers) on the Web. This kind of e-learning is achieved through the resources of the Semantic Web and is designed and developed around a course, group of courses or specialty. An essential part of ILS is learner model database which contains structured data about learner profile and temporal status in the learning process of one or more courses. In the paper a learner model position in ILS is considered and a relational database is designed from learner's domain ontology. Multidimensional modeling agent for the source database is designed and resultant learner data cube is presented. Agent's modules are proposed with corresponding algorithms and procedures. Multidimensional (OLAP) analysis guidelines on the resultant learner module for designing dynamic learning strategy have been highlighted.
Full Text Available A web-based learning portal offering individualized learning was developed by utilizing rule-based knowledge representation and artificial intelligence techniques of expert systems in order to reduce the uncertainties of learning to minimum and to construct an intelligent tutoring system. This portal offers individualized learning content based on the individual’s level of cognitive knowledge. In order to determine the effects of the developed system on the student achievement, the system was tested in an 8-week-long study on the students of Software Engineering Department of Technology Faculty. The pretest-posttest control group experimental design was used in the study. The experimental group received education with Individualized Instruction Portal while the control group received education in traditional learning environment. Academic achievement test was used as the data collection tool. In order to test the research hypotheses, data obtained from the data collection tools were analysed in terms of frequency, percentages, and dependent-independent t-test with statistical software program. Based on the results, no significant differences were found between the groups in terms of the pretest. On the other hand, significant differences were found between experimental and control group in terms of the posttest. It was concluded that individualized learning portal had positive effect on the students’ learning when used in combination with traditional learning environment.
Strand, Pia; Edgren, Gudrun; Borna, Petter; Lindgren, Stefan; Wichmann-Hansen, Gitte; Stalmeijer, Renée E
The role of workplace supervisors in the clinical education of medical students is currently under debate. However, few studies have addressed how supervisors conceptualize workplace learning and how conceptions relate to current sociocultural workplace learning theory. We explored physician conceptions of: (a) medical student learning in the clinical workplace and (b) how they contribute to student learning. The methodology included a combination of a qualitative, inductive (conventional) and deductive (directed) content analysis approach. The study triangulated two types of interview data from 4 focus group interviews and 34 individual interviews. A total of 55 physicians participated. Three overarching themes emerged from the data: learning as membership, learning as partnership and learning as ownership. The themes described how physician conceptions of learning and supervision were guided by the notions of learning-as-participation and learning-as-acquisition. The clinical workplace was either conceptualized as a context in which student learning is based on a learning curriculum, continuity of participation and partnerships with supervisors, or as a temporary source of knowledge within a teaching curriculum. The process of learning was shaped through the reciprocity between different factors in the workplace context and the agency of students and supervising physicians. A systems-thinking approach merged with the "co-participation" conceptual framework advocated by Billet proved to be useful for analyzing variations in conceptions. The findings suggest that mapping workplace supervisor conceptions of learning can be a valuable starting point for medical schools and educational developers working with changes in clinical educational and faculty development practices.
García, Antonio; García, Eva; de-Marcos, Luis; Martínez, José-Javier; Gutiérrez, José-María; Gutiérrez, José-Antonio; Barchino, Roberto; Otón, Salvador; Hilera, José-Ramón
This system comes up as a result of the increase of e-learning systems. It manages all relevant modules in this context, such as the association of digital rights with the contents (courses), management and payment processing on rights. There are three blocks:
Full Text Available Individuals differ in their ability to deal with unpredictable environments. Could impaired performances on learning an unpredictable cue-criteria relationship in a laboratory task be associated with impaired learning of complex skills in a natural setting? We focused on a multiple-cue probability learning (MCPL laboratory task and on the natural setting of pilot training. We used data from three selection sessions and from the three corresponding selected pilot student classes of a national airline pilot selection and training system. First, applicants took an MCPL task at the selection stage (N=556; N=701; N=412. Then, pilot trainees selected from the applicant pools (N=44; N=60; N=28 followed the training for 2.5 to 3 yrs. Differences in final MCPL performance were associated with pilot training difficulties. Indeed, poor MCPL performers experienced almost twice as many pilot training difficulties as better MCPL performers (44.0% and 25.0%, respectively.
Moraes, Valéria Vieira; Borges-Andrade, Jairo Eduardo
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate workplace learning among municipal officers in the high-learning-demanding organizational context of their work practice in the first year of mandate. Design/methodology/approach: A before-and-after quasi-experimental design was used to assess the effect of time of work practice on learning work…
Full Text Available Conditioned inhibition (CI is demonstrated in classical conditioning when a stimulus is used to signal the omission of an otherwise expected outcome. This basic learning ability is involved in a wide range of normal behaviour - and thus its disruption could produce a correspondingly wide range of behavioural deficits. The present study employed a computer-based task to measure conditioned excitation and inhibition in the same discrimination procedure. Conditioned inhibition by summation test was clearly demonstrated. Additionally summary measures of excitatory and inhibitory learning (difference scores were calculated in order to explore how performance related to individual differences in a large sample of normal participants (n=176 following exclusion of those not meeting the basic learning criterion. The individual difference measures selected derive from two biologically-based personality theories, Gray’s reinforcement sensitivity theory (1982 and Eysenck’s psychoticism, extraversion and neuroticism theory (1991. Following the behavioural tasks, participants completed the behavioural inhibition system/behavioural activation system scales (BIS/BAS and the Eysenck personality questionnaire revised short scale (EPQ-RS. Analyses of the relationship between scores on each of the scales and summary measures of excitatory and inhibitory learning suggested that those with higher BAS (specifically the drive sub-scale and higher EPQ-RS neuroticism showed reduced levels of excitatory conditioning. Inhibitory conditioning was similarly attenuated in those with higher EPQ-RS neuroticism, as well as in those with higher BIS scores. Thus the findings are consistent with higher levels of neuroticism being accompanied by generally impaired associative learning, both inhibitory and excitatory. There was also evidence for some dissociation in the effects of behavioural activation and behavioural inhibition on excitatory and inhibitory learning respectively.
The article argues that it is necessary to move e-learning beyond learning management systems and engage students in an active use of the web as a resource for their self-governed, problem-based and collaborative activities. The purpose of the article is to discuss the potential of social software...... to move e-learning beyond learning management systems. An approach to use of social software in support of a social constructivist approach to e-learning is presented, and it is argued that learning management systems do not support a social constructivist approach which emphasizes self-governed learning...... activities of students. The article suggests a limitation of the use of learning management systems to cover only administrative issues. Further, it is argued that students' self-governed learning processes are supported by providing students with personal tools and engaging them in different kinds of social...
A survey of 765 adult learners who funded education through the British government's Individual Learning Accounts showed the program brought in new lifelong learning participants, encouraged more demanding learning, and increased participation of underrepresented groups. Advice and guidance played an important role. (SK)
Nilsson, Mikael; ?stergren, Jan; Fors, Uno; Rickenlund, Anette; Jorfeldt, Lennart; Caidahl, Kenneth; Bolinder, Gunilla
Abstract Background The compressed curriculum in modern knowledge-intensive medicine demands useful tools to achieve approved learning aims in a limited space of time. Web-based learning can be used in different ways to enhance learning. Little is however known regarding its optimal utilisation. Our aim was to investigate if the individual learning styles of medical students influence the choice to use a web-based ECG learning programme in a blended learning setting. Methods The programme, wi...
Manouselis, Nikos; Verbert, Katrien; Drachsler, Hendrik; Santos, Olga
As an area, Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) aims to design, develop and test socio-technical innovations that will support and enhance learning practices of individuals and organizations. Information retrieval is a pivotal activity in TEL and the deployment of recommender systems has attracted
Shin, Won Sug; Kang, Minseok
This study investigates online students' acceptance of mobile learning and its influence on learning achievement using an information system success and extended technology acceptance model (TAM). Structural equation modeling was used to test the structure of individual, social, and systemic factors influencing mobile learning's acceptance, and…
Al-Dujaily, Amal; Kim, Jieun; Ryu, Hokyoung
A concern of computer-based learning system design is how to accommodate learners' individual differences during learning activities. Previous research suggests that adaptive e-learning systems can effectively address such individual differences and, consequently, they enable more directed tutoring via computer-assisted instruction. In this paper,…
Meyer, Thomas; Smeets, Tom; Giesbrecht, Timo; Quaedflieg, Conny W E M; Girardelli, Marta M; Mackay, Georgina R N; Merckelbach, Harald
The dual-representation model of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; Brewin, Gregory, Lipton, & Burgess, Psychological Review, 117, 210-232 2010) argues that intrusions occur when people fail to construct context-based representations during adverse experiences. The present study tested a specific prediction flowing from this model. In particular, we investigated whether the efficiency of temporal-lobe-based spatial configuration learning would account for individual differences in intrusive experiences and physiological reactivity in the laboratory. Participants (N = 82) completed the contextual cuing paradigm, which assesses spatial configuration learning that is believed to depend on associative encoding in the parahippocampus. They were then shown a trauma film. Afterward, startle responses were quantified during presentation of trauma reminder pictures versus unrelated neutral and emotional pictures. PTSD symptoms were recorded in the week following participation. Better configuration learning performance was associated with fewer perceptual intrusions, r = -.33, p .46) and had no direct effect on intrusion-related distress and overall PTSD symptoms, rs > -.12, ps > .29. However, configuration learning performance tended to be associated with reduced physiological responses to unrelated negative images, r = -.20, p = .07. Thus, while spatial configuration learning appears to be unrelated to affective responding to trauma reminders, our overall findings support the idea that the context-based memory system helps to reduce intrusions.
Meirink, Jacobiene Albertina
In this study we aimed to examine teacher learning within a context of collaboration in interdisciplinary teams. Five interdisciplinary teams were studied for a period of one year. Data was collected on what and how the teachers learned, by means of examining changes in beliefs and by asking
Ozdemir, Ali; Alaybeyoglu, Aysegul; Mulayim, Naciye; Uysal, Muhammed
In this study, an intelligent system which determines learning style of the students is developed to increase success in effective and easy learning. The importance of the proposed software system is to determine convenience degree of the student's learning style. Personal information form and Dunn Learning Style Preference Survey are used to…
Khaled Nasser ElSayed
Most of e-learning and m-learning systems are course-centric. These systems provided services that concentrated on course material and pedagogical. They did not take into account varieties of student levels, skills, interests or preferences. This paper provides a design of an approach for personalized and self-adapted agent-based learning systems for enhancing e-learning and mobile learning (m-learning) services to be learner-centric. It presents a modeling of goals of different learners of a...
Latisma D, L.; Kurniawan, W.; Seprima, S.; Nirbayani, E. S.; Ellizar, E.; Hardeli, H.
The purpose of this study was to see which method are well used with the Chemistry Triangle-oriented learning media. This quasi experimental research involves first grade of senior high school students in six schools namely each two SMA N in Solok city, in Pasaman and two SMKN in Pariaman. The sampling technique was done by Cluster Random Sampling. Data were collected by test and analyzed by one-way anova and Kruskall Wallish test. The results showed that the high school students in Solok learning taught by cooperative method is better than the results of student learning taught by conventional and Individual methods, both for students who have high initial ability and low-ability. Research in SMK showed that the overall student learning outcomes taught by conventional method is better than the student learning outcomes taught by cooperative and individual methods. Student learning outcomes that have high initial ability taught by individual method is better than student learning outcomes that are taught by cooperative method and for students who have low initial ability, there is no difference in student learning outcomes taught by cooperative, individual and conventional methods. Learning in high school in Pasaman showed no significant difference in learning outcomes of the three methods undertaken.
Steenbergen, B.; van der Kamp, J.; Verneau, M.M.N.; Jongbloed-Pereboom, M.; Masters, R.S.
Purpose. Motor skills can be learned in an explicit or an implicit manner. Explicit learning places high demands on working memory capacity, but engagement of working memory is largely circumvented when skills are learned implicitly. We propose that individuals with impaired movement dynamics may
Steenbergen, B.; Kamp, J. van der; Verneau, M.; Jongbloed-Pereboom, M.; Masters, R.S.
PURPOSE: Motor skills can be learned in an explicit or an implicit manner. Explicit learning places high demands on working memory capacity, but engagement of working memory is largely circumvented when skills are learned implicitly. We propose that individuals with impaired movement dynamics may
Steenbergen, B.; Kamp, J. van der; Verneau, M.; Jongbloed-Pereboom, M.; Masters, R.S.W.
Purpose - Motor skills can be learned in an explicit or an implicit manner. Explicit learning places high demands on working memory capacity, but engagement of working memory is largely circumvented when skills are learned implicitly. We propose that individuals with impaired movement dynamics may
It is important for teachers to know variables such as physical characteristics, intelligence, perception, gender, ability, learning styles, which are individual differences of the learners. An effective and productive learning-teaching process can be planned by considering these individual differences of the students. Since the learners' own…
Full Text Available Questions of designing and a choice of technologies of creation of virtual laboratory for the distance learning system are considered. Distance learning system «Kherson Virtual University» is used as illustration.
Olsen, Jennifer K.; Belenky, Daniel M.; Aleven, Vincent; Rummel, Nikol
Collaborative and individual instruction may support different types of knowledge. Optimal instruction for a subject domain may therefore need to combine these two modes of instruction. There has not been much research, however, on combining individual and collaborative learning with Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs). A first step is to expand…
Zhang, Zhiyong; Davis, Hasker P; Salthouse, Timothy A; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M
Latent growth models were applied to data on multitrial verbal and spatial learning tasks from two independent studies. Although significant individual differences in both initial level of performance and subsequent learning were found in both tasks, age differences were found only in mean initial level, and not in mean learning. In neither task was fluid or crystallized intelligence associated with learning. Although there were moderate correlations among the level parameters across the verbal and spatial tasks, the learning parameters were not significantly correlated with one another across task modalities. These results are inconsistent with the existence of a general (e.g., material-independent) learning ability.
Inan, Fethi A.; Flores, Raymond; Ari, Fatih; Arslan-Ari, Ismahan
The purpose of this study was to document the design and development of an adaptive system which individualizes instruction such as content, interfaces, instructional strategies, and resources dependent on two factors, namely student motivation and prior knowledge levels. Combining adaptive hypermedia methods with strategies proposed by…
Macellini, S.; Maranesi, M.; Bonini, L.; Simone, L.; Rozzi, S.; Ferrari, P. F.; Fogassi, L.
Macaques can efficiently use several tools, but their capacity to discriminate the relevant physical features of a tool and the social factors contributing to their acquisition are still poorly explored. In a series of studies, we investigated macaques' ability to generalize the use of a stick as a tool to new objects having different physical features (study 1), or to new contexts, requiring them to adapt the previously learned motor strategy (study 2). We then assessed whether the observation of a skilled model might facilitate tool-use learning by naive observer monkeys (study 3). Results of study 1 and study 2 showed that monkeys trained to use a tool generalize this ability to tools of different shape and length, and learn to adapt their motor strategy to a new task. Study 3 demonstrated that observing a skilled model increases the observers' manipulations of a stick, thus facilitating the individual discovery of the relevant properties of this object as a tool. These findings support the view that in macaques, the motor system can be modified through tool use and that it has a limited capacity to adjust the learnt motor skills to a new context. Social factors, although important to facilitate the interaction with tools, are not crucial for tool-use learning. PMID:22106424
Beemer, Joshua; Spoon, Kelly; Fan, Juanjuan; Stronach, Jeanne; Frazee, James P.; Bohonak, Andrew J.; Levine, Richard A.
Estimating the efficacy of different instructional modalities, techniques, and interventions is challenging because teaching style covaries with instructor, and the typical student only takes a course once. We introduce the individualized treatment effect (ITE) from analyses of personalized medicine as a means to quantify individual student…
Junginger, Martin; Visser, Erika de; Hjort-Gregersen, Kurt; Koornneef, Joris; Raven, Rob; Faaij, Andre; Turkenburg, Wim
The main goal of this article is to determine whether cost reductions in different bioenergy systems can be quantified using the experience curve approach, and how specific issues (arising from the complexity of biomass energy systems) can be addressed. This is pursued by case studies on biofuelled combined heat and power (CHP) plants in Sweden, global development of fluidized bed boilers and Danish biogas plants. As secondary goal, the aim is to identify learning mechanisms behind technology development and cost reduction for the biomass energy systems investigated. The case studies reveal large difficulties to devise empirical experience curves for investment costs of biomass-fuelled power plants. To some extent, this is due to lack of (detailed) data. The main reason, however, are varying plant costs due to differences in scale, fuel type, plant layout, region etc. For fluidized bed boiler plants built on a global level, progress ratios (PRs) for the price of entire plants lies approximately between 90-93% (which is typical for large plant-like technologies). The costs for the boiler section alone was found to decline much faster. The experience curve approach delivers better results, when the production costs of the final energy carrier are analyzed. Electricity from biofuelled CHP-plants yields PRs of 91-92%, i.e. an 8-9% reduction of electricity production costs with each cumulative doubling of electricity production. The experience curve for biogas production displays a PR of 85% from 1984 to the beginning of 1990, and then levels to approximately 100% until 2002. For technologies developed on a local level (e.g. biogas plants), learning-by-using and learning-by-interacting are important learning mechanism, while for CHP plants utilizing fluidized bed boilers, upscaling is probably one of the main mechanisms behind cost reductions
Jensen, Frank; Andersen, Jesper Levring; Jensen, Carsten Lynge
This article studies the investment behaviour of the Danish demersal fishery in the North Sea. For the study period, this fishery is regulated by variants of individual nontransferable quotas. It is shown that interest rates and capital stocks are primary determinants of investments. Another......, the variance of the estimated parameters is lower in the disaggregated models. This result arises because vessels in the disaggregated models are more homogeneous. Furthermore, investments in machinery, electronics and vessels are governed by one year lagged variables, while investment in gears is governed...
Hearne, D; Stone, S
The field of learning disabilities, like education in the main, is undergoing calls for reform and restructuring, an upheaval brought on in great part by the forces of opposing paradigms--reductionism and constructivism. In reexamining our past, we must begin to address the failures of traditional deficit models and their abysmally low "cure" rate. Several new theories have arisen that challenge traditional practices in both general and special education classrooms. Particularly influential has been the work of Howard Gardner, whose theory of multiple intelligences calls for a restructuring of our schools to accommodate modes of learning and inquiry with something other than deficit approaches. At least some current research in the field of learning disabilities has begun to focus on creativity and nontraditional strengths and talents that have not been well understood or highly valued by the schools. In this article, we briefly summarize the findings in our search for the talents of students labeled learning disabled, evidence of their abilities, implications of these for the schools, and a beginning set of practical recommendations.
Service, Elisabet; Maury, Sini; Luotoniemi, Emilia
A relationship between phonological short-term memory tasks (e.g., nonword repetition, digit span) and vocabulary learning in both experimental and real-life conditions has been reported in numerous studies. A mechanism that would explain this correlation is, however, not known. The present study explores the possibility that it is the quality of phonological representations that affects both short-term recall and long-term learning of novel wordlike items. In Experiment 1, groups with relatively good and poor span for pseudowords were established. The good group was found to perform better at explicit memory tasks tapping the incidental learning of a limited stimulus pool used in an auditory immediate serial pseudoword recall task. In Experiment 2, the results of Experiment 1 were replicated when experience of correct recall was controlled. In Experiment 3, the immediate recall performance of the good group was found to benefit more than that of the poor group from syllable repetition within stimulus pools. It is concluded that the efficiency of a process that creates phonological representations is related both to short-term capacity for verbal items, and to long-term phonological learning of the structure of novel phonological items.
Self-assessment is frequently used to enable students to "reflect" on a learning experience. Often only the person involved in the "reflection" knows the criteria used to underpin the process. Here the author explains how, when the self-assessment is given some structure some tangible benefits can be observed. While the approach might not be a…
Daniel, John S.
Presents a learning theory in the language of cybernetics based on the tenet that the minimal experimental situation for making psychological observations is a conversation. The account is directed at generating interest in the original work by G. Pask, et al. (GS)
McGahan, William T.; Ernst, Hardy; Dyson, Laurel Evelyn
There has been an increasing focus on student-generated multimedia assessment as a way of introducing the benefits of both visual literacy and peer-mediated learning into university courses. One such assessment was offered to first-year health science students but, contrary to expectations, led to poorer performance in their end-of-semester…
Janssen, Ronald J; Mourão-Miranda, Janaina; Schnack, Hugo G
Psychiatric prognosis is a difficult problem. Making a prognosis requires looking far into the future, as opposed to making a diagnosis, which is concerned with the current state. During the follow-up period, many factors will influence the course of the disease. Combined with the usually scarcer longitudinal data and the variability in the definition of outcomes/transition, this makes prognostic predictions a challenging endeavor. Employing neuroimaging data in this endeavor introduces the additional hurdle of high dimensionality. Machine-learning techniques are especially suited to tackle this challenging problem. This review starts with a brief introduction to machine learning in the context of its application to clinical neuroimaging data. We highlight a few issues that are especially relevant for prediction of outcome and transition using neuroimaging. We then review the literature that discusses the application of machine learning for this purpose. Critical examination of the studies and their results with respect to the relevant issues revealed the following: 1) there is growing evidence for the prognostic capability of machine-learning-based models using neuroimaging; and 2) reported accuracies may be too optimistic owing to small sample sizes and the lack of independent test samples. Finally, we discuss options to improve the reliability of (prognostic) prediction models. These include new methodologies and multimodal modeling. Paramount, however, is our conclusion that future work will need to provide properly (cross-)validated accuracy estimates of models trained on sufficiently large datasets. Nevertheless, with the technological advances enabling acquisition of large databases of patients and healthy subjects, machine learning represents a powerful tool in the search for psychiatric biomarkers. Copyright © 2018 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The aim of the studies reported in this paper is to gain classroom based empirical evidence on the learning effectiveness of learning objects used in two types of study settings: Collaborative and individual. A total of 127 seventh and ninth grade students participated in the experiments. They were assigned into one of the study modes and worked…
Full Text Available A large body studies into individual differences in second language learning has shown that success in second language learning is strongly affected by a set of relevant learner characteristics ranging from the age of onset to motivation, aptitude, and personality. Most studies have concentrated on a limited number of learner characteristics and have argued for the relative importance of some of these factors. Clearly, some learners are more successful than others, and it is tempting to try to find the factor or combination of factors that can crack the code to success. However, isolating one or several global individual characteristics can only give a partial explanation of success in second language learning. The limitation of this approach is that it only reflects on rather general personality characteristics of learners at one point in time, while both language development and the factors affecting it are instances of complex dynamic processes that develop over time. Factors that have been labelled as “individual differences” as well as the development of proficiency are characterized by nonlinear relationships in the time domain, due to which the rate of success cannot be simply deduced from a combination of factors. Moreover, in complex dynamic systems theory (CDST literature it has been argued that a generalization about the interaction of variables across individuals is not warranted when we acknowledge that language development is essentially an individual process (Molenaar, 2015. In this paper, the viability of these generalizations is investigated by exploring the L2 development over time for two identical twins in Taiwan who can be expected to be highly similar in all respects, from their environment to their level of English proficiency, to their exposure to English, and to their individual differences. In spite of the striking similarities between these learners, the development of their L2 English over time was very different
Christou, Antonios I; Miall, R Chris; McNab, Fiona; Galea, Joseph M
The theoretical basis for the association between high working memory capacity (WMC) and enhanced visuomotor adaptation is unknown. Visuomotor adaptation involves interplay between explicit and implicit systems. We examined whether the positive association between adaptation and WMC is specific to the explicit component of adaptation. Experiment 1 replicated the positive correlation between WMC and adaptation, but revealed this was specific to the explicit component of adaptation, and apparently driven by a sub-group of participants who did not show any explicit adaptation in the correct direction. A negative correlation was observed between WMC and implicit learning. Experiments 2 and 3 showed that when the task restricted the development of an explicit strategy, high WMC was no longer associated with enhanced adaptation. This work reveals that the benefit of high WMC is specifically linked to an individual's capacity to use an explicit strategy. It also reveals an important contribution of individual differences in determining how adaptation is performed.
Kuran, Mehmet Şükrü; Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Elsner, Raphael
LMSes, Moodle, Blackboard Learn, Canvas, and Stud.IP with respect to these. We explain how these features were utilized to increase the efficiency, tractability, and quality of experience of the course. We found that an LMS with advanced features such as progress tracking, modular course support...
Taatgen, NA; Altmann, EM; Cleeremans, A; Schunn, CD; Gray, WD
Individual differences in skill acquisition are influenced by several architectural factors. According to Ackerman's theory, general intelligence, speed of proceduralization and psychomotor speed influence different stages of skill acquisition. Ackerman tested this theory by correlating performance
Isaias, P.; Spector, J.M.; Ifenthaler, D.; Sampson, D.G.
The volume consists of twenty-five chapters selected from among peer-reviewed papers presented at the CELDA (Cognition and Exploratory Learning in the Digital Age) 2013 Conference held in Fort Worth, Texas, USA, in October 2013 and also from world class scholars in e-learning systems, environments and approaches. The following sub-topics are included: Exploratory Learning Technologies (Part I), e-Learning social web design (Part II), Learner communities through e-Learning implementations (Par...
Although much has been written about the role of rational/analytical ways of knowing in decision making and problem solving in management, comparatively little is known about the way intuitive cognition manifests itself in organisations in general and in relation to organisational learning in particular. Several conceptualisations have been offered in respect to the ways in which managers perceive, make sense and act in the social settings of business organisations. Intuition and organisation...
Wong, Patrick C M; Morgan-Short, Kara; Ettlinger, Marc; Zheng, Jing
Fundamental advances in neuroscience have come from investigations into neuroplasticity and learning. These investigations often focus on identifying universal principles across different individuals of the same species. Increasingly, individual differences in learning success have also been observed, such that any seemingly universal principle might only be applicable to a certain extent within a particular learner. One potential source of this variation is individuals' genetic differences. Adult language learning provides a unique opportunity for understanding individual differences and genetic bases of neuroplasticity because of the large individual differences in learning success that have already been documented, and because of the body of empirical work connecting language learning and neurocognition. In this article, we review the literature on the genetic bases of neurocognition, especially studies examining polymorphisms of dopamine (DA)-related genes and procedural learning. This review leads us to hypothesize that there may be an association between DA-related genetic variation and language learning differences. If this hypothesis is supported by future empirical findings we suggest that it may point to neurogenetic markers that allow for language learning to be personalized. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — IMPROVING CAUSE DETECTION SYSTEMS WITH ACTIVE LEARNING ISAAC PERSING AND VINCENT NG Abstract. Active learning has been successfully applied to many natural language...
Anatolii V. Bohdanov
Full Text Available The article is devoted to development of information support for building an individual educational path of a student. European Tools for Mobility, Tools for Quality, Tools for Transparency as well as Portals and Databases are analyzed. These tools may be useful for the development and following of an individual educational path. Principles and structure of open module-based portal for information support for building individual educational tracks are presented. Its core modules are described. It is recommended to integrate modules using LEARNING TOOLS INTEROPERABILITY specification. It is demonstrated how to connect modules «Knowledge area» and «Abilities definer».
Schramm, C.; Osland, Walt
One of twelve individualized courses included in an automotive repair curriculum, this course covers the theory, testing, and servicing of automotive emission control systems. The course is comprised of one unit, Fundamentals of Emission Systems. The unit begins with a Unit Learning Experience Guide that gives directions for unit completion. The…
Dovgopoly, Alexander; Mercado, Eduardo
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show atypical patterns of learning and generalization. We explored the possible impacts of autism-related neural abnormalities on perceptual category learning using a neural network model of visual cortical processing. When applied to experiments in which children or adults were trained to classify complex two-dimensional images, the model can account for atypical patterns of perceptual generalization. This is only possible, however, when individual differences in learning are taken into account. In particular, analyses performed with a self-organizing map suggested that individuals with high-functioning ASD show two distinct generalization patterns: one that is comparable to typical patterns, and a second in which there is almost no generalization. The model leads to novel predictions about how individuals will generalize when trained with simplified input sets and can explain why some researchers have failed to detect learning or generalization deficits in prior studies of category learning by individuals with autism. On the basis of these simulations, we propose that deficits in basic neural plasticity mechanisms may be sufficient to account for the atypical patterns of perceptual category learning and generalization associated with autism, but they do not account for why only a subset of individuals with autism would show such deficits. If variations in performance across subgroups reflect heterogeneous neural abnormalities, then future behavioral and neuroimaging studies of individuals with ASD will need to account for such disparities.
Anjum, Amber Nasreen; Al-Othmany, Dheya Shujaa; Hussain, Ahmad
This commentary is based on the analyses of the participants' responses provided in written form while filling the questionnaires. The purpose of the study was to identify and analyze factors in individuals' experiences about second language acquisition. The study was conducted through a research questionnaire. The questions were designed for…
Bryson, Jane; Pajo, Karl; Ward, Robyn; Mallon, Mary
Purpose: The purpose of this research is to explore the interaction between organisational affordances for the development of individuals' capability, and the engagement of workers at various levels with those opportunities. Design/methodology/approach: A case study of a large New Zealand wine company, using in-depth interviews. Interviews were…
Full Text Available Purpose – This article presents the results of distance learning system analysis, i.e. the critical elements of the distance learning system. The critical points of distance learning are a part of distance education online environment interactivity/community process model. The most important is the fact that the critical point is associated with distance learning participants. Design/methodology/approach – Comparative review of articles and analysis of distance learning module. Findings – A modern man is a lifelong learner and distance learning is a way to be a modern person. The focus on a learner and feedback is the most important thing of learning distance system. Also, attention should be paid to the lecture-appropriate knowledge and ability to convey information. Distance system adaptation is the way to improve the learner’s learning outcomes. Research limitations/implications – Different learning disciplines and learning methods may have different critical points. Practical implications – The information of analysis could be important for both lecturers and students, who studies distance education systems. There are familiar critical points which may deteriorate the quality of learning. Originality/value – The study sought to develop remote systems for applications in order to improve the quality of knowledge. Keywords: distance learning, process model, critical points. Research type: review of literature and general overview.
George Nicola Sammour
Full Text Available A three layer e-learning course development model has been defined based on a conceptual model of learning content object. It starts by decomposing the learning content into small chunks which are initially placed in a hierarchic structure of units and blocks. The raw content components, being the atomic learning objects (ALO, were linked to the blocks and are structured in the database. We set forward a dynamic generation of LO's using re-usable e-learning raw materials or ALO’s In that view we need a LO authoring/ assembling system fitting the requirements of interoperability and reusability and starting from selecting the raw learning content from the learning materials content database. In practice authoring systems are used to develop e-learning courses. The company EDUWEST has developed an authoring system that is database based and will be SCORM compliant in the near future.
Han, K. W.; Kim, Y. T.; Lee, E. J.; Min, B. J.
A web-based learning management system (LMS) has been established to address the need of customized education and training of Nuclear Training Center (NTC) of KAERI. The LMS is designed to deal with various learning types (e.g. on-line, off-line and blended) and a practically comprehensive learning activity cycle (e.g. course preparation, registration, learning, and postlearning) as well as to be user-friendly. A test with an example course scenario on the established system has shown its satisfactory performance. This paper discusses details of the established webbased learning management system in terms of development approach and functions of the LMS
Lowie, Wander; van Dijk, Marijn; Chan, Huiping; Verspoor, Marjolijn
A large body studies into individual differences in second language learning has shown that success in second language learning is strongly affected by a set of relevant learner characteristics ranging from the age of onset to motivation, aptitude, and personality. Most studies have concentrated on a limited number of learner characteristics and…
Lowie, Wander; van Dijk, Marijn; Chan, HuiPing; Verspoor, Marjolijn
A large body studies into individual differences in second language learning has shown that success in second language learning is strongly affected by a set of relevant learner characteristics ranging from the age of onset to motivation, aptitude, and personality. Most studies have concentrated on
Luo, Yi; Sun, Yan; Strobel, Johannes
This study examined how cultural background (collectivism vs. individualism) affects motor skill learning in a dyadic cooperative learning environment. The research context of this study was Nintendo™ Wii Tennis. Twenty college students from a Midwestern university participated in the study, among whom half were from an individualistic culture…
Abswoude, F. van; Santos-Vieira, B.; Kamp, J. van der; Steenbergen, B.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of errors during practice on motor skill learning in young individuals with cerebral palsy (CP). Minimizing errors has been validated in typically developing children and children with intellectual disabilities as a method for implicit learning,
Full Text Available With increasing competitive pressures, companies are trying to improve the quality of their processes and the work quality of their. This fact has triggered the companies to improve their information systems. Having made some investments in IT systems, those companies look for ways to gain benefits from their investments. The benefit from IS investment arise when the use of information system (IS provides some positive impact to the organisation in terms of business impacts and individual impacts. Thus, investigating IS impact for individual user„s performance is very important. This study explores the effect of IS quality on individual benefits. The influence of six moderating variables related to knowledge enablers on the impact of IS quality on individual benefits was studied. The six moderating variables are: collaboration, trust, learning, centralisation, expertise, and formalisation. Data was collected using questionnaires distributed at two big private companies in Indonesia. Data processing was done with the help of SPSS software. After factor analysis, IS quality was split into two variables: Information quality and System and service quality. The study found that both the variables influence the perceived individual benefits significantly. The influence of information quality on individual benefit is positively moderated by expertise, learning, centralisation and formalisation. Finally, the influence of system and service quality on individual benefit is positively moderated by expertise and formalization.
Smolla, Marco; Gilman, R Tucker; Galla, Tobias; Shultz, Susanne
In nature, animals often ignore socially available information despite the multiple theoretical benefits of social learning over individual trial-and-error learning. Using information filtered by others is quicker, more efficient and less risky than randomly sampling the environment. To explain the mix of social and individual learning used by animals in nature, most models penalize the quality of socially derived information as either out of date, of poor fidelity or costly to acquire. Competition for limited resources, a fundamental evolutionary force, provides a compelling, yet hitherto overlooked, explanation for the evolution of mixed-learning strategies. We present a novel model of social learning that incorporates competition and demonstrates that (i) social learning is favoured when competition is weak, but (ii) if competition is strong social learning is favoured only when resource quality is highly variable and there is low environmental turnover. The frequency of social learning in our model always evolves until it reduces the mean foraging success of the population. The results of our model are consistent with empirical studies showing that individuals rely less on social information where resources vary little in quality and where there is high within-patch competition. Our model provides a framework for understanding the evolution of social learning, a prerequisite for human cumulative culture. © 2015 The Author(s).
Chen Maoyin; Shang Yun; Zhou Donghua
Combining a shift method and the repetitive learning strategy, a repetitive learning controller is proposed to stabilize unstable periodic orbits (UPOs) within chaotic attractors in the sense of least mean square. If nonlinear parts in chaotic systems satisfy Lipschitz condition, the proposed controller can be simplified into a simple proportional repetitive learning controller
Avogadro, Paolo; Calegari, Silvia; Dominoni, Matteo Alessandro
Purpose: A social learning management system (social LMS) is a tool which favors social interactions and allows scholastic institutions to supervise and guide the learning process. The inclusion of the social feature to a "normal" LMS leads to the creation of educational social networks (EduSN), where the students interact and learn. The…
Ziyad, Nigel; Cox, E. Lucien; Chouikha, Mohamed F.
This paper explains the use of a Stochastic Learning Automata (SLA) to control switching between three systems to produce the desired output response. The SLA learns the optimal choice of the damping ratio for each system to achieve a desired result. We show that the SLA can learn these states for the control of an unknown system with the proper choice of the error criteria. The results of using a single automaton are compared to using multiple automata.
Full Text Available Learning is an understanding of how the human brain is wired to learning rather than to an approach or a system. It is one of the best and most frequent approaches for the 21st century learners. Micro learning is more interesting due to its way of teaching and learning the content in a small, very specific burst. Here the learners decide what and when to learn. Content, time, curriculum, form, process, mediality, and learning type are the dimensions of micro learning. Our paper will discuss about micro learning and about the micro-content management system. The study will reflect the views of different users, and will analyze the collected data. Finally, it will be concluded with its pros and cons.
Andrade, J.; Ares, J.; Garcia, R.; Pazos, J.; Rodriguez, S.; Rodriguez-Paton, A.; Silva, A.
Failure can be a major driver for the advance of any engineering discipline and Software Engineering is no exception. But failures are useful only if lessons are learned from them. In this article we aim to make a strong defence of, and set the requirements for, lessons learned systems for safety-critical software. We also present a prototype lessons learned system that includes many of the features discussed here. We emphasize that, apart from individual organizations, lessons learned systems should target industrial sectors and even the Software Engineering community. We would like to encourage the Software Engineering community to use this kind of systems as another tool in the toolbox, which complements or enhances other approaches like, for example, standards and checklists
Andrade, J. [University of A Coruna. Campus de Elvina, s/n. 15071, A Coruna (Spain)]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Ares, J. [University of A Coruna. Campus de Elvina, s/n. 15071, A Coruna (Spain)]. E-mail: email@example.com; Garcia, R. [University of A Coruna. Campus de Elvina, s/n. 15071, A Coruna (Spain)]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Pazos, J. [Technical University of Madrid. Campus de Montegancedo, s/n. 28660, Boadilla del Monte, Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: email@example.com; Rodriguez, S. [University of A Coruna. Campus de Elvina, s/n. 15071, A Coruna (Spain)]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Rodriguez-Paton, A. [Technical University of Madrid. Campus de Montegancedo, s/n. 28660, Boadilla del Monte, Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: email@example.com; Silva, A. [Technical University of Madrid. Campus de Montegancedo, s/n. 28660, Boadilla del Monte, Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Failure can be a major driver for the advance of any engineering discipline and Software Engineering is no exception. But failures are useful only if lessons are learned from them. In this article we aim to make a strong defence of, and set the requirements for, lessons learned systems for safety-critical software. We also present a prototype lessons learned system that includes many of the features discussed here. We emphasize that, apart from individual organizations, lessons learned systems should target industrial sectors and even the Software Engineering community. We would like to encourage the Software Engineering community to use this kind of systems as another tool in the toolbox, which complements or enhances other approaches like, for example, standards and checklists.
Thomas R. Scott
Full Text Available Taste is the final arbiter of which chemicals from the environment will be admitted to the body. The action of swallowing a substance leads to a physiological consequence of which the taste system should be informed. Accordingly, taste neurons in the central nervous system are closely allied with those that receive input from the viscera so as to monitor the impact of a recently ingested substance. There is behavioral, anatomical, electrophysiological, gene expression, and neurochemical evidence that the consequences of ingestion influence subsequent food selection through development of either a conditioned taste aversion (if illness ensues or a conditioned taste preference (if satiety. This ongoing communication between taste and the viscera permits the animal to tailor its taste system to its individual needs over a lifetime.
Thornton, Alex; Clutton-Brock, Tim
As in human societies, social learning may play an important role in shaping individual and group characteristics in other mammals. Here, we review research on non-primate mammals, concentrating on work at our long-term meerkat study site, where longitudinal data and field experiments have generated important insights into the role of social learning under natural conditions. Meerkats live under high predation pressure and occupy a difficult foraging niche. Accordingly, pups make extensive use of social information in learning to avoid predation and obtain food. Where individual learning is costly or opportunities are lacking, as in the acquisition of prey-handling skills, adults play an active role in promoting learning through teaching. Social learning can also cause information to spread through groups, but our data suggest that this does not necessarily result in homogeneous, group-wide traditions. Moreover, traditions are commonly eroded by individual learning. We suggest that traditions will only persist where there are high costs of deviating from the group norm or where skill development requires extensive time and effort. Persistent traditions could, theoretically, modify selection pressures and influence genetic evolution. Further empirical studies of social learning in natural populations are now urgently needed to substantiate theoretical claims.
Kozma, Robert B.
Faculty members can use information about six components of the learning situation to increase student learning. The nature, function, and interrelationships of the following elements are described: instructor, content, medium, student, evaluation, environment, and implementation. (Editor/LBH)
Devshi, Rajal; Shaw, Sarah; Elliott-King, Jordan; Hogervorst, Eef; Hiremath, Avinash; Velayudhan, Latha; Kumar, Satheesh; Baillon, Sarah; Bandelow, Stephan
A review of 23 studies investigating the prevalence of Behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in the general and learning disability population and measures used to assess BPSD was carried out. BPSD are non-cognitive symptoms, which constitute as a major component of dementia regardless of its subtype Research has indicated that there is a high prevalence of BPSD in the general dementia population. There are limited studies, which investigate the prevalence of BPSD within individuals who have learning disabilities and dementia. Findings suggest BPSDs are present within individuals with learning disabilities and dementia. Future research should use updated tools for investigating the prevalence of BPSD within individuals with learning disabilities and dementia.
Hemayattalab, Rasool; Rostami, Leila Rashidi
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of frequency of knowledge of results (KR) on the learning of dart in individuals with cerebral palsy type I. Twenty-four individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) between the ages of 5 and 17 were chosen for this study. They were put into 3 homogenous groups according to their records after 20…
Flowerdew, John; Miller, Lindsay
This paper examines the issue of social structure and individual agency in language learning through the life histories of three young engineering graduates in Hong Kong. English is identified as an important form of cultural capital, which to a considerable extent determines the development of the three individuals, each of whom comes from a…
The study investigates learning as knowledge-creation processes on individual and collective levels. The processes were examined in an ethnographic study, conducted in a metal industry company over a four-year period. The empirical study suggests that conflicts and crises experienced on individual level were some kind of incidental starting…
Astuti, Puji; Lammers, Jayne C.
This article attempts to add to the literature supporting Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) by proposing the use of Cooperative Learning (CL), specifically focusing on the enactment of a key principle of CL, i.e., individual accountability. It illustrates how to train students on CL and its individual accountability work and demonstrates how…
Stotz, Sarah; Lee, Jung Sun
The objective of this report was to describe the development process of an innovative smartphone-based electronic learning (eLearning) nutrition education program targeted to Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education-eligible individuals, entitled Food eTalk. Lessons learned from the Food eTalk development process suggest that it is critical to include all key team members from the program's inception using effective inter-team communication systems, understand the unique resources needed, budget ample time for development, and employ an iterative development and evaluation model. These lessons have implications for researchers and funding agencies in developing an innovative evidence-based eLearning nutrition education program to an increasingly technology-savvy, low-income audience. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Catmur, Caroline; Walsh, Vincent; Heyes, Cecilia
Cells in the "mirror system" fire not only when an individual performs an action but also when one observes the same action performed by another agent [1-4]. The mirror system, found in premotor and parietal cortices of human and monkey brains, is thought to provide the foundation for social understanding and to enable the development of theory of mind and language [5-9]. However, it is unclear how mirror neurons acquire their mirror properties -- how they derive the information necessary to match observed with executed actions . We address this by showing that it is possible to manipulate the selectivity of the human mirror system, and thereby make it operate as a countermirror system, by giving participants training to perform one action while observing another. Before this training, participants showed event-related muscle-specific responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation over motor cortex during observation of little- and index-finger movements [11-13]. After training, this normal mirror effect was reversed. These results indicate that the mirror properties of the mirror system are neither wholly innate  nor fixed once acquired; instead they develop through sensorimotor learning [15, 16]. Our findings indicate that the human mirror system is, to some extent, both a product and a process of social interaction.
Won Sug Shin; Minseok Kang
This study investigates online students’ acceptance of mobile learning and its influence on learning achievement using an information system success and extended technology acceptance model (TAM). Structural equation modeling was used to test the structure of individual, social, and systemic factors influencing mobile learning’s acceptance, and how said acceptance influences learning satisfaction and achievement. Unlike earlier TAM-related research that did not provide a broad view of technol...
Ermawati Zulikhatin Nuroh
Full Text Available Cooperative Learning is a teaching arrangement that refers to small, heterogeneous groups of students working together to achieve a common goal (Kagan, 1994. This research is done to know the response of students used cooperative learning in reading comprehension. The data of this study analyzed qualitatively without applying statistical calculations. The subject of the study were the students of the first semester in Midwifery faculty of Universitas Muhammadiyah Sidoarjo . There researcher used one class which consist 29 students. The students gave the positive responses and dominantly agreed to the implementation of cooperative learning type Team Assisted Individualization (TAI in reading comprehension. From the questionnaire, the researcher concludes that are 40% students are agreed, 50% students strongly agree, and 10% less agree with cooperative learning type Team Assisted Individualization (TAI in reading comprehension. The conclusion is students respond well to cooperative learning model type Team Assisted Individualization (TAI to improve students' reading comprehension. This cooperative learning type Team Assisted Individualization (TAI can be the one of the model to teach reading comprehension.
Jingree, Treena; Finlay, W M L
Over the last decade the UK Government has made proposals to empower individuals with learning disabilities. Strategies have been implemented to reduce institutionalisation and social segregation. Consequently, some learning disability services are being phased out and the focus of care has moved away from institutions and into the community and family domain. Focusing on discourse as a site for social action and identity construction, we used critical discursive psychology to examine focus group discussions between family carers about facilitating the independence of adult family members with learning disabilities. Unlike official UK Government and learning disability services' constructions of empowerment policy, we found that parents invoked empowerment talk: (1) as a resource to construct the facilitation of independence as an abstract, irresponsible, politically correct professional trend; (2) dilemmatically with meritocratic or practical arguments to undermine notions of facilitating choices; and (3) as a resource to construct new service developments as contrary to the preferences of people with learning disabilities. Parents also described individuals with learning disabilities as unable to cope, and drew stark contrasts between their practice and those of service-professionals when expressing concerns about empowerment. We discuss possible implications of such discourses and contrasts on opportunities for empowering individuals with learning disabilities. © 2011 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2011 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Van Valen, David A; Kudo, Takamasa; Lane, Keara M; Macklin, Derek N; Quach, Nicolas T; DeFelice, Mialy M; Maayan, Inbal; Tanouchi, Yu; Ashley, Euan A; Covert, Markus W
Live-cell imaging has opened an exciting window into the role cellular heterogeneity plays in dynamic, living systems. A major critical challenge for this class of experiments is the problem of image segmentation, or determining which parts of a microscope image correspond to which individual cells. Current approaches require many hours of manual curation and depend on approaches that are difficult to share between labs. They are also unable to robustly segment the cytoplasms of mammalian cells. Here, we show that deep convolutional neural networks, a supervised machine learning method, can solve this challenge for multiple cell types across the domains of life. We demonstrate that this approach can robustly segment fluorescent images of cell nuclei as well as phase images of the cytoplasms of individual bacterial and mammalian cells from phase contrast images without the need for a fluorescent cytoplasmic marker. These networks also enable the simultaneous segmentation and identification of different mammalian cell types grown in co-culture. A quantitative comparison with prior methods demonstrates that convolutional neural networks have improved accuracy and lead to a significant reduction in curation time. We relay our experience in designing and optimizing deep convolutional neural networks for this task and outline several design rules that we found led to robust performance. We conclude that deep convolutional neural networks are an accurate method that require less curation time, are generalizable to a multiplicity of cell types, from bacteria to mammalian cells, and expand live-cell imaging capabilities to include multi-cell type systems.
Park, Kwi Hwa; Choi, Chang-Hyu; Jeon, Yang-Bin; Park, Kook-Yang; Park, Chul-Hyun
The purpose of this study was to examine medical students' perceptions of team-based learning (TBL) according to their individual characteristics: gender, team efficacy, interpersonal understanding, proactivity in problem solving, and academic ability. Thirty-eight second-year medical students who took an integrated cardiology course participated in this study; 28 were male and 10 were female. A questionnaire on individual characteristics and a questionnaire on the perception of TBL were administered, and the scores of individual characteristics were grouped into three: high, middle, and low. The data were analyzed by t-test, analysis of variance, and multiple regression analysis. The TBL efficacy perception scale consisted of 3 factors: team skill, learning ability, and team learning. The group of male students and the group of students with high academic ability recognized the effect of TBL on improvements in learning ability more than females and those with low academic ability. The group of students with high team efficacy reported that TBL was effective with regard to team skill improvement. The group of students with high scores on interpersonal understanding and high proactive problem solving tended to perceive the TBL's effect on team skill improvement. Team efficacy and proactivity in problem solving had a positive effect on the perception of TBL. Medical students' perceptions of the effectiveness of TBL differ according to individual characteristics. The results of this study suggest that these individual characteristics should be considered in planning of team learning, such as TBL, to have a positive impact and stronger effects.
Sahota, Michael; Leung, Betty; Dowdell, Stephanie; Velan, Gary M
Students in biomedical disciplines require understanding of normal and abnormal microscopic appearances of human tissues (histology and histopathology). For this purpose, practical classes in these disciplines typically use virtual microscopy, viewing digitised whole slide images in web browsers. To enhance engagement, tools have been developed to enable individual or collaborative annotation of whole slide images within web browsers. To date, there have been no studies that have critically compared the impact on learning of individual and collaborative annotations on whole slide images. Junior and senior students engaged in Pathology practical classes within Medical Science and Medicine programs participated in cross-over trials of individual and collaborative annotation activities. Students' understanding of microscopic morphology was compared using timed online quizzes, while students' perceptions of learning were evaluated using an online questionnaire. For senior medical students, collaborative annotation of whole slide images was superior for understanding key microscopic features when compared to individual annotation; whilst being at least equivalent to individual annotation for junior medical science students. Across cohorts, students agreed that the annotation activities provided a user-friendly learning environment that met their flexible learning needs, improved efficiency, provided useful feedback, and helped them to set learning priorities. Importantly, these activities were also perceived to enhance motivation and improve understanding. Collaborative annotation improves understanding of microscopic morphology for students with sufficient background understanding of the discipline. These findings have implications for the deployment of annotation activities in biomedical curricula, and potentially for postgraduate training in Anatomical Pathology.
Deng, Zhizhou; Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Wang, Suiping; Wong, Patrick C.M.
A major challenge in language learning studies is to identify objective, pre-training predictors of success. Variation in the low-frequency fluctuations (LFFs) of spontaneous brain activity measured by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) has been found to reflect individual differences in cognitive measures. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the extent to which initial spontaneous brain activity is related to individual differences in spoken language learning. We acquired RS-fMRI data and subsequently trained participants on a sound-to-word learning paradigm in which they learned to use foreign pitch patterns (from Mandarin Chinese) to signal word meaning. We performed amplitude of spontaneous low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) analysis, graph theory-based analysis, and independent component analysis (ICA) to identify functional components of the LFFs in the resting-state. First, we examined the ALFF as a regional measure and showed that regional ALFFs in the left superior temporal gyrus were positively correlated with learning performance, whereas ALFFs in the default mode network (DMN) regions were negatively correlated with learning performance. Furthermore, the graph theory-based analysis indicated that the degree and local efficiency of the left superior temporal gyrus were positively correlated with learning performance. Finally, the default mode network and several task-positive resting-state networks (RSNs) were identified via the ICA. The “competition” (i.e., negative correlation) between the DMN and the dorsal attention network was negatively correlated with learning performance. Our results demonstrate that a) spontaneous brain activity can predict future language learning outcome without prior hypotheses (e.g., selection of regions of interest – ROIs) and b) both regional dynamics and network-level interactions in the resting brain can account for individual differences in future spoken language learning success
Deng, Zhizhou; Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Wang, Suiping; Wong, Patrick C M
A major challenge in language learning studies is to identify objective, pre-training predictors of success. Variation in the low-frequency fluctuations (LFFs) of spontaneous brain activity measured by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) has been found to reflect individual differences in cognitive measures. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the extent to which initial spontaneous brain activity is related to individual differences in spoken language learning. We acquired RS-fMRI data and subsequently trained participants on a sound-to-word learning paradigm in which they learned to use foreign pitch patterns (from Mandarin Chinese) to signal word meaning. We performed amplitude of spontaneous low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) analysis, graph theory-based analysis, and independent component analysis (ICA) to identify functional components of the LFFs in the resting-state. First, we examined the ALFF as a regional measure and showed that regional ALFFs in the left superior temporal gyrus were positively correlated with learning performance, whereas ALFFs in the default mode network (DMN) regions were negatively correlated with learning performance. Furthermore, the graph theory-based analysis indicated that the degree and local efficiency of the left superior temporal gyrus were positively correlated with learning performance. Finally, the default mode network and several task-positive resting-state networks (RSNs) were identified via the ICA. The "competition" (i.e., negative correlation) between the DMN and the dorsal attention network was negatively correlated with learning performance. Our results demonstrate that a) spontaneous brain activity can predict future language learning outcome without prior hypotheses (e.g., selection of regions of interest--ROIs) and b) both regional dynamics and network-level interactions in the resting brain can account for individual differences in future spoken language learning success
van Abswoude, Femke; Santos-Vieira, Beatriz; van der Kamp, John; Steenbergen, Bert
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of errors during practice on motor skill learning in young individuals with cerebral palsy (CP). Minimizing errors has been validated in typically developing children and children with intellectual disabilities as a method for implicit learning, because it reduces working memory involvement during learning. The present study assessed whether a practice protocol that aims at minimizing errors can induce implicit learning in young individuals with CP as well. Accordingly, we hypothesized that reducing errors during practice would lead to enhanced learning and a decrease in the dependency of performance on working memory. Young individuals with CP practiced an aiming task following either an error-minimizing (N=20) or an error-strewn (N=18) practice protocol. Aiming accuracy was assessed in pre-, post- and retention test. Dual task performance was assessed to establish dependency on working memory. The two practice protocols did not invoke different amounts or types of learning in the participants with CP. Yet, participants improved aiming accuracy and showed stable motor performance after learning, irrespective of the protocol they followed. Across groups the number of errors made during practice was related to the amount of learning, and the degree of conscious monitoring of the movement. Only participants with relatively good working memory capacity and a poor initial performance showed a rudimentary form of (most likely, explicit) learning. These new findings on the effect of the amount of practice errors on motor learning in children of CP are important for designing interventions for children and adolescents with CP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Extreme climbing where participants perform while knowing that a simple mistake could result in death requires a skill set normally acquired in non-extreme environments. In the ecological dynamics approach to perception and action, skill acquisition involves a process where the existing repertoire of behavioral capabilities (or coordination repertoire of a learner are destabilized and re-organized through practice—this process can expand the individuals affordance boundaries allowing the individual to explore new environments. Change in coordination repertoire has been observed in bi-manual coordination and postural regulation tasks, where individuals begin practice using one mode of coordination before transitioning to another, more effective, coordination mode during practice. However, individuals may also improve through practice without qualitatively reorganizing movement system components—they do not find a new mode of coordination. To explain these individual differences during learning (i.e., whether or not a new action is discovered, a key candidate is the existing coordination repertoire present prior to practice. In this study, the learning dynamics of body configuration patterns organized with respect to an indoor climbing surface were observed and the existing repertoire of coordination evaluated prior to and after practice. Specifically, performance outcomes and movement patterns of eight beginners were observed across 42 trials of practice over a 7-week period. A pre- and post-test scanning procedure was used to determine existing patterns of movement coordination and the emergence of new movement patterns after the practice period. Data suggested the presence of different learning dynamics by examining trial-to-trial performance in terms of jerk (an indicator of climbing fluency, at the individual level of analysis. The different learning dynamics (identified qualitatively included: continuous improvement, sudden improvement
Manouselis, Nikos; Drachsler, Hendrik; Verbert, Katrien; Santos, Olga
Manouselis, N., Drachsler, H., Verbert, K., & Santos, C. S. (Eds.) (2010). Recommender System in Technology Enhanced Learning. Elsevier Procedia Computer Science: Volume 1, Issue 2. Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Recommender Systems for Technology Enhanced Learning (RecSysTEL). September, 29-30,
Drachsler, Hendrik; Verbert, Katrien; Santos, Olga C.; Manouselis, Nikos
This chapter presents an analysis of recommender systems in TechnologyEnhanced Learning along their 15 years existence (2000-2014). All recommender systems considered for the review aim to support educational stakeholders by personalising the learning process. In this meta-review 82 recommender
Ennis, Catherine D.
Dynamical systems theory can increase our understanding of the constantly evolving learning process. Current research using experimental and interpretive paradigms focuses on describing the attractors and constraints stabilizing the educational process. Dynamical systems theory focuses attention on critical junctures in the learning process as…
Ifenthaler, Dirk; Schumacher, Clara
The purpose of this study was to investigate if students are prepared to release any personal data in order to inform learning analytics systems. Besides the well-documented benefits of learning analytics, serious concerns and challenges are associated with the application of these data driven systems. Most notably, empirical evidence regarding…
Reinforcement Learning (RL) methods are relatively new in the field of aerospace guidance, navigation, and control. This dissertation aims to exploit RL methods to improve the autonomy and online learning of aerospace systems with respect to the a priori unknown system and environment, dynamical
Brooks, Patricia J; Kempe, Vera
In this study, we sought to identify cognitive predictors of individual differences in adult foreign-language learning and to test whether metalinguistic awareness mediated the observed relationships. Using a miniature language-learning paradigm, adults (N = 77) learned Russian vocabulary and grammar (gender agreement and case marking) over six 1-h sessions, completing tasks that encouraged attention to phrases without explicitly teaching grammatical rules. The participants' ability to describe the Russian gender and case-marking patterns mediated the effects of nonverbal intelligence and auditory sequence learning on grammar learning and generalization. Hence, even under implicit-learning conditions, individual differences stemmed from explicit metalinguistic awareness of the underlying grammar, which, in turn, was linked to nonverbal intelligence and auditory sequence learning. Prior knowledge of languages with grammatical gender (predominantly Spanish) predicted learning of gender agreement. Transfer of knowledge of gender from other languages to Russian was not mediated by awareness, which suggests that transfer operates through an implicit process akin to structural priming.
Shepard, Michelle E; Sastre, Elizabeth A; Davidson, Mario A; Fleming, Amy E
Individualized Learning Plans (ILPs) are an effective tool for promoting self-directed learning among residents. However, no literature details ILP use among medical students. Fifty fourth-year sub-interns in pediatrics and internal medicine created ILPs, including a self-assessment of strengths and weaknesses based on ACGME core competencies and the setting of learning objectives. During weekly follow-up meetings with faculty mentors and peers, students discussed challenges and revised goals. Upon completion of the rotation, students completed a survey of Likert-scale questions addressing satisfaction with and perceived utility of ILP components. Students most often self-identified strengths in the areas of Professionalism and Interpersonal and Communication Skills and weaknesses in Patient Care and Systems-Based Practice. Eighty-two percent set at least one learning objective in an identified area of weakness. Students expressed high confidence in their abilities to create achievable learning objectives and to generate strategies to meet those objectives. Students agreed that discussions during group meetings were meaningful, and they identified the setting learning objectives and weekly meetings as the most important elements of the exercise. Fourth-year sub-interns reported that ILPs helped them to accomplish rotation goals, with the setting of learning objectives and weekly discussions being the most useful elements.
Manouselis, Nikos; Drachsler, Hendrik; Vuorikari, Riina; Hummel, Hans; Koper, Rob
Manouselis, N., Drachsler, H., Vuorikari, R., Hummel, H. G. K., & Koper, R. (2011). Recommender Systems in Technology Enhanced Learning. In P. B. Kantor, F. Ricci, L. Rokach, & B. Shapira (Eds.), Recommender Systems Handbook (pp. 387-415). Berlin: Springer.
Drachsler, Hendrik; Verbert, Katrien; Santos, Olga; Manouselis, Nikos
This chapter presents an analysis of recommender systems in Technology-Enhanced Learning along their 15 years existence (2000-2014). All recommender systems considered for the review aim to support educational stakeholders by personalising the learning process. In this meta-review 82 recommender systems from 35 different countries have been investigated and categorised according to a given classification framework. The reviewed systems have been classified into 7 clusters according to their c...
Barth-Cohen, Lauren A.; Wittmann, Michael C.
This article presents an empirical analysis of conceptual difficulties encountered and ways students made progress in learning at both individual and group levels in a classroom environment in which the students used an embodied modeling activity to make sense of a specific scientific scenario. The theoretical framework, coordination class theory,…
President's Task Force on Federal Training Technology, Washington, DC.
The U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) evaluated the feasibility of individual learning accounts (ILAs) as an approach to workforce development. Thirteen federal agencies volunteered to participate in the initiative. Together, they conducted a total of 17 pilot tests. Some pilot tests included all employees in the agency. Others targeted…
Full Text Available This paper presents an extensive research study and results on the use of existing open-source Learning Management Systems, or LMS within the public and private universities of Cyprus. The most significant objective of this research is the identification of the different types of E-Learning, i.e. Computer-Based Training (CBT, Technology-Based Learning (TBL, and Web-Based Training (WBT within Cyprus universities. The paper identifies the benefits and limitations of the main learning approaches used in higher educational institutions, i.e. synchronous and asynchronous learning, investigates the open-source LMS used in the Cypriot universities and compares their features with regards to students’ preferences for a collaborative E-Learning environment. The required data for this research study were collected from undergraduate and graduate students, alumni, faculty members, and IT professionals who currently work and/or study at the public and private universities of Cyprus. The most noteworthy recommendation of this study is the clear indication that most of the undergraduate students that extensively use the specific E-Learning platform of their university do not have a clear picture of the differences between an LMS and a VLE. This gap has to be gradually diminished in order to make optimum use of the different features offered by the specific E-Learning platform.
Thornton, Alex; Clutton-Brock, Tim
As in human societies, social learning may play an important role in shaping individual and group characteristics in other mammals. Here, we review research on non-primate mammals, concentrating on work at our long-term meerkat study site, where longitudinal data and field experiments have generated important insights into the role of social learning under natural conditions. Meerkats live under high predation pressure and occupy a difficult foraging niche. Accordingly, pups make extensive us...
Killingsworth, Stephen; Clark, Douglas; Adams, Deanne
Previous research has demonstrated the efficacy of two explanation-based approaches for increasing learning in educational games. The first involves asking students to explain their answers (self-explanation) and the second involves providing correct explanations (explanatory feedback). This study (1) compared self-explanation and explanatory feedback features embedded into a game designed to teach Newtonian dynamics and (2) investigated relationships between learning and individual differenc...
McGregor, Heather R; Gribble, Paul L
Action observation can facilitate the acquisition of novel motor skills; however, there is considerable individual variability in the extent to which observation promotes motor learning. Here we tested the hypothesis that individual differences in brain function or structure can predict subsequent observation-related gains in motor learning. Subjects underwent an anatomical MRI scan and resting-state fMRI scans to assess preobservation gray matter volume and preobservation resting-state functional connectivity (FC), respectively. On the following day, subjects observed a video of a tutor adapting her reaches to a novel force field. After observation, subjects performed reaches in a force field as a behavioral assessment of gains in motor learning resulting from observation. We found that individual differences in resting-state FC, but not gray matter volume, predicted postobservation gains in motor learning. Preobservation resting-state FC between left primary somatosensory cortex and bilateral dorsal premotor cortex, primary motor cortex, and primary somatosensory cortex and left superior parietal lobule was positively correlated with behavioral measures of postobservation motor learning. Sensory-motor resting-state FC can thus predict the extent to which observation will promote subsequent motor learning. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We show that individual differences in preobservation brain function can predict subsequent observation-related gains in motor learning. Preobservation resting-state functional connectivity within a sensory-motor network may be used as a biomarker for the extent to which observation promotes motor learning. This kind of information may be useful if observation is to be used as a way to boost neuroplasticity and sensory-motor recovery for patients undergoing rehabilitation for diseases that impair movement such as stroke. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.
Individual classroom experiences: a sociocultural comparison for understanding efl classroom language learning Individual classroom experiences: a sociocultural comparison for understanding efl classroom language learning
Full Text Available Este trabalho compara as experiências de sala de aula (ESA de duas universitárias na aprendizagem de língua inglesa. As ESA emergiram de entrevistas individuais, onde vídeos das aulas promoveram a reflexão. A análise revelou que experiências de natureza cognitiva, social ou afetiva influem diretamente no processo de aprendizagem e as que se referem ao contexto, à história, crenças e metas dos alunos influem indiretamente no mesmo. A singularidade de algumas experiências levou à sua categorização como ESA individuais (ESAI. Ao comparar as ESAI de duas informantes, a importância da análise sociocultural do processo de aprendizagem de sala de aula fica evidente. Concluiremos com uma defesa do valor da teoria sociocultural no estudo da aprendizagem de língua estrangeira em sala de aula e com a apresentação das implicações deste estudo para pesquisadores e professores. This paper compares the classroom experiences (CEs of two university students in their process of learning English as a foreign language (EFL. The CEs emerged from individual interviews, where classroom videos promoted reflection. The analysis revealed that cognitive, social and affective experiences directly influence the learning process and that those which refer to setting, learner’s personal background, beliefs and goal influence the learning process indirectly. The analysis also revealed the singularity of some of these CEs that led to their categorization as individual CEs (ICEs. When comparing the ICEs of the two participants, the importance of a sociocultural analysis of the classroom learning process becomes evident. We conclude with an analysis of the value of sociocultural theory in the study of classroom EFL learning and with the implications of this study for teachers and researchers.
Full Text Available Complex fear learning procedures might be better suited than the common differential fear conditioning paradigm for detecting individual differences related to vulnerability for anxiety disorders. Two such procedures are the blocking procedure and the protection-from-overshadowing procedure. Their comparison allows for the examination of discriminatory fear learning under conditions of ambiguity. The present study examined the role of individual differences in such discriminatory fear learning. We hypothesized that heightened trait anxiety would be related to a deficit in discriminatory fear learning. Participants gave US-expectancy ratings as an index for the threat value of individual CSs following blocking and protection-from-overshadowing training. The difference in threat value at test between the protected-from-overshadowing CS and the blocked CS was negatively correlated with scores on a self-report tension-stress scale that approximates facets of generalized anxiety disorder (DASS-S, but not with other individual difference variables. In addition, a behavioral test showed that only participants scoring high on the DASS-S avoided the protected-from-overshadowing CS. This observed deficit in discriminatory fear learning for participants with high levels of tension-stress might be an underlying mechanism for fear overgeneralization in diffuse anxiety disorders such as generalized anxiety disorder.
Chen, Yingke; Mao, Hua; Jaeger, Manfred
to a single long observation sequence, and in these situations existing automatic learning methods cannot be applied. In this paper, we adapt algorithms for learning variable order Markov chains from a single observation sequence of a target system, so that stationary system properties can be verified using......Establishing an accurate model for formal verification of an existing hardware or software system is often a manual process that is both time consuming and resource demanding. In order to ease the model construction phase, methods have recently been proposed for automatically learning accurate...... the learned model. Experiments demonstrate that system properties (formulated as stationary probabilities of LTL formulas) can be reliably identified using the learned model....
Full Text Available Nowadays, eLearning standards' support within eLearning systems is much discussed problem. In this problem domain especially the reference model SCORM must be considered. This de-facto standard is a package of common standards and specifications used for the standardization of eLearning activities as eLearning content preparation, using e-course, communication etc. Implementation of standards itself is a process with great difficulty and time requests. Interesting and considerable approach to this problem is dividing all the process into several standalone and isolated steps focused on the individual segments of standards. This concept, in the paper described as 4-tier model of eLearning standards’ implementation, principally based upon the SCORM model enables sequential implementation of support for standards of eLearning metadata, eLearning content and also communication and navigation in e-courses. This possibility leads to portability and independence of result e-content. Discuss concept is a framework for standardization within eLearning subsystem of University Information System at Mendel University in Brno.
Examines learning and performance diagnosis, separately and in relation to each other, as they function in organization systems; explains the relationship between learning and performance diagnosis at the individual, process, and organizational levels using a three-level performance model; and discusses types of learning, including nonlearning,…
The aim of nursing education is to prepare students with critical thinking, high interests in profession and high proficiency in patient care. Cooperative learning promotes team work and encourages knowledge building upon discussion. It has been viewed as one of the most powerful learning methods. Technology has been considered an influential tool in teaching and learning. It assists students in gathering more information to solve the problems and master skills better. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of technology-based cooperative learning with technology-based individual learning in nursing students' critical thinking in catheterization knowledge gaining, error discovering, skill acquisitions, and overall scores. This study used a pretest-posttest experimental design. Ninety-eight students were assigned randomly to one of two groups. Questionnaires and tests were collected at baseline and after completion of intervention. The results of this study showed that there was no significant difference in related catheterization skill performance. However, the remaining variables differed greatly between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS AND APPLICATIONS: This study's findings guide the researchers and instructors to use technology-based cooperative learning more appropriately. Future research should address the design of the course module and the availability of mobile devices to reach student-centered and learn on the move goals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pengelolaan belajar yang dilakukan secara mandiri, memungkinkan siswa untuk belajar sesuai minat dan tanpa paksaan dari pihak lain sehingga akan berdampak positif terhadap prestasi belajar yang diraihnya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengembangkan paket pelatihan kemandirian belajar dengan menggunakan strategi individual learning plan untuk siswa SMP. Pengembangan paket pelatihan ini menggunakan model penelitian pengembangan Borg & Gall (1983. Berdasarkan hasil penilaian ahli dan pengguna, paket pelatihan kemandirian belajar dengan menggunakan strategi individual learning plan untuk siswa SMP telah memenuhi kriteria kelayakan dan keberterimaan. Uji efektivitas kepada berbagai subjek yang berbeda perlu dilakukan pada penelitian selanjutnya sehingga kekurangan paket pelatihan yang dikembangkan dalam pelatihan ini bisa disempurnakan.
Yoo, Sun Joo; Huang, Wenhao David
How organizations need to act in order to develop their learning capacities has always been a focal interest of research and practice in the workplace. In practice, an e-learning system is often utilized to foster professional development as it is capable of delivering information and knowledge to individuals across organizations. However, the…
Doyle, Louise; Kelliher, Felicity; Harrington, Denis
The aim of this paper is to review the relevant literature on organisational learning and offer a preliminary conceptual framework as a basis to explore how the multi-levels of individual learning and team learning interact in a public healthcare organisation. The organisational learning literature highlights a need for further understanding of…
Chen, Cheng-ping; Wang, Chang-Hwa
Studies have proven that merging hands-on and online learning can result in an enhanced experience in learning science. In contrast to traditional online learning, multiple in-classroom activities may be involved in an augmented-reality (AR)-embedded e-learning process and thus could reduce the effects of individual differences. Using a…
Dewan, Jahangir; Chowdhury, Morshed; Batten, Lynn
This article presents a personal e-learning system architecture in the context of a social network environment. The main objective of a personal e-learning system is to develop individual skills on a specific subject and share resources with peers. The authors' system architecture defines the organisation and management of a personal learning…
Abstract We present the experimental realization of an adaptive polymeric system displaying a ?learning behaviour?. The system consists on a statistically organized networks of memristive elements (memory-resitors) based on polyaniline. In a such network the path followed by the current increments its conductivity, a property which makes the system able to mimic Hebbian type learning and have application in hardware neural networks. After discussing the working principle of ...
Jong, Amos A. de; Runhaar, Hens A.C.; Runhaar, Piety R.; Kolhoff, Arend J.; Driessen, Peter P.J.
A growing number of low and middle income nations (LMCs) have adopted some sort of system for environmental impact assessment (EIA). However, generally many of these EIA systems are characterised by a low performance in terms of timely information dissemination, monitoring and enforcement after licencing. Donor actors (such as the World Bank) have attempted to contribute to a higher performance of EIA systems in LMCs by intervening at two levels: the project level (e.g. by providing scoping advice or EIS quality review) and the system level (e.g. by advising on EIA legislation or by capacity building). The aims of these interventions are environmental protection in concrete cases and enforcing the institutionalisation of environmental protection, respectively. Learning by actors involved is an important condition for realising these aims. A relatively underexplored form of learning concerns learning at EIA system-level via project level donor interventions. This ‘indirect’ learning potentially results in system changes that better fit the specific context(s) and hence contribute to higher performances. Our exploratory research in Ghana and the Maldives shows that thus far, ‘indirect’ learning only occurs incidentally and that donors play a modest role in promoting it. Barriers to indirect learning are related to the institutional context rather than to individual characteristics. Moreover, ‘indirect’ learning seems to flourish best in large projects where donors achieved a position of influence that they can use to evoke reflection upon system malfunctions. In order to enhance learning at all levels donors should thereby present the outcomes of the intervention elaborately (i.e. discuss the outcomes with a large audience), include practical suggestions about post-EIS activities such as monitoring procedures and enforcement options and stimulate the use of their advisory reports to generate organisational memory and ensure a better information
Jong, Amos A. de, E-mail: email@example.com [Innovation Management, Utrecht (Netherlands); Runhaar, Hens A.C., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Section of Environmental Governance, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Runhaar, Piety R., E-mail: email@example.com [Organisational Psychology and Human Resource Development, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands); Kolhoff, Arend J., E-mail: Akolhoff@eia.nl [The Netherlands Commission for Environmental Assessment, Utrecht (Netherlands); Driessen, Peter P.J., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Innovation and Environment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)
A growing number of low and middle income nations (LMCs) have adopted some sort of system for environmental impact assessment (EIA). However, generally many of these EIA systems are characterised by a low performance in terms of timely information dissemination, monitoring and enforcement after licencing. Donor actors (such as the World Bank) have attempted to contribute to a higher performance of EIA systems in LMCs by intervening at two levels: the project level (e.g. by providing scoping advice or EIS quality review) and the system level (e.g. by advising on EIA legislation or by capacity building). The aims of these interventions are environmental protection in concrete cases and enforcing the institutionalisation of environmental protection, respectively. Learning by actors involved is an important condition for realising these aims. A relatively underexplored form of learning concerns learning at EIA system-level via project level donor interventions. This 'indirect' learning potentially results in system changes that better fit the specific context(s) and hence contribute to higher performances. Our exploratory research in Ghana and the Maldives shows that thus far, 'indirect' learning only occurs incidentally and that donors play a modest role in promoting it. Barriers to indirect learning are related to the institutional context rather than to individual characteristics. Moreover, 'indirect' learning seems to flourish best in large projects where donors achieved a position of influence that they can use to evoke reflection upon system malfunctions. In order to enhance learning at all levels donors should thereby present the outcomes of the intervention elaborately (i.e. discuss the outcomes with a large audience), include practical suggestions about post-EIS activities such as monitoring procedures and enforcement options and stimulate the use of their advisory reports to generate organisational memory and ensure a better
Chen, C. M.
Personalized curriculum sequencing is an important research issue for web-based learning systems because no fixed learning paths will be appropriate for all learners. Therefore, many researchers focused on developing e-learning systems with personalized learning mechanisms to assist on-line web-based learning and adaptively provide learning paths…
Avgeriou, Paris; Retalis, Symeon; Papasalouros, Andreas
Learning Management Systems are sophisticated web-based applications that are being engineered today in increasing numbers by numerous institutions and companies that want to get involved in e-learning either for providing services to third parties, or for educating and training their own people.
Abbas, A.; Alhammadi, H. Y.; Romagnoli, J. A.
In this paper, we discuss our approach in teaching the final-year course Process Systems Engineering. Students are given ownership of the course by transferring to them the responsibility of learning. A project-based group environment stimulates learning while solving a real engineering problem. We discuss postgraduate student involvement and how…
The challenge for leaders today is to create and develop the capability of their organization. Leaders must perceive and manage their organization as a dynamic, open system where learning is the core competence underlying innovation, growth, and sustainability. Creating a culture of learning is the first work of leadership. This article presents a…
An E-learning system based on a multi-agent (MAS) architecture combined with the Dynamic Content Manager (DCM) model of E-learning, is presented. We discuss the benefits of using such a multi-agent architecture. Finally, the MAS architecture is compared with a pure service-oriented architecture (SOA). This MAS architecture may also be used within…
This is a tutorial-driven and practical, but well-grounded book showcasing good Machine Learning practices. There will be an emphasis on using existing technologies instead of showing how to write your own implementations of algorithms. This book is a scenario-based, example-driven tutorial. By the end of the book you will have learnt critical aspects of Machine Learning Python projects and experienced the power of ML-based systems by actually working on them.This book primarily targets Python developers who want to learn about and build Machine Learning into their projects, or who want to pro
At BNFL's EP2 radioactive waste encapsulation plant in the UK, eight area supervisory control and data acquisition systems (SCADAs) and one central SCADA are being installed to provide computer-controlled processing of waste drums. The individual systems are all autonomous, minimizing the effect they have on other areas of the process. At the same time, they are part of an integrated system which provides effective communication between the various areas. (author)
Full Text Available Abstract Background The compressed curriculum in modern knowledge-intensive medicine demands useful tools to achieve approved learning aims in a limited space of time. Web-based learning can be used in different ways to enhance learning. Little is however known regarding its optimal utilisation. Our aim was to investigate if the individual learning styles of medical students influence the choice to use a web-based ECG learning programme in a blended learning setting. Methods The programme, with three types of modules (learning content, self-assessment questions and interactive ECG interpretation training, was offered on a voluntary basis during a face to face ECG learning course for undergraduate medical students. The Index of Learning Styles (ILS and a general questionnaire including questions about computer and Internet usage, preferred future speciality and prior experience of E-learning were used to explore different factors related to the choice of using the programme or not. Results 93 (76% out of 123 students answered the ILS instrument and 91 the general questionnaire. 55 students (59% were defined as users of the web-based ECG-interpretation programme. Cronbach's alpha was analysed with coefficients above 0.7 in all of the four dimensions of ILS. There were no significant differences with regard to learning styles, as assessed by ILS, between the user and non-user groups; Active/Reflective; Visual/Verbal; Sensing/Intuitive; and Sequential/Global (p = 0.56-0.96. Neither did gender, prior experience of E-learning or preference for future speciality differ between groups. Conclusion Among medical students, neither learning styles according to ILS, nor a number of other characteristics seem to influence the choice to use a web-based ECG programme. This finding was consistent also when the usage of the different modules in the programme were considered. Thus, the findings suggest that web-based learning may attract a broad variety of medical
Nilsson, Mikael; Östergren, Jan; Fors, Uno; Rickenlund, Anette; Jorfeldt, Lennart; Caidahl, Kenneth; Bolinder, Gunilla
The compressed curriculum in modern knowledge-intensive medicine demands useful tools to achieve approved learning aims in a limited space of time. Web-based learning can be used in different ways to enhance learning. Little is however known regarding its optimal utilisation. Our aim was to investigate if the individual learning styles of medical students influence the choice to use a web-based ECG learning programme in a blended learning setting. The programme, with three types of modules (learning content, self-assessment questions and interactive ECG interpretation training), was offered on a voluntary basis during a face to face ECG learning course for undergraduate medical students. The Index of Learning Styles (ILS) and a general questionnaire including questions about computer and Internet usage, preferred future speciality and prior experience of E-learning were used to explore different factors related to the choice of using the programme or not. 93 (76%) out of 123 students answered the ILS instrument and 91 the general questionnaire. 55 students (59%) were defined as users of the web-based ECG-interpretation programme. Cronbach's alpha was analysed with coefficients above 0.7 in all of the four dimensions of ILS. There were no significant differences with regard to learning styles, as assessed by ILS, between the user and non-user groups; Active/Reflective; Visual/Verbal; Sensing/Intuitive; and Sequential/Global (p = 0.56-0.96). Neither did gender, prior experience of E-learning or preference for future speciality differ between groups. Among medical students, neither learning styles according to ILS, nor a number of other characteristics seem to influence the choice to use a web-based ECG programme. This finding was consistent also when the usage of the different modules in the programme were considered. Thus, the findings suggest that web-based learning may attract a broad variety of medical students.
Farmer, J. Doyne; Packard, Norman H.; Perelson, Alan S.
The immune system is capable of learning, memory, and pattern recognition. By employing genetic operators on a time scale fast enough to observe experimentally, the immune system is able to recognize novel shapes without preprogramming. Here we describe a dynamical model for the immune system that is based on the network hypothesis of Jerne, and is simple enough to simulate on a computer. This model has a strong similarity to an approach to learning and artificial intelligence introduced by Holland, called the classifier system. We demonstrate that simple versions of the classifier system can be cast as a nonlinear dynamical system, and explore the analogy between the immune and classifier systems in detail. Through this comparison we hope to gain insight into the way they perform specific tasks, and to suggest new approaches that might be of value in learning systems.
Tao, Qian; Chan, Chetwyn C H; Luo, Yue-Jia; Li, Jian-Jun; Ting, Kin-Hung; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Wang, Jun; Lee, Tatia M C
Cross-modal learning requires the use of information from different sensory modalities. This study investigated how the prior visual experience of late blind individuals could modulate neural processes associated with learning of sound localization. Learning was realized by standardized training on sound localization processing, and experience was investigated by comparing brain activations elicited from a sound localization task in individuals with (late blind, LB) and without (early blind, EB) prior visual experience. After the training, EB showed decreased activation in the precuneus, which was functionally connected to a limbic-multisensory network. In contrast, LB showed the increased activation of the precuneus. A subgroup of LB participants who demonstrated higher visuospatial working memory capabilities (LB-HVM) exhibited an enhanced precuneus-lingual gyrus network. This differential connectivity suggests that visuospatial working memory due to the prior visual experience gained via LB-HVM enhanced learning of sound localization. Active visuospatial navigation processes could have occurred in LB-HVM compared to the retrieval of previously bound information from long-term memory for EB. The precuneus appears to play a crucial role in learning of sound localization, disregarding prior visual experience. Prior visual experience, however, could enhance cross-modal learning by extending binding to the integration of unprocessed information, mediated by the cognitive functions that these experiences develop.
van Schijndel, Tessa J. P.; Jansen, Brenda R. J.; Raijmakers, Maartje E. J.
This study investigates how individual differences in 7- to 9-year-olds' curiosity relate to the inquiry-learning process and outcomes in environments differing in structure. The focus on curiosity as individual differences variable was motivated by the importance of curiosity in science education, and uncertainty being central to both the definition of curiosity and the inquiry-learning environment. Curiosity was assessed with the Underwater Exploration game (Jirout, J., & Klahr, D. (2012). Children's scientific curiosity: In search of an operational definition of an elusive concept. Developmental Review, 32, 125-160. doi:10.1016/j.dr.2012.04.002), and inquiry-based learning with the newly developed Scientific Discovery task, which focuses on the principle of designing informative experiments. Structure of the inquiry-learning environment was manipulated by explaining this principle or not. As intelligence relates to learning and possibly curiosity, it was taken into account. Results showed that children's curiosity was positively related to their knowledge acquisition, but not to their quality of exploration. For low intelligent children, environment structure positively affected their quality of exploration, but not their knowledge acquisition. There was no interaction between curiosity and environment structure. These results support the existence of two distinct inquiry-based learning processes - the designing of experiments, on the one hand, and the reflection on performed experiments, on the other - and link children's curiosity to the latter process.
Full Text Available Currently, much attention is paid to the development of learning sour cream – a combination of traditional and distance (30-70% of training. Such training is sometimes called hybrid and referred to disruptive technologies. Purpose – to show that the use of systemic campaign in blended learning provides a high quality of education, and the technology can be devastating. The subject of the study – blended learning, object of study – Mixed learning process. The analysis results show that the combined training increases the motivation of students, qualification of teachers, personalized learning process. At the same time there are no reliable methods of assessing the quality of education and training standards. It is important that blended learning strategy to support the institutional goals and had an effective organizational model for support.
Lommen, M.J.J.; Engelhard, I.M.; Sijbrandij, M.; van Hout, M.A.; Hermans, D.
In the aftermath of a traumatic event, many people suffer from psychological distress, but only a minority develops posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Pre-trauma individual differences in fear conditioning, most notably reduced extinction learning, have been proposed as playing an important role
Arnaudova, I.; Krypotos, A.M.; Effting, M.; Boddez, Y.; Kindt, M.; Beckers, T.
Complex fear learning procedures might be better suited than the common differential fear-conditioning paradigm for detecting individual differences related to vulnerability for anxiety disorders. Two such procedures are the blocking procedure and the protection-from-overshadowing procedure. Their
Stender, Anthony S.; Newell, Ryan; Villarreal, Eduardo; Swearer, Dayne F.; Bianco, Elisabeth; Ringe, Emilie
Of the 6.7 million individuals in the United States who are visually impaired, 63% are unemployed, and 59% have not attained an education beyond a high school diploma. Providing a basic science education to children and adults with visual disabilities can be challenging because most scientific learning relies on visual demonstrations. Creating…
Cen, Ling; Ruta, Dymitr; Powell, Leigh; Hirsch, Benjamin; Ng, Jason
The benefits of collaborative learning, although widely reported, lack the quantitative rigor and detailed insight into the dynamics of interactions within the group, while individual contributions and their impacts on group members and their collaborative work remain hidden behind joint group assessment. To bridge this gap we intend to address…
Stapleton, Deborah Leah
My project examined if individuals can grow spiritually when Christian Education is taught through online interactive distance learning. Jesus' comment--in Matthew 8:5-13--regarding the astonishing faith of the centurion who asked Jesus to heal his servant from a distance was used for my Biblical Foundation. The centurion stated that Jesus did not…
Plass, Jan L.; O'Keefe, Paul A.; Homer, Bruce D.; Case, Jennifer; Hayward, Elizabeth O.; Stein, Murphy; Perlin, Ken
The present research examined how mode of play in an educational mathematics video game impacts learning, performance, and motivation. The game was designed for the practice and automation of arithmetic skills to increase fluency and was adapted to allow for individual, competitive, or collaborative game play. Participants (N = 58) from urban…
Lusk, Danielle L.; Evans, Amber D.; Jeffrey, Thomas R.; Palmer, Keith R.; Wikstrom, Chris S.; Doolittle, Peter E.
Research in multimedia learning lacks an emphasis on individual difference variables, such as working memory capacity (WMC). The effects of WMC and the segmentation of multimedia instruction were examined by assessing the recall and application of low (n = 66) and high (n = 67) working memory capacity students randomly assigned to either a…
Tazouti, Youssef; Viriot-Goeldel, Caroline; Matter, Cornelie; Geiger-Jaillet, Anemone; Carol, Rita; Deviterne, Dominique
The present article investigates the effects of individual and contextual variables on children's early learning in French nursery schools and German kindergartens. Our study of 552 children at preschools in France (299 children from French nursery schools) and Germany (253 children from German kindergartens) measured skills that facilitate the…
Huang, Chung-Kai; Lin, Chun-Yu; Lin, Zih-Cin; Wang, Cui; Lin, Chia-Jung
Due to the competitive and fast-changing nature of external business environments, university students should acquire knowledge of how to cooperate, share knowledge, and enhance team effectiveness and individual learning in the future workplace. Consequently, the redesign of business courses in higher education merits more discussion. Based on the…
Liu, Ming-Tsung; Yu, Pao-Ta
A personalized e-learning service provides learning content to fit learners' individual differences. Learning achievements are influenced by cognitive as well as non-cognitive factors such as mood, motivation, interest, and personal styles. This paper proposes the Learning Caution Indexes (LCI) to detect aberrant learning patterns. The philosophy…
Ryu, Yeong Soon; Longman, Richard W.
In a previous paper, learning control algorithms were developed based on adaptive control ideas for linear time variant systems. The learning control methods were shown to have certain advantages over their adaptive control counterparts, such as the ability to produce zero tracking error in time varying systems, and the ability to eliminate repetitive disturbances. In recent years, certain adaptive control algorithms have been developed for multi-body dynamic systems such as robots, with global guaranteed convergence to zero tracking error for the nonlinear system euations. In this paper we study the relationship between such adaptive control methods designed for this specific class of nonlinear systems, and the learning control problem for such systems, seeking to converge to zero tracking error in following a specific command repeatedly, starting from the same initial conditions each time. The extension of these methods from the adaptive control problem to the learning control problem is seen to be trivial. The advantages and disadvantages of using learning control based on such adaptive control concepts for nonlinear systems, and the use of other currently available learning control algorithms are discussed.
Full Text Available The present research aims to establish and to design the development strategies for services in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs that activate in the tourism field of activity (hotels and other accommodation establishments, restaurants, passenger transport, travel agencies, cultural tourism agencies. Organizational learning is focused on the learning process in the organization which has direct influence on the goods and services produced. Learning activities, carried out individually, are not easily transferred at the organizational level. Moreover, in order to better highlight the weaknesses and the strengths of touristic services management approaches and to define recommendations, our research theme is developed as comparative study: similarities and differences within SMEs touristic services and learning organization practices in Romania and other European Union’s country members (the example of Spain was considered.
Sommer, Finn M.; Sprogøe, Jonas; Nygaard Andersen, Randi
In this empirical paper we explore experiences with organizing so called research workshops in a university of applied science. A research workshop is a action learning oriented didactical and educational format designed to be explorative, and the aim is for the participants to acquire research s...... skills and competencies. However, research workshops are also used strategically to facilitate organizational development. By way of organizational learning theory, we discuss research workshops as way to individual learning and organizational transformation.......In this empirical paper we explore experiences with organizing so called research workshops in a university of applied science. A research workshop is a action learning oriented didactical and educational format designed to be explorative, and the aim is for the participants to acquire research...
2National Core Group in Chemistry, H.E.J Research Institute of Chemistry,. University of ... innovative way of teaching and learning through systemic approach (SATL) has been .... available to do useful work in a thermodynamic process.
Lavbic, Dejan; Matek, Tadej; Zrnec, Aljaž
Today's software industry requires individuals who are proficient in as many programming languages as possible. Structured query language (SQL), as an adopted standard, is no exception, as it is the most widely used query language to retrieve and manipulate data. However, the process of learning SQL turns out to be challenging. The need for a…
Psychophysiologic Response and Technology -Enabled Learning and Intervention Systems PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Leigh W. Jerome, Ph.D...NUMBER Transformative Learning : Patterns of Psychophysiologic Response and Technology - Enabled Learning and Intervention Systems 5b. GRANT NUMBER...project entitled “Transformative Learning : Patterns of Psychophysiologic Response in Technology Enabled Learning and Intervention Systems.” The
Malayeri, Amin Daneshmand; Abdollahi, Jalal
One of the most applied learning in virtual spaces is using E-Learning systems. Some E-Learning methodologies has been introduced, but the main subject is the most positive feedback from E-Learning systems. In this paper, we introduce a new methodology of E-Learning systems entitle "Network Learning" with review of another aspects of E-Learning systems. Also, we present benefits and advantages of using these systems in educating and fast learning programs. Network Learning can be programmable...
Ogborn, Jon, Ed.; And Others
The bulk of this book consists of case studies of a variety of forms of individualized instruction, including Keller Plan courses. The last third of the book deals with the general aspects of using an individualized system of instruction. This portion contains many suggestions about the operational details of an individualized course. (Author/BB)
Inventado, Paul Salvador; Scupelli, Peter; Heffernan, Cristina; Heffernan, Neil
Increasingly, computer-based learning systems are used by educators to facilitate learning. Evaluations of several math learning systems show that they result in significant student learning improvements. Feedback provision is one of the key features in math learning systems that contribute to its success. We have recently been uncovering feedback…
Full Text Available Research utilizing the individual case study method examined the complex issues related to pathways into and out of home-lessness for an Aboriginal man from a First Nation community on the western James Bay in Canada. This instrumental case study focused on an individual's story, rather than on a site or a group of individuals, an incident or a series of incidents, or a program  . First, as a research tool, it provides insight into the issue of homelessness and some of its causes from the perspective of an Aboriginal person. Second, the in-depth data gathered allowed us to understand some of the factors that work and those that do not work in facilitating transitions out of homelessness. Third, as an educational tool, it allows people from the outside to have a better understanding of how systemic disadvantages contribute to individuals falling into homelessness.
Full Text Available In a seminal paper written five decades ago, Cronbach discussed the two highly distinct approaches to scientific psychology: experimental and correlational. Today, although these two approaches are fruitfully implemented and embraced across some fields of psychology, this synergy is largely absent from other areas, such as in the study of learning and behavior. Both Tolman and Hull, in a rare case of agreement, stated that the correlational approach held little promise for the understanding of behavior. Interestingly, this dismissal of the study of individual differences was absent in the biologically-oriented branches of behavior analysis, namely, behavioral genetics and ethology. Here we propose that the distinction between causation and causes of variation (with its origins in the field of genetics reveal the potential value of the correlational approach in understanding the full complexity of learning and behavior. Although the experimental approach can illuminate the causal variables that modulate learning, the analysis of individual differences can elucidate how much and in which way variables interact to support variations in learning in complex natural environments. For example, understanding that a past experience with a stimulus influences its associability provides little insight into how individual predispositions interact to modulate this influence on associability. In this new light, we discuss examples from studies of individual differences in animals’ performance in the Morris Water Maze and from our own work on individual differences in general intelligence in mice. These studies illustrate that, opposed to what Underwood famously suggested, studies of individual differences can do much more to psychology than merely providing preliminary indications of cause-effect relationships.
Seddon, John; Caulkin, Simon
Systems thinking underpins "lean" management and is best understood through action-learning as the ideas are counter-intuitive. The Toyota Production System is just that--a system; the failure to appreciate that starting-place and the advocacy of "tools" leads many to fail to grasp what is, without doubt, a significant…
The organization of systems that learn from experience is examined, human beings and animals being prime examples of such systems. How is their information processing organized. They build an internal model of the world and base their actions on the model. The model is dynamic and predictive, and it includes the systems' own actions and their effects. In modeling such systems, a large pattern of features represents a moment of the system's experience. Some of the features are provided by the system's senses, some control the system's motors, and the rest have no immediate external significance. A sequence of such patterns then represents the system's experience over time. By storing such sequences appropriately in memory, the system builds a world model based on experience. In addition to the essential function of memory, fundamental roles are played by a sensory system that makes raw information about the world suitable for memory storage and by a motor system that affects the world. The relation of sensory and motor systems to the memory is discussed, together with how favorable actions can be learned and unfavorable actions can be avoided. Results in classical learning theory are explained in terms of the model, more advanced forms of learning are discussed, and the relevance of the model to the frame problem of robotics is examined.
Won Sug Shin
Full Text Available This study investigates online students’ acceptance of mobile learning and its influence on learning achievement using an information system success and extended technology acceptance model (TAM. Structural equation modeling was used to test the structure of individual, social, and systemic factors influencing mobile learning’s acceptance, and how said acceptance influences learning satisfaction and achievement. Unlike earlier TAM-related research that did not provide a broad view of technological acceptance and its impact on learning activities, the present study’s results highlight the relationship between behavioral intention/learning satisfaction and learning achievement. Additionally, this study tests the theoretical model of successful mobile learning by empirically accepting mobile learning management systems. The findings further imply that students at online universities have started to accept mobile technology as a new learning tool; consequently, its acceptance has influenced their learning achievement both directly and indirectly. These discoveries should facilitate a better understanding of students’ usage of mobile learning systems in higher education, and provide timely guidance for its development and implementation.
This study aims at categorizing, computing and analyzing fees and costs in Turkish Individual Pension System. To this end, net real returns after all costs were computed and these returns were compared with the disclosed fees and returns. Generally in practice, only fund management fees are taken into consideration for calculating net returns and with this method net annual average (geometric) return of the system is calculated as 2.01% for the 2008-2014 period. However, the results of this s...
Chitkara, Maribeth B; Satnick, Daniel; Lu, Wei-Hsin; Fleit, Howard; Go, Roderick A; Chandran, Latha
Residency programs have utilized Individualized Learning Plans (ILPs) to customize resident education while undergraduate medical education has not done so in a meaningful way. We discuss the use of ILPs within a fourth year medical school course to facilitate self-directed learning (SDL). At Stony Brook University School of Medicine, an ILP component was added to the Advanced Clinical Experience (ACE) course for fourth year students. Each completed an ILP outlining personal learning goals and strategies to achieve them. An adaptation of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) (Duncan T and McKeachie W, Educ Psych 40(2):117-128, 2005 and Cook DA et al., Med Ed 45:1230-1240, 2011) was used to measure success of ILPs in improving SDL. Qualitative data analysis was conducted on the ILPs and self-reflections. Forty-eight students participated. Two of the four SDL sub-domains identified on the MSLQ showed improvement; self-efficacy (p = .001) and self-regulation (p = .002). 'Medical Knowledge' was the competency most frequently identified as an area of concentration (90 %) and professionalism was selected least frequently (4 %). A higher percentage (83 %) of students who reported complete achievement of their ILP goals also reported feeling better prepared for entering residency. ILPs improve SDL strategies among medical students and may serve as useful tools to help shape future learning goals as they transition to residency training.
This study investigated the relative contributions of individual, institutional and system factors to utilisation of Research4Life databases by scientists in the National Agricultural Research Institutes (NARIs) in Nigeria. The study adopted the descriptive survey research design of the correlational type. Simple and stratified ...
Kim, Sang Hee; Yoon, HeungSik; Kim, Hackjin; Hamann, Stephan
In this functional neuroimaging study, we investigated neural activations during the process of learning to gain monetary rewards and to avoid monetary loss, and how these activations are modulated by individual differences in reward and punishment sensitivity. Healthy young volunteers performed a reinforcement learning task where they chose one of two fractal stimuli associated with monetary gain (reward trials) or avoidance of monetary loss (avoidance trials). Trait sensitivity to reward and punishment was assessed using the behavioral inhibition/activation scales (BIS/BAS). Functional neuroimaging results showed activation of the striatum during the anticipation and reception periods of reward trials. During avoidance trials, activation of the dorsal striatum and prefrontal regions was found. As expected, individual differences in reward sensitivity were positively associated with activation in the left and right ventral striatum during reward reception. Individual differences in sensitivity to punishment were negatively associated with activation in the left dorsal striatum during avoidance anticipation and also with activation in the right lateral orbitofrontal cortex during receiving monetary loss. These results suggest that learning to attain reward and learning to avoid loss are dependent on separable sets of neural regions whose activity is modulated by trait sensitivity to reward or punishment. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Full Text Available It is known that the language classroom is the place where teachers and learners come together for interaction and students can learn English in natural settings. Group work is a teaching strategy at all levels of education and researchers have observed that group based assignments and discussions are a common feature of tertiary education. The effective use of group work in the language class can provide a valuable learning experience to students and give them the opportunity to practically experience the language exposure of the ideas presented and strengthen their learning. In this regard, this paper attempts to identify the efficiency of individual and group work teaching strategy of the students to excel at foreign language learning. Then, the paper aims to define the effect of individual and group work of students’ value participation in academic communication. Finally, the paper tries to determine the most effective methods for working in a group and individually with the help of the data obtained with the help of a purpose-designed questionnaire to assess their preference for different teaching methods.
Listyawardani, Dwi; Hariastuti, Iswari
Systems thinking is needed due to the growing complexity of the problems faced family planning field workers in the external environment that is constantly changing. System thinking ability could not be separated from efforts to develop learning for the workers, both learning at the individual, group, or organization level. The design of the study…
Lawson, Janelle E; Cruz, Rebecca A; Knollman, Gregory A
Providing equal-status contact between those with and without disabilities can improve attitudes and reduce discrimination toward individuals with disabilities. This study investigated community service learning as a means by which to provide college students with equal-status contact with individuals with disabilities and increase their positive attitudes toward those with disabilities. A total of 166 college students in one university in the United States enrolled in an Introduction to Disability course received content on disability in society and participated in community service involving 20h of direct contact with individuals with disabilities. Findings indicated that college students who had prior contact with individuals with disabilities had more positive attitudes toward individuals with disabilities than college students who did not have prior contact at the start of the course. For the college students who did not have any prior contact, their attitudes toward individuals with disabilities became significantly more positive at the end of the community service learning course. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Su, C-H.; Cheng, C-H.
This paper aims to investigate how a gamified learning approach influences science learning, achievement and motivation, through a context-aware mobile learning environment, and explains the effects on motivation and student learning. A series of gamified learning activities, based on MGLS (Mobile Gamification Learning System), was developed and…
de Mello Monteiro, Carlos Bandeira; Massetti, Thais; da Silva, Talita Dias; van der Kamp, John; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Leone, Claudio; Savelsbergh, Geert J P
With the growing accessibility of computer-assisted technology, rehabilitation programs for individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) increasingly use virtual reality environments to enhance motor practice. Thus, it is important to examine whether performance improvements in the virtual environment generalize to the natural environment. To examine this issue, we had 64 individuals, 32 of which were individuals with CP and 32 typically developing individuals, practice two coincidence-timing tasks. In the more tangible button-press task, the individuals were required to 'intercept' a falling virtual object at the moment it reached the interception point by pressing a key. In the more abstract, less tangible task, they were instructed to 'intercept' the virtual object by making a hand movement in a virtual environment. The results showed that individuals with CP timed less accurate than typically developing individuals, especially for the more abstract task in the virtual environment. The individuals with CP did-as did their typically developing peers-improve coincidence timing with practice on both tasks. Importantly, however, these improvements were specific to the practice environment; there was no transfer of learning. It is concluded that the implementation of virtual environments for motor rehabilitation in individuals with CP should not be taken for granted but needs to be considered carefully. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Oschepkova, Elena; Vasinskaya, Irina; Sockoluck, Irina
In view of changing educational paradigm (adopting of two-tier system of higher education concept - undergraduate and graduate programs) a need of using of modern learning and information and communications technologies arises putting into practice learner-centered approaches in training of highly qualified specialists for extraction and processing of solid commercial minerals enterprises. In the unstable market demand situation and changeable institutional environment, from one side, and necessity of work balancing, supplying conditions and product quality when mining-and-geological parameters change, from the other side, mining enterprises have to introduce and develop the integrated management process of product and informative and logistic flows under united management system. One of the main limitations, which keeps down the developing process on Russian mining enterprises, is staff incompetence at all levels of logistic management. Under present-day conditions extraction and processing of solid commercial minerals enterprises need highly qualified specialists who can do self-directed researches, develop new and improve present arranging, planning and managing technologies of technical operation and commercial exploitation of transport and transportation and processing facilities based on logistics. Learner-centered approach and individualization of the learning process necessitate the designing of individual learning route (ILR), which can help the students to realize their professional facilities according to requirements for specialists for extraction and processing of solid commercial minerals enterprises.
Full Text Available Introduction Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS has been used to modify cortical excitability and promote motor learning. Objective To systematically review published data to investigate the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on motor learning in healthy individuals. Methods Randomized or quasi-randomized studies that evaluated the tDCS effects on motor learning were included and the risk of bias was examined by Cochrane Collaboration’s tool. The following electronic databases were used: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, LILACS, CINAHL with no language restriction. Results It was found 160 studies; after reading the title and abstract, 17 of those were selected, but just 4 were included. All studies involved healthy, right-handed adults. All studies assessed motor learning by the Jebsen Taylor Test or by the Serial Finger Tapping Task (SFTT. Almost all studies were randomized and all were blinding for participants. Some studies presented differences at SFTT protocol. Conclusion The result is insufficient to draw conclusions if tDCS influences the motor learning. Furthermore, there was significant heterogeneity of the stimulation parameters used. Further researches are needed to investigate the parameters that are more important for motor learning improvement and measure whether the effects are long-lasting or limited in time.
White, S L; Wagner, T; Gowan, C; Braithwaite, V A
While differences in individual personality are common in animal populations, understanding the ecological significance of variation has not yet been resolved. Evidence suggests that personality may influence learning and memory; a finding that could improve our understanding of the evolutionary processes that produce and maintain intraspecific behavioural heterogeneity. Here, we tested whether boldness, the most studied personality trait in fish, could predict learning ability in brook trout. After quantifying boldness, fish were trained to find a hidden food patch in a maze environment. Stable landmark cues were provided to indicate the location of food and, at the conclusion of training, cues were rearranged to test for learning. There was a negative relationship between boldness and learning as shy fish were increasingly more successful at navigating the maze and locating food during training trials compared to bold fish. In the altered testing environment, only shy fish continued using cues to search for food. Overall, the learning rate of bold fish was found to be lower than that of shy fish for several metrics suggesting that personality could have widespread effects on behaviour. Because learning can increase plasticity to environmental change, these results have significant implications for fish conservation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
White, S.L.; Wagner, Tyler; Gowan, C.; Braithwaite, V.A.
While differences in individual personality are common in animal populations, understanding the ecological significance of variation has not yet been resolved. Evidence suggests that personality may influence learning and memory; a finding that could improve our understanding of the evolutionary processes that produce and maintain intraspecific behavioural heterogeneity. Here, we tested whether boldness, the most studied personality trait in fish, could predict learning ability in brook trout. After quantifying boldness, fish were trained to find a hidden food patch in a maze environment. Stable landmark cues were provided to indicate the location of food and, at the conclusion of training, cues were rearranged to test for learning. There was a negative relationship between boldness and learning as shy fish were increasingly more successful at navigating the maze and locating food during training trials compared to bold fish. In the altered testing environment, only shy fish continued using cues to search for food. Overall, the learning rate of bold fish was found to be lower than that of shy fish for several metrics suggesting that personality could have widespread effects on behaviour. Because learning can increase plasticity to environmental change, these results have significant implications for fish conservation.
The development of computers and artificial intelligence theory allow their application in the field of education. Intelligent tutoring systems reflect student learning styles and adapt the curriculum according to their individual needs. The building of intelligent tutoring systems requires not only the creation of suitable software, but especially the search and application of the rules enabling ICT to individually adapt the curriculum. The main idea of this paper is to attempt to specify the rules for dividing the students to systematically working students and more practically or pragmatically inclined students. The paper shows that monitoring the work of students in e-learning environment, analysis of various approaches to educational materials and correspondence assignments show different results for the defined groups of students.
Proper management of dynamic systems (e.g. cooling systems of nuclear power plants or production and warehousing) is important to ensure public safety and economic success. So far, research has provided broad evidence for systematic shortcomings in individuals' control performance of dynamic systems. This research aims to investigate whether groups manifest synergy (Larson, 2010) and outperform individuals and if so, what processes lead to these performance advantages. In three experiments - including simulations of a nuclear power plant and a business setting - I compare the control performance of three-person-groups to the average individual performance and to nominal groups (N = 105 groups per experiment). The nominal group condition captures the statistical advantage of aggregated group judgements not due to social interaction. First, results show a superior performance of groups compared to individuals. Second, a meta-analysis across all three experiments shows interaction-based process gains in dynamic control tasks: Interacting groups outperform the average individual performance as well as the nominal group performance. Third, group interaction leads to stable individual improvements of group members that exceed practice effects. In sum, these results provide the first unequivocal evidence for interaction-based performance gains of groups in dynamic control tasks and imply that employers should rely on groups to provide opportunities for individual learning and to foster dynamic system control at its best.
Engel, Annerose; Hijmans, Brenda S.; Cerliani, Leonardo; Bangert, Marc; Nanetti, Luca; Keller, Peter E.; Keysers, Christian
Humans vary substantially in their ability to learn new motor skills. Here, we examined inter-individual differences in learning to play the piano, with the goal of identifying relations to structural properties of white matter fiber tracts relevant to audio-motor learning. Non-musicians (n = 18)
Advanced life support systems have many interacting processes and limited resources. Controlling and optimizing advanced life support systems presents unique challenges. In particular, advanced life support systems are nonlinear coupled dynamical systems and it is difficult for humans to take all interactions into account to design an effective control strategy. In this project. we developed several reinforcement learning controllers that actively explore the space of possible control strategies, guided by rewards from a user specified long term objective function. We evaluated these controllers using a discrete event simulation of an advanced life support system. This simulation, called BioSim, designed by Nasa scientists David Kortenkamp and Scott Bell has multiple, interacting life support modules including crew, food production, air revitalization, water recovery, solid waste incineration and power. They are implemented in a consumer/producer relationship in which certain modules produce resources that are consumed by other modules. Stores hold resources between modules. Control of this simulation is via adjusting flows of resources between modules and into/out of stores. We developed adaptive algorithms that control the flow of resources in BioSim. Our learning algorithms discovered several ingenious strategies for maximizing mission length by controlling the air and water recycling systems as well as crop planting schedules. By exploiting non-linearities in the overall system dynamics, the learned controllers easily out- performed controllers written by human experts. In sum, we accomplished three goals. We (1) developed foundations for learning models of coupled dynamical systems by active exploration of the state space, (2) developed and tested algorithms that learn to efficiently control air and water recycling processes as well as crop scheduling in Biosim, and (3) developed an understanding of the role machine learning in designing control systems for
Bayliss, Donna M.; Jarrold, Christopher; Baddeley, Alan D.; Leigh, Eleanor
This study examined the factors that constrain the working memory span performance and reading ability of individuals with generalized learning difficulties. In the study, 50 individuals with learning difficulties (LD) and 50 typically developing children (TD) matched for reading age completed two working memory span tasks. Participants also…
Zhou, Chunfang; Kolmos, Anette
Recent studies regard Problem and Project Based Learning (PBL) as providing a learning environment which fosters both individual and group creativity. This paper focuses on the question: In a PBL environment, how do students perceive the interplay between individual and group creativity? Empirica...
Full Text Available Orientation: There is a growing body of research that indicates that personal factors such as collectivist value orientation play an important role in individuals’ preference for teamwork, and an individual’s propensity to work in a team is seen as a contributing factor in one’s personal learning. Research purpose: The purpose of this article is twofold. Firstly, the article aims to explore whether individual-level cultural values of power distance, uncertainty avoidance and masculinity–femininity interact with individual collectivist values to influence teamwork orientation. Secondly, the study aims to examine the influence of teamwork orientation on personal learning further exploring the role of perceived value congruence in this relationship. Motivation for the study: While an extensive amount of research has been conducted on teamwork orientation, the question of how individual cultural values influence formation of teamwork orientation is still largely unanswered. This lack is especially evident with regard to how the influence of collectivism on the development of positive attitudes towards teamwork is promoted or inhibited by other values such as power distance, uncertainty avoidance and masculinity–femininity. Moreover, the current evidence about the influence of teamwork orientation on personal learning and the role of personal and contextual factors in such a relationship is still scarce. Research design, approach and method: The study used a cross-sectional survey, with data collected from 120 business students engaged in project teams at a Norwegian university. All the hypothesised relationships were assessed using partial least square structural equation modelling technique. Main findings: The findings indicate that the link between collectivism–teamwork orientation is stronger for team members who scored high on uncertainty avoidance values and the relationship was weaker for team members who endorsed high
Learned: 1988-1989 As mentioned in the introduction to this chaoter, the Organizacion of the JcinC Chiefs cf Staff .OJCS) ueren significant transformatioi...Organization and Functions Manual . Washington, D.C.: HQDA, Office of the Deputy Chief 0f Staff for Operations and Plans, June 1984. ’..S. Army. Concept...U.S. Department of Defense. Joint Universal Lessons Learned System (JULLS) User’s Manual . Orlando, Florida: University of Central Florida, Institute
Cooper, Lynne P.; Nash, Rebecca L.; Phan, Tu-Anh T.; Bailey, Teresa R.
This paper describes the deployment of a knowledge system to support learning of organizational knowledge at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), a US national research laboratory whose mission is planetary exploration and to 'do what no one has done before.' Data collected over 19 weeks of operation were used to assess system performance with respect to design considerations, participation, effectiveness of communication mechanisms, and individual-based learning. These results are discussed in the context of organizational learning research and implications for practice.
Игорь Николаевич Макарьев
In this article the author dwells on the content and structure of the model of integration of system of distance learning to mathematics of senior pupils and traditional paradigm of education. This kind of integration is based on such principles as independence, individualization, flexibility, nonlinearity, openness. Specifics of the methodological support of distance mathematics learning are also analyzed. Particularly the author asserts that the system of distance mathematics learning can t...
Flanagan, John C.
Discusses trends toward the systems approach in education including the development of effective instructional systems in government and industry; the introduction of teaching machines, programed learning, and computer- assisted instruction; and the increase in both the amount and sophistication of educational research and development. (JF)
Avgeriou, Paris; Retalis, Simos; Skordalakis, Manolis
There exists an urgent demand on defining architectures for Learning Management Systems, so that high-level frameworks for understanding these systems can be discovered, and quality attributes like portability, interoperability, reusability and modifiability can be achieved. In this paper we propose
Mullins, C Daniel; Wingate, La'Marcus T; Edwards, Hillary A; Tofade, Toyin; Wutoh, Anthony
The learning healthcare system (LHS) model framework has three core, foundational components. These include an infrastructure for health-related data capture, care improvement targets and a supportive policy environment. Despite progress in advancing and implementing LHS approaches, low levels of participation from patients and the public have hampered the transformational potential of the LHS model. An enhanced vision of a community-engaged LHS redesign would focus on the provision of health care from the patient and community perspective to complement the healthcare system as the entity that provides the environment for care. Addressing the LHS framework implementation challenges and utilizing community levers are requisite components of a learning health care community model, version two of the LHS archetype.
Pickering, James D; Joynes, Viktoria C T
The use of technology within education has now crossed the Rubicon; student expectations, the increasing availability of both hardware and software and the push to fully blended learning environments mean that educational institutions cannot afford to turn their backs on technology-enhanced learning (TEL). The ability to meaningfully evaluate the impact of TEL resources nevertheless remains problematic. This paper aims to establish a robust means of evaluating individual resources and meaningfully measure their impact upon learning within the context of the program in which they are used. Based upon the experience of developing and evaluating a range of mobile and desktop based TEL resources, this paper outlines a new four-stage evaluation process, taking into account learner satisfaction, learner gain, and the impact of a resource on both the individual and the institution in which it has been adapted. A new multi-level model of TEL resource evaluation is proposed, which includes a preliminary evaluation of need, learner satisfaction and gain, learner impact and institutional impact. Each of these levels are discussed in detail, and in relation to existing TEL evaluation frameworks. This paper details a holistic, meaningful evaluation model for individual TEL resources within the specific context in which they are used. It is proposed that this model is adopted to ensure that TEL resources are evaluated in a more meaningful and robust manner than is currently undertaken.
Brooks, William S.; Laskar, Simone N.; Benjamin, Miles W.; Chan, Philip
Objectives This study examines the perceived impact of a novel clinical teaching method based on FAIR principles (feedback, activity, individuality and relevance) on students’ learning on clinical placement. Methods This was a qualitative research study. Participants were third year and final year medical students attached to one UK vascular firm over a four-year period (N=108). Students were asked to write a reflective essay on how FAIRness approach differs from previous clinical placement, and its advantages and disadvantages. Essays were thematically analysed and globally rated (positive, negative or neutral) by two independent researchers. Results Over 90% of essays reported positive experiences of feedback, activity, individuality and relevance model. The model provided multifaceted feedback; active participation; longitudinal improvement; relevance to stage of learning and future goals; structured teaching; professional development; safe learning environment; consultant involvement in teaching. Students perceived preparation for tutorials to be time intensive for tutors/students; a lack of teaching on medical sciences and direct observation of performance; more than once weekly sessions would be beneficial; some issues with peer and public feedback, relevance to upcoming exam and large group sizes. Students described negative experiences of “standard” clinical teaching. Conclusions Progressive teaching programmes based on the FAIRness principles, feedback, activity, individuality and relevance, could be used as a model to improve current undergraduate clinical teaching. PMID:26995588
Edafe, Ovie; Brooks, William S; Laskar, Simone N; Benjamin, Miles W; Chan, Philip
This study examines the perceived impact of a novel clinical teaching method based on FAIR principles (feedback, activity, individuality and relevance) on students' learning on clinical placement. This was a qualitative research study. Participants were third year and final year medical students attached to one UK vascular firm over a four-year period (N=108). Students were asked to write a reflective essay on how FAIRness approach differs from previous clinical placement, and its advantages and disadvantages. Essays were thematically analysed and globally rated (positive, negative or neutral) by two independent researchers. Over 90% of essays reported positive experiences of feedback, activity, individuality and relevance model. The model provided multifaceted feedback; active participation; longitudinal improvement; relevance to stage of learning and future goals; structured teaching; professional development; safe learning environment; consultant involvement in teaching. Students perceived preparation for tutorials to be time intensive for tutors/students; a lack of teaching on medical sciences and direct observation of performance; more than once weekly sessions would be beneficial; some issues with peer and public feedback, relevance to upcoming exam and large group sizes. Students described negative experiences of "standard" clinical teaching. Progressive teaching programmes based on the FAIRness principles, feedback, activity, individuality and relevance, could be used as a model to improve current undergraduate clinical teaching.
Nelson, Wayne A.
The rapid changes in our world precipitated by technology have created new problems and new challenges for education and training. A knowledge 'explosion' is occurring as our society moves toward a service oriented economy that relies on information as the major resource. Complex computer systems are beginning to dominate the workplace, causing alarming growth and change in many fields. The rapidly changing nature of the workplace, especially in fields related to information technology, requires that our knowledge be updated constantly. This characteristic of modern society poses seemingly unsolvable instructional problems involving coverage and obsolescence. The sheer amount of information to be learned is rapidly increasing, while at the same time some information becomes obsolete in light of new information. Education, therefore, must become a lifelong process that features learning of new material and skills as needed in relation to the job to be done. Because of the problems cited above, the current model of learning in advance may no longer be feasible in our high-technology world. In many cases, learning in advance is impossible because there are simply too many things to learn. In addition, learning in advance can be time consuming, and often results in decontextualized knowledge that does not readily transfer to the work environment. The large and growing discrepancy between the amount of potentially relevant knowledge available and the amount a person can know and remember makes learning on demand an important alternative to current instructional practices. Learning on demand takes place whenever an individual must learn something new in order to perform a task or make a decision. Learning on demand is a promising approach for addressing the problems of coverage and obsolescence because learning is contextualized and integrated into the task environment rather than being relegated to a separate phase that precedes work. Learning on demand allows learners
Nicholas Kipkurui Kiget; Professor G. Wanyembi; Anselemo Ikoha Peters
The use of e-learning systems has increased significantly in the recent times. E-learning systems are supplementing teaching and learning in universities globally. Kenyan universities have adopted e-learning technologies as means for delivering course content. However despite adoption of these systems, there are considerable challenges facing the usability of the systems. Lecturers and students have different perceptions in regard to the usability of e-learning systems. The aim of this study ...
Full Text Available The contribution of cooperative learning (CL in promoting second and foreign language learning has been widely acknowledged. Little scholarly attention, however, has been given to revealing how this teaching method works and promotes learners’ improved communicative competence. This qualitative case study explores the important role that individual accountability in CL plays in giving English as a Foreign Language (EFL learners in Indonesia the opportunity to use the target language of English. While individual accountability is a principle of and one of the activities in CL, it is currently under studied, thus little is known about how it enhances EFL learning. This study aims to address this gap by conducting a constructivist grounded theory analysis on participant observation, in-depth interview, and document analysis data drawn from two secondary school EFL teachers, 77 students in the observed classrooms, and four focal students. The analysis shows that through individual accountability in CL, the EFL learners had opportunities to use the target language, which may have contributed to the attainment of communicative competence—the goal of the EFL instruction. More specifically, compared to the use of conventional group work in the observed classrooms, through the activities of individual accountability in CL, i.e., performances and peer interaction, the EFL learners had more opportunities to use spoken English. The present study recommends that teachers, especially those new to CL, follow the preset procedure of selected CL instructional strategies or structures in order to recognize the activities within individual accountability in CL and understand how these activities benefit students.
Full Text Available Human society, analyzed as a learning environment, presumes different languages in order to know, to understand or to develop it. This statement results as a default application of the cog-nitive domain in the educational scientific research, and it highlights a key feature: each essen-tial discovery was available for the entire language compatible society. E-Society is constructed as an application of E-Science in social services, and it is going to reveal a learning system for each application of the information technology developed for a compatible society. This article is proposed as a conceptual one focused on scientific research and the interrelationship be-tween the building blocks of research, defined as an engine for any designed learning system applied in the cognitive domain. In this approach, educational research become a learning sys-tem in e-Education. The purpose of this analysis is to configure the teacher assisted learning system and to expose its main principles which could be integrated in standard assisted instruc-tion applications, available in e-Classroom, supporting the design of specific didactic activities.
Lampropoulos, Aristomenis S
This timely book presents Applications in Recommender Systems which are making recommendations using machine learning algorithms trained via examples of content the user likes or dislikes. Recommender systems built on the assumption of availability of both positive and negative examples do not perform well when negative examples are rare. It is exactly this problem that the authors address in the monograph at hand. Specifically, the books approach is based on one-class classification methodologies that have been appearing in recent machine learning research. The blending of recommender systems and one-class classification provides a new very fertile field for research, innovation and development with potential applications in “big data” as well as “sparse data” problems. The book will be useful to researchers, practitioners and graduate students dealing with problems of extensive and complex data. It is intended for both the expert/researcher in the fields of Pattern Recognition, Machine Learning and ...
Full Text Available Avoidance is considered as a central hallmark of all anxiety disorders. The acquisition and expression of avoidance which leads to the maintenance and exacerbation of pathological fear is closely linked to Pavlovian and operant conditioning processes. Changes in conditionability might represent a key feature of all anxiety disorders but the exact nature of these alterations might vary across different disorders. To date, no information is available on specific changes in conditionability for disorder-irrelevant stimuli in specific phobia (SP. The first aim of this study was to investigate changes in fear acquisition and extinction in spider-fearful individuals as compared to non-fearful participants by using the de novo fear conditioning paradigm. Secondly, we aimed to determine whether differences in the magnitude of context-dependent fear retrieval exist between spider-fearful and non-fearful individuals. Our findings point to an enhanced fear discrimination in spider-fearful individuals as compared to non-fearful individuals at both the physiological and subjective level. The enhanced fear discrimination in spider-fearful individuals was neither mediated by increased state anxiety, depression, nor stress tension. Spider-fearful individuals displayed no changes in extinction learning and/or fear retrieval. Surprisingly, we found no evidence for context-dependent modulation of fear retrieval in either group. Here we provide first evidence that spider-fearful individuals show an enhanced discriminative fear learning of phobia-irrelevant (de novo stimuli. Our findings provide novel insights into the role of fear acquisition and expression for the development and maintenance of maladaptive responses in the course of SP.
Anee Suryani Sued; Fazliana Mohd Saaya; Mohd Ramli Ibrahim; Shafii Khamis
Experimental animals such as rats and mice are used in scientific research, especially in research related to drugs, must be able to give the right decisions and authentic. The results are not accurate and authentic will harm humans, especially in pre-clinical studies of drugs (drug) trial. Therefore, the system of individual ventilated cages (IVC) has been developed in the Malaysian Nuclear Agency to ensure that animal experiments are always at the level of quality, healthy and disease free. IVC system was developed to replace conventional animal cage systems that have been used previously. The use of IVC systems in breed and maintain rats and mice to obtain disease-free animal, the animal known as SPF (Specific pathogen free animals). For this purpose, the IVC system using 'bedding' typical food and animal pests that have been purified to ensure that it meets the intended use of the system perfectly. In addition, system privileges are through the ventilation system that can isolate the one-way air enters and exits for each cage, and equipped with a HEPA filter (High -Efficiency-Particulate Air) filter which can prevent contamination of microorganisms for ventilation in the cage and the air in the vicinity , Through the use of IVC system, the quality and health of experimental animals that are bred and used in the Medical Technology Division can be improved and so can guarantee the accuracy and validity of the results of research conducted. (author)
Skrzypczyk, Paul; Short, Anthony J.; Popescu, Sandu
Thermodynamics is traditionally concerned with systems comprised of a large number of particles. Here we present a framework for extending thermodynamics to individual quantum systems, including explicitly a thermal bath and work-storage device (essentially a ‘weight’ that can be raised or lowered). We prove that the second law of thermodynamics holds in our framework, and gives a simple protocol to extract the optimal amount of work from the system, equal to its change in free energy. Our results apply to any quantum system in an arbitrary initial state, in particular including non-equilibrium situations. The optimal protocol is essentially reversible, similar to classical Carnot cycles, and indeed, we show that it can be used to construct a quantum Carnot engine.
Full Text Available In an associative patterning task, some people seem to focus more on learning an overarching rule, whereas others seem to focus on acquiring specific relations between the stimuli and outcomes involved. Building on earlier work, we further investigated which cognitive factors are involved in feature- vs. rule-based learning and generalization. To this end, we measured participants' tendency to generalize according to the rule of opposites after training on negative and positive patterning problems (i.e., A+/B+/AB− and C−/D−/CD+, their tendency to attend to global aspects or local details of stimuli, their systemizing disposition and their score on the Raven intelligence test. Our results suggest that while intelligence might have some influence on patterning learning and generalization, visual processing style and systemizing disposition do not. We discuss our findings in the light of previous observations on patterning.
Eftring, Håkan; Rassmus-Gröhn, Kirsten; Hedvall, Per-Olof
Parents often have a busy time sorting out their life puzzles, including getting information about their children's activities in school. More and more communication between teachers and parents take place via digital school systems. It can be hard for parents to find the information they are looking for and the teacher decides when information is sent and what communication method to use. All parents, but especially parents with disabilities, might have individual preferences on how to receive information and how to adapt meetings at school. In this paper we present a project where we involved parents and teachers in focus groups, an idea workshop and iterative user trials of a digital prototype. The goal was to elicit parents' individual requirements for an inclusive digital school system, where they can store their individual preferences about how and when to receive information from school and what requirements they have on meetings at school. Preliminary results show that we managed to create open and focused discussions among parents and teachers. The parents reacted very positively on an onboarding page with the possibility to quickly and easily enter preferences after their first log in, but more work needs to be done on how preferences are categorized on the onboarding page. Finally, parents need to get clear feedback from teachers and school when they have entered or updated preferences, so they can trust that their preferences will be met.
Алексей Андреевич Заславский
Full Text Available In this paper the approach for the use of automated information system directly in the classroom to form a personal set of tasks for a particular student and build individual trajectory of its development.
Clark, Dav; Ivry, Richard B
Motor learning is a ubiquitous feature of human competence. This review focuses on two particular classes of model tasks for studying skill acquisition. The serial reaction time (SRT) task is used to probe how people learn sequences of actions, while adaptation in the context of visuomotor or force field perturbations serves to illustrate how preexisting movements are recalibrated in novel environments. These tasks highlight important issues regarding the representational changes that occur during the course of motor learning. One important theme is that distinct mechanisms vary in their information processing costs during learning and performance. Fast learning processes may require few trials to produce large changes in performance but impose demands on cognitive resources. Slower processes are limited in their ability to integrate complex information but minimally demanding in terms of attention or processing resources. The representations derived from fast systems may be accessible to conscious processing and provide a relatively greater measure of flexibility, while the representations derived from slower systems are more inflexible and automatic in their behavior. In exploring these issues, we focus on how multiple neural systems may interact and compete during the acquisition and consolidation of new behaviors. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. This article is categorized under: Psychology > Motor Skill and Performance. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Mitchell, D G V; Fine, C; Richell, R A; Newman, C; Lumsden, J; Blair, K S; Blair, R J R
Previous work has shown that individuals with psychopathy are impaired on some forms of associative learning, particularly stimulus-reinforcement learning (Blair et al., 2004; Newman & Kosson, 1986). Animal work suggests that the acquisition of stimulus-reinforcement associations requires the amygdala (Baxter & Murray, 2002). Individuals with psychopathy also show impoverished reversal learning (Mitchell, Colledge, Leonard, & Blair, 2002). Reversal learning is supported by the ventrolateral and orbitofrontal cortex (Rolls, 2004). In this paper we present experiments investigating stimulus-reinforcement learning and relearning in patients with lesions of the orbitofrontal cortex or amygdala, and individuals with developmental psychopathy without known trauma. The results are interpreted with reference to current neurocognitive models of stimulus-reinforcement learning, relearning, and developmental psychopathy. Copyright (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved.
Delgado, Mauricio R; Dickerson, Kathryn C
The application of a neuroeconomic approach to the study of reward-related processes has provided significant insights in our understanding of human learning and decision making. Much of this research has focused primarily on the contributions of the corticostriatal circuitry, involved in trial-and-error reward learning. As a result, less consideration has been allotted to the potential influence of different neural mechanisms such as the hippocampus or to more common ways in human society in which information is acquired and utilized to reach a decision, such as through explicit instruction rather than trial-and-error learning. This review examines the individual contributions of multiple learning and memory neural systems and their interactions during human decision making in both normal and neuropsychiatric populations. Specifically, the anatomical and functional connectivity across multiple memory systems are highlighted to suggest that probing the role of the hippocampus and its interactions with the corticostriatal circuitry via the application of model-based neuroeconomic approaches may provide novel insights into neuropsychiatric populations that suffer from damage to one of these structures and as a consequence have deficits in learning, memory, or decision making. Copyright © 2012 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Quadrado, Virgínia Helena; Silva, Talita Dias da; Favero, Francis Meire; Tonks, James; Massetti, Thais; Monteiro, Carlos Bandeira de Mello
To examine whether performance improvements in the virtual environment generalize to the natural environment. we had 64 individuals, 32 of which were individuals with DMD and 32 were typically developing individuals. The groups practiced two coincidence timing tasks. In the more tangible button-press task, the individuals were required to 'intercept' a falling virtual object at the moment it reached the interception point by pressing a key on the computer. In the more abstract task, they were instructed to 'intercept' the virtual object by making a hand movement in a virtual environment using a webcam. For individuals with DMD, conducting a coincidence timing task in a virtual environment facilitated transfer to the real environment. However, we emphasize that a task practiced in a virtual environment should have higher rates of difficulties than a task practiced in a real environment. IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATION Virtual environments can be used to promote improved performance in ?real-world? environments. Virtual environments offer the opportunity to create paradigms similar ?real-life? tasks, however task complexity and difficulty levels can be manipulated, graded and enhanced to increase likelihood of success in transfer of learning and performance. Individuals with DMD, in particular, showed immediate performance benefits after using virtual reality.
Su,Chung-Ho; Cheng, Ching-Hsue
The advancement of game-based learning has encouraged many related studies, such that students could better learn curriculum by 3-dimension virtual reality. To enhance software engineering learning, this paper develops a 3D game-based learning system to assist teaching and assess the students' motivation, satisfaction and learning achievement. A…
Nirme, Jens; Duff, Armin; Verschure, Paul F M J
The effects of stroke differ considerably in degree and symptoms for different patients. It has been shown that specific, individualized and varied therapy favors recovery. The Rehabilitation Gaming System (RGS) is a Virtual Reality (VR) based rehabilitation system designed following these principles. We have developed two algorithms to control the level of task difficulty that a user of the RGS is exposed to, as well as providing controlled variation in the therapy. In this paper, we compare the two algorithms by running numerical simulations and a study with healthy subjects. We show that both algorithms allow for individualization of the challenge level of the task. Further, the results reveal that the algorithm that iteratively learns a user model for each subject also allows a high variation of the task.
Hartog, R.J.M.; Schaaf, van der, H.; Kassahun, A.
Most well-known Learning Management Systems (LMS) are based on a paradigm of learning objects to be uploaded into the system. Most formulations of this paradigm implicitly assume that the learning objects are self contained learning objects such as FLASH objects or JAVA applets or presentational learning objects such as slide presentations. These are typically client side objects. However, a demand for learning support that activates the student can often be satisfied better with a server app...
Zheng, Xiang-wei; Ma, Hong-wei; Li, Yan
With the rapid development of Internet, e-learning has become a new teaching and learning mode. However, lots of e-learning systems deployed on Internet are just electronic learning materials with very limited interactivity and diagnostic capability. This paper presents an integrated e-learning environment named iCLSR. Firstly, iCLSR provides an…
Full Text Available The authors of this article are going to bring into light the significance, the place and the role of information systems in the university education process. At the same time they define the objectives and the target group of the subject named Economic Information Systems and state the competence gained by students by studying this subject. Special attention is given to the curriculum to be taught to students and to a suggestive enumeration of a series of economic applications that can be themes for laboratory practice and for students’ dissertation (graduation thesis.
Al-Tikriti, Munther N.; Al-Aubidy, Kasim M.
E-learning, virtual learning and mixed reality techniques are now a global integral part of the academic and educational systems. They provide easier access to educational opportunities to a very wide spectrum of individuals to pursue their educational and qualification objectives. These modern techniques have the potentials to improve the quality…
Consider the problem of maximizing the total power produced by a wind farm. Due to aerodynamic interactions between wind turbines, each turbine maximizing its individual power---as is the case in present-day wind farms---does not lead to optimal farm-level power capture. Further, there are no good models to capture the said aerodynamic interactions, rendering model based optimization techniques ineffective. Thus, model-free distributed algorithms are needed that help turbines adapt their power production on-line so as to maximize farm-level power capture. Motivated by such problems, the main focus of this dissertation is a distributed model-free optimization problem in the context of multi-agent systems. The set-up comprises of a fixed number of agents, each of which can pick an action and observe the value of its individual utility function. An individual's utility function may depend on the collective action taken by all agents. The exact functional form (or model) of the agent utility functions, however, are unknown; an agent can only measure the numeric value of its utility. The objective of the multi-agent system is to optimize the welfare function (i.e. sum of the individual utility functions). Such a collaborative task requires communications between agents and we allow for the possibility of such inter-agent communications. We also pay attention to the role played by the pattern of such information exchange on certain aspects of performance. We develop two algorithms to solve this problem. The first one, engineered Interactive Trial and Error Learning (eITEL) algorithm, is based on a line of work in the Learning in Games literature and applies when agent actions are drawn from finite sets. While in a model-free setting, we introduce a novel qualitative graph-theoretic framework to encode known directed interactions of the form "which agents' action affect which others' payoff" (interaction graph). We encode explicit inter-agent communications in a directed
Verheij, R.; Barten, D.J.; Hek, K.; Nielen, M.; Prins, M.; Zwaanswijk, M.; Bakker, D. de
Background: As computerisation of primary care facilities is rapidly increasing, a wealth of data is created in routinely recorded electronic health records (EHRs). This data can be used to create a true learning health care system, in which routinely available data are processed and analysed in
Steele, Ray L.
Discusses the availability of satellite and cable programing to provide distance education opportunities in school districts. Various delivery systems are described, including telephones with speakers, personal computers, and satellite dishes; and a sidebar provides a directory of distance learning opportunities, including telecommunications…
Shaw, Heather; Ellis, David A; Kendrick, Libby-Rae; Ziegler, Fenja; Wiseman, Richard
Android and iPhone devices account for over 90 percent of all smartphones sold worldwide. Despite being very similar in functionality, current discourse and marketing campaigns suggest that key individual differences exist between users of these two devices; however, this has never been investigated empirically. This is surprising, as smartphones continue to gain momentum across a variety of research disciplines. In this article, we consider if individual differences exist between these two distinct groups. In comparison to Android users, we found that iPhone owners are more likely to be female, younger, and increasingly concerned about their smartphone being viewed as a status object. Key differences in personality were also observed with iPhone users displaying lower levels of Honesty-Humility and higher levels of emotionality. Following this analysis, we were also able to build and test a model that predicted smartphone ownership at above chance level based on these individual differences. In line with extended self-theory, the type of smartphone owned provides some valuable information about its owner. These findings have implications for the increasing use of smartphones within research particularly for those working within Computational Social Science and PsychoInformatics, where data are typically collected from devices and applications running a single smartphone operating system.
This book is intended for IT professionals working with Hyper-V, Azure cloud, VMM, and private cloud technologies who are looking for a quick way to get up and running with System Center 2012 R2 App Controller. To get the most out of this book, you should be familiar with Microsoft Hyper-V technology. Knowledge of Virtual Machine Manager is helpful but not mandatory.
Cavanagh, Michael; Mitchelmore, Michael
We report the results of a classroom study of three secondary mathematics teachers who had no prior experience teaching with technology as they began to use an online mathematics learning system in their lessons. We gave the teachers only basic instruction on how to operate the system and then observed them intensively over four school terms as they taught using it. We documented changes in the teachers' Pedagogical Technology Knowledge and subsequently classified their various roles as technology bystanders, adopters, adaptors and innovators. Results show that all teachers made some progress toward using the system in more sophisticated ways, but the improvements were not uniform across the teachers. We suggest possible reasons to explain the variation and discuss some implications for teacher professional development.
Takemura, Akihiro; Iinuma, Masahiro; Kou, Hiroko; Harauchi, Hajime; Inamura, Kiyonari
We have constructed and are operating a multi-institutional radiotherapy database ROGAD (Radiation Oncology Greater Area Database) since 1992. One of it's purpose is 'to optimize individual radiotherapy plans'. We developed Radiation oncology learning system combined with ROGAD' which conforms to that purpose. Several medical doctors evaluated our system. According to those evaluations, we are now confident that our system is able to contribute to improvement of radiotherapy results. Our final target is to generate a good cyclic relationship among three components: radiotherapy results according to ''Radiation oncology learning system combined with ROGAD.'; The growth of ROGAD; and radiation oncology learning system. (author)
The book integrates the principles of software engineering with the principles of educational theory, and applies them to the problems of e-learning development, thus establishing the discipline of E-learning systems engineering. For the first time, these principles are collected and organised into the coherent framework that this book provides. Both newcomers to and established practitioners in the field are provided with integrated and grounded advice on theory and practice. The book presents strong practical and theoretical frameworks for the design and development of technology-based mater
Zaitseva, Larisa; Bule, Jekaterina; Makarov, Sergey
The paper describes component-based approach (CBA) for learning management system development. Learning object as components of e-learning courses and their metadata is considered. The architecture of learning management system based on CBA being developed in Riga Technical University, namely its architecture, elements and possibilities are…
Chang, Yi-Hsing; Lin, Yu-Kai; Fang, Rong-Jyue; Lu, You-Te
A situated Chinese cultural festival learning system based on motion sensing is developed in this study. The primary design principle is to create a highly interactive learning environment, allowing learners to interact with Kinect through natural gestures in the designed learning situation to achieve efficient learning. The system has the…
Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.
The module introduces a very important electrical device, the transformer. The module is divided into six lessons: transformer construction, transformer theory and operation, turns and voltage ratios, power and current, transformer efficiency, and semiconductor rectifiers. Each lesson consists of an overview, a list of study resources, lesson…
Vivanti, G; Rogers, SJ
Individuals with autism have difficulties in social learning domains which typically involve mirror neuron system (MNS) activation. However, the precise role of the MNS in the development of autism and its relevance to treatment remain unclear. In this paper, we argue that three distinct aspects of social learning are critical for advancing knowledge in this area: (i) the mechanisms that allow for the implicit mapping of and learning from others' behaviour, (ii) the motivation to attend to an...
Chen, Cheng-ping; Wang, Chang-Hwa
Studies have proven that merging hands-on and online learning can result in an enhanced experience in learning science. In contrast to traditional online learning, multiple in-classroom activities may be involved in an augmented-reality (AR)-embedded e-learning process and thus could reduce the effects of individual differences. Using a three-stage AR-embedded instructional process, we conducted an experiment to investigate the influences of individual differences on learning earth science phenomena of "day, night, and seasons" for junior highs. The mixed-methods sequential explanatory design was employed. In the quantitative phase, factors of learning styles and ICT competences were examined alongside with the overall learning achievement. Independent t tests and ANCOVAs were employed to achieve inferential statistics. The results showed that overall learning achievement was significant for the AR-embedded instruction. Nevertheless, neither of the two learner factors exhibited significant effect on learning achievement. In the qualitative phase, we analyzed student interview records, and a wide variation on student's preferred instructional stages were revealed. These findings could provide an alternative rationale for developing ICT-supported instruction, as our three-stage AR-embedded comprehensive e-learning scheme could enhance instruction adaptiveness to disperse the imparities of individual differences between learners.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT The designing of instruction, when considered as a process, is the determination of instructional requirements of the learner and development of functional learning systems in order to meet these requirements. In fact, as a consequence of studies on the development of effective learning systems some instructional design theories have emerged. Among these theories the motivational design theory points out that instructional processes are required to be configured with the strategies which increases the attention, relevance, confidence and satisfaction of the students for an instructional design which ensures the continuity of learning motivation. The studies indicate that the systems which are developed on the basis of mentioned strategies raise the attention of the student during instruction, develop a relevance to the students’ requirements, create a positive expectation for success and help having a satisfaction by reinforcing success. In this article, the empirical studies related with this subject and the suggestions for presenting more effective motivational instructional designs in distance learning are summarized.
Yilmaz, Ayse; Dyer, Adrian G; Rössler, Wolfgang; Spaethe, Johannes
Ants are a well-characterized insect model for the study of visual learning and orientation, but the extent to which colour vision is involved in these tasks remains unknown. We investigated the colour preference, learning and memory retention of Camponotus blandus foragers under controlled laboratory conditions. Our results show that C. blandus foragers exhibit a strong innate preference for ultraviolet (UV, 365 nm) over blue (450 nm) and green (528 nm) wavelengths. The ants can learn to discriminate 365 nm from either 528 nm or 450 nm, independent of intensity changes. However, they fail to discriminate between 450 nm and 528 nm. Modelling of putative colour spaces involving different numbers of photoreceptor types revealed that colour discrimination performance of individual ants is best explained by dichromacy, comprising a short-wavelength (UV) receptor with peak sensitivity at about 360 nm, and a long-wavelength receptor with peak sensitivity between 470 nm and 560 nm. Foragers trained to discriminate blue or green from UV light are able to retain the learned colour information in an early mid-term (e-MTM), late mid-term (l-MTM), early long-term (e-LTM) and late long-term (l-LTM) memory from where it can be retrieved after 1 h, 12 h, 24 h, 3 days and 7 days after training, indicating that colour learning may induce different memory phases in ants. Overall, our results show that ants can use chromatic information in a way that should promote efficient foraging in complex natural environments. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Holm, Jacob Rubæk; Lorenz, Edward; Lundvall, Bengt-Åke
This paper establishes a link between international differences in the organisation of work and modes of regulation of labour markets within Europe. The paper operates with four forms of work organisation (discretionary learning, lean production, Taylorism and simple or traditional). Through...... a factor analysis three dimensions of national labour market systems (flexible security, passive security and job support) are defined. Using a multilevel logistic regression model that takes into account both characteristics of individuals and of national labour market systems it is shown...... that there is a significant positive correlation between flexible security and the prevalence of discretionary learning. On this basis we point to an extension of flexible security in Europe’s labour markets as an adequate response to the current crisis....
Nwaru, Bright I; Friedman, Charles; Halamka, John; Sheikh, Aziz
There is increasing international policy and clinical interest in developing learning health systems and delivering precision medicine, which it is hoped will help reduce variation in the quality and safety of care, improve efficiency, and lead to increasing the personalisation of healthcare. Although reliant on similar policies, informatics tools, and data science and implementation research capabilities, these two major initiatives have thus far largely progressed in parallel. In this opinion piece, we argue that they should be considered as complementary, synergistic initiatives whereby the creation of learning health systems infrastructure can support and catalyse the delivery of precision medicine that maximises the benefits and minimises the risks associated with treatments for individual patients. We illustrate this synergy by considering the example of treatments for asthma, which is now recognised as an umbrella term for a heterogeneous group of related conditions.
During the 60s and the 70s strategies for decreasing initiation or quitting have been developed, in order to find those with high success rates. Unfortunately, interventions with an individual approach involved few smokers, so their impact in decreasing smoking prevalence was limited. The socio-ecological model offers a theoretical framework to community interventions for smoking cessation developed during the 80s, in which smoking was considered not only an individual, but also a social problem. In the 80s and the 90s smoking cessation community trials were developed, such as the Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation (COMMIT). Afterwards, policy interventions (price policy; smoking bans in public places; advertising bans; bans of sales to minors) were developed, such as the American Stop Smoking Intervention Study for Cancer Prevention (ASSIST). California has been the first State all over the world to develop a comprehensive Tobacco Control Program in 1988, becoming the place for an ever-conducted natural experiment. All policy interventions in tobacco control have been finally grouped together in the World Health Organization - Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO-FCTC), the first Public Health Treaty. Study designs have changed, according to the individual, community, or regulatory approaches: the classical randomized controlled trials (RCTs), in which the sampling unit is the individual, have been carried out for the evaluation of smoking cessation treatments, whereas cluster RCTs, in which the sampling unit is the community, have been conducted for evaluating community interventions, such as COMMIT. Finally, quasi-experimental studies (before/after study; prospective cohorts, both with a control group), in which the observational unit is a State, have been used for evaluating tobacco control policies, such as ASSIST and the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project. Although the successes of the last 20 years, tobacco
Bempeni, Maria; Vamvakoussi, Xenia
We present the results of an in-depth qualitative study that examined ninth graders' conceptual and procedural knowledge of fractions as well as their approach to mathematics learning, in particular fraction learning. We traced individual differences, even extreme, in the way that students combine the two kinds of knowledge. We also provide…
Chan, Wai Meng; Kim, Dong-Ha
Research in cognitive psychology and second language learning has underlined the significance of learners' cognitive processes and individual preferences in language learning. Helping learners to be aware of these processes and preferences has in fact become an important methodological principle of language teaching. Advances in information and…
Meijs, Celeste; Hurks, Petra P M; Wassenberg, Renske; Feron, Frans J M; Jolles, Jelle
This study examines inter-individual differences in how presentation modality affects verbal learning performance. Children aged 5 to 16 performed a verbal learning test within one of three presentation modalities: pictorial, auditory, or textual. The results indicated that a beneficial effect of
Rach, Stefanie; Ufer, Stefan; Heinze, Aiso
Constructive error handling is considered an important factor for individual learning processes. In a quasi-experimental study with Grades 6 to 9 students, we investigate effects on students' attitudes towards errors as learning opportunities in two conditions: an error-tolerant classroom culture, and the first condition along with additional…
Hu, Weiming; Xiao, Xuejuan; Fu, Zhouyu; Xie, Dan; Tan, Tieniu; Maybank, Steve
Analysis of motion patterns is an effective approach for anomaly detection and behavior prediction. Current approaches for the analysis of motion patterns depend on known scenes, where objects move in predefined ways. It is highly desirable to automatically construct object motion patterns which reflect the knowledge of the scene. In this paper, we present a system for automatically learning motion patterns for anomaly detection and behavior prediction based on a proposed algorithm for robustly tracking multiple objects. In the tracking algorithm, foreground pixels are clustered using a fast accurate fuzzy K-means algorithm. Growing and prediction of the cluster centroids of foreground pixels ensure that each cluster centroid is associated with a moving object in the scene. In the algorithm for learning motion patterns, trajectories are clustered hierarchically using spatial and temporal information and then each motion pattern is represented with a chain of Gaussian distributions. Based on the learned statistical motion patterns, statistical methods are used to detect anomalies and predict behaviors. Our system is tested using image sequences acquired, respectively, from a crowded real traffic scene and a model traffic scene. Experimental results show the robustness of the tracking algorithm, the efficiency of the algorithm for learning motion patterns, and the encouraging performance of algorithms for anomaly detection and behavior prediction.
Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Kraus, Nina; Wong, Patrick C M
A challenge to learning words of a foreign language is encoding nonnative phonemes, a process typically attributed to cortical circuitry. Using multimodal imaging methods [functional magnetic resonance imaging-adaptation (fMRI-A) and auditory brain stem responses (ABR)], we examined the extent to which pretraining pitch encoding in the inferior colliculus (IC), a primary midbrain structure, related to individual variability in learning to successfully use nonnative pitch patterns to distinguish words in American English-speaking adults. fMRI-A indexed the efficiency of pitch representation localized to the IC, whereas ABR quantified midbrain pitch-related activity with millisecond precision. In line with neural "sharpening" models, we found that efficient IC pitch pattern representation (indexed by fMRI) related to superior neural representation of pitch patterns (indexed by ABR), and consequently more successful word learning following sound-to-meaning training. Our results establish a critical role for the IC in speech-sound representation, consistent with the established role for the IC in the representation of communication signals in other animal models.
Eisner, Frank; McGettigan, Carolyn; Faulkner, Andrew; Rosen, Stuart; Scott, Sophie K
This study investigated the neural plasticity associated with perceptual learning of a cochlear implant (CI) simulation. Normal-hearing listeners were trained with vocoded and spectrally shifted speech simulating a CI while cortical responses were measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). A condition in which the vocoded speech was spectrally inverted provided a control for learnability and adaptation. Behavioral measures showed considerable individual variability both in the ability to learn to understand the degraded speech, and in phonological working memory capacity. Neurally, left-lateralized regions in superior temporal sulcus and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) were sensitive to the learnability of the simulations, but only the activity in prefrontal cortex correlated with interindividual variation in intelligibility scores and phonological working memory. A region in left angular gyrus (AG) showed an activation pattern that reflected learning over the course of the experiment, and covariation of activity in AG and IFG was modulated by the learnability of the stimuli. These results suggest that variation in listeners' ability to adjust to vocoded and spectrally shifted speech is partly reflected in differences in the recruitment of higher-level language processes in prefrontal cortex, and that this variability may further depend on functional links between the left inferior frontal gyrus and angular gyrus. Differences in the engagement of left inferior prefrontal cortex, and its covariation with posterior parietal areas, may thus underlie some of the variation in speech perception skills that have been observed in clinical populations of CI users.
Wu, Po-Han; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Tsai, Wen-Hung
Context-aware ubiquitous learning has been recognized as being a promising approach that enables students to interact with real-world learning targets with supports from the digital world. Several researchers have indicated the importance of providing learning guidance or hints to individual students during the context-aware ubiquitous learning…
Halbert, Caitlin; Kriebel, Richard; Cuzzolino, Robert; Coughlin, Patrick; Fresa-Dillon, Kerin
The benefit of online learning materials in medical education is not well defined. The study correlated certain self-identified learning styles with the use of self-selected online learning materials. First-year osteopathic medical students were given access to review and/or summary materials via an online course management system (CMS) while enrolled in a pre-clinical course. At the end of the course, students completed a self-assessment of learning style based on the Index of Learning Styles and a brief survey regarding their usage and perceived advantage of the online learning materials. Students who accessed the online materials earned equivalent grades to those who did not. However, the study found that students who described their learning styles as active, intuitive, global, and/or visual were more likely to use online educational resources than those who identified their learning style as reflective, sensing, sequential, and/or verbal. Identification of a student's learning style can help medical educators direct students to learning resources that best suit their individual needs.
Kamp, Rachelle J A; van Berkel, Henk J M; Popeijus, Herman E; Leppink, Jimmie; Schmidt, Henk G; Dolmans, Diana H J M
Even though peer process feedback is an often used tool to enhance the effectiveness of collaborative learning environments like PBL, the conditions under which it is best facilitated still need to be investigated. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of individual versus shared reflection and goal setting on students' individual contributions to the group and their academic achievement. In addition, the influence of prior knowledge on the effectiveness of peer feedback was studied. In this pretest-intervention-posttest study 242 first year students were divided into three conditions: condition 1 (individual reflection and goal setting), condition 2 (individual and shared reflection and goal setting), and condition 3 (control group). Results indicated that the quality of individual contributions to the tutorial group did not improve after receiving the peer feedback, nor did it differ between the three conditions. With regard to academic achievement, only males in conditions 1 and 2 showed better academic achievement compared with condition 3. However, there was no difference between both ways of reflection and goal setting with regard to achievement, indicating that both ways are equally effective. Nevertheless, it is still too early to conclude that peer feedback combined with reflection and goal setting is not effective in enhancing students' individual contributions. Students only had a limited number of opportunities to improve their contributions. Therefore, future research should investigate whether an increase in number of tutorial group meetings can enhance the effectiveness of peer feedback. In addition, the effect of quality of reflection and goal setting could be taken into consideration in future research.
Fabry, Götz; Giesler, Marianne
Adequate use of different learning strategies is one of the most important prerequisites of academic success. The actual use of learning strategies is the result of an interaction between individual and situational variables. Against this background we conducted a longitudinal study with first year medical students to investigate whether individuals show different patterns in their use of learning strategies and whether these patterns change during the first academic year. Medical students (N=175, 58% female) were surveyed three times in their first academic year regarding their use of learning strategies. A hierarchical cluster analysis (Ward) was conducted in order to identify groups of students with different patterns of learning strategies. We identified four different patterns in approaches to learning among novice medical students ("easy-going", "flexible", "problematic" and "hardworking" learners). Compared to their peers, the problematic learners had the worst final school grades. In addition changes in the use of learning strategies were identified, most of them occurred during the first term. Students start their academic studies with different patterns of learning strategies; the characteristics of these patterns change during the first academic year. Further research is necessary to better understand how individual and situational variables determine students' learning.
Full Text Available In computer-assisted education, the continuous monitoring and assessment of the learner is crucial for the delivery of personalized education to be effective. In this paper, we present a pilot application of the Student Diagnosis, Assistance, Evaluation System based on Artificial Intelligence (StuDiAsE, an open learning system for unattended student diagnosis, assistance and evaluation based on artificial intelligence. The system demonstrated in this paper has been designed with engineering students in mind and is capable of monitoring their comprehension, assessing their prior knowledge, building individual learner profiles, providing personalized assistance and, finally, evaluating a learner's performance both quantitatively and qualitatively by means of artificial intelligence techniques. The architecture and user interface of the system are being exhibited, the results and feedback received from a pilot application of the system within a theoretical engineering course are being demonstrated and the outcomes are being discussed.
Mohd Yusof Munirah
Musca, Gavril; Mihalache, Andrei; Musca, Elena
E-learning methods apply to most modern and various domains but also represent a great tool for the mechanical educational system where there are a lot of sustained efforts for its implementation. Using, administrating and maintaining an e-learning system for a certain field of study requires knowledge related to computation system's utilization but also the understanding the working mechanisms behind it that allows the system to be fully customized in order to be perfect fitted to the user's needs and requirements. A Moodle based test is evaluated from several points of views such as coherence clarity, concise content, information synthesis capacity and the presentation mode which makes the difference between clear or fuzzy graphical representations or terms. The authors appreciate that the ability of managing information in real time by the professor is a decisive decision in order to successfully implement an e-learning web platform. Updating information and structuring trainee's activities from thoroughgoing study up to their individual proposals for conceived applications leads to a better understanding and practical knowledge of theory.
Bayliss, Donna M; Jarrold, Christopher; Baddeley, Alan D; Leigh, Eleanor
This study examined the factors that constrain the working memory span performance and reading ability of individuals with generalized learning difficulties. In the study, 50 individuals with learning difficulties (LD) and 50 typically developing children (TD) matched for reading age completed two working memory span tasks. Participants also completed independent measures of the processing and storage operations involved in each working memory span task and Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices. The results showed that despite an equivalent level of working memory span, the relative importance of the constraints on working memory differed between the groups. In addition, working memory span was not closely related to word recognition or sentence comprehension performance in the LD group. These results suggest that the working memory span performance of LD and TD individuals may reflect different working memory limitations and that individuals with generalized learning difficulties may approach cognitive tasks in a qualitatively different way from that of typically developing individuals.
Full Text Available First year accounting has generally been perceived as one of the more challenging first year business courses for university students. Various Classroom Assessment Techniques (CATs have been proposed to attempt to enrich and enhance student learning, with these studies generally positioning students as learners alone. This paper uses an educational case study approach and examines the implementation of the IGCRA (individual, group, classroom reflective action technique, a Classroom Assessment Technique, on first year accounting students’ learning performance. Building on theoretical frameworks in the areas of cognitive learning, social development, and dialogical learning, the technique uses reports to promote reflection on both learning and teaching. IGCRA was found to promote feedback on the effectiveness of student, as well as teacher satisfaction. Moreover, the results indicated formative feedback can assist to improve the learning and learning environment for a large group of first year accounting students. Clear guidelines for its implementation are provided in the paper.
de Haas, Elske N; Lee, Caroline; Hernandez, Carlos E; Naguib, Marc; Rodenburg, T Bas
Personality can influence how animals perceive and learn cues. The behaviour and physiological responses animals show during stressful events is indicative of their personality. Acute induced stress prior to a cognitive test are known to affect the judgement of a stimulus, but personality of an individual could also affect learning of a specific cognitive paradigm. Here, we assessed if adult laying hens' behaviour and physiological responses, as indicators of their personality, were related to their cognitive performance. We assessed their behavioural responses to a tonic immobility test, an open field test, and a manual restraint test, and measured plasma corticosterone levels after manual restraint. After that, hens (n=20) were trained in a pre-set training schedule to associate a colour-cue with a reward. In a two-choice go-go test, hens needed to choose between a baited or non-baited food container displayed randomly on the left or right side of an arena. Success in learning was related to personality, with better performance of hens which showed a reactive personality type by a long latency to walk, struggle or vocalize during the tests. Only eight out of 20 hens reached the training criteria. The non-learners showed a strong side preference during all training days. Side preferences were strong in hens with high levels of plasma corticosterone and with a long duration of tonic immobility, indicating that fearful, stress-sensitive hens are more prone to develop side biases. Our results show that learning can be hindered by side biases, and fearful animals with a more proactive personality type are more sensitive to develop such biases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Copyright 2013 Raytheon BBN Technologies Corp. All Rights Reserved ONR STEM Grand Challenge Extensible Adaptive System for STEM Learning ...Contract # N00014-12-C-0535 Raytheon BBN Technologies Corp. (BBN) Reference # 14217 In partial fulfillment of contract deliverable item # A001...Quarterly Progress Report #2 April 7, 2013 –July 6, 2013 Submitted July 16, 2013 BBN Technical POC: John Makhoul Raytheon BBN Technologies
Chen, C L Philip; Liu, Zhulin
Broad Learning System (BLS) that aims to offer an alternative way of learning in deep structure is proposed in this paper. Deep structure and learning suffer from a time-consuming training process because of a large number of connecting parameters in filters and layers. Moreover, it encounters a complete retraining process if the structure is not sufficient to model the system. The BLS is established in the form of a flat network, where the original inputs are transferred and placed as "mapped features" in feature nodes and the structure is expanded in wide sense in the "enhancement nodes." The incremental learning algorithms are developed for fast remodeling in broad expansion without a retraining process if the network deems to be expanded. Two incremental learning algorithms are given for both the increment of the feature nodes (or filters in deep structure) and the increment of the enhancement nodes. The designed model and algorithms are very versatile for selecting a model rapidly. In addition, another incremental learning is developed for a system that has been modeled encounters a new incoming input. Specifically, the system can be remodeled in an incremental way without the entire retraining from the beginning. Satisfactory result for model reduction using singular value decomposition is conducted to simplify the final structure. Compared with existing deep neural networks, experimental results on the Modified National Institute of Standards and Technology database and NYU NORB object recognition dataset benchmark data demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed BLS.
A decade ago, in 1994, lessons learned from Halden research activities on digital systems safety were summarized in the reports HWR-374 and HWR-375, under the title 'A Lessons Learned Report on Software Dependability'. The reports reviewed all activities made at the Halden Project in this field since 1977. As such, the reports provide a wealth of information on Halden research. At the same time, the lessons learned from the different activities are made more accessible to the reader by being summarized in terms of results, conclusions and recommendations. The present report provides a new lessons learned report, covering the Halden Project research activities in this area from 1994 to medio 2005. As before, the emphasis is on the results, conclusions and recommendations made from these activities, in particular how they can be utilized by different types of organisations, such as licensing authorities, safety assessors, power companies, and software developers. The contents of the report have been edited on the basis of input from a large number of Halden work reports, involving many different authors. Brief summaries of these reports are included in the last part of the report. (Author)
Duan, Bing; Hosseini, Habib Mir M.; Ling, Keck Voon; Gay, Robert Kheng Leng
Internet-based learning systems, or e-learning, are widely available in institutes, universities, and industrial companies, hosting regular or continuous education programs. The dream of teaching and learning from anywhere and at anytime becomes a reality due to the construction of e-learning infrastructure. Traditional teaching materials and…
Systemic Assessment [SA] has been shown to be highly effective new tool in raising the level of students academic achievements, improve their ability to learn by enhancing the process of teaching and learning, and converts students from surface to deep learning. It also allow teacher to monitor students learning ...
Chung, Mi-Lee Ahn
The purpose of this study was to investigate the similarities and differences of individual and small group preservice teachers' interactions with a hypermedia case. Preservice teachers' interactions with a hypermedia case were defined in terms of their (1) goals and perception of accomplishments of the goals, (2) use of features of the hypermedia case, and (3) types of questions and conflicts raised. Two individuals and two small groups of three preservice teachers participated by interacting with the hypermedia case which was developed to illustrate conceptual change science teaching in an elementary classroom. Most of the previous studies in this area have addressed large group use of hypermedia cases, and this study attempted to address the gap in the literature related to different social contexts, individuals and small groups, from the constructivist perspective. The assumptions of symbolic interactionism guided data collection from think-alouds and interviews. These multiple sources of data were used to understand the participants' construction of knowledge; data were analyzed and interpreted by a process of analytic induction. The major assertion was that the preservice teachers perceived the hypermedia case to be like a tool to link theory and practice of teaching. Three sub-assertions, and several supporting categories, also emerged from the data. These findings indicated that group learning experiences with the hypermedia case were more valuable than those of individuals. In general, preservice teachers benefited from learning how to teach with the hypermedia case in both settings. However, the individuals were not as satisfied as those in small groups, and the members of small groups interacted more actively with the hypermedia case as well as with the peers. The results of this study suggest that effective use of hypermedia cases takes place in a community of learners where the learners share the context and can draw upon the resources afforded by the
Full Text Available We consider conceptual approaches to creation of information systems, learning management school, which uses modern methods of decision-making and simulational modeling, web-technologies. The main criteria for the selection of development tools of the system are: openness, free of charge, easy to use and independence from system software and hardware. The chosen technology and the system itself satisfies such requirements as: focus on national and international standards in the field of higher education, adherence to service-oriented architecture, ensuring stable operation with a large number of users, support for a clear division of user rights to obtain and change information resources, software modularity the final product and its ability to integrate into the corporate information system of the university
This article examines the literature associated with social constructivism. It discusses whether social constructivism succeeds in reconciling individual cognition with social teaching and learning practices. After reviewing the meaning of individual cognition and social constructivism, two views--Piaget and Vygotsky's--accounting for learning…
Sumadi; Degeng, I Nyoman S.; Sulthon; Waras
This research focused on effects of ability grouping in reciprocal teaching technique of collaborative learning on individual achievements dan social skills. The results research showed that (1) there are differences in individual achievement significantly between high group of homogeneous, middle group of homogeneous, low group of homogeneous,…
Brown, P. Margaret; Byrnes, Linda J.
This study investigated the Individual Learning Plans of eighty-eight students who were deaf and hard of hearing attending facilities and schools for the deaf in Victoria Australia. The students' assessment and planning portfolios were scrutinised for evidence of formal and informal assessment used to generate goals for the Individual Learning…
Mierlo, B. van; Leeuwis, C.; Smits, R.; Klein Woolthuis, R.J.A.
In this paper we develop an analytical framework for studying learning processes in the context of efforts to bring about system innovation by building new networks of actors who are willing to work on a change towards sustainable development. We then use it to evaluate two specific intervention
Nazir Ahmed Sangi
Full Text Available As developments in electronic technologies i.e. personal computers, laptops, tablets, mobiles and wearable devices, the way of learning is also changing. Therefore, utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT has great important role in schools and colleges. ICT is using by students, teachers and societies in District Swat, KP, Pakistan in the form of mobiles internet (for social contact and chat, computers internet (for knowledge exploration and entertainment and multimedia (for teaching and learning. One of the difficulties involved in rural areas’ students of District Swat is that they cannot join class rooms due to their poor livelihood condition and far away from schools and colleges. Especially most of the females of rural areas of Swat do not come to schools and colleges for their family tradition and culture. Various questions were examined in every aspect of educational technologies in this study. We surveyed 50 responded randomly at District Swat from different schools and colleges and discovered that the responded were generally positive and have great interest about e-learning in Swat. The use of proposed electronic system for the learning, the literacy rate will increase in rural areas and students will achieve their individual goals.
Moesby, Egon; W., Hans Henrik; Kørnøv, Lone
activity embedded as an integrated part of the project work. Students work in the solution phase of the project on an individual activity that is separately assessed. The results of these individual activities form the platform for students’ final work with the project as a team. They have to evaluate......In this paper, the authors describe a way to increase student learning through social constructed teamwork by adding an individual activity to the project work. This can be achieved not just by adding an individual activity outside or parallel to the project work, but by having the individual...... the individual solutions and find the one solution to work on in the final phases of the project. On top of that, it helps train students’ abilities to make evaluations among various solutions of which one is their own, thereby learning how to evaluate their personal solutions against another person’s solutions...
Ellis, Roger; Hogard, Elaine; Sines, David
This article describes a risk audit carried out on the support provided for 36 people with profound learning disabilities who had been resettled from hospital care to supported housing. The risks were those factors identified in the literature as associated with deleterious effects on quality of life. The audit was carried out with a specially designed tool that covered 24 possible risks and involved a support worker familiar with the service user choosing the most appropriate statement regarding each risk. Their judgements were verified by care managers and social needs assessors. Whilst one or more risks were identified for 32 of the 36 service users, the overall result showed relatively low risks for the group as a whole with 62 incidences (7%) from a possible 864, which nevertheless highlighted several areas that needed attention. The results of the audit have led to action plans for the provision and for the individual service users for whom risks were identified.
Full Text Available There is relatively little knowledge in Slovenia about Marquis de Condorcet and his contribution to the development of public schooling and adult education. Therefore, the author deals first with some of Condorcet's basic preoccupations Le. the relation between reason, knowledge and freedom of individuals and nations. She then dwells upon some of the facts from Condorcet's life history that might explain his views on education and public instruction contained in his Plan on Public Instruction, a foundation for all French republican schools following 1880. She also takes care of linking Condorcet's thoughts with ideas of some contemporary French and Slovene authors involved in questions like regulation of interpersonal relationships in society, child and adult learning competencies, balance between humanities and vocational training, equal rights and opportunities in education for women, permanent education, knowledge for democracy, integration of religious education in public school curricula etc.
The use of individual disposal systems in ground-water basins that have adverse salt balance conditions and/or geologically unsuitable locations, has become a major problem in many areas of the world. There has been much research in design of systems for disposal of domestic sewage. This research includes both hybrid systems for disposal of domestic sewage. This research includes both hybrid systems for disposal of the treated waste in areas with adverse geologic conditions and systems for the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus prior to percolation to the ground water. This paper outlines the history of development and rationale for design and construction of individual sewage disposal systems and describes the designs and limitations of the hybrid and denitrification units. The disposal systems described include Mounds, Evapotranspiration and Evapotranspiration/Infiltration systems. The denitrification units include those using methanol, sulfur and limestone, gray water and secondary treated wastewater for energy sources.
Stotz, Sarah; Lee, Jung Sun; Rong, Hui; Murray, Deborah
Online eLearning may be an innovative, efficient, and cost-effective method of providing nutrition education to a diverse low-income audience. The intent of this project is to examine perceptions of nutrition educators regarding the feasibility of an eLearning nutrition education program tailored to low-income Georgians. Semistructured individual interviews were conducted, guided by the constructivist theory. The interview guide focused on three themes: accessibility, literacy, and content. A prototype of the program also served as a talking point. Interviews were conducted in two urban Georgian counties in a location chosen by each participant. We recruited a convenience sample of Georgian nutrition educators (n = 10, 100% female, 50% Black). Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using constant comparative method. Motivation is considered the primary barrier to program feasibility. Neither access to the Internet nor literacy are considered significant barriers. Inclusion of skill-based, visual education methods such as cooking videos, recipes, and step-by-step teaching tools was highlighted. Nutrition educators perceived this program would be a feasible form of nutrition education for the priority audience. Findings from this study will inform the user-centered development of the program. © 2016 Society for Public Health Education.
Fairbrother, Jeffrey T; Laughlin, David D; Nguyen, Timothy V
The purpose of this study was to determine if high and low activity individuals differed in terms of the effects of self-controlled feedback on the performance and learning of a movement skill. The task consisted of a blindfolded beanbag toss using the non-preferred arm. Participants were pre-screened according to their physical activity level using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. An equal number of high activity (HA) and low activity (LA) participants were assigned to self-control (SC) and yoked (YK) feedback conditions, creating four groups: Self-Control-High Activity; Self-Control-Low Activity; Yoked-High Activity; and Yoked-Low Activity. SC condition participants were provided feedback whenever they requested it, while YK condition participants received feedback according to a schedule created by their SC counterpart. Results indicated that the SC condition was more accurate than the YK condition during acquisition and transfer phases, and the HA condition was more accurate than the LA condition during all phases of the experiment. A post-training questionnaire indicated that participants in the SC condition asked for feedback mostly after what they perceived to be "good" trials; those in the YK condition indicated that they would have preferred to receive feedback after "good" trials. This study provided further support for the advantages of self-controlled feedback when learning motor skills, additionally showing benefits for both active and less active individuals. The results suggested that the provision of self-controlled feedback to less active learners may be a potential avenue to teaching motor skills necessary to engage in greater amounts of physical activity.
Jeffrey T. Fairbrother
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine if high and low activity individuals differed in terms of the effects of self-controlled feedback on the performance and learning of a movement skill. The task consisted of a blindfolded beanbag toss using the non-preferred arm. Participants were pre-screened according to their physical activity level using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. An equal number of high activity (HA and low activity (LA participants were assigned to self-control (SC and yoked (YK feedback conditions, creating four groups: Self-Control High Activity (SC-HA; Self-Control Low Activity (SC-LA; Yoked High Activity (YK-HA; and Yoked Low Activity (YK-LA. SC condition participants were provided feedback whenever they requested it, while YK condition participants received feedback according to a schedule created by their SC counterpart. Results indicated that the SC condition was more accurate than the YK condition during acquisition and transfer phases, and the HA condition was more accurate than the LA condition during all phases of the experiment. A post-training questionnaire indicated that participants in the SC condition asked for feedback mostly after what they perceived to be good trials; those in the YK condition indicated that they would have preferred to receive feedback after good trials. This study provided further support for the advantages of self-controlled feedback when learning motor skills, additionally showing benefits for both active and less active individuals. The results suggested that the provision of self-controlled feedback to less active learners may be a potential avenue to teaching motor skills necessary to engage in greater amounts of physical activity.
Nur Rokhimah Hanik, Anwari Adi Nugroho
Biology learning especially high plant system courses needs to be applied to active learning centered on the student (Active Learning In Higher Education) to enhance the students' learning activities so that the quality of learning for the better. Outdoor Learning is one of the active learning invites students to learn outside of the classroom by exploring the surrounding environment. This research aims to improve the students' learning activities in the course of high plant systems through t...
White, Meagan; Shellenbarger, Teresa
E-learning provides an alternative approach to traditional professional development activities. A learning management system may help nursing professional development practitioners deliver content more efficiently and effectively; however, careful consideration is needed during planning and implementation. This article provides essential information in the selection and use of a learning management system for professional development.
Rey-Lopez, Marta; Brusilovsky, Peter; Meccawy, Maram; Diaz-Redondo, Rebeca; Fernandez-Vilas, Ana; Ashman, Helen
Current e-learning standardization initiatives have put much effort into easing interoperability between systems and the reusability of contents. For this to be possible, one of the most relevant areas is the definition of a run-time environment, which allows Learning Management Systems to launch, track and communicate with learning objects.…
Full Text Available A growing number of studies are addressing methodological approaches to treating anomia in persons with aphasia. What is missing from these studies are validated procedures for determining which words have the greatest potential for recovery. The current study evaluates the usefulness of several word-specific variables and one subject-specific measure in predicting success in re-learning problematic words. Methods: Two participants, YPR and ODH, presented with fluent aphasia and marked anomia. YPR’s Aphasia Quotient on the Western Aphasia Battery was 58.8; ODH’s AQ was 79.5. Stimuli were 96 pictures chosen individually for each participant from among those that they named incorrectly on multiple baselines. Subsequently, participants were presented with each picture and asked to indicate whether they could name it covertly, or “in their head.” Each subject completed a biweekly anomia treatment for these pictures. We performed separate statistical analyses for each subject. Dependent variables included whether each word was learned during treatment (Acquisition and the number of sessions required to learn each word (#Sessions. We used logistic regression models to evaluate the association of (self-reported covert naming success with Acquisition, and linear regression models to assess the relationship between (self-reported covert naming success and #Sessions. Starting with the predictors of covert naming accuracy, number of syllables (#syllables, number of phonemes (#phonemes, and frequency, we used backwards elimination methods to select the final regression models. Results: By the end of 25 treatment sessions, YPR had learned 90.2% (37/41 of the covertly correct words but only 70.4% (38/54 of the covertly incorrect words. In the unadjusted analysis, covert naming was significantly associated with Acquisition, OR=3.89, 95% CI: (1.19, 12.74, p=0.025. The result remained significant after adjustment for #phonemes (the only other predictor
Aparicio, M.; Bação, F.; Oliveira, T.
WOS:000383295100007 (Nº de Acesso Web of Science) E-learning systems are enablers in the learning process, strengthening their importance as part of the educational strategy. Understanding the determinants of e-learning success is crucial for defining instructional strategies. Several authors have studied e-learning implementation and adoption, and various studies have addressed e-learning success from different perspectives. However, none of these studies have verified whether students' c...
Tortorella, Richard A. W.; Kinshuk; Chen, Nian-Shing
Today people learn in many diverse locations and contexts, beyond the confines of classical brick and mortar classrooms. This trend is ever increasing, progressing hand-in-hand with the progress of technology. Context-aware learning systems are systems which adapt to the learner's context, providing tailored learning for a particular learning…
Shaalan, Khaled F.
This paper describes the development of an intelligent computer-assisted language learning (ICALL) system for learning Arabic. This system could be used for learning Arabic by students at primary schools or by learners of Arabic as a second or foreign language. It explores the use of Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques for learning…
Fazeli, Soude; Loni, Babak; Drachsler, Hendrik; Sloep, Peter
This study aims to develop a recommender system for social learning platforms that combine traditional learning management systems with commercial social networks like Facebook. We therefore take into account social interactions of users to make recommendations on learning resources. We propose to
Gu, Peipei; Guo, Jiayang
With the continuing growth of multi-media learning resources, it is important to offer methods helping learners to explore and acquire relevant learning information effectively. As services that organize multi-media learning materials together to support programming learning, the digital case-based learning system is needed. In order to create a case-oriented e-learning system, this paper concentrates on the digital case study of multi-media resources and learning processes with an integrated framework. An integration of multi-media resources, testing and learning strategies recommendation as the learning unit is proposed in the digital case-based learning framework. The learning mechanism of learning guidance, multi-media materials learning and testing feedback is supported in our project. An improved personalized genetic algorithm which incorporates preference information and usage degree into the crossover and mutation process is proposed to assemble the personalized test sheet for each learner. A learning strategies recommendation solution is proposed to recommend learning strategies for learners to help them to learn. The experiments are conducted to prove that the proposed approaches are capable of constructing personalized sheets and the effectiveness of the framework.
Full Text Available With the continuing growth of multi-media learning resources, it is important to offer methods helping learners to explore and acquire relevant learning information effectively. As services that organize multi-media learning materials together to support programming learning, the digital case-based learning system is needed. In order to create a case-oriented e-learning system, this paper concentrates on the digital case study of multi-media resources and learning processes with an integrated framework. An integration of multi-media resources, testing and learning strategies recommendation as the learning unit is proposed in the digital case-based learning framework. The learning mechanism of learning guidance, multi-media materials learning and testing feedback is supported in our project. An improved personalized genetic algorithm which incorporates preference information and usage degree into the crossover and mutation process is proposed to assemble the personalized test sheet for each learner. A learning strategies recommendation solution is proposed to recommend learning strategies for learners to help them to learn. The experiments are conducted to prove that the proposed approaches are capable of constructing personalized sheets and the effectiveness of the framework.
Kim, Dong Won; Yao, Jingtao
The emergence of the Internet and Web technology makes it possible to implement the ideals of inquiry-based learning, in which students seek truth, information, or knowledge by questioning. Web-based learning support systems can provide a good framework for inquiry-based learning. This article presents a study on a Web-based learning support system called Online Treasure Hunt. The Web-based learning support system mainly consists of a teaching support subsystem, a learning support subsystem, and a treasure hunt game. The teaching support subsystem allows instructors to design their own inquiry-based learning environments. The learning support subsystem supports students' inquiry activities. The treasure hunt game enables students to investigate new knowledge, develop ideas, and review their findings. Online Treasure Hunt complies with a treasure hunt model. The treasure hunt model formalizes a general treasure hunt game to contain the learning strategies of inquiry-based learning. This Web-based learning support system empowered with the online-learning game and founded on the sound learning strategies furnishes students with the interactive and collaborative student-centered learning environment.
Quinson , Martin; Oster , Gérald
International audience; The Programmer's Learning Machine (PLM) is an interactive exerciser for learning programming and algorithms. Using an integrated and graphical environment that provides a short feedback loop, it allows students to learn in a (semi)-autonomous way. This generic platform also enables teachers to create specific programming microworlds that match their teaching goals. This paper discusses our design goals and motivations, introduces the existing material and the proposed ...
Dias, Sofia B; Hadjileontiadis, Leontios J
This book offers useful information that evokes initiatives towards rethinking of the value, efficiency, inclusiveness, effectiveness and personalization of the intelligent learning management systems-based blended-learning environment.
Miguel, Jorge; Xhafa, Fatos
Intelligent Data Analysis for e-Learning: Enhancing Security and Trustworthiness in Online Learning Systems addresses information security within e-Learning based on trustworthiness assessment and prediction. Over the past decade, many learning management systems have appeared in the education market. Security in these systems is essential for protecting against unfair and dishonest conduct-most notably cheating-however, e-Learning services are often designed and implemented without considering security requirements. This book provides functional approaches of trustworthiness analysis, modeling, assessment, and prediction for stronger security and support in online learning, highlighting the security deficiencies found in most online collaborative learning systems. The book explores trustworthiness methodologies based on collective intelligence than can overcome these deficiencies. It examines trustworthiness analysis that utilizes the large amounts of data-learning activities generate. In addition, as proc...
Andersen, Lauren E.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurological disorder that manifests itself within an individual through cognitive, social, and academic deficits. As is true for all spectrum disorders, each individual may experience a range of deficits with varying severity. Many students with autism spectrum disorder experience difficulty in some area of…
Withagen, Rob; van Wermeskerken, Margot
Recent studies of perceptual learning have explored and commented on variation in learning trajectories. Although several factors have been suggested to account for this variation, thus far the idea that humans vary in their perceptual learning capacities has received scant attention. In the present
Eberhart, Russ; Hu, Xiaohui; Chen, Yaobin
Report developed under STTR contract for topic "Cognitive models for learning to control dynamic systems" demonstrated a swarm intelligence learning algorithm and its application in unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) mission planning...
Background. Medical schools in Africa face daunting challenges including faculty shortages, growing class sizes, and inadequate resources. Learning management systems (LMS) may be powerful tools for organising and presenting curricular learning materials, with the potential for monitoring and evaluation functions.
Young, J Z
The memory mechanisms of cephalopods consist of a series of matrices of intersecting axes, which find associations between the signals of input events and their consequences. The tactile memory is distributed among eight such matrices, and there is also some suboesophageal learning capacity. The visual memory lies in the optic lobe and four matrices, with some re-exciting pathways. In both systems, damage to any part reduces proportionally the effectiveness of the whole memory. These matrices are somewhat like those in mammals, for instance those in the hippocampus. The first matrix in both visual and tactile systems receives signals of vision and taste, and its output serves to increase the tendency to attack or to take with the arms. The second matrix provides for the correlation of groups of signals on its neurons, which pass signals to the third matrix. Here large cells find clusters in the sets of signals. Their output re-excites those of the first lobe, unless pain occurs. In that case, this set of cells provides a record that ensures retreat. There is experimental evidence that these distributed memory systems allow for the identification of categories of visual and tactile inputs, for generalization, and for decision on appropriate behavior in the light of experience. The evidence suggests that learning in cephalopods is not localized to certain layers or "grandmother cells" but is distributed with high redundance in serial networks, with recurrent circuits.
Full Text Available The domain of traditional hypermedia is revolutionized by the arrival of the concept of adaptation. Currently the domain of Adaptive Hypermedia Systems (AHS is constantly growing. A major goal of current research is to provide a personalized educational experience that meets the needs specific to each learner (knowledge level, goals, motivation etc.... In this article we have studied the possibility of implementing traditional features of adaptive hypermedia in an open environment, and discussed the standards for describing learning objects and architectural models based on the use of ontologies as a prerequisite for such an adaptation.
Jorge Eliseo Gómez Gómez
Full Text Available With the inclusion of ubiquitous computing in education, it is intended that the student is an active agent in its formation process and interacts with its context. This paper presents the design and implementation of architecture for ubiquitous learning environments in which they integrate physical spaces with applications which are then executed by users. The system supports objects augmented with RFID tags, NFC and QR Code. Each tag contains data that uniquely identiﬁes the resource. To validate the proposed architecture is developed experimentally tested a prototype at the end of it is done to verify that the proposed architecture improves the academic performance of students.
This paper proposes a novel e-Learning system for technological experiments involving electronic circuit-construction and controlling robot motion that are necessary in the field of technology. The proposed system performs automated recognition of circuit images transmitted from individual learners and automatically supplies the learner with…
Rucker, Ryan; Downey, Steve
Research literature is flush with articles discussing how teachers use individual learning management systems. However, very few studies examine how faculty are affected as they move from one platform to another. This study addresses that gap and examines how faculty adapt their online teaching practices as they migrate systems. In doing so,…
Walklet, Elaine; Davis, Sarah; Farrelly, Daniel; Muse, Kate
Student response systems (SRS) are hand-held devices or mobile phone polling systems which collate real-time, individual responses to on-screen questions. Previous research examining their role in higher education has highlighted both advantages and disadvantages of their use. This paper explores how different SRS influence the learning experience…
Full Text Available This study established an elementary-school English e-learning system on the basis of theory-based motivation strategies, and verified the effectiveness of the motivation strategies through educational practice and the applicability of traditional motivation theories in e-learning environments. Six motivation strategies were deducted, two from each of the three psychological needs (Autonomy, Competence, Relatedness presupposed as preconditions that increase human motivation based on the Self-Determination Theory. Next, the e-learning system intended to increase intrinsic motivation for English learning was established based on the motivation strategies. Then, this system was used for year-long educational practice in 115 private educational institutes nationwide. Finally, a survey was conducted with 2,300 students to determine whether the e-learning system applying the motivation strategies satisfied the three psychological needs of elementary-school English learners, and whether it improved intrinsic motivation for English studies. Moreover, this study analysed the correlation among motivation strategies, three psychological needs, and five motivation groups. The results revealed that the motivation strategies applied to the e-learning system had a significant influence on the three psychological needs, and those needs had a significant influence on the five motivation groups. This proved the effectiveness of motivation strategies applied to the e-learning system. It was found that SDT, the traditional motivation theory that has been applied to face-to-face classes, is also effective in the e-learning environment. Finally, even in the e-learning environment focusing on individual learning, learners were found to value relationships with others, in addition to competence, which has been studied relatively often in the past. The significance of this study is that it established a theory-based e-learning system and that it is an empirical study
Manouselis, Nikos; Verbert, Katrien
Presents cutting edge research from leading experts in the growing field of Recommender Systems for Technology Enhanced Learning (RecSys TEL) International contributions are included to demonstrate the merging of various efforts and communities Topics include: Linked Data and the Social Web as Facilitators for TEL Recommender Systems in Research and Practice, Personalised Learning-Plan Recommendations in Game-Based Learning and Recommendations from Heterogeneous Sources in a Technology Enhanced Learning Ecosystem
Full Text Available Fragmented learning is that through the segmentation of learning content or learning time, make learners can use the fragmented time for learning fragmentated content, have the characteristics of time flexibility, learning targeted and high learning efficiency. Based on the fragmented learning ideas, combined with the teaching idea of micro class and interactive teaching, comprehensive utilization of flash animation design software, .NET development platform, VSTO technology, multimedia development technology and so on, design and develop a system integrated with learning, practice and examination of the Office software, which is not only conducive to the effective and personalized learning of students, but also conducive to the understanding the students’ situation of teachers, and liberate teachers from the heavy labor of mechanical, focus on promoting the formation of students’ knowledge system.
Shawen, Nicholas; Lonini, Luca; Mummidisetty, Chaithanya Krishna; Shparii, Ilona; Albert, Mark V; Kording, Konrad; Jayaraman, Arun
.022). Detection of falls in control individuals yielded similar results (sensitivity: mean 0.979, SEM 0.022; specificity: mean 0.991, SEM 0.012). A mean 2.2 (SD 1.7) false alarms per day were obtained when evaluating the model (vs mean 122.1, SD 166.1 based on thresholds) on data recorded as participants carried the phone during their daily routine for two or more days. Machine-learning classifiers outperformed the threshold-based one (Pmobile phone-based fall detection model can use data from non-amputee individuals to detect falls in individuals walking with a prosthesis. We successfully detected falls when the mobile phone was carried across multiple locations and without a predetermined orientation. Furthermore, the number of false alarms yielded by the model over a longer period of time was reasonably low. This moves the application of mobile phone-based fall detection systems closer to a real-world use case scenario. ©Nicholas Shawen, Luca Lonini, Chaithanya Krishna Mummidisetty, Ilona Shparii, Mark V Albert, Konrad Kording, Arun Jayaraman. Originally published in JMIR Mhealth and Uhealth (http://mhealth.jmir.org), 11.10.2017.
Full Text Available A variant of flipped learning based on intensive usage of geomedia in geography and geoinformatics has been developed and presented in the article. Students assessed quality of mapping according to ISO standard. The results show that individuals are considerably better than groups, especially in tasks which required the use of critical judgement, deeper understanding and creative thinking. However, groups are more successful in finding unique differences, where synergy effect of the collaborative learning is an important factor.
Stahl, Stephen M; Davis, Richard L
Medical presentations can be enhanced by systematically collecting audience feedback. This is readily accomplished with polling systems, called audience response systems. Several systems are now available that are small, inexpensive, and can be readily integrated into standard powerpoint presentations without the need for a technician. Use of audience response systems has several advantages. These include improving attentiveness, increasing learning, polling anonymously, tracking individual and group responses, gauging audience understanding, adding interactivity and fun, and evaluating both participant learning and instructor teaching. Tips for how to write questions for audience response systems are also included.
Dubravka Mandušić; Lucija Blašković
Today`s technology supported and accelerated learning time requires constant and continuous acquisition of new knowledge. On the other hand, it does not leave enough time for additional education. Increasing number of E-learning systems, withdraws a need for precise evaluation of functionality that those systems provide; so they could be reciprocally compared. While implementing new systems for electronic learning, it is very important to pre-evaluate existing systems in order to ...
Deperlioglu, Omer; Sarpkaya, Yilmaz; Ergun, Ertugrul
In today's world, Web-Based Distance Education Systems have a great importance. Web-based Distance Education Systems are usually known as Learning Management Systems (LMS). In this article, a database design, which was developed to create an educational institution as a Learning Management System, is described. In this sense, developed Learning…
Kara, Nuri; Sevim, Nese
Since 1950s, teaching machines have changed a lot. Today, we have different ideas about how people learn, what instructor should do to help students during their learning process. We have adaptive learning technologies that can create much more student oriented learning environments. The purpose of this article is to present these changes and its…
Goh, Adeline Yuen Sze
This article about workplace learning examines the learning of individuals in becoming a Vocational and Technical Education (VTE) teacher in Brunei. Drawing on research findings from a group of student teachers, it presents case study accounts of three individuals to illustrate the importance of social relationships in learning to become a VTE…
Djukanovic, M [Institut Nikola Tesla, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Sobajic, D J; Pao, Yohhan [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)
The identification of the mode of instability plays an essential role in generating principal energy boundary hypersurfaces. We present a new method for unstable machine identification based on the use of supervised learning neural-net technology, and the adaptive pattern recognition concept. It is shown that using individual energy functions as pattern features, appropriately trained neural-nets can retrieve the reliable characterization of the transient process including critical clearing time parameter, mode of instability and energy margins. Generalization capabilities of the neural-net processing allow for these assessments to be made independently of load levels. The results obtained from computer simulations are presented using the New England power system, as an example. (author).
Araya, A A
Intelligent systems should possess two fundamental capabilities: problem solving and learning. Problem solving capabilities allow an intelligent system to cope with problems in a given domain. Learning capabilities make possible for an intelligent system to improve the solution to the problems within its current reach or to cope with new problems. This paper examines research in artificial intelligence from the perspective of learning with the purpose of: 1) developing and understanding of the problem of learning from the AI point of view, and II) characterizing the current state of the art on learning in AI. 35 references.
System Dynamics (SD) is one of the subjects that were use in learning Automatic Control Systems in dynamic and control field. Mathematical modelling and solving skills of students for engineering systems are expecting outcomes of the course which can be further used to efficiently study control systems and mechanical vibration; however, the fundamental of the SD includes strong backgrounds in Dynamics and Differential Equations, which are appropriate to the students in governmental universities that have strong skills in Mathematics and Scientifics. For private universities, students are weak in the above subjects since they obtained high vocational certificate from Technical College or Polytechnic School, which emphasize the learning contents in practice. To enhance their learning for improving their backgrounds, this paper applies mind maps based problem based learning to relate the essential relations of mathematical and physical equations. With the advantages of mind maps, each student is assigned to design individual mind maps for self-leaning development after they attend the class and learn overall picture of each chapter from the class instructor. Four problems based mind maps learning are assigned to each student. Each assignment is evaluated via mid-term and final examinations, which are issued in terms of learning concepts and applications. In the method testing, thirty students are tested and evaluated via student learning backgrounds in the past. The result shows that well-design mind maps can improve learning performance based on outcome evaluation. Especially, mind maps can reduce time-consuming and reviewing for Mathematics and Physics in SD significantly.
Candace H Feldman
Full Text Available The human papillomavirus (HPV vaccine is safe and efficacious in patients with systemic inflammatory diseases (SID who have higher rates of persistent HPV infection. We compared HPV vaccine uptake among SID and non-SID patients.Using a U.S. insurance claims database (2006-2012, we identified individuals 9-26 years with ≥2 SID diagnosis codes ≥7 days apart with ≥12 months of continuous enrollment prior to the second code (index date. We matched SID patients by age, sex and index date to randomly selected non-SID subjects and selected those with ≥24 months of post-index date continuous follow-up. We also identified a non-SID subcohort with ≥1 diagnosis code for asthma. We defined initiation as ≥1 HPV vaccination claim after 2007, and completion as 3 claims. We used multivariable logistic regression to assess uptake in females 11-26 years comparing SID, non-SID and asthma cohorts, adjusting for demographics, region, comorbidities, and healthcare utilization.We identified 5,642 patients 9-26 years with SID and 20,643 without. The mean age was 18.1 years (SD 4.9. We identified 1,083 patients with asthma; the mean age was 17.2 (SD 5.1. Among females, 20.6% with SID, 23.1% without SID and 22.9% with asthma, received ≥1 HPV vaccine. In our adjusted models, the odds of receipt of ≥1 vaccine was 0.87 times lower in SID (95% CI 0.77-0.98 compared to non-SID and did not differ for 3 vaccines (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.83-1.26. The odds of initiation and completion were not statistically different between SID and non-SID asthma cohorts.In this nationwide cohort, HPV vaccine uptake was extremely low. Despite the heightened risk of persistent HPV infection among those with SID, no increase in HPV vaccine uptake was observed. Public health efforts to promote HPV vaccination overall are needed, and may be particularly beneficial for those at higher risk.
Feldman, Candace H.; Hiraki, Linda T.; Lii, Huichuan; Seeger, John D.; Kim, Seoyoung C.
Objectives The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is safe and efficacious in patients with systemic inflammatory diseases (SID) who have higher rates of persistent HPV infection. We compared HPV vaccine uptake among SID and non-SID patients. Methods Using a U.S. insurance claims database (2006–2012), we identified individuals 9–26 years with ≥2 SID diagnosis codes ≥7 days apart with ≥12 months of continuous enrollment prior to the second code (index date). We matched SID patients by age, sex and index date to randomly selected non-SID subjects and selected those with ≥24 months of post-index date continuous follow-up. We also identified a non-SID subcohort with ≥1 diagnosis code for asthma. We defined initiation as ≥1 HPV vaccination claim after 2007, and completion as 3 claims. We used multivariable logistic regression to assess uptake in females 11–26 years comparing SID, non-SID and asthma cohorts, adjusting for demographics, region, comorbidities, and healthcare utilization. Results We identified 5,642 patients 9–26 years with SID and 20,643 without. The mean age was 18.1 years (SD 4.9). We identified 1,083 patients with asthma; the mean age was 17.2 (SD 5.1). Among females, 20.6% with SID, 23.1% without SID and 22.9% with asthma, received ≥1 HPV vaccine. In our adjusted models, the odds of receipt of ≥1 vaccine was 0.87 times lower in SID (95% CI 0.77–0.98) compared to non-SID and did not differ for 3 vaccines (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.83–1.26). The odds of initiation and completion were not statistically different between SID and non-SID asthma cohorts. Conclusions In this nationwide cohort, HPV vaccine uptake was extremely low. Despite the heightened risk of persistent HPV infection among those with SID, no increase in HPV vaccine uptake was observed. Public health efforts to promote HPV vaccination overall are needed, and may be particularly beneficial for those at higher risk. PMID:25692470
The wide use of e-technologies represents a great opportunity for underserved segments of the population, especially with the aim of reintegrating excluded individuals back into society through education. This is particularly true for people with different types of disabilities who may have difficulties while attending traditional on-site learning programs that are typically based on printed learning resources. The creation and provision of accessible e-learning contents may therefore become ...
Sharma, Vinod; Simpson, Richard C; LoPresti, Edmund F; Schmeler, Mark
Nonambulatory, visually impaired individuals mostly rely on caregivers for their day-to-day mobility needs. The Drive-Safe System (DSS) is a modular, semiautonomous smart wheelchair system aimed at providing independent mobility to people with visual and mobility impairments. In this project, clinical evaluation of the DSS was performed in a controlled laboratory setting with individuals who have visual impairment but no mobility impairment. Their performance using DSS was compared with their performance using a standard cane for navigation assistance. Participants rated their subjective appraisal of the DSS by using the National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index inventory. DSS significantly reduced the number and severity of collisions compared with using a cane alone and without increasing the time required to complete the task. Users rated DSS favorably; they experienced less physical demand when using the DSS, but did not feel any difference in perceived effort, mental demand, and level of frustration when using the DSS alone or along with a cane in comparison with using a cane alone. These findings suggest that the DSS can be a safe, reliable, and easy-to-learn and operate independent mobility solution for visually impaired wheelchair users.
Mar 5, 2018 ... motivation to this research is to improve the learner performance and achieve the ... valuable factor for enhancing learning process by adopting an effective .... Video. Reflective Intuitive. Primer Test. Verbal Sequential. Tutorial.
Moamer Ali Shakroum
Full Text Available Several studies and experiments have been conducted in recent years to examine the value and the advantage of using the Gesture-Based Learning System (GBLS.The investigation of the influence of the GBLS mode on the learning outcomes is still scarce. Most previous studies did not address more than one category of learning outcomes (cognitive, affective outcomes, etc. at the same time when used to understand the impact of GBLS. Moreover, none of these studies considered the difference in students’ characteristics such as learning styles and spatial abilities. Therefore, a comprehensive empirical research on the impact of the GBLS mode on learning outcomes is needed. The purpose of this paper is to fill in the gap and to investigate the effectiveness of the GBLS mode on learning using Technology Mediated Learning (TML models. This study revealed that the GBLS mode has greater positive impact on students’ learning outcomes (cognitive and affective outcomes when compared with other two learning modes that are classified as Computer Simulation Software Learning (CSSL mode and conventional learning mode. In addition, this study also found that the GBLS mode is capable of serving all students with different learning styles and spatial ability levels. The results of this study revealed that the GBLS mode outperformed the existing learning methods by providing a unique learning experience that considers the differences between students. The results have also shown that the Kinect user interface can create an interactive and an enjoyable learning experience.
Sanchez, Adolfo; Mejia, Andres
An action research approach called soft systems methodology (SSM) was used to foster organisational learning in a school regarding the role of the learning support department within the school and its relation with the normal teaching-learning activities. From an initial situation of lack of coordination as well as mutual misunderstanding and…
Chin, Kai-Yi; Hong, Zeng-Wei; Huang, Yueh-Min; Shen, Wei-Wei; Lin, Jim-Min
The addition of animated pedagogical agents (APAs) in computer-assisted learning (CAL) systems could successfully enhance students' learning motivation and engagement in learning activities. Conventionally, the APA incorporated multimedia materials are constructed through the cooperation of teachers and software programmers. However, the thinking…
MacNeill, Heather; Telner, Deanna; Sparaggis-Agaliotis, Alexandra; Hanna, Elizabeth
Computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) may facilitate continuing interprofessional education while overcoming barriers of time and place for busy health care professionals. The purpose of this study was to understand the experiences, advantages, and challenges of group versus individual online learning. Fifteen multidisciplinary health professionals participated in a 12-week online course on either diabetes or traumatic brain injury. This consisted of background e-modules and a longitudinal build-a-case exercise, done either individually or as a group. Focus group sessions exploring participants' experiences after course completion and at 4 months were conducted, transcribed, and analyzed for recurring themes. Participant reflection homework and video-recorded group sessions were used for triangulation of results. Individual learners appreciated the flexibility and control, but experienced decreased motivation. Group learners appreciated the immediate feedback from their co-learners and felt social pressure to come to the weekly sessions prepared but expressed challenges in determining group goal-setting for the session. Both groups felt they learned about interprofessional roles; however, group learners described a richer learning experience and understanding of interprofessional roles through the online collaboration exercise. The intense resources necessary for interprofessional CSCL, including time, faculty development, and technological issues, are described. CSCL is a valuable educational strategy in online learning. While individual online learning may be better suited for short and simple educational interventions such as knowledge acquisition, CSCL seems to allow for richer and deeper learning in complex and interprofessional educational experiences. However, strategies, resources, and faculty development required to enhance CSCL need to be addressed carefully. © 2014 The Alliance for Continuing Education in the Health Professions, the Society
Alshare, Khaled A.; Freeze, Ronald D.; Lane, Peggy L.; Wen, H. Joseph
Success in an online learning environment is tied to both human and system factors. This study illuminates the unique contributions of human factors (comfort with online learning, self-management of learning, and perceived Web self-efficacy) to online learning system success, which is measured in terms of usage and satisfaction. The research model…
Nail K. Nuriyev
Full Text Available Introduction: the article deals with the organisation of training activities in the man-made environment. Didactic engineering is seen as a methodology within which problems of didactics are solved with application of pedagogical, psychological, engineering methods. It is obvious that in order to implement the training of future engineers in a competence-based format (according to educational standard a new type of teaching system is needed, with new capacities (properties. These systems should set each student towards the development of professionally significant (key abilities, taking into account his/her psychological characteristics; ensure training on the verge of permissible difficulties (developing training, and thereby achieve rapid development of key skills, through his/her zone of “immediate development”; to diagnose the quality of possession of a competence in the academic sense. For the objectivity and reliability of assessment of the level and depth of learned knowledge it is necessary to generate this evaluation in a metric format. As a result, we created a didactic system, which combines all the listed properties and the properties of classical systems. This allowed us to construct a new generation of didactic systems. Materials and Methods: the research is based on a systematic analysis of the activity of an engineer; on models of “zones of immediate development” by L. S. Vygotsky; on “developmental education” by L. N. Zankova; on the use of pedagogical and psychological patterns as well as taxonomic methods, didactic engineering, theory of probability and mathematical statistics. Results: constructed is a model for training engineers in the metric format of competence, which envisages a rapid development of students project and constructive abilit ies based on their knowledge learned. Discussion and Conclusions: the parameters defining the probability of engineer’s success have been described; the taxonomic scale
Kwon, So Young
Using a quasi-experimental design, the researcher investigated the comparative effects of individually-generated and collaboratively-generated computer-based concept mapping on middle school science concept learning. Qualitative data were analyzed to explain quantitative findings. One hundred sixty-one students (74 boys and 87 girls) in eight, seventh grade science classes at a middle school in Southeast Texas completed the entire study. Using prior science performance scores to assure equivalence of student achievement across groups, the researcher assigned the teacher's classes to one of the three experimental groups. The independent variable, group, consisted of three levels: 40 students in a control group, 59 students trained to individually generate concept maps on computers, and 62 students trained to collaboratively generate concept maps on computers. The dependent variables were science concept learning as demonstrated by comprehension test scores, and quality of concept maps created by students in experimental groups as demonstrated by rubric scores. Students in the experimental groups received concept mapping training and used their newly acquired concept mapping skills to individually or collaboratively construct computer-based concept maps during study time. The control group, the individually-generated concept mapping group, and the collaboratively-generated concept mapping group had equivalent learning experiences for 50 minutes during five days, excepting that students in a control group worked independently without concept mapping activities, students in the individual group worked individually to construct concept maps, and students in the collaborative group worked collaboratively to construct concept maps during their study time. Both collaboratively and individually generated computer-based concept mapping had a positive effect on seventh grade middle school science concept learning but neither strategy was more effective than the other. However
Doppenberg, J.J.; Brok, den P.J.; Bergen, T.C.M.
Collective teacher learning plays an important role in teachers' professional development and schools' innovative capacity. Despite this importance, collective learning in schools has been weakly conceptualised and little empirical evidence exists with respect to the contributions of collective
Rhodes, Ed; Carter, Ruth
The Knowledge and Learning in Advanced Supply Systems (KLASS) project developed collaborative learning networks of suppliers in the British automotive and aerospace industries. Methods included face-to-face and distance learning, work toward National Vocational Qualifications, and diagnostic workshops for senior managers on improving quality,…
Full Text Available This paper presents a solution based on collaboration with experts and practitioner from university and ERP companies involved in process learning by training and learning by working. The solution uses CPI test to establish proper team for framework modules: Real-Time Chat Room, Discussion Forum, E-mail Support and Learning through Training. We define novice, practitioner and expert competence level based on CORONET train methodology. ERP companies have own roles for mentoring services to knowledge workers and evaluate the performance of learning process with teachersÃ¢Â€Â™ cooperation in learning by teaching and learning by working module.
Full Text Available Learning is the long process of transforming information as well as experience into knowledge, skills, attitude and behaviors. To make up the wide gap between the demand of increasing higher education and comparatively limited resources, more and more educational institutes are looking into instructional technology. Use of online resources not only reduces the cost of education but also meet the needs of society. Intelligent e-learning has become one of the important channels to reach out to students exceeding geographic boundaries. Besides this, the characteristics of e-learning have complicated the process of education, and have brought challenges to both instructors and students. This paper will focus on the discussion of different discipline of intelligent e-learning like scaffolding based e-learning, personalized e-learning, confidence based e-learning, intelligent tutoring system, etc. to illuminate the educational paradigm shift in intelligent e-learning system.
Full Text Available The majority of M-learning (Mobile learning applications available today are developed for the formal learning and education environment. These applications are characterized by the improvement in the interaction between learners and instructors to provide high interaction and flexibility to the learning process. M-learning is gaining increased recognition and adoption by different organizations. With the high number of M-learning applications available today, making the right decision about which, application to choose can be quite challenging. To date there is no complete and well defined set of system characteristics for such M-learning applications. This paper presents system quality characteristics for selecting M-learning applications based on the result of a systematic review conducted in this domain.
In the public debate, social implications of information technology are mainly seen through the privacy lens. Impact assessments of information technology are also often limited to privacy impact assessments, which are focused on individual rights and well-being, as opposed to the social
Cegielski, Casey G.; Hazen, Benjamin T.; Rainer, R. Kelly
The rich, interdisciplinary tradition of learning styles is markedly absent in information systems-related research. The current study applies the framework of learning styles to a common educational component of many of today's information systems curricula--object-oriented systems development--in an effort to answer the question as to whether…
Lancaster, Thomas M; Ihssen, Niklas; Brindley, Lisa M; Tansey, Katherine E; Mantripragada, Kiran; O'Donovan, Michael C; Owen, Michael J; Linden, David E J
A substantial proportion of schizophrenia liability can be explained by additive genetic factors. Risk profile scores (RPS) directly index risk using a summated total of common risk variants weighted by their effect. Previous studies suggest that schizophrenia RPS predict alterations to neural networks that support working memory and verbal fluency. In this study, we apply schizophrenia RPS to fMRI data to elucidate the effects of polygenic risk on functional brain networks during a probabilistic-learning neuroimaging paradigm. The neural networks recruited during this paradigm have previously been shown to be altered to unmedicated schizophrenia patients and relatives of schizophrenia patients, which may reflect genetic susceptibility. We created schizophrenia RPS using summary data from the Psychiatric Genetic Consortium (Schizophrenia Working Group) for 83 healthy individuals and explore associations between schizophrenia RPS and blood oxygen level dependency (BOLD) during periods of choice behavior (switch-stay) and reflection upon choice outcome (reward-punishment). We show that schizophrenia RPS is associated with alterations in the frontal pole (PWHOLE-BRAIN-CORRECTED = 0.048) and the ventral striatum (PROI-CORRECTED = 0.036), during choice behavior, but not choice outcome. We suggest that the common risk variants that increase susceptibility to schizophrenia can be associated with alterations in the neural circuitry that support the processing of changing reward contingencies. Hum Brain Mapp 37:491-500, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Sun, Ron; Mathews, Robert C
.... It helps us to explain (and eventually to predict) training and learning processes. The results of the experiments support the theory of the interactions of implicit and explicit learning processes during skill acquisition. The outcomes (data, models, and theories) provide a more detailed, clearer and more comprehensive perspective on skill learning.
Adult learning practitioners are being challenged to prepare for a revolution in the way workplace learning outcomes will be delivered. Recent thinking on the future of work by a number of leading business authorities from around the world reports that changes in the way students are being educated for work and the demands on workers in the…
Erdt, Mojisola; Fernandez, Alejandro; Rensing, Christoph
The increasing number of publications on recommender systems for Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) evidence a growing interest in their development and deployment. In order to support learning, recommender systems for TEL need to consider specific requirements, which differ from the requirements for recommender systems in other domains like…
Lin, C.-C.; Guo, K.-H.; Lin, Y.-C.
This study aims at implementing a simple and effective remedial learning system. Based on fuzzy inference, a remedial learning material selection system is proposed for a digital logic course. Two learning concepts of the course have been used in the proposed system: number systems and combinational logic. We conducted an experiment to validate…
V. A. Tunda
Full Text Available Moodle (Modular Object-Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment is the system developed by the English-speaking community around the world for more than 10 years, supports both, offline and online training. In most cases, Moodle is used to support and connect learning face-to-face with online training, as well as with other types of learning. Moodle allows you to ask all sorts of questions and assess responses in a variety of ways. The central concept of Moodle is a course in which one or more teachers offer students resources (such as files, folders, Web pages and participate in interactive activities (such as forums, wikis, blogging, lessons, seminars, assignments, examinations. Students and teachers can change roles, mutually assess each other, share knowledge on the topics of study in the glossary and database system.In the English-speaking world, there are public sites with detailed documentation on Moodle, which is constantly verified and modified in accordance with emerging new versions of the system; Russian versions do not have public sites with detailed translation of the English-language documentation. On what and to whom you want to perform actions in the daily practice of the modern versions, only the barest of outlines on paid seminars and presentations to those who started the implementation of Moodle in your organization are given. And this despite the fact that the system has a great variety of Moodle (over 500 settings with different levels of functionality to be performed, to maintain and develop specially organized by the team of specialists. The question is not only about creating a training course in Moodle. It's about maintaining the health of the system within the institution, such as a University. Under the "health maintenance" means: availability and preservation of up-to-date documentation on system and manuals on Moodle separately for administrators, managers, teachers and students at their level, training consultants
Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to investigate the role of a commander in military Lessons Learned systems. In order to achieve the aim, the paper presents (1 the architecture of the Lessons Learned capabilities in the U.S. Army, NATO and the Polish Armed Forces, (2 the commander’s role in the Lessons Learned process (3 the commander’s role in fostering Lessons Learned organisation culture. The paper is based on multiple case study analysis including Lessons Learned systems in NATO, the U.S. Army and the Polish Armed Forces.
Sari, Fatma; Purnamasari, Susan Dian
This study aims to determine behavioral intention in the use of e-learning system using models UTAUT. The phenomenon underlying the research is: It is not yet optimal use of e-learning by students information systems in the learning process, not yet optimal socialization of the existence of e-learning, so that is not maximized and yet utilization measurability of the impact of using e-learning for lecturers.This study is limited in its scope: analysis of the influence of performance expectanc...
Full Text Available This paper describes the first part of the open online course "E-Learning from A to Z", dedicated to the creation and development of system of distance learning (university or corporation. The results of the learning process and discussion on the workshop at NTU "KPI" in 2012 is shown the interest of teachers in a new form of online course and lack of development of personal learning environment. The open online courses can contribute to society practice.
Nowadays, eLearning standards' support within eLearning systems is much discussed problem. In this problem domain especially the reference model SCORM must be considered. This de-facto standard is a package of common standards and specifications used for the standardization of eLearning activities as eLearning content preparation, using e-course, communication etc. Implementation of standards itself is a process with great difficulty and time requests. Interesting and considerable approach to...
Full Text Available Motor learning has been found to occur in the rehabilitation of individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD. Through repetitive structured practice of motor tasks, individuals show improved performance, confirming that motor learning has probably taken place. Although a number of studies have been completed evaluating motor learning in people with PD, the sample sizes were small and the improvements were variable. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to determine the ability of people with PD to learn motor tasks. Studies which measured movement time in upper extremity reaching tasks and met the inclusion criteria were included in the analysis. Results of the meta-analysis indicated that people with PD and neurologically healthy controls both demonstrated motor learning, characterized by a decrease in movement time during upper extremity movements. Movement time improvements were greater in the control group than in individuals with PD. These results support the findings that the practice of upper extremity reaching tasks is beneficial in reducing movement time in persons with PD and has important implications for rehabilitation.
Coelho, Luis Pedro
This book primarily targets Python developers who want to learn and use Python's machine learning capabilities and gain valuable insights from data to develop effective solutions for business problems.
Duo, Sun; Ying, Zhou Cai
Lack of personalized learning is the key shortcoming of traditional e-Learning system. This paper analyzes the personal characters in e-Learning activity. In order to meet the personalized e-learning, a personalized e-learning system based on intelligent agent was proposed and realized in the paper. The structure of system, work process, the design of intelligent agent and the realization of intelligent agent were introduced in the paper. After the test use of the system by certain network school, we found that the system could improve the learner's initiative participation, which can provide learners with personalized knowledge service. Thus, we thought it might be a practical solution to realize self- learning and self-promotion in the lifelong education age.
Full Text Available Individual Learner DifferencesIn Web-based Learning Environments:From Cognitive, Affective and Social-cultural Perspectives Mustafa KOCPh.D Candidate Instructional TechnologyUniversity of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignUrbana, IL - USA ABSTRACT Throughout the paper, the issues of individual differences in web-based learning, also known as online instruction, online training or distance education were examined and implications for designing distance education were discussed. Although the main purpose was to identify differences in learners’ characteristics such as cognitive, affective, physiological and social factors that affect learning in a web-enhanced environment, the questions of how the web could be used to reinforce learning, what kinds of development ideas, theories and models are currently being used to design and deliver online instruction, and finally what evidence for the effectiveness of using World Wide Web (WWW for learning and instruction has been reported, were also analyzed to extend theoretical and epistemogical understanding of web-based learning.
Jarvela, Sanna; Volet, Simone; Jarvenoja, Hanna
In this article we propose that in order to advance our understanding of motivation in collaborative learning we should move beyond the cognitive-situative epistemological divide and combine individual and social processes. Our claim is that although recent research has recognized the importance of social aspects in emerging and sustained…
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NOAA Is Hosting a Series of Informational Webinars for Individuals and Organizations To Learn About the Proposed NOAA Climate Service AGENCY: Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA...
Micari, Marina; Van Winkle, Zachary; Pazos, Pilar
In this study, we investigate the relationship between academic-preparedness diversity within small learning groups and individual academic performance in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) university courses. We further examine whether academic-preparedness diversity impacts academically more- and less-prepared students…
Lovett, Trevor William
This investigation explores factors that contributed to the disparate learning identities of two white baby-boomer brothers from the same working-class family. The research, part of a broader phenomenological study into the influences of working-class masculinities and schooling offers an insight into the individual family members' differential…
Brenton, Beatrice White; Gilmore, Doug
An operational index of discrepancy between ability and achievement using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and the Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT) was tested with 50 male and 10 female legally identified learning disabled (LD) children (mean age 9 years 2 months). Use of the index identified 74% of the males and 30% of the…
LeCun, Yann [New York University
Three questions pose the next challenge for Artificial Intelligence (AI), robotics, and neuroscience. How do we learn perception (e.g. vision)? How do we learn representations of the perceptual world? How do we learn visual categories from just a few examples?
Buyarski, Catherine; Murray, Jim; Torstrick, Rebecca
This chapter explores lessons learned from two different learning analytics efforts at a large, public, multicampus university--one internally developed and one vended platform. It raises questions about how to best use analytics to support students while keeping students responsible for their own learning and success.
A. A. Salama
Full Text Available In this paper, we present a review of different recommender system algorithms that are utilized in social networks based e-Learning systems. Future research will include our proposed our e-Learning system that utilizes Recommender System and Social Network. Since the world is full of indeterminacy, the neutrosophics found their place into contemporary research. The fundamental concepts of neutrosophic set, introduced by Smarandache in [21, 22, 23] and Salama et al. in [24-66].The purpose of this paper is to utilize a neutrosophic set to analyze social networks data conducted through learning activities.
Full Text Available Self-regulated learning has become an important construct in education research in the last few years. Selfregulated learning in its simple form is the learner’s ability to monitor and control the learning process. There is increasing research in the literature on how to support students become more self-regulated learners. However, the advancement in the information technology has led to paradigm changes in the design and development of educational content. The concept of learning object instructional technology has emerged as a result of this shift in educational technology paradigms. This paper presents the results of a study that investigated the potential educational effectiveness of a pedagogical framework based on the self-regulated learning theories to support the design of learning object systems to help computer science students. A prototype learning object system was developed based on the contemporary research on self-regulated learning. The system was educationally evaluated in a quasi-experimental study over two semesters in a core programming languages concepts course. The evaluation revealed that a learning object system that takes into consideration contemporary research on self-regulated learning can be an effective learning environment to support computer science education.
Bos-Bonnie, Linda H A; van Bergen, Jan E A M; Te Pas, Ellen; Kijser, Michael A; van Dijk, Nynke
Primary health-care professionals play an important role in the treatment and prevention of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI). Continuing Medical Education (CME)-courses can influence the knowledge and behavior of health-care professionals concerning STI. We performed a prospective cohort study to evaluate if the individual and online e-learning program "The STI-consultation", which uses the Commitment-to-Change (CtC)-method, is able to improve the knowledge, attitude and behavior of Dutch General Practitioners (GPs), concerning the STI-consultation. This e-learning program is an individual, accredited, online CME-program, which is freely available for all GPs and GP-trainees in the Netherlands. In total 2192 participants completed the questionnaire before completing the e-learning program and 249 participants completed the follow-up questionnaire after completing the e-learning program. The effect of the program on their knowledge, attitude and behavior concerning the STI-consultation was evaluated. In total 193 participants formulated 601 learning points that matched the learning objectives of the program. The knowledge and attitude of the participants improved, which persisted up to two years after completing the program. Another 179 participants formulated a total of 261 intended changes concerning the sexual history taking, additional investigation and treatment of STI, 97.2% of these changes was partially or fully implemented in daily practice. Also, 114 participants formulated a total of 180 "unintended" changes in daily practice. These changes concerned the attitude of participants towards STI and the working conditions concerning the STI-consultation. The individual, online e-learning program "The STI-consultation", which uses the CtC-method, has a small but lasting, positive effect on the knowledge, attitude, and behavior of GPs concerning the STI-consultation.
The Artificial Cognitive Systems (ACS) will be developed for human-like functions such as vision, auditory, inference, and behavior. Especially, computational models and artificial HW/SW systems will be devised for Proactive Learning (PL) and Self-Identity (SI). The PL model provides bilateral interactions between robot and unknown environment (people, other robots, cyberspace). For the situation awareness in unknown environment it is required to receive audiovisual signals and to accumulate knowledge. If the knowledge is not enough, the PL should improve by itself though internet and others. For human-oriented decision making it is also required for the robot to have self-identify and emotion. Finally, the developed models and system will be mounted on a robot for the human-robot co-existing society. The developed ACS will be tested against the new Turing Test for the situation awareness. The Test problems will consist of several video clips, and the performance of the ACSs will be compared against those of human with several levels of cognitive ability.
Duo, Sun; Song, Lu Xue
In recent years, e-learning as a learning system is very popular. But the current e-learning systems cannot instruct students effectively since they do not consider the emotional state in the context of instruction. The emergence of the theory about "Affective computing" can solve this question. It can make the computer's intelligence no longer be a pure cognitive one. In this paper, we construct an emotional intelligent e-learning system based on "Affective computing". A dimensional model is put forward to recognize and analyze the student's emotion state and a virtual teacher's avatar is offered to regulate student's learning psychology with consideration of teaching style based on his personality trait. A "man-to-man" learning environment is built to simulate the traditional classroom's pedagogy in the system.
Nawroth, Christian; Prentice, Pamela M; McElligott, Alan G
Variation in common personality traits, such as boldness or exploration, is often associated with risk-reward trade-offs and behavioural flexibility. To date, only a few studies have examined the effects of consistent behavioural traits on both learning and cognition. We investigated whether certain personality traits ('exploration' and 'sociability') of individuals were related to cognitive performance, learning flexibility and learning style in a social ungulate species, the goat (Capra hircus). We also investigated whether a preference for feature cues rather than impaired learning abilities can explain performance variation in a visual discrimination task. We found that personality scores were consistent across time and context. Less explorative goats performed better in a non-associative cognitive task, in which subjects had to follow the trajectory of a hidden object (i.e. testing their ability for object permanence). We also found that less sociable subjects performed better compared to more sociable goats in a visual discrimination task. Good visual learning performance was associated with a preference for feature cues, indicating personality-dependent learning strategies in goats. Our results suggest that personality traits predict the outcome in visual discrimination and non-associative cognitive tasks in goats and that impaired performance in a visual discrimination tasks does not necessarily imply impaired learning capacities, but rather can be explained by a varying preference for feature cues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Schuetze, B.; Mildenberger, P.; Kaemmerer, M.
Purpose: Due to the possibility of using different kinds of visualization, e-learning has the advantage of allowing individualized learning. A check should be performed to determine whether the use of the web-based content management system ILIAS simplifies the writing and production of electronic learning modules in radiology. Materials and methods: Internet-based e-learning provides access to existing learning modules regardless of time and location, since fast Internet connections are readily available. Results: Web Content Management Systems (WCMS) are suitable platforms for imparting radiology-related information (visual abilities like the recognition of patterns as well as interdisciplinary specialized knowledge). The open source product ILIAS is a free WCMS. It is used by many universities and is accepted by both students and lecturers. Its modular and object-oriented software architecture makes it easy to adapt and enlarge the platform. The employment of e-learning standards such as LOM and SCORM within ILIAS makes it possible to reuse contents, even if the platform has to be changed. Conclusion: ILIAS renders it possible to provide students with texts, images, or files of any other kind within a learning context which is defined by the lecturer. Students can check their acquired knowledge via online testing and receive direct performance feedback. The significant interest that students have shown in ILIAS proves that e-learning can be a useful addition to conventional learning methods. (orig.)
Wahyudin; Riza, L. S.; Putro, B. L.
E-learning as a learning activity conducted online by the students with the usual tools is favoured by students. The use of computer media in learning provides benefits that are not owned by other learning media that is the ability of computers to interact individually with students. But the weakness of many learning media is to assume that all students have a uniform ability, when in reality this is not the case. The concept of Intelligent Tutorial System (ITS) combined with cyberblog application can overcome the weaknesses in neglecting diversity. An Intelligent Tutorial System-based Cyberblog application (ITS) is a web-based interactive application program that implements artificial intelligence which can be used as a learning and evaluation media in the learning process. The use of ITS-based Cyberblog in learning is one of the alternative learning media that is interesting and able to help students in measuring ability in understanding the material. This research will be associated with the improvement of logical thinking ability (logical thinking) of students, especially in algorithm subjects.
Schütze, B; Mildenberger, P; Kämmerer, M
Due to the possibility of using different kinds of visualization, e-learning has the advantage of allowing individualized learning. A check should be performed to determine whether the use of the web-based content management system ILIAS simplifies the writing and production of electronic learning modules in radiology. Internet-based e-learning provides access to existing learning modules regardless of time and location, since fast Internet connections are readily available. Web Content Management Systems (WCMS) are suitable platforms for imparting radiology-related information (visual abilities like the recognition of patterns as well as interdisciplinary specialized knowledge). The open source product ILIAS is a free WCMS. It is used by many universities and is accepted by both students and lecturers. Its modular and object-oriented software architecture makes it easy to adapt and enlarge the platform. The employment of e-learning standards such as LOM and SCORM within ILIAS makes it possible to reuse contents, even if the platform has to be changed. ILIAS renders it possible to provide students with texts, images, or files of any other kind within a learning context which is defined by the lecturer. Students can check their acquired knowledge via online testing and receive direct performance feedback. The significant interest that students have shown in ILIAS proves that e-learning can be a useful addition to conventional learning methods.
Reinforcement and Systemic Machine Learning for Decision Making There are always difficulties in making machines that learn from experience. Complete information is not always available-or it becomes available in bits and pieces over a period of time. With respect to systemic learning, there is a need to understand the impact of decisions and actions on a system over that period of time. This book takes a holistic approach to addressing that need and presents a new paradigm-creating new learning applications and, ultimately, more intelligent machines. The first book of its kind in this new an
Full Text Available Blended learning became the most popular educational model that universities apply for teaching and learning. This model combines online and face-to-face learning environments, in order to enhance learning with implementation of new web technologies and tools in learning process. In this paper principles of DeLone and Mclean success model for information system are applied to Kano two-dimensional model, for categorizing quality attributes related to satisfaction of students with web based learning system used in blended learning model. Survey results are obtained among the students at “Mediterranean” University in Montenegro. The (dysfunctional dimensions of Kano model, including Kano basic matrix for assessment of the degree of students’ satisfaction level, have been considered in some more detail through corresponding numerical, graphical, and statistical analysis.
Lacireno-Paquet, Natalie; Morgan, Claire; Mello, Daniel
Motivated by the need to improve teaching and learning and by federal priorities reflected in requirements for grant programs such as Race to the Top and the Teacher Incentive Fund, many states are developing teacher evaluation systems that include measures of individual teachers' contributions to their students' learning growth. One way to…
Lacireno-Paquet, Natalie; Morgan, Claire; Mello, Daniel
Motivated by the need to improve teaching and learning and by federal priorities reflected in requirements for grant programs such as Race to the Top and the Teacher Incentive Fund, many states are developing teacher evaluation systems that include measures of individual teachers' contributions to their students' learning growth. One way to…
Zhang, Yumin; Liu, Gang; Yan, Jingqi; Zhang, Yalin; Li, Bo; Cai, Dongsheng
Metabolic homeostasis is regulated by the brain, but whether this regulation involves learning and memory of metabolic information remains unexplored. Here we use a calorie-based, taste-independent learning/memory paradigm to show that Drosophila form metabolic memories that help in balancing food choice with caloric intake; however, this metabolic learning or memory is lost under chronic high-calorie feeding. We show that loss of individual learning/memory-regulating genes causes a metabolic learning defect, leading to elevated trehalose and lipid levels. Importantly, this function of metabolic learning requires not only the mushroom body but also the hypothalamus-like pars intercerebralis, while NF-κB activation in the pars intercerebralis mimics chronic overnutrition in that it causes metabolic learning impairment and disorders. Finally, we evaluate this concept of metabolic learning/memory in mice, suggesting that the hypothalamus is involved in a form of nutritional learning and memory, which is critical for determining resistance or susceptibility to obesity. In conclusion, our data indicate that the brain, and potentially the hypothalamus, direct metabolic learning and the formation of memories, which contribute to the control of systemic metabolic homeostasis.
Zhang, Yumin; Liu, Gang; Yan, Jingqi; Zhang, Yalin; Li, Bo; Cai, Dongsheng
Metabolic homeostasis is regulated by the brain, whether this regulation involves learning and memory of metabolic information remains unexplored. Here we use a calorie-based, taste-independent learning/memory paradigm to show that Drosophila form metabolic memories that help balancing food choice with caloric intake; however, this metabolic learning or memory is lost under chronic high-calorie feeding. We show that loss of individual learning/memory-regulating genes causes a metabolic learning defect, leading to elevated trehalose and lipids levels. Importantly, this function of metabolic learning requires not only the mushroom body but the hypothalamus-like pars intercerebralis, while NF-κB activation in the pars intercerebralis mimics chronic overnutrition in that it causes metabolic learning impairment and disorders. Finally, we evaluate this concept of metabolic learning/memory in mice, suggesting the hypothalamus is involved in a form of nutritional learning and memory, which is critical for determining resistance or susceptibility to obesity. In conclusion, our data indicate the brain, and potentially the hypothalamus, direct metabolic learning and the formation of memories, which contribute to the control of systemic metabolic homeostasis. PMID:25848677
Sparks, R L
In this paper, it is suggested that foreign language learning problems result from difficulties with native language learning and hypothesized that difficulties with phonological processing may be the locus of foreign language learning difficulties for some poor foreign language learners. Evidence is described that supports these positions. It is argued that conceptualizing foreign language learning problems as alanguage problem allows researchers to more clearly specify deficits related to the learning of a foreign language. Research evidence which shows that good and poor foreign language learners exhibit significantly different levels of native language skill and phonological processing is summarized. Finally, potential challenges to my hypotheses as an explanation for foreign language learning problems are reviewed.
Fazeli, Soude; Loni, Babak; Drachsler, Hendrik; Sloep, Peter
In this presentation, we present a study that aims to develop a recommender system for social learning platforms that combine traditional learning management systems with commercial social networks like Facebook. We therefore take into account social interactions of users to make recommendations on learning resources. We propose to make use of graph-walking methods for improving performance of the well-known baseline algorithms. We evaluate the proposed graph-based approach in terms of their ...
Full Text Available This study describes the theoretical and practical aspect of the Among - system in the modern historical learning. As a preliminary research, this article formulates a conceptual framework of the Among- system in the contemporary learning, especially modern history learning. This research used library research method that conducted in Dewantara Kirti Griya Library Yogyakarta. Data analysis was done by the descriptive method of collecting data, compiling or classifying, and interpreting.
Chen, Yingke; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre
deterministic Markov decision processes from data by actively guiding the selection of input actions. The algorithm is empirically analyzed by learning system models of slot machines, and it is demonstrated that the proposed active learning procedure can significantly reduce the amount of data required...... demanding process, and this shortcoming has motivated the development of algorithms for automatically learning system models from observed system behaviors. Recently, algorithms have been proposed for learning Markov decision process representations of reactive systems based on alternating sequences...... of input/output observations. While alleviating the problem of manually constructing a system model, the collection/generation of observed system behaviors can also prove demanding. Consequently we seek to minimize the amount of data required. In this paper we propose an algorithm for learning...
Blair, R J R
In this paper it is proposed that important components of moral development and moral judgment rely on two forms of emotional learning: stimulus-reinforcement and response-outcome learning. Data in support of this position will be primarily drawn from work with individuals with the developmental condition of psychopathy as well as fMRI studies with healthy individuals. Individuals with psychopathy show impairment on moral judgment tasks and a pronounced increased risk for instrumental antisocial behavior. It will be argued that these impairments are developmental consequences of impaired stimulus-aversive conditioning on the basis of distress cue reinforcers and response-outcome learning in individuals with this disorder. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Traditional Learning Management Systems are installed on a single server where learning materials and user data are kept. To increase its performance, the Learning Management System can be installed on multiple servers; learning materials and user data could be distributed across these servers obtaining a Distributed Learning Management System. In this paper is proposed the prototype of a recommendation system based on association rules for Distributed Learning Management System. Information from LMS databases is analyzed using distributed data mining algorithms in order to extract the association rules. Then the extracted rules are used as inference rules to provide personalized recommendations. The quality of provided recommendations is improved because the rules used to make the inferences are more accurate, since these rules aggregate knowledge from all e-Learning systems included in Distributed Learning Management System.
Brown, C. W. [Babcock International Group PLC (formerly UKAEA Ltd) B21 Forss, Thurso, Caithness, Scotland (United Kingdom)
Dounreay was the UK's centre of fast reactor research and development from 1955 until 1994 and is now Scotland's largest nuclear clean up and demolition project. After four decades of research, Dounreay is now a site of construction, demolition and waste management, designed to return the site to as near as practicable to its original condition. Dounreay has a turnover in the region of Pounds 150 million a year and employs approximately 900 people. It subcontracts work to 50 or so companies in the supply chain and this provides employment for a similar number of people. The plan for decommissioning the site anticipates all redundant buildings will be cleared in the short term. The target date to achieve interim end state by 2039 is being reviewed in light of Government funding constraints, and will be subject to change through the NDA led site management competition. In the longer term, controls will be put in place on the use of contaminated land until 2300. In supporting the planning, management and organisational aspects for this complex decommissioning programme an integrated programme controls system has been developed and deployed. This consists of a combination of commercial and bespoke tools integrated to support all aspects of programme management, namely scope, schedule, cost, estimating and risk in order to provide baseline and performance management data based upon the application of earned value management principles. Through system evolution and lessons learned, the main benefits of this approach are management data consistency, rapid communication of live information, and increased granularity of data providing summary and detailed reports which identify performance trends that lead to corrective actions. The challenges of such approach are effective use of the information to realise positive changes, balancing the annual system support and development costs against the business needs, and maximising system performance. (author)
Bo Terje Kalsaas
Full Text Available The objective of this article is to contribute to creating a better understanding of the Last Planner System (LPS – which is associated with Lean Construction – in the light of the learning processes at the basis of knowledge development, and of change and innovation. Founded on a theoretical discussion, three research questions are asked, namely: In what ways can the LPS be expected to alter the learning arenas compared to conventional project management in construction; according to learning theory, what are the main challenges associated with implementing the LPS; and, finally, what kind of learning can be linked to an implemented LPS that functions as intended? The implementation of the LPS is shown to require substantial changes to the technical-organisational learning arena. In order for the implementation to be successful, the work identity has to alter on the individual level so that an overlap occurs with the new work practices prescribed by the LPS. The LPS has an inbuilt experiential learning cycle, and provides a good starting point for single-loop learning, as well as for simple forms of double-loop learning (“routinized learning capability”. However, it is argued that the LPS understood as experiential learning has clear limitations with regard to “evolutionary learning capability”. This is amplified by the context project organisation provides. In terms of theoretical implications, this article promotes an understanding of the planning process informed by the theory describing it as an experiential learning cycle. The conceptualisation which separates the LPS from conventional production control theory is critiqued. Finally, it is argued that an understanding of the LPS grounded in learning theory will improve the possibilities for successful implementation and maximise the learning effects.
Jacobson, Michael J.; Kapur, Manu; Reimann, Peter
This article proposes a conceptual framework of learning based on perspectives and methodologies being employed in the study of complex physical and social systems to inform educational research. We argue that the contexts in which learning occurs are complex systems with elements or agents at different levels--including neuronal, cognitive,…
In this study, the researcher aimed to develop a mobile-assisted learning system and to investigate whether it could promote teenage learners' classical Chinese learning through the flipped classroom approach. The researcher first proposed the structure of the Cross-device Mobile-Assisted Classical Chinese (CMACC) system according to the pilot…